Science.gov

Sample records for aerobically treated grey

  1. Removal of micropollutants from aerobically treated grey water via ozone and activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Leal, L; Temmink, H; Zeeman, G; Buisman, C J N

    2011-04-01

    Ozonation and adsorption onto activated carbon were tested for the removal micropollutants of personal care products from aerobically treated grey water. MilliQ water spiked with micropollutants (100-1600 μgL(-1)) was ozonated at a dosing rate of 1.22. In 45 min, this effectively removed (>99%): Four parabens, bisphenol-A, hexylcinnamic aldehyde, 4-methylbenzylidene-camphor (4MBC), benzophenone-3 (BP3), triclosan, galaxolide and ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate. After 60 min, the removal efficiency of benzalkonium chloride was 98%, tonalide and nonylphenol 95%, octocrylene 92% and 2-phenyl-5-benzimidazolesulfonic acid (PBSA) 84%. Ozonation of aerobically treated grey water at an applied ozone dose of 15 mgL(-1), reduced the concentrations of octocrylene, nonylphenol, triclosan, galaxolide, tonalide and 4-methylbenzylidene-camphor to below limits of quantification, with removal efficiencies of at least 79%. Complete adsorption of all studied micropollutants onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) was observed in batch tests with milliQ water spiked with 100-1600 μgL(-1) at a PAC dose of 1.25 gL(-1) and a contact time of 5 min. Three granular activated carbon (GAC) column experiments were operated to treat aerobically treated grey water. The operation of a GAC column with aerobically treated grey water spiked with micropollutants in the range of 0.1-10 μgL(-1) at a flow of 0.5 bed volumes (BV)h(-1) showed micropollutant removal efficiencies higher than 72%. During the operation time of 1728 BV, no breakthrough of TOC or micropollutants was observed. Removal of micropollutants from aerobically treated grey water was tested in a GAC column at a flow of 2 BVh(-1). Bisphenol-A, triclosan, tonalide, BP3, galaxolide, nonylphenol and PBSA were effectively removed even after a stable TOC breakthrough of 65% had been reached. After spiking the aerobically treated effluent with micropollutants to concentrations of 10-100 μgL(-1), efficient removal to below limits of quantification

  2. Using atmospheric pressure plasma treatment for treating grey cotton fabric.

    PubMed

    Kan, Chi-Wai; Lam, Chui-Fung; Chan, Chee-Kooi; Ng, Sun-Pui

    2014-02-15

    Conventional wet treatment, desizing, scouring and bleaching, for grey cotton fabric involves the use of high water, chemical and energy consumption which may not be considered as a clean process. This study aims to investigate the efficiency of the atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) treatment on treating grey cotton fabric when compared with the conventional wet treatment. Grey cotton fabrics were treated with different combinations of plasma parameters with helium and oxygen gases and also through conventional desizing, scouring and bleaching processes in order to obtain comparable results. The results obtained from wicking and water drop tests showed that wettability of grey cotton fabrics was greatly improved after plasma treatment and yielded better results than conventional desizing and scouring. The weight reduction of plasma treated grey cotton fabrics revealed that plasma treatment can help remove sizing materials and impurities. Chemical and morphological changes in plasma treated samples were analysed by FTIR and SEM, respectively. Finally, dyeability of the plasma treated and conventional wet treated grey cotton fabrics was compared and the results showed that similar dyeing results were obtained. This can prove that plasma treatment would be another choice for treating grey cotton fabrics. PMID:24507269

  3. Grey water treatment in a series anaerobic--aerobic system for irrigation.

    PubMed

    Abu Ghunmi, Lina; Zeeman, Grietje; Fayyad, Manar; van Lier, Jules B

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at treatment of grey water for irrigation, focusing on a treatment technology that is robust, simple to operate and with minimum energy consumption. The result is an optimized system consisting of an anaerobic unit operated in upflow mode, with a 1 day operational cycle, a constant effluent flow rate and varying liquid volume. Subsequent aerobic step is equipped with mechanical aeration and the system is insulated for sustaining winter conditions. The COD removal achieved by the anaerobic and aerobic units in summer and winter are 45%, 39% and 53%, 64%, respectively. Sludge in the anaerobic and aerobic reactor has a concentration of 168 and 8 mg VSL(-1), respectively. Stability of sludge in the anaerobic and aerobic reactors is 80% and 93%, respectively, based on COD. Aerobic effluent quality, except for pathogens, agrees with the proposed irrigation water quality guidelines for reclaimed water in Jordan.

  4. Ecotoxicological assessment of grey water treatment systems with Daphnia magna and Chironomus riparius.

    PubMed

    Hernández Leal, L; Soeter, A M; Kools, S A E; Kraak, M H S; Parsons, J R; Temmink, H; Zeeman, G; Buisman, C J N

    2012-03-15

    In order to meet environmental quality criteria, grey water was treated in four different ways: 1) aerobic 2) anaerobic+aerobic 3) aerobic+activated carbon 4) aerobic+ozone. Since each treatment has its own specific advantages and disadvantages, the aim of this study was to compare the ecotoxicity of differently treated grey water using Chironomus riparius (96 h test) and Daphnia magna (48 h and 21d test) as test organisms. Grey water exhibited acute toxicity to both test organisms. The aerobic and combined anaerobic+aerobic treatment eliminated mortality in the acute tests, but growth of C. riparius was still affected by these two effluents. Post-treatment by ozone and activated carbon completely removed the acute toxicity from grey water. In the chronic toxicity test the combined anaerobic+aerobic treatment strongly affected D. magna population growth rate (47%), while the aerobic treatment had a small (9%) but significant effect. Hence, aerobic treatment is the best option for biological treatment of grey water, removing most of the toxic effects of grey water. If advanced treatment is required, the treatment with either ozone or GAC were shown to be very effective in complete removal of toxicity from grey water.

  5. Optimization of electrocoagulation process to treat grey wastewater in batch mode using response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Discharge of grey wastewater into the ecological system causes the negative impact effect on receiving water bodies. Methods In this present study, electrocoagulation process (EC) was investigated to treat grey wastewater under different operating conditions such as initial pH (4–8), current density (10–30 mA/cm2), electrode distance (4–6 cm) and electrolysis time (5–25 min) by using stainless steel (SS) anode in batch mode. Four factors with five levels Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD) was employed to optimize and investigate the effect of process variables on the responses such as total solids (TS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and fecal coliform (FC) removal. Results The process variables showed significant effect on the electrocoagulation treatment process. The results were analyzed by Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA) and second order polynomial models were developed in order to study the electrocoagulation process statistically. The optimal operating conditions were found to be: initial pH of 7, current density of 20 mA/cm2, electrode distance of 5 cm and electrolysis time of 20 min. Conclusion These results indicated that EC process can be scale up in large scale level to treat grey wastewater with high removal efficiency of TS, COD and FC. PMID:24410752

  6. Performance comparison of sand and fine sawdust vermifilters in treating concentrated grey water for urban poor.

    PubMed

    Adugna, Amare T; Andrianisa, Harinaivo A; Konate, Yacouba; Ndiaye, Awa; Maiga, Amadou H

    2015-01-01

    A comparative investigation was conducted for 10 months with sand and fine sawdust vermifilters and a control unit to treat concentrated grey water generated from a poor urban household in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Each of the filters was made up of cylindrical DN200-PVC pipes and filled with 10 cm of gravel at the bottom. On top of the gravel layer, filter 1 (fully sand, F1) was completed with 40 cm of sand and 10 cm of fine sawdust, filter 2 (partially sand, F2) with 20 cm of sand and 30 cm of fine sawdust, respectively, and filter 3 (fully sawdust, F3) and 4 (control, F4) with 50 cm of fine sawdust only. Two hundred Eudrilus eugeniae earthworms were inoculated in each of the vermifilters. The vermifiltration system was supplied with grey water four times per day at a hydraulic loading rate of 64 L/m(2)/day on a batch basis. The removal efficiencies of biological oxygen demand, total chemical oxygen demand, and dissolved chemical oxygen demand (dCOD) by the vermifilters were 25-30% higher than the control, but little differences were observed in terms of total suspended solids and coliform removal efficiencies. Though there was no significant difference in the performance of the three vermifilters (p > 0.05), except for dCOD removal efficiency, the lifespan of F2 and F3 was longer than that of F1. Therefore, fine sawdust can substitute sand as a filter medium in vermifilters.

  7. Performance comparison of sand and fine sawdust vermifilters in treating concentrated grey water for urban poor.

    PubMed

    Adugna, Amare T; Andrianisa, Harinaivo A; Konate, Yacouba; Ndiaye, Awa; Maiga, Amadou H

    2015-01-01

    A comparative investigation was conducted for 10 months with sand and fine sawdust vermifilters and a control unit to treat concentrated grey water generated from a poor urban household in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Each of the filters was made up of cylindrical DN200-PVC pipes and filled with 10 cm of gravel at the bottom. On top of the gravel layer, filter 1 (fully sand, F1) was completed with 40 cm of sand and 10 cm of fine sawdust, filter 2 (partially sand, F2) with 20 cm of sand and 30 cm of fine sawdust, respectively, and filter 3 (fully sawdust, F3) and 4 (control, F4) with 50 cm of fine sawdust only. Two hundred Eudrilus eugeniae earthworms were inoculated in each of the vermifilters. The vermifiltration system was supplied with grey water four times per day at a hydraulic loading rate of 64 L/m(2)/day on a batch basis. The removal efficiencies of biological oxygen demand, total chemical oxygen demand, and dissolved chemical oxygen demand (dCOD) by the vermifilters were 25-30% higher than the control, but little differences were observed in terms of total suspended solids and coliform removal efficiencies. Though there was no significant difference in the performance of the three vermifilters (p > 0.05), except for dCOD removal efficiency, the lifespan of F2 and F3 was longer than that of F1. Therefore, fine sawdust can substitute sand as a filter medium in vermifilters. PMID:25926275

  8. Grey analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cable, G.D.

    1996-12-01

    Grey logic is not another name for fuzzy logic. Grey logic--also called grey analysis or grey system theory--is a new technology, a group of techniques for system analysis and modeling. Like fuzzy logic, grey logic is useful in situations with incomplete and uncertain information. Grey analysis is particularly applicable in instances with very limited data and in cases with little system knowledge or understanding. In this paper, a summary of the basic concepts of grey analysis is provided, with descriptions of its application to several classes of problems. Calculations methods are provided for grey relation analysis, and for modeling and prediction using grey methods.

  9. Depletion of Essential Fatty Acids in the Food Source Affects Aerobic Capacities of the Golden Grey Mullet Liza aurata in a Warming Seawater Context.

    PubMed

    Vagner, Marie; Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas; Zambonino Infante, José-Luis; Mazurais, David; Dubillot, Emmanuel; Le Delliou, Hervé; Quazuguel, Patrick; Lefrançois, Christel

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of thermal acclimation and n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) content of the food source on the aerobic capacities of fish in a thermal changing environment. The model used was the golden grey mullet Liza aurata, a species of high ecological importance in temperate coastal areas. For four months, fish were exposed to two food sources with contrasting n-3 HUFA contents (4.8% ecosapentaenoic acid EPA + docosahexaenoic acid DHA on the dry matter DM basis vs. 0.2% EPA+DHA on DM) combined with two acclimation temperatures (12°C vs. 20°C). The four experimental conditions were LH12, LH20, HH12 and HH20. Each group was then submitted to a thermal challenge consisting of successive exposures to five temperatures (9°C, 12°C, 16°C, 20°C, 24°C). At each temperature, the maximal and minimal metabolic rates, metabolic scope, and the maximum swimming speed were measured. Results showed that the cost of maintenance of basal metabolic activities was particularly higher when n-3 HUFA food content was low. Moreover, fish exposed to high acclimation temperature combined with a low n-3 HUFA dietary level (LH20) exhibited a higher aerobic scope, as well as a greater expenditure of energy to reach the same maximum swimming speed as other groups. This suggested a reduction of the amount of energy available to perform other physiological functions. This study is the first to show that the impact of lowering n-3 HUFA food content is exacerbated for fish previously acclimated to a warmer environment. It raises the question of the consequences of longer and warmer summers that have already been recorded and are still expected in temperate areas, as well as the pertinence of the lowering n-3 HUFA availability in the food web expected with global change, as a factor affecting marine organisms and communities.

  10. Depletion of Essential Fatty Acids in the Food Source Affects Aerobic Capacities of the Golden Grey Mullet Liza aurata in a Warming Seawater Context

    PubMed Central

    Zambonino Infante, José-Luis; Mazurais, David; Dubillot, Emmanuel; Le Delliou, Hervé; Quazuguel, Patrick; Lefrançois, Christel

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of thermal acclimation and n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) content of the food source on the aerobic capacities of fish in a thermal changing environment. The model used was the golden grey mullet Liza aurata, a species of high ecological importance in temperate coastal areas. For four months, fish were exposed to two food sources with contrasting n-3 HUFA contents (4.8% ecosapentaenoic acid EPA + docosahexaenoic acid DHA on the dry matter DM basis vs. 0.2% EPA+DHA on DM) combined with two acclimation temperatures (12°C vs. 20°C). The four experimental conditions were LH12, LH20, HH12 and HH20. Each group was then submitted to a thermal challenge consisting of successive exposures to five temperatures (9°C, 12°C, 16°C, 20°C, 24°C). At each temperature, the maximal and minimal metabolic rates, metabolic scope, and the maximum swimming speed were measured. Results showed that the cost of maintenance of basal metabolic activities was particularly higher when n-3 HUFA food content was low. Moreover, fish exposed to high acclimation temperature combined with a low n-3 HUFA dietary level (LH20) exhibited a higher aerobic scope, as well as a greater expenditure of energy to reach the same maximum swimming speed as other groups. This suggested a reduction of the amount of energy available to perform other physiological functions. This study is the first to show that the impact of lowering n-3 HUFA food content is exacerbated for fish previously acclimated to a warmer environment. It raises the question of the consequences of longer and warmer summers that have already been recorded and are still expected in temperate areas, as well as the pertinence of the lowering n-3 HUFA availability in the food web expected with global change, as a factor affecting marine organisms and communities. PMID:26030666

  11. Denitrification and nitric oxide reduction in an aerobic toluene-treating biofilter

    SciTech Connect

    Plessis, C.A. du; Kinney, K.A.; Schroeder, E.D.; Chang, D.P.Y.; Scow, K.M.

    1998-05-20

    The presence of significant denitrification activity in an aerobic toluene-treating biofilter was demonstrated under batch and flow-through conditions. N{sub 2}O concentrations of 9.2 ppm{sub v} were produced by denitrifying bacteria in the presence of 15% acetylene, in a flow-through system with a bulk gas phase O{sub 2} concentration of >17%. The carbon source for denitrification was not toluene but a byproduct or metabolite of toluene catabolism. Denitrification conditions were successfully used for the reduction of 60 ppm{sub v} nitric oxide to 15 ppm{sub v} at a flow rate of 3 L/min (EBRT of 3 min) in a fully aerated, 17%/v/v O{sub 2} (superficially aerobic) biofilter. Higher NO removal efficiency (97%) was obtained by increasing the toluene supply to the biofilter.

  12. Grey water biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Ghunmi, Lina Abu; Zeeman, Grietje; Fayyad, Manar; van Lier, Jules B

    2011-02-01

    Knowing the biodegradability characteristics of grey water constituents is imperative for a proper design and operation of a biological treatment system of grey water. This study characterizes the different COD fractions of dormitory grey water and investigates the effect of applying different conditions in the biodegradation test. The maximum aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability and conversion rate for the different COD fractions is determined. The results show that, on average, dormitory grey water COD fractions are 28% suspended, 32% colloidal and 40% dissolved. The studied factors incubation time, inoculum addition and temperature are influencing the determined biodegradability. The maximum biodegradability and biodegradation rate differ between different COD fractions, viz. COD(ss), COD(col) and COD(diss). The dissolved COD fraction is characterised by the lowest degradation rate, both for anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The maximum biodegradability for aerobic and anaerobic conditions is 86 and 70% respectively, whereas the first order conversion rate constant, k₂₀, is 0.119 and 0.005 day⁻¹, respectively. The anaerobic and aerobic conversion rates in relation to temperature can be described by the Arrhenius relation, with temperature coefficients of 1.069 and 1.099, respectively.

  13. Use of aerobic granules for treating synthetic high-strength ammonium wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaonan; Wan, Chunli; Lei, Zhongfang; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Yi; Tay, Joo Hwa; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2014-08-01

    In this work, two identical sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) with mature aerobic granules were utilized to treat synthetic high-strength ammonium wastewaters with chemical oxygen demand (COD)/total nitrogen (TN) ratios of 3.9-6.9. The contributions of various mechanisms to the removal of ammonium were determined. Ammonium levels of 600-2000 mg-N l-1 had little adverse effect on the COD removal rate (91.6%-95.3%) with an influent COD of 4490-9860 mg l-1. The TN removal rate was slightly reduced from 71.3% to 59.6% as the influent ammonium concentration was increased from 600 to 2000 mg-N l-1. Experimental results indicated that aerobic granules removed 94.5% of COD and 59.6% of TN in the treatment of synthetic high-strength wastewater (9860 mg-COD l-1 and 2000 mg NH+4-Nl-1) during a 12 h cycle. Granular adsorption, air stripping and conversion by nitrification/denitrification were responsible for removing 9%, 15% and 76%, respectively, of the total removed NHf -N. Dissolved oxygen (DO) was a useful process indicator of the biological reactions in the treatment of high-level ammonium wastewaters.

  14. Characteristics of hydrocarbon hydroxylase genes in a thermophilic aerobic biological system treating oily produced wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruyin; Gao, Yingxin; Ji, Yifeng; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Alkane and aromatic hydroxylase genes in a full-scale aerobic system treating oily produced wastewater under thermophilic condition (45-50 °C) in the Jidong oilfield, China, were investigated using clone library and quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods. Rather than the normally encountered integral-membrane non-haem iron monooxygenase (alkB) genes, only CYP153-type P450 hydroxylase genes were detected for the alkane activation, indicating that the terminal oxidation of alkanes might be mainly mediated by the CYP153-type alkane hydroxylases in the thermophilic aerobic process. Most of the obtained CYP153 gene clones showed distant homology with the reference sequences, which might represent novel alkane hydroxylases. For the aromatic activation, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase (PAH-RHD) gene was derived from Gram-negative PAH-degraders belonging to the Burkholderiales order, with a 0.72% relative abundance of PAH-RHD gene to 16S rRNA gene. This was consistent with the result of 16S rRNA gene analysis, indicating that Burkholderiales bacteria might play a key role in the full-scale process of thermophilic hydrocarbon degradation.

  15. Channel structures in aerobic biofilms of fixed-film reactors treating contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Massol-Deyá, A A; Whallon, J; Hickey, R F; Tiedje, J M

    1995-02-01

    Scanning electron microscopy, confocal scanning laser microscopy, and fatty acid methyl ester profiles were used to study the development, organization, and structure of aerobic multispecies biofilm communities in granular activated-carbon (GAC) fluidized-bed reactors treating petroleum-contaminated groundwaters. The sequential development of biofilm structure was studied in a laboratory reactor fed toluene-amended groundwater and colonized by the indigenous aquifer populations. During the early stages of colonization, microcolonies were observed primarily in crevices and other regions sheltered from hydraulic shear forces. Eventually, these microcolonies grew over the entire surface of the GAC. This growth led to the development of discrete discontinuous multilayer biofilm structures. Cell-free channel-like structures of variable sizes were observed to interconnect the surface film with the deep inner layers. These interconnections appeared to increase the biological surface area per unit volume ratio, which may facilitate transport of substrates into and waste products out of deep regions of the biofilm at rates greater than possible by diffusion alone. These architectural features were also observed in biofilms from four field-scale GAC reactors that were in commercial operation treating petroleum-contaminated groundwaters. These shared features suggest that formation of cell-free channel structures and their maintenance may be a general microbial strategy to deal with the problem of limiting diffusive transport in thick biofilms typical of fluidized-bed reactors. PMID:7574613

  16. Bacterial community analysis of swine manure treated with autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Han, Il; Congeevaram, Shankar; Ki, Dong-Won; Oh, Byoung-Taek; Park, Joonhong

    2011-02-01

    Due to the environmental problems associated with disposal of livestock sludge, many stabilization studies emphasizing on the sludge volume reduction were performed. However, little is known about the microbial risk present in sludge and its stabilized products. This study microbiologically explored the effects of anaerobic lagoon fermentation (ALF) and autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) on pathogen-related risk of raw swine manure by using culture-independent 16S rDNA cloning and sequencing methods. In raw swine manure, clones closely related to pathogens such as Dialister pneumosintes, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Succinivibrioan dextrinosolvens, and Schineria sp. were detected. Meanwhile, in the mesophilic ALF-treated swine manure, bacterial community clones closely related to pathogens such as Schineria sp. and Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens were still detected. Interestingly, the ATAD treatment resulted in no detection of clones closely related to pathogens in the stabilized thermophilic bacterial community, with the predominance of novel Clostridia class populations. These findings support the superiority of ATAD in selectively reducing potential human and animal pathogens compared to ALF, which is a typical manure stabilization method used in livestock farms. PMID:20922382

  17. Evaluation of performance in a combined UASB and aerobic contact oxidation process treating acrylic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Anfeng; Dong, Na; He, Manni; Pan, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The lab-scale and full-scale performance of a combined mesophilic up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and aerobic contact oxidation (ACO) process for treating acrylic wastewater was studied. During lab-scale experiment, the overwhelmed volumetric load for UASB was above 6 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) ·(m(-3)·d(-1)) since COD removal efficiency dropped dramatically from 73% at 6 kg COD·(m(-3)·d(-1)) to 61% at 7 kg COD·(m(-3)·d(-1)) and 53% at 8 kg COD·(m(-3)·d(-1)). Further results showed that an up-flow fluid velocity of 0.5 m h(-1) for UASB obtained a highest COD removal efficiency of 75%, and the optimum COD volumetric load for the corresponding ACO was 1.00 kg COD·(m(-3)·d(-1)). Based on the configuration of the lab-scale experiment, a full-scale application with an acrylic wastewater treatment capacity of 8 m3 h(-1) was constructed and operated at a volumetric load of 5.5 kg COD·(m(-3)·d(-1)), an up-flow fluid velocity of 0.5 m h(-1) for UASB and a volumetric load of 0.9 kg COD·(m(-3)·d(-1)) for ACO; and the final effluent COD was around 740 mg L(-1). The results suggest that a combined UASB-ACO process is promising for treating acrylic wastewater. PMID:25204720

  18. [Bioaugmentation for shortcut nitrification in SBR treating for sewage containing sea water by nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacteria].

    PubMed

    Qu, Yang; Zhang, Pei-Yu; Yu, De-Shuang; Guo, Sha-Sha; Yang, Rui-Xia

    2010-10-01

    The feasibility of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacteria applied in shortcut nitrification system was studied. Four heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification strains mixed with halotolerant activated sludge was added into SBR in order to test their bioaugmentation ability for shortcut nitrification system, which was treating for sewage containing sea water, and the difference between bioaugmentation system and original system was compared. The results showed that the maximum accumulation of NO2(-) -N in bioaugmentation system was 34.92% lower than that in original system, and the time of maximum accumulation of NO2(-) -N was 2 hours earlier than that in original system. The TN and COD was continuously decreasing in the later phase of nitrification in bioaugmentation system, and finally the removal rate of TN and COD were 15.24% and 5.39% higher than that in original system respectively, as well as the removal rate of NH4(+) -N and the nitrosation rate were 6.85% and 14.47% higher than that in original system. And the pH was 0.46 higher than that in original system, whereas the ORP was 25.84 mV lower. It was considered that the function of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacteria should strengthen the performance of bioaugmentation system. When the seawater content raised to 70%, the stability of bioaugmentation system was better than that in original system, and the current that transforming shortcut nitrification to complete nitrification was restrained by heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacteria effectively. The number of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacteria was changed when bioaugmentation system and original system ran in different phase and the bacteria had a great loss with the discharge of activated sludge. These results may provide a theoretical reference about the feasibility that the heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacteria applied in

  19. Monitoring and assessment of treated river, rain, gully pot and grey waters for irrigation of Capsicum annuum.

    PubMed

    Al-Isawi, Rawaa H K; Almuktar, Suhad A A A N; Scholz, Miklas

    2016-05-01

    This study examines the benefits and risks associated with various types of wastewater recycled for vegetable garden irrigation and proposes the best water source in terms of its water quality impact on crop yields. The aim was to evaluate the usability of river, rain, gully pot, real grey and artificial grey waters to water crops. The objectives were to evaluate variables and boundary conditions influencing the growth of chillies (De Cayenne; Capsicum annuum (Linnaeus) Longum Group 'De Cayenne') both in the laboratory and in the greenhouse. A few irrigated chilli plants suffered from excess of some nutrients, which led to a relatively poor harvest. High levels of trace minerals and heavy metals were detected in river water, gully pot effluent and greywater. However, no significant differences in plant yields were observed, if compared with standards and other yields worldwide. The highest yields were associated with river water both in the laboratory and in the greenhouse. Plant productivity was unaffected by water quality due to the high manganese, potassium, cadmium and copper levels of the greywater. These results indicate the potential of river water and gully pot effluent as viable alternatives to potable water for irrigation in agriculture.

  20. Monitoring and assessment of treated river, rain, gully pot and grey waters for irrigation of Capsicum annuum.

    PubMed

    Al-Isawi, Rawaa H K; Almuktar, Suhad A A A N; Scholz, Miklas

    2016-05-01

    This study examines the benefits and risks associated with various types of wastewater recycled for vegetable garden irrigation and proposes the best water source in terms of its water quality impact on crop yields. The aim was to evaluate the usability of river, rain, gully pot, real grey and artificial grey waters to water crops. The objectives were to evaluate variables and boundary conditions influencing the growth of chillies (De Cayenne; Capsicum annuum (Linnaeus) Longum Group 'De Cayenne') both in the laboratory and in the greenhouse. A few irrigated chilli plants suffered from excess of some nutrients, which led to a relatively poor harvest. High levels of trace minerals and heavy metals were detected in river water, gully pot effluent and greywater. However, no significant differences in plant yields were observed, if compared with standards and other yields worldwide. The highest yields were associated with river water both in the laboratory and in the greenhouse. Plant productivity was unaffected by water quality due to the high manganese, potassium, cadmium and copper levels of the greywater. These results indicate the potential of river water and gully pot effluent as viable alternatives to potable water for irrigation in agriculture. PMID:27075312

  1. Aerobic granules formation and simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal treating high strength ammonia wastewater in sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dong; Shi, Li; Yan, Tao; Zhang, Ge; Wang, Yifan; Du, Bin

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate aerobic granules formation and simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal treating high strength ammonia wastewater in sequencing batch reactor (SBR). After successful aerobic granulation, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentrations of the SBR increased from 3.11 to 14.52 g/L, while sludge volume index (SVI) values decreased from 144.61 to 30.32 mL/g. Protein (PN) and polysaccharide (PS) concentrations increased from 60.2 and 12.5 mg/L to 101.1 and 15.8 mg/L, respectively. Simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal was enhanced by altering the influent chemical oxygen demand/nitrogen (COD/N) ratio. At COD/N ratio of 9, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiencies were up to 89.8% and 77.5%, respectively. Three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3D-EEM) spectroscopy showed that the chemical compositions of sludge EPS were changed during granulation process. The results could provide useful information to promote nitrogen and phosphorus removal using aerobic granular sludge technology.

  2. Performance and microbial community composition in a long-term sequential anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor operation treating coking wastewater.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Dev Raj; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Zhe; Gao, Yingxin; Yang, Min

    2016-09-01

    The combined anaerobic-aerobic biosystem is assumed to consume less energy for the treatment of high strength industrial wastewater. In this study, pollutant removal performance and microbial diversity were assessed in a long-term (over 300 days) bench-scale sequential anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor treating coking wastewater. Anaerobic treatment removed one third of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and more than half of the phenols with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 42 h, while the combined system with total HRT of 114 h removed 81.8, 85.6, 99.9, 98.2, and 85.4 % of COD, total organic carbon (TOC), total phenols, thiocyanate, and cyanide, respectively. Two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed complete removal of phenol derivatives and nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) via the combined system, with the anaerobic process alone contributing 58.4 and 58.6 % removal on average, respectively. Microbial activity in the bioreactors was examined by 454 pyrosequencing of the bacterial, archaeal, and fungal communities. Proteobacteria (61.2-93.4 %), particularly Betaproteobacteria (34.4-70.1 %), was the dominant bacterial group. Ottowia (14.1-46.7 %), Soehngenia (3.0-8.2 %), and Corynebacterium (0.9-12.0 %), which are comprised of phenol-degrading and hydrolytic bacteria, were the most abundant genera in the anaerobic sludge, whereas Thiobacillus (6.6-43.6 %), Diaphorobacter (5.1-13.0 %), and Comamonas (0.2-11.1 %) were the major degraders of phenol, thiocyanate, and NHCs in the aerobic sludge. Despite the low density of fungi, phenol degrading oleaginous yeast Trichosporon was abundant in the aerobic sludge. This study demonstrated the feasibility and optimization of less energy intensive treatment and the potential association between abundant bacterial groups and biodegradation of key pollutants in coking wastewater. PMID:27221291

  3. Performance and microbial community composition in a long-term sequential anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor operation treating coking wastewater.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Dev Raj; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Zhe; Gao, Yingxin; Yang, Min

    2016-09-01

    The combined anaerobic-aerobic biosystem is assumed to consume less energy for the treatment of high strength industrial wastewater. In this study, pollutant removal performance and microbial diversity were assessed in a long-term (over 300 days) bench-scale sequential anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor treating coking wastewater. Anaerobic treatment removed one third of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and more than half of the phenols with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 42 h, while the combined system with total HRT of 114 h removed 81.8, 85.6, 99.9, 98.2, and 85.4 % of COD, total organic carbon (TOC), total phenols, thiocyanate, and cyanide, respectively. Two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed complete removal of phenol derivatives and nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) via the combined system, with the anaerobic process alone contributing 58.4 and 58.6 % removal on average, respectively. Microbial activity in the bioreactors was examined by 454 pyrosequencing of the bacterial, archaeal, and fungal communities. Proteobacteria (61.2-93.4 %), particularly Betaproteobacteria (34.4-70.1 %), was the dominant bacterial group. Ottowia (14.1-46.7 %), Soehngenia (3.0-8.2 %), and Corynebacterium (0.9-12.0 %), which are comprised of phenol-degrading and hydrolytic bacteria, were the most abundant genera in the anaerobic sludge, whereas Thiobacillus (6.6-43.6 %), Diaphorobacter (5.1-13.0 %), and Comamonas (0.2-11.1 %) were the major degraders of phenol, thiocyanate, and NHCs in the aerobic sludge. Despite the low density of fungi, phenol degrading oleaginous yeast Trichosporon was abundant in the aerobic sludge. This study demonstrated the feasibility and optimization of less energy intensive treatment and the potential association between abundant bacterial groups and biodegradation of key pollutants in coking wastewater.

  4. Comprehensive microbial analysis of combined mesophilic anaerobic-thermophilic aerobic process treating high-strength food wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun Min; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Park, Jong Moon; Kim, Mi-Sun; Sommer, Sven G

    2015-04-15

    A combined mesophilic anaerobic-thermophilic aerobic process was used to treat high-strength food wastewater in this study. During the experimental period, most of solid residue from the mesophilic anaerobic reactor (R1) was separated by centrifugation and introduced into the thermophilic aerobic reactor (R2) for further digestion. Then, thermophilic aerobically-digested sludge was reintroduced into R1 to enhance reactor performance. The combined process was operated with two different Runs: Run I with hydraulic retention time (HRT) = 40 d (corresponding OLR = 3.5 kg COD/m(3) d) and Run II with HRT = 20 d (corresponding OLR = 7 kg COD/m(3)). For a comparison, a single-stage mesophilic anaerobic reactor (R3) was operated concurrently with same OLRs and HRTs as the combined process. During the overall digestion, all reactors showed high stability without pH control. The combined process demonstrated significantly higher organic matter removal efficiencies (over 90%) of TS, VS and COD and methane production than did R3. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) results indicated that higher populations of both bacteria and archaea were maintained in R1 than in R3. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed relatively high abundance of phylum Actinobacteria in both R1 and R2, and a predominance of phyla Synergistetes and Firmicutes in R3 during Run II. Furthermore, R1 and R2 shared genera (Prevotella, Aminobacterium, Geobacillus and Unclassified Actinobacteria), which suggests synergy between mesophilic anaerobic digestion and thermophilic aerobic digestion. For archaea, in R1 methanogenic archaea shifted from genus Methanosaeta to Methanosarcina, whereas genera Methanosaeta, Methanobacterium and Methanoculleus were predominant in R3. The results demonstrated dynamics of key microbial populations that were highly consistent with an enhanced reactor performance of the combined process.

  5. Abundance and distribution of Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin resistance genes in an anaerobic-aerobic system treating spiramycin production wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Miaomiao; Ding, Ran; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Yingxin; Tian, Zhe; Zhang, Tong; Yang, Min

    2014-10-15

    The behaviors of the Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin (MLS) resistance genes were investigated in an anaerobic-aerobic pilot-scale system treating spiramycin (SPM) production wastewater. After screening fifteen typical MLS resistance genes with different mechanisms using conventional PCR, eight detected genes were determined by quantitative PCR, together with three mobile elements. Aerobic sludge in the pilot system exhibited a total relative abundance of MLS resistance genes (per 16S rRNA gene) 2.5 logs higher than those in control samples collected from sewage and inosine wastewater treatment systems (P < 0.05), implying the presence of SPM could induce the production of MLS resistance genes. However, the total relative gene abundance in anaerobic sludge (4.3 × 10(-1)) was lower than that in aerobic sludge (3.7 × 10(0)) despite of the higher SPM level in anaerobic reactor, showing the advantage of anaerobic treatment in reducing the production of MLS resistance genes. The rRNA methylase genes (erm(B), erm(F), erm(X)) were the most abundant in the aerobic sludge (5.3 × 10(-1)-1.7 × 10(0)), followed by esterase gene ere(A) (1.3 × 10(-1)) and phosphorylase gene mph(B) (5.7 × 10(-2)). In anaerobic sludge, erm(B), erm(F), ere(A), and msr(D) were the major ones (1.2 × 10(-2)-3.2 × 10(-1)). These MLS resistance genes (except for msr(D)) were positively correlated with Class 1 integron (r(2) = 0.74-0.93, P < 0.05), implying the significance of horizontal transfer in their proliferation.

  6. Nitrite accumulation performance of aerobic MBBR treating Lurgi coal gasification waste water by adjusting pollutant load and DO concentration.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Qiang; Han, Hong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    An aerobic moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was adopted to treat Lurgi coal gasification waste water (LCGW) in about 10 months. The pollutant load and dissolve oxygen (DO) concentration were adjusted by trying to maximize the accumulation of [Formula: see text] in the MBBR for LCGW treatment. The highest [Formula: see text] accumulation proportion [Formula: see text] was 73.9%, but was not stable with influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and DO concentrations of around 1000 and 1.5 mg/L, respectively. Around 1500 mg/L of influent COD concentration and 1.5 mg/L of DO concentration were proper operation conditions for the aerobic MBBR to achieve relatively stable [Formula: see text] accumulation, with [Formula: see text] ratio at 53% and [Formula: see text] ratio at just 4.3% in the effluent. More specifically, free ammonia concentration and DO concentration affected [Formula: see text] accumulation much more obvious than phenols concentration. The activity and quantity of nitrifying bacteria growth in suspended sludge and biofilm of the MBBR were monitored simultaneously to explain the variations of [Formula: see text] accumulation performance under different operation conditions. An aerobic moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was adopted to treat Lurgi coal gasification waste water (LCGW)in about 10 months. The pollutant load and dissolve oxygen (DO) concentration were adjusted by trying to maximize the accumulation of NO(−)(2)−N in the MBBR for LCGW treatment. The highest NO(−)(2)−N accumulation proportion(NO(−)(2)−Neffluent/TN effluent) was 73.9%, but was not stable with influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and DO concentrations of around 1000 and 1.5 mg/L, respectively. Around 1500 mg/L of influent COD concentration and 1.5 mg/L of DO concentration were proper operation conditions for the aerobic MBBR to achieve relatively stable NO(−)(2)−N accumulation,with NO(−)(2)−N/TN ratio at 53% and NO(-)(3)−N/TN ratio at just 4.3% in the

  7. [Degradation Characteristics of Three Aniline Compounds in Simulated Aerobic Sewage Treat System].

    PubMed

    Gu, Wen; Zhou, Lin-jun; Liu, Ji-ning; Chen, Guo-song; Shi, Li-li; Xu, Yan-hua

    2016-01-15

    The removal rates of 4-nitroaniline, 4-isopropyl aniline and 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline under different hydraulic retention time (HRT) were tested by employing a simulation method of aerobic biochemical sewage treatment technology in this study. The results showed that when HRT was 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h, the removal rates of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were 70.2%, 80.3% and 88.3%, the removal rates of 4-nitroaniline were 48%, 64.7% and 75%; and the removal rates of 4-isopropyl aniline were 66%, 76% and 91%, respectively. It was concluded that increasing HRT could promote the removal rates of DOC and aniline chemicals. In contrast, 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline was difficult to be removed. The removal rates were less than 20% under all tested conditions. The kinetics analysis showed that the biodegradation of 4-nitroaniline, 4-isopropyl aniline and 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline in aerobic activated sewage (3 g x L(-1)) accorded with the first order kinetics and the regression coefficients were > 0.95. The half-life time of biodegradation was 6.01 h, 16.16 h, 123.75 h, respectively. In general, functional groups such as isopropyl had a positive effect on the biodegradation of aniline chemicals, whereas substituents such as nitro group and chlorine atom had an inhibitory effect.

  8. Aerobic moving bed biofilm reactor treating thermomechanical pulping whitewater under thermophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Jahren, Sigrun J; Rintala, Jukka A; Odegaard, Hallvard

    2002-02-01

    The continuously operated laboratory scale Kaldnes moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was used for thermophilic (55 degrees C) aerobic treatment of TMP whitewater. In the MBBR, the biomass is grown on carrier elements that move along with the water in the reactor. Inoculation with mesophilic activated sludge gave 60-65% SCOD removal from the first day onwards. During the 107 days of experiment, the 60-65% SCOD removals were achieved at organic loading rates of 2.5-3.5 kg SCODm(-3) d(-1), the highest loading rates applied during the run and HRT of 13-22h. Carbohydrates, which contributed to 50-60% of the influent SCOD. were removed by 90-95%, while less than 15% of the lignin-like material (30-35% of SCODin) was removed. The sludge yield was 0.23g VSSg SCOD(-1)removed. The results show that the aerobic biofilm process can be successfully operated under thermophilic conditions. PMID:11848344

  9. Pyrosequence analysis of bacterial communities in aerobic bioreactors treating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Stephen D.; Aitken, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Two aerobic, lab-scale, slurry-phase bioreactors were used to examine the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil and the associated bacterial communities. The two bioreactors were operated under semi-continuous (draw-and-fill) conditions at a residence time of 35 days, but one was fed weekly and the other monthly. Most of the quantified PAHs, including high-molecular-weight compounds, were removed to a greater extent in the weekly-fed bioreactor, which achieved total PAH removal of 76%. Molecular analyses, including pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, revealed significant shifts in the soil bacterial communities after introduction to the bioreactors and differences in the abundance and types of bacteria in each of the bioreactors. The weekly-fed bioreactor displayed a more stable bacterial community with gradual changes over time, whereas the monthly-fed bioreactor community was less consistent and may have been more strongly influenced by the influx of untreated soil during feeding. Phylogenetic groups containing known PAH-degrading bacteria previously identified through stable-isotope probing of the untreated soil were differentially affected by bioreactor conditions. Sequences from members of the Acidovorax and Sphingomonas genera, as well as the uncultivated ‘‘Pyrene Group 2’’ were abundant in the bioreactors. However, the relative abundances of sequences from the Pseudomonas, Sphingobium, and Pseudoxanthomonas genera, as well as from a group of unclassified anthracene degraders, were much lower in the bioreactors compared to the untreated soil. PMID:21369833

  10. Effect of hydraulic retention time on the performance of down-flow hanging sponge system treating grey wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Ahmed; Wahab, Rifaat Abdel; Al-Asmer, Azza; Matary, Fatma

    2011-08-01

    Grey wastewater (GW) treatment via down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) system was the subject of the study. The reactor was operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 11.7, 5.8 and 2.9 h, corresponding to organic loading rates (OLRs) of 1.9, 3.6 and 6.8 kgCOD/m3 day, respectively. The results obtained revealed that decreasing the HRT from 11.7 to 2.9 h negatively affected on the performance of the DHS system. COD(total), COD(soluble), COD(particulate) and detergent removal efficiency were reduced from 96 ± 2.4 to 90 ± 2.3%, from 83 ± 10 to 69 ± 8%, from 98 ± 2 to 94 ± 3% and from 96 ± 12 to 88 ± 6.9%, respectively. However, the removal efficiency of the distinguished COD fractions and detergent remained unaffected when decreasing the HRT from 11.7 to 5.8 h. The DHS system provided a removal efficiency of 95 ± 1% for COD(total), 79 ± 8% for COD(soluble), 98 ± 2 for COD(particulate) and 94.7% for detergent at an HRT of 5.8 h. Based on these results, it is recommended to operate such a system at an HRT of 5.8 h and OLR not exceeding 3.6 kgCOD/m3 day for producing an effluent quality complying for reuse in unrestricted irrigation purposes. The removal of TKj-N and nitrification efficiency in the DHS system was significantly affected by increasing the OLR from 1.9 to 3.6 kgCOD/m3 day and from 3.6 to 6.8 kgCOD/m3 day. At an OLR of 1.9 kgCOD/m3 day, the DHS system removed 80 ± 12% of TKj-N and 91 ± 22% of ammonia which is significantly higher than that at an OLR of 3.6 (58.5 ± 13%) and 6.8 kgCOD/m3 day (26.8 ± 16%). Similar results were recorded for the removal of total coliform (TC), viz., the efficiencies dropped for TC from 99.8 ± 0.2 to 99.4 ± 0.8% and from 99.4 ± 0.8 to 90.0 ± 7.6%, respectively. DHS profile results showed that the major part of COD was removed in the upper portion of the system while the nitrification process was taken place in the lower part of the DHS system at OLR of 1.9 kgCOD/m3 day and HRT of 11.7 h. PMID:21359535

  11. Effect of hydraulic retention time on the performance of down-flow hanging sponge system treating grey wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Ahmed; Wahab, Rifaat Abdel; Al-Asmer, Azza; Matary, Fatma

    2011-08-01

    Grey wastewater (GW) treatment via down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) system was the subject of the study. The reactor was operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 11.7, 5.8 and 2.9 h, corresponding to organic loading rates (OLRs) of 1.9, 3.6 and 6.8 kgCOD/m3 day, respectively. The results obtained revealed that decreasing the HRT from 11.7 to 2.9 h negatively affected on the performance of the DHS system. COD(total), COD(soluble), COD(particulate) and detergent removal efficiency were reduced from 96 ± 2.4 to 90 ± 2.3%, from 83 ± 10 to 69 ± 8%, from 98 ± 2 to 94 ± 3% and from 96 ± 12 to 88 ± 6.9%, respectively. However, the removal efficiency of the distinguished COD fractions and detergent remained unaffected when decreasing the HRT from 11.7 to 5.8 h. The DHS system provided a removal efficiency of 95 ± 1% for COD(total), 79 ± 8% for COD(soluble), 98 ± 2 for COD(particulate) and 94.7% for detergent at an HRT of 5.8 h. Based on these results, it is recommended to operate such a system at an HRT of 5.8 h and OLR not exceeding 3.6 kgCOD/m3 day for producing an effluent quality complying for reuse in unrestricted irrigation purposes. The removal of TKj-N and nitrification efficiency in the DHS system was significantly affected by increasing the OLR from 1.9 to 3.6 kgCOD/m3 day and from 3.6 to 6.8 kgCOD/m3 day. At an OLR of 1.9 kgCOD/m3 day, the DHS system removed 80 ± 12% of TKj-N and 91 ± 22% of ammonia which is significantly higher than that at an OLR of 3.6 (58.5 ± 13%) and 6.8 kgCOD/m3 day (26.8 ± 16%). Similar results were recorded for the removal of total coliform (TC), viz., the efficiencies dropped for TC from 99.8 ± 0.2 to 99.4 ± 0.8% and from 99.4 ± 0.8 to 90.0 ± 7.6%, respectively. DHS profile results showed that the major part of COD was removed in the upper portion of the system while the nitrification process was taken place in the lower part of the DHS system at OLR of 1.9 kgCOD/m3 day and HRT of 11.7 h.

  12. Experimental evaluation of four infiltration models for calcareous soil irrigated with treated untreated grey water and fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharaibeh, M. A.; Eltaif, N. I.; Alrababah, M. A.; Alhamad, M. N.

    2009-04-01

    Infiltration is vital for both irrigated and rainfed agriculture. The knowledge of infiltration characteristics of a soil is the basic information required for designing an efficient irrigation system. The objective of the present study was to model soil infiltration using four models: Green and Ampt, Horton, Kostaikov and modified Kostiakov. Infiltration tests were conducted on field plot irrigated with treated, untreated greywater and fresh water. The field water infiltration data used in these models were based on double ring infiltrometer tests conducted for 4 h. The algebraic parameters of the infiltration models and nonlinear least squares regression were fitted using measured infiltration time [I (t)] data. Among process-based infiltration models, the Horton model performed best and matched the measured I (t) data with lower sum of squares (SS).

  13. Decolourization of anaerobically digested and polyaluminium chloride treated distillery spentwash in a fungal stirred tank aerobic reactor.

    PubMed

    Singh, S S; Dikshit, A K

    2011-11-01

    Decolourization of anaerobically digested and polyaluminium chloride treated distillery spentwash was studied in a fungal stirred tank aerobic reactor without dilution of wastewater. Aspergillus niger isolate IITB-V8 was used as the fungal inoculum. The main objectives of the study were to optimize the stirrer speed for achieving maximum decolourization and to determine the kinetic parameters. A mathematical model was developed to describe the batch culture kinetics. Volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (k (L) a) was obtained using dynamic method. The maximum specific growth rate and growth yield of fungus were determined using Logistic equation and using Luedeking-Piret equation. 150 rpm was found to be optimum stirrer speed for overall decolourization of 87%. At the optimum stirrer speed, volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (k (L) a) was 0.4957 min(-1) and the maximum specific growth rate of fungus was 0.224 h(-1). The values of yield coefficient (Y ( x/s)) and maintenance coefficient (m (s)) were found to be 0.48 g cells (g substrate)(-1) and 0.015 g substrate (g cells)(-1) h(-1).

  14. Molecular analysis of the biomass of a fluidized bed reactor treating synthetic vinasse at anaerobic and micro-aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Elisa; Lopes, Alexandre; Fdz-Polanco, María; Stams, Alfons J M; García-Encina, Pedro A

    2012-03-01

    The microbial communities (Bacteria and Archaea) established in an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor used to treat synthetic vinasse (betaine, glucose, acetate, propionate, and butyrate) were characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and phylogenetic analysis. This study was focused on the competitive and syntrophic interactions between the different microbial groups at varying influent substrate to sulfate ratios of 8, 4, and 2 and anaerobic or micro-aerobic conditions. Acetogens detected along the anaerobic phases at substrate to sulfate ratios of 8 and 4 seemed to be mainly involved in the fermentation of glucose and betaine, but they were substituted by other sugar or betaine degraders after oxygen application. Typical fatty acid degraders that grow in syntrophy with methanogens were not detected during the entire reactor run. Likely, sugar and betaine degraders outnumbered them in the DGGE analysis. The detected sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) belonged to the hydrogen-utilizing Desulfovibrio. The introduction of oxygen led to the formation of elemental sulfur (S(0)) and probably other sulfur compounds by sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (γ-Proteobacteria). It is likely that the sulfur intermediates produced from sulfide oxidation were used by SRB and other microorganisms as electron acceptors, as was supported by the detection of the sulfur respiring Wolinella succinogenes. Within the Archaea population, members of Methanomethylovorans and Methanosaeta were detected throughout the entire reactor operation. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens mainly belonging to the genus Methanobacterium were detected at the highest substrate to sulfate ratio but rapidly disappeared by increasing the sulfate concentration. PMID:21861082

  15. Cycle length and COD/N ratio determine properties of aerobic granules treating high-nitrogen wastewater.

    PubMed

    Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Bernat, Katarzyna; Zielińska, Magdalena; Wojnowska-Baryła, Irena

    2014-07-01

    Aerobic granule characteristic in sequencing batch reactors treating high-nitrogen digester supernatant was investigated at cycle lengths (t) of 6, 8 and 12 h with the COD/N ratios in the influent of 4.5 and 2.3. The biomass production (Y obs) correlated with the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in grams per COD removed. Denitrification efficiency significantly decreased as the amount of EPS in biomass increased, suggesting that organic assimilation in EPS hampers nitrogen removal. Granule hydrophobicity was highest at t of 8 h; the t has to be long enough to remove pollutants, but not so long that excessive biomass starvation causes extracellular protein consumption that decreases hydrophobicity. At a given t, reducing the COD/N ratio improved hydrophobicity that stimulates cell aggregation. At t of 6 h and the COD/N ratio of 2.3, the dominance of 0.5-1.0 mm granules favored simultaneous nitrification and denitrification and resulted in the highest nitrogen removal.

  16. Long-term impact of salinity on the performance and microbial population of an aerobic granular reactor treating a high-strength aromatic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Carlos; Suárez-Ojeda, María Eugenia; Carrera, Julián

    2015-12-01

    The effect of salinity over granular biomass treating a mixture of aromatic compounds (phenol, o-cresol and p-nitrophenol) was evaluated in a continuous airlift reactor. To mimic an industrial wastewater, increasing concentrations (from 2.0 to 29.0 g salts L(-1)) of a mixture of salts (MgSO4, NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 and NaHCO3) were introduced in the influent. The gradual salinity increase led to a good acclimation of the biomass obtaining complete biodegradation of the aromatic compounds and no accumulation of metabolic intermediates. However, a deterioration of the morphology of aerobic granules with a complete loss of granulation after 125 days was produced at 29.0 g salts L(-1). At that moment, anaerobic granules were added to promote granulation and after 50 days new aerobic granules were formed. These new aerobic granules remained stable for more than 100 days at the highest salinity condition with 100% removal of the mixture of aromatic compounds. PMID:26457833

  17. 35. GREY IRON TUMBLERS, IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY ROTATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. GREY IRON TUMBLERS, IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY ROTATE CASTINGS WITH SHOT TO REMOVE AND SURFACE OXIDES AND REMAINING EXCESS METALS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  18. The glucoregulatory response to high-intensity aerobic exercise following training in rats with insulin-treated type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Matthew W; Murray, Michael R; Grise, Kenneth N; Olver, T Dylan; Dey, Adwitia; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Noble, Earl G; Melling, C W James

    2016-06-01

    An acute bout of exercise elicits a rapid, potentially deleterious, reduction in blood glucose in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). In the current study, we examined whether a 10-week aerobic training program could alleviate the rapid exercise-associated reduction in blood glucose through changes in the glucoregulatory hormonal response or increased hepatic glycogen storage in an insulin-treated rat model of T1DM. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided evenly into 4 groups: non-T1DM sedentary (C) (n = 8), non-T1DM exercised (CX) (n = 8), T1DM sedentary (D) (n = 8), and T1DM exercised (DX) (n = 8). Exercise training consisted of treadmill running for 5 days/week (1 h, 27 m/min, 6% grade) for 10 weeks. T1DM was induced by multiple streptozotocin injections (20 mg/kg) followed by implantation of subcutaneous insulin pellets. At week 1, an acute exercise bout led to a significant reduction in blood glucose in DX (p < 0.05), whereas CX exhibited an increase in blood glucose (p < 0.05). During acute exercise, serum epinephrine was increased in both DX and CX (p < 0.05), whereas serum glucagon was increased during recovery only in CX (p < 0.01). Following aerobic training in DX, the exercise-mediated reduction in blood glucose remained; however, serum glucagon increased to the same extent as in CX (p < 0.05). DX exhibited significantly less hepatic glycogen (p < 0.001) despite elevations in glycogenic proteins in the liver (p < 0.05). Elevated serum epinephrine and decreased hepatic adrenergic receptor expression were also evident in DX (p < 0.05). In summary, despite aerobic training in DX, abrupt blood glucose reductions and hepatic glycogen deficiencies were evident. These data suggest that sympathetic overactivity may contribute to deficiencies in hepatic glycogen storage. PMID:27175938

  19. The effect of treating alfalfa with Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 on silage fermentation, aerobic stability, and nutritive value for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kung, L; Taylor, C C; Lynch, M P; Neylon, J M

    2003-01-01

    Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 and enzymes (beta-glucanase, alpha-amylase, xylanase, and galactomannase) were applied to chopped alfalfa (39% DM) to study their effects on the fermentation and nutritive value of the silage. Alfalfa was treated with nothing, or L. buchneri 40788, for a final application rate of 1 x 10(5), 5 x 10(5), or 1 x 10(6) cfu/g of fresh forage and ensiled in laboratory silos for 2, 4, 8, and 56 d. Treatment with L. buchneri 40788 had few effects on the end products of fermentation through 8 d of ensiling. However, after 56 d of ensiling, treated silages had a higher pH (4.55 vs. 4.38) and higher concentrations of acetic acid (6.40 vs. 4.24%), propionic acid (0.18 vs. 0.06%), and ammonia-N (0.35 vs. 0.29%) when compared to untreated silage. Lactic acid was also numerically lower in treated (3.51%) than untreated (4.12%). Silages treated with the moderate and highest dose of L. buchneri 40788 also resulted in greater recoveries of DM than did untreated silage. Alfalfa (43% DM) was also untreated or treated with a commercial application of L. buchneri 40788 (4 x 10(5) cfu/g, a commercial dose) in farm-scale bag silo. Holstein cows were fed a diet comprised of 32% untreated or treated alfalfa silage, 11% corn silage, 5% chopped alfalfa hay, and 52% of concentrate (DMB) for a 6-wk treatment period. Dry matter intake and milk composition were unaffected by treatment, but cows fed silage treated with L. buchneri 40788 produced 0.8 kg more milk than did cows fed untreated silage. Treated silage had a higher concentration of acetic acid (5.67 vs. 3.35%) but lower lactic acid (3.50 vs. 4.39%) than untreated silage. When exposed to air, the total mixed ration containing treated alfalfa silage remained stable for 100 h, whereas the ration containing untreated silage spoiled after 68 h. Treating alfalfa silage with L. buchneri 40788 increased the concentration of acetic acid, and when the silage was combined into a total mixed ration and fed to lactating

  20. Grey matter volumes in treatment naïve vs. chronically treated children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a combined approach.

    PubMed

    Villemonteix, Thomas; De Brito, Stéphane A; Kavec, Martin; Balériaux, Danielle; Metens, Thierry; Slama, Hichem; Baijot, Simon; Mary, Alison; Peigneux, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle

    2015-08-01

    Psychostimulants are the first-line treatment in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but their effects on brain development remain poorly understood. In particular, previous structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) studies only investigated treatment effects on grey matter (GM) volumes in selected regions of interest (ROIs). In this study, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to assess medication-related GM volume differences across the entire brain. Automated tracing measurements of selected ROIs were also obtained. Three groups (77 participants aged 7-to-13 year old) underwent MRI scans and were compared: never-medicated children with ADHD (n=33), medicated (methylphenidate) children with ADHD (n=20) and typically developing children (TD; n=24). Optimised VBM was used to investigate regional GM volumes, controlling for age and gender. Automated tracing procedures were also used to assess the average volume of the caudate nucleus, the amygdala and the nucleus accumbens. When compared to both medicated children with ADHD and TD children, never-medicated children with ADHD exhibited decreased GM volume in the insula and in the middle temporal gyrus. When compared to TD children, medicated children with ADHD had decreased GM volume in the middle frontal gyrus and in the precentral gyrus. Finally, ROI analyses revealed a significant association between duration of treatment and GM volume of the left nucleus accumbens in medicated children with ADHD. In conclusion, this study documents potential methylphenidate-related GM volume normalization and deviation in previously unexplored brain structures, and reports a positive association between treatment history and GM volume in the nucleus accumbens, a key region for reward-processing.

  1. Kinetics, mass transfer and hydrodynamics in a packed bed aerobic reactor fed with anaerobically treated domestic sewage.

    PubMed

    Fazolo, A; Pasotto, M B; Foresti, E; Zaiat, M

    2006-10-01

    This study presents an assessment of the kinetic, mass transfer and hydrodynamic parameters of a pilot-scale fixed bed reactor containing immobilized biomass in polyurethane matrices and fed with the effluent of a horizontal-flow fixed bed anaerobic reactor, which was used to treat domestic sewage. It was found that the liquid-solid and intra-particle mass transfer resistances significantly affected the overall oxygen consumption rate and that mechanical agitation could minimize such resistances. The volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa) values for superficial air velocities between 8.4 cm min(-1) and 57.0 cm min(-1) varied from 20.8 h(-1) to 58.8 h(-1) for tap water, and 16.8 h(-1) to 53.0 h(-1) for the anaerobic pre-treated effluent. The intrinsic oxygen uptake rate was estimated to be 19.9 mgO2 gVSS(-1) h(-1). A first-order kinetic model with residual concentration was considered to adequately represent the COD removal rate, whereas nitrogen conversion was considered to be well represented by a model of pseudo-first-order reaction in series. It was also found that the ammonium conversion to nitrite was the limiting step of the overall nitrogen conversion rate. The hydrodynamic behavior of the reactor was represented by three to four completely mixed reactors in series.

  2. Improving the performance of an aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating pharmaceutical wastewater with powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Yasemin; Bacaksiz, A Murat; Golebatmaz, Ugur; Vergili, Ilda; Gönder, Z Beril; Yilmaz, Gulsum

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the effects of organic loading rate (OLR) and the addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC) on the performance and membrane fouling of MBR were conducted to treat real pharmaceutical process wastewater. Over 145 days of operation, the MBR system was operated at OLRs ranging from 1 to 2 kg COD m(-3) day(-1) without sludge wasting. The addition of PAC provided an improvement in the flux, despite an increase in the OLR:PAC ratio. The results demonstrated that the hybrid PAC-MBR system maintained a reduced amount of membrane fouling and steadily increased the removal performance of etodolac. PAC addition reduced the deposition of extracellular polymeric substance and organic matter on the membrane surface and resulted an increase in COD removal even at higher OLRs with low PAC addition. Membrane fouling mechanisms were investigated using combined adsorption fouling models. Modified fouling index values and normalized mass transfer coefficient values indicated that predominant fouling mechanism was cake adsorption. PMID:26846538

  3. Grey swan tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ning; Emanuel, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    We define `grey swan’ tropical cyclones as high-impact storms that would not be predicted based on history but may be foreseeable using physical knowledge together with historical data. Here we apply a climatological-hydrodynamic method to estimate grey swan tropical cyclone storm surge threat for three highly vulnerable coastal regions. We identify a potentially large risk in the Persian Gulf, where tropical cyclones have never been recorded, and larger-than-expected threats in Cairns, Australia, and Tampa, Florida. Grey swan tropical cyclones striking Tampa, Cairns and Dubai can generate storm surges of about 6 m, 5.7 m and 4 m, respectively, with estimated annual exceedance probabilities of about 1/10,000. With climate change, these probabilities can increase significantly over the twenty-first century (to 1/3,100-1/1,100 in the middle and 1/2,500-1/700 towards the end of the century for Tampa). Worse grey swan tropical cyclones, inducing surges exceeding 11 m in Tampa and 7 m in Dubai, are also revealed with non-negligible probabilities, especially towards the end of the century.

  4. The effectiveness of aerobic training, cognitive behavioural therapy, and energy conservation management in treating MS-related fatigue: the design of the TREFAMS-ACE programme

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background TREFAMS is an acronym for TReating FAtigue in Multiple Sclerosis, while ACE refers to the rehabilitation treatment methods under study, that is, Aerobic training, Cognitive behavioural therapy, and Energy conservation management. The TREFAMS-ACE research programme consists of four studies and has two main objectives: (1) to assess the effectiveness of three different rehabilitation treatment strategies in reducing fatigue and improving societal participation in patients with MS; and (2) to study the neurobiological mechanisms of action that underlie treatment effects and MS-related fatigue in general. Methods/Design Ambulatory patients (n = 270) suffering from MS-related fatigue will be recruited to three single-blinded randomised clinical trials (RCTs). In each RCT, 90 patients will be randomly allocated to the trial-specific intervention or to a low-intensity intervention that is the same for all RCTs. This low-intensity intervention consists of three individual consultations with a specialised MS-nurse. The trial-specific interventions are Aerobic Training, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, and Energy Conservation Management. These interventions consist of 12 individual therapist-supervised sessions with additional intervention-specific home exercises. The therapy period lasts 16 weeks. All RCTs have the same design and the same primary outcome measures: fatigue - measured with the Checklist Individual Strength, and participation - measured with the Impact on Participation and Autonomy questionnaire. Outcomes will be assessed 1 week prior to, and at 0, 8, 16, 26 and 52 weeks after randomisation. The assessors will be blinded to allocation. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in serum, salivary cortisol, physical fitness, physical activity, coping, self-efficacy, illness cognitions and other determinants will be longitudinally measured in order to study the neurobiological mechanisms of action. Discussion The TREFAMS-ACE programme is unique in its aim to

  5. Performances and microbial features of an aerobic packed-bed biofilm reactor developed to post-treat an olive mill effluent from an anaerobic GAC reactor

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Lorenzo; Colao, Maria Chiara; Ruzzi, Maurizio; Marchetti, Leonardo; Fava, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    Background Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is the aqueous effluent of olive oil producing processes. Given its high COD and content of phenols, it has to be decontaminated before being discharged. Anaerobic digestion is one of the most promising treatment process for such an effluent, as it combines high decontamination efficiency with methane production. The large scale anaerobic digestion of OMWs is normally conducted in dispersed-growth reactors, where however are generally achieved unsatisfactory COD removal and methane production yields. The possibility of intensifying the performance of the process using a packed bed biofilm reactor, as anaerobic treatment alternative, was demonstrated. Even in this case, however, a post-treatment step is required to further reduce the COD. In this work, a biological post-treatment, consisting of an aerobic biological "Manville" silica bead-packed bed aerobic reactor, was developed, tested for its ability to complete COD removal from the anaerobic digestion effluents, and characterized biologically through molecular tools. Results The aerobic post-treatment was assessed through a 2 month-continuous feeding with the digested effluent at 50.42 and 2.04 gl-1day-1 of COD and phenol loading rates, respectively. It was found to be a stable process, able to remove 24 and 39% of such organic loads, respectively, and to account for 1/4 of the overall decontamination efficiency displayed by the anaerobic-aerobic integrated system when fed with an amended OMW at 31.74 and 1.70 gl-1day-1 of COD and phenol loading rates, respectively. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences of biomass samples from the aerobic reactor biofilm revealed that it was colonized by Rhodobacterales, Bacteroidales, Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Rhodocyclales and genera incertae sedis TM7. Some taxons occurring in the influent were not detected in the biofilm, whereas others, such as Paracoccus, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Enterobacter, enriched significantly in

  6. Essential oils for the disinfection of grey water.

    PubMed

    Winward, Gideon P; Avery, Lisa M; Stephenson, Tom; Jefferson, Bruce

    2008-04-01

    Although the antimicrobial properties of many plant essential oils (EOs) are well known, their application for the disinfection of water has received little attention. In this study, their use as alternative 'natural' disinfectants for grey water reuse was assessed. Toxicity screening of eight EOs and their components highlighted origanum oil (Thymus capitatus) and carvacrol as exerting the most antimicrobial activity. Over a 30-min contact time, origanum EO concentrations of up to 94 mg L(-1) had minimal effect on total coliform concentrations in the grey water while a concentration of 468 mg L(-1) rendered total coliforms non-detectable in 100mL grey water. Coliform inactivation was found to increase with EO contact time. Organic concentration and particulate size in grey water were shown to reduce the efficacy of disinfection with origanum EO. Origanum EO prevented regrowth of coliform bacteria in reed bed-treated grey water for up to 14 days at a concentration of 468 mg L(-1), with or without prior disinfection by ultraviolet (UV) light. Based on the disinfection data reported here, the production of sufficient origanum EO for the disinfection of grey water for reuse with toilet flushing, would require approximately 35 times the average land area of a UK household.

  7. Relationships between chemical oxygen demand (COD) components and toxicity in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor/aerobic completely stirred reactor system treating Kemicetine.

    PubMed

    Sponza, Delia Teresa; Demirden, Pinar

    2010-04-15

    In this study the interactions between toxicity removals and Kemicetine, COD removals, intermediate products of Kemicetine and COD components (CODs originating from slowly degradable organics, readily degradable organics, inert microbial products and from the inert compounds) were investigated in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR)/aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system with a real pharmaceutical wastewater. The total COD and Kemicetine removal efficiencies were 98% and 100%, respectively, in the sequential ABR/CSTR systems. 2-Amino-1 (p-nitrophenil)-1,3 propanediol, l-p-amino phenyl, p-amino phenol and phenol were detected in the ABR as the main readily degradable inter-metabolites. In the anaerobic ABR reactor, the Kemicetin was converted to corresponding inter-metabolites and a substantial part of the COD was removed. In the aerobic CSTR reactor the inter-metabolites produced in the anaerobic reactor were completely removed and the COD remaining from the anerobic reactor was biodegraded. It was found that the COD originating from the readily degradable organics did not limit the anaerobic degradation process, while the CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and from the inert microbial products significantly decreased the anaerobic ABR reactor performance. The acute toxicity test results indicated that the toxicity decreased from the influent to the effluent of the aerobic CSTR reactor. The ANOVA test statistics showed that there was a strong linear correlation between acute toxicity, CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and inert microbial products. A weak correlation between acute toxicity and CODs originating from the inert compounds was detected.

  8. Filamentous bacteria existence in aerobic granular reactors.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, M; Val del Río, A; Campos, J L; Méndez, R; Mosquera-Corral, A

    2015-05-01

    Filamentous bacteria are associated to biomass settling problems in wastewater treatment plants. In systems based on aerobic granular biomass they have been proposed to contribute to the initial biomass aggregation process. However, their development on mature aerobic granular systems has not been sufficiently studied. In the present research work, filamentous bacteria were studied for the first time after long-term operation (up to 300 days) of aerobic granular systems. Chloroflexi and Sphaerotilus natans have been observed in a reactor fed with synthetic wastewater. These filamentous bacteria could only come from the inoculated sludge. Thiothrix and Chloroflexi bacteria were observed in aerobic granular biomass treating wastewater from a fish canning industry. Meganema perideroedes was detected in a reactor treating wastewater from a plant processing marine products. As a conclusion, the source of filamentous bacteria in these mature aerobic granular systems fed with industrial effluents was the incoming wastewater.

  9. Effect of an azo dye on the performance of an aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactor treating a simulated textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Franca, Rita D G; Vieira, Anabela; Mata, Ana M T; Carvalho, Gilda S; Pinheiro, Helena M; Lourenço, Nídia D

    2015-11-15

    This study analyzed the effect of an azo dye (Acid Red 14) on the performance of an aerobic granular sludge (AGS) sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system operated with 6-h anaerobic-aerobic cycles for the treatment of a synthetic textile wastewater. In this sense, two SBRs inoculated with AGS from a domestic wastewater treatment plant were run in parallel, being one supplied with the dye and the other used as a dye-free control. The AGS successfully adapted to the new hydrodynamic conditions forming smaller, denser granules in both reactors, with optimal sludge volume index values of 19 and 17 mL g(-1) after 5-min and 30-min settling, respectively. As a result, high biomass concentration levels and sludge age values were registered, up to 13 gTSS L(-1) and 40 days, respectively, when deliberate biomass wastage was limited to the sampling needs. Stable dye removal yields above 90% were attained during the anaerobic reaction phase, confirmed by the formation of one of the aromatic amines arising from azo bond reduction. The control of the sludge retention time (SRT) to 15 days triggered a 30% reduction in the biodecolorization yield. However, the increase of the SRT values back to levels above 25 days reverted this effect and also promoted the complete bioconversion of the identified aromatic amine during the aerobic reaction phase. The dye and its breakdown products did not negatively affect the treatment performance, as organic load removal yields higher than 80% were attained in both reactors, up to 77% occurring in the anaerobic phase. These high anaerobic organic removal levels were correlated to an increase of Defluviicoccus-related glycogen accumulating organisms in the biomass. Also, the capacity of the system to deal with shocks of high dye concentration and organic load was successfully demonstrated. Granule breakup after long-term operation only occurred in the dye-free control SBR, suggesting that the azo dye plays an important role in improving granule

  10. Grey water characterisation and its impact on the selection and operation of technologies for urban reuse.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, B; Palmer, A; Jeffrey, P; Stuetz, R; Judd, S

    2004-01-01

    Characterisation of grey water reveals a source water that is similar in organic strength to a low-medium strength municipal sewage influent but with physical and biodegradability characteristics similar to a tertiary treated effluent. The characteristics of the water suggest biological processes are the most suitable unit processes for treating grey water. The highly variable nature of the source requires that selected technologies must be inherently robust in their operation. One potential area of concern is the high COD/BOD ratio and nutrient deficiency in terms of both macro and micro nutrients which grey water exhibits potentially retard the efficacy of biological processes.

