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Sample records for aerobically treated grey

  1. Removal of micropollutants from aerobically treated grey water via ozone and activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Leal, L; Temmink, H; Zeeman, G; Buisman, C J N

    2011-04-01

    Ozonation and adsorption onto activated carbon were tested for the removal micropollutants of personal care products from aerobically treated grey water. MilliQ water spiked with micropollutants (100-1600 μgL(-1)) was ozonated at a dosing rate of 1.22. In 45 min, this effectively removed (>99%): Four parabens, bisphenol-A, hexylcinnamic aldehyde, 4-methylbenzylidene-camphor (4MBC), benzophenone-3 (BP3), triclosan, galaxolide and ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate. After 60 min, the removal efficiency of benzalkonium chloride was 98%, tonalide and nonylphenol 95%, octocrylene 92% and 2-phenyl-5-benzimidazolesulfonic acid (PBSA) 84%. Ozonation of aerobically treated grey water at an applied ozone dose of 15 mgL(-1), reduced the concentrations of octocrylene, nonylphenol, triclosan, galaxolide, tonalide and 4-methylbenzylidene-camphor to below limits of quantification, with removal efficiencies of at least 79%. Complete adsorption of all studied micropollutants onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) was observed in batch tests with milliQ water spiked with 100-1600 μgL(-1) at a PAC dose of 1.25 gL(-1) and a contact time of 5 min. Three granular activated carbon (GAC) column experiments were operated to treat aerobically treated grey water. The operation of a GAC column with aerobically treated grey water spiked with micropollutants in the range of 0.1-10 μgL(-1) at a flow of 0.5 bed volumes (BV)h(-1) showed micropollutant removal efficiencies higher than 72%. During the operation time of 1728 BV, no breakthrough of TOC or micropollutants was observed. Removal of micropollutants from aerobically treated grey water was tested in a GAC column at a flow of 2 BVh(-1). Bisphenol-A, triclosan, tonalide, BP3, galaxolide, nonylphenol and PBSA were effectively removed even after a stable TOC breakthrough of 65% had been reached. After spiking the aerobically treated effluent with micropollutants to concentrations of 10-100 μgL(-1), efficient removal to below limits of quantification

  2. Using atmospheric pressure plasma treatment for treating grey cotton fabric.

    PubMed

    Kan, Chi-Wai; Lam, Chui-Fung; Chan, Chee-Kooi; Ng, Sun-Pui

    2014-02-15

    Conventional wet treatment, desizing, scouring and bleaching, for grey cotton fabric involves the use of high water, chemical and energy consumption which may not be considered as a clean process. This study aims to investigate the efficiency of the atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) treatment on treating grey cotton fabric when compared with the conventional wet treatment. Grey cotton fabrics were treated with different combinations of plasma parameters with helium and oxygen gases and also through conventional desizing, scouring and bleaching processes in order to obtain comparable results. The results obtained from wicking and water drop tests showed that wettability of grey cotton fabrics was greatly improved after plasma treatment and yielded better results than conventional desizing and scouring. The weight reduction of plasma treated grey cotton fabrics revealed that plasma treatment can help remove sizing materials and impurities. Chemical and morphological changes in plasma treated samples were analysed by FTIR and SEM, respectively. Finally, dyeability of the plasma treated and conventional wet treated grey cotton fabrics was compared and the results showed that similar dyeing results were obtained. This can prove that plasma treatment would be another choice for treating grey cotton fabrics.

  3. Optimization of electrocoagulation process to treat grey wastewater in batch mode using response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Discharge of grey wastewater into the ecological system causes the negative impact effect on receiving water bodies. Methods In this present study, electrocoagulation process (EC) was investigated to treat grey wastewater under different operating conditions such as initial pH (4–8), current density (10–30 mA/cm2), electrode distance (4–6 cm) and electrolysis time (5–25 min) by using stainless steel (SS) anode in batch mode. Four factors with five levels Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD) was employed to optimize and investigate the effect of process variables on the responses such as total solids (TS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and fecal coliform (FC) removal. Results The process variables showed significant effect on the electrocoagulation treatment process. The results were analyzed by Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA) and second order polynomial models were developed in order to study the electrocoagulation process statistically. The optimal operating conditions were found to be: initial pH of 7, current density of 20 mA/cm2, electrode distance of 5 cm and electrolysis time of 20 min. Conclusion These results indicated that EC process can be scale up in large scale level to treat grey wastewater with high removal efficiency of TS, COD and FC. PMID:24410752

  4. Effect of dispersed crude oil exposure upon the aerobic metabolic scope in juvenile golden grey mullet (Liza aurata).

    PubMed

    Milinkovitch, Thomas; Lucas, Julie; Le Floch, Stéphane; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène; Lefrançois, Christel

    2012-04-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity of dispersant application which is, in nearshore area, a controversial response technique to oil spill. Through an experimental approach with juveniles of Liza aurata, the toxicity of five exposure conditions was evaluated: (i) a chemically dispersed oil simulating dispersant application; (ii) a single dispersant as an internal control of chemically dispersed oil; (iii) a mechanically dispersed oil simulating natural dispersion of oil; (iv) a water soluble fraction of oil simulating an undispersed and untreated oil slick and (v) uncontaminated seawater as a control exposure condition. The relative concentration of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) biliary metabolites showed that the incorporation of these toxic compounds was increased if the oil was dispersed, whether mechanically or chemically. However, toxicity was not observed at the organism level since the aerobic metabolic scope and the critical swimming speed of exposed fish were not impaired.

  5. Microbial community analysis of an aerobic nitrifying-denitrifying MBR treating ABS resin wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Yuan; Tanong, Kulchaya; Xu, Jia; Shon, Hokyong

    2011-05-01

    A two-stage aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) system for treating acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) resin wastewater was carried out in this study to evaluate the system performance on nitrification. The results showed that nitrification of the aerobic MBR system was significant and the highest TKN removal of approximately 90% was obtained at hydraulic retention time (HRT) 18 h. In addition, the result of nitrogen mass balance revealed that the percentage of TN removal due to denitrification was in the range of 8.7-19.8%. Microbial community analysis based on 16s rDNA molecular approach indicated that the dominant ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) group in the system was a β-class ammonia oxidizer which was identified as uncultured sludge bacterium (AF234732). A heterotrophic aerobic denitrifier identified as Thauera mechernichensis was found in the system. The results indicated that a sole aerobic MBR system for simultaneous removals of carbon and nitrogen can be designed and operated for neglect with an anaerobic unit.

  6. Depletion of Essential Fatty Acids in the Food Source Affects Aerobic Capacities of the Golden Grey Mullet Liza aurata in a Warming Seawater Context

    PubMed Central

    Zambonino Infante, José-Luis; Mazurais, David; Dubillot, Emmanuel; Le Delliou, Hervé; Quazuguel, Patrick; Lefrançois, Christel

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of thermal acclimation and n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) content of the food source on the aerobic capacities of fish in a thermal changing environment. The model used was the golden grey mullet Liza aurata, a species of high ecological importance in temperate coastal areas. For four months, fish were exposed to two food sources with contrasting n-3 HUFA contents (4.8% ecosapentaenoic acid EPA + docosahexaenoic acid DHA on the dry matter DM basis vs. 0.2% EPA+DHA on DM) combined with two acclimation temperatures (12°C vs. 20°C). The four experimental conditions were LH12, LH20, HH12 and HH20. Each group was then submitted to a thermal challenge consisting of successive exposures to five temperatures (9°C, 12°C, 16°C, 20°C, 24°C). At each temperature, the maximal and minimal metabolic rates, metabolic scope, and the maximum swimming speed were measured. Results showed that the cost of maintenance of basal metabolic activities was particularly higher when n-3 HUFA food content was low. Moreover, fish exposed to high acclimation temperature combined with a low n-3 HUFA dietary level (LH20) exhibited a higher aerobic scope, as well as a greater expenditure of energy to reach the same maximum swimming speed as other groups. This suggested a reduction of the amount of energy available to perform other physiological functions. This study is the first to show that the impact of lowering n-3 HUFA food content is exacerbated for fish previously acclimated to a warmer environment. It raises the question of the consequences of longer and warmer summers that have already been recorded and are still expected in temperate areas, as well as the pertinence of the lowering n-3 HUFA availability in the food web expected with global change, as a factor affecting marine organisms and communities. PMID:26030666

  7. Depletion of Essential Fatty Acids in the Food Source Affects Aerobic Capacities of the Golden Grey Mullet Liza aurata in a Warming Seawater Context.

    PubMed

    Vagner, Marie; Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas; Zambonino Infante, José-Luis; Mazurais, David; Dubillot, Emmanuel; Le Delliou, Hervé; Quazuguel, Patrick; Lefrançois, Christel

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of thermal acclimation and n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) content of the food source on the aerobic capacities of fish in a thermal changing environment. The model used was the golden grey mullet Liza aurata, a species of high ecological importance in temperate coastal areas. For four months, fish were exposed to two food sources with contrasting n-3 HUFA contents (4.8% ecosapentaenoic acid EPA + docosahexaenoic acid DHA on the dry matter DM basis vs. 0.2% EPA+DHA on DM) combined with two acclimation temperatures (12°C vs. 20°C). The four experimental conditions were LH12, LH20, HH12 and HH20. Each group was then submitted to a thermal challenge consisting of successive exposures to five temperatures (9°C, 12°C, 16°C, 20°C, 24°C). At each temperature, the maximal and minimal metabolic rates, metabolic scope, and the maximum swimming speed were measured. Results showed that the cost of maintenance of basal metabolic activities was particularly higher when n-3 HUFA food content was low. Moreover, fish exposed to high acclimation temperature combined with a low n-3 HUFA dietary level (LH20) exhibited a higher aerobic scope, as well as a greater expenditure of energy to reach the same maximum swimming speed as other groups. This suggested a reduction of the amount of energy available to perform other physiological functions. This study is the first to show that the impact of lowering n-3 HUFA food content is exacerbated for fish previously acclimated to a warmer environment. It raises the question of the consequences of longer and warmer summers that have already been recorded and are still expected in temperate areas, as well as the pertinence of the lowering n-3 HUFA availability in the food web expected with global change, as a factor affecting marine organisms and communities.

  8. Grey water biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Ghunmi, Lina Abu; Zeeman, Grietje; Fayyad, Manar; van Lier, Jules B

    2011-02-01

    Knowing the biodegradability characteristics of grey water constituents is imperative for a proper design and operation of a biological treatment system of grey water. This study characterizes the different COD fractions of dormitory grey water and investigates the effect of applying different conditions in the biodegradation test. The maximum aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability and conversion rate for the different COD fractions is determined. The results show that, on average, dormitory grey water COD fractions are 28% suspended, 32% colloidal and 40% dissolved. The studied factors incubation time, inoculum addition and temperature are influencing the determined biodegradability. The maximum biodegradability and biodegradation rate differ between different COD fractions, viz. COD(ss), COD(col) and COD(diss). The dissolved COD fraction is characterised by the lowest degradation rate, both for anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The maximum biodegradability for aerobic and anaerobic conditions is 86 and 70% respectively, whereas the first order conversion rate constant, k₂₀, is 0.119 and 0.005 day⁻¹, respectively. The anaerobic and aerobic conversion rates in relation to temperature can be described by the Arrhenius relation, with temperature coefficients of 1.069 and 1.099, respectively.

  9. Characterization of aerobic granular sludge treating high strength agro-based wastewater at different volumetric loadings.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Norhayati; Yuzir, Ali; Curtis, Thomas P; Yahya, Adibah; Ujang, Zaini

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between microbial community and mechanism of aerobic granulation could enable wider applications of granules for high-strength wastewater treatment. The majority of granulation studies principally determine the engineering aspects of granules formation with little emphasis on the microbial diversity. In this study, three identical reactors namely R1, R2 and R3 were operated using POME at volumetric loadings of 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 kg COD m(-3) d(-1), respectively. Aeration was provided at a volumetric flow rate of 2.5 cms(-1). Aerobic granules were successfully developed in R2 and R3 while bioflocs dominated R1 until the end of experiments. Fractal dimension (D(f)) averaged at 1.90 suggesting good compactness of granules. The PCR-DGGE results indicated microbial evolutionary shift throughout granulation despite different operating OLRs based on decreased Raup and Crick similarity indices upon mature granule formation. The characteristics of aerobic granules treating high strength agro-based wastewater are determined at different volumetric loadings.

  10. Characteristics of hydrocarbon hydroxylase genes in a thermophilic aerobic biological system treating oily produced wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruyin; Gao, Yingxin; Ji, Yifeng; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Alkane and aromatic hydroxylase genes in a full-scale aerobic system treating oily produced wastewater under thermophilic condition (45-50 °C) in the Jidong oilfield, China, were investigated using clone library and quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods. Rather than the normally encountered integral-membrane non-haem iron monooxygenase (alkB) genes, only CYP153-type P450 hydroxylase genes were detected for the alkane activation, indicating that the terminal oxidation of alkanes might be mainly mediated by the CYP153-type alkane hydroxylases in the thermophilic aerobic process. Most of the obtained CYP153 gene clones showed distant homology with the reference sequences, which might represent novel alkane hydroxylases. For the aromatic activation, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase (PAH-RHD) gene was derived from Gram-negative PAH-degraders belonging to the Burkholderiales order, with a 0.72% relative abundance of PAH-RHD gene to 16S rRNA gene. This was consistent with the result of 16S rRNA gene analysis, indicating that Burkholderiales bacteria might play a key role in the full-scale process of thermophilic hydrocarbon degradation.

  11. Use of aerobic granules for treating synthetic high-strength ammonium wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaonan; Wan, Chunli; Lei, Zhongfang; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Yi; Tay, Joo Hwa; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2014-08-01

    In this work, two identical sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) with mature aerobic granules were utilized to treat synthetic high-strength ammonium wastewaters with chemical oxygen demand (COD)/total nitrogen (TN) ratios of 3.9-6.9. The contributions of various mechanisms to the removal of ammonium were determined. Ammonium levels of 600-2000 mg-N l-1 had little adverse effect on the COD removal rate (91.6%-95.3%) with an influent COD of 4490-9860 mg l-1. The TN removal rate was slightly reduced from 71.3% to 59.6% as the influent ammonium concentration was increased from 600 to 2000 mg-N l-1. Experimental results indicated that aerobic granules removed 94.5% of COD and 59.6% of TN in the treatment of synthetic high-strength wastewater (9860 mg-COD l-1 and 2000 mg NH+4-Nl-1) during a 12 h cycle. Granular adsorption, air stripping and conversion by nitrification/denitrification were responsible for removing 9%, 15% and 76%, respectively, of the total removed NHf -N. Dissolved oxygen (DO) was a useful process indicator of the biological reactions in the treatment of high-level ammonium wastewaters.

  12. Physical properties and Extracellular Polymeric Substances pattern of aerobic granular sludge treating hypersaline wastewater.

    PubMed

    Corsino, Santo Fabio; Capodici, Marco; Torregrossa, Michele; Viviani, Gaspare

    2017-04-01

    The modification of the physical properties of aerobic granular sludge treating fish-canning wastewater is discussed in this paper. The structure and composition of the Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPSs) were analyzed at different salinity levels and related to granules stability. Results outlined that the total EPSs content increased with salinity, despite the EPSs increment was not proportional to the salt concentration. Moreover, the EPSs structure was significantly modified by salinity, leading to a gradual increase of the not-bound EPSs fraction, which was close to the 50% of the total EPSs content at 75gNaClL(-1). The increasing salt concentration modified also the EPSs composition, causing the gradual reduction of protein content resulting in a decrease of granule hydrophobicity. The results pointed out that the granules stability significantly reduced above 50gNaClL(-1), suggesting the existence of a salinity threshold above which granules stability is compromised.

  13. Comparison Among Aerobic Exercise and Other Types of Interventions to Treat Depression: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Lamego, Murilo Khede; Paes, Flávia; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Simoes-Silva, Vitor; Rocha, Susana Almeida; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Rimes, Ridson; Manochio, João; Budde, Henning; Wegner, Mirko; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a common and disabling disease that affects over 100 million people worldwide and can have a significant impact on physical and mental health, reducing their quality of life. Thus, the aim of this article was to provide information on research results and key chains related to the therapeutic effects of chronic aerobic exercise compared with other types of interventions to treat depression, which may become a useful clinical application in a near future. Researches have shown the effectiveness of alternative treatments, such as physical exercise, minimizing high financial costs and minimizing side effects. In this review, the data analyzed allows us to claim that alternative therapies, such as exercise, are effective on controlling and reducing symptoms. 69.3% of the studies that investigated the antidepressant effects of exercise on depressive were significant, and the other 30.7% of the studies improved only in general physiological aspects, such as increased oxygen uptake, increased use of blood glucose and decreased body fat percentage, with no improvement on symptoms of depression. From the sample analyzed, 71.4% was composed of women, and regarding the severity of symptoms, 85% had mild to moderate depression and only 15% had moderate to severe depression. However, there is still disagreement regarding the effect of exercise compared to the use of antidepressants in symptomatology and cognitive function in depression, this suggests that there is no consensus on the correct intensity of aerobic exercise as to achieve the best dose-response, with intensities high to moderate or moderate to mild.

  14. Channel structures in aerobic biofilms of fixed-film reactors treating contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed Central

    Massol-Deyá, A A; Whallon, J; Hickey, R F; Tiedje, J M

    1995-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy, confocal scanning laser microscopy, and fatty acid methyl ester profiles were used to study the development, organization, and structure of aerobic multispecies biofilm communities in granular activated-carbon (GAC) fluidized-bed reactors treating petroleum-contaminated groundwaters. The sequential development of biofilm structure was studied in a laboratory reactor fed toluene-amended groundwater and colonized by the indigenous aquifer populations. During the early stages of colonization, microcolonies were observed primarily in crevices and other regions sheltered from hydraulic shear forces. Eventually, these microcolonies grew over the entire surface of the GAC. This growth led to the development of discrete discontinuous multilayer biofilm structures. Cell-free channel-like structures of variable sizes were observed to interconnect the surface film with the deep inner layers. These interconnections appeared to increase the biological surface area per unit volume ratio, which may facilitate transport of substrates into and waste products out of deep regions of the biofilm at rates greater than possible by diffusion alone. These architectural features were also observed in biofilms from four field-scale GAC reactors that were in commercial operation treating petroleum-contaminated groundwaters. These shared features suggest that formation of cell-free channel structures and their maintenance may be a general microbial strategy to deal with the problem of limiting diffusive transport in thick biofilms typical of fluidized-bed reactors. PMID:7574613

  15. Combined Fenton oxidation and aerobic biological processes for treating a surfactant wastewater containing abundant sulfate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Jun; Song, Yang; Mai, Jun-Sheng

    2008-12-30

    The present study is to investigate the treatment of a surfactant wastewater containing abundant sulfate by Fenton oxidation and aerobic biological processes. The operating conditions have been optimized. Working at an initial pH value of 8, a Fe2+ dosage of 600mgL(-1) and a H2O2 dosage of 120mgL(-1), the chemical oxidation demand (COD) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) were decreased from 1500 and 490mgL(-1) to 230 and 23mgL(-1) after 40min of Fenton oxidation, respectively. Advanced oxidation pretreatment using Fenton reagent was very effective at enhancing the biodegradability of this kind of wastewater. The wastewater was further treated by a bio-chemical treatment process based on an immobilized biomass reactor with a hydraulic detention time (HRT) of 20h after Fenton oxidation pretreatment under the optimal operating conditions. It was found that the COD and LAS of the final effluent were less than 100 and 5mgL(-1), corresponding to a removal efficiencies of over 94% and 99%, respectively.

  16. Bacterial community analysis of swine manure treated with autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Han, Il; Congeevaram, Shankar; Ki, Dong-Won; Oh, Byoung-Taek; Park, Joonhong

    2011-02-01

    Due to the environmental problems associated with disposal of livestock sludge, many stabilization studies emphasizing on the sludge volume reduction were performed. However, little is known about the microbial risk present in sludge and its stabilized products. This study microbiologically explored the effects of anaerobic lagoon fermentation (ALF) and autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) on pathogen-related risk of raw swine manure by using culture-independent 16S rDNA cloning and sequencing methods. In raw swine manure, clones closely related to pathogens such as Dialister pneumosintes, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Succinivibrioan dextrinosolvens, and Schineria sp. were detected. Meanwhile, in the mesophilic ALF-treated swine manure, bacterial community clones closely related to pathogens such as Schineria sp. and Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens were still detected. Interestingly, the ATAD treatment resulted in no detection of clones closely related to pathogens in the stabilized thermophilic bacterial community, with the predominance of novel Clostridia class populations. These findings support the superiority of ATAD in selectively reducing potential human and animal pathogens compared to ALF, which is a typical manure stabilization method used in livestock farms.

  17. Activity and growth of anammox biomass on aerobically pre-treated municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Laureni, Michele; Weissbrodt, David G; Szivák, Ilona; Robin, Orlane; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Joss, Adriano

    2015-09-01

    Direct treatment of municipal wastewater (MWW) based on anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria holds promise to turn the energy balance of wastewater treatment neutral or even positive. Currently, anammox processes are successfully implemented at full scale for the treatment of high-strength wastewaters, whereas the possibility of their mainstream application still needs to be confirmed. In this study, the growth of anammox organisms on aerobically pre-treated municipal wastewater (MWW(pre-treated)), amended with nitrite, was proven in three parallel reactors. The reactors were operated at total N concentrations in the range 5-20 mg(N)∙L(-1), as expected for MWW. Anammox activities up to 465 mg(N)∙L(-1)∙d(-1) were reached at 29 °C, with minimum doubling times of 18 d. Lowering the temperature to 12.5 °C resulted in a marked decrease in activity to 46 mg(N)∙L(-1)∙d(-1) (79 days doubling time), still in a reasonable range for autotrophic nitrogen removal from MWW. During the experiment, the biomass evolved from a suspended growth inoculum to a hybrid system with suspended flocs and wall-attached biofilm. At the same time, MWW(pre-treated) had a direct impact on process performance. Changing the influent from synthetic medium to MWW(pre-treated) resulted in a two-month delay in net anammox growth and a two to three-fold increase in the estimated doubling times of the anammox organisms. Interestingly, anammox remained the primary nitrogen consumption route, and high-throughput 16S rRNA gene-targeted amplicon sequencing analyses revealed that the shift in performance was not associated with a shift in dominant anammox bacteria ("Candidatus Brocadia fulgida"). Furthermore, only limited heterotrophic denitrification was observed in the presence of easily biodegradable organics (acetate, glucose). The observed delays in net anammox growth were thus ascribed to the acclimatization of the initial anammox population or/and the development of a side

  18. Rapid aerobic granulation in an SBR treating piggery wastewater by seeding sludge from a municipal WWTP.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Li, Jun; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Qi; Littleton, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Aerobic sludge granulation was rapidly obtained in the erlenmeyer bottle and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using piggery wastewater. Aerobic granulation occurred on day 3 and granules with mean diameter of 0.2mm and SVI30 of 20.3mL/g formed in SBR on day 18. High concentrations of Ca and Fe in the raw piggery wastewater and operating mode accelerated aerobic granulation, even though the seed sludge was from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Alpha diversity analysis revealed Operational Taxonomic Units, Shannon, ACE and Chao 1 indexes in aerobic granules were 2013, 5.51, 4665.5 and 3734.5, which were obviously lower compared to seed sludge. The percentages of major microbial communities, such as Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were obviously higher in aerobic granules than seed sludge. Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria, TM7 and Acidobacteria showed much higher abundances in the inoculum. The main reasons might be the characteristics of raw piggery wastewater and granule structure.

  19. Abundance and distribution of Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin resistance genes in an anaerobic-aerobic system treating spiramycin production wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Miaomiao; Ding, Ran; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Yingxin; Tian, Zhe; Zhang, Tong; Yang, Min

    2014-10-15

    The behaviors of the Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin (MLS) resistance genes were investigated in an anaerobic-aerobic pilot-scale system treating spiramycin (SPM) production wastewater. After screening fifteen typical MLS resistance genes with different mechanisms using conventional PCR, eight detected genes were determined by quantitative PCR, together with three mobile elements. Aerobic sludge in the pilot system exhibited a total relative abundance of MLS resistance genes (per 16S rRNA gene) 2.5 logs higher than those in control samples collected from sewage and inosine wastewater treatment systems (P < 0.05), implying the presence of SPM could induce the production of MLS resistance genes. However, the total relative gene abundance in anaerobic sludge (4.3 × 10(-1)) was lower than that in aerobic sludge (3.7 × 10(0)) despite of the higher SPM level in anaerobic reactor, showing the advantage of anaerobic treatment in reducing the production of MLS resistance genes. The rRNA methylase genes (erm(B), erm(F), erm(X)) were the most abundant in the aerobic sludge (5.3 × 10(-1)-1.7 × 10(0)), followed by esterase gene ere(A) (1.3 × 10(-1)) and phosphorylase gene mph(B) (5.7 × 10(-2)). In anaerobic sludge, erm(B), erm(F), ere(A), and msr(D) were the major ones (1.2 × 10(-2)-3.2 × 10(-1)). These MLS resistance genes (except for msr(D)) were positively correlated with Class 1 integron (r(2) = 0.74-0.93, P < 0.05), implying the significance of horizontal transfer in their proliferation.

  20. Comprehensive microbial analysis of combined mesophilic anaerobic-thermophilic aerobic process treating high-strength food wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun Min; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Park, Jong Moon; Kim, Mi-Sun; Sommer, Sven G

    2015-04-15

    A combined mesophilic anaerobic-thermophilic aerobic process was used to treat high-strength food wastewater in this study. During the experimental period, most of solid residue from the mesophilic anaerobic reactor (R1) was separated by centrifugation and introduced into the thermophilic aerobic reactor (R2) for further digestion. Then, thermophilic aerobically-digested sludge was reintroduced into R1 to enhance reactor performance. The combined process was operated with two different Runs: Run I with hydraulic retention time (HRT) = 40 d (corresponding OLR = 3.5 kg COD/m(3) d) and Run II with HRT = 20 d (corresponding OLR = 7 kg COD/m(3)). For a comparison, a single-stage mesophilic anaerobic reactor (R3) was operated concurrently with same OLRs and HRTs as the combined process. During the overall digestion, all reactors showed high stability without pH control. The combined process demonstrated significantly higher organic matter removal efficiencies (over 90%) of TS, VS and COD and methane production than did R3. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) results indicated that higher populations of both bacteria and archaea were maintained in R1 than in R3. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed relatively high abundance of phylum Actinobacteria in both R1 and R2, and a predominance of phyla Synergistetes and Firmicutes in R3 during Run II. Furthermore, R1 and R2 shared genera (Prevotella, Aminobacterium, Geobacillus and Unclassified Actinobacteria), which suggests synergy between mesophilic anaerobic digestion and thermophilic aerobic digestion. For archaea, in R1 methanogenic archaea shifted from genus Methanosaeta to Methanosarcina, whereas genera Methanosaeta, Methanobacterium and Methanoculleus were predominant in R3. The results demonstrated dynamics of key microbial populations that were highly consistent with an enhanced reactor performance of the combined process.

  1. Monitoring and assessment of treated river, rain, gully pot and grey waters for irrigation of Capsicum annuum.

    PubMed

    Al-Isawi, Rawaa H K; Almuktar, Suhad A A A N; Scholz, Miklas

    2016-05-01

    This study examines the benefits and risks associated with various types of wastewater recycled for vegetable garden irrigation and proposes the best water source in terms of its water quality impact on crop yields. The aim was to evaluate the usability of river, rain, gully pot, real grey and artificial grey waters to water crops. The objectives were to evaluate variables and boundary conditions influencing the growth of chillies (De Cayenne; Capsicum annuum (Linnaeus) Longum Group 'De Cayenne') both in the laboratory and in the greenhouse. A few irrigated chilli plants suffered from excess of some nutrients, which led to a relatively poor harvest. High levels of trace minerals and heavy metals were detected in river water, gully pot effluent and greywater. However, no significant differences in plant yields were observed, if compared with standards and other yields worldwide. The highest yields were associated with river water both in the laboratory and in the greenhouse. Plant productivity was unaffected by water quality due to the high manganese, potassium, cadmium and copper levels of the greywater. These results indicate the potential of river water and gully pot effluent as viable alternatives to potable water for irrigation in agriculture.

  2. [Degradation Characteristics of Three Aniline Compounds in Simulated Aerobic Sewage Treat System].

    PubMed

    Gu, Wen; Zhou, Lin-jun; Liu, Ji-ning; Chen, Guo-song; Shi, Li-li; Xu, Yan-hua

    2016-01-15

    The removal rates of 4-nitroaniline, 4-isopropyl aniline and 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline under different hydraulic retention time (HRT) were tested by employing a simulation method of aerobic biochemical sewage treatment technology in this study. The results showed that when HRT was 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h, the removal rates of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were 70.2%, 80.3% and 88.3%, the removal rates of 4-nitroaniline were 48%, 64.7% and 75%; and the removal rates of 4-isopropyl aniline were 66%, 76% and 91%, respectively. It was concluded that increasing HRT could promote the removal rates of DOC and aniline chemicals. In contrast, 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline was difficult to be removed. The removal rates were less than 20% under all tested conditions. The kinetics analysis showed that the biodegradation of 4-nitroaniline, 4-isopropyl aniline and 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline in aerobic activated sewage (3 g x L(-1)) accorded with the first order kinetics and the regression coefficients were > 0.95. The half-life time of biodegradation was 6.01 h, 16.16 h, 123.75 h, respectively. In general, functional groups such as isopropyl had a positive effect on the biodegradation of aniline chemicals, whereas substituents such as nitro group and chlorine atom had an inhibitory effect.

  3. Nitrous oxide emissions from an aerobic granular sludge system treating low-strength ammonium wastewater.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mingming; Yang, Sen; Wang, Mingyu; Wang, Xin-Hua

    2016-11-01

    Aerobic granular sludge is a promising technology in wastewater treatment process. Its special microorganism structure could make the emissions of greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) more complicated. This study investigated the N2O emissions from a batch-fed aerobic granular sludge system during nitrification of low-strength synthetic ammonium wastewater. The N2O emission was 2.72 ± 0.52% of the oxidized ammonium during the whole anoxic-oxic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) cycle. Under nitrification batch test with sole ammonium substrate (50 mg N/L), N2O emission factor was 1.82% (N2ON/NH4(+)-Nox) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was the responsible microorganism. The presence of high ammonium concentration (or high ammonium oxidation rate (AOR)) and accumulation of nitrite would lead to significant N2O emissions. AOB denitrification pathway was speculated to contribute more to the N2O emissions under nitrification conditions. While under simultaneous nitrification and denitrification condition with carbon source of 500 mg COD/L, the N2O emission factor increased to 2.76%. Both AOB and heterotrophic denitrifiers were responsible for N2O emission and heterotrophic denitrification enhances N2O emission. Step feeding of organic carbon source declined N2O emission factor to 1.60%, which underlined the role of storage substance consumption in N2O generation during denitrification.

  4. Nitrite accumulation performance of aerobic MBBR treating Lurgi coal gasification waste water by adjusting pollutant load and DO concentration.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Qiang; Han, Hong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    An aerobic moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was adopted to treat Lurgi coal gasification waste water (LCGW) in about 10 months. The pollutant load and dissolve oxygen (DO) concentration were adjusted by trying to maximize the accumulation of [Formula: see text] in the MBBR for LCGW treatment. The highest [Formula: see text] accumulation proportion [Formula: see text] was 73.9%, but was not stable with influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and DO concentrations of around 1000 and 1.5 mg/L, respectively. Around 1500 mg/L of influent COD concentration and 1.5 mg/L of DO concentration were proper operation conditions for the aerobic MBBR to achieve relatively stable [Formula: see text] accumulation, with [Formula: see text] ratio at 53% and [Formula: see text] ratio at just 4.3% in the effluent. More specifically, free ammonia concentration and DO concentration affected [Formula: see text] accumulation much more obvious than phenols concentration. The activity and quantity of nitrifying bacteria growth in suspended sludge and biofilm of the MBBR were monitored simultaneously to explain the variations of [Formula: see text] accumulation performance under different operation conditions. An aerobic moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was adopted to treat Lurgi coal gasification waste water (LCGW)in about 10 months. The pollutant load and dissolve oxygen (DO) concentration were adjusted by trying to maximize the accumulation of NO(−)(2)−N in the MBBR for LCGW treatment. The highest NO(−)(2)−N accumulation proportion(NO(−)(2)−Neffluent/TN effluent) was 73.9%, but was not stable with influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and DO concentrations of around 1000 and 1.5 mg/L, respectively. Around 1500 mg/L of influent COD concentration and 1.5 mg/L of DO concentration were proper operation conditions for the aerobic MBBR to achieve relatively stable NO(−)(2)−N accumulation,with NO(−)(2)−N/TN ratio at 53% and NO(-)(3)−N/TN ratio at just 4.3% in the

  5. Pyrosequence analysis of bacterial communities in aerobic bioreactors treating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Singleton, David R; Richardson, Stephen D; Aitken, Michael D

    2011-11-01

    Two aerobic, lab-scale, slurry-phase bioreactors were used to examine the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil and the associated bacterial communities. The two bioreactors were operated under semi-continuous (draw-and-fill) conditions at a residence time of 35 days, but one was fed weekly and the other monthly. Most of the quantified PAHs, including high-molecular-weight compounds, were removed to a greater extent in the weekly-fed bioreactor, which achieved total PAH removal of 76%. Molecular analyses, including pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, revealed significant shifts in the soil bacterial communities after introduction to the bioreactors and differences in the abundance and types of bacteria in each of the bioreactors. The weekly-fed bioreactor displayed a more stable bacterial community with gradual changes over time, whereas the monthly-fed bioreactor community was less consistent and may have been more strongly influenced by the influx of untreated soil during feeding. Phylogenetic groups containing known PAH-degrading bacteria previously identified through stable-isotope probing of the untreated soil were differentially affected by bioreactor conditions. Sequences from members of the Acidovorax and Sphingomonas genera, as well as the uncultivated "Pyrene Group 2" were abundant in the bioreactors. However, the relative abundances of sequences from the Pseudomonas, Sphingobium, and Pseudoxanthomonas genera, as well as from a group of unclassified anthracene degraders, were much lower in the bioreactors compared to the untreated soil.

  6. Pyrosequence analysis of bacterial communities in aerobic bioreactors treating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Stephen D.; Aitken, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Two aerobic, lab-scale, slurry-phase bioreactors were used to examine the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil and the associated bacterial communities. The two bioreactors were operated under semi-continuous (draw-and-fill) conditions at a residence time of 35 days, but one was fed weekly and the other monthly. Most of the quantified PAHs, including high-molecular-weight compounds, were removed to a greater extent in the weekly-fed bioreactor, which achieved total PAH removal of 76%. Molecular analyses, including pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, revealed significant shifts in the soil bacterial communities after introduction to the bioreactors and differences in the abundance and types of bacteria in each of the bioreactors. The weekly-fed bioreactor displayed a more stable bacterial community with gradual changes over time, whereas the monthly-fed bioreactor community was less consistent and may have been more strongly influenced by the influx of untreated soil during feeding. Phylogenetic groups containing known PAH-degrading bacteria previously identified through stable-isotope probing of the untreated soil were differentially affected by bioreactor conditions. Sequences from members of the Acidovorax and Sphingomonas genera, as well as the uncultivated ‘‘Pyrene Group 2’’ were abundant in the bioreactors. However, the relative abundances of sequences from the Pseudomonas, Sphingobium, and Pseudoxanthomonas genera, as well as from a group of unclassified anthracene degraders, were much lower in the bioreactors compared to the untreated soil. PMID:21369833

  7. "Grey matters".

    PubMed

    Rose, Katie

    2014-01-01

    It's common in this world, for diagnoses to be confused. This grey, oblique world is the "World of Brain Tumors" from which these narratives are written, a world I entered when a tangerine-sized tumor was found on my temporal lobe. Each narrative illustrates this world in which everything is covered in a thick film rendering things once obvious, now unknown. Parents are asked to choose treatment plans for their children, plans that will inevitably alter their child's quality of life but in ways they cannot determine or even imagine. Parents are asked to play God. Most of the parents who share their stories in this collection, parents of PBT (pediatric brain tumor) patients have to walk the line of trying to not disrupt their relationships with their physicians, wanting the best for their child, and facing the decision to follow their gut or go with advised treatment plans.

  8. Cycle length and COD/N ratio determine properties of aerobic granules treating high-nitrogen wastewater.

    PubMed

    Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Bernat, Katarzyna; Zielińska, Magdalena; Wojnowska-Baryła, Irena

    2014-07-01

    Aerobic granule characteristic in sequencing batch reactors treating high-nitrogen digester supernatant was investigated at cycle lengths (t) of 6, 8 and 12 h with the COD/N ratios in the influent of 4.5 and 2.3. The biomass production (Y obs) correlated with the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in grams per COD removed. Denitrification efficiency significantly decreased as the amount of EPS in biomass increased, suggesting that organic assimilation in EPS hampers nitrogen removal. Granule hydrophobicity was highest at t of 8 h; the t has to be long enough to remove pollutants, but not so long that excessive biomass starvation causes extracellular protein consumption that decreases hydrophobicity. At a given t, reducing the COD/N ratio improved hydrophobicity that stimulates cell aggregation. At t of 6 h and the COD/N ratio of 2.3, the dominance of 0.5-1.0 mm granules favored simultaneous nitrification and denitrification and resulted in the highest nitrogen removal.

  9. An evaluation of aerobic and anaerobic composting of banana peels treated with different inoculums for soil nutrient replenishment.

    PubMed

    Kalemelawa, Frank; Nishihara, Eiji; Endo, Tsuneyoshi; Ahmad, Zahoor; Yeasmin, Rumana; Tenywa, Moses M; Yamamoto, Sadahiro

    2012-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate the efficacy of aerobic and anaerobic composting of inoculated banana peels, and assess the agronomic value of banana peel-based compost. Changes in the chemical composition under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were examined for four formulations of banana peel-based wastes over a period of 12 weeks. The formulations i.e. plain banana peel (B), and a mixture with either cow dung (BC), poultry litter (BP) or earthworm (BE) were separately composted under aerobic and anaerobic conditions under laboratory conditions. Inoculation with either cow dung or poultry litter significantly facilitated mineralization in the order: BP>BC>B. The rate of decomposition was significantly faster under aerobic than in anaerobic composting conditions. The final composts contained high K (>100 g kg(-1)) and TN (>2%), indicating high potential as a source of K and N fertilizer.

  10. A two-stage aerobic/anaerobic denitrifying horizontal bioreactor designed for treating ammonium and H(2)S simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Chinalia, F A; Garbossa, L H P; Rodriguez, J A; Lapa, K R; Foresti, E

    2012-11-01

    A two-stage bioreactor was operated for a period of 140 days in order to develop a post-treatment process based on anaerobic bioxidation of sulfite. This process was designed for simultaneously treating the effluent and biogas of a full-scale UASB reactor, containing significant concentrations of NH(4) and H(2)S, respectively. The system comprised of two horizontal-flow bed-packed reactors operated with different oxygen concentrations. Ammonium present in the effluent was transformed into nitrates in the first aerobic stage. The second anaerobic stage combined the treatment of nitrates in the liquor with the hydrogen sulfide present in the UASB-reactor biogas. Nitrates were consumed with a significant production of sulfate, resulting in a nitrate removal rate of 0.43 kgNm(3)day(-1) and ≥92 % efficiency. Such a removal rate is comparable to those achieved by heterotrophic denitrifying systems. Polymeric forms of sulfur were not detected (elementary sulfur); sulfate was the main product of the sulfide-based denitrifying process. S-sulfate was produced at a rate of about 0.35 kgm(3)day(-1). Sulfur inputs as S-H(2)S were estimated at about 0.75 kgm(3)day(-1) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal rates did not vary significantly during the process. DGGE profiling and 16S rRNA identified Halothiobacillus-like species as the key microorganism supporting this process; such a strain has not yet been previously associated with such bioengineered systems.

  11. 454-Pyrosequencing analysis of highly adapted azo dye-degrading microbial communities in a two-stage anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor treating textile effluent.

    PubMed

    Köchling, Thorsten; Ferraz, Antônio Djalma Nunes; Florencio, Lourdinha; Kato, Mario Takayuki; Gavazza, Sávia

    2017-03-01

    Azo dyes, which are widely used in the textile industry, exhibit significant toxic characteristics for the environment and the human population. Sequential anaerobic-aerobic reactor systems are efficient for the degradation of dyes and the mineralization of intermediate compounds; however, little is known about the composition of the microbial communities responsible for dye degradation in these systems. 454-Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was employed to assess the bacterial biodiversity and composition of a two-stage (anaerobic-aerobic) pilot-scale reactor that treats effluent from a denim factory. The anaerobic reactor was inoculated with anaerobic sludge from a domestic sewage treatment plant. Due to the selective composition of the textile wastewater, after 210 days of operation, the anaerobic reactor was dominated by the single genus Clostridium, affiliated with the Firmicutes phylum. The aerobic biofilter harbored a diverse bacterial community. The most abundant phylum in the aerobic biofilter was Proteobacteria, which was primarily represented by the Gamma, Delta and Epsilon classes followed by Firmicutes and other phyla. Several bacterial genera were identified that most likely played an essential role in azo dye degradation in the investigated system.

  12. Effect of Grey Hair Evulsion on the Response to Calcium Pantothenate in Premature Grey Hairs.

    PubMed

    Pasricha, J S

    1986-01-01

    Thirty nine girls between 12 and 31 years in age, having Premature grey hairs were, treated with calcium pantothenate 200 mg, Basiton Forte. (a vitamin B complex formulation), and/or vitamin E 200 mg a day orally, combined with grey hair evulsion which consists of pulling out all the grey hairs along with snipping the converted hairs at the grey black junction, and checking after 3-5 months, the numbers of hairs regrowing as grey hairs, new grey hairs, new converted hairs and the hairs missed during the previous check - ups. This study revealed that following evulsion of grey hairs, all such hairs do not regrow as grey hairs, the per cent rate of regrowth varied between nil and 88.23% during the first recheck, and almost similar results were obtained during further follow up. Out of 7 patients who have been followed up for almost 3 years, the total numbers of grey hairs had decreased from 109 to 15, 47 to 1, 35 to 7, and 242 to 7 in 4 cases, increased from 31 to 108 and 23 to 41 in 2 cases, and remained almost unchanged from 25 to 33 in the seventh case. This response is considered better than the effect of calcium panthothenate used without grey hair evulsion.

  13. Review of the technological approaches for grey water treatment and reuses.

    PubMed

    Li, Fangyue; Wichmann, Knut; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2009-05-15

    Based on literature review, a non-potable urban grey water reuse standard is proposed and the treatment alternatives and reuse scheme for grey water reuses are evaluated according to grey water characteristics and the proposed standard. The literature review shows that all types of grey water have good biodegradability. The bathroom and the laundry grey water are deficient in both nitrogen and phosphors. The kitchen grey water has a balanced COD: N: P ratio. The review also reveals that physical processes alone are not sufficient to guarantee an adequate reduction of the organics, nutrients and surfactants. The chemical processes can efficiently remove the suspended solids, organic materials and surfactants in the low strength grey water. The combination of aerobic biological process with physical filtration and disinfection is considered to be the most economical and feasible solution for grey water recycling. The MBR appears to be a very attractive solution in collective urban residential buildings.

  14. 35. GREY IRON TUMBLERS, IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY ROTATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. GREY IRON TUMBLERS, IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY ROTATE CASTINGS WITH SHOT TO REMOVE AND SURFACE OXIDES AND REMAINING EXCESS METALS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. Uncertainty representation of grey numbers and grey sets.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yingjie; Liu, Sifeng; John, Robert

    2014-09-01

    In the literature, there is a presumption that a grey set and an interval-valued fuzzy set are equivalent. This presumption ignores the existence of discrete components in a grey number. In this paper, new measurements of uncertainties of grey numbers and grey sets, consisting of both absolute and relative uncertainties, are defined to give a comprehensive representation of uncertainties in a grey number and a grey set. Some simple examples are provided to illustrate that the proposed uncertainty measurement can give an effective representation of both absolute and relative uncertainties in a grey number and a grey set. The relationships between grey sets and interval-valued fuzzy sets are also analyzed from the point of view of the proposed uncertainty representation. The analysis demonstrates that grey sets and interval-valued fuzzy sets provide different but overlapping models for uncertainty representation in sets.

  16. Can Puva Darken Grey Hair.

    PubMed

    Pasricha, J S

    1987-01-01

    Grey hairs obtained from patients having premature grey hairs were exposed to UVA or UVB for 30 mmutes daily for 17 days and another group of grey hairs were first daily painted with 1% aqueous solution of psoralen and then exposed to UVA for 30 minutes for 17 days. Under neither of these conditions, the greys hairs showed any darkening.

  17. Grey matter volumes in treatment naïve vs. chronically treated children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a combined approach.

    PubMed

    Villemonteix, Thomas; De Brito, Stéphane A; Kavec, Martin; Balériaux, Danielle; Metens, Thierry; Slama, Hichem; Baijot, Simon; Mary, Alison; Peigneux, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle

    2015-08-01

    Psychostimulants are the first-line treatment in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but their effects on brain development remain poorly understood. In particular, previous structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) studies only investigated treatment effects on grey matter (GM) volumes in selected regions of interest (ROIs). In this study, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to assess medication-related GM volume differences across the entire brain. Automated tracing measurements of selected ROIs were also obtained. Three groups (77 participants aged 7-to-13 year old) underwent MRI scans and were compared: never-medicated children with ADHD (n=33), medicated (methylphenidate) children with ADHD (n=20) and typically developing children (TD; n=24). Optimised VBM was used to investigate regional GM volumes, controlling for age and gender. Automated tracing procedures were also used to assess the average volume of the caudate nucleus, the amygdala and the nucleus accumbens. When compared to both medicated children with ADHD and TD children, never-medicated children with ADHD exhibited decreased GM volume in the insula and in the middle temporal gyrus. When compared to TD children, medicated children with ADHD had decreased GM volume in the middle frontal gyrus and in the precentral gyrus. Finally, ROI analyses revealed a significant association between duration of treatment and GM volume of the left nucleus accumbens in medicated children with ADHD. In conclusion, this study documents potential methylphenidate-related GM volume normalization and deviation in previously unexplored brain structures, and reports a positive association between treatment history and GM volume in the nucleus accumbens, a key region for reward-processing.

  18. Kinetics, mass transfer and hydrodynamics in a packed bed aerobic reactor fed with anaerobically treated domestic sewage.

    PubMed

    Fazolo, A; Pasotto, M B; Foresti, E; Zaiat, M

    2006-10-01

    This study presents an assessment of the kinetic, mass transfer and hydrodynamic parameters of a pilot-scale fixed bed reactor containing immobilized biomass in polyurethane matrices and fed with the effluent of a horizontal-flow fixed bed anaerobic reactor, which was used to treat domestic sewage. It was found that the liquid-solid and intra-particle mass transfer resistances significantly affected the overall oxygen consumption rate and that mechanical agitation could minimize such resistances. The volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa) values for superficial air velocities between 8.4 cm min(-1) and 57.0 cm min(-1) varied from 20.8 h(-1) to 58.8 h(-1) for tap water, and 16.8 h(-1) to 53.0 h(-1) for the anaerobic pre-treated effluent. The intrinsic oxygen uptake rate was estimated to be 19.9 mgO2 gVSS(-1) h(-1). A first-order kinetic model with residual concentration was considered to adequately represent the COD removal rate, whereas nitrogen conversion was considered to be well represented by a model of pseudo-first-order reaction in series. It was also found that the ammonium conversion to nitrite was the limiting step of the overall nitrogen conversion rate. The hydrodynamic behavior of the reactor was represented by three to four completely mixed reactors in series.

  19. Improving the performance of an aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating pharmaceutical wastewater with powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Yasemin; Bacaksiz, A Murat; Golebatmaz, Ugur; Vergili, Ilda; Gönder, Z Beril; Yilmaz, Gulsum

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the effects of organic loading rate (OLR) and the addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC) on the performance and membrane fouling of MBR were conducted to treat real pharmaceutical process wastewater. Over 145 days of operation, the MBR system was operated at OLRs ranging from 1 to 2 kg COD m(-3) day(-1) without sludge wasting. The addition of PAC provided an improvement in the flux, despite an increase in the OLR:PAC ratio. The results demonstrated that the hybrid PAC-MBR system maintained a reduced amount of membrane fouling and steadily increased the removal performance of etodolac. PAC addition reduced the deposition of extracellular polymeric substance and organic matter on the membrane surface and resulted an increase in COD removal even at higher OLRs with low PAC addition. Membrane fouling mechanisms were investigated using combined adsorption fouling models. Modified fouling index values and normalized mass transfer coefficient values indicated that predominant fouling mechanism was cake adsorption.

  20. The effectiveness of aerobic training, cognitive behavioural therapy, and energy conservation management in treating MS-related fatigue: the design of the TREFAMS-ACE programme

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background TREFAMS is an acronym for TReating FAtigue in Multiple Sclerosis, while ACE refers to the rehabilitation treatment methods under study, that is, Aerobic training, Cognitive behavioural therapy, and Energy conservation management. The TREFAMS-ACE research programme consists of four studies and has two main objectives: (1) to assess the effectiveness of three different rehabilitation treatment strategies in reducing fatigue and improving societal participation in patients with MS; and (2) to study the neurobiological mechanisms of action that underlie treatment effects and MS-related fatigue in general. Methods/Design Ambulatory patients (n = 270) suffering from MS-related fatigue will be recruited to three single-blinded randomised clinical trials (RCTs). In each RCT, 90 patients will be randomly allocated to the trial-specific intervention or to a low-intensity intervention that is the same for all RCTs. This low-intensity intervention consists of three individual consultations with a specialised MS-nurse. The trial-specific interventions are Aerobic Training, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, and Energy Conservation Management. These interventions consist of 12 individual therapist-supervised sessions with additional intervention-specific home exercises. The therapy period lasts 16 weeks. All RCTs have the same design and the same primary outcome measures: fatigue - measured with the Checklist Individual Strength, and participation - measured with the Impact on Participation and Autonomy questionnaire. Outcomes will be assessed 1 week prior to, and at 0, 8, 16, 26 and 52 weeks after randomisation. The assessors will be blinded to allocation. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in serum, salivary cortisol, physical fitness, physical activity, coping, self-efficacy, illness cognitions and other determinants will be longitudinally measured in order to study the neurobiological mechanisms of action. Discussion The TREFAMS-ACE programme is unique in its aim to

  1. Grey swan tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ning; Emanuel, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    We define `grey swan’ tropical cyclones as high-impact storms that would not be predicted based on history but may be foreseeable using physical knowledge together with historical data. Here we apply a climatological-hydrodynamic method to estimate grey swan tropical cyclone storm surge threat for three highly vulnerable coastal regions. We identify a potentially large risk in the Persian Gulf, where tropical cyclones have never been recorded, and larger-than-expected threats in Cairns, Australia, and Tampa, Florida. Grey swan tropical cyclones striking Tampa, Cairns and Dubai can generate storm surges of about 6 m, 5.7 m and 4 m, respectively, with estimated annual exceedance probabilities of about 1/10,000. With climate change, these probabilities can increase significantly over the twenty-first century (to 1/3,100-1/1,100 in the middle and 1/2,500-1/700 towards the end of the century for Tampa). Worse grey swan tropical cyclones, inducing surges exceeding 11 m in Tampa and 7 m in Dubai, are also revealed with non-negligible probabilities, especially towards the end of the century.

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of the bacterial community in a full scale autothermal thermophilic aerobic digester (ATAD) treating mixed domestic wastewater sludge for land spread.

    PubMed

    Piterina, Anna V; Bartlett, John; Pembroke, J Tony

    2012-05-15

    The bacterial community associated with a full scale autothermal thermophilic aerobic digester (ATAD) treating sludge, originating from domestic wastewater and destined for land spread, was analysed using a number of molecular approaches optimised specifically for this high temperature environment. 16S rDNA genes were amplified directly from sludge with universally conserved and Bacteria-specific rDNA gene primers and a clone library constructed that corresponded to the late thermophilic stage (t = 23 h) of the ATAD process. Sequence analyses revealed various 16S rDNA gene sequence types reflective of high bacterial community diversity. Members of the bacterial community included α- and β-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria with High G + C content and Gram-Positive bacteria with a prevalence of the Firmicutes (Low G + C) division (class Clostridia and Bacillus). Most of the ATAD clones showed affiliation with bacterial species previously isolated or detected in other elevated temperature environments, at alkaline pH, or in cellulose rich environments. Several phylotypes associated with Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-reducing anaerobes were also detected. The presence of anaerobes was of interest in such large scale systems where sub-optimal aeration and mixing is often the norm while the presence of large amounts of capnophiles suggest the possibility of limited convection and entrapment of CO(2) within the sludge matrix during digestion. Comparative analysis with organism identified in other ATAD systems revealed significant differences based on optimised techniques. The abundance of thermophilic, alkalophilic and cellulose-degrading phylotypes suggests that these organisms are responsible for maintaining the elevated temperature at the later stages of the ATAD process.

  3. Aerobic Tennis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Michael J.; Ahlschwede, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Increasing the aerobic nature of tennis drills in the physical education class may be necessary if tennis is to remain a part of the public school curriculum. This article gives two examples of drills that can be modified by teachers to increase activity level. (IAH)

  4. A gravity independent biological grey water treatment system for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nashashibi, Majda'midhat

    2002-09-01

    Biological treatment of grey water in space presents serious challenges, stemming mainly from microgravity conditions. The major concerns are phase separation and mass transfer limitations. To overcome solid-liquid phase separation, novel immobilized cell packed bed (ICPB) bioreactors have been developed to treat synthetic grey water. Packed bed bioreactors provide a unique environment for attached microbial growth resulting in high biomass concentrations, which greatly enhance process efficiency with substantial reductions in treatment time and reactor volume. To overcome the gas-liquid phase separation and mass transfer limitations, an oxygenation module equipped with tubular membranes has been developed to deliver bubble-less oxygen under pressure. The selected silicone membranes are hydrophobic, non-porous and oxygen selective. Oxygen dissolves in the walls of the membranes and then diffuses into the water without forming bubbles. Elevated pressures maintain all gaseous by-products in solution and provide high dissolved oxygen concentrations within the system. The packing media are lightweight, inexpensive polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flakes that have large specific surface area, act as a filter for solids and yield highly tortuous flow paths thereby increasing the contact time between the biomass and contaminants. Tests on both pressurized and ambient pressure ICPB bioreactors revealed organic carbon removal efficiencies over 90%. Despite the high ammonia level in the influent, nitrification occured in both the ambient pressure and pressurized nitrification bioreactors at efficiencies of 80% and 60%, respectively. Biomass yield was approximately 0.20 g volatile suspended solids per gram of grey water-COD processed in the pressurized bioreactor. The biomass yield of such novel aerobic ICPB systems is comparable to that of anaerobic processes. These efficient systems produce minimal amounts of biomass compared to other aerobic processes, making them less

  5. Performances and microbial features of an aerobic packed-bed biofilm reactor developed to post-treat an olive mill effluent from an anaerobic GAC reactor

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Lorenzo; Colao, Maria Chiara; Ruzzi, Maurizio; Marchetti, Leonardo; Fava, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    Background Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is the aqueous effluent of olive oil producing processes. Given its high COD and content of phenols, it has to be decontaminated before being discharged. Anaerobic digestion is one of the most promising treatment process for such an effluent, as it combines high decontamination efficiency with methane production. The large scale anaerobic digestion of OMWs is normally conducted in dispersed-growth reactors, where however are generally achieved unsatisfactory COD removal and methane production yields. The possibility of intensifying the performance of the process using a packed bed biofilm reactor, as anaerobic treatment alternative, was demonstrated. Even in this case, however, a post-treatment step is required to further reduce the COD. In this work, a biological post-treatment, consisting of an aerobic biological "Manville" silica bead-packed bed aerobic reactor, was developed, tested for its ability to complete COD removal from the anaerobic digestion effluents, and characterized biologically through molecular tools. Results The aerobic post-treatment was assessed through a 2 month-continuous feeding with the digested effluent at 50.42 and 2.04 gl-1day-1 of COD and phenol loading rates, respectively. It was found to be a stable process, able to remove 24 and 39% of such organic loads, respectively, and to account for 1/4 of the overall decontamination efficiency displayed by the anaerobic-aerobic integrated system when fed with an amended OMW at 31.74 and 1.70 gl-1day-1 of COD and phenol loading rates, respectively. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences of biomass samples from the aerobic reactor biofilm revealed that it was colonized by Rhodobacterales, Bacteroidales, Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Rhodocyclales and genera incertae sedis TM7. Some taxons occurring in the influent were not detected in the biofilm, whereas others, such as Paracoccus, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Enterobacter, enriched significantly in

  6. Relationships between chemical oxygen demand (COD) components and toxicity in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor/aerobic completely stirred reactor system treating Kemicetine.

    PubMed

    Sponza, Delia Teresa; Demirden, Pinar

    2010-04-15

    In this study the interactions between toxicity removals and Kemicetine, COD removals, intermediate products of Kemicetine and COD components (CODs originating from slowly degradable organics, readily degradable organics, inert microbial products and from the inert compounds) were investigated in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR)/aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system with a real pharmaceutical wastewater. The total COD and Kemicetine removal efficiencies were 98% and 100%, respectively, in the sequential ABR/CSTR systems. 2-Amino-1 (p-nitrophenil)-1,3 propanediol, l-p-amino phenyl, p-amino phenol and phenol were detected in the ABR as the main readily degradable inter-metabolites. In the anaerobic ABR reactor, the Kemicetin was converted to corresponding inter-metabolites and a substantial part of the COD was removed. In the aerobic CSTR reactor the inter-metabolites produced in the anaerobic reactor were completely removed and the COD remaining from the anerobic reactor was biodegraded. It was found that the COD originating from the readily degradable organics did not limit the anaerobic degradation process, while the CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and from the inert microbial products significantly decreased the anaerobic ABR reactor performance. The acute toxicity test results indicated that the toxicity decreased from the influent to the effluent of the aerobic CSTR reactor. The ANOVA test statistics showed that there was a strong linear correlation between acute toxicity, CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and inert microbial products. A weak correlation between acute toxicity and CODs originating from the inert compounds was detected.

  7. Microbiological quality of grey-mullet roe.

    PubMed

    Voidarou, C; Alexopoulos, A; Plessas, S; Noussias, H; Stavropoulou, E; Fotou, K; Tzora, A; Skoufos, I; Bezirtzoglou, E; Demertzi-Akrida, K

    2011-12-01

    The Greek grey-mullet roe is produced from the fully developed gonads of the female mullet (Mugil cephalus) couth in lagoons during their reproductive migration. The traditional processing method of the roe includes, air drying, salting, shape formation and covering with multiple layers of natural beeswax for preservation and distribution. Fish Roe brands have been a staple in local diet and is increasingly becoming popular in the international market. As a ready-to-eat food it's microbial quality should be of concern for the protection of consumers health. In this study, 48 samples of fish roe, just before waxing, were collected from various local processors for microbiological examination by using selective media and incubated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The identification of the bacteria was carried out according to the Bergey's manual. Microscopic examination of Gram stained cells, catalase, oxidase and biochemical tests were performed when necessary to further identify. V. parahaemolyticus, Vibrio spp., Salmonella spp., and Aeromonas hydrophila were detected in one sample (2%). Shigella spp., and Flavobacterium spp. in two samples (4%), Clotriduim perfringens (vegetative forms), E. coli, and spores of Bacillus spp., were detected in three samples (6%), Staphylococcus aureus in four samples (8%). Various Micrococcus spp., and spores of C. perfringens in 16% and 35% of the samples respectively. From the Listeria genus, only the species Listeria innocua, Listeria welshimeri, Listeria seeligeri Listeria ivanovii and Listeria grayi were recovered from 2 to 10% of the samples. Microbiological analyses revealed the presence of a small number of pathogens in grey-mullet roe samples which are in accordance with the findings of similar studies. Traditional processing of the fish roe, seems inadequate to ensure the food safety and even waxing isn't expected to fully protect them against facultative anaerobes with salt tolerance. Therefore, additional measures

  8. Effect of an azo dye on the performance of an aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactor treating a simulated textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Franca, Rita D G; Vieira, Anabela; Mata, Ana M T; Carvalho, Gilda S; Pinheiro, Helena M; Lourenço, Nídia D

    2015-11-15

    This study analyzed the effect of an azo dye (Acid Red 14) on the performance of an aerobic granular sludge (AGS) sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system operated with 6-h anaerobic-aerobic cycles for the treatment of a synthetic textile wastewater. In this sense, two SBRs inoculated with AGS from a domestic wastewater treatment plant were run in parallel, being one supplied with the dye and the other used as a dye-free control. The AGS successfully adapted to the new hydrodynamic conditions forming smaller, denser granules in both reactors, with optimal sludge volume index values of 19 and 17 mL g(-1) after 5-min and 30-min settling, respectively. As a result, high biomass concentration levels and sludge age values were registered, up to 13 gTSS L(-1) and 40 days, respectively, when deliberate biomass wastage was limited to the sampling needs. Stable dye removal yields above 90% were attained during the anaerobic reaction phase, confirmed by the formation of one of the aromatic amines arising from azo bond reduction. The control of the sludge retention time (SRT) to 15 days triggered a 30% reduction in the biodecolorization yield. However, the increase of the SRT values back to levels above 25 days reverted this effect and also promoted the complete bioconversion of the identified aromatic amine during the aerobic reaction phase. The dye and its breakdown products did not negatively affect the treatment performance, as organic load removal yields higher than 80% were attained in both reactors, up to 77% occurring in the anaerobic phase. These high anaerobic organic removal levels were correlated to an increase of Defluviicoccus-related glycogen accumulating organisms in the biomass. Also, the capacity of the system to deal with shocks of high dye concentration and organic load was successfully demonstrated. Granule breakup after long-term operation only occurred in the dye-free control SBR, suggesting that the azo dye plays an important role in improving granule

  9. The effect of recycling flux on the performance and microbial community composition of a biofilm hydrolytic-aerobic recycling process treating anthraquinone reactive dyes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanpeng; Zhu, Kang; Zheng, Yanmei; Wang, Haitao; Dong, Guowen; He, Ning; Li, Qingbiao

    2011-11-25

    Synthetic dyes are extensively used and rarely degraded. Microbial decomposition is a cost-effective alternative to chemical and physical degradation processes. In this study, the decomposition of simulated anthraquinone reactive dye (Reactive Blue 19; RB19) at a concentration of 400-mg/L in wastewater by a biofilm hydrolytic-aerobic recycling system was investigated over a range of recycling fluxes. The 16S rDNA-based fingerprint technique was also used to investigate the microbial community composition. Results indicated that the recycling flux was a key factor that influenced RB19 degradation. The RB19 and COD removal efficiency could reach values as high as 82.1% and 95.4%, respectively, with a recycling flux of 10 mL/min. Molecular analysis indicated that some strains were similar to Aeromonadales, Tolumonas, and some uncultured clones were assumed to be potential decolorization bacteria. However, the microbial community composition in the reactors remained relatively stable at different recycling fluxes. This study provided insights on the decolorization capability and the population dynamics during the decolorization process of anthraquinone dye wastewater.

  10. Microbial community structure and dynamics in a pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactor aerobically treating domestic wastewater under real operation conditions.

    PubMed

    Molina-Muñoz, M; Poyatos, J M; Sánchez-Peinado, M; Hontoria, E; González-López, J; Rodelas, B

    2009-06-15

    A pilot scale submerged ultra-filtration membrane bioreactor (MBR) was used for the aerobic treatment of domestic wastewater over 9 months of year 2006 (28th March to 21st December). The MBR was installed at a municipal wastewater facility (EMASAGRA, Granada, Spain) and was fed with real wastewater. The experimental work was divided in 4 stages run under different sets of operation conditions. Operation parameters (total and volatile suspended solids, dissolved oxygen concentration) and environmental variables (temperature, pH, COD and BOD(5) of influent water) were daily monitored. In all the experiments conducted, the MBR generated an effluent of optimal quality complying with the requirements of the European Law (91/271/CEE 1991). A cultivation-independent approach (polymerase chain reaction-temperature gradient gel electrophoresis, PCR-TGGE) was used to analyze changes in the structure of the bacterial communities in the sludge. Cluster analysis of TGGE profiles demonstrated significant differences in community structure related to variations of the operation parameters and environmental factors. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) suggested that temperature, hydraulic retention time and concentration of volatile suspended solids were the factors mostly influencing community structure. 23 prominent TGGE bands were successfully reamplified and sequenced, allowing gaining insight into the identities of predominantly present bacterial populations in the sludge. Retrieved partial 16S-rRNA gene sequences were mostly related to the alpha-Proteobacteria, beta-Proteobacteria and gamma-Proteobacteria classes. The community established in the MBR in each of the four stages of operation significantly differed in species composition and the sludge generated displayed dissimilar rates of mineralization, but these differences did not influence the performance of the bioreactor (quality of the permeate). These data indicate that the flexibility of the bacterial community

  11. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  12. On grey levels in random CAPTCHA generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Fraser; Kouritzin, Michael A.

    2011-06-01

    A CAPTCHA is an automatically generated test designed to distinguish between humans and computer programs; specifically, they are designed to be easy for humans but difficult for computer programs to pass in order to prevent the abuse of resources by automated bots. They are commonly seen guarding webmail registration forms, online auction sites, and preventing brute force attacks on passwords. In the following, we address the question: How does adding a grey level to random CAPTCHA generation affect the utility of the CAPTCHA? We treat the problem of generating the random CAPTCHA as one of random field simulation: An initial state of background noise is evolved over time using Gibbs sampling and an efficient algorithm for generating correlated random variables. This approach has already been found to yield highly-readable yet difficult-to-crack CAPTCHAs. We detail how the requisite parameters for introducing grey levels are estimated and how we generate the random CAPTCHA. The resulting CAPTCHA will be evaluated in terms of human readability as well as its resistance to automated attacks in the forms of character segmentation and optical character recognition.

  13. Grey Literature and the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Karen A.

    2006-01-01

    Accreditation standards for professional schools offering social work degrees mandate curriculum content that provides students with skills to analyze, formulate, and influence social policies. An important source of analytical thinking about social policy is the "grey" literature issued by public policy organizations, think tanks,…

  14. Current Performance of an Aerobic Passive Wetlands Treating Acid Mine Drainage Flow From Underground Mine Seals at Moraine State Park, Butler County, Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, J. A.; Fredrick, K.

