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  1. Cardiorespiratory fitness and digestive cancer mortality: findings from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS)

    PubMed Central

    Peel, J. Brent; Sui, Xuemei; Matthews, Charles E.; Adams, Swann A.; Hébert, James R.; Hardin, James W.; Church, Timothy S.; Blair, Steven N.

    2009-01-01

    Although higher levels of physical activity are inversely associated with risk of colon cancer, few prospective studies have evaluated overall digestive system cancer mortality in relation to cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). The authors examined this association among 38,801 men aged 20−88 years and who performed a maximal treadmill exercise test at baseline in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (Dallas, Texas) during 1974−2003. Mortality was assessed over 29 years of follow-up (1974−2003). 283 digestive system cancer deaths occurred during a mean 17-year of observation. Age-adjusted mortality rates per 10,000 person-yrs according to low, moderate, and high CRF groups were 6.8, 4.0, and 3.3 for digestive system cancer (trend p < 0.001). After adjustment for age, examination year, body mass index, smoking, drinking, family history of cancer, personal history of diabetes, hazard ratios for overall digestive cancer deaths (95% confidence interval) for those in the middle and upper 40% of the distribution of CRF relative to those in the lowest 20% were 0.66 (0.49, 0.88) and 0.56 (0.40, 0.80), respectively. Being fit (the upper 80% of CRF) was associated with a lower risk of mortality from colon (0.61 [0.37, 1.00]), colorectal (0.58 [0.37, 0.92]), and liver cancer (0.28 [0.11, 0.72]), compared with being unfit (the lowest 20% of CRF). These findings support a protective role of CRF against total digestive tract, colorectal, and liver cancer deaths in men. PMID:19293313

  2. Effects of Cardiorespiratory Fitness on Serum Ferritin Concentration and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes: Evidence from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS)

    PubMed Central

    Le, Tuan D.; Bae, Sejong; Ed Hsu, Chiehwen; Singh, Karan P.; Blair, Steven N.; Shang, Ning

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) are inversely related to the occurrence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Both play an important role in reducing serum ferritin (SF) concentration. Increased SF concentration is considered a contributing factor for developing T2D. METHODS: The present cohort study investigated 5,512 adult participants enrolled in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS) between 1995 and 2001. The subjects completed a comprehensive medical examination and a SF evaluation, and had been followed up until either diabetes onset, death, or the cut-off date of November 2007. Three CRF levels were categorized. SF quartile levels were defined by gender and menopausal status. The incidence of T2D was calculated for 10,000 person-years, and hazard ratios (HR) were computed to predict the incidence of T2D based on SF quartiles and CRF levels. RESULTS: SF concentration was significantly higher in males than in females (148.5 ± 104.7 ng/ml vs. 52.2 ± 45.9 ng/ml) and was inversely associated with CRF levels. In the high CRF group, 32.7% of participants had a low SF concentration whereas only 16.8% of participants had a high SF concentration level. After adjusting for potential confounders, male participants in the highest SF quartile level had a 1.7 times (HR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.66; p-trend = 0.027) increased risk for developing T2D compared with those in the lowest SF quartile group. CONCLUSION: Lower SF concentration was associated with lower risk of developing T2D in those regularly participating in CRF. The findings from this study suggest that SF concentration could be used as a diabetic predictor. Based on these results clinicians and public health professionals should promote regular physical activity or fitness to reduce the incidence of T2D. PMID:19290385

  3. Postural Balance Following Aerobic Fatigue Tests: A Longitudinal Study Among Young Athletes.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Nili; Eliakim, Alon; Zaav, Aviva; Pantanowitz, Michal; Halumi, Monder; Eisenstein, Tamir; Meckel, Yoav; Nemet, Dan

    2016-01-01

    General fatigue can cause aggravation of postural balance, with increased risk for injuries. The present longitudinal study aimed to evaluate the postural balance of young athletes following field aerobic tests throughout 1 year of training. Thirty children from a sports center in Nazareth, participating in a 3 times/week training program (specific to basketball, soccer, or athletic training), were assessed. Postural balance parameters were taken before, immediately after, and 10 min after a 20 m shuttle-run aerobic test, at 3 time points during 1 training year (Start/Y, Mid/Y, and End/Y). Fitness improved at the Mid/Y and End/Y compared to Start/Y. Postural balance significantly deteriorated immediately after the aerobic test and improved significantly in the 10-min testing in all 3 time points, with significant deterioration in the End/Y compared with the Start/Y. In conclusions, postural balance deteriorates immediately after aerobic exercises, and at the end of the year. To better practice drills related to postural balance and possibly to prevent injuries, it is best for young athletes to properly rest immediately following aerobic exercises and to practice postural balance mainly at the beginning and at the middle of the training year.

  4. Pregnancy related back pain, is it related to aerobic fitness? A longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Low back pain with onset during pregnancy is common and approximately one out of three women have disabling pain. The pathogenesis of the pain condition is uncertain and there is no information on the role of physical fitness. Whether poorer physical conditioning is a cause or effect of back pain is also disputed and information from prospective studies needed. Methods A cohort of pregnant women, recruited from maternal health care centers in central Sweden, were examined regarding estimated peak oxygen uptake by cycle ergometer test in early pregnancy, reported physical activity prior to pregnancy, basic characteristics, back pain during pregnancy and back pain postpartum. Results Back pain during the current pregnancy was reported by nearly 80% of the women. At the postpartum appointment this prevalence was 40%. No association was displayed between estimated peak oxygen uptake and incidence of back pain during and after pregnancy, adjusted for physical activity, back pain before present pregnancy, previous deliveries, age and weight. A significant inverse association was found between estimated peak oxygen uptake and back pain intensity during pregnancy and a direct association post partum, in a fully adjusted multiple linear regression analysis. Conclusions Estimated peak oxygen uptake and reported physical activity in early pregnancy displayed no influence on the onset of subsequent back pain during or after pregnancy, where the time sequence support the hypothesis that poorer physical deconditioning is not a cause but a consequence of the back pain condition. The mechanism for the attenuating effect of increased oxygen uptake on back pain intensity is uncertain. PMID:22510295

  5. A patient-centered longitudinal care plan: vision versus reality

    PubMed Central

    Dykes, Patricia C; Samal, Lipika; Donahue, Moreen; Greenberg, Jeffrey O; Hurley, Ann C; Hasan, Omar; O'Malley, Terrance A; Venkatesh, Arjun K; Volk, Lynn A; Bates, David W

    2014-01-01

    Objective As healthcare systems and providers move toward meaningful use of electronic health records, longitudinal care plans (LCPs) may provide a means to improve communication and coordination as patients transition across settings. The objective of this study was to determine the current state of communication of LCPs across settings and levels of care. Materials and methods We conducted surveys and interviews with professionals from emergency departments, acute care hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, and home health agency settings in six regions in the USA. We coded the transcripts according to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) ‘Broad Approaches’ to care coordination to understand the degree to which current practice meets the definition of an LCP. Results Participants (n=22) from all settings reported that LCPs do not exist in their current state. We found LCPs in practice, and none of these were shared or reconciled across settings. Moreover, we found wide variation in the types and formats of care plan information that was communicated as patients transitioned. The most common formats, even when care plan information was communicated within the same healthcare system, were paper and fax. Discussion These findings have implications for data reuse, interoperability, and achieving widespread adoption of LCPs. Conclusions The use of LCPs to support care transitions is suboptimal. Strategies are needed to transform the LCP from vision to reality. PMID:24996874

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Homodimeric Type-I Reaction Center Complex from Candidatus Chloracidobacterium thermophilum, an Aerobic Chlorophototroph*

    PubMed Central

    Tsukatani, Yusuke; Romberger, Steven P.; Golbeck, John H.; Bryant, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    The recently discovered thermophilic acidobacterium Candidatus Chloracidobacterium thermophilum is the first aerobic chlorophototroph that has a type-I, homodimeric reaction center (RC). This organism and its type-I RCs were initially detected by the occurrence of pscA gene sequences, which encode the core subunit of the RC complex, in metagenomic sequence data derived from hot spring microbial mats. Here, we report the isolation and initial biochemical characterization of the type-I RC from Ca. C. thermophilum. After removal of chlorosomes, crude membranes were solubilized with 0.1% (w/v) n-dodecyl β-d-maltoside, and the RC complex was purified by ion-exchange chromatography. The RC complex comprised only two polypeptides: the reaction center core protein PscA and a 22-kDa carotenoid-binding protein denoted CbpC. The absorption spectrum showed a large, broad absorbance band centered at ∼483 nm from carotenoids as well as smaller Qy absorption bands at 672 and 812 nm from chlorophyll a and bacteriochlorophyll a, respectively. The light-induced difference spectra of whole cells, membranes, and the isolated RC showed maximal bleaching at 840 nm, which is attributed to the special pair and which we denote as P840. Making it unique among homodimeric type-I RCs, the isolated RC was photoactive in the presence of oxygen. Analyses by optical spectroscopy, chromatography, and mass spectrometry revealed that the RC complex contained 10.3 bacteriochlorophyll aP, 6.4 chlorophyll aPD, and 1.6 Zn-bacteriochlorophyll aP′ molecules per P840 (12.8:8.0:2.0). The possible functions of the Zn-bacteriochlorophyll aP′ molecules and the carotenoid-binding protein are discussed. PMID:22184116

  7. Creating a Longitudinal Integrated Clerkship with Mutual Benefits for an Academic Medical Center and a Community Health System

    PubMed Central

    Poncelet, Ann Noelle; Mazotti, Lindsay A; Blumberg, Bruce; Wamsley, Maria A; Grennan, Tim; Shore, William B

    2014-01-01

    The longitudinal integrated clerkship is a model of clinical education driven by tenets of social cognitive theory, situated learning, and workplace learning theories, and built on a foundation of continuity between students, patients, clinicians, and a system of care. Principles and goals of this type of clerkship are aligned with primary care principles, including patient-centered care and systems-based practice. Academic medical centers can partner with community health systems around a longitudinal integrated clerkship to provide mutual benefits for both organizations, creating a sustainable model of clinical training that addresses medical education and community health needs. A successful one-year longitudinal integrated clerkship was created in partnership between an academic medical center and an integrated community health system. Compared with traditional clerkship students, students in this clerkship had better scores on Clinical Performance Examinations, internal medicine examinations, and high perceptions of direct observation of clinical skills. Advantages for the academic medical center include mitigating the resources required to run a longitudinal integrated clerkship while providing primary care training and addressing core competencies such as systems-based practice, practice-based learning, and interprofessional care. Advantages for the community health system include faculty development, academic appointments, professional satisfaction, and recruitment. Success factors include continued support and investment from both organizations’ leadership, high-quality faculty development, incentives for community-based physician educators, and emphasis on the mutually beneficial relationship for both organizations. Development of a longitudinal integrated clerkship in a community health system can serve as a model for developing and expanding these clerkship options for academic medical centers. PMID:24867551

  8. Creating a longitudinal integrated clerkship with mutual benefits for an academic medical center and a community health system.

    PubMed

    Poncelet, Ann Noelle; Mazotti, Lindsay A; Blumberg, Bruce; Wamsley, Maria A; Grennan, Tim; Shore, William B

    2014-01-01

    The longitudinal integrated clerkship is a model of clinical education driven by tenets of social cognitive theory, situated learning, and workplace learning theories, and built on a foundation of continuity between students, patients, clinicians, and a system of care. Principles and goals of this type of clerkship are aligned with primary care principles, including patient-centered care and systems-based practice. Academic medical centers can partner with community health systems around a longitudinal integrated clerkship to provide mutual benefits for both organizations, creating a sustainable model of clinical training that addresses medical education and community health needs. A successful one-year longitudinal integrated clerkship was created in partnership between an academic medical center and an integrated community health system. Compared with traditional clerkship students, students in this clerkship had better scores on Clinical Performance Examinations, internal medicine examinations, and high perceptions of direct observation of clinical skills.Advantages for the academic medical center include mitigating the resources required to run a longitudinal integrated clerkship while providing primary care training and addressing core competencies such as systems-based practice, practice-based learning, and interprofessional care. Advantages for the community health system include faculty development, academic appointments, professional satisfaction, and recruitment.Success factors include continued support and investment from both organizations' leadership, high-quality faculty development, incentives for community-based physician educators, and emphasis on the mutually beneficial relationship for both organizations. Development of a longitudinal integrated clerkship in a community health system can serve as a model for developing and expanding these clerkship options for academic medical centers.

  9. Longitudinal trends in organophosphate incidents reported to the National Pesticide Information Center, 1995–2007

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Regulatory decisions to phase-out the availability and use of common organophosphate pesticides among the general public were announced in 2000 and continued through 2004. Based on revised risk assessments, chlorpyrifos and diazinon were determined to pose unacceptable risks. To determine the impact of these decisions, organophosphate (OP) exposure incidents reported to the National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) were analyzed for longitudinal trends. Methods Non-occupational human exposure incidents reported to NPIC were grouped into pre- (1995–2000) and post-announcement periods (2001–2007). The number of total OP exposure incidents, as well as reports for chlorpyrifos, diazinon and malathion, were analyzed for significant differences between these two periods. The number of informational inquiries from the general public was analyzed over time as well. Results The number of average annual OP-related exposure incidents reported to NPIC decreased significantly between the pre- and post-announcement periods (p < 0.001). A significant decrease in the number of chlorpyrifos and diazinon reports was observed over time (p < 0.001). No significant difference in the number of incident reports for malathion was observed (p = 0.4), which was not phased-out of residential use. Similar to exposure incidents, the number of informational inquiries received by NPIC declined over time following the phase-out announcement. Conclusion Consistent with other findings, the number of chlorpyrifos and diazinon exposure incidents reported to NPIC significantly decreased following public announcement and targeted regulatory action. PMID:19379510

  10. Longitudinal trends in HIV nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis use at a Boston community health center between 1997 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sachin; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2015-01-01

    Secular trends in nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis (NPEP) use have not been well characterized. We performed a retrospective longitudinal study of 894 electronic medical records of NPEP users, mostly men who have sex with men, at a Boston community health center who presented between July 1997 and August 2013. NPEP use and condomless sexual exposures increased over time; 19.4% had multiple NPEP courses. Having an HIV-infected partner was associated with increased odds of regimen completion, and 3-drug regimens were associated with decreased odds of completion. Targeted adherence and risk-reduction counseling are warranted for select NPEP users at this center.

  11. Exercise, Animal Aerobics, and Interpretation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Valerie

    1996-01-01

    Describes an aerobic activity set to music for children that mimics animal movements. Example exercises include walking like a penguin or jumping like a cricket. Stresses basic aerobic principles and designing the program at the level of children's motor skills. Benefits include reaching people who normally don't visit nature centers, and bridging…

  12. Effect of longitudinal degree of freedom of magnetic moment in body-centered-cubic iron

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Junqi; Eisenbach, Markus; Nicholson, Don M; Rusanu, Aurelian

    2013-01-01

    First principle calculations are performed to study the longitudinal degree of freedom of the magnetic moment in BCC iron. A model of the Heisenberg type of exchange interaction is proposed, which couples the spin and lattice degrees of freedom. Monte Carlo simulations are then applied to study the effect of thermal displacements on the magnetic phase transition in BCC Iron. The reason for the surprising success of fixed lattice Heisenberg models is explained.

  13. Mexican American Adolescents' Profiles of Risk and Mental Health: A Person-Centered Longitudinal Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Roosa, Mark W.; Knight, George P.; Gonzales, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    Although Mexican American adolescents experience multiple risk factors in their daily lives, most research examines the influences of risk factors on adjustment independently, ignoring the additive and interactive effects of multiple risk factors. Guided by a person-centered perspective and utilizing latent profile analysis, this study identified…

  14. How a Young Child Learns How to Take Part in Mealtimes in a Japanese Day-Care Center: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishiguro, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    This research is a longitudinal, ethnographic study that focuses on mealtimes with one boy from 9 to 78 months of age in a day-care center in Japan. It looks at routine interactions between a child, his nursery teachers, and the environment, which is a shared and mutually available communicative space between participants in collaboration. The aim…

  15. Nurse Workforce Characteristics and Infection Risk in VA Community Living Centers: A Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Uchida-Nakakoji, Mayuko; Stone, Patricia W.; Schmitt, Susan K.; Phibbs, Ciaran S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine effects of workforce characteristics on resident infections in Veterans Affairs (VA) Community Living Centers (CLCs). Data Sources A six-year panel of monthly, unit-specific data included workforce characteristics (from the VA Decision Support System and Payroll data) and characteristics of residents and outcome measures (from the Minimum Data Set). Study Design A resident infection composite was the dependent variable. Workforce characteristics of registered nurses (RN), licensed practical nurses (LPN), nurse aides (NA), and contract nurses included: staffing levels, skill mix and tenure. Descriptive statistics and unit-level fixed effects regressions were conducted. Robustness checks varying workforce and outcome parameters were examined. Principal Findings Average nursing hours per resident day was 4.59 hours (sd = 1.21). RN tenure averaged 4.7 years (sd = 1.64) and 4.2 years for both LPN (sd= 1.84) and NA (sd= 1.72). In multivariate analyses RN and LPN tenure were associated with decreased infections by 3.8% (IRR= 0.962 p<0.01) and 2% (IRR=0.98 p<0.01) respectively. Robustness checks consistently found RN and LPN tenure to be associated with decreased infections. Conclusions Increasing RN and LPN tenure are likely to reduce CLC resident infections. Administrators and policymakers need to focus on recruiting and retaining a skilled nursing workforce. PMID:25634087

  16. Longitudinal trends in HIV non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (NPEP) use at a Boston community health center between 1997 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Sachin; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    Secular trends in non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (NPEP) use have not been well-characterized. We performed a retrospective longitudinal study of 894 electronic medical records of NPEP users, mostly men who have sex with men, at a Boston community health center who presented between July, 1997 and August, 2013. NPEP use and condomless sexual exposures increased over time; 19.4% had multiple NPEP courses. Having an HIV-infected partner was associated with increased odds of regimen completion, and three-drug regimens were associated with decreased odds of completion. Targeted adherence and risk-reduction counseling are warranted for select NPEP users at this center. PMID:25321180

  17. Independent and joint effects of sedentary time and cardiorespiratory fitness on all-cause mortality: the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Shuval, Kerem; Finley, Carrie E; Barlow, Carolyn E; Nguyen, Binh T; Njike, Valentine Y; Pettee Gabriel, Kelley

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the independent and joint effects of sedentary time and cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness) on all-cause mortality. Design, setting, participants A prospective study of 3141 Cooper Center Longitudinal Study participants. Participants provided information on television (TV) viewing and car time in 1982 and completed a maximal exercise test during a 1-year time frame; they were then followed until mortality or through 2010. TV viewing, car time, total sedentary time and fitness were the primary exposures and all-cause mortality was the outcome. The relationship between the exposures and outcome was examined utilising Cox proportional hazard models. Results A total of 581 deaths occurred over a median follow-up period of 28.7 years (SD=4.4). At baseline, participants’ mean age was 45.0 years (SD=9.6), 86.5% were men and their mean body mass index was 24.6 (SD=3.0). Multivariable analyses revealed a significant linear relationship between increased fitness and lower mortality risk, even while adjusting for total sedentary time and covariates (p=0.02). The effects of total sedentary time on increased mortality risk did not quite reach statistical significance once fitness and covariates were adjusted for (p=0.05). When examining this relationship categorically, in comparison to the reference category (≤10 h/week), being sedentary for ≥23 h weekly increased mortality risk by 29% without controlling for fitness (HR=1.29, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.63); however, once fitness and covariates were taken into account this relationship did not reach statistical significance (HR=1.20, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.51). Moreover, spending >10 h in the car weekly significantly increased mortality risk by 27% in the fully adjusted model. The association between TV viewing and mortality was not significant. Conclusions The relationship between total sedentary time and higher mortality risk is less pronounced when fitness is taken into account. Increased car time, but

  18. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Heijnen, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard; Kibele, Armin; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2016-01-01

    Running, and aerobic exercise in general, is a physical activity that increasingly many people engage in but that also has become popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree aerobic exercise modulates hormones, amino acids, and neurotransmitters levels. In general, it seems that factors such as genes, gender, training status, and hormonal status need to be taken into account to gain a better understanding of the neuromodular underpinnings of aerobic exercise. More research using longitudinal studies and considering individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. We suggest that, in order to succeed, aerobic exercise programs should include optimal periodization, prevent overtraining and be tailored to interindividual differences, including neuro-developmental and genetically-based factors. PMID:26779053

  19. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise-A Review.

    PubMed

    Heijnen, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard; Kibele, Armin; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2015-01-01

    Running, and aerobic exercise in general, is a physical activity that increasingly many people engage in but that also has become popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree aerobic exercise modulates hormones, amino acids, and neurotransmitters levels. In general, it seems that factors such as genes, gender, training status, and hormonal status need to be taken into account to gain a better understanding of the neuromodular underpinnings of aerobic exercise. More research using longitudinal studies and considering individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. We suggest that, in order to succeed, aerobic exercise programs should include optimal periodization, prevent overtraining and be tailored to interindividual differences, including neuro-developmental and genetically-based factors. PMID:26779053

  20. A longitudinal examination of the measurement properties and predictive utility of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale among North American Indigenous adolescents.

    PubMed

    Armenta, Brian E; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J; Whitbeck, Les B; Crawford, Devan M; Hoyt, Dan R

    2014-12-01

    We examined the longitudinal measurement properties and predictive utility of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) from early to late adolescence among a sample of North American Indigenous youths. Participants were 632 North American Indigenous adolescents (n = 632; 50.3% girls; M age at baseline = 11.11 years) participating in an 8-year, 8-wave longitudinal study. Via in-person interviews, participants completed the CES-D at Waves 1, 3, 5, and 7, and the major depressive disorder (MDD) module of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children at Waves 1, 4, 6, and 8. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that responses to the CES-D were similarly explained by 2-, 3-, and 4-factor models, as well as a 1-factor model with correlations between the error variances for the positively worded items. Longitudinal measurement equivalence analyses indicated full structural (i.e., factor structure), metric (i.e., factor loadings), and scalar (i.e., observed item intercepts) equivalence for each factor structure. Substantive analyses showed that the CES-D was significantly associated with MDD both concurrently and prospectively, although these effects were smaller than might be expected. Finally, the CES-D negative affect and somatic complaints subscales were the strongest and most consistent predictors of MDD. Among our sample of North American Indigenous youths, the measurement properties of the CES-D were stable from early to late adolescence. Moreover, somatic difficulties and depressed affect were the strongest predictors of MDD. PMID:25181394

  1. A longitudinal three-center study of craniofacial morphology at 6 and 12 years of age in patients with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Bartzela, Theodosia; Katsaros, Christos; Rønning, Elisabeth; Rizell, Sara; Semb, Gunvor; Bronkhorst, Ewald; Halazonetis, Demetrios; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie

    2012-08-01

    In this longitudinal study, the craniofacial morphology and evaluated soft tissue profile changes, at 6 and 12 years of age in patients with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate (CBCLP) were compared. Lateral cephalograms from 148 patients with CBCLP, treated consecutively at three European cleft centers, Gothenburg (n (A) = 37), Nijmegen (n (B) = 26), and Oslo (n (C) = 85), were evaluated. Eighteen hard tissue and ten soft tissue landmarks were digitized. Paired t test, Pearson's correlation coefficients, and multiple regression models were applied for statistical analysis. ANOVA and Tukey-B, as a post hoc test, were used to evaluate the increments and compare centers. Hard and soft tissue data were superimposed using the generalized Procrustes analysis. For Nijmegen, the increments of the variables SNA, ANB, SN-NL, SN-ML, NL-ML, Snss, and Snpg were significantly different than the two other centers (p = 0.041 to <0.001). SNPg increments were significantly different between Nijmegen and Oslo (p = 0.002). The three cleft centers followed different treatment protocols, but the main differences in craniofacial morphology until 12 years of age were the growth pattern and the maxillary and upper incisor variables. Follow-up of these patients until facial growth has ceased, which may elucidate components for improving treatment outcome.

  2. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  3. Enhanced Performance of Community Health Service Centers during Medical Reforms in Pudong New District of Shanghai, China: A Longitudinal Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoming; Li, Yanting; Liu, Shanshan; Lou, Jiquan; Ding, Ye; Liang, Hong; Gu, Jianjun; Jing, Yuan; Fu, Hua; Zhang, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    Background The performance of community health service centers (CHSCs) has not been well monitored and analysed since China’s latest community health reforms in 2009. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the performing trends of the CHSCs and to analyze the main factors that could affect the performance in Pudong new district of Shanghai, China. Methods A regional performance assessment indicator system was applied to the evaluation of Pudong CHSCs’ performance from 2011 to 2013. All of the data were sorted out by a panel, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and a generalized estimating equation model. Results We found that the overall performance increased annually, with a growing number of CHSCs achieving high scores. Significant differences were observed in institutional management, public health services, basic medical services and comprehensive satisfaction during the period of three years. However, we found no differences in the service scores of Chinese traditional medicine (CTM). The investigation also demonstrated that the key factors affecting performance were the location, information system level, family GP program and medical association program rather than the size of the center. However, the medical association participation appeared to have a significant negative effect on performance. Conclusions It can be concluded from the three-year investigation that the overall performance was improved, but that it could have been further enhanced, especially in institutional management and basic medical service; therefore, it is imperative that CHSCs undertake approaches such as optimizing the resource allocation and utilization, reinforcing the establishment of the information system level, extending the family GP program to more local communities, and promoting the medical association initiative. PMID:25950172

  4. Longitudinal study of susceptibilities of species of the Bacteroides fragilis group to five antimicrobial agents in three medical centers.

    PubMed

    Turgeon, P; Turgeon, V; Gourdeau, M; Dubois, J; Lamothe, F

    1994-10-01

    A total of 579 clinical isolates of the Bacteroides fragilis group collected from three Canadian hospitals were tested for susceptibility to five antimicrobial agents by using an agar dilution method. During the 4-year survey, isolates from intra-abdominal infections were collected from the following sites: abdominal abscesses (48%), peritoneal fluid (39%), blood (10%), and bile (3%). B. fragilis was the most prevalent species (35.4%), followed by B. thetaiotaomicron (19.2%), B. ovatus (15.9%), and B. vulgatus (11%). No metronidazole- or imipenem-resistant strains were found during the survey. Resistance profiles varied among the different species tested: 7.8, 2.9, and 7.3% of B. fragilis strains (n = 205) and 68.1, 17.2, and 9.4% of non-B. fragilis strains (n = 373) were resistant to cefotetan, cefoxitin, and clindamycin, respectively. B. fragilis and B. vulgatus demonstrated lower resistance rates than B. thetaiotaomicron, B. ovatus, B. distasonis, and B. caccae. During the study, rates of resistance to cefotetan and clindamycin fluctuated but rates of resistance to cefoxitin increased, particularly at one center. These data indicate a need to determine the susceptibility patterns of the B. fragilis group periodically at each hospital.

  5. Longitudinal study of susceptibilities of species of the Bacteroides fragilis group to five antimicrobial agents in three medical centers.

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, P; Turgeon, V; Gourdeau, M; Dubois, J; Lamothe, F

    1994-01-01

    A total of 579 clinical isolates of the Bacteroides fragilis group collected from three Canadian hospitals were tested for susceptibility to five antimicrobial agents by using an agar dilution method. During the 4-year survey, isolates from intra-abdominal infections were collected from the following sites: abdominal abscesses (48%), peritoneal fluid (39%), blood (10%), and bile (3%). B. fragilis was the most prevalent species (35.4%), followed by B. thetaiotaomicron (19.2%), B. ovatus (15.9%), and B. vulgatus (11%). No metronidazole- or imipenem-resistant strains were found during the survey. Resistance profiles varied among the different species tested: 7.8, 2.9, and 7.3% of B. fragilis strains (n = 205) and 68.1, 17.2, and 9.4% of non-B. fragilis strains (n = 373) were resistant to cefotetan, cefoxitin, and clindamycin, respectively. B. fragilis and B. vulgatus demonstrated lower resistance rates than B. thetaiotaomicron, B. ovatus, B. distasonis, and B. caccae. During the study, rates of resistance to cefotetan and clindamycin fluctuated but rates of resistance to cefoxitin increased, particularly at one center. These data indicate a need to determine the susceptibility patterns of the B. fragilis group periodically at each hospital. PMID:7840557

  6. One Year of Preschool or Two – Is It Important for Adult Outcomes? Results from the Chicago Longitudinal Study of the Child-Parent Centers

    PubMed Central

    Arteaga, Irma; Humpage, Sarah; Reynolds, Arthur J.; Temple, Judy A.

    2015-01-01

    Until the last year, public funding for preschool education had been growing rapidly over a decade with most state programs providing one year of preschool for four year olds. Fewer three year olds are enrolled in preschool. To investigate the importance of enrollment duration, this study is the first to estimate long-term dosage effects of years of preschool. We use data from a cohort of 1,500 students in the Chicago Longitudinal Study who enrolled in the Chicago Public Schools in the mid-1980s. Many of these students participated in a high-quality preschool program called Child-Parent Centers (CPC) for one or two years. To address selection with multiple treatments, we employ inverse propensity score weighting. Relative to children who attended one year of CPC preschool, the two-year group is significantly less likely to receive special education or be abused or neglected or to commit crimes. The findings provide support for the long-term benefits of greater exposure to preschool. PMID:26823640

  7. Aerobic Conditioning Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Neil R.

    1980-01-01

    An aerobic exercise class that focuses on the conditioning of the cardiovascular and muscular systems is presented. Students complete data cards on heart rate, pulse, and exercises to be completed during the forty minute course. (CJ)

  8. Neuropathologic assessment of participants in two multi-center longitudinal observational studies: the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN).

    PubMed

    Cairns, Nigel J; Perrin, Richard J; Franklin, Erin E; Carter, Deborah; Vincent, Benjamin; Xie, Mingqiang; Bateman, Randall J; Benzinger, Tammie; Friedrichsen, Karl; Brooks, William S; Halliday, Glenda M; McLean, Catriona; Ghetti, Bernardino; Morris, John C

    2015-08-01

    It has been hypothesized that the relatively rare autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) may be a useful model of the more frequent, sporadic, late-onset AD (LOAD). Individuals with ADAD have a predictable age at onset and the biomarker profile of ADAD participants in the preclinical stage may be used to predict disease progression and clinical onset. However, the extent to which the pathogenesis and neuropathology of ADAD overlaps with that of LOAD is equivocal. To address this uncertainty, two multicenter longitudinal observational studies, the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN), leveraged the expertise and resources of the existing Knight Alzheimer Disease Research Center (ADRC) at Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA, to establish a Neuropathology Core (NPC). The ADNI/DIAN-NPC is systematically examining the brains of all participants who come to autopsy at the 59 ADNI sites in the USA and Canada and the 14 DIAN sites in the USA (eight), Australia (three), UK (one) and Germany (two). By 2014, 41 ADNI and 24 DIAN autopsies (involving nine participants and 15 family members) had been performed. The autopsy rate in the ADNI cohort in the most recent year was 93% (total since NPC inception: 70%). In summary, the ADNI/DIAN NPC has implemented a standard protocol for all sites to solicit permission for brain autopsy and to send brain tissue to the NPC for a standardized, uniform and state-of-the-art neuropathologic assessment. The benefit to ADNI and DIAN of the implementation of the NPC is very clear. The NPC provides final "gold standard" neuropathological diagnoses and data against which the antecedent observations and measurements of ADNI and DIAN can be compared.

  9. Dance--Aerobic and Anaerobic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlette

    1984-01-01

    This article defines and explains aerobic exercise and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Various studies on dancers are cited indicating that dance is an anaerobic activity with some small degree of aerobic benefit. (DF)

  10. Longitudinal Magnification Drawing Mistake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabal, Héctor; Cap, Nelly; Trivi, Marcelo

    2004-01-01

    Lateral magnification in image formation by positive lenses, mirrors, and dioptrics is usually appropriately developed in most optics textbooks.1-9 However, the image of a three-dimensional object occupies a three-dimensional region of space. The optical system affects both the transverse and the longitudinal dimensions of the object and, in general, does it in different ways. The magnification in the direction of the optical axis (the longitudinal magnification) is seldom treated. In several texts, the concept of longitudinal magnification is not even considered. Symmetrical objects (such as arrows) are used and their images appear laterally inverted. It is not shown how a longitudinally nonsymmetric object is imaged. One of the few books where this subject is well treated is in the textbook by Hecht.10 We have repeatedly verified in our classes that there is some confusion related to this subject. Students tend to believe that the image is longitudinally symmetric with respect to the lens optic center. Some prestigious texts commit the same mistake. In addition, a very nice optics book,11 a catalogue of optical hardware,12 a worldwide scientific magazine,13 a paper in an optics journal,14 and a Spanish encyclopedia,15 for example, have also been found to contain this error in drawing the image of a three-dimensional object formed by a positive lens. In this paper we suggest that the teaching of longitudinal magnification should be done with some care and we include a figure showing a properly drawn image.

  11. Aerobic fitness is associated with greater white matter integrity in children

    PubMed Central

    Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Erickson, Kirk I.; Holtrop, Joseph L.; Voss, Michelle W.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Raine, Lauren B.; Hillman, Charles H.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic fitness has been found to play a positive role in brain and cognitive health of children. Yet, many of the neural biomarkers related to aerobic fitness remain unknown. Here, using diffusion tensor imaging, we demonstrated that higher aerobic fitness was related to greater estimates of white matter microstructure in children. Higher fit 9- and 10-year-old children showed greater fractional anisotropy (FA) in sections of the corpus callosum, corona radiata, and superior longitudinal fasciculus, compared to lower fit children. The FA effects were primarily characterized by aerobic fitness differences in radial diffusivity, thereby raising the possibility that estimates of myelination may vary as a function of individual differences in fitness during childhood. White matter structure may be another potential neural mechanism of aerobic fitness that assists in efficient communication between gray matter regions as well as the integration of regions into networks. PMID:25191243

  12. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John C; McComb, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  13. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  14. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hudgins, M.P.; Bessette, B.J.; March, J.; McComb, S.T.

    2000-02-15

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120 F and 140 F in steady state.

  15. Low-Impact Aerobics: Better than Traditional Aerobic Dance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koszuta, Laurie Einstein

    1986-01-01

    A form of dance exercise called low-impact aerobics is being touted as a misery-free form of aerobic dance. Because this activity is relatively new, the exact kinds and frequencies of injuries are not known and the fitness benefits have not been examined. (MT)

  16. Methodologic and Logistic Issues in Conducting Longitudinal Birth Cohort Studies: Lessons Learned from the Centers for Children’s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research

    PubMed Central

    Eskenazi, Brenda; Gladstone, Eleanor A.; Berkowitz, Gertrud S.; Drew, Christina H.; Faustman, Elaine M.; Holland, Nina T.; Lanphear, Bruce; Meisel, Stefanie J.; Perera, Frederica P.; Rauh, Virginia A.; Sweeney, Anne; Whyatt, Robin M.; Yolton, Kimberly

    2005-01-01

    In anticipation of the National Children’s Study, lessons can be learned from the smaller birth cohort studies conducted by five Centers for Children’s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The populations studied are diverse in ethnicity and social class and reside in urban and rural environments. Although almost all of the centers chose to enroll participants through medical care facilities, they had to develop independent staffs and structures because of the overburdened medical care system. Some of the lessons learned by the centers include the importance of continuous funding, building community partnerships to conduct culturally appropriate research, hiring bilingual and bicultural staff from the community, prioritizing research goals, developing biorepositories to ensure future utility of samples, instituting quality control procedures for all aspects of specimen and data collection, maintaining frequent contact with study participants, ensuring ethical conduct of the research in a changing medical-legal climate, and communicating results in a timely and appropriate manner to participants and the wider community. All centers underestimated the necessary start-up time, staff, and costs in conducting these birth cohort studies. Despite the logistical complexity and added expenses, all centers emphasize the importance of studying the impact of environmental exposures on those children most at risk, those living in minority and low-income communities. These centers present barriers encountered, solutions found, and considerations for future research, with the hope that the lessons learned can help inform the planning and conduct of the National Children’s Study. PMID:16203258

  17. Aerobic Fitness and School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott

    1997-01-01

    Provides school counselors with information on aerobic exercise (specifically running) and the psychological, behavioral, and physical benefits children obtained by participating in fitness programs. Recommends collaboration between school counselors and physical education teachers and gives a preliminary discussion of aerobic running and its…

  18. Aerobic Fitness and School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott

    1992-01-01

    Provides school counselors with information regarding aerobic exercise (specifically running), and the psychological, behavioral, and physical benefits children obtain by participating in fitness programs. Presents methods of collaboration between school counselors and physical education teachers. Offers preliminary discussion of aerobic running…

  19. In Vitro Activity of Retapamulin and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns in a Longitudinal Collection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from a Veterans Affairs Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Black, Jennifer A.; Clarridge, Jill E.

    2015-01-01

    Mupirocin is a topical antimicrobial used to decolonize patients who carry methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and the topical agent retapamulin may be a potential alternative therapy. The goal of this study was to determine the in vitro activity of retapamulin as well as a panel of 15 antimicrobial agents, including mupirocin, for 403 MRSA isolates collected longitudinally from a naive population at the Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System. The MICs for retapamulin had a unimodal distribution, ranging from 0.008 to 0.5 μg/ml. One isolate had an MIC of >16 μg/ml, was also resistant to clindamycin and erythromycin, and was recovered from the nares of a patient undergoing hemodialysis. Twenty-four isolates (6%) and 11 isolates (3%) demonstrated low-level resistance (MICs of 8 to 64 μg/ml) and high-level resistance (MICs of ≥512 μg/ml), respectively, to mupirocin. Isolates were recovered from 10 patients both before and after mupirocin therapy. Of those, isolates from 2 patients demonstrated MIC changes postmupirocin therapy; in both cases, however, strain typing demonstrated that the pre- and postmupirocin strains were different. A total of 386 isolates (96%) had vancomycin MICs of ≤1.0 μg/ml; 340 isolates (84%) were resistant to levofloxacin, 18 isolates (4.5%) were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and 135 isolates (33%) had elevated MICs of 4 μg/ml for linezolid. The baseline levels of resistance were low for mupirocin (9%) and even lower for retapamulin (0.25%) Although the use of mupirocin is currently the standard therapy for decolonization practices, the activity of retapamulin warrants its consideration as an alternative therapy in MRSA decolonization regimens. PMID:26666950

  20. Quantifying factors limiting aerobic degradation during aerobic bioreactor landfilling.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Ramin; Mostafid, M Erfan; Han, Byunghyun; Imhoff, Paul T; Chiu, Pei; Augenstein, Don; Kayhanian, Masoud; Tchobanoglous, George

    2010-08-15

    A bioreactor landfill cell at Yolo County, California was operated aerobically for six months to quantify the extent of aerobic degradation and mechanisms limiting aerobic activity during air injection and liquid addition. The portion of the solid waste degraded anaerobically was estimated and tracked through time. From an analysis of in situ aerobic respiration and gas tracer data, it was found that a large fraction of the gas-filled pore space was in immobile zones where it was difficult to maintain aerobic conditions, even at relatively moderate landfill cell-average moisture contents of 33-36%. Even with the intentional injection of air, anaerobic activity was never less than 13%, and sometimes exceeded 65%. Analyses of gas tracer and respiration data were used to quantify rates of respiration and rates of mass transfer to immobile gas zones. The similarity of these rates indicated that waste degradation was influenced significantly by rates of oxygen transfer to immobile gas zones, which comprised 32-92% of the gas-filled pore space. Gas tracer tests might be useful for estimating the size of the mobile/immobile gas zones, rates of mass transfer between these regions, and the difficulty of degrading waste aerobically in particular waste bodies. PMID:20704218

  1. Die aerobe Glykolyse der Tumorzelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Friedhelm

    1981-01-01

    A high aerobic glycolysis (aerobic lactate production) is the most significant feature of the energy metabolism of rapidly growing tumor cells. Several mechanisms, which may be different in different cell lines, seem to be involved in this characteristic of energy metabolism of the tumor cell. Changes in the cell membrane leading to increased uptake and utilization of glucose, a high level of fetal types of isoenzymes, a decreased number of mitochondria and a reduced capacity to metabolize pyruvate are some factors which must be taken into consideration. It is not possible to favour one of them at the present time.

  2. The Transition from Aerobic to Anaerobic Metabolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, James S.; McLellan, Thomas H.

    1980-01-01

    The transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism is discussed. More research is needed on different kinds of athletes and athletic activities and how they may affect aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms. (CJ)

  3. Membrane thickening aerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Woo, Bryen

    2014-01-01

    Sludge management accounts for approximately 60% of the total wastewater treatment plant expenditure and laws for sludge disposal are becoming increasingly stringent, therefore much consideration is required when designing a solids handling process. A membrane thickening aerobic digestion process integrates a controlled aerobic digestion process with pre-thickening waste activated sludge using membrane technology. This process typically features an anoxic tank, an aerated membrane thickener operating in loop with a first-stage digester followed by second-stage digestion. Membrane thickening aerobic digestion processes can handle sludge from any liquid treatment process and is best for facilities obligated to meet low total phosphorus and nitrogen discharge limits. Membrane thickening aerobic digestion processes offer many advantages including: producing a reusable quality permeate with minimal levels of total phosphorus and nitrogen that can be recycled to the head works of a plant, protecting the performance of a biological nutrient removal liquid treatment process without requiring chemical addition, providing reliable thickening up to 4% solids concentration without the use of polymers or attention to decanting, increasing sludge storage capacities in existing tanks, minimizing the footprint of new tanks, reducing disposal costs, and providing Class B stabilization.