  11. An aerobic fixed-phase biofilm reactor system for the degradation of the low-molecular weight aromatic compounds occurring in the effluents of anaerobic digestors treating olive mill wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Bertin, L; Majone, M; Di Gioia, D; Fava, F

    2001-05-01

    An aerobic co-culture, prepared by combining Ralstonia sp. LD35 and Pseudomonas putida DSM1868, was recently found to be capable of extensively degrading many of the hydroxylated and/or methoxylated benzoic, phenylacetic and 3-phenyl-2-propenoic acids occurring in the olive mill wastewaters (OMWs). In the perspective of developing a biotechnological process for the degradation of low-molecular weight (MW) aromatic compounds occurring in the effluents of anaerobic digestors treating OMWs, the capability of this bacterial co-culture of biodegrading a synthetic mix of the above mentioned compounds and the aromatic compounds of an anaerobic OMW-treatment plant effluent in the physiological state of immobilised cells was investigated. Two aerobic fixed-bed biofilm reactors were developed by immobilising the co-culture cells on Manville silica beads and on polyurethane foam cubes. Both supports were found to give rise to a microbiologically stable and biologically active biofilm. The two biofilm reactors were found to be similarly capable of rapidly and completely biodegrading the components of a synthetic mix of nine monocyclic aromatic acids typically present in OMWs and the low-MW aromatic compounds occurring in the anaerobic effluent in batch conditions. However, in the same conditions, the silica bead-packed reactor was found to be more effective in the removal of high-MW phenolic compounds from the anaerobic effluent with respect to the polyurethane cube-packed reactor. These results are encouraging in the perspective of using the co-culture as immobilized cells for developing a continuous biotechnological process for the post-treatment of effluents with low-MW aromatic compounds produced by anaerobic digestors treating OMWs.

  12. Inorganic fouling of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating leachate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and a polishing aerobic membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Trzcinski, Antoine P; Stuckey, David C

    2016-03-01

    The treatment of leachate (Average TCOD=11.97 g/L, 14.4% soluble) from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste was investigated using a Submerged Anaerobic Membrane BioReactor (SAMBR), followed by an aerobic membrane bioreactor (AMBR) to polish this effluent. This paper investigated the exact nature and composition of the inorganic precipitate in each of the reactors in the process. The flux decreased due to precipitation of calcium as monohydrocalcite (CaCO3·H2O) containing traces of metals onto the SAMBR membrane because of high CO2 partial pressures. Precipitation of calcium in the AMBR was also observed due to a higher pH. In this case, phosphorus also precipitated with calcium in two different phases: the background layer contained calcium, oxygen, carbon and small amounts of phosphorus (2-6.7%), while flakes containing calcium, oxygen and higher amounts of phosphorus (10-17%) were probably hydroxyapatite (Ca5(PO4)3OH). PMID:26771921

  13. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  14. Cullen Sign and Grey Turner Sign Revisited.

    PubMed

    Wright, William F

    2016-06-01

    Cullen sign and Grey Turner sign, named after Thomas Stephen Cullen, MB, and George Grey Turner, MBBS, respectively, are signs of abdominal wall hemorrhage and are generally associated with acute pancreatitis. However, the research from which these signs arose was documented long before Cullen and Grey Turner made their contributions. The present article examines the history, pathologic mechanisms, and clinical application of these signs in relation to acute pancreatitis and ectopic pregnancy. PMID:27214777

  15. [Sulfa-drug wastewater treatment with anaerobic/aerobic process].

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Zhang, H; Zhu, H; Zhang, Z; Zhuang, Y; Dai, S

    2001-09-01

    Sulfa drug wastewater was treated with anaerobic/aerobic process. The removal ratios of TOC reached about 50% in anaerobic phase and about 70% in aerobic phase respectively, while volume loading rate of TOC was about 1.2 kg/(m3.d) in anaerobic phase and about 0.6 kg/(m3.d) in aerobic phase. Removal of TOC in anaerobic phase was attributed to the reduction of sulfate.

  16. Aerobic Conditioning Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Neil R.

    1980-01-01

    An aerobic exercise class that focuses on the conditioning of the cardiovascular and muscular systems is presented. Students complete data cards on heart rate, pulse, and exercises to be completed during the forty minute course. (CJ)

  17. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of grey water for reuse requirements and treatment alternatives: the case of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Ghunmi, Lina Abu; Zeeman, Grietje; van Lier, Jules; Fayyed, Manar

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the potentials and requirements for grey water reuse in Jordan. The results revealed that urban, rural and dormitory grey water production rate and concentration of TS, BOD(5), COD and pathogens varied between 18-66 L cap(-1)d(-1), 848-1,919, 200-1,056, and 560-2,568 mg L(-1) and 6.9E2-2.7E5 CFU mL(-1), respectively. The grey water compromises 64 to 85% of the total water flow in the rural and urban areas. Storing grey water is inevitable to meet reuse requirements in terms of volume and timing. All the studied grey waters need treatment, in terms of solids, BOD(5), COD and pathogens, before storage and reuse. Storage and physical treatment, as a pretreatment step should be avoided, since it produces unstable effluents and non-stabilized sludge. However, extensive biological treatment can combine storage and physical treatments. Furthermore, a batch-fed biological treatment system combining anaerobic and aerobic processes copes with the fluctuations in the hydrographs and pollutographs as well as the present nutrients. The inorganic content of grey water in Jordan is about drinking water quality and does not need treatment. Moreover, the grey water SAR values were 3-7, revealing that the concentrations of monovalent and divalent cations comply with agricultural demand in Jordan. The observed patterns in the hydrographs and pollutographs showed that the hydraulic load could be used for the design of both physical and biological treatment units for dormitories and hotels. For family houses the hydraulic load was identified as the key design parameter for physical treatment units and the organic load is the key design parameter for biological treatment units.

  18. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of grey water for reuse requirements and treatment alternatives: the case of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Ghunmi, Lina Abu; Zeeman, Grietje; van Lier, Jules; Fayyed, Manar

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the potentials and requirements for grey water reuse in Jordan. The results revealed that urban, rural and dormitory grey water production rate and concentration of TS, BOD(5), COD and pathogens varied between 18-66 L cap(-1)d(-1), 848-1,919, 200-1,056, and 560-2,568 mg L(-1) and 6.9E2-2.7E5 CFU mL(-1), respectively. The grey water compromises 64 to 85% of the total water flow in the rural and urban areas. Storing grey water is inevitable to meet reuse requirements in terms of volume and timing. All the studied grey waters need treatment, in terms of solids, BOD(5), COD and pathogens, before storage and reuse. Storage and physical treatment, as a pretreatment step should be avoided, since it produces unstable effluents and non-stabilized sludge. However, extensive biological treatment can combine storage and physical treatments. Furthermore, a batch-fed biological treatment system combining anaerobic and aerobic processes copes with the fluctuations in the hydrographs and pollutographs as well as the present nutrients. The inorganic content of grey water in Jordan is about drinking water quality and does not need treatment. Moreover, the grey water SAR values were 3-7, revealing that the concentrations of monovalent and divalent cations comply with agricultural demand in Jordan. The observed patterns in the hydrographs and pollutographs showed that the hydraulic load could be used for the design of both physical and biological treatment units for dormitories and hotels. For family houses the hydraulic load was identified as the key design parameter for physical treatment units and the organic load is the key design parameter for biological treatment units. PMID:18957751

  19. Dance--Aerobic and Anaerobic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlette

    1984-01-01

    This article defines and explains aerobic exercise and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Various studies on dancers are cited indicating that dance is an anaerobic activity with some small degree of aerobic benefit. (DF)

  20. 36. LARGE MOLD MAKING MACHINE, GREY IRON UNIT #4 SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. LARGE MOLD MAKING MACHINE, GREY IRON UNIT #4 SHOWING PATTERNS THAT FLASKS FIT OVER PRIOR TO BEING FILLED WITH SAND AND COMPRESSED. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  1. 40. THIS TUMBLING MILL IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. THIS TUMBLING MILL IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY IS USED TO TUMBLE CASTINGS OVER EACH OTHER TO BREAK OFF RUNNERS AND SPRUES. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  2. Tularemia without lesions in grey tree squirrels: A diagnostic challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifteen cases of Francisella tularenesis infection (tularemia) were identified in western grey (Sciurus griseus) and eastern grey (Sciurus carolinesis) squirrels submitted to the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory between 2008 and 2011. All of the squirrels originated in Washington stat...

  3. Evaluation of Biodegradability of Waste Before and After Aerobic Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchowska-Kisielewicz, Monika; Jędrczak, Andrzej; Sadecka, Zofia

    2014-12-01

    An important advantage of use of an aerobic biostabilization of waste prior to its disposal is that it intensifies the decomposition of the organic fraction of waste into the form which is easily assimilable for methanogenic microorganisms involved in anaerobic decomposition of waste in the landfill. In this article it is presented the influence of aerobic pre-treatment of waste as well as leachate recirculation on susceptibility to biodegradation of waste in anaerobic laboratory reactors. The research has shown that in the reactor with aerobically treated waste stabilized with recilculation conversion of the organic carbon into the methane is about 45% higher than in the reactor with untreated waste stabilized without recirculation.

  4. NORTHEAST VIEW OF FOUNDRY FROM TOP OF GREY IRON CUPOLA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHEAST VIEW OF FOUNDRY FROM TOP OF GREY IRON CUPOLA SHOWING CORE ROOM ROOF DIRECTLY NORTHEAST, GREY IRON FOUNDRY TO THE RIGHT, MALLEABLE IRON CUPOLAS AND FOUNDRY NORTHEAST OF GREY IRON FOUNDRY WITH THE BRASS FOUNDRY IN THE REAR. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  5. 78 FR 17183 - Information Collection: Grey Towers Visitor Comment Card

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... Forest Service Information Collection: Grey Towers Visitor Comment Card AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... collection 0596- 0222, ``Grey Towers Visitor Comment Card'' with 0596-0226, ``Forest Service Generic.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Grey Towers Visitor Comment Card. OMB Number: 0596-0222. Expiration Date...

  6. 23. INTERIOR VIEW WITH UNIT NO. 2 GREY IRON DISAMATIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. INTERIOR VIEW WITH UNIT NO. 2 GREY IRON DISAMATIC SETTING A 1 X 1/2 INCH ELBOW PIPE FITTING, A 'GREY IRON EL'. THIS MACHINE SETS CORES THROUGH AN AUTOMATED PROCESS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  7. 24. INTERIOR VIEW WITH UNIT NO. 2 GREY IRON DISAMATIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. INTERIOR VIEW WITH UNIT NO. 2 GREY IRON DISAMATIC SETTING A 1 X 1/2 INCH ELBOW PIPE FITTING, A 'GREY IRON EL', THROUGH AN AUTOMATED PROCESS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  8. Searching for Grey Literature for Systematic Reviews: Challenges and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahood, Quenby; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Irvin, Emma

    2014-01-01

    There is ongoing interest in including grey literature in systematic reviews. Including grey literature can broaden the scope to more relevant studies, thereby providing a more complete view of available evidence. Searching for grey literature can be challenging despite greater access through the Internet, search engines and online bibliographic…

  9. Evaluation of appropriate technologies for grey water treatments and reuses.

    PubMed

    Li, Fangyue; Wichmann, Knut; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    As water is becoming a rare resource, the onsite reuse and recycling of grey water is practiced in many countries as a sustainable solution to reduce the overall urban water demand. However, the lack of appropriate water quality standards or guidelines has hampered the appropriate grey water reuses. Based on literature review, a non-potable urban grey water treatment and reuse scheme is proposed and the treatment alternatives for grey water reuse are evaluated according to the grey water characteristics, the proposed standards and economical feasibility.

  10. Chitosan based grey wastewater treatment--a statistical design approach.

    PubMed

    Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sivakumar, V; Prakash Maran, J; Kandasamy, S

    2014-01-01

    In this present study, grey wastewater was treated under different operating conditions such as agitation time (1-3 min), pH (2.5-5.5), chitosan dose (0.3-0.6g/l) and settling time (10-20 min) using response surface methodology (RSM). Four factors with three levels Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD) were employed to optimize and investigate the effect of process variables on the responses such as turbidity, BOD and COD removal. The results were analyzed by Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA) and second order polynomial models were developed in order to predict the responses. Under the optimum conditions, experimental values such as turbidity (96%), BOD (91%) and COD (73%) removals are closely agreed with predicted values.

  11. Grey water treatment in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Elmitwalli, Tarek; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of grey water in two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and temperatures, was investigated. The first reactor (UASB-A) was operated at ambient temperature (14-25 degrees C) and HRT of 20, 12 and 8 h, while the second reactor (UASB-30) was operated at controlled temperature of 30 degrees C and HRT of 16, 10 and 6 h. The two reactors were fed with grey water from 'Flintenbreite' settlement in Luebeck, Germany. When the grey water was treated in the UASB reactor at 30 degrees C, total chemical oxygen demand (CODt) removal of 52-64% was achieved at HRT between 6 and 16 h, while at lower temperature lower removal (31-41%) was obtained at HRT between 8 and 20 h. Total nitrogen and phosphorous removal in the UASB reactors were limited (22-36 and 10-24%, respectively) at all operational conditions. The results showed that at increasing temperature or decreasing HRT of the reactors, maximum specific methanogenic activity of the sludge in the reactors improved. As the UASB reactor showed a significantly higher COD removal (31-64%) than the septic tank (11-14%) even at low temperature, it is recommended to use UASB reactor instead of septic tank (the most common system) for grey water pre-treatment. Based on the achieved results and due to high peak flow factor, a HRT between 8 and 12 h can be considered the suitable HRT for the UASB reactor treating grey water at temperature 20-30 degrees C, while a HRT of 12-24 h can be applied at temperature lower than 20 degrees C.

  12. Characteristics of aerobic granulation at mesophilic temperatures in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Cui, Fenghao; Park, Seyong; Kim, Moonil

    2014-01-01

    Compact and structurally stable aerobic granules were developed in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) at mesophilic temperatures (35°C). The morphological, biological and chemical characteristics of the aerobic granulation were investigated and a theoretical granulation mechanism was proposed according to the results of the investigation. The mature aerobic granules had compact structure, small size (mean diameter of 0.24 mm), excellent settleability and diverse microbial structures, and were effective for the removal of organics and nitrification. The growth kinetics demonstrated that the biomass growth depended on coexistence and interactions between heterotrophs and autotrophs in the granules. The functions of heterotrophs and autotrophs created a compact and secure layer on the outside of the granules, protecting the inside sludge containing environmentally sensitive and slow growing microorganisms. The mechanism and the reactor performance may promise feasibility and efficiency for treating industry effluents at mesophilic temperatures using aerobic granulation. PMID:24211486

  13. Enhanced aerobic nitrifying granulation by static magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Hua; Diao, Mu-He; Yang, Ying; Shi, Yi-Jing; Gao, Ming-Ming; Wang, Shu-Guang

    2012-04-01

    One of the main challenging issues for aerobic nitrifying granules in treating high strength ammonia wastewater is the long granulation time required for activated sludge to transform into aerobic granules. The present study provides a novel strategy for enhancing aerobic nitrifying granulation by applying an intensity of 48.0mT static magnetic field. The element analysis showed that the applied magnetic field could promote the accumulation of iron compounds in the sludge. And then the aggregation of iron decreased the full granulation time from 41 to 25days by enhancing the setting properties of granules and stimulating the secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Long-term, cycle experiments and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) analysis proved that an intensity of 48.0mT magnetic field could enhance the activities and growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). These findings suggest that magnetic field is helpful and reliable for accelerating the aerobic nitrifying granulation.

  14. Immobilization of lipase from grey mullet.

    PubMed

    Aryee, Alberta N A; Simpson, Benjamin K

    2012-12-01

    Grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) lipase was isolated using para-aminobenzamidine agarose and immobilized on octyl Sepharose CL-4B (o-Sep). Immobilized grey mullet lipase (GMLi) had a 10 °C higher optimum temperature compared to the free enzyme and showed remarkable thermal stability. GMLi was most active within the pH range of 8.0-9.5 with an optimum at 8.5. Immobilization also enhanced the storage stability and reusability of the enzyme with minimal changes in efficiency during repeated batches. GMLi showed variable stabilities in various organic solvents. A signal in the amide I absorption region of the FTIR spectrum of GMLi was attributed to the protein layer on o-Sep. The surface morphology of o-Sep was visualized on a Zeiss stereomicroscope as globular-shaped beads.

  15. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John C; McComb, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  16. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  17. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hudgins, M.P.; Bessette, B.J.; March, J.; McComb, S.T.

    2000-02-15

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120 F and 140 F in steady state.

  18. Silvery grey hair: clue to diagnose immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Sahana, Ms; Sacchidanand, S; Hiremagalore, R; Asha, Gs

    2012-04-01

    Silvery hair is a common presentation of rare group of autosomal recessive disorders called Silvery hair syndromes including Griscelli syndrome (GS), Chediak-Higashi syndrome, and Elejalde syndrome. GS is characterized by a silvery grey sheen to hair, large clumped melanosomes in hair shaft, partial albinism, and variable cellular immunodeficiency. We report two cases of GS with classical clinical features and confirmatory findings by microscopic skin and hair examination.

  19. Low-Impact Aerobics: Better than Traditional Aerobic Dance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koszuta, Laurie Einstein

    1986-01-01

    A form of dance exercise called low-impact aerobics is being touted as a misery-free form of aerobic dance. Because this activity is relatively new, the exact kinds and frequencies of injuries are not known and the fitness benefits have not been examined. (MT)

  20. Referential Mapping: A Technique for Attaching Functional Significance to the Innovative Utterances of an African Grey Parrot (Psittascus Erithacus).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepperberg, Irene M.

    1990-01-01

    Spontaneous combinations and phonological variations of the vocalizations of an African Grey parrot were treated as if they were intentional requests or comments. The success of these "referential mapping" procedures in attaching functional significance to the parrot's vocalizations may have implications for intervention programs for humans with…

  1. Aerobic Fitness and School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott

    1997-01-01

    Provides school counselors with information on aerobic exercise (specifically running) and the psychological, behavioral, and physical benefits children obtained by participating in fitness programs. Recommends collaboration between school counselors and physical education teachers and gives a preliminary discussion of aerobic running and its…

  2. Aerobic Fitness and School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott

    1992-01-01

    Provides school counselors with information regarding aerobic exercise (specifically running), and the psychological, behavioral, and physical benefits children obtain by participating in fitness programs. Presents methods of collaboration between school counselors and physical education teachers. Offers preliminary discussion of aerobic running…

  3. Exercise, Animal Aerobics, and Interpretation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Valerie

    1996-01-01

    Describes an aerobic activity set to music for children that mimics animal movements. Example exercises include walking like a penguin or jumping like a cricket. Stresses basic aerobic principles and designing the program at the level of children's motor skills. Benefits include reaching people who normally don't visit nature centers, and bridging…

  4. Shelf life study of hurdle treated ready-to-eat spiced buffalo meat product stored at 30 ± 3 °C for 7 weeks under vacuum and aerobic packaging.

    PubMed

    Malik, Altaf Hussain; Sharma, Brahama Deo

    2014-05-01

    Shelf stable ready to eat spiced pickle type buffalo meat product was prepared after desorbing in infusion solution (glycerol 3.5%, sodium chloride 5.0%, honey2.0%, mango powder 2.2%, spices 1.0%, sodium nitrite 0.015%, phosphate 0.2%, Sorbic acid 0.2%.and acetic acid 1%), pressure cooking of meat in infusion solution for 20 min followed by frying for 2 min in mustard oil and mixing with prefried condiments and spices. The physico-chemical properties i.e. pH, water activity, proximate composition, FFA, Soluble hydroxyproline, TBA values, nitrite content, protein solubility, shear force value, haempigments, microbiological and sensory quality of the product remained good and hygienically safe and almost comparable in aerobic PET jars and multilayered nylon barrier pouches stored at 30 ± 3 °C for 7 weeks .It can be suggested that storage of such product may be conveniently done even in food grade PET jars without going for vacuum packaging which is a bit costly.

  5. Shelf life study of hurdle treated ready-to-eat spiced buffalo meat product stored at 30 ± 3 °C for 7 weeks under vacuum and aerobic packaging.

    PubMed

    Malik, Altaf Hussain; Sharma, Brahama Deo

    2014-05-01

    Shelf stable ready to eat spiced pickle type buffalo meat product was prepared after desorbing in infusion solution (glycerol 3.5%, sodium chloride 5.0%, honey2.0%, mango powder 2.2%, spices 1.0%, sodium nitrite 0.015%, phosphate 0.2%, Sorbic acid 0.2%.and acetic acid 1%), pressure cooking of meat in infusion solution for 20 min followed by frying for 2 min in mustard oil and mixing with prefried condiments and spices. The physico-chemical properties i.e. pH, water activity, proximate composition, FFA, Soluble hydroxyproline, TBA values, nitrite content, protein solubility, shear force value, haempigments, microbiological and sensory quality of the product remained good and hygienically safe and almost comparable in aerobic PET jars and multilayered nylon barrier pouches stored at 30 ± 3 °C for 7 weeks .It can be suggested that storage of such product may be conveniently done even in food grade PET jars without going for vacuum packaging which is a bit costly. PMID:24803689

  6. Searching for grey literature for systematic reviews: challenges and benefits.

    PubMed

    Mahood, Quenby; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Irvin, Emma

    2014-09-01

    There is ongoing interest in including grey literature in systematic reviews. Including grey literature can broaden the scope to more relevant studies, thereby providing a more complete view of available evidence. Searching for grey literature can be challenging despite greater access through the Internet, search engines and online bibliographic databases. There are a number of publications that list sources for finding grey literature in systematic reviews. However, there is scant information about how searches for grey literature are executed and how it is included in the review process. This level of detail is important to ensure that reviews follow explicit methodology to be systematic, transparent and reproducible. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed account of one systematic review team's experience in searching for grey literature and including it throughout the review. We provide a brief overview of grey literature before describing our search and review approach. We also discuss the benefits and challenges of including grey literature in our systematic review, as well as the strengths and limitations to our approach. Detailed information about incorporating grey literature in reviews is important in advancing methodology as review teams adapt and build upon the approaches described.

  7. Searching for grey literature for systematic reviews: challenges and benefits.

    PubMed

    Mahood, Quenby; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Irvin, Emma

    2014-09-01

    There is ongoing interest in including grey literature in systematic reviews. Including grey literature can broaden the scope to more relevant studies, thereby providing a more complete view of available evidence. Searching for grey literature can be challenging despite greater access through the Internet, search engines and online bibliographic databases. There are a number of publications that list sources for finding grey literature in systematic reviews. However, there is scant information about how searches for grey literature are executed and how it is included in the review process. This level of detail is important to ensure that reviews follow explicit methodology to be systematic, transparent and reproducible. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed account of one systematic review team's experience in searching for grey literature and including it throughout the review. We provide a brief overview of grey literature before describing our search and review approach. We also discuss the benefits and challenges of including grey literature in our systematic review, as well as the strengths and limitations to our approach. Detailed information about incorporating grey literature in reviews is important in advancing methodology as review teams adapt and build upon the approaches described. PMID:26052848

  8. Sludge minimization using aerobic/anoxic treatment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Mines, R.O. Jr.; Kalch, R.S.

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate through a bench-scale study that using an aerobic/anoxic sequence to treat wastewater and biosolids could significantly reduce the production of biosolids (sludge). A bench-scale activated sludge reactor and anoxic digester were operated for approximately three months. The process train consisted of a completely-mixed aerobic reactor with wasting of biosolids to an anoxic digester for stabilization. The system was operated such that biomass produced in the aerobic activated sludge process was wasted to the anoxic digester; and biomass produced in the anoxic digester was wasted back to the activated sludge process. A synthetic wastewater consisting of bacto-peptone nutrient broth was fed to the liquid process train. Influent and effluent to the aerobic biological process train were analytically tested, as were the contents of mixed liquor in the aerobic reactor and anoxic digester. Overall removal efficiencies for the activated sludge process with regard to COD, TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, and alkalinity averaged 91, 89, 98, and 38%, respectively. The overall average sludge production for the aerobic/anoxic process was 24% less than the overall average sludge production from a conventional activated sludge bench-scale system fed the same substrate and operated under similar mean cell residence times.

  9. Grey('s) Identity: Complications of Learning and Becoming in a Popular Television Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jubas, Kaela

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines an analysis of the American show "Grey's Anatomy" as an example of how popular culture represents identity and the process of professional identity construction in a medical workplace, particularly the surgical service of a large urban hospital. In discussing identity, she connects professional identity to…

  10. Grey water characterization and treatment for reuse in an arid environment.

    PubMed

    Smith, E; Bani-Melhem, K

    2012-01-01

    Grey water from a university facilities building in Cairo, Egypt was analysed for basic wastewater parameters. Mean concentrations were calculated based on grab samples over a 16-month period. Values for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nutrients exceeded values reported in a number of other studies of grey water, while coliform counts were also high. A submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) system using a hollow fibre ultrafiltration membrane was used to treat the grey water with the aim of producing effluent that meets reuse guidelines for agriculture. A test run for 50 days at constant transmembrane pressure resulted in very good removal for key parameters including COD, total suspended solids (TSS), colour, turbidity, ammonia nitrogen, anionic surfactants, and coliform bacteria. High standard deviations were observed for COD and coliform concentrations for both monthly grab samples and influent values from the 50-day SMBR experiment. SMBR effluent meets international and local guidelines for at least restricted irrigation, particularly as pertains to COD, TSS, and faecal coliforms which were reduced to mean treated values of 50 mg/L, 0 mg/L (i.e., not detected), and <50 cfu/100 mL, respectively.

  11. Quantifying factors limiting aerobic degradation during aerobic bioreactor landfilling.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Ramin; Mostafid, M Erfan; Han, Byunghyun; Imhoff, Paul T; Chiu, Pei; Augenstein, Don; Kayhanian, Masoud; Tchobanoglous, George

    2010-08-15

    A bioreactor landfill cell at Yolo County, California was operated aerobically for six months to quantify the extent of aerobic degradation and mechanisms limiting aerobic activity during air injection and liquid addition. The portion of the solid waste degraded anaerobically was estimated and tracked through time. From an analysis of in situ aerobic respiration and gas tracer data, it was found that a large fraction of the gas-filled pore space was in immobile zones where it was difficult to maintain aerobic conditions, even at relatively moderate landfill cell-average moisture contents of 33-36%. Even with the intentional injection of air, anaerobic activity was never less than 13%, and sometimes exceeded 65%. Analyses of gas tracer and respiration data were used to quantify rates of respiration and rates of mass transfer to immobile gas zones. The similarity of these rates indicated that waste degradation was influenced significantly by rates of oxygen transfer to immobile gas zones, which comprised 32-92% of the gas-filled pore space. Gas tracer tests might be useful for estimating the size of the mobile/immobile gas zones, rates of mass transfer between these regions, and the difficulty of degrading waste aerobically in particular waste bodies. PMID:20704218

  12. Red cell metabolism in red and grey kangaroos.

    PubMed

    Agar, N S

    1977-12-15

    Glucose utilization, lactate production and glutathione regeneration were measured in the red blood cells of 2 species of Australian Marsupials, Eastern grey Kangaroo (Macropus gigantus) and red kangaroo (Macropus rufus), and were found to be significantly lower in the red blood cells from grey than that of red kangaroos.

  13. 30. NATIONAL SHELL CORE MACHINE IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. NATIONAL SHELL CORE MACHINE IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY AUTOMATICALLY INJECTS SAND INTO CLOSED, HEATED CORE BOXES THAT SET THE RESINS AND PERMIT A HARDENED CORE TO BE REMOVED BY THE OPERATOR. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  14. 17. INTERIOR VIEW WITH GREY UNIT NO. 1 MOLD CONVEYOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTERIOR VIEW WITH GREY UNIT NO. 1 MOLD CONVEYOR SHOWING CHAIN HELD WEIGHTS THAT TRAVEL AT THE SAME SPEED AS THE CONVEYOR AND REST ON COMPLETED MOLDS TO HOLD THE SAND SEAMS TOGETHER AS MOLTED IRON IS POURED INTO THE MOLD CAVITY. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. 11. INTERIOR VIEW WITH JAMES WILLIAMS INSIDE GREY IRON UNIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR VIEW WITH JAMES WILLIAMS INSIDE GREY IRON UNIT NO. 1 MOLDING CONVEYOR, AIR CLEANING A PATTERN AS IT SITS WITHIN A FLASK ON A MOLDING MACHINE PRIOR TO BEING FILLED WITH SAND FROM THE OVERHEAD CONVEYOR. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  16. 33. BENCH CORE STATION, GREY IRON FOUNDRY CORE ROOM WHERE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. BENCH CORE STATION, GREY IRON FOUNDRY CORE ROOM WHERE CORE MOLDS WERE HAND FILLED AND OFTEN PNEUMATICALLY COMPRESSED WITH A HAND-HELD RAMMER BEFORE THEY WERE BAKED. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  17. 34. DESPATCH CORE OVENS, GREY IRON FOUNDRY CORE ROOM, BAKES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DESPATCH CORE OVENS, GREY IRON FOUNDRY CORE ROOM, BAKES CORES THAT ARE NOT MADE ON HEATED OR COLD BOX CORE MACHINES, TO SET BINDING AGENTS MIXED WITH THE SAND CREATING CORES HARD ENOUGH TO WITHSTAND THE FLOW OF MOLTEN IRON INSIDE A MOLD. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  18. 31. PETIBONE SAND THROWING MACHINE BOX FLOOR GREY IRON FOUNDRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. PETIBONE SAND THROWING MACHINE BOX FLOOR GREY IRON FOUNDRY FORCES CONDITIONED MOLDING SAND, AT HIGH VELOCITY, INTO MOLDS TOO BIG TO BE MADE ON ONE OF THE CONVEYOR SYSTEMS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  19. 7. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  20. 8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACES AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS, CUPOLA TENDER RICHARD SLAUGHTER SUPERVISING THE POUR. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  1. 41. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  2. 42. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  3. 32. LARGE LADLE, BOX FLOOR, GREY IRON FOUNDRY IS USED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. LARGE LADLE, BOX FLOOR, GREY IRON FOUNDRY IS USED TO CARRY LARGE BATCHES OF IRON FROM THE CUPOLA AREAS TO THE LARGE MOLDS MADE ON BOX FLOOR AREA. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  4. A High Precision Prediction Model Using Hybrid Grey Dynamic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Guo-Dong; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Nagai, Masatake; Masuda, Shiro

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new prediction analysis model which combines the first order one variable Grey differential equation Model (abbreviated as GM(1,1) model) from grey system theory and time series Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model from statistics theory. We abbreviate the combined GM(1,1) ARIMA model as ARGM(1,1)…

  5. Report: workshop on mediastinal grey zone lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Poppema, Sibrand; Kluiver, Joost L; Atayar, Cigdem; van den Berg, Anke; Rosenwald, Andreas; Hummel, Michael; Lenze, Dido; Lammert, Hetty; Stein, Harald; Joos, Stephan; Barth, Thomas; Dyer, Martin; Lichter, Peter; Klein, Uwe; Cattoretti, Giorgio; Gloghini, Annunziata; Tu, Yuhai; Stolovitzky, Gustavo A; Califano, Andrea; Carbone, Antonino; Dalla-Favera, Ricardo; Melzner, Ingo; Bucur, Alexandra J; Brüderlein, Silke; Dorsch, Karola; Hasel, Cornelia; Barth, Thomas F E; Leithäuser, Frank; Möller, Peter

    2005-07-01

    There are several indications that classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) and at least a proportion of cases of Primary Mediastinal B cell Lymphoma (PMBL) are derived from B cells at similar stages of differentiation and share common pathogenic mechanisms. The first indication was the existence of mediastinal grey zone lymphomas as identified in the 4th International Symposium on HL, with clinical, histological and immunohistochemical features intermediate between cHL and PMBL. Second, both tumor types resemble a cell that is developmentally situated in-between the germinal center reaction and a plasma cell. Third, cHL and PMBL were found to have similar gene expression profiles, including the lack of immunoglobulin expression and low levels of B cell receptor signalling molecules, and the secretion of molecules like the chemokine TARC and the prominent expression of IL-13 receptors. Fourth, both entities were found to have common genomic aberrancies, notably in 2p15 and 9p24, the sites of the REL oncogene and the tyrosine kinase gene JAK2, respectively. Further comparison of both lymphoma types may provide further insight in the pathogenic mechanisms and allow the design of diagnostic algorithms to sort out the small number of so-called mediastinal grey zone lymphomas, that appear to be intermediate between PMBL and cHL. PMID:16007868

  6. Chemical characterization of some aerobic liquids in CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madsen, Brooks C.

    1993-01-01

    Untreated aqueous soybean and wheat leachate and aerobically treated wheat leachate prepared from crop residues that are produced as a component of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System program designed to support long duration space missions were compared, and a general chemical characterization was accomplished. Solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography were used to accomplish comparisons based on chromatographic and ultraviolet absorption properties of the components that are present. Specific compounds were not identified; however, general composition related to the initial presence of phenol-like compounds and their disappearance during aerobic treatment was explored.

  7. The aerobic activity of metronidazole against anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dione, Niokhor; Khelaifia, Saber; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Raoult, Didier

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the aerobic growth of strictly anaerobic bacteria was demonstrated using antioxidants. Metronidazole is frequently used to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacteria; however, to date its antibacterial activity was only tested in anaerobic conditions. Here we aerobically tested using antioxidants the in vitro activities of metronidazole, gentamicin, doxycycline and imipenem against 10 common anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. In vitro susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by Etest. Aerobic culture of the bacteria was performed at 37°C using Schaedler agar medium supplemented with 1mg/mL ascorbic acid and 0.1mg/mL glutathione; the pH was adjusted to 7.2 by 10M KOH. Growth of anaerobic bacteria cultured aerobically using antioxidants was inhibited by metronidazole after 72h of incubation at 37°C, with a mean inhibition diameter of 37.76mm and an MIC of 1μg/mL; however, strains remained non-sensitive to gentamicin. No growth inhibition of aerobic bacteria was observed after 24h of incubation at 37°C with metronidazole; however, inhibition was observed with doxycycline and imipenem used as controls. These results indicate that bacterial sensitivity to metronidazole is not related to the oxygen tension but is a result of the sensitivity of the micro-organism. In future, both culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing of strictly anaerobic bacteria will be performed in an aerobic atmosphere using antioxidants in clinical microbiology laboratories.

  8. Thermal transport properties of grey cast irons

    SciTech Connect

    Hecht, R.L.; Dinwiddie, R.B.; Porter, W.D.; Wang, Hsin

    1996-10-01

    Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of grey cast iron have been measured as a function of graphite flake morphology, chemical composition, and position in a finished brake rotor. Cast iron samples used for this investigation were cut from ``step block`` castings designed to produce iron with different graphite flake morphologies resulting from different cooling rates. Samples were also machined from prototype alloys and from production brake rotors representing a variation in foundry practice. Thermal diffusivity was measured at room and elevated temperatures via the flash technique. Heat capacity of selected samples was measured with differential scanning calorimetry, and these results were used to calculate the thermal conductivity. Microstructure of the various cast iron samples was quantified by standard metallography and image analysis, and the chemical compositions were determined by optical emission spectroscopy.

  9. Color and Grey Scale in Sonar Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraiss, K. F.; Kuettelwesch, K. H.

    1984-01-01

    In spite of numerous publications 1 it is still rather unclear, whether color is of any help in sonar displays. The work presented here deals with a particular type of sonar data, i.e., LOFAR-grams (low frequency analysing and recording) where acoustic sensor data are continuously written as a time-frequency plot. The question to be answered quantitatively is, whether color coding does improve target detection when compared with a grey scale code. The data show significant differences in receiver-operating characteristics performance for the selected codes. In addition it turned out, that the background noise level affects the performance dramatically for some color codes, while others remain stable or even improve. Generally valid rules are presented on how to generate useful color scales for this particular application.

  10. Reasoning by inference: further studies on exclusion in grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus).

    PubMed

    Pepperberg, Irene M; Koepke, Adrienne; Livingston, Paige; Girard, Monique; Hartsfield, Leigh Ann

    2013-08-01

    Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) abilities for visual inferential reasoning by exclusion were tested in two experiments. The first replicated the Grey parrot study of Mikolasch, Kotrschal, and Schloegl (2011, African Grey Parrots (Psittacus erithacus) use inference by exclusion to find hidden food. Biology Letters, 7, 875-877), which in turn replicated that of Premack and Premck (1994, Levels of causal understanding in chimpanzees and children. Cognition, 50, 347-362) with apes, to learn if our subjects could succeed on this task. Here parrots watched an experimenter hide two equally desirable foods under two separate opaque cups, surreptitiously remove and then, in view of the birds, pocket/eat one of the foods, leaving birds to find the still baited cup. The experiment contained controls for various alternative explanations for the birds' behavior, but birds might still have avoided a cup from which something had been removed rather than specifically tracking the eaten food. Thus, in the second experiment, some trials were run with one food slightly more preferred than the other, during which two items of each type were hidden and only one of the items were removed from one cup. Sessions also included Experiment 1-type trials to see if birds tracked when and when not to use exclusion. Thus, birds would be rewarded for attending closely to all the experimental aspects needed to infer how to receive their preferred treat. Three of four birds succeeded fully.

  11. Single house on-site grey water treatment using a submerged membrane bioreactor for toilet flushing.

    PubMed

    Fountoulakis, M S; Markakis, N; Petousi, I; Manios, T

    2016-05-01

    Wastewater recycling has been and continues to be practiced all over the world for a variety of reasons including: increasing water availability, combating water shortages and drought, and supporting environmental and public health protection. Nowadays, one of the most interesting issues for wastewater recycling is the on-site treatment and reuse of grey water. During this study the efficiency of a compact Submerged Membrane Bioreactor (SMBR) system to treat real grey water in a single house in Crete, Greece, was examined. In the study, grey water was collected from a bathtub, shower and washing machine containing significant amounts of organic matter and pathogens. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in the system was approximately 87%. Total suspended solids (TSS) were reduced from 95mgL(-1) in the influent to 8mgL(-1) in the effluent. The efficiency of the system to reduce anionic surfactants was about 80%. Fecal and total coliforms decreased significantly using the SMBR system due to rejection, by the membrane, used in the study. Overall, the SMBR treatment produces average effluent values that would satisfy international guidelines for indoor reuse applications such as toilet flushing. PMID:26901745

  12. Phylogeographic history of grey wolves in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background While it is generally accepted that patterns of intra-specific genetic differentiation are substantially affected by glacial history, population genetic processes occurring during Pleistocene glaciations are still poorly understood. In this study, we address the question of the genetic consequences of Pleistocene glaciations for European grey wolves. Combining our data with data from published studies, we analysed phylogenetic relationships and geographic distribution of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes for 947 contemporary European wolves. We also compared the contemporary wolf sequences with published sequences of 24 ancient European wolves. Results We found that haplotypes representing two haplogroups, 1 and 2, overlap geographically, but substantially differ in frequency between populations from south-western and eastern Europe. A comparison between haplotypes from Europe and other continents showed that both haplogroups are spread throughout Eurasia, while only haplogroup 1 occurs in contemporary North American wolves. All ancient wolf samples from western Europe that dated from between 44,000 and 1,200 years B.P. belonged to haplogroup 2, suggesting the long-term predominance of this haplogroup in this region. Moreover, a comparison of current and past frequencies and distributions of the two haplogroups in Europe suggested that haplogroup 2 became outnumbered by haplogroup 1 during the last several thousand years. Conclusions Parallel haplogroup replacement, with haplogroup 2 being totally replaced by haplogroup 1, has been reported for North American grey wolves. Taking into account the similarity of diets reported for the late Pleistocene wolves from Europe and North America, the correspondence between these haplogroup frequency changes may suggest that they were associated with ecological changes occurring after the Last Glacial Maximum. PMID:20409299

  13. Phagocytosis in pup and adult harbour, grey and harp seals.

    PubMed

    Frouin, Héloïse; Lebeuf, Michel; Hammill, Mike; Fournier, Michel

    2010-04-15

    Knowledge on pinniped immunology is still in its infancy. For instance, age-related and developmental aspects of the immune system in pinnipeds need to be better described. The present study examined the phagocytic activity and efficiency of harbour, grey and harp seal leukocytes. In the first part of the study, peripheral blood was collected from captive female harbour seals of various ages. Data showed an age-related decrease in phagocytosis in female harbour seals from sub-adult to adulthood. In the second part of the study, changes in phagocytosis were quantified during lactation in wild newborn harbour, grey and harp seals and in their mothers (harp and grey seals). In newborns of the same age, leukocytes of harbour and harp seals phagocytosed less than those of grey seal pups. The phagocytic activity and efficiency increased significantly from early to mid-lactation in newborn harbour seals, and from early to late lactation in newborn grey seals, which could suggest that the transfer of phagocytosis-promoting factor(s) in colostrum is an important feature of temporary protection for pups. In contrast, no changes in phagocytic activity and efficiency were observed in lactating females of the two seal species, harp and grey, examined. At late lactation, phagocytic activity in both grey and harp seal pups and phagocytic efficiency in grey seal pups were significantly higher than in their mothers. These results could reflect either the capacity of phagocytes of the newborn harp and grey seals to respond to pathogens. Results from this study suggest that the phagocytosis of the seal species examined is not fully developed at birth as it generally increases in pups during lactation. Thereafter, the phagocytic activity of seals appears to decrease throughout adulthood.

  14. Effect of aerobic exercises on stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Illays; Nawaz, Irum; Amjad, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Stuttering is one of the most common speech disorders in adolescents than adults. Stuttering results in depression, anxiety, behavioral problem, social isolation and communication problems in daily life. Our objective was to determine the effect of Aerobic Exercises (AE) on stuttering. Methods: A quasi trail was conducted at National Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (NIRM) from January to June 2015. Thirty patients were selected and placed in three different groups Experimental Group A, (EG = 10 patients, age between 7-14 years), Experimental Group B (EG =10 patients age between 15-28 years) and control group –group C, (CG = 10 patients, age between 7-28 years). Patient who stutter were included in this study and those with any other pathology or comorbidity of speech disorders were excluded. The assessment tool used was Real-Time analysis of speech fluency scale. Participants in all the groups received speech therapy while only the EG – A and B received aerobic exercises (AE) using treadmill and stationary bicycle along with the speech therapy. Pre-interventional and post interventional assessments were analyzed using the SPSS 21 in order to determine the significance of new treatment approach and the effectiveness of physical therapy on speech disorders. Results: All the groups showed significant treatment effects but both the EG groups (Group A, Group B) showed high improvement in the severity level of stuttering as compared to control group C. The results also showed that AE treated group B had significant difference in p-value (p=0.027) as compared to control group (p<0.05) while experimental group A had no significant difference (p > 0.05) between these groups. Conclusion: The eclectic approach of aerobic exercises with the traditional speech therapy provides proximal rehabilitation of stuttering. PMID:27648057

  15. Effect of aerobic exercises on stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Illays; Nawaz, Irum; Amjad, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Stuttering is one of the most common speech disorders in adolescents than adults. Stuttering results in depression, anxiety, behavioral problem, social isolation and communication problems in daily life. Our objective was to determine the effect of Aerobic Exercises (AE) on stuttering. Methods: A quasi trail was conducted at National Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (NIRM) from January to June 2015. Thirty patients were selected and placed in three different groups Experimental Group A, (EG = 10 patients, age between 7-14 years), Experimental Group B (EG =10 patients age between 15-28 years) and control group –group C, (CG = 10 patients, age between 7-28 years). Patient who stutter were included in this study and those with any other pathology or comorbidity of speech disorders were excluded. The assessment tool used was Real-Time analysis of speech fluency scale. Participants in all the groups received speech therapy while only the EG – A and B received aerobic exercises (AE) using treadmill and stationary bicycle along with the speech therapy. Pre-interventional and post interventional assessments were analyzed using the SPSS 21 in order to determine the significance of new treatment approach and the effectiveness of physical therapy on speech disorders. Results: All the groups showed significant treatment effects but both the EG groups (Group A, Group B) showed high improvement in the severity level of stuttering as compared to control group C. The results also showed that AE treated group B had significant difference in p-value (p=0.027) as compared to control group (p<0.05) while experimental group A had no significant difference (p > 0.05) between these groups. Conclusion: The eclectic approach of aerobic exercises with the traditional speech therapy provides proximal rehabilitation of stuttering.

  16. Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo for grey Implicit Monte Carlo simulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Densmore, J. D.; Urbatsch, T. J.; Evans, T. M.; Buksas, M. W.

    2005-01-01

    Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC) is a hybrid transport-diffusion method for Monte Carlo simulations in diffusive media. In DDMC, particles take discrete steps between spatial cells according to a discretized diffusion equation. Thus, DDMC produces accurate solutions while increasing the efficiency of the Monte Carlo calculation. In this paper, we extend previously developed DDMC techniques in several ways that improve the accuracy and utility of DDMC for grey Implicit Monte Carlo calculations. First, we employ a diffusion equation that is discretized in space but is continuous time. Not only is this methodology theoretically more accurate than temporally discretized DDMC techniques, but it also has the benefit that a particle's time is always known. Thus, there is no ambiguity regarding what time to assign a particle that leaves an optically thick region (where DDMC is used) and begins transporting by standard Monte Carlo in an optically thin region. In addition, we treat particles incident on an optically thick region using the asymptotic diffusion-limit boundary condition. This interface technique can produce accurate solutions even if the incident particles are distributed anisotropically in angle. Finally, we develop a method for estimating radiation momentum deposition during the DDMC simulation. With a set of numerical examples, we demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of our improved DDMC method.

  17. Effects of ORP, recycling rate, and HRT on simultaneous sulfate reduction and sulfur production in expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors under micro-aerobic conditions for treating molasses distillery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Qinglin, Xie; Yanhong, Li; Shaoyuan, Bai; Hongda, Ji

    2012-01-01

    An expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor was adopted to incubate the sludge biogranule that could simultaneously achieve sulfate reduction and sulfide reoxidization to elemental sulfur for treating molasses distillery wastewater. The EGSB reactor was operated for 175 days at 35 °C with a pH value of 7.0, chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rate of 4.8 kg COD/(m³ d), and sulfate loading rate of 0.384 kg SO(4)(2-)/(m³ d). The optimal operation parameters, including the oxidation reduction potential (ORP), recycling rate, and hydraulic retention time (HRT), were established to obtain stable and acceptable removal efficiencies of COD, sulfate, and higher elemental sulfur production. With an ORP of -440 mV, a recycling rate of 300%, and HRT of 15 h, the COD and sulfate removal efficiencies were 73.4 and 61.3%, respectively. The elemental sulfur production ratio reached 30.1% when the elemental sulfur concentration in the effluent was 48.1 mg/L. The performance results were also confirmed by the mass balance calculation of sulfate, sulfide, and elemental sulfur over the EGSB reactor.

  18. Die aerobe Glykolyse der Tumorzelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Friedhelm

    1981-01-01

    A high aerobic glycolysis (aerobic lactate production) is the most significant feature of the energy metabolism of rapidly growing tumor cells. Several mechanisms, which may be different in different cell lines, seem to be involved in this characteristic of energy metabolism of the tumor cell. Changes in the cell membrane leading to increased uptake and utilization of glucose, a high level of fetal types of isoenzymes, a decreased number of mitochondria and a reduced capacity to metabolize pyruvate are some factors which must be taken into consideration. It is not possible to favour one of them at the present time.

  19. 8. VIEW OF THE LIGHT GREY GRANITE BASE WITH WHITE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF THE LIGHT GREY GRANITE BASE WITH WHITE GLAZED TERRA COTTA FINISH ABOVE. THIS IS THE NORTHEAST CORNER OF THE BUILDING. - Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company Building, 1519 Franklin Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  20. 29. DEPENDABLE FORDATHSHELL CORE MACHINES IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. DEPENDABLE FORDATH-SHELL CORE MACHINES IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY INJECTS SAND INTO A CLOSED CORE BOX. SOME OF THE UNITS HEAT THE CORE BOX TO FIX THE RESINS AS THE CORE REMAINS IN THE BOX, OTHERS MERELY SHAPED THE CORE SAND REQUIRING BAKING OF THE CORES TO HARDEN THEM. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  1. The Transition from Aerobic to Anaerobic Metabolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, James S.; McLellan, Thomas H.

    1980-01-01

    The transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism is discussed. More research is needed on different kinds of athletes and athletic activities and how they may affect aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms. (CJ)

  2. Membrane thickening aerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Woo, Bryen

    2014-01-01

    Sludge management accounts for approximately 60% of the total wastewater treatment plant expenditure and laws for sludge disposal are becoming increasingly stringent, therefore much consideration is required when designing a solids handling process. A membrane thickening aerobic digestion process integrates a controlled aerobic digestion process with pre-thickening waste activated sludge using membrane technology. This process typically features an anoxic tank, an aerated membrane thickener operating in loop with a first-stage digester followed by second-stage digestion. Membrane thickening aerobic digestion processes can handle sludge from any liquid treatment process and is best for facilities obligated to meet low total phosphorus and nitrogen discharge limits. Membrane thickening aerobic digestion processes offer many advantages including: producing a reusable quality permeate with minimal levels of total phosphorus and nitrogen that can be recycled to the head works of a plant, protecting the performance of a biological nutrient removal liquid treatment process without requiring chemical addition, providing reliable thickening up to 4% solids concentration without the use of polymers or attention to decanting, increasing sludge storage capacities in existing tanks, minimizing the footprint of new tanks, reducing disposal costs, and providing Class B stabilization.

  3. Arthritis and Aerobic Exercise: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Robert W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Arthritic patients who regularly do aerobic exercise make significant gains in aerobic and functional status, and in subjective areas like pain tolerance and mood. Still, they are often advised to curtail physical activity. Guidelines are presented for physicians prescribing aerobic exercise. An exercise tolerance test is recommended. (SM)

  4. Treatment of HMX-production wastewater in an aerobic granular reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Hua; Wang, Min-Hui; Zhu, Xiao-Meng

    2013-04-01

    Aerobic granules were applied to the treatment of HMX-production wastewater using a gradual domestication method in a SBR. During the process, the granules showed a good settling ability, a high biomass retention rate, and high biological activity. After 40 days of stable operation, aerobic granular sludge performed very effectively in the removal of carbon and nitrogen compounds from HMX-production wastewater. Organic matter removal rates up to 97.57% and nitrogen removal efficiencies up to 80% were achieved during the process. Researchers conclude that using aerobic granules to treat explosive wastewater has good prospects for success.

  5. Assessment of global grey water footprint of major food crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong; Liu, Wenfeng; Antonelli, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural production is one of the major sources of water pollution in the world. This is closely related to the excess application of fertilizers. Leaching of N and P to water bodies has caused serious degradation of water quality in many places. With the persistent increase in the demand for agricultural products, agricultural intensification evident during the past decades will continue in the future. This will lead to further increase in fertilizer application and consequently water pollution. Grey water footprint is a measure of the intensity of water pollution caused by water use for human activities. It is defined as the volume of water that is required to assimilate a load of pollutants to a freshwater body, based on natural background concentrations and water quality standards. This study conducts a global assessment of grey water footprint for major cereal crops, wheat, maize and rice. A crop model, Python-based EPIC (PEPIT), is applied to quantify the leaching of N and P from the fertilizer application in the three crops on a global scale with 0.5 degree spatial resolution. The hotspots of leaching are identified. The results suggest that, based on the definition and method of grey water footprint proposed by the World Water Footprint Network, the grey water footprint in many parts of the world has exceeded their total water resources availability. This indicates the seriousness of water pollution caused by agricultural production. However, the situation may also call for the development of a realistic measurement of grey water footprint which is more pertinent to water resources management. This paper proposes some alternatives in measuring grey water footprint and also discusses incorporation of grey water footprint assessment into water policy formulation and river basins plan development.

  6. Relationship between grey matter integrity and executive abilities in aging.

    PubMed

    Manard, Marine; Bahri, Mohamed Ali; Salmon, Eric; Collette, Fabienne

    2016-07-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to investigate grey matter changes that occur in healthy aging and the relationship between grey matter characteristics and executive functioning. Thirty-six young adults (18-30 years old) and 43 seniors (60-75 years old) were included. A general executive score was derived from a large battery of neuropsychological tests assessing three major aspects of executive functioning (inhibition, updating and shifting). Age-related grey matter changes were investigated by comparing young and older adults using voxel-based morphometry and voxel-based cortical thickness methods. A widespread difference in grey matter volume was found across many brain regions, whereas cortical thinning was mainly restricted to central areas. Multivariate analyses showed age-related changes in relatively similar brain regions to the respective univariate analyses but appeared more limited. Finally, in the older adult sample, a significant relationship between global executive performance and decreased grey matter volume in anterior (i.e. frontal, insular and cingulate cortex) but also some posterior brain areas (i.e. temporal and parietal cortices) as well as subcortical structures was observed. Results of this study highlight the distribution of age-related effects on grey matter volume and show that cortical atrophy does not appear primarily in "frontal" brain regions. From a cognitive viewpoint, age-related executive functioning seems to be related to grey matter volume but not to cortical thickness. Therefore, our results also highlight the influence of methodological aspects (from preprocessing to statistical analysis) on the pattern of results, which could explain the lack of consensus in literature.

  7. The medically important aerobic actinomycetes: epidemiology and microbiology.

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, M M; Brown, J M

    1994-01-01

    The aerobic actinomycetes are soil-inhabiting microorganisms that occur worldwide. In 1888, Nocard first recognized the pathogenic potential of this group of microorganisms. Since then, several aerobic actinomycetes have been a major source of interest for the commercial drug industry and have proved to be extremely useful microorganisms for producing novel antimicrobial agents. They have also been well known as potential veterinary pathogens affecting many different animal species. The medically important aerobic actinomycetes may cause significant morbidity and mortality, in particular in highly susceptible severely immunocompromised patients, including transplant recipients and patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. However, the diagnosis of these infections may be difficult, and effective antimicrobial therapy may be complicated by antimicrobial resistance. The taxonomy of these microorganisms has been problematic. In recent revisions of their classification, new pathogenic species have been recognized. The development of additional and more reliable diagnostic tests and of a standardized method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and the application of molecular techniques for the diagnosis and subtyping of these microorganisms are needed to better diagnose and treat infected patients and to identify effective control measures for these unusual pathogens. We review the epidemiology and microbiology of the major medically important aerobic actinomycetes. Images PMID:7923055

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF AEROBIC BIOFILTER DESIGN CRITERIA FOR TREATING VOCS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reports preliminary results on the use of trickle bed biofilters with monolithic ceramic channelized microbial support structures for the treatment of VOCs typical of landfill leachate stripping. Toluene was used for the purpose of characterizing the trickle bed biofi...

  9. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Torsvik, T.; Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  10. Grey relational clustering associated with CAPRI applied to FPGA placement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jan-Ou; Fan, Yang-Hsin; Wang, San-Fu

    2016-04-01

    Grey relational clustering is used to minimise wire length during field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) placement and routing. The proposed Grey Relational Clustering Apply to Placement (GRAP) algorithm combines grey relational clustering and convex assigned placement for regular ICs method to construct a placement netlist, which was successfully used to solve the problem of minimising wire length in an FPGA placement. Upon calculating the grey relational grade, GRAP can rank the sequence and analyse the minimal distance in configuration logic blocks based on the grey relational sequence and combined connection-based approaches. The experimental results demonstrate that the GRAP effectively compares the Hibert, Z and Snake with bounding box (BB) cost function in the space-filling curve. The GRAP improved BB cost by 0.753%, 0.324% and 0.096% for the Hilbert, Z and Snake, respectively. This study also compares the critical path with the space-filling curve. The GRAP approach improved the critical path for Snake by 1.3% in the space-filling curve; however, the GRAP increased critical path wire by 1.38% and 0.03% over that of the Hilbert and Z of space-filling curve, respectively.

  11. Methods to determine aerobic endurance.

    PubMed

    Bosquet, Laurent; Léger, Luc; Legros, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Physiological testing of elite athletes requires the correct identification and assessment of sports-specific underlying factors. It is now recognised that performance in long-distance events is determined by maximal oxygen uptake (V(2 max)), energy cost of exercise and the maximal fractional utilisation of V(2 max) in any realised performance or as a corollary a set percentage of V(2 max) that could be endured as long as possible. This later ability is defined as endurance, and more precisely aerobic endurance, since V(2 max) sets the upper limit of aerobic pathway. It should be distinguished from endurance ability or endurance performance, which are synonymous with performance in long-distance events. The present review examines methods available in the literature to assess aerobic endurance. They are numerous and can be classified into two categories, namely direct and indirect methods. Direct methods bring together all indices that allow either a complete or a partial representation of the power-duration relationship, while indirect methods revolve around the determination of the so-called anaerobic threshold (AT). With regard to direct methods, performance in a series of tests provides a more complete and presumably more valid description of the power-duration relationship than performance in a single test, even if both approaches are well correlated with each other. However, the question remains open to determine which systems model should be employed among the several available in the literature, and how to use them in the prescription of training intensities. As for indirect methods, there is quantitative accumulation of data supporting the utilisation of the AT to assess aerobic endurance and to prescribe training intensities. However, it appears that: there is no unique intensity corresponding to the AT, since criteria available in the literature provide inconsistent results; and the non-invasive determination of the AT using ventilatory and heart rate

  12. A grey {gamma}-ray transfer procedure for supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffery, D.J.

    1997-12-01

    The {gamma}-ray transfer in supernovae for the purposes of energy deposition in the ejecta can be approximated as grey radiative transfer using mean opacities. In past work there is a single pure absorption mean opacity which is a free parameter. Accurate results can be obtained by varying this mean opacity to fit the results of more accurate procedures. In this paper, the authors present a grey {gamma}-ray transfer procedure for energy deposition in which there are multiple mean opacities that are not free parameters and that have both absorption and scattering components. This procedure is based on a local-state (LS) approximation, and so they call it the LS grey {gamma}-ray transfer procedure or LS procedure for short.

  13. Venture Capital Investment Base on Grey Relational Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xubo

    This paper builds a venture capital investment projects selection evaluation model base on risk-weight investment return using grey relational analysis. The risk and return in venture capital investment projects selection process is analyses. These risk and return mainly constricted in management ability, operation ability, market ability, exit obtain and investment cost. The 18 sub-indicators are the impact factors contributed to these five evaluation aspects. Grey relation analysis is use to evaluate the venture capital investment selection. Get the optimal solution of risk-weight double objective investment selection evaluation model. An example is used to demonstrate the model in this paper.

  14. Dancing in the grey zone between normality and risk.

    PubMed

    Dahlen, Hannah

    2016-06-01

    Childbirth is mainly grey. The most straightforward of births can lead to unexpected, heart-stopping moments--and the highest risk woman can, despite our fears, birth without any of the imagined horrors being realised. As midwives we can choose to be paralysed with fear over this, or responsive to--and respectful of--such an amazing process. This paper discusses how midwives can learn to 'dance in the grey zone', while meeting their professional obligations and protecting women's human rights. Come dance the waltz, the tango and the hip-hop with me on the dance floor created by the 'triangle of wisdom'. PMID:27451486

  15. Comparison of grey matter volume and thickness for analysing cortical changes in chronic schizophrenia: a matter of surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast, and curvature.

    PubMed

    Kong, Li; Herold, Christina J; Zöllner, Frank; Salat, David H; Lässer, Marc M; Schmid, Lena A; Fellhauer, Iven; Thomann, Philipp A; Essig, Marco; Schad, Lothar R; Erickson, Kirk I; Schröder, Johannes

    2015-02-28

    Grey matter volume and cortical thickness are the two most widely used measures for detecting grey matter morphometric changes in various diseases such as schizophrenia. However, these two measures only share partial overlapping regions in identifying morphometric changes. Few studies have investigated the contributions of the potential factors to the differences of grey matter volume and cortical thickness. To investigate this question, 3T magnetic resonance images from 22 patients with schizophrenia and 20 well-matched healthy controls were chosen for analyses. Grey matter volume and cortical thickness were measured by VBM and Freesurfer. Grey matter volume results were then rendered onto the surface template of Freesurfer to compare the differences from cortical thickness in anatomical locations. Discrepancy regions of the grey matter volume and thickness where grey matter volume significantly decreased but without corresponding evidence of cortical thinning involved the rostral middle frontal, precentral, lateral occipital and superior frontal gyri. Subsequent region-of-interest analysis demonstrated that changes in surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast and curvature accounted for the discrepancies. Our results suggest that the differences between grey matter volume and thickness could be jointly driven by surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast and curvature.

  16. Comparison of grey matter volume and thickness for analysing cortical changes in chronic schizophrenia: a matter of surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast, and curvature.

    PubMed

    Kong, Li; Herold, Christina J; Zöllner, Frank; Salat, David H; Lässer, Marc M; Schmid, Lena A; Fellhauer, Iven; Thomann, Philipp A; Essig, Marco; Schad, Lothar R; Erickson, Kirk I; Schröder, Johannes

    2015-02-28

    Grey matter volume and cortical thickness are the two most widely used measures for detecting grey matter morphometric changes in various diseases such as schizophrenia. However, these two measures only share partial overlapping regions in identifying morphometric changes. Few studies have investigated the contributions of the potential factors to the differences of grey matter volume and cortical thickness. To investigate this question, 3T magnetic resonance images from 22 patients with schizophrenia and 20 well-matched healthy controls were chosen for analyses. Grey matter volume and cortical thickness were measured by VBM and Freesurfer. Grey matter volume results were then rendered onto the surface template of Freesurfer to compare the differences from cortical thickness in anatomical locations. Discrepancy regions of the grey matter volume and thickness where grey matter volume significantly decreased but without corresponding evidence of cortical thinning involved the rostral middle frontal, precentral, lateral occipital and superior frontal gyri. Subsequent region-of-interest analysis demonstrated that changes in surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast and curvature accounted for the discrepancies. Our results suggest that the differences between grey matter volume and thickness could be jointly driven by surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast and curvature. PMID:25595222

  17. Waste degradation and gas production with enzymatic enhancement in anaerobic and aerobic landfill bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Hettiaratchi, J P A; Jayasinghe, P A; Bartholameuz, E M; Kumar, S

    2014-05-01

    The presence of lignin is the limiting factor at later stages of biodegradation of municipal solid waste under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Supplying enzymes into the system could facilitate lignin degradation, thereby aiding anaerobic and aerobic waste degradation processes. A comprehensive set of laboratory experiments were conducted under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions to evaluate the feasibility of using enzymes in accelerating lignin-rich waste degradation. After 30 days of anaerobic operation, MnP and LiP enzyme treated reactors produced 36 and 23 times higher cumulative methane (CH4), respectively, compared to that of the control reactor devoid of enzyme treatments. The carbon dioxide (CO2) yield of MnP enhanced aerobic reactor showed more than two-fold increase.

  18. Waste degradation and gas production with enzymatic enhancement in anaerobic and aerobic landfill bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Hettiaratchi, J P A; Jayasinghe, P A; Bartholameuz, E M; Kumar, S

    2014-05-01

    The presence of lignin is the limiting factor at later stages of biodegradation of municipal solid waste under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Supplying enzymes into the system could facilitate lignin degradation, thereby aiding anaerobic and aerobic waste degradation processes. A comprehensive set of laboratory experiments were conducted under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions to evaluate the feasibility of using enzymes in accelerating lignin-rich waste degradation. After 30 days of anaerobic operation, MnP and LiP enzyme treated reactors produced 36 and 23 times higher cumulative methane (CH4), respectively, compared to that of the control reactor devoid of enzyme treatments. The carbon dioxide (CO2) yield of MnP enhanced aerobic reactor showed more than two-fold increase. PMID:24684817

  19. Treatment of packaging board whitewater in anaerobic/aerobic biokidney.

    PubMed

    Alexandersson, T; Malmqvist, A

    2005-01-01

    Whitewater from production of packaging board was treated in a combined anaerobic/aerobic biokidney, both in laboratory scale and pilot plant experiments. Both the laboratory experiments and the pilot plant trial demonstrate that a combined anaerobic/aerobic process is suitable for treating whitewater from a packaging mill. It is also possible to operate the process at the prevailing whitewater temperature. In the laboratory under mesophilic conditions the maximal organic load was 12 kg COD/m3*d on the anaerobic reactor and 6.7 kg COD/m3*d on the aerobic reactor. This gave a hydraulic retention time, HRT, in the anaerobic reactor of 10 hours and 2 hours in the aerobic reactor. The reduction of COD was between 85 and 90% after the first stage and the total reduction was between 88 to 93%. Under thermophilic conditions in the laboratory the organic load was slightly lower than 9.6 COD/m3*d and between 10 and 16 COD/m3*d, respectively. The HRT was 16.5 and 3.4 hours and the removal was around 75% after the anaerobic reactor and 87% after the total process. For the pilot plant experiment at a mill the HRT in the anaerobic step varied between 3 and 17 hours and the corresponding organic load between 4 and 44 kg COD/m3*d. The HRT in the aerobic step varied between 1 and 6 hours and the organic load between 1.5 and 26 kg COD/m3*d. The removal of soluble organic matter was 78% in the anaerobic step and 86% after the combined treatment at the lowest loading level. The removal efficiency at the highest loading level was about 65% in the anaerobic step and 77% after the aerobic step. In the pilot plant trial the removal efficiency was not markedly affected by the variations in whitewater composition that were caused by change of production. The variations, however, made the manual control of the nutrient dosage inadequate and resulted in large variations in effluent nutrient concentration. This demonstrates the need for an automatic nutrient dosage system. The first step

  20. Aerobic granular processes: Current research trends.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanguo; Hu, Jianjun; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-06-01

    Aerobic granules are large biological aggregates with compact interiors that can be used in efficient wastewater treatment. This mini-review presents new researches on the development of aerobic granular processes, extended treatments for complicated pollutants, granulation mechanisms and enhancements of granule stability in long-term operation or storage, and the reuse of waste biomass as renewable resources. A discussion on the challenges of, and prospects for, the commercialization of aerobic granular process is provided. PMID:26873285

  1. Lower limb loading in step aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    Wu, H-W; Hsieh, H-M; Chang, Y-W; Wang, L-H

    2012-11-01

    Participation in aerobic dance is associated with a number of lower extremity injuries, and abnormal joint loading seems to be a factor in these. However, information on joint loading is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinetics of the lower extremity in step aerobic dance and to compare the differences of high-impact and low-impact step aerobic dance in 4 aerobic movements (mambo, kick, L step and leg curl). 18 subjects were recruited for this study. High-impact aerobic dance requires a significantly greater range of motion, joint force and joint moment than low-impact step aerobic dance. The peak joint forces and moments in high-impact step aerobic dance were found to be 1.4 times higher than in low-impact step aerobic dance. Understanding the nature of joint loading may help choreographers develop dance combinations that are less injury-prone. Furthermore, increased knowledge about joint loading may be helpful in lowering the risk of injuries in aerobic dance instructors and students.

  2. The efficacy of anthelmintic drugs against nematodes infecting free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos, Macropus giganteus.