    2008-12-01

    Coal mining was conducted in the area of Moraine State Park prior to the establishing the park and associated Lake Arthur. A total of 69 underground mine entries were sealed during the 1960's to the early 1970's along the proposed northern shore of Lake Arthur. Seals were constructed using a flyash/cement mixture that was pumped into boreholes to place bulkheads in the mine entries, then filling between the bulkheads, and injecting grout into the adjacent strata to form a grout curtain. During 1979 and 1980, a study was performed by the United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, to determine the long term effectiveness of the underground mine sealing and reclamation work. Not all seals were successful. One of these mine entry seals was leaking and depositing iron hydroxides on the shoreline. During 1995-96, a passive wetlands treatment system was designed and constructed to treat an acid mine drainage (amd) discharge emanating from one of these sealed mines. The system consists of a primary settling pond, a cattail vegetated pond, and a final polishing pond prior to discharge to Lake Arthur. The design life of the system was estimated at twelve years. After twelve years it was believed the precipitate in the ponds would need to be removed and the system rehabilitated to continue treating the amd discharge. A maintenance plan was considered, however only minimal maintaining of the area was implemented. Six sets of water quality samples were collected and analyzed for standard amd parameters of alkalinity, acidity, pH, iron, manganese, aluminum, sulfate, and total suspended solids. Precipitation data and flow rates were collected and an analysis was done to determine if flow varied seasonally. The water quality data was compared to flow and precipitation amounts. Sludge precipitate samples were collected from the first settling pond to estimate the deposition rate and to determine how long the ponds can continue to function before they would require

  15. [Sulfa-drug wastewater treatment with anaerobic/aerobic process].

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Zhang, H; Zhu, H; Zhang, Z; Zhuang, Y; Dai, S

    2001-09-01

    Sulfa drug wastewater was treated with anaerobic/aerobic process. The removal ratios of TOC reached about 50% in anaerobic phase and about 70% in aerobic phase respectively, while volume loading rate of TOC was about 1.2 kg/(m3.d) in anaerobic phase and about 0.6 kg/(m3.d) in aerobic phase. Removal of TOC in anaerobic phase was attributed to the reduction of sulfate.

  16. Effect of long term anaerobic and intermittent anaerobic/aerobic starvation on aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Pijuan, Maite; Werner, Ursula; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2009-08-01

    The effect of long term anaerobic and intermittent anaerobic/aerobic starvation on the structure and activity of aerobic granules was studied. Aerobic granular sludge treating abattoir wastewater and achieving high levels of nutrient removal was subjected to 4-5 week starvation under anaerobic and intermittent anaerobic/aerobic conditions. Microscopic pictures of granules at the beginning of the starvation period presented a round and compact surface morphology with a much defined external perimeter. Under both starvation conditions, the morphology changed at the end of starvation with the external border of the granules surrounded by floppy materials. The loss of granular compactness was faster and more pronounced under anaerobic/aerobic starvation conditions. The release of Ca(2+) at the onset of anaerobic/aerobic starvation suggests a degradation of extracellular polymeric substances. The activity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria was reduced by 20 and 36% during anaerobic and intermittent anaerobic/aerobic starvation, respectively. When fresh wastewater was reintroduced, the granules recovered their initial morphology within 1 week of normal operation and the nutrient removal activity recovered fully in 3 weeks. The results show that both anaerobic and intermittent anaerobic/aerobic conditions are suitable for maintaining granule structure and activity during starvation.

  17. Acquired ciliary circumscribed grey hair (ACCG).

    PubMed

    Romero, A G; Calatayud, J C

    2001-12-01

    Grey-haired areas usually occur due to aging or inheritance. A case is described of abrupt occurrence of a focal circumscribed grey-hair in the eyebrow region (a single hair) in a 27-year-old woman. The phenomenon was named acquired ciliary circumscribed grey-hair (ACCG). Qualitative and semiquantitative findings were obtained by microanalytical studies. In addition to morphological differences from control hair, the ACCG hair showed a high percentage of sulfur (99.8%) and absence of oligoelements.

  18. Locating grey literature on communication disorders.

    PubMed

    Shpilko, Inna

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an overview of selected Web-based resources containing grey literature in the area of communication disorders. It is geared to practitioners, researchers, students, and consumers seeking reliable, freely available scientific information. Grey (or gray) literature has been defined as "that which is produced on all levels of government, academics, business, and industry in print and electronic formats, but which is not controlled by commercial publishers."1 This paper reviews various general reference sources potentially containing grey literature on communication disorders. This review includes identification of the methods specialists in this field use to obtain this valuable, yet often overlooked, literature. Access points and search tools for identifying grey literature on communication disorders are recommended. Commercial databases containing grey literature are not included. Conclusions presented in this article are considered complementary to traditionally published information resources on communication disorders, such as scholarly journals, online databases, etc.

  19. What Is Aerobic Dancing?

    MedlinePlus

    ... aerobics can reach up to six times the force of gravity, which is transmitted to each of the 26 bones in the foot. Because of the many side-to-side motions, shoes need an arch design that will compensate ...

  20. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of grey water for reuse requirements and treatment alternatives: the case of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Ghunmi, Lina Abu; Zeeman, Grietje; van Lier, Jules; Fayyed, Manar

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the potentials and requirements for grey water reuse in Jordan. The results revealed that urban, rural and dormitory grey water production rate and concentration of TS, BOD(5), COD and pathogens varied between 18-66 L cap(-1)d(-1), 848-1,919, 200-1,056, and 560-2,568 mg L(-1) and 6.9E2-2.7E5 CFU mL(-1), respectively. The grey water compromises 64 to 85% of the total water flow in the rural and urban areas. Storing grey water is inevitable to meet reuse requirements in terms of volume and timing. All the studied grey waters need treatment, in terms of solids, BOD(5), COD and pathogens, before storage and reuse. Storage and physical treatment, as a pretreatment step should be avoided, since it produces unstable effluents and non-stabilized sludge. However, extensive biological treatment can combine storage and physical treatments. Furthermore, a batch-fed biological treatment system combining anaerobic and aerobic processes copes with the fluctuations in the hydrographs and pollutographs as well as the present nutrients. The inorganic content of grey water in Jordan is about drinking water quality and does not need treatment. Moreover, the grey water SAR values were 3-7, revealing that the concentrations of monovalent and divalent cations comply with agricultural demand in Jordan. The observed patterns in the hydrographs and pollutographs showed that the hydraulic load could be used for the design of both physical and biological treatment units for dormitories and hotels. For family houses the hydraulic load was identified as the key design parameter for physical treatment units and the organic load is the key design parameter for biological treatment units.

  1. Disturbed grey matter coupling in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Collin, Guusje; de Reus, Marcel A; Cahn, Wiepke; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Kahn, René S; van den Heuvel, Martijn P

    2013-01-01

    In schizophrenia, grey matter deficits have been shown for many regions throughout the brain. These regions do not operate in isolation. Rather, they form a structural network of interconnected grey matter regions. To examine the mutual dependence of brain regions, this study investigated interregional coupling in lobar and regional grey matter volumes obtained from 146 schizophrenia patients and 122 healthy comparison subjects. Compared to healthy controls, schizophrenia patients showed both decreased (e.g. between left frontal and bilateral subcortical, p≤0.005) and increased (e.g. between left temporal and bilateral subcortical, p≤0.001) coupling between lobar grey matter volumes. On a regional scale, decreased coupling was most pronounced between fronto-parietal cortical regions and subcortical structures, and between frontal and occipital regions. In addition, an increased association was found among frontal and limbic regions, and for temporo-occipital connexions. Consistent with dysconnectivity theories of schizophrenia, impaired grey matter coupling may be reflective of reduced integrity of the brain's network. Furthermore, as cross-sectional volumetric coupling is indicative of maturational coupling, aberrant grey matter coupling may be a marker of neurodevelopmental abnormalities in schizophrenia.

  2. Aerobic and two-stage anaerobic-aerobic sludge digestion with pure oxygen and air aeration.

    PubMed

    Zupancic, Gregor D; Ros, Milenko

    2008-01-01

    The degradability of excess activated sludge from a wastewater treatment plant was studied. The objective was establishing the degree of degradation using either air or pure oxygen at different temperatures. Sludge treated with pure oxygen was degraded at temperatures from 22 degrees C to 50 degrees C while samples treated with air were degraded between 32 degrees C and 65 degrees C. Using air, sludge is efficiently degraded at 37 degrees C and at 50-55 degrees C. With oxygen, sludge was most effectively degraded at 38 degrees C or at 25-30 degrees C. Two-stage anaerobic-aerobic processes were studied. The first anaerobic stage was always operated for 5 days HRT, and the second stage involved aeration with pure oxygen and an HRT between 5 and 10 days. Under these conditions, there is 53.5% VSS removal and 55.4% COD degradation at 15 days HRT - 5 days anaerobic, 10 days aerobic. Sludge digested with pure oxygen at 25 degrees C in a batch reactor converted 48% of sludge total Kjeldahl nitrogen to nitrate. Addition of an aerobic stage with pure oxygen aeration to the anaerobic digestion enhances ammonium nitrogen removal. In a two-stage anaerobic-aerobic sludge digestion process within 8 days HRT of the aerobic stage, the removal of ammonium nitrogen was 85%.

  3. Dance--Aerobic and Anaerobic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlette

    1984-01-01

    This article defines and explains aerobic exercise and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Various studies on dancers are cited indicating that dance is an anaerobic activity with some small degree of aerobic benefit. (DF)

  4. Implementation of Aerobic Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD).

    This information is intended for health professionals interested in implementing aerobic exercise programs in public schools, institutions of higher learning, and business and industry workplaces. The papers are divided into three general sections. The introductory section presents a basis for adhering to a health fitness lifestyle, using…

  5. Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yurkov, Vladimir V.; Beatty, J. Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are a relatively recently discovered bacterial group. Although taxonomically and phylogenetically heterogeneous, these bacteria share the following distinguishing features: the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into reaction center and light-harvesting complexes, low levels of the photosynthetic unit in cells, an abundance of carotenoids, a strong inhibition by light of bacteriochlorophyll synthesis, and the inability to grow photosynthetically under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are classified in two marine (Erythrobacter and Roseobacter) and six freshwater (Acidiphilium, Erythromicrobium, Erythromonas, Porphyrobacter, Roseococcus, and Sandaracinobacter) genera, which phylogenetically belong to the α-1, α-3, and α-4 subclasses of the class Proteobacteria. Despite this phylogenetic information, the evolution and ancestry of their photosynthetic properties are unclear. We discuss several current proposals for the evolutionary origin of aerobic phototrophic bacteria. The closest phylogenetic relatives of aerobic phototrophic bacteria include facultatively anaerobic purple nonsulfur phototrophic bacteria. Since these two bacterial groups share many properties, yet have significant differences, we compare and contrast their physiology, with an emphasis on morphology and photosynthetic and other metabolic processes. PMID:9729607

  6. Aerobic Dance in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiles, Barbara Ann; Moore, Suzanne

    1981-01-01

    Aerobic dance offers a challenging workout in a social atmosphere. Though some physical education instructors tend to exclude dance units from the curriculum, most could teach aerobic dance if they had a basic knowledge of aerobic routines. The outline for a unit to be used in the class is presented. (JN)

  7. Membrane chemical reactor (MCR) combining photocatalysis and microfiltration for grey water treatment.

    PubMed

    Rivero, M J; Parsons, S A; Jeffrey, P; Pidou, M; Jefferson, B

    2006-01-01

    Urban water recycling is now becoming an important issue where water resources are becoming scarce. This paper looks at reusing grey water; the preference is treatment processes based on biological systems to remove the dissolved organic content. Here, an alternative process, photocatalysis is discussed as it is an attractive technology that could be well-suited for treating the recalcitrant organic compounds found in grey water. The photocatalytic process oxidises organic reactants at a catalyst surface in the presence of ultraviolet light. Given enough exposure time, organic compounds will be oxidized into CO2 and water. The best contact is achieved in a slurry reactor but a second step to separate and recover the catalyst is need. This paper discusses a new membrane chemical reactor (MCR) combining photocatalysis and microfiltration for grey water treatment.

  8. Evaluation of Biodegradability of Waste Before and After Aerobic Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchowska-Kisielewicz, Monika; Jędrczak, Andrzej; Sadecka, Zofia

    2014-12-01

    An important advantage of use of an aerobic biostabilization of waste prior to its disposal is that it intensifies the decomposition of the organic fraction of waste into the form which is easily assimilable for methanogenic microorganisms involved in anaerobic decomposition of waste in the landfill. In this article it is presented the influence of aerobic pre-treatment of waste as well as leachate recirculation on susceptibility to biodegradation of waste in anaerobic laboratory reactors. The research has shown that in the reactor with aerobically treated waste stabilized with recilculation conversion of the organic carbon into the methane is about 45% higher than in the reactor with untreated waste stabilized without recirculation.

  9. Spinal cord grey matter segmentation challenge.

    PubMed

    Prados, Ferran; Ashburner, John; Blaiotta, Claudia; Brosch, Tom; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Cardoso, Manuel Jorge; Conrad, Benjamin N; Datta, Esha; Dávid, Gergely; Leener, Benjamin De; Dupont, Sara M; Freund, Patrick; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M Gandini; Grussu, Francesco; Henry, Roland; Landman, Bennett A; Ljungberg, Emil; Lyttle, Bailey; Ourselin, Sebastien; Papinutto, Nico; Saporito, Salvatore; Schlaeger, Regina; Smith, Seth A; Summers, Paul; Tam, Roger; Yiannakas, Marios C; Zhu, Alyssa; Cohen-Adad, Julien

    2017-03-07

    An important image processing step in spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging is the ability to reliably and accurately segment grey and white matter for tissue specific analysis. There are several semi- or fully-automated segmentation methods for cervical cord cross-sectional area measurement with an excellent performance close or equal to the manual segmentation. However, grey matter segmentation is still challenging due to small cross-sectional size and shape, and active research is being conducted by several groups around the world in this field. Therefore a grey matter spinal cord segmentation challenge was organised to test different capabilities of various methods using the same multi-centre and multi-vendor dataset acquired with distinct 3D gradient-echo sequences. This challenge aimed to characterize the state-of-the-art in the field as well as identifying new opportunities for future improvements. Six different spinal cord grey matter segmentation methods developed independently by various research groups across the world and their performance were compared to manual segmentation outcomes, the present gold-standard. All algorithms provided good overall results for detecting the grey matter butterfly, albeit with variable performance in certain quality-of-segmentation metrics. The data have been made publicly available and the challenge web site remains open to new submissions. No modifications were introduced to any of the presented methods as a result of this challenge for the purposes of this publication.

  10. Tularemia without lesions in grey tree squirrels: A diagnostic challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifteen cases of Francisella tularenesis infection (tularemia) were identified in western grey (Sciurus griseus) and eastern grey (Sciurus carolinesis) squirrels submitted to the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory between 2008 and 2011. All of the squirrels originated in Washington stat...

  11. 36. LARGE MOLD MAKING MACHINE, GREY IRON UNIT #4 SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. LARGE MOLD MAKING MACHINE, GREY IRON UNIT #4 SHOWING PATTERNS THAT FLASKS FIT OVER PRIOR TO BEING FILLED WITH SAND AND COMPRESSED. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  12. 40. THIS TUMBLING MILL IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. THIS TUMBLING MILL IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY IS USED TO TUMBLE CASTINGS OVER EACH OTHER TO BREAK OFF RUNNERS AND SPRUES. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  13. Grey matter atrophy in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kincses, Zsigmond Tamás; Tóth, Eszter; Bankó, Nóra; Veréb, Dániel; Szabó, Nikoletta; Csete, Gergő; Faragó, Péter; Király, András; Bencsik, Krisztina; Vécsei, László

    2014-09-30

    White matter lesions are defining characteristics of multiple sclerosis (MS), whereas grey matter involvement is a less recognised attribute. Recent investigations using dedicated imaging approaches have made it possible to depict cortical lesions. Additionally, grey matter atrophy may be estimated using various methods. Several studies have suggested that grey matter atrophy closely correlates to clinical disability. In this review we have collected information on grey matter atrophy in MS and the effect of disease modifying therapies upon brain atrophy.

  14. NORTHEAST VIEW OF FOUNDRY FROM TOP OF GREY IRON CUPOLA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHEAST VIEW OF FOUNDRY FROM TOP OF GREY IRON CUPOLA SHOWING CORE ROOM ROOF DIRECTLY NORTHEAST, GREY IRON FOUNDRY TO THE RIGHT, MALLEABLE IRON CUPOLAS AND FOUNDRY NORTHEAST OF GREY IRON FOUNDRY WITH THE BRASS FOUNDRY IN THE REAR. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. 24. INTERIOR VIEW WITH UNIT NO. 2 GREY IRON DISAMATIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. INTERIOR VIEW WITH UNIT NO. 2 GREY IRON DISAMATIC SETTING A 1 X 1/2 INCH ELBOW PIPE FITTING, A 'GREY IRON EL', THROUGH AN AUTOMATED PROCESS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  16. 23. INTERIOR VIEW WITH UNIT NO. 2 GREY IRON DISAMATIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. INTERIOR VIEW WITH UNIT NO. 2 GREY IRON DISAMATIC SETTING A 1 X 1/2 INCH ELBOW PIPE FITTING, A 'GREY IRON EL'. THIS MACHINE SETS CORES THROUGH AN AUTOMATED PROCESS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  17. 78 FR 17183 - Information Collection: Grey Towers Visitor Comment Card

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... Forest Service Information Collection: Grey Towers Visitor Comment Card AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... collection 0596- 0222, ``Grey Towers Visitor Comment Card'' with 0596-0226, ``Forest Service Generic... addressed to Nicole Bernarsky, USDA Forest Service, Grey Towers National Historic Site, P.O. Box...

  18. Searching for Grey Literature for Systematic Reviews: Challenges and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahood, Quenby; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Irvin, Emma

    2014-01-01

    There is ongoing interest in including grey literature in systematic reviews. Including grey literature can broaden the scope to more relevant studies, thereby providing a more complete view of available evidence. Searching for grey literature can be challenging despite greater access through the Internet, search engines and online bibliographic…

  19. Grey Documentation as a Knowledge Base in Social Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Yitzhak

    1994-01-01

    Defines grey documentation as documents issued informally and not available through normal channels and discusses the role that grey documentation can play in the social work knowledge base. Topics addressed include grey documentation and science; social work and the empirical approach in knowledge development; and dissemination of grey…

  20. Knowledge Transfer in Social Work: The Role of Grey Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Yitzhak

    1995-01-01

    Discusses scholarly journals in the field of social work, information sources for social work practitioners versus researchers, and grey documentation as an alternative means of knowledge transfer. Highlights include research versus practice; grey documentation and scientific credibility; and dissemination of grey literature. (LRW)

  1. Aerobic glycolysis and lymphocyte transformation

    PubMed Central

    Hume, David A.; Radik, Judith L.; Ferber, Ernst; Weidemann, Maurice J.

    1978-01-01

    1. The role of enhanced aerobic glycolysis in the transformation of rat thymocytes by concanavalin A has been investigated. Concanavalin A addition doubled [U-14C]glucose uptake by rat thymocytes over 3h and caused an equivalent increased incorporation into protein, lipids and RNA. A disproportionately large percentage of the extra glucose taken up was converted into lactate, but concanavalin A also caused a specific increase in pyruvate oxidation, leading to an increase in the percentage contribution of glucose to the respiratory fuel. 2. Acetoacetate metabolism, which was not affected by concanavalin A, strongly suppressed pyruvate oxidation in the presence of [U-14C]glucose, but did not prevent the concanavalin A-induced stimulation of this process. Glucose uptake was not affected by acetoacetate in the presence or absence of concanavalin A, but in each case acetoacetate increased the percentage of glucose uptake accounted for by lactate production. 3. [3H]Thymidine incorporation into DNA in concanavalin A-treated thymocyte cultures was sensitive to the glucose concentration in the medium in a biphasic manner. Very low concentrations of glucose (25μm) stimulated DNA synthesis half-maximally, but maximum [3H]thymidine incorporation was observed only when the glucose concentration was raised to 1mm. Lactate addition did not alter the sensitivity of [3H]-thymidine uptake to glucose, but inosine blocked the effect of added glucose and strongly inhibited DNA synthesis. 4. It is suggested that the major function of enhanced aerobic glycolysis in transforming lymphocytes is to maintain higher steady-state amounts of glycolytic intermediates to act as precursors for macromolecule synthesis. PMID:310305

  2. Characteristics of aerobic granulation at mesophilic temperatures in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Cui, Fenghao; Park, Seyong; Kim, Moonil

    2014-01-01

    Compact and structurally stable aerobic granules were developed in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) at mesophilic temperatures (35°C). The morphological, biological and chemical characteristics of the aerobic granulation were investigated and a theoretical granulation mechanism was proposed according to the results of the investigation. The mature aerobic granules had compact structure, small size (mean diameter of 0.24 mm), excellent settleability and diverse microbial structures, and were effective for the removal of organics and nitrification. The growth kinetics demonstrated that the biomass growth depended on coexistence and interactions between heterotrophs and autotrophs in the granules. The functions of heterotrophs and autotrophs created a compact and secure layer on the outside of the granules, protecting the inside sludge containing environmentally sensitive and slow growing microorganisms. The mechanism and the reactor performance may promise feasibility and efficiency for treating industry effluents at mesophilic temperatures using aerobic granulation.

  3. Grey matter heterotopia: an unusual association of intractable epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Stafford Johnson, D B; Brennan, P; Dwyer, A J; Toland, J

    1997-01-01

    Heterotopic grey matter is an abnormality of neuronal migration that has been reported in association with refractory epilepsy. In this study we reviewed the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging records of all patients undergoing MR scanning for evaluation of intractable epilepsy and identified sixteen patients who had grey matter heterotopia. The distribution of the grey matter heterotopia was periventricular in 9 patients, laminar in 3 and was in a "band" form in 4 patients. Congenital anomalies associated with grey matter heterotopia in this study included polymicrogyria in one patient and absence of the corpus callosum in 2 patients. Grey matter heterotopia is an important MR finding in patients with intractable epilepsy.

  4. Evaluation of appropriate technologies for grey water treatments and reuses.

    PubMed

    Li, Fangyue; Wichmann, Knut; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    As water is becoming a rare resource, the onsite reuse and recycling of grey water is practiced in many countries as a sustainable solution to reduce the overall urban water demand. However, the lack of appropriate water quality standards or guidelines has hampered the appropriate grey water reuses. Based on literature review, a non-potable urban grey water treatment and reuse scheme is proposed and the treatment alternatives for grey water reuse are evaluated according to the grey water characteristics, the proposed standards and economical feasibility.

  5. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  6. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John C; McComb, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  7. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hudgins, M.P.; Bessette, B.J.; March, J.; McComb, S.T.

    2000-02-15

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120 F and 140 F in steady state.

  8. Exercise, Animal Aerobics, and Interpretation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Valerie

    1996-01-01

    Describes an aerobic activity set to music for children that mimics animal movements. Example exercises include walking like a penguin or jumping like a cricket. Stresses basic aerobic principles and designing the program at the level of children's motor skills. Benefits include reaching people who normally don't visit nature centers, and bridging…

  9. Field reflectance calibration with grey standard reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipson, Warren R.; Gordon, Daniel K.; Philpot, William D.; Duggin, Michael J.

    1989-06-01

    Spectral reflectances of natural targets are measured in comparison with white standards, even when target reflectances are substantially different from those of the white standards. With some targets, the differences are sufficient to require a change in radiometer gain settings. Under these circumstances, measurement errors could likely be reduced if calibration were with standards whose reflectances were closer to those of the targets. This paper describes field testing that compared a black and a grey standard with a white barium sulphate standard. Variations in the reflectance properties of the black and grey standards, although higher than variations in the white standard, were less than 6 percent. The availability and use of such standards would simplify and increase the accuracy of field measurements.

  10. Effects of anaerobic digestion and aerobic treatment on gaseous emissions from dairy manure storages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of anaerobic digestion and aerobic treatment on the reduction of gaseous emissions from dairy manure storages were evaluated in this study. Screened dairy manure containing 3.5% volatile solids (VS) was either anaerobically digested or aerobically treated prior to storage in air-tight vessel...

  11. Silvery grey hair: clue to diagnose immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Sahana, Ms; Sacchidanand, S; Hiremagalore, R; Asha, Gs

    2012-04-01

    Silvery hair is a common presentation of rare group of autosomal recessive disorders called Silvery hair syndromes including Griscelli syndrome (GS), Chediak-Higashi syndrome, and Elejalde syndrome. GS is characterized by a silvery grey sheen to hair, large clumped melanosomes in hair shaft, partial albinism, and variable cellular immunodeficiency. We report two cases of GS with classical clinical features and confirmatory findings by microscopic skin and hair examination.

  12. Sludge minimization using aerobic/anoxic treatment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Mines, R.O. Jr.; Kalch, R.S.

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate through a bench-scale study that using an aerobic/anoxic sequence to treat wastewater and biosolids could significantly reduce the production of biosolids (sludge). A bench-scale activated sludge reactor and anoxic digester were operated for approximately three months. The process train consisted of a completely-mixed aerobic reactor with wasting of biosolids to an anoxic digester for stabilization. The system was operated such that biomass produced in the aerobic activated sludge process was wasted to the anoxic digester; and biomass produced in the anoxic digester was wasted back to the activated sludge process. A synthetic wastewater consisting of bacto-peptone nutrient broth was fed to the liquid process train. Influent and effluent to the aerobic biological process train were analytically tested, as were the contents of mixed liquor in the aerobic reactor and anoxic digester. Overall removal efficiencies for the activated sludge process with regard to COD, TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, and alkalinity averaged 91, 89, 98, and 38%, respectively. The overall average sludge production for the aerobic/anoxic process was 24% less than the overall average sludge production from a conventional activated sludge bench-scale system fed the same substrate and operated under similar mean cell residence times.

  13. Shelf life study of hurdle treated ready-to-eat spiced buffalo meat product stored at 30 ± 3 °C for 7 weeks under vacuum and aerobic packaging.

    PubMed

    Malik, Altaf Hussain; Sharma, Brahama Deo

    2014-05-01

    Shelf stable ready to eat spiced pickle type buffalo meat product was prepared after desorbing in infusion solution (glycerol 3.5%, sodium chloride 5.0%, honey2.0%, mango powder 2.2%, spices 1.0%, sodium nitrite 0.015%, phosphate 0.2%, Sorbic acid 0.2%.and acetic acid 1%), pressure cooking of meat in infusion solution for 20 min followed by frying for 2 min in mustard oil and mixing with prefried condiments and spices. The physico-chemical properties i.e. pH, water activity, proximate composition, FFA, Soluble hydroxyproline, TBA values, nitrite content, protein solubility, shear force value, haempigments, microbiological and sensory quality of the product remained good and hygienically safe and almost comparable in aerobic PET jars and multilayered nylon barrier pouches stored at 30 ± 3 °C for 7 weeks .It can be suggested that storage of such product may be conveniently done even in food grade PET jars without going for vacuum packaging which is a bit costly.

  14. Evaluation of the detoxication efficiencies for acrylonitrile wastewater treated by a combined anaerobic oxic-aerobic biological fluidized tank (A/O-ABFT) process: Acute toxicity and zebrafish embryo toxicity.

    PubMed

    Na, Chunhong; Zhang, Ying; Deng, Minjie; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Yaobin

    2016-07-01

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) wastewater generated during ACN production has been reported to be toxic to many aquatic organisms. However, few studies have evaluated toxicity removal of ACN wastewater during and after the treatment process. In this study, the detoxication ability of an ACN wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was evaluated using Daphnia magna, Danio rerio and zebrafish embryo. This ACN WWTP has a combined anaerobic oxic-aerobic biological fluidized tank (A/O-ABFT) process upgraded from the traditional anaerobic oxic (A/O) process. Moreover, the potential toxicants of the ACN wastewaters were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The raw ACN wastewater showed high acute and embryo toxicity. 3-Cyanopyridine, succinonitrile and a series of nitriles were detected as the toxic contributors of ACN wastewater. The A/O process was effective for the acute and embryo toxicity removal, as well as the organic toxicants. However, the A/O effluent still showed acute and embryo toxicity which was attributed by the undegraded and the newly generated toxicants during the A/O process. The residual acute and embryo toxicity as well as the organic toxicants in the A/O effluent were further reduced after going through the downstream ABFT process system. The final effluent displayed no significant acute and embryo toxicity, and less organic toxicants were detected in the final effluent. The upgrade of this ACN WWTP results in the improved removal efficiencies for acute and embryo toxicity, as well as the organic toxicants.

  15. Referential Mapping: A Technique for Attaching Functional Significance to the Innovative Utterances of an African Grey Parrot (Psittascus Erithacus).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepperberg, Irene M.

    1990-01-01

    Spontaneous combinations and phonological variations of the vocalizations of an African Grey parrot were treated as if they were intentional requests or comments. The success of these "referential mapping" procedures in attaching functional significance to the parrot's vocalizations may have implications for intervention programs for…

  16. Evaluation of three flame retardant (FR) grey cotton blend nonwoven fabrics using micro-scale combustion calorimetry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unbleached (grey or greige) cotton nonwoven (NW) fabrics (with 12.5% polypropylene scrim) were treated with three phosphate-nitrogen based FR formulations and evaluated with micro-scale combustion calorimetry (MCC). Heat release rate (HRR), Peak heat rate (PHRR), temperature at peak heat release ra...

  17. Exploring the origins of grey matter damage in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Massimiliano; Magliozzi, Roberta; Ciccarelli, Olga; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Reynolds, Richard; Martin, Roland

    2015-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis is characterized at the gross pathological level by the presence of widespread focal demyelinating lesions of the myelin-rich white matter. However, it is becoming clear that grey matter is not spared, even during the earliest phases of the disease. Furthermore, grey matter damage may have an important role both in physical and cognitive disability. Grey matter pathology involves both inflammatory and neurodegenerative mechanisms, but the relationship between the two is unclear. Histological, immunological and neuroimaging studies have provided new insight in this rapidly expanding field, and form the basis of the most recent hypotheses on the pathogenesis of grey matter damage.

  18. Searching for grey literature for systematic reviews: challenges and benefits.

    PubMed

    Mahood, Quenby; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Irvin, Emma

    2014-09-01

    There is ongoing interest in including grey literature in systematic reviews. Including grey literature can broaden the scope to more relevant studies, thereby providing a more complete view of available evidence. Searching for grey literature can be challenging despite greater access through the Internet, search engines and online bibliographic databases. There are a number of publications that list sources for finding grey literature in systematic reviews. However, there is scant information about how searches for grey literature are executed and how it is included in the review process. This level of detail is important to ensure that reviews follow explicit methodology to be systematic, transparent and reproducible. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed account of one systematic review team's experience in searching for grey literature and including it throughout the review. We provide a brief overview of grey literature before describing our search and review approach. We also discuss the benefits and challenges of including grey literature in our systematic review, as well as the strengths and limitations to our approach. Detailed information about incorporating grey literature in reviews is important in advancing methodology as review teams adapt and build upon the approaches described.

  19. Grey Hair Evlsion Technique For Evaluating the Effect of Drugs For the Treatment of Premature Grey Hairs.

    PubMed

    Pasricha, J S

    1985-01-01

    An improved method for evaluating the effect of treatment for premature grey hairs is described. The method consists of pulling out all the grey hairs in a patient and counting the number removed. Simultaneously, the converted hairs are also snipped at the grey-black junction and counted. After a gap of 3 months, the survey is repeated to count the number of hairs which have regrowing as grey hairs, the hairs which have become grey and also the hairs which have got converted into black during this period. Such surveys are repeated at 3 months intervals over a period of several years to see the progress of greying of hair in an individual and to evaluate the effect of various therapeutic procedures.

  20. Grey('s) Identity: Complications of Learning and Becoming in a Popular Television Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jubas, Kaela

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines an analysis of the American show "Grey's Anatomy" as an example of how popular culture represents identity and the process of professional identity construction in a medical workplace, particularly the surgical service of a large urban hospital. In discussing identity, she connects professional identity to…

  1. Chemical characterization of some aerobic liquids in CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madsen, Brooks C.

    1993-01-01

    Untreated aqueous soybean and wheat leachate and aerobically treated wheat leachate prepared from crop residues that are produced as a component of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System program designed to support long duration space missions were compared, and a general chemical characterization was accomplished. Solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography were used to accomplish comparisons based on chromatographic and ultraviolet absorption properties of the components that are present. Specific compounds were not identified; however, general composition related to the initial presence of phenol-like compounds and their disappearance during aerobic treatment was explored.

  2. The aerobic activity of metronidazole against anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dione, Niokhor; Khelaifia, Saber; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Raoult, Didier

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the aerobic growth of strictly anaerobic bacteria was demonstrated using antioxidants. Metronidazole is frequently used to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacteria; however, to date its antibacterial activity was only tested in anaerobic conditions. Here we aerobically tested using antioxidants the in vitro activities of metronidazole, gentamicin, doxycycline and imipenem against 10 common anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. In vitro susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by Etest. Aerobic culture of the bacteria was performed at 37°C using Schaedler agar medium supplemented with 1mg/mL ascorbic acid and 0.1mg/mL glutathione; the pH was adjusted to 7.2 by 10M KOH. Growth of anaerobic bacteria cultured aerobically using antioxidants was inhibited by metronidazole after 72h of incubation at 37°C, with a mean inhibition diameter of 37.76mm and an MIC of 1μg/mL; however, strains remained non-sensitive to gentamicin. No growth inhibition of aerobic bacteria was observed after 24h of incubation at 37°C with metronidazole; however, inhibition was observed with doxycycline and imipenem used as controls. These results indicate that bacterial sensitivity to metronidazole is not related to the oxygen tension but is a result of the sensitivity of the micro-organism. In future, both culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing of strictly anaerobic bacteria will be performed in an aerobic atmosphere using antioxidants in clinical microbiology laboratories.

  3. 11. INTERIOR VIEW WITH JAMES WILLIAMS INSIDE GREY IRON UNIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR VIEW WITH JAMES WILLIAMS INSIDE GREY IRON UNIT NO. 1 MOLDING CONVEYOR, AIR CLEANING A PATTERN AS IT SITS WITHIN A FLASK ON A MOLDING MACHINE PRIOR TO BEING FILLED WITH SAND FROM THE OVERHEAD CONVEYOR. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  4. 17. INTERIOR VIEW WITH GREY UNIT NO. 1 MOLD CONVEYOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTERIOR VIEW WITH GREY UNIT NO. 1 MOLD CONVEYOR SHOWING CHAIN HELD WEIGHTS THAT TRAVEL AT THE SAME SPEED AS THE CONVEYOR AND REST ON COMPLETED MOLDS TO HOLD THE SAND SEAMS TOGETHER AS MOLTED IRON IS POURED INTO THE MOLD CAVITY. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  5. 28. CORE STORAGE AREA OF THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. CORE STORAGE AREA OF THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY SHOWING CORES THAT WILL BE USED TO CREATE INTERIOR WALLS OF SMALL BALL VALVES, FOREGROUND, AND LARGE GATE VALVES, BACKGROUND. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  6. 31. PETIBONE SAND THROWING MACHINE BOX FLOOR GREY IRON FOUNDRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. PETIBONE SAND THROWING MACHINE BOX FLOOR GREY IRON FOUNDRY FORCES CONDITIONED MOLDING SAND, AT HIGH VELOCITY, INTO MOLDS TOO BIG TO BE MADE ON ONE OF THE CONVEYOR SYSTEMS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  7. A High Precision Prediction Model Using Hybrid Grey Dynamic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Guo-Dong; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Nagai, Masatake; Masuda, Shiro

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new prediction analysis model which combines the first order one variable Grey differential equation Model (abbreviated as GM(1,1) model) from grey system theory and time series Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model from statistics theory. We abbreviate the combined GM(1,1) ARIMA model as ARGM(1,1)…

  8. 30. NATIONAL SHELL CORE MACHINE IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. NATIONAL SHELL CORE MACHINE IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY AUTOMATICALLY INJECTS SAND INTO CLOSED, HEATED CORE BOXES THAT SET THE RESINS AND PERMIT A HARDENED CORE TO BE REMOVED BY THE OPERATOR. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  9. 34. DESPATCH CORE OVENS, GREY IRON FOUNDRY CORE ROOM, BAKES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DESPATCH CORE OVENS, GREY IRON FOUNDRY CORE ROOM, BAKES CORES THAT ARE NOT MADE ON HEATED OR COLD BOX CORE MACHINES, TO SET BINDING AGENTS MIXED WITH THE SAND CREATING CORES HARD ENOUGH TO WITHSTAND THE FLOW OF MOLTEN IRON INSIDE A MOLD. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  10. 8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACES AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS, CUPOLA TENDER RICHARD SLAUGHTER SUPERVISING THE POUR. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  11. 32. LARGE LADLE, BOX FLOOR, GREY IRON FOUNDRY IS USED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. LARGE LADLE, BOX FLOOR, GREY IRON FOUNDRY IS USED TO CARRY LARGE BATCHES OF IRON FROM THE CUPOLA AREAS TO THE LARGE MOLDS MADE ON BOX FLOOR AREA. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  12. 41. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  13. 42. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  14. 7. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. 33. BENCH CORE STATION, GREY IRON FOUNDRY CORE ROOM WHERE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. BENCH CORE STATION, GREY IRON FOUNDRY CORE ROOM WHERE CORE MOLDS WERE HAND FILLED AND OFTEN PNEUMATICALLY COMPRESSED WITH A HAND-HELD RAMMER BEFORE THEY WERE BAKED. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  16. Anaerobic-aerobic sequencing bioreactors improve energy efficiency for treatment of personal care product industry wastes.

    PubMed

    Ahammad, S Z; Bereslawski, J L; Dolfing, J; Mota, C; Graham, D W

    2013-07-01

    Personal care product (PCP) industry liquid wastes contain shampoo residues, which are usually treated by aerobic activated sludge (AS). Unfortunately, AS is expensive for PCP wastes because of high aeration and energy demands, whereas potentially energy-positive anaerobic designs cannot meet effluent targets. Therefore, combined anaerobic-aerobic systems may be the best solution. Seven treatment systems were assessed in terms of energy and treatment performance for shampoo wastes, including one aerobic, three anaerobic (HUASB, AHR and AnCSTR) and three anaerobic-aerobic reactor designs. COD removals were highest in the HUASB-aerobic (87.9 ± 0.4%) and AHR-aerobic (86.8±0.5%) systems, which used 69.2% and 62.5% less energy than aerobic AS. However, actual methane production rates were low relative to theoretical in the UASB and AHR units (∼10% methane/COD removed) compared with the AnCSTR unit (∼70%). Anaerobic-aerobic sequence reactors show promise for treating shampoo wastes, but optimal designs depend upon whether methane production or COD removal is most important to operations.

  17. Color and Grey Scale in Sonar Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraiss, K. F.; Kuettelwesch, K. H.

    1984-01-01

    In spite of numerous publications 1 it is still rather unclear, whether color is of any help in sonar displays. The work presented here deals with a particular type of sonar data, i.e., LOFAR-grams (low frequency analysing and recording) where acoustic sensor data are continuously written as a time-frequency plot. The question to be answered quantitatively is, whether color coding does improve target detection when compared with a grey scale code. The data show significant differences in receiver-operating characteristics performance for the selected codes. In addition it turned out, that the background noise level affects the performance dramatically for some color codes, while others remain stable or even improve. Generally valid rules are presented on how to generate useful color scales for this particular application.

  18. Die aerobe Glykolyse der Tumorzelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Friedhelm

    1981-01-01

    A high aerobic glycolysis (aerobic lactate production) is the most significant feature of the energy metabolism of rapidly growing tumor cells. Several mechanisms, which may be different in different cell lines, seem to be involved in this characteristic of energy metabolism of the tumor cell. Changes in the cell membrane leading to increased uptake and utilization of glucose, a high level of fetal types of isoenzymes, a decreased number of mitochondria and a reduced capacity to metabolize pyruvate are some factors which must be taken into consideration. It is not possible to favour one of them at the present time.

  19. Reasoning by inference: further studies on exclusion in grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus).

    PubMed

    Pepperberg, Irene M; Koepke, Adrienne; Livingston, Paige; Girard, Monique; Hartsfield, Leigh Ann

    2013-08-01

    Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) abilities for visual inferential reasoning by exclusion were tested in two experiments. The first replicated the Grey parrot study of Mikolasch, Kotrschal, and Schloegl (2011, African Grey Parrots (Psittacus erithacus) use inference by exclusion to find hidden food. Biology Letters, 7, 875-877), which in turn replicated that of Premack and Premck (1994, Levels of causal understanding in chimpanzees and children. Cognition, 50, 347-362) with apes, to learn if our subjects could succeed on this task. Here parrots watched an experimenter hide two equally desirable foods under two separate opaque cups, surreptitiously remove and then, in view of the birds, pocket/eat one of the foods, leaving birds to find the still baited cup. The experiment contained controls for various alternative explanations for the birds' behavior, but birds might still have avoided a cup from which something had been removed rather than specifically tracking the eaten food. Thus, in the second experiment, some trials were run with one food slightly more preferred than the other, during which two items of each type were hidden and only one of the items were removed from one cup. Sessions also included Experiment 1-type trials to see if birds tracked when and when not to use exclusion. Thus, birds would be rewarded for attending closely to all the experimental aspects needed to infer how to receive their preferred treat. Three of four birds succeeded fully.

  20. Phagocytosis in pup and adult harbour, grey and harp seals.

    PubMed

    Frouin, Héloïse; Lebeuf, Michel; Hammill, Mike; Fournier, Michel

    2010-04-15

    Knowledge on pinniped immunology is still in its infancy. For instance, age-related and developmental aspects of the immune system in pinnipeds need to be better described. The present study examined the phagocytic activity and efficiency of harbour, grey and harp seal leukocytes. In the first part of the study, peripheral blood was collected from captive female harbour seals of various ages. Data showed an age-related decrease in phagocytosis in female harbour seals from sub-adult to adulthood. In the second part of the study, changes in phagocytosis were quantified during lactation in wild newborn harbour, grey and harp seals and in their mothers (harp and grey seals). In newborns of the same age, leukocytes of harbour and harp seals phagocytosed less than those of grey seal pups. The phagocytic activity and efficiency increased significantly from early to mid-lactation in newborn harbour seals, and from early to late lactation in newborn grey seals, which could suggest that the transfer of phagocytosis-promoting factor(s) in colostrum is an important feature of temporary protection for pups. In contrast, no changes in phagocytic activity and efficiency were observed in lactating females of the two seal species, harp and grey, examined. At late lactation, phagocytic activity in both grey and harp seal pups and phagocytic efficiency in grey seal pups were significantly higher than in their mothers. These results could reflect either the capacity of phagocytes of the newborn harp and grey seals to respond to pathogens. Results from this study suggest that the phagocytosis of the seal species examined is not fully developed at birth as it generally increases in pups during lactation. Thereafter, the phagocytic activity of seals appears to decrease throughout adulthood.

  1. Bibliometric study of grey literature in core veterinary medical journals

    PubMed Central

    Pelzer, Nancy L.; Wiese, William H.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: Grey literature has been perceived by many as belonging to the primary sources of information and has become an accepted method of nonconventional communication in the sciences and medicine. Since little is known about the use and nature of grey literature in veterinary medicine, a systematic study was done to analyze and characterize the bibliographic citations appearing in twelve core veterinary journals. Methods: Citations from 2,159 articles published in twelve core veterinary journals in 2000 were analyzed to determine the portion of citations from grey literature. Those citations were further analyzed and categorized according to the type of publication. Results: Citation analysis yielded 55,823 citations, of which 3,564 (6.38%) were considered to be grey literature. Four veterinary specialties, internal medicine, pathology, theriogenology, and microbiology, accounted for 70% of the total number of articles. Three small-animal clinical practice journals cited about 2.5–3% grey literature, less than half that of journals with basic research orientations, where results ranged from almost 6% to approximately 10% grey literature. Nearly 90% of the grey literature appeared as conferences, government publications, and corporate organization literature. Conclusions: The results corroborate other reported research that the incidence of grey literature is lower in medicine and biology than in some other fields, such as aeronautics and agriculture. As in other fields, use of the Internet and the Web has greatly expanded the communication process among veterinary professionals. The appearance of closed community email forums and specialized discussion groups within the veterinary profession is an example of what could become a new kind of grey literature. PMID:14566374

  2. The Transition from Aerobic to Anaerobic Metabolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, James S.; McLellan, Thomas H.

    1980-01-01

    The transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism is discussed. More research is needed on different kinds of athletes and athletic activities and how they may affect aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms. (CJ)

  3. Differential effects of hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid on the aerobic thermosensitivity of yeast cells grown under aerobic and anoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Moraitis, Christos; Curran, Brendan P G

    2010-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated that in aerobically-grown cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) increases and ascorbic acid decreases cellular thermosensitivity, as determined by the inducibility of a heat shock (HS)-reporter gene. In this work, we reveal that the aerobic thermosensitivity of anaerobically-grown yeast cells also increases in the presence of H(2)O(2), albeit differentially between cells with two different lipid profiles. In comparison to aerobically-grown fermenting cells treated with the same H(2)O(2) concentration, both these types of anaerobically-grown cells were found to be considerably less sensitive to aerobic heat shock and considerably more thermotolerant. Paradoxically, and in contrast to ascorbate-pretreated aerobically-grown yeast cells, when anaerobically-grown cells were heat-shocked aerobically in the presence of the same ascorbic acid concentration, they exhibited increased thermosensitivity and decreased intrinsic thermotolerance with respect to their untreated counterparts. These findings are discussed with respect to what is currently known about the redox and physiological status of yeast cells grown aerobically and cells reoxygenated following anoxic growth.

  4. Arthritis and Aerobic Exercise: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Robert W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Arthritic patients who regularly do aerobic exercise make significant gains in aerobic and functional status, and in subjective areas like pain tolerance and mood. Still, they are often advised to curtail physical activity. Guidelines are presented for physicians prescribing aerobic exercise. An exercise tolerance test is recommended. (SM)

  5. 4. General view of road with grey birch trees looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. General view of road with grey birch trees looking E. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Heintooga Round Bottom Road & Balsam Mountain Road, Between Blue Ridge Parkway & Big Cove Road, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  6. How to search for and use 'grey literature' in research.

    PubMed

    Coad, Jane; Hardicre, Jayne; Devitt, Patric

    An ever-growing amount of grey literature is available to nurses, including oral presentations, personal communication, leaflets, newspapers and magazines, unpublished research, internal reports and minutes of meetings. It can be an invaluable research resource.

  7. 29. DEPENDABLE FORDATHSHELL CORE MACHINES IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. DEPENDABLE FORDATH-SHELL CORE MACHINES IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY INJECTS SAND INTO A CLOSED CORE BOX. SOME OF THE UNITS HEAT THE CORE BOX TO FIX THE RESINS AS THE CORE REMAINS IN THE BOX, OTHERS MERELY SHAPED THE CORE SAND REQUIRING BAKING OF THE CORES TO HARDEN THEM. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  8. The medically important aerobic actinomycetes: epidemiology and microbiology.

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, M M; Brown, J M

    1994-01-01

    The aerobic actinomycetes are soil-inhabiting microorganisms that occur worldwide. In 1888, Nocard first recognized the pathogenic potential of this group of microorganisms. Since then, several aerobic actinomycetes have been a major source of interest for the commercial drug industry and have proved to be extremely useful microorganisms for producing novel antimicrobial agents. They have also been well known as potential veterinary pathogens affecting many different animal species. The medically important aerobic actinomycetes may cause significant morbidity and mortality, in particular in highly susceptible severely immunocompromised patients, including transplant recipients and patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. However, the diagnosis of these infections may be difficult, and effective antimicrobial therapy may be complicated by antimicrobial resistance. The taxonomy of these microorganisms has been problematic. In recent revisions of their classification, new pathogenic species have been recognized. The development of additional and more reliable diagnostic tests and of a standardized method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and the application of molecular techniques for the diagnosis and subtyping of these microorganisms are needed to better diagnose and treat infected patients and to identify effective control measures for these unusual pathogens. We review the epidemiology and microbiology of the major medically important aerobic actinomycetes. Images PMID:7923055

  9. Calcium precipitate induced aerobic granulation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chunli; Lee, Duu-Jong; Yang, Xue; Wang, Yayi; Wang, Xingzu; Liu, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic granulation is a novel biotechnology for wastewater treatment. This study refined existing aerobic granulation mechanisms as a sequencing process including formation of calcium precipitate under alkaline pH to form inorganic cores, followed by bacterial attachment and growth on these cores to form the exopolysaccharide matrix. Mature granules comprised an inner core and a matrix layer and a rim layer with enriched microbial strains. The inorganic core was a mix of different crystals of calcium and phosphates. Functional strains including Sphingomonas sp., Paracoccus sp. Sinorhizobium americanum strain and Flavobacterium sp. attached onto the cores. These functional strains promote c-di-GMP production and the expression by Psl and Alg genes for exopolysaccharide production to enhance formation of mature granules.

  10. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Torsvik, T.; Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  11. WWOX loss activates aerobic glycolysis.

    PubMed

    Abu-Remaileh, Muhannad; Seewaldt, Victoria L; Aqeilan, Rami I

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells undergo reprogramming of glucose metabolism to limit energy production to glycolysis-a state known as "aerobic glycolysis." Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1α) is a transcription factor that regulates many genes responsible for this switch. As discussed here, new data suggest that the tumor suppressor WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) modulates HIF1α, thereby regulating this metabolic state.

  12. WWOX loss activates aerobic glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Remaileh, Muhannad; Seewaldt, Victoria L; Aqeilan, Rami I

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells undergo reprogramming of glucose metabolism to limit energy production to glycolysis—a state known as “aerobic glycolysis.” Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1α) is a transcription factor that regulates many genes responsible for this switch. As discussed here, new data suggest that the tumor suppressor WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) modulates HIF1α, thereby regulating this metabolic state. PMID:27308416

  13. Aerobic Metabolism of Streptococcus agalactiae

    PubMed Central

    Mickelson, M. N.

    1967-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae cultures possess an aerobic pathway for glucose oxidation that is strongly inhibited by cyanide. The products of glucose oxidation by aerobically grown cells of S. agalactiae 50 are lactic and acetic acids, acetylmethylcarbinol, and carbon dioxide. Glucose degradation products by aerobically grown cells, as percentage of glucose carbon, were 52 to 61% lactic acid, 20 to 23% acetic acid, 5.5 to 6.5% acetylmethylcarbinol, and 14 to 16% carbon dioxide. There was no evidence for a pentose cycle or a tricarboxylic acid cycle. Crude cell-free extracts of S. agalactiae 50 possessed a strong reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH2) oxidase that is also cyanide-sensitive. Dialysis or ultrafiltration of the crude, cell-free extract resulted in loss of NADH2 oxidase activity. Oxidase activity was restored to the inactive extract by addition of the ultrafiltrate or by addition of menadione or K3Fe(CN)6. Noncytochrome iron-containing pigments were present in cell-free extracts of S. agalactiae. The possible participation of these pigments in the respiration of S. agalactiae is presently being studied. PMID:4291090

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF AEROBIC BIOFILTER DESIGN CRITERIA FOR TREATING VOCS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reports preliminary results on the use of trickle bed biofilters with monolithic ceramic channelized microbial support structures for the treatment of VOCs typical of landfill leachate stripping. Toluene was used for the purpose of characterizing the trickle bed biofi...

  15. Assessment of global grey water footprint of major food crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong; Liu, Wenfeng; Antonelli, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural production is one of the major sources of water pollution in the world. This is closely related to the excess application of fertilizers. Leaching of N and P to water bodies has caused serious degradation of water quality in many places. With the persistent increase in the demand for agricultural products, agricultural intensification evident during the past decades will continue in the future. This will lead to further increase in fertilizer application and consequently water pollution. Grey water footprint is a measure of the intensity of water pollution caused by water use for human activities. It is defined as the volume of water that is required to assimilate a load of pollutants to a freshwater body, based on natural background concentrations and water quality standards. This study conducts a global assessment of grey water footprint for major cereal crops, wheat, maize and rice. A crop model, Python-based EPIC (PEPIT), is applied to quantify the leaching of N and P from the fertilizer application in the three crops on a global scale with 0.5 degree spatial resolution. The hotspots of leaching are identified. The results suggest that, based on the definition and method of grey water footprint proposed by the World Water Footprint Network, the grey water footprint in many parts of the world has exceeded their total water resources availability. This indicates the seriousness of water pollution caused by agricultural production. However, the situation may also call for the development of a realistic measurement of grey water footprint which is more pertinent to water resources management. This paper proposes some alternatives in measuring grey water footprint and also discusses incorporation of grey water footprint assessment into water policy formulation and river basins plan development.

  16. Relationship between grey matter integrity and executive abilities in aging.

    PubMed

    Manard, Marine; Bahri, Mohamed Ali; Salmon, Eric; Collette, Fabienne

    2016-07-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to investigate grey matter changes that occur in healthy aging and the relationship between grey matter characteristics and executive functioning. Thirty-six young adults (18-30 years old) and 43 seniors (60-75 years old) were included. A general executive score was derived from a large battery of neuropsychological tests assessing three major aspects of executive functioning (inhibition, updating and shifting). Age-related grey matter changes were investigated by comparing young and older adults using voxel-based morphometry and voxel-based cortical thickness methods. A widespread difference in grey matter volume was found across many brain regions, whereas cortical thinning was mainly restricted to central areas. Multivariate analyses showed age-related changes in relatively similar brain regions to the respective univariate analyses but appeared more limited. Finally, in the older adult sample, a significant relationship between global executive performance and decreased grey matter volume in anterior (i.e. frontal, insular and cingulate cortex) but also some posterior brain areas (i.e. temporal and parietal cortices) as well as subcortical structures was observed. Results of this study highlight the distribution of age-related effects on grey matter volume and show that cortical atrophy does not appear primarily in "frontal" brain regions. From a cognitive viewpoint, age-related executive functioning seems to be related to grey matter volume but not to cortical thickness. Therefore, our results also highlight the influence of methodological aspects (from preprocessing to statistical analysis) on the pattern of results, which could explain the lack of consensus in literature.

  17. Grey relational clustering associated with CAPRI applied to FPGA placement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jan-Ou; Fan, Yang-Hsin; Wang, San-Fu

    2016-04-01

    Grey relational clustering is used to minimise wire length during field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) placement and routing. The proposed Grey Relational Clustering Apply to Placement (GRAP) algorithm combines grey relational clustering and convex assigned placement for regular ICs method to construct a placement netlist, which was successfully used to solve the problem of minimising wire length in an FPGA placement. Upon calculating the grey relational grade, GRAP can rank the sequence and analyse the minimal distance in configuration logic blocks based on the grey relational sequence and combined connection-based approaches. The experimental results demonstrate that the GRAP effectively compares the Hibert, Z and Snake with bounding box (BB) cost function in the space-filling curve. The GRAP improved BB cost by 0.753%, 0.324% and 0.096% for the Hilbert, Z and Snake, respectively. This study also compares the critical path with the space-filling curve. The GRAP approach improved the critical path for Snake by 1.3% in the space-filling curve; however, the GRAP increased critical path wire by 1.38% and 0.03% over that of the Hilbert and Z of space-filling curve, respectively.

  18. Treatment of packaging board whitewater in anaerobic/aerobic biokidney.

    PubMed

    Alexandersson, T; Malmqvist, A

    2005-01-01

    Whitewater from production of packaging board was treated in a combined anaerobic/aerobic biokidney, both in laboratory scale and pilot plant experiments. Both the laboratory experiments and the pilot plant trial demonstrate that a combined anaerobic/aerobic process is suitable for treating whitewater from a packaging mill. It is also possible to operate the process at the prevailing whitewater temperature. In the laboratory under mesophilic conditions the maximal organic load was 12 kg COD/m3*d on the anaerobic reactor and 6.7 kg COD/m3*d on the aerobic reactor. This gave a hydraulic retention time, HRT, in the anaerobic reactor of 10 hours and 2 hours in the aerobic reactor. The reduction of COD was between 85 and 90% after the first stage and the total reduction was between 88 to 93%. Under thermophilic conditions in the laboratory the organic load was slightly lower than 9.6 COD/m3*d and between 10 and 16 COD/m3*d, respectively. The HRT was 16.5 and 3.4 hours and the removal was around 75% after the anaerobic reactor and 87% after the total process. For the pilot plant experiment at a mill the HRT in the anaerobic step varied between 3 and 17 hours and the corresponding organic load between 4 and 44 kg COD/m3*d. The HRT in the aerobic step varied between 1 and 6 hours and the organic load between 1.5 and 26 kg COD/m3*d. The removal of soluble organic matter was 78% in the anaerobic step and 86% after the combined treatment at the lowest loading level. The removal efficiency at the highest loading level was about 65% in the anaerobic step and 77% after the aerobic step. In the pilot plant trial the removal efficiency was not markedly affected by the variations in whitewater composition that were caused by change of production. The variations, however, made the manual control of the nutrient dosage inadequate and resulted in large variations in effluent nutrient concentration. This demonstrates the need for an automatic nutrient dosage system. The first step

  19. Lower limb loading in step aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    Wu, H-W; Hsieh, H-M; Chang, Y-W; Wang, L-H

    2012-11-01

    Participation in aerobic dance is associated with a number of lower extremity injuries, and abnormal joint loading seems to be a factor in these. However, information on joint loading is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinetics of the lower extremity in step aerobic dance and to compare the differences of high-impact and low-impact step aerobic dance in 4 aerobic movements (mambo, kick, L step and leg curl). 18 subjects were recruited for this study. High-impact aerobic dance requires a significantly greater range of motion, joint force and joint moment than low-impact step aerobic dance. The peak joint forces and moments in high-impact step aerobic dance were found to be 1.4 times higher than in low-impact step aerobic dance. Understanding the nature of joint loading may help choreographers develop dance combinations that are less injury-prone. Furthermore, increased knowledge about joint loading may be helpful in lowering the risk of injuries in aerobic dance instructors and students.

  20. Inbreeding and relatedness in Scandinavian grey wolves Canis lupus.

    PubMed

    Ellegren, H

    1999-01-01

    Management of small and threatened populations may require detailed knowledge about the genetic status of individuals and the genetic relatedness between individuals. I show here that individual heterozygosity at a set of 29 microsatellite loci correlates closely to the degree of inbreeding in a captive grey wolf population. Microsatellite allele sharing similarly correlates closely to known relatedness between pairs of individuals. Genotyping the same markers in a small (60-70 individuals) natural population of grey wolves in Sweden, low individual heterozygosities and high values of allele sharing between some animals were found. Since inbreeding depression has been documented in a captive grey wolf population of Scandinavian origin, the results point out an additional risk for the small Swedish wild population.

  1. Efficiency of searching the grey literature in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Cook, A M; Finlay, I G; Edwards, A G; Hood, K; Higginson, I J; Goodwin, D M; Normand, C E; Douglas, H R

    2001-09-01

    A systematic review into palliative care team effectiveness was undertaken which has, inherent in its methodology, grey literature searching. Over 100 letters were written to a systematically chosen range of service providers, commissioners, and experts in combination with requests for information in six UK national cancer/palliative care organization newsletters. In addition, the System for Information on Grey Literature (SIGLE ) database was searched. As a result, 25 document hard copies were received. The documents were, in all but one case (this one study was also highlighted by the SIGLE search), not relevant as they were predominated by annual reports, service descriptions, and needs assessments. In terms of obtaining unpublished studies for possible inclusion in the review, this comprehensive search was unsuccessful and, therefore, it would appear that grey literature searching is not a useful tool in palliative care systematic reviews.

  2. Fluorescence and coloration of grey hair.

    PubMed

    Daly, S; Bianchini, R; Polefka, T; Jumbelic, L; Jachowicz, J

    2009-10-01

    Grey hair samples were collected from 11 individuals and separated into un-pigmented and pigmented fibres (International Hair Importers). Fluorescence measurements were obtained by using a double-grating fluorescence spectrophotometer and a bifurcated fibre optics accessory to measure the spectra directly from the surface of hair at various distances from the fibre root. Colour measurements were carried out by using a Hunter colorimeter. The fluorescence spectra of un-pigmented hair obtained by the excitation at 290 nm show a peak at 356 nm [tryptophan (Trp)], and multi-peak emissions in the range from 395 to 500 nm. A significant variation in the Trp emission intensity at 356 nm vs. the intensity of emission in the 395-500 nm range was observed for hair collected from various individuals with yellow coloured hair producing stronger relative emission in 395-500 nm range. Quantitative measurements of coloration and the calculation of the Yellowness Index (YI) showed linear correlation between YI and the ratio of fluorescence intensities I(440)/I(356) The spectra obtained by excitation at 320 nm showed the emission peaks at 395 nm (unidentified), 420 nm (N-formylkynurenine), 460 nm (kynurenine), and 495 nm (3-hydroxykynurenine), which are the products of oxidative or metabolic conversion of tryptophan. Un-pigmented, yellow hair showed a build-up of the fluorescence band corresponding to 3-hydroxykynurenine at 495 nm. The data also showed the fluorescence quenching effect of melanin resulting in the lowering of the fluorescence intensity of pigmented hair. The spectra obtained at various positions along the fibres demonstrated gradual photo-decomposition of hair chromophores during their lifetimes. This was indicated by a decrease of Trp fluorescence intensity, which was relatively fast (8.10(-4)-1.5.10(-3) [day(-1)] as calculated for hair obtained from various individuals) for un-pigmented hair and slower for pigmented hair. A decrease in Trp emission was accompanied

  3. Measurement and clinical effect of grey matter pathology in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Geurts, Jeroen J G; Calabrese, Massimiliano; Fisher, Elizabeth; Rudick, Richard A

    2012-12-01

    During the past 10 years, the intense involvement of the grey matter of the CNS in the pathology of multiple sclerosis has become evident. On gross inspection, demyelination in the grey matter is rather inconspicuous, and lesions in the grey matter are mostly undetectable with traditional MRI sequences. However, the results of immunohistochemical studies have shown extensive involvement of grey matter, and researchers have developed and applied new MRI acquisition methods as a result. Imaging techniques specifically developed to visualise grey matter lesions indicate early involvement, and image analysis techniques designed to measure the volume of grey matter show progressive loss. Together, these techniques have shown that grey matter pathology is associated with neurological and neuropsychological disability, and the strength of this association exceeds that related to white matter lesions or whole brain atrophy. By focusing on the latest insights into the in-vivo measurement of grey matter lesions and atrophy, we can assess their clinical effects.

  4. Case Report of dirofilariasis in grey wolf in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Gavrilović, Pavle; Blitva-Robertson, Gordana; Özvegy, József; Kiskároly, Ferenc; Becskei, Zsolt

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes a case of dirofilariasis in a two-year old, female grey wolf (Canis lupus lupus). The autopsy revealed the presence of 42 adult forms of Dirofilaria immitis in the pulmonary artery, right ventricle and right atrium, varying in length from 9.5 to 30 cm. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the second report of D. immitis in grey wolves in Serbia. Our finding confirms that the wolf, as a subspecies distinct from the dog, should also be considered as a very suitable definitive host for dirofilariasis.

  5. Comparison of grey matter volume and thickness for analysing cortical changes in chronic schizophrenia: a matter of surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast, and curvature.

    PubMed

    Kong, Li; Herold, Christina J; Zöllner, Frank; Salat, David H; Lässer, Marc M; Schmid, Lena A; Fellhauer, Iven; Thomann, Philipp A; Essig, Marco; Schad, Lothar R; Erickson, Kirk I; Schröder, Johannes

    2015-02-28

    Grey matter volume and cortical thickness are the two most widely used measures for detecting grey matter morphometric changes in various diseases such as schizophrenia. However, these two measures only share partial overlapping regions in identifying morphometric changes. Few studies have investigated the contributions of the potential factors to the differences of grey matter volume and cortical thickness. To investigate this question, 3T magnetic resonance images from 22 patients with schizophrenia and 20 well-matched healthy controls were chosen for analyses. Grey matter volume and cortical thickness were measured by VBM and Freesurfer. Grey matter volume results were then rendered onto the surface template of Freesurfer to compare the differences from cortical thickness in anatomical locations. Discrepancy regions of the grey matter volume and thickness where grey matter volume significantly decreased but without corresponding evidence of cortical thinning involved the rostral middle frontal, precentral, lateral occipital and superior frontal gyri. Subsequent region-of-interest analysis demonstrated that changes in surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast and curvature accounted for the discrepancies. Our results suggest that the differences between grey matter volume and thickness could be jointly driven by surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast and curvature.

  6. Study on tunnel settlement prediction method based on parallel grey neural network model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lei; Huang, Teng; Shen, Yue-qian; Zeng, Xian-min

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, according to the characteristics of the grey forecast method and the neural network, constructed the parallel grey neural network model(PGNN) and apply to forecast a tunnel monitoring point's settlement displacement data based on Nanjing metro. The results showed that the prediction accuracy of PGNN is significantly higher than that of unitary grey and neural forecast method. proves that the effectiveness of PGNN in the tunnel settlement prediction. Keywords: Tunnel settlement, grey model, neural network model, prediction

  7. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss. PMID:24508740

  8. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  9. Aerobic Fitness for the Moderately Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Dan

    1981-01-01

    Intended for physical education teachers, the booklet offers ideas for incorporating aerobic conditioning into programs for moderately mentally retarded students. An explanation of aerobic fitness and its benefits is followed by information on initiating a fitness program with evaluation of height, weight, body fat, resting heart rate, and…

  10. Aerobic Dancing--A Rhythmic Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Jacki

    Fitness programs now and in the future must offer built-in cardiovascular conditioning, variety, novelty, and change to meet the physical, mental, and emotional needs of our society. Aerobic dancing (dancing designed to train and strengthen the heart, lungs, and vascular system) is one of the first indoor group Aerobic exercise programs designed…

  11. Variations in an African Grey parrot's speech patterns following ignored and denied requests.

    PubMed

    Colbert-White, Erin N; Hall, Hannah C; Fragaszy, Dorothy M

    2016-05-01

    Communicative competence is one measure of an individual's ability to navigate conversations with social partners. The current study explored the possibility of basic communicative competence in a non-mammal speaker, a speech-using African Grey parrot. Spontaneous conversations between one Grey named Cosmo and her caregiver were recorded, from which three corpora (i.e., bodies of text) of Cosmo's vocalizations were developed: (1) Baseline: Vocalizations containing no requests, (2) Ignored Requests: Vocalizations immediately following Cosmo's caregiver ignoring Cosmo's requests, and (3) Denied Requests: Vocalizations immediately following Cosmo's caregiver denying Cosmo's requests. The distributions of social (e.g., "I love you," kiss sounds) and nonsocial (e.g., answering machine beeps, "That's squirrel") vocalizations, as well as speech and nonword vocalizations, were statistically different across the three corpora. Additionally, qualitative analysis of the datasets indicated Cosmo was persistent in repeating vocalizations when denied and ignored, and interrupted her caregiver more often when requests were denied compared to ignored. Neither repetition nor interruption occurred during the Baseline conversations. The data indicate that despite the outcome being the same (i.e., request was unmet), Cosmo treated an ignored request differently than a denied request, modifying her vocalizations in accord with the specific context. Such modification is evidence of basic communicative competence.