  4. Arthritis and Aerobic Exercise: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Robert W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Arthritic patients who regularly do aerobic exercise make significant gains in aerobic and functional status, and in subjective areas like pain tolerance and mood. Still, they are often advised to curtail physical activity. Guidelines are presented for physicians prescribing aerobic exercise. An exercise tolerance test is recommended. (SM)

  5. Femoral artery remodeling after aerobic exercise training without weight loss in women

    PubMed Central

    Sabatier, Manning J; Schwark, Earl H; Lewis, Richard; Sloan, Gloria; Cannon, Joseph; McCully, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Background It is currently unclear whether reductions in adiposity mediate the improvements in vascular health that occur with aerobic exercise. The purpose of this longitudinal study of 13 healthy women (33 ± 4 years old) was to determine whether 14 weeks of aerobic exercise would alter functional measures of vascular health, namely resting aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV, an index of arterial stiffness), femoral artery diameter (DFA), and femoral artery blood flow (BFFA) independent of changes in adiposity. Methods Aerobic fitness was assessed as VO2peak normalized to fat-free mass, and adiposity (percent body fat) was determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Serum concentrations of proteins associated with risk for cardiovascular disease, including C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and leptin, were also measured. Subjects cycled for 50 minutes, 3 times per week. Results Aerobic fitness normalized to fat-free mass increased 6% (P = 0.03) whereas adiposity did not change. Resting DFA increased 12% (P < 0.001) and resting shear rate decreased 28% (P = 0.007). Aortic PWV, and serum sICAM-1, CRP and leptin did not change with training. Conclusion Significant reductions in adiposity were not necessary for aerobic exercise training to bring about improvements in aerobic fitness and arterial remodeling. Peripheral arterial remodeling occurred without changes in central arterial stiffness or markers of inflammation. PMID:18775082

  6. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Torsvik, T.; Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  7. Marital assortment and phenotypic convergence: longitudinal evidence.

    PubMed

    Caspi, A; Herbener, E S

    1993-01-01

    This study provides a direct test of whether the observed similarity of spouses is due to initial assortment rather than to convergence of phenotypes. With data from three well-known longitudinal studies, phenotypic convergence is examined using both variable- and person-centered analyses. The longitudinal evidence does not support the hypothesis that couples increasingly resemble each other with time. Spouse correlations most likely reflect initial assortment at marriage and not the convergence of phenotypes.

  8. Methods to determine aerobic endurance.

    PubMed

    Bosquet, Laurent; Léger, Luc; Legros, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Physiological testing of elite athletes requires the correct identification and assessment of sports-specific underlying factors. It is now recognised that performance in long-distance events is determined by maximal oxygen uptake (V(2 max)), energy cost of exercise and the maximal fractional utilisation of V(2 max) in any realised performance or as a corollary a set percentage of V(2 max) that could be endured as long as possible. This later ability is defined as endurance, and more precisely aerobic endurance, since V(2 max) sets the upper limit of aerobic pathway. It should be distinguished from endurance ability or endurance performance, which are synonymous with performance in long-distance events. The present review examines methods available in the literature to assess aerobic endurance. They are numerous and can be classified into two categories, namely direct and indirect methods. Direct methods bring together all indices that allow either a complete or a partial representation of the power-duration relationship, while indirect methods revolve around the determination of the so-called anaerobic threshold (AT). With regard to direct methods, performance in a series of tests provides a more complete and presumably more valid description of the power-duration relationship than performance in a single test, even if both approaches are well correlated with each other. However, the question remains open to determine which systems model should be employed among the several available in the literature, and how to use them in the prescription of training intensities. As for indirect methods, there is quantitative accumulation of data supporting the utilisation of the AT to assess aerobic endurance and to prescribe training intensities. However, it appears that: there is no unique intensity corresponding to the AT, since criteria available in the literature provide inconsistent results; and the non-invasive determination of the AT using ventilatory and heart rate

  9. Aerobic granular processes: Current research trends.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanguo; Hu, Jianjun; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-06-01

    Aerobic granules are large biological aggregates with compact interiors that can be used in efficient wastewater treatment. This mini-review presents new researches on the development of aerobic granular processes, extended treatments for complicated pollutants, granulation mechanisms and enhancements of granule stability in long-term operation or storage, and the reuse of waste biomass as renewable resources. A discussion on the challenges of, and prospects for, the commercialization of aerobic granular process is provided. PMID:26873285

  10. Lower limb loading in step aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    Wu, H-W; Hsieh, H-M; Chang, Y-W; Wang, L-H

    2012-11-01

    Participation in aerobic dance is associated with a number of lower extremity injuries, and abnormal joint loading seems to be a factor in these. However, information on joint loading is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinetics of the lower extremity in step aerobic dance and to compare the differences of high-impact and low-impact step aerobic dance in 4 aerobic movements (mambo, kick, L step and leg curl). 18 subjects were recruited for this study. High-impact aerobic dance requires a significantly greater range of motion, joint force and joint moment than low-impact step aerobic dance. The peak joint forces and moments in high-impact step aerobic dance were found to be 1.4 times higher than in low-impact step aerobic dance. Understanding the nature of joint loading may help choreographers develop dance combinations that are less injury-prone. Furthermore, increased knowledge about joint loading may be helpful in lowering the risk of injuries in aerobic dance instructors and students.

  11. Supplementary Investigation to Determine the Effects of Center-of-Gravity Position on the Spin, Longitudinal-Trim, and Tumbling Characteristics of a 1/20-Scale Model of the Consolidated Vultee 7002 Airplane (Flying Mock-up of XF-92)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klinar, Walter J.; Jones, Ira P., Jr.

    1948-01-01

    A supplementary wind-tunnel investigation has been conducted to determine the effect of rearward positions of the center of gravity on the spin, longitudinal-trim, and tumbling characteristics of the 1/20-scale model of the Consolidated Vultee 7002 airplane equipped with the single vertical tail. A few tests were also made with dual vertical tails added to the model. The model was ballasted to represent, the airplane in its approximate design gross weight for two center-of-gravity positions, 3O and 35 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord. The original tests previously reported were for a center-of-gravity position of 24 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord.

  12. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  13. Aerobic Dancing--A Rhythmic Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Jacki

    Fitness programs now and in the future must offer built-in cardiovascular conditioning, variety, novelty, and change to meet the physical, mental, and emotional needs of our society. Aerobic dancing (dancing designed to train and strengthen the heart, lungs, and vascular system) is one of the first indoor group Aerobic exercise programs designed…

  14. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss. PMID:24508740

  15. Filamentous bacteria existence in aerobic granular reactors.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, M; Val del Río, A; Campos, J L; Méndez, R; Mosquera-Corral, A

    2015-05-01

    Filamentous bacteria are associated to biomass settling problems in wastewater treatment plants. In systems based on aerobic granular biomass they have been proposed to contribute to the initial biomass aggregation process. However, their development on mature aerobic granular systems has not been sufficiently studied. In the present research work, filamentous bacteria were studied for the first time after long-term operation (up to 300 days) of aerobic granular systems. Chloroflexi and Sphaerotilus natans have been observed in a reactor fed with synthetic wastewater. These filamentous bacteria could only come from the inoculated sludge. Thiothrix and Chloroflexi bacteria were observed in aerobic granular biomass treating wastewater from a fish canning industry. Meganema perideroedes was detected in a reactor treating wastewater from a plant processing marine products. As a conclusion, the source of filamentous bacteria in these mature aerobic granular systems fed with industrial effluents was the incoming wastewater.

  16. Aerobic Methane Oxidation in Alaskan Lakes Along a Latitudinal Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Cruz, K. C.; Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Anthony, P.; Thalasso, F.

    2013-12-01

    Karla Martinez-Cruz* **, Armando Sepulveda-Jauregui*, Katey M. Walter Anthony*, Peter Anthony*, and Frederic Thalasso**. * Water and Environmental Research Center, Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska. ** Biotechnology and Bioengineering Department, Cinvestav, Mexico city, D. F., Mexico. Methane (CH4) is the third most important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, after carbon dioxide and water vapor. Boreal lakes play an important role in the current global warming by contributing as much as 6% of global atmospheric CH4 sources annually. On the other hand, aerobic methane oxidation (methanotrophy) in lake water is a fundamental process in global methane cycling that reduces the amount of CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. Several environmental factors affect aerobic methane oxidation in the water column both directly and indirectly, including concentration of CH4 and O2, temperature and carbon budgets of lakes. We analyzed the potential of aerobic methane oxidation (PMO) rates in incubations of water collected from 30 Alaskan lakes along a north-south transect during winter and summer 2011. Our findings showed an effect of CH4 and O2 concentrations, temperature and yedoma thawing permafrost on PMO activity in the lake water. The highest PMO rates were observed in summer by lakes situated on thawing yedoma permafrost, most of them located in the interior of Alaska. We also estimated that 60-80% of all CH4 produced in Alaskan lakes could be taken up by methanotrophs in the lake water column, showing the significant influence of aerobic methane oxidation of boreal lakes to the global CH4 budget.

  17. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Elisabeth; Ingjer, Frank; Bø, Kari

    2011-12-01

    Edvardsen, E, Ingjer, F, and Bø, K. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3479-3485, 2011-This study compared the aerobic capacity during maximal aerobic dance and treadmill running in fit women. Thirteen well-trained female aerobic dance instructors aged 30 ± 8.17 years (mean ± SD) exercised to exhaustion by running on a treadmill for measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max) and peak heart rate (HRpeak). Additionally, all subjects performed aerobic dancing until exhaustion after a choreographed videotaped routine trying to reach the same HRpeak as during maximal running. The p value for statistical significance between running and aerobic dance was set to ≤0.05. The results (mean ± SD) showed a lower VO(2)max in aerobic dance (52.2 ± 4.02 ml·kg·min) compared with treadmill running (55.9 ± 5.03 ml·kg·min) (p = 0.0003). Further, the mean ± SD HRpeak was 182 ± 9.15 b·min in aerobic dance and 192 ± 9.62 b·min in treadmill running, giving no difference in oxygen pulse between the 2 exercise forms (p = 0.32). There was no difference in peak ventilation (aerobic dance: 108 ± 10.81 L·min vs. running: 113 ± 11.49 L·min). In conclusion, aerobic dance does not seem to be able to use the whole aerobic capacity as in running. For well endurance-trained women, this may result in a lower total workload at maximal intensities. Aerobic dance may therefore not be as suitable as running during maximal intensities in well-trained females.

  18. Longitudinal impedance of RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Mernick, K.

    2015-05-03

    The longitudinal impedance of the two RHIC rings has been measured using the effect of potential well distortion on longitudinal Schottky measurements. For the blue RHIC ring Im(Z/n) = 1.5±0.2Ω. For the yellow ring Im(Z/n) = 5.4±1Ω.

  19. Longitudinal Multistage Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Steffi

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces longitudinal multistage testing (lMST), a special form of multistage testing (MST), as a method for adaptive testing in longitudinal large-scale studies. In lMST designs, test forms of different difficulty levels are used, whereas the values on a pretest determine the routing to these test forms. Since lMST allows for…

  20. The Energetics of Aerobic versus Anaerobic Respiration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Timothy D.; Schwenz, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Background information, laboratory procedures, and a discussion of the results of an experiment designed to investigate the difference in energy gained from the aerobic and anaerobic oxidation of glucose are presented. Sample experimental and calculated data are included. (CW)

  1. Conditioning and Aerobics for Older Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Joyce

    1980-01-01

    A class designed for the maintenance and gradual improvement of senior citizens' physical fitness includes relaxation training, flexibility and stretching exercises, interval training activities (designed as a link between less strenuous exercise and more strenuous activities), and aerobic exercises. (CJ)

  2. Changes in aerobic power of men, ages 25-70 yr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, A. S.; Beard, E. F.; Wier, L. T.; Ross, R. M.; Stuteville, J. E.; Blair, S. N.

    1995-01-01

    This study quantified and compared the cross-sectional and longitudinal influence of age, self-report physical activity (SR-PA), and body composition (%fat) on the decline of maximal aerobic power (VO2peak). The cross-sectional sample consisted of 1,499 healthy men ages 25-70 yr. The 156 men of the longitudinal sample were from the same population and examined twice, the mean time between tests was 4.1 (+/- 1.2) yr. Peak oxygen uptake was determined by indirect calorimetry during a maximal treadmill exercise test. The zero-order correlations between VO2peak and %fat (r = -0.62) and SR-PA (r = 0.58) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher that the age correlation (r = -0.45). Linear regression defined the cross-sectional age-related decline in VO2peak at 0.46 ml.kg-1.min-1.yr-1. Multiple regression analysis (R = 0.79) showed that nearly 50% of this cross-sectional decline was due to %fat and SR-PA, adding these lifestyle variables to the multiple regression model reduced the age regression weight to -0.26 ml.kg-1.min-1.yr-1. Statistically controlling for time differences between tests, general linear models analysis showed that longitudinal changes in aerobic power were due to independent changes in %fat and SR-PA, confirming the cross-sectional results.

  3. Aerobic Oxidation of an Osmium(III) N-Hydroxyguanidine Complex To Give Nitric Oxide.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jing; Wang, Qian; Yiu, Shek-Man; Man, Wai-Lun; Kwong, Hoi-Ki; Lau, Tai-Chu

    2016-05-16

    The aerobic oxidation of the N-hydroxyguanidinum moiety of N-hydroxyarginine to NO is a key step in the biosynthesis of NO by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS). So far, there is no chemical system that can efficiently carry out similar aerobic oxidation to give NO. We report here the synthesis and X-ray crystal structure of an osmium(III) N-hydroxyguanidine complex, mer-[Os(III){NH═C(NH2)(NHOH)}(L)(CN)3](-) (OsGOH, HL = 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole), which to the best of our knowledge is the first example of a transition metal N-hydroxyguanidine complex. More significantly, this complex readily undergoes aerobic oxidation at ambient conditions to generate NO. The oxidation is pH-dependent; at pH 6.8, fac-[Os(NO)(L)(CN)3](-) is formed in which the NO produced is bound to the osmium center. On the other hand, at pH 12, aerobic oxidation of OsGOH results in the formation of the ureato complex [Os(III)(NHCONH2)(L)(CN)3](2-) and free NO. Mechanisms for this aerobic oxidation at different pH values are proposed. PMID:27135258

  4. Aerobic Excercise and Research Opportunities to Benefit Impaired Children. (Project AEROBIC). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Univ., Moscow.

    The final report summarizes accomplishments of Project AEROBIC (Aerobic Exercise and Research Opportunities to Benefit Impaired Children), which provided a physical education exercise program for severely, profoundly, and multiply handicapped children aged 10-21. Activities are outlined for the 3 year period and include modification of exercise…

  5. Longitudinal static stability requirements for wing in ground effect vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Yang, Zhigang; Collu, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    The issue of the longitudinal stability of a WIG vehicle has been a very critical design factor since the first experimental WIG vehicle has been built. A series of studies had been performed and focused on the longitudinal stability analysis. However, most studies focused on the longitudinal stability of WIG vehicle in cruise phase, and less is available on the longitudinal static stability requirement of WIG vehicle when hydrodynamics are considered: WIG vehicle usually take off from water. The present work focuses on stability requirement for longitudinal motion from taking off to landing. The model of dynamics for a WIG vehicle was developed taking into account the aerodynamic, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic forces, and then was analyzed. Following with the longitudinal static stability analysis, effect of hydrofoil was discussed. Locations of CG, aerodynamic center in pitch, aerodynamic center in height and hydrodynamic center in heave were illustrated for a stabilized WIG vehicle. The present work will further improve the longitudinal static stability theory for WIG vehicle.

  6. Positional Role Differences in the Aerobic and Anaerobic Power of Elite Basketball Players.

    PubMed

    Pojskić, Haris; Šeparović, Vlatko; Užičanin, Edin; Muratović, Melika; Mačković, Samir

    2015-12-22

    The aim of the present study was to compare the aerobic and anaerobic power and capacity of elite male basketball players who played multiple positions. Fifty-five healthy players were divided into the following three different subsamples according to their positional role: guards (n = 22), forwards (n = 19) and centers (n = 14). The following three tests were applied to estimate their aerobic and anaerobic power and capacities: the countermovement jump (CMJ), a multistage shuttle run test and the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST). The obtained data were used to calculate the players' aerobic and anaerobic power and capacities. To determine the possible differences between the subjects considering their different positions on the court, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Bonferroni post-hoc test for multiple comparisons was used. The results showed that there was a significant difference between the different groups of players in eleven out of sixteen measured variables. Guards and forwards exhibited greater aerobic and relative values of anaerobic power, allowing shorter recovery times and the ability to repeat high intensity, basketball-specific activities. Centers presented greater values of absolute anaerobic power and capacities, permitting greater force production during discrete tasks. Coaches can use these data to create more individualized strength and conditioning programs for different positional roles. PMID:26839622

  7. Positional Role Differences in the Aerobic and Anaerobic Power of Elite Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Pojskić, Haris; Šeparović, Vlatko; Užičanin, Edin; Muratović, Melika; Mačković, Samir

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the aerobic and anaerobic power and capacity of elite male basketball players who played multiple positions. Fifty-five healthy players were divided into the following three different subsamples according to their positional role: guards (n = 22), forwards (n = 19) and centers (n = 14). The following three tests were applied to estimate their aerobic and anaerobic power and capacities: the countermovement jump (CMJ), a multistage shuttle run test and the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST). The obtained data were used to calculate the players’ aerobic and anaerobic power and capacities. To determine the possible differences between the subjects considering their different positions on the court, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Bonferroni post-hoc test for multiple comparisons was used. The results showed that there was a significant difference between the different groups of players in eleven out of sixteen measured variables. Guards and forwards exhibited greater aerobic and relative values of anaerobic power, allowing shorter recovery times and the ability to repeat high intensity, basketball-specific activities. Centers presented greater values of absolute anaerobic power and capacities, permitting greater force production during discrete tasks. Coaches can use these data to create more individualized strength and conditioning programs for different positional roles. PMID:26839622

  8. Positional Role Differences in the Aerobic and Anaerobic Power of Elite Basketball Players.

    PubMed

    Pojskić, Haris; Šeparović, Vlatko; Užičanin, Edin; Muratović, Melika; Mačković, Samir

    2015-12-22

    The aim of the present study was to compare the aerobic and anaerobic power and capacity of elite male basketball players who played multiple positions. Fifty-five healthy players were divided into the following three different subsamples according to their positional role: guards (n = 22), forwards (n = 19) and centers (n = 14). The following three tests were applied to estimate their aerobic and anaerobic power and capacities: the countermovement jump (CMJ), a multistage shuttle run test and the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST). The obtained data were used to calculate the players' aerobic and anaerobic power and capacities. To determine the possible differences between the subjects considering their different positions on the court, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Bonferroni post-hoc test for multiple comparisons was used. The results showed that there was a significant difference between the different groups of players in eleven out of sixteen measured variables. Guards and forwards exhibited greater aerobic and relative values of anaerobic power, allowing shorter recovery times and the ability to repeat high intensity, basketball-specific activities. Centers presented greater values of absolute anaerobic power and capacities, permitting greater force production during discrete tasks. Coaches can use these data to create more individualized strength and conditioning programs for different positional roles.

  9. Developmental intestinal aerobic microflora in the kori bustard (Ardeotis kori).

    PubMed

    Naldo, J L; Silvanose, C D; Samour, J H; Bailey, T A

    1998-01-01

    A study was carried out to investigate the normal aerobic bacterial flora of developing kori bustard (Ardeotis kori) chicks, captive bred at the National Avian Research Center, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Faecal samples were collected from 14 birds at different ages from the first day of hatching until 99 days old and were cultured for aerobic bacteria. Several bacterial species were isolated from the cultures, they included Escherichia coli, Streptococcus viridians, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus spp., Enterobacter, spp. and Serratia marcescens. Gram-negative bacilli were isolated from all but one of the faecal samples collected. They were also the predominant bacteria, accounting for between 55.6 and 73.4% of the mean colony count of faecal cultures from all age groups. E. coli was the most frequently isolated bacteria, the frequency and mean colony count increased as the birds grew older. Gram-positive cocci were isolated from between 50 and 100% of the faecal samples from all age groups, and they accounted for between 26.6 and 44.4% of the mean colony count. Results from this study indicated that Gram-negative bacilli and Gram-positive cocci can be isolated frequently from the faeces of developing, clinically normal, captive bred kori bustard chicks. PMID:18484014

  10. Developmental intestinal aerobic microflora in the kori bustard (Ardeotis kori).

    PubMed

    Naldo, J L; Silvanose, C D; Samour, J H; Bailey, T A

    1998-01-01

    A study was carried out to investigate the normal aerobic bacterial flora of developing kori bustard (Ardeotis kori) chicks, captive bred at the National Avian Research Center, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Faecal samples were collected from 14 birds at different ages from the first day of hatching until 99 days old and were cultured for aerobic bacteria. Several bacterial species were isolated from the cultures, they included Escherichia coli, Streptococcus viridians, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus spp., Enterobacter, spp. and Serratia marcescens. Gram-negative bacilli were isolated from all but one of the faecal samples collected. They were also the predominant bacteria, accounting for between 55.6 and 73.4% of the mean colony count of faecal cultures from all age groups. E. coli was the most frequently isolated bacteria, the frequency and mean colony count increased as the birds grew older. Gram-positive cocci were isolated from between 50 and 100% of the faecal samples from all age groups, and they accounted for between 26.6 and 44.4% of the mean colony count. Results from this study indicated that Gram-negative bacilli and Gram-positive cocci can be isolated frequently from the faeces of developing, clinically normal, captive bred kori bustard chicks.

  11. Anaerobic and aerobic performances in elite basketball players.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Gustavo Gomes; de Barros Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia; Papoti, Marcelo; Camargo, Bruno Henrique Ferreira; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre

    2014-09-29

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO PROPOSE A SPECIFIC LACTATE MINIMUM TEST FOR ELITE BASKETBALL PLAYERS CONSIDERING THE: Running Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST) as a hyperlactatemia inductor, short distances (specific distance, 20 m) during progressive intensity and mathematical analysis to interpret aerobic and anaerobic variables. The basketball players were assigned to four groups: All positions (n=26), Guard (n= 7), Forward (n=11) and Center (n=8). The hyperlactatemia elevation (RAST) method consisted of 6 maximum sprints over 35 m separated by 10 s of recovery. The progressive phase of the lactate minimum test consisted of 5 stages controlled by an electronic metronome (8.0, 9.0, 10.0, 11.0 and 12.0 km/h) over a 20 m distance. The RAST variables and the lactate values were analyzed using visual and mathematical models. The intensity of the lactate minimum test, determined by a visual method, reduced in relation to polynomial fits (2nd degree) for the Small Forward positions and General groups. The Power and Fatigue Index values, determined by both methods, visual and 3rd degree polynomial, were not significantly different between the groups. In conclusion, the RAST is an excellent hyperlactatemia inductor and the progressive intensity of lactate minimum test using short distances (20 m) can be specifically used to evaluate the aerobic capacity of basketball players. In addition, no differences were observed between the visual and polynomial methods for RAST variables, but lactate minimum intensity was influenced by the method of analysis.

  12. Controlling the catalytic aerobic oxidation of phenols.

    PubMed

    Esguerra, Kenneth Virgel N; Fall, Yacoub; Petitjean, Laurène; Lumb, Jean-Philip

    2014-05-28

    The oxidation of phenols is the subject of extensive investigation, but there are few catalytic aerobic examples that are chemo- and regioselective. Here we describe conditions for the ortho-oxygenation or oxidative coupling of phenols under copper (Cu)-catalyzed aerobic conditions that give rise to ortho-quinones, biphenols or benzoxepines. We demonstrate that each product class can be accessed selectively by the appropriate choice of Cu(I) salt, amine ligand, desiccant and reaction temperature. In addition, we evaluate the effects of substituents on the phenol and demonstrate their influence on selectivity between ortho-oxygenation and oxidative coupling pathways. These results create an important precedent of catalyst control in the catalytic aerobic oxidation of phenols and set the stage for future development of catalytic systems and mechanistic investigations. PMID:24784319

  13. Drying and recovery of aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianjun; Zhang, Quanguo; Chen, Yu-You; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-10-01

    To dehydrate aerobic granules to bone-dry form was proposed as a promising option for long-term storage of aerobic granules. This study cultivated aerobic granules with high proteins/polysaccharide ratio and then dried these granules using seven protocols: drying at 37°C, 60°C, 4°C, under sunlight, in dark, in a flowing air stream or in concentrated acetone solutions. All dried granules experienced volume shrinkage of over 80% without major structural breakdown. After three recovery batches, although with loss of part of the volatile suspended solids, all dried granules were restored most of their original size and organic matter degradation capabilities. The strains that can survive over the drying and storage periods were also identified. Once the granules were dried, they can be stored over long period of time, with minimal impact yielded by the applied drying protocols. PMID:27392096

  14. Ecology of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs in aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Koblížek, Michal

    2015-11-01

    Recognition of the environmental role of photoheterotrophic bacteria has been one of the main themes of aquatic microbiology over the last 15 years. Aside from cyanobacteria and proteorhodopsin-containing bacteria, aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are the third most numerous group of phototrophic prokaryotes in the ocean. This functional group represents a diverse assembly of species which taxonomically belong to various subgroups of Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria. AAP bacteria are facultative photoheterotrophs which use bacteriochlorophyll-containing reaction centers to harvest light energy. The light-derived energy increases their bacterial growth efficiency, which provides a competitive advantage over heterotrophic species. Thanks to their enzymatic machinery AAP bacteria are active, rapidly growing organisms which contribute significantly to the recycling of organic matter. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge of the ecology of AAP bacteria in aquatic environments, implying their specific role in the microbial loop.

  15. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

  16. Risk factors and immunological pathways for asthma and other allergic diseases in children: background and methodology of a longitudinal study in a large urban center in Northeastern Brazil (Salvador-SCAALA study)

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Mauricio L; Cunha, Sergio S; Alcântara-Neves, Neuza; Carvalho, Lain P; Cruz, Álvaro A; Stein, Renato T; Genser, Bernd; Cooper, Philip J; Rodrigues, Laura C

    2006-01-01

    Background The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has increased in industrialised countries, and it is known that rates vary according whether the area is urban or rural and to socio-economic status. Surveys conducted in some urban settings in Latin America found high prevalence rates, only exceeded by the rates observed in industrialised English-speaking countries. It is likely that the marked changes in the environment, life style and living conditions in Latin America are responsible for these observations. The understanding of the epidemiological and immunological changes that underlie the increase in asthma and allergic diseases in Latin America aimed by SCAALA studies in Brazil and Ecuador will be crucial for the identification of novel preventive interventions. Methods/Design The Salvador-SCAALA project described here is a longitudinal study involving children aged 4–11 years living in the city of Salvador, Northeastern Brazil. Data on asthma and allergic diseases (rhinitis and eczema) and potential risk factors will be collected in successive surveys using standardised questionnaire. This will be completed with data on dust collection (to dust mite and endotoxin), skin test to most common allergens, stool examinations to helminth and parasites, blood samples (to infection, total and specific IgE, and immunological makers), formaldehyde, physical inspection to diagnoses of eczema, and anthropometric measures. Data on earlier exposures when these children were 0–3 years old are available from a different project. Discussion It is expected that knowledge generated may help identify public health interventions that may enable countries in LA to enjoy the benefits of a "modern" lifestyle while avoiding – or minimising – increases in morbidity caused by asthma and allergies. PMID:16796729

  17. Aerobic Exercise Prescription for Rheumatoid Arthritics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Blanche W.; Williams, Hilda L.

    The use of exercise as a general treatment for rheumatoid arthritics (RA) has included range of motion, muscular strength, water exercise and rest therapy while virtually ignoring possible benefits of aerobic exercise. The purposes of this project were to examine the guidelines for exercise prescription in relation to this special population and…

  18. Response of aerobic rice to Piriformospora indica.

    PubMed

    Das, Joy; Ramesh, K V; Maithri, U; Mutangana, D; Suresh, C K

    2014-03-01

    Rice cultivation under aerobic condition not only saves water but also opens up a splendid scope for effective application of beneficial root symbionts in rice crop unlike conventional puddled rice cultivation where water logged condition acts as constraint for easy proliferation of various beneficial soil microorganisms like arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Keeping these in view, an in silico investigation were carried out to explore the interaction of hydrogen phosphate with phosphate transporter protein (PTP) from P. indica. This was followed by greenhouse investigation to study the response of aerobic rice to Glomusfasciculatum, a conventional P biofertilizer and P. indica, an alternative to AM fungi. Computational studies using ClustalW tool revealed several conserved motifs between the phosphate transporters from Piriformospora indica and 8 other Glomus species. The 3D model of PTP from P. indica resembling "Mayan temple" was successfully docked onto hydrogen phosphate, indicating the affinity of this protein for inorganic phosphorus. Greenhouse studies revealed inoculation of aerobic rice either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both significantly enhanced the plant growth, biomass and yield with higher NPK, chlorophyll and sugar compared to uninoculated ones, P. indica inoculated plants being superior. A significantly enhanced activity of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase were noticed in the rhizosphere soil of rice plants inoculated either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both, contributing to higher P uptake. Further, inoculation of aerobic rice plants with P. indica proved to be a better choice as a potential biofertilizer over mycorrhiza. PMID:24669667

  19. AEROBIC DENITRIFICATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR NITROGEN FATE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Mississippi, as well as most nitrogen-degraded rivers and streams, NO3- is the dominant N species and therefore understanding its biogeochemical behavior is critical for accurate nitrogen fate modeling. To our knowledge this is the first work to report aerobic denitrificat...

  20. Media for the aerobic growth of campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of agar and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) concentration on aerobic growth of Campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium was examined. The broth medium was supplemented with 0.0 to 0.2% agar and inoculated with 106 CFU/ml of Campylobacter coli 33559, Campylobacter fetus 27349, Campylobacter...

  1. Reflections on Psychotherapy and Aerobic Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Wade

    This document provides a series of reflections by a practicing psychologist on the uses of aerobic workouts in psychotherapy. Two case histories are cited to illustrate the contention that the mode of exercise, rather than simply its presence or absence, is the significant indicator of a patient's emotional well-being or psychopathology. The first…

  2. A proposed aerobic granules size development scheme for aerobic granulation process.

    PubMed

    Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Abdullah, Norhayati; Yuzir, Ali; Olsson, Gustaf; Salmiati; Hamdzah, Myzairah; Din, Mohd Fadhil Mohd; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima; Khalil, Khalilah Abdul; Anuar, Aznah Nor; Noor, Zainura Zainon; Ujang, Zaini

    2015-04-01

    Aerobic granulation is increasingly used in wastewater treatment due to its unique physical properties and microbial functionalities. Granule size defines the physical properties of granules based on biomass accumulation. This study aims to determine the profile of size development under two physicochemical conditions. Two identical bioreactors namely Rnp and Rp were operated under non-phototrophic and phototrophic conditions, respectively. An illustrative scheme was developed to comprehend the mechanism of size development that delineates the granular size throughout the granulation. Observations on granules' size variation have shown that activated sludge revolutionised into the form of aerobic granules through the increase of biomass concentration in bioreactors which also determined the changes of granule size. Both reactors demonstrated that size transformed in a similar trend when tested with and without illumination. Thus, different types of aerobic granules may increase in size in the same way as recommended in the aerobic granule size development scheme.

  3. Ventilation and Speech Characteristics during Submaximal Aerobic Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Susan E.; Hipp, Jenny; Alessio, Helaine

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined alterations in ventilation and speech characteristics as well as perceived dyspnea during submaximal aerobic exercise tasks. Method: Twelve healthy participants completed aerobic exercise-only and simultaneous speaking and aerobic exercise tasks at 50% and 75% of their maximum oxygen consumption (VO[subscript 2] max).…

  4. Adolescents' Interest and Performances in Aerobic Fitness Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Senlin; Parrott, James

    2014-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' interest in aerobic fitness testing and its relation to the test performances. Adolescents (N = 356) from three middle schools participated in the study. The participants took two aerobic fitness tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) and One-Mile Run (1MR) with a two-day interval,…

  5. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Miller, J.L.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-08-23

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window. 2 figs.

  6. Longitudinal discharge laser baffles

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-06-07

    The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam. 1 fig.

  7. Longitudinal discharge laser baffles

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; Ault, Earl R.

    1994-01-01

    The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam.

  8. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; Miller, John L.; Ault, Earl R.

    1994-01-01

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window.

  9. LONGITUDINAL SOLUTIONS IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    BLASKIEWICZ,M.BRENNAN,J.M.FISCHER,W.CAMERON,P.WEI,J.LUQUE,A.SCHAMEL,H.

    2003-05-12

    Stable, coherent, longitudinal oscillations have been observed in the RHIC accelerator. Within the context of perturbation theory, the beam parameters and machine impedance suggest these oscillations should be Landau damped. When nonlinear effects are included, long lived, stable oscillations become possible for low intensity beams. Simulations and theory are compared with data.

  10. Comparing Longitudinal Profile Patterns of Mathematics and Reading in Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten: The Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Se-Kang

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare longitudinal patterns from Mathematics and Reading data from the direct child assessment of Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten (ECLS-K, US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics 2006), utilizing Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS). PAMS has been used initially…

  11. Experimental Demonstration of Longitudinal Magnification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razpet, Nada; Susman, Katarina; Cepic, Mojca

    2009-01-01

    We describe an experiment which enables the observation of longitudinal magnification for the real image of a three-dimensional (3D) object formed by a converging lens. The experiment also shows the absence of longitudinal inversion. Possible reasons for misconceptions with respect to real images and longitudinal inversions are discussed and a…

  12. Fatiguing upper body aerobic exercise impairs balance.

    PubMed

    Douris, Peter C; Handrakis, John P; Gendy, Joseph; Salama, Mina; Kwon, Dae; Brooks, Richard; Salama, Nardine; Southard, Veronica

    2011-12-01

    Douris, PC, Handrakis, JP, Gendy, J, Salama, M, Kwon, D, Brooks, R, Salama, N, and Southard, V. Fatiguing upper body aerobic exercise impairs balance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3299-3305, 2011-There are many studies that have examined the effects of selectively fatiguing lower extremity muscle groups with various protocols, and they have all shown to impair balance. There is limited research regarding the effect of fatiguing upper extremity exercise on balance. Muscle fiber-type recruitment patterns may be responsible for the difference between balance impairments because of fatiguing aerobic and anaerobic exercise. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect that aerobic vs. anaerobic fatigue, upper vs. lower body fatigue will have on balance, and if so, which combination will affect balance to a greater degree. Fourteen healthy subjects, 7 men and 7 women (mean age 23.5 ± 1.7 years) took part in this study. Their mean body mass index was 23.6 ± 3.2. The study used a repeated-measures design. The effect on balance was documented after the 4 fatiguing conditions: aerobic lower body (ALB), aerobic upper body (AUB), anaerobic lower body, anaerobic upper body (WUB). The aerobic conditions used an incremental protocol performed to fatigue, and the anaerobic used the Wingate protocol. Balance was measured as a single-leg stance stability score using the Biodex Balance System. A stability score for each subject was recorded immediately after each of the 4 conditions. A repeated-measures analysis of variance with the pretest score as a covariate was used to analyze the effects of the 4 fatiguing conditions on balance. There were significant differences between the 4 conditions (p = 0.001). Post hoc analysis revealed that there were significant differences between the AUB, mean score 4.98 ± 1.83, and the WUB, mean score 4.09 ± 1.42 (p = 0.014) and between AUB and ALB mean scores 4.33 ± 1.40 (p = 0.029). Normative data for single-leg stability testing for

  13. Self-reported cancer family history is a useful tool for identification of individuals at risk of hereditary cancer predisposition syndrome at primary care centers in middle-income settings: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Flória-Santos, Milena; Lopes-Júnior, Luís Carlos; Alvarenga, Larissa de Melo; Ribeiro, Mayara Segundo; Ferraz, Victor Evangelista de Faria; Nascimento, Lucila Castanheira; Pereira-da-Silva, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Analysis of cancer family history (CFH) offers a low-cost genetic tool to identify familial cancer predisposition. In middle-income settings, the scarcity of individual records and database-linked records hinders the assessment of self-reported CFH consistency as an indicator of familial cancer predisposition. We used self-reported CFH to identify those families at risk for hereditary cancer syndromes in community-based primary care centers of a low-income Brazilian area. We also evaluated the consistency of the information collected by reassessing CFH five years later. We interviewed 390 families and constructed their pedigrees for genetic cancer risk assessment. We found 125 families affected by cancer, 35.2% with moderate to high risk of familial susceptibility to cancer, a number that represents a relatively high prevalence of potential hereditary cancer syndromes in the overall study sample. Upon reassessment of CFH in 14/20 families that were previously identified as having at least one first-degree and one second-degree relative affected by cancer, and presented moderate to high risk for developing cancer, 90% of initial pedigrees were confirmed. These results demonstrate the reliability of self-reports as a means of early identification of healthy individuals at risk, encouraging the wider use of this method in low- and middle-income primary care settings. PMID:27275666

  14. Muon cooling: longitudinal compression.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yu; Antognini, Aldo; Bertl, Wilhelm; Hildebrandt, Malte; Khaw, Kim Siang; Kirch, Klaus; Papa, Angela; Petitjean, Claude; Piegsa, Florian M; Ritt, Stefan; Sedlak, Kamil; Stoykov, Alexey; Taqqu, David

    2014-06-01

    A 10  MeV/c positive muon beam was stopped in helium gas of a few mbar in a magnetic field of 5 T. The muon "swarm" has been efficiently compressed from a length of 16 cm down to a few mm along the magnetic field axis (longitudinal compression) using electrostatic fields. The simulation reproduces the low energy interactions of slow muons in helium gas. Phase space compression occurs on the order of microseconds, compatible with the muon lifetime of 2  μs. This paves the way for the preparation of a high-quality low-energy muon beam, with an increase in phase space density relative to a standard surface muon beam of 10^{7}. The achievable phase space compression by using only the longitudinal stage presented here is of the order of 10^{4}.

  15. Muon Cooling: Longitudinal Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yu; Antognini, Aldo; Bertl, Wilhelm; Hildebrandt, Malte; Khaw, Kim Siang; Kirch, Klaus; Papa, Angela; Petitjean, Claude; Piegsa, Florian M.; Ritt, Stefan; Sedlak, Kamil; Stoykov, Alexey; Taqqu, David

    2014-06-01

    A 10 MeV/c positive muon beam was stopped in helium gas of a few mbar in a magnetic field of 5 T. The muon "swarm" has been efficiently compressed from a length of 16 cm down to a few mm along the magnetic field axis (longitudinal compression) using electrostatic fields. The simulation reproduces the low energy interactions of slow muons in helium gas. Phase space compression occurs on the order of microseconds, compatible with the muon lifetime of 2 μs. This paves the way for the preparation of a high-quality low-energy muon beam, with an increase in phase space density relative to a standard surface muon beam of 107. The achievable phase space compression by using only the longitudinal stage presented here is of the order of 104.

  16. Hybrid Functional Electrical Stimulation Exercise Training Alters the Relationship Between Spinal Cord Injury Level and Aerobic Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, J. Andrew; Picard, Glen; Porter, Aidan; Morse, Leslie R.; Pronovost, Meghan F.; Deley, Gaelle

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that hybrid Functional Electrical Stimulation Row Training (FES-RT) would improve aerobic capacity but that it would remain strongly linked to level of spinal cord lesion due to limited maximal ventilation. Design Longitudinal before-after trial of 6 months FES-RT. Setting Exercise for persons with disabilities program. Participants Fourteen volunteers with complete SCI T3_T11, >2 years post-injury, aged 21–63 years. Interventions Six months of FES-RT preceded by a variable period of FES 'strength training.' Main Outcome Measures Peak aerobic capacity, and peak exercise ventilation before and after 6 months of FES-RT Results FES_RT significantly increased VO2peak and Vepeak (both p<0.05). Prior to FES-RT, there was a close relationship between level of spinal cord injury and VO2peak (adj r2=0.40, p=0.009) that was markedly reduced after FES-RT (adj r2=0.15, p=0.10) . In contrast, the relationship between level of injury and VEpeak was comparable before and after FES-RT (adj r2=0.38 vs. adj r2=0.32, both p<0.05). Conclusions The increased aerobic capacity reflects more than increased ventilation; FES_RT effectively circumvents the effect of the spinal cord injury on peak aerobic capacity by engaging more muscle mass for training, independent of level of injury. PMID:25152170

  17. ABRUPT LONGITUDINAL MAGNETIC FIELD CHANGES IN FLARING ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, G. J. D.; Sudol, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    We characterize the changes in the longitudinal photospheric magnetic field during 38 X-class and 39 M-class flares within 65{sup 0} of disk center using 1 minute GONG magnetograms. In all 77 cases, we identify at least one site in the flaring active region where clear, permanent, stepwise field changes occurred. The median duration of the field changes was about 15 minutes and was approximately equal for X-class and for M-class flares. The absolute values of the field changes ranged from the detection limit of {approx}10 G to as high as {approx}450 G in two exceptional cases. The median value was 69 G. Field changes were significantly stronger for X-class than for M-class flares and for limb flares than for disk-center flares. Longitudinal field changes less than 100 G tended to decrease longitudinal field strengths, both close to disk center and close to the limb, while field changes greater than 100 G showed no such pattern. Likewise, longitudinal flux strengths tended to decrease during flares. Flux changes, particularly net flux changes near disk center, correlated better than local field changes with GOES peak X-ray flux. The strongest longitudinal field and flux changes occurred in flares observed close to the limb. We estimate the change of Lorentz force associated with each flare and find that this is large enough in some cases to power seismic waves. We find that longitudinal field decreases would likely outnumber increases at all parts of the solar disk within 65{sup 0} of disk center, as in our observations, if photospheric field tilts increase during flares as predicted by Hudson et al.