    PubMed

    Cripps, Jemma; Beveridge, Ian; Coulson, Graeme

    2013-07-01

    Effective anthelmintics are valuable tools for biologists conducting manipulative field experiments to examine effects of parasites on wildlife. However, before such experiments are carried out the efficacy of these drugs must be determined. We conducted three field experiments (May 2010-September 2011) on free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) at a golf course in Victoria, Australia, treating animals with the anthelmintic drugs moxidectin (subcutaneous, 1 mg/kg, 2 mg/kg), ivermectin (subcutaneous, 200 μg/kg), and albendazole (oral, 3.8 mg/kg). After treatment we monitored strongylid fecal egg counts (FECs) over time and assessed anthelmintic efficacy using fecal egg count reduction tests (FECRTs). We also performed a larval development assay (LDA) to evaluate directly the efficacy in the nematode population. Unexpectedly, moxidectin and ivermectin had low efficacy with maximum FEC reductions of 82% and 28%, respectively. However, treatment with albendazole reduced FECs by 100% in all kangaroos and egg counts remained low for up to 3 mo. The results from the LDA supported the FECRTs, with low macrocyclic lactone efficacy and high albendazole efficacy. Macrocyclic lactones, at recommended dose rates, were much less effective against strongylid nematodes in kangaroos than has been reported for domestic herbivores. This may be partly due to pharmacokinetics in the host and partly due to low susceptibility in some of the nematodes infecting eastern grey kangaroos.

  3. Variations in an African Grey parrot's speech patterns following ignored and denied requests.

    PubMed

    Colbert-White, Erin N; Hall, Hannah C; Fragaszy, Dorothy M

    2016-05-01

    Communicative competence is one measure of an individual's ability to navigate conversations with social partners. The current study explored the possibility of basic communicative competence in a non-mammal speaker, a speech-using African Grey parrot. Spontaneous conversations between one Grey named Cosmo and her caregiver were recorded, from which three corpora (i.e., bodies of text) of Cosmo's vocalizations were developed: (1) Baseline: Vocalizations containing no requests, (2) Ignored Requests: Vocalizations immediately following Cosmo's caregiver ignoring Cosmo's requests, and (3) Denied Requests: Vocalizations immediately following Cosmo's caregiver denying Cosmo's requests. The distributions of social (e.g., "I love you," kiss sounds) and nonsocial (e.g., answering machine beeps, "That's squirrel") vocalizations, as well as speech and nonword vocalizations, were statistically different across the three corpora. Additionally, qualitative analysis of the datasets indicated Cosmo was persistent in repeating vocalizations when denied and ignored, and interrupted her caregiver more often when requests were denied compared to ignored. Neither repetition nor interruption occurred during the Baseline conversations. The data indicate that despite the outcome being the same (i.e., request was unmet), Cosmo treated an ignored request differently than a denied request, modifying her vocalizations in accord with the specific context. Such modification is evidence of basic communicative competence. PMID:26700613

  4. 20. SIMILAR TO THE SYSTEM INSTALLED IN THE GREY IRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. SIMILAR TO THE SYSTEM INSTALLED IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY, MALLEABLE WORKERS FILLED MOLDS TRAVELING ON A CONVEYOR FROM LADLES ATTACHED TO OVERHEAD RAILS WHILE THEY STOOD ON A PLATFORM MOVING AT THE SAME SPEED AS THE CONVEYOR, CA. 1950 - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  5. The Grey Nomad Phenomenon: Changing the Script of Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyx, Jenny; Leonard, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    This article explores a relatively new and little understood phenomenon, that of the Australian Grey Nomads. Every year increasing numbers of older Australians take to the road. This article explores the phenomenon both empirically and theoretically. A grounded approach is used by which the experience is explored from an ethnographic account…

  6. Blue and grey water footprint of textile industry in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Laili; Ding, Xuemei; Wu, Xiongying

    2013-01-01

    Water footprint (WF) is a newly developed idea that indicates impacts of freshwater appropriation and wastewater discharge. The textile industry is one of the oldest, longest and most complicated industrial chains in the world's manufacturing industries. However, the textile industry is also water intensive. In this paper, we applied a bottom-up approach to estimate the direct blue water footprint (WFdir,blue) and direct grey water footprint (WFdir,grey) of China's textile industry at sector level based on WF methodology. The results showed that WFdir,blue of China's textile industry had an increasing trend from 2001 to 2010. The annual WFdir,blue surpassed 0.92 Gm(3)/yr (giga cubic meter a year) since 2004 and rose to peak value of 1.09 Gm(3)/yr in 2007. The original and residuary WFdir,grey (both were calculated based on the concentration of chemical oxygen demand (CODCr)) of China's textile industry had a similar variation trend with that of WFdir,blue. Among the three sub-sectors of China's textile industry, the manufacture of textiles sector's annual WFdir,blue and WFdir,grey were much larger than those of the manufacture of textile wearing apparel, footware and caps sector and the manufacture of chemical fibers sector. The intensities of WFdir,blue and WF(res)dir,grey of China's textile industry were year by year decreasing through the efforts of issuing restriction policies on freshwater use and wastewater generation and discharge, and popularization of water saving and wastewater treatment technologies.

  7. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  8. Aerobic Dancing--A Rhythmic Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Jacki

    Fitness programs now and in the future must offer built-in cardiovascular conditioning, variety, novelty, and change to meet the physical, mental, and emotional needs of our society. Aerobic dancing (dancing designed to train and strengthen the heart, lungs, and vascular system) is one of the first indoor group Aerobic exercise programs designed…

  9. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss. PMID:24508740

  10. C4-Dicarboxylate Utilization in Aerobic and Anaerobic Growth.

    PubMed

    Unden, Gottfried; Strecker, Alexander; Kleefeld, Alexandra; Kim, Ok Bin

    2016-06-01

    C4-dicarboxylates and the C4-dicarboxylic amino acid l-aspartate support aerobic and anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli and related bacteria. In aerobic growth, succinate, fumarate, D- and L-malate, L-aspartate, and L-tartrate are metabolized by the citric acid cycle and associated reactions. Because of the interruption of the citric acid cycle under anaerobic conditions, anaerobic metabolism of C4-dicarboxylates depends on fumarate reduction to succinate (fumarate respiration). In some related bacteria (e.g., Klebsiella), utilization of C4-dicarboxylates, such as tartrate, is independent of fumarate respiration and uses a Na+-dependent membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase. Uptake of the C4-dicarboxylates into the bacteria (and anaerobic export of succinate) is achieved under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by different sets of secondary transporters. Expression of the genes for C4-dicarboxylate metabolism is induced in the presence of external C4-dicarboxylates by the membrane-bound DcuS-DcuR two-component system. Noncommon C4-dicarboxylates like l-tartrate or D-malate are perceived by cytoplasmic one-component sensors/transcriptional regulators. This article describes the pathways of aerobic and anaerobic C4-dicarboxylate metabolism and their regulation. The citric acid cycle, fumarate respiration, and fumarate reductase are covered in other articles and discussed here only in the context of C4-dicarboxylate metabolism. Recent aspects of C4-dicarboxylate metabolism like transport, sensing, and regulation will be treated in more detail. This article is an updated version of an article published in 2004 in EcoSal Plus. The update includes new literature, but, in particular, the sections on the metabolism of noncommon C4-dicarboxylates and their regulation, on the DcuS-DcuR regulatory system, and on succinate production by engineered E. coli are largely revised or new.

  11. C4-Dicarboxylate Utilization in Aerobic and Anaerobic Growth.

    PubMed

    Unden, Gottfried; Strecker, Alexander; Kleefeld, Alexandra; Kim, Ok Bin

    2016-06-01

    C4-dicarboxylates and the C4-dicarboxylic amino acid l-aspartate support aerobic and anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli and related bacteria. In aerobic growth, succinate, fumarate, D- and L-malate, L-aspartate, and L-tartrate are metabolized by the citric acid cycle and associated reactions. Because of the interruption of the citric acid cycle under anaerobic conditions, anaerobic metabolism of C4-dicarboxylates depends on fumarate reduction to succinate (fumarate respiration). In some related bacteria (e.g., Klebsiella), utilization of C4-dicarboxylates, such as tartrate, is independent of fumarate respiration and uses a Na+-dependent membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase. Uptake of the C4-dicarboxylates into the bacteria (and anaerobic export of succinate) is achieved under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by different sets of secondary transporters. Expression of the genes for C4-dicarboxylate metabolism is induced in the presence of external C4-dicarboxylates by the membrane-bound DcuS-DcuR two-component system. Noncommon C4-dicarboxylates like l-tartrate or D-malate are perceived by cytoplasmic one-component sensors/transcriptional regulators. This article describes the pathways of aerobic and anaerobic C4-dicarboxylate metabolism and their regulation. The citric acid cycle, fumarate respiration, and fumarate reductase are covered in other articles and discussed here only in the context of C4-dicarboxylate metabolism. Recent aspects of C4-dicarboxylate metabolism like transport, sensing, and regulation will be treated in more detail. This article is an updated version of an article published in 2004 in EcoSal Plus. The update includes new literature, but, in particular, the sections on the metabolism of noncommon C4-dicarboxylates and their regulation, on the DcuS-DcuR regulatory system, and on succinate production by engineered E. coli are largely revised or new. PMID:27415771

  12. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Elisabeth; Ingjer, Frank; Bø, Kari

    2011-12-01

    Edvardsen, E, Ingjer, F, and Bø, K. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3479-3485, 2011-This study compared the aerobic capacity during maximal aerobic dance and treadmill running in fit women. Thirteen well-trained female aerobic dance instructors aged 30 ± 8.17 years (mean ± SD) exercised to exhaustion by running on a treadmill for measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max) and peak heart rate (HRpeak). Additionally, all subjects performed aerobic dancing until exhaustion after a choreographed videotaped routine trying to reach the same HRpeak as during maximal running. The p value for statistical significance between running and aerobic dance was set to ≤0.05. The results (mean ± SD) showed a lower VO(2)max in aerobic dance (52.2 ± 4.02 ml·kg·min) compared with treadmill running (55.9 ± 5.03 ml·kg·min) (p = 0.0003). Further, the mean ± SD HRpeak was 182 ± 9.15 b·min in aerobic dance and 192 ± 9.62 b·min in treadmill running, giving no difference in oxygen pulse between the 2 exercise forms (p = 0.32). There was no difference in peak ventilation (aerobic dance: 108 ± 10.81 L·min vs. running: 113 ± 11.49 L·min). In conclusion, aerobic dance does not seem to be able to use the whole aerobic capacity as in running. For well endurance-trained women, this may result in a lower total workload at maximal intensities. Aerobic dance may therefore not be as suitable as running during maximal intensities in well-trained females.

  13. Sensor for Distance Measurement Using Pixel Grey-Level Information

    PubMed Central

    Lázaro, José L.; Cano, Angel E.; Fernández, Pedro R.; Pompa, Yamilet

    2009-01-01

    An alternative method for distance measurement is presented, based on a radiometric approach to the image formation process. The proposed methodology uses images from an infrared emitting diode (IRED) to estimate the distance between the camera and the IRED. Camera output grey-level intensities are a function of the accumulated image irradiance, which is also related by inverse distance square law to the distance between the camera and the IRED. Analyzing camera-IRED distance, magnitudes that affected image grey-level intensities, and therefore accumulated image irradiance, were integrated into a differential model which was calibrated and used for distance estimation over a 200 to 600 cm range. In a preliminary model, the camera and the emitter were aligned. PMID:22291543

  14. Grey water on three agricultural catchments in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazkova, Sarka D.; Kulasova, Alena

    2014-05-01

    The COST project EU EURO-AGRIWAT focuses apart from other problems on the assessment of water footprint (WF). WF is defined as the quantity of water used to produce some goods or a service. In particular, the WF of an agricultural product is the volume of water used during the crop growing period. It has three components: the green water which is rain or soil moisture transpired by a crop, the blue water which is the amount of irrigation water transpired and the grey water which is the volume of water required to dilute pollutants and to restore the quality standards of the water body. We have been observing three different agricultural catchments. The first of them is Smrzovka Brook, located in the protected nature area in the south part of the Jizerske Mountains. An ecological farming has been carried out there. The second agricultural catchment area is the Kralovsky Creek, which lies in the foothills of the Krkonose Mountains and is a part of an agricultural cooperative. The last agricultural catchment is the Klejnarka stream, located on the outskirts of the fertile Elbe lowlands near Caslav. Catchments Kralovsky Brook and Klejnarka carry out usual agricultural activities. On all three catchments, however, recreational cottages or houses not connected to the sewerage system and/or with inefficient septic tanks occur. The contribution shows our approach to trying to quantify the real grey water from agriculture, i.e. the grey water caused by nutrients not utilised by the crops.

  15. Spatial memory in the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus).

    PubMed

    Lührs, Mia-Lana; Dammhahn, Melanie; Kappeler, Peter M; Fichtel, Claudia

    2009-07-01

    Wild animals face the challenge of locating feeding sites distributed across broad spatial and temporal scales. Spatial memory allows animals to find a goal, such as a productive feeding patch, even when there are no goal-specific sensory cues available. Because there is little experimental information on learning and memory capabilities in free-ranging primates, the aim of this study was to test whether grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus), as short-term dietary specialists, rely on spatial memory in relocating productive feeding sites. In addition, we asked what kind of spatial representation might underlie their orientation in their natural environment. Using an experimental approach, we set eight radio-collared grey mouse lemurs a memory task by confronting them with two different spatial patterns of baited and non-baited artificial feeding stations under exclusion of sensory cues. Positional data were recorded by focal animal observations within a grid system of small foot trails. A change in the baiting pattern revealed that grey mouse lemurs primarily used spatial cues to relocate baited feeding stations and that they were able to rapidly learn a new spatial arrangement. Spatially concentrated, non-random movements revealed preliminary evidence for a route-based restriction in mouse lemur space; during a subsequent release experiment, however, we found high travel efficiency in directed movements. We therefore propose that mouse lemur spatial memory is based on some kind of mental representation that is more detailed than a route-based network map.

  16. Image retrieval based on local grey-level invariants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordeaux, Eva; Shrikhande, Neelima

    2005-10-01

    During past decades, the enormous growth of image archives has significantly increased the demand for research efforts aimed at efficiently finding specific images within large databases. This paper investigates matching of images of buildings, architectural designs, blueprints and sketches. Their geometrical constrains lead to the proposed approach: the use of local grey-level invariants based on internal contours of the object. The problem involves three key phases: object recognition in image data, matching two images and searching the database of images. The emphasis of this paper is on object recognition based on internal contours of image data. In her master's thesis, M.M. Kulkarni described a technique for image retrieval by contour analysis implemented on external contours of an object in an image data. This is used to define the category of a building (tower, dome, flat, etc). Integration of these results with local grey-level invariant analysis creates a more robust image retrieval system. Thus, the best match result is the intersection of the results of contour analysis and grey-level invariants analysis. Experiments conducted for the database of architectural buildings have shown robustness w.r.t. to image rotation, translation, small view-point variations, partial visibility and extraneous features. The recognition rate is above 99% for a variety of tested images taken under different conditions.

  17. Magnesium therapy in a hypocalcemic African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus).

    PubMed

    Kirchgessner, Megan S; Tully, Thomas N; Nevarez, Javier; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Acierno, Mark J

    2012-03-01

    Hypocalcemic-induced seizure activity is a clinical entity that is commonly diagnosed in neurologic African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). Plasma calcium levels are typically less than 6.0 mg/dL at the time of seizure activity, and although the underlying cause of the hypocalcemia has not yet been determined, many theories have been proposed. An African grey parrot that had been fed a seed diet for 8 years was presented with hypocalcemia and seizures and exhibited precipitously declining plasma calcium levels, despite aggressive calcium and vitamin A, D, and E supplementation for 4 days. Baseline magnesium levels in this parrot were determined to be 1.9 mg/dL; therefore, magnesium sulfate was administered at a dose of 20 mg/kg IM once. Twenty-four hours after supplementation, the plasma magnesium level was 3.3 mg/dL, and no further seizure activity was observed. We believe that a primary dietary magnesium deficiency may have been present in this African grey parrot, similar to a syndrome in leghorn chicks, which is frequently characterized by progressive hypocalcemia that is unable to be corrected by calcium supplementation alone.

  18. Hybrid nuclear reactor grey rod to obtain required reactivity worth

    DOEpatents

    Miller, John V.; Carlson, William R.; Yarbrough, Michael B.

    1991-01-01

    Hybrid nuclear reactor grey rods are described, wherein geometric combinations of relatively weak neutron absorber materials such as stainless steel, zirconium or INCONEL, and relatively strong neutron absorber materials, such as hafnium, silver-indium cadmium and boron carbide, are used to obtain the reactivity worths required to reach zero boron change load follow. One embodiment includes a grey rod which has combinations of weak and strong neutron absorber pellets in a stainless steel cladding. The respective pellets can be of differing heights. A second embodiment includes a grey rod with a relatively thick stainless steel cladding receiving relatively strong neutron absorber pellets only. A third embodiment includes annular relatively weak netron absorber pellets with a smaller diameter pellet of relatively strong absorber material contained within the aperture of each relatively weak absorber pellet. The fourth embodiment includes pellets made of a homogeneous alloy of hafnium and a relatively weak absorber material, with the percentage of hafnium chosen to obtain the desired reactivity worth.

  19. The trajectory prediction of spacecraft by grey method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiyue; Zhang, Zili; Wang, Zhongyu; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Weihu

    2016-08-01

    The real-time and high-precision trajectory prediction of a moving object is a core technology in the field of aerospace engineering. The real-time monitoring and tracking technology are also significant guarantees of aerospace equipment. A dynamic trajectory prediction method called grey dynamic filter (GDF) which combines the dynamic measurement theory and grey system theory is proposed. GDF can use coordinates of the current period to extrapolate coordinates of the following period. At meantime, GDF can also keep the instantaneity of measured coordinates by the metabolism model. In this paper the optimal model length of GDF is firstly selected to improve the prediction accuracy. Then the simulation for uniformly accelerated motion and variably accelerated motion is conducted. The simulation results indicate that the mean composite position error of GDF prediction is one-fifth to that of Kalman filter (KF). By using a spacecraft landing experiment, the prediction accuracy of GDF is compared with the KF method and the primitive grey method (GM). The results show that the motion trajectory of spacecraft predicted by GDF is much closer to actual trajectory than the other two methods. The mean composite position error calculated by GDF is one-eighth to KF and one-fifth to GM respectively.

  20. Colour constancy: influence of viewing behaviour on grey settings.

    PubMed

    Golz, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    In numerous studies on colour constancy or colour induction subjects have to adjust a test field so that it looks achromatic. Their viewing behaviour during these settings is often not controlled or reported. Here I show that the results of grey settings depend on whether subjects visually explore the stimulus by looking around or fixate their gaze exclusively on the test field. Two different viewing instructions are compared with regard to the degree of constancy as measured by the shift of grey settings in coloured surrounds. In variegated surrounds (but not in uniform surrounds) there is a robust effect of viewing condition for all subjects and all surround chromaticities tested, in that exploration increases colour constancy compared to fixating the test field. Values of a colour constancy index are increased by as much as 20% (where 100% colour constancy means that the subject chooses as grey the mean chromaticity of the surround) with an average across all subjects and surrounds of 12.6%. Thus, if this factor is not experimentally controlled, it could inflate variance, reduce comparability between different studies, and even lead to unwarranted conclusions if viewing behaviour unpredictably differs between experimental conditions.

  1. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Lamego, Murilo Khede; Paes, Flávia; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Simoes-Silva, Vitor; Rocha, Susana Almeida; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Rimes, Ridson; Manochio, João; Budde, Henning; Wegner, Mirko; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders observed currently. It is a normal adaptive response to stress that allows coping with adverse situations. Nevertheless, when anxiety becomes excessive or disproportional in relation to the situation that evokes it or when there is not any special object directed at it, such as an irrational dread of routine stimuli, it becomes a disabling disorder and is considered to be pathological. The traditional treatment used is medication and cognitive behavioral psychotherapy, however, last years the practice of physical exercise, specifically aerobic exercise, has been investigated as a new non-pharmacological therapy for anxiety disorders. Thus, the aim of this article was to provide information on research results and key chains related to the therapeutic effects of aerobic exercise compared with other types of interventions to treat anxiety, which may become a useful clinical application in a near future. Researches have shown the effectiveness of alternative treatments, such as physical exercise, minimizing high financial costs and minimizing side effects. The sample analyzed, 66.8% was composed of women and 80% with severity of symptoms anxiety as moderate to severe. The data analyzed in this review allows us to claim that alternative therapies like exercise are effective in controlling and reducing symptoms, as 91% of anxiety disorders surveys have shown effective results in treating. However, there is still disagreement regarding the effect of exercise compared to the use of antidepressant symptoms and cognitive function in anxiety, this suggests that there is no consensus on the correct intensity of aerobic exercise as to achieve the best dose-response, with intensities high to moderate or moderate to mild. PMID:26556089

  2. The Energetics of Aerobic versus Anaerobic Respiration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Timothy D.; Schwenz, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Background information, laboratory procedures, and a discussion of the results of an experiment designed to investigate the difference in energy gained from the aerobic and anaerobic oxidation of glucose are presented. Sample experimental and calculated data are included. (CW)

  3. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Heijnen, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard; Kibele, Armin; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2016-01-01

    Running, and aerobic exercise in general, is a physical activity that increasingly many people engage in but that also has become popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree aerobic exercise modulates hormones, amino acids, and neurotransmitters levels. In general, it seems that factors such as genes, gender, training status, and hormonal status need to be taken into account to gain a better understanding of the neuromodular underpinnings of aerobic exercise. More research using longitudinal studies and considering individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. We suggest that, in order to succeed, aerobic exercise programs should include optimal periodization, prevent overtraining and be tailored to interindividual differences, including neuro-developmental and genetically-based factors. PMID:26779053

  4. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise-A Review.

    PubMed

    Heijnen, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard; Kibele, Armin; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2015-01-01

    Running, and aerobic exercise in general, is a physical activity that increasingly many people engage in but that also has become popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree aerobic exercise modulates hormones, amino acids, and neurotransmitters levels. In general, it seems that factors such as genes, gender, training status, and hormonal status need to be taken into account to gain a better understanding of the neuromodular underpinnings of aerobic exercise. More research using longitudinal studies and considering individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. We suggest that, in order to succeed, aerobic exercise programs should include optimal periodization, prevent overtraining and be tailored to interindividual differences, including neuro-developmental and genetically-based factors. PMID:26779053

  5. Conditioning and Aerobics for Older Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Joyce

    1980-01-01

    A class designed for the maintenance and gradual improvement of senior citizens' physical fitness includes relaxation training, flexibility and stretching exercises, interval training activities (designed as a link between less strenuous exercise and more strenuous activities), and aerobic exercises. (CJ)

  6. Numerical Solution of Inverse Radiative-Conductive Transient Heat Transfer Problem in a Grey Participating Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmywaczyk, J.; Koniorczyk, P.

    2009-08-01

    transfer in non-grey participating media. The inverse method may be treated, after performing a suitable validation, as an alternative method in relation to other classical measurement methods for investigation of thermophysical parameters of solid states.

  7. EBV-Positive Grey Zone Lymphoma in an HIV Infected Man from Kampala, Uganda: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tumwine, Lynette K.; Orem, Jackson; Ayers, Leona W.

    2014-01-01

    Aim We describe the clinical, histopathological and immunophenotypic characteristics of an HIV-infected adult man on antiretroviral therapy who presented with an EBV-positive grey zone lymphoma. Case presentation A 56-year-old HIV infected man from Uganda presented with a four month history of progressive abdominal swelling and B-symptoms. He was on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and cotrimoxazole. He was afebrile (36.9°C), severely wasted (BMI 14.8), and mildly anaemic. On physical examination, he had a 15 by 8 cm mass in the hypogastrium and umbilical region. The total white cell count was 8.3×103/μL; neutrophils, 5.72×103/μL; haemoglobin 11.1g/dL, platelets 528×103/μL, LDH 197 IU/L and CD4 367/μL. Abdominal ultrasound and CT scan showed a tumour involving the mesentery, jejunum and mid ileum. At laparotomy, a biopsy was taken, fixed, processed and stained with Haematoxylin & Eosin (H & E). Histopathology demonstrated large pleomorphic cells admixed with inflammatory smaller cells, Reed-Sternberg-like cell variants and frequent abnormal mitoses. Biomarkers CD20, PAX5, CD30 were positive but ALK negative (immunohistochemistry and strong EBER positivity in situ hybridization. The patient improved on modified CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) therapy. Discussion The tumour had features intermediate between mediastinal large B cell lymphoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma. Conclusion We present a case of EBV-positive grey zone lymphoma in an HIV-infected man on HAART therapy diagnosed and treated in a resource constrained medical setting. The histological features are unusual and represent a low incidence lymphoma that is recognized by mixed features reminiscent of Hodgkin’s lymphoma and mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma. PMID:25599090

  8. Effect of aerobic exercise and raloxifene combination therapy on senile osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chengjin; Hou, Haibing; Chen, Yutao; Lv, Kai

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed the effects of combined application of raloxifene and aerobic exercise on senile osteoporosis. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 70 elderly patients with osteoporosis, who treated at our hospital between April 2013 and August 2014, were divided into equal-sized observation and control groups. The control group was administered raloxifene, whereas the observation group received raloxifene treatment plus aerobic exercise. [Results] Outpatient outcomes were considered dependent variables. After treatment, the two groups differed significantly in terms of lumbar spine (L2–L4) and proximal femoral bone mineral density. The urine pyridine/creatinine ratio decreased significantly and serum calcitonin level increased significantly in the observation group. These differences were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Raloxifene combined with aerobic exercise therapy significantly improves bone density and promotes bone formation in patients with senile osteoporosis. PMID:27390417

  9. Effect of aerobic exercise and raloxifene combination therapy on senile osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chengjin; Hou, Haibing; Chen, Yutao; Lv, Kai

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed the effects of combined application of raloxifene and aerobic exercise on senile osteoporosis. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 70 elderly patients with osteoporosis, who treated at our hospital between April 2013 and August 2014, were divided into equal-sized observation and control groups. The control group was administered raloxifene, whereas the observation group received raloxifene treatment plus aerobic exercise. [Results] Outpatient outcomes were considered dependent variables. After treatment, the two groups differed significantly in terms of lumbar spine (L2-L4) and proximal femoral bone mineral density. The urine pyridine/creatinine ratio decreased significantly and serum calcitonin level increased significantly in the observation group. These differences were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Raloxifene combined with aerobic exercise therapy significantly improves bone density and promotes bone formation in patients with senile osteoporosis. PMID:27390417

  10. Aerobic Excercise and Research Opportunities to Benefit Impaired Children. (Project AEROBIC). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Univ., Moscow.

    The final report summarizes accomplishments of Project AEROBIC (Aerobic Exercise and Research Opportunities to Benefit Impaired Children), which provided a physical education exercise program for severely, profoundly, and multiply handicapped children aged 10-21. Activities are outlined for the 3 year period and include modification of exercise…

  11. Method for treating waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Lansdell, M.

    1993-07-20

    An activated sludge wastewater treatment process is described comprising: (a) providing a reactor including first, second and third basins each defining an elongated flow path and each having an inlet end and an outlet end, means for hydraulically interconnecting the basins, first, second and third wastewater inlet means for respectively feeding wastewater from a wastewater receiver to the first or the second or the third basin, and first and second treated effluent outlet means for respectively discharging treated effluent from the outlet ends of the first and third basins, (b) the first phase steps of: (i) feeding wastewater from the wastewater receiver to the inlet end of the first basin while interrupting flow from the wastewater receiver to the second and third basins; (ii) permitting flow from the outlet end of the first basin into inlet end of the second basin and from the outlet end of the second basin into the inlet end of the third basin, (iii) discharging treated effluent from the outlet end of the third basin through the second treated effluent outlet means while preventing flow through the first treated effluent outlet means; (iv) subjecting wastewater in at least a portion of the rim and second basins to aerobic treatment while interrupting aerobic treatment of the wastewater in the third basin to allow settling of the sludge in the third basin; (c) the second phase steps of: (i) feeding wastewater to be treated from the wastewater receiver to the inlet end of the second basin while preventing flow from the wastewater receiver to the first and third basins; (ii) permitting flow from the outlet end of the second basin into the inlet end of the third basin; (iii) discharging treated effluent from the outlet end of the third basin through the second treated effluent outlet means while preventing flow through the first treated effluent outlet means.

  12. Central treatment of different emulsion wastewaters by an integrated process of physicochemically enhanced ultrafiltration and anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weijun; Xiao, Ping; Wang, Dongsheng

    2014-05-01

    The feasibility of an integrated process of ultrafiltration (UF) enhanced by combined chemical emulsion breaking with vibratory shear and anaerobic/aerobic biofilm reactor for central treatment of different emulsion wastewaters was investigated. Firstly, it was found that calcium chloride exhibited better performance in oil removal than other inorganic salts. Chemical demulsification pretreatment could efficiently improve oil removal and membrane filtration in emulsion wastewater treatment by VSEP. According to aerobic batch bioassay, UF permeate exhibited good biodegradability and could be further treated with biological process. Additionally, pilot test indicated that anaerobic-aerobic biofilm exhibited an excellent ability against rise in organic loading and overall chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of biological system was more than 93% of which 82% corresponded to the anaerobic process and 11% to the aerobic degradation. The final effluent of integrated process could meet the "water quality standards for discharge to municipal sewers" in China.

  13. Increased microglial catalase activity in multiple sclerosis grey matter.

    PubMed

    Gray, Elizabeth; Kemp, Kevin; Hares, Kelly; Redondo, Julianna; Rice, Claire; Scolding, Neil; Wilkins, Alastair

    2014-04-22

    Chronic demyelination, on-going inflammation, axonal loss and grey matter neuronal injury are likely pathological processes that contribute to disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Although the precise contribution of each process and their aetiological substrates is not fully known, recent evidence has implicated oxidative damage as a major cause of tissue injury in MS. The degree of tissue injury caused by oxidative molecules, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), is balanced by endogenous anti-oxidant enzymes which detoxify ROS. Understanding endogenous mechanisms which protect the brain against oxidative injury in MS is important, since enhancing anti-oxidant responses is a major therapeutic strategy for preventing irreversible tissue injury in the disease. Our aims were to determine expression and activity levels of the hydrogen peroxide-reducing enzyme catalase in MS grey matter (GM). In MS GM, a catalase enzyme activity was elevated compared to control GM. We measured catalase protein expression by immune dot-blotting and catalase mRNA by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Protein analysis studies showed a strong positive correlation between catalase and microglial marker IBA-1 in MS GM. In addition, calibration of catalase mRNA level with reference to the microglial-specific transcript AIF-1 revealed an increase in this transcript in MS. This was reflected by the extent of HLA-DR immunolabeling in MS GM which was significantly elevated compared to control GM. Collectively, these observations provide evidence that microglial catalase activity is elevated in MS grey matter and may be an important endogenous anti-oxidant defence mechanism in MS.

  14. Rare pediatric conditions: contribution of grey-scale ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Garel, L; Montagne, J P; Fauré, C

    1979-10-01

    The authors report some unusual pediatric conditions where grey scale ultrasound was the most useful diagnostic tool. Cases of pericardial cyst, polycystic kidney disease of the adult type, hepatic hamartoma and hepatocarcinoma, gallstones, renal pseudo tumors, calcified inferior vena caval thrombus, acute pancreatitis, multicystic kidney and retroperitoneal lymphangioma are briefly described and compared to the literature. In a patient presenting with hereditary tyrosinemia, ultrasound not only disclosed evidence of hepatocarcinoma but was shown to be the procedure of choice for following the course of the disease.

  15. Wastewater treatment from biodiesel production via a coupled photo-Fenton-aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR) system.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Ximena María Vargas; Mejía, Gina Maria Hincapié; López, Kelly Viviana Patiño; Vásquez, Gloria Restrepo; Sepúlveda, Juan Miguel Marín

    2012-01-01

    A coupled system of the photo-Fenton advanced oxidation technique and an aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR) was used to treat wastewater from biodiesel production using either palm or castor oil. The photo-Fenton reaction and biological process were evaluated individually and were effective at treating the wastewater; nevertheless, each process required longer degradation times for the wastewater pollutants compared with the coupled system. The proposed coupled photo-Fenton/aerobic SBR system obtained a 90% reduction of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) in half of the time required for the biological system individually. PMID:22766873

  16. Transient Release of Oxygenated Volatile Organic Compounds during Light-Dark Transitions in Grey Poplar Leaves1

    PubMed Central

    Graus, Martin; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Hansel, Armin; Cojocariu, Cristian; Rennenberg, Heinz; Wisthaler, Armin; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the prompt release of acetaldehyde and other oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from leaves of Grey poplar [Populus x canescens (Aiton) Smith] following light-dark transitions. Mass scans utilizing the extremely fast and sensitive proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry technique revealed the following temporal pattern after light-dark transitions: hexenal was emitted first, followed by acetaldehyde and other C6-VOCs. Under anoxic conditions, acetaldehyde was the only compound released after switching off the light. This clearly indicated that hexenal and other C6-VOCs were released from the lipoxygenase reaction taking place during light-dark transitions under aerobic conditions. Experiments with enzyme inhibitors that artificially increased cytosolic pyruvate demonstrated that the acetaldehyde burst after light-dark transition could not be explained by the recently suggested pyruvate overflow mechanism. The simulation of light fleck situations in the canopy by exposing leaves to alternating light-dark and dark-light transitions or fast changes from high to low photosynthetic photon flux density showed that this process is of minor importance for acetaldehyde emission into the Earth's atmosphere. PMID:15299129

  17. Vocal Learning in Grey Parrots: A Brief Review of Perception, Production, and Cross-Species Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepperberg, Irene M.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter briefly reviews what is known-and what remains to be understood--about Grey parrot vocal learning. I review Greys' physical capacities--issues of auditory perception and production--then discuss how these capacities are used in vocal learning and can be recruited for referential communication with humans. I discuss cross-species…

  18. Forecasting Performance of Grey Prediction for Education Expenditure and School Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Hui-Wen Vivian; Yin, Mu-Shang

    2012-01-01

    GM(1,1) and GM(1,1) rolling models derived from grey system theory were estimated using time-series data from projection studies by National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). An out-of-sample forecasting competition between the two grey prediction models and exponential smoothing used by NCES was conducted for education expenditure and…

  19. Controlling the catalytic aerobic oxidation of phenols.

    PubMed

    Esguerra, Kenneth Virgel N; Fall, Yacoub; Petitjean, Laurène; Lumb, Jean-Philip

    2014-05-28

    The oxidation of phenols is the subject of extensive investigation, but there are few catalytic aerobic examples that are chemo- and regioselective. Here we describe conditions for the ortho-oxygenation or oxidative coupling of phenols under copper (Cu)-catalyzed aerobic conditions that give rise to ortho-quinones, biphenols or benzoxepines. We demonstrate that each product class can be accessed selectively by the appropriate choice of Cu(I) salt, amine ligand, desiccant and reaction temperature. In addition, we evaluate the effects of substituents on the phenol and demonstrate their influence on selectivity between ortho-oxygenation and oxidative coupling pathways. These results create an important precedent of catalyst control in the catalytic aerobic oxidation of phenols and set the stage for future development of catalytic systems and mechanistic investigations. PMID:24784319

  20. Drying and recovery of aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianjun; Zhang, Quanguo; Chen, Yu-You; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-10-01

    To dehydrate aerobic granules to bone-dry form was proposed as a promising option for long-term storage of aerobic granules. This study cultivated aerobic granules with high proteins/polysaccharide ratio and then dried these granules using seven protocols: drying at 37°C, 60°C, 4°C, under sunlight, in dark, in a flowing air stream or in concentrated acetone solutions. All dried granules experienced volume shrinkage of over 80% without major structural breakdown. After three recovery batches, although with loss of part of the volatile suspended solids, all dried granules were restored most of their original size and organic matter degradation capabilities. The strains that can survive over the drying and storage periods were also identified. Once the granules were dried, they can be stored over long period of time, with minimal impact yielded by the applied drying protocols. PMID:27392096

  1. Neocortical grey matter distribution underlying voluntary, flexible vocalizations in chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Serena; Reyes, Laura D.; Hopkins, William D.; Taglialatela, Jared P.; Sherwood, Chet C.

    2016-01-01

    Vocal learning is a key property of spoken language, which might also be present in nonhuman primate species, such as chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), to a limited degree. While understanding the origins of vocal learning in the primate brain may help shed light on the evolution of speech and language, little is still known regarding the neurobiological correlates of vocal flexibility in nonhuman primates. The current study used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to assess whether the cerebral cortex of captive chimpanzees that learned to voluntarily produce sounds to attract the attention of a human experimenter (attention-getting sounds) differs in grey matter distribution compared to chimpanzees that do not exhibit this behavior. It was found that chimpanzees that produce attention-getting sounds were characterized by increased grey matter in the ventrolateral prefrontal and dorsal premotor cortices. These findings suggest that the evolution of the capacity to flexibly modulate vocal output may be associated with reorganization of regions for motor control, including orofacial movements, in the primate brain. PMID:27703216

  2. [Landscape influence on the Grey Herons colonies distribution].

    PubMed

    Boisteau, Benjamin; Marion, Loïc

    2006-03-01

    We analysed the spatial relationship between the location and the size of the 112 grey heron colonies existing in 1994 in the two refuge areas after their decline of the species in the 19th century in France: South Brittany (Loire-Atlantique and Morbihan), and eastern France (Haute-Saône, Saône-et-Loire, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Vosges). We tested 35 variables describing the hydrographical network surrounding the colonies from a local to a regional scale using a Geographic Information System. The results show that, whatever the scale, the distribution of the breeding colonies was not governed by the same elements of the hydrographical network in the different areas. Two strategies of spatial utilization were observed between the western and the eastern parts of France. Moreover, two quite distinct situations were also distinguished between Morbihan and Loire-Atlantique. This study stresses that the type and the spatial organization of the hydrographical elements, but also of the history of the populations, are important in the distribution of the Grey Heron colonies.

  3. Grey parrots use inferential reasoning based on acoustic cues alone.

    PubMed

    Schloegl, Christian; Schmidt, Judith; Boeckle, Markus; Weiß, Brigitte M; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2012-10-22

    Our ability to make logical inferences is considered as one of the cornerstones of human intelligence, fuelling investigations of reasoning abilities in non-human animals. Yet, the evidence to date is equivocal, with apes as the prime candidates to possess these skills. For instance, in a two-choice task, apes can identify the location of hidden food if it is indicated by a rattling noise caused by the shaking of a baited container. More importantly, they also use the absence of noise during the shaking of the empty container to infer that this container is not baited. However, since the inaugural report of apes solving this task, to the best of our knowledge, no comparable evidence could be found in any other tested species such as monkeys and dogs. Here, we report the first successful and instantaneous solution of the shaking task through logical inference by a non-ape species, the African grey parrot. Surprisingly, the performance of the birds was sensitive to the shaking movement: they were successful with containers shaken horizontally, but not with vertical shaking resembling parrot head-bobbing. Thus, grey parrots seem to possess ape-like cross-modal reasoning skills, but their reliance on these abilities is influenced by low-level interferences.

  4. Cooperative problem solving in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus).

    PubMed

    Péron, F; Rat-Fischer, L; Lalot, M; Nagle, L; Bovet, D

    2011-07-01

    One of the main characteristics of human societies is the extensive degree of cooperation among individuals. Cooperation is an elaborate phenomenon, also found in non-human primates during laboratory studies and field observations of animal hunting behaviour, among other things. Some authors suggest that the pressures assumed to have favoured the emergence of social intelligence in primates are similar to those that may have permitted the emergence of complex cognitive abilities in some bird species such as corvids and psittacids. In the wild, parrots show cooperative behaviours such as bi-parental care and mobbing. In this study, we tested cooperative problem solving in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). Our birds were tested using several experimental setups to explore the different levels of behavioural organisation between participants, differing in temporal and spatial complexity. In our experiments, African grey parrots were able to act simultaneously but mostly failed during the delay task, maybe because of a lack of inhibitory motor response. Confronted with the possibility to adapt their behaviour to the presence or absence of a partner, they showed that they were able to coordinate their actions. They also collaborated, acting complementarily in order to solve tasks, but they were not able to place themselves in the partner's role.

  5. Adoption in Eastern Grey Kangaroos: A Consequence of Misdirected Care?

    PubMed Central

    King, Wendy J.; Forsyth, David M.; Coulson, Graeme; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Adoption is rare in animals and is usually attributed to kin selection. In a 6-year study of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), 11 of 326 juveniles were adopted. We detected eight adoptions by observing behavioural associations and nursing between marked mothers and young and three more by analysing the relatedness of mothers and young using microsatellite DNA. Four adoptions involved reciprocal switches and three were by mothers whose own pouch young were known to subsequently disappear. Adoptive mothers were not closely related to each other or to adoptees but adoptive mothers and young associated as closely as did biological pairs, as measured by half-weight indices. Switch mothers did not associate closely. Maternal age and body condition did not influence the likelihood of adoption but females were more likely to adopt in years with high densities of females with large pouch young. Adoption did not improve juvenile survival. We conclude that adoptions in this wild population were potentially costly and likely caused by misdirected care, suggesting that eastern grey kangaroos may have poorly developed mother-offspring recognition mechanisms. PMID:25970624

  6. Adoption in eastern grey kangaroos: a consequence of misdirected care?

    PubMed

    King, Wendy J; Forsyth, David M; Coulson, Graeme; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Adoption is rare in animals and is usually attributed to kin selection. In a 6-year study of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), 11 of 326 juveniles were adopted. We detected eight adoptions by observing behavioural associations and nursing between marked mothers and young and three more by analysing the relatedness of mothers and young using microsatellite DNA. Four adoptions involved reciprocal switches and three were by mothers whose own pouch young were known to subsequently disappear. Adoptive mothers were not closely related to each other or to adoptees but adoptive mothers and young associated as closely as did biological pairs, as measured by half-weight indices. Switch mothers did not associate closely. Maternal age and body condition did not influence the likelihood of adoption but females were more likely to adopt in years with high densities of females with large pouch young. Adoption did not improve juvenile survival. We conclude that adoptions in this wild population were potentially costly and likely caused by misdirected care, suggesting that eastern grey kangaroos may have poorly developed mother-offspring recognition mechanisms.

  7. "Osmetrichia" in the grey brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira).

    PubMed

    Ajmat, M T; Chamut, S; Black-Decima, P

    1999-12-01

    Osmetrichia have been defined as hairs specialized in the storage of secretions used in olfactory communication between conspecifics (Müller-Schwarze, et al. 1977). These authors found highly specialized osmetrichia in the tarsal gland tufts of black-tailed but not white-tailed deer. Chemical communication appears to be well developed in grey brocket deer: the bucks scent mark by rubbing their foreheads on bushes, and all deer urinate and defecate almost exclusively on dung heaps. Brocket deer also possess tarsal tufts. The purpose of this study was to examine hairs from several glandular areas in this species. Osmetrichia, similar to those found in black tailed deer, were found in tarsal tufts and in interdigital gland hairs; these hairs possessed open scales with deep pockets suitable for holding secretions, in comparison to the flat scales seen on control hairs. Hairs with different morphological characteristics (slightly open scales) were found over the frontal gland. Specialized hairs were not found in the tarsal tufts of one specimen of a related species, the red brocket deer (Mazama americana). The similarities in the hairs of grey brocket and black-tailed deer are remarkable in light of the ecological and behavioral differences between these two species.

  8. Grey parrots use inferential reasoning based on acoustic cues alone

    PubMed Central

    Schloegl, Christian; Schmidt, Judith; Boeckle, Markus; Weiß, Brigitte M.; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Our ability to make logical inferences is considered as one of the cornerstones of human intelligence, fuelling investigations of reasoning abilities in non-human animals. Yet, the evidence to date is equivocal, with apes as the prime candidates to possess these skills. For instance, in a two-choice task, apes can identify the location of hidden food if it is indicated by a rattling noise caused by the shaking of a baited container. More importantly, they also use the absence of noise during the shaking of the empty container to infer that this container is not baited. However, since the inaugural report of apes solving this task, to the best of our knowledge, no comparable evidence could be found in any other tested species such as monkeys and dogs. Here, we report the first successful and instantaneous solution of the shaking task through logical inference by a non-ape species, the African grey parrot. Surprisingly, the performance of the birds was sensitive to the shaking movement: they were successful with containers shaken horizontally, but not with vertical shaking resembling parrot head-bobbing. Thus, grey parrots seem to possess ape-like cross-modal reasoning skills, but their reliance on these abilities is influenced by low-level interferences. PMID:22874753

  9. Communications systems design for testability: Grey-box testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Probert, Robert L.; Geldrez, Cecilia

    Large systems such as telecommunications systems may involve several million lines of executable code and tend to evolve incrementally, thus rendering testing and maintainability a very complex task. For this reason, testing and verification requirements must be defined and incorporated into the development process early in the software development cycle. Thus, design becomes a key component of these systems. An approach to assist in enhancing the testability of software designs is proposed, termed grey-box testing. One particular grey-box testing paradigm named semantic instrumentation is illustrated. Designs are represented as design machines, an extension of finite-state machines. A design-level plan for verification/test is then derived to guarantee branch coverage of the design machine for both normal behaviors and for processing of exceptions. Finally, semantic probes are defined to provide a mapping from the design machine to implemented code. These probes are used to document design decisions, implementation decisions, and execution traces during code verification and test. The process of semantic instrumentation is illustrated on communications services, more precisely, on the service of the alternating bit protocol.

  10. Fully automated grey and white matter spinal cord segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Prados, Ferran; Cardoso, M. Jorge; Yiannakas, Marios C.; Hoy, Luke R.; Tebaldi, Elisa; Kearney, Hugh; Liechti, Martina D.; Miller, David H.; Ciccarelli, Olga; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A. M. Gandini; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Axonal loss in the spinal cord is one of the main contributing factors to irreversible clinical disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). In vivo axonal loss can be assessed indirectly by estimating a reduction in the cervical cross-sectional area (CSA) of the spinal cord over time, which is indicative of spinal cord atrophy, and such a measure may be obtained by means of image segmentation using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this work, we propose a new fully automated spinal cord segmentation technique that incorporates two different multi-atlas segmentation propagation and fusion techniques: The Optimized PatchMatch Label fusion (OPAL) algorithm for localising and approximately segmenting the spinal cord, and the Similarity and Truth Estimation for Propagated Segmentations (STEPS) algorithm for segmenting white and grey matter simultaneously. In a retrospective analysis of MRI data, the proposed method facilitated CSA measurements with accuracy equivalent to the inter-rater variability, with a Dice score (DSC) of 0.967 at C2/C3 level. The segmentation performance for grey matter at C2/C3 level was close to inter-rater variability, reaching an accuracy (DSC) of 0.826 for healthy subjects and 0.835 people with clinically isolated syndrome MS. PMID:27786306

  11. Bioflocculation of grey water for improved energy recovery within decentralized sanitation concepts.

    PubMed

    Hernández Leal, L; Temmink, H; Zeeman, G; Buisman, C J N

    2010-12-01

    Bioflocculation of grey water was tested with a lab-scale membrane bioreactor in order to concentrate the COD. Three concentration factors were tested based on the ratio of sludge retention time (SRT) and hydraulic retention time (HRT): 3, 8 and 12. COD concentration factor was up to 7.1, achieving a final concentration of 7.2 g COD L(-1). Large fractions of suspended COD were recovered in the concentrate (57%, 81% and 82% at SRT/HRT ratios of 3, 8 and 12, respectively) indicating a strong bioflocculation of grey water. A maximum of 11% of COD mineralization of grey water was measured at the longest SRT tested (1 d). The integration of bioflocculation of grey water in decentralized sanitation concepts may increase the overall production of methane by 73%, based on the biogas produced by black water only. Therefore, bioflocculation is a promising grey water pre-treatment step for energy recovery within decentralized sanitation concepts.

  12. Survival and band recovery rates of sympatric grey ducks and mallards in New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caithness, T.; Williams, M.; Nichols, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    We used band recovery data from grey ducks (Anas superciliosa) and mallards. (A. platyrhynchos) banded sympatrically during 1957-74 to estimate annual survival and recovery rates. Young birds tended to have higher recovery rates and lower survival rates than adults for both species. Both species showed strong evidence of year-to-year variation in annual survival rates. Survival rates of male mallards were higher than those in females, as is typical for this species in North America, but there was no evidence of sex-specific survival differences in grey ducks. Recovery rate estimates for grey ducks were high and were significantly higher than those for mallards. However, survival rates did not differ significantly between the 2 species within any age-sex class. The similar survival rates, when mallard populations were increasing and grey ducks were decreasing, suggest that mallard reproductive rates have been greater than those of grey ducks.

  13. Grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) diving tourism: Tourist compliance and shark behaviour at Fish Rock, Australia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kirby; Scarr, Mark; Scarpaci, Carol

    2010-11-01

    Humans can dive with critically endangered grey nurse sharks (Carcharias taurus) along the east coast of Australia. This study investigated both compliance of tourist divers to a code of conduct and legislation and the behaviour of grey nurse sharks in the presence of divers. A total of 25 data collection dives were conducted from December 2008 to January 2009. Grey nurse shark and diver behaviour were documented using 2-min scan samples and continuous observation. The proportion of time spent observing human-shark interactions was 9.4% of total field time and mean human-shark interaction time was 15.0 min. Results were used to gauge the effectiveness of current management practices for the grey nurse shark dive industry at Fish Rock in New South Wales, Australia. Grey nurse shark dive tourists were compliant to stipulations in the code of conduct and legislation (compliance ranged from 88 to 100%). The research detailed factors that may promote compliance in wildlife tourism operations such as the clarity of the stipulations, locality of the target species and diver perceptions of sharks. Results indicated that grey nurse sharks spent the majority of their time milling (85%) followed by active swimming (15%). Milling behaviour significantly decreased in the presence of more than six divers. Distance between sharks and divers, interaction time and number of sharks were not significantly correlated with grey nurse shark school behaviour. Jaw gaping, rapid withdrawal and stiff or jerky movement were the specific behaviours of grey nurse sharks that occurred most frequently and were associated with distance between divers and sharks and the presence of six or more divers. Revision of the number of divers allowed per interaction with a school of grey nurse sharks and further research on the potential impacts that shark-diving tourism may pose to grey nurse sharks is recommended. PMID:20872140

  14. Grey Nurse Shark ( Carcharias taurus) Diving Tourism: Tourist Compliance and Shark Behaviour at Fish Rock, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kirby; Scarr, Mark; Scarpaci, Carol

    2010-11-01

    Humans can dive with critically endangered grey nurse sharks ( Carcharias taurus) along the east coast of Australia. This study investigated both compliance of tourist divers to a code of conduct and legislation and the behaviour of grey nurse sharks in the presence of divers. A total of 25 data collection dives were conducted from December 2008 to January 2009. Grey nurse shark and diver behaviour were documented using 2-min scan samples and continuous observation. The proportion of time spent observing human-shark interactions was 9.4% of total field time and mean human-shark interaction time was 15.0 min. Results were used to gauge the effectiveness of current management practices for the grey nurse shark dive industry at Fish Rock in New South Wales, Australia. Grey nurse shark dive tourists were compliant to stipulations in the code of conduct and legislation (compliance ranged from 88 to 100%). The research detailed factors that may promote compliance in wildlife tourism operations such as the clarity of the stipulations, locality of the target species and diver perceptions of sharks. Results indicated that grey nurse sharks spent the majority of their time milling (85%) followed by active swimming (15%). Milling behaviour significantly decreased in the presence of more than six divers. Distance between sharks and divers, interaction time and number of sharks were not significantly correlated with grey nurse shark school behaviour. Jaw gaping, rapid withdrawal and stiff or jerky movement were the specific behaviours of grey nurse sharks that occurred most frequently and were associated with distance between divers and sharks and the presence of six or more divers. Revision of the number of divers allowed per interaction with a school of grey nurse sharks and further research on the potential impacts that shark-diving tourism may pose to grey nurse sharks is recommended.

  15. Grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) diving tourism: Tourist compliance and shark behaviour at Fish Rock, Australia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kirby; Scarr, Mark; Scarpaci, Carol

    2010-11-01

    Humans can dive with critically endangered grey nurse sharks (Carcharias taurus) along the east coast of Australia. This study investigated both compliance of tourist divers to a code of conduct and legislation and the behaviour of grey nurse sharks in the presence of divers. A total of 25 data collection dives were conducted from December 2008 to January 2009. Grey nurse shark and diver behaviour were documented using 2-min scan samples and continuous observation. The proportion of time spent observing human-shark interactions was 9.4% of total field time and mean human-shark interaction time was 15.0 min. Results were used to gauge the effectiveness of current management practices for the grey nurse shark dive industry at Fish Rock in New South Wales, Australia. Grey nurse shark dive tourists were compliant to stipulations in the code of conduct and legislation (compliance ranged from 88 to 100%). The research detailed factors that may promote compliance in wildlife tourism operations such as the clarity of the stipulations, locality of the target species and diver perceptions of sharks. Results indicated that grey nurse sharks spent the majority of their time milling (85%) followed by active swimming (15%). Milling behaviour significantly decreased in the presence of more than six divers. Distance between sharks and divers, interaction time and number of sharks were not significantly correlated with grey nurse shark school behaviour. Jaw gaping, rapid withdrawal and stiff or jerky movement were the specific behaviours of grey nurse sharks that occurred most frequently and were associated with distance between divers and sharks and the presence of six or more divers. Revision of the number of divers allowed per interaction with a school of grey nurse sharks and further research on the potential impacts that shark-diving tourism may pose to grey nurse sharks is recommended.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of Amitriptyline HCl and Its Metabolites in Healthy African Grey Parrots ( Psittacus erithacus ) and Cockatoos (Cacatua Species).

    PubMed

    Visser, Marike; Ragsdale, Michelle M; Boothe, Dawn M

    2015-12-01

    Amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant, is used clinically to treat feather-destructive behavior in psittacine birds at a recommended dosage of 1-5 mg/kg PO q12-24h, which has been extrapolated from human medicine and based on anecdotal reports. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe the individual and population pharmacokinetic parameters of amitriptyline after a single oral dose at 1.5 mg/kg, 4.5 mg/kg, and 9 mg/kg in healthy African grey parrots ( Psittacus erithacus , n = 3) and cockatoos (Cacatua species, n = 3). Three birds received an initial 1.5 mg/kg oral dose, and blood samples were collected for 24 hours at fixed time intervals. Serum concentrations of amitriptyline and its metabolites were determined by polarized immunofluorescence. After determining the initial parameters and a 14-day washout period, 2 African grey parrots and 1 cockatoo received a single oral dose at 4.5 mg/kg, and 3 cockatoos and 1 African grey parrot received a single oral dose at 9 mg/kg. Concentrations reached the minimum therapeutic range reported in people (60 ng/mL) in 4 of 10 birds (4.5 and 9.0 mg/kg). Concentrations were within the toxic range in 1 African grey parrot (9 mg/kg), with regurgitation, ataxia, and dullness noted. Serum concentrations were nondetectable in 3 birds (1.5 and 4.5 mg/kg) and detectable but below the human therapeutic range in 3 birds (1.5 mg/kg and 9 mg/kg). Drug concentrations were continuing to increase at the end of the study (24 hours) in 1 bird. Elimination half-life varied from 1.6 to 91.2 hours. Population pharmacokinetics indicated significantly varied absorption, and elimination constants varied between species. Although amitriptyline appeared to be tolerated in most birds, disposition varies markedly among and within species, between the 2 genera, and within individual birds. The current recommended dosage of 1-5 mg/kg q12h in psittacine birds appears insufficient to achieve serum concentrations within the human therapeutic range

  17. Pharmacokinetics of Amitriptyline HCl and Its Metabolites in Healthy African Grey Parrots ( Psittacus erithacus ) and Cockatoos (Cacatua Species).

    PubMed

    Visser, Marike; Ragsdale, Michelle M; Boothe, Dawn M

    2015-12-01

    Amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant, is used clinically to treat feather-destructive behavior in psittacine birds at a recommended dosage of 1-5 mg/kg PO q12-24h, which has been extrapolated from human medicine and based on anecdotal reports. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe the individual and population pharmacokinetic parameters of amitriptyline after a single oral dose at 1.5 mg/kg, 4.5 mg/kg, and 9 mg/kg in healthy African grey parrots ( Psittacus erithacus , n = 3) and cockatoos (Cacatua species, n = 3). Three birds received an initial 1.5 mg/kg oral dose, and blood samples were collected for 24 hours at fixed time intervals. Serum concentrations of amitriptyline and its metabolites were determined by polarized immunofluorescence. After determining the initial parameters and a 14-day washout period, 2 African grey parrots and 1 cockatoo received a single oral dose at 4.5 mg/kg, and 3 cockatoos and 1 African grey parrot received a single oral dose at 9 mg/kg. Concentrations reached the minimum therapeutic range reported in people (60 ng/mL) in 4 of 10 birds (4.5 and 9.0 mg/kg). Concentrations were within the toxic range in 1 African grey parrot (9 mg/kg), with regurgitation, ataxia, and dullness noted. Serum concentrations were nondetectable in 3 birds (1.5 and 4.5 mg/kg) and detectable but below the human therapeutic range in 3 birds (1.5 mg/kg and 9 mg/kg). Drug concentrations were continuing to increase at the end of the study (24 hours) in 1 bird. Elimination half-life varied from 1.6 to 91.2 hours. Population pharmacokinetics indicated significantly varied absorption, and elimination constants varied between species. Although amitriptyline appeared to be tolerated in most birds, disposition varies markedly among and within species, between the 2 genera, and within individual birds. The current recommended dosage of 1-5 mg/kg q12h in psittacine birds appears insufficient to achieve serum concentrations within the human therapeutic range

  18. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

  19. Aerobic Exercise for Reducing Migraine Burden: Mechanisms, Markers, and Models of Change Processes

    PubMed Central

    Irby, Megan B.; Bond, Dale S.; Lipton, Richard B.; Nicklas, Barbara; Houle, Timothy T.; Penzien, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Engagement in regular exercise routinely is recommended as an intervention for managing and preventing migraine, and yet empirical support is far from definitive. We possess at best a weak understanding of how aerobic exercise and resulting change in aerobic capacity influence migraine, let alone the optimal parameters for exercise regimens as migraine therapy (eg, who will benefit, when to prescribe, optimal types, and doses/intensities of exercise, level of anticipated benefit). These fundamental knowledge gaps critically limit our capacity to deploy exercise as an intervention for migraine. Overview Clear articulation of the markers and mechanisms through which aerobic exercise confers benefits for migraine would prove invaluable and could yield insights on migraine pathophysiology. Neurovascular and neuroinflammatory pathways, including an effect on obesity or adiposity, are obvious candidates for study given their role both in migraine as well as the changes known to accrue with regular exercise. In addition to these biological pathways, improvements in aerobic fitness and migraine alike also are mediated by changes in psychological and sociocognitive factors. Indeed a number of specific mechanisms and pathways likely are operational in the relationship between exercise and migraine improvement, and it remains to be established whether these pathways operate in parallel or synergistically. As heuristics that might conceptually benefit our research programs here forward, we: (1) provide an extensive listing of potential mechanisms and markers that could account for the effects of aerobic exercise on migraine and are worthy of empirical exploration and (2) present two exemplar conceptual models depicting pathways through which exercise may serve to reduce the burden of migraine. Conclusion Should the promise of aerobic exercise as a feasible and effective migraine therapy be realized, this line of endeavor stands to benefit migraineurs (including the

  20. Aerobic exercise and yoga improve neurocognitive function in women with early psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jingxia; Chan, Sherry KW; Lee, Edwin HM; Chang, Wing Chung; Tse, Michael; Su, Wayne Weizhong; Sham, Pak; Hui, Christy LM; Joe, Glen; Chan, Cecilia LW; Khong, P L; So, Kwok Fai; Honer, William G; Chen, Eric YH

    2015-01-01

    Impairments of attention and memory are evident in early psychosis, and are associated with functional disability. In a group of stable, medicated women patients, we aimed to determine whether participating in aerobic exercise or yoga improved cognitive impairments and clinical symptoms. A total of 140 female patients were recruited, and 124 received the allocated intervention in a randomized controlled study of 12 weeks of yoga or aerobic exercise compared with a waitlist group. The primary outcomes were cognitive functions including memory and attention. Secondary outcome measures were the severity of psychotic and depressive symptoms, and hippocampal volume. Data from 124 patients were included in the final analysis based on the intention-to-treat principle. Both yoga and aerobic exercise groups demonstrated significant improvements in working memory (P<0.01) with moderate to large effect sizes compared with the waitlist control group. The yoga group showed additional benefits in verbal acquisition (P<0.01) and attention (P=0.01). Both types of exercise improved overall and depressive symptoms (all P⩽0.01) after 12 weeks. Small increases in hippocampal volume were observed in the aerobic exercise group compared with waitlist (P=0.01). Both types of exercise improved working memory in early psychosis patients, with yoga having a larger effect on verbal acquisition and attention than aerobic exercise. The application of yoga and aerobic exercise as adjunctive treatments for early psychosis merits serious consideration. This study was supported by the Small Research Funding of the University of Hong Kong (201007176229), and RGC funding (C00240/762412) by the Authority of Research, Hong Kong. PMID:27336050

  1. Aerobic exercise and yoga improve neurocognitive function in women with early psychosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jingxia; Chan, Sherry Kw; Lee, Edwin Hm; Chang, Wing Chung; Tse, Michael; Su, Wayne Weizhong; Sham, Pak; Hui, Christy Lm; Joe, Glen; Chan, Cecilia Lw; Khong, P L; So, Kwok Fai; Honer, William G; Chen, Eric Yh

    2015-01-01

    Impairments of attention and memory are evident in early psychosis, and are associated with functional disability. In a group of stable, medicated women patients, we aimed to determine whether participating in aerobic exercise or yoga improved cognitive impairments and clinical symptoms. A total of 140 female patients were recruited, and 124 received the allocated intervention in a randomized controlled study of 12 weeks of yoga or aerobic exercise compared with a waitlist group. The primary outcomes were cognitive functions including memory and attention. Secondary outcome measures were the severity of psychotic and depressive symptoms, and hippocampal volume. Data from 124 patients were included in the final analysis based on the intention-to-treat principle. Both yoga and aerobic exercise groups demonstrated significant improvements in working memory (P<0.01) with moderate to large effect sizes compared with the waitlist control group. The yoga group showed additional benefits in verbal acquisition (P<0.01) and attention (P=0.01). Both types of exercise improved overall and depressive symptoms (all P⩽0.01) after 12 weeks. Small increases in hippocampal volume were observed in the aerobic exercise group compared with waitlist (P=0.01). Both types of exercise improved working memory in early psychosis patients, with yoga having a larger effect on verbal acquisition and attention than aerobic exercise. The application of yoga and aerobic exercise as adjunctive treatments for early psychosis merits serious consideration. This study was supported by the Small Research Funding of the University of Hong Kong (201007176229), and RGC funding (C00240/762412) by the Authority of Research, Hong Kong.

  2. Aerobic exercise and yoga improve neurocognitive function in women with early psychosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jingxia; Chan, Sherry Kw; Lee, Edwin Hm; Chang, Wing Chung; Tse, Michael; Su, Wayne Weizhong; Sham, Pak; Hui, Christy Lm; Joe, Glen; Chan, Cecilia Lw; Khong, P L; So, Kwok Fai; Honer, William G; Chen, Eric Yh

    2015-01-01

    Impairments of attention and memory are evident in early psychosis, and are associated with functional disability. In a group of stable, medicated women patients, we aimed to determine whether participating in aerobic exercise or yoga improved cognitive impairments and clinical symptoms. A total of 140 female patients were recruited, and 124 received the allocated intervention in a randomized controlled study of 12 weeks of yoga or aerobic exercise compared with a waitlist group. The primary outcomes were cognitive functions including memory and attention. Secondary outcome measures were the severity of psychotic and depressive symptoms, and hippocampal volume. Data from 124 patients were included in the final analysis based on the intention-to-treat principle. Both yoga and aerobic exercise groups demonstrated significant improvements in working memory (P<0.01) with moderate to large effect sizes compared with the waitlist control group. The yoga group showed additional benefits in verbal acquisition (P<0.01) and attention (P=0.01). Both types of exercise improved overall and depressive symptoms (all P⩽0.01) after 12 weeks. Small increases in hippocampal volume were observed in the aerobic exercise group compared with waitlist (P=0.01). Both types of exercise improved working memory in early psychosis patients, with yoga having a larger effect on verbal acquisition and attention than aerobic exercise. The application of yoga and aerobic exercise as adjunctive treatments for early psychosis merits serious consideration. This study was supported by the Small Research Funding of the University of Hong Kong (201007176229), and RGC funding (C00240/762412) by the Authority of Research, Hong Kong. PMID:27336050

  3. Denitrification kinetics in anoxic/aerobic activated sludge systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, G.M.

    1998-12-11

    Nitrogen removal needs at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have increased due to greater concerns about eutrophication and increased interest in reuse of treated municipal effluents. Biological processes are the most cost-effective method for nitrogen removal. Biological nitrogen removal is accomplished in two distinctly different processes by the conversion of nitrogen in the wastewater from organic nitrogen and ammonia to nitrate, followed by reduction of the nitrate to nitrogen gas. Nitrate production occurs in an aerobic activated sludge treatment zone during a process called nitrification. The nitrate is then converted through a series of intermediate steps to nitrogen gas in an anoxic zone (an anaerobic condition with nitrate present) during a process called denitrification, effectively removing the nitrogen from the wastewater. Many different WWTP designs have been developed to incorporate these two conditions for nitrogen removal.

  4. Aerobic Exercise Prescription for Rheumatoid Arthritics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Blanche W.; Williams, Hilda L.

    The use of exercise as a general treatment for rheumatoid arthritics (RA) has included range of motion, muscular strength, water exercise and rest therapy while virtually ignoring possible benefits of aerobic exercise. The purposes of this project were to examine the guidelines for exercise prescription in relation to this special population and…

  5. Response of aerobic rice to Piriformospora indica.

    PubMed

    Das, Joy; Ramesh, K V; Maithri, U; Mutangana, D; Suresh, C K

    2014-03-01

    Rice cultivation under aerobic condition not only saves water but also opens up a splendid scope for effective application of beneficial root symbionts in rice crop unlike conventional puddled rice cultivation where water logged condition acts as constraint for easy proliferation of various beneficial soil microorganisms like arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Keeping these in view, an in silico investigation were carried out to explore the interaction of hydrogen phosphate with phosphate transporter protein (PTP) from P. indica. This was followed by greenhouse investigation to study the response of aerobic rice to Glomusfasciculatum, a conventional P biofertilizer and P. indica, an alternative to AM fungi. Computational studies using ClustalW tool revealed several conserved motifs between the phosphate transporters from Piriformospora indica and 8 other Glomus species. The 3D model of PTP from P. indica resembling "Mayan temple" was successfully docked onto hydrogen phosphate, indicating the affinity of this protein for inorganic phosphorus. Greenhouse studies revealed inoculation of aerobic rice either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both significantly enhanced the plant growth, biomass and yield with higher NPK, chlorophyll and sugar compared to uninoculated ones, P. indica inoculated plants being superior. A significantly enhanced activity of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase were noticed in the rhizosphere soil of rice plants inoculated either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both, contributing to higher P uptake. Further, inoculation of aerobic rice plants with P. indica proved to be a better choice as a potential biofertilizer over mycorrhiza. PMID:24669667

  6. AEROBIC DENITRIFICATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR NITROGEN FATE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Mississippi, as well as most nitrogen-degraded rivers and streams, NO3- is the dominant N species and therefore understanding its biogeochemical behavior is critical for accurate nitrogen fate modeling. To our knowledge this is the first work to report aerobic denitrificat...

  7. Media for the aerobic growth of campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of agar and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) concentration on aerobic growth of Campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium was examined. The broth medium was supplemented with 0.0 to 0.2% agar and inoculated with 106 CFU/ml of Campylobacter coli 33559, Campylobacter fetus 27349, Campylobacter...

  8. Reflections on Psychotherapy and Aerobic Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Wade

    This document provides a series of reflections by a practicing psychologist on the uses of aerobic workouts in psychotherapy. Two case histories are cited to illustrate the contention that the mode of exercise, rather than simply its presence or absence, is the significant indicator of a patient's emotional well-being or psychopathology. The first…

  9. A proposed aerobic granules size development scheme for aerobic granulation process.

    PubMed

    Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Abdullah, Norhayati; Yuzir, Ali; Olsson, Gustaf; Salmiati; Hamdzah, Myzairah; Din, Mohd Fadhil Mohd; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima; Khalil, Khalilah Abdul; Anuar, Aznah Nor; Noor, Zainura Zainon; Ujang, Zaini

    2015-04-01

    Aerobic granulation is increasingly used in wastewater treatment due to its unique physical properties and microbial functionalities. Granule size defines the physical properties of granules based on biomass accumulation. This study aims to determine the profile of size development under two physicochemical conditions. Two identical bioreactors namely Rnp and Rp were operated under non-phototrophic and phototrophic conditions, respectively. An illustrative scheme was developed to comprehend the mechanism of size development that delineates the granular size throughout the granulation. Observations on granules' size variation have shown that activated sludge revolutionised into the form of aerobic granules through the increase of biomass concentration in bioreactors which also determined the changes of granule size. Both reactors demonstrated that size transformed in a similar trend when tested with and without illumination. Thus, different types of aerobic granules may increase in size in the same way as recommended in the aerobic granule size development scheme.