  12. NRSN1 associated grey matter volume of the visual word form area reveals dyslexia before school.

    PubMed

    Skeide, Michael A; Kraft, Indra; Müller, Bent; Schaadt, Gesa; Neef, Nicole E; Brauer, Jens; Wilcke, Arndt; Kirsten, Holger; Boltze, Johannes; Friederici, Angela D

    2016-10-01

    Literacy learning depends on the flexibility of the human brain to reconfigure itself in response to environmental influences. At the same time, literacy and disorders of literacy acquisition are heritable and thus to some degree genetically predetermined. Here we used a multivariate non-parametric genetic model to relate literacy-associated genetic variants to grey and white matter volumes derived by voxel-based morphometry in a cohort of 141 children. Subsequently, a sample of 34 children attending grades 4 to 8, and another sample of 20 children, longitudinally followed from kindergarten to first grade, were classified as dyslexics and controls using linear binary support vector machines. The NRSN1-associated grey matter volume of the 'visual word form area' achieved a classification accuracy of ~ 73% in literacy-experienced students and distinguished between later dyslexic individuals and controls with an accuracy of 75% at kindergarten age. These findings suggest that the cortical plasticity of a region vital for literacy might be genetically modulated, thereby potentially preconstraining literacy outcome. Accordingly, these results could pave the way for identifying and treating the most common learning disorder before it manifests itself in school.

  13. Persistent organic pollutant patterns in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus).

    PubMed

    Roots, O; Zitko, V; Roose, A

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in the grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) from the Baltic, Northeast and Eastern England, and the St. Lawrence Estuary (Canada). In fact, the feeding habits of the ringed seal (Phoca hispida) include ingestion of major quantities of benthic crustaceans that might cause observed differences obtained in PCBs, whereas the grey seal feed mainly on fish. The profile (percent in mixture) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180, and the total of their concentrations in mg/kg lipid in grey seals from the Baltic, from Northeast and Eastern England, and from the St. Lawrence estuary (Canada), were examined by principal component analysis (PCA). When considering the possible effects of consuming seafood by the grey seal, it is necessary to characterize populations and individuals according to the amounts they consume, since populations in different parts of the world are likely to show big differences in their consumption of seafood. The patterns differ between juveniles and adult animals, but the gender of adults and geography do not appear to play a role.

  14. 20. SIMILAR TO THE SYSTEM INSTALLED IN THE GREY IRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. SIMILAR TO THE SYSTEM INSTALLED IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY, MALLEABLE WORKERS FILLED MOLDS TRAVELING ON A CONVEYOR FROM LADLES ATTACHED TO OVERHEAD RAILS WHILE THEY STOOD ON A PLATFORM MOVING AT THE SAME SPEED AS THE CONVEYOR, CA. 1950 - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. The Grey Nomad Phenomenon: Changing the Script of Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyx, Jenny; Leonard, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    This article explores a relatively new and little understood phenomenon, that of the Australian Grey Nomads. Every year increasing numbers of older Australians take to the road. This article explores the phenomenon both empirically and theoretically. A grounded approach is used by which the experience is explored from an ethnographic account…

  16. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF FOUNDRY FROM TOP OF GREY IRON CUPOLA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTHWEST VIEW OF FOUNDRY FROM TOP OF GREY IRON CUPOLA SHOWING OPENED TOP OF CUPOLA WITH EMISSION RECOVERY DUCT COMING OFF. TO THE RIGHT IS THE STORAGE AND SHIPPING BUILDING. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  17. Non-grey thermal effects in irradiated planets atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmentier, Vivien; Guillot, Tristan; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Marley, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    The large diversity of exoplanets in terms of irradiation temperature, gravity and chemical composition discovered around stars with different properties call for the development of fast, accurate and versatile atmospheric models. We derive a new, non-grey analytical model for the thermal structure of irradiated exoplanets. Using two different opacity bands in the thermal frequency range, we highlight the dual role of thermal non-grey opacities in shaping the temperature profile of the atmosphere. Opacities dominated by lines enable the upper atmosphere to cool down significantly compared to a grey atmosphere whereas opacities dominated by bands lead both to a significant cooling of the upper atmosphere and a significant heating of the deep atmosphere.We compare our analytical model to a grid of temperature-pressure profiles for solar composition atmospheres obtained with a state-of-the-art numerical model taking into account the full wavelength, temperature and pressure dependence of the opacities. We demonstrate the importance of thermal non-grey opacities in setting the deep temperature of irradiated giant planets atmospheres. In the particular case of highly irradiated planets we show that the presence of TiO in their atmospheres alters both the optical and the thermal opacities. The greenhouse effect - a semi-grey effect - and the "blanketing effect" - an intrisically non-grey effect - contribute equally to set the deep temperature profile of the planet atmosphere. We conclude that non-grey thermal effects are fundamental to understand the deep temperature profile of hot Jupiters.Our calibrated analytical model matches the numerical model within 10% over a wide range of effective temperature, internal temperature and gravities and properly predict the depth of the radiative/convective boundary, an important quantity to understand the cooling history of a giant planet. Such a fast and accurate model can be of great use when numerous temperature profiles need to

  18. Oleanolic acid suppresses aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells by switching pyruvate kinase type M isoforms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Wu, Ning; Ma, Leina; Liu, Ming; Liu, Ge; Zhang, Yuyan; Lin, Xiukun

    2014-01-01

    Warburg effect, one of the hallmarks for cancer cells, is characterized by metabolic switch from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis. In recent years, increased expression level of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) has been found to be the culprit of enhanced aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells. However, there is no agent inhibiting aerobic glycolysis by targeting PKM2. In this study, we found that Oleanolic acid (OA) induced a switch from PKM2 to PKM1, and consistently, abrogated Warburg effect in cancer cells. Suppression of aerobic glycolysis by OA is mediated by PKM2/PKM1 switch. Furthermore, mTOR signaling was found to be inactivated in OA-treated cancer cells, and mTOR inhibition is required for the effect of OA on PKM2/PKM1 switch. Decreased expression of c-Myc-dependent hnRNPA1 and hnRNPA1 was responsible for OA-induced switch between PKM isoforms. Collectively, we identified that OA is an antitumor compound that suppresses aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells and there is potential that PKM2 may be developed as an important target in aerobic glycolysis pathway for developing novel anticancer agents.

  19. Oleanolic Acid Suppresses Aerobic Glycolysis in Cancer Cells by Switching Pyruvate Kinase Type M Isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Leina; Liu, Ming; Liu, Ge; Zhang, Yuyan; Lin, Xiukun

    2014-01-01

    Warburg effect, one of the hallmarks for cancer cells, is characterized by metabolic switch from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis. In recent years, increased expression level of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) has been found to be the culprit of enhanced aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells. However, there is no agent inhibiting aerobic glycolysis by targeting PKM2. In this study, we found that Oleanolic acid (OA) induced a switch from PKM2 to PKM1, and consistently, abrogated Warburg effect in cancer cells. Suppression of aerobic glycolysis by OA is mediated by PKM2/PKM1 switch. Furthermore, mTOR signaling was found to be inactivated in OA-treated cancer cells, and mTOR inhibition is required for the effect of OA on PKM2/PKM1 switch. Decreased expression of c-Myc-dependent hnRNPA1 and hnRNPA1 was responsible for OA-induced switch between PKM isoforms. Collectively, we identified that OA is an antitumor compound that suppresses aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells and there is potential that PKM2 may be developed as an important target in aerobic glycolysis pathway for developing novel anticancer agents. PMID:24626155

  20. Aerobic fitness testing: an update.

    PubMed

    Stevens, N; Sykes, K

    1996-12-01

    This study confirms that all three tests are reliable tools for the assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness and the prediction of aerobic capacity. While this particular study consisted of active, youthful subjects, subsequent studies at University College Chester have found similar findings with larger databases and a wider cross-section of subjects. The Astrand cycle test and Chester step test are submaximal tests with error margins of 5-15 per cent and therefore, not as precise as maximal testing. However, they still give a reasonably accurate reflection of an individual's fitness without the cost, time, effort and risk on the part of the subject. The bleep test is a low-cost maximal test designed for well-motivated, active individuals who are used to running to physical exhaustion. Used on other groups, results will not accurately reflect cardiorespiratory fitness values. While all three tests have inherent advantages and disadvantages, perhaps the most important factors are the knowledge and skills of the tester. Without a sound understanding of the physiological principles underlying these tests, and the ability to conduct an accurate assessment and evaluation of results in a knowledgeable and meaningful way, then the credibility of the tests and the results become suspect. However, used correctly, aerobic capacity tests can provide valuable baseline data about the fitness levels of individuals and data from which exercise programmes may be developed. The tests also enable fitness improvements to be monitored, help to motivate participants by establishing reasonable and achievable goals, assist in risk stratification and facilitate participants' education about the importance of physical fitness for work and for life. Since this study was completed, further tests have been repeated on 140 subjects of a wider age and ability range. This large database confirms the results found in this study.

  1. C4-Dicarboxylate Utilization in Aerobic and Anaerobic Growth.

    PubMed

    Unden, Gottfried; Strecker, Alexander; Kleefeld, Alexandra; Kim, Ok Bin

    2016-06-01

    C4-dicarboxylates and the C4-dicarboxylic amino acid l-aspartate support aerobic and anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli and related bacteria. In aerobic growth, succinate, fumarate, D- and L-malate, L-aspartate, and L-tartrate are metabolized by the citric acid cycle and associated reactions. Because of the interruption of the citric acid cycle under anaerobic conditions, anaerobic metabolism of C4-dicarboxylates depends on fumarate reduction to succinate (fumarate respiration). In some related bacteria (e.g., Klebsiella), utilization of C4-dicarboxylates, such as tartrate, is independent of fumarate respiration and uses a Na+-dependent membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase. Uptake of the C4-dicarboxylates into the bacteria (and anaerobic export of succinate) is achieved under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by different sets of secondary transporters. Expression of the genes for C4-dicarboxylate metabolism is induced in the presence of external C4-dicarboxylates by the membrane-bound DcuS-DcuR two-component system. Noncommon C4-dicarboxylates like l-tartrate or D-malate are perceived by cytoplasmic one-component sensors/transcriptional regulators. This article describes the pathways of aerobic and anaerobic C4-dicarboxylate metabolism and their regulation. The citric acid cycle, fumarate respiration, and fumarate reductase are covered in other articles and discussed here only in the context of C4-dicarboxylate metabolism. Recent aspects of C4-dicarboxylate metabolism like transport, sensing, and regulation will be treated in more detail. This article is an updated version of an article published in 2004 in EcoSal Plus. The update includes new literature, but, in particular, the sections on the metabolism of noncommon C4-dicarboxylates and their regulation, on the DcuS-DcuR regulatory system, and on succinate production by engineered E. coli are largely revised or new.

  2. Blue and grey water footprint of textile industry in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Laili; Ding, Xuemei; Wu, Xiongying

    2013-01-01

    Water footprint (WF) is a newly developed idea that indicates impacts of freshwater appropriation and wastewater discharge. The textile industry is one of the oldest, longest and most complicated industrial chains in the world's manufacturing industries. However, the textile industry is also water intensive. In this paper, we applied a bottom-up approach to estimate the direct blue water footprint (WFdir,blue) and direct grey water footprint (WFdir,grey) of China's textile industry at sector level based on WF methodology. The results showed that WFdir,blue of China's textile industry had an increasing trend from 2001 to 2010. The annual WFdir,blue surpassed 0.92 Gm(3)/yr (giga cubic meter a year) since 2004 and rose to peak value of 1.09 Gm(3)/yr in 2007. The original and residuary WFdir,grey (both were calculated based on the concentration of chemical oxygen demand (CODCr)) of China's textile industry had a similar variation trend with that of WFdir,blue. Among the three sub-sectors of China's textile industry, the manufacture of textiles sector's annual WFdir,blue and WFdir,grey were much larger than those of the manufacture of textile wearing apparel, footware and caps sector and the manufacture of chemical fibers sector. The intensities of WFdir,blue and WF(res)dir,grey of China's textile industry were year by year decreasing through the efforts of issuing restriction policies on freshwater use and wastewater generation and discharge, and popularization of water saving and wastewater treatment technologies.

  3. Grey hair: clinical investigation into changes in hair fibres with loss of pigmentation in a photoprotected population.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, P D; Polefka, T; Grove, G; Daly, S; Jumbelic, L; Harper, D; Nori, M; Evans, T; Ramaprasad, R; Bianchini, R

    2011-04-01

    Loss of pigmentation in hair fibres is one of the most obvious phenotypic changes with ageing and has been a topic of increasing interest in the study of follicle biology. The onset of greying brings cosmetic complaints that grey fibres are wild or difficult to manage. Of course, these perceptions may be the consequence of visual obviousness rather than underlying physical or chemical differences. Although several studies have compared pigmented and unpigmented fibres, few have tried to control genetic and ethnic difference as well as extrinsic factors such as photoexposure and chemical treatment. We have recruited subjects with salt-and-pepper hair from a population of Old Order Mennonites who, for cultural reasons, are not only prohibited from chemically treating their hair but also limit their exposure to sunlight. Hair samples were examined for elemental composition, surface energy, Young's modulus, break stress, bending modulus, shear modulus and water sorption/desorption isotherm. The parameters were evaluated statistically for global differences, individual differences and typical individual differences. Consistent with previous published literature, few global differences were found between pigmented and unpigmented hair across the population. We do find that many individual subjects had differences between pigmented and unpigmented fibres. These differences tend to be more pronounced in bulk than in surface properties. The small differences in mechanical properties and moisture uptake and loss lend support to the perception by consumers that grey hair is wilder, drier and less manageable.

  4. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Elisabeth; Ingjer, Frank; Bø, Kari

    2011-12-01

    Edvardsen, E, Ingjer, F, and Bø, K. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3479-3485, 2011-This study compared the aerobic capacity during maximal aerobic dance and treadmill running in fit women. Thirteen well-trained female aerobic dance instructors aged 30 ± 8.17 years (mean ± SD) exercised to exhaustion by running on a treadmill for measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max) and peak heart rate (HRpeak). Additionally, all subjects performed aerobic dancing until exhaustion after a choreographed videotaped routine trying to reach the same HRpeak as during maximal running. The p value for statistical significance between running and aerobic dance was set to ≤0.05. The results (mean ± SD) showed a lower VO(2)max in aerobic dance (52.2 ± 4.02 ml·kg·min) compared with treadmill running (55.9 ± 5.03 ml·kg·min) (p = 0.0003). Further, the mean ± SD HRpeak was 182 ± 9.15 b·min in aerobic dance and 192 ± 9.62 b·min in treadmill running, giving no difference in oxygen pulse between the 2 exercise forms (p = 0.32). There was no difference in peak ventilation (aerobic dance: 108 ± 10.81 L·min vs. running: 113 ± 11.49 L·min). In conclusion, aerobic dance does not seem to be able to use the whole aerobic capacity as in running. For well endurance-trained women, this may result in a lower total workload at maximal intensities. Aerobic dance may therefore not be as suitable as running during maximal intensities in well-trained females.

  5. The effects of aerobic training on children's creativity, self-perception, and aerobic power.

    PubMed

    Herman-Tofler, L R; Tuckman, B W

    1998-10-01

    The article examines whether participation in an aerobic exercise program (AE), as compared with a traditional physical education class (PE), significantly increased children's perceived athletic competence, physical appearance, social acceptance, behavioral conduct, and global self-worth; increased their figural creativity; and improved aerobic power as measured by an 800-meter run around a track. Further research on the effects of different types of AE is discussed, as well as the need for aerobic conditioning in the elementary school.

  6. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Lamego, Murilo Khede; Paes, Flávia; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Simoes-Silva, Vitor; Rocha, Susana Almeida; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Rimes, Ridson; Manochio, João; Budde, Henning; Wegner, Mirko; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders observed currently. It is a normal adaptive response to stress that allows coping with adverse situations. Nevertheless, when anxiety becomes excessive or disproportional in relation to the situation that evokes it or when there is not any special object directed at it, such as an irrational dread of routine stimuli, it becomes a disabling disorder and is considered to be pathological. The traditional treatment used is medication and cognitive behavioral psychotherapy, however, last years the practice of physical exercise, specifically aerobic exercise, has been investigated as a new non-pharmacological therapy for anxiety disorders. Thus, the aim of this article was to provide information on research results and key chains related to the therapeutic effects of aerobic exercise compared with other types of interventions to treat anxiety, which may become a useful clinical application in a near future. Researches have shown the effectiveness of alternative treatments, such as physical exercise, minimizing high financial costs and minimizing side effects. The sample analyzed, 66.8% was composed of women and 80% with severity of symptoms anxiety as moderate to severe. The data analyzed in this review allows us to claim that alternative therapies like exercise are effective in controlling and reducing symptoms, as 91% of anxiety disorders surveys have shown effective results in treating. However, there is still disagreement regarding the effect of exercise compared to the use of antidepressant symptoms and cognitive function in anxiety, this suggests that there is no consensus on the correct intensity of aerobic exercise as to achieve the best dose-response, with intensities high to moderate or moderate to mild.

  7. Conditioning and Aerobics for Older Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Joyce

    1980-01-01

    A class designed for the maintenance and gradual improvement of senior citizens' physical fitness includes relaxation training, flexibility and stretching exercises, interval training activities (designed as a link between less strenuous exercise and more strenuous activities), and aerobic exercises. (CJ)

  8. The rise of oxygen and aerobic biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Saito, Mak A

    2012-01-11

    Analysis of conserved protein folding domains across extant genomes by Kim et al. in this issue of Structure provides insights into the timing of some of the earliest aerobic metabolisms to arise on Earth.

  9. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Heijnen, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard; Kibele, Armin; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2016-01-01

    Running, and aerobic exercise in general, is a physical activity that increasingly many people engage in but that also has become popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree aerobic exercise modulates hormones, amino acids, and neurotransmitters levels. In general, it seems that factors such as genes, gender, training status, and hormonal status need to be taken into account to gain a better understanding of the neuromodular underpinnings of aerobic exercise. More research using longitudinal studies and considering individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. We suggest that, in order to succeed, aerobic exercise programs should include optimal periodization, prevent overtraining and be tailored to interindividual differences, including neuro-developmental and genetically-based factors. PMID:26779053

  10. The Energetics of Aerobic versus Anaerobic Respiration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Timothy D.; Schwenz, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Background information, laboratory procedures, and a discussion of the results of an experiment designed to investigate the difference in energy gained from the aerobic and anaerobic oxidation of glucose are presented. Sample experimental and calculated data are included. (CW)

  11. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-27

    distribution is unlimited. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report...2211 diamond nanocrystals, REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) ARO 8. PERFORMING...Room 254, Mail Code 8725 New York, NY 10027 -7922 ABSTRACT Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals Report Title We investigate

  12. Aerobic biodegradation of selected monoterpenes.

    PubMed

    Misra, G; Pavlostathis, S G; Perdue, E M; Araujo, R

    1996-07-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to assess the biotransformation potential of four hydrocarbon monoterpenes (d-limonene, alpha-pinene, gamma-terpinene, and terpinolene) and four alcohols (arbanol, linalool, plinol, and alpha-terpineol) under aerobic conditions at 23 degrees C. Both forest-soil extract and enriched cultures were used as inocula for the biodegradation experiments conducted first without, then with prior microbial acclimation to the monoterpenes tested. All four hydrocarbons and two alcohols were readily degraded. The increase in biomass and headspace CO2 concentrations paralleled the depletion of monoterpenes, thus confirming that terpene disappearance was the result of biodegradation accompanied by microbial growth and mineralization. Plinol resisted degradation in assays using inocula from diverse sources, while arbanol degraded very slowly. A significant fraction of d-limonene-derived carbon was accounted for as non-extractable, dissolved organic carbon, whereas terpineol exhibited a much higher degree of utilization. The rate and extent of monoterpene biodegradation were not significantly affected by the presence of dissolved natural organic matter.

  13. Aerobic catabolism of bile acids.

    PubMed Central

    Leppik, R A; Park, R J; Smith, M G

    1982-01-01

    Seventy-eight stable cultures obtained by enrichment on media containing ox bile or a single bile acid were able to utilize one or more bile acids, as well as components of ox bile, as primary carbon sources for growth. All isolates were obligate aerobes, and most (70) were typical (48) or atypical (22) Pseudomonas strains, the remainder (8) being gram-positive actinomycetes. Of six Pseudomonas isolates selected for further study, five produced predominantly acidic catabolites after growth on glycocholic acid, but the sixth, Pseudomonas sp. ATCC 31752, accumulated as the principal product a neutral steroid catabolite. Optimum growth of Pseudomonas sp. ATCC 31752 on ox bile occurred at pH 7 to 8 and from 25 to 30 degrees C. No additional nutrients were required to sustain good growth, but growth was stimulated by the addition of ammonium sulfate and yeast extract. Good growth was obtained with a bile solids content of 40 g/liter in shaken flasks. A near-theoretical yield of neutral steroid catabolites, comprising a major (greater than 50%) and three minor products, was obtained from fermentor growth of ATCC 31752 in 6.7 g of ox bile solids per liter. The possible commercial exploitation of these findings to produce steroid drug intermediates for the pharmaceutical industry is discussed. PMID:7149711

  14. Morphology of the lingual papillae in the eastern grey kangaroo.

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi

    2016-01-01

    We examined the dorsal lingual surface of an adult eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus gigantues) by scanning electron microscopy. The filiform papillae on the lingual apex and anterior body consisted of a main papilla and secondary papillae. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae on the lingual apex had several processes. The filiform papillae on the lingual posterior body were thread-like in shape. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae on the lingual posterior body consisted of many slender processes. The fungiform papillae were round in shape. Three vallate papillae with the apex of the triangle directed posteriorly consisted of a groove and pad. Several conical papillae derived from the posterolateral margin of the tongue where foliate papillae have been shown to be distributed in many other animal species. The surface structure of the tongue in the eastern grey kangaroo resembles that of the red kangaroo.

  15. Improvement of CCME WQI using grey relational method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Feng; Qiao, Danying; Qian, Bao; Ma, Lin; Xing, Xigang; Zhang, You; Wang, Xiaogang

    2016-12-01

    The conventional CCME WQI ignores the uncertainties in aquatic environment, which may lead to biases and abrupt changes in evaluation results. To overcome this shortcoming, this study improves the calculation of CCME WQI using trapezoid grey relational degree method, a model dealing with uncertainties introduced by incomplete information. Compared with the conventional CCME WQI, the grey CCME WQI has a stricter calculation method in synthetic evaluation and a better capacity in water quality warning. The water quality of New Tongyang Canal is evaluated and the result shows that its environment deteriorates with the increasing rainfall and improves with the decreasing precipitation. To decrease its environmental risk, it is suggested to reduce the nutrients in agricultural runoff and the oxygen-consuming pollutants in urban runoff in the rainy season.

  16. Parapox infection in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in Cornwall.

    PubMed

    Simpson, V R; Stuart, N C; Stack, M J; Ross, H A; Head, J C

    1994-03-19

    In the winter of 1991/92 there was an outbreak of parapox infection in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) around the coast of Cornwall. Pups were cared for at a seal rehabilitation centre and the infection occurred in most of them. The presence of parapox virus was confirmed by electron microscopy. The clinical and pathological findings, together with details of the morphology of the virus, are compared with those in previous outbreaks in North America.

  17. Reduced Regional Grey Matter Volumes in Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Philby, Mona F.; Macey, Paul M.; Ma, Richard A.; Kumar, Rajesh; Gozal, David; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric OSA is associated with cognitive risk. Since adult OSA manifests MRI evidence of brain injury, and animal models lead to regional neuronal losses, pediatric OSA patients may also be affected. We assessed the presence of neuronal injury, measured as regional grey matter volume, in 16 OSA children (8 male, 8.1 ± 2.2 years, AHI:11.1 ± 5.9 events/hr), and 200 control subjects (84 male, 8.2 ± 2.0 years), 191 of whom were from the NIH-Pediatric MRI database. High resolution T1-weighted whole-brain images were assessed between groups with voxel-based morphometry, using ANCOVA (covariates, age and gender; family-wise error correction, P < 0.01). Significant grey matter volume reductions appeared in OSA throughout areas of the superior frontal and prefrontal, and superior and lateral parietal cortices. Other affected sites included the brainstem, ventral medial prefrontal cortex, and superior temporal lobe, mostly on the left side. Thus, pediatric OSA subjects show extensive regionally-demarcated grey matter volume reductions in areas that control cognition and mood functions, even if such losses are apparently independent of cognitive deficits. Since OSA disease duration in our subjects is unknown, these findings may result from either delayed neuronal development, neuronal damaging processes, or a combination thereof, and could either reflect neuronal atrophy or reductions in cellular volume (neurons and glia). PMID:28303917

  18. Grey water on three agricultural catchments in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazkova, Sarka D.; Kulasova, Alena

    2014-05-01

    The COST project EU EURO-AGRIWAT focuses apart from other problems on the assessment of water footprint (WF). WF is defined as the quantity of water used to produce some goods or a service. In particular, the WF of an agricultural product is the volume of water used during the crop growing period. It has three components: the green water which is rain or soil moisture transpired by a crop, the blue water which is the amount of irrigation water transpired and the grey water which is the volume of water required to dilute pollutants and to restore the quality standards of the water body. We have been observing three different agricultural catchments. The first of them is Smrzovka Brook, located in the protected nature area in the south part of the Jizerske Mountains. An ecological farming has been carried out there. The second agricultural catchment area is the Kralovsky Creek, which lies in the foothills of the Krkonose Mountains and is a part of an agricultural cooperative. The last agricultural catchment is the Klejnarka stream, located on the outskirts of the fertile Elbe lowlands near Caslav. Catchments Kralovsky Brook and Klejnarka carry out usual agricultural activities. On all three catchments, however, recreational cottages or houses not connected to the sewerage system and/or with inefficient septic tanks occur. The contribution shows our approach to trying to quantify the real grey water from agriculture, i.e. the grey water caused by nutrients not utilised by the crops.

  19. Hybrid nuclear reactor grey rod to obtain required reactivity worth

    DOEpatents

    Miller, John V.; Carlson, William R.; Yarbrough, Michael B.

    1991-01-01

    Hybrid nuclear reactor grey rods are described, wherein geometric combinations of relatively weak neutron absorber materials such as stainless steel, zirconium or INCONEL, and relatively strong neutron absorber materials, such as hafnium, silver-indium cadmium and boron carbide, are used to obtain the reactivity worths required to reach zero boron change load follow. One embodiment includes a grey rod which has combinations of weak and strong neutron absorber pellets in a stainless steel cladding. The respective pellets can be of differing heights. A second embodiment includes a grey rod with a relatively thick stainless steel cladding receiving relatively strong neutron absorber pellets only. A third embodiment includes annular relatively weak netron absorber pellets with a smaller diameter pellet of relatively strong absorber material contained within the aperture of each relatively weak absorber pellet. The fourth embodiment includes pellets made of a homogeneous alloy of hafnium and a relatively weak absorber material, with the percentage of hafnium chosen to obtain the desired reactivity worth.

  20. Magnesium therapy in a hypocalcemic African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus).

    PubMed

    Kirchgessner, Megan S; Tully, Thomas N; Nevarez, Javier; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Acierno, Mark J

    2012-03-01

    Hypocalcemic-induced seizure activity is a clinical entity that is commonly diagnosed in neurologic African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). Plasma calcium levels are typically less than 6.0 mg/dL at the time of seizure activity, and although the underlying cause of the hypocalcemia has not yet been determined, many theories have been proposed. An African grey parrot that had been fed a seed diet for 8 years was presented with hypocalcemia and seizures and exhibited precipitously declining plasma calcium levels, despite aggressive calcium and vitamin A, D, and E supplementation for 4 days. Baseline magnesium levels in this parrot were determined to be 1.9 mg/dL; therefore, magnesium sulfate was administered at a dose of 20 mg/kg IM once. Twenty-four hours after supplementation, the plasma magnesium level was 3.3 mg/dL, and no further seizure activity was observed. We believe that a primary dietary magnesium deficiency may have been present in this African grey parrot, similar to a syndrome in leghorn chicks, which is frequently characterized by progressive hypocalcemia that is unable to be corrected by calcium supplementation alone.

  1. The trajectory prediction of spacecraft by grey method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiyue; Zhang, Zili; Wang, Zhongyu; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Weihu

    2016-08-01

    The real-time and high-precision trajectory prediction of a moving object is a core technology in the field of aerospace engineering. The real-time monitoring and tracking technology are also significant guarantees of aerospace equipment. A dynamic trajectory prediction method called grey dynamic filter (GDF) which combines the dynamic measurement theory and grey system theory is proposed. GDF can use coordinates of the current period to extrapolate coordinates of the following period. At meantime, GDF can also keep the instantaneity of measured coordinates by the metabolism model. In this paper the optimal model length of GDF is firstly selected to improve the prediction accuracy. Then the simulation for uniformly accelerated motion and variably accelerated motion is conducted. The simulation results indicate that the mean composite position error of GDF prediction is one-fifth to that of Kalman filter (KF). By using a spacecraft landing experiment, the prediction accuracy of GDF is compared with the KF method and the primitive grey method (GM). The results show that the motion trajectory of spacecraft predicted by GDF is much closer to actual trajectory than the other two methods. The mean composite position error calculated by GDF is one-eighth to KF and one-fifth to GM respectively.

  2. Effect of aerobic exercise and raloxifene combination therapy on senile osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chengjin; Hou, Haibing; Chen, Yutao; Lv, Kai

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed the effects of combined application of raloxifene and aerobic exercise on senile osteoporosis. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 70 elderly patients with osteoporosis, who treated at our hospital between April 2013 and August 2014, were divided into equal-sized observation and control groups. The control group was administered raloxifene, whereas the observation group received raloxifene treatment plus aerobic exercise. [Results] Outpatient outcomes were considered dependent variables. After treatment, the two groups differed significantly in terms of lumbar spine (L2–L4) and proximal femoral bone mineral density. The urine pyridine/creatinine ratio decreased significantly and serum calcitonin level increased significantly in the observation group. These differences were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Raloxifene combined with aerobic exercise therapy significantly improves bone density and promotes bone formation in patients with senile osteoporosis. PMID:27390417

  3. Piggery wastewater treatment using Alcaligenes faecalis strain No. 4 with heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification.

    PubMed

    Joo, Hung-Soo; Hirai, Mitsuyo; Shoda, Makoto

    2006-09-01

    Alcaligenes faecalis strain No. 4, which has heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification abilities, was used to treat actual piggery wastewater containing high-strength ammonium under aerobic conditions. In a continuous experiment using a solids-free wastewater (SFW) mixed with feces, almost all of the 2000 NH4+ -N mg/L and 12,000 COD mg/L in the wastewater was removed and the ammonium removal rate was approximately 30 mg-N/L/h, which was 5-10 times higher than the rates achieved by other bacteria with the same abilities. The denitrification ratio was more than 65% of removed NH4+ -N, indicating that strain No. 4 exhibited its heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification abilities in the piggery wastewater.

  4. Effect of aerobic exercise and raloxifene combination therapy on senile osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chengjin; Hou, Haibing; Chen, Yutao; Lv, Kai

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed the effects of combined application of raloxifene and aerobic exercise on senile osteoporosis. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 70 elderly patients with osteoporosis, who treated at our hospital between April 2013 and August 2014, were divided into equal-sized observation and control groups. The control group was administered raloxifene, whereas the observation group received raloxifene treatment plus aerobic exercise. [Results] Outpatient outcomes were considered dependent variables. After treatment, the two groups differed significantly in terms of lumbar spine (L2-L4) and proximal femoral bone mineral density. The urine pyridine/creatinine ratio decreased significantly and serum calcitonin level increased significantly in the observation group. These differences were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Raloxifene combined with aerobic exercise therapy significantly improves bone density and promotes bone formation in patients with senile osteoporosis.

  5. Stable aerobic granules for continuous-flow reactors: Precipitating calcium and iron salts in granular interiors.

    PubMed

    Juang, Yu-Chuan; Sunil S, Adav; Lee, Duu-Jong; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2010-11-01

    Aerobic sludge granules are compact, strong microbial aggregates that have excellent settling ability and capability to efficiently treat high-strength and toxic wastewaters. The aerobic granules cultivated with low ammonium and phosphates lost structural stability within 3 days in continuous-flow reactors. Conversely, stable aerobic granules were cultivated in substrate with high levels of ammonium salts that could stably exist for 216 days in continuous-flow reactors with or without submerged membrane. The scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy microanalysis and the confocal laser scanning microscopy imaging detected large amounts of calcium and iron precipitates in granule interiors. The Visual MINTEQ version 2.61 calculation showed that the phosphates and hydroxides were the main species in the precipitate.

  6. Aerobic Excercise and Research Opportunities to Benefit Impaired Children. (Project AEROBIC). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Univ., Moscow.

    The final report summarizes accomplishments of Project AEROBIC (Aerobic Exercise and Research Opportunities to Benefit Impaired Children), which provided a physical education exercise program for severely, profoundly, and multiply handicapped children aged 10-21. Activities are outlined for the 3 year period and include modification of exercise…

  7. Decolorizing and detoxifying textile wastewater, containing both soluble and insoluble dyes, in a full scale combined anaerobic/aerobic system.

    PubMed

    Frijters, C T M J; Vos, R H; Scheffer, G; Mulder, R

    2006-03-01

    The wastewater originating from the bleaching and dyeing processes in the textile factory Ten Cate Protect in Nijverdal (the Netherlands) was successfully treated in a sequential anaerobic/aerobic system. In the system, a combination of an anaerobic 70-m3 fluidized bed reactor and a 450-m3 aerobic basin with integrated tilted plate settlers, 80-95% of the color was removed. The color was largely removed in the preacidification basin and the anaerobic reactor. Color, deriving from both reactive as well as disperse, was anaerobically removed, indicating that these type of dyes were reduced to colorless products. Interestingly, the vat dyes, the anthraquinones and indigoids, which were thought to be removed mainly aerobically, were largely anaerobically decolorized. Apparently the anaerobic system is capable of effectively removing the color of both soluble as insoluble dyes. The treated effluent of the sequential anaerobic/aerobic treatment showed no toxicity towards the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fisheri (EC20 (95%) > 45%). Partially bypassing the anaerobic stage resulted in increased toxicity (EC20 (95%) of 9% and 14%) in the effluent of the aerobic treatment and caused significant decrease of color removal. The results of this study show a main contribution of anaerobic treatment in decolorizing and detoxifying the textile wastewater in the sequential anaerobic/aerobic system.

  8. Investigating the nitrification and denitrification kinetics under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by Paracoccus denitrificans ISTOD1.

    PubMed

    Medhi, Kristina; Singhal, Anjali; Chauhan, D K; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2017-03-16

    Municipal wastewater contains multiple nitrogen contaminants such as ammonia, nitrate and nitrite. Two heterotrophic nitrifier and aerobic denitrifiers, bacterial isolates ISTOD1 and ISTVD1 were isolated from domestic wastewater. On the basis of removal efficiency of ammonia, nitrate and nitrite under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, ISTOD1 was selected and identified as Paracoccus denitrificans. Aerobically, NH4(+)-N had maximum specific nitrogen removal rate (Rxi) of 7.6g/gDCW/h and anaerobically, NO3(-)N showed Rxi of 2.5*10(-1)g/g DCW/h. Monod equation described the bioprocess kinetic coefficients, µmax and Ks, obtained by regression. Error functions were calculated to validate the Monod equation experimental data. Aerobic NO3(-)N showed the highest YW of 0.372mg DCW/mg NO3(-)N among the five conditions. ISTOD1 serves as a potential candidate for treating nitrogen rich wastewater using simultaneous nitrification and aerobic denitrification. It can be used in bioaugmentation studies under varied condition.

  9. Central treatment of different emulsion wastewaters by an integrated process of physicochemically enhanced ultrafiltration and anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weijun; Xiao, Ping; Wang, Dongsheng

    2014-05-01

    The feasibility of an integrated process of ultrafiltration (UF) enhanced by combined chemical emulsion breaking with vibratory shear and anaerobic/aerobic biofilm reactor for central treatment of different emulsion wastewaters was investigated. Firstly, it was found that calcium chloride exhibited better performance in oil removal than other inorganic salts. Chemical demulsification pretreatment could efficiently improve oil removal and membrane filtration in emulsion wastewater treatment by VSEP. According to aerobic batch bioassay, UF permeate exhibited good biodegradability and could be further treated with biological process. Additionally, pilot test indicated that anaerobic-aerobic biofilm exhibited an excellent ability against rise in organic loading and overall chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of biological system was more than 93% of which 82% corresponded to the anaerobic process and 11% to the aerobic degradation. The final effluent of integrated process could meet the "water quality standards for discharge to municipal sewers" in China.

  10. Sequential anaerobic and aerobic treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent in pilot scale bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pratibha

    2007-01-01

    In the present study sequential anaerobic and aerobic treatment in two step bioreactor was performed for removal of colour in the pulp and paper mill effluent. In anaerobic treatment, colour 50%, lignin 62%, COD 29%, absordable organic halides (AOX) 25% and phenol 29% were reduced in eight days. The anaerobically treated effluent was separately applied in bioreactor in presence of fungal strain, Paecilomyces sp., and bacterial strain, Microbrevis luteum. Data of study indicated reduction in colour 80%, AOX 74%, lignin 81%, COD 93% and phenol 76 per cent by Paecilomyces sp. where as Microbrevis luteum showed removal in colour 59%, lignin 71%, COD 86%, AOX 84% and phenol 88% by day third when 7 days anaerobically treated effluent was further treated by aerobic microorganisms. Change in pH of the effluent and increase in biomass of microorganism's substantiated results of the study, which was concomitant to the treatment method.

  11. Cellular and ultrastructural characterization of the grey-morph phenotype in southern right whales (Eubalaena australis)

    PubMed Central

    Eroh, Guy D.; Clayton, Fred C.; Florell, Scott R.; Cassidy, Pamela B.; Chirife, Andrea; Marón, Carina F.; Valenzuela, Luciano O.; Campbell, Michael S.; Seger, Jon; Rowntree, Victoria J.; Leachman, Sancy A.

    2017-01-01

    Southern right whales (SRWs, Eubalena australis) are polymorphic for an X-linked pigmentation pattern known as grey morphism. Most SRWs have completely black skin with white patches on their bellies and occasionally on their backs; these patches remain white as the whale ages. Grey morphs (previously referred to as partial albinos) appear mostly white at birth, with a splattering of rounded black marks; but as the whales age, the white skin gradually changes to a brownish grey color. The cellular and developmental bases of grey morphism are not understood. Here we describe cellular and ultrastructural features of grey-morph skin in relation to that of normal, wild-type skin. Melanocytes were identified histologically and counted, and melanosomes were measured using transmission electron microscopy. Grey-morph skin had fewer melanocytes when compared to wild-type skin, suggesting reduced melanocyte survival, migration, or proliferation in these whales. Grey-morph melanocytes had smaller melanosomes relative to wild-type skin, normal transport of melanosomes to surrounding keratinocytes, and normal localization of melanin granules above the keratinocyte nuclei. These findings indicate that SRW grey-morph pigmentation patterns are caused by reduced numbers of melanocytes in the skin, as well as by reduced amounts of melanin production and/or reduced sizes of mature melanosomes. Grey morphism is distinct from piebaldism and albinism found in other species, which are genetic pigmentation conditions resulting from the local absence of melanocytes, or the inability to synthesize melanin, respectively. PMID:28170433

  12. Cellular and ultrastructural characterization of the grey-morph phenotype in southern right whales (Eubalaena australis).

    PubMed

    Eroh, Guy D; Clayton, Fred C; Florell, Scott R; Cassidy, Pamela B; Chirife, Andrea; Marón, Carina F; Valenzuela, Luciano O; Campbell, Michael S; Seger, Jon; Rowntree, Victoria J; Leachman, Sancy A

    2017-01-01

    Southern right whales (SRWs, Eubalena australis) are polymorphic for an X-linked pigmentation pattern known as grey morphism. Most SRWs have completely black skin with white patches on their bellies and occasionally on their backs; these patches remain white as the whale ages. Grey morphs (previously referred to as partial albinos) appear mostly white at birth, with a splattering of rounded black marks; but as the whales age, the white skin gradually changes to a brownish grey color. The cellular and developmental bases of grey morphism are not understood. Here we describe cellular and ultrastructural features of grey-morph skin in relation to that of normal, wild-type skin. Melanocytes were identified histologically and counted, and melanosomes were measured using transmission electron microscopy. Grey-morph skin had fewer melanocytes when compared to wild-type skin, suggesting reduced melanocyte survival, migration, or proliferation in these whales. Grey-morph melanocytes had smaller melanosomes relative to wild-type skin, normal transport of melanosomes to surrounding keratinocytes, and normal localization of melanin granules above the keratinocyte nuclei. These findings indicate that SRW grey-morph pigmentation patterns are caused by reduced numbers of melanocytes in the skin, as well as by reduced amounts of melanin production and/or reduced sizes of mature melanosomes. Grey morphism is distinct from piebaldism and albinism found in other species, which are genetic pigmentation conditions resulting from the local absence of melanocytes, or the inability to synthesize melanin, respectively.

  13. Comparative linkage mapping of the Grey coat colour gene in horses.

    PubMed

    Pielberg, G; Mikko, S; Sandberg, K; Andersson, L

    2005-10-01

    Grey horses are born coloured, turn progressively grey and often develop melanomas late in life. Grey shows an autosomal dominant inheritance and the locus has previously been mapped to horse chromosome 25 (ECA25), around the TXN gene. We have now developed eight new single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with genes on ECA25 using information on the linear order of genes on human chromosome 9q, as well as the human and mouse coding sequences. These SNPs were mapped in relation to the Grey locus using more than 300 progeny from matings between two Swedish Warmblood grey stallions and non-grey mares. Grey was firmly assigned to an interval with flanking markers NANS and ABCA1. This corresponds to a region of approximately 6.9 Mb on human chromosome 9q. Furthermore, no recombination was observed between Grey, TGFBR1 and TMEFF1, the last two being 1.4 Mb apart in human. There are no obvious candidate genes in this region and none of the genes has been associated with pigmentation disorders or melanoma development, suggesting that the grey phenotype is caused by a mutation in a novel gene.

  14. Increased microglial catalase activity in multiple sclerosis grey matter.

    PubMed

    Gray, Elizabeth; Kemp, Kevin; Hares, Kelly; Redondo, Julianna; Rice, Claire; Scolding, Neil; Wilkins, Alastair

    2014-04-22

    Chronic demyelination, on-going inflammation, axonal loss and grey matter neuronal injury are likely pathological processes that contribute to disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Although the precise contribution of each process and their aetiological substrates is not fully known, recent evidence has implicated oxidative damage as a major cause of tissue injury in MS. The degree of tissue injury caused by oxidative molecules, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), is balanced by endogenous anti-oxidant enzymes which detoxify ROS. Understanding endogenous mechanisms which protect the brain against oxidative injury in MS is important, since enhancing anti-oxidant responses is a major therapeutic strategy for preventing irreversible tissue injury in the disease. Our aims were to determine expression and activity levels of the hydrogen peroxide-reducing enzyme catalase in MS grey matter (GM). In MS GM, a catalase enzyme activity was elevated compared to control GM. We measured catalase protein expression by immune dot-blotting and catalase mRNA by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Protein analysis studies showed a strong positive correlation between catalase and microglial marker IBA-1 in MS GM. In addition, calibration of catalase mRNA level with reference to the microglial-specific transcript AIF-1 revealed an increase in this transcript in MS. This was reflected by the extent of HLA-DR immunolabeling in MS GM which was significantly elevated compared to control GM. Collectively, these observations provide evidence that microglial catalase activity is elevated in MS grey matter and may be an important endogenous anti-oxidant defence mechanism in MS.

  15. Effect of aerobic exercise on patients with primary fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salek, A K; Khan, M M; Ahmed, S M; Rashid, M I; Emran, M A; Mamun, M A

    2005-07-01

    Sixty eight adult patients of fibromyalgia were included in this prospective study from the Outpatient Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka during the period of January 2003 to June 2003. Study samples were assigned into two treatment groups: Group A (n = 38) with exercise by static bicycle and aerobic walking in addition to tricyclic antidepressant and analgesic and Group B (n = 30) was non exercise group, treated with tricyclic antidepressant and analgesic only. The total duration of treatment was 16 weeks. Pre-treatment (week 0) and post treatment (week 16) evaluation was performed in both groups. Evaluation parameters included pain grade, number of trigger points, occurrence of arousal at night, frequency of micturition and global evaluation by the physician. After 16 weeks, mean improvement of exercise group and non exercise group was 48% and 39% respectively but this difference was not statistically significant. Therefore, from this study it was observed that aerobic exercise showed no significant benefit to fibromyalgia patients.

  16. Therapeutic aspects of aerobic dance participation.

    PubMed

    Estivill, M

    1995-01-01

    An ethnographic analysis of aerobic dance exercise culture was conducted to determine the impact of the culture on the mind-body connection. After a review of the predominant theories on the relationship between vigorous exercise and elevated mood, aerobic dance participants' experiences are reported to illustrate how cognitive experience and self-esteem may be influenced. Interviews revealed that some participants achieved a pleasantly altered state of consciousness and respite from depression and stress. The relationship of the work ethic to achievement of participant satisfaction is underscored.

  17. A method of treating the non-grey error in total emittance measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaney, J. B.; Henninger, J. H.

    1971-01-01

    In techniques for the rapid determination of total emittance, the sample is generally exposed to surroundings that are at a different temperature than the sample's surface. When the infrared spectral reflectance of the surface is spectrally selective, these techniques introduce an error into the total emittance values. Surfaces of aluminum overcoated with oxides of various thicknesses fall into this class. Because they are often used as temperature control coatings on satellites, their emittances must be accurately known. The magnitude of the error was calculated for Alzak and silicon oxide-coated aluminum and was shown to be dependent on the thickness of the oxide coating. The results demonstrate that, because the magnitude of the error is thickness-dependent, it is generally impossible or impractical to eliminate it by calibrating the measuring device.

  18. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

  19. Promicromonospora endophytica sp. nov., an endophytic actinobacterium isolated from the root of an Australian native Grey Box tree.

    PubMed

    Kaewkla, Onuma; Franco, Christopher M M

    2012-07-01

    A novel aerobic actinobacterium, strain EUM 273(T), was isolated from the root of a Grey Box tree (Eucalyptus microcarpa Maiden). Cells were Gram-staining-positive with well-developed substrate mycelia which were non-motile and rod-like, with coccoid elements. Phylogenetic evaluation based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed the isolate as a member of the family Promicromonosporaceae that was most closely related to Promicromonospora xylanilytica YIM 61515(T) (98.2%) and Promicromonospora vindobonensis V45(T) (98%). Chemotaxonomic data including cell wall components, major menaquinone and major fatty acids confirmed the affiliation of strain EUM 273(T) to the genus Promicromonospora. The results of the phylogenetic analysis, including physiological and biochemical studies in combination with DNA-DNA hybridization, allowed the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain EUM 273(T) from the closest related species with validly published names. The name proposed for the novel species is Promicromonospora endophytica sp. nov. The type strain is EUM 273(T) (=DSM 23716(T)=NRRL B-24816(T)).

  20. Flindersiella endophytica gen. nov., sp. nov., an endophytic actinobacterium isolated from the root of Grey Box, an endemic eucalyptus tree.

    PubMed

    Kaewkla, Onuma; Franco, Christopher M M

    2011-09-01

    A novel endophytic actinobacterium, designated strain EUM 378(T), was isolated from the surface-sterilized root tissue of Eucalyptus microcarpa, a eucalyptus tree known as Grey Box. Phylogenetic evaluation based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, including alignment with taxon-specific 16S rRNA gene signature nucleotides, placed this isolate as a member of the family Nocardioidaceae. Strain EUM 378(T) showed >5.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence divergence from other members of this family and was related most closely to Actinopolymorpha alba YIM 48868(T) (94.2 %) and Actinopolymorpha singaporensis IM 7744(T) (94.4 %). This Gram-positive, aerobic actinobacterium has well-developed substrate mycelia that fragment into small rods. Chemotaxonomic data revealed that the cell wall contains LL-diaminopimelic acid, ribose, glucose and rhamnose. MK-10(H₆) is the predominant menaquinone. Chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic evidence confirmed that strain EUM 378(T) represents a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Flindersiella endophytica gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EUM 378(T) ( = DSM 45355(T) = ACM 5289(T)).

  1. Aerobic Exercise for Reducing Migraine Burden: Mechanisms, Markers, and Models of Change Processes

    PubMed Central

    Irby, Megan B.; Bond, Dale S.; Lipton, Richard B.; Nicklas, Barbara; Houle, Timothy T.; Penzien, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Engagement in regular exercise routinely is recommended as an intervention for managing and preventing migraine, and yet empirical support is far from definitive. We possess at best a weak understanding of how aerobic exercise and resulting change in aerobic capacity influence migraine, let alone the optimal parameters for exercise regimens as migraine therapy (eg, who will benefit, when to prescribe, optimal types, and doses/intensities of exercise, level of anticipated benefit). These fundamental knowledge gaps critically limit our capacity to deploy exercise as an intervention for migraine. Overview Clear articulation of the markers and mechanisms through which aerobic exercise confers benefits for migraine would prove invaluable and could yield insights on migraine pathophysiology. Neurovascular and neuroinflammatory pathways, including an effect on obesity or adiposity, are obvious candidates for study given their role both in migraine as well as the changes known to accrue with regular exercise. In addition to these biological pathways, improvements in aerobic fitness and migraine alike also are mediated by changes in psychological and sociocognitive factors. Indeed a number of specific mechanisms and pathways likely are operational in the relationship between exercise and migraine improvement, and it remains to be established whether these pathways operate in parallel or synergistically. As heuristics that might conceptually benefit our research programs here forward, we: (1) provide an extensive listing of potential mechanisms and markers that could account for the effects of aerobic exercise on migraine and are worthy of empirical exploration and (2) present two exemplar conceptual models depicting pathways through which exercise may serve to reduce the burden of migraine. Conclusion Should the promise of aerobic exercise as a feasible and effective migraine therapy be realized, this line of endeavor stands to benefit migraineurs (including the

  2. Protection against SR 4233 (tirapazamine) aerobic cytotoxicity by the metal chelators desferrioxamine and tiron

    SciTech Connect

    Herscher, L.L.; Krishna, M.C.; Cook, J.A.

    1994-11-15

    Metal chelating agents and antioxidants were evaluated as potential protectors against aerobic SR 4233 cytotoxicity in Chinese hamster V79 cells. The differential protection of aerobic and hypoxic cells by two metal chelators, desferrrioxamine and Tiron, is discussed in the context of their potential use in the on-going clinical trials with SR 4233. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using clonogenic assay. SR 4233 exposure was done in glass flasks as a function of time either alone or in the presence of the following agents: superoxide dismutase, catalase, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline, Trolox, ICRF-187, desferrioxamine, Tiron (1,2-dihydroxybenzene-3,5-disulfonate), and ascorbic acid. Experiments done under hypoxic conditions were carried out in specially designed glass flasks that were gassed with humidified nitrogen/carbon dioxide mixture and with a side-arm reservoir from which SR 4233 was added to cell media after hypoxia was obtained. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies were also performed. Electron paramagnetic resonance and spectrophotometry experiments suggest that under aerobic conditions SR 4233 undergoes futile redox cycling to produce superoxide. Treatment of cells during aerobic exposure to SR 4233 with the enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, the spin trapping agent DMPO, the water-soluble vitamin E analog Trolox, and the metal chelator ICRF-187 provided little or no protection against aerobic SR 4233 cytotoxicity. However, two other metal chelators, desferrioxamine and Tiron afforded significant protection against minimal protection to hypoxic cells treated with SR 4233. One potential mechanism of aerobic cytotoxicity is redox cycling of SR 4233 with molecular oxygen resulting in several potentially toxic oxidative species that overburden the intrinsic intracellular detoxification systems such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. 23 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. The geographical distribution of grey wolves (Canis lupus) in China: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    WANG, Lu; MA, Ya-Ping; ZHOU, Qi-Jun; ZHANG, Ya-Ping; SAVOLAINEN, Peter; WANG, Guo-Dong

    2016-01-01

    The grey wolf (Canis lupus) is one of the most widely distributed terrestrial mammals, and its distribution and ecology in Europe and North America are largely well described. However, the distribution of grey wolf in southern China is still highly controversial. Several well-known western literatures stated that there are no grey wolves in southern China, while the presence of grey wolf across China has been indicated in A Guide to the Mammals of China, published by Princeton University Press. It is essential to solve this discrepancy since dogs may have originated from grey wolfs in southern China. Therefore, we systematically investigated Chinese literatures about wild animal surveys and identified more than 100 articles and books that included information of the distribution of grey wolves in China. We also surveyed the collections of three Chinese natural museums and found 26 grey wolf skins specimens collected across China. Moreover, we investigated the fossil records of wolf in China and identified 25 archaeological sites with wolf remains including south China. In conclusion, with the comprehensive summary of Chinese literatures, museum specimens and fossil records, we demonstrate that grey wolves does distribute across all parts of the Chinese mainland, including the most southern parts of China. PMID:28105796

  4. Forecasting Performance of Grey Prediction for Education Expenditure and School Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Hui-Wen Vivian; Yin, Mu-Shang

    2012-01-01

    GM(1,1) and GM(1,1) rolling models derived from grey system theory were estimated using time-series data from projection studies by National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). An out-of-sample forecasting competition between the two grey prediction models and exponential smoothing used by NCES was conducted for education expenditure and…

  5. Vocal Learning in Grey Parrots: A Brief Review of Perception, Production, and Cross-Species Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepperberg, Irene M.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter briefly reviews what is known-and what remains to be understood--about Grey parrot vocal learning. I review Greys' physical capacities--issues of auditory perception and production--then discuss how these capacities are used in vocal learning and can be recruited for referential communication with humans. I discuss cross-species…

  6. The geographical distribution of grey wolves (Canis lupus) in China: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Ma, Ya-Ping; Zhou, Qi-Jun; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Savolaimen, Peter; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2016-11-18

    The grey wolf (Canis lupus) is one of the most widely distributed terrestrial mammals, and its distribution and ecology in Europe and North America are largely well described. However, the distribution of grey wolf in southern China is still highly controversial. Several well-known western literatures stated that there are no grey wolves in southern China, while the presence of grey wolf across China has been indicated in A Guide to the Mammals of China, published by Princeton University Press. It is essential to solve this discrepancy since dogs may have originated from grey wolfs in southern China. Therefore, we systematically investigated Chinese literatures about wild animal surveys and identified more than 100 articles and books that included information of the distribution of grey wolves in China. We also surveyed the collections of three Chinese natural museums and found 26 grey wolf skins specimens collected across China. Moreover, we investigated the fossil records of wolf in China and identified 25 archaeological sites with wolf remains including south China. In conclusion, with the comprehensive summary of Chinese literatures, museum specimens and fossil records, we demonstrate that grey wolves does distribute across all parts of the Chinese mainland, including the most southern parts of China.

  7. Adoption in eastern grey kangaroos: a consequence of misdirected care?

    PubMed

    King, Wendy J; Forsyth, David M; Coulson, Graeme; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Adoption is rare in animals and is usually attributed to kin selection. In a 6-year study of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), 11 of 326 juveniles were adopted. We detected eight adoptions by observing behavioural associations and nursing between marked mothers and young and three more by analysing the relatedness of mothers and young using microsatellite DNA. Four adoptions involved reciprocal switches and three were by mothers whose own pouch young were known to subsequently disappear. Adoptive mothers were not closely related to each other or to adoptees but adoptive mothers and young associated as closely as did biological pairs, as measured by half-weight indices. Switch mothers did not associate closely. Maternal age and body condition did not influence the likelihood of adoption but females were more likely to adopt in years with high densities of females with large pouch young. Adoption did not improve juvenile survival. We conclude that adoptions in this wild population were potentially costly and likely caused by misdirected care, suggesting that eastern grey kangaroos may have poorly developed mother-offspring recognition mechanisms.

  8. "Osmetrichia" in the grey brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira).

    PubMed

    Ajmat, M T; Chamut, S; Black-Decima, P

    1999-12-01

    Osmetrichia have been defined as hairs specialized in the storage of secretions used in olfactory communication between conspecifics (Müller-Schwarze, et al. 1977). These authors found highly specialized osmetrichia in the tarsal gland tufts of black-tailed but not white-tailed deer. Chemical communication appears to be well developed in grey brocket deer: the bucks scent mark by rubbing their foreheads on bushes, and all deer urinate and defecate almost exclusively on dung heaps. Brocket deer also possess tarsal tufts. The purpose of this study was to examine hairs from several glandular areas in this species. Osmetrichia, similar to those found in black tailed deer, were found in tarsal tufts and in interdigital gland hairs; these hairs possessed open scales with deep pockets suitable for holding secretions, in comparison to the flat scales seen on control hairs. Hairs with different morphological characteristics (slightly open scales) were found over the frontal gland. Specialized hairs were not found in the tarsal tufts of one specimen of a related species, the red brocket deer (Mazama americana). The similarities in the hairs of grey brocket and black-tailed deer are remarkable in light of the ecological and behavioral differences between these two species.

  9. Adoption in Eastern Grey Kangaroos: A Consequence of Misdirected Care?

    PubMed Central

    King, Wendy J.; Forsyth, David M.; Coulson, Graeme; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Adoption is rare in animals and is usually attributed to kin selection. In a 6-year study of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), 11 of 326 juveniles were adopted. We detected eight adoptions by observing behavioural associations and nursing between marked mothers and young and three more by analysing the relatedness of mothers and young using microsatellite DNA. Four adoptions involved reciprocal switches and three were by mothers whose own pouch young were known to subsequently disappear. Adoptive mothers were not closely related to each other or to adoptees but adoptive mothers and young associated as closely as did biological pairs, as measured by half-weight indices. Switch mothers did not associate closely. Maternal age and body condition did not influence the likelihood of adoption but females were more likely to adopt in years with high densities of females with large pouch young. Adoption did not improve juvenile survival. We conclude that adoptions in this wild population were potentially costly and likely caused by misdirected care, suggesting that eastern grey kangaroos may have poorly developed mother-offspring recognition mechanisms. PMID:25970624

  10. Modified Discrete Grey Wolf Optimizer Algorithm for Multilevel Image Thresholding

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lijuan; Guo, Jian; Xu, Bin; Li, Shujing

    2017-01-01

    The computation of image segmentation has become more complicated with the increasing number of thresholds, and the option and application of the thresholds in image thresholding fields have become an NP problem at the same time. The paper puts forward the modified discrete grey wolf optimizer algorithm (MDGWO), which improves on the optimal solution updating mechanism of the search agent by the weights. Taking Kapur's entropy as the optimized function and based on the discreteness of threshold in image segmentation, the paper firstly discretizes the grey wolf optimizer (GWO) and then proposes a new attack strategy by using the weight coefficient to replace the search formula for optimal solution used in the original algorithm. The experimental results show that MDGWO can search out the optimal thresholds efficiently and precisely, which are very close to the result examined by exhaustive searches. In comparison with the electromagnetism optimization (EMO), the differential evolution (DE), the Artifical Bee Colony (ABC), and the classical GWO, it is concluded that MDGWO has advantages over the latter four in terms of image segmentation quality and objective function values and their stability. PMID:28127305

  11. Grey parrots use inferential reasoning based on acoustic cues alone.

    PubMed

    Schloegl, Christian; Schmidt, Judith; Boeckle, Markus; Weiß, Brigitte M; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2012-10-22

    Our ability to make logical inferences is considered as one of the cornerstones of human intelligence, fuelling investigations of reasoning abilities in non-human animals. Yet, the evidence to date is equivocal, with apes as the prime candidates to possess these skills. For instance, in a two-choice task, apes can identify the location of hidden food if it is indicated by a rattling noise caused by the shaking of a baited container. More importantly, they also use the absence of noise during the shaking of the empty container to infer that this container is not baited. However, since the inaugural report of apes solving this task, to the best of our knowledge, no comparable evidence could be found in any other tested species such as monkeys and dogs. Here, we report the first successful and instantaneous solution of the shaking task through logical inference by a non-ape species, the African grey parrot. Surprisingly, the performance of the birds was sensitive to the shaking movement: they were successful with containers shaken horizontally, but not with vertical shaking resembling parrot head-bobbing. Thus, grey parrots seem to possess ape-like cross-modal reasoning skills, but their reliance on these abilities is influenced by low-level interferences.

  12. [Landscape influence on the Grey Herons colonies distribution].

    PubMed

    Boisteau, Benjamin; Marion, Loïc

    2006-03-01

    We analysed the spatial relationship between the location and the size of the 112 grey heron colonies existing in 1994 in the two refuge areas after their decline of the species in the 19th century in France: South Brittany (Loire-Atlantique and Morbihan), and eastern France (Haute-Saône, Saône-et-Loire, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Vosges). We tested 35 variables describing the hydrographical network surrounding the colonies from a local to a regional scale using a Geographic Information System. The results show that, whatever the scale, the distribution of the breeding colonies was not governed by the same elements of the hydrographical network in the different areas. Two strategies of spatial utilization were observed between the western and the eastern parts of France. Moreover, two quite distinct situations were also distinguished between Morbihan and Loire-Atlantique. This study stresses that the type and the spatial organization of the hydrographical elements, but also of the history of the populations, are important in the distribution of the Grey Heron colonies.

  13. Neocortical grey matter distribution underlying voluntary, flexible vocalizations in chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Serena; Reyes, Laura D.; Hopkins, William D.; Taglialatela, Jared P.; Sherwood, Chet C.

    2016-01-01

    Vocal learning is a key property of spoken language, which might also be present in nonhuman primate species, such as chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), to a limited degree. While understanding the origins of vocal learning in the primate brain may help shed light on the evolution of speech and language, little is still known regarding the neurobiological correlates of vocal flexibility in nonhuman primates. The current study used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to assess whether the cerebral cortex of captive chimpanzees that learned to voluntarily produce sounds to attract the attention of a human experimenter (attention-getting sounds) differs in grey matter distribution compared to chimpanzees that do not exhibit this behavior. It was found that chimpanzees that produce attention-getting sounds were characterized by increased grey matter in the ventrolateral prefrontal and dorsal premotor cortices. These findings suggest that the evolution of the capacity to flexibly modulate vocal output may be associated with reorganization of regions for motor control, including orofacial movements, in the primate brain. PMID:27703216

  14. Modified Discrete Grey Wolf Optimizer Algorithm for Multilevel Image Thresholding.

    PubMed

    Li, Linguo; Sun, Lijuan; Guo, Jian; Qi, Jin; Xu, Bin; Li, Shujing

    2017-01-01

    The computation of image segmentation has become more complicated with the increasing number of thresholds, and the option and application of the thresholds in image thresholding fields have become an NP problem at the same time. The paper puts forward the modified discrete grey wolf optimizer algorithm (MDGWO), which improves on the optimal solution updating mechanism of the search agent by the weights. Taking Kapur's entropy as the optimized function and based on the discreteness of threshold in image segmentation, the paper firstly discretizes the grey wolf optimizer (GWO) and then proposes a new attack strategy by using the weight coefficient to replace the search formula for optimal solution used in the original algorithm. The experimental results show that MDGWO can search out the optimal thresholds efficiently and precisely, which are very close to the result examined by exhaustive searches. In comparison with the electromagnetism optimization (EMO), the differential evolution (DE), the Artifical Bee Colony (ABC), and the classical GWO, it is concluded that MDGWO has advantages over the latter four in terms of image segmentation quality and objective function values and their stability.

  15. Anaerobic and aerobic transformation of TNT

    SciTech Connect

    Kulpa, C.F.; Boopathy, R.; Manning, J.

    1996-12-31

    Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds have used pure cultures of aerobic microorganisms. In many cases, attempts to degrade nitroaromatics under aerobic conditions by pure cultures result in no mineralization and only superficial modifications of the structure. However, mixed culture systems properly operated result in the transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and in some cases mineralization of TNT occurs. In this paper, the mixed culture system is described with emphasis on intermediates and the characteristics of the aerobic microbial process including the necessity for a co-substrate. The possibility of removing TNT under aerobic/anoxic conditions is described in detail. Another option for the biodegradation of TNT and nitroaromatics is under anaerobic, sulfate reducing conditions. In this instance, the nitroaromatic compounds undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. TNT under sulfate reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene presumably by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of nitro groups from TNT is achieved by a series of reductive reactions with the formation of ammonia and toluene by Desulfovibrio sp. (B strain). These metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. The data supporting the anaerobic transformation of TNT under different growth condition are reviewed in this report.

  16. Aerobic Exercise Prescription for Rheumatoid Arthritics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Blanche W.; Williams, Hilda L.