  18. Cardiovascular responses of pregnant women during aerobic exercise in water: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    McMurray, R G; Katz, V L; Berry, M J; Cefalo, R C

    1988-12-01

    To determine the effects of pregnancy on the cardiovascular responses to immersion and exercise in water, 12 women completed 20 min of immersion and 20 min of bicycle ergometry at 60% predicted VO2max in 30 degrees C water during their 15th, 25th, and 35th week of pregnancy as well as 8-10 weeks post partum. Immersion lowered the resting heart rate approximately 8 bts/min (P less than 0.05). Exercise in water also resulted in a lower heart rate as compared with the same level of exercise on land (132 +/- 4 vs 149 +/- 6 bts/min; P less than 0.05). Both the rest and exercise heart rate responses were independent of duration of pregnancy or pregnancy status. Post partum exercise cardiac output averaged 9.9 +/- 0.4 l/min, significantly lower (P less than 0.05) than the 15th (12.7 +/- 0.5), 25th (14.7 +/- 0.5), or 35th week (15.1 +/- 0.7 l/min). Total peripheral resistance was greatest (P less than 0.05) post partum (657 +/- 29 dyn.s/cm5) compared with either the 15th (515 +/- 27), 25th (407 +/- 18), or 35th week (450 +/- 23). The results indicate that exercise in water lowers the heart rate compared with land exercise at the same metabolic rate. The combined effect of exercise, water, and pregnancy may elevate the cardiac output more than expected on land, but the same general pattern of exercise response will be evident throughout the duration of pregnancy. The results further suggest that water alters the heart rate and blood pressure responses such that land-derived exercise target heart rates should not be used to prescribe exercise intensity in water.

  19. The thermoregulation of pregnant women during aerobic exercise in the water: a longitudinal approach.

    PubMed

    McMurray, R G; Berry, M J; Katz, V L; Graetzer, D G; Cefalo, R C

    1990-01-01

    Twelve women early in their pregnancies were recruited to examine thermoregulation during immersion and exercise in the water (30 degrees C). Their responses were compared at 15, 25 and 35 weeks of pregnancy as well as 10-12 weeks post pregnancy to determine whether the responses differ between the gravid and non-gravid woman or were modified during pregnancy. Rectal temperature, mean skin temperature, heat storage, and evaporation were similar during immersion or exercise during the 15th, 25th and 35th weeks of pregnancy. Compared to 10 weeks post partum, pregnancy reduced heat storage, lowered skin temperature and increased evaporative heat loss during immersion and exercise (P less than 0.05). The results suggest that pregnancy causes subtle changes in the mechanism of thermoregulation which tend to increase heat production and improve heat conservation.

  20. Effect of aerobic exercise during pregnancy on antenatal depression

    PubMed Central

    El-Rafie, Mervat M; Khafagy, Ghada M; Gamal, Marwa G

    2016-01-01

    Background Antenatal depression is not uncommon and is associated with a greater risk of negative pregnancy outcomes. Aim Exploring the effect of exercise in preventing and treating antenatal depression. Methods This was a prospective interventional controlled study carried out in 100 pregnant women treated at the Ain-Shams Family Medicine Center and Maadi Outpatient Clinic, Cairo, Egypt. The participants were divided into two groups (n=50 in the exercise group and n=50 in the control group). The exercise group regularly attended supervised sessions for 12 weeks. The activities in each session included walking, aerobic exercise, stretching, and relaxation. The control group completed their usual antenatal care. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to assess depression symptoms at the first interview and immediately after the 12-week intervention. Results Compared to the control group, the exercise group showed significantly improved depressive symptoms as measured with the CES-D after the 12-week intervention on the CES-D (P=0.001). Within groups, the exercise group demonstrated a significant improvement of depressive symptoms from baseline to intervention completion, while the control group demonstrated no significant changes over time. Conclusion Exercise during pregnancy was positively associated with reduced depressive symptoms. PMID:26955293

  1. 15. DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING LONGITUDINAL STRINGERS SUPPORTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING LONGITUDINAL STRINGERS SUPPORTING WOODEN DECK AND RESTING ON TRANSVERSE FLOOR BEAMS. DIAGONAL EYE BARS FOR REINFORCEMENT ARE SEEN AT CENTER; VIEW FROM SOUTH BANK. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  2. 15. Dry Dock No. 4. Longitudinal Section. Subdivision Nos. I ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Dry Dock No. 4. Longitudinal Section. Subdivision Nos. I and II (Frederic R. Harris, Inc., January 10, 1941). In Files of Cushman & Wakefield, Building no. 501, Philadelphia Naval Business Center. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Dry Dock No. 4, Broad Street south of Government Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. 16. Dry Dock No. 4. Longitudinal Section. Subdivision Nos. III ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Dry Dock No. 4. Longitudinal Section. Subdivision Nos. III and IV (Frederic R. Harris, Inc., January 10, 1941). In Files of Cushman & Wakefield, Building no. 501, Philadelphia Naval Business Center. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Dry Dock No. 4, Broad Street south of Government Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. 17. Dry Dock No. 4. Longitudinal Section. Subdivision V and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Dry Dock No. 4. Longitudinal Section. Subdivision V and Stair Details (Frederic R. Harris, Inc., January 10, 1941). In Files of Cushman & Wakefield, Building No. 501, Philadelphia Naval Business Center. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Dry Dock No. 4, Broad Street south of Government Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. [Sulfa-drug wastewater treatment with anaerobic/aerobic process].

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Zhang, H; Zhu, H; Zhang, Z; Zhuang, Y; Dai, S

    2001-09-01

    Sulfa drug wastewater was treated with anaerobic/aerobic process. The removal ratios of TOC reached about 50% in anaerobic phase and about 70% in aerobic phase respectively, while volume loading rate of TOC was about 1.2 kg/(m3.d) in anaerobic phase and about 0.6 kg/(m3.d) in aerobic phase. Removal of TOC in anaerobic phase was attributed to the reduction of sulfate.

  6. Skeletal myopathy in heart failure: effects of aerobic exercise training.

    PubMed

    Brum, P C; Bacurau, A V; Cunha, T F; Bechara, L R G; Moreira, J B N

    2014-04-01

    Reduced aerobic capacity, as measured by maximal oxygen uptake, is a hallmark in cardiovascular diseases and strongly predicts poor prognosis and higher mortality rates in heart failure patients. While exercise capacity is poorly correlated with cardiac function in this population, skeletal muscle abnormalities present a striking association with maximal oxygen uptake. This fact draws substantial attention to the clinical relevance of targeting skeletal myopathy in heart failure. Considering that skeletal muscle is highly responsive to aerobic exercise training, we addressed the benefits of aerobic exercise training to combat skeletal myopathy in heart failure, focusing on the mechanisms by which aerobic exercise training counteracts skeletal muscle atrophy.

  7. Modeling nonstationary longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Antón, V; Zimmerman, D L

    2000-09-01

    An important theme of longitudinal data analysis in the past two decades has been the development and use of explicit parametric models for the data's variance-covariance structure. A variety of these models have been proposed, of which most are second-order stationary. A few are flexible enough to accommodate nonstationarity, i.e., nonconstant variances and/or correlations that are not a function solely of elapsed time between measurements. We review five nonstationary models that we regard as most useful: (1) the unstructured covariance model, (2) unstructured antedependence models, (3) structured antedependence models, (4) autoregressive integrated moving average and similar models, and (5) random coefficients models. We evaluate the relative strengths and limitations of each model, emphasizing when it is inappropriate or unlikely to be useful. We present three examples to illustrate the fitting and comparison of the models and to demonstrate that nonstationary longitudinal data can be modeled effectively and, in some cases, quite parsimoniously. In these examples, the antedependence models generally prove to be superior and the random coefficients models prove to be inferior. We conclude that antedependence models should be given much greater consideration than they have historically received.

  8. Effect of aerobic exercises on stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Illays; Nawaz, Irum; Amjad, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Stuttering is one of the most common speech disorders in adolescents than adults. Stuttering results in depression, anxiety, behavioral problem, social isolation and communication problems in daily life. Our objective was to determine the effect of Aerobic Exercises (AE) on stuttering. Methods: A quasi trail was conducted at National Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (NIRM) from January to June 2015. Thirty patients were selected and placed in three different groups Experimental Group A, (EG = 10 patients, age between 7-14 years), Experimental Group B (EG =10 patients age between 15-28 years) and control group –group C, (CG = 10 patients, age between 7-28 years). Patient who stutter were included in this study and those with any other pathology or comorbidity of speech disorders were excluded. The assessment tool used was Real-Time analysis of speech fluency scale. Participants in all the groups received speech therapy while only the EG – A and B received aerobic exercises (AE) using treadmill and stationary bicycle along with the speech therapy. Pre-interventional and post interventional assessments were analyzed using the SPSS 21 in order to determine the significance of new treatment approach and the effectiveness of physical therapy on speech disorders. Results: All the groups showed significant treatment effects but both the EG groups (Group A, Group B) showed high improvement in the severity level of stuttering as compared to control group C. The results also showed that AE treated group B had significant difference in p-value (p=0.027) as compared to control group (p<0.05) while experimental group A had no significant difference (p > 0.05) between these groups. Conclusion: The eclectic approach of aerobic exercises with the traditional speech therapy provides proximal rehabilitation of stuttering. PMID:27648057

  9. Effect of aerobic exercises on stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Illays; Nawaz, Irum; Amjad, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Stuttering is one of the most common speech disorders in adolescents than adults. Stuttering results in depression, anxiety, behavioral problem, social isolation and communication problems in daily life. Our objective was to determine the effect of Aerobic Exercises (AE) on stuttering. Methods: A quasi trail was conducted at National Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (NIRM) from January to June 2015. Thirty patients were selected and placed in three different groups Experimental Group A, (EG = 10 patients, age between 7-14 years), Experimental Group B (EG =10 patients age between 15-28 years) and control group –group C, (CG = 10 patients, age between 7-28 years). Patient who stutter were included in this study and those with any other pathology or comorbidity of speech disorders were excluded. The assessment tool used was Real-Time analysis of speech fluency scale. Participants in all the groups received speech therapy while only the EG – A and B received aerobic exercises (AE) using treadmill and stationary bicycle along with the speech therapy. Pre-interventional and post interventional assessments were analyzed using the SPSS 21 in order to determine the significance of new treatment approach and the effectiveness of physical therapy on speech disorders. Results: All the groups showed significant treatment effects but both the EG groups (Group A, Group B) showed high improvement in the severity level of stuttering as compared to control group C. The results also showed that AE treated group B had significant difference in p-value (p=0.027) as compared to control group (p<0.05) while experimental group A had no significant difference (p > 0.05) between these groups. Conclusion: The eclectic approach of aerobic exercises with the traditional speech therapy provides proximal rehabilitation of stuttering.

  10. Screening and identification of aerobic denitrifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, K.; Deng, H. M.; Chen, Y. T.; Zhou, H. J.; Yan, G. X.

    2016-08-01

    With the standards of the effluent quality more stringent, it becomes a quite serious problem for municipalities and industries to remove nitrogen from wastewater. Bioremediation is a potential method for the removal of nitrogen and other pollutants because of its high efficiency and low cost. Seven predominant aerobic denitrifiers were screened and characterized from the activated sludge in the CAST unit. Some of these strains removed 87% nitrate nitrogen at least. Based on their phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, the isolates were identified as the genera of Ralstonia, Achromobacter, Aeromonas and Enterobacter.

  11. Electrolysis of trichloromethylated organic compounds under aerobic conditions catalyzed by the B12 model complex for ester and amide formation.

    PubMed

    Shimakoshi, Hisashi; Luo, Zhongli; Inaba, Takuya; Hisaeda, Yoshio

    2016-06-21

    The electrolysis of benzotrichloride at -0.9 V vs. Ag/AgCl in the presence of the B12 model complex, heptamethyl cobyrinate perchlorate, in ethanol under aerobic conditions using an undivided cell equipped with a platinum mesh cathode and a zinc plate anode produced ethylbenzoate in 56% yield with 92% selectivity. The corresponding esters were obtained when the electrolysis was carried out in various alcohols such as methanol, n-propanol, and i-propanol. Benzoyl chloride was detected by GC-MS during the electrolysis as an intermediate for the ester formation. When the electrolysis was carried out under anaerobic conditions, partially dechlorinated products, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloro-1,2-diphenylethane and 1,2-dichlorostilibenes (E and Z forms), were obtained instead of an ester. ESR spin-trapping experiments using 5,5,-dimethylpyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) revealed that the corresponding oxygen-centered radical and carbon-centered radical were steadily generated during the electrolyses under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. Applications of the aerobic electrolysis to various organic halides, such as substituted benzotrichlorides, are described. Furthermore, the formation of amides with moderate yields by the aerobic electrolysis of benzotrichloride catalyzed by the B12 model complex in the presence of amines in acetonitrile is reported. PMID:27071703

  12. Toxic and inhibitory effects of trichloroethylene aerobic co-metabolism on phenol-grown aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Tay, JooHwa

    2015-04-01

    Aerobic granule, a form of microbial aggregate, exhibits good potential in degrading toxic and recalcitrant substances. In this study, the inhibitory and toxic effects of trichloroethylene (TCE), a model compound for aerobic co-metabolism, on phenol-grown aerobic granules were systematically studied, using respiratory activities after exposure to TCE as indicators. High TCE concentration did not exert positive or negative effects on the subsequent endogenous respiration rate or phenol dependent specific oxygen utilization rate (SOUR), indicating the absence of solvent stress and induction effect on phenol-hydroxylase. Phenol-grown aerobic granules exhibited a unique response to TCE transformation product toxicity, that small amount of TCE transformation enhanced the subsequent phenol SOUR. Granules that had transformed between 1.3 and 3.7 mg TCE gSS(-1) showed at most 53% increase in the subsequent phenol SOUR, and only when the transformation exceeded 6.6 mg TCE gSS(-1) did the SOUR dropped below that of the control. This enhancing effect was found to sustain throughout several phenol dosages, and TCE transformation below the toxicity threshold also lessened the granules' sensitivity to higher phenol concentration. The unique toxic effect was possibly caused by the granule's compact structure as a protection barrier against the diffusive transformation product(s) of TCE co-metabolism.

  13. [Heterotrophic Nitrification and Aerobic Denitrification of the Hypothermia Aerobic Denitrification Bacterium: Arthrobacter arilaitensis].

    PubMed

    He, Teng-xia; Ni, Jiu-pai; Li, Zhen-lun; Sun, Quan; Ye Qing; Xu, Yi

    2016-03-15

    High concentrations of ammonium, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen were employed to clarify the abilities of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification of Arthrobacter arilaitensis strain Y-10. Meanwhile, by means of inoculating the strain suspension into the mixed ammonium and nitrate, ammonium and nitrite nitrogen simulated wastewater, we studied the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification ability of Arthrobacter arilaitensis strain Y-10. In addition, cell optical density was assayed in each nitrogen removal process to analyze the relationship of cell growth and nitrogen removal efficiency. The results showed that the hypothermia denitrification strain Arthrobacter arilaitensis Y-10 exhibited high nitrogen removal efficiency during heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification. The ammonium, nitrate and nitrite removal rates were 65.0%, 100% and 61.2% respectively when strain Y-10 was cultivated for 4 d at 15°C with initial ammonium, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen concentrations of 208.43 mg · L⁻¹, 201.16 mg · L⁻¹ and 194.33 mg · L⁻¹ and initial pH of 7.2. Nitrite nitrogen could only be accumulated in the medium containing nitrate nitrogen during heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification process. Additionally, the ammonium nitrogen was mainly removed in the inorganic nitrogen mixed synthetic wastewater. In short, Arthrobacter arilaitensis Y-10 could conduct nitrification and denitrification effectively under aerobic condition and the ammonium nitrogen removal rate was more than 80.0% in the inorganic nitrogen mixed synthetic wastewater. PMID:27337904

  14. Longitudinal Algorithms to Estimate Cardiorespiratory Fitness: Associations with Nonfatal Cardiovascular Disease and Disease-Specific Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Artero, Enrique G.; Jackson, Andrew S.; Sui, Xuemei; Lee, Duck-chul; O’Connor, Daniel P.; Lavie, Carl J.; Church, Timothy S.; Blair, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To predict risk for non-fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) and disease-specific mortality using CRF algorithms that do not involve exercise testing. Background Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is not routinely measured, as it requires trained personnel and specialized equipment. Methods Participants were 43,356 adults (21% women) from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study followed between 1974 and 2003. Estimated CRF was based on sex, age, body mass index, waist circumference, resting heart rate, physical activity level and smoking status. Actual CRF was measured by a maximal treadmill test. Results During a median follow-up of 14.5 years, 1,934 deaths occurred, 627 due to CVD. In a sub-sample of 18,095 participants, 1,049 cases of non-fatal CVD events were ascertained. After adjusting for potential confounders, both measured CRF and estimated CRF were inversely associated with risk of all-cause mortality, CVD mortality and non-fatal CVD incidence in men, and with all-cause mortality and non-fatal CVD in women. The risk reduction per 1-metabolic equivalent (MET) increase ranged approximately from 10 to 20 %. Measured CRF had a slightly better discriminative ability (c-statistic) than estimated CRF, and the net reclassification improvement (NRI) of measured CRF vs. estimated CRF was 12.3% in men (p<0.05) and 19.8% in women (p<0.001). Conclusions These algorithms utilize information routinely collected to obtain an estimate of CRF that provides a valid indication of health status. In addition to identifying people at risk, this method can provide more appropriate exercise recommendations that reflect initial CRF levels. PMID:24703924

  15. Settling behaviour of aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Nor Anuar, A; Ujang, Z; van Loosdrecht, M C M; de Kreuk, M K

    2007-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) technology has been extensively studied recently to improve sludge settling and behaviour in activated sludge systems. The main advantage is that aerobic granular sludge (AGS) can settle very fast in a reactor or clarifier because AGS is compact and has strong structure. It also has good settleability and a high capacity for biomass retention. Several experimental works have been conducted in this study to observe the settling behaviours of AGS. The study thus has two aims: (1) to compare the settling profile of AGS with other sludge flocs and (2) to observe the influence of mechanical mixing and design of the reactor to the settleability of AGS. The first experimental outcome shows that AGS settles after less than 5 min in a depth of 0.4 m compared to other sludge flocs (from sequencing batch reactor, conventional activated sludge and extended aeration) which takes more than 30 min. This study also shows that the turbulence from the mixing mechanism and shear in the reactor provides an insignificant effect on the AGS settling velocity.

  16. Characterization and aerobic biodegradation of selected monoterpenes

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, G.; Pavlostathis, S.G.; Li, J.; Purdue, E.M.

    1996-12-31

    Monoterpenes are biogenic chemicals and occur in abundance in nature. Large-scale industrial use of these chemicals has recently been initiated in an attempt to replace halogenated solvents and chlorofluorocarbons which have been implicated in the stratospheric depletion of ozone. This study examined four hydrocarbon monoterpenes (d-limonene, {alpha}-pinene, {gamma}-terpinene, and terpinolene) and four alcohols (arbanol, linalool, plinol, and {alpha}-terpineol). Water solubility, vapor pressure, and octanol/water partition coefficients were estimated. Aerobic biodegradability tests were conducted in batch reactors by utilizing forest soil extract and enriched cultures as inoculum. The hydrophobic nature and high volatility of the hydrocarbons restricted the investigation to relatively low aqueous concentrations. Each monoterpene was analyzed with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector after extraction from the aqueous phase with isooctane. Terpene mineralization was tested by monitoring liquid-phase carbon, CO{sub 2} production and biomass growth. All four hydrocarbons and two alcohols readily degraded under aerobic conditions. Plinol resisted degradation in assays using inocula from diverse sources, while arbanol degraded very slowly. The intrinsic biokinetics coefficients for the degradation of d-limonene and {alpha}-terpineol were estimated by using cultures enriched with the respective monoterpenes. Monoterpene biodegradation followed Monod kinetics.

  17. Aerobic growth at nanomolar oxygen concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Stolper, Daniel A.; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Canfield, Donald E.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular oxygen (O2) is the second most abundant gas in the Earth’s atmosphere, but in many natural environments, its concentration is reduced to low or even undetectable levels. Although low-oxygen-adapted organisms define the ecology of low-oxygen environments, their capabilities are not fully known. These capabilities also provide a framework for reconstructing a critical period in the history of life, because low, but not negligible, atmospheric oxygen levels could have persisted before the “Great Oxidation” of the Earth’s surface about 2.3 to 2.4 billion years ago. Here, we show that Escherichia coli K-12, chosen for its well-understood biochemistry, rapid growth rate, and low-oxygen-affinity terminal oxidase, grows at oxygen levels of ≤ 3 nM, two to three orders of magnitude lower than previously observed for aerobes. Our study expands both the environmental range and temporal history of aerobic organisms. PMID:20974919

  18. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning

    PubMed Central

    Perini, Renza; Bortoletto, Marta; Capogrosso, Michela; Fertonani, Anna; Miniussi, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cortex, and the second was a simple thumb abduction motor task that relies on the primary motor cortex. Forty-four and forty volunteers participated in the first and second experiments, respectively. We found that a single bout of aerobic exercise can significantly facilitate learning mechanisms within visual and motor domains and that these positive effects can persist for at least 30 minutes following exercise. This finding suggests that physical activity, at least of moderate intensity, might promote brain plasticity. By combining physical activity–induced plasticity with specific cognitive training–induced plasticity, we favour a gradual up-regulation of a functional network due to a steady increase in synaptic strength, promoting associative Hebbian-like plasticity. PMID:27146330

  19. Longitudinal Stern-Gerlach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higinbotham, Douglas

    2006-11-01

    In 1922 Otto Stern and Walther Gerlach split a beam of silver atoms using a transverse gradient field. This experiment, which lead to the understanding that electrons have intrinsic spin, oddly enough does not work for free electrons due to the interplay between the Lorentz force and Heisenberg uncertainly principle. Recent calculations, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 (1997) 4517 and Phys. Rev. Lett. 86 (2001) 4508, have shown that a dismissed idea of L. Brillouin from 1928 to use a longitudinal gradient field to minimize the effect of the Lorentz force may in fact be possible. The history of the Stern-Gerlach device will be presented along with the revived ideas for separating a beam of free electrons into its two spin states.

  20. Digital Longitudinal Tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimkus, Daniel Steven

    1985-12-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the clinical utility of digital longitudinal tomosynthesis in radiology. By acquiring a finite group of digital images during a longitudinal tomographic exposure, and processing these images, tomographic planes, other than the fulcrum plane, can be reconstructed. This process is now termed "tomosynthesis". A prototype system utilizing this technique was developed. Both phantom and patient studies were done with this system. The phantom studies were evaluated by subjective, visual criterion and by quantitative analysis of edge sharpness and noise in the reconstructions. Two groups of patients and one volunteer were studied. The first patient group consisted of 8 patients undergoing intravenous urography (IVU). These patients had digital tomography and film tomography of the abdomen. The second patient group consisted of 4 patients with lung cancer admitted to the hospital for laser resection of endobronchial tumor. These patients had mediastinal digital tomograms to evaluate the trachea and mainstem bronchi. The knee of one volunteer was imaged by film tomography and digital tomography. The results of the phantom studies showed that the digital reconstructions accurately produced images of the desired planes. The edge sharpness of the reconstructions approached that of the acquired images. Adequate reconstructions were achieved with as few as 5 images acquired during the exposure, with the quality of the reconstructions improving as the number of images acquired increased. The IVU patients' digital studies had less contrast and spatial resolution than the film tomograms. The single renal lesion visible on the film tomograms was also visible in the digital images. The digital mediastinal studies were felt by several radiologists to be superior to a standard chest xray in evaluating the airways. The digital images of the volunteer's knee showed many of the same anatomic features as the film tomogram, but the digital

  1. Aerobic Dance Exercise Programs: Maintaining Quality and Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Pamela J.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the effectiveness of Washington State University's aerobic dance program showed that participation in the program did not improve students' cardiovascular fitness. Aerobics instructors should be trained to use pulse rate and other principles of exercise physiology to make their work more effective. (PP)

  2. The Effectiveness of Aerobic Exercise Instruction for Totally Blind Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponchillia, S. V.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A multifaceted method (involving verbal and hands-on training) was used to teach aerobic exercises to 3 totally blind women (ages 24-37). All three women demonstrated positive gains in their performance, physical fitness, and attitudes toward participating in future mainstream aerobic exercise classes. (DB)

  3. [Value of aerobic rehabilitation in the management of fibromyalgia].

    PubMed

    Maquet, D; Croisier, J L; Demoulin, C; Faymonville, M; Crielaard, J M

    2006-02-01

    This study assesses the influence of a muscular aerobic revalidation program on the management of the fibromyalgia syndrome. After 3 months, benefits consisting of increased muscle performances associated with a reduction of pain and an improvement of quality of life were documented. This study confirms the value of aerobic muscle exercise in fibromyalgia patients. PMID:16566119

  4. Aerobic Fitness Thresholds Associated with Fifth Grade Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittberg, Richard; Cottrell, Lesley A.; Davis, Catherine L.; Northrup, Karen L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Whereas effects of physical fitness and physical activity on cognitive function have been documented, little is known about how they are related. Purpose: This study assessed student aerobic fitness measured by FITNESSGRAM Mile times and/or Pacer circuits and whether the nature of the association between aerobic fitness and…

  5. Factors associated with low levels of aerobic fitness among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Eliane Cristina de Andrade; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of low aerobic fitness levels and to analyze the association with sociodemographic factors, lifestyle and excess body fatness among adolescents of southern Brazil. Methods: The study included 879 adolescents aged 14-19 years the city of São José/SC, Brazil. The aerobic fitness was assessed by Canadian modified test of aerobic fitness. Sociodemographic variables (skin color, age, sex, study turn, economic level), sexual maturation and lifestyle (eating habits, screen time, physical activity, consumption of alcohol and tobacco) were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Excess body fatness was evaluated by sum of skinfolds triceps and subscapular. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: Prevalence of low aerobic fitness level was 87.5%. The girls who spent two hours or more in front screen, consumed less than one glass of milk by day, did not smoke and had an excess of body fatness had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. White boys with low physical activity had had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. Conclusions: Eight out of ten adolescents were with low fitness levels aerobic. Modifiable lifestyle factors were associated with low levels of aerobic fitness. Interventions that emphasize behavior change are needed. PMID:26743851

  6. Aerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This manual contains the textual material for a single-lesson unit on aerobic sludge digestion. Topic areas addressed include: (1) theory of aerobic digestion; (2) system components; (3) performance factors; (4) indicators of stable operation; and (5) operational problems and their solutions. A list of objectives, glossary of key terms, and…

  7. The Acute Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Measures of Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort, Inza L.; And Others

    The immediate response of stress to aerobic exercise was measured by utilizing the Palmar Sweat Index (PSI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Forty subjects (20 male and 20 female) from the ages of 18-30 sustained a single bout of aerobic activity for 30 minutes at 60 percent of their maximum heart rate. Pre-treatment procedures…

  8. Diversity of methanotrophs in Zoige wetland soils under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Yun, Juanli; Ma, Anzhou; Li, Yaoming; Zhuang, Guoqiang; Wang, Yanfen; Zhang, Hongxun

    2010-01-01

    Zoige wetland is one of the most important methane emission centers in China. The oxidation of methane in the wetland affects global warming, soil ecology and atmospheric chemistry. Despite their global significance, microorganisms that consume methane in Zoige wetland remain poorly characterized. In this study, we investigated methanotrophs diversity in soil samples from both anaerobic site and aerobic site in Zoige wetland using pmoA gene as a molecular marker. The cloning library was constructed according to the pmoA sequences detected. Four clusters of methanotrophs were detected. The phylogenetic tree showed that all four clusters detected were affiliated to type I methanotrophs. Two novel clusters (cluster 1, cluster 2) were found to relate to none of the recognized genera of methanotrophs. These clusters have no cultured representatives and reveal an ecological adaptation of particular uncultured methanotrophs in Zoige wetland. Two clusters were belonging to Methylobacter and Methylococcus separately. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis gel bands pattern retrieved from these two samples revealed that the community compositions of anaerobic soil and aerobic soil were different from each other while anaerobic soil showed a higher metanotrophs diversity. Real-time PCR assays of the two samples demonstrated that aerobic soil sample in Zoige wetland was 1.5 times as much copy numbers as anaerobic soil. These data illustrated that methanotrophs are a group of microorganisms influence the methane consumption in Zoige wetland.

  9. Center-Based Care for Language Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Youngji Y.; Chang, Mido

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the long-term effect of enrollment in center- or school-based care programs on the academic performance of language minority students in the USA. The study applies a longitudinal multilevel analysis to a nationally representative database, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K). Of particular interest are the…

  10. Heart rate during aerobics classes in women with different previous experience of aerobics.

    PubMed

    Laukkanen, R M; Kalaja, M K; Kalaja, S P; Holmala, E B; Paavolainen, L M; Tummavuori, M; Virtanen, P; Rusko, H K

    2001-01-01

    This study measured heart rate during floor and step aerobic classes at three intensity levels. A group of 20 female occasional exercisers [mean age 33 (SD 8) years, mean body mass index 21 (SD 2) kg.m-2 volunteered to participate in six aerobic classes (three floor classes, three step classes) and in a laboratory test as members of one of two groups according to their prestudy regular participation in aerobics classes. Subjects in group A had participated four or more times a week and those of group B less than twice a week. The characteristics of the groups were as follows: group A, n = 10, mean maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) 38.7 (SD 3.6) ml.kg-1.min-1, mean maximal heart rate (HRmax) 183 (SD 8) beats.min-1; group B, n = 10, VO2max 36.1 (SD 3.6) ml.kg-1.min-1, HRmax 178 (SD 7) beats.min-1. Each class consisted of a warm-up, a 20 min period of structured aerobic exercise (cardiophase) and a cool-down. The cardiophase was planned and guided as light, (rate of perceived exertion, RPE 11-12), moderate (RPE 13-14) or heavy (RPE 15-17) by an experienced instructor. The mean heart rates during the light classes were 72 (step) and 74 (floor) %HRmax in group A and 75 (step) and 79 (floor) %HRmax in group B; during the moderate classes, 84 (step) and 80 (floor) %HRmax in group A and 82 (step) and 83 (floor) %HRmax in group B, and during the heavy classes 89 (step and floor) %HRmax in group A and 88 (step) and 92 (floor) %HRmax in group B. Differences in heart rate and %HRmax were not statistically significant between the groups. However, differences in heart rate and %HRmax between the intensities (light vs moderate, moderate vs heavy and light vs heavy) were significant within both groups (all, P < 0.01). Based on the results, we conclude that intensity management during the aerobics classes was generally successful regardless of the participants' prior participation in aerobics. However, some individuals who were older and/or had less prior participation tended to

  11. Effectiveness of the modified progressive aerobic capacity endurance run test for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who are obese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the progressive aerobic capacity endurance run (PACER) and a newly designed modified PACER (MPACER) for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who are obese. Thirty-nine (aged 7-12 years) children who were considered obese (= 95 ...

  12. Biology of Moderately Halophilic Aerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ventosa, Antonio; Nieto, Joaquín J.; Oren, Aharon

    1998-01-01

    The moderately halophilic heterotrophic aerobic bacteria form a diverse group of microorganisms. The property of halophilism is widespread within the bacterial domain. Bacterial halophiles are abundant in environments such as salt lakes, saline soils, and salted food products. Most species keep their intracellular ionic concentrations at low levels while synthesizing or accumulating organic solutes to provide osmotic equilibrium of the cytoplasm with the surrounding medium. Complex mechanisms of adjustment of the intracellular environments and the properties of the cytoplasmic membrane enable rapid adaptation to changes in the salt concentration of the environment. Approaches to the study of genetic processes have recently been developed for several moderate halophiles, opening the way toward an understanding of haloadaptation at the molecular level. The new information obtained is also expected to contribute to the development of novel biotechnological uses for these organisms. PMID:9618450

  13. Brain aerobic glycolysis and motor adaptation learning

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Benjamin J.; Vaishnavi, Sanjeev Neil; Vlassenko, Andrei G.; Shimony, Joshua S.; Rutlin, Jerrel; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2016-01-01

    Ten percent to 15% of glucose used by the brain is metabolized nonoxidatively despite adequate tissue oxygenation, a process termed aerobic glycolysis (AG). Because of the known role of glycolysis in biosynthesis, we tested whether learning-induced synaptic plasticity would lead to regionally appropriate, learning-dependent changes in AG. Functional MRI (fMRI) before, during, and after performance of a visual–motor adaptation task demonstrated that left Brodmann area 44 (BA44) played a key role in adaptation, with learning-related changes to activity during the task and altered resting-state, functional connectivity after the task. PET scans before and after task performance indicated a sustained increase in AG in left BA 44 accompanied by decreased oxygen consumption. Intersubject variability in behavioral adaptation rate correlated strongly with changes in AG in this region, as well as functional connectivity, which is consistent with a role for AG in synaptic plasticity. PMID:27217563

  14. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the aerobic oxidation of high-pressure, high-temperature nanodiamonds (5–50 nm dimensions) using a combination of carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption, wavelength-dependent X-ray photoelectron, and vibrational spectroscopies. Oxidation at 575 °C for 2 h eliminates graphitic carbon contamination (>98%) and produces nanocrystals with hydroxyl functionalized surfaces as well as a minor component (<5%) of carboxylic anhydrides. The low graphitic carbon content and the high crystallinity of HPHT are evident from Raman spectra acquired using visible wavelength excitation (λexcit = 633 nm) as well as carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectra where the signature of a core–hole exciton is observed. Both spectroscopic features are similar to those of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond but differ significantly from the spectra of detonation nanodiamond. The importance of these findings to the functionalization of nanodiamond surfaces for biological labeling applications is discussed. PMID:25436035

  15. Isolation of aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria from black smoker plume waters of the juan de fuca ridge in the pacific ocean.

    PubMed

    Yurkov, V; Beatty, J T

    1998-01-01

    A strain of the aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria was isolated from a deep-ocean hydrothermal vent plume environment. The in vivo absorption spectra of cells indicate the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into light-harvesting complex I and a reaction center. The general morphological and physiological characteristics of this new isolate are described.

  16. Isolation of Aerobic Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria from Black Smoker Plume Waters of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Yurkov, Vladimir; Beatty, J. Thomas

    1998-01-01

    A strain of the aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria was isolated from a deep-ocean hydrothermal vent plume environment. The in vivo absorption spectra of cells indicate the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into light-harvesting complex I and a reaction center. The general morphological and physiological characteristics of this new isolate are described. PMID:16349490

  17. A Pilot Study of Women’s Affective Responses to Common and Uncommon Forms of Aerobic Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Courtney J.; Smith, Jane Ellen; Bryan, Angela D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the extent to which participants exposed to an uncommon versus common exercise stimulus would result in more favourable affect at post task. Design Experimental design. Participants, (N = 120) American women aged 18–45 years, were randomly assigned to complete 30-minutes of either the uncommon (HOOP; n = 58) or common (WALK; n = 62) exercise stimulus. Main Outcome Measures Self-reported affect and intentions for future exercise were measured before and after the 30-minute exercise bout. Results Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were run to compare post-task affect across the HOOP and WALK conditions. At post-task, participants assigned to HOOP reported more positively valenced affect, higher ratings of positive activated affect, lower ratings of negative deactivated affect, and stronger intentions for future aerobic exercise compared to participants assigned to WALK. Conclusions Participants who completed an uncommon bout of aerobic exercise (HOOP) reported more favourable affect post-exercise, as well as stronger intentions for future exercise, compared to participants who completed a common bout of aerobic exercise (WALK). Future work using a longitudinal design is needed to understand the relationships between familiarity with an exercise stimulus, affective responses to exercise, motivation for future exercise behaviour, and exercise maintenance over time. PMID:26394246

  18. Maximal strength training improves aerobic endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Hoff, J; Gran, A; Helgerud, J

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this experiment was to examine the effects of maximal strength training with emphasis on neural adaptations on strength- and endurance-performance for endurance trained athletes. Nineteen male cross-country skiers about 19.7 +/- 4.0 years of age and a maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2 max)) of 69.4 +/- 2.2 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1) were randomly assigned to a training group (n = 9) or a control group (n = 10). Strength training was performed, three times a week for 8 weeks, using a cable pulley simulating the movements in double poling in cross-country skiing, and consisted of three sets of six repetitions at a workload of 85% of one repetition maximum emphasizing maximal mobilization of force in the concentric movement. One repetition maximum improved significantly from 40.3 +/- 4.5 to 44.3 +/- 4.9 kg. Time to peak force (TPF) was reduced by 50 and 60% on two different submaximal workloads. Endurance performance measured as time to exhaustion (TTE) on a double poling ski ergometer at maximum aerobic velocity, improved from 6.49 to 10.18 min; 20.5% over the control group. Work economy changed significantly from 1.02 +/- 0.14 to 0.74 +/- 0.10 mL x kg(-0.67) x min(-1). Maximal strength training with emphasis on neural adaptations improves strength, particularly rate of force development, and improves aerobic endurance performance by improved work economy.

  19. Assessing the Impact of New Student Campus Recreation Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zizzi, Samuel; Ayers, Suzan F.; Watson II, Jack C.; Keeler, Linda A.

    2004-01-01

    The student recreation center (SRC) at many colleges and universities has evolved from being a place to lift weights and take aerobics classes to becoming a high-powered recruitment tool (Colleges use recreation, 2002). The present study included the development of an instrument to assess the use and impact of SRCs. Students (N = 655; users = 537,…

  20. Computer centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Science Foundation has renewed grants to four of its five supercomputer centers. Average annual funding will rise from $10 million to $14 million so facilities can be upgraded and training and education expanded. As cooperative projects, the centers also receive money from states, universities, computer vendors and industry. The centers support research in fluid dynamics, atmospheric modeling, engineering geophysics and many other scientific disciplines.

  1. Cardioprotective Properties of Aerobic and Resistance Training Against Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Barboza, C A; Souza, G I H; Oliveira, J C M F; Silva, L M; Mostarda, C T; Dourado, P M M; Oyama, L M; Lira, F S; Irigoyen, M C; Rodrigues, B

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise training on ventricular morphometry and function, physical capacity, autonomic function, as well as on ventricular inflammatory status in trained rats prior to myocardial infarction. Male Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: sedentary+Sham, sedentary+myocardial infarction, aerobic trained+myocardial infarction, and resistance trained+myocardial infarction. Sham and myocardial infarction were performed after training periods. In the days following the surgeries, evaluations were performed. Aerobic training prevents aerobic (to a greater extent) and resistance capacity impairments, ventricular dysfunction, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic disorders (vagal tonus decrease and sympathetic tonus increase) triggered by myocardial infarction. Resistance training was able to prevent negative changes to aerobic and resistance capacity (to a greater extent) but not to ventricular dysfunction, and it prevented cardiovascular sympathetic increments. Additionally, both types of training reduced left ventricle inflammatory cytokine concentration. Our results suggest that aerobic and, for the first time, dynamic resistance training were able to reduce sympathetic tonus to the heart and vessels, as well as preventing the increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in the left ventricle of trained groups. These data emphasizes the positive effects of aerobic and dynamic resistance training on the prevention of the negative changes triggered by myocardial infarction.

  2. Mutagenicity of anaerobic fenitrothion metabolites after aerobic biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Taku; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Saeki, Ryo; Inoue, Takanobu

    2005-12-01

    Previous studies have revealed that the mutagenicity of fenitrothion increases during anaerobic biodegradation, suggesting that this insecticide's mutagenicity could effectively increase after it pollutes anaerobic environments such as lake sediments. To investigate possible changes to the mutagenicity of fenitrothion under aerobic conditions after it had already been increased by anaerobic biodegradation, batch incubation cultures were maintained under aerobic conditions. The mutagenicity, which had increased during anaerobic biodegradation, decreased under aerobic conditions with aerobic or facultative bacteria, but did not disappear completely in 22 days. In contrast, it did not change under aerobic conditions without bacteria or under continued anaerobic conditions. These observations suggest that the mutagenicity of anaerobically metabolized fenitrothion would not necessarily decrease after it arrives in an aerobic environment: this would depend on the presence of suitable bacteria. Therefore, fenitrothion-derived mutagenic compounds may pollute the water environment, including our drinking water sources, after accidental pollution of aerobic waters. Although amino-fenitrothion generated during anaerobic biodegradation of fenitrothion was the principal mutagen, non-trivial contributions of other, unidentified metabolites to the mutagenicity were also observed. PMID:16263383

  3. Comparison of aerobic and anaerobic biotreatment of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Borglin, Sharon E; Hazen, Terry C; Oldenburg, Curtis M; Zawislanski, Peter T

    2004-07-01

    To increase the operating lifetime of landfills and to lower leachate treatment costs, an increasing number of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are being managed as either aerobic or anaerobic bioreactors. Landfill gas composition, respiration rates, and subsidence were measured for 400 days in 200-L tanks filled with fresh waste materials to compare the relative effectiveness of the two treatments. Tanks were prepared to provide the following conditions: (1) air injection and leachate recirculation (aerobic), (2) leachate recirculation (anaerobic), and (3) no treatment (anaerobic). Respiration tests on the aerobic wet tank showed a steady decrease in oxygen consumption rates from 1.3 mol/day at 20 days to 0.1 mol/day at 400 days. Aerobic wet tanks produced, on average, 6 mol of carbon dioxide (CO2)/kg of MSW as compared with anaerobic wet tanks, which produced 2.2 mol methane/kg of MSW and 2.0 mol CO2/kg methane. Over the test period, the aerobic tanks settled on average 35%, anaerobic tanks settled 21.7%, and the no-treatment tank settled 7.5%, equivalent to overall mass loss in the corresponding reactors. Aerobic tanks reduced stabilization time and produced negligible odor compared with anaerobic tanks, possibly because of the 2 orders of magnitude lower leachate ammonia levels in the aerobic tank. Both treatment regimes provide the opportunity for disposal and remediation of liquid waste.