  10. Ventilation and Speech Characteristics during Submaximal Aerobic Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Susan E.; Hipp, Jenny; Alessio, Helaine

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined alterations in ventilation and speech characteristics as well as perceived dyspnea during submaximal aerobic exercise tasks. Method: Twelve healthy participants completed aerobic exercise-only and simultaneous speaking and aerobic exercise tasks at 50% and 75% of their maximum oxygen consumption (VO[subscript 2] max).…

  11. Adolescents' Interest and Performances in Aerobic Fitness Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Senlin; Parrott, James

    2014-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' interest in aerobic fitness testing and its relation to the test performances. Adolescents (N = 356) from three middle schools participated in the study. The participants took two aerobic fitness tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) and One-Mile Run (1MR) with a two-day interval,…

  12. MHC genotype and near-deterministic mortality in grey seals.

    PubMed

    de Assunção-Franco, M; Hoffman, J I; Harwood, J; Amos, W

    2012-01-01

    The Major Histocompatability Complex (MHC) is one of the best known and best characterised components of the immune system, yet its functions remain somewhat enigmatic, including both anti-pathogen activity and kin recognition. To explore the importance of the MHC relative to literally hundreds of other components of the immune system, we compared MHC genotype frequencies between pups and adults in the grey seal (Halichoerus grypus), one of many marine mammals that exhibit low allelic diversity. We find that one allele is strongly associated with pup survival, pups being more likely to be found dead if they lack it, while total allele number is a remarkably strong predictor of survivorship to adulthood. We estimate that approximately 70% of mortality can be attributed to the MHC. Our study therefore shows that low MHC allele diversity belies its critical role in determining whether a weaned pup negotiates disease to become a breeding adult. PMID:22997548

  13. Emergence of Linguistic Communication: Studies on Grey Parrots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepperberg, Irene M.

    Most studies on the evolution of communication systems concentrate on the primate lineage, ignoring the concept of parallel lines of evolution. Although phylogenetically remote from humans, some birds—particularly Grey parrots—share many cognitive and communicative abilities with humans. On certain tasks, they demonstrate processing abilities comparable to 5-6 year-old humans; they learn very simple vocal syntactic patterns and referential elements of human communication, but only through social interaction and in a manner that proceeds in ways similar to those of humans. Given this knowledge of vocal learning in birds, of the effects of social interaction on such learning, and of birds' complex cognitive abilities, we should not ignore the avian line if we wish to determine the evolutionary pressures that purportedly affected the evolution of complex communication systems—particularly vocal systems—and develop theories and models that can be tested.

  14. Causality in condensates: grey solitons as remnants of BEC formation

    SciTech Connect

    Zurek, Wojciech H

    2008-01-01

    Symmetry breaking during phase transitions can lead to the formation of topological defects (such as vortex lines in superfluids). However, the usually studied BEC's have the shape of a cigar, a geometry that impedes vortex formation, survival, and detection. I show that, in elongated traps, one can expect the formation of 'grey solitons' (long-lived, non-topological 'phase defects') as a result of the same mechanism. Their number will rise approximately in proportion to the transition rate. This steep rise is due to the increasing size of the region of the BEC cigar where the phase of the condensate wavefunction is chosen locally (rather than passed on from the already formed BEC).

  15. Lossless grey image compression using a splitting binary tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Tian, Xin; Xiong, Cheng-Yi; Li, Yan-Sheng; Zhang, Yun; Tian, Jin-Wen

    2013-10-01

    A multi-layer coding algorithm is proposed for grey image lossless compression. We transform the original image by a set of bases (e.g., wavelets, DCT, and gradient spaces). Then, the transformed image is split into a sub-image set with a binary tree. The set include two parts: major sub-images and minor sub-images, which are coded separately. Experimental results over a common dataset show that the proposed algorithm performs close to JPEG-LS in terms of bitrate. However, we can get a scalable image quality, which is similar to JPEG2000. A suboptimal compressed image can be obtained when the bitstream is truncated by unexpected factors. Our algorithm is quit suitable for image transmission, on internet or on satellites.

  16. Non-grey radiation in a liquid rocket combustion chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kehtarnavaz, H.; Dang, A. L.; Chiu, H. H.; Gross, K. W.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of radiation on droplets gasification in liquid rocket combustion chambers has been studied. The modeling includes a Legendre pseudo-spectral collocation approximation to solve the Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE). The band model has been utilized to account for non-grey emitting and absorbing gases present in the comustion chamber. The GEMCHIP II code has been utilized to study the fuel and oxidizer droplets combustion and interaction. The submodels within this code are capable of accounting for group combustion and conjugate effects between many droplets. The radiative model has been coupled with the GEMCHIP II code accounting for radial effects only, to provide the tool for studying the combustion-radiation coupling effects in a bipropellant system. The results indicate that the gasification/combustion process will be enhanced upstream of the chamber causing thicker flame sheet and associated higher combustion efficiency.

  17. Investigation of the use of aerobic granules for the treatment of sugar beet processing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kocaturk, Irem; Erguder, Tuba Hande

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of sugar beet processing wastewater in aerobic granular sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was examined in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen removal efficiency. The effect of sugar beet processing wastewater of high solid content, namely 2255 ± 250 mg/L total suspended solids (TSS), on granular sludge was also investigated. Aerobic granular SBR initially operated with the effluent of anaerobic digester treating sugar beet processing wastewater (Part I) achieved average removal efficiencies of 71 ± 30% total COD (tCOD), 90 ± 3% total ammonifiable nitrogen (TAN), 76 ± 24% soluble COD (sCOD) and 29 ± 4% of TSS. SBR was further operated with sugar beet processing wastewater (Part II), where the tCOD, TAN, sCOD and TSS removal efficiencies were 65 ± 5%, 61 ± 4%, 87 ± 1% and 58 ± 10%, respectively. This study indicated the applicability of aerobic granular SBRs for the treatment of both sugar beet processing wastewater and anaerobically digested processing wastewater. For higher solids removal, further treatment such as a sedimentation tank is required following the aerobic granular systems treating solid-rich wastewaters such as sugar beet processing wastewater. It was also revealed that the application of raw sugar beet processing wastewater slightly changed the aerobic granular sludge properties such as size, structure, colour, settleability and extracellular polymeric substance content, without any drastic and negative effect on treatment performance.

  18. Data expansion: the potential of grey literature for understanding floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlemann, S.; Bertelmann, R.; Merz, B.

    2013-03-01

    Sophisticated methods have been developed and become standard in analysing floods as well as for assessing flood risk. However, increasingly critique of the current standards and scientific practice can be found both in the flood hydrology community as well as in the risk community who argue that the considerable amount of information already available on natural disasters has not been adequately deployed and brought to effective use. We describe this phenomenon as a failure to synthesize knowledge that results from barriers and ignorance in awareness, use and management of the entire spectrum of relevant content, that is, data, information and knowledge. In this paper we argue that the scientific community in flood risk research ignores event-specific analysis and documentations as another source of data. We present results from a systematic search that includes an intensive study on sources and ways of information dissemination of flood-relevant publications. We obtain 186 documents that contain information on the sources, pathways, receptors and/or consequences for any of the 40 strongest trans-basin floods in Germany in the period 1952-2002. This study therefore provides the most comprehensive metadata collection of flood documentations for the considered geographical space and period. A total of 87.5% of all events have been documented, and especially the most severe floods have received extensive coverage. Only 30% of the material has been produced in the scientific/academic environment, and the majority of all documents (about 80%) can be considered grey literature (i.e. literature not controlled by commercial publishers). Therefore, ignoring grey sources in flood research also means ignoring the largest part of knowledge available on single flood events (in Germany). Further, the results of this study underpin the rapid changes in information dissemination of flood event literature over the last decade. We discuss the options and obstacles of incorporating

  19. Data expansion: the potential of grey literature for understanding floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlemann, S.; Bertelmann, R.; Merz, B.

    2012-09-01

    Sophisticated methods have been developed and become standard in analysing floods as well as for assessing the flood risk. However, increasingly critique of the current standards and scientific practice can be found both in the flood hydrology community as well as in the risk community who argue that the considerable amount of information already available on natural disasters has not been adequately deployed and brought to effective use. We describe this phenomenon as a failure to synthesize knowledge that results from barriers and ignorance in awareness, use and management of the entire spectrum of relevant content, that is, data, information and knowledge. In this paper we argue that the scientific community in flood risk research ignores event specific analysis and documentations as another source of data. We present results from a systematic search that includes an intensive study on sources and ways of information dissemination of flood relevant publications. We obtain 183 documents that contain information on the sources, pathways, receptors and/or consequences for any of the 40 strongest trans-basin floods in Germany in the period 1952-2002. This study therefore provides the most comprehensive meta-data collection of flood documentations for the considered geographical space and period. 87.5% of all events have been documented and especially the most severe floods have received extensive coverage. Only 30% of the material has been produced in the scientific/academic environment and the majority of all documents (about 80%) can be considered grey literature. Therefore, ignoring grey sources in flood research also means ignoring the largest part of knowledge available on single flood events (in Germany). Further, the results of this study underpin the rapid changes in information dissemination of flood event literature over the last decade. We discuss the options and obstacles of incorporating this data in the knowledge building process in the light of the

  20. Differential grey matter changes in sensorimotor cortex related to exceptional fine motor skills.

    PubMed

    Stoeckel, M Cornelia; Morgenroth, Farina; Buetefisch, Cathrin M; Seitz, Rüdiger J

    2012-01-01

    Functional changes in sensorimotor representation occur in response to use and lesion throughout life. Emerging evidence suggests that functional changes are paralleled by respective macroscopic structural changes. In the present study we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate sensorimotor cortex in subjects with congenitally malformed upper extremities. We expected increased or decreased grey matter to parallel the enlarged or reduced functional representations we reported previously. More specifically, we expected decreased grey matter values in lateral sensorimotor cortex related to compromised hand function and increased grey matter values in medial sensorimotor cortex due to compensatory foot use. We found a medial cluster of grey matter increase in subjects with frequent, hand-like compensatory foot use. This increase was predominantly seen for lateral premotor, supplementary motor, and motor areas and only marginally involved somatosensory cortex. Contrary to our expectation, subjects with a reduced number of fingers, who had shown shrinkage of the functional hand representation previously, did not show decreased grey matter values within lateral sensorimotor cortex. Our data suggest that functional plastic changes in sensorimotor cortex can be associated with increases in grey matter but may also occur in otherwise macroscopically normal appearing grey matter volumes. Furthermore, macroscopic structural changes in motor and premotor areas may be observed without respective changes in somatosensory cortex.

  1. Effects of strength vs aerobic exercise on pain severity in adults with fibromyalgia: a randomized equivalence trial.

    PubMed

    Hooten, W Michael; Qu, Wenchun; Townsend, Cynthia O; Judd, Jeffrey W

    2012-04-01

    Strength training and aerobic exercise have beneficial effects on pain in adults with fibromyalgia. However, the equivalence of strengthening and aerobic exercise has not been reported. The primary aim of this randomized equivalence trial involving patients with fibromyalgia admitted to an interdisciplinary pain treatment program was to test the hypothesis that strengthening (n=36) and aerobic (n=36) exercise have equivalent effects (95% confidence interval within an equivalence margin ± 8) on pain, as measured by the pain severity subscale of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory. Secondary aims included determining the effects of strengthening and aerobic exercise on peak Vo(2) uptake, leg strength, and pressure pain thresholds. In an intent-to-treat analysis, the mean (± standard deviation) pain severity scores for the strength and aerobic groups at study completion were 34.4 ± 11.5 and 37.6 ± 11.9, respectively. The group difference was -3.2 (95% confidence interval, -8.7 to 2.3), which was within the equivalence margin of Δ8. Significant improvements in pain severity (P<.001), peak Vo(2) (P<.001), strength (P<.001), and pain thresholds (P<.001) were observed from baseline to week 3 in the intent-to-treat analysis; however, patients in the aerobic group (mean change 2.0 ± 2.6 mL/kg/min) experienced greater gains (P<.013) in peak Vo(2) compared to the strength group (mean change 0.4 ± 2.6 mL/kg/min). Knowledge of the equivalence and physiological effects of exercise have important clinical implications that could allow practitioners to target exercise recommendations on the basis of comorbid medical conditions or patient preference for a particular type of exercise. This study found that strength and aerobic exercise had equivalent effects on reducing pain severity among patients with fibromyalgia.

  2. Origanum dictamnus oil vapour suppresses the development of grey mould in eggplant fruit in vitro.

    PubMed

    Stavropoulou, Andriana; Loulakakis, Kostas; Magan, Naresh; Tzortzakis, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    Grey mould rot (Botrytis cinerea) development in vitro or in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) fruit was evaluated after treatment with dittany (Origanum dictamnus L.) oil (DIT) and storage at 12°C and 95% relative humidity during or following exposure to the volatiles. DIT volatiles used in different concentration (0-50-100-250 μL/L) and times of exposure (up to 120 h) examined the effects on pathogen development as well as fruit quality parameters. In vitro, fungal colony growth was inhibited with the application of DIT oil (during or after exposure) and/or time of application. Continuous exposure to oils reduced conidial germination and production with fungistatic effects observed in 250 μL/L. In vivo, fungal lesion growth and conidial production reduced in DIT-treated fruits. Interesting, in fruits preexposed to volatiles before fungal inoculation, DIT application induced fruit resistance against the pathogen, by reduced lesion growth and conidial production. Conidial viability reduced in >100 μL/L DIT oil. Fruits exposed to essential oil did not affect fruit quality related attributes in general, while skin lightness (L value) increased in 50 and 100 μL/L DIT oil. The results of the current study indicated that dittany volatiles may be considered as an alternative food preservative, eliminating disease spread in the storage/transit atmospheres. PMID:25254209

  3. Origanum dictamnus oil vapour suppresses the development of grey mould in eggplant fruit in vitro.

    PubMed

    Stavropoulou, Andriana; Loulakakis, Kostas; Magan, Naresh; Tzortzakis, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    Grey mould rot (Botrytis cinerea) development in vitro or in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) fruit was evaluated after treatment with dittany (Origanum dictamnus L.) oil (DIT) and storage at 12°C and 95% relative humidity during or following exposure to the volatiles. DIT volatiles used in different concentration (0-50-100-250 μL/L) and times of exposure (up to 120 h) examined the effects on pathogen development as well as fruit quality parameters. In vitro, fungal colony growth was inhibited with the application of DIT oil (during or after exposure) and/or time of application. Continuous exposure to oils reduced conidial germination and production with fungistatic effects observed in 250 μL/L. In vivo, fungal lesion growth and conidial production reduced in DIT-treated fruits. Interesting, in fruits preexposed to volatiles before fungal inoculation, DIT application induced fruit resistance against the pathogen, by reduced lesion growth and conidial production. Conidial viability reduced in >100 μL/L DIT oil. Fruits exposed to essential oil did not affect fruit quality related attributes in general, while skin lightness (L value) increased in 50 and 100 μL/L DIT oil. The results of the current study indicated that dittany volatiles may be considered as an alternative food preservative, eliminating disease spread in the storage/transit atmospheres.

  4. Origanum dictamnus Oil Vapour Suppresses the Development of Grey Mould in Eggplant Fruit In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Loulakakis, Kostas; Magan, Naresh; Tzortzakis, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    Grey mould rot (Botrytis cinerea) development in vitro or in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) fruit was evaluated after treatment with dittany (Origanum dictamnus L.) oil (DIT) and storage at 12°C and 95% relative humidity during or following exposure to the volatiles. DIT volatiles used in different concentration (0-50-100-250 μL/L) and times of exposure (up to 120 h) examined the effects on pathogen development as well as fruit quality parameters. In vitro, fungal colony growth was inhibited with the application of DIT oil (during or after exposure) and/or time of application. Continuous exposure to oils reduced conidial germination and production with fungistatic effects observed in 250 μL/L. In vivo, fungal lesion growth and conidial production reduced in DIT-treated fruits. Interesting, in fruits preexposed to volatiles before fungal inoculation, DIT application induced fruit resistance against the pathogen, by reduced lesion growth and conidial production. Conidial viability reduced in >100 μL/L DIT oil. Fruits exposed to essential oil did not affect fruit quality related attributes in general, while skin lightness (L value) increased in 50 and 100 μL/L DIT oil. The results of the current study indicated that dittany volatiles may be considered as an alternative food preservative, eliminating disease spread in the storage/transit atmospheres. PMID:25254209

  5. How much crosstalk can be allowed in a stereoscopic system at various grey levels?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestak, Sergey; Kim, Daesik; Kim, Yongie

    2012-03-01

    We have calculated a perceptual threshold of stereoscopic crosstalk on the basis of mathematical model of human vision sensitivity. Instead of linear model of just noticeable difference (JND) known as Weber's law we applied nonlinear Barten's model. The predicted crosstalk threshold varies with the background luminance. The calculated values of threshold are in a reasonable agreement with known experimental data. We calculated perceptual threshold of crosstalk for various combinations of the applied grey level. This result can be applied for the assessment of grey-to-grey crosstalk compensation. Further computational analysis of the applied model predicts the increase of the displayable image contrast with reduction of the maximum displayable luminance.

  6. Grey-Markov model with state membership degree and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jing; Li, Bingjun; Liu, Fang

    2013-10-01

    In the Grey-Markov forecasting, the extent of a given state that a research object belongs to is expressed as state membership degree. The state membership degree can help compensate for the inaccurate states division and improve the predicted results. Based on the Grey-Markov forecasting analysis, this paper uses the central triangle albino function to calculate the state membership degrees of research objects and determine the state transition probability. Thereby, the new model achieves the improvement of conventional Grey-Markov model. Taking the grain production of Henan Province as an example, the validity and applicability of the improved model are verified.

  7. Fatiguing upper body aerobic exercise impairs balance.

    PubMed

    Douris, Peter C; Handrakis, John P; Gendy, Joseph; Salama, Mina; Kwon, Dae; Brooks, Richard; Salama, Nardine; Southard, Veronica

    2011-12-01

    Douris, PC, Handrakis, JP, Gendy, J, Salama, M, Kwon, D, Brooks, R, Salama, N, and Southard, V. Fatiguing upper body aerobic exercise impairs balance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3299-3305, 2011-There are many studies that have examined the effects of selectively fatiguing lower extremity muscle groups with various protocols, and they have all shown to impair balance. There is limited research regarding the effect of fatiguing upper extremity exercise on balance. Muscle fiber-type recruitment patterns may be responsible for the difference between balance impairments because of fatiguing aerobic and anaerobic exercise. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect that aerobic vs. anaerobic fatigue, upper vs. lower body fatigue will have on balance, and if so, which combination will affect balance to a greater degree. Fourteen healthy subjects, 7 men and 7 women (mean age 23.5 ± 1.7 years) took part in this study. Their mean body mass index was 23.6 ± 3.2. The study used a repeated-measures design. The effect on balance was documented after the 4 fatiguing conditions: aerobic lower body (ALB), aerobic upper body (AUB), anaerobic lower body, anaerobic upper body (WUB). The aerobic conditions used an incremental protocol performed to fatigue, and the anaerobic used the Wingate protocol. Balance was measured as a single-leg stance stability score using the Biodex Balance System. A stability score for each subject was recorded immediately after each of the 4 conditions. A repeated-measures analysis of variance with the pretest score as a covariate was used to analyze the effects of the 4 fatiguing conditions on balance. There were significant differences between the 4 conditions (p = 0.001). Post hoc analysis revealed that there were significant differences between the AUB, mean score 4.98 ± 1.83, and the WUB, mean score 4.09 ± 1.42 (p = 0.014) and between AUB and ALB mean scores 4.33 ± 1.40 (p = 0.029). Normative data for single-leg stability testing for

  8. Long Term Effects on Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease after 12-Months of Aerobic Exercise Intervention - A Worksite RCT among Cleaners

    PubMed Central

    Korshøj, Mette; Lidegaard, Mark; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Occupational groups exposed to high occupational physical activity have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This may be explained by the high relative aerobic workload. Enhanced cardiorespiratory fitness reduces the relative aerobic workload. Thus, the aim was to evaluate the 12-months effects of worksite aerobic exercise on risk factors for CVD among cleaners. Methods One hundred and sixteen cleaners aged 18–65 years were randomized to a group performing aerobic exercise and a reference group receiving lectures. Outcomes were collected at baseline and after 12-months. A repeated measures 2×2 multi-adjusted mixed-model design was applied to compare the between-group differences using intention-to-treat analysis. Results Between-group differences (p<0.05) were found favouring the aerobic exercise group: cardiorespiratory fitness 2.15 (SE 1.03) mlO2/min/kg, aerobic workload -2.15 (SE 1.06) %HRR, resting HR -5.31 (SE 1.61) beats/min, high sensitive C-reactive protein -0.65 (SE 0.24) μg/ml. The blood pressure was unaltered. Stratified analyses on relative aerobic workload at baseline revealed that those with relative aerobic workloads ≥30% of HRR seems to impose a notable adverse effect on resting and ambulatory blood pressure. Conclusion This long-term worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners led to several beneficial effects, but also potential adverse effects among those with high relative aerobic workloads. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN86682076 PMID:27513932

  9. Grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) predation on harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) on the island of Helgoland, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Neer, Abbo; Jensen, Lasse Fast; Siebert, Ursula

    2015-03-01

    The prey spectrum of grey seals has to date been described as largely consisting of different fish, cephalopod and shrimp species. On the German island of Helgoland Düne, where harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) co-occur, a young male grey seal was observed in 2013 and again in 2014 preying upon young harbour seals. A harbour seal carcass with severe traumatic lesions was retrieved and post-mortem examinations were performed. In the following weeks several carcasses showing similar lesions were found. Sightings of grey seals assumed to be preying on harbour porpoises have increased around the North Sea. Increased competition as well as individualised behaviour could explain the increased number of observations, but former cases of abnormal lesions of marine mammals attributed to for example predation by sharks or mechanical processes should be revisited with regard to the emerging knowledge.

  10. Renal lesions in Baltic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and ringed seals (Phoca hispida botnica).

    PubMed

    Bergman, A; Bergstrand, A; Bignert, A

    2001-11-01

    A severe reduction in the populations of grey and ringed seals in the Baltic occurred during the 1960s and 1970s. Adult animals showed (and still show) a series of lesions inter alia in the female reproductive organs, intestines, integument, kidneys, adrenals, and skulls (the Baltic seal disease complex). The morphology and prevalence of light microscopic changes in the kidneys of 76 grey seals and 29 ringed seals collected in the Baltic proper and the Gulf of Bothnia during 1977-1996 are presented in this report. Specific changes in the glomeruli were diffuse thickening of the capillary walls and the presence of large, rounded, hyaline bodies in the capillary or capsular walls. Specific changes in the distal convoluted tubules and the collecting ducts included focal replacement of the normal epithelium by multilayered cell proliferations. The prevalence and extent of the changes were age-related and thus correlated with the time of exposure to environmental toxicants. The lesions were more conspicuous in Baltic grey seals than in Baltic ringed seals. Similar findings were recorded in 5 grey seals from Swedish zoological gardens. These animals had been fed Baltic fish for most of their lives. Electron microscopy was performed on 5 of the Baltic grey seals and on one of the grey seals from zoological gardens. Electron microscopy results mainly based on findings in one of the Baltic grey seals, included mesangial inter-position in the glomerular capillary walls and the characteristics of intercalated cells in cell proliferations in the distal parts of the nephrons. Eleven grey seals from the Scottish coast and 23 ringed seals from Svalbard served as reference material. None of the reference seals showed the specific lesions described above. The authors propose that organochlorine pollution of the Baltic environment is a factor in the cause of these kidney changes. PMID:11795214

  11. The Role of Google Scholar in Evidence Reviews and Its Applicability to Grey Literature Searching.

    PubMed

    Haddaway, Neal Robert; Collins, Alexandra Mary; Coughlin, Deborah; Kirk, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Google Scholar (GS), a commonly used web-based academic search engine, catalogues between 2 and 100 million records of both academic and grey literature (articles not formally published by commercial academic publishers). Google Scholar collates results from across the internet and is free to use. As a result it has received considerable attention as a method for searching for literature, particularly in searches for grey literature, as required by systematic reviews. The reliance on GS as a standalone resource has been greatly debated, however, and its efficacy in grey literature searching has not yet been investigated. Using systematic review case studies from environmental science, we investigated the utility of GS in systematic reviews and in searches for grey literature. Our findings show that GS results contain moderate amounts of grey literature, with the majority found on average at page 80. We also found that, when searched for specifically, the majority of literature identified using Web of Science was also found using GS. However, our findings showed moderate/poor overlap in results when similar search strings were used in Web of Science and GS (10-67%), and that GS missed some important literature in five of six case studies. Furthermore, a general GS search failed to find any grey literature from a case study that involved manual searching of organisations' websites. If used in systematic reviews for grey literature, we recommend that searches of article titles focus on the first 200 to 300 results. We conclude that whilst Google Scholar can find much grey literature and specific, known studies, it should not be used alone for systematic review searches. Rather, it forms a powerful addition to other traditional search methods. In addition, we advocate the use of tools to transparently document and catalogue GS search results to maintain high levels of transparency and the ability to be updated, critical to systematic reviews.

  12. Vocal learning in Grey parrots: A brief review of perception, production, and cross-species comparisons.

    PubMed

    Pepperberg, Irene M

    2010-10-01

    This chapter briefly reviews what is known-and what remains to be understood-about Grey parrot vocal learning. I review Greys' physical capacities-issues of auditory perception and production-then discuss how these capacities are used in vocal learning and can be recruited for referential communication with humans. I discuss cross-species comparisons where applicable and conclude with a description of recent research that integrates issues of reference, production and perception.

  13. The Role of Google Scholar in Evidence Reviews and Its Applicability to Grey Literature Searching

    PubMed Central

    Haddaway, Neal Robert; Collins, Alexandra Mary; Coughlin, Deborah; Kirk, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Google Scholar (GS), a commonly used web-based academic search engine, catalogues between 2 and 100 million records of both academic and grey literature (articles not formally published by commercial academic publishers). Google Scholar collates results from across the internet and is free to use. As a result it has received considerable attention as a method for searching for literature, particularly in searches for grey literature, as required by systematic reviews. The reliance on GS as a standalone resource has been greatly debated, however, and its efficacy in grey literature searching has not yet been investigated. Using systematic review case studies from environmental science, we investigated the utility of GS in systematic reviews and in searches for grey literature. Our findings show that GS results contain moderate amounts of grey literature, with the majority found on average at page 80. We also found that, when searched for specifically, the majority of literature identified using Web of Science was also found using GS. However, our findings showed moderate/poor overlap in results when similar search strings were used in Web of Science and GS (10–67%), and that GS missed some important literature in five of six case studies. Furthermore, a general GS search failed to find any grey literature from a case study that involved manual searching of organisations’ websites. If used in systematic reviews for grey literature, we recommend that searches of article titles focus on the first 200 to 300 results. We conclude that whilst Google Scholar can find much grey literature and specific, known studies, it should not be used alone for systematic review searches. Rather, it forms a powerful addition to other traditional search methods. In addition, we advocate the use of tools to transparently document and catalogue GS search results to maintain high levels of transparency and the ability to be updated, critical to systematic reviews. PMID:26379270

  14. Emergency contraception in Argentina: grey areas of common sense and public policy.

    PubMed

    Pecheny, M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This paper discusses specific obstacles to emergency contraception (EC) in Argentina, the 'grey areas' between contraception and abortion: potential users as well as health providers do not distinguish clearly between ordinary contraception, EC and abortion. Based on quantitative and qualitative findings, the study shows the need to intervene in providing the population and the health sector with information on EC, its mechanisms and accessibility, and the 'grey areas' that hinder an adequate distinction between regular contraception, EC and abortion.

  15. Chlorine disinfection of grey water for reuse: effect of organics and particles.

    PubMed

    Winward, Gideon P; Avery, Lisa M; Stephenson, Tom; Jefferson, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Adequate disinfection of grey water prior to reuse is important to prevent the potential transmission of disease-causing microorganisms. Chlorine is a widely utilised disinfectant and as such is a leading contender for disinfection of grey water intended for reuse. This study examined the impact of organics and particles on chlorine disinfection of grey water, measured by total coliform inactivation. The efficacy of disinfection was most closely linked with particle size. Larger particles shielded total coliforms from inactivation and disinfection efficacy decreased with increasing particle size. Blending to extract particle-associated coliforms (PACs) following chlorine disinfection revealed that up to 91% of total coliforms in chlorinated grey water were particle associated. The organic concentration of grey water affected chlorine demand but did not influence the disinfection resistance of total coliforms when a free chlorine residual was maintained. Implications for urban water reuse are discussed and it is recommended that grey water treatment systems target suspended solids removal to ensure removal of PACs prior to disinfection.

  16. Grey leaves in an alpine plant: a cryptic colouration to avoid attack?

    PubMed

    Niu, Yang; Chen, Gao; Peng, De-Li; Song, Bo; Yang, Yang; Li, Zhi-Min; Sun, Hang

    2014-08-01

    Cryptic colouration is a common predation-avoidance strategy in animals that is postulated to occur in plants, but few experimental studies have rigorously tested this hypothesis. We investigated the colouration of Corydalis benecincta, an alpine plant with remarkably dimorphic leaf colours (grey and green), based on a cost-benefit analysis. First we tested the premise that herbivores (Parnassius butterflies) cannot distinguish grey leaves from a scree background by spectrographic measurements and by estimating discriminability between leaves and scree using a butterfly colour vision model. Then we estimated the potential costs of inconspicuousness by comparing the photosynthetic performance and visual attractiveness to flower visitors of the two colour morphs. Finally, we examined the potential benefits of inconspicuousness by comparing damage, survivorship and female reproductive success. It is difficult for herbivores to distinguish grey-coloured morphs against the background. This grey colour originates in a combination of anthocyanins and chlorophylls. The two colour morphs had similar photosynthetic performance, visual attractiveness and female reproductive success. However, grey morphs had significantly lower herbivore damage and higher survivorship. Grey leaves benefit C. benecincta by reducing herbivory with low investment in anthocyanin synthesis, and little cost on photosynthesis and mating opportunity. This cryptic colouration may have evolved through selection pressure imposed by visually foraging herbivores. PMID:24800901

  17. The grey relational approach for evaluating measurement uncertainty with poor information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zai; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Weihu; Wang, Zhongyu

    2015-12-01

    The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) is the master document for measurement uncertainty evaluation. However, the GUM may encounter problems and does not work well when the measurement data have poor information. In most cases, poor information means a small data sample and an unknown probability distribution. In these cases, the evaluation of measurement uncertainty has become a bottleneck in practical measurement. To solve this problem, a novel method called the grey relational approach (GRA), different from the statistical theory, is proposed in this paper. The GRA does not require a large sample size or probability distribution information of the measurement data. Mathematically, the GRA can be divided into three parts. Firstly, according to grey relational analysis, the grey relational coefficients between the ideal and the practical measurement output series are obtained. Secondly, the weighted coefficients and the measurement expectation function will be acquired based on the grey relational coefficients. Finally, the measurement uncertainty is evaluated based on grey modeling. In order to validate the performance of this method, simulation experiments were performed and the evaluation results show that the GRA can keep the average error around 5%. Besides, the GRA was also compared with the grey method, the Bessel method, and the Monte Carlo method by a real stress measurement. Both the simulation experiments and real measurement show that the GRA is appropriate and effective to evaluate the measurement uncertainty with poor information.

  18. Exposing the grey seal as a major predator of harbour porpoises

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, Mardik F.; Begeman, Lineke; van Bleijswijk, Judith D. L.; IJsseldijk, Lonneke L.; Witte, Harry J.; Gröne, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) stranding in large numbers around the southern North Sea with fatal, sharp-edged mutilations have spurred controversy among scientists, the fishing industry and conservationists, whose views about the likely cause differ. The recent detection of grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) DNA in bite marks on three mutilated harbour porpoises, as well as direct observations of grey seal attacks on porpoises, have identified this seal species as a probable cause. Bite mark characteristics were assessed in a retrospective analysis of photographs of dead harbour porpoises that stranded between 2003 and 2013 (n = 1081) on the Dutch coastline. There were 271 animals that were sufficiently fresh to allow macroscopic assessment of grey seal-associated wounds with certainty. In 25% of these, bite and claw marks were identified that were consistent with the marks found on animals that had tested positive for grey seal DNA. Affected animals were mostly healthy juveniles that had a thick blubber layer and had recently fed. We conclude that the majority of the mutilated harbour porpoises were victims of grey seal attacks and that predation by this species is one of the main causes of death in harbour porpoises in The Netherlands. We provide a decision tree that will help in the identification of future cases of grey seal predation on porpoises. PMID:25429021

  19. Voxel-based morphometry reveals reduced grey matter volume in the temporal cortex of developmental prosopagnosics

    PubMed Central

    Furl, Nicholas; Draganski, Bogdan; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Stevens, John; Tan, Geoffrey Chern-Yee; Driver, Jon; Dolan, Ray J.; Duchaine, Bradley

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia exhibit severe and lasting difficulties in recognizing faces despite the absence of apparent brain abnormalities. We used voxel-based morphometry to investigate whether developmental prosopagnosics show subtle neuroanatomical differences from controls. An analysis based on segmentation of T1-weighted images from 17 developmental prosopagnosics and 18 matched controls revealed that they had reduced grey matter volume in the right anterior inferior temporal lobe and in the superior temporal sulcus/middle temporal gyrus bilaterally. In addition, a voxel-based morphometry analysis based on the segmentation of magnetization transfer parameter maps showed that developmental prosopagnosics also had reduced grey matter volume in the right middle fusiform gyrus and the inferior temporal gyrus. Multiple regression analyses relating three distinct behavioural component scores, derived from a principal component analysis, to grey matter volume revealed an association between a component related to facial identity and grey matter volume in the left superior temporal sulcus/middle temporal gyrus plus the right middle fusiform gyrus/inferior temporal gyrus. Grey matter volume in the lateral occipital cortex was associated with component scores related to object recognition tasks. Our results demonstrate that developmental prosopagnosics have reduced grey matter volume in several regions known to respond selectively to faces and provide new evidence that integrity of these areas relates to face recognition ability. PMID:19887506

  20. Grey leaves in an alpine plant: a cryptic colouration to avoid attack?

    PubMed

    Niu, Yang; Chen, Gao; Peng, De-Li; Song, Bo; Yang, Yang; Li, Zhi-Min; Sun, Hang

    2014-08-01

    Cryptic colouration is a common predation-avoidance strategy in animals that is postulated to occur in plants, but few experimental studies have rigorously tested this hypothesis. We investigated the colouration of Corydalis benecincta, an alpine plant with remarkably dimorphic leaf colours (grey and green), based on a cost-benefit analysis. First we tested the premise that herbivores (Parnassius butterflies) cannot distinguish grey leaves from a scree background by spectrographic measurements and by estimating discriminability between leaves and scree using a butterfly colour vision model. Then we estimated the potential costs of inconspicuousness by comparing the photosynthetic performance and visual attractiveness to flower visitors of the two colour morphs. Finally, we examined the potential benefits of inconspicuousness by comparing damage, survivorship and female reproductive success. It is difficult for herbivores to distinguish grey-coloured morphs against the background. This grey colour originates in a combination of anthocyanins and chlorophylls. The two colour morphs had similar photosynthetic performance, visual attractiveness and female reproductive success. However, grey morphs had significantly lower herbivore damage and higher survivorship. Grey leaves benefit C. benecincta by reducing herbivory with low investment in anthocyanin synthesis, and little cost on photosynthesis and mating opportunity. This cryptic colouration may have evolved through selection pressure imposed by visually foraging herbivores.

  1. Exposing the grey seal as a major predator of harbour porpoises.

    PubMed

    Leopold, Mardik F; Begeman, Lineke; van Bleijswijk, Judith D L; IJsseldijk, Lonneke L; Witte, Harry J; Gröne, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) stranding in large numbers around the southern North Sea with fatal, sharp-edged mutilations have spurred controversy among scientists, the fishing industry and conservationists, whose views about the likely cause differ. The recent detection of grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) DNA in bite marks on three mutilated harbour porpoises, as well as direct observations of grey seal attacks on porpoises, have identified this seal species as a probable cause. Bite mark characteristics were assessed in a retrospective analysis of photographs of dead harbour porpoises that stranded between 2003 and 2013 (n = 1081) on the Dutch coastline. There were 271 animals that were sufficiently fresh to allow macroscopic assessment of grey seal-associated wounds with certainty. In 25% of these, bite and claw marks were identified that were consistent with the marks found on animals that had tested positive for grey seal DNA. Affected animals were mostly healthy juveniles that had a thick blubber layer and had recently fed. We conclude that the majority of the mutilated harbour porpoises were victims of grey seal attacks and that predation by this species is one of the main causes of death in harbour porpoises in The Netherlands. We provide a decision tree that will help in the identification of future cases of grey seal predation on porpoises.

  2. Impact of salinity on the aerobic metabolism of phosphate-accumulating organisms.

    PubMed

    Welles, L; Lopez-Vazquez, C M; Hooijmans, C M; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Brdjanovic, D

    2015-04-01

    The use of saline water in urban areas for non-potable purposes to cope with fresh water scarcity, intrusion of saline water, and disposal of industrial saline wastewater into the sewerage lead to elevated salinity levels in wastewaters. Consequently, saline wastewater is generated, which needs to be treated before its discharge into surface water bodies. The objective of this research was to study the effects of salinity on the aerobic metabolism of phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO), which belong to the microbial populations responsible for enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) in activated sludge systems. In this study, the short-term impact (hours) of salinity (as NaCl) was assessed on the aerobic metabolism of a PAO culture, enriched in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). All aerobic PAO metabolic processes were drastically affected by elevated salinity concentrations. The aerobic maintenance energy requirement increased, when the salinity concentration rose up to a threshold concentration of 2 % salinity (on a W/V basis as NaCl), while above this concentration, the maintenance energy requirements seemed to decrease. All initial rates were affected by salinity, with the NH4- and PO4-uptake rates being the most sensitive. A salinity increase from 0 to 0.18 % caused a 25, 46, and 63 % inhibition of the O2, PO4, and NH4-uptake rates. The stoichiometric ratios of the aerobic conversions confirmed that growth was the process with the highest inhibition, followed by poly-P and glycogen formation. The study indicates that shock loads of 0.18 % salt, which corresponds to the use or intrusion of about 5 % seawater may severely affect the EBPR process already in wastewater treatment plants not exposed regularly to high salinity concentrations. PMID:25524698

  3. Impact of salinity on the aerobic metabolism of phosphate-accumulating organisms.

    PubMed

    Welles, L; Lopez-Vazquez, C M; Hooijmans, C M; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Brdjanovic, D

    2015-04-01

    The use of saline water in urban areas for non-potable purposes to cope with fresh water scarcity, intrusion of saline water, and disposal of industrial saline wastewater into the sewerage lead to elevated salinity levels in wastewaters. Consequently, saline wastewater is generated, which needs to be treated before its discharge into surface water bodies. The objective of this research was to study the effects of salinity on the aerobic metabolism of phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO), which belong to the microbial populations responsible for enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) in activated sludge systems. In this study, the short-term impact (hours) of salinity (as NaCl) was assessed on the aerobic metabolism of a PAO culture, enriched in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). All aerobic PAO metabolic processes were drastically affected by elevated salinity concentrations. The aerobic maintenance energy requirement increased, when the salinity concentration rose up to a threshold concentration of 2 % salinity (on a W/V basis as NaCl), while above this concentration, the maintenance energy requirements seemed to decrease. All initial rates were affected by salinity, with the NH4- and PO4-uptake rates being the most sensitive. A salinity increase from 0 to 0.18 % caused a 25, 46, and 63 % inhibition of the O2, PO4, and NH4-uptake rates. The stoichiometric ratios of the aerobic conversions confirmed that growth was the process with the highest inhibition, followed by poly-P and glycogen formation. The study indicates that shock loads of 0.18 % salt, which corresponds to the use or intrusion of about 5 % seawater may severely affect the EBPR process already in wastewater treatment plants not exposed regularly to high salinity concentrations.

  4. Effect of aerobic exercise during pregnancy on antenatal depression

    PubMed Central

    El-Rafie, Mervat M; Khafagy, Ghada M; Gamal, Marwa G

    2016-01-01

    Background Antenatal depression is not uncommon and is associated with a greater risk of negative pregnancy outcomes. Aim Exploring the effect of exercise in preventing and treating antenatal depression. Methods This was a prospective interventional controlled study carried out in 100 pregnant women treated at the Ain-Shams Family Medicine Center and Maadi Outpatient Clinic, Cairo, Egypt. The participants were divided into two groups (n=50 in the exercise group and n=50 in the control group). The exercise group regularly attended supervised sessions for 12 weeks. The activities in each session included walking, aerobic exercise, stretching, and relaxation. The control group completed their usual antenatal care. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to assess depression symptoms at the first interview and immediately after the 12-week intervention. Results Compared to the control group, the exercise group showed significantly improved depressive symptoms as measured with the CES-D after the 12-week intervention on the CES-D (P=0.001). Within groups, the exercise group demonstrated a significant improvement of depressive symptoms from baseline to intervention completion, while the control group demonstrated no significant changes over time. Conclusion Exercise during pregnancy was positively associated with reduced depressive symptoms. PMID:26955293

  5. Dysbiotic drift: mental health, environmental grey space, and microbiota.

    PubMed

    Logan, Alan C

    2015-01-01

    Advances in research concerning the mental health implications of dietary patterns and select nutrients have been remarkable. At the same time, there have been rapid increases in the understanding of the ways in which non-pathogenic microbes can potentially influence many aspects of human health, including those in the mental realm. Discussions of nutrition and microbiota are often overlapping. A separate, yet equally connected, avenue of research is that related to natural (for example, green space) and built environments, and in particular, how they are connected to human cognition and behaviors. It is argued here that in Western industrial nations a 'disparity of microbiota' might be expected among the socioeconomically disadvantaged, those whom face more profound environmental forces. Many of the environmental forces pushing against the vulnerable are at the neighborhood level. Matching the developing microbiome research with existing environmental justice research suggests that grey space may promote dysbiosis by default. In addition, the influence of Westernized lifestyle patterns, and the marketing forces that drive unhealthy behaviors in deprived communities, might allow dysbiosis to be the norm rather than the exception in those already at high risk of depression, subthreshold (subsyndromal) conditions, and subpar mental health. If microbiota are indeed at the intersection of nutrition, environmental health, and lifestyle medicine (as these avenues pertain to mental health), then perhaps the rapidly evolving gut-brain-microbiota conversation needs to operate through a wider lens. In contrast to the more narrowly defined psychobiotic, the term eco-psychotropic is introduced. PMID:25947328

  6. Genetic variability of grey snow mould (Typhula incarnata).

    PubMed

    Vergara, Georgina V; Bughrara, Suleiman S; Jung, Geunhwa

    2004-11-01

    Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to assess the genetic diversity of isolates of grey snow mould ('gray snow mold'), Typhula incarnata, taken from infected turfgrasses from 40 different locations in the northern USA. Data from 115 markers using 37 RAPD primers showed 48 % polymorphism. The distance coefficients between isolates indicate the wide genetic diversity of T. incarnata across the sample area. Dendrograms generated using neighbour-joining (NJ) bootstrap analyses showed three clades and suggest possible recent colonization from common founder groups. Partitioning of the genetic variance using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of four groups based on geographic locations (Michigan, lower and upper peninsula; Minnesota; Wisconsin) showed that genetic variation attributable among groups and within groups was 12.67 and 87.33 %, respectively. No correlation was found between geographic distance and pairwise genetic distance of the groups. High outcrossing and sexual recombination of T. incarnata may well be key factors explaining the genetic variability as shown with the low Fixation index (FST) and high average of genetic diversity per locus within groups.

  7. Trauma-specific Grey Matter Alterations in PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Linghui; Jiang, Jing; Jin, Changfeng; Liu, Jia; Zhao, Youjin; Wang, Weina; Li, Kaiming; Gong, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) caused by different types of trauma may show divergence in epidemiology, clinical manifestation and treatment outcome. However, it is still unclear whether this divergence has neuroanatomic correlates in PTSD brains. To elucidate the general and trauma-specific cortical morphometric alterations, we performed a meta-analysis of grey matter (GM) changes in PTSD (N = 246) with different traumas and trauma-exposed controls (TECs, N = 347) using anisotropic effect-size signed differential mapping and its subgroup analysis. Our results revealed general GM reduction (GMR) foci in the prefrontal-limbic-striatal system of PTSD brains when compared with those of TECs. Notably, the GMR patterns were trauma-specific. For PTSD by single-incident traumas, GMR foci were found in bilateral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insula, striatum, left hippocampus and amygdala; and for PTSD by prolonged traumas in the left insula, striatum, amygdala and middle temporal gyrus. Moreover, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale scores were found to be negatively associated with the GM changes in bilateral ACC and mPFC. Our study indicates that the GMR patterns of PTSD are associated with specific traumas, suggesting a stratified diagnosis and treatment for PTSD patients. PMID:27651030

  8. Comparative Cytogenetics of the Congo African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus).

    PubMed

    Seibold-Torres, Cassandra; Owens, Elaine; Chowdhary, Renuka; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Tizard, Ian; Raudsepp, Terje

    2015-01-01

    The Congo African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus, PER) is an endemic species of Central Africa, valued for its intelligence and listed as vulnerable due to poaching and habitat destruction. Improved knowledge about the P. erithacus genome is needed to address key biological questions and conservation of this species. The P. erithacus genome was studied using conventional and molecular cytogenetic approaches including Zoo-FISH. P. erithacus has a 'typical' parrot karyotype with 2n = 62-64 and 8 pairs of macrochromosomes. A distinct feature was a sharp macro-microchromosome boundary. Telomeric sequences were present at all chromosome ends and interstitially in PER2q, the latter coinciding with a C-band. NORs mapped to 4 pairs of microchromosomes which is in contrast to a single NOR in ancestral type avian karyotypes. Zoo-FISH with chicken macrochromosomes GGA1-9 and Z revealed patterns of conserved synteny similar to many other avian groups, though neighboring synteny combinations of GGA6/7, 8/9, and 1/4 were distinctive only to parrots. Overall, P. erithacus shared more Zoo-FISH patterns with neotropical macaws than Australian species such as cockatiel and budgerigar. The observations suggest that Psittaciformes karyotypes have undergone more extensive evolutionary rearrangements compared to the majority of other avian genomes.

  9. Phylogeny and vicariant speciation of the Grey Rhebok, Pelea capreolus.

    PubMed

    Robinson, T J; Cernohorska, H; Diedericks, G; Cabelova, K; Duran, A; Matthee, C A

    2014-03-01

    A South African endemic antelope, the Grey Rhebok (Pelea capreolus), has long been an evolutionary enigma in bovid systematics-its phylogenetic intractability attributed to its curious combination of derived and primitive morphological attributes and the consequences of a rapid radiation. By using a combination of DNA sequences, chromosomal characteristics and quantitative and qualitative morphological features we show that the species is a sister taxon to a clade that comprises the waterbuck, reedbuck and allies. Our finding of few unambiguous synapomorphies reinforces suggestions of a rapid radiation and highlights the effects of incomplete lineage sorting, including the hemiplasic nature of several chromosomal rearrangements. We investigate these data to address the general question of what may have led to Pelea being both genetically and ecologically distinct from the Reduncini. We argue that its adaptation to exposed habitats, free of standing water, arose by vicariance prompted by increasing aridity of the extreme south/southwestern region of the African continent in the Miocene. Ancestral lineages leading to the extant Redunca and Kobus, on the other hand, retreated to water-abundant refugia in the north during these mostly globally cool phases. The mosaic of water-rich environments provided by the Okavango and the drainage systems in the southwestern extension of the East African Rift system are considered to have facilitated speciation and chromosomal evolution within these antelope.

  10. Pathological differences between white and grey matter multiple sclerosis lesions.

    PubMed

    Prins, Marloes; Schul, Emma; Geurts, Jeroen; van der Valk, Paul; Drukarch, Benjamin; van Dam, Anne-Marie

    2015-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating disease characterized by demyelination of the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in widespread formation of white matter lesions (WMLs) and grey matter lesions (GMLs). WMLs are pathologically characterized by the presence of immune cells that infiltrate the CNS, whereas these immune cells are barely present in GMLs. This striking pathological difference between WMLs and GMLs raises questions about the underlying mechanism. It is known that infiltrating leukocytes contribute to the generation of WMLs; however, since GMLs show a paucity of infiltrating immune cells, their importance in GML formation remains to be determined. Here, we review pathological characteristics of WMLs and GMLs, and suggest some possible explanations for the observed pathological differences. In our view, cellular and molecular characteristics of WM and GM, and local differences within WMLs and GMLs (in particular, in glial cell populations and the molecules they express), determine the pathway to demyelination. Further understanding of GML pathogenesis, considered to contribute to chronic MS, may have a direct impact on the development of novel therapeutic targets to counteract this progressive neurological disorder.

  11. Oxidative injury in multiple sclerosis cerebellar grey matter.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Kevin; Redondo, Juliana; Hares, Kelly; Rice, Claire; Scolding, Neil; Wilkins, Alastair

    2016-07-01

    Cerebellar dysfunction is a significant contributor to disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). Both white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM) injury occurs within MS cerebellum and, within GM, demyelination, inflammatory cell infiltration and neuronal injury contribute to on-going pathology. The precise nature of cerebellar GM injury is, however, unknown. Oxidative stress pathways with ultimate lipid peroxidation and cell membrane injury occur extensively in MS and the purpose of this study was to investigate these processes in MS cerebellar GM. Post-mortem human cerebellar GM from MS and control subjects was analysed immunohistochemically, followed by semi-quantitative analysis of markers of cellular injury, lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant enzyme expression. We have shown evidence for reduction in myelin and neuronal markers in MS GM, coupled to an increase in expression of a microglial marker. We also show that the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal co-localises with myelin and its levels negatively correlate to myelin basic protein levels. Furthermore, superoxide dismutase (SOD1 and 2) enzymes, localised within cerebellar neurons, are up-regulated, yet the activation of subsequent enzymes responsible for the detoxification of hydrogen peroxide, catalase and glutathione peroxidase are relatively deficient. These studies provide evidence for oxidative injury in MS cerebellar GM and further help define disease mechanisms within the MS brain. PMID:27086975

  12. Architectonic subdivisions of neocortex in the grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Peiyan; Kaas, Jon H.

    2010-01-01

    Squirrels are highly visual mammals with an expanded cortical visual system and a number of well-differentiated architectonic fields. In order to describe and delimit cortical fields, subdivisions of cortex were reconstructed from serial brain sections cut in the coronal, sagittal, or horizontal planes. Architectonic characteristics of cortical areas were visualized after brain sections were processed with immunohistochemical and histochemical procedures for revealing parvalbumin, calbindin, neurofilament protein, vesicle glutamate transporter 2, limbic-associated membrane protein, synaptic zinc, cytochrome oxidase, myelin or Nissl substance. In general, these different procedures revealed similar boundaries between areas, suggesting that functionally relevant borders were being detected. The results allowed a more precise demarcation of previously identified areas as well as the identification of areas that had not been previously described. Primary sensory cortical areas characterized by sparse zinc staining of layer 4, as thalamocortical terminations lack zinc, as well as by layer 4 terminations rich in parvalbumin and vesicle glutamate transporter 2. Primary areas also expressed higher levels of cytochrome oxidase and myelin. Primary motor cortex was associated with large SMI-32 labeled pyramidal cells in layers 3 and 5. Our proposed organization of cortex in grey squirrels includes both similarities and differences to the proposed of cortex in other rodents such as mice and rats. The presence of a number of well-differentiated cortical areas in squirrels may serve as a guide to the identification of homologous fields in other rodents, as well as a useful guide in further studies of cortical organization and function. PMID:18780299

  13. First isolation of Mycoplasma iowae in grey partridge flocks.

    PubMed

    Catania, S; Gobbo, F; Rodio, S; Qualtieri, K; Santone, C; Nicholas, R A J

    2014-06-01

    Mycoplasma iowae, an occasional pathogen of turkeys, was isolated for the first time from captive grey partridges (Perdix perdix). Clinical signs including respiratory and intestinal disorder were seen in birds of all ages but mainly in those kept housed during rearing. Mortality rates averaged over 20% during the year. Treatment with antibiotics and antiparasitic drugs produced only a transient improvement in condition. The gross pathology findings included poor body growth, lack of development of the breast muscles, abnormalities in the keel development, and bone fragility. Some birds showed infraorbital sinusitis with serous or fibrinous exudates and catarrhal tracheitis, while others presented serofibrinous airsacculitis and splenomegaly. Laboratory investigations revealed pure cultures of M. iowae in the gut as well as sinus and air sacs. While other organisms such as coccidia, Trichomonas, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and Aspergillus spp. were detected, the similarity of the disease with that seen in turkeys infected with M. iowae strongly suggests that this mycoplasma may be the primary pathogen here. The presence of M. iowae in game birds commonly released into the wild could have serious implications particularly in areas where industrial poultry farms are concentrated. PMID:25055642

  14. Comparative Cytogenetics of the Congo African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus).

    PubMed

    Seibold-Torres, Cassandra; Owens, Elaine; Chowdhary, Renuka; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Tizard, Ian; Raudsepp, Terje

    2015-01-01

    The Congo African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus, PER) is an endemic species of Central Africa, valued for its intelligence and listed as vulnerable due to poaching and habitat destruction. Improved knowledge about the P. erithacus genome is needed to address key biological questions and conservation of this species. The P. erithacus genome was studied using conventional and molecular cytogenetic approaches including Zoo-FISH. P. erithacus has a 'typical' parrot karyotype with 2n = 62-64 and 8 pairs of macrochromosomes. A distinct feature was a sharp macro-microchromosome boundary. Telomeric sequences were present at all chromosome ends and interstitially in PER2q, the latter coinciding with a C-band. NORs mapped to 4 pairs of microchromosomes which is in contrast to a single NOR in ancestral type avian karyotypes. Zoo-FISH with chicken macrochromosomes GGA1-9 and Z revealed patterns of conserved synteny similar to many other avian groups, though neighboring synteny combinations of GGA6/7, 8/9, and 1/4 were distinctive only to parrots. Overall, P. erithacus shared more Zoo-FISH patterns with neotropical macaws than Australian species such as cockatiel and budgerigar. The observations suggest that Psittaciformes karyotypes have undergone more extensive evolutionary rearrangements compared to the majority of other avian genomes. PMID:26894300

  15. Linear multifrequency-grey acceleration recast for preconditioned Krylov iterations

    SciTech Connect

    Morel, Jim E. Brian Yang, T.-Y.; Warsa, James S.

    2007-11-10

    The linear multifrequency-grey acceleration (LMFGA) technique is used to accelerate the iterative convergence of multigroup thermal radiation diffusion calculations in high energy density simulations. Although it is effective and efficient in one-dimensional calculations, the LMFGA method has recently been observed to significantly degrade under certain conditions in multidimensional calculations with large discontinuities in material properties. To address this deficiency, we recast the LMFGA method in terms of a preconditioned system that is solved with a Krylov method (LMFGK). Results are presented demonstrating that the new LMFGK method always requires fewer iterations than the original LMFGA method. The reduction in iteration count increases with both the size of the time step and the inhomogeneity of the problem. However, for reasons later explained, the LMFGK method can cost more per iteration than the LMFGA method, resulting in lower but comparable efficiency in problems with small time steps and weak inhomogeneities. In problems with large time steps and strong inhomogeneities, the LMFGK method is significantly more efficient than the LMFGA method.

  16. Trauma-specific Grey Matter Alterations in PTSD.

    PubMed

    Meng, Linghui; Jiang, Jing; Jin, Changfeng; Liu, Jia; Zhao, Youjin; Wang, Weina; Li, Kaiming; Gong, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) caused by different types of trauma may show divergence in epidemiology, clinical manifestation and treatment outcome. However, it is still unclear whether this divergence has neuroanatomic correlates in PTSD brains. To elucidate the general and trauma-specific cortical morphometric alterations, we performed a meta-analysis of grey matter (GM) changes in PTSD (N = 246) with different traumas and trauma-exposed controls (TECs, N = 347) using anisotropic effect-size signed differential mapping and its subgroup analysis. Our results revealed general GM reduction (GMR) foci in the prefrontal-limbic-striatal system of PTSD brains when compared with those of TECs. Notably, the GMR patterns were trauma-specific. For PTSD by single-incident traumas, GMR foci were found in bilateral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insula, striatum, left hippocampus and amygdala; and for PTSD by prolonged traumas in the left insula, striatum, amygdala and middle temporal gyrus. Moreover, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale scores were found to be negatively associated with the GM changes in bilateral ACC and mPFC. Our study indicates that the GMR patterns of PTSD are associated with specific traumas, suggesting a stratified diagnosis and treatment for PTSD patients. PMID:27651030

  17. Ultrafine and respirable particles in an automotive grey iron foundry.

    PubMed

    Evans, Douglas E; Heitbrink, William A; Slavin, Thomas J; Peters, Thomas M

    2008-01-01

    Ultrafine particle number and respirable particle mass concentrations were measured throughout an automotive grey iron foundry during winter, spring and summer using a particle concentration mapping procedure. Substantial temporal and spatial variability was observed in all seasons and attributed, in part, to the batch nature of operations, process emission variability and frequent work interruptions. The need for fine mapping grids was demonstrated, where elevations in particle concentrations were highly localized. Ultrafine particle concentrations were generally greatest during winter when incoming make-up air was heated with direct fire, natural gas burners. Make-up air drawn from roof level had elevated respirable mass and ultrafine number concentrations above ambient outdoor levels, suggesting inadvertent recirculation of foundry process emissions. Elevated respirable mass concentrations were highly localized on occasions (e.g. abrasive blasting and grinding), depended on the area within the facility where measurements were obtained, but were largely unaffected by season. Particle sources were further characterized by measuring their respective number and mass concentrations by particle size. Sources that contributed to ultrafine particles included process-specific sources (e.g. melting and pouring operations), and non-process sources (e.g. direct fire natural gas heating units, a liquid propane-fuelled sweeper and cigarette smoking) were additionally identified. PMID:18056626

  18. Treating Meningitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... ways to treat bacterial meningitis. 1 They compared steroids (dexamethasone) with pla- cebo. The doctors gave medication ( ... compared anti- biotics by themselves with antibiotics plus steroids. Dr. Fritz and colleagues compared the mortality (deaths) ...

  19. Treatment of phenolics, aromatic hydrocarbons, and cyanide-bearing wastewater in individual and combined anaerobic, aerobic, and anoxic bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Naresh K; Philip, Ligy

    2015-01-01

    Studies were conducted on a mixture of pollutants commonly found in coke oven wastewater (CWW) to evaluate the biodegradation of various pollutants under anaerobic, aerobic, and anoxic conditions. The removal of the pollutants was monitored during individual bioreactor operation and using a combination of bioreactors operating in anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic sequence. While studying the performance of individual reactors, it was observed that cyanide removal (83.3 %) was predominant in the aerobic bioreactor, while much of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) (69 %) was consumed in the anoxic bioreactor. With the addition of cyanide, the COD removal efficiency was affected in all the bioreactors, and several intermediates were detected. While treating synthetic CWW using the combined bioreactor system, the overall COD removal efficiency was 86.79 % at an OLR of 2.4 g COD/L/day and an HRT of 96 h. The removal efficiency of 3,5-xylenol and cyanide, with inlet concentration of 150 and 10 mg/L, was found to be 91.8 and 93.6 % respectively. It was found that the impact of xylenol on the performance of the bioreactors was less than cyanide toxicity. Molecular analysis using T-RFLP revealed the dominance of strictly aerobic, mesophilic proteobacterium, Bosea minatitlanensis, in the aerobic bioreactor. The anoxic bioreactor was dominant with Rhodococcus pyridinivorans, known for its remarkable aromatic decomposing activity, while an unclassified Myxococcales bacterium was identified as the predominant bacterial species in the anaerobic bioreactor.

  20. Organic micropollutants in aerobic and anaerobic membrane bioreactors: Changes in microbial communities and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Harb, Moustapha; Wei, Chun-Hai; Wang, Nan; Amy, Gary; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2016-10-01

    Organic micro-pollutants (OMPs) are contaminants of emerging concern in wastewater treatment due to the risk of their proliferation into the environment, but their impact on the biological treatment process is not well understood. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the presence of OMPs on the core microbial populations of wastewater treatment. Two nanofiltration-coupled membrane bioreactors (aerobic and anaerobic) were subjected to the same operating conditions while treating synthetic municipal wastewater spiked with OMPs. Microbial community dynamics, gene expression levels, and antibiotic resistance genes were analyzed using molecular-based approaches. Results showed that presence of OMPs in the wastewater feed had a clear effect on keystone bacterial populations in both the aerobic and anaerobic sludge while also significantly impacting biodegradation-associated gene expression levels. Finally, multiple antibiotic-type OMPs were found to have higher removal rates in the anaerobic MBR, while associated antibiotic resistance genes were lower.

  1. Organic micropollutants in aerobic and anaerobic membrane bioreactors: Changes in microbial communities and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Harb, Moustapha; Wei, Chun-Hai; Wang, Nan; Amy, Gary; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2016-10-01

    Organic micro-pollutants (OMPs) are contaminants of emerging concern in wastewater treatment due to the risk of their proliferation into the environment, but their impact on the biological treatment process is not well understood. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the presence of OMPs on the core microbial populations of wastewater treatment. Two nanofiltration-coupled membrane bioreactors (aerobic and anaerobic) were subjected to the same operating conditions while treating synthetic municipal wastewater spiked with OMPs. Microbial community dynamics, gene expression levels, and antibiotic resistance genes were analyzed using molecular-based approaches. Results showed that presence of OMPs in the wastewater feed had a clear effect on keystone bacterial populations in both the aerobic and anaerobic sludge while also significantly impacting biodegradation-associated gene expression levels. Finally, multiple antibiotic-type OMPs were found to have higher removal rates in the anaerobic MBR, while associated antibiotic resistance genes were lower. PMID:27441825

  2. Skeletal myopathy in heart failure: effects of aerobic exercise training.

    PubMed

    Brum, P C; Bacurau, A V; Cunha, T F; Bechara, L R G; Moreira, J B N

    2014-04-01

    Reduced aerobic capacity, as measured by maximal oxygen uptake, is a hallmark in cardiovascular diseases and strongly predicts poor prognosis and higher mortality rates in heart failure patients. While exercise capacity is poorly correlated with cardiac function in this population, skeletal muscle abnormalities present a striking association with maximal oxygen uptake. This fact draws substantial attention to the clinical relevance of targeting skeletal myopathy in heart failure. Considering that skeletal muscle is highly responsive to aerobic exercise training, we addressed the benefits of aerobic exercise training to combat skeletal myopathy in heart failure, focusing on the mechanisms by which aerobic exercise training counteracts skeletal muscle atrophy.

  3. Bite injuries of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) on harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena).

    PubMed

    Jauniaux, Thierry; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie; Loos, Pauline; Bourgain, Jean-Luc; Bouveroux, Thibaut; Coignoul, Freddy; Haelters, Jan; Karpouzopoulos, Jacky; Pezeril, Sylvain; Desmecht, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Bite-like skin lesions on harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) have been suspected to be caused by grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), and a few field observations have been reported. Bite-like skin lesions observed on stranded animals were characterized by two main components: large flaps of loose or missing skin and blubber with frayed edges and puncture lesions. Definitive demonstration of predation by a grey seal was not reported so far in those stranded animals. In this study, five stranded porpoises with bite-like skin lesions were swabbed for genetic investigations. In addition, the head of a recently dead grey seal was used to mimic bite-like skin injuries on a porpoise carcass. Subsequently, the artificial skin injuries were swabbed, along with the gum of the seal used for inflicting them (positive controls). Total DNA was extracted from the swabs and was used to retrieve a fragment of mitochondrial DNA by PCR. Primers were designed to amplify a specific stretch of mitochondrial DNA known to differ between grey seals and porpoises. The amplicon targeted was successfully amplified from the positive control and from two of the stranded porpoises, and grey seal-specific mitochondrial DNA was retrieved from all those samples. We conclude that (1) it is possible to detect grey seal DNA from dead porpoises even after several days in seawater and (2) bite-like skin lesions found on dead porpoises definitively result from grey seals attacks. The attacks are most likely linked with predation although, in a number of cases, scavenging and aggressive behaviour cannot be excluded. PMID:25461599

  4. Mathematical limitations when choosing psychophysical methods: geometric versus linear grey scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Niels; Lucassen, Marcel; Kirchner, Eric; Urban, Philipp; Huertas, Rafael

    2014-02-01

    The grey scale method is commonly used for investigating differences in material appearance. Specifically, for testing color difference equations, perceived color differences between sample pairs are obtained by visually comparing to differences in a series of achromatic sample pairs. Two types of grey scales are known: linear and geometric. Their instrumental color differences vary linearly or geometrically (i.e., exponentially), respectively. Geometric grey scales are used in ISO standards and standard procedures of the textile industries. We compared both types of grey scale in a psychophysical study. Color patches were shown on a color-calibrated display. Ten observers assessed color differences in sample pairs, with color differences between ΔEab = 0.13 and 2.50. Assessments were scored by comparison to either a linear or a geometric grey scale, both consisting of six achromatic pairs. For the linear scale we used color differences ΔEab = 0.0, 0.6, 1.2,..., 3.0. For the geometric scale this was ΔEab=0.0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2, 6.4. Our results show that for the geometric scale, data from visual scores clutter at the low end of the scale and do not match the ΔEab range of the grey scale pairs. We explain why this happens, and why this is mathematically inevitable when studying small color differences with geometric grey scales. Our analysis explains why previous studies showed larger observer variability for geometric than for linear scales.

  5. Bite injuries of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) on harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena).

    PubMed

    Jauniaux, Thierry; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie; Loos, Pauline; Bourgain, Jean-Luc; Bouveroux, Thibaut; Coignoul, Freddy; Haelters, Jan; Karpouzopoulos, Jacky; Pezeril, Sylvain; Desmecht, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Bite-like skin lesions on harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) have been suspected to be caused by grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), and a few field observations have been reported. Bite-like skin lesions observed on stranded animals were characterized by two main components: large flaps of loose or missing skin and blubber with frayed edges and puncture lesions. Definitive demonstration of predation by a grey seal was not reported so far in those stranded animals. In this study, five stranded porpoises with bite-like skin lesions were swabbed for genetic investigations. In addition, the head of a recently dead grey seal was used to mimic bite-like skin injuries on a porpoise carcass. Subsequently, the artificial skin injuries were swabbed, along with the gum of the seal used for inflicting them (positive controls). Total DNA was extracted from the swabs and was used to retrieve a fragment of mitochondrial DNA by PCR. Primers were designed to amplify a specific stretch of mitochondrial DNA known to differ between grey seals and porpoises. The amplicon targeted was successfully amplified from the positive control and from two of the stranded porpoises, and grey seal-specific mitochondrial DNA was retrieved from all those samples. We conclude that (1) it is possible to detect grey seal DNA from dead porpoises even after several days in seawater and (2) bite-like skin lesions found on dead porpoises definitively result from grey seals attacks. The attacks are most likely linked with predation although, in a number of cases, scavenging and aggressive behaviour cannot be excluded.

  6. Screening and identification of aerobic denitrifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, K.; Deng, H. M.; Chen, Y. T.; Zhou, H. J.; Yan, G. X.

    2016-08-01

    With the standards of the effluent quality more stringent, it becomes a quite serious problem for municipalities and industries to remove nitrogen from wastewater. Bioremediation is a potential method for the removal of nitrogen and other pollutants because of its high efficiency and low cost. Seven predominant aerobic denitrifiers were screened and characterized from the activated sludge in the CAST unit. Some of these strains removed 87% nitrate nitrogen at least. Based on their phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, the isolates were identified as the genera of Ralstonia, Achromobacter, Aeromonas and Enterobacter.