    The use of exercise as a general treatment for rheumatoid arthritics (RA) has included range of motion, muscular strength, water exercise and rest therapy while virtually ignoring possible benefits of aerobic exercise. The purposes of this project were to examine the guidelines for exercise prescription in relation to this special population and…

  17. Reflections on Psychotherapy and Aerobic Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Wade

    This document provides a series of reflections by a practicing psychologist on the uses of aerobic workouts in psychotherapy. Two case histories are cited to illustrate the contention that the mode of exercise, rather than simply its presence or absence, is the significant indicator of a patient's emotional well-being or psychopathology. The first…

  18. AEROBIC DENITRIFICATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR NITROGEN FATE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Mississippi, as well as most nitrogen-degraded rivers and streams, NO3- is the dominant N species and therefore understanding its biogeochemical behavior is critical for accurate nitrogen fate modeling. To our knowledge this is the first work to report aerobic denitrificat...

  19. Aerobic exercise in fibromyalgia: a practical review.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Eric N; Blotman, Francis

    2010-07-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the current evidence to support guidelines for aerobic exercise (AE) and fibromyalgia (FM) in practice, and to outline specific research needs in these areas. Data sources consisted of a PubMed search, 2007 Cochrane Data Base Systematic review, 2008 Ottawa panel evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, as well as additional references found from the initial search. Study selection included randomized clinical trials that compared an aerobic-only exercise intervention (land or pool based) with an untreated control, a non-exercise intervention or other exercise programs in patients responding to the 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria for FM. The following outcome data were obtained: pain, tender points, perceived improvement in FM symptoms such as the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire total score (FIQ), physical function, depression (e.g., Beck Depression Inventory, FIQ subscale for depression), fatigue and sleep were extracted from 19 clinical trials that considered the effects of aerobic-only exercise in FM patients. Data synthesis shows that there is moderate evidence of important benefit of aerobic-only exercise in FM on physical function and possibly on tender points and pain. It appears to be sufficient evidence to support the practice of AE as a part of the multidisciplinary management of FM. However, future studies must be more adequately sized, homogeneously assessed, and monitored for adherence, to draw definitive conclusions.

  20. Media for the aerobic growth of campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of agar and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) concentration on aerobic growth of Campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium was examined. The broth medium was supplemented with 0.0 to 0.2% agar and inoculated with 106 CFU/ml of Campylobacter coli 33559, Campylobacter fetus 27349, Campylobacter...

  1. Adolescents' Interest and Performances in Aerobic Fitness Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Senlin; Parrott, James

    2014-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' interest in aerobic fitness testing and its relation to the test performances. Adolescents (N = 356) from three middle schools participated in the study. The participants took two aerobic fitness tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) and One-Mile Run (1MR) with a two-day interval, and…

  2. Ventilation and Speech Characteristics during Submaximal Aerobic Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Susan E.; Hipp, Jenny; Alessio, Helaine

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined alterations in ventilation and speech characteristics as well as perceived dyspnea during submaximal aerobic exercise tasks. Method: Twelve healthy participants completed aerobic exercise-only and simultaneous speaking and aerobic exercise tasks at 50% and 75% of their maximum oxygen consumption (VO[subscript 2] max).…

  3. Denitrification kinetics in anoxic/aerobic activated sludge systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, G.M.

    1998-12-11

    Nitrogen removal needs at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have increased due to greater concerns about eutrophication and increased interest in reuse of treated municipal effluents. Biological processes are the most cost-effective method for nitrogen removal. Biological nitrogen removal is accomplished in two distinctly different processes by the conversion of nitrogen in the wastewater from organic nitrogen and ammonia to nitrate, followed by reduction of the nitrate to nitrogen gas. Nitrate production occurs in an aerobic activated sludge treatment zone during a process called nitrification. The nitrate is then converted through a series of intermediate steps to nitrogen gas in an anoxic zone (an anaerobic condition with nitrate present) during a process called denitrification, effectively removing the nitrogen from the wastewater. Many different WWTP designs have been developed to incorporate these two conditions for nitrogen removal.

  4. Elevated mercury concentrations in the feathers of grey-faced petrels (Pterodroma gouldi) in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Lyver, P O' B; Aldridge, S P; Gormley, A M; Gaw, S; Webb, S; Buxton, R T; Jones, C J

    2017-04-01

    Our objective was to measure the concentrations of Hg, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, Sb, V and Zn in the body feathers of grey-faced petrel (Pterodroma gouldi), fluttering shearwater (Puffinus gavia), little shearwater (Puffinus assimilis) and common diving petrel (Pelecanoides urinatrix) from breeding colonies in New Zealand between 2006 and 2013. The mean Hg concentration (36.48ppm; SD=9.59) in grey-faced petrel feathers was approximately 8.5 to 14 times that detected in the other three species sampled. We detected no trend or differences in Hg concentrations in grey-faced petrels over the 8years of this study, but Hg concentrations varied between breeding colonies although there was no strong relationship with latitude. The elevated Hg concentrations detected in grey-faced petrels could pose a risk to the breeding performance of grey-faced petrels and the customary harvest of chicks by Māori (New Zealand's indigenous peoples).

  5. Survival and band recovery rates of sympatric grey ducks and mallards in New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caithness, T.; Williams, M.; Nichols, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    We used band recovery data from grey ducks (Anas superciliosa) and mallards. (A. platyrhynchos) banded sympatrically during 1957-74 to estimate annual survival and recovery rates. Young birds tended to have higher recovery rates and lower survival rates than adults for both species. Both species showed strong evidence of year-to-year variation in annual survival rates. Survival rates of male mallards were higher than those in females, as is typical for this species in North America, but there was no evidence of sex-specific survival differences in grey ducks. Recovery rate estimates for grey ducks were high and were significantly higher than those for mallards. However, survival rates did not differ significantly between the 2 species within any age-sex class. The similar survival rates, when mallard populations were increasing and grey ducks were decreasing, suggest that mallard reproductive rates have been greater than those of grey ducks.

  6. Bioflocculation of grey water for improved energy recovery within decentralized sanitation concepts.

    PubMed

    Hernández Leal, L; Temmink, H; Zeeman, G; Buisman, C J N

    2010-12-01

    Bioflocculation of grey water was tested with a lab-scale membrane bioreactor in order to concentrate the COD. Three concentration factors were tested based on the ratio of sludge retention time (SRT) and hydraulic retention time (HRT): 3, 8 and 12. COD concentration factor was up to 7.1, achieving a final concentration of 7.2 g COD L(-1). Large fractions of suspended COD were recovered in the concentrate (57%, 81% and 82% at SRT/HRT ratios of 3, 8 and 12, respectively) indicating a strong bioflocculation of grey water. A maximum of 11% of COD mineralization of grey water was measured at the longest SRT tested (1 d). The integration of bioflocculation of grey water in decentralized sanitation concepts may increase the overall production of methane by 73%, based on the biogas produced by black water only. Therefore, bioflocculation is a promising grey water pre-treatment step for energy recovery within decentralized sanitation concepts.

  7. Aerobic exercise training in modulation of aerobic physical fitness and balance of burned patients.

    PubMed

    Ali, Zizi M Ibrahim; El-Refay, Basant H; Ali, Rania Reffat

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the impact of aerobic exercise on aerobic capacity, balance, and treadmill time in patients with thermal burn injury. [Subjects and Methods] Burned adult patients, aged 20-40 years (n=30), from both sexes, with second degree thermal burn injuries covering 20-40% of the total body surface area (TBSA), were enrolled in this trial for 3 months. Patients were randomly divided into; group A (n=15), which performed an aerobic exercise program 3 days/week for 60 min and participated in a traditional physical therapy program, and group B (n=15), which only participated in a traditional exercise program 3 days/week. Maximal aerobic capacity, treadmill time, and Berg balance scale were measured before and after the study. [Results] In both groups, the results revealed significant improvements after treatment in all measurements; however, the improvement in group A was superior to that in group B. [Conclusion] The results provide evidence that aerobic exercises for adults with healed burn injuries improve aerobic physical fitness and balance.

  8. Grey Nurse Shark ( Carcharias taurus) Diving Tourism: Tourist Compliance and Shark Behaviour at Fish Rock, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kirby; Scarr, Mark; Scarpaci, Carol

    2010-11-01

    Humans can dive with critically endangered grey nurse sharks ( Carcharias taurus) along the east coast of Australia. This study investigated both compliance of tourist divers to a code of conduct and legislation and the behaviour of grey nurse sharks in the presence of divers. A total of 25 data collection dives were conducted from December 2008 to January 2009. Grey nurse shark and diver behaviour were documented using 2-min scan samples and continuous observation. The proportion of time spent observing human-shark interactions was 9.4% of total field time and mean human-shark interaction time was 15.0 min. Results were used to gauge the effectiveness of current management practices for the grey nurse shark dive industry at Fish Rock in New South Wales, Australia. Grey nurse shark dive tourists were compliant to stipulations in the code of conduct and legislation (compliance ranged from 88 to 100%). The research detailed factors that may promote compliance in wildlife tourism operations such as the clarity of the stipulations, locality of the target species and diver perceptions of sharks. Results indicated that grey nurse sharks spent the majority of their time milling (85%) followed by active swimming (15%). Milling behaviour significantly decreased in the presence of more than six divers. Distance between sharks and divers, interaction time and number of sharks were not significantly correlated with grey nurse shark school behaviour. Jaw gaping, rapid withdrawal and stiff or jerky movement were the specific behaviours of grey nurse sharks that occurred most frequently and were associated with distance between divers and sharks and the presence of six or more divers. Revision of the number of divers allowed per interaction with a school of grey nurse sharks and further research on the potential impacts that shark-diving tourism may pose to grey nurse sharks is recommended.

  9. Grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) diving tourism: Tourist compliance and shark behaviour at Fish Rock, Australia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kirby; Scarr, Mark; Scarpaci, Carol

    2010-11-01

    Humans can dive with critically endangered grey nurse sharks (Carcharias taurus) along the east coast of Australia. This study investigated both compliance of tourist divers to a code of conduct and legislation and the behaviour of grey nurse sharks in the presence of divers. A total of 25 data collection dives were conducted from December 2008 to January 2009. Grey nurse shark and diver behaviour were documented using 2-min scan samples and continuous observation. The proportion of time spent observing human-shark interactions was 9.4% of total field time and mean human-shark interaction time was 15.0 min. Results were used to gauge the effectiveness of current management practices for the grey nurse shark dive industry at Fish Rock in New South Wales, Australia. Grey nurse shark dive tourists were compliant to stipulations in the code of conduct and legislation (compliance ranged from 88 to 100%). The research detailed factors that may promote compliance in wildlife tourism operations such as the clarity of the stipulations, locality of the target species and diver perceptions of sharks. Results indicated that grey nurse sharks spent the majority of their time milling (85%) followed by active swimming (15%). Milling behaviour significantly decreased in the presence of more than six divers. Distance between sharks and divers, interaction time and number of sharks were not significantly correlated with grey nurse shark school behaviour. Jaw gaping, rapid withdrawal and stiff or jerky movement were the specific behaviours of grey nurse sharks that occurred most frequently and were associated with distance between divers and sharks and the presence of six or more divers. Revision of the number of divers allowed per interaction with a school of grey nurse sharks and further research on the potential impacts that shark-diving tourism may pose to grey nurse sharks is recommended.

  10. Investigation of the use of aerobic granules for the treatment of sugar beet processing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kocaturk, Irem; Erguder, Tuba Hande

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of sugar beet processing wastewater in aerobic granular sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was examined in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen removal efficiency. The effect of sugar beet processing wastewater of high solid content, namely 2255 ± 250 mg/L total suspended solids (TSS), on granular sludge was also investigated. Aerobic granular SBR initially operated with the effluent of anaerobic digester treating sugar beet processing wastewater (Part I) achieved average removal efficiencies of 71 ± 30% total COD (tCOD), 90 ± 3% total ammonifiable nitrogen (TAN), 76 ± 24% soluble COD (sCOD) and 29 ± 4% of TSS. SBR was further operated with sugar beet processing wastewater (Part II), where the tCOD, TAN, sCOD and TSS removal efficiencies were 65 ± 5%, 61 ± 4%, 87 ± 1% and 58 ± 10%, respectively. This study indicated the applicability of aerobic granular SBRs for the treatment of both sugar beet processing wastewater and anaerobically digested processing wastewater. For higher solids removal, further treatment such as a sedimentation tank is required following the aerobic granular systems treating solid-rich wastewaters such as sugar beet processing wastewater. It was also revealed that the application of raw sugar beet processing wastewater slightly changed the aerobic granular sludge properties such as size, structure, colour, settleability and extracellular polymeric substance content, without any drastic and negative effect on treatment performance.

  11. Preliminary study on aerobic granular biomass formation with aerobic continuous flow reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yulianto, Andik; Soewondo, Prayatni; Handajani, Marissa; Ariesyady, Herto Dwi

    2017-03-01

    A paradigm shift in waste processing is done to obtain additional benefits from treated wastewater. By using the appropriate processing, wastewater can be turned into a resource. The use of aerobic granular biomass (AGB) can be used for such purposes, particularly for the processing of nutrients in wastewater. During this time, the use of AGB for processing nutrients more reactors based on a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). Studies on the use of SBR Reactor for AGB demonstrate satisfactory performance in both formation and use. SBR reactor with AGB also has been applied on a full scale. However, the use use of SBR reactor still posses some problems, such as the need for additional buffer tank and the change of operation mode from conventional activated sludge to SBR. This gives room for further reactor research with the use of a different type, one of which is a continuous reactor. The purpose of this study is to compare AGB formation using continuous reactor and SBR with same operation parameter. Operation parameter are Organic Loading Rate (OLR) set to 2,5 Kg COD/m3.day with acetate as substrate, aeration rate 3 L/min, and microorganism from Hospital WWTP as microbial source. SBR use two column reactor with volumes 2 m3, and continuous reactor uses continuous airlift reactor, with two compartments and working volume of 5 L. Results from preliminary research shows that although the optimum results are not yet obtained, AGB can be formed on the continuous reactor. When compared with AGB generated by SBR, then the characteristics of granular diameter showed similarities, while the sedimentation rate and Sludge Volume Index (SVI) characteristics showed lower yields.

  12. Integrated system for treating soil contaminated with wood treating wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Acheson, C.M.; Brenner, R.C.; Khodadoust, A.P.

    1995-10-01

    Approximately 20% of the hazardous waste sites undergoing bioremediation are contaminated with wood treating wastes, primarily compounds such as pentachlorophenol (PCP), creosote, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other hydrocarbons. A process that combines soil washing with sequential anaerobic and aerobic biotreatment is being integrated to remediate soil contaminated with these wood treating wastes. By extracting the target compound from the soil, soil washing facilitates degradation by mobilizing the target compound and expanding the range of feasible remediation technologies. Additional flexibility is possible since soil washing can be conducted in an in-situ or ex-situ format. In this process, the wash solution is initially bioremediated in an anaerobic environment. Mineralization of the target compound is completed aerobically. Based on preliminary results, the integrated process could meet the target cleanup level for PCP in approximately 45% of the bioremediation sites. Process development began by independently evaluating soil washing and target compound degradation. PCP contaminated soils were the initial focus, but this work is currently being extended to include soils contaminated with both PCP and PAHs. In addition, based on promising results from the soil washing and degradation evaluations, these individual unit operations are being integrated to form a complete process to remediate soils contaminated with wood treating wastes. This complete process incorporates soil washing, soil wash solution recycling, and biodegradation of the target compounds and is outlined.

  13. Effects of strength vs aerobic exercise on pain severity in adults with fibromyalgia: a randomized equivalence trial.

    PubMed

    Hooten, W Michael; Qu, Wenchun; Townsend, Cynthia O; Judd, Jeffrey W

    2012-04-01

    Strength training and aerobic exercise have beneficial effects on pain in adults with fibromyalgia. However, the equivalence of strengthening and aerobic exercise has not been reported. The primary aim of this randomized equivalence trial involving patients with fibromyalgia admitted to an interdisciplinary pain treatment program was to test the hypothesis that strengthening (n=36) and aerobic (n=36) exercise have equivalent effects (95% confidence interval within an equivalence margin ± 8) on pain, as measured by the pain severity subscale of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory. Secondary aims included determining the effects of strengthening and aerobic exercise on peak Vo(2) uptake, leg strength, and pressure pain thresholds. In an intent-to-treat analysis, the mean (± standard deviation) pain severity scores for the strength and aerobic groups at study completion were 34.4 ± 11.5 and 37.6 ± 11.9, respectively. The group difference was -3.2 (95% confidence interval, -8.7 to 2.3), which was within the equivalence margin of Δ8. Significant improvements in pain severity (P<.001), peak Vo(2) (P<.001), strength (P<.001), and pain thresholds (P<.001) were observed from baseline to week 3 in the intent-to-treat analysis; however, patients in the aerobic group (mean change 2.0 ± 2.6 mL/kg/min) experienced greater gains (P<.013) in peak Vo(2) compared to the strength group (mean change 0.4 ± 2.6 mL/kg/min). Knowledge of the equivalence and physiological effects of exercise have important clinical implications that could allow practitioners to target exercise recommendations on the basis of comorbid medical conditions or patient preference for a particular type of exercise. This study found that strength and aerobic exercise had equivalent effects on reducing pain severity among patients with fibromyalgia.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of Amitriptyline HCl and Its Metabolites in Healthy African Grey Parrots ( Psittacus erithacus ) and Cockatoos (Cacatua Species).

    PubMed

    Visser, Marike; Ragsdale, Michelle M; Boothe, Dawn M

    2015-12-01

    Amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant, is used clinically to treat feather-destructive behavior in psittacine birds at a recommended dosage of 1-5 mg/kg PO q12-24h, which has been extrapolated from human medicine and based on anecdotal reports. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe the individual and population pharmacokinetic parameters of amitriptyline after a single oral dose at 1.5 mg/kg, 4.5 mg/kg, and 9 mg/kg in healthy African grey parrots ( Psittacus erithacus , n = 3) and cockatoos (Cacatua species, n = 3). Three birds received an initial 1.5 mg/kg oral dose, and blood samples were collected for 24 hours at fixed time intervals. Serum concentrations of amitriptyline and its metabolites were determined by polarized immunofluorescence. After determining the initial parameters and a 14-day washout period, 2 African grey parrots and 1 cockatoo received a single oral dose at 4.5 mg/kg, and 3 cockatoos and 1 African grey parrot received a single oral dose at 9 mg/kg. Concentrations reached the minimum therapeutic range reported in people (60 ng/mL) in 4 of 10 birds (4.5 and 9.0 mg/kg). Concentrations were within the toxic range in 1 African grey parrot (9 mg/kg), with regurgitation, ataxia, and dullness noted. Serum concentrations were nondetectable in 3 birds (1.5 and 4.5 mg/kg) and detectable but below the human therapeutic range in 3 birds (1.5 mg/kg and 9 mg/kg). Drug concentrations were continuing to increase at the end of the study (24 hours) in 1 bird. Elimination half-life varied from 1.6 to 91.2 hours. Population pharmacokinetics indicated significantly varied absorption, and elimination constants varied between species. Although amitriptyline appeared to be tolerated in most birds, disposition varies markedly among and within species, between the 2 genera, and within individual birds. The current recommended dosage of 1-5 mg/kg q12h in psittacine birds appears insufficient to achieve serum concentrations within the human therapeutic range

  15. Fatiguing upper body aerobic exercise impairs balance.

    PubMed

    Douris, Peter C; Handrakis, John P; Gendy, Joseph; Salama, Mina; Kwon, Dae; Brooks, Richard; Salama, Nardine; Southard, Veronica

    2011-12-01

    Douris, PC, Handrakis, JP, Gendy, J, Salama, M, Kwon, D, Brooks, R, Salama, N, and Southard, V. Fatiguing upper body aerobic exercise impairs balance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3299-3305, 2011-There are many studies that have examined the effects of selectively fatiguing lower extremity muscle groups with various protocols, and they have all shown to impair balance. There is limited research regarding the effect of fatiguing upper extremity exercise on balance. Muscle fiber-type recruitment patterns may be responsible for the difference between balance impairments because of fatiguing aerobic and anaerobic exercise. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect that aerobic vs. anaerobic fatigue, upper vs. lower body fatigue will have on balance, and if so, which combination will affect balance to a greater degree. Fourteen healthy subjects, 7 men and 7 women (mean age 23.5 ± 1.7 years) took part in this study. Their mean body mass index was 23.6 ± 3.2. The study used a repeated-measures design. The effect on balance was documented after the 4 fatiguing conditions: aerobic lower body (ALB), aerobic upper body (AUB), anaerobic lower body, anaerobic upper body (WUB). The aerobic conditions used an incremental protocol performed to fatigue, and the anaerobic used the Wingate protocol. Balance was measured as a single-leg stance stability score using the Biodex Balance System. A stability score for each subject was recorded immediately after each of the 4 conditions. A repeated-measures analysis of variance with the pretest score as a covariate was used to analyze the effects of the 4 fatiguing conditions on balance. There were significant differences between the 4 conditions (p = 0.001). Post hoc analysis revealed that there were significant differences between the AUB, mean score 4.98 ± 1.83, and the WUB, mean score 4.09 ± 1.42 (p = 0.014) and between AUB and ALB mean scores 4.33 ± 1.40 (p = 0.029). Normative data for single-leg stability testing for

  16. Stable aerobic granules in continuous-flow bioreactor with self-forming dynamic membrane.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbo; Li, Yajie; Yang, Changzhu; Pu, Wenhong; He, Liu; Bo, Fu

    2012-10-01

    A novel continuous-flow bioreactor with aerobic granular sludge and self-forming dynamic membrane (CGSFDMBR) was developed for efficient wastewater treatment. Under continuous-flow operation, aerobic granular sludge was successfully cultivated and characterized with small particle size of about 0.1-1.0mm, low settling velocity of about 15-25 m/h, loose structure and high water content of about 96-98%. To maintain the stability of aerobic granular sludge, strategies based on the differences of settling velocity and particle-size between granular and flocculent sludge were implemented. Moreover, in CGSFDMBR, membrane fouling was greatly relieved. Dynamic membrane was just cleaned once in more than 45 days' operation. CGSFDMBR presented good performance in treating septic tank wastewater, obtaining average COD, NH(4)(+)-N, TN and TP removal rates of 83.3%, 73.3%, 67.3% and 60%, respectively, which was more efficient than conventional bioreactors since that carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus were simultaneously removed in a single aerobic reactor.

  17. EFFECTS OF AEROBIC CONDITIONING ON CARDIOVASCULAR SYMPATHETIC RESPONSE TO AND RECOVERY FROM CHALLENGE

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, M; Alex, C; Shapiro, PA; McKinley, PS; Brondolo, EN; Myers, MM; Choi, CJ; Lopez-Pintado, S; Sloan, RP

    2013-01-01

    Objective Exercise has widely-documented cardioprotective effects but the mechanisms behind these effects are still poorly understood. Here, we test the hypothesis that aerobic training lowers cardiovascular sympathetic responses to and speeds recovery from challenge. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial contrasting aerobic versus strength training on indices of cardiac (pre-ejection period, PEP) and vascular (low-frequency blood pressure variability, LF-BPV) sympathetic responses to and recovery from psychological and orthostatic challenge in 149 young, healthy and sedentary adults. Results Aerobic and strength training did not alter PEP or LF-BPV reactivity to or recovery from challenge. Conclusions These findings, from a large randomized controlled trial using an intent-to-treat design, show that moderate aerobic exercise training has no effect on PEP and LF BPV reactivity to or recovery from psychological or orthostatic challenge. In healthy young adults, the cardioprotective effects of exercise training are unlikely to be mediated by changes in sympathetic activity. PMID:23889039

  18. Characterization of alginate-like exopolysaccharides isolated from aerobic granular sludge in pilot-plant.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuemei; de Kreuk, Merle; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Adin, Avner

    2010-06-01

    To understand functional gel-forming exopolysaccharides in aerobic granular sludge, alginate-like exopolysaccharides were specifically extracted from aerobic granular sludge cultivated in a pilot plant treating municipal sewage. The exopolysaccharides were identified by the FAO/WHO alginate identification tests, characterized by biochemical assays, gelation with Ca(2+), blocks fractionation, spectroscopic analysis as UV-visible, FT-IR and MALDI-TOF MS, and electrophoresis. The yield of extractable alginate-like exopolysaccharides was reached 160+/-4mg/g (VSS ratio). They resembled seaweed alginate in UV-visible and MALDI-TOF MS spectra, and distinguished from it in the reactions with acid ferric sulfate, phenol-sulfuric acid and Coomassie brilliant blue G250. Characterized by their high percentage of poly guluronic acid blocks (69.07+/-8.95%), the isolated exopolysaccharides were capable to form rigid, non-deformable gels in CaCl(2). They were one of the dominant exopolysaccharides in aerobic granular sludge. We suggest that polymers play a significant role in providing aerobic granular sludge a highly hydrophobic, compact, strong and elastic structure.

  19. Biodegradation of o-nitrophenol by aerobic granules with glucose as co-substrate.

    PubMed

    Basheer, Farrukh; Isa, M H; Farooqi, I H

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic granules to treat wastewater containing o-nitrophenol were successfully developed in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using activated sludge as inoculum. Stable aerobic granules were obtained with a clearly defined shape and diameters ranging from 2 to 6 mm after 122 days of operation. The integrity coefficient (IC) and granules density was found to be 98% and 1,054 kg m(-3) respectively. After development of aerobic granules, o-nitrophenols were successfully degraded to an efficiency of 78% at a concentration of 70 mg L(-1). GC-MS study revealed that the biodegradation of o-nitrophenol occurred via catechol via nitrobenzene pathway. Specific o-nitrophenol biodegradation rates followed the Haldane model and the associated kinetic parameters were found as follows: V(max) = 3.96 g o-nitrophenol g(-1)VSS(-1)d(-1), K(s) = 198.12 mg L(-1), and K(i) = 31.16 mg L(-1). The aerobic granules proved to be a feasible and effective way to degrade o-nitrophenol containing wastewater.

  20. Grey Milky Way extinction from SDSS stellar photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbikov, Evgeny; Brosch, Noah

    2010-01-01

    We report results concerning the distribution and properties of galactic extinction at high galactic latitudes derived from stellar statistics using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We use the classical Wolf diagram method to identify regions with extinction, and derive the extinction and the extinction law of the dust using all five SDSS spectral bands. We estimate the distance to the extinguishing medium using simple assumptions about the stellar populations in the line of sight. We report the identification of three extinguishing clouds, each a few tens of pc wide, producing 0.2-0.4 mag of g'-band extinction, located 1-2 kpc away or 0.5-1 kpc above the Galactic plane. All clouds exhibit grey extinction, i.e. almost wavelength independent in the limited spectral range of the SDSS. We discuss the implication of this finding on general astrophysical questions.

  1. Species of Cercospora associated with grey leaf spot of maize.

    PubMed

    Crous, Pedro W; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Groenewald, Marizeth; Caldwell, Pat; Braun, Uwe; Harrington, Thomas C

    2006-01-01

    Grey leaf spot is a serious yield-reducing disease of maize (Zea mays) in many parts of the world where this crop is cultivated. The causal organism associated with the disease is Cercospora zeae-maydis. Two potential sibling species have been recognized as Groups I and II. The DNA sequences for the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 & ITS2), the 5.8S rRNA gene, elongation factor 1-alpha, histone H3, actin and calmodulin gene regions suggest that Groups I and II are two distinct species. Furthermore, Cercospora zeae-maydis (Group I) can be distinguished from C. zeina sp. nov. (Group II) by its faster growth rate on artificial media, the ability to produce cercosporin, longer conidiophores, and broadly fusiform conidia. A PCR-based test that distinguishes the two species was developed using species-specific primers designed from the histone H3 gene.

  2. Causality in condensates: grey solitons as remnants of BEC formation

    SciTech Connect

    Zurek, Wojciech H

    2008-01-01

    Symmetry breaking during phase transitions can lead to the formation of topological defects (such as vortex lines in superfluids). However, the usually studied BEC's have the shape of a cigar, a geometry that impedes vortex formation, survival, and detection. I show that, in elongated traps, one can expect the formation of 'grey solitons' (long-lived, non-topological 'phase defects') as a result of the same mechanism. Their number will rise approximately in proportion to the transition rate. This steep rise is due to the increasing size of the region of the BEC cigar where the phase of the condensate wavefunction is chosen locally (rather than passed on from the already formed BEC).

  3. Myotonic dystrophy in two European grey wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Pákozdy, A; Leschnik, M; Nell, B; Kolm, U S; Virányi, Z; Belényi, B; Molnár, M J; Bilzer, T

    2007-03-01

    Two related European Grey wolves (Canis lupus) with the history of muscle stiffness beginning at 2 weeks of age were examined in this study. Muscle tone and muscle mass were increased in both animals. Muscle stiffness was worsened by stress so that the animals fell into lateral recumbency. Blood chemistry revealed mildly increased serum creatine kinase activity. Abnormal potentials typical of myotonic discharges were recorded by electromyography. Cataract, first-degree atrioventricular (AV) block and inhomogeneous myocardial texture by ultrasound suggested extramuscular involvement. Myopathology demonstrated dystrophic signs in the muscle biopsy specimen. The presumptive diagnosis based on the in vivo findings was myotonic dystrophy. Immunochemistry of the striated muscles revealed focal absence of dystrophin 1 and beta-dystroglycan in both cases. Cardiac and ophthalmologic involvement suggested a disorder very similar to a human form of myotonic dystrophy. This is the first description of myotonic dystrophy in wolves.

  4. Long Term Effects on Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease after 12-Months of Aerobic Exercise Intervention - A Worksite RCT among Cleaners

    PubMed Central

    Korshøj, Mette; Lidegaard, Mark; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Occupational groups exposed to high occupational physical activity have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This may be explained by the high relative aerobic workload. Enhanced cardiorespiratory fitness reduces the relative aerobic workload. Thus, the aim was to evaluate the 12-months effects of worksite aerobic exercise on risk factors for CVD among cleaners. Methods One hundred and sixteen cleaners aged 18–65 years were randomized to a group performing aerobic exercise and a reference group receiving lectures. Outcomes were collected at baseline and after 12-months. A repeated measures 2×2 multi-adjusted mixed-model design was applied to compare the between-group differences using intention-to-treat analysis. Results Between-group differences (p<0.05) were found favouring the aerobic exercise group: cardiorespiratory fitness 2.15 (SE 1.03) mlO2/min/kg, aerobic workload -2.15 (SE 1.06) %HRR, resting HR -5.31 (SE 1.61) beats/min, high sensitive C-reactive protein -0.65 (SE 0.24) μg/ml. The blood pressure was unaltered. Stratified analyses on relative aerobic workload at baseline revealed that those with relative aerobic workloads ≥30% of HRR seems to impose a notable adverse effect on resting and ambulatory blood pressure. Conclusion This long-term worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners led to several beneficial effects, but also potential adverse effects among those with high relative aerobic workloads. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN86682076 PMID:27513932

  5. Nonrelativistic grey S n -transport radiative-shock solutions

    DOE PAGES

    Ferguson, J. M.; Morel, J. E.; Lowrie, R. B.

    2017-06-01

    We present semi-analytic radiative-shock solutions in which grey Sn-transport is used to model the radiation, and we include both constant cross sections and cross sections that depend on temperature and density. These new solutions solve for a variable Eddington factor (VEF) across the shock domain, which allows for interesting physics not seen before in radiative-shock solutions. Comparisons are made with the grey nonequilibrium-diffusion radiative-shock solutions of Lowrie and Edwards [1], which assumed that the Eddington factor is constant across the shock domain. It is our experience that the local Mach number is monotonic when producing nonequilibrium-diffusion solutions, but that thismore » monotonicity may disappear while integrating the precursor region to produce Sn-transport solutions. For temperature- and density-dependent cross sections we show evidence of a spike in the VEF in the far upstream portion of the radiative-shock precursor. We show evidence of an adaptation zone in the precursor region, adjacent to the embedded hydrodynamic shock, as conjectured by Drake [2, 3], and also confirm his expectation that the precursor temperatures adjacent to the Zel’dovich spike take values that are greater than the downstream post-shock equilibrium temperature. We also show evidence that the radiation energy density can be nonmonotonic under the Zel’dovich spike, which is indicative of anti-diffusive radiation flow as predicted by McClarren and Drake [4]. We compare the angle dependence of the radiation flow for the Sn-transport and nonequilibriumdiffusion radiation solutions, and show that there are considerable differences in the radiation flow between these models across the shock structure. Lastly, we analyze the radiation flow to understand the cause of the adaptation zone, as well as the structure of the Sn-transport radiation-intensity solutions across the shock structure.« less

  6. Nonrelativistic radiative shock solutions with grey Sn-transport

    DOE PAGES

    Ferguson, Jim Michael; Morel, Jim Emanuel; Lowrie, Robert Byron

    2017-02-24

    We present semi-analytic radiative-shock solutions in which grey Sn-transport is used to model the radiation, and we include both constant cross sections and cross sections that depend on temperature and density. These new solutions solve for a variable Eddington factor (VEF) across the shock domain, which allows for interesting physics not seen before in radiative-shock solutions. Comparisons are made with the grey nonequilibrium-diffusion radiative-shock solutions of Lowrie and Edwards [1], which assumed that the Eddington factor is constant across the shock domain. It is our experience that the local Mach number is monotonic when producing nonequilibrium-diffusion solutions, but that thismore » monotonicity may disappear while integrating the precursor region to produce Sn-transport solutions. For temperature- and density-dependent cross sections we show evidence of a spike in the VEF in the far upstream portion of the radiative-shock precursor. We show evidence of an adaptation zone in the precursor region, adjacent to the embedded hydrodynamic shock, as conjectured by Drake [2, 3], and also confirm his expectation that the precursor temperatures adjacent to the Zel’dovich spike take values that are greater than the downstream post-shock equilibrium temperature. We also show evidence that the radiation energy density can be nonmonotonic under the Zel’dovich spike, which is indicative of anti-diffusive radiation flow as predicted by McClarren and Drake [4]. We compare the angle dependence of the radiation flow for the Sn-transport and nonequilibriumdiffusion radiation solutions, and show that there are considerable differences in the radiation flow between these models across the shock structure. Lastly, we analyze the radiation flow to understand the cause of the adaptation zone, as well as the structure of the Sn-transport radiation-intensity solutions across the shock structure.« less

  7. Differential grey matter changes in sensorimotor cortex related to exceptional fine motor skills.

    PubMed

    Stoeckel, M Cornelia; Morgenroth, Farina; Buetefisch, Cathrin M; Seitz, Rüdiger J

    2012-01-01

    Functional changes in sensorimotor representation occur in response to use and lesion throughout life. Emerging evidence suggests that functional changes are paralleled by respective macroscopic structural changes. In the present study we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate sensorimotor cortex in subjects with congenitally malformed upper extremities. We expected increased or decreased grey matter to parallel the enlarged or reduced functional representations we reported previously. More specifically, we expected decreased grey matter values in lateral sensorimotor cortex related to compromised hand function and increased grey matter values in medial sensorimotor cortex due to compensatory foot use. We found a medial cluster of grey matter increase in subjects with frequent, hand-like compensatory foot use. This increase was predominantly seen for lateral premotor, supplementary motor, and motor areas and only marginally involved somatosensory cortex. Contrary to our expectation, subjects with a reduced number of fingers, who had shown shrinkage of the functional hand representation previously, did not show decreased grey matter values within lateral sensorimotor cortex. Our data suggest that functional plastic changes in sensorimotor cortex can be associated with increases in grey matter but may also occur in otherwise macroscopically normal appearing grey matter volumes. Furthermore, macroscopic structural changes in motor and premotor areas may be observed without respective changes in somatosensory cortex.

  8. Multiple sclerosis deep grey matter: the relation between demyelination, neurodegeneration, inflammation and iron.

    PubMed

    Haider, Lukas; Simeonidou, Constantina; Steinberger, Günther; Hametner, Simon; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos; Deretzi, Georgia; Kovacs, Gabor G; Kutzelnigg, Alexandra; Lassmann, Hans; Frischer, Josa M

    2014-12-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), diffuse degenerative processes in the deep grey matter have been associated with clinical disabilities. We performed a systematic study in MS deep grey matter with a focus on the incidence and topographical distribution of lesions in relation to white matter and cortex in a total sample of 75 MS autopsy patients and 12 controls. In addition, detailed analyses of inflammation, acute axonal injury, iron deposition and oxidative stress were performed. MS deep grey matter was affected by two different processes: the formation of focal demyelinating lesions and diffuse neurodegeneration. Deep grey matter demyelination was most prominent in the caudate nucleus and hypothalamus and could already be seen in early MS stages. Lesions developed on the background of inflammation. Deep grey matter inflammation was intermediate between low inflammatory cortical lesions and active white matter lesions. Demyelination and neurodegeneration were associated with oxidative injury. Iron was stored primarily within oligodendrocytes and myelin fibres and released upon demyelination. In addition to focal demyelinated plaques, the MS deep grey matter also showed diffuse and global neurodegeneration. This was reflected by a global reduction of neuronal density, the presence of acutely injured axons, and the accumulation of oxidised phospholipids and DNA in neurons, oligodendrocytes and axons. Neurodegeneration was associated with T cell infiltration, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in microglia and profound accumulation of iron. Thus, both focal lesions as well as diffuse neurodegeneration in the deep grey matter appeared to contribute to the neurological disabilities of MS patients.

  9. Multiple sclerosis deep grey matter: the relation between demyelination, neurodegeneration, inflammation and iron

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Lukas; Simeonidou, Constantina; Steinberger, Günther; Hametner, Simon; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos; Deretzi, Georgia; Kovacs, Gabor G; Kutzelnigg, Alexandra; Lassmann, Hans; Frischer, Josa M

    2014-01-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), diffuse degenerative processes in the deep grey matter have been associated with clinical disabilities. We performed a systematic study in MS deep grey matter with a focus on the incidence and topographical distribution of lesions in relation to white matter and cortex in a total sample of 75 MS autopsy patients and 12 controls. In addition, detailed analyses of inflammation, acute axonal injury, iron deposition and oxidative stress were performed. MS deep grey matter was affected by two different processes: the formation of focal demyelinating lesions and diffuse neurodegeneration. Deep grey matter demyelination was most prominent in the caudate nucleus and hypothalamus and could already be seen in early MS stages. Lesions developed on the background of inflammation. Deep grey matter inflammation was intermediate between low inflammatory cortical lesions and active white matter lesions. Demyelination and neurodegeneration were associated with oxidative injury. Iron was stored primarily within oligodendrocytes and myelin fibres and released upon demyelination. In addition to focal demyelinated plaques, the MS deep grey matter also showed diffuse and global neurodegeneration. This was reflected by a global reduction of neuronal density, the presence of acutely injured axons, and the accumulation of oxidised phospholipids and DNA in neurons, oligodendrocytes and axons. Neurodegeneration was associated with T cell infiltration, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in microglia and profound accumulation of iron. Thus, both focal lesions as well as diffuse neurodegeneration in the deep grey matter appeared to contribute to the neurological disabilities of MS patients. PMID:24899728

  10. Nitrification and aerobic denitrification in anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Alzate Marin, Juan C; Caravelli, Alejandro H; Zaritzky, Noemí E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of achieving nitrogen (N) removal using a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) exposed to anoxic/aerobic (AN/OX) phases, focusing to achieve aerobic denitrification. This process will minimize emissions of N2O greenhouse gas. The effects of different operating parameters on the reactor performance were studied: cycle duration, AN/OX ratio, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration (DOC), and organic load. The highest inorganic N removal (NiR), close to 70%, was obtained at pH=7.5, low organic load (440mgCOD/(Lday)) and high aeration given by 12h cycle, AN/OX ratio=0.5:1.0 and DOC higher than 4.0mgO2/L. Nitrification followed by high-rate aerobic denitrification took place during the aerobic phase. Aerobic denitrification could be attributed to Tetrad-forming organisms (TFOs) with phenotype of glycogen accumulating organisms using polyhydroxyalkanoate and/or glycogen storage. The proposed AN/OX system constitutes an eco-friendly N removal process providing N2 as the end product.

  11. Origanum dictamnus Oil Vapour Suppresses the Development of Grey Mould in Eggplant Fruit In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Loulakakis, Kostas; Magan, Naresh; Tzortzakis, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    Grey mould rot (Botrytis cinerea) development in vitro or in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) fruit was evaluated after treatment with dittany (Origanum dictamnus L.) oil (DIT) and storage at 12°C and 95% relative humidity during or following exposure to the volatiles. DIT volatiles used in different concentration (0-50-100-250 μL/L) and times of exposure (up to 120 h) examined the effects on pathogen development as well as fruit quality parameters. In vitro, fungal colony growth was inhibited with the application of DIT oil (during or after exposure) and/or time of application. Continuous exposure to oils reduced conidial germination and production with fungistatic effects observed in 250 μL/L. In vivo, fungal lesion growth and conidial production reduced in DIT-treated fruits. Interesting, in fruits preexposed to volatiles before fungal inoculation, DIT application induced fruit resistance against the pathogen, by reduced lesion growth and conidial production. Conidial viability reduced in >100 μL/L DIT oil. Fruits exposed to essential oil did not affect fruit quality related attributes in general, while skin lightness (L value) increased in 50 and 100 μL/L DIT oil. The results of the current study indicated that dittany volatiles may be considered as an alternative food preservative, eliminating disease spread in the storage/transit atmospheres. PMID:25254209

  12. Non-Grey Radiation Modeling using Thermal Desktop/Sindaworks TFAWS06-1009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Kevin R.; Paine, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the non-grey radiation modeling capabilities of Cullimore and Ring's Thermal Desktop(Registered TradeMark) Version 4.8 SindaWorks software. The non-grey radiation analysis theory implemented by Sindaworks and the methodology used by the software are outlined. Representative results from a parametric trade study of a radiation shield comprised of a series of v-grooved shaped deployable panels is used to illustrate the capabilities of the SindaWorks non-grey radiation thermal analysis software using emissivities with temperature and wavelength dependency modeled via a Hagen-Rubens relationship.

  13. An alternative to computing grey-scale mathematical morphological operations and its optical implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Feng; Liu, Liren; Wang, Binquan; Wang, Zhijiang

    1994-12-01

    An alternative to the umbra definition on grey-scale mathematical morphology is proposed in this paper, which uses the top-surface set instead of the umbra to represent grey-scale structuring element. This algorithm greatly decreases the neighborhood connections for the binary morphological operation transformed from a grey-scale morphological operation. An optical incoherent correlator architecture with threshold device is developed to carry out the suggested algorithm, while a spatial digital coding method is used to represent input 3D binary data in a 2D arrangement. Experimental results are demonstrated too.

  14. How much crosstalk can be allowed in a stereoscopic system at various grey levels?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestak, Sergey; Kim, Daesik; Kim, Yongie

    2012-03-01

    We have calculated a perceptual threshold of stereoscopic crosstalk on the basis of mathematical model of human vision sensitivity. Instead of linear model of just noticeable difference (JND) known as Weber's law we applied nonlinear Barten's model. The predicted crosstalk threshold varies with the background luminance. The calculated values of threshold are in a reasonable agreement with known experimental data. We calculated perceptual threshold of crosstalk for various combinations of the applied grey level. This result can be applied for the assessment of grey-to-grey crosstalk compensation. Further computational analysis of the applied model predicts the increase of the displayable image contrast with reduction of the maximum displayable luminance.

  15. Grey-Markov model with state membership degree and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jing; Li, Bingjun; Liu, Fang

    2013-10-01

    In the Grey-Markov forecasting, the extent of a given state that a research object belongs to is expressed as state membership degree. The state membership degree can help compensate for the inaccurate states division and improve the predicted results. Based on the Grey-Markov forecasting analysis, this paper uses the central triangle albino function to calculate the state membership degrees of research objects and determine the state transition probability. Thereby, the new model achieves the improvement of conventional Grey-Markov model. Taking the grain production of Henan Province as an example, the validity and applicability of the improved model are verified.

  16. Effects of ethanol, molasses and Lactobacillus plantarum on the fermentation quality, in vitro digestibility and aerobic stability of total mixed ration silages in the Tibetan plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xianjun; Wen, Aiyou; Wang, Jian; Guo, Gang; Desta, Seare T; Shao, Tao

    2016-05-01

    In Tibet, it is common practice to make and relocate total mixed ration (TMR) silages before feeding due to the uneven distribution of forages temporally and spatially. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum (L), molasses (M) or ethanol (E) on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of local adaptive TMR silage. After 45 days of ensiling, pH and ammonia nitrogen in inoculated TMR silages were significantly lower than control. During the first 6 days of the aerobic exposure test, a small fluctuation in lactic acid concentration for all TMR silages was observed, and then silages with ethanol continued this trend, while lactic acid in silage without ethanol sharply decreased until the end of the aerobic exposure period. Meanwhile, pH gradually increased along the aerobic exposure; silages treated with ethanol showed lower pH after 9 days of aerobic exposure. The population of yeast gradually increased during 6 days of aerobic exposure, after that an accelerated rise was observed in TMR silages without ethanol. The combinational beneficial effect of L. plantarum and ethanol was found in combined addition of ethanol and Lactobacillus plantarum silages (EL), indicated by intermediate fermentation quality and higher aerobic stability.

  17. Impact of salinity on the aerobic metabolism of phosphate-accumulating organisms.

    PubMed

    Welles, L; Lopez-Vazquez, C M; Hooijmans, C M; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Brdjanovic, D

    2015-04-01

    The use of saline water in urban areas for non-potable purposes to cope with fresh water scarcity, intrusion of saline water, and disposal of industrial saline wastewater into the sewerage lead to elevated salinity levels in wastewaters. Consequently, saline wastewater is generated, which needs to be treated before its discharge into surface water bodies. The objective of this research was to study the effects of salinity on the aerobic metabolism of phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO), which belong to the microbial populations responsible for enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) in activated sludge systems. In this study, the short-term impact (hours) of salinity (as NaCl) was assessed on the aerobic metabolism of a PAO culture, enriched in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). All aerobic PAO metabolic processes were drastically affected by elevated salinity concentrations. The aerobic maintenance energy requirement increased, when the salinity concentration rose up to a threshold concentration of 2 % salinity (on a W/V basis as NaCl), while above this concentration, the maintenance energy requirements seemed to decrease. All initial rates were affected by salinity, with the NH4- and PO4-uptake rates being the most sensitive. A salinity increase from 0 to 0.18 % caused a 25, 46, and 63 % inhibition of the O2, PO4, and NH4-uptake rates. The stoichiometric ratios of the aerobic conversions confirmed that growth was the process with the highest inhibition, followed by poly-P and glycogen formation. The study indicates that shock loads of 0.18 % salt, which corresponds to the use or intrusion of about 5 % seawater may severely affect the EBPR process already in wastewater treatment plants not exposed regularly to high salinity concentrations.

  18. Effect of aerobic exercise during pregnancy on antenatal depression

    PubMed Central

    El-Rafie, Mervat M; Khafagy, Ghada M; Gamal, Marwa G

    2016-01-01

    Background Antenatal depression is not uncommon and is associated with a greater risk of negative pregnancy outcomes. Aim Exploring the effect of exercise in preventing and treating antenatal depression. Methods This was a prospective interventional controlled study carried out in 100 pregnant women treated at the Ain-Shams Family Medicine Center and Maadi Outpatient Clinic, Cairo, Egypt. The participants were divided into two groups (n=50 in the exercise group and n=50 in the control group). The exercise group regularly attended supervised sessions for 12 weeks. The activities in each session included walking, aerobic exercise, stretching, and relaxation. The control group completed their usual antenatal care. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to assess depression symptoms at the first interview and immediately after the 12-week intervention. Results Compared to the control group, the exercise group showed significantly improved depressive symptoms as measured with the CES-D after the 12-week intervention on the CES-D (P=0.001). Within groups, the exercise group demonstrated a significant improvement of depressive symptoms from baseline to intervention completion, while the control group demonstrated no significant changes over time. Conclusion Exercise during pregnancy was positively associated with reduced depressive symptoms. PMID:26955293

  19. Sequential (anaerobic/aerobic) biological treatment of Dalaman SEKA pulp and paper industry effluent.

    PubMed

    Tezel, U; Guven, E; Erguder, T H; Demirer, G N

    2001-01-01

    In the pulp and paper industry, lignin and other color compounds are removed by chemical agents in bleaching process. Use of chlorine-based agents results in production of degradation products which include various chloro-organic derivatives. Since these new compounds are highly chlorinated, they cause a problem in the treatment of pulp and paper industry wastewaters. Chemical precipitation, lagooning, activated sludge, and anaerobic treatment are the processes used for treating pulp and paper effluents. Furthermore, a combination of these processes is also applicable. In this study, the effluent of Dalaman SEKA Pulp and Paper Industry was examined for its toxic effects on anaerobic microorganisms by anaerobic toxicity assay. Additionally, this wastewater was applied to a sequential biotreatment process consisting of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket as the anaerobic stage and a once-through completely mixed stirred tank as the aerobic stage. Results indicated that: (1) Dalaman SEKA Pulp and Paper Industry wastewater exerted no inhibitory effects on the anaerobic cultures under the studied conditions, and (2) application of a sequential biological (anaerobic/aerobic) system to treat the Dalaman SEKA Pulp and Paper Industry wastewater resulted in approximately 91% COD and 58% AOX removals at a HRT of 5 and 6.54 h for anaerobic and aerobic, respectively.

  20. Grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) predation on harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) on the island of Helgoland, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Neer, Abbo; Jensen, Lasse Fast; Siebert, Ursula

    2015-03-01

    The prey spectrum of grey seals has to date been described as largely consisting of different fish, cephalopod and shrimp species. On the German island of Helgoland Düne, where harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) co-occur, a young male grey seal was observed in 2013 and again in 2014 preying upon young harbour seals. A harbour seal carcass with severe traumatic lesions was retrieved and post-mortem examinations were performed. In the following weeks several carcasses showing similar lesions were found. Sightings of grey seals assumed to be preying on harbour porpoises have increased around the North Sea. Increased competition as well as individualised behaviour could explain the increased number of observations, but former cases of abnormal lesions of marine mammals attributed to for example predation by sharks or mechanical processes should be revisited with regard to the emerging knowledge.

  1. Assignment of the horse grey coat colour gene to ECA25 using whole genome scanning.

    PubMed

    Swinburne, June E; Hopkins, A; Binns, M M

    2002-10-01

    The dominant grey coat colour gene of horses has been mapped using a whole genome scanning approach. Samples from a large half-sibling pedigree of Thoroughbred horses were utilized in order to map the grey coat colour locus, G. Multiplex groups of microsatellite markers were developed and used to efficiently screen the horse genome at a resolution of approximately 22 cM, based on an estimated map length for the horse genome of 2720 cM. The grey gene was assigned to chromosome 25 (ECA25), one of the smaller acrocentric horse chromosomes. Based on the current state of knowledge of conserved synteny and coat colour genetics in other mammalian species, there are no obvious candidate genes for the grey gene in the region.

  2. Treatment of phenolics, aromatic hydrocarbons, and cyanide-bearing wastewater in individual and combined anaerobic, aerobic, and anoxic bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Naresh K; Philip, Ligy

    2015-01-01

    Studies were conducted on a mixture of pollutants commonly found in coke oven wastewater (CWW) to evaluate the biodegradation of various pollutants under anaerobic, aerobic, and anoxic conditions. The removal of the pollutants was monitored during individual bioreactor operation and using a combination of bioreactors operating in anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic sequence. While studying the performance of individual reactors, it was observed that cyanide removal (83.3 %) was predominant in the aerobic bioreactor, while much of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) (69 %) was consumed in the anoxic bioreactor. With the addition of cyanide, the COD removal efficiency was affected in all the bioreactors, and several intermediates were detected. While treating synthetic CWW using the combined bioreactor system, the overall COD removal efficiency was 86.79 % at an OLR of 2.4 g COD/L/day and an HRT of 96 h. The removal efficiency of 3,5-xylenol and cyanide, with inlet concentration of 150 and 10 mg/L, was found to be 91.8 and 93.6 % respectively. It was found that the impact of xylenol on the performance of the bioreactors was less than cyanide toxicity. Molecular analysis using T-RFLP revealed the dominance of strictly aerobic, mesophilic proteobacterium, Bosea minatitlanensis, in the aerobic bioreactor. The anoxic bioreactor was dominant with Rhodococcus pyridinivorans, known for its remarkable aromatic decomposing activity, while an unclassified Myxococcales bacterium was identified as the predominant bacterial species in the anaerobic bioreactor.

  3. [Cardiovascular protection and mechanisms of actions of aerobic exercise].

    PubMed

    Hou, Zuo-Xu; Zhang, Yuan; Gao, Feng

    2014-08-01

    It is well established that aerobic exercise exerts beneficial effect on cardiovascular system, but the underlying mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. Recent studies have shown that aerobic exercise ameliorates insulin resistance, inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction which play important roles in the development of cardiovascular disease. In this review, we discussed the underlying mechanisms of the cardioprotective role of aerobic exercise, especially the latest progress in this field.

  4. Renal lesions in Baltic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and ringed seals (Phoca hispida botnica).

    PubMed

    Bergman, A; Bergstrand, A; Bignert, A

    2001-11-01

    A severe reduction in the populations of grey and ringed seals in the Baltic occurred during the 1960s and 1970s. Adult animals showed (and still show) a series of lesions inter alia in the female reproductive organs, intestines, integument, kidneys, adrenals, and skulls (the Baltic seal disease complex). The morphology and prevalence of light microscopic changes in the kidneys of 76 grey seals and 29 ringed seals collected in the Baltic proper and the Gulf of Bothnia during 1977-1996 are presented in this report. Specific changes in the glomeruli were diffuse thickening of the capillary walls and the presence of large, rounded, hyaline bodies in the capillary or capsular walls. Specific changes in the distal convoluted tubules and the collecting ducts included focal replacement of the normal epithelium by multilayered cell proliferations. The prevalence and extent of the changes were age-related and thus correlated with the time of exposure to environmental toxicants. The lesions were more conspicuous in Baltic grey seals than in Baltic ringed seals. Similar findings were recorded in 5 grey seals from Swedish zoological gardens. These animals had been fed Baltic fish for most of their lives. Electron microscopy was performed on 5 of the Baltic grey seals and on one of the grey seals from zoological gardens. Electron microscopy results mainly based on findings in one of the Baltic grey seals, included mesangial inter-position in the glomerular capillary walls and the characteristics of intercalated cells in cell proliferations in the distal parts of the nephrons. Eleven grey seals from the Scottish coast and 23 ringed seals from Svalbard served as reference material. None of the reference seals showed the specific lesions described above. The authors propose that organochlorine pollution of the Baltic environment is a factor in the cause of these kidney changes.

  5. The Role of Google Scholar in Evidence Reviews and Its Applicability to Grey Literature Searching

    PubMed Central

    Haddaway, Neal Robert; Collins, Alexandra Mary; Coughlin, Deborah; Kirk, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Google Scholar (GS), a commonly used web-based academic search engine, catalogues between 2 and 100 million records of both academic and grey literature (articles not formally published by commercial academic publishers). Google Scholar collates results from across the internet and is free to use. As a result it has received considerable attention as a method for searching for literature, particularly in searches for grey literature, as required by systematic reviews. The reliance on GS as a standalone resource has been greatly debated, however, and its efficacy in grey literature searching has not yet been investigated. Using systematic review case studies from environmental science, we investigated the utility of GS in systematic reviews and in searches for grey literature. Our findings show that GS results contain moderate amounts of grey literature, with the majority found on average at page 80. We also found that, when searched for specifically, the majority of literature identified using Web of Science was also found using GS. However, our findings showed moderate/poor overlap in results when similar search strings were used in Web of Science and GS (10–67%), and that GS missed some important literature in five of six case studies. Furthermore, a general GS search failed to find any grey literature from a case study that involved manual searching of organisations’ websites. If used in systematic reviews for grey literature, we recommend that searches of article titles focus on the first 200 to 300 results. We conclude that whilst Google Scholar can find much grey literature and specific, known studies, it should not be used alone for systematic review searches. Rather, it forms a powerful addition to other traditional search methods. In addition, we advocate the use of tools to transparently document and catalogue GS search results to maintain high levels of transparency and the ability to be updated, critical to systematic reviews. PMID:26379270

  6. Vocal learning in Grey parrots: A brief review of perception, production, and cross-species comparisons.

    PubMed

    Pepperberg, Irene M

    2010-10-01

    This chapter briefly reviews what is known-and what remains to be understood-about Grey parrot vocal learning. I review Greys' physical capacities-issues of auditory perception and production-then discuss how these capacities are used in vocal learning and can be recruited for referential communication with humans. I discuss cross-species comparisons where applicable and conclude with a description of recent research that integrates issues of reference, production and perception.

  7. The Role of Google Scholar in Evidence Reviews and Its Applicability to Grey Literature Searching.

    PubMed

    Haddaway, Neal Robert; Collins, Alexandra Mary; Coughlin, Deborah; Kirk, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Google Scholar (GS), a commonly used web-based academic search engine, catalogues between 2 and 100 million records of both academic and grey literature (articles not formally published by commercial academic publishers). Google Scholar collates results from across the internet and is free to use. As a result it has received considerable attention as a method for searching for literature, particularly in searches for grey literature, as required by systematic reviews. The reliance on GS as a standalone resource has been greatly debated, however, and its efficacy in grey literature searching has not yet been investigated. Using systematic review case studies from environmental science, we investigated the utility of GS in systematic reviews and in searches for grey literature. Our findings show that GS results contain moderate amounts of grey literature, with the majority found on average at page 80. We also found that, when searched for specifically, the majority of literature identified using Web of Science was also found using GS. However, our findings showed moderate/poor overlap in results when similar search strings were used in Web of Science and GS (10-67%), and that GS missed some important literature in five of six case studies. Furthermore, a general GS search failed to find any grey literature from a case study that involved manual searching of organisations' websites. If used in systematic reviews for grey literature, we recommend that searches of article titles focus on the first 200 to 300 results. We conclude that whilst Google Scholar can find much grey literature and specific, known studies, it should not be used alone for systematic review searches. Rather, it forms a powerful addition to other traditional search methods. In addition, we advocate the use of tools to transparently document and catalogue GS search results to maintain high levels of transparency and the ability to be updated, critical to systematic reviews.

  8. Organic micropollutants in aerobic and anaerobic membrane bioreactors: Changes in microbial communities and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Harb, Moustapha; Wei, Chun-Hai; Wang, Nan; Amy, Gary; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2016-10-01

    Organic micro-pollutants (OMPs) are contaminants of emerging concern in wastewater treatment due to the risk of their proliferation into the environment, but their impact on the biological treatment process is not well understood. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the presence of OMPs on the core microbial populations of wastewater treatment. Two nanofiltration-coupled membrane bioreactors (aerobic and anaerobic) were subjected to the same operating conditions while treating synthetic municipal wastewater spiked with OMPs. Microbial community dynamics, gene expression levels, and antibiotic resistance genes were analyzed using molecular-based approaches. Results showed that presence of OMPs in the wastewater feed had a clear effect on keystone bacterial populations in both the aerobic and anaerobic sludge while also significantly impacting biodegradation-associated gene expression levels. Finally, multiple antibiotic-type OMPs were found to have higher removal rates in the anaerobic MBR, while associated antibiotic resistance genes were lower.

  9. Graded aerobic treadmill testing in pediatric sports-related concussion: safety, clinical use, and patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cordingley, Dean; Girardin, Richard; Reimer, Karen; Ritchie, Lesley; Leiter, Jeff; Russell, Kelly; Ellis, Michael J

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE The objectives of this study were 2-fold: 1) to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and clinical use of graded aerobic treadmill testing in pediatric patients with sports-related concussion (SRC), and 2) to evaluate the clinical outcomes of treatment with a submaximal aerobic exercise program in patients with physiological post-concussion disorder (PCD). METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective chart review of pediatric patients (age < 20 years) with SRC who were referred to a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program and underwent graded aerobic treadmill testing between October 9, 2014, and February 11, 2016. Clinical assessments were carried out by a single neurosurgeon and included clinical history taking, physical examination, and recording specific patient-reported concussion-related symptoms using the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). Graded aerobic treadmill testing using a modified Balke protocol for incremental increases in intensity was used as a diagnostic tool to assess physiological recovery, classify post-concussion syndrome (PCS) subtype, and reassess patients following treatment. Patients with a symptom-limited threshold on treadmill testing (physiological PCD) were treated with an individually tailored submaximal exercise prescription and multidisciplinary targeted therapies. RESULTS One hundred six patients (mean age 15.1 years, range 11-19 years) with SRC underwent a total of 141 treadmill tests. There were no serious complications related to treadmill testing in this study. Overall, 138 (97.9%) of 141 tests were well tolerated and contributed valuable clinical information. Treadmill testing confirmed physiological recovery in 63 (96.9%) of 65 patients tested, allowing successful return to play in 61 (93.8%). Treadmill testing was used to diagnose physiological PCD in 58 patients and cervicogenic PCD in 1 patient. Of the 41 patients with physiological PCD who had complete follow-up and were treated with tailored submaximal

  10. Transcriptome analysis of grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) after challenge with Lactococcus garvieae.

    PubMed

    Byadgi, Omkar; Chen, Yao-Chung; Barnes, Andrew C; Tsai, Ming-An; Wang, Pei-Chyi; Chen, Shih-Chu

    2016-11-01

    Grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) is an economically important fish species in Taiwan mariculture industry. Moreover, grey mullet are common hosts of a bacterial infection by Lactococcus garvieae. However, until now the information related to the immune system of grey mullet is unclear. Therefore, to understand the molecular basis underlying the host immune response to L. garvieae infection, Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 was used to analyse the head kidney and spleen transcriptome of infected grey mullet. De novo assembly of paired-end reads yielded 55,203 unigenes. Comparative analysis of the expression profiles between bacterial challenge fish and control fish identified a total of 7192 from head kidney and 7280 in spleen differentially expressed genes (P < 0.05), including 4211 upregulated genes and 2981 downregulated genes in head kidney, while in spleen 3598 genes were upregulated and 3682 downregulated. A significant enrichment analysis of these differentially expressed genes (DEG) in spleen and head kidney revealed major immune-related pathways, including complement and coagulation cascades, Toll-like receptor signalling, and antigen processing and presentation. Moreover, selected DEGs were validated using qPCR. Altogether, the results obtained on immune-related genes may allow for a better understanding of immunity in grey mullet to Lactococcus garvieae, carrying out detailed functional analysis of these genes and developing strategies for efficient immune protection against infections in grey mullet.

  11. Technique of Order Preference by Similarity for Multiple Attribute Decision Making Based on Grey Members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiuping; Sasaki, Masato

    The aim of this paper is to extend the technique of order preference by similarity to ideal and anti-ideal alternative to the Grey system. In general, multi-attribute problems in real-life situation have uncertain and imprecise data while Grey system theory is to deal with a linguistic decision process to solve the decision-making problems under uncertainty environment. In this paper, the rating of each alternative and the weight of each criterion are described by linguistic terms that can be expressed in Grey numbers. Further, vertex method is proposed to calculate the distance between Grey numbers. According to the concept of the technique of order preference by similarity to ideal and anti-ideal alternative, a closeness coefficient is defined to determine the ranking order of all alternatives by calculating the distances to both the Grey ideal solution (GIS) and Grey anti-ideal solution (GAIS) simultaneously. Finally, an example is shown to highlight the procedure of the proposed method.

  12. Exposing the grey seal as a major predator of harbour porpoises

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, Mardik F.; Begeman, Lineke; van Bleijswijk, Judith D. L.; IJsseldijk, Lonneke L.; Witte, Harry J.; Gröne, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) stranding in large numbers around the southern North Sea with fatal, sharp-edged mutilations have spurred controversy among scientists, the fishing industry and conservationists, whose views about the likely cause differ. The recent detection of grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) DNA in bite marks on three mutilated harbour porpoises, as well as direct observations of grey seal attacks on porpoises, have identified this seal species as a probable cause. Bite mark characteristics were assessed in a retrospective analysis of photographs of dead harbour porpoises that stranded between 2003 and 2013 (n = 1081) on the Dutch coastline. There were 271 animals that were sufficiently fresh to allow macroscopic assessment of grey seal-associated wounds with certainty. In 25% of these, bite and claw marks were identified that were consistent with the marks found on animals that had tested positive for grey seal DNA. Affected animals were mostly healthy juveniles that had a thick blubber layer and had recently fed. We conclude that the majority of the mutilated harbour porpoises were victims of grey seal attacks and that predation by this species is one of the main causes of death in harbour porpoises in The Netherlands. We provide a decision tree that will help in the identification of future cases of grey seal predation on porpoises. PMID:25429021

  13. Exposing the grey seal as a major predator of harbour porpoises.

    PubMed

    Leopold, Mardik F; Begeman, Lineke; van Bleijswijk, Judith D L; IJsseldijk, Lonneke L; Witte, Harry J; Gröne, Andrea

    2015-01-07

    Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) stranding in large numbers around the southern North Sea with fatal, sharp-edged mutilations have spurred controversy among scientists, the fishing industry and conservationists, whose views about the likely cause differ. The recent detection of grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) DNA in bite marks on three mutilated harbour porpoises, as well as direct observations of grey seal attacks on porpoises, have identified this seal species as a probable cause. Bite mark characteristics were assessed in a retrospective analysis of photographs of dead harbour porpoises that stranded between 2003 and 2013 (n = 1081) on the Dutch coastline. There were 271 animals that were sufficiently fresh to allow macroscopic assessment of grey seal-associated wounds with certainty. In 25% of these, bite and claw marks were identified that were consistent with the marks found on animals that had tested positive for grey seal DNA. Affected animals were mostly healthy juveniles that had a thick blubber layer and had recently fed. We conclude that the majority of the mutilated harbour porpoises were victims of grey seal attacks and that predation by this species is one of the main causes of death in harbour porpoises in The Netherlands. We provide a decision tree that will help in the identification of future cases of grey seal predation on porpoises.