  4. Upper limb aerobic training improves aerobic fitness and all-out performance of America's Cup grinders.

    PubMed

    Adami, Paolo Emilio; Delussu, Anna Sofia; Rodio, Angelo; Squeo, Maria Rosaria; Corsi, Loretta; Quattrini, Filippo Maria; Fattorini, Luigi; Bernardi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This research on "America's Cup" grinders investigated the effects of a specific eight-week long-arm cranking ergometer (ACE) training on upper body (UB) aerobic fitness (ventilatory threshold - Tvent, respiratory compensation point- RCP, -oxygen uptake peak - VO₂peak) and high intensity working capacity. The training consisted of sessions carried out for 20-30 mins, three times per week, at an intensity between the UB-Tvent and UB-RCP, and replaced part of a typical lower limb aerobic training whilst maintaining the usual weekly schedule of callisthenics, resistance training and sailing. Seven sailors, including four grinders and three mastmen (age 30 ± 5.5 years, height 1.9 ± 0.04 m, body mass 102 ± 3.6 kg), were evaluated through both an ACE cardiopulmonary maximal exercise test (CPET) and an ACE all-out up to exhaustion exercise test, before and after the ACE training. UB aerobic fitness improved significantly: UB-VO₂peak increased from 4.29 ± 0.442 to 4.52 ± 0.522 l·min(-1) (6.4 ± 3.66%), VO₂ at UB-Tvent from 2.42 ± 0.282 to 2.97 ± 0.328 l·min(-1) (22.8 ± 5.09%) and VO₂ at UB-RCP from 3.25 ± 0.402 to 3.75 ± 0.352 l·min(-1) (16.1 ± 10.83%). Peak power at the ACE CPET increased from 351 ± 27.5 to 387 ± 33.5 W (10.5 ± 6.93%). The all-out test total mechanical work increased from 28.9 ± 2.35 to 40.1 ± 3.76 kJ (72.1 ± 4.67%). In conclusion, a high intensity aerobic ACE training can be effective in improving grinding performance by increasing UB aerobic fitness and all-out working capacity. PMID:25357134

  5. Anaerobic digestion of dairy cattle manure autoheated by aerobic pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Achkari-Begdouri, A.

    1989-01-01

    A novel way to heat anaerobic digesters was investigated. Dairy cattle manure was autoheated by an aerobic pretreatment process and then fed to the anaerobic digester. Important physical properties of the dairy cattle manure were determined. These included bulk density, specific heat, thermal conductivity and the rheological properties; consistency coefficient, behavior index and apparent viscosity. These parameters were used to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficients, and to estimate the heat losses from the aerobic reactor to the outside environment. The total energy balance of the aerobic treatment system was then established. An optimization study of the main parameters influencing the autoheating process showed that the total solids, the air flow rate and the stirring speed for operation of the aerobic pretreatment should be approximately 7%, 70 L/H and 1,400 rpm respectively. Temperatures as high as 65C were reached in 40 hours of aerobic treatment. At the above recommended levels of total solids, the air flow rate and the stirring speed, there was little difference in the energy requirements for heating the influent by aeration and heating the influent by a conventional heating system. In addition to the temperature increase, the aerobic pretreatment assisted in balancing the anaerobic digestion process and increased the methanogenesis of the dairy cattle manure. Despite the 8% decomposition of organic matter that occurred during the aerobic pretreatment process, methane production of the digester started with the aerobically heated manure was significantly higher (at least 20% higher) than of the digester started with conventionally heated manure. The aerobic system successfully autoheated the dairy cattle manure with an energy cost equal to that of conventionally heated influent.

  6. Aerobic exercise training increases circulating IGFBP-1 concentration, but does not attenuate the reduction in circulating IGFBP-1 after a high-fat meal

    PubMed Central

    Prior, Steven J.; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Brandauer, Josef; Weiss, Edward P.; Hagberg, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) has metabolic effects throughout the body and its expression is regulated in part by insulin. Circulating IGFBP-1 predicts development of cardiometabolic diseases in longitudinal studies and low IGFBP-1 concentrations are associated with insulin resistance and consumption of a high-fat diet. Because of the favorable metabolic effects of regular aerobic exercise, we hypothesized that aerobic exercise training would increase plasma IGFBP-1 concentrations and attenuate the reduction in IGFBP-1 after a high-fat meal. Methods Ten overweight (BMI=28.7±0.9kg/m2), older (61±2yr) men and women underwent high-fat feeding and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) at baseline and after 6 months of aerobic exercise training. Results In response to aerobic exercise training, subjects increased cardiorespiratory fitness 13% (p<0.05) and insulin sensitivity index 28% (p<0.05). Basal plasma concentrations of IGFBP-1 increased 41% after aerobic exercise training (p<0.05). The insulin response to an OGTT was a significant predictor of fasting plasma IGFBP-1 concentrations at baseline and after exercise training (p=0.02). In response to the high-fat meal at baseline, plasma IGFBP-1 concentrations decreased 58% (p<0.001); a 61% decrease to similar postprandial concentrations was observed after exercise training (p<0.001). Plasma insulin response to the high-fat meal was inversely associated with postprandial IGFBP-1 concentrations at baseline and after exercise training (p=0.06 and p<0.05, respectively). Conclusion While aerobic exercise training did not attenuate the response to a high-fat meal, the increase in IGFBP-1 concentrations after exercise training may be one mechanism by which exercise reduces risk for cardiometabolic diseases in older adults. PMID:21872284

  7. Evaluation of Biodegradability of Waste Before and After Aerobic Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchowska-Kisielewicz, Monika; Jędrczak, Andrzej; Sadecka, Zofia

    2014-12-01

    An important advantage of use of an aerobic biostabilization of waste prior to its disposal is that it intensifies the decomposition of the organic fraction of waste into the form which is easily assimilable for methanogenic microorganisms involved in anaerobic decomposition of waste in the landfill. In this article it is presented the influence of aerobic pre-treatment of waste as well as leachate recirculation on susceptibility to biodegradation of waste in anaerobic laboratory reactors. The research has shown that in the reactor with aerobically treated waste stabilized with recilculation conversion of the organic carbon into the methane is about 45% higher than in the reactor with untreated waste stabilized without recirculation.

  8. Considerations in prescribing preflight aerobic exercise for astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Mary Anne Bassett

    1987-01-01

    The physiological effects of prolonged exposure to weightlessness are discussed together with the effects of aerobic exercise on human characteristics affected by weightlessness. It is noted that, although early data on orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight led to a belief that a high level of aerobic fitness for astronauts was detrimental to orthostatic tolerance on return to earth, most of the data available today do not suport this contention. Aerobic fitness was found to be beneficial to cardiovascular function and to mental performance; therefore, it may be important in performing extravehicular activities during flight.

  9. Heritability of aerobic power of individuals in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alonso, L; Souza, Ec; Oliveira, Mv; do Nascimento, Lfe; Dantas, Pms

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic and environmental contribution to variation in aerobic power in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins. The sample consisted of 20 MZ individuals (12 females and 8 males) and 16 DZ individuals (12 females and 4 males), aged from 8 to 26 years, residents in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte. The twins were assessed by a multistage fitness test. The rate of heritability found for aerobic power was 77%. Based on the results, the estimated heritability was largely responsible for the differences in aerobic power. This implies that such measures are under strong genetic influence.

  10. Skills Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canter, Patricia; And Others

    The services of the Living Skills Center for the Visually Handicapped, a habilitative service for blind young adults, are described. It is explained that the Center houses its participants in their own apartments in a large complex and has served over 70 young people in 4 years. The evaluation section describes such assessment instruments as an…

  11. A Longitudinal Study of a 5th Grade Science Curriculum Based on the 5E Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Timothy P.; Schroeder, Carolyn; Tolson, Homer; Huang, Tse-Yang; Williams, Omah M.

    2014-01-01

    The Center for Mathematics and Science Education at Texas A&M University contracted with Region 4 Education Service Center (ESC) and a large, diverse school district to conduct a longitudinal study from 2005-2009. The state achievement test scores of 5th graders who were taught using a Grade 5 science textbook designed by Region 4 ESC were…

  12. Strategies for Longitudinal Analysis of the Career Paths of Beginning Teachers: Results from the First through Fourth Waves of the 2007-08 Beginning Teacher Longitudinal Study. Research and Development Report. NCES 2013-336

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Lucinda; Brauen, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    To learn more about the early career patterns of beginning teachers, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) of the Institute of Education Sciences within the U.S. Department of Education undertook the Beginning Teacher Longitudinal Study (BTLS). The ultimate purpose of this report is to develop a strategy for the longitudinal analysis…

  13. Issues of Health, Appearance and Physical Activity in Aerobic Classes for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Abundo, Michelle Lee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore what appearance-focused messages were conveyed by aerobic instructors in aerobic classes for women. This qualitative research was influenced by the concept of wellness and how feminist pedagogy can be applied to promote individuals' well-being in aerobic classes. The practices of five aerobic instructors…

  14. Testing a Longitudinal Model of the Relationships among High Risk Youths' Drug Sales, Drug Use and Participation in Index Crimes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Wothke, Werner; Seeberger, William; Shemwell, Marina; Pacheco, Kimberly; Rollie, Matthew; Schmeidler, James; Livingston, Stephen; Hartsfield, Amy

    2002-01-01

    Baseline, one-year and two-year follow-up interviews were obtained from 164 arrested youths processed at a juvenile assessment center in a prospective longitudinal study. A structural equation model that included cross-sectional and longitudinal associations among drug (alcohol and marijuana), drug sales and index offenses was supported by the…

  15. The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972: Annotated Bibliography of Studies, 1980-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maline, Mindi S., Comp.

    The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS-72) is the "grandmother" of the longitudinal studies designed and conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics, and is probably the richest archive ever assembled on a generation of Americans. Participants were selected as high school seniors in 1972 and were…

  16. High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09): Base-Year Data File Documentation. NCES 2011-328

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; Pratt, Daniel J.; Herget, Deborah R.; Burns, Laura J.; Dever, Jill A.; Ottem, Randolph; Rogers, James E.; Jin, Ying; Leinwand, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) is the fifth in a series of National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) secondary longitudinal studies. The core research questions for HSLS:09 explore secondary to postsecondary transition plans and the evolution of those plans; the paths into and out of science, technology, engineering,…

  17. Prediction of Maximum Aerobic Power in Untrained Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolgener, Forrest A.

    1978-01-01

    The author presents an equation for predicting maximum aerobic power in untrained females from values of percent body fat, weight, and submaximal values of heart rate, respiratory quotient, and expired gas. (MJB)

  18. Characteristics of aerobic granulation at mesophilic temperatures in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Cui, Fenghao; Park, Seyong; Kim, Moonil

    2014-01-01

    Compact and structurally stable aerobic granules were developed in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) at mesophilic temperatures (35°C). The morphological, biological and chemical characteristics of the aerobic granulation were investigated and a theoretical granulation mechanism was proposed according to the results of the investigation. The mature aerobic granules had compact structure, small size (mean diameter of 0.24 mm), excellent settleability and diverse microbial structures, and were effective for the removal of organics and nitrification. The growth kinetics demonstrated that the biomass growth depended on coexistence and interactions between heterotrophs and autotrophs in the granules. The functions of heterotrophs and autotrophs created a compact and secure layer on the outside of the granules, protecting the inside sludge containing environmentally sensitive and slow growing microorganisms. The mechanism and the reactor performance may promise feasibility and efficiency for treating industry effluents at mesophilic temperatures using aerobic granulation. PMID:24211486

  19. Mental Aerobics: Exercises for the Mind in Later Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paggi, Kay; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Reports observations of the use of mental aerobics with 48 adults whose median age was 70. Provides examples of the group puzzles and logic, math, and word problems used to enhance cognitive functioning and creative thinking. (SK)

  20. Saline storage of aerobic granules and subsequent reactivation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chunli; Lee, Duu-Jong; Yang, Xue; Wang, Yayi; Lin, Lin

    2014-11-01

    Loss of structural stability and bioactivity during long-term storage and operation is primary challenge to field applications of aerobic granular processes. This study for the first time stored aerobic granules in 5%w/w NaCl solution at 4°C for 187d. The stored granules were then successfully reactivated and used for 85d in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) and continuous-flow reactors (CFR) at varying levels of chemical oxygen demand (COD). High-throughput sequencing results reveal that Thauera sp., Paracoccus sp., and Nitrosomonas sp. were the predominant in the stored aerobic granules, and Pseudoxanthomonas sp. accumulated during the reactivation process. Saline storage, in which cells are in an unculturable state by saline stress, is a promising storage process for aerobic granules. PMID:25270079

  1. Enhanced aerobic nitrifying granulation by static magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Hua; Diao, Mu-He; Yang, Ying; Shi, Yi-Jing; Gao, Ming-Ming; Wang, Shu-Guang

    2012-04-01

    One of the main challenging issues for aerobic nitrifying granules in treating high strength ammonia wastewater is the long granulation time required for activated sludge to transform into aerobic granules. The present study provides a novel strategy for enhancing aerobic nitrifying granulation by applying an intensity of 48.0mT static magnetic field. The element analysis showed that the applied magnetic field could promote the accumulation of iron compounds in the sludge. And then the aggregation of iron decreased the full granulation time from 41 to 25days by enhancing the setting properties of granules and stimulating the secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Long-term, cycle experiments and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) analysis proved that an intensity of 48.0mT magnetic field could enhance the activities and growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). These findings suggest that magnetic field is helpful and reliable for accelerating the aerobic nitrifying granulation.

  2. [Aerobic microbial degradation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers].

    PubMed

    Ding, Juan; Zhou, Juan; Jiang, Wei-Ying; Gao, Shi-Xiang

    2008-11-01

    The biodegradation of 4, 4'-dibromodipheny ether (BDE15) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) by white rot fungi under aerobic conditions was studied. Effects of non-ionic surfactant Tween 80 and beta-cyclodextrin as solubilizers on the apparent solubilities and biodegradation rates of BDE15 and BDE209 were also evaluated. The results showed that both BDE15 and BDE209 were efficiently degraded by white rot fungi. The degradation rates were 43.0% and 62.5% for BDE209 and BDE15, respectively, after 10 d incubation. The degradation of BDE209 was greatly enhanced by addition of Tween 80 (< or = 700 mg/L) and beta-cyclodextrin, which may own to their solubilization effects on BDE209. However, Tween 80 at a high concentration (900 mg/L) would restrain the fungal growth, thereby decrease the degradation of BDE209. Addition of Tween 80 and beta-cyclodextrin exhibited some negative effects on the degradation of BDE15, which may due to decreased concentration of free BDE15 in water solution resulted from inclusion function of Tween 80 micelles and beta-cyclodextrin cavity, although the apparent solubility of BDE15 was drastically increased by both of them. PMID:19186824

  3. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wolcott, Abraham; Schiros, Theanne; Trusheim, Matthew E.; Chen, Edward H.; Nordlund, Dennis; Diaz, Rosa E.; Gaaton, Ophir; Englund, Dirk; Owen, Jonathan S.

    2014-10-27

    Here we investigate the aerobic oxidation of high-pressure, high-temperature nanodiamonds (5–50 nm dimensions) using a combination of carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption, wavelength-dependent X-ray photoelectron, and vibrational spectroscopies. Oxidation at 575 °C for 2 h eliminates graphitic carbon contamination (>98%) and produces nanocrystals with hydroxyl functionalized surfaces as well as a minor component (<5%) of carboxylic anhydrides. The low graphitic carbon content and the high crystallinity of HPHT are evident from Raman spectra acquired using visible wavelength excitation (λexcit = 633 nm) as well as carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectra where the signature of a core–hole exciton is observed. Both spectroscopic features are similar to those of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond but differ significantly from the spectra of detonation nanodiamond. Lastly, we discuss the importance of these findings to the functionalization of nanodiamond surfaces for biological labeling applications.

  4. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    DOE PAGES

    Wolcott, Abraham; Schiros, Theanne; Trusheim, Matthew E.; Chen, Edward H.; Nordlund, Dennis; Diaz, Rosa E.; Gaaton, Ophir; Englund, Dirk; Owen, Jonathan S.

    2014-10-27

    Here we investigate the aerobic oxidation of high-pressure, high-temperature nanodiamonds (5–50 nm dimensions) using a combination of carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption, wavelength-dependent X-ray photoelectron, and vibrational spectroscopies. Oxidation at 575 °C for 2 h eliminates graphitic carbon contamination (>98%) and produces nanocrystals with hydroxyl functionalized surfaces as well as a minor component (<5%) of carboxylic anhydrides. The low graphitic carbon content and the high crystallinity of HPHT are evident from Raman spectra acquired using visible wavelength excitation (λexcit = 633 nm) as well as carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectra where the signature of a core–hole exciton is observed.more » Both spectroscopic features are similar to those of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond but differ significantly from the spectra of detonation nanodiamond. Lastly, we discuss the importance of these findings to the functionalization of nanodiamond surfaces for biological labeling applications.« less

  5. Dancing the aerobics ''hearing loss'' choreography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Beatriz M.; Carvalho, Antonio P. O.; Gallagher, Sergio

    2002-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of gymnasiums' acoustic problems when used for aerobics exercises classes (and similar) with loud noise levels of amplified music. This type of gymnasium is usually a highly reverberant space, which is a consequence of a large volume surrounded by hard surfaces. A sample of five schools in Portugal was chosen for this survey. Noise levels in each room were measured using a precision sound level meter, and analyzed to calculate the standardized daily personal noise exposure levels (LEP,d). LEP,d values from 79 to 91 dB(A) were found to be typical values in this type of room, inducing a health risk for its occupants. The reverberation time (RT) values were also measured and compared with some European legal requirements (Portugal, France, and Belgium) for nearly similar situations. RT values (1 kHz) from 0.9 s to 2.8 s were found. These reverberation time values clearly differentiate between good and acoustically inadequate rooms. Some noise level and RT limits for this type of environment are given and suggestions for the improvement of the acoustical environment are shown. Significant reductions in reverberation time values and noise levels can be obtained by simple measures.

  6. Aerobic training in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Nsenga, A L; Shephard, R J; Ahmaidi, S; Ahmadi, S

    2013-06-01

    Rehabilitation is a major goal for children with cerebral palsy, although the potential to enhance cardio-respiratory fitness in such individuals remains unclear. This study thus compared current cardio-respiratory status between children with cerebral palsy and able-bodied children, and examined the ability to enhance the cardio-respiratory fitness of children with cerebral palsy by cycle ergometer training. 10 children with cerebral palsy (Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I and II) participated in thrice-weekly 30 min cycle ergometer training sessions for 8 weeks (mean age: 14.2±1.9 yrs). 10 additional subjects with cerebral palsy (mean age: 14.2±1.8 yrs) and 10 able-bodied subjects (mean age: 14.1±2.1 yrs) served as controls, undertaking no training. All subjects undertook a progressive cycle ergometer test of cardio-respiratory fitness at the beginning and end of the 8-week period. Cardio-respiratory parameters [oxygen intake V˙O2), ventilation V ˙ E) and heart rate (HR)] during testing were measured by Cosmed K4 b gas analyzer. The children with cerebral palsy who engaged in aerobic training improved their peak oxygen consumption, heart rate and ventilation significantly (p<0.05) and they also showed a non-significant trend to increased peak power output. In conclusion, children with cerebral palsy can benefit significantly from cardio-respiratory training, and such training should be included in rehabilitation programs.

  7. Late Archean rise of aerobic microbial ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Freeman, Katherine H.

    2006-01-01

    We report the 13C content of preserved organic carbon for a 150 million-year section of late Archean shallow and deepwater sediments of the Hamersley Province in Western Australia. We find a 13C enrichment of ≈10‰ in organic carbon of post-2.7-billion-year-old shallow-water carbonate rocks relative to deepwater sediments. The shallow-water organic-carbon 13C content has a 29‰ range in values (−57 to −28‰), and it contrasts with the less variable but strongly 13C-depleted (−40 to −45‰) organic carbon in deepwater sediments. The 13C enrichment likely represents microbial habitats not as strongly influenced by assimilation of methane or other 13C-depleted substrates. We propose that continued oxidation of shallow settings favored the expansion of aerobic ecosystems and respiring organisms, and, as a result, isotopic signatures of preserved organic carbon in shallow settings approached that of photosynthetic biomass. Facies analysis of published carbon-isotopic records indicates that the Hamersley shallow-water signal may be representative of a late Archean global signature and that it preceded a similar, but delayed, 13C enrichment of deepwater deposits. The data suggest that a global-scale expansion of oxygenated habitats accompanied the progression away from anaerobic ecosystems toward respiring microbial communities fueled by oxygenic photosynthesis before the oxygenation of the atmosphere after 2.45 billion years ago. PMID:17043234

  8. Mathematical modelling of autothermal thermophilic aerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Gomez, J; de Gracia, M; Ayesa, E; Garcia-Heras, J L

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents a new mathematical model for Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digesters. The reactor has been modelled as two completely mixed volumes to separately predict the behaviour of the liquid and gaseous phases as well as the interrelation between them. The model includes biochemical transformations based on the standard Activated Sludge Models of IWA, as well as physico-chemical transformations associated with the chemical equilibria and the mass transfer between the liquid and the gaseous phases similar to those proposed in the ADM1 of IWA. An energy balance has also been included in the model in order to predict the temperature of the system. This thermal balance takes into account all those biochemical and physico-chemical transformations that entail the most relevant heat interchanges. Reactor performance has been explored by simulation in two different scenarios: in the first where it acts as the initial stage in a Dual system, and in the second where it acts as a single-stage treatment. Each scenario enabled the identification of the relevance of the different parameters. PMID:17258787

  9. Senior Centers

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... something many older adults would like to do as long as they can. Senior centers, adult day care, transportation, ... adults who live independently can go to find a variety of social and recreational activities. [Karen Albers] ...

  10. The mechanistic basis of aerobic performance variation in red junglefowl.

    PubMed

    Hammond, K A; Chappell, M A; Cardullo, R A; Lin, R; Johnsen, T S

    2000-07-01

    We examined aerobic performance, organ and muscle mass and enzymatic activity in red junglefowl (Gallus gallus). We tested three models of performance limitation (central limits, peripheral limits, symmorphosis) and explored relationships between basal metabolic rate (BMR), aerobic capacity ( V (O2max)) and social rank. Males had a lower BMR, a higher V (O2max) and a greater aerobic scope than females. Females possessed larger peritoneal and reproductive organs, while males had larger hearts, lungs and leg muscles. In females, BMR was correlated with spleen mass and V (O2max) was correlated with hematocrit and large intestine mass. Male BMR was correlated with intestinal tract and lung mass, and V (O2max) was correlated with heart and pectoralis mass. Male citrate synthase activity averaged 57 % higher than that of females and was correlated with V (O2max) (this correlation was not significant in females). Female social status was not correlated with any variable, but male dominance was associated with higher aerobic scope, larger heart and lungs, smaller peritoneal organs and greater leg citrate synthase activity. We conclude that aerobic capacity is controlled by system-wide limitations (symmorphosis) in males, while in females it is controlled by central organs. In neither sex is elevated aerobic capacity associated with increased maintenance costs. PMID:10851122

  11. Nutrient Transformations in Soils Under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, P.; Lee, L.

    2003-12-01

    Poultry litter is most commonly land applied as a fertilizer for pastures. Soils vary according to landscape position and the biogeochemistry changes within the soils depending on the landscape position. This research focuses on nutrient speciation in aerobic and anaerobic environments. A 3.4 kg Ha-1 chicken litter application rate was used to determine the speciation of nutrients in these two environments. A 50 g sample of Ruston soil was placed in 250 mL centrifuge tubes and continuously stirred in anaerobic and aerobic environments. The Eh and pH were measured daily and a sample was collected at 0, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days. The Eh decreased from around 600 mV at day 0 to near 100 at day 2; whereas the aerobic sample had a decrease to around 450 mV. The pH increased from 6.5 to 7.0 in the anaerobic soil and from 6.5 to around 8.0 in the aerobic soil. The anaerobic soils had a rapid decrease in NO3- and a sharp increase in NH4+ to around 100 mg NH4+ kg-1 soil at day 7. The aerobic soil had an increase in NH4+ to 70 mg Nh4+ kg-1 soil at day 7 then decrease in NH4+ with a corresponding increase in NO3-. Both the anaerobic and aerobic soil had a rapid decrease in PO42- concentrations and remained low for 21 d.

  12. Aerobic microbial mineralization of dichloroethene as sole carbon substrate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.

    2000-01-01

    Microorganisms indigenous to the bed sediments of a black- water stream utilized 1,2-dichloroethene (1,2-DCE) as a sole carbon substrate for aerobic metabolism. Although no evidence of growth was observed in the minimal salts culture media used in this study, efficient aerobic microbial mineralization of 1,2-DCE as sole carbon substrate was maintained through three sequential transfers (107 final dilution) of the original environmental innoculum. These results indicate that 1,2-DCE can be utilized as a primary substrate to support microbial metabolism under aerobic conditions.Microorganisms indigenous to the bed sediments of a black-water stream utilized 1,2-dichloroethene (1,2-DCE) as a sole carbon substrate for aerobic metabolism. Although no evidence of growth was observed in the minimal salts culture media used in this study, efficient aerobic microbial mineralization of 1,2-DCE as sole carbon substrate was maintained through three sequential transfers (107 final dilution) of the original environmental innoculum. These results indicate that 1,2-DCE can be utilized as a primary substrate to support microbial metabolism under aerobic conditions.

  13. Sludge minimization using aerobic/anoxic treatment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Mines, R.O. Jr.; Kalch, R.S.

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate through a bench-scale study that using an aerobic/anoxic sequence to treat wastewater and biosolids could significantly reduce the production of biosolids (sludge). A bench-scale activated sludge reactor and anoxic digester were operated for approximately three months. The process train consisted of a completely-mixed aerobic reactor with wasting of biosolids to an anoxic digester for stabilization. The system was operated such that biomass produced in the aerobic activated sludge process was wasted to the anoxic digester; and biomass produced in the anoxic digester was wasted back to the activated sludge process. A synthetic wastewater consisting of bacto-peptone nutrient broth was fed to the liquid process train. Influent and effluent to the aerobic biological process train were analytically tested, as were the contents of mixed liquor in the aerobic reactor and anoxic digester. Overall removal efficiencies for the activated sludge process with regard to COD, TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, and alkalinity averaged 91, 89, 98, and 38%, respectively. The overall average sludge production for the aerobic/anoxic process was 24% less than the overall average sludge production from a conventional activated sludge bench-scale system fed the same substrate and operated under similar mean cell residence times.

  14. Enhanced selection of micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol degrading granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yuancai; Chen, Yuancai; Song, Wenzhe; Hu, Yongyou

    2014-09-15

    Column-type combined reactors were designed to cultivate micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1-0.2 mgL(-1)) over 39-day experimental period. Micro-aerobic granular had both anaerobic activity (SMA: 2.34 mMCH4/hg VSS) and aerobic activity (SOUR: 2.21 mMO2/hg VSS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that PCP was sequentially dechlorinated to TCP, DCP, and eventually to MCP. Methanogens were not directly involved in the dechlorination of PCP, but might played a vital role in stabilizing the overall structure of the granule sludge. For Eubacteria, the Shannon Index (2.09 in inoculated granular sludge) increased both in micro-aerobic granular sludge (2.61) and PCP-degradation granular sludge (2.55). However, for Archaea, it decreased from 2.53 to 1.85 and 1.84, respectively. Although the Shannon Index demonstrated slight difference between micro-aerobic granular sludge and PCP-degradation granular sludge, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated obvious variance of the microbial composition, revealing significant effect of micro-aerobic condition and PCP on microbial community. Furthermore, nucleotide sequencing indicated that the main microorganisms for PCP degradation might be related to Actinobacterium and Sphingomonas. These results provided insights into situ bioremediation of environments contaminated by PCP and had practical implications for the strategies of PCP degradation.

  15. Coastal Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The U.S. Geological Survey dedicated its new Center for Coastal Geology June 12 at the University of South Florida in St. Petersburg. Robert Halley leads the staff of nine USGS scientists studying coastal erosion and pollution and underwater mineral resources in cooperation with the university's Marine Science Department. Current research is on erosion along Lake Michigan and the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The number of USGS scientists at the center should increase to 30 over five years.

  16. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Fitness and Walking Related Outcomes in Ambulatory Individuals with Chronic Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    DiPiro, Nicole D.; Embry, Aaron E.; Fritz, Stacy L.; Middleton, Addie; Krause, James S.; Gregory, Chris M.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Single group, pretest-posttest study. Objectives To determine the effects of a non-task-specific, voluntary, progressive aerobic exercise training (AET) intervention on fitness and walking-related outcomes in ambulatory adults with chronic motor-incomplete SCI. Setting Rehabilitation research center. Methods Ten ambulatory individuals (50% female; 57.94 ± 9.33 years old; 11.11 ± 9.66 years post injury) completed voluntary, progressive moderate-to-vigorous intensity AET on a recumbent stepper three days per week for six weeks. The primary outcome measures were aerobic capacity (VO2peak) and self-selected overground walking speed (OGWS). Secondary outcome measures included: walking economy, six-minute walk test (6MWT), daily step counts, Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI-II), Dynamic Gait Index (DGI), and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Results Nine participants completed all testing and training. Significant improvements in aerobic capacity (P=0.011), OGWS (P=0.023), the percentage of VO2peak utilized while walking at self-selected speed (P=0.03), and daily step counts (P=0.025) resulted following training. Conclusions The results indicate that total-body, voluntary, progressive AET is safe, feasible, and effective for improving aerobic capacity, walking speed, and select walking-related outcomes in an exclusively ambulatory SCI sample. This study suggests the potential for non-task-specific aerobic exercise to improve walking following incomplete SCI and builds a foundation for further investigation aimed at the development of exercise based rehabilitation strategies to target functionally limiting impairments in ambulatory individuals with chronic SCI. PMID:26666508

  17. Exercise and depressive symptoms: a comparison of aerobic and resistance exercise effects on emotional and physical function in older persons with high and low depressive symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Penninx, Brenda W J H; Rejeski, W Jack; Pandya, Jasma; Miller, Michael E; Di Bari, Mauro; Applegate, William B; Pahor, Marco

    2002-03-01

    This study examines and compares the effect of aerobic and resistance exercise on emotional and physical function among older persons with initially high or low depressive symptomatology. Data are from the Fitness, Arthritis and Seniors Trial, a trial among 439 persons 60 years or older with knee osteoarthritis randomized to health education (control), resistance exercise, or aerobic exercise groups. Depressive symptoms (assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies--Depression scale) and physical function (disability, walking speed, and pain) were assessed at baseline and after 3, 9, and 18 months. Compared with results for the control group, aerobic exercise significantly lowered depressive symptoms over time. No such effect was observed for resistance exercise. The reduction in depressive symptoms with aerobic exercise was found both among the 98 participants with initially high depressive symptomatology and among the 340 participants with initially low depressive symptomatology and was the strongest for the most compliant persons. Aerobic and resistance exercise significantly reduced disability and pain and increased walking speed both, and to an equal extent, in persons with high depressive symptomatology and persons with low depressive symptomatology.

  18. Aerobic and anaerobic performances in tethered swimming.

    PubMed

    Papoti, M; da Silva, A S R; Araujo, G G; Santiago, V; Martins, L E B; Cunha, S A; Gobatto, C A

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the critical force (CritF) and anaerobic impulse capacity (AIC) - estimated by tethered swimming - reflect the aerobic and anaerobic performance of swimmers. 12 swimmers performed incremental test in tethered swimming to determine lactate anaerobic threshold (AnTLAC), maximal oxygen uptake ( ˙VO2MAX) and force associated with the ˙VO2MAX (i ˙VO2MAX). The swimmers performed 4 exhaustive (tlim) exercise bouts (100, 110, 120 and 130% i ˙VO2MAX) to compute the CritF and AIC (F vs. 1/tlim model); a 30-s all-out tethered swimming bout to determine their anaerobic fitness (ANF); 100, 200, and 400-m time-trials to determine the swimming performance. CritF (57.09±11.77 N) did not differ from AnTLAC (53.96±11.52 N, (P>0.05) but was significantly lower than i ˙VO2MAX (71.02±8.36 N). In addition, CritF presented significant correlation with AnTLAC (r=0.76; P<0.05) and i ˙VO2MAX (r=0.74; P<0.05). On the other hand, AIC (286.19±54.91 N.s) and ANF (116.10±13.66 N) were significantly correlated (r=0.81, p<0.05). In addition, CritF and AIC presented significant correlations with all time-trials. In summary, this study demonstrates that CritF and AIC can be used to evaluate AnTLAC and ANF and to predict 100, 200, and 400-m free swimming.

  19. Longitudinal dynamics in storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    The single-particle equations of motion are derived for charged particles in a storage ring. Longitudinal space charge is included in the potential assuming an infinitely conducting circular beam pipe with a distributed inductance. The framework uses Hamilton's equations with the canonical variables phi and W. The Twiss parameters for longitudinal motion are also defined for the small amplitude synchrotron oscillations. The space-charge Hamiltonian is calculated for both parabolic bunches and ''matched'' bunches. A brief analysis including second-harmonic rf contributions is also given. The final sections supply calculations of dynamical quantities and particle simulations with the space-charge effects neglected.

  20. Longitudinal instability of the forearm.

    PubMed

    Phadnis, J; Watts, A C

    2016-10-01

    The Essex Lopresti lesion is a rare triad of injury to the radial head, interosseous membrane of the forearm and distal radio-ulnar joint, which results in longitudinal instability of the radius. If unrecognized this leads to chronic pain and disability which is difficult to salvage. Early recognition and appropriate treatment is therefore desirable to prevent long-term problems. The aim of this article is to review the pathoanatomy of longitudinal radius instability and use the existing literature and authors' experience to provide recommendations for recognition and treatment of acute and chronic forearm instability, including description of the author's technique for interosseous membrane reconstruction. PMID:27628434

  1. Diversity and abundance of aerobic and anaerobic methane oxidizers at the Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano, Barents Sea.

    PubMed

    Lösekann, Tina; Knittel, Katrin; Nadalig, Thierry; Fuchs, Bernhard; Niemann, Helge; Boetius, Antje; Amann, Rudolf

    2007-05-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes are formed by expulsions of mud, fluids, and gases from deeply buried subsurface sources. They are highly reduced benthic habitats and often associated with intensive methane seepage. In this study, the microbial diversity and community structure in methane-rich sediments of the Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV) were investigated by comparative sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes and fluorescence in situ hybridization. In the active volcano center, which has a diameter of about 500 m, the main methane-consuming process was bacterial aerobic oxidation. In this zone, aerobic methanotrophs belonging to three bacterial clades closely affiliated with Methylobacter and Methylophaga species accounted for 56%+/-8% of total cells. In sediments below Beggiatoa mats encircling the center of the HMMV, methanotrophic archaea of the ANME-3 clade dominated the zone of anaerobic methane oxidation. ANME-3 archaea form cell aggregates mostly associated with sulfate-reducing bacteria of the Desulfobulbus (DBB) branch. These ANME-3/DBB aggregates were highly abundant and accounted for up to 94%+/-2% of total microbial biomass at 2 to 3 cm below the surface. ANME-3/DBB aggregates could be further enriched by flow cytometry to identify their phylogenetic relationships. At the outer rim of the mud volcano, the seafloor was colonized by tubeworms (Siboglinidae, formerly known as Pogonophora). Here, both aerobic and anaerobic methane oxidizers were found, however, in lower abundances. The level of microbial diversity at this site was higher than that at the central and Beggiatoa species-covered part of the HMMV. Analysis of methyl-coenzyme M-reductase alpha subunit (mcrA) genes showed a strong dominance of a novel lineage, mcrA group f, which could be assigned to ANME-3 archaea. Our results further support the hypothesis of Niemann et al. (54), that high methane availability and different fluid flow regimens at the HMMV provide distinct niches for aerobic and

  2. Diversity and Abundance of Aerobic and Anaerobic Methane Oxidizers at the Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano, Barents Sea▿

    PubMed Central

    Lösekann, Tina; Knittel, Katrin; Nadalig, Thierry; Fuchs, Bernhard; Niemann, Helge; Boetius, Antje; Amann, Rudolf

    2007-01-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes are formed by expulsions of mud, fluids, and gases from deeply buried subsurface sources. They are highly reduced benthic habitats and often associated with intensive methane seepage. In this study, the microbial diversity and community structure in methane-rich sediments of the Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV) were investigated by comparative sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes and fluorescence in situ hybridization. In the active volcano center, which has a diameter of about 500 m, the main methane-consuming process was bacterial aerobic oxidation. In this zone, aerobic methanotrophs belonging to three bacterial clades closely affiliated with Methylobacter and Methylophaga species accounted for 56% ± 8% of total cells. In sediments below Beggiatoa mats encircling the center of the HMMV, methanotrophic archaea of the ANME-3 clade dominated the zone of anaerobic methane oxidation. ANME-3 archaea form cell aggregates mostly associated with sulfate-reducing bacteria of the Desulfobulbus (DBB) branch. These ANME-3/DBB aggregates were highly abundant and accounted for up to 94% ± 2% of total microbial biomass at 2 to 3 cm below the surface. ANME-3/DBB aggregates could be further enriched by flow cytometry to identify their phylogenetic relationships. At the outer rim of the mud volcano, the seafloor was colonized by tubeworms (Siboglinidae, formerly known as Pogonophora). Here, both aerobic and anaerobic methane oxidizers were found, however, in lower abundances. The level of microbial diversity at this site was higher than that at the central and Beggiatoa species-covered part of the HMMV. Analysis of methyl-coenzyme M-reductase alpha subunit (mcrA) genes showed a strong dominance of a novel lineage, mcrA group f, which could be assigned to ANME-3 archaea. Our results further support the hypothesis of Niemann et al. (54), that high methane availability and different fluid flow regimens at the HMMV provide distinct niches for aerobic and

  3. Field tests for evaluating the aerobic work capacity of firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Gavhed, Désirée; Malm, Christer

    2013-01-01

    Working as a firefighter is physically strenuous, and a high level of physical fitness increases a firefighter's ability to cope with the physical stress of their profession. Direct measurements of aerobic capacity, however, are often complicated, time consuming, and expensive. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlations between direct (laboratory) and indirect (field) aerobic capacity tests with common and physically demanding firefighting tasks. The second aim was to give recommendations as to which field tests may be the most useful for evaluating firefighters' aerobic work capacity. A total of 38 subjects (26 men and 12 women) were included. Two aerobic capacity tests, six field tests, and seven firefighting tasks were performed. Lactate threshold and onset of blood lactate accumulation were found to be correlated to the performance of one work task (r(s) = -0.65 and -0.63, p<0.01, respectively). Absolute (mL · min(-1)) and relative (mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)) maximal aerobic capacity was correlated to all but one of the work tasks (r(s) = -0.79 to 0.55 and -0.74 to 0.47, p<0.01, respectively). Aerobic capacity is important for firefighters' work performance, and we have concluded that the time to row 500 m, the time to run 3000 m relative to body weight (s · kg(-1)), and the percent of maximal heart rate achieved during treadmill walking are the most valid field tests for evaluating a firefighter's aerobic work capacity. PMID:23844153

  4. The aerobic activity of metronidazole against anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dione, Niokhor; Khelaifia, Saber; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Raoult, Didier

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the aerobic growth of strictly anaerobic bacteria was demonstrated using antioxidants. Metronidazole is frequently used to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacteria; however, to date its antibacterial activity was only tested in anaerobic conditions. Here we aerobically tested using antioxidants the in vitro activities of metronidazole, gentamicin, doxycycline and imipenem against 10 common anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. In vitro susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by Etest. Aerobic culture of the bacteria was performed at 37°C using Schaedler agar medium supplemented with 1mg/mL ascorbic acid and 0.1mg/mL glutathione; the pH was adjusted to 7.2 by 10M KOH. Growth of anaerobic bacteria cultured aerobically using antioxidants was inhibited by metronidazole after 72h of incubation at 37°C, with a mean inhibition diameter of 37.76mm and an MIC of 1μg/mL; however, strains remained non-sensitive to gentamicin. No growth inhibition of aerobic bacteria was observed after 24h of incubation at 37°C with metronidazole; however, inhibition was observed with doxycycline and imipenem used as controls. These results indicate that bacterial sensitivity to metronidazole is not related to the oxygen tension but is a result of the sensitivity of the micro-organism. In future, both culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing of strictly anaerobic bacteria will be performed in an aerobic atmosphere using antioxidants in clinical microbiology laboratories.