  7. Toxic and inhibitory effects of trichloroethylene aerobic co-metabolism on phenol-grown aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Tay, JooHwa

    2015-04-01

    Aerobic granule, a form of microbial aggregate, exhibits good potential in degrading toxic and recalcitrant substances. In this study, the inhibitory and toxic effects of trichloroethylene (TCE), a model compound for aerobic co-metabolism, on phenol-grown aerobic granules were systematically studied, using respiratory activities after exposure to TCE as indicators. High TCE concentration did not exert positive or negative effects on the subsequent endogenous respiration rate or phenol dependent specific oxygen utilization rate (SOUR), indicating the absence of solvent stress and induction effect on phenol-hydroxylase. Phenol-grown aerobic granules exhibited a unique response to TCE transformation product toxicity, that small amount of TCE transformation enhanced the subsequent phenol SOUR. Granules that had transformed between 1.3 and 3.7 mg TCE gSS(-1) showed at most 53% increase in the subsequent phenol SOUR, and only when the transformation exceeded 6.6 mg TCE gSS(-1) did the SOUR dropped below that of the control. This enhancing effect was found to sustain throughout several phenol dosages, and TCE transformation below the toxicity threshold also lessened the granules' sensitivity to higher phenol concentration. The unique toxic effect was possibly caused by the granule's compact structure as a protection barrier against the diffusive transformation product(s) of TCE co-metabolism.

  8. [Heterotrophic Nitrification and Aerobic Denitrification of the Hypothermia Aerobic Denitrification Bacterium: Arthrobacter arilaitensis].

    PubMed

    He, Teng-xia; Ni, Jiu-pai; Li, Zhen-lun; Sun, Quan; Ye Qing; Xu, Yi

    2016-03-15

    High concentrations of ammonium, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen were employed to clarify the abilities of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification of Arthrobacter arilaitensis strain Y-10. Meanwhile, by means of inoculating the strain suspension into the mixed ammonium and nitrate, ammonium and nitrite nitrogen simulated wastewater, we studied the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification ability of Arthrobacter arilaitensis strain Y-10. In addition, cell optical density was assayed in each nitrogen removal process to analyze the relationship of cell growth and nitrogen removal efficiency. The results showed that the hypothermia denitrification strain Arthrobacter arilaitensis Y-10 exhibited high nitrogen removal efficiency during heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification. The ammonium, nitrate and nitrite removal rates were 65.0%, 100% and 61.2% respectively when strain Y-10 was cultivated for 4 d at 15°C with initial ammonium, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen concentrations of 208.43 mg · L⁻¹, 201.16 mg · L⁻¹ and 194.33 mg · L⁻¹ and initial pH of 7.2. Nitrite nitrogen could only be accumulated in the medium containing nitrate nitrogen during heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification process. Additionally, the ammonium nitrogen was mainly removed in the inorganic nitrogen mixed synthetic wastewater. In short, Arthrobacter arilaitensis Y-10 could conduct nitrification and denitrification effectively under aerobic condition and the ammonium nitrogen removal rate was more than 80.0% in the inorganic nitrogen mixed synthetic wastewater. PMID:27337904

  9. Fungicide-Driven Evolution and Molecular Basis of Multidrug Resistance in Field Populations of the Grey Mould Fungus Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Mosbach, Andreas; Walker, Anne-Sophie; Fillinger, Sabine; Mernke, Dennis; Schoonbeek, Henk-Jan; Pradier, Jean-Marc; Leroux, Pierre; De Waard, Maarten A.; Hahn, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The grey mould fungus Botrytis cinerea causes losses of commercially important fruits, vegetables and ornamentals worldwide. Fungicide treatments are effective for disease control, but bear the risk of resistance development. The major resistance mechanism in fungi is target protein modification resulting in reduced drug binding. Multiple drug resistance (MDR) caused by increased efflux activity is common in human pathogenic microbes, but rarely described for plant pathogens. Annual monitoring for fungicide resistance in field isolates from fungicide-treated vineyards in France and Germany revealed a rapidly increasing appearance of B. cinerea field populations with three distinct MDR phenotypes. All MDR strains showed increased fungicide efflux activity and overexpression of efflux transporter genes. Similar to clinical MDR isolates of Candida yeasts that are due to transcription factor mutations, all MDR1 strains were shown to harbor activating mutations in a transcription factor (Mrr1) that controls the gene encoding ABC transporter AtrB. MDR2 strains had undergone a unique rearrangement in the promoter region of the major facilitator superfamily transporter gene mfsM2, induced by insertion of a retrotransposon-derived sequence. MDR2 strains carrying the same rearranged mfsM2 allele have probably migrated from French to German wine-growing regions. The roles of atrB, mrr1 and mfsM2 were proven by the phenotypes of knock-out and overexpression mutants. As confirmed by sexual crosses, combinations of mrr1 and mfsM2 mutations lead to MDR3 strains with higher broad-spectrum resistance. An MDR3 strain was shown in field experiments to be selected against sensitive strains by fungicide treatments. Our data document for the first time the rising prevalence, spread and molecular basis of MDR populations in a major plant pathogen in agricultural environments. These populations will increase the risk of grey mould rot and hamper the effectiveness of current strategies for

  10. Whole-brain grey matter density predicts balance stability irrespective of age and protects older adults from falling.

    PubMed

    Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Cheval, Boris; van Ruitenbeek, Peter; Levin, Oron; Renaud, Olivier; Chanal, Julien; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2016-03-01

    Functional and structural imaging studies have demonstrated the involvement of the brain in balance control. Nevertheless, how decisive grey matter density and white matter microstructural organisation are in predicting balance stability, and especially when linked to the effects of ageing, remains unclear. Standing balance was tested on a platform moving at different frequencies and amplitudes in 30 young and 30 older adults, with eyes open and with eyes closed. Centre of pressure variance was used as an indicator of balance instability. The mean density of grey matter and mean white matter microstructural organisation were measured using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging, respectively. Mixed-effects models were built to analyse the extent to which age, grey matter density, and white matter microstructural organisation predicted balance instability. Results showed that both grey matter density and age independently predicted balance instability. These predictions were reinforced when the level of difficulty of the conditions increased. Furthermore, grey matter predicted balance instability beyond age and at least as consistently as age across conditions. In other words, for balance stability, the level of whole-brain grey matter density is at least as decisive as being young or old. Finally, brain grey matter appeared to be protective against falls in older adults as age increased the probability of losing balance in older adults with low, but not moderate or high grey matter density. No such results were observed for white matter microstructural organisation, thereby reinforcing the specificity of our grey matter findings.

  11. Robust representation of shape in a Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus).

    PubMed

    Pepperberg, Irene M; Nakayama, Ken

    2016-08-01

    A Grey parrot, Griffin (Psittacus erithacus), previously taught English labels for various colors and shapes with respect to three-dimensional (3D) stimuli, was tested on his ability to transfer to very different two-dimensional (2D) images consisting of modal and amodal completion stimuli. For modal completion (aka subjective contours), Kanizsa figures were constructed using black 'pac-men' to form regular polygons on colored paper. For amodal completion, portions of variously colored regular 2D polygons were occluded by black circles or other black figures. For each task, Griffin provided a vocal English shape label for five possible shapes designated by their vertices (one, two, three, four, six). His accuracy was high for both amodal completed figures, including probe stimuli (28/38 correct) and modally completed figures (29/38 correct), with chance=0.20. The modally completed case (i.e., Kanizsa subjective figures) is of particular importance as there are no shared image parts between training and testing stimuli. We draw several conclusions from these results. First, a surface level completion process is fully operative insofar as Griffin was able to correctly identify shapes that differed considerably from training images. Second, because parrots can generalize from shapes of real objects to drawings where original image contours were clearly absent, the data provide a compelling example of shape invariance, indicating that visual shapes are processed far beyond that of their image description. Third, parrots with a repertoire of multiple vocal responses can be rigorously tested for visual competencies, an option as yet to be tried in other experimental animals.

  12. Grey zone simulations of the morning convective boundary layer development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstathiou, G. A.; Beare, R. J.; Osborne, S.; Lock, A. P.

    2016-05-01

    Numerical simulations of two cases of morning boundary layer development are conducted to investigate the impact of grid resolution on mean profiles and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) partitioning from the large eddy simulation (LES) to the mesoscale limit. Idealized LES, using the 3-D Smagorinsky scheme, is shown to be capable of reproducing the boundary layer evolution when compared against measurements. However, increasing grid spacing results in the damping of resolved TKE and the production of superadiabatic temperature profiles in the boundary layer. Turbulence initiation is significantly delayed, exhibiting an abrupt onset at intermediate resolutions. Two approaches, the bounding of vertical diffusion coefficient and the blending of the 3-D Smagorinsky with a nonlocal 1D scheme, are used to model subgrid diffusion at grey zone resolutions. Simulations are compared against the coarse-grained fields from the validated LES results for each case. Both methods exhibit particular strengths and weaknesses, indicating the compromise that needs to be made currently in high-resolution numerical weather prediction. The blending scheme is able to reproduce the adiabatic profiles although turbulence is underestimated in favor of the parametrized heat flux, and the spin-up of TKE remains delayed. In contrast, the bounding approach gives an evolution of TKE that follows the coarse-grained LES very well, relying on the resolved motions for the nonlocal heat flux. However, bounding gives unrealistic static instability in the early morning temperature profiles (similar to the 3-D Smagorinsky scheme) because model dynamics are unable to resolve TKE when the boundary layer is too shallow compared to the grid spacing.

  13. Longitudinal changes in grey and white matter during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Giorgio, A; Watkins, K E; Chadwick, M; James, S; Winmill, L; Douaud, G; De Stefano, N; Matthews, P M; Smith, S M; Johansen-Berg, H; James, A C

    2010-01-01

    Brain development continues actively during adolescence. Previous MRI studies have shown complex patterns of apparent loss of grey matter (GM) volume and increases in white matter (WM) volume and fractional anisotropy (FA), an index of WM microstructure. In this longitudinal study (mean follow-up=2.5+/-0.5 years) of 24 adolescents, we used a voxel-based morphometry (VBM)-style analysis with conventional T1-weighted images to test for age-related changes in GM and WM volumes. We also performed tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data to test for age-related WM changes across the whole brain. Probabilistic tractography was used to carry out quantitative comparisons across subjects in measures of WM microstructure in two fiber tracts important for supporting speech and motor functions (arcuate fasciculus [AF] and corticospinal tract [CST]). The whole-brain analyses identified age-related increases in WM volume and FA bilaterally in many fiber tracts, including AF and many parts of the CST. FA changes were mainly driven by increases in parallel diffusivity, probably reflecting increases in the diameter of the axons forming the fiber tracts. FA values of both left and right AF (but not of the CST) were significantly higher at the end of the follow-up than at baseline. Over the same period, widespread reductions in the cortical GM volume were found. These findings provide imaging-based anatomical data suggesting that brain maturation in adolescence is associated with structural changes enhancing long-distance connectivities in different WM tracts, specifically in the AF and CST, at the same time that cortical GM exhibits synaptic "pruning". PMID:19679191

  14. Robust representation of shape in a Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus).

    PubMed

    Pepperberg, Irene M; Nakayama, Ken

    2016-08-01

    A Grey parrot, Griffin (Psittacus erithacus), previously taught English labels for various colors and shapes with respect to three-dimensional (3D) stimuli, was tested on his ability to transfer to very different two-dimensional (2D) images consisting of modal and amodal completion stimuli. For modal completion (aka subjective contours), Kanizsa figures were constructed using black 'pac-men' to form regular polygons on colored paper. For amodal completion, portions of variously colored regular 2D polygons were occluded by black circles or other black figures. For each task, Griffin provided a vocal English shape label for five possible shapes designated by their vertices (one, two, three, four, six). His accuracy was high for both amodal completed figures, including probe stimuli (28/38 correct) and modally completed figures (29/38 correct), with chance=0.20. The modally completed case (i.e., Kanizsa subjective figures) is of particular importance as there are no shared image parts between training and testing stimuli. We draw several conclusions from these results. First, a surface level completion process is fully operative insofar as Griffin was able to correctly identify shapes that differed considerably from training images. Second, because parrots can generalize from shapes of real objects to drawings where original image contours were clearly absent, the data provide a compelling example of shape invariance, indicating that visual shapes are processed far beyond that of their image description. Third, parrots with a repertoire of multiple vocal responses can be rigorously tested for visual competencies, an option as yet to be tried in other experimental animals. PMID:27206312

  15. Short communication: Use of a mixture of sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate, and potassium sorbate in aerobically challenged silages.

    PubMed

    Knicky, Martin; Spörndly, Rolf

    2015-08-01

    Aerobic instability is still a common problem with many types of silages, particularly well-fermented silages. This study evaluated the effect of adding an additive mixture based on sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate, and potassium sorbate to a variety of crop materials on fermentation quality and aerobic stability of silages. Ensiling conditions were challenged by using a low packing density (104±4.3kg of dry matter/m(3)) of forage and allowing air ingression into silos (at 14 and 7 d before the end of the storage, for 8 h per event). Additive-treated silages were found to have significantly lower pH and reduced formation of ammonia-N, 2.3-butanediol, and ethanol compared with untreated control silages. Yeast growth was significantly reduced by additive treatment in comparison with untreated control silage. Consequently, additive-treated silages were considerably more aerobically stable (6.7 d) than untreated control silages (0.5 d). Overall, adding 5mL/kg of fresh crop of the additive based on sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate, and potassium sorbate reduced undesirable microorganisms in silages and thereby provided suitable ensiling conditions and prolonged aerobic stability, even under air-challenged laboratory ensiling conditions. PMID:26026758

  16. Impact of nitrite on aerobic phosphorus uptake by poly-phosphate accumulating organisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal sludges.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wei; Li, Boxiao; Yang, Yingying; Wang, Xiangdong; Li, Lei; Peng, Yongzhen

    2014-02-01

    Impact of nitrite on aerobic phosphorus (P) uptake of poly-phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) in three different enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems was investigated, i.e., the enriched PAOs culture fed with synthetic wastewater, the two lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) treating domestic wastewater for nutrient removal through nitrite-pathway nitritation and nitrate-pathway nitrification, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization results showed that PAOs in the three sludges accounted for 72, 7.6 and 6.5% of bacteria, respectively. In the enriched PAOs culture, at free nitrous acid (FNA) concentration of 0.47 × 10(-3) mg HNO₂-N/L, aerobic P-uptake and oxidation of intercellular poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates were both inhibited. Denitrifying phosphorus removal under the aerobic conditions was observed, indicating the existence of PAOs using nitrite as electron acceptor in this culture. When the FNA concentration reached 2.25 × 10(-3) mg HNO2-N/L, denitrifying phosphorus removal was also inhibited. And the inhibition ceased once nitrite was exhausted. Corresponding to both SBRs treating domestic wastewater with nitritation and nitrification pathway, nitrite inhibition on aerobic P-uptake by PAOs did not occur even though FNA concentration reached 3 × 10(-3) and 2.13 × 10(-3) mg HNO₂-N/L, respectively. Therefore, PAOs taken from different EBPR activated sludges had different tolerance to nitrite.

  17. Yellowing and bleaching of grey hair caused by photo and thermal degradation.

    PubMed

    Richena, M; Silveira, M; Rezende, C A; Joekes, I

    2014-09-01

    Yellowing is an undesirable phenomenon that is common in people with white and grey hair. Because white hair has no melanin, the pigment responsible for hair colour, the effects of photodegradation are more visible in this type of hair. The origin of yellowing and its relation to photodegradation processes are not properly established, and many questions remain open in this field. In this work, the photodegradation of grey hair was investigated as a function of the wavelength of incident radiation, and its ultrastructure was determined, always comparing the results obtained for the white and black fibres present in grey hair with the results of white wool. The results presented herein indicate that the photobehaviour of grey hair irradiated with a mercury lamp or with solar radiation is dependent on the wavelength range of the incident radiation and on the initial shade of yellow in the sample. Two types of grey hair were used: (1) blended grey hair (more yellow) and (2) grey hair from a single-donor (less yellow). After exposure to a full-spectrum mercury lamp for 200 h, the blended white hair turned less yellow (the yellow-blue difference, Db(*) becomes negative, Db(*)=-6), whereas the white hair from the single-donor turned slightly yellower (Db(*)=2). In contrast, VIS+IR irradiation resulted in bleaching in both types of hair, whereas a thermal treatment (at 81 °C) caused yellowing of both types of hair, resulting in a Db(*)=3 for blended white hair and Db(*)=9 for single-donor hair. The identity of the yellow chromophores was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results obtained with this technique were contradictory, however, and it was not possible to obtain a simple correlation between the sample shade of yellow and the absorption spectra. In addition, the results are discussed in terms of the morphology differences between the pigmented and non-pigmented parts of grey hair, the yellowing and bleaching effects of grey hair, and the occurrence of dark

  18. Yellowing and bleaching of grey hair caused by photo and thermal degradation.

    PubMed

    Richena, M; Silveira, M; Rezende, C A; Joekes, I

    2014-09-01

    Yellowing is an undesirable phenomenon that is common in people with white and grey hair. Because white hair has no melanin, the pigment responsible for hair colour, the effects of photodegradation are more visible in this type of hair. The origin of yellowing and its relation to photodegradation processes are not properly established, and many questions remain open in this field. In this work, the photodegradation of grey hair was investigated as a function of the wavelength of incident radiation, and its ultrastructure was determined, always comparing the results obtained for the white and black fibres present in grey hair with the results of white wool. The results presented herein indicate that the photobehaviour of grey hair irradiated with a mercury lamp or with solar radiation is dependent on the wavelength range of the incident radiation and on the initial shade of yellow in the sample. Two types of grey hair were used: (1) blended grey hair (more yellow) and (2) grey hair from a single-donor (less yellow). After exposure to a full-spectrum mercury lamp for 200 h, the blended white hair turned less yellow (the yellow-blue difference, Db(*) becomes negative, Db(*)=-6), whereas the white hair from the single-donor turned slightly yellower (Db(*)=2). In contrast, VIS+IR irradiation resulted in bleaching in both types of hair, whereas a thermal treatment (at 81 °C) caused yellowing of both types of hair, resulting in a Db(*)=3 for blended white hair and Db(*)=9 for single-donor hair. The identity of the yellow chromophores was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results obtained with this technique were contradictory, however, and it was not possible to obtain a simple correlation between the sample shade of yellow and the absorption spectra. In addition, the results are discussed in terms of the morphology differences between the pigmented and non-pigmented parts of grey hair, the yellowing and bleaching effects of grey hair, and the occurrence of dark

  19. Right hemisphere grey matter structure and language outcomes in chronic left hemisphere stroke.

    PubMed

    Xing, Shihui; Lacey, Elizabeth H; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M; Jiang, Xiong; Harris-Love, Michelle L; Zeng, Jinsheng; Turkeltaub, Peter E

    2016-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying recovery of language after left hemisphere stroke remain elusive. Although older evidence suggested that right hemisphere language homologues compensate for damage in left hemisphere language areas, the current prevailing theory suggests that right hemisphere engagement is ineffective or even maladaptive. Using a novel combination of support vector regression-based lesion-symptom mapping and voxel-based morphometry, we aimed to determine whether local grey matter volume in the right hemisphere independently contributes to aphasia outcomes after chronic left hemisphere stroke. Thirty-two left hemisphere stroke survivors with aphasia underwent language assessment with the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised and tests of other cognitive domains. High-resolution T1-weighted images were obtained in aphasia patients and 30 demographically matched healthy controls. Support vector regression-based multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to identify critical language areas in the left hemisphere and then to quantify each stroke survivor's lesion burden in these areas. After controlling for these direct effects of the stroke on language, voxel-based morphometry was then used to determine whether local grey matter volumes in the right hemisphere explained additional variance in language outcomes. In brain areas in which grey matter volumes related to language outcomes, we then compared grey matter volumes in patients and healthy controls to assess post-stroke plasticity. Lesion-symptom mapping showed that specific left hemisphere regions related to different language abilities. After controlling for lesion burden in these areas, lesion size, and demographic factors, grey matter volumes in parts of the right temporoparietal cortex positively related to spontaneous speech, naming, and repetition scores. Examining whether domain general cognitive functions might explain these relationships, partial correlations demonstrated that grey matter

  20. Settling behaviour of aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Nor Anuar, A; Ujang, Z; van Loosdrecht, M C M; de Kreuk, M K

    2007-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) technology has been extensively studied recently to improve sludge settling and behaviour in activated sludge systems. The main advantage is that aerobic granular sludge (AGS) can settle very fast in a reactor or clarifier because AGS is compact and has strong structure. It also has good settleability and a high capacity for biomass retention. Several experimental works have been conducted in this study to observe the settling behaviours of AGS. The study thus has two aims: (1) to compare the settling profile of AGS with other sludge flocs and (2) to observe the influence of mechanical mixing and design of the reactor to the settleability of AGS. The first experimental outcome shows that AGS settles after less than 5 min in a depth of 0.4 m compared to other sludge flocs (from sequencing batch reactor, conventional activated sludge and extended aeration) which takes more than 30 min. This study also shows that the turbulence from the mixing mechanism and shear in the reactor provides an insignificant effect on the AGS settling velocity.

  1. Characterization and aerobic biodegradation of selected monoterpenes

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, G.; Pavlostathis, S.G.; Li, J.; Purdue, E.M.

    1996-12-31

    Monoterpenes are biogenic chemicals and occur in abundance in nature. Large-scale industrial use of these chemicals has recently been initiated in an attempt to replace halogenated solvents and chlorofluorocarbons which have been implicated in the stratospheric depletion of ozone. This study examined four hydrocarbon monoterpenes (d-limonene, {alpha}-pinene, {gamma}-terpinene, and terpinolene) and four alcohols (arbanol, linalool, plinol, and {alpha}-terpineol). Water solubility, vapor pressure, and octanol/water partition coefficients were estimated. Aerobic biodegradability tests were conducted in batch reactors by utilizing forest soil extract and enriched cultures as inoculum. The hydrophobic nature and high volatility of the hydrocarbons restricted the investigation to relatively low aqueous concentrations. Each monoterpene was analyzed with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector after extraction from the aqueous phase with isooctane. Terpene mineralization was tested by monitoring liquid-phase carbon, CO{sub 2} production and biomass growth. All four hydrocarbons and two alcohols readily degraded under aerobic conditions. Plinol resisted degradation in assays using inocula from diverse sources, while arbanol degraded very slowly. The intrinsic biokinetics coefficients for the degradation of d-limonene and {alpha}-terpineol were estimated by using cultures enriched with the respective monoterpenes. Monoterpene biodegradation followed Monod kinetics.

  2. Aerobic growth at nanomolar oxygen concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Stolper, Daniel A.; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Canfield, Donald E.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular oxygen (O2) is the second most abundant gas in the Earth’s atmosphere, but in many natural environments, its concentration is reduced to low or even undetectable levels. Although low-oxygen-adapted organisms define the ecology of low-oxygen environments, their capabilities are not fully known. These capabilities also provide a framework for reconstructing a critical period in the history of life, because low, but not negligible, atmospheric oxygen levels could have persisted before the “Great Oxidation” of the Earth’s surface about 2.3 to 2.4 billion years ago. Here, we show that Escherichia coli K-12, chosen for its well-understood biochemistry, rapid growth rate, and low-oxygen-affinity terminal oxidase, grows at oxygen levels of ≤ 3 nM, two to three orders of magnitude lower than previously observed for aerobes. Our study expands both the environmental range and temporal history of aerobic organisms. PMID:20974919

  3. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning

    PubMed Central

    Perini, Renza; Bortoletto, Marta; Capogrosso, Michela; Fertonani, Anna; Miniussi, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cortex, and the second was a simple thumb abduction motor task that relies on the primary motor cortex. Forty-four and forty volunteers participated in the first and second experiments, respectively. We found that a single bout of aerobic exercise can significantly facilitate learning mechanisms within visual and motor domains and that these positive effects can persist for at least 30 minutes following exercise. This finding suggests that physical activity, at least of moderate intensity, might promote brain plasticity. By combining physical activity–induced plasticity with specific cognitive training–induced plasticity, we favour a gradual up-regulation of a functional network due to a steady increase in synaptic strength, promoting associative Hebbian-like plasticity. PMID:27146330

  4. Treating Sludges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josephson, Julian

    1978-01-01

    Discussed are some of the ways to handle municipal and industrial wastewater treatment sludge presented at the 1978 American Chemical Society meeting. Suggestions include removing toxic materials, recovering metals, and disposing treated sewage sludge onto farm land. Arguments for and against land use are also given. (MA)

  5. Impacts of residence time during storage on potential of water saving for grey water recycling system.

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Butler, D; Memon, F A; Makropoulos, C; Avery, L; Jefferson, B

    2010-01-01

    Grey water recycling has been generally accepted and is about to move into practice in terms of sustainable development. Previous research has revealed the bacteria re-growth in grey water and reclaimed municipal water during storage. However, in most present grey water recycling practices, impacts of water quality changes during storage on the system's performance and design regulation have not been addressed. In this paper, performance of a constructed wetland based grey water recycling system was analysed by taking the constraint of residence time during storage into account using an object based household water cycle model. Two indicators, water saving efficiency (WSE) and residence time index (RTI), are employed to reflect the system's performance and residence time during storage respectively. Results show that WSE and RTI change with storage tank volumes oppositely. As both high WSE and RTI cannot be achieved simultaneously, it is concluded that in order to achieve the most cost-effective and safe solution, systems with both small grey and green tanks are needed, whilst accepting that only relatively modest water saving efficiency targets can be achieved. Higher efficiencies will only be practicable if water quality deterioration in the green water tank can be prevented by some means (e.g. disinfection).

  6. Grey matter changes of the pain matrix in patients with burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sinding, Charlotte; Gransjøen, Anne Mari; Schlumberger, Gina; Grushka, Miriam; Frasnelli, Johannes; Singh, Preet Bano

    2016-04-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by a burning sensation in the mouth, usually in the absence of clinical and laboratory findings. Latest findings indicate that BMS could result from neuropathic trigeminal conditions. While many investigations have focused on the periphery, very few have examined possible central dysfunctions. To highlight changes of the central system of subjects with BMS, we analysed the grey matter concentration in 12 subjects using voxel-based morphometry. Data were compared with a control group (Ct). To better understand the brain mechanisms underlying BMS, the grey matter concentration of patients was also compared with those of dysgeusic patients (Dys). Dysgeusia is another oral dysfunction condition, characterized by a distorted sense of taste and accompanied by a reduced taste function. We found that a major part of the 'pain matrix' presented modifications of the grey matter concentration in subjects with BMS. Six regions out of eight were affected [anterior and posterior cingulate gyrus, lobules of the cerebellum, insula/frontal operculum, inferior temporal area, primary motor cortex, dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex (DLPFC)]. In the anterior cingulate gyrus, the lobules of the cerebellum, the inferior temporal lobe and the DLPFC, pain intensity correlated with grey matter concentration. Dys also presented changes in grey matter concentration but in different areas of the brain. Our results suggest that a deficiency in the control of pain could in part be a cause of BMS and that BMS and dysgeusia conditions are not linked to similar structural changes in the brain.

  7. Grey matter changes of the pain matrix in patients with burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sinding, Charlotte; Gransjøen, Anne Mari; Schlumberger, Gina; Grushka, Miriam; Frasnelli, Johannes; Singh, Preet Bano

    2016-04-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by a burning sensation in the mouth, usually in the absence of clinical and laboratory findings. Latest findings indicate that BMS could result from neuropathic trigeminal conditions. While many investigations have focused on the periphery, very few have examined possible central dysfunctions. To highlight changes of the central system of subjects with BMS, we analysed the grey matter concentration in 12 subjects using voxel-based morphometry. Data were compared with a control group (Ct). To better understand the brain mechanisms underlying BMS, the grey matter concentration of patients was also compared with those of dysgeusic patients (Dys). Dysgeusia is another oral dysfunction condition, characterized by a distorted sense of taste and accompanied by a reduced taste function. We found that a major part of the 'pain matrix' presented modifications of the grey matter concentration in subjects with BMS. Six regions out of eight were affected [anterior and posterior cingulate gyrus, lobules of the cerebellum, insula/frontal operculum, inferior temporal area, primary motor cortex, dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex (DLPFC)]. In the anterior cingulate gyrus, the lobules of the cerebellum, the inferior temporal lobe and the DLPFC, pain intensity correlated with grey matter concentration. Dys also presented changes in grey matter concentration but in different areas of the brain. Our results suggest that a deficiency in the control of pain could in part be a cause of BMS and that BMS and dysgeusia conditions are not linked to similar structural changes in the brain. PMID:26741696

  8. Sampling the Structure of Convective Turbulence and Implications for Grey-Zone Parametrizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honnert, Rachel; Couvreux, Fleur; Masson, Valéry; Lancz, Dávid

    2016-07-01

    The grey zone of dry convection is the range of scales in which boundary-layer thermals are partly explicitly resolved by numerical weather prediction (NWP) models and partly parametrized. We seek to determine how thermals are divided into subgrid and resolved scales in the grey zone of convective boundary-layer thermals. Reference data for grid-scale and subgrid-scale fields at these resolutions are constructed by filtering 62.5-m large-eddy simulation data. A conditional sampling is adapted to detect subgrid thermals, and is used to characterize the subgrid thermals at several grid spacings in the grey zone. A mass-flux parametrization used in NWP models is compared with the subgrid thermal field. The analysis demonstrates that, although the mass-flux framework is suitable in the grey zone, some assumptions of the mass-flux schemes, usually used at the mesoscale, cannot be made in the grey zone. In particular, the thermal fraction is not small, the resolved vertical velocity is not negligible, the entrainment and detrainment rates depend on the horizontal resolution, the triggering and the closure at the surface are moreover random.

  9. Variability of dental cone beam CT grey values for density estimations

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, R; Nackaerts, O; Bellaiche, N; Stamatakis, H; Tsiklakis, K; Walker, A; Bosmans, H; Bogaerts, R; Jacobs, R; Horner, K

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the use of dental cone beam CT (CBCT) grey values for density estimations by calculating the correlation with multislice CT (MSCT) values and the grey value error after recalibration. Methods A polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom was developed containing inserts of different density: air, PMMA, hydroxyapatite (HA) 50 mg cm−3, HA 100, HA 200 and aluminium. The phantom was scanned on 13 CBCT devices and 1 MSCT device. Correlation between CBCT grey values and CT numbers was calculated, and the average error of the CBCT values was estimated in the medium-density range after recalibration. Results Pearson correlation coefficients ranged between 0.7014 and 0.9996 in the full-density range and between 0.5620 and 0.9991 in the medium-density range. The average error of CBCT voxel values in the medium-density range was between 35 and 1562. Conclusion Even though most CBCT devices showed a good overall correlation with CT numbers, large errors can be seen when using the grey values in a quantitative way. Although it could be possible to obtain pseudo-Hounsfield units from certain CBCTs, alternative methods of assessing bone tissue should be further investigated. Advances in knowledge The suitability of dental CBCT for density estimations was assessed, involving a large number of devices and protocols. The possibility for grey value calibration was thoroughly investigated. PMID:23255537

  10. Grey matter networks in people at increased familial risk for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Tijms, Betty M; Sprooten, Emma; Job, Dominic; Johnstone, Eve C; Owens, David G C; Willshaw, David; Seriès, Peggy; Lawrie, Stephen M

    2015-10-01

    Grey matter brain networks are disrupted in schizophrenia, but it is still unclear at which point during the development of the illness these disruptions arise and whether these can be associated with behavioural predictors of schizophrenia. We investigated if single-subject grey matter networks were disrupted in a sample of people at familial risk of schizophrenia. Single-subject grey matter networks were extracted from structural MRI scans of 144 high risk subjects, 32 recent-onset patients and 36 healthy controls. The following network properties were calculated: size, connectivity density, degree, path length, clustering coefficient, betweenness centrality and small world properties. People at risk of schizophrenia showed decreased path length and clustering in mostly prefrontal and temporal areas. Within the high risk sample, the path length of the posterior cingulate cortex and the betweenness centrality of the left inferior frontal operculum explained 81% of the variance in schizotypal cognitions, which was previously shown to be the strongest behavioural predictor of schizophrenia in the study. In contrast, local grey matter volume measurements explained 48% of variance in schizotypy. The present results suggest that single-subject grey matter networks can quantify behaviourally relevant biological alterations in people at increased risk for schizophrenia before disease onset.

  11. Principle Study of Head Meridian Acupoint Massage to Stress Release via Grey Data Model Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ya-Ting

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the scientific study of the effectiveness and action principle of head meridian acupoint massage by applying the grey data model analysis approach. First, the head massage procedure for massaging the important head meridian acupuncture points including Taiyang, Fengfu, Tianzhu, Fengqi, and Jianjing is formulated in a standard manner. Second, the status of the autonomic nervous system of each subject is evaluated by using the heart rate variability analyzer before and after the head massage following four weeks. Afterward, the physiological factors of autonomic nerves are quantitatively analyzed by using the grey data modeling theory. The grey data analysis can point out that the status of autonomic nervous system is greatly improved after the massage. The order change of the grey relationship weighting of physiological factors shows the action principle of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves when performing head massage. In other words, the grey data model is able to distinguish the detailed interaction of the autonomic nervous system and the head meridian acupoint massage. Thus, the stress relaxing effect of massaging head meridian acupoints is proved, which is lacked in literature. The results can be a reference principle for massage health care in practice. PMID:26904144

  12. Grey matter networks in people at increased familial risk for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Tijms, Betty M; Sprooten, Emma; Job, Dominic; Johnstone, Eve C; Owens, David G C; Willshaw, David; Seriès, Peggy; Lawrie, Stephen M

    2015-10-01

    Grey matter brain networks are disrupted in schizophrenia, but it is still unclear at which point during the development of the illness these disruptions arise and whether these can be associated with behavioural predictors of schizophrenia. We investigated if single-subject grey matter networks were disrupted in a sample of people at familial risk of schizophrenia. Single-subject grey matter networks were extracted from structural MRI scans of 144 high risk subjects, 32 recent-onset patients and 36 healthy controls. The following network properties were calculated: size, connectivity density, degree, path length, clustering coefficient, betweenness centrality and small world properties. People at risk of schizophrenia showed decreased path length and clustering in mostly prefrontal and temporal areas. Within the high risk sample, the path length of the posterior cingulate cortex and the betweenness centrality of the left inferior frontal operculum explained 81% of the variance in schizotypal cognitions, which was previously shown to be the strongest behavioural predictor of schizophrenia in the study. In contrast, local grey matter volume measurements explained 48% of variance in schizotypy. The present results suggest that single-subject grey matter networks can quantify behaviourally relevant biological alterations in people at increased risk for schizophrenia before disease onset. PMID:26330380

  13. Grey-scale conversion X-ray mapping by EDS of multielement and multiphase layered microstructures.

    PubMed

    Dahl, K V; Hald, J; Horsewell, A

    2007-01-01

    A procedure for grey-scale conversion of energy dispersive spectroscopy X-ray maps has been developed, which is particularly useful for the plotting of line composition profiles across modified layered engineering surfaces. The method involves (a) the collection of grey-scale elemental maps, (b) the calculation of mean grey-scale levels along strips parallel to the layered microstructure and (c) the conversion of grey-scale line profiles into composition line profiles. As an example of the grey-scale conversion method and its advantages for multielement and multiphase layered microstructures, the procedure has been applied to a layered microstructure that results from a plasma-sprayed metallic MCrAlY coating onto a nickel-superalloy turbine blade. As a further demonstration of the accuracy and amount of compositional data that can be obtained with this procedure, measured compositional profiles have been obtained for several long-term isothermal heat treatments in which significant interdiffusion has taken place. The resulting composition profiles have greatly improved counting statistics compared to traditional point-by-point scans for the same scanning electron microscope time and may be considered as a rapid alternative to energy dispersive spectroscopy spectrum imaging. The composition profiles obtained may be conveniently compared with results of multicomponent thermodynamic modelling of interdiffusion. PMID:17286693

  14. Principle Study of Head Meridian Acupoint Massage to Stress Release via Grey Data Model Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ya-Ting

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the scientific study of the effectiveness and action principle of head meridian acupoint massage by applying the grey data model analysis approach. First, the head massage procedure for massaging the important head meridian acupuncture points including Taiyang, Fengfu, Tianzhu, Fengqi, and Jianjing is formulated in a standard manner. Second, the status of the autonomic nervous system of each subject is evaluated by using the heart rate variability analyzer before and after the head massage following four weeks. Afterward, the physiological factors of autonomic nerves are quantitatively analyzed by using the grey data modeling theory. The grey data analysis can point out that the status of autonomic nervous system is greatly improved after the massage. The order change of the grey relationship weighting of physiological factors shows the action principle of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves when performing head massage. In other words, the grey data model is able to distinguish the detailed interaction of the autonomic nervous system and the head meridian acupoint massage. Thus, the stress relaxing effect of massaging head meridian acupoints is proved, which is lacked in literature. The results can be a reference principle for massage health care in practice. PMID:26904144

  15. Aerobic Dance Exercise Programs: Maintaining Quality and Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Pamela J.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the effectiveness of Washington State University's aerobic dance program showed that participation in the program did not improve students' cardiovascular fitness. Aerobics instructors should be trained to use pulse rate and other principles of exercise physiology to make their work more effective. (PP)

  16. The Effectiveness of Aerobic Exercise Instruction for Totally Blind Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponchillia, S. V.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A multifaceted method (involving verbal and hands-on training) was used to teach aerobic exercises to 3 totally blind women (ages 24-37). All three women demonstrated positive gains in their performance, physical fitness, and attitudes toward participating in future mainstream aerobic exercise classes. (DB)

  17. [Value of aerobic rehabilitation in the management of fibromyalgia].

    PubMed

    Maquet, D; Croisier, J L; Demoulin, C; Faymonville, M; Crielaard, J M

    2006-02-01

    This study assesses the influence of a muscular aerobic revalidation program on the management of the fibromyalgia syndrome. After 3 months, benefits consisting of increased muscle performances associated with a reduction of pain and an improvement of quality of life were documented. This study confirms the value of aerobic muscle exercise in fibromyalgia patients. PMID:16566119

  18. Aerobic Fitness Thresholds Associated with Fifth Grade Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittberg, Richard; Cottrell, Lesley A.; Davis, Catherine L.; Northrup, Karen L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Whereas effects of physical fitness and physical activity on cognitive function have been documented, little is known about how they are related. Purpose: This study assessed student aerobic fitness measured by FITNESSGRAM Mile times and/or Pacer circuits and whether the nature of the association between aerobic fitness and…

  19. Factors associated with low levels of aerobic fitness among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Eliane Cristina de Andrade; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of low aerobic fitness levels and to analyze the association with sociodemographic factors, lifestyle and excess body fatness among adolescents of southern Brazil. Methods: The study included 879 adolescents aged 14-19 years the city of São José/SC, Brazil. The aerobic fitness was assessed by Canadian modified test of aerobic fitness. Sociodemographic variables (skin color, age, sex, study turn, economic level), sexual maturation and lifestyle (eating habits, screen time, physical activity, consumption of alcohol and tobacco) were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Excess body fatness was evaluated by sum of skinfolds triceps and subscapular. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: Prevalence of low aerobic fitness level was 87.5%. The girls who spent two hours or more in front screen, consumed less than one glass of milk by day, did not smoke and had an excess of body fatness had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. White boys with low physical activity had had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. Conclusions: Eight out of ten adolescents were with low fitness levels aerobic. Modifiable lifestyle factors were associated with low levels of aerobic fitness. Interventions that emphasize behavior change are needed. PMID:26743851

  20. Aerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This manual contains the textual material for a single-lesson unit on aerobic sludge digestion. Topic areas addressed include: (1) theory of aerobic digestion; (2) system components; (3) performance factors; (4) indicators of stable operation; and (5) operational problems and their solutions. A list of objectives, glossary of key terms, and…

  1. The Acute Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Measures of Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort, Inza L.; And Others

    The immediate response of stress to aerobic exercise was measured by utilizing the Palmar Sweat Index (PSI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Forty subjects (20 male and 20 female) from the ages of 18-30 sustained a single bout of aerobic activity for 30 minutes at 60 percent of their maximum heart rate. Pre-treatment procedures…

  2. Cerebellar grey-matter deficits, cannabis use and first-episode schizophrenia in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Martin; Rasser, Paul E; Peck, Greg; Carr, Vaughan J; Ward, Philip B; Thompson, Paul M; Johnston, Patrick; Baker, Amanda; Schall, Ulrich

    2012-04-01

    Epidemiological data link adolescent cannabis use to psychosis and schizophrenia, but its contribution to schizophrenia neuropathology remains controversial. First-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients show regional cerebral grey- and white-matter changes as well as a distinct pattern of regional grey-matter loss in the vermis of the cerebellum. The cerebellum possesses a high density of cannabinoid type 1 receptors involved in the neuronal diversification of the developing brain. Cannabis abuse may interfere with this process during adolescent brain maturation leading to 'schizophrenia-like' cerebellar pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging and cortical pattern matching techniques were used to investigate cerebellar grey and white matter in FES patients with and without a history of cannabis use and non-psychiatric cannabis users. In the latter group we found lifetime dose-dependent regional reduction of grey matter in the right cerebellar lobules and a tendency for more profound grey-matter reduction in lobule III with younger age at onset of cannabis use. The overall regional grey-matter differences in cannabis users were within the normal variability of grey-matter distribution. By contrast, FES subjects had lower total cerebellar grey-matter:total cerebellar volume ratio and marked grey-matter loss in the vermis, pedunculi, flocculi and lobules compared to pair-wise matched healthy control subjects. This pattern and degree of grey-matter loss did not differ from age-matched FES subjects with comorbid cannabis use. Our findings indicate small dose-dependent effects of juvenile cannabis use on cerebellar neuropathology but no evidence of an additional effect of cannabis use on FES cerebellar grey-matter pathology.

  3. Heart rate during aerobics classes in women with different previous experience of aerobics.

    PubMed

    Laukkanen, R M; Kalaja, M K; Kalaja, S P; Holmala, E B; Paavolainen, L M; Tummavuori, M; Virtanen, P; Rusko, H K

    2001-01-01

    This study measured heart rate during floor and step aerobic classes at three intensity levels. A group of 20 female occasional exercisers [mean age 33 (SD 8) years, mean body mass index 21 (SD 2) kg.m-2 volunteered to participate in six aerobic classes (three floor classes, three step classes) and in a laboratory test as members of one of two groups according to their prestudy regular participation in aerobics classes. Subjects in group A had participated four or more times a week and those of group B less than twice a week. The characteristics of the groups were as follows: group A, n = 10, mean maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) 38.7 (SD 3.6) ml.kg-1.min-1, mean maximal heart rate (HRmax) 183 (SD 8) beats.min-1; group B, n = 10, VO2max 36.1 (SD 3.6) ml.kg-1.min-1, HRmax 178 (SD 7) beats.min-1. Each class consisted of a warm-up, a 20 min period of structured aerobic exercise (cardiophase) and a cool-down. The cardiophase was planned and guided as light, (rate of perceived exertion, RPE 11-12), moderate (RPE 13-14) or heavy (RPE 15-17) by an experienced instructor. The mean heart rates during the light classes were 72 (step) and 74 (floor) %HRmax in group A and 75 (step) and 79 (floor) %HRmax in group B; during the moderate classes, 84 (step) and 80 (floor) %HRmax in group A and 82 (step) and 83 (floor) %HRmax in group B, and during the heavy classes 89 (step and floor) %HRmax in group A and 88 (step) and 92 (floor) %HRmax in group B. Differences in heart rate and %HRmax were not statistically significant between the groups. However, differences in heart rate and %HRmax between the intensities (light vs moderate, moderate vs heavy and light vs heavy) were significant within both groups (all, P < 0.01). Based on the results, we conclude that intensity management during the aerobics classes was generally successful regardless of the participants' prior participation in aerobics. However, some individuals who were older and/or had less prior participation tended to

  4. Physicochemical treatments of anionic surfactants wastewater: Effect on aerobic biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Aloui, Fathi; Kchaou, Sonia; Sayadi, Sami

    2009-05-15

    The effect of different physicochemical treatments on the aerobic biodegradability of an industrial wastewater resulting from a cosmetic industry has been investigated. This industrial wastewater contains 11423 and 3148mgL(-1) of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and anionic surfactants, respectively. The concentration of COD and anionic surfactants were followed throughout the diverse physicochemical treatments and biodegradation experiments. Different pretreatments of this industrial wastewater using chemical flocculation process with lime and aluminium sulphate (alum), and also advanced oxidation process (electro-coagulation (Fe and Al) and electro-Fenton) led to important COD and anionic surfactants removals. The best results were obtained using electro-Fenton process, exceeding 98 and 80% of anionic surfactants and COD removals, respectively. The biological treatment by an isolated strain Citrobacter braakii of the surfactant wastewater, as well as the pretreated wastewater by the various physicochemical processes used in this study showed that the best results were obtained with electro-Fenton pretreated wastewater. The characterization of the treated surfactant wastewater by the integrated process (electro-coagulation or electro-Fenton)-biological showed that it respects Tunisian discharge standards. PMID:18799262

  5. Physicochemical treatments of anionic surfactants wastewater: Effect on aerobic biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Aloui, Fathi; Kchaou, Sonia; Sayadi, Sami

    2009-05-15

    The effect of different physicochemical treatments on the aerobic biodegradability of an industrial wastewater resulting from a cosmetic industry has been investigated. This industrial wastewater contains 11423 and 3148mgL(-1) of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and anionic surfactants, respectively. The concentration of COD and anionic surfactants were followed throughout the diverse physicochemical treatments and biodegradation experiments. Different pretreatments of this industrial wastewater using chemical flocculation process with lime and aluminium sulphate (alum), and also advanced oxidation process (electro-coagulation (Fe and Al) and electro-Fenton) led to important COD and anionic surfactants removals. The best results were obtained using electro-Fenton process, exceeding 98 and 80% of anionic surfactants and COD removals, respectively. The biological treatment by an isolated strain Citrobacter braakii of the surfactant wastewater, as well as the pretreated wastewater by the various physicochemical processes used in this study showed that the best results were obtained with electro-Fenton pretreated wastewater. The characterization of the treated surfactant wastewater by the integrated process (electro-coagulation or electro-Fenton)-biological showed that it respects Tunisian discharge standards.

  6. Grey situation group decision-making method based on prospect theory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Fang, Zhigeng; Liu, Xiaqing

    2014-01-01

    This paper puts forward a grey situation group decision-making method on the basis of prospect theory, in view of the grey situation group decision-making problems that decisions are often made by multiple decision experts and those experts have risk preferences. The method takes the positive and negative ideal situation distance as reference points, defines positive and negative prospect value function, and introduces decision experts' risk preference into grey situation decision-making to make the final decision be more in line with decision experts' psychological behavior. Based on TOPSIS method, this paper determines the weight of each decision expert, sets up comprehensive prospect value matrix for decision experts' evaluation, and finally determines the optimal situation. At last, this paper verifies the effectiveness and feasibility of the method by means of a specific example.

  7. Grey Situation Group Decision-Making Method Based on Prospect Theory

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Na; Fang, Zhigeng; Liu, Xiaqing

    2014-01-01

    This paper puts forward a grey situation group decision-making method on the basis of prospect theory, in view of the grey situation group decision-making problems that decisions are often made by multiple decision experts and those experts have risk preferences. The method takes the positive and negative ideal situation distance as reference points, defines positive and negative prospect value function, and introduces decision experts' risk preference into grey situation decision-making to make the final decision be more in line with decision experts' psychological behavior. Based on TOPSIS method, this paper determines the weight of each decision expert, sets up comprehensive prospect value matrix for decision experts' evaluation, and finally determines the optimal situation. At last, this paper verifies the effectiveness and feasibility of the method by means of a specific example. PMID:25197706

  8. Coverage of the organ donation process on Grey's Anatomy: the story of Denny Duquette.

    PubMed

    Quick, Brian L

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examined the impact of Grey's Anatomy viewing on a host of organ donation-related variables: organ donation beliefs and attitudes and a willingness to discuss organ donation with family. Following exposure to a storyline in which two myths were presented: (i) the rich and famous can buy their way to the top of organ waiting lists (purchase myth) and (ii) friends and family of medical professionals receive organ transplants quicker than other individuals (relationship myth), results revealed that loyal viewers of Grey's Anatomy are less likely to believe the purchase myth compared to non-viewers. No difference emerged between these two groups with respect to the relationship myth. Additionally, loyal viewers were more likely to talk about their willingness to donate organs than non-viewers. Results are discussed with an emphasis on how Grey's Anatomy portrayals can impact perceptions and action tendencies related to organ donation.

  9. Coverage of the organ donation process on Grey's Anatomy: the story of Denny Duquette.

    PubMed

    Quick, Brian L

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examined the impact of Grey's Anatomy viewing on a host of organ donation-related variables: organ donation beliefs and attitudes and a willingness to discuss organ donation with family. Following exposure to a storyline in which two myths were presented: (i) the rich and famous can buy their way to the top of organ waiting lists (purchase myth) and (ii) friends and family of medical professionals receive organ transplants quicker than other individuals (relationship myth), results revealed that loyal viewers of Grey's Anatomy are less likely to believe the purchase myth compared to non-viewers. No difference emerged between these two groups with respect to the relationship myth. Additionally, loyal viewers were more likely to talk about their willingness to donate organs than non-viewers. Results are discussed with an emphasis on how Grey's Anatomy portrayals can impact perceptions and action tendencies related to organ donation. PMID:19191808

  10. Grey water treatment at a sports centre for reuse in irrigation: a case study.

    PubMed

    Gabarró, J; Batchelli, L; Balaguer, M D; Puig, S; Colprim, J

    2013-01-01

    Grey water has long been considered a promising option for dealing with water scarcity and reuse. However, factors such as lack of macronutrients and low carbon content make its treatment challenging. The aim of this paper was to investigate the applicability of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technology to on-site grey water treatment at a sports centre for reuse in irrigation. The results demonstrated that the regenerated water complied with microbiological parameters concerning restriction of solids and organic matter removal. Denitrification was not fully accomplished, but ammonium was totally oxidised and low concentrations of nitrates were achieved. Effluent with good appearance and no odour was used in an experimental study to irrigate a grid system containing natural and artificial grass sections. The conclusion is that SBR technology offers a promising treatment for grey water.

  11. Hindlimb muscle fibre size and glycogen stores in bank voles with increased aerobic exercise metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jaromin, Ewa; Wyszkowska, Julia; Labecka, Anna Maria; Sadowska, Edyta Teresa; Koteja, Paweł

    2016-02-01

    To test hypotheses concerning physiological factors limiting the rate of aerobic exercise metabolism, we used a unique experimental evolution model: lines of bank voles selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism (A) and unselected, control lines (C). We investigated putative adaptations that result in the increased performance of the hindlimb muscle (gastrocnemius joined with plantaris). The body mass-adjusted muscle mass was higher in A-lines (0.093 g) than in C-lines (0.083 g; P=0.01). However, selection did not affect mean muscle fibre cross-sectional area (P=0.34) or glycogen content assessed with a histochemical periodic acid-Schiff reaction (PAS; P=0.82). The results suggest that the increased aerobic performance is achieved by an increase of total muscle mass, without major qualitative changes in the muscle fibre architecture. However, such a conclusion should be treated with caution, because other modifications, such as increased density of capillaries or mitochondria, could occur. PMID:26685167

  12. Aerobic Sludge Granulation in a Full-Scale Sequencing Batch Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Ding, Li-Bin; Cai, Ang; Huang, Guo-Xian; Horn, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic granulation of activated sludge was successfully achieved in a full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with 50,000 m3 d−1 for treating a town's wastewater. After operation for 337 days, in this full-scale SBR, aerobic granules with an average SVI30 of 47.1 mL g−1, diameter of 0.5 mm, and settling velocity of 42 m h−1 were obtained. Compared to an anaerobic/oxic plug flow (A/O) reactor and an oxidation ditch (OD) being operated in this wastewater treatment plant, the sludge from full-scale SBR has more compact structure and excellent settling ability. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis indicated that Flavobacterium sp., uncultured beta proteobacterium, uncultured Aquabacterium sp., and uncultured Leptothrix sp. were just dominant in SBR, whereas uncultured bacteroidetes were only found in A/O and OD. Three kinds of sludge had a high content of protein in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis revealed that metal ions and some inorganics from raw wastewater precipitated in sludge acted as core to enhance granulation. Raw wastewater characteristics had a positive effect on the granule formation, but the SBR mode operating with periodic feast-famine, shorter settling time, and no return sludge pump played a crucial role in aerobic sludge granulation. PMID:24822190

  13. Aerobic and anaerobic metabolism of bovine ciliary process: effects of metabolic and transport inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Braunagel, S C; Yorio, T

    1987-01-01

    In the present study we have measured the oxygen consumption and lactic acid production, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, in the bovine ciliary process epithelium (CPE) in the presence and absence of transport modifiers. Basal oxygen consumption was 8-15 microliters O2 consumed/mg protein/hr and decreased by 35% when sodium was removed or ouabain was added to the media. Anaerobic metabolism as measured by lactate production was also attenuated by sodium-free or ouabain treatment. When O2 consumption was severely limited by cyanide, lactic acid production increased significantly ("Pasteur effect"), whereas 2-deoxyglucose reduced lactate formation. Both chloride-free and acetazolamide treated CPE increased their dependency on aerobic glycolysis, and this response was also observed under anaerobic conditions, suggesting the presence of an anion transport mechanism. A net lactate production was also found to occur across the aqueous epithelium under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. These results are consistent with the presence of a bicarbonate-sensitive anion transport system located in the ciliary process epithelium.

  14. Evaluation of a combined anaerobic and aerobic system for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater.

    PubMed

    López-López, A; Vallejo-Rodríguez, R; Méndez-Romero, D C

    2010-03-01

    A laboratory scale anaerobic/aerobic (An/Ar) system, comprising an anaerobic filter (AF) coupled to an aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR), was developed to treat wastewater from a slaughterhouse. The AF operated with organic loadings (OL) from 3.7 to 16.5 kg m(-3) d(-1) and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) ranging from 16 to 72 h. The efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was between 50 and 81% and was shown to be related inversely to the value of the OL. The production rate of methane was in the region of 411 mL per g of COD removed. On the other hand, the degradation of organic matter (OM) by an aerobic pathway in the SBR followed first-order kinetics with regard to OM concentration; 85% of the remaining OM from the AF was eliminated within 6 h of aeration, and over 95% of total OM was eliminated as COD within 9 h. The optimal treatment conditions in this system were found at OL = 11.0 kg m-3 d(-1) and HRT = 24 h in the AF, whereas the SBR was most efficient at 9 h of aeration. PMID:20426273

  15. Impact of early fructose intake on metabolic profile and aerobic capacity of rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome is a disease that today affects millions of people around the world. Therefore, it is of great interest to implement more effective procedures for preventing and treating this disease. In search of a suitable experimental model to study the role of exercise in prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome, this study examined the metabolic profile and the aerobic capacity of rats kept early in life on a fructose-rich diet, a substrate that has been associated with metabolic syndrome. Methods We used adult female Wistar rats fed during pregnancy and lactation with two diets: balanced or fructose-rich 60%. During breastfeeding, the pups were distributed in small (4/mother) or adequate (8/mother) litters. At 90 days of age, they were analyzed with respect to: glucose tolerance, peripheral insulin sensitivity, aerobic capacity and serum glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol concentrations as well as measures of glycogen synthesis and glucose oxidation by the soleus muscle. Results It was found that the fructose rich diet led the animals to insulin resistance. The fructose fed rats kept in small litters also showed dyslipidemia, with increased serum concentrations of total cholesterol and triglycerides. Conclusion Neither the aerobic capacity nor the glucose oxidation rates by the skeletal muscle were altered by fructose-rich diet, indicating that the animal model evaluated is potentially interesting for the study of the role of exercise in metabolic syndrome. PMID:21223589

  16. The genealogy and genetic viability of reintroduced Yellowstone grey wolves.

    PubMed

    Vonholdt, Bridgett M; Stahler, Daniel R; Smith, Douglas W; Earl, Dent A; Pollinger, John P; Wayne, Robert K

    2008-01-01

    The recovery of the grey wolf in Yellowstone National Park is an outstanding example of a successful reintroduction. A general question concerning reintroduction is the degree to which genetic variation has been preserved and the specific behavioural mechanisms that enhance the preservation of genetic diversity and reduce inbreeding. We have analysed 200 Yellowstone wolves, including all 31 founders, for variation in 26 microsatellite loci over the 10-year reintroduction period (1995-2004). The population maintained high levels of variation (1995 H(0) = 0.69; 2004 H(0) = 0.73) with low levels of inbreeding (1995 F(IS) = -0.063; 2004 F(IS) = -0.051) and throughout, the population expanded rapidly (N(1995) = 21; N(2004) = 169). Pedigree-based effective population size ratios did not vary appreciably over the duration of population expansion (1995 N(e)/N(g) = 0.29; 2000 N(e)/N(g) = 0.26; 2004 N(e)/N(g) = 0.33). We estimated kinship and found only two of 30 natural breeding pairs showed evidence of being related (average r = -0.026, SE = 0.03). We reconstructed the genealogy of 200 wolves based on genetic and field data and discovered that they avoid inbreeding through a wide variety of behavioural mechanisms including absolute avoidance of breeding with related pack members, male-biased dispersal to packs where they breed with nonrelatives, and female-biased subordinate breeding. We documented a greater diversity of such population assembly patterns in Yellowstone than previously observed in any other natural wolf population. Inbreeding avoidance is nearly absolute despite the high probability of within-pack inbreeding opportunities and extensive interpack kinship ties between adjacent packs. Simulations showed that the Yellowstone population has levels of genetic variation similar to that of a population managed for high variation and low inbreeding, and greater than that expected for random breeding within packs or across the entire breeding pool. Although short

  17. Sumatriptan inhibits synaptic transmission in the rat midbrain periaqueductal grey

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyo-Jin; Chenu, David; Johnson, Emma E; Connor, Mark; Vaughan, Christopher W

    2008-01-01

    Background There is evidence to suggest that the midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG) has a role in migraine and the actions of the anti-migraine drug sumatriptan. In the present study we examined the serotonergic modulation of GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission in rat midbrain PAG slices in vitro. Results Serotonin (5-hydroxytriptamine, 5-HT, IC50 = 142 nM) and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (30 μM) produced a reduction in the amplitude of GABAA-mediated evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in all PAG neurons which was associated with an increase in the paired-pulse ratio of evoked IPSCs. Real time PCR revealed that 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D and 5-HT1F receptor mRNA was present in the PAG. The 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptor agonists 8-OH-DPAT (3 μM), CP93129 (3 μM) and L694247 (3 μM), but not the 5-HT1F receptor agonist LY344864 (1 – 3 μM) inhibited evoked IPSCs. The 5-HT (1 μM) induced inhibition of evoked IPSCs was abolished by the 5-HT1B antagonist NAS181 (10 μM), but not by the 5-HT1A and 5-HT1D antagonists WAY100135 (3 μM) and BRL15572 (10 μM). Sumatriptan also inhibited evoked IPSCs with an IC50 of 261 nM, and reduced the rate, but not the amplitude of spontaneous miniature IPSCs. The sumatriptan (1 μM) induced inhibition of evoked IPSCs was abolished by NAS181 (10 μM) and BRL15572 (10 μM), together, but not separately. 5-HT (10 μM) and sumatriptan (3 μM) also reduced the amplitude of non-NMDA mediated evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in all PAG neurons tested. Conclusion These results indicate that sumatriptan inhibits GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission within the PAG via a 5-HT1B/D receptor mediated reduction in the probability of neurotransmitter release from nerve terminals. These actions overlap those of other analgesics, such as opioids, and provide a mechanism by which centrally acting 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D ligands might lead to novel anti

  18. The genealogy and genetic viability of reintroduced Yellowstone grey wolves.

    PubMed

    Vonholdt, Bridgett M; Stahler, Daniel R; Smith, Douglas W; Earl, Dent A; Pollinger, John P; Wayne, Robert K

    2008-01-01

    The recovery of the grey wolf in Yellowstone National Park is an outstanding example of a successful reintroduction. A general question concerning reintroduction is the degree to which genetic variation has been preserved and the specific behavioural mechanisms that enhance the preservation of genetic diversity and reduce inbreeding. We have analysed 200 Yellowstone wolves, including all 31 founders, for variation in 26 microsatellite loci over the 10-year reintroduction period (1995-2004). The population maintained high levels of variation (1995 H(0) = 0.69; 2004 H(0) = 0.73) with low levels of inbreeding (1995 F(IS) = -0.063; 2004 F(IS) = -0.051) and throughout, the population expanded rapidly (N(1995) = 21; N(2004) = 169). Pedigree-based effective population size ratios did not vary appreciably over the duration of population expansion (1995 N(e)/N(g) = 0.29; 2000 N(e)/N(g) = 0.26; 2004 N(e)/N(g) = 0.33). We estimated kinship and found only two of 30 natural breeding pairs showed evidence of being related (average r = -0.026, SE = 0.03). We reconstructed the genealogy of 200 wolves based on genetic and field data and discovered that they avoid inbreeding through a wide variety of behavioural mechanisms including absolute avoidance of breeding with related pack members, male-biased dispersal to packs where they breed with nonrelatives, and female-biased subordinate breeding. We documented a greater diversity of such population assembly patterns in Yellowstone than previously observed in any other natural wolf population. Inbreeding avoidance is nearly absolute despite the high probability of within-pack inbreeding opportunities and extensive interpack kinship ties between adjacent packs. Simulations showed that the Yellowstone population has levels of genetic variation similar to that of a population managed for high variation and low inbreeding, and greater than that expected for random breeding within packs or across the entire breeding pool. Although short

  19. Effectiveness of the modified progressive aerobic capacity endurance run test for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who are obese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the progressive aerobic capacity endurance run (PACER) and a newly designed modified PACER (MPACER) for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who are obese. Thirty-nine (aged 7-12 years) children who were considered obese (= 95 ...

  20. Grey matter correlates of susceptibility to scams in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Duke Han, S; Boyle, Patricia A; Yu, Lei; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; James, Bryan D; Fleischman, Debra A; Bennett, David A

    2016-06-01

    Susceptibility to scams is a significant issue among older adults, even among those with intact cognition. Age-related changes in brain macrostructure may be associated with susceptibility to scams; however, this has yet to be explored. Based on previous work implicating frontal and temporal lobe functioning as important in decision making, we tested the hypothesis that susceptibility to scams is associated with smaller grey matter volume in frontal and temporal lobe regions in a large community-dwelling cohort of non-demented older adults. Participants (N = 327, mean age = 81.55, mean education = 15.30, 78.9 % female) completed a self-report measure used to assess susceptibility to scams and an MRI brain scan. Results indicated an inverse association between overall grey matter and susceptibility to scams in models adjusted for age, education, and sex; and in models further adjusted for cognitive function. No significant associations were observed for white matter, cerebrospinal fluid, or total brain volume. Models adjusted for age, education, and sex revealed seven clusters showing smaller grey matter in the right parahippocampal/hippocampal/fusiform, left middle temporal, left orbitofrontal, right ventromedial prefrontal, right middle temporal, right precuneus, and right dorsolateral prefrontal regions. In models further adjusted for cognitive function, results revealed three significant clusters showing smaller grey matter in the right parahippocampal/hippocampal/fusiform, right hippocampal, and right middle temporal regions. Lower grey matter concentration in specific brain regions may be associated with susceptibility to scams, even after adjusting for cognitive ability. Future research is needed to determine whether grey matter reductions in these regions may be a biomarker for susceptibility to scams in old age.

  1. Sensory migraine aura is not associated with structural grey matter abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Arngrim, Nanna; Vlachou, Maria; Larsen, Vibeke Andrée; Larsson, Henrik B W; Ashina, Messoud

    2016-01-01

    Migraine with aura (MA) is characterized by cortical dysfunction. Frequent aura attacks may alter cerebral cortical structure in patients, or structural grey matter abnormalities may predispose MA patients to aura attacks. In the present study we aimed to investigate cerebral grey matter structure in a large group of MA patients with and without sensory aura (i.e. gradually developing, transient unilateral sensory disturbances). We included 60 patients suffering from migraine with typical visual aura and 60 individually age and sex-matched controls. Twenty-nine of the patients additionally experienced sensory aura regularly. We analysed high-resolution structural MR images using two complimentary approaches and compared patients with and without sensory aura. Patients were also compared to controls. We found no differences of grey matter density or cortical thickness between patients with and without sensory aura and no differences for the cortical visual areas between patients and controls. The somatosensory cortex was thinner in patients (1.92 mm vs. 1.96 mm, P = 0.043) and the anterior cingulate cortex of patients had a decreased grey matter density (P = 0.039) compared to controls. These differences were not correlated to the clinical characteristics. Our results suggest that sensory migraine aura is not associated with altered grey matter structure and that patients with visual aura have normal cortical structure of areas involved in visual processing. The observed decreased grey matter volume of the cingulate gyrus in patients compared to controls have previously been reported in migraine with and without aura, but also in a wide range of other neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Most likely, this finding reflects general bias between patients and healthy controls.

  2. Musical training intensity yields opposite effects on grey matter density in cognitive versus sensorimotor networks.

    PubMed

    James, Clara E; Oechslin, Mathias S; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Hauert, Claude-Alain; Descloux, Céline; Lazeyras, François

    2014-01-01

    Using optimized voxel-based morphometry, we performed grey matter density analyses on 59 age-, sex- and intelligence-matched young adults with three distinct, progressive levels of musical training intensity or expertise. Structural brain adaptations in musicians have been repeatedly demonstrated in areas involved in auditory perception and motor skills. However, musical activities are not confined to auditory perception and motor performance, but are entangled with higher-order cognitive processes. In consequence, neuronal systems involved in such higher-order processing may also be shaped by experience-driven plasticity. We modelled expertise as a three-level regressor to study possible linear relationships of expertise with grey matter density. The key finding of this study resides in a functional dissimilarity between areas exhibiting increase versus decrease of grey matter as a function of musical expertise. Grey matter density increased with expertise in areas known for their involvement in higher-order cognitive processing: right fusiform gyrus (visual pattern recognition), right mid orbital gyrus (tonal sensitivity), left inferior frontal gyrus (syntactic processing, executive function, working memory), left intraparietal sulcus (visuo-motor coordination) and bilateral posterior cerebellar Crus II (executive function, working memory) and in auditory processing: left Heschl's gyrus. Conversely, grey matter density decreased with expertise in bilateral perirolandic and striatal areas that are related to sensorimotor function, possibly reflecting high automation of motor skills. Moreover, a multiple regression analysis evidenced that grey matter density in the right mid orbital area and the inferior frontal gyrus predicted accuracy in detecting fine-grained incongruities in tonal music.

  3. Comparison of trace element concentrations in grey heron and black-crowned night heron chicks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) concentrations were measured in the prey and liver of grey heron (Ardea cinerea) and black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) chicks (24-26 days after hatching) at the Pyeongtaek colony, Korea in 2001 (n = 10, respectively) and 2008 (n = 11 and n = 10). Cadmium and Pb concentrations in livers of grey heron (Cd geomean 0.06, Pb 3.90 μg/g dw) and black-crowned night heron (Cd 0.20, Pb 4.24 μg/g dw) chicks were increased with diet concentrations of grey heron (Cd 0.18, Pb 1.76 μg/g dw) and black-crowned night heron (Cd 0.20, Pb 3.96 μg/g dw) chicks. Cadmium and Pb concentrations in prey items of grey heron and black-crowned night heron chicks were a good predictor of chick liver concentrations. Cadmium concentrations in livers of both heron species collected at the Pyeongtaek heronry were relatively low and within the background level (<3 μg/g dw) for birds. Five of 20 (25.0%) grey heron and 4 of 18 (22.2%) black-crowned night heron chicks were higher than the background level for lead (>6 μg/g dw). Prey Cd and Pb concentrations were within the range of other heron and egret studies. Manganese, Zn, and Fe concentrations in grey heron and black-crowned night heron chicks were within the background or normal physiological levels reported earlier in other birds including herons and egrets.