  14. Grey leaves in an alpine plant: a cryptic colouration to avoid attack?

    PubMed

    Niu, Yang; Chen, Gao; Peng, De-Li; Song, Bo; Yang, Yang; Li, Zhi-Min; Sun, Hang

    2014-08-01

    Cryptic colouration is a common predation-avoidance strategy in animals that is postulated to occur in plants, but few experimental studies have rigorously tested this hypothesis. We investigated the colouration of Corydalis benecincta, an alpine plant with remarkably dimorphic leaf colours (grey and green), based on a cost-benefit analysis. First we tested the premise that herbivores (Parnassius butterflies) cannot distinguish grey leaves from a scree background by spectrographic measurements and by estimating discriminability between leaves and scree using a butterfly colour vision model. Then we estimated the potential costs of inconspicuousness by comparing the photosynthetic performance and visual attractiveness to flower visitors of the two colour morphs. Finally, we examined the potential benefits of inconspicuousness by comparing damage, survivorship and female reproductive success. It is difficult for herbivores to distinguish grey-coloured morphs against the background. This grey colour originates in a combination of anthocyanins and chlorophylls. The two colour morphs had similar photosynthetic performance, visual attractiveness and female reproductive success. However, grey morphs had significantly lower herbivore damage and higher survivorship. Grey leaves benefit C. benecincta by reducing herbivory with low investment in anthocyanin synthesis, and little cost on photosynthesis and mating opportunity. This cryptic colouration may have evolved through selection pressure imposed by visually foraging herbivores.

  15. Linkage of the grey coat colour locus to microsatellites on horse chromosome 25.

    PubMed

    Locke, M M; Penedo, M C T; Bricker, S J; Millon, L V; Murray, J D

    2002-10-01

    The progressive loss of colour in the hair of grey horses is controlled by a dominantly inherited allele at the Grey locus (GG). In this study, two paternal Quarter Horse (QH) families segregating for the GG allele were genotyped with a set of 101 microsatellite markers spanning the 31 autosomes and the X chromosome. This genome scan demonstrated linkage of Grey to COR018 (RF=0.02, LOD=12.04) on horse chromosome 25 (ECA25). Further chromosome-specific analysis of seven total QH families confirmed the linkage of Grey to a group of ECA25 markers and the map order of NVHEQ43-(0.24)-UCDEQ405-(0.09)-COR080-(0.05)-GREY-(0.14)-UCDEQ464 was produced. Although G was found to be linked to TXN and COR018 in the chromosome-specific analysis, the data were not sufficiently informative to place either marker on our ECA25 map with significant LODs. Our results excluded the equine tyrosinase related protein 1 (TYRP1) and melanocyte protein 17 (Pmel17) genes as possible candidates for the grey phenotype in horses.

  16. Whole genome grey and white matter DNA methylation profiles in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Mut, Jose Vicente; Heyn, Holger; Vidal, Enrique; Delgado-Morales, Raúl; Moran, Sebastian; Sayols, Sergi; Sandoval, Juan; Ferrer, Isidre; Esteller, Manel; Gräff, Johannes

    2017-01-20

    The brain's neocortex is anatomically organized into grey and white matter, which are mainly composed by neuronal and glial cells, respectively. The neocortex can be further divided in different Brodmann areas according to their cytoarchitectural organization, which are associated with distinct cortical functions. There is increasing evidence that brain development and function are governed by epigenetic processes, yet their contribution to the functional organization of the neocortex remains incompletely understood. Herein, we determined the DNA methylation patterns of grey and white matter of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 9), an important region for higher cognitive skills that is particularly affected in various neurological diseases. For avoiding interindividual differences, we analyzed white and grey matter from the same donor using whole genome bisulfite sequencing, and for validating their biological significance, we used Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip and pyrosequencing in ten and twenty independent samples, respectively. The combination of these analysis indicated robust grey-white matter differences in DNA methylation. What is more, cell type-specific markers were enriched among the most differentially methylated genes. Interestingly, we also found an outstanding number of grey-white matter differentially methylated genes that have previously been associated with Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease, as well as Multiple and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The data presented here thus constitute an important resource for future studies not only to gain insight into brain regional as well as grey and white matter differences, but also to unmask epigenetic alterations that might underlie neurological and neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Socioeconomic status and the cerebellar grey matter volume. Data from a well-characterised population sample.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Jonathan; Krishnadas, Rajeev; Batty, G David; Burns, Harry; Deans, Kevin A; Ford, Ian; McConnachie, Alex; McGinty, Agnes; McLean, Jennifer S; Millar, Keith; Sattar, Naveed; Shiels, Paul G; Tannahill, Carol; Velupillai, Yoga N; Packard, Chris J; McLean, John

    2013-12-01

    The cerebellum is highly sensitive to adverse environmental factors throughout the life span. Socioeconomic deprivation has been associated with greater inflammatory and cardiometabolic risk, and poor neurocognitive function. Given the increasing awareness of the association between early-life adversities on cerebellar structure, we aimed to explore the relationship between early life (ESES) and current socioeconomic status (CSES) and cerebellar volume. T1-weighted MRI was used to create models of cerebellar grey matter volumes in 42 adult neurologically healthy males selected from the Psychological, Social and Biological Determinants of Ill Health study. The relationship between potential risk factors, including ESES, CSES and cerebellar grey matter volumes were examined using multiple regression techniques. We also examined if greater multisystem physiological risk index-derived from inflammatory and cardiometabolic risk markers-mediated the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and cerebellar grey matter volume. Both ESES and CSES explained the greatest variance in cerebellar grey matter volume, with age and alcohol use as a covariate in the model. Low CSES explained additional significant variance to low ESES on grey matter decrease. The multisystem physiological risk index mediated the relationship between both early life and current SES and grey matter volume in cerebellum. In a randomly selected sample of neurologically healthy males, poorer socioeconomic status was associated with a smaller cerebellar volume. Early and current socioeconomic status and the multisystem physiological risk index also apparently influence cerebellar volume. These findings provide data on the relationship between socioeconomic deprivation and a brain region highly sensitive to environmental factors.

  18. Mapping joint grey and white matter reductions in Alzheimer's disease using joint independent component analysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Han, Yuan; Chen, Kewei; Wang, Yan; Yao, Li

    2012-12-07

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease concomitant with grey and white matter damages. However, the interrelationship of volumetric changes between grey and white matter remains poorly understood in AD. Using joint independent component analysis, this study identified joint grey and white matter volume reductions based on structural magnetic resonance imaging data to construct the covariant networks in twelve AD patients and fourteen normal controls (NC). We found that three networks showed significant volume reductions in joint grey-white matter sources in AD patients, including (1) frontal/parietal/temporal-superior longitudinal fasciculus/corpus callosum, (2) temporal/parietal/occipital-frontal/occipital, and (3) temporal-precentral/postcentral. The corresponding expression scores distinguished AD patients from NC with 85.7%, 100% and 85.7% sensitivity for joint sources 1, 2 and 3, respectively; 75.0%, 66.7% and 75.0% specificity for joint sources 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Furthermore, the combined source of three significant joint sources best predicted the AD/NC group membership with 92.9% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity. Our findings revealed joint grey and white matter loss in AD patients, and these results can help elucidate the mechanism of grey and white matter reductions in the development of AD.

  19. Towards a Holistic Cortical Thickness Descriptor: Heat Kernel-Based Grey Matter Morphology Signatures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Wang, Yalin

    2017-02-15

    In this paper, we propose a heat kernel based regional shape descriptor that may be capable of better exploiting volumetric morphological information than other available methods, thereby improving statistical power on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis. The mechanism of our analysis is driven by the graph spectrum and the heat kernel theory, to capture the volumetric geometry information in the constructed tetrahedral meshes. In order to capture profound brain grey matter shape changes, we first use the volumetric Laplace-Beltrami operator to determine the point pair correspondence between white-grey matter and CSF-grey matter boundary surfaces by computing the streamlines in a tetrahedral mesh. Secondly, we propose multi-scale grey matter morphology signatures to describe the transition probability by random walk between the point pairs, which reflects the inherent geometric characteristics. Thirdly, a point distribution model is applied to reduce the dimensionality of the grey matter morphology signatures and generate the internal structure features. With the sparse linear discriminant analysis, we select a concise morphology feature set with improved classification accuracies. In our experiments, the proposed work outperformed the cortical thickness features computed by FreeSurfer software in the classification of Alzheimer's disease and its prodromal stage, i.e., mild cognitive impairment, on publicly available data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. The multi-scale and physics based volumetric structure feature may bring stronger statistical power than some traditional methods for MRI-based grey matter morphology analysis.

  20. The grey relational approach for evaluating measurement uncertainty with poor information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zai; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Weihu; Wang, Zhongyu

    2015-12-01

    The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) is the master document for measurement uncertainty evaluation. However, the GUM may encounter problems and does not work well when the measurement data have poor information. In most cases, poor information means a small data sample and an unknown probability distribution. In these cases, the evaluation of measurement uncertainty has become a bottleneck in practical measurement. To solve this problem, a novel method called the grey relational approach (GRA), different from the statistical theory, is proposed in this paper. The GRA does not require a large sample size or probability distribution information of the measurement data. Mathematically, the GRA can be divided into three parts. Firstly, according to grey relational analysis, the grey relational coefficients between the ideal and the practical measurement output series are obtained. Secondly, the weighted coefficients and the measurement expectation function will be acquired based on the grey relational coefficients. Finally, the measurement uncertainty is evaluated based on grey modeling. In order to validate the performance of this method, simulation experiments were performed and the evaluation results show that the GRA can keep the average error around 5%. Besides, the GRA was also compared with the grey method, the Bessel method, and the Monte Carlo method by a real stress measurement. Both the simulation experiments and real measurement show that the GRA is appropriate and effective to evaluate the measurement uncertainty with poor information.

  1. Biotransformation of phytosterols under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Dykstra, Christy M; Giles, Hamilton D; Banerjee, Sujit; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2014-07-01

    Phytosterols are plant-derived sterols present in pulp and paper wastewater and have been implicated in the endocrine disruption of aquatic species. Bioassays were performed to assess the effect of an additional carbon source and/or solubilizing agent on the aerobic biotransformation of a mixture of three common phytosterols (β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol). The aerobic biotransformation of the phytosterol mixture by a mixed culture developed from a pulp and paper wastewater treatment system was examined under three separate conditions: with phytosterols as the sole added carbon source, with phytosterols and dextrin as an additional carbon source, and with phytosterols added with ethanol as an additional carbon source and solubilizing agent. Significant phytosterol removal was not observed in assays set up with phytosterol powder, either with or without an additional carbon source. In contrast, all three phytosterols were aerobically degraded when added as a dissolved solution in ethanol. Thus, under the experimental conditions of this study, the bioavailability of phytosterols was limited without the presence of a solubilizing agent. The total phytosterol removal rate was linear for the first six days before re-spiking, with a rate of 0.47 mg/L-d (R(2) = 0.998). After the second spiking, the total phytosterol removal rate was linear for seven days, with a rate of 0.32 mg/L-d (R(2) = 0.968). Following the 7th day, the phytosterol removal rate markedly accelerated, suggesting two different mechanisms are involved in phytosterol biotransformation, more likely related to the production of enzyme(s) involved in phytosterol degradation, induced under different cell growth conditions. β-sitosterol was preferentially degraded, as compared to stigmasterol and campesterol, although all three phytosterols fell below detection limits by the 24th day of incubation.

  2. Aerobic Capacity and Postprandial Flow Mediated Dilation.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Kevin D; Miller, James J; Robinson, James H; Olive, Jennifer L

    The consumption of a high-fat meal induces transient vascular dysfunction. Aerobic exercise enhances vascular function in healthy individuals. Our purpose was to determine if different levels of aerobic capacity impact vascular function, as measured by flow mediated dilation, following a high-fat meal. Flow mediated dilation of the brachial artery was determined before, two- and four-hours postprandial a high-fat meal in young males classified as highly trained (n = 10; VO2max = 74.6 ± 5.2 ml·kg·min(-1)) or moderately active (n = 10; VO2max = 47.3 ± 7.1 ml·kg·min(-1)). Flow mediated dilation was reduced at two- (p < 0.001) and four-hours (p < 0.001) compared to baseline for both groups but was not different between groups at any time point (p = 0.108). Triglycerides and insulin increased at two- (p < 0.001) and four-hours (p < 0.05) in both groups. LDL-C was reduced at four-hours (p = 0.05) in highly trained subjects, and two- and four-hours (p ≤ 0.01) in moderately active subjects. HDL-C decreased at two- (p = 0.024) and four-hours (p = 0.014) in both groups. Glucose increased at two-hours postprandial for both groups (p = 0.003). Our results indicate that a high-fat meal results in reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilation in highly trained and moderately active individuals with no difference between groups. Thus, high aerobic capacity does not protect against transient reductions in vascular function after the ingestion of a single high-fat meal compared to individuals who are moderately active.

  3. Screening and identification of aerobic denitrifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, K.; Deng, H. M.; Chen, Y. T.; Zhou, H. J.; Yan, G. X.

    2016-08-01

    With the standards of the effluent quality more stringent, it becomes a quite serious problem for municipalities and industries to remove nitrogen from wastewater. Bioremediation is a potential method for the removal of nitrogen and other pollutants because of its high efficiency and low cost. Seven predominant aerobic denitrifiers were screened and characterized from the activated sludge in the CAST unit. Some of these strains removed 87% nitrate nitrogen at least. Based on their phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, the isolates were identified as the genera of Ralstonia, Achromobacter, Aeromonas and Enterobacter.

  4. Toxic and inhibitory effects of trichloroethylene aerobic co-metabolism on phenol-grown aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Tay, JooHwa

    2015-04-09

    Aerobic granule, a form of microbial aggregate, exhibits good potential in degrading toxic and recalcitrant substances. In this study, the inhibitory and toxic effects of trichloroethylene (TCE), a model compound for aerobic co-metabolism, on phenol-grown aerobic granules were systematically studied, using respiratory activities after exposure to TCE as indicators. High TCE concentration did not exert positive or negative effects on the subsequent endogenous respiration rate or phenol dependent specific oxygen utilization rate (SOUR), indicating the absence of solvent stress and induction effect on phenol-hydroxylase. Phenol-grown aerobic granules exhibited a unique response to TCE transformation product toxicity, that small amount of TCE transformation enhanced the subsequent phenol SOUR. Granules that had transformed between 1.3 and 3.7 mg TCE gSS(-1) showed at most 53% increase in the subsequent phenol SOUR, and only when the transformation exceeded 6.6 mg TCE gSS(-1) did the SOUR dropped below that of the control. This enhancing effect was found to sustain throughout several phenol dosages, and TCE transformation below the toxicity threshold also lessened the granules' sensitivity to higher phenol concentration. The unique toxic effect was possibly caused by the granule's compact structure as a protection barrier against the diffusive transformation product(s) of TCE co-metabolism.

  5. Trauma-specific Grey Matter Alterations in PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Linghui; Jiang, Jing; Jin, Changfeng; Liu, Jia; Zhao, Youjin; Wang, Weina; Li, Kaiming; Gong, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) caused by different types of trauma may show divergence in epidemiology, clinical manifestation and treatment outcome. However, it is still unclear whether this divergence has neuroanatomic correlates in PTSD brains. To elucidate the general and trauma-specific cortical morphometric alterations, we performed a meta-analysis of grey matter (GM) changes in PTSD (N = 246) with different traumas and trauma-exposed controls (TECs, N = 347) using anisotropic effect-size signed differential mapping and its subgroup analysis. Our results revealed general GM reduction (GMR) foci in the prefrontal-limbic-striatal system of PTSD brains when compared with those of TECs. Notably, the GMR patterns were trauma-specific. For PTSD by single-incident traumas, GMR foci were found in bilateral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insula, striatum, left hippocampus and amygdala; and for PTSD by prolonged traumas in the left insula, striatum, amygdala and middle temporal gyrus. Moreover, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale scores were found to be negatively associated with the GM changes in bilateral ACC and mPFC. Our study indicates that the GMR patterns of PTSD are associated with specific traumas, suggesting a stratified diagnosis and treatment for PTSD patients. PMID:27651030

  6. Phylogeny and vicariant speciation of the Grey Rhebok, Pelea capreolus

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, T J; Cernohorska, H; Diedericks, G; Cabelova, K; Duran, A; Matthee, C A

    2014-01-01

    A South African endemic antelope, the Grey Rhebok (Pelea capreolus), has long been an evolutionary enigma in bovid systematics—its phylogenetic intractability attributed to its curious combination of derived and primitive morphological attributes and the consequences of a rapid radiation. By using a combination of DNA sequences, chromosomal characteristics and quantitative and qualitative morphological features we show that the species is a sister taxon to a clade that comprises the waterbuck, reedbuck and allies. Our finding of few unambiguous synapomorphies reinforces suggestions of a rapid radiation and highlights the effects of incomplete lineage sorting, including the hemiplasic nature of several chromosomal rearrangements. We investigate these data to address the general question of what may have led to Pelea being both genetically and ecologically distinct from the Reduncini. We argue that its adaptation to exposed habitats, free of standing water, arose by vicariance prompted by increasing aridity of the extreme south/southwestern region of the African continent in the Miocene. Ancestral lineages leading to the extant Redunca and Kobus, on the other hand, retreated to water-abundant refugia in the north during these mostly globally cool phases. The mosaic of water-rich environments provided by the Okavango and the drainage systems in the southwestern extension of the East African Rift system are considered to have facilitated speciation and chromosomal evolution within these antelope. PMID:24281547

  7. Dysbiotic drift: mental health, environmental grey space, and microbiota.

    PubMed

    Logan, Alan C

    2015-05-07

    Advances in research concerning the mental health implications of dietary patterns and select nutrients have been remarkable. At the same time, there have been rapid increases in the understanding of the ways in which non-pathogenic microbes can potentially influence many aspects of human health, including those in the mental realm. Discussions of nutrition and microbiota are often overlapping. A separate, yet equally connected, avenue of research is that related to natural (for example, green space) and built environments, and in particular, how they are connected to human cognition and behaviors. It is argued here that in Western industrial nations a 'disparity of microbiota' might be expected among the socioeconomically disadvantaged, those whom face more profound environmental forces. Many of the environmental forces pushing against the vulnerable are at the neighborhood level. Matching the developing microbiome research with existing environmental justice research suggests that grey space may promote dysbiosis by default. In addition, the influence of Westernized lifestyle patterns, and the marketing forces that drive unhealthy behaviors in deprived communities, might allow dysbiosis to be the norm rather than the exception in those already at high risk of depression, subthreshold (subsyndromal) conditions, and subpar mental health. If microbiota are indeed at the intersection of nutrition, environmental health, and lifestyle medicine (as these avenues pertain to mental health), then perhaps the rapidly evolving gut-brain-microbiota conversation needs to operate through a wider lens. In contrast to the more narrowly defined psychobiotic, the term eco-psychotropic is introduced.

  8. Architectonic subdivisions of neocortex in the grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Peiyan; Kaas, Jon H.

    2010-01-01

    Squirrels are highly visual mammals with an expanded cortical visual system and a number of well-differentiated architectonic fields. In order to describe and delimit cortical fields, subdivisions of cortex were reconstructed from serial brain sections cut in the coronal, sagittal, or horizontal planes. Architectonic characteristics of cortical areas were visualized after brain sections were processed with immunohistochemical and histochemical procedures for revealing parvalbumin, calbindin, neurofilament protein, vesicle glutamate transporter 2, limbic-associated membrane protein, synaptic zinc, cytochrome oxidase, myelin or Nissl substance. In general, these different procedures revealed similar boundaries between areas, suggesting that functionally relevant borders were being detected. The results allowed a more precise demarcation of previously identified areas as well as the identification of areas that had not been previously described. Primary sensory cortical areas characterized by sparse zinc staining of layer 4, as thalamocortical terminations lack zinc, as well as by layer 4 terminations rich in parvalbumin and vesicle glutamate transporter 2. Primary areas also expressed higher levels of cytochrome oxidase and myelin. Primary motor cortex was associated with large SMI-32 labeled pyramidal cells in layers 3 and 5. Our proposed organization of cortex in grey squirrels includes both similarities and differences to the proposed of cortex in other rodents such as mice and rats. The presence of a number of well-differentiated cortical areas in squirrels may serve as a guide to the identification of homologous fields in other rodents, as well as a useful guide in further studies of cortical organization and function. PMID:18780299

  9. First isolation of Mycoplasma iowae in grey partridge flocks.

    PubMed

    Catania, S; Gobbo, F; Rodio, S; Qualtieri, K; Santone, C; Nicholas, R A J

    2014-06-01

    Mycoplasma iowae, an occasional pathogen of turkeys, was isolated for the first time from captive grey partridges (Perdix perdix). Clinical signs including respiratory and intestinal disorder were seen in birds of all ages but mainly in those kept housed during rearing. Mortality rates averaged over 20% during the year. Treatment with antibiotics and antiparasitic drugs produced only a transient improvement in condition. The gross pathology findings included poor body growth, lack of development of the breast muscles, abnormalities in the keel development, and bone fragility. Some birds showed infraorbital sinusitis with serous or fibrinous exudates and catarrhal tracheitis, while others presented serofibrinous airsacculitis and splenomegaly. Laboratory investigations revealed pure cultures of M. iowae in the gut as well as sinus and air sacs. While other organisms such as coccidia, Trichomonas, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and Aspergillus spp. were detected, the similarity of the disease with that seen in turkeys infected with M. iowae strongly suggests that this mycoplasma may be the primary pathogen here. The presence of M. iowae in game birds commonly released into the wild could have serious implications particularly in areas where industrial poultry farms are concentrated.

  10. Comparative Cytogenetics of the Congo African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus).

    PubMed

    Seibold-Torres, Cassandra; Owens, Elaine; Chowdhary, Renuka; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Tizard, Ian; Raudsepp, Terje

    2015-01-01

    The Congo African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus, PER) is an endemic species of Central Africa, valued for its intelligence and listed as vulnerable due to poaching and habitat destruction. Improved knowledge about the P. erithacus genome is needed to address key biological questions and conservation of this species. The P. erithacus genome was studied using conventional and molecular cytogenetic approaches including Zoo-FISH. P. erithacus has a 'typical' parrot karyotype with 2n = 62-64 and 8 pairs of macrochromosomes. A distinct feature was a sharp macro-microchromosome boundary. Telomeric sequences were present at all chromosome ends and interstitially in PER2q, the latter coinciding with a C-band. NORs mapped to 4 pairs of microchromosomes which is in contrast to a single NOR in ancestral type avian karyotypes. Zoo-FISH with chicken macrochromosomes GGA1-9 and Z revealed patterns of conserved synteny similar to many other avian groups, though neighboring synteny combinations of GGA6/7, 8/9, and 1/4 were distinctive only to parrots. Overall, P. erithacus shared more Zoo-FISH patterns with neotropical macaws than Australian species such as cockatiel and budgerigar. The observations suggest that Psittaciformes karyotypes have undergone more extensive evolutionary rearrangements compared to the majority of other avian genomes.

  11. Pathological differences between white and grey matter multiple sclerosis lesions.

    PubMed

    Prins, Marloes; Schul, Emma; Geurts, Jeroen; van der Valk, Paul; Drukarch, Benjamin; van Dam, Anne-Marie

    2015-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating disease characterized by demyelination of the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in widespread formation of white matter lesions (WMLs) and grey matter lesions (GMLs). WMLs are pathologically characterized by the presence of immune cells that infiltrate the CNS, whereas these immune cells are barely present in GMLs. This striking pathological difference between WMLs and GMLs raises questions about the underlying mechanism. It is known that infiltrating leukocytes contribute to the generation of WMLs; however, since GMLs show a paucity of infiltrating immune cells, their importance in GML formation remains to be determined. Here, we review pathological characteristics of WMLs and GMLs, and suggest some possible explanations for the observed pathological differences. In our view, cellular and molecular characteristics of WM and GM, and local differences within WMLs and GMLs (in particular, in glial cell populations and the molecules they express), determine the pathway to demyelination. Further understanding of GML pathogenesis, considered to contribute to chronic MS, may have a direct impact on the development of novel therapeutic targets to counteract this progressive neurological disorder.

  12. Ecological factors influence population genetic structure of European grey wolves.

    PubMed

    Pilot, Malgorzata; Jedrzejewski, Wlodzimierz; Branicki, Wojciech; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Jedrzejewska, Bogumila; Stachura, Krystyna; Funk, Stephan M

    2006-12-01

    Although the mechanisms controlling gene flow among populations are particularly important for evolutionary processes, they are still poorly understood, especially in the case of large carnivoran mammals with extensive continuous distributions. We studied the question of factors affecting population genetic structure in the grey wolf, Canis lupus, one of the most mobile terrestrial carnivores. We analysed variability in mitochondrial DNA and 14 microsatellite loci for a sample of 643 individuals from 59 localities representing most of the continuous wolf range in Eastern Europe. We tested an array of geographical, historical and ecological factors to check whether they may explain genetic differentiation among local wolf populations. We showed that wolf populations in Eastern Europe displayed nonrandom spatial genetic structure in the absence of obvious physical barriers to movement. Neither topographic barriers nor past fragmentation could explain spatial genetic structure. However, we found that the genetic differentiation among local populations was correlated with climate, habitat types, and wolf diet composition. This result shows that ecological processes may strongly influence the amount of gene flow among populations. We suggest natal-habitat-biased dispersal as an underlying mechanism linking population ecology with population genetic structure.

  13. Circadian Rhythms of Isoprene Biosynthesis in Grey Poplar Leaves1

    PubMed Central

    Loivamäki, Maaria; Louis, Sandrine; Cinege, Gyöngyi; Zimmer, Ina; Fischbach, Robert J.; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter

    2007-01-01

    Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) emission varies diurnally in different species. In poplar (Populus spp.), it has recently been shown that the gene encoding the synthesizing enzyme for isoprene, isoprene synthase (ISPS), displays diurnal variation in expression. Working on shoot cultures of Grey poplar (Populus × canescens) placed under a different light regime in phytochambers, we showed that these variations in PcISPS gene expression, measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, are not only due to day-night changes, but also are linked to an internal circadian clock. Measurement of additional selected isoprenoid genes revealed that phytoene synthase (carotenoid pathway) displays similar fluctuations, whereas 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase, possibly the first committed enzyme of the 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate pathway, only shows light regulation. On the protein level, it appeared that PcISPS activity and protein content became reduced under constant darkness, whereas under constant light, activity and protein content of this enzyme were kept high. In contrast, isoprene emission rates under continuous irradiation displayed circadian changes as is the case for gene expression of PcISPS. Furthermore, binding assays with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) late elongated hypocotyl, a transcription factor of Arabidopsis involved in circadian regulation, clearly revealed the presence of circadian-determining regulatory elements in the promoter region of PcISPS. PMID:17122071

  14. Characterization and aerobic biodegradation of selected monoterpenes

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, G.; Pavlostathis, S.G.; Li, J.; Purdue, E.M.

    1996-12-31

    Monoterpenes are biogenic chemicals and occur in abundance in nature. Large-scale industrial use of these chemicals has recently been initiated in an attempt to replace halogenated solvents and chlorofluorocarbons which have been implicated in the stratospheric depletion of ozone. This study examined four hydrocarbon monoterpenes (d-limonene, {alpha}-pinene, {gamma}-terpinene, and terpinolene) and four alcohols (arbanol, linalool, plinol, and {alpha}-terpineol). Water solubility, vapor pressure, and octanol/water partition coefficients were estimated. Aerobic biodegradability tests were conducted in batch reactors by utilizing forest soil extract and enriched cultures as inoculum. The hydrophobic nature and high volatility of the hydrocarbons restricted the investigation to relatively low aqueous concentrations. Each monoterpene was analyzed with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector after extraction from the aqueous phase with isooctane. Terpene mineralization was tested by monitoring liquid-phase carbon, CO{sub 2} production and biomass growth. All four hydrocarbons and two alcohols readily degraded under aerobic conditions. Plinol resisted degradation in assays using inocula from diverse sources, while arbanol degraded very slowly. The intrinsic biokinetics coefficients for the degradation of d-limonene and {alpha}-terpineol were estimated by using cultures enriched with the respective monoterpenes. Monoterpene biodegradation followed Monod kinetics.

  15. Aerobic treatment of wine-distillery wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sales, D.; Valcarcel, M.J.; Perez, L.; de la Ossa, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    Waste from food-processing and allied industries is largely made up of organic compounds which can be metabolized by aerobic or anaerobic means. However, these wastes present a series of problems to biological depuration plants, such as the need for prior treatment to establish conditions suitable for the development of the microorganisms responsible for the process; and the long retention time of the biomass if acceptable effluents are to be obtained. Again, the seasonal nature of many of these industries makes for very heterogeneous waste. This means that treatment plant must be versatile and are subject to rapid successions of close-down and start-up interspersed with long intervals of inactivity. All these difficulties oblige the industries in the sector to adapt depurative technology to their particular needs. Wine distilleries fall into this general category. Their waste (called vinasses) is acidic, has a high organic content and varies widely according to the raw matter distilled: wine, lies, etc. This paper studies the start-up of digestors for aerobic treatment of vinasses and the establishment of optimum operating conditions for an adequate depurative performance.

  16. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning.

    PubMed

    Perini, Renza; Bortoletto, Marta; Capogrosso, Michela; Fertonani, Anna; Miniussi, Carlo

    2016-05-05

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cortex, and the second was a simple thumb abduction motor task that relies on the primary motor cortex. Forty-four and forty volunteers participated in the first and second experiments, respectively. We found that a single bout of aerobic exercise can significantly facilitate learning mechanisms within visual and motor domains and that these positive effects can persist for at least 30 minutes following exercise. This finding suggests that physical activity, at least of moderate intensity, might promote brain plasticity. By combining physical activity-induced plasticity with specific cognitive training-induced plasticity, we favour a gradual up-regulation of a functional network due to a steady increase in synaptic strength, promoting associative Hebbian-like plasticity.

  17. Short communication: Use of a mixture of sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate, and potassium sorbate in aerobically challenged silages.

    PubMed

    Knicky, Martin; Spörndly, Rolf

    2015-08-01

    Aerobic instability is still a common problem with many types of silages, particularly well-fermented silages. This study evaluated the effect of adding an additive mixture based on sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate, and potassium sorbate to a variety of crop materials on fermentation quality and aerobic stability of silages. Ensiling conditions were challenged by using a low packing density (104±4.3kg of dry matter/m(3)) of forage and allowing air ingression into silos (at 14 and 7 d before the end of the storage, for 8 h per event). Additive-treated silages were found to have significantly lower pH and reduced formation of ammonia-N, 2.3-butanediol, and ethanol compared with untreated control silages. Yeast growth was significantly reduced by additive treatment in comparison with untreated control silage. Consequently, additive-treated silages were considerably more aerobically stable (6.7 d) than untreated control silages (0.5 d). Overall, adding 5mL/kg of fresh crop of the additive based on sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate, and potassium sorbate reduced undesirable microorganisms in silages and thereby provided suitable ensiling conditions and prolonged aerobic stability, even under air-challenged laboratory ensiling conditions.

  18. Impact of nitrite on aerobic phosphorus uptake by poly-phosphate accumulating organisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal sludges.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wei; Li, Boxiao; Yang, Yingying; Wang, Xiangdong; Li, Lei; Peng, Yongzhen

    2014-02-01

    Impact of nitrite on aerobic phosphorus (P) uptake of poly-phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) in three different enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems was investigated, i.e., the enriched PAOs culture fed with synthetic wastewater, the two lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) treating domestic wastewater for nutrient removal through nitrite-pathway nitritation and nitrate-pathway nitrification, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization results showed that PAOs in the three sludges accounted for 72, 7.6 and 6.5% of bacteria, respectively. In the enriched PAOs culture, at free nitrous acid (FNA) concentration of 0.47 × 10(-3) mg HNO₂-N/L, aerobic P-uptake and oxidation of intercellular poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates were both inhibited. Denitrifying phosphorus removal under the aerobic conditions was observed, indicating the existence of PAOs using nitrite as electron acceptor in this culture. When the FNA concentration reached 2.25 × 10(-3) mg HNO2-N/L, denitrifying phosphorus removal was also inhibited. And the inhibition ceased once nitrite was exhausted. Corresponding to both SBRs treating domestic wastewater with nitritation and nitrification pathway, nitrite inhibition on aerobic P-uptake by PAOs did not occur even though FNA concentration reached 3 × 10(-3) and 2.13 × 10(-3) mg HNO₂-N/L, respectively. Therefore, PAOs taken from different EBPR activated sludges had different tolerance to nitrite.

  19. Aerobic Physical Activity and the Leadership of Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiser, Kari

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore if there was a connection between regular aerobic physical activity and the stress and energy levels of principals as they reported it. To begin the research, the current aerobic physical activity level of principals was discovered. Additionally, the energy and stress levels of the principals who do engage…

  20. The Effectiveness of Aerobic Exercise Instruction for Totally Blind Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponchillia, S. V.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A multifaceted method (involving verbal and hands-on training) was used to teach aerobic exercises to 3 totally blind women (ages 24-37). All three women demonstrated positive gains in their performance, physical fitness, and attitudes toward participating in future mainstream aerobic exercise classes. (DB)

  1. Aerobic Activity--Do Physical Education Programs Provide Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGing, Eileen

    1989-01-01

    High school physical education curricula should concentrate less on sport skill development and competition, and more on health-related fitness and aerobic activity. Results are reported from a study of the type and amount of aerobic exercise provided in 29 high school physical education programs in a large metropolitan area. (IAH)

  2. Aerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This manual contains the textual material for a single-lesson unit on aerobic sludge digestion. Topic areas addressed include: (1) theory of aerobic digestion; (2) system components; (3) performance factors; (4) indicators of stable operation; and (5) operational problems and their solutions. A list of objectives, glossary of key terms, and…

  3. p53 aerobics: the major tumor suppressor fuels your workout.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Jan-Philipp; Gu, Wei

    2006-07-01

    In addition to its role as the central regulator of the cellular stress response, p53 can regulate aerobic respiration via the novel transcriptional target SCO2, a critical regulator of the cytochrome c oxidase complex (Matoba et al., 2006). Loss of p53 results in decreased oxygen consumption and aerobic respiration and promotes a switch to glycolysis, thereby reducing endurance during physical exercise.

  4. The Acute Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Measures of Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort, Inza L.; And Others

    The immediate response of stress to aerobic exercise was measured by utilizing the Palmar Sweat Index (PSI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Forty subjects (20 male and 20 female) from the ages of 18-30 sustained a single bout of aerobic activity for 30 minutes at 60 percent of their maximum heart rate. Pre-treatment procedures…

  5. High skin temperature and hypohydration impair aerobic performance.

    PubMed

    Sawka, Michael N; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W

    2012-03-01

    This paper reviews the roles of hot skin (>35°C) and body water deficits (>2% body mass; hypohydration) in impairing submaximal aerobic performance. Hot skin is associated with high skin blood flow requirements and hypohydration is associated with reduced cardiac filling, both of which act to reduce aerobic reserve. In euhydrated subjects, hot skin alone (with a modest core temperature elevation) impairs submaximal aerobic performance. Conversely, aerobic performance is sustained with core temperatures >40°C if skin temperatures are cool-warm when euhydrated. No study has demonstrated that high core temperature (∼40°C) alone, without coexisting hot skin, will impair aerobic performance. In hypohydrated subjects, aerobic performance begins to be impaired when skin temperatures exceed 27°C, and even warmer skin exacerbates the aerobic performance impairment (-1.5% for each 1°C skin temperature). We conclude that hot skin (high skin blood flow requirements from narrow skin temperature to core temperature gradients), not high core temperature, is the 'primary' factor impairing aerobic exercise performance when euhydrated and that hypohydration exacerbates this effect.

  6. Aerobic Fitness Thresholds Associated with Fifth Grade Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittberg, Richard; Cottrell, Lesley A.; Davis, Catherine L.; Northrup, Karen L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Whereas effects of physical fitness and physical activity on cognitive function have been documented, little is known about how they are related. Purpose: This study assessed student aerobic fitness measured by FITNESSGRAM Mile times and/or Pacer circuits and whether the nature of the association between aerobic fitness and…

  7. Factors associated with low levels of aerobic fitness among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Eliane Cristina de Andrade; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of low aerobic fitness levels and to analyze the association with sociodemographic factors, lifestyle and excess body fatness among adolescents of southern Brazil. Methods: The study included 879 adolescents aged 14-19 years the city of São José/SC, Brazil. The aerobic fitness was assessed by Canadian modified test of aerobic fitness. Sociodemographic variables (skin color, age, sex, study turn, economic level), sexual maturation and lifestyle (eating habits, screen time, physical activity, consumption of alcohol and tobacco) were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Excess body fatness was evaluated by sum of skinfolds triceps and subscapular. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: Prevalence of low aerobic fitness level was 87.5%. The girls who spent two hours or more in front screen, consumed less than one glass of milk by day, did not smoke and had an excess of body fatness had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. White boys with low physical activity had had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. Conclusions: Eight out of ten adolescents were with low fitness levels aerobic. Modifiable lifestyle factors were associated with low levels of aerobic fitness. Interventions that emphasize behavior change are needed. PMID:26743851

  8. The use of aerobic exercise training in improving aerobic capacity in individuals with stroke: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Marco YC; Eng, Janice J; Dawson, Andrew S; Gylfadóttir, Sif

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether aerobic exercise improves aerobic capacity in individuals with stroke. Design A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Databases searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Physiotherapy Evidence Database were searched. Inclusion criteria Design: randomized controlled trials; Participants: individuals with stroke; Interventions: aerobic exercise training aimed at improving aerobic capacity; Outcomes Primary outcomes: aerobic capacity [peak oxygen consumption (VO2), peak workload); Secondary outcomes: walking velocity, walking endurance. Data Analysis The methodological quality was assessed by the PEDro scale. Meta-analyses were performed for all primary and secondary outcomes. Results Nine articles (seven RCTs) were identified. The exercise intensity ranged from 50% to 80% heart rate reserve. Exercise duration was 20–40 minutes for 3–5 days a week. The total number of subjects included in the studies was 480. All studies reported positive effects on aerobic capacity, regardless of the stage of stroke recovery. Meta-analysis revealed a significant homogeneous standardized effect size (SES) in favour of aerobic exercise to improve peak VO2 (SES, 0.42; 95%CI, 0.15 to 0.69; p=0.001) and peak workload (SES, 0.50; 95%CI, 0.26 to 0.73; p<0.001). There was also a significant homogeneous SES in favour of aerobic training to improve walking velocity (SES, 0.26; 95%CI, 0.05 to 0.48; p=0.008) and walking endurance (SES, 0.30; 95%CI, 0.06to 0.55; p=0.008). Conclusions There is good evidence that aerobic exercise is beneficial for improving aerobic capacity in people with mild and moderate stroke. Aerobic exercise should be an important component of stroke rehabilitation. PMID:16541930

  9. Bite Injuries of Grey Seals (Halichoerus grypus) on Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena)

    PubMed Central

    Loos, Pauline; Bourgain, Jean-Luc; Bouveroux, Thibaut; Coignoul, Freddy; Haelters, Jan; Karpouzopoulos, Jacky; Pezeril, Sylvain; Desmecht, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Bite-like skin lesions on harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) have been suspected to be caused by grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), and a few field observations have been reported. Bite-like skin lesions observed on stranded animals were characterized by two main components: large flaps of loose or missing skin and blubber with frayed edges and puncture lesions. Definitive demonstration of predation by a grey seal was not reported so far in those stranded animals. In this study, five stranded porpoises with bite-like skin lesions were swabbed for genetic investigations. In addition, the head of a recently dead grey seal was used to mimic bite-like skin injuries on a porpoise carcass. Subsequently, the artificial skin injuries were swabbed, along with the gum of the seal used for inflicting them (positive controls). Total DNA was extracted from the swabs and was used to retrieve a fragment of mitochondrial DNA by PCR. Primers were designed to amplify a specific stretch of mitochondrial DNA known to differ between grey seals and porpoises. The amplicon targeted was successfully amplified from the positive control and from two of the stranded porpoises, and grey seal-specific mitochondrial DNA was retrieved from all those samples. We conclude that (1) it is possible to detect grey seal DNA from dead porpoises even after several days in seawater and (2) bite-like skin lesions found on dead porpoises definitively result from grey seals attacks. The attacks are most likely linked with predation although, in a number of cases, scavenging and aggressive behaviour cannot be excluded. PMID:25461599

  10. Bite injuries of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) on harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena).

    PubMed

    Jauniaux, Thierry; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie; Loos, Pauline; Bourgain, Jean-Luc; Bouveroux, Thibaut; Coignoul, Freddy; Haelters, Jan; Karpouzopoulos, Jacky; Pezeril, Sylvain; Desmecht, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Bite-like skin lesions on harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) have been suspected to be caused by grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), and a few field observations have been reported. Bite-like skin lesions observed on stranded animals were characterized by two main components: large flaps of loose or missing skin and blubber with frayed edges and puncture lesions. Definitive demonstration of predation by a grey seal was not reported so far in those stranded animals. In this study, five stranded porpoises with bite-like skin lesions were swabbed for genetic investigations. In addition, the head of a recently dead grey seal was used to mimic bite-like skin injuries on a porpoise carcass. Subsequently, the artificial skin injuries were swabbed, along with the gum of the seal used for inflicting them (positive controls). Total DNA was extracted from the swabs and was used to retrieve a fragment of mitochondrial DNA by PCR. Primers were designed to amplify a specific stretch of mitochondrial DNA known to differ between grey seals and porpoises. The amplicon targeted was successfully amplified from the positive control and from two of the stranded porpoises, and grey seal-specific mitochondrial DNA was retrieved from all those samples. We conclude that (1) it is possible to detect grey seal DNA from dead porpoises even after several days in seawater and (2) bite-like skin lesions found on dead porpoises definitively result from grey seals attacks. The attacks are most likely linked with predation although, in a number of cases, scavenging and aggressive behaviour cannot be excluded.

  11. Copy number expansion of the STX17 duplication in melanoma tissue from Grey horses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Greying with age in horses is an autosomal dominant trait, associated with loss of hair pigmentation, melanoma and vitiligo-like depigmentation. We recently identified a 4.6 kb duplication in STX17 to be associated with the phenotype. The aims of this study were to investigate if the duplication in Grey horses shows copy number variation and to exclude that any other polymorphism is uniquely associated with the Grey mutation. Results We found little evidence for copy number expansion of the duplicated sequence in blood DNA from Grey horses. In contrast, clear evidence for copy number expansions was indicated in five out of eight tested melanoma tissues or melanoma cell lines. A tendency of a higher copy number in aggressive tumours was also found. Massively parallel resequencing of the ~350 kb Grey haplotype did not reveal any additional mutations perfectly associated with the phenotype, confirming the duplication as the true causative mutation. We identified three SNP alleles that were present in a subset of Grey haplotypes within the 350 kb region that shows complete linkage disequilibrium with the causative mutation. Thus, these three nucleotide substitutions must have occurred subsequent to the duplication, consistent with our interpretation that the Grey mutation arose more than 2,000 years before present. Conclusions These results suggest that the mutation acts as a melanoma-driving regulatory element. The elucidation of the mechanistic features of the duplication will be of considerable interest for the characterization of these horse melanomas as well as for the field of human melanoma research. PMID:22857264

  12. Whole-brain grey matter density predicts balance stability irrespective of age and protects older adults from falling.

    PubMed

    Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Cheval, Boris; van Ruitenbeek, Peter; Levin, Oron; Renaud, Olivier; Chanal, Julien; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2016-03-01

    Functional and structural imaging studies have demonstrated the involvement of the brain in balance control. Nevertheless, how decisive grey matter density and white matter microstructural organisation are in predicting balance stability, and especially when linked to the effects of ageing, remains unclear. Standing balance was tested on a platform moving at different frequencies and amplitudes in 30 young and 30 older adults, with eyes open and with eyes closed. Centre of pressure variance was used as an indicator of balance instability. The mean density of grey matter and mean white matter microstructural organisation were measured using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging, respectively. Mixed-effects models were built to analyse the extent to which age, grey matter density, and white matter microstructural organisation predicted balance instability. Results showed that both grey matter density and age independently predicted balance instability. These predictions were reinforced when the level of difficulty of the conditions increased. Furthermore, grey matter predicted balance instability beyond age and at least as consistently as age across conditions. In other words, for balance stability, the level of whole-brain grey matter density is at least as decisive as being young or old. Finally, brain grey matter appeared to be protective against falls in older adults as age increased the probability of losing balance in older adults with low, but not moderate or high grey matter density. No such results were observed for white matter microstructural organisation, thereby reinforcing the specificity of our grey matter findings.

  13. Fungicide-Driven Evolution and Molecular Basis of Multidrug Resistance in Field Populations of the Grey Mould Fungus Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Mosbach, Andreas; Walker, Anne-Sophie; Fillinger, Sabine; Mernke, Dennis; Schoonbeek, Henk-Jan; Pradier, Jean-Marc; Leroux, Pierre; De Waard, Maarten A.; Hahn, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The grey mould fungus Botrytis cinerea causes losses of commercially important fruits, vegetables and ornamentals worldwide. Fungicide treatments are effective for disease control, but bear the risk of resistance development. The major resistance mechanism in fungi is target protein modification resulting in reduced drug binding. Multiple drug resistance (MDR) caused by increased efflux activity is common in human pathogenic microbes, but rarely described for plant pathogens. Annual monitoring for fungicide resistance in field isolates from fungicide-treated vineyards in France and Germany revealed a rapidly increasing appearance of B. cinerea field populations with three distinct MDR phenotypes. All MDR strains showed increased fungicide efflux activity and overexpression of efflux transporter genes. Similar to clinical MDR isolates of Candida yeasts that are due to transcription factor mutations, all MDR1 strains were shown to harbor activating mutations in a transcription factor (Mrr1) that controls the gene encoding ABC transporter AtrB. MDR2 strains had undergone a unique rearrangement in the promoter region of the major facilitator superfamily transporter gene mfsM2, induced by insertion of a retrotransposon-derived sequence. MDR2 strains carrying the same rearranged mfsM2 allele have probably migrated from French to German wine-growing regions. The roles of atrB, mrr1 and mfsM2 were proven by the phenotypes of knock-out and overexpression mutants. As confirmed by sexual crosses, combinations of mrr1 and mfsM2 mutations lead to MDR3 strains with higher broad-spectrum resistance. An MDR3 strain was shown in field experiments to be selected against sensitive strains by fungicide treatments. Our data document for the first time the rising prevalence, spread and molecular basis of MDR populations in a major plant pathogen in agricultural environments. These populations will increase the risk of grey mould rot and hamper the effectiveness of current strategies for

  14. Grey zone simulations of the morning convective boundary layer development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstathiou, G. A.; Beare, R. J.; Osborne, S.; Lock, A. P.

    2016-05-01

    Numerical simulations of two cases of morning boundary layer development are conducted to investigate the impact of grid resolution on mean profiles and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) partitioning from the large eddy simulation (LES) to the mesoscale limit. Idealized LES, using the 3-D Smagorinsky scheme, is shown to be capable of reproducing the boundary layer evolution when compared against measurements. However, increasing grid spacing results in the damping of resolved TKE and the production of superadiabatic temperature profiles in the boundary layer. Turbulence initiation is significantly delayed, exhibiting an abrupt onset at intermediate resolutions. Two approaches, the bounding of vertical diffusion coefficient and the blending of the 3-D Smagorinsky with a nonlocal 1D scheme, are used to model subgrid diffusion at grey zone resolutions. Simulations are compared against the coarse-grained fields from the validated LES results for each case. Both methods exhibit particular strengths and weaknesses, indicating the compromise that needs to be made currently in high-resolution numerical weather prediction. The blending scheme is able to reproduce the adiabatic profiles although turbulence is underestimated in favor of the parametrized heat flux, and the spin-up of TKE remains delayed. In contrast, the bounding approach gives an evolution of TKE that follows the coarse-grained LES very well, relying on the resolved motions for the nonlocal heat flux. However, bounding gives unrealistic static instability in the early morning temperature profiles (similar to the 3-D Smagorinsky scheme) because model dynamics are unable to resolve TKE when the boundary layer is too shallow compared to the grid spacing.

  15. Muscle deoxygenation in aerobic and anaerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Nioka, S; Moser, D; Lech, G; Evengelisti, M; Verde, T; Chance, B; Kuno, S

    1998-01-01

    It has been generally accepted that the use of oxygen is a major contributor of ATP synthesis in endurance exercise but not in short sprints. In anaerobic exercise, muscle energy is thought to be initially supported by the PCr-ATP system followed by glycolysis, not through mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. However, in real exercise practice, we do not know how much of this notion is true when an athlete approaches his/her maximal capacity of aerobic and anaerobic exercise, such as during a graded VO2max test. This study investigates the use of oxygen in aerobic and anaerobic exercise by monitoring oxygen concentration of the vastus lateralis muscle at maximum intensity using Near Infra-red Spectroscopy (NIRS). We tested 14 sprinters from the University of Penn track team, whose competitive events are high jump, pole vault, 100 m, 200 m, 400 m, and 800 m. The Wingate anaerobic power test was performed on a cycle ergometer with 10% body weight resistance for 30 seconds. To compare oxygenation during aerobic exercise, a steady-state VO2max test with a cycle ergometer was used with 25 watt increments every 2 min. until exhaustion. Results showed that in the Wingate test, total power reached 774 +/- 86 watt, about 3 times greater than that in the VO2max test (270 +/- 43 watt). In the Wingate test, the deoxygenation reached approximately 80% of the established maximum value, while in the VO2max test resulted in approximately 36% deoxygenation. There was no delay in onset of deoxygenation in the Wingate test, while in the VO2max test, deoxygenation did not occur under low intensity work. The results indicate that oxygen was used from the beginning of sprint test, suggesting that the mitochondrial ATP synthesis was triggered after a surprisingly brief exercise duration. One explanation is that prior warm-up (unloaded exercise) was enough to provide the mitochondrial substrates; ADP and Pi to activate oxidative phosphorylation by the type II a and type I myocytes. In

  16. Physicochemical treatments of anionic surfactants wastewater: Effect on aerobic biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Aloui, Fathi; Kchaou, Sonia; Sayadi, Sami

    2009-05-15

    The effect of different physicochemical treatments on the aerobic biodegradability of an industrial wastewater resulting from a cosmetic industry has been investigated. This industrial wastewater contains 11423 and 3148mgL(-1) of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and anionic surfactants, respectively. The concentration of COD and anionic surfactants were followed throughout the diverse physicochemical treatments and biodegradation experiments. Different pretreatments of this industrial wastewater using chemical flocculation process with lime and aluminium sulphate (alum), and also advanced oxidation process (electro-coagulation (Fe and Al) and electro-Fenton) led to important COD and anionic surfactants removals. The best results were obtained using electro-Fenton process, exceeding 98 and 80% of anionic surfactants and COD removals, respectively. The biological treatment by an isolated strain Citrobacter braakii of the surfactant wastewater, as well as the pretreated wastewater by the various physicochemical processes used in this study showed that the best results were obtained with electro-Fenton pretreated wastewater. The characterization of the treated surfactant wastewater by the integrated process (electro-coagulation or electro-Fenton)-biological showed that it respects Tunisian discharge standards.

  17. Hindlimb muscle fibre size and glycogen stores in bank voles with increased aerobic exercise metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jaromin, Ewa; Wyszkowska, Julia; Labecka, Anna Maria; Sadowska, Edyta Teresa; Koteja, Paweł

    2016-02-01

    To test hypotheses concerning physiological factors limiting the rate of aerobic exercise metabolism, we used a unique experimental evolution model: lines of bank voles selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism (A) and unselected, control lines (C). We investigated putative adaptations that result in the increased performance of the hindlimb muscle (gastrocnemius joined with plantaris). The body mass-adjusted muscle mass was higher in A-lines (0.093 g) than in C-lines (0.083 g; P=0.01). However, selection did not affect mean muscle fibre cross-sectional area (P=0.34) or glycogen content assessed with a histochemical periodic acid-Schiff reaction (PAS; P=0.82). The results suggest that the increased aerobic performance is achieved by an increase of total muscle mass, without major qualitative changes in the muscle fibre architecture. However, such a conclusion should be treated with caution, because other modifications, such as increased density of capillaries or mitochondria, could occur.

  18. Impact of early fructose intake on metabolic profile and aerobic capacity of rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome is a disease that today affects millions of people around the world. Therefore, it is of great interest to implement more effective procedures for preventing and treating this disease. In search of a suitable experimental model to study the role of exercise in prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome, this study examined the metabolic profile and the aerobic capacity of rats kept early in life on a fructose-rich diet, a substrate that has been associated with metabolic syndrome. Methods We used adult female Wistar rats fed during pregnancy and lactation with two diets: balanced or fructose-rich 60%. During breastfeeding, the pups were distributed in small (4/mother) or adequate (8/mother) litters. At 90 days of age, they were analyzed with respect to: glucose tolerance, peripheral insulin sensitivity, aerobic capacity and serum glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol concentrations as well as measures of glycogen synthesis and glucose oxidation by the soleus muscle. Results It was found that the fructose rich diet led the animals to insulin resistance. The fructose fed rats kept in small litters also showed dyslipidemia, with increased serum concentrations of total cholesterol and triglycerides. Conclusion Neither the aerobic capacity nor the glucose oxidation rates by the skeletal muscle were altered by fructose-rich diet, indicating that the animal model evaluated is potentially interesting for the study of the role of exercise in metabolic syndrome. PMID:21223589

  19. Aerobic sludge granulation in a full-scale sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Ding, Li-Bin; Cai, Ang; Huang, Guo-Xian; Horn, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic granulation of activated sludge was successfully achieved in a full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with 50,000 m(3) d(-1) for treating a town's wastewater. After operation for 337 days, in this full-scale SBR, aerobic granules with an average SVI30 of 47.1 mL g(-1), diameter of 0.5 mm, and settling velocity of 42 m h(-1) were obtained. Compared to an anaerobic/oxic plug flow (A/O) reactor and an oxidation ditch (OD) being operated in this wastewater treatment plant, the sludge from full-scale SBR has more compact structure and excellent settling ability. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis indicated that Flavobacterium sp., uncultured beta proteobacterium, uncultured Aquabacterium sp., and uncultured Leptothrix sp. were just dominant in SBR, whereas uncultured bacteroidetes were only found in A/O and OD. Three kinds of sludge had a high content of protein in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis revealed that metal ions and some inorganics from raw wastewater precipitated in sludge acted as core to enhance granulation. Raw wastewater characteristics had a positive effect on the granule formation, but the SBR mode operating with periodic feast-famine, shorter settling time, and no return sludge pump played a crucial role in aerobic sludge granulation.

  20. Chidamide Inhibits Aerobic Metabolism to Induce Pancreatic Cancer Cell Growth Arrest by Promoting Mcl-1 Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanbing; Kuai, Qiyuan; Li, Changlan; Wang, Yu; Jiang, Xingwei; Wang, Xuanlin; Li, Weijing; He, Min; Ren, Suping; Yu, Qun

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a fatal malignancy worldwide and urgently requires valid therapies. Previous research showed that the HDAC inhibitor chidamide is a promising anti-cancer agent in pancreatic cancer cell lines. In this study, we elucidate a probable underlying anti-cancer mechanism of chidamide involving the degradation of Mcl-1. Mcl-1 is frequently upregulated in human cancers, which has been demonstrated to participate in oxidative phosphorylation, in addition to its anti-apoptotic actions as a Bcl-2 family member. The pancreatic cancer cell lines BxPC-3 and PANC-1 were treated with chidamide, resulting in Mcl-1 degradation accompanied by induction of Mcl-1 ubiquitination. Treatment with MG132, a proteasome inhibitor reduced Mcl-1 degradation stimulated by chidamide. Chidamide decreased O2 consumption and ATP production to inhibit aerobic metabolism in both pancreatic cancer cell lines and primary cells, similar to knockdown of Mcl-1, while overexpression of Mcl-1 in pancreatic cancer cells could restore the aerobic metabolism inhibited by chidamide. Furthermore, chidamide treatment or Mcl-1 knockdown significantly induced cell growth arrest in pancreatic cancer cell lines and primary cells, and Mcl-1 overexpression could reduce this cell growth inhibition. In conclusion, our results suggest that chidamide promotes Mcl-1 degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, suppressing the maintenance of mitochondrial aerobic respiration by Mcl-1, and resulting in inhibition of pancreatic cancer cell proliferation. Our work supports the claim that chidamide has therapeutic potential for pancreatic cancer treatment. PMID:27875574

  1. Aerobic Sludge Granulation in a Full-Scale Sequencing Batch Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Ding, Li-Bin; Cai, Ang; Huang, Guo-Xian; Horn, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic granulation of activated sludge was successfully achieved in a full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with 50,000 m3 d−1 for treating a town's wastewater. After operation for 337 days, in this full-scale SBR, aerobic granules with an average SVI30 of 47.1 mL g−1, diameter of 0.5 mm, and settling velocity of 42 m h−1 were obtained. Compared to an anaerobic/oxic plug flow (A/O) reactor and an oxidation ditch (OD) being operated in this wastewater treatment plant, the sludge from full-scale SBR has more compact structure and excellent settling ability. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis indicated that Flavobacterium sp., uncultured beta proteobacterium, uncultured Aquabacterium sp., and uncultured Leptothrix sp. were just dominant in SBR, whereas uncultured bacteroidetes were only found in A/O and OD. Three kinds of sludge had a high content of protein in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis revealed that metal ions and some inorganics from raw wastewater precipitated in sludge acted as core to enhance granulation. Raw wastewater characteristics had a positive effect on the granule formation, but the SBR mode operating with periodic feast-famine, shorter settling time, and no return sludge pump played a crucial role in aerobic sludge granulation. PMID:24822190

  2. Evaluation of a combined anaerobic and aerobic system for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater.

    PubMed

    López-López, A; Vallejo-Rodríguez, R; Méndez-Romero, D C

    2010-03-01

    A laboratory scale anaerobic/aerobic (An/Ar) system, comprising an anaerobic filter (AF) coupled to an aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR), was developed to treat wastewater from a slaughterhouse. The AF operated with organic loadings (OL) from 3.7 to 16.5 kg m(-3) d(-1) and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) ranging from 16 to 72 h. The efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was between 50 and 81% and was shown to be related inversely to the value of the OL. The production rate of methane was in the region of 411 mL per g of COD removed. On the other hand, the degradation of organic matter (OM) by an aerobic pathway in the SBR followed first-order kinetics with regard to OM concentration; 85% of the remaining OM from the AF was eliminated within 6 h of aeration, and over 95% of total OM was eliminated as COD within 9 h. The optimal treatment conditions in this system were found at OL = 11.0 kg m-3 d(-1) and HRT = 24 h in the AF, whereas the SBR was most efficient at 9 h of aeration.

  3. Effectiveness of the modified progressive aerobic capacity endurance run test for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who are obese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the progressive aerobic capacity endurance run (PACER) and a newly designed modified PACER (MPACER) for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who are obese. Thirty-nine (aged 7-12 years) children who were considered obese (= 95 ...

  4. Effect of chlorate, molybdate, and shikimic acid on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in aerobic and anaerobic cultures.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Christy E; Beier, Ross C; Hume, Michael E; Horrocks, Shane M; Casey, Thomas A; Caton, Joel S; Nisbet, David J; Smith, David J; Krueger, Nathan A; Anderson, Robin C

    2010-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine factors that affect sensitivity of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to sodium chlorate (5mM). In our first experiment, cultures grown without chlorate grew more rapidly than those with chlorate. An extended lag before logarithmic growth was observed in anaerobic but not aerobic cultures containing chlorate. Chlorate inhibition of growth during aerobic culture began later than that observed in anaerobic cultures but persisted once inhibition was apparent. Conversely, anaerobic cultures appeared to adapt to chlorate after approximately 10h of incubation, exhibiting rapid compensatory growth. In anaerobic chlorate-containing cultures, 20% of total viable counts were resistant to chlorate by 6h and had propagated to 100% resistance (>10(9)CFU mL(-1)) by 24h. In the aerobic chlorate-containing cultures, 12.9% of colonies had detectable resistance to chlorate by 6h, but only 1% retained detectable resistance at 24h, likely because these cultures had opportunity to respire on oxygen and were thus not enriched via the selective pressure of chlorate. In another study, treatment with shikimic acid (0.34 mM), molybdate (1mM) or their combination had little effect on aerobic or anaerobic growth of Salmonella in the absence of added chlorate. As observed in our earlier study, chlorate resistance was not detected in any cultures without added chlorate. Chlorate resistant Salmonella were recovered at equivalent numbers regardless of treatment after 8h of aerobic or anaerobic culture with added chlorate; however, by 24h incubation chlorate sensitivity was completely restored to aerobic but not anaerobic cultures treated with shikimic acid or molybdate but not their combination. Results indicate that anaerobic adaptation of S. Typhimurium to sodium chlorate during pure culture is likely due to the selective propagation of low numbers of cells exhibiting spontaneous resistance to chlorate and this resistance is not reversible by

  5. Yellowing and bleaching of grey hair caused by photo and thermal degradation.

    PubMed

    Richena, M; Silveira, M; Rezende, C A; Joekes, I

    2014-09-05

    Yellowing is an undesirable phenomenon that is common in people with white and grey hair. Because white hair has no melanin, the pigment responsible for hair colour, the effects of photodegradation are more visible in this type of hair. The origin of yellowing and its relation to photodegradation processes are not properly established, and many questions remain open in this field. In this work, the photodegradation of grey hair was investigated as a function of the wavelength of incident radiation, and its ultrastructure was determined, always comparing the results obtained for the white and black fibres present in grey hair with the results of white wool. The results presented herein indicate that the photobehaviour of grey hair irradiated with a mercury lamp or with solar radiation is dependent on the wavelength range of the incident radiation and on the initial shade of yellow in the sample. Two types of grey hair were used: (1) blended grey hair (more yellow) and (2) grey hair from a single-donor (less yellow). After exposure to a full-spectrum mercury lamp for 200 h, the blended white hair turned less yellow (the yellow-blue difference, Db(*) becomes negative, Db(*)=-6), whereas the white hair from the single-donor turned slightly yellower (Db(*)=2). In contrast, VIS+IR irradiation resulted in bleaching in both types of hair, whereas a thermal treatment (at 81 °C) caused yellowing of both types of hair, resulting in a Db(*)=3 for blended white hair and Db(*)=9 for single-donor hair. The identity of the yellow chromophores was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results obtained with this technique were contradictory, however, and it was not possible to obtain a simple correlation between the sample shade of yellow and the absorption spectra. In addition, the results are discussed in terms of the morphology differences between the pigmented and non-pigmented parts of grey hair, the yellowing and bleaching effects of grey hair, and the occurrence of dark

  6. Right hemisphere grey matter structure and language outcomes in chronic left hemisphere stroke.

    PubMed

    Xing, Shihui; Lacey, Elizabeth H; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M; Jiang, Xiong; Harris-Love, Michelle L; Zeng, Jinsheng; Turkeltaub, Peter E

    2016-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying recovery of language after left hemisphere stroke remain elusive. Although older evidence suggested that right hemisphere language homologues compensate for damage in left hemisphere language areas, the current prevailing theory suggests that right hemisphere engagement is ineffective or even maladaptive. Using a novel combination of support vector regression-based lesion-symptom mapping and voxel-based morphometry, we aimed to determine whether local grey matter volume in the right hemisphere independently contributes to aphasia outcomes after chronic left hemisphere stroke. Thirty-two left hemisphere stroke survivors with aphasia underwent language assessment with the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised and tests of other cognitive domains. High-resolution T1-weighted images were obtained in aphasia patients and 30 demographically matched healthy controls. Support vector regression-based multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to identify critical language areas in the left hemisphere and then to quantify each stroke survivor's lesion burden in these areas. After controlling for these direct effects of the stroke on language, voxel-based morphometry was then used to determine whether local grey matter volumes in the right hemisphere explained additional variance in language outcomes. In brain areas in which grey matter volumes related to language outcomes, we then compared grey matter volumes in patients and healthy controls to assess post-stroke plasticity. Lesion-symptom mapping showed that specific left hemisphere regions related to different language abilities. After controlling for lesion burden in these areas, lesion size, and demographic factors, grey matter volumes in parts of the right temporoparietal cortex positively related to spontaneous speech, naming, and repetition scores. Examining whether domain general cognitive functions might explain these relationships, partial correlations demonstrated that grey matter

  7. Right hemisphere grey matter structure and language outcomes in chronic left hemisphere stroke.

    PubMed

    Xing, Shihui; Lacey, Elizabeth H; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M; Jiang, Xiong; Harris-Love, Michelle L; Zeng, Jinsheng; Turkeltaub, Peter E

    2015-10-31

    The neural mechanisms underlying recovery of language after left hemisphere stroke remain elusive. Although older evidence suggested that right hemisphere language homologues compensate for damage in left hemisphere language areas, the current prevailing theory suggests that right hemisphere engagement is ineffective or even maladaptive. Using a novel combination of support vector regression-based lesion-symptom mapping and voxel-based morphometry, we aimed to determine whether local grey matter volume in the right hemisphere independently contributes to aphasia outcomes after chronic left hemisphere stroke. Thirty-two left hemisphere stroke survivors with aphasia underwent language assessment with the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised and tests of other cognitive domains. High-resolution T1-weighted images were obtained in aphasia patients and 30 demographically matched healthy controls. Support vector regression-based multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to identify critical language areas in the left hemisphere and then to quantify each stroke survivor's lesion burden in these areas. After controlling for these direct effects of the stroke on language, voxel-based morphometry was then used to determine whether local grey matter volumes in the right hemisphere explained additional variance in language outcomes. In brain areas in which grey matter volumes related to language outcomes, we then compared grey matter volumes in patients and healthy controls to assess post-stroke plasticity. Lesion-symptom mapping showed that specific left hemisphere regions related to different language abilities. After controlling for lesion burden in these areas, lesion size, and demographic factors, grey matter volumes in parts of the right temporoparietal cortex positively related to spontaneous speech, naming, and repetition scores. Examining whether domain general cognitive functions might explain these relationships, partial correlations demonstrated that grey matter

  8. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Wolcott, Abraham; Schiros, Theanne; Trusheim, Matthew E; Chen, Edward H; Nordlund, Dennis; Diaz, Rosa E; Gaathon, Ophir; Englund, Dirk; Owen, Jonathan S

    2014-11-20

    We investigate the aerobic oxidation of high-pressure, high-temperature nanodiamonds (5-50 nm dimensions) using a combination of carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption, wavelength-dependent X-ray photoelectron, and vibrational spectroscopies. Oxidation at 575 °C for 2 h eliminates graphitic carbon contamination (>98%) and produces nanocrystals with hydroxyl functionalized surfaces as well as a minor component (<5%) of carboxylic anhydrides. The low graphitic carbon content and the high crystallinity of HPHT are evident from Raman spectra acquired using visible wavelength excitation (λexcit = 633 nm) as well as carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectra where the signature of a core-hole exciton is observed. Both spectroscopic features are similar to those of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond but differ significantly from the spectra of detonation nanodiamond. The importance of these findings to the functionalization of nanodiamond surfaces for biological labeling applications is discussed.