  5. Relation between aerobic fitness and brain structures in amnestic mild cognitive impairment elderly.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Camila Vieira Ligo; Rezende, Thiago J R; Weiler, Marina; Nogueira, Mateus H; Campos, Brunno M; Pegoraro, Luiz F L; Vicentini, Jessica E; Scriptore, Gabriela; Cendes, Fernando; Balthazar, Marcio L F

    2016-06-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is a clinical condition, with high risk to develop Alzheimer's disease. Physical exercise may have positive effect on cognition and brain structure in older adults. However, it is still under research whether these influences are true on aMCI subjects with low Ab_42 and high total tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is considered a biomarker for AD. Therefore, we aimed to investigate a possible relation between aerobic fitness (AF) and gray matter (GM) volume and AF and white matter (WM) integrity in aMCI with a CSF biomarker. Twenty-two participants with aMCI acquired the images on a 3.0-T MRI. AF was assessed by a graded exercise test on a treadmill. Voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistic methods were used to analyze the GM volume and WM microstructural integrity, respectively. We correlated AF and GM volume and WM integrity in aMCI (p < 0.05, FWE corrected, cluster with at least five voxels). There was a positive relation between AF and GM volume mostly in frontal superior cortex. In WM integrity, AF was positively correlated with fractional anisotropy and negatively correlated with mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity, all in the same tracts that interconnect frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital areas (longitudinal fasciculus, fronto-occipital fasciculus, and corpus callosum). These results suggest that aerobic fitness may have a positive influence on protection of brain even in aMCI CSF biomarker, a high-risk population to convert to AD. PMID:27106271

  6. Analysis of critically refracted longitudinal waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Ning; Bond, Leonard J.

    2015-03-01

    Fabrication processes, such as, welding, forging, and rolling can induce residual stresses in metals that will impact product performance and phenomena such as cracking and corrosion. To better manage residual stress tools are needed to map their distribution. The critically refracted ultrasonic longitudinal (LCR) wave is one such approach that has been used for residual stress characterization. It has been shown to be sensitive to stress and less sensitive to the effects of the texture of the material. Although the LCR wave is increasingly widely applied, the factors that influence the formation of the LCR beam are seldom discussed. This paper reports a numerical model used to investigate the transducers' parameters that can contribute to the directionality of the LCR wave and hence enable performance optimization when used for industrial applications. An orthogonal test method is used to study the transducer parameters which influence the LCR wave beams. This method provides a design tool that can be used to study and optimize multiple parameter experiments and it can identify which parameter or parameters are of most significance. The simulation of the sound field in a 2-D "water-steel" model is obtained using a Spatial Fourier Analysis method. The effects of incident angle, standoff, the aperture and the center frequency of the transducer were studied. Results show that the aperture of the transducer, the center frequency and the incident angle are the most important factors in controlling the directivity of the resulting LCR wave fields.

  7. Analysis of critically refracted longitudinal waves

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Ning Bond, Leonard J.

    2015-03-31

    Fabrication processes, such as, welding, forging, and rolling can induce residual stresses in metals that will impact product performance and phenomena such as cracking and corrosion. To better manage residual stress tools are needed to map their distribution. The critically refracted ultrasonic longitudinal (LCR) wave is one such approach that has been used for residual stress characterization. It has been shown to be sensitive to stress and less sensitive to the effects of the texture of the material. Although the LCR wave is increasingly widely applied, the factors that influence the formation of the LCR beam are seldom discussed. This paper reports a numerical model used to investigate the transducers' parameters that can contribute to the directionality of the LCR wave and hence enable performance optimization when used for industrial applications. An orthogonal test method is used to study the transducer parameters which influence the LCR wave beams. This method provides a design tool that can be used to study and optimize multiple parameter experiments and it can identify which parameter or parameters are of most significance. The simulation of the sound field in a 2-D 'water-steel' model is obtained using a Spatial Fourier Analysis method. The effects of incident angle, standoff, the aperture and the center frequency of the transducer were studied. Results show that the aperture of the transducer, the center frequency and the incident angle are the most important factors in controlling the directivity of the resulting LCR wave fields.

  8. Longitudinally-vibrating surgical microelectrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldstein, C.; Crawford, D.; Kawabus, E. W.

    1977-01-01

    Microelectrode attached to cone of loudspeaker imparting longitudinal vibrations, penetrates relatively tough tissue of arterial walls easier and with more precise depth control because dimpling is eliminated. Vibrating microelectrode has been successfully used to make accurate oxygen-content measurements in arterial walls.

  9. Longitudinal Studies of Spelling Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick

    Noting that proposed models of literacy development suggest that reading and writing mutually influence and grow from each other, this paper summarizes aspects of stage theories of literacy development and an integrative model, and considers how the model fared in empirical longitudinal tests. The paper begins with a summary of the modal aspects…

  10. Effect of aerobic training on plasma cytokines and soluble receptors in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis, in response to acute exercise.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Wellington Fabiano; Lacerda, Ana Cristina Rodrigues; Mendonça, Vanessa Amaral; Arrieiro, Arthur Nascimento; Fonseca, Sueli Ferreira; Amorim, Mateus Ramos; Rocha-Vieira, Etel; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Miranda, Aline Silva; Coimbra, Cândido Celso; Brito-Melo, Gustavo Eustáquio Alvim

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and soluble forms of the TNF-α receptor (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2) from plasma taken from the peripheral blood of elderly individuals presenting with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. These patients underwent aerobic treatment through the use of physical exercises. The study consisted of a longitudinal analysis of older individuals presenting clinical and radiographic diagnosis of knee OA that were submitted to 12 weeks of aerobic treatment. The individuals were evaluated during acute exercise or after chronic exercise. During acute exercise (walking slowly on the mat), blood samples of the patients were collected before, immediately after, and 30 min following the end of training. After chronic exercise (aerobic walking training, three times/week for 12 weeks), patient blood samples were obtained for comparison. Additionally, clinical and functional assessments (WOMAC test and 6-min walk) were performed at the end of all physical exercises. Plasma concentrations of cytokines and soluble receptors were measured by ELISA. Aerobic training increased the plasma concentration of sTNR1; however, it decreased the plasma concentration of sTNFR2, when compared with levels of resting patients. Acute exercise differentially affects the levels of sTNFR1 dependent on when the samples were taken, before and after aerobic training. However, the levels of sTNFR2 were not affected by training. For the population studied, we observed differences in the levels of sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 following acute and chronic exercise. Other additional factors, like the level of inactivity of the individual and the type of physical exercise that patients are exposed to, need to be considered as well. The variation in the levels of soluble receptors correlated with functional improvement; however, the inflammatory osteoarthritis markers (IL-6 and TNF-α) were unaffected by the walking exercises.

  11. Summary report on the aerobic degradation of diesel fuel and the degradation of toluene under aerobic, denitrifying and sulfate reducing conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Coyne, P.; Smith, G.

    1995-08-15

    This report contains a number of studies that were performed to better understand the technology of the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Topics of investigation include the following: diesel fuel degradation by Rhodococcus erythropolis; BTEX degradation by soil isolates; aerobic degradation of diesel fuel-respirometry; aerobic degradation of diesel fuel-shake culture; aerobic toluene degradation by A3; effect of HEPES, B1, and myo-inositol addition on the growth of A3; aerobic and anaerobic toluene degradation by contaminated soils; denitrifying bacteria MPNs; sulfate-reducing bacteria MPNs; and aerobic, DNB and SRB enrichments.

  12. Comparison of Aerobic and Anaerobic Biodegradation of Sugarcane Vinasse.

    PubMed

    Mota, V T; Araújo, T A; Amaral, M C S

    2015-07-01

    Vinasse is the main liquid waste from ethanol production, and it has a considerable pollution potential. Biological treatment is a promising alternative to reduce its organic load. The aim of this study was to analyze the biodegradation of sugarcane juice vinasse in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The content of carbohydrates, proteins and volatile fatty acids was evaluated. Vinasse samples showed a high biodegradability (>96.5 %) and low percentage of inert chemical oxygen demand (COD) (<3.2 %) in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The rates of substrate utilization were slightly higher in aerobic reactors, but COD stabilization occurred simultaneously in the anaerobic reactors, confirming its suitability for anaerobic digestion. Inert COD in anaerobic conditions was lower than in aerobic conditions. On the other hand, COD from metabolic products in the anaerobic reactors was higher than in the aerobic ones, indicating an increased release of soluble microbial products (SMPs) by anaerobic microorganisms. The results indicated that carbohydrates were satisfactorily degraded and protein-like substances were the major components remaining after biological degradation of vinasse. PMID:25957273

  13. Aerobic Denitrifying Bacteria That Produce Low Levels of Nitrous Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Takaya, Naoki; Catalan-Sakairi, Maria Antonina B.; Sakaguchi, Yasushi; Kato, Isao; Zhou, Zhemin; Shoun, Hirofumi

    2003-01-01

    Most denitrifiers produce nitrous oxide (N2O) instead of dinitrogen (N2) under aerobic conditions. We isolated and characterized novel aerobic denitrifiers that produce low levels of N2O under aerobic conditions. We monitored the denitrification activities of two of the isolates, strains TR2 and K50, in batch and continuous cultures. Both strains reduced nitrate (NO3−) to N2 at rates of 0.9 and 0.03 μmol min−1 unit of optical density at 540 nm−1 at dissolved oxygen (O2) (DO) concentrations of 39 and 38 μmol liter−1, respectively. At the same DO level, the typical denitrifier Pseudomonas stutzeri and the previously described aerobic denitrifier Paracoccus denitrificans did not produce N2 but evolved more than 10-fold more N2O than strains TR2 and K50 evolved. The isolates denitrified NO3− with concomitant consumption of O2. These results indicated that strains TR2 and K50 are aerobic denitrifiers. These two isolates were taxonomically placed in the β subclass of the class Proteobacteria and were identified as P. stutzeri TR2 and Pseudomonas sp. strain K50. These strains should be useful for future investigations of the mechanisms of denitrifying bacteria that regulate N2O emission, the single-stage process for nitrogen removal, and microbial N2O emission into the ecosystem. PMID:12788710

  14. Aerobic Activity in Prevention & Symptom Control of Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Semanik, Pamela; Chang, Rowland W.; Dunlop, Dorothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Almost 27 million US adults suffer from some form of osteoarthritis (OA). An epidemic of arthritis-associated disability is expected in the US over the next 2 decades, largely fueled by the aging population and the tremendous growth in the prevalence of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Regular physical activity (PA), particularly strengthening and aerobic activity, can reduce pain and improve function and health status among patients with knee and hip osteoarthritis. The focus of this review is to examine the impact of aerobic activity on OA progression and symptom control. In general, both strengthening and aerobic exercise are associated with improvements in pain, perceived physical function, and performance measures for those with lower limb OA; although comparisons of strengthening versus aerobic exercise on these outcomes is unusual. Structural disease progression in persons with established OA has been directly evaluated by a limited number of PA clinical trials in knee OA, but these protocols focused on strength training exclusively. In healthy subjects, it appears that overall PA is beneficial, rather than detrimental, to knee joint health. Possibly the most important reason for engaging in PA is to prevent obesity, which has independently been associated with many serious chronic diseases, including OA incidence and progression. More research is needed to determine the optimal types and dosing of aerobic conditioning. PMID:22632701

  15. [EPIDEMIOLOGICAL, CLINICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN WOMEN WITH AEROBIC VAGINITIS].

    PubMed

    Dermendjiev, T; Pehlivanov, B; Hadjieva, K; Stanev, S

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is an alterarion of the normal lactobacillic flora accompanied by signs of inflammation, presence of mainly aerobic microorganisms from intestinal commensals or other aerobic pathogens. Clinical symptoms may vary by type and intensity and are marked by a high tendency for recurrence and chronification. Inflammation and ulcerations in AV could increase the risk of contracting HIV or other sexually transmitted infections. The aim is to study some epidemiological, clinical and microbiological features of the aerobic vaginitis in patients of the specialized Obstetric and Gynecological Clinic in Plovdiv, Bulgaria. In a retrospective research 4687 vaginal smears have been gathered in Microbiological laboratory at "St. George" Hospital - Plovdiv. We used clinical, microbiological and statistical methods. Information processing is performed by variation, alternative, correlation and graphical analysis using specialized package SPSS v13.0. The overall prevalence rate of AV in the studied population is 11.77%. The levels of prevalence of AV in pregnant and non-pregnant women are respectively 13.08% and 4.34%. The highest frequency of AV is in the age group 21-30 years (32.3%). The results show a marked association between Escherichia coli and the cases of AV (p < 0.001). AV is a common cause of vaginal symptoms in patients of specialized ambulatory outpatient. One in ten women with vaginal complaints suffers from AV Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli are most often isolated aerobic microorganisms. PMID:26863788

  16. Aerobic activity in prevention and symptom control of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Semanik, Pamela A; Chang, Rowland W; Dunlop, Dorothy D

    2012-05-01

    Almost 27 million adults in the United States experience some form of osteoarthritis (OA). An epidemic of arthritis-associated disability is expected in the United States during the next 2 decades, largely fueled by the aging population and the tremendous growth in the prevalence of knee OA. Regular physical activity (PA), particularly strengthening and aerobic activity, can reduce pain and improve function and health status among patients with knee and hip OA. The focus of this review is on the impact of aerobic activity on the progression and symptom control of OA. In general, both strengthening and aerobic exercise are associated with improvements in pain, perceived physical function, and performance measures for persons with lower limb OA, although comparisons of strengthening versus aerobic exercise on these outcomes are unusual. Structural disease progression in persons with established OA has been directly evaluated by a limited number of PA clinical trials for persons with knee OA, but these protocols focused on strength training exclusively. In healthy subjects, it appears that overall PA is beneficial, rather than detrimental, to knee joint health. Possibly the most important reason for engaging in PA is to prevent obesity, which independently has been associated with many serious chronic diseases, including the incidence and progression of OA. More research is needed to determine the optimal types and dosing of aerobic conditioning.

  17. First Results of the LHC Longitudinal Density Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff, A.; Boccardi, A.; Bravin, E.; Fisher, A.S.; Lefevre, T.; Rabiller, A.; Roncarolo, F.; Welsch, C.P.; /Liverpool U. /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.

    2012-04-19

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is the world's largest particle accelerator. It is designed to accelerate and collide protons or heavy ions up to the center-of-mass energies of 14 TeV. Knowledge of the longitudinal distribution of particles is important for various aspects of accelerator operation, in particular to check the injection quality and to measure the proportion of charge outside the nominally filled bunches during the physics periods. In order to study this so-called ghost charge at levels very much smaller than the main bunches, a longitudinal profile measurement with a very high dynamic range is needed. A new detector, the LHC Longitudinal Density Monitor (LDM) is a single-photon counting system measuring synchrotron light by means of an avalanche photodiode detector. The unprecedented energies reached in the LHC allow synchrotron light diagnostics to be used with both protons and heavy ions. A prototype was installed during the 2010 LHC run and was able to longitudinally profile the whole ring with a resolution close to the target of 50 ps. On-line correction for the effects of the detector deadtime, pile-up and afterpulsing allow a dynamic range of 105 to be achieved. First measurements with the LDM are presented here along with an analysis of its performance and an outlook for future upgrades.

  18. Aerobic bacterial microbiota isolated from the cloaca of the European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Nowakiewicz, Aneta; Ziółkowska, Grażyna; Zięba, Przemysław; Dziedzic, Barbara Majer; Gnat, Sebastian; Wójcik, Mariusz; Dziedzic, Roman; Kostruba, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a comparative analysis of the aerobic cloacal bacteria of European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis) living in their natural environment and juvenile turtles reared under controlled conditions in a breeding center. We included 130 turtles in the study. The aerobic bacteria isolated from the cloaca of the juvenile turtles were less diverse and more prevalent than the bacteria isolated from free-living adults. We isolated 17 bacterial species from juvenile captive turtles, among which the dominant species were Cellulomonas flavigena (77/96), Enterococcus faecalis (96/96), Escherichia coli (58/96), and Proteus mirabilis (41/96). From the adult, free-living turtles, we isolated 36 bacterial species, some of which are a potential threat to public health (e.g., Salmonella enterica serovars Newport, Daytona, and Braenderup; Listeria monocytogenes; Yersinia enterocolitica; Yersinia ruckeri; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Vibrio fluvialis; and Serratia marcescens), and pathogens that are etiologic agents of diseases of ectothermic animals (e.g., Aeromonas sobria, Aeromonas caviae, Hafnia alvei, Edwardsiella tarda, and Citrobacter braakii; the last two species were isolated from both groups of animals). The cloacal bacterial biota of the European pond turtle was characterized by numerous species of bacteria, and its composition varied with turtle age and environmental conditions. The small number of isolated bacteria that are potential human pathogens may indicate that the European pond turtle is of relatively minor importance as a threat to public health.

  19. Effects of aerobic exercise during hemodialysis on physical functional performance and depression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yueh-Min; Chung, Yu-Chu; Chang, Jung-San; Yeh, Mei-Ling

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have concluded that exercise training is beneficial to patients on hemodialysis (HD). Results, however, have shown that differences in the type, intensity, and frequency of physical exercise lead to variability in its effects on physical functional performance and depression. Further research is thus warranted. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise on physical functional performance and depression during HD. Using a pretest-posttest control group design, we recruited HD patients and nonrandomly assigned them to an exercise group (n = 13) that completed a 12-week aerobic exercise program during HD or a control group (n = 11) that did no exercise during HD. The primary outcome measures were physical functional performance, as evaluated by the 6-min walk test and the sit-to-stand test, and depression, as evaluated by the Beck Depression Inventory II. The secondary outcome measures were albumin and triglyceride levels and hematocrit. Results revealed significant between-group differences in physical functional performance and depression but not in albumin level, hematocrit, or triglyceride level. Findings suggest that exercise may play a critical role in physical functional performance and may decrease depression. Exercise should be encouraged and performed during HD in HD centers.

  20. Aerobic bacterial microbiota isolated from the cloaca of the European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Nowakiewicz, Aneta; Ziółkowska, Grażyna; Zięba, Przemysław; Dziedzic, Barbara Majer; Gnat, Sebastian; Wójcik, Mariusz; Dziedzic, Roman; Kostruba, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a comparative analysis of the aerobic cloacal bacteria of European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis) living in their natural environment and juvenile turtles reared under controlled conditions in a breeding center. We included 130 turtles in the study. The aerobic bacteria isolated from the cloaca of the juvenile turtles were less diverse and more prevalent than the bacteria isolated from free-living adults. We isolated 17 bacterial species from juvenile captive turtles, among which the dominant species were Cellulomonas flavigena (77/96), Enterococcus faecalis (96/96), Escherichia coli (58/96), and Proteus mirabilis (41/96). From the adult, free-living turtles, we isolated 36 bacterial species, some of which are a potential threat to public health (e.g., Salmonella enterica serovars Newport, Daytona, and Braenderup; Listeria monocytogenes; Yersinia enterocolitica; Yersinia ruckeri; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Vibrio fluvialis; and Serratia marcescens), and pathogens that are etiologic agents of diseases of ectothermic animals (e.g., Aeromonas sobria, Aeromonas caviae, Hafnia alvei, Edwardsiella tarda, and Citrobacter braakii; the last two species were isolated from both groups of animals). The cloacal bacterial biota of the European pond turtle was characterized by numerous species of bacteria, and its composition varied with turtle age and environmental conditions. The small number of isolated bacteria that are potential human pathogens may indicate that the European pond turtle is of relatively minor importance as a threat to public health. PMID:25380369

  1. Effects of 12 weeks of aerobic training on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Marceli Rocha; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; Kalva-Filho, Carlos Augusto; Freire, Ana Paula Coelho Figueira; de Alencar Silva, Bruna Spolador; Nicolino, Juliana; de Toledo-Arruda, Alessandra Choqueta; Papoti, Marcelo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Ramos, Dionei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit aerobic function, autonomic nervous system, and mucociliary clearance alterations. These parameters can be attenuated by aerobic training, which can be applied with continuous or interval efforts. However, the possible effects of aerobic training, using progressively both continuous and interval sessions (ie, linear periodization), require further investigation. Aim To analyze the effects of 12-week aerobic training using continuous and interval sessions on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic function in patients with COPD. Methods Sixteen patients with COPD were divided into an aerobic (continuous and interval) training group (AT) (n=10) and a control group (CG) (n=6). An incremental test (initial speed of 2.0 km·h−1, constant slope of 3%, and increments of 0.5 km·h−1 every 2 minutes) was performed. The training group underwent training for 4 weeks at 60% of the peak velocity reached in the incremental test (vVO2peak) (50 minutes of continuous effort), followed by 4 weeks of sessions at 75% of vVO2peak (30 minutes of continuous effort), and 4 weeks of interval training (5×3-minute effort at vVO2peak, separated by 1 minute of passive recovery). Intensities were adjusted through an incremental test performed at the end of each period. Results The AT presented an increase in the high frequency index (ms2) (P=0.04), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) (P=0.01), vVO2peak (P=0.04), and anaerobic threshold (P=0.02). No significant changes were observed in the CG (P>0.21) group. Neither of the groups presented changes in mucociliary clearance after 12 weeks (AT: P=0.94 and CG: P=0.69). Conclusion Twelve weeks of aerobic training (continuous and interval sessions) positively influenced the autonomic modulation and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD. However, mucociliary clearance was not affected by aerobic training. PMID:26648712

  2. Cellular hallmarks reveal restricted aerobic metabolism at thermal limits

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Aitana; Busso, Coralie; Gönczy, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    All organisms live within a given thermal range, but little is known about the mechanisms setting the limits of this range. We uncovered cellular features exhibiting signature changes at thermal limits in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. These included changes in embryo size and shape, which were also observed in Caenorhabditis briggsae, indicating evolutionary conservation. We hypothesized that such changes could reflect restricted aerobic capacity at thermal limits. Accordingly, we uncovered that relative respiration in C. elegans embryos decreases at the thermal limits as compared to within the thermal range. Furthermore, by compromising components of the respiratory chain, we demonstrated that the reliance on aerobic metabolism is reduced at thermal limits. Moreover, embryos thus compromised exhibited signature changes in size and shape already within the thermal range. We conclude that restricted aerobic metabolism at the thermal limits contributes to setting the thermal range in a metazoan organism. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04810.001 PMID:25929283

  3. Effects of meditation and aerobic exercise on EEG patterns.

    PubMed

    Severtsen, B; Bruya, M A

    1986-08-01

    This study examined the effects of two stress-reducing wellness activities, meditation and aerobic exercise, on electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns of normal subjects. Ten nursing students completed the study: five performed meditation daily and five performed aerobic exercise daily. Stress was determined using the Stanford University Self Assessment and Holmes-Rahe Social Adjustment Rating Scales prior to the stress-reducing activities and again following the six-week study. Although neither group demonstrated a significant increase in alpha waves, self-rating scores for both measures were improved at the end of the six-week study. Meditation and aerobic activity were associated with a perception of increased ability to cope and a generally positive feeling about the value of exercise and meditation in their lives.

  4. Aerobic and anaerobic cellulase production by Cellulomonas uda.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Willink, Fillip Wolfgang; Ingvorsen, Kjeld

    2016-10-01

    Cellulomonas uda (DSM 20108/ATCC 21399) is one of the few described cellulolytic facultative anaerobes. Based on these characteristics, we initiated a physiological study of C. uda with the aim to exploit it for cellulase production in simple bioreactors with no or sporadic aeration. Growth, cellulase activity and fermentation product formation were evaluated in different media under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions and in experiments where C. uda was exposed to alternating aerobic/anaerobic growth conditions. Here we show that C. uda behaves as a true facultative anaerobe when cultivated on soluble substrates such as glucose and cellobiose, but for reasons unknown cellulase activity is only induced under aerobic conditions on insoluble cellulosic substrates and not under anaerobic conditions. These findings enhance knowledge on the limited number of described facultative cellulolytic anaerobes, and in addition it greatly limits the utility of C. uda as an 'easy to handle' cellulase producer with low aeration demands.

  5. High-intensity aerobic interval exercise in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Philippe; Gayda, Mathieu; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil

    2013-06-01

    Aerobic exercise training is strongly recommended in patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to improve symptoms and quality of life. Moderate-intensity aerobic continuous exercise (MICE) is the best established training modality in HF patients. For about a decade, however, another training modality, high-intensity aerobic interval exercise (HIIE), has aroused considerable interest in cardiac rehabilitation. Originally used by athletes, HIIE consists of repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise interspersed with recovery periods. The rationale for its use is to increase exercise time spent in high-intensity zones, thereby increasing the training stimulus. Several studies have demonstrated that HIIE is more effective than MICE, notably for improving exercise capacity in patients with HF. The aim of the present review is to describe the general principles of HIIE prescription, the acute physiological effects, the longer-term training effects, and finally the future perspectives of HIIE in patients with HF.

  6. Acetic Acid Increases Stability of Silage under Aerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Danner, H.; Holzer, M.; Mayrhuber, E.; Braun, R.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of various compounds on the aerobic stability of silages were evaluated. It has been observed that inoculation of whole-crop maize with homofermentative lactic acid bacteria leads to silages which have low stability against aerobic deterioration, while inoculation with heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacillus brevis or Lactobacillus buchneri, increases stability. Acetic acid has been proven to be the sole substance responsible for the increased aerobic stability, and this acid acts as an inhibitor of spoilage organisms. Therefore, stability increases exponentially with acetic acid concentration. Only butyric acid has a similar effect. Other compounds, like lactic acid, 1,2-propanediol, and 1-propanol, have been shown to have no effect, while fructose and mannitol reduce stability. PMID:12514042

  7. Aerobic biological activated carbon (BAC) treatment of a phenolic wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Lin; Weber, A.S. )

    1992-05-01

    Organic removal rates achieved in the aerobic BAC process were comparable to rates typically reported for traditional aerobic fixed-film systems. When operated at organic loading rates lower than 0.03 g COD/g GAC-d and air as the oxygen source, greater than 90% COD removal and 99% phenol removal was achieved. At higher organic loading rates, oxygen limitations resulted in less than optimal performance. Observed oxygen limitations were mitigated by the use of pure oxygen. Long-term stability of operation of the BAC process was excellent with one aerobic BAC column operated under the same conditions in excess of 260 days. During that time, consistent column performance was achieved without the need to provide supplemental carbon or carbon regeneration. System biomass yields ranged from 0.05 to 0.30 g VSS/g COD removed and increased with effluent COD concentration.

  8. Cellular hallmarks reveal restricted aerobic metabolism at thermal limits.

    PubMed

    Neves, Aitana; Busso, Coralie; Gönczy, Pierre

    2015-05-01

    All organisms live within a given thermal range, but little is known about the mechanisms setting the limits of this range. We uncovered cellular features exhibiting signature changes at thermal limits in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. These included changes in embryo size and shape, which were also observed in Caenorhabditis briggsae, indicating evolutionary conservation. We hypothesized that such changes could reflect restricted aerobic capacity at thermal limits. Accordingly, we uncovered that relative respiration in C. elegans embryos decreases at the thermal limits as compared to within the thermal range. Furthermore, by compromising components of the respiratory chain, we demonstrated that the reliance on aerobic metabolism is reduced at thermal limits. Moreover, embryos thus compromised exhibited signature changes in size and shape already within the thermal range. We conclude that restricted aerobic metabolism at the thermal limits contributes to setting the thermal range in a metazoan organism.

  9. Aerobic and anaerobic cellulase production by Cellulomonas uda.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Willink, Fillip Wolfgang; Ingvorsen, Kjeld

    2016-10-01

    Cellulomonas uda (DSM 20108/ATCC 21399) is one of the few described cellulolytic facultative anaerobes. Based on these characteristics, we initiated a physiological study of C. uda with the aim to exploit it for cellulase production in simple bioreactors with no or sporadic aeration. Growth, cellulase activity and fermentation product formation were evaluated in different media under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions and in experiments where C. uda was exposed to alternating aerobic/anaerobic growth conditions. Here we show that C. uda behaves as a true facultative anaerobe when cultivated on soluble substrates such as glucose and cellobiose, but for reasons unknown cellulase activity is only induced under aerobic conditions on insoluble cellulosic substrates and not under anaerobic conditions. These findings enhance knowledge on the limited number of described facultative cellulolytic anaerobes, and in addition it greatly limits the utility of C. uda as an 'easy to handle' cellulase producer with low aeration demands. PMID:27154570

  10. Virulence factors enhance Citrobacter rodentium expansion through aerobic respiration.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Christopher A; Miller, Brittany M; Rivera-Chávez, Fabian; Velazquez, Eric M; Byndloss, Mariana X; Chávez-Arroyo, Alfredo; Lokken, Kristen L; Tsolis, Renée M; Winter, Sebastian E; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2016-09-16

    Citrobacter rodentium uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to induce colonic crypt hyperplasia in mice, thereby gaining an edge during its competition with the gut microbiota through an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that by triggering colonic crypt hyperplasia, the C. rodentium T3SS induced an excessive expansion of undifferentiated Ki67-positive epithelial cells, which increased oxygenation of the mucosal surface and drove an aerobic C. rodentium expansion in the colon. Treatment of mice with the γ-secretase inhibitor dibenzazepine to diminish Notch-driven colonic crypt hyperplasia curtailed the fitness advantage conferred by aerobic respiration during C. rodentium infection. We conclude that C. rodentium uses its T3SS to induce histopathological lesions that generate an intestinal microenvironment in which growth of the pathogen is fueled by aerobic respiration. PMID:27634526

  11. Determinants of exercise and aerobic fitness in outpatients with arthritis.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, G B; Kasal, S; Smith, K V; Hassanein, R; DeViney, S

    1994-01-01

    Factors that influenced exercise behaviors and aerobic fitness were identified in 100 outpatients with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis. Data included perceived health status, benefits of and barriers to exercise, and impact of arthritis on health; demographic and biologic characteristics; and past exercise behavior. Exercise measures included range-of-motion and strengthening exercises, 7-day activity recall, and the exercise subscale of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile. An aerobic fitness level was obtained on each subject by bicycle ergometer testing. The theoretical model predicted 20% of the variance in composite exercise scores but none of the variance in aerobic fitness levels. Perceived benefits of exercise was a significant predictor of exercise participation. Subjects with less formal education, longer duration of arthritis, and higher impact of arthritis scores perceived fewer benefits of exercise, while subjects who reported exercising in their youth perceived more benefits of exercise.

  12. Supplementary Low-Intensity Aerobic Training Improves Aerobic Capacity and Does Not Affect Psychomotor Performance in Professional Female Ballet Dancers

    PubMed Central

    Smol, Ewelina; Fredyk, Artur

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether 6-week low-intensity aerobic training program used as a supplement to regular dance practice might improve both the aerobic capacity and psychomotor performance in female ballet dancers. To assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and anaerobic threshold (AT), the dancers performed a standard graded bicycle ergometer exercise test until volitional exhaustion prior to and after the supplementary training. At both these occasions, the psychomotor performance (assessed as multiple choice reaction time) and number of correct responses to audio-visual stimuli was assessed at rest and immediately after cessation of maximal intensity exercise. The supplementary low-intensity exercise training increased VO2max and markedly shifted AT toward higher absolute workload. Immediately after completion of the graded exercise to volitional exhaustion, the ballerinas’ psychomotor performance remained at the pre-exercise (resting) level. Neither the resting nor the maximal multiple choice reaction time and accuracy of responses were affected by the supplementary aerobic training. The results of this study indicate that addition of low-intensity aerobic training to regular dance practice increases aerobic capacity of ballerinas with no loss of speed and accuracy of their psychomotor reaction. PMID:23485962

  13. Influence of aerobic and anoxic microenvironments on polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production from food waste and acidogenic effluents using aerobic consortia.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M Venkateswar; Mohan, S Venkata

    2012-01-01

    The functional role of aerobic and anoxic microenvironments on polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production using food waste (UFW) and effluents from acidogenic biohydrogen production process (FFW) were studied employing aerobic mixed culture as biocatalyst. Anoxic microenvironment documented higher PHA production, while aerobic microenvironment showed higher substrate degradation. FFW showed higher PHA accumulation (39.6%) than UFW (35.6%) due to ready availability of precursors (fatty acids). Higher fraction of poly-3-hydroxy butyrate (PHB) was observed compared to poly-3-hydroxy valerate (PHV) in the accumulated PHA in the form of co-polymer [P3(HB-co-HV)]. Dehydrogenase, phosphatase and protease enzymatic activities were monitored during process operation. Integration with fermentative biohydrogen production yielded additional substrate degradation under both aerobic (78%) and anoxic (72%) microenvironments apart from PHA production. Microbial community analysis documented the presence of aerobic and facultative organisms capable of producing PHA. Integration strategy showed feasibility of producing hydrogen along with PHA by consuming fatty acids generated during acidogenic process in association with increased treatment efficiency.

  14. 14 CFR 23.145 - Longitudinal control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Longitudinal control. 23.145 Section 23.145... Maneuverability § 23.145 Longitudinal control. (a) With the airplane as nearly as possible in trim at 1.3 VS1, it... multiengine airplanes, without the use of the primary longitudinal control system. (2) For...

  15. Safety of Aerobic Exercise in People With Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: Single-Group Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Singh, Rupali; D'Silva, Linda J.; Yoo, Min; Billinger, Sandra A.; LeMaster, Joseph W.; Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Herbelin, Laura; Wright, Douglas E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise is recommended for people with diabetes, but little is known about exercise in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Objective The primary purpose of this preliminary study was to examine adverse events (AEs) during moderate-intensity, supervised aerobic exercise in people with DPN. The secondary purpose was to examine changes in fatigue, aerobic fitness, and other outcomes after intervention. Design This was a single-group preliminary study. Setting The setting was an academic medical center. Participants Participants were 18 people who were sedentary and had type 2 diabetes and peripheral neuropathy (mean age=58.1 years, SD=5). Intervention The intervention was a supervised 16-week aerobic exercise program (3 times per week at 50% to >70% oxygen uptake reserve). Measurements Adverse events were categorized as related or unrelated to the study, anticipated or unanticipated, and serious or not serious. Outcomes included fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory), cardiovascular fitness (peak oxygen uptake), body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), sleep quality, plasma metabolic markers, and peripheral vascular function. Results During the study, 57 nonserious AEs occurred. Improvements were found in general fatigue (mean change=−3.5; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]=−1.3, −5.3), physical fatigue (mean change=−3.1; 95% CI=−1.2, −5.0), peak oxygen uptake (mean change=1.1 mL·kg−1·min−1; 95% CI=0.2, 1.9), total body fat (mean change=−1%; 95% CI=−0.3, −1.7), fat mass (mean change=−1,780 g; 95% CI=−616.2, −2,938.7), and peripheral blood flow (mean change=2.27%; 95% CI=0.6, 4.0). Limitations This was a small-scale, uncontrolled study. A future randomized controlled trial is needed to fully assess the effects of exercise on the outcomes. Conclusions This study provides new support for supervised aerobic exercise in people with DPN. However, it is important for physical therapists to carefully

  16. Chemical characterization of some aerobic liquids in CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madsen, Brooks C.

    1993-01-01

    Untreated aqueous soybean and wheat leachate and aerobically treated wheat leachate prepared from crop residues that are produced as a component of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System program designed to support long duration space missions were compared, and a general chemical characterization was accomplished. Solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography were used to accomplish comparisons based on chromatographic and ultraviolet absorption properties of the components that are present. Specific compounds were not identified; however, general composition related to the initial presence of phenol-like compounds and their disappearance during aerobic treatment was explored.

  17. Copper intoxication inhibits aerobic nucleotide synthesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Michael D. L.; Kehl-Fie, Thomas E.; Rosch, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    Copper is universally toxic in excess, a feature exploited by the human immune system to facilitate bacterial clearance. The mechanism of copper intoxication remains unknown for many bacterial species. Here, we demonstrate that copper toxicity in Streptococcus pneumoniae is independent from oxidative stress but, rather, is the result of copper inhibiting the aerobic dNTP biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, we show that copper-intoxicated S. pneumoniae is rescued by manganese, which is an essential metal in the aerobic nucleotide synthesis pathway. These data provide insight into new targets to enhance copper-mediated toxicity during bacterial clearance. PMID:25730343

  18. The Importance of Longitudinal Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezek, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    It has been eight years since the AAS Council unanimously endorsed the document, known as "Equity Now: The Pasadena Recommendations for Gender Equality in Astronomy," in January 2005. This document was the main product of the conference entitled “Women in Astronomy II: Ten Years After” (WIA II), held in June 2003 in Pasadena, CA. One of the key recommendations represented in that document was the need for a longitudinal study of astronomers. It was recognized that in order to understand our own field, how it is evolving, and the impact on individuals, we need to track people over time. I will discuss the fundamental questions that led to the recommendation, and set the stage for the current (ongoing) longitudinal study.

  19. LONGITUDINAL LASER WIRE AT SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, Alexander V; Liu, Yun; Zhukov, Alexander P

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a longitudinal H- beam profile scanner that utilizes laser light to detach convoy electrons and an MCP to collect and measure these electrons. The scanner is located in MEBT with H- energy of 2.5MeV and an RF frequency 402.5MHz. The picosecond pulsed laser runs at 80.5MHz in sync with the accelerator RF. The laser beam is delivered to the beam line through a 30m optical fiber. The pulse width after the fiber transmission measures about 10ps. Scanning the laser phase effectively allows measurements to move along ion bunch longitudinal position. We are able to reliably measure production beam bunch length with this method. The biggest problem we have encountered is background signal from electrons being stripped by vacuum. Several techniques of signal detection are discussed.

  20. Vertical distribution and characterization of aerobic phototrophic bacteria at the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Rathgeber, Christopher; Lince, Michael T; Alric, Jean; Lang, Andrew S; Humphrey, Elaine; Blankenship, Robert E; Verméglio, André; Plumley, F Gerald; Van Dover, Cindy L; Beatty, J Thomas; Yurkov, Vladimir

    2008-09-01

    The vertical distribution of culturable anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria was investigated at five sites at or near the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean. Twelve similar strains of obligately aerobic phototrophic bacteria were isolated in pure culture, from depths ranging from 500 to 2,379 m below the surface. These strains appear morphologically, physiologically, biochemically, and phylogenetically similar to Citromicrobium bathyomarinum strain JF-1, a bacterium previously isolated from hydrothermal vent plume waters. Only one aerobic phototrophic strain was isolated from surface waters. This strain is morphologically and physiologically distinct from the strains isolated at deeper sampling locations, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that it is most closely related to the genus Erythrobacter. Phototrophs were cultivated from three water casts taken above vents but not from two casts taken away from active vent sites. No culturable anaerobic anoxygenic phototrophs were detected. The photosynthetic apparatus was investigated in strain JF-1 and contains light-harvesting I and reaction center complexes, which are functional under aerobic conditions.

  1. Perspectives on Aerobic and Strength Influences on Military Physical Readiness: Report of an International Military Physiology Roundtable.

    PubMed

    Friedl, Karl E; Knapik, Joseph J; Häkkinen, Keijo; Baumgartner, Neal; Groeller, Herbert; Taylor, Nigel A S; Duarte, Antonio F A; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Jones, Bruce H; Kraemer, William J; Nindl, Bradley C

    2015-11-01

    Physical fitness training of military recruits is an enduring focus of armies. This is important for safe and effective performance of general tasks that anyone may have to perform in a military setting as well as preparation for more specialized training in specific job specialties. Decades of studies on occupationally specific physical requirements have characterized the dual aerobic and strength demands of typical military tasks; however, scientifically founded strategies to prepare recruits with a good mix of these 2 physiologically opposing capabilities have not been well established. High levels of aerobic training can compromise resistance training gains and increase injury rates. Resistance training requires a greater commitment of time and resources as well as a greater understanding of the science to produce true strength gains that may be beneficial to military performance. These are critical issues for modern armies with increased demands for well-prepared soldiers and fewer injury losses. The actual physical requirements tied to metrics of success in military jobs are also under renewed examination as women are increasingly integrated into military jobs previously performed only by men. At the third International Congress on Soldiers' Physical Performance, a roundtable of 10 physiologists with military expertise presented comparative perspectives on aerobic and strength training. These topics included the physiological basis of training benefits, how to train effectively, how to measure training effectiveness, considerations for the integration of women, and the big perspective. Key discussion points centered on (a) the significance of findings from research on integrated training, (b) strategies for effective strength development, and

  2. Effect of aerobic training and aerobic and resistance training on the inflammatory status of hypertensive older adults.