  4. Grey matter, an endophenotype for schizophrenia? A voxel-based morphometry study in siblings of patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    van der Velde, Jorien; Gromann, Paula M.; Swart, Marte; de Haan, Lieuwe; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Krabbendam, Lydia; Aleman, André

    2015-01-01

    Background Grey matter, both volume and concentration, has been proposed as an endophenotype for schizophrenia given a number of reports of grey matter abnormalities in relatives of patients with schizophrenia. However, previous studies on grey matter abnormalities in relatives have produced inconsistent results. The aim of the present study was to examine grey matter differences between controls and siblings of patients with schizophrenia and to examine whether the age, genetic loading or subclinical psychotic symptoms of selected individuals could explain the previously reported inconsistencies. Methods We compared the grey matter volume and grey matter concentration of healthy siblings of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls matched for age, sex and education using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Furthermore, we selected subsamples based on age (< 30 yr), genetic loading and subclinical psychotic symptoms to examine whether this would lead to different results. Results We included 89 siblings and 69 controls in our study. The results showed that siblings and controls did not differ significantly on grey matter volume or concentration. Furthermore, specifically selecting participants based on age, genetic loading or subclinical psychotic symptoms did not alter these findings. Limitations The main limitation was that subdividing the sample resulted in smaller samples for the subanalyses. Furthermore, we used MRI data from 2 different scanner sites. Conclusion These results indicate that grey matter measured through VBM might not be a suitable endophenotype for schizophrenia. PMID:25768029

  5. Infrared spectroscopic characterization of human white matter, grey matter, and multiple sclerosis lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choo, Lin-P'ing; Jackson, Michael; Halliday, William C.; Mantsch, Henry H.

    1994-01-01

    FT-IR spectroscopy has been used to characterize white matter, grey matter, and multiple sclerosis (MS) plaques from human central nervous system (CNS) tissue. Discrimination among these three tissue types is possible due to variations in composition. Spectra of white matter exhibit strong lipid absorptions. In contrast, spectra of grey matter reveal a reduced lipid contribution and a significant absorption from water. MS plaques exhibit spectra indicative of lipid loss and, depending upon whether the plaques are chronic or acute, changes in the protein and/or water content.

  6. Beyond PubMed: Searching the “Grey Literature” for Clinical Trial Results

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trial results have been traditionally communicated through the publication of scholarly reports and reviews in biomedical journals. However, this dissemination of information can be delayed or incomplete, making it difficult to appraise new treatments, or in the case of missing data, evaluate older interventions. Going beyond the routine search of PubMed, it is possible to discover additional information in the “grey literature.” Examples of the grey literature include clinical trial registries, patent databases, company and industrywide repositories, regulatory agency digital archives, abstracts of paper and poster presentations on meeting/congress websites, industry investor reports and press releases, and institutional and personal websites. PMID:25337445

  7. Skeletal deformities and mortality in grey herons (Ardea cinerea) at Besthorpe heronry, Nottinghamshire.

    PubMed

    Feltrer, Y; Draper, E R C; Perkins, M; Cunningham, A A

    2006-10-14

    Dead and sick grey heron chicks with multiple fractures of the leg and wing bones and/or bone deformities have been reported at Besthorpe Nature Reserve heronry in north Nottinghamshire since 1996. Forty-five grey heron carcases were examined, 35 from the Besthorpe colony and 10 from other colonies where bone disease was not known to occur. On the basis of the results of radiological studies, postmortem examinations, peripheral quantitative computed tomography scanning and four-point bending tests, it was concluded that the skeletal abnormalities were probably due to metabolic bone disease.

  8. Beyond PubMed: Searching the "Grey Literature" for Clinical Trial Results.

    PubMed

    Citrome, Leslie

    2014-07-01

    Clinical trial results have been traditionally communicated through the publication of scholarly reports and reviews in biomedical journals. However, this dissemination of information can be delayed or incomplete, making it difficult to appraise new treatments, or in the case of missing data, evaluate older interventions. Going beyond the routine search of PubMed, it is possible to discover additional information in the "grey literature." Examples of the grey literature include clinical trial registries, patent databases, company and industrywide repositories, regulatory agency digital archives, abstracts of paper and poster presentations on meeting/congress websites, industry investor reports and press releases, and institutional and personal websites.

  9. Extermination and recovery of red wolf and grey wolf in the contiguous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Michael K.; Bangs, Edward E.; Mech, L. David; Kelly, Brian T.; Fazio, Buddy B.; Macdonald, David W.; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    About 150 years ago, the grey wolf (Canis lupus) was distributed throughout the contiguous United States, except for in southeastern US from central Texas to the Atlantic coast, where the red wolf (Canis rufus) occurred. Conflict with agricultural interests resulted in government-supported eradication campaigns beginning in colonial Massachusetts in 1630. Over the next 300 years, the campaigns were extended throughout the US resulting in the near extermination of both species. In recent decades, efforts to recover the red and grey wolf were carried out. This chapter summarizes extermination and recovery efforts for both species in the contiguous US.

  10. Biology of Moderately Halophilic Aerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ventosa, Antonio; Nieto, Joaquín J.; Oren, Aharon

    1998-01-01

    The moderately halophilic heterotrophic aerobic bacteria form a diverse group of microorganisms. The property of halophilism is widespread within the bacterial domain. Bacterial halophiles are abundant in environments such as salt lakes, saline soils, and salted food products. Most species keep their intracellular ionic concentrations at low levels while synthesizing or accumulating organic solutes to provide osmotic equilibrium of the cytoplasm with the surrounding medium. Complex mechanisms of adjustment of the intracellular environments and the properties of the cytoplasmic membrane enable rapid adaptation to changes in the salt concentration of the environment. Approaches to the study of genetic processes have recently been developed for several moderate halophiles, opening the way toward an understanding of haloadaptation at the molecular level. The new information obtained is also expected to contribute to the development of novel biotechnological uses for these organisms. PMID:9618450

  11. Brain aerobic glycolysis and motor adaptation learning

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Benjamin J.; Vaishnavi, Sanjeev Neil; Vlassenko, Andrei G.; Shimony, Joshua S.; Rutlin, Jerrel; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2016-01-01

    Ten percent to 15% of glucose used by the brain is metabolized nonoxidatively despite adequate tissue oxygenation, a process termed aerobic glycolysis (AG). Because of the known role of glycolysis in biosynthesis, we tested whether learning-induced synaptic plasticity would lead to regionally appropriate, learning-dependent changes in AG. Functional MRI (fMRI) before, during, and after performance of a visual–motor adaptation task demonstrated that left Brodmann area 44 (BA44) played a key role in adaptation, with learning-related changes to activity during the task and altered resting-state, functional connectivity after the task. PET scans before and after task performance indicated a sustained increase in AG in left BA 44 accompanied by decreased oxygen consumption. Intersubject variability in behavioral adaptation rate correlated strongly with changes in AG in this region, as well as functional connectivity, which is consistent with a role for AG in synaptic plasticity. PMID:27217563

  12. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the aerobic oxidation of high-pressure, high-temperature nanodiamonds (5–50 nm dimensions) using a combination of carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption, wavelength-dependent X-ray photoelectron, and vibrational spectroscopies. Oxidation at 575 °C for 2 h eliminates graphitic carbon contamination (>98%) and produces nanocrystals with hydroxyl functionalized surfaces as well as a minor component (<5%) of carboxylic anhydrides. The low graphitic carbon content and the high crystallinity of HPHT are evident from Raman spectra acquired using visible wavelength excitation (λexcit = 633 nm) as well as carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectra where the signature of a core–hole exciton is observed. Both spectroscopic features are similar to those of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond but differ significantly from the spectra of detonation nanodiamond. The importance of these findings to the functionalization of nanodiamond surfaces for biological labeling applications is discussed. PMID:25436035

  13. Performance evaluation of an anaerobic/aerobic landfill-based digester using yard waste for energy and compost production.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Ramin; Barlaz, Morton A; Augenstein, Don; Kayhanian, Masoud; Tchobanoglous, George

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a new alternative for yard waste management by constructing, operating and monitoring a landfill-based two-stage batch digester (anaerobic/aerobic) with the recovery of energy and compost. The system was initially operated under anaerobic conditions for 366 days, after which the yard waste was aerated for an additional 191 days. Off gas generated from the aerobic stage was treated by biofilters. Net energy recovery was 84.3MWh, or 46kWh per million metric tons of wet waste (as received), and the biochemical methane potential of the treated waste decreased by 83% during the two-stage operation. The average removal efficiencies of volatile organic compounds and non-methane organic compounds in the biofilters were 96-99% and 68-99%, respectively.

  14. Performance evaluation of an anaerobic/aerobic landfill-based digester using yard waste for energy and compost production.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Ramin; Barlaz, Morton A; Augenstein, Don; Kayhanian, Masoud; Tchobanoglous, George

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a new alternative for yard waste management by constructing, operating and monitoring a landfill-based two-stage batch digester (anaerobic/aerobic) with the recovery of energy and compost. The system was initially operated under anaerobic conditions for 366 days, after which the yard waste was aerated for an additional 191 days. Off gas generated from the aerobic stage was treated by biofilters. Net energy recovery was 84.3MWh, or 46kWh per million metric tons of wet waste (as received), and the biochemical methane potential of the treated waste decreased by 83% during the two-stage operation. The average removal efficiencies of volatile organic compounds and non-methane organic compounds in the biofilters were 96-99% and 68-99%, respectively. PMID:22317795

  15. Nonpreventive Role of Aerobic Exercise Against Cisplatin-induced Nephrotoxicity in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Noroozi, Jalaledin; Zeynali, Farzaneh; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Pezeshki, Zahra; Talebi, Ardeshir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cisplatin (CP) is a chemotherapy drug and nephrotoxicity is a major concern for CP therapy. CP-induced nephrotoxicity is gender-dependent, and the effect of aerobic exercise in females has not been reported yet while it has a beneficial effect in males. Hence, this study was designed to determine the protective role of aerobic exercise against CP-induced nephrotoxicity in female rats. Methods: Twenty-eight adult female rats were divided into four groups. Groups I and II had aerobic exercise on a treadmill for 8 weeks. Then, the exercise protocol was continued for another week in group I and stopped in group II. All animals in these groups received CP (2.5 mg/kg/day; i.p.) for 1-week. Groups III and IV were treated with CP and vehicle, respectively, without exercise. Finally, the animals were sacrificed for biochemical measurements and tissue histopathology investigations. Results: CP alone without exercise increased serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr), kidney weight, and kidney tissue damage score (KTDS); while exercise could not attenuate these parameters in female rats. Exercise in females increased the serum levels of BUN and Cr and KTDS and weight loss (P < 0.05). Kidney nitrite levels reduce significantly in group I in compared to positive and negative control groups. Exercise also did not have beneficial effects on malondialdehyde levels in plasma and kidney. Conclusions: Aerobic exercise cannot reduce CP-induced nephrotoxicity in female rats. Increasing the damage in female rats may be related to female sex hormone estrogen or gender differences in renal hemodynamic and renin-angiotensin system activity in the presence of exercise. In general, it is recommended that the females under CP chemotherapy avoid exercising during treatment. PMID:26288702

  16. Selecting anti-microbial treatment of aerobic vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Ruban, Katerina; Bellen, Gert

    2015-05-01

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is a vaginal infectious condition which is often confused with bacterial vaginosis (BV) or with the intermediate microflora as diagnosed by Nugent's method to detect BV on Gram-stained specimens. However, although both conditions reflect a state of lactobacillary disruption in the vagina, leading to an increase in pH, BV and AV differ profoundly. While BV is a noninflammatory condition composed of a multiplex array of different anaerobic bacteria in high quantities, AV is rather sparely populated by one or two enteric commensal flora bacteria, like Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylocuccus aureus, or Escherichia coli. AV is typically marked by either an increased inflammatory response or by prominent signs of epithelial atrophy or both. The latter condition, if severe, is also called desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. As AV is per exclusionem diagnosed by wet mount microscopy, it is a mistake to treat just vaginal culture results. Vaginal cultures only serve as follow-up data in clinical research projects and are at most used in clinical practice to confirm the diagnosis or exclude Candida infection. AV requires treatment based on microscopy findings and a combined local treatment with any of the following which may yield the best results: antibiotic (infectious component), steroids (inflammatory component), and/or estrogen (atrophy component). In cases with Candida present on microscopy or culture, antifungals must be tried first in order to see if other treatment is still needed. Vaginal rinsing with povidone iodine can provide rapid relief of symptoms but does not provide long-term reduction of bacterial loads. Local antibiotics most suitable are preferably non-absorbed and broad spectrum, especially those covering enteric gram-positive and gram-negative aerobes, like kanamycin. To achieve rapid and short-term improvement of severe symptoms, oral therapy with amoxyclav or moxifloxacin can be used, especially in deep dermal vulvitis and

  17. Maximal strength training improves aerobic endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Hoff, J; Gran, A; Helgerud, J

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this experiment was to examine the effects of maximal strength training with emphasis on neural adaptations on strength- and endurance-performance for endurance trained athletes. Nineteen male cross-country skiers about 19.7 +/- 4.0 years of age and a maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2 max)) of 69.4 +/- 2.2 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1) were randomly assigned to a training group (n = 9) or a control group (n = 10). Strength training was performed, three times a week for 8 weeks, using a cable pulley simulating the movements in double poling in cross-country skiing, and consisted of three sets of six repetitions at a workload of 85% of one repetition maximum emphasizing maximal mobilization of force in the concentric movement. One repetition maximum improved significantly from 40.3 +/- 4.5 to 44.3 +/- 4.9 kg. Time to peak force (TPF) was reduced by 50 and 60% on two different submaximal workloads. Endurance performance measured as time to exhaustion (TTE) on a double poling ski ergometer at maximum aerobic velocity, improved from 6.49 to 10.18 min; 20.5% over the control group. Work economy changed significantly from 1.02 +/- 0.14 to 0.74 +/- 0.10 mL x kg(-0.67) x min(-1). Maximal strength training with emphasis on neural adaptations improves strength, particularly rate of force development, and improves aerobic endurance performance by improved work economy.

  18. No rainbow for grey bamboo sharks: evidence for the absence of colour vision in sharks from behavioural discrimination experiments.

    PubMed

    Schluessel, V; Rick, I P; Plischke, K

    2014-11-01

    Despite convincing data collected by microspectrophotometry and molecular biology, rendering sharks colourblind cone monochromats, the question of whether sharks can perceive colour had not been finally resolved in the absence of any behavioural experiments compensating for the confounding factor of brightness. The present study tested the ability of juvenile grey bamboo sharks to perceive colour in an experimental design based on a paradigm established by Karl von Frisch using colours in combination with grey distractor stimuli of equal brightness. Results showed that contrasts but no colours could be discriminated. Blue and yellow stimuli were not distinguished from a grey distractor stimulus of equal brightness but could be distinguished from distractor stimuli of varying brightness. In addition, different grey stimuli were distinguished significantly above chance level from one another. In conclusion, the behavioural results support the previously collected physiological data on bamboo sharks, which mutually show that the grey bamboo shark, like several marine mammals, is a cone monochromate and colourblind.

  19. Metagenomics shows that low-energy anaerobic-aerobic treatment reactors reduce antibiotic resistance gene levels from domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Christgen, Beate; Yang, Ying; Ahammad, S Z; Li, Bing; Rodriquez, D Catalina; Zhang, Tong; Graham, David W

    2015-02-17

    Effective domestic wastewater treatment is among our primary defenses against the dissemination of infectious waterborne disease. However, reducing the amount of energy used in treatment processes has become essential for the future. One low-energy treatment option is anaerobic-aerobic sequence (AAS) bioreactors, which use an anaerobic pretreatment step (e.g., anaerobic hybrid reactors) to reduce carbon levels, followed by some form of aerobic treatment. Although AAS is common in warm climates, it is not known how its compares to other treatment options relative to disease transmission, including its influence on antibiotic resistance (AR) in treated effluents. Here, we used metagenomic approaches to contrast the fate of antibiotic-resistant genes (ARG) in anaerobic, aerobic, and AAS bioreactors treating domestic wastewater. Five reactor configurations were monitored for 6 months, and treatment performance, energy use, and ARG abundance and diversity were compared in influents and effluents. AAS and aerobic reactors were superior to anaerobic units in reducing ARG-like sequence abundances, with effluent ARG levels of 29, 34, and 74 ppm (198 ppm influent), respectively. AAS and aerobic systems especially reduced aminoglycoside, tetracycline, and β-lactam ARG levels relative to anaerobic units, although 63 persistent ARG subtypes were detected in effluents from all systems (of 234 assessed). Sulfonamide and chloramphenicol ARG levels were largely unaffected by treatment, whereas a broad shift from target-specific ARGs to ARGs associated with multi-drug resistance was seen across influents and effluents. AAS reactors show promise for future applications because they can reduce more ARGs for less energy (32% less energy here), but all three treatment options have limitations and need further study.

  20. Cardioprotective Properties of Aerobic and Resistance Training Against Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Barboza, C A; Souza, G I H; Oliveira, J C M F; Silva, L M; Mostarda, C T; Dourado, P M M; Oyama, L M; Lira, F S; Irigoyen, M C; Rodrigues, B

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise training on ventricular morphometry and function, physical capacity, autonomic function, as well as on ventricular inflammatory status in trained rats prior to myocardial infarction. Male Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: sedentary+Sham, sedentary+myocardial infarction, aerobic trained+myocardial infarction, and resistance trained+myocardial infarction. Sham and myocardial infarction were performed after training periods. In the days following the surgeries, evaluations were performed. Aerobic training prevents aerobic (to a greater extent) and resistance capacity impairments, ventricular dysfunction, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic disorders (vagal tonus decrease and sympathetic tonus increase) triggered by myocardial infarction. Resistance training was able to prevent negative changes to aerobic and resistance capacity (to a greater extent) but not to ventricular dysfunction, and it prevented cardiovascular sympathetic increments. Additionally, both types of training reduced left ventricle inflammatory cytokine concentration. Our results suggest that aerobic and, for the first time, dynamic resistance training were able to reduce sympathetic tonus to the heart and vessels, as well as preventing the increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in the left ventricle of trained groups. These data emphasizes the positive effects of aerobic and dynamic resistance training on the prevention of the negative changes triggered by myocardial infarction.

  1. Mutagenicity of anaerobic fenitrothion metabolites after aerobic biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Taku; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Saeki, Ryo; Inoue, Takanobu

    2005-12-01

    Previous studies have revealed that the mutagenicity of fenitrothion increases during anaerobic biodegradation, suggesting that this insecticide's mutagenicity could effectively increase after it pollutes anaerobic environments such as lake sediments. To investigate possible changes to the mutagenicity of fenitrothion under aerobic conditions after it had already been increased by anaerobic biodegradation, batch incubation cultures were maintained under aerobic conditions. The mutagenicity, which had increased during anaerobic biodegradation, decreased under aerobic conditions with aerobic or facultative bacteria, but did not disappear completely in 22 days. In contrast, it did not change under aerobic conditions without bacteria or under continued anaerobic conditions. These observations suggest that the mutagenicity of anaerobically metabolized fenitrothion would not necessarily decrease after it arrives in an aerobic environment: this would depend on the presence of suitable bacteria. Therefore, fenitrothion-derived mutagenic compounds may pollute the water environment, including our drinking water sources, after accidental pollution of aerobic waters. Although amino-fenitrothion generated during anaerobic biodegradation of fenitrothion was the principal mutagen, non-trivial contributions of other, unidentified metabolites to the mutagenicity were also observed. PMID:16263383

  2. Comparison of aerobic and anaerobic biotreatment of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Borglin, Sharon E; Hazen, Terry C; Oldenburg, Curtis M; Zawislanski, Peter T

    2004-07-01

    To increase the operating lifetime of landfills and to lower leachate treatment costs, an increasing number of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are being managed as either aerobic or anaerobic bioreactors. Landfill gas composition, respiration rates, and subsidence were measured for 400 days in 200-L tanks filled with fresh waste materials to compare the relative effectiveness of the two treatments. Tanks were prepared to provide the following conditions: (1) air injection and leachate recirculation (aerobic), (2) leachate recirculation (anaerobic), and (3) no treatment (anaerobic). Respiration tests on the aerobic wet tank showed a steady decrease in oxygen consumption rates from 1.3 mol/day at 20 days to 0.1 mol/day at 400 days. Aerobic wet tanks produced, on average, 6 mol of carbon dioxide (CO2)/kg of MSW as compared with anaerobic wet tanks, which produced 2.2 mol methane/kg of MSW and 2.0 mol CO2/kg methane. Over the test period, the aerobic tanks settled on average 35%, anaerobic tanks settled 21.7%, and the no-treatment tank settled 7.5%, equivalent to overall mass loss in the corresponding reactors. Aerobic tanks reduced stabilization time and produced negligible odor compared with anaerobic tanks, possibly because of the 2 orders of magnitude lower leachate ammonia levels in the aerobic tank. Both treatment regimes provide the opportunity for disposal and remediation of liquid waste.

  3. Upper limb aerobic training improves aerobic fitness and all-out performance of America's Cup grinders.

    PubMed

    Adami, Paolo Emilio; Delussu, Anna Sofia; Rodio, Angelo; Squeo, Maria Rosaria; Corsi, Loretta; Quattrini, Filippo Maria; Fattorini, Luigi; Bernardi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This research on "America's Cup" grinders investigated the effects of a specific eight-week long-arm cranking ergometer (ACE) training on upper body (UB) aerobic fitness (ventilatory threshold - Tvent, respiratory compensation point- RCP, -oxygen uptake peak - VO₂peak) and high intensity working capacity. The training consisted of sessions carried out for 20-30 mins, three times per week, at an intensity between the UB-Tvent and UB-RCP, and replaced part of a typical lower limb aerobic training whilst maintaining the usual weekly schedule of callisthenics, resistance training and sailing. Seven sailors, including four grinders and three mastmen (age 30 ± 5.5 years, height 1.9 ± 0.04 m, body mass 102 ± 3.6 kg), were evaluated through both an ACE cardiopulmonary maximal exercise test (CPET) and an ACE all-out up to exhaustion exercise test, before and after the ACE training. UB aerobic fitness improved significantly: UB-VO₂peak increased from 4.29 ± 0.442 to 4.52 ± 0.522 l·min(-1) (6.4 ± 3.66%), VO₂ at UB-Tvent from 2.42 ± 0.282 to 2.97 ± 0.328 l·min(-1) (22.8 ± 5.09%) and VO₂ at UB-RCP from 3.25 ± 0.402 to 3.75 ± 0.352 l·min(-1) (16.1 ± 10.83%). Peak power at the ACE CPET increased from 351 ± 27.5 to 387 ± 33.5 W (10.5 ± 6.93%). The all-out test total mechanical work increased from 28.9 ± 2.35 to 40.1 ± 3.76 kJ (72.1 ± 4.67%). In conclusion, a high intensity aerobic ACE training can be effective in improving grinding performance by increasing UB aerobic fitness and all-out working capacity. PMID:25357134

  4. Anaerobic digestion of dairy cattle manure autoheated by aerobic pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Achkari-Begdouri, A.

    1989-01-01

    A novel way to heat anaerobic digesters was investigated. Dairy cattle manure was autoheated by an aerobic pretreatment process and then fed to the anaerobic digester. Important physical properties of the dairy cattle manure were determined. These included bulk density, specific heat, thermal conductivity and the rheological properties; consistency coefficient, behavior index and apparent viscosity. These parameters were used to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficients, and to estimate the heat losses from the aerobic reactor to the outside environment. The total energy balance of the aerobic treatment system was then established. An optimization study of the main parameters influencing the autoheating process showed that the total solids, the air flow rate and the stirring speed for operation of the aerobic pretreatment should be approximately 7%, 70 L/H and 1,400 rpm respectively. Temperatures as high as 65C were reached in 40 hours of aerobic treatment. At the above recommended levels of total solids, the air flow rate and the stirring speed, there was little difference in the energy requirements for heating the influent by aeration and heating the influent by a conventional heating system. In addition to the temperature increase, the aerobic pretreatment assisted in balancing the anaerobic digestion process and increased the methanogenesis of the dairy cattle manure. Despite the 8% decomposition of organic matter that occurred during the aerobic pretreatment process, methane production of the digester started with the aerobically heated manure was significantly higher (at least 20% higher) than of the digester started with conventionally heated manure. The aerobic system successfully autoheated the dairy cattle manure with an energy cost equal to that of conventionally heated influent.

  5. Considerations in prescribing preflight aerobic exercise for astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Mary Anne Bassett

    1987-01-01

    The physiological effects of prolonged exposure to weightlessness are discussed together with the effects of aerobic exercise on human characteristics affected by weightlessness. It is noted that, although early data on orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight led to a belief that a high level of aerobic fitness for astronauts was detrimental to orthostatic tolerance on return to earth, most of the data available today do not suport this contention. Aerobic fitness was found to be beneficial to cardiovascular function and to mental performance; therefore, it may be important in performing extravehicular activities during flight.

  6. Heritability of aerobic power of individuals in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alonso, L; Souza, Ec; Oliveira, Mv; do Nascimento, Lfe; Dantas, Pms

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic and environmental contribution to variation in aerobic power in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins. The sample consisted of 20 MZ individuals (12 females and 8 males) and 16 DZ individuals (12 females and 4 males), aged from 8 to 26 years, residents in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte. The twins were assessed by a multistage fitness test. The rate of heritability found for aerobic power was 77%. Based on the results, the estimated heritability was largely responsible for the differences in aerobic power. This implies that such measures are under strong genetic influence.

  7. Effect of fibrolytic enzymes on the fermentation characteristics, aerobic stability, and digestibility of bermudagrass silage.

    PubMed

    Dean, D B; Adesogan, A T; Krueger, N; Littell, R C

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the nutritive value and aerobic stability of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) silage could be improved by addition of proprietary, exogenous cellulase/hemicellulase enzyme preparations at ensiling. A 5-wk regrowth of Tifton 85 bermudagrass was conserved without treatment (control) or after treatment with exogenous fibrolytic enzymes including Promote NET (Pr), Biocellulase X-20 (X20), Biocellulase A-20 (A20), and Enzyme CT. The respective enzymes were applied at half the recommended rate, the recommended rate, or twice the recommended rate corresponding to 0.65, 1.3, and 2.6 g/kg of DM, 7.3, 14.5, and 29 mg/kg of DM, at 7.3, 14.4, and 29 mg/kg of DM, and 89, 178, and 356 mg/kg of DM, for Pr, X20, A20, and CT, respectively. The enzymes were sprayed on the bermudagrass at ensiling (not added at feeding as suggested by the manufacturers) to test the objectives of the study. Six 1-kg replicates of chopped (5 cm) forage were ensiled for 145 d in 2.8-L mini silos. Three silos per treatment were used for chemical analysis and 3 for aerobic stability monitoring. The silage juice was analyzed for organic acids, pH, water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), ammonia-N, and soluble N. Freeze-dried samples were analyzed for crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF). In vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD), NDF (IVNDFD), and ADF (IVADFD) were determined after digesting the silages in buffered rumen fluid for 6 or 48 h in 2 ANKOM(II) Daisy Incubators. Compared with the other silages, those treated with Pr had lower DM losses, and lower pH and ammonia-N concentration than control silages. Residual WSC concentration was greater in Pr- and CT-treated silages than in control silages and greater in Pr-treated silages than CT-treated silages. Compared with control silages, NDF concentration was lower in silages treated with Pr, X20, and CT, and ADF concentration was lower in silages treated with Pr, X20, and A20

  8. Macroparasite Fauna of Alien Grey Squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis): Composition, Variability and Implications for Native Species

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Claudia; Wauters, Lucas A.; Ferrari, Nicola; Lanfranchi, Paolo; Martinoli, Adriano; Pisanu, Benoît; Preatoni, Damiano G.; Saino, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Introduced hosts populations may benefit of an "enemy release" through impoverishment of parasite communities made of both few imported species and few acquired local ones. Moreover, closely related competing native hosts can be affected by acquiring introduced taxa (spillover) and by increased transmission risk of native parasites (spillback). We determined the macroparasite fauna of invasive grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) in Italy to detect any diversity loss, introduction of novel parasites or acquisition of local ones, and analysed variation in parasite burdens to identify factors that may increase transmission risk for native red squirrels (S. vulgaris). Based on 277 grey squirrels sampled from 7 populations characterised by different time scales in introduction events, we identified 7 gastro-intestinal helminths and 4 parasite arthropods. Parasite richness is lower than in grey squirrel's native range and independent from introduction time lags. The most common parasites are Nearctic nematodes Strongyloides robustus (prevalence: 56.6%) and Trichostrongylus calcaratus (6.5%), red squirrel flea Ceratophyllus sciurorum (26.0%) and Holarctic sucking louse Neohaematopinus sciuri (17.7%). All other parasites are European or cosmopolitan species with prevalence below 5%. S. robustus abundance is positively affected by host density and body mass, C. sciurorum abundance increases with host density and varies with seasons. Overall, we show that grey squirrels in Italy may benefit of an enemy release, and both spillback and spillover processes towards native red squirrels may occur. PMID:24505348

  9. Behavioural responses of Eastern grey squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis, to cues of risk while foraging.

    PubMed

    Jayne, Kimberley; Lea, Stephen E G; Leaver, Lisa A

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that Eastern grey squirrels modify their behaviour while foraging to offset risks of social and predatory costs, but none have simultaneously compared whether such modifications are performed at a cost to foraging. The present study directly compares how grey squirrels respond to cues of these risks while foraging. We simulated social risk and predatory risk using acoustic playbacks of stimuli that grey squirrels might be exposed to at a foraging patch: calls of conspecifics, heterospecifics (competitor and non-competitor) and predators. We found that grey squirrels responded to predator, heterospecific competitor and conspecific playbacks by altering their foraging and vigilance behaviours. Foraging was most disrupted by increased vigilance when we played calls of predators. Squirrels' response to calls of heterospecific competitors did not differ from their response to conspecific calls, and they resumed foraging more quickly after both compared to predator calls: whereas they showed little response to calls of non-competitor heterospecifics and a white noise control. We conclude that squirrels respond differentially to calls made by conspecifics, heterospecific competitors and predators, with the most pronounced response being to calls of predators. We suggest that squirrels may view conspecific and corvid vocalisations as cues of potential conflict while foraging, necessitating increased vigilance. PMID:25957953

  10. Geographic variation of the major histocompatibility complex in Eastern Atlantic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus).

    PubMed

    Cammen, K; Hoffman, J I; Knapp, L A; Harwood, J; Amos, W

    2011-02-01

    Pathogen-driven balancing selection maintains high genetic diversity in many vertebrates, particularly in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) immune system gene family, which is often associated with disease susceptibility. In large natural populations where subpopulations face different pathogen pressures, the MHC should show greater genetic differentiation within a species than neutral markers. We examined genetic diversity at the MHC-DQB locus and nine putatively neutral microsatellite markers in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) from eight United Kingdom (UK) colonies, the Faeroe Islands and Sable Island, Canada. Five DQB alleles were identified in grey seals, which varied in prevalence across the grey seal range. Among the seal colonies, significant differences in DQB allele and haplotype frequencies and in average DQB heterozygosity were observed. Additionally, the DQB gene exhibited greater differentiation among colonies compared with neutral markers, yet a weaker pattern of isolation by distance (IBD). After correcting for the underlying IBD pattern, subpopulations breeding in similar habitats were more similar to one another in DQB allele frequencies than populations breeding in different habitats, but the same did not hold true for microsatellites, suggesting that habitat-specific pathogen pressure influences MHC evolution. Overall, the data are consistent with selection at MHC-DQB loci in grey seals with both varying selective pressures and geographic population structure appearing to influence the DQB genetic composition of breeding colonies. PMID:21199032

  11. Comparative SEM study of the marginal adaptation of white and grey MTA and Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Bidar, Maryam; Moradi, Saeed; Jafarzadeh, Hamid; Bidad, Salma

    2007-04-01

    The use of a suitable substance that prevents egress of potential contaminants into the periapical tissues is important in endodontic surgery. The aim of the present study was to compare the marginal adaptation of three root-end filling materials (white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), grey MTA and Portland cement), using scanning electron microscopy. Seventy-five single-rooted extracted human teeth were used. The canals were instrumented and filled with gutta-percha. Following root-end resection and cavity preparation, root-end cavities were filled with white MTA, grey MTA or Portland cement. Using a diamond saw, roots were longitudinally sectioned into two halves. Under scanning electron microscopy, the gaps between the material and dentinal wall were measured. The data were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test. The mean of the gap in grey MTA, white MTA and Portland cement was 211.6, 349 and 326.3 microm, respectively. The results indicate that the gap between grey MTA and the dentinal wall is less than other materials, but there was no significant difference between the materials tested in this study (P > 0.05).

  12. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales) experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation. PMID:26024370

  13. Legacy lost: genetic variability and population size of extirpated US grey wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Leonard, Jennifer A; Vilà, Carles; Wayne, Robert K

    2005-01-01

    By the mid 20th century, the grey wolf (Canis lupus) was exterminated from most of the conterminous United States (cUS) and Mexico. However, because wolves disperse over long distances, extant populations in Canada and Alaska might have retained a substantial proportion of the genetic diversity once found in the cUS. We analysed mitochondrial DNA sequences of 34 pre-extermination wolves and found that they had more than twice the diversity of their modern conspecifics, implying a historic population size of several hundred thousand wolves in the western cUS and Mexico. Further, two-thirds of the haplotypes found in the historic sample are unique. Sequences from Mexican grey wolves (C. l. baileyi) and some historic grey wolves defined a unique southern clade supporting a much wider geographical mandate for the reintroduction of Mexican wolves than currently planned. Our results highlight the genetic consequences of population extinction within Ice Age refugia and imply that restoration goals for grey wolves in the western cUS include far less area and target vastly lower population sizes than existed historically.

  14. Macroparasite fauna of alien grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis): composition, variability and implications for native species.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Claudia; Wauters, Lucas A; Ferrari, Nicola; Lanfranchi, Paolo; Martinoli, Adriano; Pisanu, Benoît; Preatoni, Damiano G; Saino, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Introduced hosts populations may benefit of an "enemy release" through impoverishment of parasite communities made of both few imported species and few acquired local ones. Moreover, closely related competing native hosts can be affected by acquiring introduced taxa (spillover) and by increased transmission risk of native parasites (spillback). We determined the macroparasite fauna of invasive grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) in Italy to detect any diversity loss, introduction of novel parasites or acquisition of local ones, and analysed variation in parasite burdens to identify factors that may increase transmission risk for native red squirrels (S. vulgaris). Based on 277 grey squirrels sampled from 7 populations characterised by different time scales in introduction events, we identified 7 gastro-intestinal helminths and 4 parasite arthropods. Parasite richness is lower than in grey squirrel's native range and independent from introduction time lags. The most common parasites are Nearctic nematodes Strongyloides robustus (prevalence: 56.6%) and Trichostrongylus calcaratus (6.5%), red squirrel flea Ceratophyllus sciurorum (26.0%) and Holarctic sucking louse Neohaematopinus sciuri (17.7%). All other parasites are European or cosmopolitan species with prevalence below 5%. S. robustus abundance is positively affected by host density and body mass, C. sciurorum abundance increases with host density and varies with seasons. Overall, we show that grey squirrels in Italy may benefit of an enemy release, and both spillback and spillover processes towards native red squirrels may occur. PMID:24505348

  15. Macroparasite fauna of alien grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis): composition, variability and implications for native species.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Claudia; Wauters, Lucas A; Ferrari, Nicola; Lanfranchi, Paolo; Martinoli, Adriano; Pisanu, Benoît; Preatoni, Damiano G; Saino, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Introduced hosts populations may benefit of an "enemy release" through impoverishment of parasite communities made of both few imported species and few acquired local ones. Moreover, closely related competing native hosts can be affected by acquiring introduced taxa (spillover) and by increased transmission risk of native parasites (spillback). We determined the macroparasite fauna of invasive grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) in Italy to detect any diversity loss, introduction of novel parasites or acquisition of local ones, and analysed variation in parasite burdens to identify factors that may increase transmission risk for native red squirrels (S. vulgaris). Based on 277 grey squirrels sampled from 7 populations characterised by different time scales in introduction events, we identified 7 gastro-intestinal helminths and 4 parasite arthropods. Parasite richness is lower than in grey squirrel's native range and independent from introduction time lags. The most common parasites are Nearctic nematodes Strongyloides robustus (prevalence: 56.6%) and Trichostrongylus calcaratus (6.5%), red squirrel flea Ceratophyllus sciurorum (26.0%) and Holarctic sucking louse Neohaematopinus sciuri (17.7%). All other parasites are European or cosmopolitan species with prevalence below 5%. S. robustus abundance is positively affected by host density and body mass, C. sciurorum abundance increases with host density and varies with seasons. Overall, we show that grey squirrels in Italy may benefit of an enemy release, and both spillback and spillover processes towards native red squirrels may occur.

  16. Grey Parrot Number Acquisition: The Inference of Cardinal Value from Ordinal Position on the Numeral List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepperberg, Irene M.; Carey, Susan

    2012-01-01

    A Grey parrot ("Psittacus erithacus") had previously been taught to use English count words ("one" through "sih" [six]) to label sets of one to six individual items (Pepperberg, 1994). He had also been taught to use the same count words to label the Arabic numerals 1 through 6. Without training, he inferred the relationship between the Arabic…

  17. Lexicon size and its relation to foot preference in the African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus).

    PubMed

    Snyder, P J; Harris, L J

    1997-06-01

    To study footedness in parrots, an international survey of parrot owners was conducted. Responses were obtained from 524 individuals, including 70 owners of African Grey parrots (all animals > or = 10 months old). All respondents were given a 10-item questionnaire and a standard method for testing foot preference in their pets, and they were asked to count the number of separate words in their pets' lexicons of human speech sounds. Right-footed African Greys (N = 36) had significantly larger lexicons than left-footed African Greys (N = 34; P = 0.01). This difference could not be accounted for by group differences in training efforts or socialization/housing with conspecifics. A non-significant trend in the same direction was found in a comparison sample of Amazon parrots, although these genera are less adept than African Greys at learning human speech sounds. Other investigators have provided convincing evidence of lateralization, in the avian brain, for the analysis and memory of differing types of stimuli. In addition, there appears to be preferential left hypserstriatal activation for long-term memory consolidation. Our results suggest a relationship between lateral asymmetry for motor preference and asymmetric CNS mediation of a 'higher cognitive' function (i.e. the categorization and long-term mnestic processing of human speech sound.

  18. Aspen's Global 100: Beyond Grey Pinstripes 2009-2010--Preparing MBAs for Social and Environmental Stewardship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspen Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Beyond Grey Pinstripes is a research survey and alternative ranking of business schools that spotlights innovative full-time MBA programs leading the way in integrating social and environmental stewardship into their curriculum and scholarly research. These schools are preparing today's students--tomorrow's leaders--for future market realities by…

  19. Northern Alabama colonies of the endangered grey bat Myotis grisescens: Organochlorine contamination and mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.; Bagley, F.M.; Johnson, W.W.

    1988-01-01

    From 1976 to 1986, dead and dying grey bats Myotis grisescens and grey bat guano were collected from caves along the Tennessee River in northern Alabama to determine the possible role of organochlorine chemicals.sbd.in particular wastes from a former DDT manufacturing plant near Huntsville.sbd.in the mortalities. Concentrations of chemical residues in brains were less than known lethal levels: certain observations and analyses did indicate the possibility of past organochlorine-induced bat deaths. Levels of contaminants in bats declined slowly during the 10-year sampling period, but heavy residue burdens persist. The high ratio of DDD to DDE in residue from the former DDT plant made them identifiable as far as 140 km downriver. Grey bats concentrated chemical rsidues to higher levels and demonstrated the presence of these residues over much greater distances than did red-winged blackbirds Agelaius phoeniceus. Grey bats may be the most sensitive indicator available for monitoring the contamination from this former DDT manufacturing site.

  20. Extracting repetitive transients for rotating machinery diagnosis using multiscale clustered grey infogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan; Cabrera, Diego; de Oliveira, José Valente; Sanchez, René-Vinicio; Cerrada, Mariela; Zurita, Grover

    2016-08-01

    Local faults of rotating machinery usually result in repetitive transients whose impulsiveness or cyclostationarity can be employed as faulty signatures. However, to simultaneously accommodate the impulsiveness and the cyclostationarity is a challenging task for rotating machinery diagnostics. Inspired by recently-reported infogram that is sensitive to either the impulsiveness or the cyclostationarity using spectral negentropy defined in time domain or frequency domain, a multiscale clustering grey infogram (MCGI) is proposed by combining both negentropies in a grey fashion using multiscale clustering. Fourier spectrum of the vibration signal is decomposed into multiple scales with different initial resolutions. In each scale, fine segments are grouped using hierarchical clustering. Meanwhile, both time-domain and frequency-domain spectral negentropies are taken into account to guide the clustering through grey evaluation of both negentropies. Numerical simulations and experimental tests are carried out for validating the proposed MCGI. For comparison, peer methods are applied to challenge different noises and interferences. The results show that, thanks to the multiscale clustering of the spectrum and the grey evaluation of both negentropies, the present MCGI is robust in extracting the repetitive transients for the rotating machinery diagnosis.

  1. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Coghlan, Brett A; Goldizen, Anne W; Thomson, Vicki A; Seddon, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales) experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation.

  2. Managing the Grey Literature of a Discipline through Collaboration: AgEcon Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Julia; Letnes, Louise

    2005-01-01

    AgEcon Search, http://www.agecon.lib.umn.edu, is an important and ground-breaking example of an alternative method of delivering current research results to many potential users. AgEcon Search, through a distributed model, collects and disseminates the grey literature of the fields of agricultural and resource economics. The development of this…

  3. The Relationship between Grey-Matter and ASD and ADHD Traits in Typical Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geurts, Hilde M.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Scholte, H. Steven

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether in 85 healthy adults (18-29 years) there is a relationship between grey-matter (GM) volume and autism and ADHD symptom severity. The structural MRI findings and autism and ADHD self-reports revealed that autism and ADHD symptom severity was correlated with GM volume in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Autism symptom-severity was…

  4. Orthopoxvirus antibodies in grey squirrels (Sciurus aureogaster) in Mexico City, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Duque, Paola; Avila-Flores, Rafael; Emerson, Ginny L; Carroll, Darin S; Suzán, Gerardo; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia F

    2014-07-01

    Serum from Mexican grey squirrels (Sciurus aureogaster) from Mexico City reacted to Orthopoxvirus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Real-time PCR based on oral swabs and scabs did not detect viral DNA. Antibody prevalence was 30% (n=366), providing the first evidence of Orthopoxvirus antibodies in Mexican wild rodents. PMID:24807351

  5. Preserving the Digital Record of Science and Engineering: The Challenge of New Forms of Grey Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musser, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Research communications today are largely conducted by digital means. At this time, however, only a small percentage of these digital communiques are archived and preserved for future use. This article provides an overview of the challenge of this digital grey literature, a brief overview of digital archiving, and the role librarians and…

  6. Issues of Health, Appearance and Physical Activity in Aerobic Classes for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Abundo, Michelle Lee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore what appearance-focused messages were conveyed by aerobic instructors in aerobic classes for women. This qualitative research was influenced by the concept of wellness and how feminist pedagogy can be applied to promote individuals' well-being in aerobic classes. The practices of five aerobic instructors…

  7. Identifying grey matter changes in schizotypy using partial least squares correlation.

    PubMed

    Wiebels, Kristina; Waldie, Karen E; Roberts, Reece P; Park, Haeme R P

    2016-08-01

    Neuroimaging research into the brain structure of schizophrenia patients has shown consistent reductions in grey matter volume relative to healthy controls. Examining structural differences in individuals with high levels of schizotypy may help elucidate the course of disorder progression, and provide further support for the schizotypy-schizophrenia continuum. Thus far, the few studies investigating grey matter differences in schizotypy have produced inconsistent results. In the current study, we used a multivariate partial least squares (PLS) approach to clarify the relationship between psychometric schizotypy (measured by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences) and grey matter volume in 49 healthy adults. We found a negative association between all schizotypy dimensions and grey matter volume in the frontal and temporal lobes, as well as the insula. We also found a positive association between all schizotypy dimensions and grey matter volume in the parietal and temporal lobes, and in subcortical regions. Further correlational analyses revealed that positive and disorganised schizotypy were strongly associated with key regions (left superior temporal gyrus and insula) most consistently reported to be affected in schizophrenia and schizotypy. We also compared PLS with the typically used General Linear Model (GLM) and demonstrate that PLS can be reliably used as an extension to voxel-based morphometry (VBM) data. This may be particularly valuable for schizotypy research due to PLS' ability to detect small, but reliable effects. Together, the findings indicate that healthy schizotypal individuals exhibit structural changes in regions associated with schizophrenia. This adds to the evidence of an overlap of phenotypic expression between schizotypy and schizophrenia, and may help establish biological endophenotypes for the disorder.

  8. Optimization of multiple quality characteristics in bone drilling using grey relational analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Rupesh Kumar; Panda, Sudhansu Sekhar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Drilling of bone is common during bone fracture treatment to fix the fractured parts with screws wires or plates. Minimally invasive drilling of the bone has a great demand as it helps in better fixation and quick healing of the broken bones. The purpose of the present investigation is to determine the optimum cutting condition for the minimization of the temperature, force and surface roughness simultaneously during bone drilling. Method In this study, drilling experiments have been performed on bovine bone with different conditions of feed rate and drill rotational speed using full factorial design. Optimal level of the drilling parameters is determined by the grey relational grade (GRG) obtained from the GRA as the performance index of multiple quality characteristics. The effect of each drilling parameter on GRG is determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the results obtained are validated by confirmation experiment. Results Grey relational analysis showed that the investigation with feed rate of 40 mm/min and spindle speed of 500 rpm has the highest grey relational grade and is recommended setting for minimum temperature, force and surface roughness simultaneously during bone drilling. Feed rate has the highest contribution (59.49%) on the multiple performance characteristics followed by the spindle speed (37.69%) as obtained from ANOVA analysis. Conclusions The use of grey relational analysis will simplify the complex process of optimization of the multi response characteristics in bone drilling by converting them into a single grey relational grade. The use of the above suggested methodology can greatly minimize the bone tissue injury during drilling. PMID:25829751

  9. Identifying grey matter changes in schizotypy using partial least squares correlation.

    PubMed

    Wiebels, Kristina; Waldie, Karen E; Roberts, Reece P; Park, Haeme R P

    2016-08-01

    Neuroimaging research into the brain structure of schizophrenia patients has shown consistent reductions in grey matter volume relative to healthy controls. Examining structural differences in individuals with high levels of schizotypy may help elucidate the course of disorder progression, and provide further support for the schizotypy-schizophrenia continuum. Thus far, the few studies investigating grey matter differences in schizotypy have produced inconsistent results. In the current study, we used a multivariate partial least squares (PLS) approach to clarify the relationship between psychometric schizotypy (measured by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences) and grey matter volume in 49 healthy adults. We found a negative association between all schizotypy dimensions and grey matter volume in the frontal and temporal lobes, as well as the insula. We also found a positive association between all schizotypy dimensions and grey matter volume in the parietal and temporal lobes, and in subcortical regions. Further correlational analyses revealed that positive and disorganised schizotypy were strongly associated with key regions (left superior temporal gyrus and insula) most consistently reported to be affected in schizophrenia and schizotypy. We also compared PLS with the typically used General Linear Model (GLM) and demonstrate that PLS can be reliably used as an extension to voxel-based morphometry (VBM) data. This may be particularly valuable for schizotypy research due to PLS' ability to detect small, but reliable effects. Together, the findings indicate that healthy schizotypal individuals exhibit structural changes in regions associated with schizophrenia. This adds to the evidence of an overlap of phenotypic expression between schizotypy and schizophrenia, and may help establish biological endophenotypes for the disorder. PMID:27208815

  10. Changes in trace elements during lactation in a marine top predator, the grey seal.

    PubMed

    Habran, Sarah; Pomeroy, Paddy P; Debier, Cathy; Das, Krishna

    2013-01-15

    Lactation in pinnipeds represents the most significant cost to mothers during the reproductive cycle. Dynamics of trace elements and their mobilization associated with energy reserves during such an intense physiological process remains poorly understood in marine mammals. The changes in tissue concentrations of 11 elements (Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, V, and Zn) were investigated in a longitudinal study during the lactation period and during the post-weaning fast period. Blood, milk, blubber, and hair samples were collected sequentially from 21 mother-pup pairs of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) from the Isle of May in Scotland. Maternal transfer through the milk was observed for all trace elements, except for Cd. As an indicator of the placental transfer, levels in pup lanugo (natal coat) revealed also the existence of maternal transfer and accumulation of all assayed trace elements during the foetal development. The placental and mammary barriers against non-essential metal transfer to offspring appear to be absent or weak in grey seals. Examining the contamination levels showed that this grey seal population seems more highly exposed to Pb than other phocid populations (2.2 mg/kg dw of grey seal hair). In contrast, blood and hair levels reflected a lower Hg exposure in grey seals from the Isle of May than in harbour seals from the southeastern North Sea. This study also showed that trace element concentrations in blood and blubber could change rapidly over the lactation period. Such physiological processes must be considered carefully during biomonitoring of trace elements, and potential impacts that rapid fluctuations in concentrations can exert on seal health should be further investigated.

  11. Prediction of Maximum Aerobic Power in Untrained Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolgener, Forrest A.

    1978-01-01

    The author presents an equation for predicting maximum aerobic power in untrained females from values of percent body fat, weight, and submaximal values of heart rate, respiratory quotient, and expired gas. (MJB)

  12. Mental Aerobics: Exercises for the Mind in Later Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paggi, Kay; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Reports observations of the use of mental aerobics with 48 adults whose median age was 70. Provides examples of the group puzzles and logic, math, and word problems used to enhance cognitive functioning and creative thinking. (SK)

  13. Saline storage of aerobic granules and subsequent reactivation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chunli; Lee, Duu-Jong; Yang, Xue; Wang, Yayi; Lin, Lin

    2014-11-01

    Loss of structural stability and bioactivity during long-term storage and operation is primary challenge to field applications of aerobic granular processes. This study for the first time stored aerobic granules in 5%w/w NaCl solution at 4°C for 187d. The stored granules were then successfully reactivated and used for 85d in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) and continuous-flow reactors (CFR) at varying levels of chemical oxygen demand (COD). High-throughput sequencing results reveal that Thauera sp., Paracoccus sp., and Nitrosomonas sp. were the predominant in the stored aerobic granules, and Pseudoxanthomonas sp. accumulated during the reactivation process. Saline storage, in which cells are in an unculturable state by saline stress, is a promising storage process for aerobic granules. PMID:25270079

  14. Increased Grey Matter Associated with Long-Term Sahaja Yoga Meditation: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Sergio Elías; Suero, José; Barros, Alfonso; González-Mora, José Luis; Rubia, Katya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate regional differences in grey matter volume associated with the practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation. Design Twenty three experienced practitioners of Sahaja Yoga Meditation and twenty three non-meditators matched on age, gender and education level, were scanned using structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging and their grey matter volume were compared using Voxel-Based Morphometry. Results Grey matter volume was larger in meditators relative to non-meditators across the whole brain. In addition, grey matter volume was larger in several predominantly right hemispheric regions: in insula, ventromedial orbitofrontal cortex, inferior temporal and parietal cortices as well as in left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and left insula. No areas with larger grey matter volume were found in non-meditators relative to meditators. Conclusions The study shows that long-term practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation is associated with larger grey matter volume overall, and with regional enlargement in several right hemispheric cortical and subcortical brain regions that are associated with sustained attention, self-control, compassion and interoceptive perception. The increased grey matter volume in these attention and self-control mediating regions suggests use-dependent enlargement with regular practice of this meditation. PMID:26938433

  15. Testing biological effects of hand-washing grey water for reuse in irrigation on an urban farm: a case study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Zain; Sim, Yei Lin; Lin, Yang Jian; Lai, Ka Man

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of reusing hand-washing grey water contaminated with antibacterial hand-washing liquid for irrigation purposes in an urban farm is explored in this case study. Experiments are carried out to investigate if the quality of this grey water allows for its reuse in agriculture as per the guidelines established by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, there is no guideline to test the biological effect of grey water prior to agricultural use. It is plausible that the antibacterial property of the grey water can harm the soil microbial system and plants when applied to land, even if all other water quality parameters satisfy the WHO limit. We use algae (Chlorella vulgaris) and indigenous soil bacteria as initial plant and soil bacteria indicators, respectively, to test the potential inhibition of the water on plants and soil bacteria. Results show that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the grey water is 10% higher than the WHO permissible level, while all other water quality parameters are within the limits after four days of our experimental period. An inhibitory effect is observed in all of the biological tests. However, the inhibitory effect on algae and soil bacteria is not observed after the four-day period. The case study demonstrates a new approach for testing the biological effect of grey water, which can be used in conjunction with the WHO guideline, and provides data for this urban farm to set up a future water treatment system for grey-water reuse in irrigation. PMID:23530370

  16. Testing biological effects of hand-washing grey water for reuse in irrigation on an urban farm: a case study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Zain; Sim, Yei Lin; Lin, Yang Jian; Lai, Ka Man

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of reusing hand-washing grey water contaminated with antibacterial hand-washing liquid for irrigation purposes in an urban farm is explored in this case study. Experiments are carried out to investigate if the quality of this grey water allows for its reuse in agriculture as per the guidelines established by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, there is no guideline to test the biological effect of grey water prior to agricultural use. It is plausible that the antibacterial property of the grey water can harm the soil microbial system and plants when applied to land, even if all other water quality parameters satisfy the WHO limit. We use algae (Chlorella vulgaris) and indigenous soil bacteria as initial plant and soil bacteria indicators, respectively, to test the potential inhibition of the water on plants and soil bacteria. Results show that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the grey water is 10% higher than the WHO permissible level, while all other water quality parameters are within the limits after four days of our experimental period. An inhibitory effect is observed in all of the biological tests. However, the inhibitory effect on algae and soil bacteria is not observed after the four-day period. The case study demonstrates a new approach for testing the biological effect of grey water, which can be used in conjunction with the WHO guideline, and provides data for this urban farm to set up a future water treatment system for grey-water reuse in irrigation.

  17. [Aerobic microbial degradation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers].

    PubMed

    Ding, Juan; Zhou, Juan; Jiang, Wei-Ying; Gao, Shi-Xiang

    2008-11-01

    The biodegradation of 4, 4'-dibromodipheny ether (BDE15) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) by white rot fungi under aerobic conditions was studied. Effects of non-ionic surfactant Tween 80 and beta-cyclodextrin as solubilizers on the apparent solubilities and biodegradation rates of BDE15 and BDE209 were also evaluated. The results showed that both BDE15 and BDE209 were efficiently degraded by white rot fungi. The degradation rates were 43.0% and 62.5% for BDE209 and BDE15, respectively, after 10 d incubation. The degradation of BDE209 was greatly enhanced by addition of Tween 80 (< or = 700 mg/L) and beta-cyclodextrin, which may own to their solubilization effects on BDE209. However, Tween 80 at a high concentration (900 mg/L) would restrain the fungal growth, thereby decrease the degradation of BDE209. Addition of Tween 80 and beta-cyclodextrin exhibited some negative effects on the degradation of BDE15, which may due to decreased concentration of free BDE15 in water solution resulted from inclusion function of Tween 80 micelles and beta-cyclodextrin cavity, although the apparent solubility of BDE15 was drastically increased by both of them. PMID:19186824

  18. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wolcott, Abraham; Schiros, Theanne; Trusheim, Matthew E.; Chen, Edward H.; Nordlund, Dennis; Diaz, Rosa E.; Gaaton, Ophir; Englund, Dirk; Owen, Jonathan S.

    2014-10-27

    Here we investigate the aerobic oxidation of high-pressure, high-temperature nanodiamonds (5–50 nm dimensions) using a combination of carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption, wavelength-dependent X-ray photoelectron, and vibrational spectroscopies. Oxidation at 575 °C for 2 h eliminates graphitic carbon contamination (>98%) and produces nanocrystals with hydroxyl functionalized surfaces as well as a minor component (<5%) of carboxylic anhydrides. The low graphitic carbon content and the high crystallinity of HPHT are evident from Raman spectra acquired using visible wavelength excitation (λexcit = 633 nm) as well as carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectra where the signature of a core–hole exciton is observed. Both spectroscopic features are similar to those of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond but differ significantly from the spectra of detonation nanodiamond. Lastly, we discuss the importance of these findings to the functionalization of nanodiamond surfaces for biological labeling applications.

  19. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    DOE PAGES

    Wolcott, Abraham; Schiros, Theanne; Trusheim, Matthew E.; Chen, Edward H.; Nordlund, Dennis; Diaz, Rosa E.; Gaaton, Ophir; Englund, Dirk; Owen, Jonathan S.

    2014-10-27

    Here we investigate the aerobic oxidation of high-pressure, high-temperature nanodiamonds (5–50 nm dimensions) using a combination of carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption, wavelength-dependent X-ray photoelectron, and vibrational spectroscopies. Oxidation at 575 °C for 2 h eliminates graphitic carbon contamination (>98%) and produces nanocrystals with hydroxyl functionalized surfaces as well as a minor component (<5%) of carboxylic anhydrides. The low graphitic carbon content and the high crystallinity of HPHT are evident from Raman spectra acquired using visible wavelength excitation (λexcit = 633 nm) as well as carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectra where the signature of a core–hole exciton is observed.more » Both spectroscopic features are similar to those of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond but differ significantly from the spectra of detonation nanodiamond. Lastly, we discuss the importance of these findings to the functionalization of nanodiamond surfaces for biological labeling applications.« less

  20. Dancing the aerobics ''hearing loss'' choreography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Beatriz M.; Carvalho, Antonio P. O.; Gallagher, Sergio

    2002-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of gymnasiums' acoustic problems when used for aerobics exercises classes (and similar) with loud noise levels of amplified music. This type of gymnasium is usually a highly reverberant space, which is a consequence of a large volume surrounded by hard surfaces. A sample of five schools in Portugal was chosen for this survey. Noise levels in each room were measured using a precision sound level meter, and analyzed to calculate the standardized daily personal noise exposure levels (LEP,d). LEP,d values from 79 to 91 dB(A) were found to be typical values in this type of room, inducing a health risk for its occupants. The reverberation time (RT) values were also measured and compared with some European legal requirements (Portugal, France, and Belgium) for nearly similar situations. RT values (1 kHz) from 0.9 s to 2.8 s were found. These reverberation time values clearly differentiate between good and acoustically inadequate rooms. Some noise level and RT limits for this type of environment are given and suggestions for the improvement of the acoustical environment are shown. Significant reductions in reverberation time values and noise levels can be obtained by simple measures.

  1. Aerobic training in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Nsenga, A L; Shephard, R J; Ahmaidi, S; Ahmadi, S

    2013-06-01

    Rehabilitation is a major goal for children with cerebral palsy, although the potential to enhance cardio-respiratory fitness in such individuals remains unclear. This study thus compared current cardio-respiratory status between children with cerebral palsy and able-bodied children, and examined the ability to enhance the cardio-respiratory fitness of children with cerebral palsy by cycle ergometer training. 10 children with cerebral palsy (Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I and II) participated in thrice-weekly 30 min cycle ergometer training sessions for 8 weeks (mean age: 14.2±1.9 yrs). 10 additional subjects with cerebral palsy (mean age: 14.2±1.8 yrs) and 10 able-bodied subjects (mean age: 14.1±2.1 yrs) served as controls, undertaking no training. All subjects undertook a progressive cycle ergometer test of cardio-respiratory fitness at the beginning and end of the 8-week period. Cardio-respiratory parameters [oxygen intake V˙O2), ventilation V ˙ E) and heart rate (HR)] during testing were measured by Cosmed K4 b gas analyzer. The children with cerebral palsy who engaged in aerobic training improved their peak oxygen consumption, heart rate and ventilation significantly (p<0.05) and they also showed a non-significant trend to increased peak power output. In conclusion, children with cerebral palsy can benefit significantly from cardio-respiratory training, and such training should be included in rehabilitation programs.

  2. Late Archean rise of aerobic microbial ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Freeman, Katherine H.

    2006-01-01

    We report the 13C content of preserved organic carbon for a 150 million-year section of late Archean shallow and deepwater sediments of the Hamersley Province in Western Australia. We find a 13C enrichment of ≈10‰ in organic carbon of post-2.7-billion-year-old shallow-water carbonate rocks relative to deepwater sediments. The shallow-water organic-carbon 13C content has a 29‰ range in values (−57 to −28‰), and it contrasts with the less variable but strongly 13C-depleted (−40 to −45‰) organic carbon in deepwater sediments. The 13C enrichment likely represents microbial habitats not as strongly influenced by assimilation of methane or other 13C-depleted substrates. We propose that continued oxidation of shallow settings favored the expansion of aerobic ecosystems and respiring organisms, and, as a result, isotopic signatures of preserved organic carbon in shallow settings approached that of photosynthetic biomass. Facies analysis of published carbon-isotopic records indicates that the Hamersley shallow-water signal may be representative of a late Archean global signature and that it preceded a similar, but delayed, 13C enrichment of deepwater deposits. The data suggest that a global-scale expansion of oxygenated habitats accompanied the progression away from anaerobic ecosystems toward respiring microbial communities fueled by oxygenic photosynthesis before the oxygenation of the atmosphere after 2.45 billion years ago. PMID:17043234

  3. Mathematical modelling of autothermal thermophilic aerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Gomez, J; de Gracia, M; Ayesa, E; Garcia-Heras, J L

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents a new mathematical model for Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digesters. The reactor has been modelled as two completely mixed volumes to separately predict the behaviour of the liquid and gaseous phases as well as the interrelation between them. The model includes biochemical transformations based on the standard Activated Sludge Models of IWA, as well as physico-chemical transformations associated with the chemical equilibria and the mass transfer between the liquid and the gaseous phases similar to those proposed in the ADM1 of IWA. An energy balance has also been included in the model in order to predict the temperature of the system. This thermal balance takes into account all those biochemical and physico-chemical transformations that entail the most relevant heat interchanges. Reactor performance has been explored by simulation in two different scenarios: in the first where it acts as the initial stage in a Dual system, and in the second where it acts as a single-stage treatment. Each scenario enabled the identification of the relevance of the different parameters. PMID:17258787

  4. Iron plaque formed under aerobic conditions efficiently immobilizes arsenic in Lupinus albus L roots.

    PubMed

    Fresno, Teresa; Peñalosa, Jesús M; Santner, Jakob; Puschenreiter, Markus; Prohaska, Thomas; Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a non-threshold carcinogenic metalloid. Thus, human exposure should be minimised, e.g. by chemically stabilizing As in soil. Since iron is a potential As immobiliser, it was investigated whether root iron plaque, formed under aerobic conditions, affects As uptake, metabolism and distribution in Lupinus albus plants. White lupin plants were cultivated in a continuously aerated hydroponic culture containing Fe/EDDHA or FeSO4 and exposed to arsenate (5 or 20 μM). Only FeSO4 induced surficial iron plaque in roots. LA-ICP-MS analysis accomplished on root sections corroborated the association of As to this surficial Fe. Additionally, As(V) was the predominant species in FeSO4-treated roots, suggesting less efficient As uptake in the presence of iron plaque. Fe/EDDHA-exposed roots neither showed such surficial FeAs co-localisation nor As(V) accumulation; in contrast As(III) was the predominant species in root tissue. Furthermore, FeSO4-treated plants showed reduced shoot-to-root As ratios, which were >10-fold lower compared to Fe/EDDHA treatment. Our results highlight the role of an iron plaque formed in roots of white lupin under aerobic conditions on As immobilisation. These findings, to our knowledge, have not been addressed before for this plant and have potential implications on soil remediation (phytostabilisation) and food security (minimising As in crops). PMID:27263113

  5. Iron plaque formed under aerobic conditions efficiently immobilizes arsenic in Lupinus albus L roots.

    PubMed

    Fresno, Teresa; Peñalosa, Jesús M; Santner, Jakob; Puschenreiter, Markus; Prohaska, Thomas; Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a non-threshold carcinogenic metalloid. Thus, human exposure should be minimised, e.g. by chemically stabilizing As in soil. Since iron is a potential As immobiliser, it was investigated whether root iron plaque, formed under aerobic conditions, affects As uptake, metabolism and distribution in Lupinus albus plants. White lupin plants were cultivated in a continuously aerated hydroponic culture containing Fe/EDDHA or FeSO4 and exposed to arsenate (5 or 20 μM). Only FeSO4 induced surficial iron plaque in roots. LA-ICP-MS analysis accomplished on root sections corroborated the association of As to this surficial Fe. Additionally, As(V) was the predominant species in FeSO4-treated roots, suggesting less efficient As uptake in the presence of iron plaque. Fe/EDDHA-exposed roots neither showed such surficial FeAs co-localisation nor As(V) accumulation; in contrast As(III) was the predominant species in root tissue. Furthermore, FeSO4-treated plants showed reduced shoot-to-root As ratios, which were >10-fold lower compared to Fe/EDDHA treatment. Our results highlight the role of an iron plaque formed in roots of white lupin under aerobic conditions on As immobilisation. These findings, to our knowledge, have not been addressed before for this plant and have potential implications on soil remediation (phytostabilisation) and food security (minimising As in crops).

  6. The mechanistic basis of aerobic performance variation in red junglefowl.

    PubMed

    Hammond, K A; Chappell, M A; Cardullo, R A; Lin, R; Johnsen, T S

    2000-07-01

    We examined aerobic performance, organ and muscle mass and enzymatic activity in red junglefowl (Gallus gallus). We tested three models of performance limitation (central limits, peripheral limits, symmorphosis) and explored relationships between basal metabolic rate (BMR), aerobic capacity ( V (O2max)) and social rank. Males had a lower BMR, a higher V (O2max) and a greater aerobic scope than females. Females possessed larger peritoneal and reproductive organs, while males had larger hearts, lungs and leg muscles. In females, BMR was correlated with spleen mass and V (O2max) was correlated with hematocrit and large intestine mass. Male BMR was correlated with intestinal tract and lung mass, and V (O2max) was correlated with heart and pectoralis mass. Male citrate synthase activity averaged 57 % higher than that of females and was correlated with V (O2max) (this correlation was not significant in females). Female social status was not correlated with any variable, but male dominance was associated with higher aerobic scope, larger heart and lungs, smaller peritoneal organs and greater leg citrate synthase activity. We conclude that aerobic capacity is controlled by system-wide limitations (symmorphosis) in males, while in females it is controlled by central organs. In neither sex is elevated aerobic capacity associated with increased maintenance costs. PMID:10851122

  7. Nutrient Transformations in Soils Under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, P.; Lee, L.

    2003-12-01

    Poultry litter is most commonly land applied as a fertilizer for pastures. Soils vary according to landscape position and the biogeochemistry changes within the soils depending on the landscape position. This research focuses on nutrient speciation in aerobic and anaerobic environments. A 3.4 kg Ha-1 chicken litter application rate was used to determine the speciation of nutrients in these two environments. A 50 g sample of Ruston soil was placed in 250 mL centrifuge tubes and continuously stirred in anaerobic and aerobic environments. The Eh and pH were measured daily and a sample was collected at 0, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days. The Eh decreased from around 600 mV at day 0 to near 100 at day 2; whereas the aerobic sample had a decrease to around 450 mV. The pH increased from 6.5 to 7.0 in the anaerobic soil and from 6.5 to around 8.0 in the aerobic soil. The anaerobic soils had a rapid decrease in NO3- and a sharp increase in NH4+ to around 100 mg NH4+ kg-1 soil at day 7. The aerobic soil had an increase in NH4+ to 70 mg Nh4+ kg-1 soil at day 7 then decrease in NH4+ with a corresponding increase in NO3-. Both the anaerobic and aerobic soil had a rapid decrease in PO42- concentrations and remained low for 21 d.

  8. Aerobic microbial mineralization of dichloroethene as sole carbon substrate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.

    2000-01-01

    Microorganisms indigenous to the bed sediments of a black- water stream utilized 1,2-dichloroethene (1,2-DCE) as a sole carbon substrate for aerobic metabolism. Although no evidence of growth was observed in the minimal salts culture media used in this study, efficient aerobic microbial mineralization of 1,2-DCE as sole carbon substrate was maintained through three sequential transfers (107 final dilution) of the original environmental innoculum. These results indicate that 1,2-DCE can be utilized as a primary substrate to support microbial metabolism under aerobic conditions.Microorganisms indigenous to the bed sediments of a black-water stream utilized 1,2-dichloroethene (1,2-DCE) as a sole carbon substrate for aerobic metabolism. Although no evidence of growth was observed in the minimal salts culture media used in this study, efficient aerobic microbial mineralization of 1,2-DCE as sole carbon substrate was maintained through three sequential transfers (107 final dilution) of the original environmental innoculum. These results indicate that 1,2-DCE can be utilized as a primary substrate to support microbial metabolism under aerobic conditions.