  9. Magnesium carbonate precipitate strengthened aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Lee, Duu-Jong; Chen, Yu-You

    2015-05-01

    Aerobic granules were precipitated internally with magnesium carbonate to enhance their structural stability under shear. The strengthened granules were tested in continuous-flow reactors for 220 days at organic loadings of 6-39 kg/m(3)/day, hydraulic retention times of 0.44-19 h, and temperatures of 10 or 28°C. The carbonate salt had markedly improved the granule strength without significant changes in granule morphology or microbial communities (with persistent strains Streptomyces sp., Rhizobium sp., Brevundimonas sp., and Nitratireductor sp.), or sacrifice in biological activity for organic degradation. MgCO3 precipitated granules could be used in continuous-flow reactor for wastewater treatment at low cost and with easy processing efforts.

  10. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the aerobic oxidation of high-pressure, high-temperature nanodiamonds (5–50 nm dimensions) using a combination of carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption, wavelength-dependent X-ray photoelectron, and vibrational spectroscopies. Oxidation at 575 °C for 2 h eliminates graphitic carbon contamination (>98%) and produces nanocrystals with hydroxyl functionalized surfaces as well as a minor component (<5%) of carboxylic anhydrides. The low graphitic carbon content and the high crystallinity of HPHT are evident from Raman spectra acquired using visible wavelength excitation (λexcit = 633 nm) as well as carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectra where the signature of a core–hole exciton is observed. Both spectroscopic features are similar to those of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond but differ significantly from the spectra of detonation nanodiamond. The importance of these findings to the functionalization of nanodiamond surfaces for biological labeling applications is discussed. PMID:25436035

  11. Brain aerobic glycolysis and motor adaptation learning

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Benjamin J.; Vaishnavi, Sanjeev Neil; Vlassenko, Andrei G.; Shimony, Joshua S.; Rutlin, Jerrel; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2016-01-01

    Ten percent to 15% of glucose used by the brain is metabolized nonoxidatively despite adequate tissue oxygenation, a process termed aerobic glycolysis (AG). Because of the known role of glycolysis in biosynthesis, we tested whether learning-induced synaptic plasticity would lead to regionally appropriate, learning-dependent changes in AG. Functional MRI (fMRI) before, during, and after performance of a visual–motor adaptation task demonstrated that left Brodmann area 44 (BA44) played a key role in adaptation, with learning-related changes to activity during the task and altered resting-state, functional connectivity after the task. PET scans before and after task performance indicated a sustained increase in AG in left BA 44 accompanied by decreased oxygen consumption. Intersubject variability in behavioral adaptation rate correlated strongly with changes in AG in this region, as well as functional connectivity, which is consistent with a role for AG in synaptic plasticity. PMID:27217563

  12. Biology of Moderately Halophilic Aerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ventosa, Antonio; Nieto, Joaquín J.; Oren, Aharon

    1998-01-01

    The moderately halophilic heterotrophic aerobic bacteria form a diverse group of microorganisms. The property of halophilism is widespread within the bacterial domain. Bacterial halophiles are abundant in environments such as salt lakes, saline soils, and salted food products. Most species keep their intracellular ionic concentrations at low levels while synthesizing or accumulating organic solutes to provide osmotic equilibrium of the cytoplasm with the surrounding medium. Complex mechanisms of adjustment of the intracellular environments and the properties of the cytoplasmic membrane enable rapid adaptation to changes in the salt concentration of the environment. Approaches to the study of genetic processes have recently been developed for several moderate halophiles, opening the way toward an understanding of haloadaptation at the molecular level. The new information obtained is also expected to contribute to the development of novel biotechnological uses for these organisms. PMID:9618450

  13. Aerobic Microbial Degradation of Glucoisosaccharinic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Strand, S. E.; Dykes, J.; Chiang, V.

    1984-01-01

    α-Glucoisosaccharinic acid (GISA), a major by-product of kraft paper manufacture, was synthesized from lactose and used as the carbon source for microbial media. Ten strains of aerobic bacteria capable of growth on GISA were isolated from kraft pulp mill environments. The highest growth yields were obtained with Ancylobacter spp. at pH 7.2 to 9.5. GISA was completely degraded by cultures of an Ancylobacter isolate. Ancylobacter cell suspensions consumed oxygen and produced carbon dioxide in response to GISA addition. A total of 22 laboratory strains of bacteria were tested, and none was capable of growth on GISA. GISA-degrading isolates were not found in forest soils. Images PMID:16346467

  14. Comparative sensitivity of harbour and grey seals to several environmental contaminants using in vitro exposure.

    PubMed

    Dufresne, M M; Frouin, H; Pillet, S; Lesage, V; De Guise, S; Fournier, M

    2010-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)), mercury chloride (HgCl(2)), methylmercury chloride (CH(3)HgCl), and PCBs on lymphocyte proliferation in phocids. PBMCs isolated from harbour and grey seals were exposed in vitro to varying concentrations of contaminants. A reduction of viability occurred when cells were exposed to 10(-4)M HgCl(2) or CH(3)HgCl or to 50ppm of Aroclor 1254. In both grey and harbour seals, T-lymphocyte proliferation was suppressed when their cells were incubated with 5 x 10(-5)M CdCl(2) or 10(-4)M HgCl(2). An inhibition of proliferation occurred with CH(3)HgCl from 10(-6)M in grey seals and from 10(-5)M in harbour seals. In grey seals, Aroclor 1254 reduced lymphocyte proliferation at 15ppm. In both harbour and grey seals, CH(3)HgCl was ten times more immunotoxic that HgCl(2). From IC(50), chemicals were ranked in terms of toxicity as followed: CH(3)HgCl>CdCl(2)>HgCl(2)>Aroclor 1254.

  15. Relative Roles of Grey Squirrels, Supplementary Feeding, and Habitat in Shaping Urban Bird Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Bonnington, Colin; Gaston, Kevin J.; Evans, Karl L.

    2014-01-01

    Non-native species are frequently considered to influence urban assemblages. The grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis is one such species that is widespread in the UK and is starting to spread across Europe; it predates birds’ nests and can compete with birds for supplementary food. Using distance sampling across the urbanisation intensity gradient in Sheffield (UK) we test whether urban grey squirrels influence avian species richness and density through nest predation and competition for supplementary food sources. We also assess how urban bird assemblages respond to supplementary feeding. We find that grey squirrels slightly reduced the abundance of breeding bird species most sensitive to squirrel nest predation by reducing the beneficial impact of woodland cover. There was no evidence that grey squirrel presence altered relationships between supplementary feeding and avian assemblage structure. This may be because, somewhat surprisingly, supplementary feeding was not associated with the richness or density of wintering bird assemblages. These associations were positive during the summer, supporting advocacy to feed birds during the breeding season and not just winter, but explanatory capacity was limited. The amount of green space and its quality, assessed as canopy cover, had a stronger influence on avian species richness and population size than the presence of grey squirrels and supplementary feeding stations. Urban bird populations are thus more likely to benefit from investment in improving the availability of high quality habitats than controlling squirrel populations or increased investment in supplementary feeding. PMID:25338062

  16. Relative roles of grey squirrels, supplementary feeding, and habitat in shaping urban bird assemblages.

    PubMed

    Bonnington, Colin; Gaston, Kevin J; Evans, Karl L

    2014-01-01

    Non-native species are frequently considered to influence urban assemblages. The grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis is one such species that is widespread in the UK and is starting to spread across Europe; it predates birds' nests and can compete with birds for supplementary food. Using distance sampling across the urbanisation intensity gradient in Sheffield (UK) we test whether urban grey squirrels influence avian species richness and density through nest predation and competition for supplementary food sources. We also assess how urban bird assemblages respond to supplementary feeding. We find that grey squirrels slightly reduced the abundance of breeding bird species most sensitive to squirrel nest predation by reducing the beneficial impact of woodland cover. There was no evidence that grey squirrel presence altered relationships between supplementary feeding and avian assemblage structure. This may be because, somewhat surprisingly, supplementary feeding was not associated with the richness or density of wintering bird assemblages. These associations were positive during the summer, supporting advocacy to feed birds during the breeding season and not just winter, but explanatory capacity was limited. The amount of green space and its quality, assessed as canopy cover, had a stronger influence on avian species richness and population size than the presence of grey squirrels and supplementary feeding stations. Urban bird populations are thus more likely to benefit from investment in improving the availability of high quality habitats than controlling squirrel populations or increased investment in supplementary feeding.

  17. Principle Study of Head Meridian Acupoint Massage to Stress Release via Grey Data Model Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ya-Ting

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the scientific study of the effectiveness and action principle of head meridian acupoint massage by applying the grey data model analysis approach. First, the head massage procedure for massaging the important head meridian acupuncture points including Taiyang, Fengfu, Tianzhu, Fengqi, and Jianjing is formulated in a standard manner. Second, the status of the autonomic nervous system of each subject is evaluated by using the heart rate variability analyzer before and after the head massage following four weeks. Afterward, the physiological factors of autonomic nerves are quantitatively analyzed by using the grey data modeling theory. The grey data analysis can point out that the status of autonomic nervous system is greatly improved after the massage. The order change of the grey relationship weighting of physiological factors shows the action principle of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves when performing head massage. In other words, the grey data model is able to distinguish the detailed interaction of the autonomic nervous system and the head meridian acupoint massage. Thus, the stress relaxing effect of massaging head meridian acupoints is proved, which is lacked in literature. The results can be a reference principle for massage health care in practice. PMID:26904144

  18. Grey matter networks in people at increased familial risk for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Tijms, Betty M; Sprooten, Emma; Job, Dominic; Johnstone, Eve C; Owens, David G C; Willshaw, David; Seriès, Peggy; Lawrie, Stephen M

    2015-10-01

    Grey matter brain networks are disrupted in schizophrenia, but it is still unclear at which point during the development of the illness these disruptions arise and whether these can be associated with behavioural predictors of schizophrenia. We investigated if single-subject grey matter networks were disrupted in a sample of people at familial risk of schizophrenia. Single-subject grey matter networks were extracted from structural MRI scans of 144 high risk subjects, 32 recent-onset patients and 36 healthy controls. The following network properties were calculated: size, connectivity density, degree, path length, clustering coefficient, betweenness centrality and small world properties. People at risk of schizophrenia showed decreased path length and clustering in mostly prefrontal and temporal areas. Within the high risk sample, the path length of the posterior cingulate cortex and the betweenness centrality of the left inferior frontal operculum explained 81% of the variance in schizotypal cognitions, which was previously shown to be the strongest behavioural predictor of schizophrenia in the study. In contrast, local grey matter volume measurements explained 48% of variance in schizotypy. The present results suggest that single-subject grey matter networks can quantify behaviourally relevant biological alterations in people at increased risk for schizophrenia before disease onset.

  19. Grey matter changes of the pain matrix in patients with burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sinding, Charlotte; Gransjøen, Anne Mari; Schlumberger, Gina; Grushka, Miriam; Frasnelli, Johannes; Singh, Preet Bano

    2016-04-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by a burning sensation in the mouth, usually in the absence of clinical and laboratory findings. Latest findings indicate that BMS could result from neuropathic trigeminal conditions. While many investigations have focused on the periphery, very few have examined possible central dysfunctions. To highlight changes of the central system of subjects with BMS, we analysed the grey matter concentration in 12 subjects using voxel-based morphometry. Data were compared with a control group (Ct). To better understand the brain mechanisms underlying BMS, the grey matter concentration of patients was also compared with those of dysgeusic patients (Dys). Dysgeusia is another oral dysfunction condition, characterized by a distorted sense of taste and accompanied by a reduced taste function. We found that a major part of the 'pain matrix' presented modifications of the grey matter concentration in subjects with BMS. Six regions out of eight were affected [anterior and posterior cingulate gyrus, lobules of the cerebellum, insula/frontal operculum, inferior temporal area, primary motor cortex, dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex (DLPFC)]. In the anterior cingulate gyrus, the lobules of the cerebellum, the inferior temporal lobe and the DLPFC, pain intensity correlated with grey matter concentration. Dys also presented changes in grey matter concentration but in different areas of the brain. Our results suggest that a deficiency in the control of pain could in part be a cause of BMS and that BMS and dysgeusia conditions are not linked to similar structural changes in the brain.

  20. Principle Study of Head Meridian Acupoint Massage to Stress Release via Grey Data Model Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ya-Ting

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the scientific study of the effectiveness and action principle of head meridian acupoint massage by applying the grey data model analysis approach. First, the head massage procedure for massaging the important head meridian acupuncture points including Taiyang, Fengfu, Tianzhu, Fengqi, and Jianjing is formulated in a standard manner. Second, the status of the autonomic nervous system of each subject is evaluated by using the heart rate variability analyzer before and after the head massage following four weeks. Afterward, the physiological factors of autonomic nerves are quantitatively analyzed by using the grey data modeling theory. The grey data analysis can point out that the status of autonomic nervous system is greatly improved after the massage. The order change of the grey relationship weighting of physiological factors shows the action principle of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves when performing head massage. In other words, the grey data model is able to distinguish the detailed interaction of the autonomic nervous system and the head meridian acupoint massage. Thus, the stress relaxing effect of massaging head meridian acupoints is proved, which is lacked in literature. The results can be a reference principle for massage health care in practice.

  1. Effects of Kettlebell Training on Aerobic Capacity.

    PubMed

    Falatic, J Asher; Plato, Peggy A; Holder, Christopher; Finch, Daryl; Han, Kyungmo; Cisar, Craig J

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the effects of a kettlebell training program on aerobic capacity. Seventeen female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate soccer players (age: 19.7 ± 1.0 years, height: 166.1 ± 6.4 cm, weight: 64.2 ± 8.2 kg) completed a graded exercise test to determine maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max). Participants were assigned to a kettlebell intervention group (KB) (n = 9) or a circuit weight-training (CWT) control group (n = 8). Participants in the KB group completed a kettlebell snatch test to determine individual snatch repetitions. Both groups trained 3 days a week for 4 weeks in addition to their off-season strength and conditioning program. The KB group performed the 15:15 MVO2 protocol (20 minutes of kettlebell snatching with 15 seconds of work and rest intervals). The CWT group performed multiple free-weight and dynamic body-weight exercises as part of a continuous circuit program for 20 minutes. The 15:15 MVO2 protocol significantly increased V̇O2max in the KB group. The average increase was 2.3 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, or approximately a 6% gain. There was no significant change in V̇O2max in the CWT control group. Thus, the 4-week 15:15 MVO2 kettlebell protocol, using high-intensity kettlebell snatches, significantly improved aerobic capacity in female intercollegiate soccer players and could be used as an alternative mode to maintain or improve cardiovascular conditioning.

  2. Treating Sludges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josephson, Julian

    1978-01-01

    Discussed are some of the ways to handle municipal and industrial wastewater treatment sludge presented at the 1978 American Chemical Society meeting. Suggestions include removing toxic materials, recovering metals, and disposing treated sewage sludge onto farm land. Arguments for and against land use are also given. (MA)

  3. Treating Syphilis

    PubMed Central

    Colby, W. David

    1992-01-01

    Background information on treating syphilis indicates that some currently recommended approaches to therapy are not optimal. There is no perfect drug schedule available, but penicillin remains the drug of choice. The author's recommendations for treatment and follow up are presented. PMID:21221354

  4. Cerebellar grey-matter deficits, cannabis use and first-episode schizophrenia in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Martin; Rasser, Paul E; Peck, Greg; Carr, Vaughan J; Ward, Philip B; Thompson, Paul M; Johnston, Patrick; Baker, Amanda; Schall, Ulrich

    2012-04-01

    Epidemiological data link adolescent cannabis use to psychosis and schizophrenia, but its contribution to schizophrenia neuropathology remains controversial. First-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients show regional cerebral grey- and white-matter changes as well as a distinct pattern of regional grey-matter loss in the vermis of the cerebellum. The cerebellum possesses a high density of cannabinoid type 1 receptors involved in the neuronal diversification of the developing brain. Cannabis abuse may interfere with this process during adolescent brain maturation leading to 'schizophrenia-like' cerebellar pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging and cortical pattern matching techniques were used to investigate cerebellar grey and white matter in FES patients with and without a history of cannabis use and non-psychiatric cannabis users. In the latter group we found lifetime dose-dependent regional reduction of grey matter in the right cerebellar lobules and a tendency for more profound grey-matter reduction in lobule III with younger age at onset of cannabis use. The overall regional grey-matter differences in cannabis users were within the normal variability of grey-matter distribution. By contrast, FES subjects had lower total cerebellar grey-matter:total cerebellar volume ratio and marked grey-matter loss in the vermis, pedunculi, flocculi and lobules compared to pair-wise matched healthy control subjects. This pattern and degree of grey-matter loss did not differ from age-matched FES subjects with comorbid cannabis use. Our findings indicate small dose-dependent effects of juvenile cannabis use on cerebellar neuropathology but no evidence of an additional effect of cannabis use on FES cerebellar grey-matter pathology.

  5. High-order solution methods for grey discrete ordinates thermal radiative transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Maginot, Peter G.; Ragusa, Jean C.; Morel, Jim E.

    2016-09-29

    This paper presents a solution methodology for solving the grey radiative transfer equations that is both spatially and temporally more accurate than the canonical radiative transfer solution technique of linear discontinuous finite element discretization in space with implicit Euler integration in time. We solve the grey radiative transfer equations by fully converging the nonlinear temperature dependence of the material specific heat, material opacities, and Planck function. The grey radiative transfer equations are discretized in space using arbitrary-order self-lumping discontinuous finite elements and integrated in time with arbitrary-order diagonally implicit Runge–Kutta time integration techniques. Iterative convergence of the radiation equation is accelerated using a modified interior penalty diffusion operator to precondition the full discrete ordinates transport operator.

  6. Gammaherpesvirus infection in a free-ranging eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus).

    PubMed

    Wilcox, R S; Vaz, P; Ficorilli, N P; Whiteley, P L; Wilks, C R; Devlin, J M

    2011-01-01

    A gammaherpesvirus was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in ocular, nasal and oropharyngeal swab samples collected from an adult free-ranging male eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) with clinical signs of severe respiratory disease. This is the first time a gammaherpesvirus has been detected in a free-ranging macropod in Australia. The nucleotide sequence of a conserved region of the DNA polymerase gene of the detected virus showed a high degree of identity to a gammaherpesvirus recently detected in a zoological collection of eastern grey kangaroos in North America. The detection of this gammaherpesvirus in a free-ranging, native eastern grey kangaroo provides evidence that this species is a natural host.

  7. Grey situation group decision-making method based on prospect theory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Fang, Zhigeng; Liu, Xiaqing

    2014-01-01

    This paper puts forward a grey situation group decision-making method on the basis of prospect theory, in view of the grey situation group decision-making problems that decisions are often made by multiple decision experts and those experts have risk preferences. The method takes the positive and negative ideal situation distance as reference points, defines positive and negative prospect value function, and introduces decision experts' risk preference into grey situation decision-making to make the final decision be more in line with decision experts' psychological behavior. Based on TOPSIS method, this paper determines the weight of each decision expert, sets up comprehensive prospect value matrix for decision experts' evaluation, and finally determines the optimal situation. At last, this paper verifies the effectiveness and feasibility of the method by means of a specific example.

  8. Influence of landscape features on the location of grey heron Ardea cinerea colonies in Poland.

    PubMed

    Manikowska-Ślepowrońska, Brygida; Lazarus, Magdalena; Żółkoś, Katarzyna; Zbyryt, Adam; Kitowski, Ignacy; Jakubas, Dariusz

    We analysed hydrographic and habitat factors influencing the location of 207 colonies of the grey heron Ardea cinerea in Poland. We compared areas of particular habitats in three buffers around colonies (0-1, 0-10, 0-20km) among eight regions differing in their proportions of studied habitats. We found the highest inter-region dissimilarities in areas covered by water bodies (all scales) and pastures (0-1km). We recognized some indicator habitats characteristic of the majority (water bodies, pastures) or of some (seacoast, inland marshes, urbanized zone) regions. The habitat selectivity index showed that grey herons in buffer 0-1km preferred pastures and water bodies in seven regions and rivers in one subprovince. In buffer 0-10km, forests and urban zones were preferred in seven and five subprovinces, respectively. Our study revealed that both aquatic and non-aquatic habitats are important for the distribution of the grey heron colonies in Poland.

  9. Attenuation of brain grey matter volume in brachial plexus injury patients.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yechen; Liu, Hanqiu; Hua, Xuyun; Xu, Jian-Guang; Gu, Yu-Dong; Shen, Yundong

    2016-01-01

    Brachial plexus injury (BPI) causes functional changes in the brain, but the structural changes resulting from BPI remain unknown. In this study, we compared grey matter volume between nine BPI patients and ten healthy controls by means of voxel-based morphometry. This was the first study of cortical morphology in BPI. We found that brain regions including the cerebellum, anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral inferior, medial, superior frontal lobe, and bilateral insula had less grey matter in BPI patients. Most of the affected brain regions of BPI patients are closely related to motor function. We speculate that the loss of grey matter in multiple regions might be the neural basis of the difficulties in the motor rehabilitation of BPI patients. The mapping result might provide new target regions for interventions of motor rehabilitation.

  10. High-order solution methods for grey discrete ordinates thermal radiative transfer

    DOE PAGES

    Maginot, Peter G.; Ragusa, Jean C.; Morel, Jim E.

    2016-09-29

    This paper presents a solution methodology for solving the grey radiative transfer equations that is both spatially and temporally more accurate than the canonical radiative transfer solution technique of linear discontinuous finite element discretization in space with implicit Euler integration in time. We solve the grey radiative transfer equations by fully converging the nonlinear temperature dependence of the material specific heat, material opacities, and Planck function. The grey radiative transfer equations are discretized in space using arbitrary-order self-lumping discontinuous finite elements and integrated in time with arbitrary-order diagonally implicit Runge–Kutta time integration techniques. Iterative convergence of the radiation equation ismore » accelerated using a modified interior penalty diffusion operator to precondition the full discrete ordinates transport operator.« less

  11. Development of Aerobic Fitness in Young Team Sport Athletes.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Craig B; Gill, Nicholas D; Kinugasa, Taisuke; Kilding, Andrew E

    2015-07-01

    The importance of a high level of aerobic fitness for team sport players is well known. Previous research suggests that aerobic fitness can be effectively increased in adults using traditional aerobic conditioning methods, including high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training, or more recent game-based conditioning that involves movement and skill-specific tasks, e.g. small-sided games. However, aerobic fitness training for youth team sport players has received limited attention and is likely to differ from that for adults due to changes in maturation. Given young athletes experience different rates of maturation and technical skill development, the most appropriate aerobic fitness training modes and loading parameters are likely to be specific to the developmental stage of a player. Therefore, we analysed studies that investigated exercise protocols to enhance aerobic fitness in young athletes, relative to growth and maturation, to determine current best practice and limitations. Findings were subsequently used to guide an evidence-based model for aerobic fitness development. During the sampling stage (exploration of multiple sports), regular participation in moderate-intensity aerobic fitness training, integrated into sport-specific drills, activities and skill-based games, is recommended. During the specialisation stage (increased commitment to a chosen sport), high-intensity small-sided games should be prioritised to provide the simultaneous development of aerobic fitness and technical skills. Once players enter the investment stage (pursuit of proficiency in a chosen sport), a combination of small-sided games and high-intensity interval training is recommended.

  12. The genealogy and genetic viability of reintroduced Yellowstone grey wolves.

    PubMed

    Vonholdt, Bridgett M; Stahler, Daniel R; Smith, Douglas W; Earl, Dent A; Pollinger, John P; Wayne, Robert K

    2008-01-01

    The recovery of the grey wolf in Yellowstone National Park is an outstanding example of a successful reintroduction. A general question concerning reintroduction is the degree to which genetic variation has been preserved and the specific behavioural mechanisms that enhance the preservation of genetic diversity and reduce inbreeding. We have analysed 200 Yellowstone wolves, including all 31 founders, for variation in 26 microsatellite loci over the 10-year reintroduction period (1995-2004). The population maintained high levels of variation (1995 H(0) = 0.69; 2004 H(0) = 0.73) with low levels of inbreeding (1995 F(IS) = -0.063; 2004 F(IS) = -0.051) and throughout, the population expanded rapidly (N(1995) = 21; N(2004) = 169). Pedigree-based effective population size ratios did not vary appreciably over the duration of population expansion (1995 N(e)/N(g) = 0.29; 2000 N(e)/N(g) = 0.26; 2004 N(e)/N(g) = 0.33). We estimated kinship and found only two of 30 natural breeding pairs showed evidence of being related (average r = -0.026, SE = 0.03). We reconstructed the genealogy of 200 wolves based on genetic and field data and discovered that they avoid inbreeding through a wide variety of behavioural mechanisms including absolute avoidance of breeding with related pack members, male-biased dispersal to packs where they breed with nonrelatives, and female-biased subordinate breeding. We documented a greater diversity of such population assembly patterns in Yellowstone than previously observed in any other natural wolf population. Inbreeding avoidance is nearly absolute despite the high probability of within-pack inbreeding opportunities and extensive interpack kinship ties between adjacent packs. Simulations showed that the Yellowstone population has levels of genetic variation similar to that of a population managed for high variation and low inbreeding, and greater than that expected for random breeding within packs or across the entire breeding pool. Although short

  13. Pseudonocardia adelaidensis sp. nov., an endophytic actinobacterium isolated from the surface-sterilized stem of a grey box tree (Eucalyptus microcarpa).

    PubMed

    Kaewkla, Onuma; Franco, Christopher M M

    2010-12-01

    An aerobic, actinobacterial strain with rod-shaped spores, EUM 221(T) [corrected], which was isolated from the surface-sterilized stem of a grey box tree (Eucalyptus microcarpa), is described. Phylogenetic evaluation based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity showed that this isolate belongs to the family Pseudonocardiaceae, with the closest neighbour being Pseudonocardia zijingensis 6330(T) (98.7 %). The level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the isolate and species of the genus Pseudonocardia with validly published names ranged from 95 to 98 %. Chemotaxonomic data (meso-diaminopimelic acid; major menaquinone MK-8(H(4)); major fatty acid iso-C(16 : 0)) confirmed the affiliation of strain EUM 221(T) [corrected] to the genus Pseudonocardia. The results of the phylogenetic analysis, including physiological and biochemical studies in combination with DNA-DNA hybridization, allowed the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain EUM 221(T) [corrected] from the closest described species. Therefore, this strain represented a novel species and the name proposed is Pseudonocardia adelaidensis sp. nov. The type strain is EUM 221(T) [corrected] (=DSM 45352(T) =ACM 5286(T)).

  14. Musical training intensity yields opposite effects on grey matter density in cognitive versus sensorimotor networks.

    PubMed

    James, Clara E; Oechslin, Mathias S; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Hauert, Claude-Alain; Descloux, Céline; Lazeyras, François

    2014-01-01

    Using optimized voxel-based morphometry, we performed grey matter density analyses on 59 age-, sex- and intelligence-matched young adults with three distinct, progressive levels of musical training intensity or expertise. Structural brain adaptations in musicians have been repeatedly demonstrated in areas involved in auditory perception and motor skills. However, musical activities are not confined to auditory perception and motor performance, but are entangled with higher-order cognitive processes. In consequence, neuronal systems involved in such higher-order processing may also be shaped by experience-driven plasticity. We modelled expertise as a three-level regressor to study possible linear relationships of expertise with grey matter density. The key finding of this study resides in a functional dissimilarity between areas exhibiting increase versus decrease of grey matter as a function of musical expertise. Grey matter density increased with expertise in areas known for their involvement in higher-order cognitive processing: right fusiform gyrus (visual pattern recognition), right mid orbital gyrus (tonal sensitivity), left inferior frontal gyrus (syntactic processing, executive function, working memory), left intraparietal sulcus (visuo-motor coordination) and bilateral posterior cerebellar Crus II (executive function, working memory) and in auditory processing: left Heschl's gyrus. Conversely, grey matter density decreased with expertise in bilateral perirolandic and striatal areas that are related to sensorimotor function, possibly reflecting high automation of motor skills. Moreover, a multiple regression analysis evidenced that grey matter density in the right mid orbital area and the inferior frontal gyrus predicted accuracy in detecting fine-grained incongruities in tonal music.

  15. Sensory migraine aura is not associated with structural grey matter abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Arngrim, Nanna; Vlachou, Maria; Larsen, Vibeke Andrée; Larsson, Henrik B W; Ashina, Messoud

    2016-01-01

    Migraine with aura (MA) is characterized by cortical dysfunction. Frequent aura attacks may alter cerebral cortical structure in patients, or structural grey matter abnormalities may predispose MA patients to aura attacks. In the present study we aimed to investigate cerebral grey matter structure in a large group of MA patients with and without sensory aura (i.e. gradually developing, transient unilateral sensory disturbances). We included 60 patients suffering from migraine with typical visual aura and 60 individually age and sex-matched controls. Twenty-nine of the patients additionally experienced sensory aura regularly. We analysed high-resolution structural MR images using two complimentary approaches and compared patients with and without sensory aura. Patients were also compared to controls. We found no differences of grey matter density or cortical thickness between patients with and without sensory aura and no differences for the cortical visual areas between patients and controls. The somatosensory cortex was thinner in patients (1.92 mm vs. 1.96 mm, P = 0.043) and the anterior cingulate cortex of patients had a decreased grey matter density (P = 0.039) compared to controls. These differences were not correlated to the clinical characteristics. Our results suggest that sensory migraine aura is not associated with altered grey matter structure and that patients with visual aura have normal cortical structure of areas involved in visual processing. The observed decreased grey matter volume of the cingulate gyrus in patients compared to controls have previously been reported in migraine with and without aura, but also in a wide range of other neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Most likely, this finding reflects general bias between patients and healthy controls.

  16. The Effects of Meditation on Grey Matter Atrophy and Neurodegeneration: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Last, Nicole; Tufts, Emily; Auger, Leslie E

    2017-01-01

    The present systematic review is based on the premise that a variety of neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by grey matter atrophy in the brain and meditation may impact this. Given that age is a major risk factor for many of these progressive and neurodegenerative diseases and that the percentage of the population over the age of 65 is quickly increasing, there is an obvious need for prompt treatment and prevention advances in research. As there is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases, many are seeking non-pharmacological treatment options in attempts to offset the disease-related cognitive and functional declines. On the basis of a growing body of research suggesting that meditation is effective in increasing grey matter volume in healthy participants, this paper systematically reviewed the literature regarding the effects of meditation on restoring grey matter volume in healthy individuals and those affected by neurodegeneration. This review searched PubMed, CINAHL, and APA PsycNET to identify original studies that included MRI imaging to measure grey matter volume in meditators and post-mindfulness-based intervention participants compared to controls. Thirteen studies were considered eligible for review and involved a wide variety of meditation techniques and included participants with and without cognitive impairment. All studies reported significant increases in grey matter volume in the meditators/intervention group, albeit in assorted regions of the brain. Limited research exists on the mechanisms through which meditation affects disease-related neurodegeneration, but preliminary evidence suggests that it may offset grey matter atrophy.

  17. Grey matter correlates of susceptibility to scams in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Duke Han, S; Boyle, Patricia A; Yu, Lei; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; James, Bryan D; Fleischman, Debra A; Bennett, David A

    2016-06-01

    Susceptibility to scams is a significant issue among older adults, even among those with intact cognition. Age-related changes in brain macrostructure may be associated with susceptibility to scams; however, this has yet to be explored. Based on previous work implicating frontal and temporal lobe functioning as important in decision making, we tested the hypothesis that susceptibility to scams is associated with smaller grey matter volume in frontal and temporal lobe regions in a large community-dwelling cohort of non-demented older adults. Participants (N = 327, mean age = 81.55, mean education = 15.30, 78.9 % female) completed a self-report measure used to assess susceptibility to scams and an MRI brain scan. Results indicated an inverse association between overall grey matter and susceptibility to scams in models adjusted for age, education, and sex; and in models further adjusted for cognitive function. No significant associations were observed for white matter, cerebrospinal fluid, or total brain volume. Models adjusted for age, education, and sex revealed seven clusters showing smaller grey matter in the right parahippocampal/hippocampal/fusiform, left middle temporal, left orbitofrontal, right ventromedial prefrontal, right middle temporal, right precuneus, and right dorsolateral prefrontal regions. In models further adjusted for cognitive function, results revealed three significant clusters showing smaller grey matter in the right parahippocampal/hippocampal/fusiform, right hippocampal, and right middle temporal regions. Lower grey matter concentration in specific brain regions may be associated with susceptibility to scams, even after adjusting for cognitive ability. Future research is needed to determine whether grey matter reductions in these regions may be a biomarker for susceptibility to scams in old age.

  18. Dissociated grey matter changes with prolonged addiction and extended abstinence in cocaine users.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Colm G; Bell, Ryan P; Foxe, John J; Garavan, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that current and recently abstinent cocaine abusers compared to drug-naïve controls have decreased grey matter in regions such as the anterior cingulate, lateral prefrontal and insular cortex. Relatively little is known, however, about the persistence of these deficits in long-term abstinence despite the implications this has for recovery and relapse. Optimized voxel based morphometry was used to assess how local grey matter volume varies with years of drug use and length of abstinence in a cross-sectional study of cocaine users with various durations of abstinence (1-102 weeks) and years of use (0.3-24 years). Lower grey matter volume associated with years of use was observed for several regions including anterior cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and insular cortex. Conversely, higher grey matter volumes associated with abstinence duration were seen in non-overlapping regions that included the anterior and posterior cingulate, insular, right ventral and left dorsal prefrontal cortex. Grey matter volumes in cocaine dependent individuals crossed those of drug-naïve controls after 35 weeks of abstinence, with greater than normal volumes in users with longer abstinence. The brains of abstinent users are characterized by regional grey matter volumes, which on average, exceed drug-naïve volumes in those users who have maintained abstinence for more than 35 weeks. The asymmetry between the regions showing alterations with extended years of use and prolonged abstinence suggest that recovery involves distinct neurobiological processes rather than being a reversal of disease-related changes. Specifically, the results suggest that regions critical to behavioral control may be important to prolonged, successful, abstinence.

  19. Considerations in prescribing preflight aerobic exercise for astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Mary Anne Bassett

    1987-01-01

    The physiological effects of prolonged exposure to weightlessness are discussed together with the effects of aerobic exercise on human characteristics affected by weightlessness. It is noted that, although early data on orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight led to a belief that a high level of aerobic fitness for astronauts was detrimental to orthostatic tolerance on return to earth, most of the data available today do not suport this contention. Aerobic fitness was found to be beneficial to cardiovascular function and to mental performance; therefore, it may be important in performing extravehicular activities during flight.

  20. Antibiotic resistance in primary care in Austria - a systematic review of scientific and grey literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Antibiotic resistance is an increasing challenge for health care services worldwide. While up to 90% of antibiotics are being prescribed in the outpatient sector recommendations for the treatment of community-acquired infections are usually based on resistance findings from hospitalized patients. In context of the EU-project called "APRES - the appropriateness of prescribing antibiotic in primary health care in Europe with respect to antibiotic resistance" it was our aim to gain detailed information about the resistance data from Austria in both the scientific and the grey literature. Methods A systematic review was performed including scientific and grey literature published between 2000 and 2010. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined and the review process followed published recommendations. Results Seventeen scientific articles and 23 grey literature documents could be found. In contrast to the grey literature, the scientific publications describe only a small part of the resistance situation in the primary health care sector in Austria. Merely half of these publications contain data from the ambulatory sector exclusively but these data are older than ten years, are very heterogeneous concerning the observed time period, the number and origin of the isolates and the kind of bacteria analysed. The grey literature yields more comprehensive and up-to-date information of the content of interest. These sources are available in German only and are not easily accessible. The resistance situation described in the grey literature can be summarized as rather stable over the last two years. For Escherichia coli e.g. the highest antibiotic resistance rates can be seen with fluorochiniolones (19%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (27%). Conclusion Comprehensive and up-to-date antibiotic resistance data of different pathogens isolated from the community level in Austria are presented. They could be found mainly in the grey literature, only few are

  1. Induction hardening treatment and simulation for a grey cast iron used in engine cylinder liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos-Leal, E. L.; Miranda, D. A.; Coy, A. E.; Barrero, J. G.; González, J. A.; Vesga Rueda, O. P.

    2017-01-01

    In this research, a technical study of induction hardening in a grey cast iron used in engine cylinder liners manufactured by LAVCO Ltda., a Colombian foundry company, was carried out. Metallurgical parameters such as austenitization temperature, cooling rate, and quenching severity were determined. These factors are exclusively dependent on chemical composition and initial microstructure of grey cast iron. Simulations of induction heating through finite elements method were performed and, the most appropriate experimental conditions to achieve the critical transformation temperature was evaluated to reach a proper surface hardening on the piece. Preliminary results revealed an excellent approximation between simulation and heating test performed with a full bridge inverter voltage adapted with local technology.

  2. Beyond PubMed: Searching the “Grey Literature” for Clinical Trial Results

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trial results have been traditionally communicated through the publication of scholarly reports and reviews in biomedical journals. However, this dissemination of information can be delayed or incomplete, making it difficult to appraise new treatments, or in the case of missing data, evaluate older interventions. Going beyond the routine search of PubMed, it is possible to discover additional information in the “grey literature.” Examples of the grey literature include clinical trial registries, patent databases, company and industrywide repositories, regulatory agency digital archives, abstracts of paper and poster presentations on meeting/congress websites, industry investor reports and press releases, and institutional and personal websites. PMID:25337445

  3. Skeletal deformities and mortality in grey herons (Ardea cinerea) at Besthorpe heronry, Nottinghamshire.

    PubMed

    Feltrer, Y; Draper, E R C; Perkins, M; Cunningham, A A

    2006-10-14

    Dead and sick grey heron chicks with multiple fractures of the leg and wing bones and/or bone deformities have been reported at Besthorpe Nature Reserve heronry in north Nottinghamshire since 1996. Forty-five grey heron carcases were examined, 35 from the Besthorpe colony and 10 from other colonies where bone disease was not known to occur. On the basis of the results of radiological studies, postmortem examinations, peripheral quantitative computed tomography scanning and four-point bending tests, it was concluded that the skeletal abnormalities were probably due to metabolic bone disease.

  4. Extermination and recovery of red wolf and grey wolf in the contiguous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Michael K.; Bangs, Edward E.; Mech, L. David; Kelly, Brian T.; Fazio, Buddy B.; Macdonald, David W.; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    About 150 years ago, the grey wolf (Canis lupus) was distributed throughout the contiguous United States, except for in southeastern US from central Texas to the Atlantic coast, where the red wolf (Canis rufus) occurred. Conflict with agricultural interests resulted in government-supported eradication campaigns beginning in colonial Massachusetts in 1630. Over the next 300 years, the campaigns were extended throughout the US resulting in the near extermination of both species. In recent decades, efforts to recover the red and grey wolf were carried out. This chapter summarizes extermination and recovery efforts for both species in the contiguous US.

  5. Osteoblastic osteosarcoma in a Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus) - short communication.

    PubMed

    Liptovszky, Mátyás; Perge, Edina; Molnár, Viktor; Sós, Endre

    2011-12-01

    The Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus) is a nocturnal lemur species that lives only in Madagascar. It is one of the most abundant lemur species and its native populations are not endangered, but animals belonging to this species are rarely exhibited in zoos. While tumours are quite frequently described in other primates, there are very few publications about neoplasia in lemurs. In this case report we describe a mandibular osteoblastic osteosarcoma in a Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus). To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first scientific article describing osteosarcoma in a prosimian and also reporting a tumour in the mandible in this taxon.

  6. Beyond PubMed: Searching the "Grey Literature" for Clinical Trial Results.

    PubMed

    Citrome, Leslie

    2014-07-01

    Clinical trial results have been traditionally communicated through the publication of scholarly reports and reviews in biomedical journals. However, this dissemination of information can be delayed or incomplete, making it difficult to appraise new treatments, or in the case of missing data, evaluate older interventions. Going beyond the routine search of PubMed, it is possible to discover additional information in the "grey literature." Examples of the grey literature include clinical trial registries, patent databases, company and industrywide repositories, regulatory agency digital archives, abstracts of paper and poster presentations on meeting/congress websites, industry investor reports and press releases, and institutional and personal websites.

  7. No rainbow for grey bamboo sharks: evidence for the absence of colour vision in sharks from behavioural discrimination experiments.

    PubMed

    Schluessel, V; Rick, I P; Plischke, K

    2014-11-01

    Despite convincing data collected by microspectrophotometry and molecular biology, rendering sharks colourblind cone monochromats, the question of whether sharks can perceive colour had not been finally resolved in the absence of any behavioural experiments compensating for the confounding factor of brightness. The present study tested the ability of juvenile grey bamboo sharks to perceive colour in an experimental design based on a paradigm established by Karl von Frisch using colours in combination with grey distractor stimuli of equal brightness. Results showed that contrasts but no colours could be discriminated. Blue and yellow stimuli were not distinguished from a grey distractor stimulus of equal brightness but could be distinguished from distractor stimuli of varying brightness. In addition, different grey stimuli were distinguished significantly above chance level from one another. In conclusion, the behavioural results support the previously collected physiological data on bamboo sharks, which mutually show that the grey bamboo shark, like several marine mammals, is a cone monochromate and colourblind.

  8. Effects of a Rebound Exercise Training Program on Aerobic Capacity and Body Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomassoni, Teresa L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if aerobic dancing on rebound exercise equipment (minitrampolines) is an effective way to improve aerobic capacity and body composition. Although aerobic capacity improved, percent body fat did not change. Results were similar to those produced by conventional aerobic dance programs of like intensity. (MT)

  9. Issues of Health, Appearance and Physical Activity in Aerobic Classes for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Abundo, Michelle Lee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore what appearance-focused messages were conveyed by aerobic instructors in aerobic classes for women. This qualitative research was influenced by the concept of wellness and how feminist pedagogy can be applied to promote individuals' well-being in aerobic classes. The practices of five aerobic instructors…

  10. The influence of bacterial inoculants on the microbial ecology of aerobic spoilage of barley silage.

    PubMed

    Inglis, G D; Yanke, L J; Kawchuk, L M; McAllister, T A

    1999-01-01

    The aerobic decomposition of barley silage treated with two inoculants (LacA and LacB) containing mixtures of Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium was investigated over a 28-day period. Initially, yeast and bacterial populations were larger in silage inoculated with LacA than in silage treated with LacB or water alone (control). Differences in the succession of yeasts in silage treated with LacA were observed relative to the other two treatments. From silage treatment with LacA, Issatchenkia orientalis was the most prevalent yeast taxon over all of the sample times, and the filamentous fungus Microascus brevicaulis was also frequently isolated at later sample dates (> or = 14 days). In contrast, Saccharomyces exiguus was the most prominent yeast recovered from silage treated with LacB and water alone on days 2 and 4, although it was supplanted by I. orientalis at later sample times. Successional trends of bacteria were similar for all three treatments. Lactobacillus spp. were initially the most prevalent bacteria isolated, followed by Bacillus spp. (primarily Bacillus pumilus). However, the onset of Bacillus spp. prominence was faster in LacA silage, and Klebsiella planticola was frequently recovered at later sample times (> or = 14 days). More filamentous fungi were recovered from LacA silage on media containing carboxylmethylcellulose, pectin, or xylan. The most commonly isolated taxa were Absidia sp., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Byssochlamys nivea, Monascus ruber, Penicillium brevicompactum, Pseudoallescheria boydii, and M. brevicaulis. The results of this study indicated that the two bacterial inoculants incorporated into barley at the time of ensilage affected the microbial ecology of silage decomposition following exposure to air. However, neither of the microbial inoculants effectively delayed aerobic spoilage of barley silage, and the rate of decomposition of silage treated with one of the inoculants (LacA) was actually enhanced.

  11. Prediction of Maximum Aerobic Power in Untrained Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolgener, Forrest A.

    1978-01-01

    The author presents an equation for predicting maximum aerobic power in untrained females from values of percent body fat, weight, and submaximal values of heart rate, respiratory quotient, and expired gas. (MJB)

  12. Concomitant aerobic biodegradation of benzene and thiophene

    SciTech Connect

    Dyreborg, S.; Arvin, E.; Broholm, K.

    1998-05-01

    The concomitant aerobic biodegradation of benzene and thiophene was investigated in microcosm experiments using a groundwater enrichment culture. Benzene was biodegraded within 1 d, whereas thiophene could not be biodegraded as the sole source of carbon and energy. Some interesting phenomena were observed when both benzene and thiophene were present. In most cases, removal of thiophene was observed, and the removal occurred concomitantly with the biodegradation of benzene, suggesting that benzene was used as a primary substrate in the cometabolic biodegradation of thiophene. No biodegradation of the two compounds was observed for some combinations of concentrations, suggesting that thiophene could act as an inhibitor to benzene biodegradation. However, this effect could be overcome if more benzene was added to the microcosm. Residual concentrations of benzene and thiophene were observed in some microcosms and the data indicated that the biodegradation of the two compounds stopped when a critical threshold ratio between the concentrations of thiophene and benzene was reached. This ratio varied between 10 and 20. Results from modeling the biodegradation data suggested that thiophene was cometabolized concomitantly with the biodegradation of benzene and that the biodegradation may be described by a modified model based on a traditional model with an inhibition term incorporated.

  13. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wolcott, Abraham; Schiros, Theanne; Trusheim, Matthew E.; Chen, Edward H.; Nordlund, Dennis; Diaz, Rosa E.; Gaaton, Ophir; Englund, Dirk; Owen, Jonathan S.

    2014-10-27

    Here we investigate the aerobic oxidation of high-pressure, high-temperature nanodiamonds (5–50 nm dimensions) using a combination of carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption, wavelength-dependent X-ray photoelectron, and vibrational spectroscopies. Oxidation at 575 °C for 2 h eliminates graphitic carbon contamination (>98%) and produces nanocrystals with hydroxyl functionalized surfaces as well as a minor component (<5%) of carboxylic anhydrides. The low graphitic carbon content and the high crystallinity of HPHT are evident from Raman spectra acquired using visible wavelength excitation (λexcit = 633 nm) as well as carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectra where the signature of a core–hole exciton is observed. Both spectroscopic features are similar to those of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond but differ significantly from the spectra of detonation nanodiamond. Lastly, we discuss the importance of these findings to the functionalization of nanodiamond surfaces for biological labeling applications.

  14. Dancing the aerobics ''hearing loss'' choreography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Beatriz M.; Carvalho, Antonio P. O.; Gallagher, Sergio

    2002-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of gymnasiums' acoustic problems when used for aerobics exercises classes (and similar) with loud noise levels of amplified music. This type of gymnasium is usually a highly reverberant space, which is a consequence of a large volume surrounded by hard surfaces. A sample of five schools in Portugal was chosen for this survey. Noise levels in each room were measured using a precision sound level meter, and analyzed to calculate the standardized daily personal noise exposure levels (LEP,d). LEP,d values from 79 to 91 dB(A) were found to be typical values in this type of room, inducing a health risk for its occupants. The reverberation time (RT) values were also measured and compared with some European legal requirements (Portugal, France, and Belgium) for nearly similar situations. RT values (1 kHz) from 0.9 s to 2.8 s were found. These reverberation time values clearly differentiate between good and acoustically inadequate rooms. Some noise level and RT limits for this type of environment are given and suggestions for the improvement of the acoustical environment are shown. Significant reductions in reverberation time values and noise levels can be obtained by simple measures.

  15. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    DOE PAGES

    Wolcott, Abraham; Schiros, Theanne; Trusheim, Matthew E.; ...

    2014-10-27

    Here we investigate the aerobic oxidation of high-pressure, high-temperature nanodiamonds (5–50 nm dimensions) using a combination of carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption, wavelength-dependent X-ray photoelectron, and vibrational spectroscopies. Oxidation at 575 °C for 2 h eliminates graphitic carbon contamination (>98%) and produces nanocrystals with hydroxyl functionalized surfaces as well as a minor component (<5%) of carboxylic anhydrides. The low graphitic carbon content and the high crystallinity of HPHT are evident from Raman spectra acquired using visible wavelength excitation (λexcit = 633 nm) as well as carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectra where the signature of a core–hole exciton is observed.more » Both spectroscopic features are similar to those of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond but differ significantly from the spectra of detonation nanodiamond. Lastly, we discuss the importance of these findings to the functionalization of nanodiamond surfaces for biological labeling applications.« less

  16. Aerobic nitroreduction of dehydrochloramphenicol by bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Isildar, M; Abou-Khalil, W H; Jimenez, J J; Abou-Khalil, S; Yunis, A A

    1988-06-30

    It has been previously demonstrated that dehydrochloramphenicol (DH-CAP), a bacterial metabolite of chloramphenicol, induces DNA single strand breaks in intact cells and is profoundly more cytotoxic than chloramphenicol (CAP). In view of previous observations relating genotoxicity of nitrocompounds to their nitroreduction by the target tissue, we studied the nitroreduction of DH-CAP by human and rabbit bone marrow. Nitroreduction by tissue homogenates was determined by the Bratton Marshall colorimetric assay and by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Nitroreduction of DH-CAP by bone marrow cell homogenates was observed under aerobic conditions and the reduction was both cell concentration- and time-dependent. The formation of the amino product aminodehydrochloramphenicol was confirmed by HPLC. Reduction by other tissues including human liver, Raji cells, and HL-60 tumors was also observed. These results suggest that genotoxicity of DH-CAP may be related to its nitroreduction by the target tissue with in situ production of toxic intermediates. Together with previous studies, these observations lend support to the thesis that the p-NO2 group may be the structural feature underlying aplastic anemia from CAP.

  17. Effect of Lactobacillus inoculants and forage dry matter on the fermentation and aerobic stability of ensiled mixed-crop tall fescue and meadow fescue.

    PubMed

    Guo, X S; Undersander, D J; Combs, D K

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum with or without Lactobacillus buchneri on the fermentation and aerobic stability of mixed tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.) silage ensiled at different dry matter (DM) contents. The first cut was harvested at boot stage and second-cut grasses were harvested when 30- to 35-cm tall. Four DM content treatments of the first cut were 17.9, 24.9, 34.6, and 48.7%; and of the second cut were 29.1, 36.3, 44.1, and 49.2%. Chopped grasses at each DM content were treated with (1) deionized water (control), (2) Lb. plantarum MTD-1 (LP), or (3) a combination of Lb. plantarum MTD-1 and Lb. buchneri 40788 (LP+LB). The application amount of each inoculant to the fresh forage was 1 × 10(6) cfu/g. Grasses were ensiled in vacuum-sealed polyethylene bags containing 150 g of DM for 60 d, with 4 replicates for each treatment. Silages inoculated with LP+LB had greater pH compared with untreated or LP-treated silages. Lactate was greater in LP silage than control or LP+LB silages. As silage DM increased, lactate in untreated and LP-treated silages decreased, but increased in LP+LB-treated silage. Acetate concentration decreased with increased DM in all silages. The LP+LB-treated silage had the longest and control silage the shortest aerobic stability for both harvests. The greatest values in aerobic stability were observed in silages with highest DM content. In this study, aerobic stability of grass mixes ensiled between 18 and 44% DM content increased as the percentage of DM increased. The LP and LP+LB inoculants improved aerobic stability of silages harvested between 18 and 44% DM content.

  18. Evidence for a role of biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens in the spoilage of fresh aerobically stored chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Glen E; Bentley, Jessica A; Dykes, Gary A

    2011-08-01

    Fresh chicken meat is a fat-rich environment and we therefore hypothesised that production of biosurfactants to increase bioavailability of fats may represent one way in which spoilage bacteria might enhance the availability of nutrients. Numbers of Pseudomonas were determined on a total of 20 fresh and 20 spoiled chicken thighs with skin. A total of 400 randomly isolated Pseudomonas colonies from fresh (200) and spoiled (200) chicken were screened for the presence of biosurfactant production. Biosurfactant producing strains represented 5% and 72% of the Pseudomonas spp. isolates from fresh (mean count 2.3 log(10) cfu g(-1)) and spoiled (mean count 7.4 log(10) cfu g(-1)) chicken skin, respectively. Partially-purified biosurfactants derived from a subgroup of four Pseudomonasfluorescens strains obtained through the screening process were subsequently used to investigate the role that the addition of these compounds plays in the spoilage of aerobically stored chicken. Emulsification potential of the four selected biosurfactants was measured against a range of hydrocarbons and oils. All four biosurfactants displayed a greater ability to emulsify rendered chicken fat than hydrocarbons (paraffin liquid, toluene and hexane) and oils (canola, olive, sunflower and vegetable). Storage trials (4 °C) of chicken meat treated with the four selected biosurfactants revealed a significantly greater (P < 0.05) total aerobic count in biosurfactant treated samples, as compared to untreated samples on each day (0, 1, 2, 3) of storage. For biosurfactant treated samples the greatest increase in total aerobic count (1.3-1.7 log(10) cfu g(-1)) occurred following one day of incubation. These results indicate that biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas spp. may play an important role in the spoilage of aerobically stored chicken meat by making nutrients more freely available and providing strains producing them with a competitive advantage.

  19. The Relationship Between Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance in Recreational Runners

    PubMed Central

    GILLEN, ZACHARY M.; WYATT, FRANK B.; WINCHESTER, JASON B.; SMITH, DALTON A.; GHETIA, VIDHI

    2016-01-01

    Research has indicated that combined aerobic and anaerobic training (concurrent training) may improve aerobic performance greater than aerobic training alone. The purpose of this investigation was to establish any associations between aerobic and anaerobic performance. Eleven participants (n = 11, age = 34.1 ± 13 years, VO2max = 58.4 ± 7.8) volunteered for this study. Participants were asked for endurance training experience (4.7 ± 3.7 years) and resistance training experience (4.1 ± 4.6 years). To meet training status, participants were to have a VO2max in the 80th percentile as per ACSM guidelines. The Bruce treadmill test was used to measure aerobic performance. In order to measure anaerobic performance, several tests were completed utilizing a force platform. A Pearson Product R Correlation Coefficient was calculated to determine correlations between variables. The results show significant correlation between VO2max and RFD (r = 0.68). Further analyses utilizing Cohen’s effect size indicated a strong association between VO2max and peak force, as well as running efficiency and peak power, relative peak power, and power endurance. These results indicate an existing possibility that anaerobic performance measures such as RFD may have a positive relationship with aerobic performance measures such as VO2max. Therefore, it may be beneficial to integrate specific training components which focus on improving RFD as a method of improving running performance. PMID:27990224

  20. Aerobic Exercise Preserves Olfaction Function in Individuals with Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeldt, Anson B.; Dey, Tanujit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Based on anecdotal reports of improved olfaction following aerobic exercise, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an 8-week aerobic exercise program on olfaction function in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. Thirty-eight participants with idiopathic PD were randomized to either an aerobic exercise group (n = 23) or a nonexercise control group (n = 15). The aerobic exercise group completed a 60-minute cycling session three times per week for eight weeks while the nonexercise control group received no intervention. All participants completed the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) at baseline, end of treatment, and a four-week follow up. Results. Change in UPSIT scores between the exercise and nonexercise groups from baseline to EOT (p = 0.01) and from baseline to EOT+4 (p = 0.02) favored the aerobic exercise group. Individuals in the nonexercise group had worsening olfaction function over time, while the exercise group was spared from decline. Discussion. The difference in UPSIT scores suggested that aerobic exercise may be altering central nervous system pathways that regulate the physiologic or cognitive processes controlling olfaction in individuals with PD. While these results provide promising preliminary evidence that exercise may modify the disease process, further systematic evaluation is necessary. PMID:27999706

  1. Forced Aerobic Exercise Preceding Task Practice Improves Motor Recovery Poststroke

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeldt, Anson B.; Dey, Tanujit; Alberts, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To understand how two types of aerobic exercise affect upper-extremity motor recovery post-stroke. Our aims were to (1) evaluate the feasibility of having people who had a stroke complete an aerobic exercise intervention and (2) determine whether forced or voluntary exercise differentially facilitates upper-extremity recovery when paired with task practice. METHOD. Seventeen participants with chronic stroke completed twenty-four 90-min sessions over 8 wk. Aerobic exercise was immediately followed by task practice. Participants were randomized to forced or voluntary aerobic exercise groups or to task practice only. RESULTS. Improvement on the Fugl-Meyer Assessment exceeded the minimal clinically important difference: 12.3, 4.8, and 4.4 for the forced exercise, voluntary exercise, and repetitive task practice–only groups, respectively. Only the forced exercise group exhibited a statistically significant improvement. CONCLUSION. People with chronic stroke can safely complete intensive aerobic exercise. Forced aerobic exercise may be optimal in facilitating motor recovery associated with task practice. PMID:28218596

  2. Aerobic microbial mineralization of dichloroethene as sole carbon substrate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.

    2000-01-01

    Microorganisms indigenous to the bed sediments of a black- water stream utilized 1,2-dichloroethene (1,2-DCE) as a sole carbon substrate for aerobic metabolism. Although no evidence of growth was observed in the minimal salts culture media used in this study, efficient aerobic microbial mineralization of 1,2-DCE as sole carbon substrate was maintained through three sequential transfers (107 final dilution) of the original environmental innoculum. These results indicate that 1,2-DCE can be utilized as a primary substrate to support microbial metabolism under aerobic conditions.Microorganisms indigenous to the bed sediments of a black-water stream utilized 1,2-dichloroethene (1,2-DCE) as a sole carbon substrate for aerobic metabolism. Although no evidence of growth was observed in the minimal salts culture media used in this study, efficient aerobic microbial mineralization of 1,2-DCE as sole carbon substrate was maintained through three sequential transfers (107 final dilution) of the original environmental innoculum. These results indicate that 1,2-DCE can be utilized as a primary substrate to support microbial metabolism under aerobic conditions.

  3. Recalcitrant organic matter removal from textile wastewater by an aerobic cell-immobilized pellet column.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moonil; Han, Dukkyu; Cui, Fenghao; Bae, Wookeun

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of textile wastewater is difficult because of its recalcitrant organic content. The biological removal of recalcitrant organics requires a long retention time for microbial growth. Activated sludge was immobilized in a polyethylene glycol pellet to allow for sufficient sludge retention time. The pellets were filled in an aerobic cell-immobilized pellet column (CIPC) reactor in order to investigate the removal of recalcitrant organics from textile wastewater. A textile wastewater effluent treated by a conventional activated sludge reactor was used as a target wastewater. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of the aerobic CIPC reactor at various empty bed contact times was in the range of 42.2-60.5%. Half of the input COD was removed in the lower part (bottom 25% of the reactor volume) of the reactor when the organic loading rate was less than 1.5 kg COD/(m(3)•d). About 15-30% of the input COD was removed in the remaining part of the column reactor. The COD removed in this region was limitedly biodegradable. The biodegradation of recalcitrant organics could be carried out by the interactional functions of the various bacteria consortia by using a cell-immobilization process. The CIPC process could effectively treat textile wastewater using a short retention time because the microorganisms that degrade limitedly biodegradable organics were dominant in the reactor.

  4. Iron plaque formed under aerobic conditions efficiently immobilizes arsenic in Lupinus albus L roots.

    PubMed

    Fresno, Teresa; Peñalosa, Jesús M; Santner, Jakob; Puschenreiter, Markus; Prohaska, Thomas; Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a non-threshold carcinogenic metalloid. Thus, human exposure should be minimised, e.g. by chemically stabilizing As in soil. Since iron is a potential As immobiliser, it was investigated whether root iron plaque, formed under aerobic conditions, affects As uptake, metabolism and distribution in Lupinus albus plants. White lupin plants were cultivated in a continuously aerated hydroponic culture containing Fe/EDDHA or FeSO4 and exposed to arsenate (5 or 20 μM). Only FeSO4 induced surficial iron plaque in roots. LA-ICP-MS analysis accomplished on root sections corroborated the association of As to this surficial Fe. Additionally, As(V) was the predominant species in FeSO4-treated roots, suggesting less efficient As uptake in the presence of iron plaque. Fe/EDDHA-exposed roots neither showed such surficial FeAs co-localisation nor As(V) accumulation; in contrast As(III) was the predominant species in root tissue. Furthermore, FeSO4-treated plants showed reduced shoot-to-root As ratios, which were >10-fold lower compared to Fe/EDDHA treatment. Our results highlight the role of an iron plaque formed in roots of white lupin under aerobic conditions on As immobilisation. These findings, to our knowledge, have not been addressed before for this plant and have potential implications on soil remediation (phytostabilisation) and food security (minimising As in crops).

  5. Molecular identification and successful treatment of Chlamydophila psittaci (genotype B) in a clinically affected Congo African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus)

    PubMed Central

    Razmyar, J.; Rajabioun, M.; Zaeemi, M.; Afshari, A.

    2016-01-01

    Avian chlamydiosis is caused by Chlamydiophila psittaci with the highest infection rate in parrots (Psittacidae) and pigeons (Columbiformes). A two-year-old Congo African grey parrot was examined since the bird had shown clinical signs of anorexia, depression, diarrhea, and mild dyspnea and based on biochemical and hemathological analysis the bird was diagnosed as having anemia, leukocytosis, heterophilia, lymphopenia and monocytosis. With regards to clinical and paraclinical findings, the case was diagnosed to be carrying Chlamydiophila spp. In addition, choanal cleft and cloaca swabs were positive for Chlamydiophila spp. in a diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (600 bp amplicon). Polymerase chain reaction products were typed by ompA gene-based PCR, using CTU/CTL primers (1050 bp amplicon). The PCR product sequence was compared with the sequences obtained from GenBank. The phylogenetic tree has revealed 100% identity with genotype B obtained from previous studies. The bird was hospitalized and treated with doxycycline regimen for 45 days, with a weekly sampling process to trace the presence of C. psittaci DNA in faecal and choanal swabs, this process continued to the point where the specimens turned negative after two weeks. Laboratory and radiology results were within normal limits after the treatment. Genotype B is predominantly isolated from Columbidae and there have not been any reports regarding the clinically affected African gray parrot with this genotype. Subsequently, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of chlamydiosis by genotype B on Congo African grey parrot. PMID:28224015

  6. The effect of Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 or Lactobacillus plantarum MTD-1 on the fermentation and aerobic stability of corn silages ensiled at two dry matter contents.

    PubMed

    Hu, W; Schmidt, R J; McDonell, E E; Klingerman, C M; Kung, L

    2009-08-01

    Whole-plant corn was harvested at 33 (normal) and 41% (moderately high) dry matter (DM) and ensiled in quadruplicate 20-L laboratory silos to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 (LB) or L. plantarum MTD-1 (LP) alone, or in combination, on the fermentation and aerobic stability of the resulting silage. Aerobic stability was defined as the amount of time after exposure to air for the silage temperature to reach 2 degrees C above ambient temperature. The chopped forage was used in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: normal and moderately high DM contents, LB at 0 (untreated) or 4 x 10(5) cfu/g of fresh forage, and LP at 0 or 1 x 10(5) cfu/g. After 240 d of ensiling, corn silage harvested at the moderately high DM had higher pH, higher concentrations of ethanol, and more yeasts compared with the silage ensiled at the normal DM content. Inoculation with LB did not affect the concentration of lactic acid in silages with a moderately high DM, but decreased the concentration of lactic acid in the silage with normal DM. Higher concentrations of acetic acid were found in the silage treated with LB compared with those not treated with this organism. Inoculation with LP increased the concentration of lactic acid only in the silage with the normal DM content. The concentration of acetic acid was lower in silage treated with LP with a moderately high DM content, but greater in the silage treated with LP with the normal DM content when compared with silages without this inoculant. Appreciable amounts of 1,2-propanediol (average 1.65%, DM basis) were found in all silages treated with LB regardless of the DM content. The addition of L. buchneri increased the concentration of NH(3)-N in silages but the addition of L. plantarum decreased it. Aerobic stability was improved in all silages treated with LB, with greater aerobic stability occurring in the silage with moderately high DM compared with silage with normal DM content. Inoculation with LP had no

  7. Comparative study of normal and sensitive skin aerobic bacterial populations.

    PubMed

    Hillion, Mélanie; Mijouin, Lily; Jaouen, Thomas; Barreau, Magalie; Meunier, Pauline; Lefeuvre, Luc; Lati, Elian; Chevalier, Sylvie; Feuilloley, Marc G J

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if the sensitive skin syndrome, a frequent skin disorder characterized by abnormal painful reactions to environmental factors in the absence of visible inflammatory response, could be linked to a modification in the skin bacterial population. A total of 1706 bacterial isolates was collected at the levels of the forehead, cheekbone, inner elbow, and lower area of the scapula on the skin of normal and sensitive skin syndrome-suffering volunteers of both sexes and of different ages. Among these isolates, 21 strains were randomly selected to validate in a first step the Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI)-Biotyper process as an efficient identification tool at the group and genus levels, by comparison to API(®) strips and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing identification techniques. In a second step, identification of the skin microbiota isolates by the MALDI-Biotyper tool allowed to pinpoint some differences in terms of bacterial diversity with regard to the collection area, and the volunteer's age and gender. Finally, comparison of the skin microbiota from normal and sensitive skin syndrome-suffering volunteers pointed out gender-related variations but no detectable correlation between a phylum, a genus or a dominant bacterial species and the sensitive skin phenotype. This study reveals that there is no dysbiosis of aerobic cultivable bacteria associated with the sensitive skin syndrome and further demonstrates that the MALDI-Biotyper is a powerful technique that can be efficiently employed to the study of cultivable human skin bacteria. To our knowledge, this is the first study focusing on bacteria in the sensitive skin syndrome. These results are of potential importance for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, which are looking for new strategies to treat this multiparametric disorder.