    PubMed

    Lima, Leandra G; Bonardi, José M T; Campos, Giulliard O; Bertani, Rodrigo F; Scher, Luria M L; Louzada-Junior, Paulo; Moriguti, Júlio C; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Lima, Nereida K C

    2015-08-01

    There is a relationship between high levels of inflammatory markers and low adhesion to the practice of physical activity in the older population. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of two types of exercise programs, i.e., aerobic training and aerobic plus resistance training on the plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) of elderly hypertensive subjects. Hypertensive older volunteers in use of antihypertensive drugs were randomized to three groups: aerobic group (AG), resistance and aerobic group (RAG) and control group (CG). Training lasted 10 weeks, with sessions held three times a week. Blood samples were collected before training and 24 h after completion of the 30 sessions for the determination of serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels. Body mass index was obtained before and after 10 weeks. After intervention, BMI values were lower in AG and RAG compared to CG (p < 0.001), IL-6 was reduced in AG compared to CG (p = 0.04), and TNF-α levels were lower only in RAG compared to CG (p = 0.01). Concluding, both types of training were effective in reducing BMI values in hypertensive older subjects. Aerobic exercise produced the reduction of plasma IL-6 levels. However, the combination of aerobic and resistance exercise, which would be more indicated for the prevention of loss of functionality with aging, showed lower TNF-α mediator after training than control group and a greater fall of TNF-α levels associated to higher BMI reduction. PMID:25567682

  3. CYB5R3: a key player in aerobic metabolism and aging?

    PubMed

    de Cabo, Rafael; Siendones, Emilio; Minor, Robin; Navas, Plácido

    2010-01-01

    Aging results from a complex and not completely understood chain of processes that are associated with various negative metabolic consequences and ultimately leads to senescence and death. The intracellular ratio of pyridine nucleotides (NAD(+)/NADH), has been proposed to be at the center stage of age-related biochemical changes in organisms, and may help to explain the observed influence of calorie restriction and energy-sensitive proteins on lifespan in model organisms. Indeed, the NAD(+)/NADH ratios affect the activity of a number of proteins, including sirtuins, which have gained prominence in the aging field as potential mediators of the beneficial effects of calorie restriction and mediating lifespan. Here we review the activities of a redox enzyme (NQR1 in yeast and CYB5R3 in mammals) that also influences the NAD(+)/NADH ratio and may play a regulatory role that connects aerobic metabolism with aging. PMID:20228936

  4. Identification of active aerobic methanotrophs in plateau wetlands using DNA stable isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yongcui; Cui, Xiaoyong; Dumont, Marc G

    2016-08-01

    Sedge-dominated wetlands on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau are methane emission centers. Methanotrophs at these sites play a role in reducing methane emissions, but relatively little is known about the composition of active methanotrophs in these wetlands. Here, we used DNA stable isotope probing to identify the key active aerobic methanotrophs in three sedge-dominated wetlands on the plateau. We found that Methylocystis species were active in two peatlands, Hongyuan and Dangxiong. Methylobacter species were found to be active only in Dangxiong peat. Hongyuan peat had the highest methane oxidation rate, and cross-feeding of carbon from methanotrophs to methylotrophic Hyphomicrobium species was observed. Owing to a low methane oxidation rate during the incubation, the labeling of methanotrophs in Maduo wetland samples was not detected. Our results indicate that there are large differences in the activity of methanotrophs in the wetlands of this region. PMID:27369086

  5. Parameterized Linear Longitudinal Airship Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulczycki, Eric; Elfes, Alberto; Bayard, David; Quadrelli, Marco; Johnson, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    A parameterized linear mathematical model of the longitudinal dynamics of an airship is undergoing development. This model is intended to be used in designing control systems for future airships that would operate in the atmospheres of Earth and remote planets. Heretofore, the development of linearized models of the longitudinal dynamics of airships has been costly in that it has been necessary to perform extensive flight testing and to use system-identification techniques to construct models that fit the flight-test data. The present model is a generic one that can be relatively easily specialized to approximate the dynamics of specific airships at specific operating points, without need for further system identification, and with significantly less flight testing. The approach taken in the present development is to merge the linearized dynamical equations of an airship with techniques for estimation of aircraft stability derivatives, and to thereby make it possible to construct a linearized dynamical model of the longitudinal dynamics of a specific airship from geometric and aerodynamic data pertaining to that airship. (It is also planned to develop a model of the lateral dynamics by use of the same methods.) All of the aerodynamic data needed to construct the model of a specific airship can be obtained from wind-tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamics

  6. [Population development characteristics of rice crop cultivated on aerobic soil with mulching].

    PubMed

    Sheng, Haijun; Shen, Qirong; Feng, Ke

    2004-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out to study the population development characteristics of rice crop cultivated both on aerobic and waterlogged soil conditions. The results showed that the whole growth duration of rice growing on aerobic soil was one week longer than that on waterlogged soil. Shorter and narrower leaves and smaller LAI of rice population were found on aerobic soil than on waterlogged soil, which resulted in a decreased photosynthesis, smaller amount and lighter weight of rice grains on aerobic soil, compared with those on waterlogged soil. Among the aerobic treatments, more tillers, lower percentage of filled grains and shorter duration of grain forming were found on soils covered with plastic film than on soils covered with semi-decomposed straw or without mulching. The rice grain yield was decreased in the order of waterlogged soil > aerobic soil covered with plastic film > aerobic soil covered with semi-decomposed straw > aerobic soil without mulching.

  7. Helping Adults to Stay Physically Fit: Preventing Relapse Following Aerobic Exercise Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrick, G. Ken; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Long-term adherence to an aerobic exercise regime is a major problem among exercise program graduates. This article discusses the steps involved in developing relapse prevention treatment strategies for aerobic exercise programs. (JMK)

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of the Aerobic Marine Methanotroph Methylomonas methanica MC09

    SciTech Connect

    Boden, Rich; Cunliffe, Michael; Scanlan, Julie; Moussard, Helene; Kits, K. Dimitri; Klotz, Martin G; Jetten, MSM; Vuilleumier, Stephane; Han, James; Peters, Lin; Mikhailova, Natalia; Teshima, Hazuki; Tapia, Roxanne; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Ivanova, N; Pagani, Ioanna; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Han, Cliff; Hauser, Loren John; Land, Miriam L; Lapidus, Alla L.; Lucas, Susan; Pitluck, Sam; Woyke, Tanja; Stein, Lisa Y.; Murrell, Collin

    2011-01-01

    Methylomonas methanica MC09 is a mesophilic, halotolerant, aerobic, methanotrophic member of the Gammaproteobacteria, isolated from coastal seawater. Here we present the complete genome sequence of this strain, the first available from an aerobic marine methanotroph.

  9. Waiting to inhale: HIF-1 modulates aerobic respiration.

    PubMed

    Boutin, Adam T; Johnson, Randall S

    2007-04-01

    The hypoxia-inducible factor HIF-1 is known to promote anaerobic respiration during low oxygen conditions (hypoxia). In this issue, Fukuda et al. (2007) expand the range of HIF-1's functions by showing that it modulates aerobic respiration as well.

  10. Peak Aerobic Fitness of Visually Impaired and Sighted Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, C. A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study compared 10 visually impaired and 10 sighted girls on a discontinuous incremental treadmill test and found no significant difference between the peak oxygen intake of the 2 groups. The results indicate that visually impaired children can attain aerobic fitness levels similar to those of sighted children. (Author/CR)

  11. AEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF GASOLINE OXYGENATES MTBE AND TBA

    EPA Science Inventory

    MTBE degradation was investigated using a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with biomass retention (porous pot reactor) operated under aerobic conditions. MTBE was fed to the reactor at an influent concentration of 150 mg/l (1.70 mmol/l). A second identifical rector was op...

  12. Characterization of aerobically fit individuals with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Lesser, Iris A; Farias-Godoy, Alejandra; Isserow, Saul; Myers, Jonathan; Lear, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    With an ageing population there is an increased prevalence of individuals living with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Characteristics of older aerobically fit individuals with previously diagnosed CVD have not been studied. Therefore, our knowledge is limited as to how, or if, aerobically fit individuals with CVD attempt to adapt their physical activity and the intensity of their training programmes. The objective of this paper is to characterise the physical activity habits and behaviours of older aerobically fit individuals with CVD. We identified 28 aerobically fit patients with CVD from those who completed a minimum of 15 and 12 min of the Bruce treadmill protocol for men and women, respectively. Consenting participants responded to questionnaires regarding physical activity levels, competitive event participation and self-monitoring since diagnosis of heart disease. Average age and treadmill time of participants were 56 and 49 years and 15.6 and 13.0 min for males and females, respectively. Data were obtained regarding recent medical history (medical diagnoses, surgeries/procedures). Despite the majority of individuals participating in the same or more activity since their diagnosis, 25% indicated that their condition limited their activity and 39% reported having symptoms during activity. Nearly all participants (93%) indicated that they monitored their heart rate during exercise. However, only 14% of participants stated that their physician advised them on how to exercise safely. It is necessary for physicians and cardiac rehabilitation programmes to be involved in safe and effective exercise programming to allow individuals to return to sport after CVD. PMID:24433153

  13. Identification of serum analytes and metabolites associated with aerobic capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies aimed at identifying serum markers of cellular metabolism (biomarkers) that are associated at baseline with aerobic capacity (V02 max) in young, healthy individuals have yet to be reported. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to use the standard chemistry screen and untargeted mass ...

  14. Aerobic Fitness for the Severely and Profoundly Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Dan

    1981-01-01

    The booklet discusses the aerobic fitness capacities of severely/profoundly retarded students and discusses approaches for improving their fitness. An initial section describes a method for determining the student's present fitness level on the basis of computations of height, weight, blood pressure, resting pulse, and Barach Index and Crampton…

  15. In situ aerobic cometabolism of chlorinated solvents: a review.

    PubMed

    Frascari, Dario; Zanaroli, Giulio; Danko, Anthony S

    2015-01-01

    The possible approaches for in situ aerobic cometabolism of aquifers and vadose zones contaminated by chlorinated solvents are critically evaluated. Bioaugmentation of resting-cells previously grown in a fermenter and in-well addition of oxygen and growth substrate appear to be the most promising approaches for aquifer bioremediation. Other solutions involving the sparging of air lead to satisfactory pollutant removals, but must be integrated by the extraction and subsequent treatment of vapors to avoid the dispersion of volatile chlorinated solvents in the atmosphere. Cometabolic bioventing is the only possible approach for the aerobic cometabolic bioremediation of the vadose zone. The examined studies indicate that in situ aerobic cometabolism leads to the biodegradation of a wide range of chlorinated solvents within remediation times that vary between 1 and 17 months. Numerous studies include a simulation of the experimental field data. The modeling of the process attained a high reliability, and represents a crucial tool for the elaboration of field data obtained in pilot tests and for the design of the full-scale systems. Further research is needed to attain higher concentrations of chlorinated solvent degrading microbes and more reliable cost estimates. Lastly, a procedure for the design of full-scale in situ aerobic cometabolic bioremediation processes is proposed.

  16. Characterization of aerobic ethanol productions in a computerized auxostat

    SciTech Connect

    Fraleigh, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    For many valuable bioproducts high productivity is associated with rapid growth. However, most continuous microbial cultures become unstable when the dilution rate is fixed near the value for maximum growth rate. The auxostat culture technique employs feedback control of a nutrient or metabolite to stabilize the biomass at its maximum potential growth rate. An auxostat device is therefore ideal for study of bioprocesses involving the overproduction of primary metabolites such as ethanol. Oxidoreductive transformations involving ethanol are utilized by Saccharomyces yeasts when normal respiration cannot satisfy energy needs. When rapid growth or other stress creates oxidoreductive conditions in aerobic Saccharomyces cultures, very high specific ethanol formation rates are established and biomass yield drops to levels more typical of anaerobic fermentation. Although the physiology is favorable, the potential for large-scale aerobic ethanol processes to compete with traditional anaerobic fermentations has not previously been assessed. In this study, a fully computerized auxostat device was constructed and used to characterize the specific and volumetric aerobic ethanol productivity of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To divert substrate away from biomass and into product formation, aerobic cultures were stressed with variations of ionic balance (via extreme K{sup +} and H{sup +} setpoints) in the auxostat device. During growth with limiting K{sup +} concentrations, the goal of very low biomass yield was attained but the rate of ethanol production was poor. However, with excess K{sup +} the volumetric productivity reached 6.1 g/I,-h, a value that is comparable to optimized, continuous anaerobic cultures.

  17. Aerobic Capacities of Early College High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loflin, Jerry W.

    2014-01-01

    The Early College High School Initiative (ECHSI) was introduced in 2002. Since 2002, limited data, especially student physical activity data, have been published pertaining to the ECHSI. The purpose of this study was to examine the aerobic capacities of early college students and compare them to state and national averages. Early college students…

  18. Aerobic Exercise Equipment Preferences among Older Adults: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Marilyn A.; Rimmer, James H.

    2003-01-01

    Developed an instrument to measure the aerobic exercise equipment preference of a frail older population and applied many-facet Rasch analysis to study construct validity and equipment preferences. Results for 16 participants show the usefulness of many-facet Rasch analysis in guiding instrument revision. (SLD)

  19. Thirty-Three Years of Aerobic Exercise Adherence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasch, Frederick W.

    2001-01-01

    Followed 15 middle-aged men for 25-33 years while they participated in an aerobic exercise program. Adherence in the sample was 100 percent. Possible explanations for the adherence include program leadership, peer support, written evaluations and progress reports, emphasis on health, early and continued interest in sport and exercise, recognition…

  20. COMMERCIAL-SCALE AEROBIC-ANAEROBIC BIOREACTOR LANDFILL OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sequential aerobic-anaerobic treatment system has been applied at a commercial scale (3,000 ton per day) municipal solid waste landfill in Kentucky, USA since 2001. In this system, the uppermost layer of landfilled waste is aerated and liquid waste including leachate, surface w...

  1. Group Aquatic Aerobic Exercise for Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fragala-Pinkham, Maria; Haley, Stephen M.; O'Neill, Margaret E.

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness and safety of a group aquatic aerobic exercise program on cardiorespiratory endurance for children with disabilities was examined using an A-B study design. Sixteen children (11 males, five females) age range 6 to 11 years (mean age 9y 7mo [SD 1y 4mo]) participated in this twice-per-week program lasting 14 weeks. The children's …

  2. Aerobic Capacity and Anaerobic Power Levels of the University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taskin, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of study was to analyze aerobic capacity and anaerobic power levels of the university students. Total forty university students who is department physical education and department business (age means; 21.15±1.46 years for male and age means; 20.55±1.79 years for female in department physical education), volunteered to participate in this…

  3. Aerobic response to exercise of the fastest land crab.

    PubMed

    Full, R J; Herreid, C F

    1983-04-01

    To view the aerobic response to exercise, the ghost crab Ocypode guadichaudii was run in a treadmill respirometer at three velocities (0.13, 0.19, and 0.28 km/h) while oxygen consumption (VO2) was monitored. A steady-state VO2 that increased linearly with velocity was attained. VO2 transient periods at the beginning and end of exercise were extremely rapid with half times from 50 to 150 s. The magnitude of oxygen deficit and debt were small and both showed increases with an increase in velocity. Oxygen debt was measured at each velocity after 4-, 10-, and 20-min exercise bouts. No change in the magnitude of oxygen debt was observed with respect to exercise duration. Maximal VO2 was 11.9 times the average resting VO2. Oxygen uptake kinetics have shown only very sluggish and reduced rates in five other more sedentary crab species previously tested. The aerobic response pattern observed in the present study is more comparable to that of exercising mammals and highly aerobic ectothermic vertebrates. This suggests that the ghost crab meets the energy demand of sustained exercise by aerobic ATP production in contrast to many other crab species.

  4. Aerobic Jogging Instruction for Students in Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln.

    Jogging, a form of aerobic exercise, is the act of running at a slow trot. This guide describes an instructional program for high school students to jog progressively longer distances. The emphasis is on participation and gradual improvement. Training principles, teaching methods, common jogging problems, and safety precautions are listed to aid…

  5. Aerobic Digestion. Biological Treatment Process Control. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This unit on aerobic sludge digestion covers the theory of the process, system components, factors that affect the process performance, standard operational concerns, indicators of steady-state operations, and operational problems. The instructor's guide includes: (1) an overview of the unit; (2) lesson plan; (3) lecture outline (keyed to a set of…

  6. The medically important aerobic actinomycetes: epidemiology and microbiology.

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, M M; Brown, J M

    1994-01-01

    The aerobic actinomycetes are soil-inhabiting microorganisms that occur worldwide. In 1888, Nocard first recognized the pathogenic potential of this group of microorganisms. Since then, several aerobic actinomycetes have been a major source of interest for the commercial drug industry and have proved to be extremely useful microorganisms for producing novel antimicrobial agents. They have also been well known as potential veterinary pathogens affecting many different animal species. The medically important aerobic actinomycetes may cause significant morbidity and mortality, in particular in highly susceptible severely immunocompromised patients, including transplant recipients and patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. However, the diagnosis of these infections may be difficult, and effective antimicrobial therapy may be complicated by antimicrobial resistance. The taxonomy of these microorganisms has been problematic. In recent revisions of their classification, new pathogenic species have been recognized. The development of additional and more reliable diagnostic tests and of a standardized method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and the application of molecular techniques for the diagnosis and subtyping of these microorganisms are needed to better diagnose and treat infected patients and to identify effective control measures for these unusual pathogens. We review the epidemiology and microbiology of the major medically important aerobic actinomycetes. Images PMID:7923055

  7. Growth of Campylobacter Incubated Aerobically in Media Supplemented with Peptones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth of Campylobacter cultures incubated aerobically in media supplemented with peptones was studied, and additional experiments were conducted to compare growth of the bacteria in media supplemented with peptones to growth in media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate-minerals-vitamins (FPMV). A b...

  8. Is Low-Impact Aerobic Dance an Effective Cardiovascular Workout?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williford, Henry N.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents results of an investigation comparing energy cost and cardiovascular responses of aerobic dance routines performed at different intensity levels in varying amounts of energy expenditure. For low-impact dance to meet minimum guidelines suggested by the American College of Sports Medicine, it should be performed at high intensity. (SM)

  9. Teaching Aerobic Cell Respiration Using the 5Es

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patro, Edward T.

    2008-01-01

    The 5E teaching model provides a five step method for teaching science. While the sequence of the model is strictly linear, it does provide opportunities for the teacher to "revisit" prior learning before moving on. The 5E method is described as it relates to the teaching of aerobic cell respiration.

  10. In situ aerobic cometabolism of chlorinated solvents: a review.

    PubMed

    Frascari, Dario; Zanaroli, Giulio; Danko, Anthony S

    2015-01-01

    The possible approaches for in situ aerobic cometabolism of aquifers and vadose zones contaminated by chlorinated solvents are critically evaluated. Bioaugmentation of resting-cells previously grown in a fermenter and in-well addition of oxygen and growth substrate appear to be the most promising approaches for aquifer bioremediation. Other solutions involving the sparging of air lead to satisfactory pollutant removals, but must be integrated by the extraction and subsequent treatment of vapors to avoid the dispersion of volatile chlorinated solvents in the atmosphere. Cometabolic bioventing is the only possible approach for the aerobic cometabolic bioremediation of the vadose zone. The examined studies indicate that in situ aerobic cometabolism leads to the biodegradation of a wide range of chlorinated solvents within remediation times that vary between 1 and 17 months. Numerous studies include a simulation of the experimental field data. The modeling of the process attained a high reliability, and represents a crucial tool for the elaboration of field data obtained in pilot tests and for the design of the full-scale systems. Further research is needed to attain higher concentrations of chlorinated solvent degrading microbes and more reliable cost estimates. Lastly, a procedure for the design of full-scale in situ aerobic cometabolic bioremediation processes is proposed. PMID:25306537

  11. Anaerobes unleashed: Aerobic fuel cells of Geobacter sulfurreducens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevin, Kelly P.; Zhang, Pei; Franks, Ashley E.; Woodard, Trevor L.; Lovley, Derek R.

    One of the limitations of power generation with microbial fuel cells is that the anode must typically be maintained under anaerobic conditions. When oxygen is present in the anode chamber microorganisms oxidize the fuel with the reduction of oxygen rather than electron transfer to the anode. A system in which fuel is provided from within a graphite anode and diffuses out to the outer surface of the anode was designed to overcome these limitations. A biofilm of Geobacter sulfurreducens strain KN400, pregrown on the surface of a graphite electrode in a traditional two-chambered system with an anaerobic anode chamber and acetate as an external fuel source, produced current just as well under aerobic conditions when acetate was provided via diffusion from an internal concentrated acetate solution. No acetate was detectable in the external medium. In contrast, aerobic systems in which acetate was provided in the external medium completely failed within 48 h. Internally fed anodes colonized by a strain of KN400 adapted to grow at marine salinities produced current in aerobic seawater as well as an anaerobic anode system. The ability to generate current with an anode under aerobic conditions increases the potential applications and design options for microbial fuel cells.

  12. Aerobic Capacity in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This study described the aerobic capacity [VO[subscript 2peak] (ml/kg/min)] in contemporary children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) using a maximal exercise test protocol. Twenty-four children and adolescents with CP classified at Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS) level I or level II and 336 typically developing…

  13. Measurement Agreement between Estimates of Aerobic Fitness in Youth: The Impact of Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the agreement between aerobic capacity estimates from different Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) equations and the Mile Run Test. Method: The agreement between 2 different tests of aerobic capacity was examined on a large data set…

  14. Aerobic Development of Elite Youth Ice Hockey Players.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Jeff R; Cordingley, Dean M; MacDonald, Peter B

    2015-11-01

    Ice hockey is a physiologically complex sport requiring aerobic and anaerobic energy metabolism. College and professional teams often test aerobic fitness; however, there is a paucity of information regarding aerobic fitness of elite youth players. Without this knowledge, training of youth athletes to meet the standards of older age groups and higher levels of hockey may be random, inefficient, and or effective. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the aerobic fitness of elite youth hockey players. A retrospective database review was performed for 200 male AAA hockey players between the ages of 13 and 17 (age, 14.4 ± 1.2 years; height, 174.3 ± 8.5 cm; body mass, 67.2 ± 11.5 kg; body fat, 9.8 ± 3.5%) before the 2012-13 season. All subjects performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer, whereas expired air was collected by either a Parvo Medics TrueOne 2400 or a CareFusion Oxycon Mobile metabolic cart to determine maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max). Body mass, absolute V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and the power output achieved during the last completed stage increased in successive age groups from age 13 to 15 years (p ≤ 0.05). Ventilatory threshold (VT) expressed as a percentage of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and the heart rate (HR) at which VT occurred decreased between the ages of 13 and 14 years (p ≤ 0.05), whereas the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 at which VT occurred increased from the age of 14-15 years. There were no changes in relative V[Combining Dot Above]O2max or HRmax between any successive age groups. The aerobic fitness levels of elite youth ice hockey players increased as players age and mature physically and physiologically. However, aerobic fitness increased to a lesser extent at older ages. This information has the potential to influence off-season training and maximize the aerobic fitness of elite amateur hockey players, so that these players can meet standards set by advanced elite age groups

  15. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Laura D.; Frank, Laura L.; Foster-Schubert, Karen; Green, Pattie S.; Wilkinson, Charles W.; McTiernan, Anne; Plymate, Stephen R.; Fishel, Mark A.; Stennis Watson, G.; Cholerton, Brenna A.; Duncan, Glen E.; Mehta, Pankaj D.; Craft, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effects of aerobic exercise on cognition and other biomarkers associated with Alzheimer disease pathology for older adults with mild cognitive impairment, and assess the role of sex as a predictor of response. Design Six-month, randomized, controlled, clinical trial. Setting Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System clinical research unit. Participants Thirty-three adults (17 women) with amnestic mild cognitive impairment ranging in age from 55 to 85 years (mean age,70 years). Intervention Participants were randomized either to a high-intensity aerobic exercise or stretching control group. The aerobic group exercised under the supervision of a fitness trainer at 75% to 85% of heart rate reserve for 45 to 60 min/d, 4 d/wk for 6 months. The control group carried out supervised stretching activities according to the same schedule but maintained their heart rate at or below 50% of their heart rate reserve. Before and after the study, glucometabolic and treadmill tests were performed and fat distribution was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. At baseline, month 3, and month 6, blood was collected for assay and cognitive tests were administered. Main Outcome Measures Performance measures on Symbol-Digit Modalities, Verbal Fluency, Stroop, Trails B, Task Switching, Story Recall, and List Learning. Fasting plasma levels of insulin, cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulinlike growth factor-I, and β-amyloids 40 and 42. Results Six months of high-intensity aerobic exercise had sex-specific effects on cognition, glucose metabolism, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and trophic activity despite comparable gains in cardiorespiratory fitness and body fat reduction. For women, aerobic exercise improved performance on multiple tests of executive function, increased glucose disposal during the metabolic clamp, and reduced fasting plasma levels of insulin, cortisol, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. For men

  16. Aerobic Development of Elite Youth Ice Hockey Players.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Jeff R; Cordingley, Dean M; MacDonald, Peter B

    2015-11-01

    Ice hockey is a physiologically complex sport requiring aerobic and anaerobic energy metabolism. College and professional teams often test aerobic fitness; however, there is a paucity of information regarding aerobic fitness of elite youth players. Without this knowledge, training of youth athletes to meet the standards of older age groups and higher levels of hockey may be random, inefficient, and or effective. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the aerobic fitness of elite youth hockey players. A retrospective database review was performed for 200 male AAA hockey players between the ages of 13 and 17 (age, 14.4 ± 1.2 years; height, 174.3 ± 8.5 cm; body mass, 67.2 ± 11.5 kg; body fat, 9.8 ± 3.5%) before the 2012-13 season. All subjects performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer, whereas expired air was collected by either a Parvo Medics TrueOne 2400 or a CareFusion Oxycon Mobile metabolic cart to determine maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max). Body mass, absolute V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and the power output achieved during the last completed stage increased in successive age groups from age 13 to 15 years (p ≤ 0.05). Ventilatory threshold (VT) expressed as a percentage of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and the heart rate (HR) at which VT occurred decreased between the ages of 13 and 14 years (p ≤ 0.05), whereas the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 at which VT occurred increased from the age of 14-15 years. There were no changes in relative V[Combining Dot Above]O2max or HRmax between any successive age groups. The aerobic fitness levels of elite youth ice hockey players increased as players age and mature physically and physiologically. However, aerobic fitness increased to a lesser extent at older ages. This information has the potential to influence off-season training and maximize the aerobic fitness of elite amateur hockey players, so that these players can meet standards set by advanced elite age groups.

  17. Mechanisms of aerobic performance impairment with heat stress and dehydration.

    PubMed

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W; Montain, Scott J; Sawka, Michael N

    2010-12-01

    Environmental heat stress can challenge the limits of human cardiovascular and temperature regulation, body fluid balance, and thus aerobic performance. This minireview proposes that the cardiovascular adjustments accompanying high skin temperatures (T(sk)), alone or in combination with high core body temperatures (T(c)), provide a primary explanation for impaired aerobic exercise performance in warm-hot environments. The independent (T(sk)) and combined (T(sk) + T(c)) effects of hyperthermia reduce maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2max)), which leads to higher relative exercise intensity and an exponential decline in aerobic performance at any given exercise workload. Greater relative exercise intensity increases cardiovascular strain, which is a prominent mediator of rated perceived exertion. As a consequence, incremental or constant-rate exercise is more difficult to sustain (earlier fatigue) or requires a slowing of self-paced exercise to achieve a similar sensation of effort. It is proposed that high T(sk) and T(c) impair aerobic performance in tandem primarily through elevated cardiovascular strain, rather than a deterioration in central nervous system (CNS) function or skeletal muscle metabolism. Evaporative sweating is the principal means of heat loss in warm-hot environments where sweat losses frequently exceed fluid intakes. When dehydration exceeds 3% of total body water (2% of body mass) then aerobic performance is consistently impaired independent and additive to heat stress. Dehydration augments hyperthermia and plasma volume reductions, which combine to accentuate cardiovascular strain and reduce Vo(2max). Importantly, the negative performance consequences of dehydration worsen as T(sk) increases.

  18. [Study on technological characters of anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor landfill].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu-Lei; Zhou, Chuan-Bin; Liu, Ting; Jiang, Juan; Cao, Li; Lü, Zhi-Zhong; Li, Xi-Kun; Li, Xiao-Bao

    2007-04-01

    A technology of anaerobic-aerobic landfill bioreactor aimed at reusing landfill site is studied, and it's based on landfill bioreactor technology. A set of stimulating equipment is designed, and the technology characters are studied. In the anaerobic period, technological conditions are controlled by the means of leachate recirculation. The main experimental results are: pH, R1 rises to 6.7 - 7.8 in 6 weeks, and R2 is under 6.8 in 17 weeks; COD concentration of leachate, R1 declines to 10 617 mg/L in 13 weeks, while R2 rises to 60 000 mg/L in 5 weeks, and keeps stabilization in long time; the cumulating methane production, R1 reaches 44% in 8 weeks, while R2 almost cannot produce methane. The stabilization can be evaluated by pH of leachate, COD and BOD5/COD decreasing ratio, and cumulating methane production. They are main evidences to transform anaerobic period to aerobic period. In the aerobic period, odor and moisture are reduced by the means of aeration. The main experimental results are: ammonia concentration reduces to 1.16 mg/m3 in 19 days, and the odor concentration reduces to 19 in 23 days; the moisture of the wastes reduces to 26% in 14 days. The technological indexes to evaluate finishing of this period can be determined by the ultimately purpose of exploited wastes. Numerical modeling has been researched with the use of experimental data. The succession of microbes in the anaerobic-aerobic course is studied by RISA (ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) analysis. There are 4 preponderant groups in this course, and some facultative anaerobes play important roles in the transition of anaerobic period to aerobic period.

  19. Aerobic exercise attenuates pulmonary inflammation induced by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Olivo, Clarice R; Miyaji, Eliane N; Oliveira, Maria Leonor S; Almeida, Francine M; Lourenço, Juliana D; Abreu, Rodrigo M; Arantes, Petra M M; Lopes, Fernanda Dtqs; Martins, Milton A

    2014-11-01

    Aerobic exercise has been recognized as a stimulator of the immune system, but its effect on bacterial infection has not been extensively evaluated. We studied whether moderate aerobic exercise training prior to Streptococcus pneumoniae infection influences pulmonary inflammatory responses. BALB/c mice were divided into four groups: Sedentary Untreated (sedentary without infection); Sedentary Infected (sedentary with infection); Trained Untreated (aerobic training without infection); and Trained Infected (aerobic training with infection). Animals underwent aerobic training for 4 wk, and 72 h after last exercise training, animals received a challenge with S. pneumoniae and were evaluated either 12 h or 10 days after instillation. In acute phase, Sedentary Infected group had an increase in respiratory system resistance and elastance; number of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL); polymorphonuclear cells in lung parenchyma; and levels of keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL)-1β (IL-1β) in lung homogenates. Exercise training significantly attenuated the increase in all of these parameters and induced an increase in expression of antioxidant enzymes (CuZnSOD and MnSOD) in lungs. Trained Infected mice had a significant decrease in the number of colony-forming units of pneumococci in the lungs compared with Sedentary Infected animals. Ten days after infection, Trained Infected group exhibited lower numbers of macrophages in BAL, polymorphonuclear cells in lung parenchyma and IL-6 in lung homogenates compared with Sedentary Infected group. Our results suggest a protective effect of moderate exercise training against respiratory infection with S. pneumoniae. This effect is most likely secondary to an effect of exercise on oxidant-antioxidant balance.

  20. Aerobic exercise augments muscle transcriptome profile of resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Tommy R; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Tesch, Per A; Rullman, Eric; Gustafsson, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Recent reports suggest that aerobic exercise may boost the hypertrophic response to short-term resistance training. This study explored the effects of an acute aerobic exercise bout on the transcriptional response to subsequent resistance exercise. Ten moderately trained men performed ∼45 min cycling on one leg followed by 4 × 7 maximal knee extensions for each leg, 15 min later. Thus, one limb performed aerobic and resistance exercise (AE + RE) while the opposing leg did resistance exercise only (RE). Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of each leg 3 h after the resistance exercise bout. Using DNA microarray, we analyzed differences [≥1.5-fold, false discovery rate (FDR) ≤10%] in gene expression profiles for the two modes of exercise. There were 176 genes up (127)- or downregulated (49) by AE + RE compared with RE. Among the most significant differentially expressed genes were established markers for muscle growth and oxidative capacity, novel cytokines, transcription factors, and micro-RNAs (miRNAs). The most enriched functional categories were those linked to carbohydrate metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Upstream analysis revealed that vascular endothelial growth factor, cAMP-response element-binding protein, Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase, and mammalian target of rapamycin were regulators highly activated by AE + RE, whereas JnK, NF-κβ, MAPK, and several miRNAs were inhibited. Thus, aerobic exercise alters the skeletal muscle transcriptional signature of resistance exercise to initiate important gene programs promoting both myofiber growth and improved oxidative capacity. These results provide novel insight into human muscle adaptations to diverse exercise modes and offer the very first genomic basis explaining how aerobic exercise may augment, rather than compromise, muscle growth induced by resistance exercise. PMID:27101291

  1. Aerobic exercise augments muscle transcriptome profile of resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Tommy R; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Tesch, Per A; Rullman, Eric; Gustafsson, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Recent reports suggest that aerobic exercise may boost the hypertrophic response to short-term resistance training. This study explored the effects of an acute aerobic exercise bout on the transcriptional response to subsequent resistance exercise. Ten moderately trained men performed ∼45 min cycling on one leg followed by 4 × 7 maximal knee extensions for each leg, 15 min later. Thus, one limb performed aerobic and resistance exercise (AE + RE) while the opposing leg did resistance exercise only (RE). Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of each leg 3 h after the resistance exercise bout. Using DNA microarray, we analyzed differences [≥1.5-fold, false discovery rate (FDR) ≤10%] in gene expression profiles for the two modes of exercise. There were 176 genes up (127)- or downregulated (49) by AE + RE compared with RE. Among the most significant differentially expressed genes were established markers for muscle growth and oxidative capacity, novel cytokines, transcription factors, and micro-RNAs (miRNAs). The most enriched functional categories were those linked to carbohydrate metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Upstream analysis revealed that vascular endothelial growth factor, cAMP-response element-binding protein, Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase, and mammalian target of rapamycin were regulators highly activated by AE + RE, whereas JnK, NF-κβ, MAPK, and several miRNAs were inhibited. Thus, aerobic exercise alters the skeletal muscle transcriptional signature of resistance exercise to initiate important gene programs promoting both myofiber growth and improved oxidative capacity. These results provide novel insight into human muscle adaptations to diverse exercise modes and offer the very first genomic basis explaining how aerobic exercise may augment, rather than compromise, muscle growth induced by resistance exercise.

  2. National Education Longitudinal Study: 1988-2000 Data Files and Electronic Codebook System. Base Year through Fourth Follow-Up ECB/CD-ROM. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    The National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) was the first nationally representative study of eighth graders in public and private schools. It was sponsored by the National Center for Education Statistics to provide longitudinal data about critical transitions experienced by young people as they develop, attend school, and embark on…

  3. Technical note: enumeration of mesophilic aerobes in milk: evaluation of standard official protocols and Petrifilm aerobic count plates.

    PubMed

    Freitas, R; Nero, L A; Carvalho, A F

    2009-07-01

    Enumeration of mesophilic aerobes (MA) is the main quality and hygiene parameter for raw and pasteurized milk. High levels of these microorganisms indicate poor conditions in production, storage, and processing of milk, and also the presence of pathogens. Fifteen raw and 15 pasteurized milk samples were submitted for MA enumeration by a conventional plating method (using plate count agar) and Petrifilm Aerobic Count plates (3M, St. Paul, MN), followed by incubation according to 3 official protocols: IDF/ISO (incubation at 30 degrees C for 72 h), American Public Health Association (32 degrees C for 48 h), and Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture (36 degrees C for 48 h). The results were compared by linear regression and ANOVA. Considering the results from conventional methodology, good correlation indices and absence of significant differences between mean counts were observed, independent of type of milk sample (raw or pasteurized) and incubation conditions (IDF/ISO, American Public Health Association, or Ministry of Agriculture). Considering the results from Petrifilm Aerobic Count plates, good correlation indices and absence of significant differences were only observed for raw milk samples. The microbiota of pasteurized milk interfered negatively with the performance of Petrifilm Aerobic Count plates, probably because of the presence of microorganisms that poorly reduce the dye indicator of this system.

  4. Family and Psychosocial Risk Factors in a Longitudinal Epidemiological Study of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuffe, Steven P.; McKeown, Robert E.; Addy, Cheryl L.; Garrison, Carol Z.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the association of family and social risk factors with psychopathology in a longitudinal study of adolescents. Method: From 1986 to 1988, 3,419 seventh through ninth graders were screened with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The top decile scorers and a random sample of the remainder were interviewed…

  5. Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study Second Follow-up (BPS:90/94) Final Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Daniel J.; And Others

    This document provides a summary and evaluation of the methodological procedures and results of the full-scale implementation of the Beginning Postsecondary Student Longitudinal Study Second Follow-up, 1990-94 (BPS:90/94). The study was conducted for the National Center for Education Statistics by Research Triangle Institute with the assistance of…

  6. Evolution of Online Discussion Forum Richness according to Channel Expansion Theory: A Longitudinal Panel Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Vicenc; Simo, Pep; Sallan, Jose M.; Enache, Mihaela

    2013-01-01

    The selection and use of communication media has been the center of attention for a great number of researchers in the area of organizational communication. The channel expansion theory combines elements of the main theories in this area; however, these investigations have a static cross-sectional design rather than a longitudinal analysis. With…

  7. Longitudinal Impact of Two Universal Preventive Interventions in First Grade on Educational Outcomes in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Zmuda, Jessika H.; Kellam, Sheppard G.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal effects of 2 first-grade universal preventive interventions on academic outcomes (e.g., achievement, special education service use, graduation, postsecondary education) through age 19 in a sample of 678 urban, primarily African American children. The classroom-centered intervention combined the Good Behavior…

  8. Profiles of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations in Elementary School: A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong; Wormington, Stephanie V.

    2014-01-01

    The authors used a person-centered, longitudinal approach to identify and evaluate naturally occurring combinations of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations among 490 third- through fifth-grade students. Cluster analysis revealed 3 groups, characterized by high levels of both motivations ("high quantity"): high intrinsic motivation but low…

  9. High School and Beyond: A National Longitudinal Study For the 1980's. Sample Design Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Martin R.; And Others

    The 1980 National Center for Education Statistics' National Longitudinal Survey, "High School and Beyond," was intended to be a general, multi-purpose study, serving a number of diverse needs. The present study sought to increase the data's usefulness, accuracy, and scope. While allowing for analyses of schools and students on a national level,…

  10. Long-Term Effects of Course-Embedded Undergraduate Research: The CASPiE Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szteinberg, Gabriela A.

    2012-01-01

    The Center for Authentic Science Practice in Education (CASPiE) is a National Science Foundation funded initiative that seeks to introduce first- and second-year undergraduate students to research in their mainstream laboratory courses. To investigate the effects of this research-based curriculum, a longitudinal study was initiated at Purdue…

  11. "You Can Help People": Adolescents' Views on Engaging Young People in Longitudinal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Spring C. Cooper; Rawsthorne, Margot; Paxton, Karen; Hawke, Catherine; Skinner, S. Rachel; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2012-01-01

    We sought to discover adolescents' thoughts about participation in longitudinal research and identify recruitment and retention strategies that were meaningful to them. We conducted seven focus groups with 10-15-year-olds in two large rural centers in New South Wales, Australia, and all focus groups were digitally recorded, transcribed, and…

  12. Effectiveness of the modified progressive aerobic capacity endurance run test for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who are obese.

    PubMed

    Graham, Marilynn H; Bush, Jill A; Olvera, Norma; Puyau, Maurice R; Butte, Nancy F

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the progressive aerobic capacity endurance run (PACER) and a newly designed modified PACER (MPACER) for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who are obese. Thirty-nine (aged 7-12 years) children who were considered obese (≥ 95 th body mass index [BMI] percentile) and 16 children who were considered normal weight (<85th BMI percentile) participated in this study. Performance outcomes included test duration (in minutes) and exercise heart rate (HR) (first-stage and peak HR) for each test. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals and independent t-tests were used to assess differences in primary outcomes. Mean PACER test duration was 1.6 ± 0.6 and 3.1 ± 1.3 minutes for children who were obese and normal weight, respectively. Modified PACER duration was higher than 3 minutes for the obese (3.6 ± 0.6 minutes) and normal weight (5.3 ± 1.2 minutes) groups. Children first-stage HR, expressed as a percent of peak HR, was above the predicted anaerobic threshold during the PACER, but below the anaerobic threshold during the MPACER. Relative first-stage HR was not significantly different between groups for the PACER, but they were significantly different between groups for the MPACER. In conclusion, the MPACER was a better alternative than the PACER for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who were normal weight and obese. When validated, this modified field test could be used to assess aerobic fitness in Hispanic children, particularly those who are overweight or obese. Additionally, the study provides evidence in which physical educators, personal trainers, and others most apt to assess aerobic fitness in children who are obese, should modify tests originally designed for the population who are normal weight.

  13. Aerobic exercise training increases circulating insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 concentration, but does not attenuate the reduction in circulating insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 after a high-fat meal.