  9. Enhanced selection of micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol degrading granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yuancai; Chen, Yuancai; Song, Wenzhe; Hu, Yongyou

    2014-09-15

    Column-type combined reactors were designed to cultivate micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1-0.2 mgL(-1)) over 39-day experimental period. Micro-aerobic granular had both anaerobic activity (SMA: 2.34 mMCH4/hg VSS) and aerobic activity (SOUR: 2.21 mMO2/hg VSS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that PCP was sequentially dechlorinated to TCP, DCP, and eventually to MCP. Methanogens were not directly involved in the dechlorination of PCP, but might played a vital role in stabilizing the overall structure of the granule sludge. For Eubacteria, the Shannon Index (2.09 in inoculated granular sludge) increased both in micro-aerobic granular sludge (2.61) and PCP-degradation granular sludge (2.55). However, for Archaea, it decreased from 2.53 to 1.85 and 1.84, respectively. Although the Shannon Index demonstrated slight difference between micro-aerobic granular sludge and PCP-degradation granular sludge, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated obvious variance of the microbial composition, revealing significant effect of micro-aerobic condition and PCP on microbial community. Furthermore, nucleotide sequencing indicated that the main microorganisms for PCP degradation might be related to Actinobacterium and Sphingomonas. These results provided insights into situ bioremediation of environments contaminated by PCP and had practical implications for the strategies of PCP degradation.

  10. Microbial Removal of Atmospheric Carbon Tetrachloride in Bulk Aerobic Soils▿

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Y.; Goodwin, K. D.; Happell, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) were removed by bulk aerobic soils from tropical, subtropical, and boreal environments. Removal was observed in all tested soil types, indicating that the process was widespread. The flux measured in field chamber experiments was 0.24 ± 0.10 nmol CCl4 (m2 day)−1 (average ± standard deviation [SD]; n = 282). Removal of CCl4 and removal of methane (CH4) were compared to explore whether the two processes were linked. Removal of both gases was halted in laboratory samples that were autoclaved, dry heated, or incubated in the presence of mercuric chloride (HgCl2). In marl soils, treatment with antibiotics such as tetracycline and streptomycin caused partial inhibition of CCl4 (50%) and CH4 (76%) removal, but removal was not affected in soils treated with nystatin or myxothiazol. These data indicated that bacteria contributed to the soil removal of CCl4 and that microeukaryotes may not have played a significant role. Amendments of methanol, acetate, and succinate to soil samples enhanced CCl4 removal by 59%, 293%, and 72%, respectively. Additions of a variety of inhibitors and substrates indicated that nitrification, methanogenesis, or biological reduction of nitrate, nitrous oxide, or sulfate (e.g., occurring in possible anoxic microzones) did not play a significant role in the removal of CCl4. Methyl fluoride inhibited removal of CH4 but not CCl4, indicating that CH4 and CCl4 removals were not directly linked. Furthermore, CCl4 removal was not affected in soils amended with copper sulfate or methane, supporting the results with MeF and suggesting that the observed CCl4 removal was not significantly mediated by methanotrophs. PMID:21724884

  11. Microbial removal of atmospheric carbon tetrachloride in bulk aerobic soils.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Y; Goodwin, K D; Happell, J D

    2011-09-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) were removed by bulk aerobic soils from tropical, subtropical, and boreal environments. Removal was observed in all tested soil types, indicating that the process was widespread. The flux measured in field chamber experiments was 0.24 ± 0.10 nmol CCl(4) (m(2) day)(-1) (average ± standard deviation [SD]; n = 282). Removal of CCl(4) and removal of methane (CH(4)) were compared to explore whether the two processes were linked. Removal of both gases was halted in laboratory samples that were autoclaved, dry heated, or incubated in the presence of mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)). In marl soils, treatment with antibiotics such as tetracycline and streptomycin caused partial inhibition of CCl(4) (50%) and CH(4) (76%) removal, but removal was not affected in soils treated with nystatin or myxothiazol. These data indicated that bacteria contributed to the soil removal of CCl(4) and that microeukaryotes may not have played a significant role. Amendments of methanol, acetate, and succinate to soil samples enhanced CCl(4) removal by 59%, 293%, and 72%, respectively. Additions of a variety of inhibitors and substrates indicated that nitrification, methanogenesis, or biological reduction of nitrate, nitrous oxide, or sulfate (e.g., occurring in possible anoxic microzones) did not play a significant role in the removal of CCl(4). Methyl fluoride inhibited removal of CH(4) but not CCl(4), indicating that CH(4) and CCl(4) removals were not directly linked. Furthermore, CCl(4) removal was not affected in soils amended with copper sulfate or methane, supporting the results with MeF and suggesting that the observed CCl(4) removal was not significantly mediated by methanotrophs.

  12. Competition between Eurasian red and introduced Eastern grey squirrels: the energetic significance of body-mass differences.

    PubMed

    Bryce, J M; Speakman, J R; Johnson, P J; Macdonald, D W

    2001-08-22

    Daily energy expenditure (DEE) was measured in sympatric populations of red and grey squirrels using the doubly labelled water technique. Grey squirrels had significantly higher DEEs than red squirrels. However, the difference between the species was not separable from the effects of body mass on DEE. The DEEs of both species were in accordance with published allometric predictions incorporating body mass and ambient temperature. The differences in energetic requirements and social dominance, both consequences of body size, may represent means by which grey squirrels exert more interspecific competition on red squirrels than do conspecifics, potentially driving populations below viable levels in some sites.

  13. Seal dynamics on the Swedish west coast: Scenarios of competition as Baltic grey seal intrude on harbour seal territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, Carl Johan

    2012-07-01

    The Kattegat-Skagerrak region on the Swedish west coast is home to an abundant harbour seal population (Phoca vitulina) and a small scattered grey seal population (Halichoerus grypus). In addition, grey seal from the growing population in the Baltic Sea frequently migrate into the Kattegat-Skagerrak. Harbour seals on the west coast of Sweden show relatively high population growth (approximately 9%) compared to the Baltic grey seal in ice-free habitats (approximately 6%), which, in theory, makes harbour seal the stronger competitor of the two in this region. However, incidents of disease in harbour seals that lower population growth are becoming more frequent. These epidemics are primarily caused by the Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV), and may reduce population size with up to 70%. This study models the average development under potential scenarios of competing harbour- and Baltic grey seal populations using Leslie matrices and the Lotka-Volterra model of inter-specific competition. The model is parameterised with previously published data, and resource overlap is incorporated through density dependent pup survival. Using numerical methods short- and long-term abundances are simulated under weak, moderate and strong competition and for different frequencies of PDV epidemics. Results show that the harbour seals are resilient to competition while exerting a negative effect on grey seal abundance under moderate to strong competition. Hence Baltic grey seal benefit from weaker levels of competition. Under moderate and strong competition grey seal abundance is a direct function of the PDV frequency as this reduces the competitive strength of harbour seals. Theoretically this means that higher frequencies of PDV or other pathogens epidemics could facilitate an expansion of Baltic grey seal into Kattegat-Skagerrak. Independent of interaction strength and frequency of epidemics the projected changes to abundances are slow (50-100 years), and even in exceedingly stable

  14. Aerobic digestion of tannery wastewater in a sequential batch reactor by salt-tolerant bacterial strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durai, G.; Rajasimman, M.; Rajamohan, N.

    2011-09-01

    Among the industries generating hyper saline effluents, tanneries are prominent in India. Hyper saline wastewater is difficult to treat by conventional biological treatment methods. Salt-tolerant microbes can adapt to these conditions and degrade the organics in hyper saline wastewater. In this study, the performance of a bench scale aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was investigated to treat the tannery wastewater by the salt-tolerant bacterial strains namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus flexus, Exiguobacterium homiense and Styphylococcus aureus. The study was carried out under different operating conditions by changing the hydraulic retention time, organic loading rate and initial substrate concentration. From the results it was found that a maximum COD reduction of 90.4% and colour removal of 78.6% was attained. From this study it was found that the salt-tolerant microorganisms could improve the reduction efficiency of COD and colour of the tannery wastewater.

  15. Separation of swine wastewater into different concentration fractions and its contribution to combined anaerobic-aerobic process.

    PubMed

    Yang, Di; Deng, Liangwei; Zheng, Dan; Wang, Lan; Liu, Yi

    2016-03-01

    There are two problems associated with treatment of swine wastewater, low efficiency of anaerobic digestion during winter and poor performance for aerobic treatment of digested effluent. A strategy employing unbalanced distributions of the pollutant mass and wastewater volumes in anaerobic and aerobic units was proposed. To accomplish this, swine wastewater was separated into high content liquid (HCL) and low content liquid (LCL). Three separation ratios of HCL to LCL (v/v), 1:9 (S1), 2:8 (S2), and 3:7 (S3), were evaluated. Anaerobically digestion of the HCL accounted for only 10%, 20% and 30% of the total volume of raw wastewater, but produced 63.38%, 73.79% and 76.61% of the total methane output for S1, S2 and S3, respectively. The mixed liquid of digested effluents of HCL and LCL were treated aerobically using sequencing batch reactors. S2 generated the best performance, with removal efficiencies of 96.98% for COD, 98.95% for NH3-N, 91.69% for TN and 74.71% for TP. The results obtained for S1 were not as good as those for S2, but were better than those for S3. Based on methane output from the anaerobic unit and pollutants removal in the aerobic unit, S2 was the most suitable system for the treatment of swine wastewater. Additionally, the anaerobic digestion efficiency of S2 was 282% higher than that of previous techniques employing balanced distribution. Taken together, these findings indicate that unbalanced distribution could improve the efficiency of the anaerobic unit remarkably, while ensuring good performance of the aerobic unit.

  16. Recovery of Nickel and Cobalt from Laterite Tailings by Reductive Dissolution under Aerobic Conditions Using Acidithiobacillus Species.

    PubMed

    Marrero, J; Coto, O; Goldmann, S; Graupner, T; Schippers, A

    2015-06-01

    Biomining of sulfidic ores has been applied for almost five decades. However, the bioprocessing of oxide ores such as laterites lags commercially behind. Recently, the Ferredox process was proposed to treat limonitic laterite ores by means of anaerobic reductive dissolution (AnRD), which was found to be more effective than aerobic bioleaching by fungi and other bacteria. We show here that the ferric iron reduction mediated by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans can be applied to an aerobic reductive dissolution (AeRD) of nickel laterite tailings. AeRD using a consortium of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans extracted similar amounts of nickel (53-57%) and cobalt (55-60%) in only 7 days as AnRD using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The economic and environmental advantages of AeRD for processing of laterite tailings comprise no requirement for an anoxic atmosphere, 1.8-fold less acid consumption than for AnRD, as well as nickel and cobalt recovered in a ferrous-based pregnant leach solution (PLS), facilitating the subsequent metal recovery. In addition, an aerobic acid regeneration stage is proposed. Therefore, AeRD process development can be considered as environmentally friendly for treating laterites with low operational costs and as an attractive alternative to AnRD. PMID:25923144

  17. Recovery of Nickel and Cobalt from Laterite Tailings by Reductive Dissolution under Aerobic Conditions Using Acidithiobacillus Species.

    PubMed

    Marrero, J; Coto, O; Goldmann, S; Graupner, T; Schippers, A

    2015-06-01

    Biomining of sulfidic ores has been applied for almost five decades. However, the bioprocessing of oxide ores such as laterites lags commercially behind. Recently, the Ferredox process was proposed to treat limonitic laterite ores by means of anaerobic reductive dissolution (AnRD), which was found to be more effective than aerobic bioleaching by fungi and other bacteria. We show here that the ferric iron reduction mediated by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans can be applied to an aerobic reductive dissolution (AeRD) of nickel laterite tailings. AeRD using a consortium of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans extracted similar amounts of nickel (53-57%) and cobalt (55-60%) in only 7 days as AnRD using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The economic and environmental advantages of AeRD for processing of laterite tailings comprise no requirement for an anoxic atmosphere, 1.8-fold less acid consumption than for AnRD, as well as nickel and cobalt recovered in a ferrous-based pregnant leach solution (PLS), facilitating the subsequent metal recovery. In addition, an aerobic acid regeneration stage is proposed. Therefore, AeRD process development can be considered as environmentally friendly for treating laterites with low operational costs and as an attractive alternative to AnRD.

  18. Aerobic and anaerobic performances in tethered swimming.

    PubMed

    Papoti, M; da Silva, A S R; Araujo, G G; Santiago, V; Martins, L E B; Cunha, S A; Gobatto, C A

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the critical force (CritF) and anaerobic impulse capacity (AIC) - estimated by tethered swimming - reflect the aerobic and anaerobic performance of swimmers. 12 swimmers performed incremental test in tethered swimming to determine lactate anaerobic threshold (AnTLAC), maximal oxygen uptake ( ˙VO2MAX) and force associated with the ˙VO2MAX (i ˙VO2MAX). The swimmers performed 4 exhaustive (tlim) exercise bouts (100, 110, 120 and 130% i ˙VO2MAX) to compute the CritF and AIC (F vs. 1/tlim model); a 30-s all-out tethered swimming bout to determine their anaerobic fitness (ANF); 100, 200, and 400-m time-trials to determine the swimming performance. CritF (57.09±11.77 N) did not differ from AnTLAC (53.96±11.52 N, (P>0.05) but was significantly lower than i ˙VO2MAX (71.02±8.36 N). In addition, CritF presented significant correlation with AnTLAC (r=0.76; P<0.05) and i ˙VO2MAX (r=0.74; P<0.05). On the other hand, AIC (286.19±54.91 N.s) and ANF (116.10±13.66 N) were significantly correlated (r=0.81, p<0.05). In addition, CritF and AIC presented significant correlations with all time-trials. In summary, this study demonstrates that CritF and AIC can be used to evaluate AnTLAC and ANF and to predict 100, 200, and 400-m free swimming.

  19. Fate of inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7, cultured under different conditions, on fresh and decontaminated beef transitioned from vacuum to aerobic packaging.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Laura V; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Stopforth, Jarret D; Skandamis, Panagiotis N; Belk, Keith E; Scanga, John A; Smith, Gary C; Sofos, John N

    2006-06-01

    This study evaluated the behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during aerobic storage, after storage in vacuum packages, on beef inoculated with cultures prepared (35 degrees C, 24 h) in tryptic soy broth without dextrose (TSB), nonacid hot water carcass decontamination runoff fluids (washings; pH 6.0; WASH), cells from biofilms formed on stainless steel coupons in WASH (WETB), or WETB dried (25 degrees C, 12 h) before harvesting of cells (DRYB). These inocula were applied to fresh beef pieces (40 cm2), which were then left untreated or treated by immersion in hot water (75 degrees C) followed by 2% lactic acid (55 degrees C; hot water/lactic acid [HW/LA]), for 30 s each. Inoculated samples were vacuum packaged and stored at 0 (30, 60, or 90 days), 4 (7 or 14 days), or 12 degrees C (4 or 8 days) and subsequently transferred to retail packages for aerobic storage at 7 degrees C for 5 days. Populations of E. coli O157:H117, regardless of inoculum type, remained generally unchanged (P > 0.05) after aerobic storage (7 degrees C, 5 days) of untreated or HW/LA-treated beef samples previously stored in vacuum packages at 0 or 4 degrees C. However, reductions in E. coli O157:H7 levels were generally obtained when vacuum packaged, untreated beef samples previously stored at 12 degrees C were transitioned to aerobic conditions. Additionally, despite similar (P > 0.05) levels of E. coli O157:H7 cells of TSB, WASH, WETB, and DRYB origin on vacuum-packaged, untreated samples after 8 days of storage at 12 degrees C, subsequent aerobic storage resulted in larger (P < 0.05) reductions of cells of WETB and DRYB origin than for cells of TSB and WASH origin. For HW/LA-treated beef previously stored at 12 degrees C in vacuum packages, populations of E. coli O157:H7 remained largely unchanged after aerobic storage in retail packages. Results thus indicated that aerobic storage of beef (7 degees C, 5 days) previously stored in vacuum packages at 0 or 4 degrees C did not lead to E. coli O

  20. Field tests for evaluating the aerobic work capacity of firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Gavhed, Désirée; Malm, Christer

    2013-01-01

    Working as a firefighter is physically strenuous, and a high level of physical fitness increases a firefighter's ability to cope with the physical stress of their profession. Direct measurements of aerobic capacity, however, are often complicated, time consuming, and expensive. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlations between direct (laboratory) and indirect (field) aerobic capacity tests with common and physically demanding firefighting tasks. The second aim was to give recommendations as to which field tests may be the most useful for evaluating firefighters' aerobic work capacity. A total of 38 subjects (26 men and 12 women) were included. Two aerobic capacity tests, six field tests, and seven firefighting tasks were performed. Lactate threshold and onset of blood lactate accumulation were found to be correlated to the performance of one work task (r(s) = -0.65 and -0.63, p<0.01, respectively). Absolute (mL · min(-1)) and relative (mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)) maximal aerobic capacity was correlated to all but one of the work tasks (r(s) = -0.79 to 0.55 and -0.74 to 0.47, p<0.01, respectively). Aerobic capacity is important for firefighters' work performance, and we have concluded that the time to row 500 m, the time to run 3000 m relative to body weight (s · kg(-1)), and the percent of maximal heart rate achieved during treadmill walking are the most valid field tests for evaluating a firefighter's aerobic work capacity. PMID:23844153

  1. Obesity-Related Hormones and Metabolic Risk Factors: A Randomized Trial of Diet plus Either Strength or Aerobic Training versus Diet Alone in Overweight Participants

    PubMed Central

    Geliebter, Allan; Ochner, Christopher N; Dambkowski, Carl L; Hashim, Sami A

    2014-01-01

    There is debate about the additive effects of exercise in conjunction with diet to treat obesity, and not much is known about the differential effects of strength versus aerobic training. This randomized controlled trial examined the effects of diet plus strength training, diet plus aerobic training, or diet only on metabolic risk factors associated with obesity. Eighty-one overweight and obese participants completed the 8-week intervention. All participants received an energy-restrictive formula diet with an energy content based on 70% of measured resting metabolic rate (RMR). Participants assigned to an exercise group trained 3 days/week under supervision. Anthropometrics and fasting hormones were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Mean weight loss (8.5 ± 4.3kg SD) did not differ between groups nor did reductions in BMI or body fat, although the diet plus strength training group showed marginally greater lean mass retention. There were significant improvements in the values and number of metabolic syndrome risk factors, and decreases in insulin concentrations and insulin resistance, which did not vary between groups. For men, testosterone increased significantly more in the diet plus aerobic training as compared to the other groups. As compared to diet alone, the addition of strength or aerobic training did not improve changes in BMI, body fat or metabolic risk factors although the diet plus strength training group showed a trend toward preservation of lean mass, and the diet plus aerobic group in men resulted in increased testosterone concentrations. PMID:25599089

  2. Hydrogen sulphide removal in the anaerobic digestion of sludge by micro-aerobic processes: pilot plant experience.

    PubMed

    Fdz-Polanco, M; Díaz, I; Pérez, S I; Lopes, A C; Fdz-Polanco, F

    2009-01-01

    H(2)S removal from biogas produced in anaerobic digestion of sludge through the introduction of oxygen under micro-aerobic conditions is studied. Research was carried out in two pilot plant reactors (working volume, 200 L each) treating sludge from WWTP with HRT of 20 days. Mixing was provided via sludge or biogas recirculation. Introduction of very low oxygen flow (0.013-0.024 L/L(reactor) d) successfully removed H(2)S content in biogas with an efficiency above 99%. Reactor performance during micro-aerobic operation in terms of biogas production, methane yield and COD removal were not affected by the amount of oxygen supplied, remaining stable and similar to the anaerobic behaviour. Sludge recirculation ( approximately 50 L/h) and biogas recirculation ( approximately 3.5 L/min) as mixing methods were found not significant in H(2)S removal from biogas while biogas recirculation reduced by 10 times dissolved sulphide concentration compared to sludge recirculation.

  3. Monitoring endocrine activity in kraft mill effluent treated by aerobic moving bed bioreactor system.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, S; Pozo, G; Jarpa, M; Hernandez, V; Becerra, J; Vidal, G

    2010-01-01

    A Moving Bed Bioreactor (MBBR) was operated at three different hydraulic retention times for a period of 414 days. The fate of the extractive compounds and the estrogenic activity of the Pinus radiata kraft mill effluents were evaluated using Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection. Results show that the MBBR reactor is able to remove between 80-83% of estrogenic activity present in the kraft mill Pinus radiata influent, where the values of the effluent's estrogenic activity ranged between 0.123-0.411 ng L(-1), expressed as estrogenic equivalent (EEqs) of 17-a-ethynylestradiol (EE2 eq.). Additionally, the biomass of the MBBR reactor accumulated estrogenic activity ranging between 0.29-0.37 ng EEqs EE2 during the different Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) operations. The main groups present in pulp mills effluents, corresponding to fatty acids, hydrocarbons, phenols, sterols and triterpenes, were detected by solid phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results suggest that the sterols produce the estrogenic activity in the evaluated effluent. PMID:20595766

  4. Observation of Helicobacter-like organisms in gastric mucosa of grey foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and bobcats (Lynx rufus)

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Archival specimens of gastric mucosa of 10 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 9 porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum), 6 grey foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), 6 bobcats (Lynx rufus), 4 skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and 3 black bears (Ursus americanus) were microscopically examined for evidence of Helicobacter-like organisms. Such organisms were seen in the specimens from the grey foxes and bobcats only. Histochemical stains (modified Steiner and carbol fuchsin methods) revealed long spiral organisms within lumina of gastric glands; however, neither gross nor microscopic lesions were observed. By electron microscopy (EM), the organisms were found to be free in the glandular lumina and were seen occasionally in the cytoplasm of gastric epithelial cells. Morphologically, 2 different phenotypes of spiral organisms were identified by EM. The organisms associated with bobcats appeared to be more tightly coiled than those seen in grey foxes. The presence of Helicobacter-like organisms in the gastric mucosa of grey foxes has not previously been described. PMID:15188962

  5. Observation of Helicobacter-like organisms in gastric mucosa of grey foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and bobcats (Lynx rufus).

    PubMed

    Hamir, Amir N; Stasko, Judi; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2004-04-01

    Archival specimens of gastric mucosa of 10 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 9 porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum), 6 grey foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), 6 bobcats (Lynx rufus), 4 skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and 3 black bears (Ursus americanus) were microscopically examined for evidence of Helicobacter-like organisms. Such organisms were seen in the specimens from the grey foxes and bobcats only. Histochemical stains (modified Steiner and carbol fuchsin methods) revealed long spiral organisms within lumina of gastric glands; however, neither gross nor microscopic lesions were observed. By electron microscopy (EM), the organisms were found to be free in the glandular lumina and were seen occasionally in the cytoplasm of gastric epithelial cells. Morphologically, 2 different phenotypes of spiral organisms were identified by EM. The organisms associated with bobcats appeared to be more tightly coiled than those seen in grey foxes. The presence of Helicobacter-like organisms in the gastric mucosa of grey foxes has not previously been described. PMID:15188962

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in North-eastern Atlantic harbor seal (Phoca vitulina vitulina) and grey seal (Halichoerus grypus).

    PubMed

    Cabezón, O; Hall, A J; Vincent, C; Pabón, M; García-Bocanegra, I; Dubey, J P; Almería, S

    2011-06-30

    Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were determined in serum samples from 47 grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and 56 harbor seals (Phoca vitulina vitulina) from the Atlantic coasts of United Kingdom and France. Antibodies to T. gondii assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT) were found in 14 (13.6%; IC(95%): 7.0-20.2) of 103 seals tested, with titres of 1:25 in 13 seals and 1:50 in 1 seal. Seroprevalence against T. gondii (MAT 1:25 or higher) was significantly higher in grey seals (23.4%) compared to harbor seals (5.4%). No significant differences were found between seroprevalence against T. gondii and sex, age or geographical locations. These results show natural exposure of European harbor and grey seals to T. gondii oocysts in the Atlantic Ocean. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first serological survey of T. gondii in European grey and harbor seals.

  7. Treating oilfield emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book is divided into the following sections: The Treating Problem of Oilfield Emulsion; The Theory of Emulsions; Emulsions and Production Practices; The Basic Principles of Treating; The Application of Heat in Treating; The Principles of Chemical Treating; Treating with Heater-Treaters; Automatic Central Oil-Treating Systems; Sampling Procedures; Testing for Sediment and Water; Treating Cost Records.

  8. Microsatellite and Mitochondrial DNA Study of Native Eastern European Cattle Populations: The Case of the Romanian Grey

    PubMed Central

    Cean, Ada; Cziszter, Ludovic Toma; Gavojdian, Dinu; Ivan, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The Eastern European Grey cattle are regarded as the direct descendants of the aurochs (Bos taurus primigenius). Nowadays in Romania, less than 100 Grey animals are being reared and included in the national gene reserve. We examined the genetic diversity among Romanian Grey, Brown, Spotted and Black and White cattle breeds, with a particular focus on Romanian Grey through the use of (i) 11 bovine specific microsatellite markers on 83 animals and (ii) 638 bp length of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region sequence data from a total of 81 animals. Both microsatellite and mtDNA analysis revealed a high level of genetic variation in the studied breeds. In Romanian Grey a total of 100 alleles were found, the mean number of observed alleles per locus was 9.091; the average observed heterozygosity was 0.940; the Wright’s fixation index (FIS) was negative (-0.189) and indicates that there is no inbreeding and no selection pressure. MtDNA analysis revealed 52 haplotypes with 67 variable sites among the Romanian cattle breeds without any insertion or deletion. Haplotype diversity was 0.980 ± 0.007 and ranged from 0.883 ± 0.056 (Brown) to 0.990 ± 0.028 (Spotted and Black and White). The highest genetic variability of the mtDNA was recorded in the Grey breed, where 18 haplotypes were identified. The most frequent mtDNA D-loop region belonged to T3 haplogroup (80.247%), which was found across all studied breeds, while T2 haplotypes (16.049%) was only found in Grey, Spotted and Black and White genotypes. The T1 haplotypes (3.704%) were found in the Grey and Spotted. The current results contribute to the general knowledge on genetic diversity found in Eastern European cattle breeds and could prove a valuable tool for the conservation efforts of animal genetic resources (FAnGR). PMID:26398563

  9. Grey Literature Searching for Health Sciences Systematic Reviews: A Prospective Study of Time Spent and Resources Utilized

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Ahlam A.; Ratajeski, Melissa A.; Bertolet, Marnie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify estimates of time taken to search grey literature in support of health sciences systematic reviews and to identify searcher or systematic review characteristics that may impact resource selection or time spent searching. Methods A survey was electronically distributed to searchers embarking on a new systematic review. Characteristics of the searcher and systematic review were collected along with time spent searching and what resources were searched. Time and resources were tabulated and resources were categorized as grey or non-grey. Data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results Out of 81 original respondents, 21% followed through with completion of the surveys in their entirety. The median time spent searching all resources was 471 minutes, and of those a median of 85 minutes were spent searching grey literature. The median number of resources used in a systematic review search was four and the median number of grey literature sources searched was two. The amount of time spent searching was influenced by whether the systematic review was grant funded. Additionally, the number of resources searched was impacted by institution type and whether systematic review training was received. Conclusions This study characterized the amount of time for conducting systematic review searches including searching the grey literature, in addition to the number and types of resources used. This may aid searchers in planning their time, along with providing benchmark information for future studies. This paper contributes by quantifying current grey literature search patterns and associating them with searcher and review characteristics. Further discussion and research into the search approach for grey literature in support of systematic reviews is encouraged. PMID:25914722

  10. Grey scale memory in an optically addressed spatial light modulator with a Lu(Pc)2 doped layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guéna, M.; Wu, Z. Y.; L'Her, M.; Pondaven, A.; Cadiou, C.

    1998-02-01

    An optically addressed spatial light modulator with electrolyte bisphtalocyanine of lutetium incorporated in the alignment layer is shown to be capable of memorizing a grey scale image. The relationship between the memorized grey scale and the illumination is shown. The temperature, the concentration of Lu(Pc)2 and the spontaneous polarization of liquid crystals are found to have the effect on the memorization rate.

  11. Microsatellite and Mitochondrial DNA Study of Native Eastern European Cattle Populations: The Case of the Romanian Grey.

    PubMed

    Ilie, Daniela Elena; Cean, Ada; Cziszter, Ludovic Toma; Gavojdian, Dinu; Ivan, Alexandra; Kusza, Szilvia

    2015-01-01

    The Eastern European Grey cattle are regarded as the direct descendants of the aurochs (Bos taurus primigenius). Nowadays in Romania, less than 100 Grey animals are being reared and included in the national gene reserve. We examined the genetic diversity among Romanian Grey, Brown, Spotted and Black and White cattle breeds, with a particular focus on Romanian Grey through the use of (i) 11 bovine specific microsatellite markers on 83 animals and (ii) 638 bp length of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region sequence data from a total of 81 animals. Both microsatellite and mtDNA analysis revealed a high level of genetic variation in the studied breeds. In Romanian Grey a total of 100 alleles were found, the mean number of observed alleles per locus was 9.091; the average observed heterozygosity was 0.940; the Wright's fixation index (FIS) was negative (-0.189) and indicates that there is no inbreeding and no selection pressure. MtDNA analysis revealed 52 haplotypes with 67 variable sites among the Romanian cattle breeds without any insertion or deletion. Haplotype diversity was 0.980 ± 0.007 and ranged from 0.883 ± 0.056 (Brown) to 0.990 ± 0.028 (Spotted and Black and White). The highest genetic variability of the mtDNA was recorded in the Grey breed, where 18 haplotypes were identified. The most frequent mtDNA D-loop region belonged to T3 haplogroup (80.247%), which was found across all studied breeds, while T2 haplotypes (16.049%) was only found in Grey, Spotted and Black and White genotypes. The T1 haplotypes (3.704%) were found in the Grey and Spotted. The current results contribute to the general knowledge on genetic diversity found in Eastern European cattle breeds and could prove a valuable tool for the conservation efforts of animal genetic resources (FAnGR). PMID:26398563

  12. Habitat use by the Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea) in eastern France.

    PubMed

    Boisteau, Benjamin; Marion, Loïc

    2007-08-01

    We analyzed the spatial relationship between the location and the size of the 69 Grey Heron colonies existing in 1994 in refuge areas in eastern France after recolonisation following the decline of the species in the 19(th) century. We used five variables describing the hydrographical network, which are known to play a part in the location of the colonies in this area. The results showed that the distribution of the breeding colonies was not governed by the same elements of the hydrographical network. Three local strategies of spatial utilization were observed: the first one privileged the large but not dense rivers; the second, the dense network of small rivers; and the third, the ponds that were more restricted geographically. The spatial organization of the hydrographical elements is thus very important in the distribution and the size of the Grey Heron colonies.

  13. Black hole physics and the universalities of superradiance and of grey-body radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffer, M.

    1995-01-01

    In this essay the authors compare the response of a black hole to incoming radiation to that of a system consisting of a hot source hidden behind a semi-transparent mirror, and the two happen to agree. Then, they display a thermodynamical proof showing that this agreement is not incidental: it is a universal feature of an ideal grey body. As a by-product of this argument the universality of superradiance emerges: absorptive media in rotation, instead of damping incoming radiation, are responsible for its amplification for all superradiant modes. The main conclusion here is that the black hole response to incoming radiation and superandiance are not features that arise because black holes are {open_quotes}exceptional{close_quotes} systems but, on the contrary, because they are very {open_quotes}ordinary{close_quotes} in the sense that they fall into the category of ideal grey bodies.

  14. Effect of hunting on annual survival of grey ducks in New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, R.J.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    We used band recovery data from grey ducks (Anas superciliosa) banded in New Zealand between 1957 and 1974 to test 2 null hypotheses: (1) hunting mortality is completely additive to natural sources of mortality, and (2) hunting mortality is completely compensated by changes in natural mortality. We modeled annual survival as a function of survival in the absence of hunting and the probability of death from hunting. The complete compensation hypothesis was rejected, but we were unable to reject the completely additive hypothesis. There was no evidence of sex- or age-specificity for the relationship between kill rate and annual survival rate. We used simulated data to evaluate model performance. Parameter estimates were unbiased despite the inclusion of estimates that lay outside the bounds of the parameter space, although model-based variance estimates were consistently less than empirical variances. Our results imply that harvest-restrictions may be useful in effecting change in annual survival rates of grey ducks.

  15. Impact-characterisation for a grey water footprint - a discussion of two new approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörtenhuber, Stefan; Weißhaidinger, Rainer; Lindenthal, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Based on the water footprint concept of the Water Footprint Network (see e.g. Hoekstra et al., 2011), an increasing number of studies regarding virtual water or water footprints include so-called "grey water", i.e. an amount of dilution water needed to assimilate pollutions in freshwater. The inclusion of grey water into water footprints offers to aggregate freshwater consumption (blue water) and reduced water quality (grey water) at the inventory level by a common unit (litres or cubic metres of water). For "blue water", i.e. surface and groundwater which is consumed during production processes, Pfister et al. (2009) developed regional characterisation factors (a "water stress index", WSI), which include an impact weighting for a regional water consumption. Analogous, grey water may be characterised by a regionally varying "water quality stress" with two approaches: (A) as a function of regional concentrations of the substance that defines the grey water (e.g. nitrate) or (B) by precipitation, evapotranspiration water and groundwater recharge amounts. We chose each two exemplary wheat production systems (PS; organic and conventional) in two different Austrian regions to represent the effect of the two proposed approaches. Assumptions concerning the four PS' wheat yields, precipitation, evapotranspiration, nitrogen application and regional groundwater concentrations were taken from literature and statistics (e.g. Statistics Austria, 2011; BMLFUW, 2006). Nitrate was identified to represent the most critical substance in Austrian water bodies (Austrian Environment Agency, 2007), defining the grey water demand. The rates for leached nitrate were derived from Kolbe (2002). Nitrate leaching was estimated for 12.92 and 28.50 kg NO3-N ha-1 year-1 for the organic and the conventional systems, respectively. The characterisation factors for the two approaches are calculated by: (A) for a catchment area-based approach, a regional background concentration for the most relevant

  16. Microstructure Formation and Fracturing Characteristics of Grey Cast Iron Repaired Using Laser

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dan; Shi, Yongjun

    2014-01-01

    The repairing technology based on laser rapid fusion is becoming an important tool for fixing grey cast iron equipment efficiently. A laser repairing protocol was developed using Fe-based alloy powders as material. The microstructure and fracturing feature of the repaired zone (RZ) were analyzed. The results showed that regionally organized RZ with good density and reliable metallurgical bond can be achieved by laser repairing. At the bottom of RZ, dendrites existed in similar direction and extended to the secondary RZ, making the grains grow extensively with inheritance with isometric grains closer to the surface substrate. The strength of the grey cast iron base material was maintained by laser repairing. The base material and RZ were combined with robust strength and fracture resistance. The prevention and deflection of cracking process were analyzed using a cracking process model and showed that the overall crack toughness of the materials increased. PMID:25032230

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus).

    PubMed

    Dodt, William G; McComish, Bennet J; Nilsson, Maria A; Gibb, Gillian C; Penny, David; Phillips, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    We present the complete mitochondrial genome (accession number: LK995454) of an iconic Australian species, the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). The mitogenomic organization is consistent with other marsupials, encoding 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, an origin of light strand replication and a control region or D-loop. No repetitive sequences were detected in the control region. The M. giganteus mitogenome exemplifies a combination of tRNA gene order and structural peculiarities that appear to be unique to marsupials. We present a maximum likelihood phylogeny based on complete mitochondrial protein and RNA coding sequences that confirms the phylogenetic position of the grey kangaroo among macropodids.

  18. Improved segmentation of deep brain grey matter structures using magnetization transfer (MT) parameter maps

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Gunther; Draganski, Bogdan; Frackowiak, Richard; Ashburner, John; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2009-01-01

    Basal ganglia and brain stem nuclei are involved in the pathophysiology of various neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Currently available structural T1-weighted (T1w) magnetic resonance images do not provide sufficient contrast for reliable automated segmentation of various subcortical grey matter structures. We use a novel, semi-quantitative magnetization transfer (MT) imaging protocol that overcomes limitations in T1w images, which are mainly due to their sensitivity to the high iron content in subcortical grey matter. We demonstrate improved automated segmentation of putamen, pallidum, pulvinar and substantia nigra using MT images. A comparison with segmentation of high-quality T1w images was performed in 49 healthy subjects. Our results show that MT maps are highly suitable for automated segmentation, and so for multi-subject morphometric studies with a focus on subcortical structures. PMID:19344771

  19. Conjunctival flora of healthy and diseased eyes of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus): implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Fleming, M; Bexton, S

    2016-07-23

    Ocular pathology is relatively common in stranded seals admitted to wildlife rehabilitation hospitals. Some have pre-existing problems, while others develop eye problems in captivity, and in particular ulcerative keratitis, due to factors such as large prominent eyes, suboptimal water quality, trauma and infighting. Despite treatment, corneal ulcerations can rapidly progress to 'melting' ulcers with subsequent rupture of the globe. In this case series, 32 grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) had conjunctival swabs taken on admission to a UK wildlife hospital to identify ocular bacterial flora and nine had subsequent swabs taken after four weeks to see if this changed in captivity. Additionally, nine seals with ocular pathology were also swabbed. Although a wide range of bacteria were cultured on admission, the most common isolates were Gemella haemolysans, Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens All 'melting' ulcers were associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which suggests this bacterial species may be significant in the pathogenesis of progressive stromal ulceration in grey seals. PMID:27188623

  20. Preconditioning with ethyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate augments aerobic respiration in rat skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Nimker, Charu; Singh, Deependra Pratap; Saraswat, Deepika; Bansal, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Muscle respiratory capacity decides the amount of exertion one’s skeletal muscle can undergo, and endurance exercise is believed to increase it. There are also certain preconditioning methods by which muscle respiratory and exercise performance can be enhanced. In this study, preconditioning with ethyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (EDHB), a prolyl hydroxylase domain enzyme inhibitor, has been investigated to determine its effect on aerobic metabolism and bioenergetics in skeletal muscle, thus facilitating boost in physical performance in a rat model. We observed that EDHB supplementation increases aerobic metabolism via upregulation of HIF-mediated GLUT1 and GLUT4, thus enhancing glucose uptake in muscles. There was also a twofold rise in the activity of enzymes of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and glycolysis, ie, hexokinase and phosphofructokinase. There was an increase in citrate synthase and succinate dehydrogenase activity, resulting in the rise in the levels of ATP due to enhanced Krebs cycle activity as substantiated by enhanced acetyl-CoA levels in EDHB-treated rats as compared to control group. Increased lactate dehydrogenase activity, reduced expression of monocarboxylate transporter 1, and increase in monocarboxylate transporter 4 suggest transport of lactate from muscle to blood. There was a concomitant decrease in plasma lactate, which might be due to enhanced transport of lactate from blood to the liver. This was further supported by the rise in liver pyruvate levels and liver glycogen levels in EDHB-supplemented rats as compared to control rats. These results suggest that EDHB supplementation leads to improved physical performance due to the escalation of aerobic respiration quotient, ie, enhanced muscle respiratory capacity. PMID:27800513

  1. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Enteric Gram Negative Facultative Anaerobe Bacilli in Aerobic versus Anaerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Amachawadi, Raghavendra G.; Renter, David G.; Volkova, Victoriya V.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial treatments result in the host’s enteric bacteria being exposed to the antimicrobials. Pharmacodynamic models can describe how this exposure affects the enteric bacteria and their antimicrobial resistance. The models utilize measurements of bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility traditionally obtained in vitro in aerobic conditions. However, in vivo enteric bacteria are exposed to antimicrobials in anaerobic conditions of the lower intestine. Some of enteric bacteria of food animals are potential foodborne pathogens, e.g., Gram-negative bacilli Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. These are facultative anaerobes; their physiology and growth rates change in anaerobic conditions. We hypothesized that their antimicrobial susceptibility also changes, and evaluated differences in the susceptibility in aerobic vs. anaerobic conditions of generic E. coli and Salmonella enterica of diverse serovars isolated from cattle feces. Susceptibility of an isolate was evaluated as its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measured by E-Test® following 24 hours of adaptation to the conditions on Mueller-Hinton agar, and on a more complex tryptic soy agar with 5% sheep blood (BAP) media. We considered all major antimicrobial drug classes used in the U.S. to treat cattle: β-lactams (specifically, ampicillin and ceftriaxone E-Test®), aminoglycosides (gentamicin and kanamycin), fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin), classical macrolides (erythromycin), azalides (azithromycin), sulfanomides (sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim), and tetracyclines (tetracycline). Statistical analyses were conducted for the isolates (n≥30) interpreted as susceptible to the antimicrobials based on the clinical breakpoint interpretation for human infection. Bacterial susceptibility to every antimicrobial tested was statistically significantly different in anaerobic vs. aerobic conditions on both media, except for no difference in susceptibility to ceftriaxone on BAP agar. A satellite experiment

  2. Synergistic mechanism for tetrandrine on fluconazole against Candida albicans through the mitochondrial aerobic respiratory metabolism pathway.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hui; Xie, Si Ming; Li, Shui Xiu; Song, Yan Jun; Lv, Xia Lin; Zhang, Hong

    2014-07-01

    We found that tetrandrine (TET) can reverse the resistance of Candida albicans to fluconazole (FLC) and that this interaction is associated with the inhibition of drug efflux pumps. Mitochondrial aerobic respiration, which plays a major role in C. albicans metabolism, is the primary source of ATP for cellular processes, including the activation of efflux pumps. However, it was unclear if TET exerts its synergistic action against C. albicans via its impact on the mitochondrial aerobic respiratory metabolism. To investigate this mechanism, we examined the impact of FLC in the presence or absence of TET on two C. albicans strains obtained from a single parental source (FLC-sensitive strain CA-1 and FLC-resistant strain CA-16). We analysed key measures of energy generation and conversion, including the activity of respiration chain complexes I and III (CI and CIII), ATP synthase (CV) activity, and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and studied intracellular ATP levels and the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), which has a critical impact on energy transport. Mitochondrial morphology was observed by confocal microscopy. Our functional analyses revealed that, compared with strains treated only with FLC, TET+FLC increased the ATP levels and decreased ΔΨm in CA-1, but decreased ATP levels and increased ΔΨm in CA-16 (P<0.05). Additionally, CI, CIII and CV activity decreased by 23-48%. The production of ROS increased by two- to threefold and mitochondrial morphology was altered in both strains. Our data suggested that TET impacted mitochondrial aerobic respiratory metabolism by influencing the generation and transport of ATP, reducing the utilization of ATP, and resulting in the inhibition of drug efflux pump activity. This activity contributed to the synergistic action of TET on FLC against C. albicans. PMID:24790082

  3. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Enteric Gram Negative Facultative Anaerobe Bacilli in Aerobic versus Anaerobic Conditions.

    PubMed

    DeMars, Zachary; Biswas, Silpak; Amachawadi, Raghavendra G; Renter, David G; Volkova, Victoriya V

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial treatments result in the host's enteric bacteria being exposed to the antimicrobials. Pharmacodynamic models can describe how this exposure affects the enteric bacteria and their antimicrobial resistance. The models utilize measurements of bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility traditionally obtained in vitro in aerobic conditions. However, in vivo enteric bacteria are exposed to antimicrobials in anaerobic conditions of the lower intestine. Some of enteric bacteria of food animals are potential foodborne pathogens, e.g., Gram-negative bacilli Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. These are facultative anaerobes; their physiology and growth rates change in anaerobic conditions. We hypothesized that their antimicrobial susceptibility also changes, and evaluated differences in the susceptibility in aerobic vs. anaerobic conditions of generic E. coli and Salmonella enterica of diverse serovars isolated from cattle feces. Susceptibility of an isolate was evaluated as its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measured by E-Test® following 24 hours of adaptation to the conditions on Mueller-Hinton agar, and on a more complex tryptic soy agar with 5% sheep blood (BAP) media. We considered all major antimicrobial drug classes used in the U.S. to treat cattle: β-lactams (specifically, ampicillin and ceftriaxone E-Test®), aminoglycosides (gentamicin and kanamycin), fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin), classical macrolides (erythromycin), azalides (azithromycin), sulfanomides (sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim), and tetracyclines (tetracycline). Statistical analyses were conducted for the isolates (n≥30) interpreted as susceptible to the antimicrobials based on the clinical breakpoint interpretation for human infection. Bacterial susceptibility to every antimicrobial tested was statistically significantly different in anaerobic vs. aerobic conditions on both media, except for no difference in susceptibility to ceftriaxone on BAP agar. A satellite experiment

  4. Grey and white matter changes across the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-frontotemporal dementia continuum.

    PubMed

    Lillo, Patricia; Mioshi, Eneida; Burrell, James R; Kiernan, Matthew C; Hodges, John R; Hornberger, Michael

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) lie on a clinical, pathological and genetic continuum with patients of one disease exhibiting features of the other. Nevertheless, to date, the underlying grey matter and white matter changes across the ALS-FTD disease continuum have not been explored. In this study fifty-three participants with ALS (n = 10), ALS-FTD (n = 10) and behavioural variant FTD (bvFTD; n = 15) as well as controls (n = 18), underwent detailed clinical assessment plus structural imaging using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis of magnetic resonance brain imaging to examine grey and white matter differences and commonalities across the continuum. Importantly, patient groups were matched for age, education, gender and disease duration. VBM and DTI results showed that changes in the ALS group were confined mainly to the motor cortex and anterior cingulate as well as their underlying white matter tracts. ALS-FTD and bvFTD showed widespread grey matter and white matter changes involving frontal and temporal lobes. Extensive prefrontal cortex changes emerged as a marker for bvFTD compared to other subtypes, while ALS-FTD could be distinguished from ALS by additional temporal lobe grey and white matter changes. Finally, ALS could be mainly distinguished from the other two groups by corticospinal tract degeneration. The present study shows for the first time that FTD and ALS overlap in anterior cingulate, motor cortex and related white matter tract changes across the whole continuum. Nevertheless, frontal and temporal atrophy as well as corticospinal tract degeneration emerged as marker for subtype classification, which will inform future diagnosis and target disease management across the continuum.

  5. Specialization for aggression in sexually dimorphic skeletal morphology in grey wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Morris, Jeremy S; Brandt, Ellissa K

    2014-07-01

    Aggressive behaviour is important in the life history of many animals. In grey wolves (Canis lupus), territory defence through direct competition with conspecifics is severe and often lethal. Thus, performance in aggressive encounters may be under strong selection. Additionally, grey wolves frequently kill large dangerous prey species. Because both sexes actively participate in aggressive activities and prey capture, wolves are expected to exhibit a low level of musculoskeletal sexual dimorphism. However, male wolves more often lead in agonistic encounters with conspecifics and must provision the nursing female during the pup-rearing period of the breeding season. These behaviours may select for males that exhibit a higher degree of morphological adaptation associated with aggression and prey capture performance. To test this prediction, we assessed skeletal sexual dimorphism in three subspecies of grey wolves using functional indices reflecting morphological specialization for aggression. As expected, sexual dimorphism in skeletal shape was limited. However, in two of three subspecies, we found sexually dimorphic traits in the skull, forelimbs and hindlimbs that are consistent with the hypothesis that males are more specialized for aggression. These characters may also be associated with selection for improved prey capture performance by males. Thus, the sexually dimorphic functional traits identified by our analysis may be adaptive in the contexts of both natural and sexual selection. Several of these traits may conflict with locomotor economy, indicating the importance of aggression in the life history of male grey wolves. The presence of functional specialization for aggression in a generally monogamous species indicates that sexual dimorphism in specific musculoskeletal traits may be widespread among mammals. PMID:24810384

  6. Specialization for aggression in sexually dimorphic skeletal morphology in grey wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Morris, Jeremy S; Brandt, Ellissa K

    2014-07-01

    Aggressive behaviour is important in the life history of many animals. In grey wolves (Canis lupus), territory defence through direct competition with conspecifics is severe and often lethal. Thus, performance in aggressive encounters may be under strong selection. Additionally, grey wolves frequently kill large dangerous prey species. Because both sexes actively participate in aggressive activities and prey capture, wolves are expected to exhibit a low level of musculoskeletal sexual dimorphism. However, male wolves more often lead in agonistic encounters with conspecifics and must provision the nursing female during the pup-rearing period of the breeding season. These behaviours may select for males that exhibit a higher degree of morphological adaptation associated with aggression and prey capture performance. To test this prediction, we assessed skeletal sexual dimorphism in three subspecies of grey wolves using functional indices reflecting morphological specialization for aggression. As expected, sexual dimorphism in skeletal shape was limited. However, in two of three subspecies, we found sexually dimorphic traits in the skull, forelimbs and hindlimbs that are consistent with the hypothesis that males are more specialized for aggression. These characters may also be associated with selection for improved prey capture performance by males. Thus, the sexually dimorphic functional traits identified by our analysis may be adaptive in the contexts of both natural and sexual selection. Several of these traits may conflict with locomotor economy, indicating the importance of aggression in the life history of male grey wolves. The presence of functional specialization for aggression in a generally monogamous species indicates that sexual dimorphism in specific musculoskeletal traits may be widespread among mammals.

  7. Forecasting of municipal solid waste quantity in a developing country using multivariate grey models

    SciTech Connect

    Intharathirat, Rotchana; Abdul Salam, P.; Kumar, S.; Untong, Akarapong

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Grey model can be used to forecast MSW quantity accurately with the limited data. • Prediction interval overcomes the uncertainty of MSW forecast effectively. • A multivariate model gives accuracy associated with factors affecting MSW quantity. • Population, urbanization, employment and household size play role for MSW quantity. - Abstract: In order to plan, manage and use municipal solid waste (MSW) in a sustainable way, accurate forecasting of MSW generation and composition plays a key role. It is difficult to carry out the reliable estimates using the existing models due to the limited data available in the developing countries. This study aims to forecast MSW collected in Thailand with prediction interval in long term period by using the optimized multivariate grey model which is the mathematical approach. For multivariate models, the representative factors of residential and commercial sectors affecting waste collected are identified, classified and quantified based on statistics and mathematics of grey system theory. Results show that GMC (1, 5), the grey model with convolution integral, is the most accurate with the least error of 1.16% MAPE. MSW collected would increase 1.40% per year from 43,435–44,994 tonnes per day in 2013 to 55,177–56,735 tonnes per day in 2030. This model also illustrates that population density is the most important factor affecting MSW collected, followed by urbanization, proportion employment and household size, respectively. These mean that the representative factors of commercial sector may affect more MSW collected than that of residential sector. Results can help decision makers to develop the measures and policies of waste management in long term period.

  8. Retroperitoneal Haematom due to Spontaneous Rupture and Haemorrhage of Adrenal Cyst Presenting with Grey Turner's Sign.

    PubMed

    Sonmez, Bedriye Muge; Yilmaz, Fevzi; Özkan, Fevzi Bircan; Ongar, Murat; Özturk, Derya; Cesur, Fatma

    2015-07-01

    Spontaneous retroperitoneal haemorrhage is a rare entity and a potentially life-threatening condition. A 41-year-old woman presented to our emergency department with left flank pain and dysuria. Her physical examination disclosed left abdominal and costovertebral angle tenderness, left flank ecchymosis (Grey Turner sign). Abdominal computerised tomography revealed spontaneous retroperitoneal haemorrhage. She was discharged after 10 days with recommendation of urology follow-up.

  9. The hypothermic action of carbachol in the rat brain periaqueductal grey area may involve neurotensin.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, E. C.; Slater, P.; Widdowson, P. S.

    1986-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT) and carbachol both caused hypothermia when injected into the periaqueductal grey area (PAG) of rat brain. Atropine prevented carbachol- but not NT-induced hypothermia. NT-induced hypothermia was unaffected by various neurotransmitter agonists and antagonists in the PAG. Both NT antibodies and thyrotrophin releasing hormone prevented carbachol hypothermia. It is concluded that the hypothermic action of carbachol in the PAG is mediated via endogenous NT. PMID:3742153

  10. Polymorphisms of caprine GDF9 gene and their association with litter size in Jining Grey goats.

    PubMed

    Feng, T; Geng, C X; Lang, X Z; Chu, M X; Cao, G L; Di, R; Fang, L; Chen, H Q; Liu, X L; Li, N

    2011-11-01

    The exons 1, 2 and flanking region of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) gene in five randomly selected does of Jining Grey, Boer and Liaoning Cashmere goats were amplified and analyzed. Thirteen nucleotide differences were identified in GDF9 gene between sheep (AF078545) and goats. Four SNPs (G3288A in intron 1, G423A, A959C [Gln320Pro] and G1189A [Val397Ile] in exon 2) were detected in four goat breeds with different prolificacy, in which G3288A was a new SNP in goats. The results showed that loci 3288, 423 and 1189 in Boer goats, loci 3288 and 423 in Guizhou White goats, loci 423 and 1189 in Liaoning Cashmere goats were all in complete linkage disequilibrium (D' = 1, r (2) = 1), respectively. In moderate (Boer goat) and low prolificacy (Liaoning Cashmere goat) breeds, linkage analysis indicated that there were more fervent linkage disequilibrium among loci 3288, 423 and 1189 than high prolificacy (Jining Grey and Guizhou White goats) breeds. For the 959 locus, the genotype distribution showed obvious difference between high prolificacy breeds and moderate or low prolificacy breeds (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The Jining Grey goat does with genotype CC or AC had 0.81 (P < 0.01) or 0.63 (P < 0.01) kids more than those with genotype AA, respectively. The present study preliminarily showed an association between allele C at 959 locus of GDF9 gene and high litter size in Jining Grey goats. These results provide further evidence that the GDF9 gene may be significantly correlated with high prolificacy in goats.

  11. Anatomical likelihood estimation meta-analysis of grey and white matter anomalies in autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    DeRamus, Thomas P.; Kana, Rajesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairments in social communication and restrictive, repetitive behaviors. While behavioral symptoms are well-documented, investigations into the neurobiological underpinnings of ASD have not resulted in firm biomarkers. Variability in findings across structural neuroimaging studies has contributed to difficulty in reliably characterizing the brain morphology of individuals with ASD. These inconsistencies may also arise from the heterogeneity of ASD, and wider age-range of participants included in MRI studies and in previous meta-analyses. To address this, the current study used coordinate-based anatomical likelihood estimation (ALE) analysis of 21 voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies examining high-functioning individuals with ASD, resulting in a meta-analysis of 1055 participants (506 ASD, and 549 typically developing individuals). Results consisted of grey, white, and global differences in cortical matter between the groups. Modeled anatomical maps consisting of concentration, thickness, and volume metrics of grey and white matter revealed clusters suggesting age-related decreases in grey and white matter in parietal and inferior temporal regions of the brain in ASD, and age-related increases in grey matter in frontal and anterior-temporal regions. White matter alterations included fiber tracts thought to play key roles in information processing and sensory integration. Many current theories of pathobiology ASD suggest that the brains of individuals with ASD may have less-functional long-range (anterior-to-posterior) connections. Our findings of decreased cortical matter in parietal–temporal and occipital regions, and thickening in frontal cortices in older adults with ASD may entail altered cortical anatomy, and neurodevelopmental adaptations. PMID:25844306

  12. Specialization for aggression in sexually dimorphic skeletal morphology in grey wolves (Canis lupus)

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Jeremy S; Brandt, Ellissa K

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behaviour is important in the life history of many animals. In grey wolves (Canis lupus), territory defence through direct competition with conspecifics is severe and often lethal. Thus, performance in aggressive encounters may be under strong selection. Additionally, grey wolves frequently kill large dangerous prey species. Because both sexes actively participate in aggressive activities and prey capture, wolves are expected to exhibit a low level of musculoskeletal sexual dimorphism. However, male wolves more often lead in agonistic encounters with conspecifics and must provision the nursing female during the pup-rearing period of the breeding season. These behaviours may select for males that exhibit a higher degree of morphological adaptation associated with aggression and prey capture performance. To test this prediction, we assessed skeletal sexual dimorphism in three subspecies of grey wolves using functional indices reflecting morphological specialization for aggression. As expected, sexual dimorphism in skeletal shape was limited. However, in two of three subspecies, we found sexually dimorphic traits in the skull, forelimbs and hindlimbs that are consistent with the hypothesis that males are more specialized for aggression. These characters may also be associated with selection for improved prey capture performance by males. Thus, the sexually dimorphic functional traits identified by our analysis may be adaptive in the contexts of both natural and sexual selection. Several of these traits may conflict with locomotor economy, indicating the importance of aggression in the life history of male grey wolves. The presence of functional specialization for aggression in a generally monogamous species indicates that sexual dimorphism in specific musculoskeletal traits may be widespread among mammals. PMID:24810384

  13. Summary report on the aerobic degradation of diesel fuel and the degradation of toluene under aerobic, denitrifying and sulfate reducing conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Coyne, P.; Smith, G.

    1995-08-15

    This report contains a number of studies that were performed to better understand the technology of the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Topics of investigation include the following: diesel fuel degradation by Rhodococcus erythropolis; BTEX degradation by soil isolates; aerobic degradation of diesel fuel-respirometry; aerobic degradation of diesel fuel-shake culture; aerobic toluene degradation by A3; effect of HEPES, B1, and myo-inositol addition on the growth of A3; aerobic and anaerobic toluene degradation by contaminated soils; denitrifying bacteria MPNs; sulfate-reducing bacteria MPNs; and aerobic, DNB and SRB enrichments.

  14. Method for treating wastewater using microorganisms and vascular aquatic plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method for treating wastewater compresses subjecting the wastewater to an anaerobic setting step for at least 6 hours and passing the liquid effluent from the anaerobic settling step through a filter cell in an upflow manner. There the effluent is subjected first to the action of anaerobic and facultative microorganisms, and then to the action of aerobic microorganisms and the roots of at least one vascular aquatic plant.

  15. Comparison of Aerobic and Anaerobic Biodegradation of Sugarcane Vinasse.

    PubMed

    Mota, V T; Araújo, T A; Amaral, M C S

    2015-07-01

    Vinasse is the main liquid waste from ethanol production, and it has a considerable pollution potential. Biological treatment is a promising alternative to reduce its organic load. The aim of this study was to analyze the biodegradation of sugarcane juice vinasse in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The content of carbohydrates, proteins and volatile fatty acids was evaluated. Vinasse samples showed a high biodegradability (>96.5 %) and low percentage of inert chemical oxygen demand (COD) (<3.2 %) in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The rates of substrate utilization were slightly higher in aerobic reactors, but COD stabilization occurred simultaneously in the anaerobic reactors, confirming its suitability for anaerobic digestion. Inert COD in anaerobic conditions was lower than in aerobic conditions. On the other hand, COD from metabolic products in the anaerobic reactors was higher than in the aerobic ones, indicating an increased release of soluble microbial products (SMPs) by anaerobic microorganisms. The results indicated that carbohydrates were satisfactorily degraded and protein-like substances were the major components remaining after biological degradation of vinasse. PMID:25957273

  16. Aerobic Denitrifying Bacteria That Produce Low Levels of Nitrous Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Takaya, Naoki; Catalan-Sakairi, Maria Antonina B.; Sakaguchi, Yasushi; Kato, Isao; Zhou, Zhemin; Shoun, Hirofumi

    2003-01-01

    Most denitrifiers produce nitrous oxide (N2O) instead of dinitrogen (N2) under aerobic conditions. We isolated and characterized novel aerobic denitrifiers that produce low levels of N2O under aerobic conditions. We monitored the denitrification activities of two of the isolates, strains TR2 and K50, in batch and continuous cultures. Both strains reduced nitrate (NO3−) to N2 at rates of 0.9 and 0.03 μmol min−1 unit of optical density at 540 nm−1 at dissolved oxygen (O2) (DO) concentrations of 39 and 38 μmol liter−1, respectively. At the same DO level, the typical denitrifier Pseudomonas stutzeri and the previously described aerobic denitrifier Paracoccus denitrificans did not produce N2 but evolved more than 10-fold more N2O than strains TR2 and K50 evolved. The isolates denitrified NO3− with concomitant consumption of O2. These results indicated that strains TR2 and K50 are aerobic denitrifiers. These two isolates were taxonomically placed in the β subclass of the class Proteobacteria and were identified as P. stutzeri TR2 and Pseudomonas sp. strain K50. These strains should be useful for future investigations of the mechanisms of denitrifying bacteria that regulate N2O emission, the single-stage process for nitrogen removal, and microbial N2O emission into the ecosystem. PMID:12788710

  17. Aerobic Activity in Prevention & Symptom Control of Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Semanik, Pamela; Chang, Rowland W.; Dunlop, Dorothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Almost 27 million US adults suffer from some form of osteoarthritis (OA). An epidemic of arthritis-associated disability is expected in the US over the next 2 decades, largely fueled by the aging population and the tremendous growth in the prevalence of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Regular physical activity (PA), particularly strengthening and aerobic activity, can reduce pain and improve function and health status among patients with knee and hip osteoarthritis. The focus of this review is to examine the impact of aerobic activity on OA progression and symptom control. In general, both strengthening and aerobic exercise are associated with improvements in pain, perceived physical function, and performance measures for those with lower limb OA; although comparisons of strengthening versus aerobic exercise on these outcomes is unusual. Structural disease progression in persons with established OA has been directly evaluated by a limited number of PA clinical trials in knee OA, but these protocols focused on strength training exclusively. In healthy subjects, it appears that overall PA is beneficial, rather than detrimental, to knee joint health. Possibly the most important reason for engaging in PA is to prevent obesity, which has independently been associated with many serious chronic diseases, including OA incidence and progression. More research is needed to determine the optimal types and dosing of aerobic conditioning. PMID:22632701

  18. [EPIDEMIOLOGICAL, CLINICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN WOMEN WITH AEROBIC VAGINITIS].

    PubMed

    Dermendjiev, T; Pehlivanov, B; Hadjieva, K; Stanev, S

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is an alterarion of the normal lactobacillic flora accompanied by signs of inflammation, presence of mainly aerobic microorganisms from intestinal commensals or other aerobic pathogens. Clinical symptoms may vary by type and intensity and are marked by a high tendency for recurrence and chronification. Inflammation and ulcerations in AV could increase the risk of contracting HIV or other sexually transmitted infections. The aim is to study some epidemiological, clinical and microbiological features of the aerobic vaginitis in patients of the specialized Obstetric and Gynecological Clinic in Plovdiv, Bulgaria. In a retrospective research 4687 vaginal smears have been gathered in Microbiological laboratory at "St. George" Hospital - Plovdiv. We used clinical, microbiological and statistical methods. Information processing is performed by variation, alternative, correlation and graphical analysis using specialized package SPSS v13.0. The overall prevalence rate of AV in the studied population is 11.77%. The levels of prevalence of AV in pregnant and non-pregnant women are respectively 13.08% and 4.34%. The highest frequency of AV is in the age group 21-30 years (32.3%). The results show a marked association between Escherichia coli and the cases of AV (p < 0.001). AV is a common cause of vaginal symptoms in patients of specialized ambulatory outpatient. One in ten women with vaginal complaints suffers from AV Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli are most often isolated aerobic microorganisms. PMID:26863788

  19. Aerobic activity in prevention and symptom control of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Semanik, Pamela A; Chang, Rowland W; Dunlop, Dorothy D

    2012-05-01

    Almost 27 million adults in the United States experience some form of osteoarthritis (OA). An epidemic of arthritis-associated disability is expected in the United States during the next 2 decades, largely fueled by the aging population and the tremendous growth in the prevalence of knee OA. Regular physical activity (PA), particularly strengthening and aerobic activity, can reduce pain and improve function and health status among patients with knee and hip OA. The focus of this review is on the impact of aerobic activity on the progression and symptom control of OA. In general, both strengthening and aerobic exercise are associated with improvements in pain, perceived physical function, and performance measures for persons with lower limb OA, although comparisons of strengthening versus aerobic exercise on these outcomes are unusual. Structural disease progression in persons with established OA has been directly evaluated by a limited number of PA clinical trials for persons with knee OA, but these protocols focused on strength training exclusively. In healthy subjects, it appears that overall PA is beneficial, rather than detrimental, to knee joint health. Possibly the most important reason for engaging in PA is to prevent obesity, which independently has been associated with many serious chronic diseases, including the incidence and progression of OA. More research is needed to determine the optimal types and dosing of aerobic conditioning.

  20. Grey matter connectivity within and between auditory, language and visual systems in prelingually deaf adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjing; Li, Jianhong; Wang, Zhenchang; Li, Yong; Liu, Zhaohui; Yan, Fei; Xian, Junfang; He, Huiguang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Previous studies have shown brain reorganizations after early deprivation of auditory sensory. However, changes of grey matter connectivity have not been investigated in prelingually deaf adolescents yet. In the present study, we aimed to investigate changes of grey matter connectivity within and between auditory, language and visual systems in prelingually deaf adolescents. Methods: We recruited 16 prelingually deaf adolescents and 16 age-and gender-matched normal controls, and extracted the grey matter volume as the structural characteristic from 14 regions of interest involved in auditory, language or visual processing to investigate the changes of grey matter connectivity within and between auditory, language and visual systems. Sparse inverse covariance estimation (SICE) was utilized to construct grey matter connectivity between these brain regions. Results: The results show that prelingually deaf adolescents present weaker grey matter connectivity within auditory and visual systems, and connectivity between language and visual systems declined. Notably, significantly increased brain connectivity was found between auditory and visual systems in prelingually deaf adolescents. Conclusions: Our results indicate “cross-modal” plasticity after deprivation of the auditory input in prelingually deaf adolescents, especially between auditory and visual systems. Besides, auditory deprivation and visual deficits might affect the connectivity pattern within language and visual systems in prelingually deaf adolescents. PMID:25698109

  1. Improved estimates for the role of grey matter volume and GABA in bistable perception.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Kristian; Blicher, Jakob Udby; Del Pin, Simon Hviid; Andersen, Lau Møller; Rees, Geraint; Kanai, Ryota

    2016-10-01

    Across a century or more, ambiguous stimuli have been studied scientifically because they provide a method for studying the internal mechanisms of the brain while ensuring an unchanging external stimulus. In recent years, several studies have reported correlations between perceptual dynamics during bistable perception and particular brain characteristics such as the grey matter volume of areas in the superior parietal lobule (SPL) and the relative GABA concentration in the occipital lobe. Here, we attempt to replicate previous results using similar paradigms to those used in the studies first reporting the correlations. Using the original findings as priors for Bayesian analyses, we found strong support for the correlation between structure-from-motion percept duration and anterior SPL grey matter volume. Correlations between percept duration and other parietal areas as well as occipital GABA, however, were not directly replicated or appeared less strong than previous studies suggested. Inspection of the posterior distributions (current "best guess" based on new data given old data as prior) revealed that several original findings may reflect true relationships although no direct evidence was found in support of them in the current sample. Additionally, we found that multiple regression models based on grey matter volume at 2-3 parietal locations (but not including GABA) were the best predictors of percept duration, explaining approximately 35% of the inter-individual variance. Taken together, our results provide new estimates of correlation strengths, generally increasing confidence in the role of the aSPL while decreasing confidence in some of the other relationships. PMID:27639213

  2. Age-induced hair greying - the multiple effects of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Seiberg, M

    2013-12-01

    An obvious sign of ageing is hair greying, or the loss of pigment production and deposition within the hair shafts. Numerous mechanisms, acting at different levels and follicular locations, contribute to hair greying, ranging from melanocyte stem cells defects to follicular melanocyte death. One key issue that is in common to these processes is oxidative damage. At the hair follicle stem cells niche, oxidative stress, accelerated by B-cell lymphoma 2 gene (BCL-2) depletion, leads to selective apoptosis and diminution of melanocyte stem cells, reducing the repopulation of newly formed anagen follicles. Melanotic bulbar melanocytes express high levels of BCL-2 to enable survival from melanogenesis- and ultraviolet A (UVA)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) attacks. With ageing, the bulbar melanocyte expression of anti-oxidant proteins such as BCL-2, and possibly TRP-2, is reduced, and the dedicated enzymatic anti-oxidant defence system throughout the follicle weakens, resulting in enhanced oxidative stress. A marked reduction in catalase expression and activity results in millimolar accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, contributing to bulbar melanocyte malfunction and death. Interestingly, amelanotic melanocytes at the outer root sheath (ORS) are somewhat less affected by these processes and survive for longer time even within the white, ageing hair follicles. Better understanding of the overtime susceptibility of melanocytes to oxidative stress at the different follicular locations might yield clues to possible therapies for the prevention and reversal of hair greying.