  8. Microbial Removal of Atmospheric Carbon Tetrachloride in Bulk Aerobic Soils▿

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Y.; Goodwin, K. D.; Happell, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) were removed by bulk aerobic soils from tropical, subtropical, and boreal environments. Removal was observed in all tested soil types, indicating that the process was widespread. The flux measured in field chamber experiments was 0.24 ± 0.10 nmol CCl4 (m2 day)−1 (average ± standard deviation [SD]; n = 282). Removal of CCl4 and removal of methane (CH4) were compared to explore whether the two processes were linked. Removal of both gases was halted in laboratory samples that were autoclaved, dry heated, or incubated in the presence of mercuric chloride (HgCl2). In marl soils, treatment with antibiotics such as tetracycline and streptomycin caused partial inhibition of CCl4 (50%) and CH4 (76%) removal, but removal was not affected in soils treated with nystatin or myxothiazol. These data indicated that bacteria contributed to the soil removal of CCl4 and that microeukaryotes may not have played a significant role. Amendments of methanol, acetate, and succinate to soil samples enhanced CCl4 removal by 59%, 293%, and 72%, respectively. Additions of a variety of inhibitors and substrates indicated that nitrification, methanogenesis, or biological reduction of nitrate, nitrous oxide, or sulfate (e.g., occurring in possible anoxic microzones) did not play a significant role in the removal of CCl4. Methyl fluoride inhibited removal of CH4 but not CCl4, indicating that CH4 and CCl4 removals were not directly linked. Furthermore, CCl4 removal was not affected in soils amended with copper sulfate or methane, supporting the results with MeF and suggesting that the observed CCl4 removal was not significantly mediated by methanotrophs. PMID:21724884

  9. Comparative study of normal and sensitive skin aerobic bacterial populations

    PubMed Central

    Hillion, Mélanie; Mijouin, Lily; Jaouen, Thomas; Barreau, Magalie; Meunier, Pauline; Lefeuvre, Luc; Lati, Elian; Chevalier, Sylvie; Feuilloley, Marc G J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if the sensitive skin syndrome, a frequent skin disorder characterized by abnormal painful reactions to environmental factors in the absence of visible inflammatory response, could be linked to a modification in the skin bacterial population. A total of 1706 bacterial isolates was collected at the levels of the forehead, cheekbone, inner elbow, and lower area of the scapula on the skin of normal and sensitive skin syndrome-suffering volunteers of both sexes and of different ages. Among these isolates, 21 strains were randomly selected to validate in a first step the Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI)-Biotyper process as an efficient identification tool at the group and genus levels, by comparison to API® strips and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing identification techniques. In a second step, identification of the skin microbiota isolates by the MALDI-Biotyper tool allowed to pinpoint some differences in terms of bacterial diversity with regard to the collection area, and the volunteer's age and gender. Finally, comparison of the skin microbiota from normal and sensitive skin syndrome-suffering volunteers pointed out gender-related variations but no detectable correlation between a phylum, a genus or a dominant bacterial species and the sensitive skin phenotype. This study reveals that there is no dysbiosis of aerobic cultivable bacteria associated with the sensitive skin syndrome and further demonstrates that the MALDI-Biotyper is a powerful technique that can be efficiently employed to the study of cultivable human skin bacteria. To our knowledge, this is the first study focusing on bacteria in the sensitive skin syndrome. These results are of potential importance for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, which are looking for new strategies to treat this multiparametric disorder. PMID:24151137

  10. Regional cortical grey matter loss in Parkinson's disease without dementia is independent from visual hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Meppelink, Anne Marthe; de Jong, Bauke M; Teune, Laura K; van Laar, Teus

    2011-01-01

    In our previous functional magnetic resonance imaging study, Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with visual hallucinations (VH) showed reduced activations in ventral/lateral visual association cortices preceding image recognition, compared with both PD patients without VH and healthy controls. The primary aim of the current study was to investigate whether functional deficits are associated with grey matter volume changes. In addition, possible grey matter differences between all PD patients and healthy controls were assessed. By using 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM), we found no differences between PD patients with (n = 11) and without VH (n = 13). However, grey matter decreases of the bilateral prefrontal and parietal cortex, left anterior superior temporal, and left middle occipital gyrus were found in the total group of PD patients, compared with controls (n = 14). This indicates that previously demonstrated functional deficits in PD patients with VH are not associated with grey matter loss. The strong left parietal reduction in both nondemented patient groups was hemisphere specific and independent of the side of PD symptoms.

  11. Comparative SEM study of the marginal adaptation of white and grey MTA and Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Bidar, Maryam; Moradi, Saeed; Jafarzadeh, Hamid; Bidad, Salma

    2007-04-01

    The use of a suitable substance that prevents egress of potential contaminants into the periapical tissues is important in endodontic surgery. The aim of the present study was to compare the marginal adaptation of three root-end filling materials (white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), grey MTA and Portland cement), using scanning electron microscopy. Seventy-five single-rooted extracted human teeth were used. The canals were instrumented and filled with gutta-percha. Following root-end resection and cavity preparation, root-end cavities were filled with white MTA, grey MTA or Portland cement. Using a diamond saw, roots were longitudinally sectioned into two halves. Under scanning electron microscopy, the gaps between the material and dentinal wall were measured. The data were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test. The mean of the gap in grey MTA, white MTA and Portland cement was 211.6, 349 and 326.3 microm, respectively. The results indicate that the gap between grey MTA and the dentinal wall is less than other materials, but there was no significant difference between the materials tested in this study (P > 0.05).

  12. Lexicon size and its relation to foot preference in the African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus).

    PubMed

    Snyder, P J; Harris, L J

    1997-06-01

    To study footedness in parrots, an international survey of parrot owners was conducted. Responses were obtained from 524 individuals, including 70 owners of African Grey parrots (all animals > or = 10 months old). All respondents were given a 10-item questionnaire and a standard method for testing foot preference in their pets, and they were asked to count the number of separate words in their pets' lexicons of human speech sounds. Right-footed African Greys (N = 36) had significantly larger lexicons than left-footed African Greys (N = 34; P = 0.01). This difference could not be accounted for by group differences in training efforts or socialization/housing with conspecifics. A non-significant trend in the same direction was found in a comparison sample of Amazon parrots, although these genera are less adept than African Greys at learning human speech sounds. Other investigators have provided convincing evidence of lateralization, in the avian brain, for the analysis and memory of differing types of stimuli. In addition, there appears to be preferential left hypserstriatal activation for long-term memory consolidation. Our results suggest a relationship between lateral asymmetry for motor preference and asymmetric CNS mediation of a 'higher cognitive' function (i.e. the categorization and long-term mnestic processing of human speech sound.

  13. Macroparasite fauna of alien grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis): composition, variability and implications for native species.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Claudia; Wauters, Lucas A; Ferrari, Nicola; Lanfranchi, Paolo; Martinoli, Adriano; Pisanu, Benoît; Preatoni, Damiano G; Saino, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Introduced hosts populations may benefit of an "enemy release" through impoverishment of parasite communities made of both few imported species and few acquired local ones. Moreover, closely related competing native hosts can be affected by acquiring introduced taxa (spillover) and by increased transmission risk of native parasites (spillback). We determined the macroparasite fauna of invasive grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) in Italy to detect any diversity loss, introduction of novel parasites or acquisition of local ones, and analysed variation in parasite burdens to identify factors that may increase transmission risk for native red squirrels (S. vulgaris). Based on 277 grey squirrels sampled from 7 populations characterised by different time scales in introduction events, we identified 7 gastro-intestinal helminths and 4 parasite arthropods. Parasite richness is lower than in grey squirrel's native range and independent from introduction time lags. The most common parasites are Nearctic nematodes Strongyloides robustus (prevalence: 56.6%) and Trichostrongylus calcaratus (6.5%), red squirrel flea Ceratophyllus sciurorum (26.0%) and Holarctic sucking louse Neohaematopinus sciuri (17.7%). All other parasites are European or cosmopolitan species with prevalence below 5%. S. robustus abundance is positively affected by host density and body mass, C. sciurorum abundance increases with host density and varies with seasons. Overall, we show that grey squirrels in Italy may benefit of an enemy release, and both spillback and spillover processes towards native red squirrels may occur.

  14. Preserving the Digital Record of Science and Engineering: The Challenge of New Forms of Grey Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musser, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Research communications today are largely conducted by digital means. At this time, however, only a small percentage of these digital communiques are archived and preserved for future use. This article provides an overview of the challenge of this digital grey literature, a brief overview of digital archiving, and the role librarians and…

  15. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales) experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation. PMID:26024370

  16. Extracting repetitive transients for rotating machinery diagnosis using multiscale clustered grey infogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan; Cabrera, Diego; de Oliveira, José Valente; Sanchez, René-Vinicio; Cerrada, Mariela; Zurita, Grover

    2016-08-01

    Local faults of rotating machinery usually result in repetitive transients whose impulsiveness or cyclostationarity can be employed as faulty signatures. However, to simultaneously accommodate the impulsiveness and the cyclostationarity is a challenging task for rotating machinery diagnostics. Inspired by recently-reported infogram that is sensitive to either the impulsiveness or the cyclostationarity using spectral negentropy defined in time domain or frequency domain, a multiscale clustering grey infogram (MCGI) is proposed by combining both negentropies in a grey fashion using multiscale clustering. Fourier spectrum of the vibration signal is decomposed into multiple scales with different initial resolutions. In each scale, fine segments are grouped using hierarchical clustering. Meanwhile, both time-domain and frequency-domain spectral negentropies are taken into account to guide the clustering through grey evaluation of both negentropies. Numerical simulations and experimental tests are carried out for validating the proposed MCGI. For comparison, peer methods are applied to challenge different noises and interferences. The results show that, thanks to the multiscale clustering of the spectrum and the grey evaluation of both negentropies, the present MCGI is robust in extracting the repetitive transients for the rotating machinery diagnosis.

  17. Grey Parrot Number Acquisition: The Inference of Cardinal Value from Ordinal Position on the Numeral List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepperberg, Irene M.; Carey, Susan

    2012-01-01

    A Grey parrot ("Psittacus erithacus") had previously been taught to use English count words ("one" through "sih" [six]) to label sets of one to six individual items (Pepperberg, 1994). He had also been taught to use the same count words to label the Arabic numerals 1 through 6. Without training, he inferred the relationship between the Arabic…

  18. Combination of volume and perfusion parameters reveals different types of grey matter changes in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lixue; Qin, Wen; Zhuo, Chuanjun; Liu, Huaigui; Zhu, Jiajia; Yu, Chunshui

    2017-03-27

    Diverse brain structural and functional changes have been reported in schizophrenia. Identifying different types of brain changes may help to understand the neural mechanisms and to develop reliable biomarkers in schizophrenia. We aimed to categorize different grey matter changes in schizophrenia based on grey matter volume (GMV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF). Structural and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired in 100 schizophrenia patients and 95 healthy comparison subjects. Voxel-based GMV comparison was used to show structural changes, CBF analysis was used to demonstrate functional changes. We identified three types of grey matter changes in schizophrenia: structural and functional impairments in the anterior cingulate cortex and insular cortex, displaying reduction in both GMV and CBF; structural impairment with preserved function in the frontal and temporal cortices, demonstrating decreased GMV with normal CBF; pure functional abnormality in the anterior cingulate cortex and lateral prefrontal cortex and putamen, showing altered CBF with normal GMV. By combination of GMV and CBF, we identified three types of grey matter changes in schizophrenia. These findings may help to understand the complex manifestations and to develop reliable biomarkers in schizophrenia.

  19. Tissue transglutaminase in marmoset experimental multiple sclerosis: discrepancy between white and grey matter.

    PubMed

    Espitia Pinzon, Nathaly; Stroo, Esther; 't Hart, Bert A; Bol, John G J M; Drukarch, Benjamin; Bauer, Jan; van Dam, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Infiltration of leukocytes is a major pathological event in white matter lesion formation in the brain of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. In grey matter lesions, less infiltration of these cells occur, but microglial activation is present. Thus far, the interaction of β-integrins with extracellular matrix proteins, e.g. fibronectin, is considered to be of importance for the influx of immune cells. Recent in vitro studies indicate a possible role for the enzyme tissue Transglutaminase (TG2) in mediating cell adhesion and migration. In the present study we questioned whether TG2 is present in white and grey matter lesions observed in the marmoset model for MS. To this end, immunohistochemical studies were performed. We observed that TG2, expressed by infiltrating monocytes in white matter lesions co-expressed β1-integrin and is located in close apposition to deposited fibronectin. These data suggest an important role for TG2 in the adhesion and migration of infiltrating monocytes during white matter lesion formation. Moreover, in grey matter lesions, TG2 is mainly present in microglial cells together with some β1-integrin, whereas fibronectin is absent in these lesions. These data imply an alternative role for microglial-derived TG2 in grey matter lesions, e.g. cell proliferation. Further research should clarify the functional role of TG2 in monocytes or microglial cells in MS lesion formation.

  20. The Relationship between Grey-Matter and ASD and ADHD Traits in Typical Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geurts, Hilde M.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Scholte, H. Steven

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether in 85 healthy adults (18-29 years) there is a relationship between grey-matter (GM) volume and autism and ADHD symptom severity. The structural MRI findings and autism and ADHD self-reports revealed that autism and ADHD symptom severity was correlated with GM volume in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Autism symptom-severity was…

  1. Macroparasite Fauna of Alien Grey Squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis): Composition, Variability and Implications for Native Species

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Claudia; Wauters, Lucas A.; Ferrari, Nicola; Lanfranchi, Paolo; Martinoli, Adriano; Pisanu, Benoît; Preatoni, Damiano G.; Saino, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Introduced hosts populations may benefit of an "enemy release" through impoverishment of parasite communities made of both few imported species and few acquired local ones. Moreover, closely related competing native hosts can be affected by acquiring introduced taxa (spillover) and by increased transmission risk of native parasites (spillback). We determined the macroparasite fauna of invasive grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) in Italy to detect any diversity loss, introduction of novel parasites or acquisition of local ones, and analysed variation in parasite burdens to identify factors that may increase transmission risk for native red squirrels (S. vulgaris). Based on 277 grey squirrels sampled from 7 populations characterised by different time scales in introduction events, we identified 7 gastro-intestinal helminths and 4 parasite arthropods. Parasite richness is lower than in grey squirrel's native range and independent from introduction time lags. The most common parasites are Nearctic nematodes Strongyloides robustus (prevalence: 56.6%) and Trichostrongylus calcaratus (6.5%), red squirrel flea Ceratophyllus sciurorum (26.0%) and Holarctic sucking louse Neohaematopinus sciuri (17.7%). All other parasites are European or cosmopolitan species with prevalence below 5%. S. robustus abundance is positively affected by host density and body mass, C. sciurorum abundance increases with host density and varies with seasons. Overall, we show that grey squirrels in Italy may benefit of an enemy release, and both spillback and spillover processes towards native red squirrels may occur. PMID:24505348

  2. Deriving Hounsfield units using grey levels in cone beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Mah, P; Reeves, T E; McDavid, W D

    2010-01-01

    Objectives An in vitro study was performed to investigate the relationship between grey levels in dental cone beam CT (CBCT) and Hounsfield units (HU) in CBCT scanners. Methods A phantom containing 8 different materials of known composition and density was imaged with 11 different dental CBCT scanners and 2 medical CT scanners. The phantom was scanned under three conditions: phantom alone and phantom in a small and large water container. The reconstructed data were exported as Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) and analysed with On Demand 3D® by Cybermed, Seoul, Korea. The relationship between grey levels and linear attenuation coefficients was investigated. Results It was demonstrated that a linear relationship between the grey levels and the attenuation coefficients of each of the materials exists at some “effective” energy. From the linear regression equation of the reference materials, attenuation coefficients were obtained for each of the materials and CT numbers in HU were derived using the standard equation. Conclusions HU can be derived from the grey levels in dental CBCT scanners using linear attenuation coefficients as an intermediate step. PMID:20729181

  3. [Determination of specific weight of the pigmented, grey and thick hairs from head].

    PubMed

    Kiazymov, Kh M; Buniatov, M O; Mamedov, Z M; Aliev, R A

    2009-04-01

    The hair of man is one of the complicated objects of investigation in forensic medicine expertise. The purpose of this research was to determine the significance of specific gravity of grey, pigmented, thin and thick hairs from head in identification of personality. The specific gravity and diameter of 10 grey, 10 pigmented and 10 thick and 10 thin hairs were investigated in seven men. The diameter of the hair plays a significant role in determination of the body area from which the hair may have arisen. The obtained data were statistically analyzed. The specific gravity fluctuations of grey hair in each of investigated persons was: 0,58-0,65; 1,81-1,92; 1,26-1,33; 0,86-0,92; 1,56-1,66; 2,25-2,34; 2,00-2,08 10(4) H/m(3). The specific gravity fluctuations of pigmented hair in each of seven persons was: 0,57-0,64; 1,80-1,92; 1,27-1,37; 0,87-0,93; 1,57-1,66; 2,26-2,34; 1,99-2,08 10(4) H/m(3). It was concluded that establishment of specific gravity of grey and pigmented hairs from head is vital for forensic medicine.

  4. Northern Alabama colonies of the endangered grey bat Myotis grisescens: Organochlorine contamination and mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.; Bagley, F.M.; Johnson, W.W.

    1988-01-01

    From 1976 to 1986, dead and dying grey bats Myotis grisescens and grey bat guano were collected from caves along the Tennessee River in northern Alabama to determine the possible role of organochlorine chemicals.sbd.in particular wastes from a former DDT manufacturing plant near Huntsville.sbd.in the mortalities. Concentrations of chemical residues in brains were less than known lethal levels: certain observations and analyses did indicate the possibility of past organochlorine-induced bat deaths. Levels of contaminants in bats declined slowly during the 10-year sampling period, but heavy residue burdens persist. The high ratio of DDD to DDE in residue from the former DDT plant made them identifiable as far as 140 km downriver. Grey bats concentrated chemical rsidues to higher levels and demonstrated the presence of these residues over much greater distances than did red-winged blackbirds Agelaius phoeniceus. Grey bats may be the most sensitive indicator available for monitoring the contamination from this former DDT manufacturing site.

  5. Legacy lost: genetic variability and population size of extirpated US grey wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Leonard, Jennifer A; Vilà, Carles; Wayne, Robert K

    2005-01-01

    By the mid 20th century, the grey wolf (Canis lupus) was exterminated from most of the conterminous United States (cUS) and Mexico. However, because wolves disperse over long distances, extant populations in Canada and Alaska might have retained a substantial proportion of the genetic diversity once found in the cUS. We analysed mitochondrial DNA sequences of 34 pre-extermination wolves and found that they had more than twice the diversity of their modern conspecifics, implying a historic population size of several hundred thousand wolves in the western cUS and Mexico. Further, two-thirds of the haplotypes found in the historic sample are unique. Sequences from Mexican grey wolves (C. l. baileyi) and some historic grey wolves defined a unique southern clade supporting a much wider geographical mandate for the reintroduction of Mexican wolves than currently planned. Our results highlight the genetic consequences of population extinction within Ice Age refugia and imply that restoration goals for grey wolves in the western cUS include far less area and target vastly lower population sizes than existed historically.

  6. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography and population history of the grey wolf canis lupus

    PubMed

    Vila; Amorim; Leonard; Posada; Castroviejo; Petrucci-Fonseca; Crandall; Ellegren; Wayne

    1999-12-01

    The grey wolf (Canis lupus) and coyote (C. latrans) are highly mobile carnivores that disperse over great distances in search of territories and mates. Previous genetic studies have shown little geographical structure in either species. However, population genetic structure is also influenced by past isolation events and population fluctuations during glacial periods. In this study, control region sequence data from a worldwide sample of grey wolves and a more limited sample of coyotes were analysed. The results suggest that fluctuating population sizes during the late Pleistocene have left a genetic signature on levels of variation in both species. Genealogical measures of nucleotide diversity suggest that historical population sizes were much larger in both species and grey wolves were more numerous than coyotes. Currently, about 300 000 wolves and 7 million coyotes exist. In grey wolves, genetic diversity is greater than that predicted from census population size, reflecting recent historical population declines. By contrast, nucleotide diversity in coyotes is smaller than that predicted by census population size, reflecting a recent population expansion following the extirpation of wolves from much of North America. Both species show little partitioning of haplotypes on continental or regional scales. However, a statistical parsimony analysis indicates local genetic structure that suggests recent restricted gene flow.

  7. Aspen's Global 100: Beyond Grey Pinstripes 2009-2010--Preparing MBAs for Social and Environmental Stewardship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspen Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Beyond Grey Pinstripes is a research survey and alternative ranking of business schools that spotlights innovative full-time MBA programs leading the way in integrating social and environmental stewardship into their curriculum and scholarly research. These schools are preparing today's students--tomorrow's leaders--for future market realities by…

  8. Managing the Grey Literature of a Discipline through Collaboration: AgEcon Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Julia; Letnes, Louise

    2005-01-01

    AgEcon Search, http://www.agecon.lib.umn.edu, is an important and ground-breaking example of an alternative method of delivering current research results to many potential users. AgEcon Search, through a distributed model, collects and disseminates the grey literature of the fields of agricultural and resource economics. The development of this…

  9. Behavioural responses of Eastern grey squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis, to cues of risk while foraging.

    PubMed

    Jayne, Kimberley; Lea, Stephen E G; Leaver, Lisa A

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that Eastern grey squirrels modify their behaviour while foraging to offset risks of social and predatory costs, but none have simultaneously compared whether such modifications are performed at a cost to foraging. The present study directly compares how grey squirrels respond to cues of these risks while foraging. We simulated social risk and predatory risk using acoustic playbacks of stimuli that grey squirrels might be exposed to at a foraging patch: calls of conspecifics, heterospecifics (competitor and non-competitor) and predators. We found that grey squirrels responded to predator, heterospecific competitor and conspecific playbacks by altering their foraging and vigilance behaviours. Foraging was most disrupted by increased vigilance when we played calls of predators. Squirrels' response to calls of heterospecific competitors did not differ from their response to conspecific calls, and they resumed foraging more quickly after both compared to predator calls: whereas they showed little response to calls of non-competitor heterospecifics and a white noise control. We conclude that squirrels respond differentially to calls made by conspecifics, heterospecific competitors and predators, with the most pronounced response being to calls of predators. We suggest that squirrels may view conspecific and corvid vocalisations as cues of potential conflict while foraging, necessitating increased vigilance.

  10. Complex Inheritance of Melanoma and Pigmentation of Coat and Skin in Grey Horses

    PubMed Central

    Druml, Thomas; Seltenhammer, Monika; Sundström, Elisabeth; Pielberg, Gerli Rosengren; Andersson, Leif

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The dominant phenotype of greying with age in horses, caused by a 4.6-kb duplication in intron 6 of STX17, is associated with a high incidence of melanoma and vitiligo-like skin depigmentation. However, the progressive greying and the incidence of melanoma, vitiligo-like depigmentation, and amount of speckling in these horses do not follow a simple inheritance pattern. To understand their inheritance, we analysed the melanoma grade, grey level, vitiligo grade, and speckling grade of 1,119 Grey horses (7,146 measurements) measured in six countries over a 9-year period. We estimated narrow sense heritability (h2), and we decomposed this parameter into polygenic heritability (h2 POLY), heritability due to the Grey (STX17) mutation (h2 STX17), and heritability due to agouti (ASIP) locus (h2 ASIP). A high heritability was found for greying (h2 = 0.79), vitiligo (h2 = 0.63), and speckling (h2 = 0.66), while a moderate heritability was estimated for melanoma (h2 = 0.37). The additive component of ASIP was significantly different from zero only for melanoma (h2 ASIP = 0.02). STX17 controlled large proportions of phenotypic variance (h2 STX17 = 0.18–0.55) and overall heritability (h2 STX17/h2 = 0.28–0.83) for all traits. Genetic correlations among traits were estimated as moderate to high, primarily due to the effects of the STX17 locus. Nevertheless, the correlation between progressive greying and vitiligo-like depigmentation remained large even after taking into account the effects of STX17. We presented a model where four traits with complex inheritance patterns are strongly influenced by a single mutation. This is in line with evidence of recent studies in domestic animals indicating that some complex traits are, in addition to the large number of genes with small additive effects, influenced by genes of moderate-to-large effect. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the STX17 mutation explains to a large extent the moderate to high

  11. Aerobic digestion of tannery wastewater in a sequential batch reactor by salt-tolerant bacterial strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durai, G.; Rajasimman, M.; Rajamohan, N.

    2011-09-01

    Among the industries generating hyper saline effluents, tanneries are prominent in India. Hyper saline wastewater is difficult to treat by conventional biological treatment methods. Salt-tolerant microbes can adapt to these conditions and degrade the organics in hyper saline wastewater. In this study, the performance of a bench scale aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was investigated to treat the tannery wastewater by the salt-tolerant bacterial strains namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus flexus, Exiguobacterium homiense and Styphylococcus aureus. The study was carried out under different operating conditions by changing the hydraulic retention time, organic loading rate and initial substrate concentration. From the results it was found that a maximum COD reduction of 90.4% and colour removal of 78.6% was attained. From this study it was found that the salt-tolerant microorganisms could improve the reduction efficiency of COD and colour of the tannery wastewater.

  12. Simultaneous removal of COD and ammonium from landfill leachate using an anaerobic-aerobic moving-bed biofilm reactor system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng; Sun, Dezhi; Chung, Jong-Shik

    2008-01-01

    The performance of a moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) system with an anaerobic-aerobic arrangement was investigated to treat landfill leachate for simultaneous removal of COD and ammonium. It was found that the anaerobic MBBR played a major role in COD removal due to methanogenesis, and the aerobic MBBR acted as COD-polishing and ammonium removal step. The contribution of the anaerobic MBBR to total COD removal efficiency reached 91% at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 4.08 kgCOD/(m3d), and gradually decreased to 86% when feed OLR was increased to 15.70 kgCOD/(m3d). Because of the complementary function of the aerobic reactor, the total COD removal efficiency of the system had a slight decrease from 94% to 92% even though the feed OLR was increased from 4.08 to 15.70 kgCOD/(m3d). Hydraulic retention time (HRT) had a significant effect on NH+4-N removal; more than 97% of the total NH+4-N removal efficiency could be achieved when the HRT of the aerobic MBBR was more than 1.25 days. The anaerobic-aerobic system had a strong tolerance to shock loading. A decrease in COD removal efficiency of only 7% was observed when the OLR was increased by four times and shock duration was 24 h, and the system could recover the original removal efficiency in 3 days. The average sludge yield of the anaerobic reactor was estimated to be 0.0538 gVSS/gCOD rem.

  13. Optimization of multiple quality characteristics in bone drilling using grey relational analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Rupesh Kumar; Panda, Sudhansu Sekhar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Drilling of bone is common during bone fracture treatment to fix the fractured parts with screws wires or plates. Minimally invasive drilling of the bone has a great demand as it helps in better fixation and quick healing of the broken bones. The purpose of the present investigation is to determine the optimum cutting condition for the minimization of the temperature, force and surface roughness simultaneously during bone drilling. Method In this study, drilling experiments have been performed on bovine bone with different conditions of feed rate and drill rotational speed using full factorial design. Optimal level of the drilling parameters is determined by the grey relational grade (GRG) obtained from the GRA as the performance index of multiple quality characteristics. The effect of each drilling parameter on GRG is determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the results obtained are validated by confirmation experiment. Results Grey relational analysis showed that the investigation with feed rate of 40 mm/min and spindle speed of 500 rpm has the highest grey relational grade and is recommended setting for minimum temperature, force and surface roughness simultaneously during bone drilling. Feed rate has the highest contribution (59.49%) on the multiple performance characteristics followed by the spindle speed (37.69%) as obtained from ANOVA analysis. Conclusions The use of grey relational analysis will simplify the complex process of optimization of the multi response characteristics in bone drilling by converting them into a single grey relational grade. The use of the above suggested methodology can greatly minimize the bone tissue injury during drilling. PMID:25829751

  14. Changes in trace elements during lactation in a marine top predator, the grey seal.

    PubMed

    Habran, Sarah; Pomeroy, Paddy P; Debier, Cathy; Das, Krishna

    2013-01-15

    Lactation in pinnipeds represents the most significant cost to mothers during the reproductive cycle. Dynamics of trace elements and their mobilization associated with energy reserves during such an intense physiological process remains poorly understood in marine mammals. The changes in tissue concentrations of 11 elements (Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, V, and Zn) were investigated in a longitudinal study during the lactation period and during the post-weaning fast period. Blood, milk, blubber, and hair samples were collected sequentially from 21 mother-pup pairs of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) from the Isle of May in Scotland. Maternal transfer through the milk was observed for all trace elements, except for Cd. As an indicator of the placental transfer, levels in pup lanugo (natal coat) revealed also the existence of maternal transfer and accumulation of all assayed trace elements during the foetal development. The placental and mammary barriers against non-essential metal transfer to offspring appear to be absent or weak in grey seals. Examining the contamination levels showed that this grey seal population seems more highly exposed to Pb than other phocid populations (2.2 mg/kg dw of grey seal hair). In contrast, blood and hair levels reflected a lower Hg exposure in grey seals from the Isle of May than in harbour seals from the southeastern North Sea. This study also showed that trace element concentrations in blood and blubber could change rapidly over the lactation period. Such physiological processes must be considered carefully during biomonitoring of trace elements, and potential impacts that rapid fluctuations in concentrations can exert on seal health should be further investigated.

  15. Optimum projection pattern generation for grey-level coded structured light illumination systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porras-Aguilar, Rosario; Falaggis, Konstantinos; Ramos-Garcia, Ruben

    2017-04-01

    Structured light illumination (SLI) systems are well-established optical inspection techniques for noncontact 3D surface measurements. A common technique is multi-frequency sinusoidal SLI that obtains the phase map at various fringe periods in order to estimate the absolute phase, and hence, the 3D surface information. Nevertheless, multi-frequency SLI systems employ multiple measurement planes (e.g. four phase shifted frames) to obtain the phase at a given fringe period. It is therefore an age old challenge to obtain the absolute surface information using fewer measurement frames. Grey level (GL) coding techniques have been developed as an attempt to reduce the number of planes needed, because a spatio-temporal GL sequence employing p discrete grey-levels and m frames has the potential to unwrap up to pm fringes. Nevertheless, one major disadvantage of GL based SLI techniques is that there are often errors near the border of each stripe, because an ideal stepwise intensity change cannot be measured. If the step-change in intensity is a single discrete grey-level unit, this problem can usually be overcome by applying an appropriate threshold. However, severe errors occur if the intensity change at the border of the stripe exceeds several discrete grey-level units. In this work, an optimum GL based technique is presented that generates a series of projection patterns with a minimal gradient in the intensity. It is shown that when using this technique, the errors near the border of the stripes can be significantly reduced. This improvement is achieved with the choice generated patterns, and does not involve additional hardware or special post-processing techniques. The performance of that method is validated using both simulations and experiments. The reported technique is generic, works with an arbitrary number of frames, and can employ an arbitrary number of grey-levels.

  16. Voxel-wise grey matter asymmetry analysis in left- and right-handers.

    PubMed

    Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Friedrich, Patrick; Güntürkün, Onur; Genç, Erhan

    2016-10-28

    Handedness is thought to originate in the brain, but identifying its structural correlates in the cortex has yielded surprisingly incoherent results. One idea proclaimed by several authors is that structural grey matter asymmetries might underlie handedness. While some authors have found significant associations with handedness in different brain areas (e.g. in the central sulcus and precentral sulcus), others have failed to identify such associations. One method used by many researchers to determine structural grey matter asymmetries is voxel based morphometry (VBM). However, it has recently been suggested that the standard VBM protocol might not be ideal to assess structural grey matter asymmetries, as it establishes accurate voxel-wise correspondence across individuals but not across both hemispheres. This could potentially lead to biased and incoherent results. Recently, a new toolbox specifically geared at assessing structural asymmetries and involving accurate voxel-wise correspondence across hemispheres has been published [F. Kurth, C. Gaser, E. Luders. A 12-step user guide for analyzing voxel-wise gray matter asymmetries in statistical parametric mapping (SPM), Nat Protoc 10 (2015), 293-304]. Here, we used this new toolbox to re-assess grey matter asymmetry differences in left- vs. right-handers and linked them to quantitative measures of hand preference and hand skill. While we identified several significant left-right asymmetries in the overall sample, no difference between left- and right-handers reached significance after correction for multiple comparisons. These findings indicate that the structural brain correlates of handedness are unlikely to be rooted in macroscopic grey matter area differences that can be assessed with VBM. Future studies should focus on other potential structural correlates of handedness, e.g. structural white matter asymmetries.

  17. Cortical grey matter volume reduction in people with schizophrenia is associated with neuro-inflammation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Catts, V S; Sheedy, D; McCrossin, T; Kril, J J; Shannon Weickert, C

    2016-12-13

    Cortical grey matter volume deficits and neuro-inflammation exist in patients with schizophrenia, although it is not clear whether elevated cytokines contribute to the cortical volume reduction. We quantified cortical and regional brain volumes in fixed postmortem brains from people with schizophrenia and matched controls using stereology. Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, IL-8 and SERPINA3 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were quantified in the contralateral fresh frozen orbitofrontal cortex. We found a small, but significant reduction in cortical grey matter (1.3%; F(1,85)=4.478, P=0.037) and superior frontal gyrus (6.5%; F(1,80)=5.700, P=0.019) volumes in individuals with schizophrenia compared with controls. Significantly reduced cortical grey matter (9.2%; F(1,24)=8.272, P=0.008) and superior frontal gyrus (13.9%; F(1,20)=5.374, P=0.031) volumes were found in cases with schizophrenia and 'high inflammation' status relative to schizophrenia cases with 'low inflammation' status in the prefrontal cortex. The expression of inflammatory mRNAs in the orbitofrontal cortex was significantly correlated with those in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (all r>0.417, all P<0.022), except for IL-8. Moreover, average daily and lifetime antipsychotic intake negatively correlated with cortical grey matter and superior frontal gyrus volumes (all r<-0.362, all P<0.05). The results suggest that the reduction in cortical grey matter volume in people with schizophrenia is exaggerated in those who have high expression of inflammatory cytokines. Further, antipsychotic medication intake does not appear to ameliorate the reduction in brain volume.

  18. Identifying grey matter changes in schizotypy using partial least squares correlation.

    PubMed

    Wiebels, Kristina; Waldie, Karen E; Roberts, Reece P; Park, Haeme R P

    2016-08-01

    Neuroimaging research into the brain structure of schizophrenia patients has shown consistent reductions in grey matter volume relative to healthy controls. Examining structural differences in individuals with high levels of schizotypy may help elucidate the course of disorder progression, and provide further support for the schizotypy-schizophrenia continuum. Thus far, the few studies investigating grey matter differences in schizotypy have produced inconsistent results. In the current study, we used a multivariate partial least squares (PLS) approach to clarify the relationship between psychometric schizotypy (measured by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences) and grey matter volume in 49 healthy adults. We found a negative association between all schizotypy dimensions and grey matter volume in the frontal and temporal lobes, as well as the insula. We also found a positive association between all schizotypy dimensions and grey matter volume in the parietal and temporal lobes, and in subcortical regions. Further correlational analyses revealed that positive and disorganised schizotypy were strongly associated with key regions (left superior temporal gyrus and insula) most consistently reported to be affected in schizophrenia and schizotypy. We also compared PLS with the typically used General Linear Model (GLM) and demonstrate that PLS can be reliably used as an extension to voxel-based morphometry (VBM) data. This may be particularly valuable for schizotypy research due to PLS' ability to detect small, but reliable effects. Together, the findings indicate that healthy schizotypal individuals exhibit structural changes in regions associated with schizophrenia. This adds to the evidence of an overlap of phenotypic expression between schizotypy and schizophrenia, and may help establish biological endophenotypes for the disorder.

  19. Cortical grey matter volume reduction in people with schizophrenia is associated with neuro-inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y; Catts, V S; Sheedy, D; McCrossin, T; Kril, J J; Shannon Weickert, C

    2016-01-01

    Cortical grey matter volume deficits and neuro-inflammation exist in patients with schizophrenia, although it is not clear whether elevated cytokines contribute to the cortical volume reduction. We quantified cortical and regional brain volumes in fixed postmortem brains from people with schizophrenia and matched controls using stereology. Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, IL-8 and SERPINA3 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were quantified in the contralateral fresh frozen orbitofrontal cortex. We found a small, but significant reduction in cortical grey matter (1.3% F(1,85)=4.478, P=0.037) and superior frontal gyrus (6.5% F(1,80)=5.700, P=0.019) volumes in individuals with schizophrenia compared with controls. Significantly reduced cortical grey matter (9.2% F(1,24)=8.272, P=0.008) and superior frontal gyrus (13.9% F(1,20)=5.374, P=0.031) volumes were found in cases with schizophrenia and ‘high inflammation' status relative to schizophrenia cases with ‘low inflammation' status in the prefrontal cortex. The expression of inflammatory mRNAs in the orbitofrontal cortex was significantly correlated with those in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (all r>0.417, all P<0.022), except for IL-8. Moreover, average daily and lifetime antipsychotic intake negatively correlated with cortical grey matter and superior frontal gyrus volumes (all r<−0.362, all P<0.05). The results suggest that the reduction in cortical grey matter volume in people with schizophrenia is exaggerated in those who have high expression of inflammatory cytokines. Further, antipsychotic medication intake does not appear to ameliorate the reduction in brain volume. PMID:27959331

  20. Increased Grey Matter Associated with Long-Term Sahaja Yoga Meditation: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Sergio Elías; Suero, José; Barros, Alfonso; González-Mora, José Luis; Rubia, Katya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate regional differences in grey matter volume associated with the practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation. Design Twenty three experienced practitioners of Sahaja Yoga Meditation and twenty three non-meditators matched on age, gender and education level, were scanned using structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging and their grey matter volume were compared using Voxel-Based Morphometry. Results Grey matter volume was larger in meditators relative to non-meditators across the whole brain. In addition, grey matter volume was larger in several predominantly right hemispheric regions: in insula, ventromedial orbitofrontal cortex, inferior temporal and parietal cortices as well as in left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and left insula. No areas with larger grey matter volume were found in non-meditators relative to meditators. Conclusions The study shows that long-term practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation is associated with larger grey matter volume overall, and with regional enlargement in several right hemispheric cortical and subcortical brain regions that are associated with sustained attention, self-control, compassion and interoceptive perception. The increased grey matter volume in these attention and self-control mediating regions suggests use-dependent enlargement with regular practice of this meditation. PMID:26938433

  1. Applying the grey assessment to the evaluation system of ecological green space on greening projects in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Wei; Chen, Chui-Hui; Chang, Hsueh-Cherng; Chen, Tzu-Chun

    2008-01-01

    This study is designed to develop an alternative evaluation method for ecological green space. It offers criteria for identifying ecological green space on building sites. The grey decision-making method is applied to assess the greening project at the first step. The evaluation items are rebuilt by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method at the second step. The range of standard values and the weighting values are also obtained by AHP. Grey classes are identified using the whitening weight function of the grey number. The evaluation system of the ecological green space is framed by grey clusters. We considered the factors of building environment and the scale of building sites in the ecological greenery of green building sites.This study proposes a new model to solve the problems hard to be quantified. Especially for those ecological benefits are too close to decide. Architects and landscape architects can input the engineering data and the design information into the ecological greenery assessment system. The identification and assessment system of green space is fit for Taiwan area. We will obtain the best greening project by the maximum value of absolute degree of grey incidence (max{epsilon(ij)}) in grey-decision making. The maximum value of synthetic clustering coefficient (max{sigma(k)}) in grey clustering assessment reflects the quality and variation of green space.

  2. Mapping grey matter reductions in schizophrenia: an anatomical likelihood estimation analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies.

    PubMed

    Fornito, A; Yücel, M; Patti, J; Wood, S J; Pantelis, C

    2009-03-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is a popular tool for mapping neuroanatomical changes in schizophrenia patients. Several recent meta-analyses have identified the brain regions in which patients most consistently show grey matter reductions, although they have not examined whether such changes reflect differences in grey matter concentration (GMC) or grey matter volume (GMV). These measures assess different aspects of grey matter integrity, and may therefore reflect different pathological processes. In this study, we used the Anatomical Likelihood Estimation procedure to analyse significant differences reported in 37 VBM studies of schizophrenia patients, incorporating data from 1646 patients and 1690 controls, and compared the findings of studies using either GMC or GMV to index grey matter differences. Analysis of all studies combined indicated that grey matter reductions in a network of frontal, temporal, thalamic and striatal regions are among the most frequently reported in literature. GMC reductions were generally larger and more consistent than GMV reductions, and were more frequent in the insula, medial prefrontal, medial temporal and striatal regions. GMV reductions were more frequent in dorso-medial frontal cortex, and lateral and orbital frontal areas. These findings support the primacy of frontal, limbic, and subcortical dysfunction in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and suggest that the grey matter changes observed with MRI may not necessarily result from a unitary pathological process.

  3. Recovery of Nickel and Cobalt from Laterite Tailings by Reductive Dissolution under Aerobic Conditions Using Acidithiobacillus Species.

    PubMed

    Marrero, J; Coto, O; Goldmann, S; Graupner, T; Schippers, A

    2015-06-02

    Biomining of sulfidic ores has been applied for almost five decades. However, the bioprocessing of oxide ores such as laterites lags commercially behind. Recently, the Ferredox process was proposed to treat limonitic laterite ores by means of anaerobic reductive dissolution (AnRD), which was found to be more effective than aerobic bioleaching by fungi and other bacteria. We show here that the ferric iron reduction mediated by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans can be applied to an aerobic reductive dissolution (AeRD) of nickel laterite tailings. AeRD using a consortium of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans extracted similar amounts of nickel (53-57%) and cobalt (55-60%) in only 7 days as AnRD using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The economic and environmental advantages of AeRD for processing of laterite tailings comprise no requirement for an anoxic atmosphere, 1.8-fold less acid consumption than for AnRD, as well as nickel and cobalt recovered in a ferrous-based pregnant leach solution (PLS), facilitating the subsequent metal recovery. In addition, an aerobic acid regeneration stage is proposed. Therefore, AeRD process development can be considered as environmentally friendly for treating laterites with low operational costs and as an attractive alternative to AnRD.

  4. Grey, a novel mutation in the murine Lyst gene, causes the beige phenotype by skipping of exon 25.

    PubMed

    Runkel, Fabian; Büssow, Heinrich; Seburn, Kevin L; Cox, Gregory A; Ward, Diane McVey; Kaplan, Jerry; Franz, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    The murine beige mutant phenotype and the human Chediak-Higashi syndrome are caused by mutations in the murine Lyst (lysosomal trafficking regulator) gene and the human CHS gene, respectively. In this report we have analyzed a novel murine mutant Lyst allele, called Lyst(bg-grey), that had been found in an ENU mutation screen and named grey because of the grey coat color of affected mice. The phenotype caused by the Lyst(bg-grey) mutation was inherited in a recessive fashion. Melanosomes of melanocytes associated with hair follicles and the choroid layer of the eye, as well as melanosomes in the neural tube-derived pigment epithelium of the retina, were larger and irregularly shaped in homozygous mutants compared with those of wild-type controls. Secretory vesicles in dermal mast cells of the mutant skin were enlarged as well. Test crosses with beige homozygous mutant mice (Lyst(bg)) showed that double heterozygotes (Lyst(bg)/Lyst(bg-grey)) were phenotypically indistinguishable from either homozygous parent, demonstrating that the ENU mutation was an allele of the murine Lyst gene. RT-PCR analyses revealed the skipping of exon 25 in Lyst(bg-grey) mutants, which is predicted to cause a missense D2399E mutation and the loss of the following 77 amino acids encoded by exon 25 but leave the C-terminal end of the protein intact. Analysis of the genomic Lyst locus around exon 25 showed that the splice donor at the end of exon 25 showed a T-to-C transition point mutation. Western blot analysis suggests that the Lyst(bg-grey) mutation causes instability of the LYST protein. Because the phenotype of Lyst(bg) and Lyst(bg-grey) mutants is indistinguishable, at least with respect to melanosomes and secretory granules in mast cells, the Lyst(bg-grey) mutation defines a critical region for the stability of the murine LYST protein.

  5. Optimal cultivation of simultaneous ammonium and phosphorus removal aerobic granular sludge in A/O/A sequencing batch reactor and the assessment of functional organisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cuiya; Zhang, Hanmin; Yang, Fenglin

    2014-08-01

    In this study, sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with an anaerobic/aerobic/anoxic operating mode was used to culture granular sludge. Optimal adjustment of cycle duration was achieved by the direction ofpH, oxidation reduction potential and dissolved oxygen parameters. The results showed that the treating efficiency was significantly improved as the cycle was shortened from 450 to 360 min and further to 200 min. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal were nearly quantitative after 50 days operation and maintained stable to the end of the study period. The typical cycle tests revealed that simultaneous denitrification and phosphorus removal occurred when aerobic granules were gradually formed. The nitrite effect tests showed that less than 4.8 mg N/L of the nitrite could enhance superficial specific aerobic phosphate uptake rate (SAPUR) under aerobic condition, indicating that the traditional method to evaluate the capability of total phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) was inaccurate. Additionally, a high level of nitrite was detrimental to PAOs. A novel method was developed to determine the activity of each kind of PAOs and other denitrifying organisms. The results showed that (1) nitrate, besides nitrite, could also enhance SAPUR and (2) aerobic granular sludge could perform denitrification even when phosphate was not supplied under anoxic condition, suggesting that other denitrifying organisms besides denitrifying phosphate-accumulating organisms also contributed to denitrification.

  6. Obesity-Related Hormones and Metabolic Risk Factors: A Randomized Trial of Diet plus Either Strength or Aerobic Training versus Diet Alone in Overweight Participants

    PubMed Central

    Geliebter, Allan; Ochner, Christopher N; Dambkowski, Carl L; Hashim, Sami A

    2014-01-01

    There is debate about the additive effects of exercise in conjunction with diet to treat obesity, and not much is known about the differential effects of strength versus aerobic training. This randomized controlled trial examined the effects of diet plus strength training, diet plus aerobic training, or diet only on metabolic risk factors associated with obesity. Eighty-one overweight and obese participants completed the 8-week intervention. All participants received an energy-restrictive formula diet with an energy content based on 70% of measured resting metabolic rate (RMR). Participants assigned to an exercise group trained 3 days/week under supervision. Anthropometrics and fasting hormones were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Mean weight loss (8.5 ± 4.3kg SD) did not differ between groups nor did reductions in BMI or body fat, although the diet plus strength training group showed marginally greater lean mass retention. There were significant improvements in the values and number of metabolic syndrome risk factors, and decreases in insulin concentrations and insulin resistance, which did not vary between groups. For men, testosterone increased significantly more in the diet plus aerobic training as compared to the other groups. As compared to diet alone, the addition of strength or aerobic training did not improve changes in BMI, body fat or metabolic risk factors although the diet plus strength training group showed a trend toward preservation of lean mass, and the diet plus aerobic group in men resulted in increased testosterone concentrations. PMID:25599089

  7. Performance and kinetic evaluation of an integrated anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor in the treatment of palm oil mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yi Jing; Chong, Mei Fong; Law, Chung Lim

    2017-04-01

    This work presents the evaluation of biokinetic coefficients for a novel integrated anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor (IAAB) at different organic loading rates (OLRs) (10.5-22.5 g COD/L per day) treating palm oil mill effluent. The overall efficiencies of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) were more than 99% for OLR up to 19.5 g COD/L day with biogas production containing 48-64% of methane. The effluent quality remained stable (BOD < 80 mg/L) and satisfied with the discharge limit. Stover-Kincannon model was the most appropriate model to estimate the performance of anaerobic compartment of IAAB, while Monod model was best suited for describing the aerobic compartment.

  8. External Beam Radiation Therapy of Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Beak of an African Grey Parrot (Psittacus timneh).

    PubMed

    Swisher, Samantha D; Phillips, Kathryn L; Tobias, Jeremy R; Cullen, John M; Gieger, Tracy L; Grunkemeyer, Vanessa L

    2016-09-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma has been reported in a variety of bird species, most commonly psittacine and gallinaceous birds. The long-term prognosis in nongallinaceous birds is generally poor if complete surgical excision is not possible. Squamous cell carcinoma of the rhinotheca was diagnosed in a 34-year-old timneh African grey parrot (Psittacus timneh) with a 2-year history of beak abnormalities. No evidence of metastasis or local invasion were found on results of radiographs or computed tomography scan. The bird was treated with surgical debulking and palliative megavoltage radiation therapy. After 4 radiation treatments, the affected tissue was necrotic and was debrided to reveal healthy granulation tissue. The bird died approximately 7 months after diagnosis and 4 months after cessation of radiation treatment. At the time of death, a small scab lesion remained at the left oral commissure, but no visible tumor regrowth was evident. A postmortem examination was not performed, however, and tumor recurrence could not be ruled out in this bird.

  9. Growth and development of chicks of two species of partridge: the grey partridge (Perdix perdix) and the chukar (Alectoris chukar).

    PubMed

    Pis, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    1. In two partridge species, the grey partridge (Perdix perdix) and chukar (Alectoris chukar), from hatching up to 120 d, the growth rate and development of body mass, wing, tarsus, and bill length were measured and fitted by Gompertz equations. 2. As a typical precocial species, partridges hatched with relatively well developed legs and bills, and wing growth followed a gradual development of thermoregulation. 3. Gompertz growth constants for body mass growth were 0·039 and 0·038 for grey partridges and chukars, respectively. 4. The allometric relationship between tarsus length and body mass followed a geometric similarity (1/3 power) in both grey partridges and chukars.

  10. Seal dynamics on the Swedish west coast: Scenarios of competition as Baltic grey seal intrude on harbour seal territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, Carl Johan

    2012-07-01

    The Kattegat-Skagerrak region on the Swedish west coast is home to an abundant harbour seal population (Phoca vitulina) and a small scattered grey seal population (Halichoerus grypus). In addition, grey seal from the growing population in the Baltic Sea frequently migrate into the Kattegat-Skagerrak. Harbour seals on the west coast of Sweden show relatively high population growth (approximately 9%) compared to the Baltic grey seal in ice-free habitats (approximately 6%), which, in theory, makes harbour seal the stronger competitor of the two in this region. However, incidents of disease in harbour seals that lower population growth are becoming more frequent. These epidemics are primarily caused by the Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV), and may reduce population size with up to 70%. This study models the average development under potential scenarios of competing harbour- and Baltic grey seal populations using Leslie matrices and the Lotka-Volterra model of inter-specific competition. The model is parameterised with previously published data, and resource overlap is incorporated through density dependent pup survival. Using numerical methods short- and long-term abundances are simulated under weak, moderate and strong competition and for different frequencies of PDV epidemics. Results show that the harbour seals are resilient to competition while exerting a negative effect on grey seal abundance under moderate to strong competition. Hence Baltic grey seal benefit from weaker levels of competition. Under moderate and strong competition grey seal abundance is a direct function of the PDV frequency as this reduces the competitive strength of harbour seals. Theoretically this means that higher frequencies of PDV or other pathogens epidemics could facilitate an expansion of Baltic grey seal into Kattegat-Skagerrak. Independent of interaction strength and frequency of epidemics the projected changes to abundances are slow (50-100 years), and even in exceedingly stable

  11. Summary report on the aerobic degradation of diesel fuel and the degradation of toluene under aerobic, denitrifying and sulfate reducing conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Coyne, P.; Smith, G.

    1995-08-15

    This report contains a number of studies that were performed to better understand the technology of the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Topics of investigation include the following: diesel fuel degradation by Rhodococcus erythropolis; BTEX degradation by soil isolates; aerobic degradation of diesel fuel-respirometry; aerobic degradation of diesel fuel-shake culture; aerobic toluene degradation by A3; effect of HEPES, B1, and myo-inositol addition on the growth of A3; aerobic and anaerobic toluene degradation by contaminated soils; denitrifying bacteria MPNs; sulfate-reducing bacteria MPNs; and aerobic, DNB and SRB enrichments.

  12. Haemoglobin, blood volume, cardiac function, and aerobic power.

    PubMed

    Gledhill, N; Warburton, D; Jamnik, V

    1999-02-01

    Alterations in [Hb], which are mediated through changes in arterial oxygen content, and alterations in BV, which are mediated through changes in cardiac output (Q), have a significant effect on both VO2max and aerobic performance. If BV is held constant, a decrease in [Hb] (anaemia) causes a decrease in VO2max and aerobic performance, while an increase in [Hb] (blood doping) causes an increase in VO2max and aerobic performance. If [Hb] is held constant, an increase in BV can cause and increase in both VO2max and aerobic performance, while a decrease in BV can cause a decrease in VO2max and aerobic performance. In addition, an increase in BV can compensate for moderate reductions in [Hb] through increase in Q, allowing VO2max to remain unchanged or even increase. Also, a large portion of the difference in the enhanced cardiovascular function of endurance athletes is due to their high BV and the resultant enhancement of diastolic function. Hence, optimizing both [Hb] and BV is a very important consideration for endurance performance.

  13. Gender difference in anaerobic capacity: role of aerobic contribution.

    PubMed

    Hill, D W; Smith, J C

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of gender on anaerobic and aerobic contributions to high-intensity exercise. A group of 38 subjects (22 women, 16 men) performed modified Wingate tests against resistances of 0.086 kg kg-1 body mass (0.844 N kg-1) for women and 0.095 kg kg-1 body mass (0.932 N kg-1) for men. The aerobic contribution to total work performed was determined from breath-by-breath analyses of expired gases during each test. Total work in 30 s was 30% lower (Student's t test; P < 0.01) in women than men (211 +/- 5 J kg-1 versus 299 +/- 14 J kg-1). Aerobic contribution was only 7% lower (P = 0.12) in women than men (53 +/- 1 J kg-1 versus 57 +/- 2 J kg-1). The anaerobic component of the work performed, determined by subtraction of the aerobic component from total work in 30 s, was 35% lower (P < 0.01) in women than men (158 +/- 5 J kg-1 versus 242 +/- 15 J kg-1). It is concluded that, because women provide a relatively higher (P < 0.01) portion of the energy for a 30-s test aerobically than men (25% versus 20%), total work during a Wingate test actually underestimates the gender difference in anaerobic capacity between women and men.

  14. Mood alterations in mindful versus aerobic exercise modes.

    PubMed

    Netz, Yael; Lidor, Ronnie

    2003-09-01

    The results of most recent studies have generally indicated an improvement in mood after participation in aerobic exercise. However, only a few researchers have compared mindful modes of exercise with aerobic exercise to examine the effect of 1 single session of exercise on mood. In the present study, the authors assessed state anxiety, depressive mood, and subjective well-being prior to and following 1 class of 1 of 4 exercise modes: yoga, Feldenkrais (awareness through movement), aerobic dance, and swimming; a computer class served as a control. Participants were 147 female general curriculum and physical education teachers (mean age = 40.15, SD = 0.2) voluntarily enrolled in a 1-year enrichment program at a physical education college. Analyses of variance for repeated measures revealed mood improvement following Feldenkrais, swimming, and yoga but not following aerobic dance and computer lessons. Mindful low-exertion activities as well as aerobic activities enhanced mood in 1 single session of exercise. The authors suggest that more studies assessing the mood-enhancing benefits of mindful activities such as Feldenkrais and yoga are needed.

  15. Strength and aerobic training in overweight females in Gdansk, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Sawczyn, Stanisław; Mishchenko, Viktor; Moska, Waldemar; Sawczyn, Michał; Jagiełło, Marina; Kuehne, Tatiana; Nowak, Robert; Cięszczyk, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    We compared the effects of 16-week-training on rest metabolic rate, aerobic power, and body fat, and the post-exercise effects upon rest oxygen uptake and respiratory exchange ratio in overweight middle-aged females. Twenty nine overweight women (BMI 29.9 ± 1.2 kg*m−2) participated in training (3 days a week). The subjects were divided onto groups of aerobic (AT) and strength (ST) training. The results showed that the total body mass decrease and VO2 max increase did not differ in both groups. Decrease in waist circumference after 16 weeks was higher in the ST group. In the ST group fat-free mass increased during the first 8 weeks. Rest metabolic rate was increased significantly at 16th week compared to initial value in ST group only. Significant increase in post-exercise resting VO2 and respiratory exchange ratio at 12 and 36 h was observed after the strength training session only. Increase in rest metabolic rate and post-exercise rest energy expenditure occurred after strength training but not after aerobic training despite the similar increase in aerobic power. The effect of 8–16 weeks of strength training on body mass decrease was higher in comparison to aerobic training. PMID:28352690

  16. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Enteric Gram Negative Facultative Anaerobe Bacilli in Aerobic versus Anaerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Amachawadi, Raghavendra G.; Renter, David G.; Volkova, Victoriya V.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial treatments result in the host’s enteric bacteria being exposed to the antimicrobials. Pharmacodynamic models can describe how this exposure affects the enteric bacteria and their antimicrobial resistance. The models utilize measurements of bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility traditionally obtained in vitro in aerobic conditions. However, in vivo enteric bacteria are exposed to antimicrobials in anaerobic conditions of the lower intestine. Some of enteric bacteria of food animals are potential foodborne pathogens, e.g., Gram-negative bacilli Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. These are facultative anaerobes; their physiology and growth rates change in anaerobic conditions. We hypothesized that their antimicrobial susceptibility also changes, and evaluated differences in the susceptibility in aerobic vs. anaerobic conditions of generic E. coli and Salmonella enterica of diverse serovars isolated from cattle feces. Susceptibility of an isolate was evaluated as its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measured by E-Test® following 24 hours of adaptation to the conditions on Mueller-Hinton agar, and on a more complex tryptic soy agar with 5% sheep blood (BAP) media. We considered all major antimicrobial drug classes used in the U.S. to treat cattle: β-lactams (specifically, ampicillin and ceftriaxone E-Test®), aminoglycosides (gentamicin and kanamycin), fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin), classical macrolides (erythromycin), azalides (azithromycin), sulfanomides (sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim), and tetracyclines (tetracycline). Statistical analyses were conducted for the isolates (n≥30) interpreted as susceptible to the antimicrobials based on the clinical breakpoint interpretation for human infection. Bacterial susceptibility to every antimicrobial tested was statistically significantly different in anaerobic vs. aerobic conditions on both media, except for no difference in susceptibility to ceftriaxone on BAP agar. A satellite experiment

  17. Simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal in anoxic-aerobic circulating fluidized bed biological reactor (CFBBR).

    PubMed

    Cui, Y; Nakhla, G; Zhu, J; Patel, A

    2004-06-01

    Biological nutrient removal (BNR) in municipal wastewater treatment to remove carbonaceous substrates and nutrients, has recently become increasingly popular worldwide due to increasingly stringent regulations. Biological fluidized bed (BFB) technology, which could be potentially used for BNR, can provide some advantages such as high efficiency and a compact structure. This work shows the results of simultaneous elimination of organic carbon and nitrogen using a circulating fluidized bed biological reactor (CFBBR, which has been developed recently for chemical engineering processes. The CFBBR has two fluidized beds, running as anoxic and aerobic processes to accomplish simultaneous nitrification and denitrification, with continuous liquid recirculation through the anoxic bed and the aerobic bed. Soluble COD concentrations in the effluent ranging from 4 to 20 mg l(-1) were obtained at varying COD loading rates; ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies averaged in excess of 99% at a minimum total hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2.0 hours over a temperature range of 25 degrees C to 28 degrees C. Effluent nitrate nitrogen concentration of less than 5 mg l(-1) was achieved by increasing effluent recycle rate. No nitrite accumulation was observed either in the anoxic bed or in the aerobic bed. The system was able to treat grit chamber effluent wastewater at a HRT of 2.0 hours while achieving average effluent BOD, COD, NH3-N, TKN, nitrates, total phosphate, TSS and VSS concentrations of 10 mg l(-1), 18 mg l(-1), 1.3 mg l(-1), 1.5 mg l(-1), 7 mg l(-1), 2.0 mg l(-1), 10 mg l(-1) and 8 mg l(-1) respectively. The CFBBR appears to be not only an excellent alternative for conventional activated sludge type BNR technologies but also capable of processing much higher loadings that are suitable for industrial applications.

  18. Effects of 12 weeks of aerobic training on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Marceli Rocha; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; Kalva-Filho, Carlos Augusto; Freire, Ana Paula Coelho Figueira; de Alencar Silva, Bruna Spolador; Nicolino, Juliana; de Toledo-Arruda, Alessandra Choqueta; Papoti, Marcelo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Ramos, Dionei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit aerobic function, autonomic nervous system, and mucociliary clearance alterations. These parameters can be attenuated by aerobic training, which can be applied with continuous or interval efforts. However, the possible effects of aerobic training, using progressively both continuous and interval sessions (ie, linear periodization), require further investigation. Aim To analyze the effects of 12-week aerobic training using continuous and interval sessions on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic function in patients with COPD. Methods Sixteen patients with COPD were divided into an aerobic (continuous and interval) training group (AT) (n=10) and a control group (CG) (n=6). An incremental test (initial speed of 2.0 km·h−1, constant slope of 3%, and increments of 0.5 km·h−1 every 2 minutes) was performed. The training group underwent training for 4 weeks at 60% of the peak velocity reached in the incremental test (vVO2peak) (50 minutes of continuous effort), followed by 4 weeks of sessions at 75% of vVO2peak (30 minutes of continuous effort), and 4 weeks of interval training (5×3-minute effort at vVO2peak, separated by 1 minute of passive recovery). Intensities were adjusted through an incremental test performed at the end of each period. Results The AT presented an increase in the high frequency index (ms2) (P=0.04), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) (P=0.01), vVO2peak (P=0.04), and anaerobic threshold (P=0.02). No significant changes were observed in the CG (P>0.21) group. Neither of the groups presented changes in mucociliary clearance after 12 weeks (AT: P=0.94 and CG: P=0.69). Conclusion Twelve weeks of aerobic training (continuous and interval sessions) positively influenced the autonomic modulation and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD. However, mucociliary clearance was not affected by aerobic training. PMID:26648712

  19. The influence of treatment with dual purpose bacterial inoculants or soluble carbohydrates on the fermentation and aerobic stability of bermudagrass.

    PubMed

    Adesogan, A T; Krueger, N; Salawu, M B; Dean, D B; Staples, C R

    2004-10-01

    This study determined the effectiveness of an inoculant (BB), molasses, or a mixture of either BB and molasses (BBM) or BB and fibrolytic enzymes (BBE) for improving the fermentation and aerobic stability of bermudagrass. A 6-wk regrowth of Tifton 85 bermudagrass was conserved in quadruplicate mini silos alone or after treatment application. The inoculant contained a mixture of P. pentosaceus 12455, 1 x10(5) cfu/g of fresh forage, L. buchneri 40788, 4 x10(5) cfu/g of fresh forage, and beta-glucanase, alpha-amylase, and xylanase; BBE contained similar bacteria and enzymes as BB, but greater enzyme activities. Chemical composition was quantified after 2, 4, 7, 30, and 60 d of ensiling. Microbial composition and aerobic stability were measured after 60 d of ensiling, at which point the pH of additive-treated silages was consistently lower and DM recovery was higher than in untreated silages. The BB, BBM, and molasses-treated silages had less ammonia N than untreated silages, and BB, BBM, and BBE-treated silages had less residual water-soluble carbohydrates than untreated silages. All silages had high acetic acid (47.5 g/kg DM) and low lactic acid (1.7 g/kg DM) concentrations. However, untreated and BBE-treated silages had more butyric acid and ammonia N, suggesting that a clostridial fermentation had occurred. These butyric forages were more aerobically stable (27 d) but less desirable for feeding than those ensiled with BB or molasses, which were stable for 6.9 d. In conclusion, BB and molasses treatments improved the digestibility and fermentation of bermudagrass and produced higher quality silages that were stable for 6.9 d. Mixing BB with molasses or the inoculant tested was not more beneficial than BB or molasses alone.

  20. Cellular hallmarks reveal restricted aerobic metabolism at thermal limits

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Aitana; Busso, Coralie; Gönczy, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    All organisms live within a given thermal range, but little is known about the mechanisms setting the limits of this range. We uncovered cellular features exhibiting signature changes at thermal limits in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. These included changes in embryo size and shape, which were also observed in Caenorhabditis briggsae, indicating evolutionary conservation. We hypothesized that such changes could reflect restricted aerobic capacity at thermal limits. Accordingly, we uncovered that relative respiration in C. elegans embryos decreases at the thermal limits as compared to within the thermal range. Furthermore, by compromising components of the respiratory chain, we demonstrated that the reliance on aerobic metabolism is reduced at thermal limits. Moreover, embryos thus compromised exhibited signature changes in size and shape already within the thermal range. We conclude that restricted aerobic metabolism at the thermal limits contributes to setting the thermal range in a metazoan organism. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04810.001 PMID:25929283

  1. Anaerobic and aerobic treatment of chlorinated, aliphatic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J.L.; Stensel, H.D.; Ferguson, J.F.; Strand, S.E.; Ongerth, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). The anaerobic culture degraded seven of the feed CACs. The specialized aerobic cultures degraded all but three of the highly chlorinated CACs. The sequential system outperformed either of the other systems alone by degrading 10 of the feed CACs: chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1-dichloroethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, hexachloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane, plus the anaerobic metabolites: dichloromethane and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene.

  2. High-intensity aerobic interval exercise in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Philippe; Gayda, Mathieu; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil

    2013-06-01

    Aerobic exercise training is strongly recommended in patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to improve symptoms and quality of life. Moderate-intensity aerobic continuous exercise (MICE) is the best established training modality in HF patients. For about a decade, however, another training modality, high-intensity aerobic interval exercise (HIIE), has aroused considerable interest in cardiac rehabilitation. Originally used by athletes, HIIE consists of repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise interspersed with recovery periods. The rationale for its use is to increase exercise time spent in high-intensity zones, thereby increasing the training stimulus. Several studies have demonstrated that HIIE is more effective than MICE, notably for improving exercise capacity in patients with HF. The aim of the present review is to describe the general principles of HIIE prescription, the acute physiological effects, the longer-term training effects, and finally the future perspectives of HIIE in patients with HF.

  3. Virulence factors enhance Citrobacter rodentium expansion through aerobic respiration.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Christopher A; Miller, Brittany M; Rivera-Chávez, Fabian; Velazquez, Eric M; Byndloss, Mariana X; Chávez-Arroyo, Alfredo; Lokken, Kristen L; Tsolis, Renée M; Winter, Sebastian E; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2016-09-16

    Citrobacter rodentium uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to induce colonic crypt hyperplasia in mice, thereby gaining an edge during its competition with the gut microbiota through an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that by triggering colonic crypt hyperplasia, the C. rodentium T3SS induced an excessive expansion of undifferentiated Ki67-positive epithelial cells, which increased oxygenation of the mucosal surface and drove an aerobic C. rodentium expansion in the colon. Treatment of mice with the γ-secretase inhibitor dibenzazepine to diminish Notch-driven colonic crypt hyperplasia curtailed the fitness advantage conferred by aerobic respiration during C. rodentium infection. We conclude that C. rodentium uses its T3SS to induce histopathological lesions that generate an intestinal microenvironment in which growth of the pathogen is fueled by aerobic respiration.