    PubMed

    Prior, Steven J; Jenkins, Nathan T; Brandauer, Josef; Weiss, Edward P; Hagberg, James M

    2012-03-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) has metabolic effects throughout the body, and its expression is regulated in part by insulin. Circulating IGFBP-1 predicts development of cardiometabolic diseases in longitudinal studies, and low IGFBP-1 concentrations are associated with insulin resistance and consumption of a high-fat diet. Because of the favorable metabolic effects of regular aerobic exercise, we hypothesized that aerobic exercise training would increase plasma IGFBP-1 concentrations and attenuate the reduction in IGFBP-1 after a high-fat meal. Ten overweight (body mass index = 28.7 ± 0.9 kg/m(2)), older (61 ± 2 years) men and women underwent high-fat feeding and oral glucose tolerance tests at baseline and after 6 months of aerobic exercise training. In response to aerobic exercise training, subjects increased cardiorespiratory fitness by 13% (P < .05) and insulin sensitivity index by 28% (P < .05). Basal plasma concentrations of IGFBP-1 increased by 41% after aerobic exercise training (P < .05). The insulin response to an oral glucose tolerance test was a significant predictor of fasting plasma IGFBP-1 concentrations at baseline and after exercise training (P = .02). In response to the high-fat meal at baseline, plasma IGFBP-1 concentrations decreased by 58% (P < .001); a 61% decrease to similar postprandial concentrations was observed after exercise training (P < .001). Plasma insulin response to the high-fat meal was inversely associated with postprandial IGFBP-1 concentrations at baseline and after exercise training (P = .06 and P < .05, respectively). Although aerobic exercise training did not attenuate the response to a high-fat meal, the increase in IGFBP-1 concentrations after exercise training may be one mechanism by which exercise reduces risk for cardiometabolic diseases in older adults.

  14. Prevalence and Factors Associated With Low Aerobic Performance Levels in Adolescents: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    de Andrade Gonçalves, Eliane Cristina; Augusto Santos Silva, Diego; Gimenes Nunes, Heloyse Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Low aerobic performance levels have been considered one of the risk factors for premature mortality, regardless of presence of other health problems. The critical analysis of studies on the prevalence of low aerobic performance and associated factors may contribute to the epidemiological knowledge and analysis / discussion of socio-cultural aspects that influence low aerobic performance. The aim of this systematic review was to identify studies on the prevalence of low aerobic performance levels and possible associations between low aerobic performance and demographic/ biological factors, lifestyle and excess body fat in adolescents (11-19 years). The search was conducted in PubMed and SciELO databases using descriptors "aerobic capacity" or "aerobic fitness", "cardiorespiratory capacity" or "cardiorespiratory fitness", "aerobic power" or "aerobic endurance" or "cardiorespiratory endurance" and "adolescents". After the search and exclusion criteria, 33 articles were selected. Factors that were associated with low aerobic performance levels were female gender, low income, low consumption of dairy products and/or bread/cereals, increased consumption of sweetened beverages, insufficient physical activity level, excessive screen time and excess body fat. The heterogeneity of factors related to low aerobic performance levels demonstrates the complexity of this topic and the need for further studies to obtain definitive conclusions.

  15. Treatment of packaging board whitewater in anaerobic/aerobic biokidney.

    PubMed

    Alexandersson, T; Malmqvist, A

    2005-01-01

    Whitewater from production of packaging board was treated in a combined anaerobic/aerobic biokidney, both in laboratory scale and pilot plant experiments. Both the laboratory experiments and the pilot plant trial demonstrate that a combined anaerobic/aerobic process is suitable for treating whitewater from a packaging mill. It is also possible to operate the process at the prevailing whitewater temperature. In the laboratory under mesophilic conditions the maximal organic load was 12 kg COD/m3*d on the anaerobic reactor and 6.7 kg COD/m3*d on the aerobic reactor. This gave a hydraulic retention time, HRT, in the anaerobic reactor of 10 hours and 2 hours in the aerobic reactor. The reduction of COD was between 85 and 90% after the first stage and the total reduction was between 88 to 93%. Under thermophilic conditions in the laboratory the organic load was slightly lower than 9.6 COD/m3*d and between 10 and 16 COD/m3*d, respectively. The HRT was 16.5 and 3.4 hours and the removal was around 75% after the anaerobic reactor and 87% after the total process. For the pilot plant experiment at a mill the HRT in the anaerobic step varied between 3 and 17 hours and the corresponding organic load between 4 and 44 kg COD/m3*d. The HRT in the aerobic step varied between 1 and 6 hours and the organic load between 1.5 and 26 kg COD/m3*d. The removal of soluble organic matter was 78% in the anaerobic step and 86% after the combined treatment at the lowest loading level. The removal efficiency at the highest loading level was about 65% in the anaerobic step and 77% after the aerobic step. In the pilot plant trial the removal efficiency was not markedly affected by the variations in whitewater composition that were caused by change of production. The variations, however, made the manual control of the nutrient dosage inadequate and resulted in large variations in effluent nutrient concentration. This demonstrates the need for an automatic nutrient dosage system. The first step

  16. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject’s age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis. PMID:26124106

  17. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K

    2015-07-14

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject's age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis.

  18. Distinct genetic programs guide Drosophila circular and longitudinal visceral myoblast fusion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The visceral musculature of Drosophila larvae comprises circular visceral muscles tightly interwoven with longitudinal visceral muscles. During myogenesis, the circular muscles arise by one-to-one fusion of a circular visceral founder cell (FC) with a visceral fusion-competent myoblast (FCM) from the trunk visceral mesoderm, and longitudinal muscles arise from FCs of the caudal visceral mesoderm. Longitudinal FCs migrate anteriorly under guidance of fibroblast growth factors during embryogenesis; it is proposed that they fuse with FCMs from the trunk visceral mesoderm to give rise to syncytia containing up to six nuclei. Results Using fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunochemical analyses, we investigated whether these fusion events during migration use the same molecular repertoire and cellular components as fusion-restricted myogenic adhesive structure (FuRMAS), the adhesive signaling center that mediates myoblast fusion in the somatic mesoderm. Longitudinal muscles were formed by the fusion of one FC with Sns-positive FCMs, and defects in FCM specification led to defects in longitudinal muscle formation. At the fusion sites, Duf/Kirre and the adaptor protein Rols7 accumulated in longitudinal FCs, and Blow and F-actin accumulated in FCMs. The accumulation of these four proteins at the fusion sites argues for FuRMAS-like adhesion and signaling centers. Longitudinal fusion was disturbed in rols and blow single, and scar wip double mutants. Mutants of wasp or its interaction partner wip had no defects in longitudinal fusion. Conclusions Our results indicated that all embryonic fusion events depend on the same cell-adhesion molecules, but that the need for Rols7 and regulators of F-actin distinctly differs. Rols7 was required for longitudinal visceral and somatic myoblast fusion but not for circular visceral fusion. Importantly, longitudinal fusion depended on Kette and SCAR/Wave but was independent of WASp-dependent Arp2/3 activation. Thus, the

  19. High-Potential Electrocatalytic O2 Reduction with Nitroxyl / NOx Mediators: Implications for Fuel Cells and Aerobic Oxidation Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gerken, James B.; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2015-07-15

    Efficient reduction of O2 to water is a central challenge in energy conversion and aerobic oxidation catalysis. In the present study, we investigate the electrochemical reduction of O2 with soluble organic nitroxyl and nitrogen oxide (NOx) mediators. When used alone, neither organic nitroxyls, such as TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyl-N-oxyl), nor NOx species, such as sodium nitrite, are effective mediators of electrochemical O2 reduction. The combination of nitroxyl/NOx species, however, mediates sustained O2 reduction at electrochemical potentials of 0.19–0.33 V (vs. Fc/Fc+) in acetonitrile containing trifluoroacetic acid. Mechanistic analysis of the coupled redox reactions supports a process in which the nitrogen oxide catalyst drives aerobic oxidation of a nitroxyl mediator to an oxoammonium species, which then is reduced back to the nitroxyl at the cathode. The electrolysis potential is dictated by the oxoammonium/nitroxyl reduction potential. The high potentials observed with this ORR system benefit from the mechanism-based specificity for four-electron reduction of oxygen to water mediated by NOx species, together with kinetically efficient reduction of oxidized NOx species by TEMPO and other organic nitroxyls. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  20. Field assessment of semi-aerobic condition and the methane correction factor for the semi-aerobic landfills provided by IPCC guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Sangjae; Nam, Anwoo; Yi, Seung-Muk; Kim, Jae Young

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} + CO{sub 2}% are proposed as indices to evaluate semi-aerobic landfills. • A landfill which CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} > 1.0 is difficult to be categorized as semi-aerobic landfill. • Field conditions should be carefully investigated to determine landfill types. • The MCF default value for semi-aerobic landfills underestimates the methane emissions. - Abstract: According to IPCC guidelines, a semi-aerobic landfill site produces one-half of the amount of CH{sub 4} produced by an equally-sized anaerobic landfill site. Therefore categorizing the landfill type is important on greenhouse gas inventories. In order to assess semi-aerobic condition in the sites and the MCF value for semi-aerobic landfill, landfill gas has been measured from vent pipes in five semi-aerobically designed landfills in South Korea. All of the five sites satisfied requirements of semi-aerobic landfills in 2006 IPCC guidelines. However, the ends of leachate collection pipes which are main entrance of air in the semi-aerobic landfill were closed in all five sites. The CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} ratio in landfill gas, indicator of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition, ranged from 1.08 to 1.46 which is higher than the values (0.3–1.0) reported for semi-aerobic landfill sites and is rather close to those (1.0–2.0) for anaerobic landfill sites. The low CH{sub 4} + CO{sub 2}% in landfill gas implied air intrusion into the landfill. However, there was no evidence that air intrusion has caused by semi-aerobic design and operation. Therefore, the landfills investigated in this study are difficult to be classified as semi-aerobic landfills. Also MCF of 0.5 may significantly underestimate methane emissions compared to other researches. According to the carbon mass balance analyses, the higher MCF needs to be proposed for semi-aerobic landfills. Consequently, methane emission estimate should be based on field evaluation for the semi-aerobically designed landfills.

  1. Aerobic methane emissions from stinkweed (Thlaspi arvense) capsules

    PubMed Central

    Qaderi, Mirwais M; Reid, David M

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic methane (CH4) emission from plant vegetative parts has been confirmed by many studies. However, the origin of aerobic CH4 from plants and its emission from reproductive parts have not been well documented. We determined the effects of developmental stages (early, mid, late) and incubation conditions (darkness, dim light, bright light) on CH4 emissions from stinkweed (Thlaspi arvense) capsules. We found that CH4 emissions from capsules varied with developmental stage and incubation light. Methane emission was highest for the late harvested capsules and for those incubated under lower (dim) light condition. Our results also showed a significant negative correlation between CH4 emission and capsule moisture content. We conclude that CH4 emissions vary with capsule age and diurnal light environment. PMID:25482797

  2. Effect of media characteristics on performance of upflow aerobic biofilters.

    PubMed

    Srinikethan, G; Shrihari, S; Pradeepan, V S

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to assess the influence of media related factors such as porosity, pore size, particle size and specific surface area on the performance of upflow aerobic biofilters (ABFs). Three simple models of 8 litre capacity upflow submerged ABFs packed with support media of size 40 mm, 20 mm and 10 mm respectively were installed. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) was maintained as 12 hours. The study was carried out for a period of 90 days. The reactor performance indicated that the aerobic biofilter (ABF-3), associated with media of lowest porosity, pore size, particle size and highest specific surface area, demonstrating the highest BOD and COD removal efficiency of 93.32% and 85.01% respectively.

  3. Photoautotrophic hydrogen production by eukaryotic microalgae under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Choi, Jeong-A; Abou-Shanab, R A I; Dempsey, Brian A; Regan, John M; Kim, Jung Rae; Song, Hocheol; Nam, In-Hyun; Kim, Su-Nam; Lee, Woojung; Park, Donghee; Kim, Yongje; Choi, Jaeyoung; Ji, Min-Kyu; Jung, Woosik; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic algae and cyanobacteria produce hydrogen under anaerobic and limited aerobic conditions. Here we show that novel microalgal strains (Chlorella vulgaris YSL01 and YSL16) upregulate the expression of the hydrogenase gene (HYDA) and simultaneously produce hydrogen through photosynthesis, using CO2 as the sole source of carbon under aerobic conditions with continuous illumination. We employ dissolved oxygen regimes that represent natural aquatic conditions for microalgae. The experimental expression of HYDA and the specific activity of hydrogenase demonstrate that C. vulgaris YSL01 and YSL16 enzymatically produce hydrogen, even under atmospheric conditions, which was previously considered infeasible. Photoautotrophic H2 production has important implications for assessing ecological and algae-based photolysis.

  4. Degradation of 1,3-dichloropropene in aerobic soils

    SciTech Connect

    Batzer, F.; Balcer, J.L.; Wolt, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    The degradation of the soil fumigant, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), was investigated to determine its rate of degradation and the identify of metabolites in aerobic soils. Studies were conducted in the dark at 25{degrees}C with uniformly {sup 14}C-labeled 1,3-D at a concentration of approximately 100 ug/g on three soils: Wahiawa silty clay, Catlin silt loam and Fuquay loamy sand. Aerobic soil half-lives for 1,3-D were 1.8, 11.5 and 52.5 days on the Wahiawa silty clay, Catlin silt loam, and Fuquay loamy sand, respectively. Degradation of 1,3-D resulted in the formation of cis- and trans-3-chloroallyl alcohol, cis- and trans-3-chloroacrylic acid, numerous minor carboxylic acid metabolites, and carbon dioxide. In addition, there was also extensive incorporation of {sup 14}C labeled material into the soil organic matter of both soils.

  5. Anamet anaerobic-aerobic treatment of concentrated wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Frostell, B.

    1982-01-01

    The process, consisting of a closed anaerobic tank reactor with side mounted agitator and electric heaters to control temperature at 35-37 degrees, an external solids separator for recycle of anaerobic sludge, an open aerobic tank reactor with an air sparger at the bottom, and a conical settling clarifier to separate and recycle aerobic sludge, decreased the COD from 3-89 to 0.10-18 and the BOD5 from 1.4-26 to 0.03-0.30 g O2/L in dairy, vegetable cannery, beet sugar, wheat starch, mixed pulp and paper, citric acid, and rum distillery wastewater. Recoveries of CH4-containing gas produced by the process were 69-107% of theory. Total excess sludge production was only 0.05 kg/kg COD added or 0.06 kg/kg COD removed.

  6. Aerobic biotransformation and mineralization of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, B.H.; Autenrieth, R.L.; Bonner, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    Respirometric mineralization studies of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) were conducted with microorganisms isolated from a site contaminated with munitions waste in Illinois. Nine aerobic bacterial species were isolated under a carbon- and nitrogen-limited condition and tentatively identified as: one Pseudomonas species; one Enterobacter species; and seven Alcaligenes species. Experiments were performed using each of the nine organisms individually and with a consortium of all nine bacterial species. The aerobic microorganisms were cultured in a sterile nutrient solution with glucose and 20 mg/L TNT. Mineralization was determined using uniformly ring-labeled {sup 14}C-TNT in a respirometer that trapped the evolved CO{sub 2}. Biodegradation behavior was characterized based on oxygen consumption, distribution of {sup 14}C activity, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of TNT and its transformation products.

  7. A preliminary, randomized trial of aerobic exercise for alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard A; Abrantes, Ana M; Minami, Haruka; Read, Jennifer P; Marcus, Bess H; Jakicic, John M; Strong, David R; Dubreuil, Mary Ella; Gordon, Alan A; Ramsey, Susan E; Kahler, Christopher W; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-07-01

    Interventions targeting physical activity may be valuable as an adjunct to alcohol treatment, but have been relatively untested. In the current study, alcohol dependent, physically sedentary patients were randomized to: a 12-week moderate-intensity, group aerobic exercise intervention (AE; n=25) or a brief advice to exercise intervention (BA-E; n=23). Results showed that individuals in AE reported significantly fewer drinking and heavy drinking days, relative to BA-E during treatment. Furthermore adherence to AE strengthened the beneficial effect of intervention on alcohol use outcomes. While high levels of moderate-intensity exercise appeared to facilitate alcohol recovery regardless of intervention arm, attending the group-based AE intervention seemed to further enhance the positive effects of exercise on alcohol use. Study findings indicate that a moderate intensity, group aerobic exercise intervention is an efficacious adjunct to alcohol treatment. Improving adherence to the intervention may enhance its beneficial effects on alcohol use.

  8. Whole-body aerobic resistance training circuit improves aerobic fitness and muscle strength in sedentary young females.

    PubMed

    Myers, Terrence R; Schneider, Matthew G; Schmale, Matthew S; Hazell, Tom J

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to determine whether a time-effective whole-body aerobic resistance training circuit using only body weight exercises is as effective in improving aerobic and anaerobic fitness, as well as muscular strength and endurance as a traditional concurrent style training combining resistance and endurance training. Thirty-four sedentary females (20.9 ± 3.2 years; 167.6 ± 6.4 cm; 65.0 ± 15.2 kg) were assigned to either: (a) a combined resistance and aerobic exercise group (COMBINED; n = 17) or (b) a circuit-based whole-body aerobic resistance training circuit group (CIRCUIT; n = 17). Training was 3 days per week for 5 weeks. Pre- and post-training measures included a (Equation is included in full-text article.)test, anaerobic Wingate cycling test, and muscular strength and endurance tests. After training, (Equation is included in full-text article.)improved with CIRCUIT by 11% (p = 0.015), with no change for COMBINED (p = 0.375). Both relative peak power output and relative average power output improved with CIRCUIT by 5% (p = 0.027) and 3.2% (p = 0.006), respectively, and with COMBINED by 5.3% (p = 0.025) and 5.1% (p = 0.003). Chest and hamstrings 1 repetition maximum (1RM) improved with CIRCUIT by 20.6% (p = 0.011) and 8.3% (p = 0.022) and with COMBINED by 35.6% (p < 0.001) and 10.2% (p = 0.004), respectively. Only the COMBINED group improved back (11.7%; p = 0.017) and quadriceps (9.6%; p = 0.006) 1RM. The COMBINED group performed more repetitions at 60% of their pretraining 1RM for back (10.0%; p = 0.006) and hamstring (23.3%; p = 0.056) vs. CIRCUIT. Our results suggest that a circuit-based whole-body aerobic resistance training program can elicit a greater cardiorespiratory response and similar muscular strength gains with less time commitment compared with a traditional resistance training program combined with aerobic exercise.

  9. Reducing the longitudinal emittance of the 8-GeV beam via the rf manipulation in a booster cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xi; Lebedev, Valeri A.; Ankenbrandt, Charles M.; /Fermilab

    2005-08-01

    Bunch rotation will cause the longitudinal emittance growth whenever there are far more A rf stations than B rf stations, or vice versa. An alternate method via optimizing the RFSUM curve in a Booster cycle has been investigated using the ESME simulation. Since the rf manipulation at transition crossing can reduce the longitudinal emittance 31% and the momentum spread 17%, eventually, the rms momentum spread of 2.98 MeV and the longitudinal emittance of 0.061 eV {center_dot} sec with 95% of the beam can be achieved at 8-GeV.

  10. C4-Dicarboxylate Utilization in Aerobic and Anaerobic Growth.

    PubMed

    Unden, Gottfried; Strecker, Alexander; Kleefeld, Alexandra; Kim, Ok Bin

    2016-06-01

    C4-dicarboxylates and the C4-dicarboxylic amino acid l-aspartate support aerobic and anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli and related bacteria. In aerobic growth, succinate, fumarate, D- and L-malate, L-aspartate, and L-tartrate are metabolized by the citric acid cycle and associated reactions. Because of the interruption of the citric acid cycle under anaerobic conditions, anaerobic metabolism of C4-dicarboxylates depends on fumarate reduction to succinate (fumarate respiration). In some related bacteria (e.g., Klebsiella), utilization of C4-dicarboxylates, such as tartrate, is independent of fumarate respiration and uses a Na+-dependent membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase. Uptake of the C4-dicarboxylates into the bacteria (and anaerobic export of succinate) is achieved under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by different sets of secondary transporters. Expression of the genes for C4-dicarboxylate metabolism is induced in the presence of external C4-dicarboxylates by the membrane-bound DcuS-DcuR two-component system. Noncommon C4-dicarboxylates like l-tartrate or D-malate are perceived by cytoplasmic one-component sensors/transcriptional regulators. This article describes the pathways of aerobic and anaerobic C4-dicarboxylate metabolism and their regulation. The citric acid cycle, fumarate respiration, and fumarate reductase are covered in other articles and discussed here only in the context of C4-dicarboxylate metabolism. Recent aspects of C4-dicarboxylate metabolism like transport, sensing, and regulation will be treated in more detail. This article is an updated version of an article published in 2004 in EcoSal Plus. The update includes new literature, but, in particular, the sections on the metabolism of noncommon C4-dicarboxylates and their regulation, on the DcuS-DcuR regulatory system, and on succinate production by engineered E. coli are largely revised or new.

  11. Aerobic microorganism for the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Fliermans, Carl B.

    1989-01-01

    A chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading microorganism, having American Type Culture Collection accession numbers ATCC 53570 and 53571, in a biologically pure culture aseptically collected from a deep subsurface habitat and enhanced, mineralizes trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene to HCl, H.sub.2 O and Co.sub.2 under aerobic conditions stimulated by methane, acetate, methanol, tryptone-yeast extract, propane and propane-methane.

  12. C4-Dicarboxylate Utilization in Aerobic and Anaerobic Growth.

    PubMed

    Unden, Gottfried; Strecker, Alexander; Kleefeld, Alexandra; Kim, Ok Bin

    2016-06-01

    C4-dicarboxylates and the C4-dicarboxylic amino acid l-aspartate support aerobic and anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli and related bacteria. In aerobic growth, succinate, fumarate, D- and L-malate, L-aspartate, and L-tartrate are metabolized by the citric acid cycle and associated reactions. Because of the interruption of the citric acid cycle under anaerobic conditions, anaerobic metabolism of C4-dicarboxylates depends on fumarate reduction to succinate (fumarate respiration). In some related bacteria (e.g., Klebsiella), utilization of C4-dicarboxylates, such as tartrate, is independent of fumarate respiration and uses a Na+-dependent membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase. Uptake of the C4-dicarboxylates into the bacteria (and anaerobic export of succinate) is achieved under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by different sets of secondary transporters. Expression of the genes for C4-dicarboxylate metabolism is induced in the presence of external C4-dicarboxylates by the membrane-bound DcuS-DcuR two-component system. Noncommon C4-dicarboxylates like l-tartrate or D-malate are perceived by cytoplasmic one-component sensors/transcriptional regulators. This article describes the pathways of aerobic and anaerobic C4-dicarboxylate metabolism and their regulation. The citric acid cycle, fumarate respiration, and fumarate reductase are covered in other articles and discussed here only in the context of C4-dicarboxylate metabolism. Recent aspects of C4-dicarboxylate metabolism like transport, sensing, and regulation will be treated in more detail. This article is an updated version of an article published in 2004 in EcoSal Plus. The update includes new literature, but, in particular, the sections on the metabolism of noncommon C4-dicarboxylates and their regulation, on the DcuS-DcuR regulatory system, and on succinate production by engineered E. coli are largely revised or new. PMID:27415771

  13. Comparison of two aerobic field tests in young tennis players.

    PubMed

    Fargeas-Gluck, Marie-Agnès; Léger, Luc A

    2012-11-01

    This study compares the maximal responses of a new aerobic tennis field test, the NAVTEN to a known aerobic field test, often used with young tennis players, that is, the continuous multistage 20-m shuttle run test (20-m SRT). The NAVTEN is an intermittent (1-minute/1-minute) multistage test with side-to-side displacements and ball hitting. Ten young elite tennis players aged 12.9 ± 0.3 (mean ± SD) randomly performed both tests and were continuously monitored for heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) using the Vmax ST (Sensormedics). The 20-m SRT and NAVTEN show similar HRpeak (202 ± 6.1 vs. 208 ± 9.5, respectively) and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak (54.2 ± 5.9 vs. 54.9 ± 6.0 ml·kg·min). Pearson correlations between both tests were 0.88 and 0.92 for V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak and maximal speed, respectively. The NAVTEN yielded V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak values that are typical for active subjects of that age and are similar to the 20-m SRT supporting its use to measure aerobic fitness of young tennis players in specific and entertaining field conditions. The fact that two-thirds of the tennis players achieved a different ranking (±1 rank) with the NAVTEN and the 20-m SRT suggests that the NAVTEN may be more specific than the 20-m SRT to assess aerobic fitness of tennis players. From a practical point of view, the NAVTEN test is more specific and pedagogical for young tennis players even though both tests yield similar maximal values.

  14. Electric motor assisted bicycle as an aerobic exercise machine.

    PubMed

    Nagata, T; Okada, S; Makikawa, M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to maintain a continuous level of exercise intensity around the aerobic threshold (AT) during riding on an electric motor assisted bicycle using a new control system of electrical motor assistance which uses the efficient pedaling rate of popular bicycles. Five male subjects participated in the experiment, and the oxygen uptake was measured during cycling exercise using this new pedaling rate control system of electrical motor assistance, which could maintain the pedaling rate within a specific range, similar to that in previous type of electrically assisted bicycles. Results showed that this new pedaling rate control system at 65 rpm ensured continuous aerobic exercise intensity around the AT in two subjects, and this intensity level was higher than that observed in previous type. However, certain subjects were unable to maintain the expected exercise intensity because of their particular cycling preferences such as the pedaling rate. It is necessary to adjust the specific pedaling rate range of the electrical motor assist control according to the preferred pedaling rate, so that this system becomes applicable to anyone who want continuous aerobic exercise.

  15. Aerobic and anaerobic growth of Paracoccus denitrificans on methanol.

    PubMed

    Bamforth, C W; Quayle, J R

    1978-10-01

    1. The dye-linked methanol dehydrogenase from Paracoccus denitrificans grown aerobically on methanol has been purified and its properties compared with similar enzymes from other bacteria. It was shown to be specific and to have high affinity for primary alcohols and formaldehyde as substrate, ammonia was the best activator and the enzyme could be linked to reduction of phenazine methosulphate. 2. Paracoccus denitrificans could be grown anaerobically on methanol, using nitrate or nitrite as electron acceptor. The methanol dehydrogenase synthesized under these conditions could not be differentiated from the aerobically-synthesized enzyme. 3. Activities of methanol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, formate dehydrogenase, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase were measured under aerobic and anaerobic growth conditions. 4. Difference spectra of reduced and oxidized cytochromes in membrane and supernatant fractions of methanol-grown P. denitrificans were measured. 5. From the results of the spectral and enzymatic analyses it has been suggested that anaerobic growth on methanol/nitrate is made possible by reduction of nitrate to nitrite using electrons derived from the pyridine nucleotide-linked dehydrogenations of formaldehyde and formate, the nitrite so produced then functioning as electron acceptor for methanol dehydrogenase via cytochrome c and nitrite reductase. PMID:718372

  16. Microbial fuel cells with highly active aerobic biocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, Edward M.; Popescu, Dorin; Curtis, Tom; Head, Ian M.; Scott, Keith; Yu, Eileen H.

    2016-08-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which convert organic waste to electricity, could be used to make the wastewater infrastructure more energy efficient and sustainable. However, platinum and other non-platinum chemical catalysts used for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode of MFCs are unsustainable due to their high cost and long-term degradation. Aerobic biocathodes, which use microorganisms as the biocatalysts for cathode ORR, are a good alternative to chemical catalysts. In the current work, high-performing aerobic biocathodes with an onset potential for the ORR of +0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl were enriched from activated sludge in electrochemical half-cells poised at -0.1 and + 0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Gammaproteobacteria, distantly related to any known cultivated gammaproteobacterial lineage, were identified as dominant in these working electrode biofilms (23.3-44.3% of reads in 16S rRNA gene Ion Torrent libraries), and were in very low abundance in non-polarised control working electrode biofilms (0.5-0.7%). These Gammaproteobacteria were therefore most likely responsible for the high activity of biologically catalysed ORR. In MFC tests, a high-performing aerobic biocathode increased peak power 9-fold from 7 to 62 μW cm-2 in comparison to an unmodified carbon cathode, which was similar to peak power with a platinum-doped cathode at 70 μW cm-2.

  17. Microbial fuel cells with highly active aerobic biocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, Edward M.; Popescu, Dorin; Curtis, Tom; Head, Ian M.; Scott, Keith; Yu, Eileen H.

    2016-08-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which convert organic waste to electricity, could be used to make the wastewater infrastructure more energy efficient and sustainable. However, platinum and other non-platinum chemical catalysts used for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode of MFCs are unsustainable due to their high cost and long-term degradation. Aerobic biocathodes, which use microorganisms as the biocatalysts for cathode ORR, are a good alternative to chemical catalysts. In the current work, high-performing aerobic biocathodes with an onset potential for the ORR of +0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl were enriched from activated sludge in electrochemical half-cells poised at -0.1 and + 0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Gammaproteobacteria, distantly related to any known cultivated gammaproteobacterial lineage, were identified as dominant in these working electrode biofilms (23.3-44.3% of reads in 16S rRNA gene Ion Torrent libraries), and were in very low abundance in non-polarised control working electrode biofilms (0.5-0.7%). These Gammaproteobacteria were therefore most likely responsible for the high activity of biologically catalysed ORR. In MFC tests, a high-performing aerobic biocathode increased peak power 9-fold from 7 to 62 μW cm-2 in comparison to an unmodified carbon cathode, which was similar to peak power with a platinum-doped cathode at 70 μW cm-2.

  18. Stabilisation of microalgae: Iodine mobilisation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Mobilisation of iodine during microalgae stabilisation was investigated, with the view of assessing the potential of stabilised microalgae as an iodine-rich fertiliser. An iodine-rich waste microalgae (0.35 ± 0.05 mg I g(-1) VS(added)) was stabilised under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Iodine mobilisation was linearly correlated with carbon emission, indicating iodine was in the form of organoiodine. Comparison between iodine and nitrogen mobilisation relative to carbon emission indicated that these elements were, at least in part, housed separately within the cells. After stabilisation, there were 0.22 ± 0.05 and 0.19 ± 0.01 mg g(-1) VS(added) iodine remaining in the solid in the aerobic and anaerobic processed material respectively, meaning 38 ± 5.0% (aerobic) and 50 ± 8.6% (anaerobic) of the iodine were mobilised, and consequently lost from the material. The iodine content of the stabilised material is comparable to the iodine content of some seaweed fertilisers, and potentially satisfies an efficient I-fertilisation dose.

  19. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones.

    PubMed

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene M; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Löscher, Carolin; Schunck, Harald; Desai, Dhwani K; Hauss, Helena; Kiko, Rainer; Holtappels, Moritz; LaRoche, Julie; Schmitz, Ruth A; Graco, Michelle I; Kuypers, Marcel M M

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our results suggest that microaerobic respiration is a major mode of organic matter remineralization and source of ammonium (~45-100%) in the upper oxygen minimum zones, and reconcile hitherto observed mismatches between ammonium producing and consuming processes therein. PMID:26192623

  20. Echinacea Supplementation: Does it Really Improve Aerobic Fitness?

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Cory W.; Kwak, Dongmin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Echinacea is an herbal supplement used by endurance athletes for its performance boosting properties. It is thought that Echinacea improves the blood’s oxygen carrying capacity by increasing production of erythropoietin (EPO), a glycoprotein that regulates red blood cell formation. Subsequently, these changes would lead to an overall improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and running economy (RE), two markers of aerobic fitness. The purpose of this review is to briefly discuss the physiological variables associated with distance running performance and how these variables are influenced by Echinacea supplementation. [Methods] To determine Echinacea’s ergogenic potential, human studies that used Echinacea in conjunction to analyzing the blood’s oxygen carrying capacity and/or aerobic fitness were assessed. [Results] Taken together, the majority of the published literature does not support the claim that Echinacea is a beneficial ergogenic aid. With the exception of one study, several independent groups have reported Echinacea supplementation does not increase EPO production, blood markers of oxygen transport, VO2max or RE in healthy untrained or trained subjects. [Conclusion] To date, the published literature does not support the use of Echinacea as an ergogenic aid to improve aerobic fitness in healthy untrained or trained subjects. PMID:27757381

  1. Aerobic biodegradation of the chloroethenes: pathways, enzymes, ecology, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Mattes, Timothy E; Alexander, Anne K; Coleman, Nicholas V

    2010-07-01

    Extensive use and inadequate disposal of chloroethenes have led to prevalent groundwater contamination worldwide. The occurrence of the lesser chlorinated ethenes [i.e. vinyl chloride (VC) and cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE)] in groundwater is primarily a consequence of incomplete anaerobic reductive dechlorination of the more highly chlorinated ethenes (tetrachloroethene and trichloroethene). VC and cDCE are toxic and VC is a known human carcinogen. Therefore, their presence in groundwater is undesirable. In situ cleanup of VC- and cDCE-contaminated groundwater via oxidation by aerobic microorganisms is an attractive and potentially cost-effective alternative to physical and chemical approaches. Of particular interest are aerobic bacteria that use VC or cDCE as growth substrates (known as the VC- and cDCE-assimilating bacteria). Bacteria that grow on VC are readily isolated from contaminated and uncontaminated environments, suggesting that they are widespread and influential in aerobic natural attenuation of VC. In contrast, only one cDCE-assimilating strain has been isolated, suggesting that their environmental occurrence is rare. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of the physiology, biodegradation pathways, genetics, ecology, and evolution of VC- and cDCE-assimilating bacteria. Techniques (e.g. PCR, proteomics, and compound-specific isotope analysis) that aim to determine the presence, numbers, and activity of these bacteria in the environment will also be discussed.

  2. Obesity promotes aerobic glycolysis in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cavazos, David A; deGraffenried, Matthew J; Apte, Shruti A; Bowers, Laura W; Whelan, Kaitlin A; deGraffenried, Linda A

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is the leading preventable comorbidity associated with increased prostate cancer-related recurrence and mortality. Epidemiological and clinical studies indicate that a body mass index >30 is associated with increased oxidative DNA damage within the prostate gland and increased prostate cancer-related mortality. Here we provide evidence that obesity promotes worse clinical outcome through induction of metabolic abnormalities known to promote genotoxic stress. We have previously reported that blood serum derived from obese mice may enhance the proliferative and invasive potential of human prostate cancer cell lines ex vivo. Here we show that a 1-h exposure of LNCaP or PacMetUT1 prostate cancer cell lines and nonmalignant RWPE-1 prostate epithelial cells to 2% serum from obese mice induces markers of aerobic glycolysis relative to those exposed to serum from nonobese mice. This metabolic change was correlated with accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased frequency of DNA double-strand breaks. Interestingly, N-tert-Butylhydroxylamine, an antioxidant, significantly suppressed markers of aerobic glycolysis in the cells exposed to the blood serum of obese mice, suggesting that ROS contributes to a metabolic shift toward aerobic glycolysis. Here we describe obesity-induced changes in key metabolic markers that impact prostate cancer cell progression and explore the role of antioxidants in ameliorating these effects. PMID:25264717

  3. Considerations in prescribing preflight aerobic exercise for astronauts.

    PubMed

    Frey, M A

    1987-10-01

    Many human responses to the weightless environment have been documented from actual spaceflights. These include physiological effects on the nervous system, cardiovascular system and fluid balance, and the musculoskeletal system, as well as psychological effects. Simulations on Earth have added to our knowledge about the physiology of weightlessness. Early data on orthostatic intolerance after real and simulated spaceflight led some scientists to discourage a high level of aerobic fitness for astronauts. They believed it was detrimental to orthostatic tolerance on return to Earth. However, most of the data available today do not support this contention. Furthermore, aerobic fitness is beneficial to cardiovascular function and mental performance. Therefore, it may be important in performing extra-vehicular activities during flight. Some astronauts claim exercise enhances their feeling of well-being and self image. And, although the cardiovascular system and exercise performance may recover more slowly after flight to preflight levels when fitness level prior to flight is high, the musculoskeletal system may recover more rapidly. Research is needed to determine optimal levels of aerobic training for performing tasks in flight, maintaining health and well-being during flight, and assuring satisfactory recovery on return to Earth. PMID:3314852

  4. Aerobic fitness and orthostatic tolerance: Evidence against an association

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebert, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation will focus on only one side of the debate as to whether high levels of aerobic fitness have a deleterious effect on tolerance to gravitational stress. This issue was raised in the early 1970's as a result of two research publications. The first work investigated the carotid sinus baroreflex of humans with an airtight chamber that surrounded the head and neck. The steady-state reflex changes in blood pressure that were recorded 3 minutes after application of the head and neck stimuli, were attenuated in an athletic group compared to a sedentary group of volunteers. A second report in the NASA literature indicated that five endurance-trained runners were less tolerant to LBNP than five nonrunners. These early research findings have stimulated a considerable amount of interest that has lead to a growing number of research efforts seeking an association between aerobic fitness and orthostatic tolerance in humans. I will briefly review some of the more pertinent published research information which suggests that there is no relationship between aerobic fitness and orthostatic tolerance in humans.

  5. Degradation of triclosan under aerobic, anoxic, and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Gangadharan Puthiya Veetil, Prajeesh; Vijaya Nadaraja, Anupama; Bhasi, Arya; Khan, Sudheer; Bhaskaran, Krishnakumar

    2012-07-01

    Triclosan (2, 4, 4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxyl diphenyl ether) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent present in a number of house hold consumables. Aerobic and anaerobic enrichment cultures tolerating triclosan were developed and 77 bacterial strains tolerating triclosan at different levels were isolated from different inoculum sources. Biodegradation of triclosan under aerobic, anoxic (denitrifying and sulphate reducing conditions), and anaerobic conditions was studied in batch cultures with isolated pure strains and enrichment consortium developed. Under aerobic conditions, the isolated strains tolerated triclosan up to 1 g/L and degraded the compound in inorganic-mineral-broth and agar media. At 10 mg/L level triclosan, 95 ± 1.2% was degraded in 5 days, producing phenol, catechol and 2, 4-dichlorophenol as the degradation products. The strains were able to metabolize triclosan and its degradation products in the presence of monooxygenase inhibitor 1-pentyne. Under anoxic/anaerobic conditions highest degradation (87%) was observed in methanogenic system with acetate as co-substrate and phenol, catechol, and 2, 4-dichlorophenol were among the products. Three of the isolated strains tolerating 1 g/L triclosan were identified as Pseudomonas sp. (BDC 1, 2, and 3).

  6. Electric motor assisted bicycle as an aerobic exercise machine.

    PubMed

    Nagata, T; Okada, S; Makikawa, M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to maintain a continuous level of exercise intensity around the aerobic threshold (AT) during riding on an electric motor assisted bicycle using a new control system of electrical motor assistance which uses the efficient pedaling rate of popular bicycles. Five male subjects participated in the experiment, and the oxygen uptake was measured during cycling exercise using this new pedaling rate control system of electrical motor assistance, which could maintain the pedaling rate within a specific range, similar to that in previous type of electrically assisted bicycles. Results showed that this new pedaling rate control system at 65 rpm ensured continuous aerobic exercise intensity around the AT in two subjects, and this intensity level was higher than that observed in previous type. However, certain subjects were unable to maintain the expected exercise intensity because of their particular cycling preferences such as the pedaling rate. It is necessary to adjust the specific pedaling rate range of the electrical motor assist control according to the preferred pedaling rate, so that this system becomes applicable to anyone who want continuous aerobic exercise. PMID:23366293

  7. Adaptation of Aerobically Growing Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Copper Starvation▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Frangipani, Emanuela; Slaveykova, Vera I.; Reimmann, Cornelia; Haas, Dieter

    2008-01-01

    Restricted bioavailability of copper in certain environments can interfere with cellular respiration because copper is an essential cofactor of most terminal oxidases. The global response of the metabolically versatile bacterium and opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa to copper limitation was assessed under aerobic conditions. Expression of cioAB (encoding an alternative, copper-independent, cyanide-resistant ubiquinol oxidase) was upregulated, whereas numerous iron uptake functions (including the siderophores pyoverdine and pyochelin) were expressed at reduced levels, presumably reflecting a lower demand for iron by respiratory enzymes. Wild-type P. aeruginosa was able to grow aerobically in a defined glucose medium depleted of copper, whereas a cioAB mutant did not grow. Thus, P. aeruginosa relies on the CioAB enzyme to cope with severe copper deprivation. A quadruple cyo cco1 cco2 cox mutant, which was deleted for all known heme-copper terminal oxidases of P. aeruginosa, grew aerobically, albeit more slowly than did the wild type, indicating that the CioAB enzyme is capable of energy conservation. However, the expression of a cioA′-′lacZ fusion was less dependent on the copper status in the quadruple mutant than in the wild type, suggesting that copper availability might affect cioAB expression indirectly, via the function of the heme-copper oxidases. PMID:18708503

  8. Posttranscriptional Control of T Cell Effector Function by Aerobic Glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chih-Hao; Curtis, Jonathan D.; Maggi, Leonard B.; Faubert, Brandon; Villarino, Alejandro V.; O’Sullivan, David; Huang, Stanley Ching-Cheng; van der Windt, Gerritje J.W.; Blagih, Julianna; Qiu, Jing; Weber, Jason D.; Pearce, Edward J.; Jones, Russell G.; Pearce, Erika L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY A “switch” from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to aerobic glycolysis is a hallmark of T cell activation and is thought to be required to meet the metabolic demands of proliferation. However, why proliferating cells adopt this less efficient metabolism, especially in an oxygen-replete environment, remains incompletely understood. We show here that aerobic glycolysis is specifically required for effector function in T cells but that this pathway is not necessary for proliferation or survival. When activated T cells are provided with costimulation and growth factors but are blocked from engaging glycolysis, their ability to produce IFN-γ is markedly compromised. This defect is translational and is regulated by the binding of the glycolysis enzyme GAPDH to AU-rich elements within the 3′ UTR of IFN-γ mRNA. GAPDH, by engaging/disengaging glycolysis and through fluctuations in its expression, controls effector cytokine production. Thus, aerobic glycolysis is a metabolically regulated signaling mechanism needed to control cellular function. PMID:23746840

  9. Transcriptional Regulation of Aerobic Metabolism in Pichia pastoris Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Biao; Li, Baizhi; Chen, Dai; Zong, Jie; Sun, Fei; Qu, Huixin; Liang, Chongyang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the classical fermentation process in Pichia pastoris based on transcriptomics. We utilized methanol in pichia yeast cell as the focus of our study, based on two key steps: limiting carbon source replacement (from glycerol to methonal) and fermentative production of exogenous proteins. In the former, the core differential genes in co-expression net point to initiation of aerobic metabolism and generation of peroxisome. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) results showed that yeast gradually adapted methanol induction to increased cell volume, and decreased density, via large number of peroxisomes. In the fermentative production of exogenous proteins, the Gene Ontology (GO) mapping results show that PAS_chr2-1_0582 played a vital role in regulating aerobic metabolic drift. In order to confirm the above results, we disrupted PAS_chr2-1_0582 by homologous recombination. Alcohol consumption was equivalent to one fifth of the normal control, and fewer peroxisomes were observed in Δ0582 strain following methanol induction. In this study we determined the important core genes and GO terms regulating aerobic metabolic drift in Pichia, as well as developing new perspectives for the continued development within this field. PMID:27537181

  10. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones.