  3. The relation between 1st grade grey matter volume and 2nd grade math competence.

    PubMed

    Price, Gavin R; Wilkey, Eric D; Yeo, Darren J; Cutting, Laurie E

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical and numerical competence is a critical foundation for individual success in modern society yet the neurobiological sources of individual differences in math competence are poorly understood. Neuroimaging research over the last decade suggests that neural mechanisms in the parietal lobe, particularly the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) are structurally aberrant in individuals with mathematical learning disabilities. However, whether those same brain regions underlie individual differences in math performance across the full range of math abilities is unknown. Furthermore, previous studies have been exclusively cross-sectional, making it unclear whether variations in the structure of the IPS are caused by or consequences of the development of math skills. The present study investigates the relation between grey matter volume across the whole brain and math competence longitudinally in a representative sample of 50 elementary school children. Results show that grey matter volume in the left IPS at the end of 1st grade relates to math competence a year later at the end of 2nd grade. Grey matter volume in this region did not change over that year, and was still correlated with math competence at the end of 2nd grade. These findings support the hypothesis that the IPS and its associated functions represent a critical foundation for the acquisition of mathematical competence. PMID:26334946

  4. A geometric network model of intrinsic grey-matter connectivity of the human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Yi-Ping; O'Dea, Reuben; Crofts, Jonathan J.; Han, Cheol E.; Kaiser, Marcus

    2015-10-01

    Network science provides a general framework for analysing the large-scale brain networks that naturally arise from modern neuroimaging studies, and a key goal in theoretical neuroscience is to understand the extent to which these neural architectures influence the dynamical processes they sustain. To date, brain network modelling has largely been conducted at the macroscale level (i.e. white-matter tracts), despite growing evidence of the role that local grey matter architecture plays in a variety of brain disorders. Here, we present a new model of intrinsic grey matter connectivity of the human connectome. Importantly, the new model incorporates detailed information on cortical geometry to construct ‘shortcuts’ through the thickness of the cortex, thus enabling spatially distant brain regions, as measured along the cortical surface, to communicate. Our study indicates that structures based on human brain surface information differ significantly, both in terms of their topological network characteristics and activity propagation properties, when compared against a variety of alternative geometries and generative algorithms. In particular, this might help explain histological patterns of grey matter connectivity, highlighting that observed connection distances may have arisen to maximise information processing ability, and that such gains are consistent with (and enhanced by) the presence of short-cut connections.

  5. Connectivity in grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) determined using empirical and simulated genetic data

    PubMed Central

    Momigliano, Paolo; Harcourt, Robert; Robbins, William D.; Stow, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) can be one of the numerically dominant high order predators on pristine coral reefs, yet their numbers have declined even in the highly regulated Australian Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Marine Park. Knowledge of both large scale and fine scale genetic connectivity of grey reef sharks is essential for their effective management, but no genetic data are yet available. We investigated grey reef shark genetic structure in the GBR across a 1200 km latitudinal gradient, comparing empirical data with models simulating different levels of migration. The empirical data did not reveal any genetic structuring along the entire latitudinal gradient sampled, suggesting regular widespread dispersal and gene flow of the species throughout most of the GBR. Our simulated datasets indicate that even with substantial migrations (up to 25% of individuals migrating between neighboring reefs) both large scale genetic structure and genotypic spatial autocorrelation at the reef scale were maintained. We suggest that present migration rates therefore exceed this level. These findings have important implications regarding the effectiveness of networks of spatially discontinuous Marine Protected Areas to protect reef sharks. PMID:26314287

  6. Representation of the grey zone of turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honnert, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    Numerical weather prediction model forecasts at horizontal grid lengths in the range of 100 to 1 km are now possible. This range of scales is the "grey zone of turbulence". Previous studies, based on large-eddy simulation (LES) analysis from the MésoNH model, showed that some assumptions of some turbulence schemes on boundary-layer structures are not valid. Indeed, boundary-layer thermals are now partly resolved, and the subgrid remaining part of the thermals is possibly largely or completely absent from the model columns. First, some modifications of the equations of the shallow convection scheme have been tested in the MésoNH model and in an idealized version of the operational AROME model at resolutions coarser than 500 m. Secondly, although the turbulence is mainly vertical at mesoscale (> 2 km resolution), it is isotropic in LES (< 100 m resolution). It has been proved by LES analysis that, in convective boundary layers, the horizontal production of turbulence cannot be neglected at resolutions finer than half of the boundary-layer height. Thus, in the grey zone, fully unidirectional turbulence scheme should become tridirectional around 500 m resolution. At Météo-France, the dynamical turbulence is modelled by a K-gradient in LES as well as at mesoscale in both MésoNH and AROME, which needs mixing lengths in the formulation. Vertical and horizontal mixing lengths have been calculated from LES of neutral and convective cases at resolutions in the grey zone.

  7. The relation between 1st grade grey matter volume and 2nd grade math competence.

    PubMed

    Price, Gavin R; Wilkey, Eric D; Yeo, Darren J; Cutting, Laurie E

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical and numerical competence is a critical foundation for individual success in modern society yet the neurobiological sources of individual differences in math competence are poorly understood. Neuroimaging research over the last decade suggests that neural mechanisms in the parietal lobe, particularly the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) are structurally aberrant in individuals with mathematical learning disabilities. However, whether those same brain regions underlie individual differences in math performance across the full range of math abilities is unknown. Furthermore, previous studies have been exclusively cross-sectional, making it unclear whether variations in the structure of the IPS are caused by or consequences of the development of math skills. The present study investigates the relation between grey matter volume across the whole brain and math competence longitudinally in a representative sample of 50 elementary school children. Results show that grey matter volume in the left IPS at the end of 1st grade relates to math competence a year later at the end of 2nd grade. Grey matter volume in this region did not change over that year, and was still correlated with math competence at the end of 2nd grade. These findings support the hypothesis that the IPS and its associated functions represent a critical foundation for the acquisition of mathematical competence.

  8. Telomere regulation during ageing and tumorigenesis of the grey mouse lemur.

    PubMed

    Trochet, Delphine; Mergui, Xénia; Ivkovic, Ivana; Porreca, Rosa Maria; Gerbault-Seureau, Michèle; Sidibe, Assitan; Richard, Florence; Londono-Vallejo, Arturo; Perret, Martine; Aujard, Fabienne; Riou, Jean-François

    2015-06-01

    Telomere erosion leading to replicative senescence has been well documented in human and anthropoid primates, and provides a clue against tumorigenesis. In contrast, other mammals, such as laboratory mice, with short lifespan and low body weight mass have different telomere biology without replicative senescence. We analyzed telomere biology in the grey mouse lemur, a small prosimian model with a relative long lifespan currently used in ageing research. We report an average telomere length by telomere restriction fragment (TRF) among the longest reported so far for a primate species (25-30 kb), but without detectable overall telomere shortening with ageing on blood samples. However, we demonstrate using universal STELA (Single Telomere Length Amplification) the existence of short telomeres, the increase of which, while correlating with ageing might be related to another mechanism than replicative senescence. We also found a low stringency of telomerase restriction in tissues and an ease to immortalize fibroblasts in vitro upon spontaneous telomerase activation. Finally, we describe the first grey mouse lemur cancer cell line showing a dramatic telomere shortening and high telomerase activity associated with polyploidy. Our overall results suggest that telomere biology in grey mouse lemur is an exception among primates, with at best a physiologically limited replicative telomere ageing and closest to that observed in small rodents.

  9. A geometric network model of intrinsic grey-matter connectivity of the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Yi-Ping; O’Dea, Reuben; Crofts, Jonathan J.; Han, Cheol E.; Kaiser, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Network science provides a general framework for analysing the large-scale brain networks that naturally arise from modern neuroimaging studies, and a key goal in theoretical neuroscience is to understand the extent to which these neural architectures influence the dynamical processes they sustain. To date, brain network modelling has largely been conducted at the macroscale level (i.e. white-matter tracts), despite growing evidence of the role that local grey matter architecture plays in a variety of brain disorders. Here, we present a new model of intrinsic grey matter connectivity of the human connectome. Importantly, the new model incorporates detailed information on cortical geometry to construct ‘shortcuts’ through the thickness of the cortex, thus enabling spatially distant brain regions, as measured along the cortical surface, to communicate. Our study indicates that structures based on human brain surface information differ significantly, both in terms of their topological network characteristics and activity propagation properties, when compared against a variety of alternative geometries and generative algorithms. In particular, this might help explain histological patterns of grey matter connectivity, highlighting that observed connection distances may have arisen to maximise information processing ability, and that such gains are consistent with (and enhanced by) the presence of short-cut connections. PMID:26503036

  10. Multiresponse Optimization of Laser Cladding Steel + VC Using Grey Relational Analysis in the Taguchi Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhe; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2016-07-01

    Laser cladding of metal matrix composite coatings (MMCs) has become an effective and economic method to improve the wear resistance of mechanical components. The clad quality characteristics such as clad height, carbide fraction, carbide dissolution, and matrix hardness in MMCs determine the wear resistance of the coatings. These clad quality characteristics are influenced greatly by the laser cladding processing parameters. In this study, American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 420 + 20% vanadium carbide (VC) was deposited on mild steel with a high powder direct diode laser. The Taguchi-based Grey relational method was used to optimize the laser cladding processing parameters (laser power, scanning speed, and powder feed rate) with the consideration of multiple clad characteristics related to wear resistance (clad height, carbide volume fraction, and Fe-matrix hardness). A Taguchi L9 orthogonal array was designed to study the effects of processing parameters on each response. The contribution and significance of each processing parameter on each clad characteristic were investigated by the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The Grey relational grade acquired from Grey relational analysis was used as the performance characteristic to obtain the optimal combination of processing parameters. Based on the optimal processing parameters, the phases and microstructure of the laser-cladded coating were characterized by using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS).

  11. Forecasting of municipal solid waste quantity in a developing country using multivariate grey models.

    PubMed

    Intharathirat, Rotchana; Abdul Salam, P; Kumar, S; Untong, Akarapong

    2015-05-01

    In order to plan, manage and use municipal solid waste (MSW) in a sustainable way, accurate forecasting of MSW generation and composition plays a key role. It is difficult to carry out the reliable estimates using the existing models due to the limited data available in the developing countries. This study aims to forecast MSW collected in Thailand with prediction interval in long term period by using the optimized multivariate grey model which is the mathematical approach. For multivariate models, the representative factors of residential and commercial sectors affecting waste collected are identified, classified and quantified based on statistics and mathematics of grey system theory. Results show that GMC (1, 5), the grey model with convolution integral, is the most accurate with the least error of 1.16% MAPE. MSW collected would increase 1.40% per year from 43,435-44,994 tonnes per day in 2013 to 55,177-56,735 tonnes per day in 2030. This model also illustrates that population density is the most important factor affecting MSW collected, followed by urbanization, proportion employment and household size, respectively. These mean that the representative factors of commercial sector may affect more MSW collected than that of residential sector. Results can help decision makers to develop the measures and policies of waste management in long term period. PMID:25704925

  12. Forecasting sales of new vehicle with limited data using Bass diffusion model and Grey theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu, Noratikah; Ismail, Zuhaimy

    2015-02-01

    New product forecasting is a process that determines a reasonable estimate of sales attainable under a given set of conditions. There are several new products forecasting method in practices and Bass Diffusion Model (BDM) is one of the most common new product diffusion model used in many industries to forecast new product and technology. Hence, this paper proposed a combining BDM with Grey theory to forecast sales of new vehicle in Malaysia that certainly have limited data to build a model on. The aims of this paper is to examine the accuracy of different new product forecasting models and thus identify which is the best among the basic BDM and combining BDM with Grey theory. The results show that combining BDM with Grey theory performs better than the basic BDM based on in-sample and out-sample mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). Results also reveals combining model forecast more effectively and accurately even with insufficient previous data on the new vehicle in Malaysia.

  13. Grey-scale sonography and sonoelastography for diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Hideaki; Morizaki, Yutaka; Kashiyama, Takahiro; Tanaka, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common peripheral entrapment neuropathy of the median nerve at wrist level, and is thought to be caused by compression of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel. There is no standard quantitative reference for the diagnosis of CTS. Grey-scale sonography and sonoelastography (SEL) have been used as diagnostic tools. The most commonly agreed findings in grey-scale sonography for the diagnosis of CTS is enlargement of the median nerve cross-sectional area (CSA). Several authors have assessed additional parameters. “Delta CSA” is the difference between the proximal median nerve CSA at the pronator quadratus and the maximal CSA within the carpal tunnel. The “CSA ratio” is the ratio of CSA in the carpal tunnel to the CSA at the mid forearm. These additional parameters showed better diagnostic accuracy than CSA measurement alone. Recently, a number of studies have investigated the elasticity of the median nerve using SEL, and have shown that this also has diagnostic value, as it was significantly stiffer in CTS patients compared to healthy volunteers. In this review, we summarize the usefulness of grey-scale sonography and SEL in diagnosing CTS. PMID:27027498

  14. Connectivity in grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) determined using empirical and simulated genetic data.

    PubMed

    Momigliano, Paolo; Harcourt, Robert; Robbins, William D; Stow, Adam

    2015-08-28

    Grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) can be one of the numerically dominant high order predators on pristine coral reefs, yet their numbers have declined even in the highly regulated Australian Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Marine Park. Knowledge of both large scale and fine scale genetic connectivity of grey reef sharks is essential for their effective management, but no genetic data are yet available. We investigated grey reef shark genetic structure in the GBR across a 1200 km latitudinal gradient, comparing empirical data with models simulating different levels of migration. The empirical data did not reveal any genetic structuring along the entire latitudinal gradient sampled, suggesting regular widespread dispersal and gene flow of the species throughout most of the GBR. Our simulated datasets indicate that even with substantial migrations (up to 25% of individuals migrating between neighboring reefs) both large scale genetic structure and genotypic spatial autocorrelation at the reef scale were maintained. We suggest that present migration rates therefore exceed this level. These findings have important implications regarding the effectiveness of networks of spatially discontinuous Marine Protected Areas to protect reef sharks.

  15. A grey mullet enzyme displaying both lipase and phospholipase activities: purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Smichi, Nabil; Gargouri, Youssef; Miled, Nabil; Fendri, Ahmed

    2013-07-01

    A lipase from the golden grey mullet viscera was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration, anionic and cation exchange chromatographies. The pure enzyme tentatively named grey mullet digestive lipase (GmDL) is a monomer having a molecular mass of about 35 kDa, as determined by SDS-PAGE analysis. No similarity was found between the NH2-terminal amino acid residues of GmDL and those of other known digestive lipases. GmDL is a serine enzyme, like all known lipases from different origins. Interestingly, GmDL has not only lipase activity but also a phospholipase activity which requires the presence of Ca(2+) and bile salts. Specific activities of 64 U/mg, 55 U/mg and 63 U/mg were measured using tributyrin, olive oil emulsion or phosphatidylcholine as substrate, respectively at pH 8 and at 50°C. GmDL is therefore a thermo-active enzyme as compared to other fish lipases studied so far. It is worth to notice that grey mullet lipase was active in the presence of salt concentrations as high as 0.8M.

  16. Connectivity in grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) determined using empirical and simulated genetic data.

    PubMed

    Momigliano, Paolo; Harcourt, Robert; Robbins, William D; Stow, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) can be one of the numerically dominant high order predators on pristine coral reefs, yet their numbers have declined even in the highly regulated Australian Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Marine Park. Knowledge of both large scale and fine scale genetic connectivity of grey reef sharks is essential for their effective management, but no genetic data are yet available. We investigated grey reef shark genetic structure in the GBR across a 1200 km latitudinal gradient, comparing empirical data with models simulating different levels of migration. The empirical data did not reveal any genetic structuring along the entire latitudinal gradient sampled, suggesting regular widespread dispersal and gene flow of the species throughout most of the GBR. Our simulated datasets indicate that even with substantial migrations (up to 25% of individuals migrating between neighboring reefs) both large scale genetic structure and genotypic spatial autocorrelation at the reef scale were maintained. We suggest that present migration rates therefore exceed this level. These findings have important implications regarding the effectiveness of networks of spatially discontinuous Marine Protected Areas to protect reef sharks. PMID:26314287

  17. Auto-analysis system for graphite morphology of grey cast iron

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong; Tan, Yiyong; Lei, Junfeng; Zeng, Libo; Zhang, Zelan

    2003-01-01

    The current method to classify graphite morphology types of grey cast iron is based on traditional subjective observation, and it cannot be used for quantitative analysis. Since microstructures have a great effect on the mechanical properties of grey cast iron and different types have totally different characters, six types of grey cast iron are discussed and an image-processing software subsystem that performs the classification and quantitative analysis automatically based on a kind of composed feature vector and artificial neural network (ANN) is described. There are three kinds of texture features: fractal dimension, roughness and two-dimension autoregression, which are used as an extracted feature input vector of ANN classifier. Compared with using only one, the checkout correct precision increased greatly. On the other hand, to achieve the quantitative analysis and show the different types clearly, the region segmentation idea was applied to the system. The percentages of the regions with different type are reported correctly. Furthermore, this paper tentatively introduces a new empirical method to decide the number of ANN hidden nodes, which are usually considered as a difficulty in ANN structure decision. It was found that the optimum hidden node number of the experimental data was the same as that obtained using the new method. PMID:18924718

  18. Lack of evidence for co-speciation in a parasitic nematode of grey kangaroos.

    PubMed

    Chilton, N B; Morris, G M; Beveridge, I; Coulson, G

    2004-09-01

    Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis was used to compare specimens of the parasitic nematode Cloacina obtusa from the stomach of the eastern grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus and the western grey kangaroo, M. fuliginosus. Allelic variation among nematodes was detected at 17 (85%) of 20 loci, but there was only a single fixed genetic difference (at the locus for isocitrate dehydrogenase, IDH) between C. obtusa from M. fuliginosus and those from M. giganteus in areas where each host occurred in allopatry. However, this fixed difference was not apparent within the zone of host sympatry. Although electrophoretic data indicate genetic divergence among allopatric populations of C. obtusa in the two host species, the magnitude of the electrophoretic difference (5%) between these populations does not refute the hypothesis that C. obtusa represents a single species. The 'usual' situation for parasitic helminths of grey kangaroos is that pairs of parasite species occur in the two host species. This situation differs for C. obtusa, where there has been a lack of speciation following a speciation event in its macropodid marsupial hosts. This finding suggests that a speciation event in the host does not necessarily lead to a speciation event for all its parasites and further highlights our lack of understanding of which processes drive speciation in parasites.

  19. Immunocontraception of Eastern Grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) with recombinant brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) ZP3 protein.

    PubMed

    Kitchener, Anne L; Harman, Amanda; Kay, David J; McCartney, Carmen A; Mate, Karen E; Rodger, John C

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the potential of a recombinant marsupial zona pellucida 3 protein as a contraceptive vaccine for the Eastern Grey kangaroo, a marsupial that is locally overabundant in several regions of eastern Australia. First, a pilot study using porcine zona pellucidae (PZP) demonstrated that ZP proteins, primarily the ZP3 component of PZP, are highly immunogenic in the grey kangaroo and produce a long-lasting humoral response to a single immunisation, as found in other marsupials. Immunisation with 300 microg of a non-glycosylated recombinant brushtail possum ZP3 (recBP-ZP3) protein in complete Freund's adjuvant produced a similar, significant and sustained antibody response, and none of the immunised kangaroos (n=7) produced offspring during the following breeding season compared with four out of the six control animals. An epitope analysis of the B-cell response to recBP-ZP3 using a brushtail possum ZP3 identified numerous B-cell epitope regions clustered around the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein. Two regions of interest for further fertility vaccine development based on their immunogenicity and fertility trials and functional studies in other species were found to be immunogenic. These results suggest that immunocontraception based on targeting the ZP3 protein within the zona pellucida may be an effective strategy for fertility reduction in Eastern Grey kangaroos.

  20. Grey matter alterations in patients with depersonalization disorder: a voxel-based morphometry study

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Judith K.; Gaebler, Michael; Lamke, Jan-Peter; Walter, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Background To our knowledge, no whole brain investigation of morphological aberrations in dissociative disorder is available to date. Previous region-of-interest studies focused exclusively on amygdalar, hippocampal and parahippocampal grey matter volumes and did not include patients with depersonalization disorder (DPD). We therefore carried out an explorative whole brain study on structural brain aberrations in patients with DPD. Methods We acquired whole brain, structural MRI data for patients with DPD and healthy controls. Voxel-based morphometry was carried out to test for group differences, and correlations with symptom severity scores were computed for grey matter volume. Results Our study included 25 patients with DPD and 23 controls. Patients exhibited volume reductions in the right caudate, right thalamus and right cuneus as well as volume increases in the left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and right somatosensory region that are not a direct function of anxiety or depression symptoms. Limitations To ensure ecological validity, we included patients with comorbid disorders and patients taking psychotropic medication. Conclusion The results of this first whole brain investigation of grey matter volume in patients with a dissociative disorder indentified structural alterations in regions subserving the emergence of conscious perception. It remains unknown if these alterations are best understood as risk factors for or results of the disorder. PMID:25285875

  1. Audience effects on food caching in grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis): evidence for pilferage avoidance strategies.

    PubMed

    Leaver, Lisa A; Hopewell, Lucy; Caldwell, Christine; Mallarky, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    If food pilferage has been a reliable selection pressure on food caching animals, those animals should have evolved the ability to protect their caches from pilferers. Evidence that animals protect their caches would support the argument that pilferage has been an important adaptive challenge. We observed naturally caching Eastern grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) in order to determine whether they used any evasive tactics in order to deter conspecific and heterospecific pilferage. We found that grey squirrels used evasive tactics when they had a conspecific audience, but not when they had a heterospecific (corvid) audience. When other squirrels were present, grey squirrels spaced their caches farther apart and preferentially cached when oriented with their backs to other squirrels, but no such effect was found when birds were present. Our data provide the first evidence that caching mammals are sensitive to the risk of pilferage posed by an audience of conspecifics, and that they utilise evasive tactics that should help to minimise cache loss. We discuss our results in relation to recent theory of reciprocal pilferage and compare them to behaviours shown by caching birds.

  2. Molecular biomarkers in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) to evaluate pollutant exposure, health and immune status.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, K; Müller, S; Weirup, L; Ronnenberg, K; Pawliczka, I; Rosenberger, T; Siebert, U

    2014-11-15

    Grey seals as top-predators bioaccumulate contaminants and can be considered as sentinels of eco-system health. Pups are weaned after a short nursing period, characterised by an enormous lipid transfer and exposure to contaminants. This study established molecular biomarkers of the xenobiotic metabolism and immune system to help assess health and immune status. mRNA transcription of AHR, ARNT, PPARα and cytokine IL-2 and heat-shock-protein HSP70 was measured in blood of grey seal pups and adults in rehabilitation and permanent care using RT-qPCR and compared to rehabilitating harbour seal pups and haematology values. In pups highest levels at admission in xenobiotic biomarker, HSP70 and cytokine transcription may show contaminant exposure via lactation, stress during abandonment and dehydration. The significant decrease may be linked to diet, health improvement and adaptation. Adults showed higher levels and more variation in biomarker transcription and clear species-specific differences between harbour and grey seal pups were found. PMID:25220314

  3. The grey matter correlates of impaired decision-making in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Muhlert, Nils; Sethi, Varun; Cipolotti, Lisa; Haroon, Hamied; Parker, Geoff J M; Yousry, Tarek; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia; Miller, David; Ron, Maria; Chard, Declan

    2015-01-01

    Objective People with multiple sclerosis (MS) have difficulties with decision-making but it is unclear if this is due to changes in impulsivity, risk taking, deliberation or risk adjustment, and how this relates to brain pathology. Methods We assessed these aspects of decision-making in 105 people with MS and 43 healthy controls. We used a novel diffusion MRI method, diffusion orientational complexity (DOC), as an index of grey matter pathology in regions associated with decision-making and also measured grey matter tissue volumes and white matter lesion volumes. Results People with MS showed less adjustment to risk and slower decision-making than controls. Moreover, impaired decision-making correlated with reduced executive function, memory and processing speed. Decision-making impairments were most prevalent in people with secondary progressive MS. They were seen in patients with cognitive impairment and those without cognitive impairment. On diffusion MRI, people with MS showed DOC changes in all regions except the occipital cortex, relative to controls. Risk adjustment correlated with DOC in the hippocampi and deliberation time with DOC in the medial prefrontal, middle frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate and caudate parcellations and with white matter lesion volumes. Conclusions These data clarify the features of decision-making deficits in MS, and provide the first evidence that they relate to grey and white matter abnormalities seen using MRI. PMID:25006208

  4. Auto-analysis system for graphite morphology of grey cast iron.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong; Tan, Yiyong; Lei, Junfeng; Zeng, Libo; Zhang, Zelan; Hu, Jiming

    2003-01-01

    The current method to classify graphite morphology types of grey cast iron is based on traditional subjective observation, and it cannot be used for quantitative analysis. Since microstructures have a great effect on the mechanical properties of grey cast iron and different types have totally different characters, six types of grey cast iron are discussed and an image-processing software subsystem that performs the classification and quantitative analysis automatically based on a kind of composed feature vector and artificial neural network (ANN) is described. There are three kinds of texture features: fractal dimension, roughness and two-dimension autoregression, which are used as an extracted feature input vector of ANN classifier. Compared with using only one, the checkout correct precision increased greatly. On the other hand, to achieve the quantitative analysis and show the different types clearly, the region segmentation idea was applied to the system. The percentages of the regions with different type are reported correctly. Furthermore, this paper tentatively introduces a new empirical method to decide the number of ANN hidden nodes, which are usually considered as a difficulty in ANN structure decision. It was found that the optimum hidden node number of the experimental data was the same as that obtained using the new method.

  5. Telomere regulation during ageing and tumorigenesis of the grey mouse lemur.

    PubMed

    Trochet, Delphine; Mergui, Xénia; Ivkovic, Ivana; Porreca, Rosa Maria; Gerbault-Seureau, Michèle; Sidibe, Assitan; Richard, Florence; Londono-Vallejo, Arturo; Perret, Martine; Aujard, Fabienne; Riou, Jean-François

    2015-06-01

    Telomere erosion leading to replicative senescence has been well documented in human and anthropoid primates, and provides a clue against tumorigenesis. In contrast, other mammals, such as laboratory mice, with short lifespan and low body weight mass have different telomere biology without replicative senescence. We analyzed telomere biology in the grey mouse lemur, a small prosimian model with a relative long lifespan currently used in ageing research. We report an average telomere length by telomere restriction fragment (TRF) among the longest reported so far for a primate species (25-30 kb), but without detectable overall telomere shortening with ageing on blood samples. However, we demonstrate using universal STELA (Single Telomere Length Amplification) the existence of short telomeres, the increase of which, while correlating with ageing might be related to another mechanism than replicative senescence. We also found a low stringency of telomerase restriction in tissues and an ease to immortalize fibroblasts in vitro upon spontaneous telomerase activation. Finally, we describe the first grey mouse lemur cancer cell line showing a dramatic telomere shortening and high telomerase activity associated with polyploidy. Our overall results suggest that telomere biology in grey mouse lemur is an exception among primates, with at best a physiologically limited replicative telomere ageing and closest to that observed in small rodents. PMID:25882681

  6. Application of grey-taguchi method for optimization of dry sliding wear properties of aluminum MMCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siriyala, Rajesh; Alluru, Gopala Krishna; Penmetsa, Rama Murthy Raju; Duraiselvam, Muthukannan

    2012-09-01

    Through a pin-on-disc type wear setup, the dry sliding wear behavior of SiC-reinforced aluminum composites produced using the molten metal mixing method was investigated in this paper. Dry sliding wear tests were carried on SiC-reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs) and its matrix alloy sliding against a steel counter face. Different contact stresses, reinforcement percentages, sliding distances, and sliding velocities were selected as the control variables, and the responses were selected as the wear volume loss (WVL) and coefficient of friction (COF) to evaluate the dry sliding performance. An L25 orthogonal array was employed for the experimental design. Initially, the optimization of the dry sliding performance of the SiC-reinforced MMCs was performed using grey relational analysis (GRA). Based on the GRA, the optimum level parameters for overall grey relational grade in terms of WVL and COF were identified. Analysis of variance was performed to determine the effect of individual factors on the overall grey relational grade. The results indicated that the sliding velocity was the most effective factor among the control parameters on dry sliding wear, followed by the reinforcement percentage, sliding distance, and contact stress. Finally, the wear surface morphology and wear mechanism of the composites were investigated through scanning electron microscopy.

  7. Hemispheric asymmetries of functional connectivity and grey matter volume in the default mode network.

    PubMed

    Saenger, Victor M; Barrios, Fernando A; Martínez-Gudiño, María L; Alcauter, Sarael

    2012-06-01

    Resting state networks such as the default mode network have been widely reported. Although a plethora of information on its functional relevance has been generated, little is known about lateralization or hemisphere asymmetry within the DMN. We used high-resolution resting state fMRI and T1 3D data to investigate such asymmetries in two groups of healthy subjects, one right-handed and one left-handed. Independent component analysis and the dual regression approach were carried out to identify functional asymmetries, while voxel-based morphometry was used to identify structural asymmetries in grey matter volume within the DMN. Greater leftward functional connectivity was observed in the posterior cingulate gyrus (PCG) for both groups. Leftward functional asymmetry was observed in the thalamus and rightward functional asymmetries were observed in the middle frontal and middle/superior temporal gyrus in the right-handed group. Rightward asymmetries in grey matter volume were observed in the posterior portion of the PCG for both groups. The right-handed group exhibited leftward structural asymmetries in the anterior portion of the PCG and in the middle frontal and posterior portion of the middle temporal gyrus, while rightward asymmetries were observed in the posterior portion of the PCG and anterior portions of temporal regions. These results suggest that functional connectivity and grey matter volume are not equally distributed between hemispheres within the DMN, and that functional asymmetries are not always reflected or determined by structural asymmetries.

  8. Molecular biomarkers in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) to evaluate pollutant exposure, health and immune status.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, K; Müller, S; Weirup, L; Ronnenberg, K; Pawliczka, I; Rosenberger, T; Siebert, U

    2014-11-15

    Grey seals as top-predators bioaccumulate contaminants and can be considered as sentinels of eco-system health. Pups are weaned after a short nursing period, characterised by an enormous lipid transfer and exposure to contaminants. This study established molecular biomarkers of the xenobiotic metabolism and immune system to help assess health and immune status. mRNA transcription of AHR, ARNT, PPARα and cytokine IL-2 and heat-shock-protein HSP70 was measured in blood of grey seal pups and adults in rehabilitation and permanent care using RT-qPCR and compared to rehabilitating harbour seal pups and haematology values. In pups highest levels at admission in xenobiotic biomarker, HSP70 and cytokine transcription may show contaminant exposure via lactation, stress during abandonment and dehydration. The significant decrease may be linked to diet, health improvement and adaptation. Adults showed higher levels and more variation in biomarker transcription and clear species-specific differences between harbour and grey seal pups were found.

  9. Analysis of chemiluminescence measurements by grey-scale ICCD and colour digital cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliorini, F.; Maffi, S.; De Iuliis, S.; Zizak, G.

    2014-05-01

    Spectral, grey-scale and colour chemiluminescence measurements of C2* and CH* radicals' emission are carried out on the flame front of a methane-air premixed flame at different equivalence ratios. To this purpose, properly spatially resolved optical equipment has been implemented in order to reduce the background emission from other burned gas regions. The grey-scale (ICCD + interference filters) and RGB colour (commercial digital camera) approaches have been compared in order to find a correspondence between the C2* and the green component, as well as the CH* and the blue component of the emission intensities. The C2*/CH* chemiluminescence ratio has been investigated at different equivalence ratios and a good correlation has been obtained, showing the possibility of sensing the equivalence ratio in practical systems. The grey-scale and colour chemiluminescence analysis has then been applied to a meso-scale not premixed swirl combustor fuelled with a methane-air mixture and operating at 0.3 MPa. 2D results are presented and discussed in this work.

  10. Differential Control Efficacies of Vitamin Treatments against Bacterial Wilt and Grey Mould Diseases in Tomato Plants

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jeum Kyu; Kim, Hyeon Ji; Jung, Heesoo; Yang, Hye Ji; Kim, Do Hoon; Sung, Chang Hyun; Park, Chang-Jin; Chang, Seog Won

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial wilt and grey mould in tomato plants are economically destructive bacterial and fungal diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and Botrytis cinerea, respectively. Various approaches including chemical and biological controls have been attempted to arrest the tomato diseases so far. In this study, in vitro growths of bacterial R. solanacearum and fungal B. cinerea were evaluated using four different vitamins including thiamine (vitamin B1), niacin (vitamin B3), pyridoxine (vitamin B6), and menadione (vitamin K3). In planta efficacies of the four vitamin treatments on tomato protection against both diseases were also demonstrated. All four vitamins showed different in vitro antibacterial activities against R. solanacearum in dose-dependent manners. However, treatment with 2 mM thiamine was only effective in reducing bacterial wilt of detached tomato leaves without phytotoxicity under lower disease pressure (106 colony-forming unit [cfu]/ml). Treatment with the vitamins also differentially reduced in vitro conidial germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea. The four vitamins slightly reduced the conidial germination, and thiamine, pyridoxine and menadione inhibited the mycelial growth of B. cinerea. Menadione began to drastically suppress the conidial germination and mycelial growth by 5 and 0.5 mM, respectively. Grey mould symptoms on the inoculated tomato leaves were significantly reduced by pyridoxine and menadione pretreatments one day prior to the fungal challenge inoculation. These findings suggest that disease-specific vitamin treatment will be integrated for eco-friendly management of tomato bacterial wilt and grey mould. PMID:27721697

  11. Hematopoiesis in the Grey Collic Dog STUDIES OF THE REGULATION OF ERYTHROPOIESIS

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, John W.; Dale, David C.; Elin, Ronald J.

    1974-01-01

    Hematopoiesis in the grey collie dog undergoes periodic fluctuations which involve reticulocytes, granulocytes, platelets, lymphocytes, and monocytes. This syndrome is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and can be transmitted or abolished by appropriate bone marrow transplantation experiments, thus demonstrating this to be a primary marrow defect. Investigation of humoral regulation in this setting indicates that serum erythropoietin (ESF) also undergoes cyclic fluctuation and that shortly after the increase and peak in serum ESF levels recognizable red cell precursors appear in the marrow. Erythropoiesis in the grey collie is reciprocally related to the blood O2 carrying capacity. With phlebotomy, ESF activity and reticulocytes increase but continue to cycle, while hypertransfusion eliminates reticulocyte production completely. Neither phlebotomy nor hypertransfusion alter the underlying cycle time (11-12 days) nor influence the peaks of peripheral blood granulocytes. Thus, in these experiments, no direct evidence of competition between reticulocyte and granulocyte production is observed. In vitro studies of canine hemoglobin synthesis fail to demonstrate evidence of an inhibitor to ESF. These results indicate that periodic fluctuation of serum ESF is an integral part of the grey collie syndrome and are most consistent with some form of feedback regulation of ESF production. PMID:4430726

  12. Forecasting of municipal solid waste quantity in a developing country using multivariate grey models.

    PubMed

    Intharathirat, Rotchana; Abdul Salam, P; Kumar, S; Untong, Akarapong

    2015-05-01

    In order to plan, manage and use municipal solid waste (MSW) in a sustainable way, accurate forecasting of MSW generation and composition plays a key role. It is difficult to carry out the reliable estimates using the existing models due to the limited data available in the developing countries. This study aims to forecast MSW collected in Thailand with prediction interval in long term period by using the optimized multivariate grey model which is the mathematical approach. For multivariate models, the representative factors of residential and commercial sectors affecting waste collected are identified, classified and quantified based on statistics and mathematics of grey system theory. Results show that GMC (1, 5), the grey model with convolution integral, is the most accurate with the least error of 1.16% MAPE. MSW collected would increase 1.40% per year from 43,435-44,994 tonnes per day in 2013 to 55,177-56,735 tonnes per day in 2030. This model also illustrates that population density is the most important factor affecting MSW collected, followed by urbanization, proportion employment and household size, respectively. These mean that the representative factors of commercial sector may affect more MSW collected than that of residential sector. Results can help decision makers to develop the measures and policies of waste management in long term period.

  13. The effect of a chemical additive on the fermentation and aerobic stability of high-moisture corn.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, T C; Smith, M L; Barnard, A M; Kung, L

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of a chemical additive on the fermentation and aerobic stability of high-moisture corn (HMC). Ground HMC (~63% dry matter) was untreated, or treated with an additive containing sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and sodium nitrite as active ingredients, at 0, 2, 3, or 4 L/t of fresh matter. Laboratory silos (7.5 L) were prepared and ensiled for 21 and 90d (4 silos/treatment per d of ensiling). Small bag silos were prepared for untreated HMC and HMC treated with 4 L/t of the additive and analyzed for nitrate-N and nitrite-N after 0, 3, and 7d of ensiling. The concentration of nitrate-N was similar between these 2 treatments and was below levels considered problematic for ruminants. Nitrite-N was greater in HMC treated with the high level of additive but was also very low for both treatments. Numbers of yeasts were similar among treatments in fresh HMC and decreased substantially after ensiling. Numbers of yeasts were similar among treatments after 21d of ensiling but after 90d they were lower in treated versus untreated HMC. Concentrations of organic acids (lactic, acetic, and propionic) and pH were not different among treatments at any time of ensiling. In contrast, treatment with the additive markedly decreased the concentration of ethanol in HMC after 21 and 90d when compared with untreated HMC. Treatment with all levels of the additive markedly improved the aerobic stability and improved the recovery of dry matter compared with untreated HMC. Overall, our findings suggest that the chemical additive used in this study has the potential to improve the fermentation and aerobic stability of HMC after a relatively short period (21d) and after a moderate length (90d) of ensiling. PMID:26454298

  14. Effects of 12 weeks of aerobic training on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Marceli Rocha; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; Kalva-Filho, Carlos Augusto; Freire, Ana Paula Coelho Figueira; de Alencar Silva, Bruna Spolador; Nicolino, Juliana; de Toledo-Arruda, Alessandra Choqueta; Papoti, Marcelo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Ramos, Dionei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit aerobic function, autonomic nervous system, and mucociliary clearance alterations. These parameters can be attenuated by aerobic training, which can be applied with continuous or interval efforts. However, the possible effects of aerobic training, using progressively both continuous and interval sessions (ie, linear periodization), require further investigation. Aim To analyze the effects of 12-week aerobic training using continuous and interval sessions on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic function in patients with COPD. Methods Sixteen patients with COPD were divided into an aerobic (continuous and interval) training group (AT) (n=10) and a control group (CG) (n=6). An incremental test (initial speed of 2.0 km·h−1, constant slope of 3%, and increments of 0.5 km·h−1 every 2 minutes) was performed. The training group underwent training for 4 weeks at 60% of the peak velocity reached in the incremental test (vVO2peak) (50 minutes of continuous effort), followed by 4 weeks of sessions at 75% of vVO2peak (30 minutes of continuous effort), and 4 weeks of interval training (5×3-minute effort at vVO2peak, separated by 1 minute of passive recovery). Intensities were adjusted through an incremental test performed at the end of each period. Results The AT presented an increase in the high frequency index (ms2) (P=0.04), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) (P=0.01), vVO2peak (P=0.04), and anaerobic threshold (P=0.02). No significant changes were observed in the CG (P>0.21) group. Neither of the groups presented changes in mucociliary clearance after 12 weeks (AT: P=0.94 and CG: P=0.69). Conclusion Twelve weeks of aerobic training (continuous and interval sessions) positively influenced the autonomic modulation and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD. However, mucociliary clearance was not affected by aerobic training. PMID:26648712

  15. Cellular hallmarks reveal restricted aerobic metabolism at thermal limits

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Aitana; Busso, Coralie; Gönczy, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    All organisms live within a given thermal range, but little is known about the mechanisms setting the limits of this range. We uncovered cellular features exhibiting signature changes at thermal limits in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. These included changes in embryo size and shape, which were also observed in Caenorhabditis briggsae, indicating evolutionary conservation. We hypothesized that such changes could reflect restricted aerobic capacity at thermal limits. Accordingly, we uncovered that relative respiration in C. elegans embryos decreases at the thermal limits as compared to within the thermal range. Furthermore, by compromising components of the respiratory chain, we demonstrated that the reliance on aerobic metabolism is reduced at thermal limits. Moreover, embryos thus compromised exhibited signature changes in size and shape already within the thermal range. We conclude that restricted aerobic metabolism at the thermal limits contributes to setting the thermal range in a metazoan organism. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04810.001 PMID:25929283

  16. Effects of meditation and aerobic exercise on EEG patterns.

    PubMed

    Severtsen, B; Bruya, M A

    1986-08-01

    This study examined the effects of two stress-reducing wellness activities, meditation and aerobic exercise, on electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns of normal subjects. Ten nursing students completed the study: five performed meditation daily and five performed aerobic exercise daily. Stress was determined using the Stanford University Self Assessment and Holmes-Rahe Social Adjustment Rating Scales prior to the stress-reducing activities and again following the six-week study. Although neither group demonstrated a significant increase in alpha waves, self-rating scores for both measures were improved at the end of the six-week study. Meditation and aerobic activity were associated with a perception of increased ability to cope and a generally positive feeling about the value of exercise and meditation in their lives.

  17. Aerobic and anaerobic cellulase production by Cellulomonas uda.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Willink, Fillip Wolfgang; Ingvorsen, Kjeld

    2016-10-01

    Cellulomonas uda (DSM 20108/ATCC 21399) is one of the few described cellulolytic facultative anaerobes. Based on these characteristics, we initiated a physiological study of C. uda with the aim to exploit it for cellulase production in simple bioreactors with no or sporadic aeration. Growth, cellulase activity and fermentation product formation were evaluated in different media under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions and in experiments where C. uda was exposed to alternating aerobic/anaerobic growth conditions. Here we show that C. uda behaves as a true facultative anaerobe when cultivated on soluble substrates such as glucose and cellobiose, but for reasons unknown cellulase activity is only induced under aerobic conditions on insoluble cellulosic substrates and not under anaerobic conditions. These findings enhance knowledge on the limited number of described facultative cellulolytic anaerobes, and in addition it greatly limits the utility of C. uda as an 'easy to handle' cellulase producer with low aeration demands.

  18. High-intensity aerobic interval exercise in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Philippe; Gayda, Mathieu; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil

    2013-06-01

    Aerobic exercise training is strongly recommended in patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to improve symptoms and quality of life. Moderate-intensity aerobic continuous exercise (MICE) is the best established training modality in HF patients. For about a decade, however, another training modality, high-intensity aerobic interval exercise (HIIE), has aroused considerable interest in cardiac rehabilitation. Originally used by athletes, HIIE consists of repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise interspersed with recovery periods. The rationale for its use is to increase exercise time spent in high-intensity zones, thereby increasing the training stimulus. Several studies have demonstrated that HIIE is more effective than MICE, notably for improving exercise capacity in patients with HF. The aim of the present review is to describe the general principles of HIIE prescription, the acute physiological effects, the longer-term training effects, and finally the future perspectives of HIIE in patients with HF.

  19. Acetic Acid Increases Stability of Silage under Aerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Danner, H.; Holzer, M.; Mayrhuber, E.; Braun, R.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of various compounds on the aerobic stability of silages were evaluated. It has been observed that inoculation of whole-crop maize with homofermentative lactic acid bacteria leads to silages which have low stability against aerobic deterioration, while inoculation with heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacillus brevis or Lactobacillus buchneri, increases stability. Acetic acid has been proven to be the sole substance responsible for the increased aerobic stability, and this acid acts as an inhibitor of spoilage organisms. Therefore, stability increases exponentially with acetic acid concentration. Only butyric acid has a similar effect. Other compounds, like lactic acid, 1,2-propanediol, and 1-propanol, have been shown to have no effect, while fructose and mannitol reduce stability. PMID:12514042

  20. Aerobic biological activated carbon (BAC) treatment of a phenolic wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Lin; Weber, A.S. )

    1992-05-01

    Organic removal rates achieved in the aerobic BAC process were comparable to rates typically reported for traditional aerobic fixed-film systems. When operated at organic loading rates lower than 0.03 g COD/g GAC-d and air as the oxygen source, greater than 90% COD removal and 99% phenol removal was achieved. At higher organic loading rates, oxygen limitations resulted in less than optimal performance. Observed oxygen limitations were mitigated by the use of pure oxygen. Long-term stability of operation of the BAC process was excellent with one aerobic BAC column operated under the same conditions in excess of 260 days. During that time, consistent column performance was achieved without the need to provide supplemental carbon or carbon regeneration. System biomass yields ranged from 0.05 to 0.30 g VSS/g COD removed and increased with effluent COD concentration.

  1. Cellular hallmarks reveal restricted aerobic metabolism at thermal limits.

    PubMed

    Neves, Aitana; Busso, Coralie; Gönczy, Pierre

    2015-05-01

    All organisms live within a given thermal range, but little is known about the mechanisms setting the limits of this range. We uncovered cellular features exhibiting signature changes at thermal limits in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. These included changes in embryo size and shape, which were also observed in Caenorhabditis briggsae, indicating evolutionary conservation. We hypothesized that such changes could reflect restricted aerobic capacity at thermal limits. Accordingly, we uncovered that relative respiration in C. elegans embryos decreases at the thermal limits as compared to within the thermal range. Furthermore, by compromising components of the respiratory chain, we demonstrated that the reliance on aerobic metabolism is reduced at thermal limits. Moreover, embryos thus compromised exhibited signature changes in size and shape already within the thermal range. We conclude that restricted aerobic metabolism at the thermal limits contributes to setting the thermal range in a metazoan organism.

  2. Aerobic and anaerobic cellulase production by Cellulomonas uda.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Willink, Fillip Wolfgang; Ingvorsen, Kjeld

    2016-10-01

    Cellulomonas uda (DSM 20108/ATCC 21399) is one of the few described cellulolytic facultative anaerobes. Based on these characteristics, we initiated a physiological study of C. uda with the aim to exploit it for cellulase production in simple bioreactors with no or sporadic aeration. Growth, cellulase activity and fermentation product formation were evaluated in different media under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions and in experiments where C. uda was exposed to alternating aerobic/anaerobic growth conditions. Here we show that C. uda behaves as a true facultative anaerobe when cultivated on soluble substrates such as glucose and cellobiose, but for reasons unknown cellulase activity is only induced under aerobic conditions on insoluble cellulosic substrates and not under anaerobic conditions. These findings enhance knowledge on the limited number of described facultative cellulolytic anaerobes, and in addition it greatly limits the utility of C. uda as an 'easy to handle' cellulase producer with low aeration demands. PMID:27154570

  3. Virulence factors enhance Citrobacter rodentium expansion through aerobic respiration.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Christopher A; Miller, Brittany M; Rivera-Chávez, Fabian; Velazquez, Eric M; Byndloss, Mariana X; Chávez-Arroyo, Alfredo; Lokken, Kristen L; Tsolis, Renée M; Winter, Sebastian E; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2016-09-16

    Citrobacter rodentium uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to induce colonic crypt hyperplasia in mice, thereby gaining an edge during its competition with the gut microbiota through an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that by triggering colonic crypt hyperplasia, the C. rodentium T3SS induced an excessive expansion of undifferentiated Ki67-positive epithelial cells, which increased oxygenation of the mucosal surface and drove an aerobic C. rodentium expansion in the colon. Treatment of mice with the γ-secretase inhibitor dibenzazepine to diminish Notch-driven colonic crypt hyperplasia curtailed the fitness advantage conferred by aerobic respiration during C. rodentium infection. We conclude that C. rodentium uses its T3SS to induce histopathological lesions that generate an intestinal microenvironment in which growth of the pathogen is fueled by aerobic respiration. PMID:27634526

  4. Determinants of exercise and aerobic fitness in outpatients with arthritis.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, G B; Kasal, S; Smith, K V; Hassanein, R; DeViney, S

    1994-01-01

    Factors that influenced exercise behaviors and aerobic fitness were identified in 100 outpatients with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis. Data included perceived health status, benefits of and barriers to exercise, and impact of arthritis on health; demographic and biologic characteristics; and past exercise behavior. Exercise measures included range-of-motion and strengthening exercises, 7-day activity recall, and the exercise subscale of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile. An aerobic fitness level was obtained on each subject by bicycle ergometer testing. The theoretical model predicted 20% of the variance in composite exercise scores but none of the variance in aerobic fitness levels. Perceived benefits of exercise was a significant predictor of exercise participation. Subjects with less formal education, longer duration of arthritis, and higher impact of arthritis scores perceived fewer benefits of exercise, while subjects who reported exercising in their youth perceived more benefits of exercise.

  5. Supplementary Low-Intensity Aerobic Training Improves Aerobic Capacity and Does Not Affect Psychomotor Performance in Professional Female Ballet Dancers

    PubMed Central

    Smol, Ewelina; Fredyk, Artur

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether 6-week low-intensity aerobic training program used as a supplement to regular dance practice might improve both the aerobic capacity and psychomotor performance in female ballet dancers. To assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and anaerobic threshold (AT), the dancers performed a standard graded bicycle ergometer exercise test until volitional exhaustion prior to and after the supplementary training. At both these occasions, the psychomotor performance (assessed as multiple choice reaction time) and number of correct responses to audio-visual stimuli was assessed at rest and immediately after cessation of maximal intensity exercise. The supplementary low-intensity exercise training increased VO2max and markedly shifted AT toward higher absolute workload. Immediately after completion of the graded exercise to volitional exhaustion, the ballerinas’ psychomotor performance remained at the pre-exercise (resting) level. Neither the resting nor the maximal multiple choice reaction time and accuracy of responses were affected by the supplementary aerobic training. The results of this study indicate that addition of low-intensity aerobic training to regular dance practice increases aerobic capacity of ballerinas with no loss of speed and accuracy of their psychomotor reaction. PMID:23485962

  6. Influence of aerobic and anoxic microenvironments on polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production from food waste and acidogenic effluents using aerobic consortia.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M Venkateswar; Mohan, S Venkata

    2012-01-01

    The functional role of aerobic and anoxic microenvironments on polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production using food waste (UFW) and effluents from acidogenic biohydrogen production process (FFW) were studied employing aerobic mixed culture as biocatalyst. Anoxic microenvironment documented higher PHA production, while aerobic microenvironment showed higher substrate degradation. FFW showed higher PHA accumulation (39.6%) than UFW (35.6%) due to ready availability of precursors (fatty acids). Higher fraction of poly-3-hydroxy butyrate (PHB) was observed compared to poly-3-hydroxy valerate (PHV) in the accumulated PHA in the form of co-polymer [P3(HB-co-HV)]. Dehydrogenase, phosphatase and protease enzymatic activities were monitored during process operation. Integration with fermentative biohydrogen production yielded additional substrate degradation under both aerobic (78%) and anoxic (72%) microenvironments apart from PHA production. Microbial community analysis documented the presence of aerobic and facultative organisms capable of producing PHA. Integration strategy showed feasibility of producing hydrogen along with PHA by consuming fatty acids generated during acidogenic process in association with increased treatment efficiency.

  7. Diffusion imaging changes in grey matter in Alzheimer's disease: a potential marker of early neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Weston, Philip S J; Simpson, Ivor J A; Ryan, Natalie S; Ourselin, Sebastien; Fox, Nick C

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is recognized to have a long presymptomatic period, during which there is progressive accumulation of molecular pathology, followed by inexorable neuronal damage. The ability to identify presymptomatic individuals with evidence of neurodegenerative change, to stage their disease, and to track progressive changes will be important for early diagnosis and for prevention trials. Despite recent advances, particularly in magnetic resonance imaging, our ability to identify early neurodegenerative changes reliably is limited. The development of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, which is sensitive to microstructural changes not visible with conventional volumetric techniques, has led to a number of diffusion imaging studies in AD; these have largely focused on white matter changes. However, in AD cerebral grey matter is affected very early, with pathological studies suggesting that grey matter changes predate those in white matter. In this article we review the growing number of studies that assess grey matter diffusivity changes in AD. Although use of the technique is still at a relatively early stage, results so far have been promising. Initial studies identified changes in diffusion measures in the hippocampi of patients with mild cognitive impairment, which predated macroscopic volume loss, with positive predictive value for progression to AD dementia. More recent studies have identified abnormalities in multiple neocortical areas (particularly the posterior cingulate) at various stages of disease progression. Studies of patients who carry genetic mutations predisposing to autosomal dominant familial AD have shown cortical and subcortical grey matter diffusivity changes several years before the expected onset of the first clinical symptoms. The technique is not without potential methodological difficulties, especially relating to partial volume effects, although recent advances appear to be reducing such issues. Going forward

  8. A grey literature review of special events for promoting cancer screenings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer remains the second leading cause of mortality in the United States. Special events such as health fairs, screening days or cultural festivals are employed often for community education about cancer screening. A previous systematic review of the published literature was conducted in 2012-2013. The purpose of this study was to conduct a grey literature component of special events that promote breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening in the U.S. Methods We conducted a grey literature search of dissertations/theses and conference abstracts. The theses/dissertations were restricted to those: 1) written in English, 2) published from January 1990 to December 2011, 3) examined at least one of the predefined categories of special events, 4) involved cancer screening for breast, cervical, and/or colorectal cancer, 5) included outcome data, and 6) conducted in the United States. A review of U.S. public health and cancer conference abstracts, that were readily available and had focused on at least of 3 cancer types and included outcome data, was conducted. Data were abstracted on the purpose, location, primary audience(s), activities conducted, screening provided onsite or referrals, and evaluation results. Results The grey literature review found 6 special events. The types of events found added to the numbers found in the systematic review, especially receptions or parties and cultural festivals/events. All focused on increasing breast and cervical cancer screening except one that focused on breast cancer only. The reach of these events was targeted at mostly minorities or underserved communities. Common evidence-based strategies were group education, small media, and reducing structural barriers. Group education involved presentations from physicians, lay-health advisors, or cancer survivors, while reducing structural barriers included activities such as providing screening appointment sign-ups at the event or providing transportation for event

  9. Simultaneous brightness and apparent depth from true colors on grey: Chevreul revisited.

    PubMed

    Dresp-Langley, Birgitta; Reeves, Adam

    2012-01-01

    We show that true colors as defined by Chevreul (1839) produce unsuspected simultaneous brightness induction effects on their immediate grey backgrounds when these are placed on a darker (black) general background surrounding two spatially separated configurations. Assimilation and apparent contrast may occur in one and the same stimulus display. We examined the possible link between these effects and the perceived depth of the color patterns which induce them as a function of their luminance contrast. Patterns of square-shaped inducers of a single color (red, green, blue, yellow, or grey) were placed on background fields of a lighter and a darker grey, presented on a darker screen. Inducers were always darker on one side of the display and brighter on the other in a given trial. The intensity of the grey backgrounds varied between trials only. This permitted generating four inducer luminance contrasts, presented in random order, for each color. Background fields were either spatially separated or consisted of a single grey field on the black screen. Experiments were run under three environmental conditions: dark-adaptation, daylight, and rod-saturation after exposure to bright light. In a first task, we measured probabilities of contrast, assimilation, and no effect in a three-alternative forced-choice procedure (background appears brighter on the 'left', on the 'right' or the 'same'). Visual adaptation and inducer contrast had no significant influence on the induction effects produced by colored inducers. Achromatic inducers produced significantly stronger contrast effects after dark-adaptation, and significantly stronger assimilation in daylight conditions. Grouping two backgrounds into a single one was found to significantly decrease probabilities of apparent contrast. Under the same conditions, we measured probabilities of the inducers to be perceived as nearer to the observer (inducers appear nearer on 'left', on 'right' or the 'same'). These, as predicted by

  10. Severe acute oxidant exposure: morphological damage and aerobic metabolism in the lung

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, M.R.; Teuscher, F.; LaSota, I.; Niewoehner, D.E.

    1986-09-01

    Groups of male rats were exposed to acute doses of oxygen, ozone, or paraquat which produced equivalent mortality (25-30%) over a 28 day post-exposure period. Quantitative evaluation of morphological changes indicated the primary response to be edema and inflammation with only slight fibrosis being apparent by the end of the observation period. Aerobic pulmonary metabolism was inhibited in lungs from animals exposed to oxygen and ozone as evidenced by decreased oxygen consumption; however, this was transient and O/sub 2/ consumption returned to normal within 24 hours after removal from the exposure chamber. Conversely, treatment with paraquat caused an immediate, transient stimulation of O/sub 2/ consumption. Glucose metabolism was unaltered by the gas exposures and, as previously reported, was initially stimulated by paraquat treatment. In vitro, only paraquat altered both O/sub 2/ consumption and glucose metabolism when added to lung slice preparations; ozone had no effect. Oxygen did not alter O/sub 2/ consumption but caused a slight biphasic response in glucose metabolism. Aerobic metabolism is relatively unchanged by these doses of oxygen and ozone which result in the death of 25-30% of all treated animals. Even though paraquat produces similar morphologic changes, it may represent a more severe metabolic insult than ''equivalent'' doses of oxygen or ozone. Also, if interstitial pulmonary fibrosis is a desired result of experimental exposure, rats may not be a suitable model for oxidant induced lung injury.

  11. Characteristics of nitrate removal in a bio-ceramsite reactor by aerobic denitrification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dan; Yang, Kai; Wang, Hongyu; Lv, Bin; Ma, Fang

    2015-01-01

    A newly aerobic denitrifying bacterial strain, Pseudomonas sp. X31, which was isolated from activated sludge, was added to a newly developed aerobic denitrification bio-ceramsite reactor as an inoculum to treat nitrate-polluted water and the denitrification activities of this system under different air-water ratio, hydraulic loading, and C/N (carbon/nitrogen ratio) conditions were investigated. It demonstrated excellent capability for denitrification in the bio-ceramsite reactor at air-water ratios that varied from 6.5:1 to 8:1. The optimal hydraulic loading for the bio-ceramsite reactor was 0.75 m/h with the optimum denitrification efficiency of 95.18%. The optimal C/N was 4.5:1 with a maximum nitrate removal efficiency of 98.48%. COD could be completely removed under the most appropriate condition (air-water ratio 6.5:1-8:1, hydraulic loading 0.75 m/h, and C/N 4.5:1). The quantity of the biomass in the reactor decreased along with flow, which was in accordance with the variety of the available substrate concentrations in the water. However, the biofilm activity was not proportional to the biomass in the bio-ceramsite reactor, but increased with the quantity of the biomass up to a peak value and then decreased.

  12. Laboratory evaluation of bioaugmentation for aerobic treatment of RDX in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Mark E; Hatzinger, Paul B; Condee, Charles W; Andaya, Christina; Vainberg, Simon; Michalsen, Mandy M; Crocker, Fiona H; Indest, Karl J; Jung, Carina M; Eaton, Hillary; Istok, Jonathan D

    2015-02-01

    The potential for bioaugmentation with aerobic explosive degrading bacteria to remediate hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) contaminated aquifers was demonstrated. Repacked aquifer sediment columns were used to examine the transport and RDX degradation capacity of the known RDX degrading bacterial strains Gordonia sp. KTR9 (modified with a kanamycin resistance gene) Pseudomonas fluorescens I-C, and a kanamycin resistant transconjugate Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 pGKT2:Km+. All three strains were transported through the columns and eluted ahead of the conservative bromide tracer, although the total breakthrough varied by strain. The introduced cells responded to biostimulation with fructose (18 mg L(-1), 0.1 mM) by degrading dissolved RDX (0.5 mg L(-1), 2.3 µM). The strains retained RDX-degrading activity for at least 6 months following periods of starvation when no fructose was supplied to the column. Post-experiment analysis of the soil indicated that the residual cells were distributed along the length of the column. When the strains were grown to densities relevant for field-scale application, the cells remained viable and able to degrade RDX for at least 3 months when stored at 4 °C. These results indicate that bioaugmentation may be a viable option for treating RDX in large dilute aerobic plumes. PMID:25503243

  13. The potential role of aerobic exercise to modulate cardiotoxicity of molecularly targeted cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jessica M; Lakoski, Susan; Mackey, John R; Douglas, Pamela S; Haykowsky, Mark J; Jones, Lee W

    2013-01-01

    Molecularly targeted therapeutics (MTT) are the future of cancer systemic therapy. They have already moved from palliative therapy for advanced solid malignancies into the setting of curative-intent treatment for early-stage disease. Cardiotoxicity is a frequent and potentially serious adverse complication of some targeted therapies, leading to a broad range of potentially life-threatening complications, therapy discontinuation, and poor quality of life. Low-cost pleiotropic interventions are therefore urgently required to effectively prevent and/or treat MTT-induced cardiotoxicity. Aerobic exercise therapy has the unique capacity to modulate, without toxicity, multiple gene expression pathways in several organ systems, including a plethora of cardiac-specific molecular and cell-signaling pathways implicated in MTT-induced cardiac toxicity. In this review, we examine the molecular signaling of antiangiogenic and HER2-directed therapies that may underpin cardiac toxicity and the hypothesized molecular mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective properties of aerobic exercise. It is hoped that this knowledge can be used to maximize the benefits of small molecule inhibitors, while minimizing cardiac damage in patients with solid malignancies.

  14. Ammonium-oxidizing bacteria facilitate aerobic degradation of sulfanilic acid in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Ginige, Maneesha P; Kaksonen, Anna H; Cheng, Ka Yu

    2014-01-01

    Sulfanilic acid (SA) is a toxic sulfonated aromatic amine commonly found in anaerobically treated azo dye contaminated effluents. Aerobic acclimatization of SA-degrading mixed microbial culture could lead to co-enrichment of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) because of the concomitant release of ammonium from SA oxidation. To what extent the co-enriched AOB would affect SA oxidation at various ammonium concentrations was unclear. Here, a series of batch kinetic experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of AOB on aerobic SA degradation in an acclimatized activated sludge culture capable of oxidizing SA and ammonium simultaneously. To account for the effect of AOB on SA degradation, allylthiourea was used to inhibit AOB activity in the culture. The results indicated that specific SA degradation rate of the mixed culture was negatively correlated with the initial ammonium concentration (0-93 mM, R²= 0.99). The presence of AOB accelerated SA degradation by reducing the inhibitory effect of ammonium (≥ 10 mM). The Haldane substrate inhibition model was used to correlate substrate concentration (SA and ammonium) and oxygen uptake rate. This study revealed, for the first time, that AOB could facilitate SA degradation at high concentration of ammonium (≥ 10 mM) in an enriched activated sludge culture.

  15. Copper intoxication inhibits aerobic nucleotide synthesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Michael D. L.; Kehl-Fie, Thomas E.; Rosch, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    Copper is universally toxic in excess, a feature exploited by the human immune system to facilitate bacterial clearance. The mechanism of copper intoxication remains unknown for many bacterial species. Here, we demonstrate that copper toxicity in Streptococcus pneumoniae is independent from oxidative stress but, rather, is the result of copper inhibiting the aerobic dNTP biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, we show that copper-intoxicated S. pneumoniae is rescued by manganese, which is an essential metal in the aerobic nucleotide synthesis pathway. These data provide insight into new targets to enhance copper-mediated toxicity during bacterial clearance. PMID:25730343

  16. Longitudinal changes in cerebellar and subcortical volumes in adult-onset Niemann-Pick disease type C patients treated with miglustat.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Elizabeth A; Walterfang, Mark; Abel, Larry; Desmond, Patricia; Fahey, Michael; Velakoulis, Dennis

    2015-09-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a rare neurovisceral disorder resulting in impaired intracellular lipid trafficking. The only disease-modifying treatment available to date is miglustat, an iminosugar inhibiting the accumulation of lipid by-products in neurons. This study explored how changes in cerebellar grey and white matter volumes, and in subcortical volumes, related to patient treatment status and disability and ataxia ratings. Nine adult-onset NPC patients and 17 matched controls underwent T1-weighted MRI. One patient was not receiving miglustat, and pre-treatment data were available for a further patient. Semi-automated cerebellar and subcortical segmentation was undertaken, and the rates of change in putamen, hippocampal, thalamic and caudal volumes, and grey and white matter cerebellar volumes, were compared to rates of change in Iturriaga disability score, Brief Ataxia Rating Scale (BARS), and horizontal saccadic gain. Untreated NPC patients appeared to lose cerebellar grey and white matter, bilateral thalamic volume, and right caudate volume faster than treated patients. Cerebellar grey matter volume loss and volume loss in the left thalamus were significantly correlated with Iturriaga disability scale changes. Change in both cerebellar grey and white matter was correlated with decrease in horizontal saccadic gain, but not with change in BARS. This is the first study to examine longitudinal treatment effects of miglustat on cerebellar and subcortical volumes in patients with adult-onset NPC, and is evidence that miglustat may have a protective effect on cerebellar and subcortical structure and function. PMID:26092521

  17. Effect of aerobic training and aerobic and resistance training on the inflammatory status of hypertensive older adults.

    PubMed

    Lima, Leandra G; Bonardi, José M T; Campos, Giulliard O; Bertani, Rodrigo F; Scher, Luria M L; Louzada-Junior, Paulo; Moriguti, Júlio C; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Lima, Nereida K C

    2015-08-01

    There is a relationship between high levels of inflammatory markers and low adhesion to the practice of physical activity in the older population. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of two types of exercise programs, i.e., aerobic training and aerobic plus resistance training on the plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) of elderly hypertensive subjects. Hypertensive older volunteers in use of antihypertensive drugs were randomized to three groups: aerobic group (AG), resistance and aerobic group (RAG) and control group (CG). Training lasted 10 weeks, with sessions held three times a week. Blood samples were collected before training and 24 h after completion of the 30 sessions for the determination of serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels. Body mass index was obtained before and after 10 weeks. After intervention, BMI values were lower in AG and RAG compared to CG (p < 0.001), IL-6 was reduced in AG compared to CG (p = 0.04), and TNF-α levels were lower only in RAG compared to CG (p = 0.01). Concluding, both types of training were effective in reducing BMI values in hypertensive older subjects. Aerobic exercise produced the reduction of plasma IL-6 levels. However, the combination of aerobic and resistance exercise, which would be more indicated for the prevention of loss of functionality with aging, showed lower TNF-α mediator after training than control group and a greater fall of TNF-α levels associated to higher BMI reduction. PMID:25567682

  18. [Population development characteristics of rice crop cultivated on aerobic soil with mulching].

    PubMed

    Sheng, Haijun; Shen, Qirong; Feng, Ke

    2004-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out to study the population development characteristics of rice crop cultivated both on aerobic and waterlogged soil conditions. The results showed that the whole growth duration of rice growing on aerobic soil was one week longer than that on waterlogged soil. Shorter and narrower leaves and smaller LAI of rice population were found on aerobic soil than on waterlogged soil, which resulted in a decreased photosynthesis, smaller amount and lighter weight of rice grains on aerobic soil, compared with those on waterlogged soil. Among the aerobic treatments, more tillers, lower percentage of filled grains and shorter duration of grain forming were found on soils covered with plastic film than on soils covered with semi-decomposed straw or without mulching. The rice grain yield was decreased in the order of waterlogged soil > aerobic soil covered with plastic film > aerobic soil covered with semi-decomposed straw > aerobic soil without mulching.

  19. Helping Adults to Stay Physically Fit: Preventing Relapse Following Aerobic Exercise Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrick, G. Ken; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Long-term adherence to an aerobic exercise regime is a major problem among exercise program graduates. This article discusses the steps involved in developing relapse prevention treatment strategies for aerobic exercise programs. (JMK)

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of the Aerobic Marine Methanotroph Methylomonas methanica MC09

    SciTech Connect

    Boden, Rich; Cunliffe, Michael; Scanlan, Julie; Moussard, Helene; Kits, K. Dimitri; Klotz, Martin G; Jetten, MSM; Vuilleumier, Stephane; Han, James; Peters, Lin; Mikhailova, Natalia; Teshima, Hazuki; Tapia, Roxanne; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Ivanova, N; Pagani, Ioanna; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Han, Cliff; Hauser, Loren John; Land, Miriam L; Lapidus, Alla L.; Lucas, Susan; Pitluck, Sam; Woyke, Tanja; Stein, Lisa Y.; Murrell, Collin

    2011-01-01

    Methylomonas methanica MC09 is a mesophilic, halotolerant, aerobic, methanotrophic member of the Gammaproteobacteria, isolated from coastal seawater. Here we present the complete genome sequence of this strain, the first available from an aerobic marine methanotroph.