  4. Aerobic and anaerobic cellulase production by Cellulomonas uda.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Willink, Fillip Wolfgang; Ingvorsen, Kjeld

    2016-10-01

    Cellulomonas uda (DSM 20108/ATCC 21399) is one of the few described cellulolytic facultative anaerobes. Based on these characteristics, we initiated a physiological study of C. uda with the aim to exploit it for cellulase production in simple bioreactors with no or sporadic aeration. Growth, cellulase activity and fermentation product formation were evaluated in different media under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions and in experiments where C. uda was exposed to alternating aerobic/anaerobic growth conditions. Here we show that C. uda behaves as a true facultative anaerobe when cultivated on soluble substrates such as glucose and cellobiose, but for reasons unknown cellulase activity is only induced under aerobic conditions on insoluble cellulosic substrates and not under anaerobic conditions. These findings enhance knowledge on the limited number of described facultative cellulolytic anaerobes, and in addition it greatly limits the utility of C. uda as an 'easy to handle' cellulase producer with low aeration demands.

  5. Vocal parameters of aerobic instructors with and without voice problems.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Virginia; Long, Joanne; Youngblood, Heather Conner; Williford, Henry; Olson, Michelle Scharff

    2002-03-01

    Aerobic instructors frequently experience vocal fatigue and are at risk for the development of vocal fold pathology. Six female aerobic instructors, three with self-reported voice problems and three without, served as subjects. Measures of vocal function (perturbation and EGG) were obtained before and after a 30-minute exercise session. Results showed that the group with self-reported voice problems had greater amounts of jitter, lower harmonic-to-noise ratios, and less periodicity in sustained vowels overall, but no significant differences in measures of perturbation and EGG were found before and immediately after instruction. Measures of vocal parameters showed that subjects with self-reported voice problems projected with relatively greater vocal intensity and phonated for a greater percentage of time across beginning, middle, and ending periods of aerobic instruction than subjects with no reported voice problems.

  6. Virulence factors enhance Citrobacter rodentium expansion through aerobic respiration

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Christopher A.; Miller, Brittany M.; Rivera-Chávez, Fabian; Velazquez, Eric; Byndloss, Mariana X.; Chávez-Arroyo, Alfredo; Lokken, Kristen L.; Tsolis, Renée M.; Winter, Sebastian E.; Bäumler, Andreas J.

    2016-01-01

    Citrobacter rodentium uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to induce colonic crypt hyperplasia in mice, thereby gaining an edge during its competition with the gut microbiota through an unknown mechanism. Here we show that by triggering colonic crypt hyperplasia, the C. rodentium T3SS induced an excessive expansion of undifferentiated Ki67-positive epithelial cells, which increased oxygenation of the mucosal surface and drove an aerobic C. rodentium expansion in the colon. Treatment of mice with the γ-secretase inhibitor dibenzazepine to diminish Notch-driven colonic crypt hyperplasia curtailed the fitness advantage conferred by aerobic respiration during C. rodentium infection. We conclude that C. rodentium uses its T3SS to induce histopathological lesions that generate an intestinal microenvironment in which growth of the pathogen is fueled by aerobic respiration. PMID:27634526

  7. General review of maximal aerobic velocity measurement at laboratory. Proposition of a new simplified protocol for maximal aerobic velocity assessment.

    PubMed

    Berthon, P; Fellmann, N

    2002-09-01

    The maximal aerobic velocity concept developed since eighties is considered as either the minimal velocity which elicits the maximal aerobic consumption or as the "velocity associated to maximal oxygen consumption". Different methods for measuring maximal aerobic velocity on treadmill in laboratory conditions have been elaborated, but all these specific protocols measure V(amax) either during a maximal oxygen consumption test or with an association of such a test. An inaccurate method presents a certain number of problems in the subsequent use of the results, for example in the elaboration of training programs, in the study of repeatability or in the determination of individual limit time. This study analyzes 14 different methods to understand their interests and limits in view to propose a general methodology for measuring V(amax). In brief, the test should be progressive and maximal without any rest period and of 17 to 20 min total duration. It should begin with a five min warm-up at 60-70% of the maximal aerobic power of the subjects. The beginning of the trial should be fixed so that four or five steps have to be run. The duration of the steps should be three min with a 1% slope and an increasing speed of 1.5 km x h(-1) until complete exhaustion. The last steps could be reduced at two min for a 1 km x h(-1) increment. The maximal aerobic velocity is adjusted in relation to duration of the last step.

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in North-eastern Atlantic harbor seal (Phoca vitulina vitulina) and grey seal (Halichoerus grypus).

    PubMed

    Cabezón, O; Hall, A J; Vincent, C; Pabón, M; García-Bocanegra, I; Dubey, J P; Almería, S

    2011-06-30

    Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were determined in serum samples from 47 grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and 56 harbor seals (Phoca vitulina vitulina) from the Atlantic coasts of United Kingdom and France. Antibodies to T. gondii assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT) were found in 14 (13.6%; IC(95%): 7.0-20.2) of 103 seals tested, with titres of 1:25 in 13 seals and 1:50 in 1 seal. Seroprevalence against T. gondii (MAT 1:25 or higher) was significantly higher in grey seals (23.4%) compared to harbor seals (5.4%). No significant differences were found between seroprevalence against T. gondii and sex, age or geographical locations. These results show natural exposure of European harbor and grey seals to T. gondii oocysts in the Atlantic Ocean. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first serological survey of T. gondii in European grey and harbor seals.

  9. The periaqueductal grey area and the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Green, A L; Wang, S; Owen, S L F; Aziz, T Z

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter, we report that blood pressure can be increased or decreased depending on whether an electrode is in ventral or dorsal PAG. We also describe that it is theoretically possible to treat orthostatic hypotension. These are exciting developments not only because they provide an example of direct translational research from animal research to humans but also because they highlight a potential for future clinical therapies. The control of essential hypertension without drugs is attractive because of the side effects of medication such as precipitation of heart failure [10]. Similarly, drug treatment of orthostatic hypotension cannot differentiate between the supine and standing positions and can therefore lead to nocturnal hypertension [22, 29]. A stimulator could be turned off at night or contain a mercury switch that reacts to posture.

  10. Assessment of Aerobic Exercise Adverse Effects during COPD Exacerbation Hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Carolina Bonfanti; Caram, Laura M. O.; Dourado, Victor Zuniga; de Godoy, Irma; Tanni, Suzana Erico

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Aerobic exercise performed after hospital discharge for exacerbated COPD patients is already recommended to improve respiratory and skeletal muscle strength, increase tolerance to activity, and reduce the sensation of dyspnea. Previous studies have shown that anaerobic activity can clinically benefit patients hospitalized with exacerbated COPD. However, there is little information on the feasibility and safety of aerobic physical activity performed by patients with exacerbated COPD during hospitalization. Objective. To evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise on vital signs in hospitalized patients with exacerbated COPD. Patients and Methods. Eleven COPD patients (63% female, FEV1: 34.2 ± 13.9% and age: 65 ± 11 years) agreed to participate. Aerobic exercise was initiated 72 hours after admission on a treadmill; speed was obtained from the distance covered in a 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Vital signs were assessed before and after exercise. Results. During the activity systolic blood pressure increased from 125.2 ± 13.6 to 135.8 ± 15.0 mmHg (p = 0.004) and respiratory rate from 20.9 ± 4.4 to 24.2 ± 4.5 rpm (p = 0.008) and pulse oximetry (SpO2) decreased from 93.8 ± 2.3 to 88.5 ± 5.7% (p < 0.001). Aerobic activity was considered intense, heart rate ranged from 99.2 ± 11.5 to 119.1 ± 11.1 bpm at the end of exercise (p = 0.092), and patients reached on average 76% of maximum heart rate. Conclusion. Aerobic exercise conducted after 72 hours of hospitalization in patients with exacerbated COPD appears to be safe. PMID:28265180

  11. Method for treating wastewater using microorganisms and vascular aquatic plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method for treating wastewater compresses subjecting the wastewater to an anaerobic setting step for at least 6 hours and passing the liquid effluent from the anaerobic settling step through a filter cell in an upflow manner. There the effluent is subjected first to the action of anaerobic and facultative microorganisms, and then to the action of aerobic microorganisms and the roots of at least one vascular aquatic plant.

  12. Fabrication of micro-lenses using excimer laser ablation by means of laser-generated grey-tone-masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotzbuecher, T.; Dadic, D.

    2010-02-01

    Micro-lenses, including Fresnel-Lenses, were fabricated by excimer laser ablation of polymers by means of lasergenerated grey-tone-masks. The smallest reproducible holes that could be fabricated by excimer laser ablation (193 nm, 1 J/cm2) of chromium-on-quartz (thickness 50-100 nm) were around 3 μm, the pitch of which should be at least at the same value to ensure a reproducibility of hole-arrays. To achieve acceptable ablation times during the fabrication of the grey-tone-masks, on-the-fly ablation instead of step-and-repeat technique was used, operating the laser at a constant pulse repetition rate <30 Hz with a continuously moving quartz-substrate. In this way and using different encoding techniques it was possible to generate at least 11 different grey-tones. The available grey-tones were used to generate grey-tone-masks for ablation of Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and Polycarbonate (PC). For that, fluences in the range of 0.07-0.14 J/cm2 could be applied, corresponding to a value of 1.25 J/cm2 on the workpiece without grey-tonemask and a value lying well below the damage threshold of the chromium mask. Refractive micro-lenses fabricated in this way did not show a good imaging quality, since 11 grey-tones is less than required to generate a continuous surface profile over the full diameter of the lens during ablation and the achievable aspect ratio is limited with the small fluences. However, flat diffractive micro-lenses of the Fresenel type with a quasi-continuously surface profile could be fabricated in a sufficient manner. This can be attributed to the fact that each segment of the Fresenel-lenses can be encoded by 11 grey-tones, leading to much smoother surface reliefs and to a sufficient imaging quality.

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus).

    PubMed

    Dodt, William G; McComish, Bennet J; Nilsson, Maria A; Gibb, Gillian C; Penny, David; Phillips, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    We present the complete mitochondrial genome (accession number: LK995454) of an iconic Australian species, the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). The mitogenomic organization is consistent with other marsupials, encoding 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, an origin of light strand replication and a control region or D-loop. No repetitive sequences were detected in the control region. The M. giganteus mitogenome exemplifies a combination of tRNA gene order and structural peculiarities that appear to be unique to marsupials. We present a maximum likelihood phylogeny based on complete mitochondrial protein and RNA coding sequences that confirms the phylogenetic position of the grey kangaroo among macropodids.

  14. Microstructure Formation and Fracturing Characteristics of Grey Cast Iron Repaired Using Laser

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dan; Shi, Yongjun

    2014-01-01

    The repairing technology based on laser rapid fusion is becoming an important tool for fixing grey cast iron equipment efficiently. A laser repairing protocol was developed using Fe-based alloy powders as material. The microstructure and fracturing feature of the repaired zone (RZ) were analyzed. The results showed that regionally organized RZ with good density and reliable metallurgical bond can be achieved by laser repairing. At the bottom of RZ, dendrites existed in similar direction and extended to the secondary RZ, making the grains grow extensively with inheritance with isometric grains closer to the surface substrate. The strength of the grey cast iron base material was maintained by laser repairing. The base material and RZ were combined with robust strength and fracture resistance. The prevention and deflection of cracking process were analyzed using a cracking process model and showed that the overall crack toughness of the materials increased. PMID:25032230

  15. Effect of hunting on annual survival of grey ducks in New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, R.J.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    We used band recovery data from grey ducks (Anas superciliosa) banded in New Zealand between 1957 and 1974 to test 2 null hypotheses: (1) hunting mortality is completely additive to natural sources of mortality, and (2) hunting mortality is completely compensated by changes in natural mortality. We modeled annual survival as a function of survival in the absence of hunting and the probability of death from hunting. The complete compensation hypothesis was rejected, but we were unable to reject the completely additive hypothesis. There was no evidence of sex- or age-specificity for the relationship between kill rate and annual survival rate. We used simulated data to evaluate model performance. Parameter estimates were unbiased despite the inclusion of estimates that lay outside the bounds of the parameter space, although model-based variance estimates were consistently less than empirical variances. Our results imply that harvest-restrictions may be useful in effecting change in annual survival rates of grey ducks.

  16. Grey-Blue Regression in Melanoma In Situ—Evaluation on 111 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Bassoli, S.; Borsari, S.; Ferrari, C.; Giusti, F.; Pellacani, G.; Ponti, G.; Seidenari, S.

    2011-01-01

    As fibrosis and melanosis are often seen in malignant melanoma, the presence of dermoscopic signs of regression may represent a clue for the diagnosis of malignancy. Our aim was to assess the frequency and extent of 11 dermoscopic features of regression evaluating dermoscopic images of 111 melanomas in situ (MIS). Regression structures (grey-blue areas, white areas, peppering, and/or blue-whitish veil) were present in 80.1% of the lesions. Approximately 80% of the lesions showed regression of dermoscopic structures and light brown areas. Most lesions showed the presence of grey-blue areas (74.7%), whereas peppering was observable in 30.6% of MIS. Areas of fibrosis were mainly observable as structureless areas with a pinkish hue (50.4%). Based on our data, the reticular pattern of blue regression and light brown areas can be considered a significant discriminator and a reliable predictor of MIS. PMID:21748024

  17. Film analysis of activated sludge microbial discs by the Taguchi method and grey relational analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, M Y; Syu, M J

    2003-12-01

    A biofilm model with substrate inhibition is proposed for the activated sludge growing discs of rotating biological contactor (RBC); this model is different from the steady-state biofilm model based on the Monod assumption. Both deep and shallow types of biofilms are examined and discussed. The biofilm models based on both Monod and substrate inhibition (Haldane) assumptions are compared. In addition, the relationships between substrate utilization rate, biofilm thickness, and liquid phase substrate concentration are discussed. The influence order of the factors that affect the biofilm thickness is studied and discussed by combining the Taguchi method and grey relational analysis. In this work, a Taguchi orthogonal table is used to construct the series that is needed for grey relational analysis to determine the influence priority of the four parameters S(B), kX(f), K(s), and K(i).

  18. Pseudo-inverse Jacobian control with grey relational analysis for robot manipulators mounted on oscillatory bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Lin, C. C.; Lo, H.-S.

    2009-10-01

    Interest in complex robotic systems is growing in new application areas. An example of such a robotic system is a dexterous manipulator mounted on an oscillatory base. In literature, such systems are known as macro/micro systems. This work proposes pseudo-inverse Jacobian feedback control laws and applies grey relational analysis for tuning outer-loop PID control parameters of Cartesian computed-torque control law for robotic manipulators mounted on oscillatory bases. The priority when modifying controller parameters should be the top ranking importance among parameters. Grey relational grade is utilized to investigate the sensitivity of tuning the auxiliary signal PID of the Cartesian computed-torque law to achieve desired performance. Results of this study can be feasible to numerous mechanical systems, such as mobile robots, gantry cranes, underwater robots, and other dynamic systems mounted on oscillatory bases, for moving the end-effector to a desired Cartesian position.

  19. An Enhanced Grey Wolf Optimization Based Feature Selection Wrapped Kernel Extreme Learning Machine for Medical Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Chen, Huiling; Huang, Hui; Zhao, Xuehua; Cai, ZhenNao; Tong, Changfei; Liu, Wenbin; Tian, Xin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a new predictive framework is proposed by integrating an improved grey wolf optimization (IGWO) and kernel extreme learning machine (KELM), termed as IGWO-KELM, for medical diagnosis. The proposed IGWO feature selection approach is used for the purpose of finding the optimal feature subset for medical data. In the proposed approach, genetic algorithm (GA) was firstly adopted to generate the diversified initial positions, and then grey wolf optimization (GWO) was used to update the current positions of population in the discrete searching space, thus getting the optimal feature subset for the better classification purpose based on KELM. The proposed approach is compared against the original GA and GWO on the two common disease diagnosis problems in terms of a set of performance metrics, including classification accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, precision, G-mean, F-measure, and the size of selected features. The simulation results have proven the superiority of the proposed method over the other two competitive counterparts.

  20. Conjunctival flora of healthy and diseased eyes of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus): implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Fleming, M; Bexton, S

    2016-07-23

    Ocular pathology is relatively common in stranded seals admitted to wildlife rehabilitation hospitals. Some have pre-existing problems, while others develop eye problems in captivity, and in particular ulcerative keratitis, due to factors such as large prominent eyes, suboptimal water quality, trauma and infighting. Despite treatment, corneal ulcerations can rapidly progress to 'melting' ulcers with subsequent rupture of the globe. In this case series, 32 grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) had conjunctival swabs taken on admission to a UK wildlife hospital to identify ocular bacterial flora and nine had subsequent swabs taken after four weeks to see if this changed in captivity. Additionally, nine seals with ocular pathology were also swabbed. Although a wide range of bacteria were cultured on admission, the most common isolates were Gemella haemolysans, Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens All 'melting' ulcers were associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which suggests this bacterial species may be significant in the pathogenesis of progressive stromal ulceration in grey seals.

  1. Distribution of the Grey Slender Loris (Loris lyddekerianus Cabrera, 1908) in Tamil Nadu, Southern India.

    PubMed

    Kumara, Honnavalli N; Sasi, R; Chandran, Subash; Radhakrishna, Sindhu

    2016-01-01

    The grey slender loris Loris lydekkerianus, one of only two nocturnal primates of India, is found in the southern part of the country. Our understanding of its geographical distribution is largely based on historical records and short surveys, and little is known of its occurrence in southern India today. We sought to establish the relative abundance of this species in 26 districts in the state of Tamil Nadu and the union territory of Pondicherry in southern India. We sighted lorises in 19 districts, and their relative abundance ranged from 0.01 to 2.21/km. The south-central districts of Tamil Nadu showed the highest densities of lorises, while the western districts showed the lowest. Based on these results, we recommend increased protection measures for the forest patches of the Eastern Ghats mountains in order to ensure the long-term survival of the grey slender loris.

  2. Butcherbird polyomavirus isolated from a grey butcherbird (Cracticus torquatus) in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Mark D; Gillett, Amber

    2014-01-31

    A novel avian polyomavirus was detected in peri-ocular skin lesions collected from a grey butcherbird (Cracticus torquatus), using a combination of multiply primed rolling circle amplification, nested PCR and long range PCR. The sequence of Butcherbird polyomavirus was determined by combining next generation sequencing and primer walking techniques. The circular double-stranded DNA genome of Butcherbird polyomavirus consisted of 5084 bp, and encoded six open reading frames (ORF-X, VP2, VP3, VP1, small T-antigen and large T-antigen). Phylogenetic analysis placed it amongst other members of the genus Avipolyomavirus, most closely related to Crow polyomavirus. Next generation sequencing enabled the detection of DNA fragments similar to, but distinct from, Canarypox virus within the same lesion from which Butcherbird polyomavirus was amplified, thus confirming an avipolyomavirus-avipoxvirus co-infection in the peri-ocular skin lesions of this grey butcherbird.

  3. Impact-characterisation for a grey water footprint - a discussion of two new approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörtenhuber, Stefan; Weißhaidinger, Rainer; Lindenthal, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Based on the water footprint concept of the Water Footprint Network (see e.g. Hoekstra et al., 2011), an increasing number of studies regarding virtual water or water footprints include so-called "grey water", i.e. an amount of dilution water needed to assimilate pollutions in freshwater. The inclusion of grey water into water footprints offers to aggregate freshwater consumption (blue water) and reduced water quality (grey water) at the inventory level by a common unit (litres or cubic metres of water). For "blue water", i.e. surface and groundwater which is consumed during production processes, Pfister et al. (2009) developed regional characterisation factors (a "water stress index", WSI), which include an impact weighting for a regional water consumption. Analogous, grey water may be characterised by a regionally varying "water quality stress" with two approaches: (A) as a function of regional concentrations of the substance that defines the grey water (e.g. nitrate) or (B) by precipitation, evapotranspiration water and groundwater recharge amounts. We chose each two exemplary wheat production systems (PS; organic and conventional) in two different Austrian regions to represent the effect of the two proposed approaches. Assumptions concerning the four PS' wheat yields, precipitation, evapotranspiration, nitrogen application and regional groundwater concentrations were taken from literature and statistics (e.g. Statistics Austria, 2011; BMLFUW, 2006). Nitrate was identified to represent the most critical substance in Austrian water bodies (Austrian Environment Agency, 2007), defining the grey water demand. The rates for leached nitrate were derived from Kolbe (2002). Nitrate leaching was estimated for 12.92 and 28.50 kg NO3-N ha-1 year-1 for the organic and the conventional systems, respectively. The characterisation factors for the two approaches are calculated by: (A) for a catchment area-based approach, a regional background concentration for the most relevant

  4. Grey transport acceleration method for time-dependent radiative transfer problems

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, E.

    1988-10-01

    A new iterative method for solving hte time-dependent multifrequency radiative transfer equations is described. The method is applicable to semi-implicit time discretizations that generate a linear steady-state multifrequency transport problem with pseudo-scattering within each time step. The standard ''lambda'' iteration method is shown to often converge slowly for such problems, and the new grey transport acceleration (GTA) method, based on accelerating the lambda method by employing a grey, or frequency-independent transport equation, is developed. The GTA method is shown, theoretically by an iterative Fourier analysis, and experimentally by numerical calculations, to converge significantly faster than the lambda method. In addition, the GTA method is conceptually simple to implement for general differencing schemes, on either Eulerian or Lagrangian meshes. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc.

  5. Forecasting of municipal solid waste quantity in a developing country using multivariate grey models

    SciTech Connect

    Intharathirat, Rotchana; Abdul Salam, P.; Kumar, S.; Untong, Akarapong

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Grey model can be used to forecast MSW quantity accurately with the limited data. • Prediction interval overcomes the uncertainty of MSW forecast effectively. • A multivariate model gives accuracy associated with factors affecting MSW quantity. • Population, urbanization, employment and household size play role for MSW quantity. - Abstract: In order to plan, manage and use municipal solid waste (MSW) in a sustainable way, accurate forecasting of MSW generation and composition plays a key role. It is difficult to carry out the reliable estimates using the existing models due to the limited data available in the developing countries. This study aims to forecast MSW collected in Thailand with prediction interval in long term period by using the optimized multivariate grey model which is the mathematical approach. For multivariate models, the representative factors of residential and commercial sectors affecting waste collected are identified, classified and quantified based on statistics and mathematics of grey system theory. Results show that GMC (1, 5), the grey model with convolution integral, is the most accurate with the least error of 1.16% MAPE. MSW collected would increase 1.40% per year from 43,435–44,994 tonnes per day in 2013 to 55,177–56,735 tonnes per day in 2030. This model also illustrates that population density is the most important factor affecting MSW collected, followed by urbanization, proportion employment and household size, respectively. These mean that the representative factors of commercial sector may affect more MSW collected than that of residential sector. Results can help decision makers to develop the measures and policies of waste management in long term period.

  6. Anatomical likelihood estimation meta-analysis of grey and white matter anomalies in autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    DeRamus, Thomas P.; Kana, Rajesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairments in social communication and restrictive, repetitive behaviors. While behavioral symptoms are well-documented, investigations into the neurobiological underpinnings of ASD have not resulted in firm biomarkers. Variability in findings across structural neuroimaging studies has contributed to difficulty in reliably characterizing the brain morphology of individuals with ASD. These inconsistencies may also arise from the heterogeneity of ASD, and wider age-range of participants included in MRI studies and in previous meta-analyses. To address this, the current study used coordinate-based anatomical likelihood estimation (ALE) analysis of 21 voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies examining high-functioning individuals with ASD, resulting in a meta-analysis of 1055 participants (506 ASD, and 549 typically developing individuals). Results consisted of grey, white, and global differences in cortical matter between the groups. Modeled anatomical maps consisting of concentration, thickness, and volume metrics of grey and white matter revealed clusters suggesting age-related decreases in grey and white matter in parietal and inferior temporal regions of the brain in ASD, and age-related increases in grey matter in frontal and anterior-temporal regions. White matter alterations included fiber tracts thought to play key roles in information processing and sensory integration. Many current theories of pathobiology ASD suggest that the brains of individuals with ASD may have less-functional long-range (anterior-to-posterior) connections. Our findings of decreased cortical matter in parietal–temporal and occipital regions, and thickening in frontal cortices in older adults with ASD may entail altered cortical anatomy, and neurodevelopmental adaptations. PMID:25844306

  7. Juvenile bottlenecks and salinity shape grey mullet assemblages in Mediterranean estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Luis; Hereu, Bernat; Torras, Xavier

    2008-05-01

    Previous research has suggested that competitive bottlenecks may exist for the Mediterranean grey mullets (Osteichthyes, Mugilidae) at the fry stage with the exotic Cyprinus carpio (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae) playing a central role. As a consequence, the structure of grey mullet assemblages at later stages is thought to reflect previous competition as well as differences in osmoregulatory skills. This paper tests that hypothesis by examining four predictions about the relative abundance of five grey mullet species in 42 Western Mediterranean estuary sites from three areas (Aiguamolls de l'Empordà, Ebro Delta and Minorca) differing in the salinity level and occurrence of C. carpio. Field data confirmed the predictions as: (1) Liza aurata and Mugil cephalus were scarce everywhere and never dominated the assemblage; (2) Liza saliens dominated the assemblage where the salinity level was higher than 13; (3) Liza ramado always dominated the assemblage where the salinity level was lower than 13 and C. carpio was present; and (4) Chelon labrosus dominated the assemblage only where the salinity level was lower than 13 and C. carpio was absent. The catch per unit effort of C. labrosus of any size was smaller in the presence of C. carpio than where it had not been introduced, which is in agreement with the juvenile competitive bottleneck hypothesis. Discriminant analysis confirmed that the assemblage structure was linked to the salinity level and the occurrence of C. carpio for both early juveniles and late juveniles as well as adults. The data reported here reveal that the structure of grey mullet assemblages inhabiting Mediterranean estuaries is determined by salinity and competitive interactions at the fry stage.

  8. Specialization for aggression in sexually dimorphic skeletal morphology in grey wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Morris, Jeremy S; Brandt, Ellissa K

    2014-07-01

    Aggressive behaviour is important in the life history of many animals. In grey wolves (Canis lupus), territory defence through direct competition with conspecifics is severe and often lethal. Thus, performance in aggressive encounters may be under strong selection. Additionally, grey wolves frequently kill large dangerous prey species. Because both sexes actively participate in aggressive activities and prey capture, wolves are expected to exhibit a low level of musculoskeletal sexual dimorphism. However, male wolves more often lead in agonistic encounters with conspecifics and must provision the nursing female during the pup-rearing period of the breeding season. These behaviours may select for males that exhibit a higher degree of morphological adaptation associated with aggression and prey capture performance. To test this prediction, we assessed skeletal sexual dimorphism in three subspecies of grey wolves using functional indices reflecting morphological specialization for aggression. As expected, sexual dimorphism in skeletal shape was limited. However, in two of three subspecies, we found sexually dimorphic traits in the skull, forelimbs and hindlimbs that are consistent with the hypothesis that males are more specialized for aggression. These characters may also be associated with selection for improved prey capture performance by males. Thus, the sexually dimorphic functional traits identified by our analysis may be adaptive in the contexts of both natural and sexual selection. Several of these traits may conflict with locomotor economy, indicating the importance of aggression in the life history of male grey wolves. The presence of functional specialization for aggression in a generally monogamous species indicates that sexual dimorphism in specific musculoskeletal traits may be widespread among mammals.

  9. Structural distinction between black and grey human hair: A FTIR investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Arup; Sarkar, A.

    2013-06-01

    Hair is an important biomaterial primarily composed of structural protein, notably keratin. In this present work Fourier transformed infrared absorption (FTIR) spectrum of black and grey human hair is analyzed and compared from measured data of FTIR spectra. The change in characteristics bond vibration detected clearly. The obtained shift of the characteristics frequency caused due to change in molecular structure in the two types of human hair.

  10. Premature greying of the hair is not associated with low bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Beardsworth, S A; Kearney, C E; Steel, S A; Newman, J; Purdie, D W

    1999-01-01

    In two recent case-control studies premature greying of the hair was associated with a lowering of bone mineral density (BMD) and osteopenia, suggesting that this might be a clinically useful risk marker for osteoporosis. We report a further re-examination of this proposal in 52 prematurely grey-haired women from East Yorkshire who responded to an advertisement inviting them for bone densitometry. Thirty-five had no clinical or drug history that could influence bone density. All were Caucasian with a mean age of 52.8 years. In the group as a whole the mean BMD values at the lumbar spine and femoral neck were no different from those of a young adult, but there was a trend toward a greater than average BMD than that of the local age-matched population (p = 0.097 and 0.218, respectively). Twenty women were premenopausal, with an average age of 45.3 years. Mean BMD values at the lumbar spine and femoral neck in this group were no different from those of young adults. There was, however, a trend toward a BMD greater than that of the local age-matched population at the femoral neck (p = 0.117). Fifteen women were postmenopausal with an average age of 62.9 years and an average age at menopause of 51.1 years. Mean BMD values at both the lumbar spine and femoral neck in this group were lower than those of young adults, but no different from those of the local age-matched population. In conclusion, our group of prematurely grey-haired women had average BMD for their age, and we are therefore unable to support the proposed clinical usefulness of premature greying as a risk marker for osteoporosis.

  11. Specialization for aggression in sexually dimorphic skeletal morphology in grey wolves (Canis lupus)

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Jeremy S; Brandt, Ellissa K

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behaviour is important in the life history of many animals. In grey wolves (Canis lupus), territory defence through direct competition with conspecifics is severe and often lethal. Thus, performance in aggressive encounters may be under strong selection. Additionally, grey wolves frequently kill large dangerous prey species. Because both sexes actively participate in aggressive activities and prey capture, wolves are expected to exhibit a low level of musculoskeletal sexual dimorphism. However, male wolves more often lead in agonistic encounters with conspecifics and must provision the nursing female during the pup-rearing period of the breeding season. These behaviours may select for males that exhibit a higher degree of morphological adaptation associated with aggression and prey capture performance. To test this prediction, we assessed skeletal sexual dimorphism in three subspecies of grey wolves using functional indices reflecting morphological specialization for aggression. As expected, sexual dimorphism in skeletal shape was limited. However, in two of three subspecies, we found sexually dimorphic traits in the skull, forelimbs and hindlimbs that are consistent with the hypothesis that males are more specialized for aggression. These characters may also be associated with selection for improved prey capture performance by males. Thus, the sexually dimorphic functional traits identified by our analysis may be adaptive in the contexts of both natural and sexual selection. Several of these traits may conflict with locomotor economy, indicating the importance of aggression in the life history of male grey wolves. The presence of functional specialization for aggression in a generally monogamous species indicates that sexual dimorphism in specific musculoskeletal traits may be widespread among mammals. PMID:24810384

  12. Coordinated brain development: exploring the synchrony between changes in grey and white matter during childhood maturation.

    PubMed

    Moura, L M; Crossley, N A; Zugman, A; Pan, P M; Gadelha, A; Del Aquilla, M A G; Picon, F A; Anés, M; Amaro, E; de Jesus Mari, J; Miguel, E C; Rohde, L A; Bressan, R A; McGuire, P; Sato, J R; Jackowski, A P

    2016-05-12

    Brain development during childhood and early adolescence is characterized by global changes in brain architecture. Neuroimaging studies have revealed overall decreases in cortical thickness (CT) and increases in fractional anisotropy (FA). Furthermore, previous studies have shown that certain cortical regions display coordinated growth during development. However, there is significant heterogeneity in the timing and speed of these developmental transformations, and it is still unclear whether white and grey matter changes are co-localized. In this multimodal neuroimaging study, we investigated the relationship between grey and white matter developmental changes and asynchronous maturation within brain regions in 249 normally developing children between the ages 7-14. We used structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to analyze CT and FA, respectively, as well as their covariance across development. Consistent with previous studies, we observed overall cortical thinning with age, which was accompanied by increased FA. We then compared the coordinated development of grey and white matter as indexed by covariance measures. Covariance between grey matter regions and the microstructure of white matter tracts connecting those regions were highly similar, suggesting that coordinated changes in the cortex were mirrored by coordinated changes in their respective tracts. Examining within-brain divergent trajectories, we found significant structural decoupling (decreased covariance) between several brain regions and tracts in the 9- to 11-year-old group, particularly involving the forceps minor and the regions that it connects to. We argue that this decoupling could reflect a developmental pattern within the prefrontal region in 9- and 11-year-old children, possibly related to the significant changes in cognitive control observed at this age.

  13. Anatomical likelihood estimation meta-analysis of grey and white matter anomalies in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    DeRamus, Thomas P; Kana, Rajesh K

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairments in social communication and restrictive, repetitive behaviors. While behavioral symptoms are well-documented, investigations into the neurobiological underpinnings of ASD have not resulted in firm biomarkers. Variability in findings across structural neuroimaging studies has contributed to difficulty in reliably characterizing the brain morphology of individuals with ASD. These inconsistencies may also arise from the heterogeneity of ASD, and wider age-range of participants included in MRI studies and in previous meta-analyses. To address this, the current study used coordinate-based anatomical likelihood estimation (ALE) analysis of 21 voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies examining high-functioning individuals with ASD, resulting in a meta-analysis of 1055 participants (506 ASD, and 549 typically developing individuals). Results consisted of grey, white, and global differences in cortical matter between the groups. Modeled anatomical maps consisting of concentration, thickness, and volume metrics of grey and white matter revealed clusters suggesting age-related decreases in grey and white matter in parietal and inferior temporal regions of the brain in ASD, and age-related increases in grey matter in frontal and anterior-temporal regions. White matter alterations included fiber tracts thought to play key roles in information processing and sensory integration. Many current theories of pathobiology ASD suggest that the brains of individuals with ASD may have less-functional long-range (anterior-to-posterior) connections. Our findings of decreased cortical matter in parietal-temporal and occipital regions, and thickening in frontal cortices in older adults with ASD may entail altered cortical anatomy, and neurodevelopmental adaptations.

  14. Shape in Picture: Mathematical Description of Shape in Grey-Level Images

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-11

    vision, and artificial intelligence all make wue ot descriptiosf shape in grey-level images. Most aisting algorithms for the automatic recognition and...analy- sis, computer vision, and artificial intelligence . The NATO Advanced Rosearch WorsMhop "Shape in Picture" was organised with a twofd objective...Annals of Maths. and Artificial Intelligence , special issue on "Mathematics in Pattern Recognition", to appear. 46. Ronse, C. (1989). Fourier analysis

  15. Grey and White Matter Changes across the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-Frontotemporal Dementia Continuum

    PubMed Central

    Lillo, Patricia; Mioshi, Eneida; Burrell, James R.; Kiernan, Matthew C.; Hodges, John R.; Hornberger, Michael

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) lie on a clinical, pathological and genetic continuum with patients of one disease exhibiting features of the other. Nevertheless, to date, the underlying grey matter and white matter changes across the ALS-FTD disease continuum have not been explored. In this study fifty-three participants with ALS (n = 10), ALS-FTD (n = 10) and behavioural variant FTD (bvFTD; n = 15) as well as controls (n = 18), underwent detailed clinical assessment plus structural imaging using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis of magnetic resonance brain imaging to examine grey and white matter differences and commonalities across the continuum. Importantly, patient groups were matched for age, education, gender and disease duration. VBM and DTI results showed that changes in the ALS group were confined mainly to the motor cortex and anterior cingulate as well as their underlying white matter tracts. ALS-FTD and bvFTD showed widespread grey matter and white matter changes involving frontal and temporal lobes. Extensive prefrontal cortex changes emerged as a marker for bvFTD compared to other subtypes, while ALS-FTD could be distinguished from ALS by additional temporal lobe grey and white matter changes. Finally, ALS could be mainly distinguished from the other two groups by corticospinal tract degeneration. The present study shows for the first time that FTD and ALS overlap in anterior cingulate, motor cortex and related white matter tract changes across the whole continuum. Nevertheless, frontal and temporal atrophy as well as corticospinal tract degeneration emerged as marker for subtype classification, which will inform future diagnosis and target disease management across the continuum. PMID:22952843

  16. Molecular biomarkers in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) to evaluate pollutant exposure, health and immune status.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, K; Müller, S; Weirup, L; Ronnenberg, K; Pawliczka, I; Rosenberger, T; Siebert, U

    2014-11-15

    Grey seals as top-predators bioaccumulate contaminants and can be considered as sentinels of eco-system health. Pups are weaned after a short nursing period, characterised by an enormous lipid transfer and exposure to contaminants. This study established molecular biomarkers of the xenobiotic metabolism and immune system to help assess health and immune status. mRNA transcription of AHR, ARNT, PPARα and cytokine IL-2 and heat-shock-protein HSP70 was measured in blood of grey seal pups and adults in rehabilitation and permanent care using RT-qPCR and compared to rehabilitating harbour seal pups and haematology values. In pups highest levels at admission in xenobiotic biomarker, HSP70 and cytokine transcription may show contaminant exposure via lactation, stress during abandonment and dehydration. The significant decrease may be linked to diet, health improvement and adaptation. Adults showed higher levels and more variation in biomarker transcription and clear species-specific differences between harbour and grey seal pups were found.

  17. Differential Control Efficacies of Vitamin Treatments against Bacterial Wilt and Grey Mould Diseases in Tomato Plants

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jeum Kyu; Kim, Hyeon Ji; Jung, Heesoo; Yang, Hye Ji; Kim, Do Hoon; Sung, Chang Hyun; Park, Chang-Jin; Chang, Seog Won

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial wilt and grey mould in tomato plants are economically destructive bacterial and fungal diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and Botrytis cinerea, respectively. Various approaches including chemical and biological controls have been attempted to arrest the tomato diseases so far. In this study, in vitro growths of bacterial R. solanacearum and fungal B. cinerea were evaluated using four different vitamins including thiamine (vitamin B1), niacin (vitamin B3), pyridoxine (vitamin B6), and menadione (vitamin K3). In planta efficacies of the four vitamin treatments on tomato protection against both diseases were also demonstrated. All four vitamins showed different in vitro antibacterial activities against R. solanacearum in dose-dependent manners. However, treatment with 2 mM thiamine was only effective in reducing bacterial wilt of detached tomato leaves without phytotoxicity under lower disease pressure (106 colony-forming unit [cfu]/ml). Treatment with the vitamins also differentially reduced in vitro conidial germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea. The four vitamins slightly reduced the conidial germination, and thiamine, pyridoxine and menadione inhibited the mycelial growth of B. cinerea. Menadione began to drastically suppress the conidial germination and mycelial growth by 5 and 0.5 mM, respectively. Grey mould symptoms on the inoculated tomato leaves were significantly reduced by pyridoxine and menadione pretreatments one day prior to the fungal challenge inoculation. These findings suggest that disease-specific vitamin treatment will be integrated for eco-friendly management of tomato bacterial wilt and grey mould. PMID:27721697

  18. Connectivity in grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) determined using empirical and simulated genetic data

    PubMed Central

    Momigliano, Paolo; Harcourt, Robert; Robbins, William D.; Stow, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) can be one of the numerically dominant high order predators on pristine coral reefs, yet their numbers have declined even in the highly regulated Australian Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Marine Park. Knowledge of both large scale and fine scale genetic connectivity of grey reef sharks is essential for their effective management, but no genetic data are yet available. We investigated grey reef shark genetic structure in the GBR across a 1200 km latitudinal gradient, comparing empirical data with models simulating different levels of migration. The empirical data did not reveal any genetic structuring along the entire latitudinal gradient sampled, suggesting regular widespread dispersal and gene flow of the species throughout most of the GBR. Our simulated datasets indicate that even with substantial migrations (up to 25% of individuals migrating between neighboring reefs) both large scale genetic structure and genotypic spatial autocorrelation at the reef scale were maintained. We suggest that present migration rates therefore exceed this level. These findings have important implications regarding the effectiveness of networks of spatially discontinuous Marine Protected Areas to protect reef sharks. PMID:26314287

  19. Fast template matching based on grey prediction for real-time object tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Mingming; Hou, Yuanlong; Liu, Rongzhong; Hou, Runmin

    2017-02-01

    Template matching is a basic algorithm for image processing, and real-time is a crucial requirement of object tracking. For real-time tracking, a fast template matching algorithm based on grey prediction is presented, where computation cost can be reduced dramatically by minimizing search range. First, location of the tracked object in the current image is estimated by Grey Model (GM). GM(1,1), which is the basic model of grey prediction, can use some known information to foretell the location. Second, the precise position of the object in the frame is computed by template matching. Herein, Sequential Similarity Detection Algorithm (SSDA) with a self-adaptive threshold is employed to obtain the matching position in the neighborhood of the predicted location. The role of threshold in SSDA is important, as a proper threshold can make template matching fast and accurate. Moreover, a practical weighted strategy is utilized to handle scale and rotation changes of the object, as well as illumination changes. The experimental results show the superior performance of the proposed algorithm over the conventional full-search method, especially in terms of executive time.

  20. A Grey Model Based on First Differences in the Application of Satellite Clock Bias Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yue-ji; Ren, Chao; Yang, Xiu-fa; Pang, Guang-feng; Lan, Lan

    2016-01-01

    In consideration of the characteristics of satellite clock bias (SCB), a grey GM(1,1) model based on the first difference method is proposed. The first differences between the SCB values of two adjacent epoches are firstly derived to obtain the corresponding first difference sequence. Then, a grey model is made based on the sequence to predict the first difference values for the time following. Finally, the predicted first difference sequence is recovered to be the corresponding predicted SCB. The clock bias data provided by the IGS (International GNSS Service) are used as the experimental data, and the cases with different lengths of modeling data and different prediction step lengths are compared and analyzed. The result shows that the prediction accuracy of this method is higher than that of traditional grey GM(1,1) model, especially for the PRN01 satellite clock, whose forecast effect is the best. With the first difference method, the model prediction accuracy and stability can be effectively improved and enhanced. This method is feasible and reliable for the relatively long term SCB prediction.

  1. Connectivity in grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) determined using empirical and simulated genetic data.

    PubMed

    Momigliano, Paolo; Harcourt, Robert; Robbins, William D; Stow, Adam

    2015-08-28

    Grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) can be one of the numerically dominant high order predators on pristine coral reefs, yet their numbers have declined even in the highly regulated Australian Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Marine Park. Knowledge of both large scale and fine scale genetic connectivity of grey reef sharks is essential for their effective management, but no genetic data are yet available. We investigated grey reef shark genetic structure in the GBR across a 1200 km latitudinal gradient, comparing empirical data with models simulating different levels of migration. The empirical data did not reveal any genetic structuring along the entire latitudinal gradient sampled, suggesting regular widespread dispersal and gene flow of the species throughout most of the GBR. Our simulated datasets indicate that even with substantial migrations (up to 25% of individuals migrating between neighboring reefs) both large scale genetic structure and genotypic spatial autocorrelation at the reef scale were maintained. We suggest that present migration rates therefore exceed this level. These findings have important implications regarding the effectiveness of networks of spatially discontinuous Marine Protected Areas to protect reef sharks.

  2. A geometric network model of intrinsic grey-matter connectivity of the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Yi-Ping; O’Dea, Reuben; Crofts, Jonathan J.; Han, Cheol E.; Kaiser, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Network science provides a general framework for analysing the large-scale brain networks that naturally arise from modern neuroimaging studies, and a key goal in theoretical neuroscience is to understand the extent to which these neural architectures influence the dynamical processes they sustain. To date, brain network modelling has largely been conducted at the macroscale level (i.e. white-matter tracts), despite growing evidence of the role that local grey matter architecture plays in a variety of brain disorders. Here, we present a new model of intrinsic grey matter connectivity of the human connectome. Importantly, the new model incorporates detailed information on cortical geometry to construct ‘shortcuts’ through the thickness of the cortex, thus enabling spatially distant brain regions, as measured along the cortical surface, to communicate. Our study indicates that structures based on human brain surface information differ significantly, both in terms of their topological network characteristics and activity propagation properties, when compared against a variety of alternative geometries and generative algorithms. In particular, this might help explain histological patterns of grey matter connectivity, highlighting that observed connection distances may have arisen to maximise information processing ability, and that such gains are consistent with (and enhanced by) the presence of short-cut connections. PMID:26503036

  3. Multiresponse Optimization of Laser Cladding Steel + VC Using Grey Relational Analysis in the Taguchi Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhe; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2016-07-01

    Laser cladding of metal matrix composite coatings (MMCs) has become an effective and economic method to improve the wear resistance of mechanical components. The clad quality characteristics such as clad height, carbide fraction, carbide dissolution, and matrix hardness in MMCs determine the wear resistance of the coatings. These clad quality characteristics are influenced greatly by the laser cladding processing parameters. In this study, American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 420 + 20% vanadium carbide (VC) was deposited on mild steel with a high powder direct diode laser. The Taguchi-based Grey relational method was used to optimize the laser cladding processing parameters (laser power, scanning speed, and powder feed rate) with the consideration of multiple clad characteristics related to wear resistance (clad height, carbide volume fraction, and Fe-matrix hardness). A Taguchi L9 orthogonal array was designed to study the effects of processing parameters on each response. The contribution and significance of each processing parameter on each clad characteristic were investigated by the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The Grey relational grade acquired from Grey relational analysis was used as the performance characteristic to obtain the optimal combination of processing parameters. Based on the optimal processing parameters, the phases and microstructure of the laser-cladded coating were characterized by using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS).

  4. Forecasting sales of new vehicle with limited data using Bass diffusion model and Grey theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu, Noratikah; Ismail, Zuhaimy

    2015-02-01

    New product forecasting is a process that determines a reasonable estimate of sales attainable under a given set of conditions. There are several new products forecasting method in practices and Bass Diffusion Model (BDM) is one of the most common new product diffusion model used in many industries to forecast new product and technology. Hence, this paper proposed a combining BDM with Grey theory to forecast sales of new vehicle in Malaysia that certainly have limited data to build a model on. The aims of this paper is to examine the accuracy of different new product forecasting models and thus identify which is the best among the basic BDM and combining BDM with Grey theory. The results show that combining BDM with Grey theory performs better than the basic BDM based on in-sample and out-sample mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). Results also reveals combining model forecast more effectively and accurately even with insufficient previous data on the new vehicle in Malaysia.

  5. Age-induced hair greying - the multiple effects of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Seiberg, M

    2013-12-01

    An obvious sign of ageing is hair greying, or the loss of pigment production and deposition within the hair shafts. Numerous mechanisms, acting at different levels and follicular locations, contribute to hair greying, ranging from melanocyte stem cells defects to follicular melanocyte death. One key issue that is in common to these processes is oxidative damage. At the hair follicle stem cells niche, oxidative stress, accelerated by B-cell lymphoma 2 gene (BCL-2) depletion, leads to selective apoptosis and diminution of melanocyte stem cells, reducing the repopulation of newly formed anagen follicles. Melanotic bulbar melanocytes express high levels of BCL-2 to enable survival from melanogenesis- and ultraviolet A (UVA)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) attacks. With ageing, the bulbar melanocyte expression of anti-oxidant proteins such as BCL-2, and possibly TRP-2, is reduced, and the dedicated enzymatic anti-oxidant defence system throughout the follicle weakens, resulting in enhanced oxidative stress. A marked reduction in catalase expression and activity results in millimolar accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, contributing to bulbar melanocyte malfunction and death. Interestingly, amelanotic melanocytes at the outer root sheath (ORS) are somewhat less affected by these processes and survive for longer time even within the white, ageing hair follicles. Better understanding of the overtime susceptibility of melanocytes to oxidative stress at the different follicular locations might yield clues to possible therapies for the prevention and reversal of hair greying.

  6. Telomere regulation during ageing and tumorigenesis of the grey mouse lemur.

    PubMed

    Trochet, Delphine; Mergui, Xénia; Ivkovic, Ivana; Porreca, Rosa Maria; Gerbault-Seureau, Michèle; Sidibe, Assitan; Richard, Florence; Londono-Vallejo, Arturo; Perret, Martine; Aujard, Fabienne; Riou, Jean-François

    2015-06-01

    Telomere erosion leading to replicative senescence has been well documented in human and anthropoid primates, and provides a clue against tumorigenesis. In contrast, other mammals, such as laboratory mice, with short lifespan and low body weight mass have different telomere biology without replicative senescence. We analyzed telomere biology in the grey mouse lemur, a small prosimian model with a relative long lifespan currently used in ageing research. We report an average telomere length by telomere restriction fragment (TRF) among the longest reported so far for a primate species (25-30 kb), but without detectable overall telomere shortening with ageing on blood samples. However, we demonstrate using universal STELA (Single Telomere Length Amplification) the existence of short telomeres, the increase of which, while correlating with ageing might be related to another mechanism than replicative senescence. We also found a low stringency of telomerase restriction in tissues and an ease to immortalize fibroblasts in vitro upon spontaneous telomerase activation. Finally, we describe the first grey mouse lemur cancer cell line showing a dramatic telomere shortening and high telomerase activity associated with polyploidy. Our overall results suggest that telomere biology in grey mouse lemur is an exception among primates, with at best a physiologically limited replicative telomere ageing and closest to that observed in small rodents.

  7. Decreasing ice coverage will reduce the breeding success of Baltic grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) females.

    PubMed

    Jüssi, Mart; Härkönen, Tero; Helle, Eero; Jüssi, Ivar

    2008-03-01

    Baltic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) alternate between land and ice breeding, depending on ice conditions. We show that the fitness of grey seal females in terms of pup mortality and quality is reduced when breeding on land as compared with ice. The mean preweaning mortality rate on land was 21.1% (range 0% to 31.6%), and correlated with birth density (range 0.5-5.2 pups 100 m(-2)). The mean mortality rate on ice was 1.5%, where the highest density was 0.2 pups 100 m(-2) in particularly dense breeding groups. Mean weights of pups born on ice were significantly greater (48.3 +/- 8.1 kg) at the onset of moult as compared with pups born on land (37.4 +/- 7.8 kg). Because indices of life-time net reproductive rate (pup survival) and pup quality (weaning weight and health) were more auspicious on ice as compared with land, diminishing ice fields will lower the fitness of Baltic grey seal females and substantially increase the risk for quasi-extinction.

  8. White and grey matter relations to simple, choice, and cognitive reaction time in spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Maureen; Cirino, Paul T; Simic, Nevena; Juranek, Jenifer; Taylor, W Pat; Fletcher, Jack M

    2016-03-01

    Elevated reaction time (RT) is common in brain disorders. We studied three forms of RT in a neurodevelopmental disorder, spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM), characterized by regional alterations of both white and grey matter, and typically developing individuals aged 8 to 48 years, in order to establish the nature of the lifespan-relations of RT and brain variables. Cognitive accuracy and RT speed and variability were all impaired in SBM relative to the typically developing group, but the most important effects of SBM on RT are seen on tasks that require a cognitive decision rule. Individuals with SBM are impaired not only in speeded performance, but also in the consistency of their performance on tasks that extend over time, which may contribute to poor performance on a range of cognitive tasks. The group with SBM showed smaller corrected corpus callosum proportions, larger corrected cerebellar white matter proportions, and larger corrected proportions for grey matter in the Central Executive and Salience networks. There were clear negative relations between RT measures and corpus callosum, Central Executive, and Default Mode networks in the group with SBM; relations were not observed in typically developing age peers. Statistical mediation analyses indicated that corpus callosum and Central Executive Network were important mediators. While RT is known to rely heavily on white matter under conditions of typical development and in individuals with adult-onset brain injury, we add the new information that additional involvement of grey matter may be important for a key neuropsychological function in a common neurodevelopmental disorder.

  9. A geometric network model of intrinsic grey-matter connectivity of the human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Yi-Ping; O'Dea, Reuben; Crofts, Jonathan J.; Han, Cheol E.; Kaiser, Marcus

    2015-10-01

    Network science provides a general framework for analysing the large-scale brain networks that naturally arise from modern neuroimaging studies, and a key goal in theoretical neuroscience is to understand the extent to which these neural architectures influence the dynamical processes they sustain. To date, brain network modelling has largely been conducted at the macroscale level (i.e. white-matter tracts), despite growing evidence of the role that local grey matter architecture plays in a variety of brain disorders. Here, we present a new model of intrinsic grey matter connectivity of the human connectome. Importantly, the new model incorporates detailed information on cortical geometry to construct ‘shortcuts’ through the thickness of the cortex, thus enabling spatially distant brain regions, as measured along the cortical surface, to communicate. Our study indicates that structures based on human brain surface information differ significantly, both in terms of their topological network characteristics and activity propagation properties, when compared against a variety of alternative geometries and generative algorithms. In particular, this might help explain histological patterns of grey matter connectivity, highlighting that observed connection distances may have arisen to maximise information processing ability, and that such gains are consistent with (and enhanced by) the presence of short-cut connections.

  10. The relation between 1st grade grey matter volume and 2nd grade math competence.

    PubMed

    Price, Gavin R; Wilkey, Eric D; Yeo, Darren J; Cutting, Laurie E

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical and numerical competence is a critical foundation for individual success in modern society yet the neurobiological sources of individual differences in math competence are poorly understood. Neuroimaging research over the last decade suggests that neural mechanisms in the parietal lobe, particularly the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) are structurally aberrant in individuals with mathematical learning disabilities. However, whether those same brain regions underlie individual differences in math performance across the full range of math abilities is unknown. Furthermore, previous studies have been exclusively cross-sectional, making it unclear whether variations in the structure of the IPS are caused by or consequences of the development of math skills. The present study investigates the relation between grey matter volume across the whole brain and math competence longitudinally in a representative sample of 50 elementary school children. Results show that grey matter volume in the left IPS at the end of 1st grade relates to math competence a year later at the end of 2nd grade. Grey matter volume in this region did not change over that year, and was still correlated with math competence at the end of 2nd grade. These findings support the hypothesis that the IPS and its associated functions represent a critical foundation for the acquisition of mathematical competence.

  11. Improved estimates for the role of grey matter volume and GABA in bistable perception.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Kristian; Blicher, Jakob Udby; Del Pin, Simon Hviid; Andersen, Lau Møller; Rees, Geraint; Kanai, Ryota

    2016-10-01

    Across a century or more, ambiguous stimuli have been studied scientifically because they provide a method for studying the internal mechanisms of the brain while ensuring an unchanging external stimulus. In recent years, several studies have reported correlations between perceptual dynamics during bistable perception and particular brain characteristics such as the grey matter volume of areas in the superior parietal lobule (SPL) and the relative GABA concentration in the occipital lobe. Here, we attempt to replicate previous results using similar paradigms to those used in the studies first reporting the correlations. Using the original findings as priors for Bayesian analyses, we found strong support for the correlation between structure-from-motion percept duration and anterior SPL grey matter volume. Correlations between percept duration and other parietal areas as well as occipital GABA, however, were not directly replicated or appeared less strong than previous studies suggested. Inspection of the posterior distributions (current "best guess" based on new data given old data as prior) revealed that several original findings may reflect true relationships although no direct evidence was found in support of them in the current sample. Additionally, we found that multiple regression models based on grey matter volume at 2-3 parietal locations (but not including GABA) were the best predictors of percept duration, explaining approximately 35% of the inter-individual variance. Taken together, our results provide new estimates of correlation strengths, generally increasing confidence in the role of the aSPL while decreasing confidence in some of the other relationships.

  12. Forecasting of municipal solid waste quantity in a developing country using multivariate grey models.

    PubMed

    Intharathirat, Rotchana; Abdul Salam, P; Kumar, S; Untong, Akarapong

    2015-05-01

    In order to plan, manage and use municipal solid waste (MSW) in a sustainable way, accurate forecasting of MSW generation and composition plays a key role. It is difficult to carry out the reliable estimates using the existing models due to the limited data available in the developing countries. This study aims to forecast MSW collected in Thailand with prediction interval in long term period by using the optimized multivariate grey model which is the mathematical approach. For multivariate models, the representative factors of residential and commercial sectors affecting waste collected are identified, classified and quantified based on statistics and mathematics of grey system theory. Results show that GMC (1, 5), the grey model with convolution integral, is the most accurate with the least error of 1.16% MAPE. MSW collected would increase 1.40% per year from 43,435-44,994 tonnes per day in 2013 to 55,177-56,735 tonnes per day in 2030. This model also illustrates that population density is the most important factor affecting MSW collected, followed by urbanization, proportion employment and household size, respectively. These mean that the representative factors of commercial sector may affect more MSW collected than that of residential sector. Results can help decision makers to develop the measures and policies of waste management in long term period.

  13. Auto-analysis system for graphite morphology of grey cast iron

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong; Tan, Yiyong; Lei, Junfeng; Zeng, Libo; Zhang, Zelan

    2003-01-01

    The current method to classify graphite morphology types of grey cast iron is based on traditional subjective observation, and it cannot be used for quantitative analysis. Since microstructures have a great effect on the mechanical properties of grey cast iron and different types have totally different characters, six types of grey cast iron are discussed and an image-processing software subsystem that performs the classification and quantitative analysis automatically based on a kind of composed feature vector and artificial neural network (ANN) is described. There are three kinds of texture features: fractal dimension, roughness and two-dimension autoregression, which are used as an extracted feature input vector of ANN classifier. Compared with using only one, the checkout correct precision increased greatly. On the other hand, to achieve the quantitative analysis and show the different types clearly, the region segmentation idea was applied to the system. The percentages of the regions with different type are reported correctly. Furthermore, this paper tentatively introduces a new empirical method to decide the number of ANN hidden nodes, which are usually considered as a difficulty in ANN structure decision. It was found that the optimum hidden node number of the experimental data was the same as that obtained using the new method. PMID:18924718

  14. Effect of aerobic training and aerobic and resistance training on the inflammatory status of hypertensive older adults.

    PubMed

    Lima, Leandra G; Bonardi, José M T; Campos, Giulliard O; Bertani, Rodrigo F; Scher, Luria M L; Louzada-Junior, Paulo; Moriguti, Júlio C; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Lima, Nereida K C

    2015-08-01

    There is a relationship between high levels of inflammatory markers and low adhesion to the practice of physical activity in the older population. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of two types of exercise programs, i.e., aerobic training and aerobic plus resistance training on the plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) of elderly hypertensive subjects. Hypertensive older volunteers in use of antihypertensive drugs were randomized to three groups: aerobic group (AG), resistance and aerobic group (RAG) and control group (CG). Training lasted 10 weeks, with sessions held three times a week. Blood samples were collected before training and 24 h after completion of the 30 sessions for the determination of serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels. Body mass index was obtained before and after 10 weeks. After intervention, BMI values were lower in AG and RAG compared to CG (p < 0.001), IL-6 was reduced in AG compared to CG (p = 0.04), and TNF-α levels were lower only in RAG compared to CG (p = 0.01). Concluding, both types of training were effective in reducing BMI values in hypertensive older subjects. Aerobic exercise produced the reduction of plasma IL-6 levels. However, the combination of aerobic and resistance exercise, which would be more indicated for the prevention of loss of functionality with aging, showed lower TNF-α mediator after training than control group and a greater fall of TNF-α levels associated to higher BMI reduction.

  15. Helping Adults to Stay Physically Fit: Preventing Relapse Following Aerobic Exercise Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrick, G. Ken; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Long-term adherence to an aerobic exercise regime is a major problem among exercise program graduates. This article discusses the steps involved in developing relapse prevention treatment strategies for aerobic exercise programs. (JMK)

  16. [Population development characteristics of rice crop cultivated on aerobic soil with mulching].

    PubMed

    Sheng, Haijun; Shen, Qirong; Feng, Ke

    2004-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out to study the population development characteristics of rice crop cultivated both on aerobic and waterlogged soil conditions. The results showed that the whole growth duration of rice growing on aerobic soil was one week longer than that on waterlogged soil. Shorter and narrower leaves and smaller LAI of rice population were found on aerobic soil than on waterlogged soil, which resulted in a decreased photosynthesis, smaller amount and lighter weight of rice grains on aerobic soil, compared with those on waterlogged soil. Among the aerobic treatments, more tillers, lower percentage of filled grains and shorter duration of grain forming were found on soils covered with plastic film than on soils covered with semi-decomposed straw or without mulching. The rice grain yield was decreased in the order of waterlogged soil > aerobic soil covered with plastic film > aerobic soil covered with semi-decomposed straw > aerobic soil without mulching.

  17. Simultaneous brightness and apparent depth from true colors on grey: Chevreul revisited.

    PubMed

    Dresp-Langley, Birgitta; Reeves, Adam

    2012-01-01

    We show that true colors as defined by Chevreul (1839) produce unsuspected simultaneous brightness induction effects on their immediate grey backgrounds when these are placed on a darker (black) general background surrounding two spatially separated configurations. Assimilation and apparent contrast may occur in one and the same stimulus display. We examined the possible link between these effects and the perceived depth of the color patterns which induce them as a function of their luminance contrast. Patterns of square-shaped inducers of a single color (red, green, blue, yellow, or grey) were placed on background fields of a lighter and a darker grey, presented on a darker screen. Inducers were always darker on one side of the display and brighter on the other in a given trial. The intensity of the grey backgrounds varied between trials only. This permitted generating four inducer luminance contrasts, presented in random order, for each color. Background fields were either spatially separated or consisted of a single grey field on the black screen. Experiments were run under three environmental conditions: dark-adaptation, daylight, and rod-saturation after exposure to bright light. In a first task, we measured probabilities of contrast, assimilation, and no effect in a three-alternative forced-choice procedure (background appears brighter on the 'left', on the 'right' or the 'same'). Visual adaptation and inducer contrast had no significant influence on the induction effects produced by colored inducers. Achromatic inducers produced significantly stronger contrast effects after dark-adaptation, and significantly stronger assimilation in daylight conditions. Grouping two backgrounds into a single one was found to significantly decrease probabilities of apparent contrast. Under the same conditions, we measured probabilities of the inducers to be perceived as nearer to the observer (inducers appear nearer on 'left', on 'right' or the 'same'). These, as predicted by

  18. A grey literature review of special events for promoting cancer screenings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer remains the second leading cause of mortality in the United States. Special events such as health fairs, screening days or cultural festivals are employed often for community education about cancer screening. A previous systematic review of the published literature was conducted in 2012-2013. The purpose of this study was to conduct a grey literature component of special events that promote breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening in the U.S. Methods We conducted a grey literature search of dissertations/theses and conference abstracts. The theses/dissertations were restricted to those: 1) written in English, 2) published from January 1990 to December 2011, 3) examined at least one of the predefined categories of special events, 4) involved cancer screening for breast, cervical, and/or colorectal cancer, 5) included outcome data, and 6) conducted in the United States. A review of U.S. public health and cancer conference abstracts, that were readily available and had focused on at least of 3 cancer types and included outcome data, was conducted. Data were abstracted on the purpose, location, primary audience(s), activities conducted, screening provided onsite or referrals, and evaluation results. Results The grey literature review found 6 special events. The types of events found added to the numbers found in the systematic review, especially receptions or parties and cultural festivals/events. All focused on increasing breast and cervical cancer screening except one that focused on breast cancer only. The reach of these events was targeted at mostly minorities or underserved communities. Common evidence-based strategies were group education, small media, and reducing structural barriers. Group education involved presentations from physicians, lay-health advisors, or cancer survivors, while reducing structural barriers included activities such as providing screening appointment sign-ups at the event or providing transportation for event

  19. Diffusion imaging changes in grey matter in Alzheimer's disease: a potential marker of early neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Weston, Philip S J; Simpson, Ivor J A; Ryan, Natalie S; Ourselin, Sebastien; Fox, Nick C

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is recognized to have a long presymptomatic period, during which there is progressive accumulation of molecular pathology, followed by inexorable neuronal damage. The ability to identify presymptomatic individuals with evidence of neurodegenerative change, to stage their disease, and to track progressive changes will be important for early diagnosis and for prevention trials. Despite recent advances, particularly in magnetic resonance imaging, our ability to identify early neurodegenerative changes reliably is limited. The development of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, which is sensitive to microstructural changes not visible with conventional volumetric techniques, has led to a number of diffusion imaging studies in AD; these have largely focused on white matter changes. However, in AD cerebral grey matter is affected very early, with pathological studies suggesting that grey matter changes predate those in white matter. In this article we review the growing number of studies that assess grey matter diffusivity changes in AD. Although use of the technique is still at a relatively early stage, results so far have been promising. Initial studies identified changes in diffusion measures in the hippocampi of patients with mild cognitive impairment, which predated macroscopic volume loss, with positive predictive value for progression to AD dementia. More recent studies have identified abnormalities in multiple neocortical areas (particularly the posterior cingulate) at various stages of disease progression. Studies of patients who carry genetic mutations predisposing to autosomal dominant familial AD have shown cortical and subcortical grey matter diffusivity changes several years before the expected onset of the first clinical symptoms. The technique is not without potential methodological difficulties, especially relating to partial volume effects, although recent advances appear to be reducing such issues. Going forward

  20. Ergolytic/ergogenic effects of creatine on aerobic power.

    PubMed

    Smith, A E; Fukuda, D H; Ryan, E D; Kendall, K L; Cramer, J T; Stout, J

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of creatine (Cr) loading and sex differences on aerobic running performance. 27 men (mean±SD; age: 22.2±3.1 years, ht: 179.5±8.7 cm, wt: 78.0±9.8 kg) and 28 women (age: 21.2±2.1 years, ht: 166.0±5.8 cm, wt: 63.4±8.9 kg) were randomly assigned to either creatine (Cr, di-creatine citrate; n=27) or a placebo (PL; n=28) group, ingesting 1 packet 4 times daily (total of 20 g/day) for 5 days. Aerobic power (maximal oxygen consumption: VO2max) was assessed before and after supplementation using open circuit spirometry (Parvo-Medics) during graded exercise tests on a treadmill. 4 high-speed runs to exhaustion were conducted at 110, 105, 100, and 90% of peak velocity to determine critical velocity (CV). Distances achieved were plotted over times-to-exhaustion and linear regression was used to determine the slopes (critical velocity, CV) assessing aerobic performance. The results indicated that Cr loading did not positively or negatively influence VO2max, CV, time to exhaustion or body mass (p>0.05). These results suggest Cr supplementation may be used in aerobic running activities without detriments to performance.