    PubMed

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene M; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Löscher, Carolin; Schunck, Harald; Desai, Dhwani K; Hauss, Helena; Kiko, Rainer; Holtappels, Moritz; LaRoche, Julie; Schmitz, Ruth A; Graco, Michelle I; Kuypers, Marcel M M

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our results suggest that microaerobic respiration is a major mode of organic matter remineralization and source of ammonium (~45-100%) in the upper oxygen minimum zones, and reconcile hitherto observed mismatches between ammonium producing and consuming processes therein.

  11. Transcriptional Regulation of Aerobic Metabolism in Pichia pastoris Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Biao; Li, Baizhi; Chen, Dai; Zong, Jie; Sun, Fei; Qu, Huixin; Liang, Chongyang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the classical fermentation process in Pichia pastoris based on transcriptomics. We utilized methanol in pichia yeast cell as the focus of our study, based on two key steps: limiting carbon source replacement (from glycerol to methonal) and fermentative production of exogenous proteins. In the former, the core differential genes in co-expression net point to initiation of aerobic metabolism and generation of peroxisome. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) results showed that yeast gradually adapted methanol induction to increased cell volume, and decreased density, via large number of peroxisomes. In the fermentative production of exogenous proteins, the Gene Ontology (GO) mapping results show that PAS_chr2-1_0582 played a vital role in regulating aerobic metabolic drift. In order to confirm the above results, we disrupted PAS_chr2-1_0582 by homologous recombination. Alcohol consumption was equivalent to one fifth of the normal control, and fewer peroxisomes were observed in Δ0582 strain following methanol induction. In this study we determined the important core genes and GO terms regulating aerobic metabolic drift in Pichia, as well as developing new perspectives for the continued development within this field. PMID:27537181

  12. Adaptation of aerobically growing Pseudomonas aeruginosa to copper starvation.

    PubMed

    Frangipani, Emanuela; Slaveykova, Vera I; Reimmann, Cornelia; Haas, Dieter

    2008-10-01

    Restricted bioavailability of copper in certain environments can interfere with cellular respiration because copper is an essential cofactor of most terminal oxidases. The global response of the metabolically versatile bacterium and opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa to copper limitation was assessed under aerobic conditions. Expression of cioAB (encoding an alternative, copper-independent, cyanide-resistant ubiquinol oxidase) was upregulated, whereas numerous iron uptake functions (including the siderophores pyoverdine and pyochelin) were expressed at reduced levels, presumably reflecting a lower demand for iron by respiratory enzymes. Wild-type P. aeruginosa was able to grow aerobically in a defined glucose medium depleted of copper, whereas a cioAB mutant did not grow. Thus, P. aeruginosa relies on the CioAB enzyme to cope with severe copper deprivation. A quadruple cyo cco1 cco2 cox mutant, which was deleted for all known heme-copper terminal oxidases of P. aeruginosa, grew aerobically, albeit more slowly than did the wild type, indicating that the CioAB enzyme is capable of energy conservation. However, the expression of a cioA'-'lacZ fusion was less dependent on the copper status in the quadruple mutant than in the wild type, suggesting that copper availability might affect cioAB expression indirectly, via the function of the heme-copper oxidases. PMID:18708503

  13. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones

    PubMed Central

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene M.; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Löscher, Carolin; Schunck, Harald; Desai, Dhwani K.; Hauss, Helena; Kiko, Rainer; Holtappels, Moritz; LaRoche, Julie; Schmitz, Ruth A.; Graco, Michelle I.; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our results suggest that microaerobic respiration is a major mode of organic matter remineralization and source of ammonium (~45-100%) in the upper oxygen minimum zones, and reconcile hitherto observed mismatches between ammonium producing and consuming processes therein. PMID:26192623

  14. Transverse-longitudinal integrated resonator

    DOEpatents

    Hutchinson, Donald P [Knoxville, TN; Simpson, Marcus L [Knoxville, TN; Simpson, John T [Knoxville, TN

    2003-03-11

    A transverse-longitudinal integrated optical resonator (TLIR) is disclosed which includes a waveguide, a first and a second subwavelength resonant grating in the waveguide, and at least one photonic band gap resonant structure (PBG) in the waveguide. The PBG is positioned between the first and second subwavelength resonant gratings. An electro-optic waveguide material may be used to permit tuning the TLIR and to permit the TLIR to perform signal modulation and switching. The TLIR may be positioned on a bulk substrate die with one or more electronic and optical devices and may be communicably connected to the same. A method for fabricating a TLIR including fabricating a broadband reflective grating is disclosed. A method for tuning the TLIR's transmission resonance wavelength is also disclosed.

  15. Longitudinal vortices beneath breaking waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nepf, H. M.; Cowen, E. A.; Kimmel, S. J.; Monismith, S. G.

    1995-08-01

    The formation of longitudinal vortices has been observed in a wavy channel flow and appears to be linked to spilling breaking and/or to vertical vorticity generated by a wave instability at the wave maker. Both conditions were present when the wave slope, ak exceeded 0.25. The wave instability produced velocity jets beneath and just downstream of the plunger that could provide the initial perturbation for the CL2 instability mechanism (Faller and Caponi, 1978). The breaker activity could also contribute to the CL2 production mechanism by eliminating the negative, stabilizing shear observed within the wave maker wake and by providing seed perturbations to the vorticity field. As the cells evolved downstream, they were maintained through interaction with the bottom boundary layer. When the vortices were present, both vertical mixing and turbulent kinetic energy were enhanced. Despite some differences in scale these results suggest that Langmuir circulation may produce similar changes in the mixed layer.

  16. (Catalytic mechanism of hydrogenase from aerobic N sub 2 -fixing microorganisms)

    SciTech Connect

    Arp, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrogenases are enzymes which catalyze reactions involving dihydrogen. They serve integral roles in a number of microbial metabolic pathways. Our research is focussed on investigations of the catalytic mechanism of the hydrogenases found in aerobic, N{sub 2}-fixing microorganisms such as Azotobacter vinelandii and the agronomically important Bradyrhizobium japonicum as well as microorganisms with similar hydrogenases. The hydrogenases isolated from these microorganisms are Ni- and Fe-containing heterodimers. Our work has focussed on three areas during the last grant period. In all cases, a central theme has been the role of inhibitors in the characteristics under investigation. In addition, a number of collaborative efforts have yielded interesting results. In metalloenzymes such as hydrogenase, inhibitors often influence the activity of the enzyme through ligand interactions with redox centers, often metals, within the enzyme. Therefore, investigations of the ability of various compounds to inhibit an enzyme's activity, as well as the mechanism of inhibition, can provide insight into the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme as well as the role of various redox centers in catalysis. We have investigated in detail four inhibitors of A. vinelandii and the results are summarized here. The influence of these inhibitors on the spectral properties of the enzyme are summarized. Electron paramagnetic resonance and ultraviolet spectra investigations are discussed. 9 figs.

  17. Modeling a Longitudinal Relational Research Data Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Michelle D. Hunt

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to propose a research-based model for a longitudinal data research system that addressed recommendations from a synthesis of literature related to: (1) needs reported by the U.S. Department of Education, (2) the twelve mandatory elements that define federally approved state longitudinal data systems (SLDS), (3) the…

  18. Vergence instabilities and the longitudinal horopter.

    PubMed

    Reading, R W

    1986-01-01

    The method of averaging was applied to the results of repeated measures of the longitudinal horopter for four subjects classified as binocularly normal and one anisometropic amblyope. The results produced a refined horopter locus and suggested that the so-called Vieth-Mueller circle is an adequate describer of the empirical longitudinal horopter, except in those cases involving uncorrected aniseikonia.

  19. Fears in Czech Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalcáková, Radka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kyjonková, Hana; Bouša, Ondrej; Jelínek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates developmental patterns of fear in adolescence. It is based on longitudinal data collected as a part of the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC) project. A total of 186 Czech adolescents (43% girls) were assessed repeatedly at the age of 11, 13, and 15 years. The free-response method was…

  20. Hot Stuff: Lability of Forest Floor DOM to Aerobic Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourbonniere, R. A.; Creed, I. F.; Kapila, R.; Collins, J.

    2004-05-01

    The hypothesis that the lability of DOM to aerobic microbial degradation to CO2 is related to its age and character is tested in an incubation study conducted using an assemblage of soil bacteria in their natural state. Extracts (WF) of leaf and forest floor material characterized by different degrees of degradation: green leaves, fresh fallen leaves, litter (one year weathering), fibric matter, hemic matter and peat were used in this study. The working hypothesis is that these extracts represent a chronosequence of degradation and DOM extracted from them might also represent a similar lability sequence. As well aliquots of the WF extracts were processed to remove DOM fractions. Thus a fulvic acid (FA) fraction was made by precipitating and removing humic acid, and a hydrophilic fraction (HPI) by removing hydrophobics from the FA using XAD-8 resin. Incubations were carried out on all three DOM solutions from each extract to determine if there were differences in lability among the fractions. When comparing the WF solutions for CO2 production, the green leaves, litter, fibric and hemic extracts showed approximately the same CO2 yield, on an equal C basis, and the fresh fallen leaves and peat produced less. For five of the six extracts the respective WF and HPI solutions yielded nearly the same quantity of CO2 per mg C suggesting that the HPI component contributes almost all the lability. Furthermore the magnitudes of the C-normalized CO2 yield for these solutions are similar to that for glucose, which fractionates as HPI. For the same five extracts the FA solution yielded lower quantities of CO2, on an equal C basis, than WF and HPI suggesting that the hydrophobic content of the extracts may inhibit aerobic degradation. The peat extract solutions yielded a different CO2 production distribution with the HPI only slightly higher than the FA which in turn was much greater than WF. The material from which this extract was made is much older and contains significant HA

  1. Aerobic training in persons who have recovered from juvenile dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Riisager, M; Mathiesen, P R; Vissing, J; Preisler, N; Ørngreen, M C

    2013-12-01

    A recent study has shown that 36 persons who had recovered from juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) have on average an 18% decrease in maximal oxygen uptake. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-week aerobic training program in this group, and assess whether aerobic training can normalize aerobic capacity to the expected level for age and gender. The patients participating in the study, one male and nine females (16-42 years of age), were in remission from JDM, defined as no clinical or biochemical evidence of disease activity and no medical treatment for 1 year. The patients had a median disease duration of 3.4 years (1.4-10.3), a median treatment duration of 2.4 years (0.4-9.3) and a median duration of remission of 7.0 years (1.2-30.0). Patients trained at home on a cycle ergometer for 12 weeks at a heart rate interval corresponding to 65% of their maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)). VO(2max) and maximal workload (W(max)) were determined before and after the 12-week training period through an incremental cycling test to exhaustion. The patients served as their own controls. Eight patients with JDM in remission completed the 12-week exercise program; one patient completed 9 weeks out of the 12-week program and one dropped out of the study. Training increased VO(2max) and W(max) by 26% and 30% (P < 0.001). Creatine kinase (CK) levels were normal pre-training and did not change with training, reflecting no muscle damage. We also found that at a given workload, heart rate was lowered significantly after the 12-week training period, indicating an improvement in cardiovascular fitness. This study shows that 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic training is an effective and safe method to increase oxidative capacity and fitness in persons who have recovered from JDM. The results indicate that the low oxidative capacity in JDM patients in remission is reversible and can be improved. Thus, we recommend frequent aerobic training to be incorporated

  2. Extremely low volume, whole-body aerobic-resistance training improves aerobic fitness and muscular endurance in females.

    PubMed

    McRae, Gill; Payne, Alexa; Zelt, Jason G E; Scribbans, Trisha D; Jung, Mary E; Little, Jonathan P; Gurd, Brendon J

    2012-12-01

    The current study evaluated changes in aerobic fitness and muscular endurance following endurance training and very low volume, whole-body, high-intensity, interval-style aerobic-resistance training. Subjects' enjoyment and implementation intentions were also examined prior to and following training. Subjects (22 recreationally active females (20.3 ± 1.4 years)) completed 4 weeks of exercise training 4 days per week consisting of either 30 min of endurance treadmill training (~85% maximal heart rate; n = 7) or whole-body aerobic-resistance training involving one set of 8 × 20 s of a single exercise (burpees, jumping jacks, mountain climbers, or squat thrusts) separated by 10 s of rest per session (n = 7). A third group was assigned to a nontraining control group (n = 8). Following training, [Formula: see text]O(2peak) was increased in both the endurance (~7%) and interval (~8%) groups (p < 0.05), whereas muscle endurance was improved (p < 0.05) in the interval group (leg extensions, +40%; chest presses, +207%; sit-ups, +64%; push-ups, +135%; and back extensions, +75%). Perceived enjoyment of, and intentions to engage in, very low volume, high-intensity, whole-body interval exercise were both increased following training (p < 0.05). No significant changes were observed for any variable in the control (nontraining) group. These data demonstrate that although improvements in cardiovascular fitness are induced by both endurance and extremely low volume interval-style training, whole-body aerobic-resistance training imparted addition benefit in the form of improved skeletal muscle endurance.

  3. Evaluation of the petrifilm aerobic count plate for enumeration of aerobic marine bacteria from seawater and Caulerpa lentillifera.

    PubMed

    Kudaka, Jun; Horii, Toru; Tamanaha, Koji; Itokazu, Kiyomasa; Nakamura, Masaji; Taira, Katsuya; Nidaira, Minoru; Okano, Sho; Kitahara, Akio

    2010-08-01

    The enumeration and evaluation of the activity of marine bacteria are important in the food industry. However, detection of marine bacteria in seawater or seafood has not been easy. The Petrifilm aerobic count plate (ACP) is a ready-to-use alternative to the traditional enumeration media used for bacteria associated with food. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a simple detection and enumeration method utilizing the Petrifilm ACP for enumeration of aerobic marine bacteria from seawater and an edible seaweed, Caulerpa lentillifera. The efficiency of enumeration of total aerobic marine bacteria on Petrifilm ACP was compared with that using the spread plate method on marine agar with 80 seawater and 64 C. lentillifera samples. With sterile seawater as the diluent, a close correlation was observed between the method utilizing Petrifilm ACP and that utilizing the conventional marine agar (r=0.98 for seawater and 0.91 for C. lentillifera). The Petrifilm ACP method was simpler and less time-consuming than the conventional method. These results indicate that Petrifilm ACP is a suitable alternative to conventional marine agar for enumeration of marine microorganisms in seawater and C. lentillifera samples.

  4. β-alanine Supplementation Fails to Increase Peak Aerobic Power or Ventilatory Threshold in Aerobically Trained Males.

    PubMed

    Greer, Beau Kjerulf; Katalinas, Matthew E; Shaholli, Danielle M; Gallo, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of 30 days of β-alanine supplementation on peak aerobic power and ventilatory threshold (VT) in aerobically fit males. Fourteen males (28.8 ± 9.8 yrs) were assigned to either a β-alanine (SUPP) or placebo (PLAC) group; groups were matched for VT as it was the primary outcome measure. β-alanine supplementation consisted of 3 g/day for 7 days, and 6 g/day for the remaining 23 days. Before and after the supplementation period, subjects performed a continuous, graded cycle ergometry test to determine VO2 peak and VT. Metabolic data were analyzed using a 2 × 2 ANOVA with repeated measures. Thirty days of β-alanine supplementation (SUPP) did not increase VO2 peak (4.05 ± 0.6 vs. 4.14 ± 0.6 L/min) as compared to the placebo (PLAC) group (3.88 ± 0.2 vs. 3.97 ± 0.2 L/min) (p > .05). VT did not significantly improve in either the SUPP (3.21 ± 0.5 vs. 3.33 ± 0.5 L/min) or PLAC (3.19 ± 0.1 vs. 3.20 ± 0.1 L/min) group (p > .05). In conclusion, 30 days of β-alanine supplementation had no effect on VO2 peak or VT in aerobically trained athletes.

  5. Assessing Enhanced Anaerobic and Intrinsic Aerobic Biodegradation of Trichloroethene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorenson, K. S.; Ely, R. L.; Martin, J. P.; Alvarez-Cohen, L.; Kauffman, M. E.

    2001-12-01

    Biodegradation of chloroethenes can proceed either anaerobically or aerobically; however, the techniques for monitoring the two pathways are quite different. At the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's Test Area North (TAN, a combination of anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation of trichloroethene (TCE) is being employed for restoration of a large plume of contaminated groundwater. During stimulation of anaerobic biodegradation of TCE through lactate addition, several assessment tools have proven effective for various objectives. Monitoring TCE and its lesser chlorinated degradation products provides a straightforward assessment tool for the occurrence of degradation. It does not, however, provide information regarding the potential for reductive dechlorination, nor progress from less suitable to more suitable conditions. A technique for obtaining this information is monitoring redox-sensitive geochemical parameters such as dissolved iron, sulfate, methane, and oxidation-reduction potential. This approach was demonstrated by the strong correlation of steps in the reductive dechlorination pathway to redox conditions at the TAN site. Yet another tool is required to determine adequacy of conditions for efficient dechlorination. Dechlorination efficiency appears to be dependent upon the predominant electron donor utilization (or fermentation) process occurring at any given time, an observation consistent with thermodynamic considerations. Thus, monitoring of added electron donor and intermediate product concentrations can help determine an efficient operations strategy. One final tool demonstrated at the TAN site was monitoring stable carbon isotope ratios. As TCE was dechlorinated, a clear fractionation occurred from cis-dichloroethene to vinyl chloride, and from vinyl chloride to ethene. This fractionation provides a clear signature of reductive dechlorination. Assessment of aerobic biodegradation of chloroethenes at TAN is more challenging because

  6. Assessing aerobic natural attenuation of trichloroethene at four DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Koelsch, Michael C.; Starr, Robert C.; Sorenson, Jr., Kent S.

    2005-03-01

    A 3-year Department of Energy Environmental Science Management Program (EMSP) project is currently investigating natural attenuation of trichloroethane (TCE) in aerobic groundwater. This presentation summarizes the results of a screening process to identify TCE plumes at DOE facilities that are suitable for assessing the rate of TCE cometabolism under aerobic conditions. In order to estimate aerobic degradation rates, plumes had to meet the following criteria: TCE must be present in aerobic groundwater, a conservative co-contaminant must be present and have approximately the same source as TCE, and the groundwater velocity must be known. A total of 127 TCE plumes were considered across 24 DOE sites. The four sites retained for the assessment were: (1) Brookhaven National Laboratory, OU III; (2) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Northwest Plume; (3) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Industrialized Area--Southwest Plume and 903 Pad South Plume; and (4) Savannah River Site, A/M Area Plume. For each of these sites, a co-contaminant derived from the same source area as TCE was used as a nonbiodegrading tracer. The tracer determined the extent to which concentration decreases in the plume can be accounted for solely by abiotic processes such as dispersion and dilution. Any concentration decreases not accounted for by these processes must be explained by some other natural attenuation mechanism. Thus, ''half-lives'' presented herein are in addition to attenuation that occurs due to hydrologic mechanisms. This ''tracer-corrected method'' has previously been used at the DOE's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in conjunction with other techniques to document the occurrence of intrinsic aerobic cometabolism. Application of this method to other DOE sites is the first step to determining whether this might be a significant natural attenuation mechanism on a broader scale. Application of the tracer-corrected method to data from the Brookhaven

  7. LSTGEE: longitudinal analysis of neuroimaging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yimei; Zhu, Hongtu; Chen, Yasheng; An, Hongyu; Gilmore, John; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2009-02-01

    Longitudinal imaging studies are essential to understanding the neural development of neuropsychiatric disorders, substance use disorders, and normal brain. Using appropriate image processing and statistical tools to analyze the imaging, behavioral, and clinical data is critical for optimally exploring and interpreting the findings from those imaging studies. However, the existing imaging processing and statistical methods for analyzing imaging longitudinal measures are primarily developed for cross-sectional neuroimaging studies. The simple use of these cross-sectional tools to longitudinal imaging studies will significantly decrease the statistical power of longitudinal studies in detecting subtle changes of imaging measures and the causal role of time-dependent covariate in disease process. The main objective of this paper is to develop longitudinal statistics toolbox, called LSTGEE, for the analysis of neuroimaging data from longitudinal studies. We develop generalized estimating equations for jointly modeling imaging measures with behavioral and clinical variables from longitudinal studies. We develop a test procedure based on a score test statistic and a resampling method to test linear hypotheses of unknown parameters, such as associations between brain structure and function and covariates of interest, such as IQ, age, gene, diagnostic groups, and severity of disease. We demonstrate the application of our statistical methods to the detection of the changes of the fractional anisotropy across time in a longitudinal neonate study. Particularly, our results demonstrate that the use of longitudinal statistics can dramatically increase the statistical power in detecting the changes of neuroimaging measures. The proposed approach can be applied to longitudinal data with multiple outcomes and accommodate incomplete and unbalanced data, i.e., subjects with different number of measurements.

  8. Longitudinal and transverse magnetic field program procedure and detailed specification for Sigma 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, C. K.

    1980-01-01

    A computer program and procedure for plotting the contour of the data transferred from the Marshall Space Flight Center solar magnetography is presented. The plotted data then can be easily compared with solar data from other sources, such as the Solar Maximum Mission. From the data file for circular polarization the longitudinal program plots the contours for filtered longitudinal plot and intensity plot by choosing the positive and negative contour levels, intensity levels, and also X,Y plotting ranges which need to be used. In a similar manner the transverse program generates the transverse contour plot, azimuth plot, and intensity plot from the linear polarization data files.

  9. Traveltime and longitudinal dispersion in Illinois streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graf, Julia B.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-seven measurements of traveltime and longitudinal dispersion in 10 Illinois streams made from 1975 to 1982 provide data needed for estimating traveltime of peak concentration of a conservative solute, traveltime of the leading edge of a solute cloud, peak concentration resulting from injection of a given quantity of solute, and passage time of solute past a given point on a stream. These four variables can be estimated graphically for each stream from distance of travel and either discharge at the downstream end of the reach or flow-duration frequency. From equations developed from field measurements, the traveltime and dispersion characteristics also can be estimated for other unregulated streams in Illinois that have drainage areas less than about 1,500 square miles. For unmeasured streams, traveltime of peak concentration and of the leading edge of the cloud are related to discharge at the downstream end of the reach and to distance of travel. For both measured and unmeasured streams, peak concentration and passage time are best estimated from the relation of each to traveltime. In measured streams, dispersion efficiency is greater than that predicted by Fickian diffusion theory. The rate of decrease in peak concentration with traveltime is about equal to the rate of increase in passage time. Average velocity in a stream reach, given by the velocity of the center of solute mass in that reach, can be estimated from an equation developed from measured values. The equation relates average reach velocity to discharge at the downstream end of the reach. Average reach velocities computed for 9 of the 10 streams from available equations that are based on hydraulic-geometry relations are high relative to measured values. The estimating equation developed from measured velocities provides estimates of average reach velocity that are closer to measured velocities than are those computed using equations developed from hydraulic-geometry relations.

  10. The Longitudinal Stability of Flying Boats as Determined by Tests of Models in the NACA Tank II : Effect of Variations in Form of Hull on Longitudinal Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Roland E.; Truscott, Starr

    1942-01-01

    Data taken from tests at constant speed to establish trim limits of stability, tests at accelerated speeds to determine stable limits of center of gravity shift, and tests at decelerated speeds to obtain landing characteristics of several model hull forms were used to establish hull design effect on longitudinal stability of porpoising. Results show a reduction of dead rise angle as being the only investigated factor reducing low trim limit. Various methods of reducing afterbody interference increased upper trim limit

  11. Aerobic fitness is associated with greater hippocampal cerebral blood flow in children.

    PubMed

    Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Erickson, Kirk I; Chappell, Michael A; Johnson, Curtis L; Kienzler, Caitlin; Knecht, Anya; Drollette, Eric S; Raine, Lauren B; Scudder, Mark R; Kao, Shih-Chun; Hillman, Charles H; Kramer, Arthur F

    2016-08-01

    The present study is the first to investigate whether cerebral blood flow in the hippocampus relates to aerobic fitness in children. In particular, we used arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion MRI to provide a quantitative measure of blood flow in the hippocampus in 73 7- to 9-year-old preadolescent children. Indeed, aerobic fitness was found to relate to greater perfusion in the hippocampus, independent of age, sex, and hippocampal volume. Such results suggest improved microcirculation and cerebral vasculature in preadolescent children with higher levels of aerobic fitness. Further, aerobic fitness may influence how the brain regulates its metabolic demands via blood flow in a region of the brain important for learning and memory. To add specificity to the relationship of fitness to the hippocampus, we demonstrate no significant association between aerobic fitness and cerebral blood flow in the brainstem. Our results reinforce the importance of aerobic fitness during a critical period of child development. PMID:27419884

  12. Bayesian response adaptive randomization using longitudinal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hatayama, Tomoyoshi; Morita, Satoshi; Sakamaki, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    The response adaptive randomization (RAR) method is used to increase the number of patients assigned to more efficacious treatment arms in clinical trials. In many trials evaluating longitudinal patient outcomes, RAR methods based only on the final measurement may not benefit significantly from RAR because of its delayed initiation. We propose a Bayesian RAR method to improve RAR performance by accounting for longitudinal patient outcomes (longitudinal RAR). We use a Bayesian linear mixed effects model to analyze longitudinal continuous patient outcomes for calculating a patient allocation probability. In addition, we aim to mitigate the loss of statistical power because of large patient allocation imbalances by embedding adjusters into the patient allocation probability calculation. Using extensive simulation we compared the operating characteristics of our proposed longitudinal RAR method with those of the RAR method based only on the final measurement and with an equal randomization method. Simulation results showed that our proposed longitudinal RAR method assigned more patients to the presumably superior treatment arm compared with the other two methods. In addition, the embedded adjuster effectively worked to prevent extreme patient allocation imbalances. However, our proposed method may not function adequately when the treatment effect difference is moderate or less, and still needs to be modified to deal with unexpectedly large departures from the presumed longitudinal data model.

  13. Perspectives on Aerobic and Strength Influences on Military Physical Readiness: Report of an International Military Physiology Roundtable.

    PubMed

    Friedl, Karl E; Knapik, Joseph J; Häkkinen, Keijo; Baumgartner, Neal; Groeller, Herbert; Taylor, Nigel A S; Duarte, Antonio F A; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Jones, Bruce H; Kraemer, William J; Nindl, Bradley C

    2015-11-01

    Physical fitness training of military recruits is an enduring focus of armies. This is important for safe and effective performance of general tasks that anyone may have to perform in a military setting as well as preparation for more specialized training in specific job specialties. Decades of studies on occupationally specific physical requirements have characterized the dual aerobic and strength demands of typical military tasks; however, scientifically founded strategies to prepare recruits with a good mix of these 2 physiologically opposing capabilities have not been well established. High levels of aerobic training can compromise resistance training gains and increase injury rates. Resistance training requires a greater commitment of time and resources as well as a greater understanding of the science to produce true strength gains that may be beneficial to military performance. These are critical issues for modern armies with increased demands for well-prepared soldiers and fewer injury losses. The actual physical requirements tied to metrics of success in military jobs are also under renewed examination as women are increasingly integrated into military jobs previously performed only by men. At the third International Congress on Soldiers' Physical Performance, a roundtable of 10 physiologists with military expertise presented comparative perspectives on aerobic and strength training. These topics included the physiological basis of training benefits, how to train effectively, how to measure training effectiveness, considerations for the integration of women, and the big perspective. Key discussion points centered on (a) the significance of findings from research on integrated training, (b) strategies for effective strength development, and PMID:26506170

  14. Logistic risk model for the unique effects of inherent aerobic capacity on +Gz tolerance before and after simulated weightlessness.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, D A; Convertino, V A; Goldwater, D J; Sandler, H

    1987-11-01

    Small sample size (n less than 10) and inappropriate analysis of multivariate data have hindered previous attempts to describe which physiologic and demographic variables are most important in determining how long humans can tolerate acceleration. Data from previous centrifuge studies conducted at NASA/Ames Research Center, utilizing a 7-14 d bed rest protocol to simulate weightlessness, were included in the current investigation. After review, data on 25 women and 22 men were available for analysis. Study variables included gender, age, weight, height, percent body fat, resting heart rate, mean arterial pressure, VO2max, and plasma volume. Since the dependent variable was time to greyout (failure), two contemporary biostatistical modeling procedures (proportional hazard and logistic discriminant function) were used to estimate risk, given a particular subject's profile. After adjusting for pre-bed-rest tolerance time, none of the profile variables remained in the risk equation for post-bed-rest tolerance greyout. However, prior to bed rest, risk of greyout could be predicted with 91% accuracy. All of the profile variables except weight, MAP, and those related to inherent aerobic capacity (VO2max, percent body fat, resting heart rate) entered the risk equation for pre-bed-rest greyout. A cross-validation using 24 new subjects indicated a very stable model for risk prediction, accurate within 5% of the original equation. The result for the inherent fitness variables is significant in that a consensus as to whether an increased aerobic capacity is beneficial or detrimental has not been satisfactorily established. We conclude that tolerance to +Gz acceleration before and after simulated weightlessness is independent of inherent aerobic fitness. PMID:3689269

  15. Acclimation of aerobic-activated sludge degrading benzene derivatives and co-metabolic degradation activities of trichloroethylene by benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shizong; Yang, Qi; Bai, Zhiyong; Wang, Shidong; Wang, Yeyao; Nowak, Karolina M

    2015-01-01

    The acclimation of aerobic-activated sludge for degradation of benzene derivatives was investigated in batch experiments. Phenol, benzoic acid, toluene, aniline and chlorobenzene were concurrently added to five different bioreactors which contained the aerobic-activated sludge. After the acclimation process ended, the acclimated phenol-, benzoic acid-, toluene-, aniline- and chlorobenzene-grown aerobic-activated sludge were used to explore the co-metabolic degradation activities of trichloroethylene (TCE). Monod equation was employed to simulate the kinetics of co-metabolic degradation of TCE by benzene derivative-grown sludge. At the end of experiments, the mixed microbial communities grown under different conditions were identified. The results showed that the acclimation periods of microorganisms for different benzene derivatives varied. The maximum degradation rates of TCE for phenol-, benzoic acid-, toluene-, aniline- and chlorobenzene-grown aerobic sludge were 0.020, 0.017, 0.016, 0.0089 and 0.0047 mg g SS(-1) h(-1), respectively. The kinetic of TCE degradation in the absence of benzene derivative followed Monod equation well. Also, eight phyla were observed in the acclimated benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge. Each of benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge had different microbial community composition. This study can hopefully add new knowledge to the area of TCE co-metabolic by mixed microbial communities, and further the understanding on the function and applicability of aerobic-activated sludge.

  16. Longitudinal oscillation of launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, R. F.

    1973-01-01

    During powered flight a vehicle may develop longitudinal self-excited oscillations, so-called oscillations, of its structure. The energy supplying the vibration is tapped from the thrust by the activity of the system itself; that is, oscillation of the structure causes oscillation of the propellant system, especially of the pumps. In this way an oscillating thrust can be created that, by a feedback loop, may sustain the structural oscillation under certain circumstances. Two special features of the system proved to be essential for creation of instability. One is the effect of the inherent time interval that the thrust oscillation is lagging behind the structural oscillation. The other is the decreased of system mass caused by the exhausting of gas. The latter feature may cause an initially stable system to become unstable. To examine the stability of the system, a single mass-spring model, which is the result of a one-term Galerkin approach to the equation of motion, has been considered. The Nyquist stability criterion leads to a stability graph that shows the stability conditions in terms of the system parameter and also demonstrates the significance of time lag, feedback magnitude, and loss of mass. An important conclusion can be drawn from the analysis: large relative displacements of the pump-engine masses favor instability. This is also confirmed by flight measurements.

  17. Longitudinal Variations in Jupiter's Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Gierasch, P. J.; Tierney, G.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term studies of Jupiter's zonal wind field revealed temporal variations on the order of 20 to 40 m/s at many latitudes, greater than the typical data uncertainties of 1 to 10 m/s. No definitive periodicities were evident, however, though some latitudinally-confined signals did appear at periods relevant to the Quasi- Quadrennial Oscillation (Simon-Miller & Gierasch, Icarus, in press). As the QQO appears, from vertical temperature profiles, to propagate downward, it is unclear why a signal is not more obvious, unless other processes dominate over possibly weaker forcing from the QQO. An additional complication is that zonal wind profiles represent an average over some particular set of longitudes for an image pair and most data sets do not offer global wind coverage. Lien avoiding known features, such as the large anticyclonic vortices especially prevalent in the south, there can be distinct variations in longitude. We present results on the full wind field from Voyager and Cassini data, showing apparent longitudinal variations of up to 60 m/s or more. These are particularly obvious near disruptions such as the South Equatorial Disturbance, even when the feature itself is not clearly visible. These two dates represent very different states of the planet for comparison: Voyagers 1 & 2 flew by Jupiter shortly after a global upheaval, while many regions were in a disturbed state, while the Cassini view is typical of a more quiescent period present during much of the 1990s and early 2000s.

  18. Modeling Disease Progression with Longitudinal Markers.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Lurdes Y T; Etzioni, Ruth; Morrell, Christopher; Müller, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we propose a Bayesian natural history model for disease progression based on the joint modeling of longitudinal biomarker levels, age at clinical detection of disease and disease status at diagnosis. We establish a link between the longitudinal responses and the natural history of the disease by using an underlying latent disease process which describes the onset of the disease and models the transition to an advanced stage of the disease as dependent on the biomarker levels. We apply our model to the data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging on prostate specific antigen (PSA) to investigate the natural history of prostate cancer. PMID:24453387

  19. Longitudinal dynamics and tomography in the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Stogin, J.; Sen, T.; Moore, R. S.

    2012-01-10

    Motivated by the desire to understand the longitudinal effects of beam-beam forces, we study the longitudinal dynamics of protons and anti-protons at injection and top energy in the Tevatron. Multi-turn data of the longitudinal profiles are captured to reveal information about frequencies of oscillation, and changes in the bunch distributions. Tomographic reconstruction is used to create phase space maps which are subsequently used to find the momentum distributions. Changes in these distributions for both proton and anti-proton beams are also followed through the operational cycle. We report too on the details of interesting dynamics and some unexpected findings.

  20. What are the differences between aerobic and anaerobic toxic effects of sulfonamides on Escherichia coli?

    PubMed

    Qin, Mengnan; Lin, Zhifen; Wang, Dali; Long, Xi; Zheng, Min; Qiu, Yanling

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria in the environment face the threat of antibiotics. However, most studies investigating the toxicity and toxicity mechanisms of antibiotics have been conducted on microorganisms in aerobic conditions, while studies examining the anaerobic toxicity and toxicity mechanisms of antibiotics are still limited. In this study, we determined the aerobic and anaerobic toxicities of sulfonamides (SAs) on Escherichia coli. Next, a comparison of the aerobic and anaerobic toxicities indicated that the SAs could be divided into three groups: Group I: log(1/EC50-anaerobic)>log(1/EC50-aerobic) (EC50-anaerobic/EC50-aerobic, the median effective concentration under anaerobic/aerobic conditions), Group II: log(1/EC50-anaerobic)≈log(1/EC50-aerobic), and Group III: log(1/EC50-anaerobic)aerobic). Furthermore, this division was not based on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level or the interaction energy (Ebinding) value, which represents the affinity between SAs and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) but rather on the total binding energy. Furthermore, SAs with greatly similar structures were categorized into different groups. This deep insight into the difference between aerobic and anaerobic toxicities will benefit environmental science, and the results of this study will serve as a reference for the risk assessment of chemicals in the environment.

  1. Removal of Pesticides and Inorganic Contaminants in Anaerobic and Aerobic Biological Contactors

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation contains data on the removal of pesticides (acetochlor, clethodim, dicrotophos), ammonia, nitrate, bromate and perchlorate through aerobic and anaerobic biological treatment processes.

  2. Beyond vascularization: aerobic fitness is associated with N-acetylaspartate and working memory.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Kirk I; Weinstein, Andrea M; Sutton, Bradley P; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Voss, Michelle W; Chaddock, Laura; Szabo, Amanda N; Mailey, Emily L; White, Siobhan M; Wojcicki, Thomas R; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic exercise is a promising form of prevention for cognitive decline; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which exercise and fitness impacts the human brain. Several studies have postulated that increased regional brain volume and function are associated with aerobic fitness because of increased vascularization rather than increased neural tissue per se. We tested this position by examining the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels in the right frontal cortex using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. NAA is a nervous system specific metabolite found predominantly in cell bodies of neurons. We reasoned that if aerobic fitness was predominantly influencing the vasculature of the brain, then NAA levels should not vary as a function of aerobic fitness. However, if aerobic fitness influences the number or viability of neurons, then higher aerobic fitness levels might be associated with greater concentrations of NAA. We examined NAA levels, aerobic fitness, and cognitive performance in 137 older adults without cognitive impairment. Consistent with the latter hypothesis, we found that higher aerobic fitness levels offset an age-related decline in NAA. Furthermore, NAA mediated an association between fitness and backward digit span performance, suggesting that neuronal viability as measured by NAA is important in understanding fitness-related cognitive enhancement. Since NAA is found exclusively in neural tissue, our results indicate that the effect of fitness on the human brain extends beyond vascularization; aerobic fitness is associated with neuronal viability in the frontal cortex of older adults.

  3. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Lamego, Murilo Khede; Paes, Flávia; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Simoes-Silva, Vitor; Rocha, Susana Almeida; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Rimes, Ridson; Manochio, João; Budde, Henning; Wegner, Mirko; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders observed currently. It is a normal adaptive response to stress that allows coping with adverse situations. Nevertheless, when anxiety becomes excessive or disproportional in relation to the situation that evokes it or when there is not any special object directed at it, such as an irrational dread of routine stimuli, it becomes a disabling disorder and is considered to be pathological. The traditional treatment used is medication and cognitive behavioral psychotherapy, however, last years the practice of physical exercise, specifically aerobic exercise, has been investigated as a new non-pharmacological therapy for anxiety disorders. Thus, the aim of this article was to provide information on research results and key chains related to the therapeutic effects of aerobic exercise compared with other types of interventions to treat anxiety, which may become a useful clinical application in a near future. Researches have shown the effectiveness of alternative treatments, such as physical exercise, minimizing high financial costs and minimizing side effects. The sample analyzed, 66.8% was composed of women and 80% with severity of symptoms anxiety as moderate to severe. The data analyzed in this review allows us to claim that alternative therapies like exercise are effective in controlling and reducing symptoms, as 91% of anxiety disorders surveys have shown effective results in treating. However, there is still disagreement regarding the effect of exercise compared to the use of antidepressant symptoms and cognitive function in anxiety, this suggests that there is no consensus on the correct intensity of aerobic exercise as to achieve the best dose-response, with intensities high to moderate or moderate to mild. PMID:26556089

  4. Cognitive enhancement by transcranial laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jungyun; Castelli, Darla M; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2016-08-01

    This is the first randomized, controlled study comparing the cognitive effects of transcranial laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise on the same cognitive tasks. We examined whether transcranial infrared laser stimulation of the prefrontal cortex, acute high-intensity aerobic exercise, or the combination may enhance performance in sustained attention and working memory tasks. Sixty healthy young adults were randomly assigned to one of the following four treatments: (1) low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with infrared laser to two forehead sites while seated (total 8 min, 1064 nm continuous wave, 250 mW/cm(2), 60 J/cm(2) per site of 13.6 cm(2)); (2) acute exercise (EX) of high-intensity (total 20 min, with 10-min treadmill running at 85-90 % VO2max); (3) combined treatment (LLLT + EX); or (4) sham control (CON). Participants were tested for prefrontal measures of sustained attention with the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and working memory with the delayed match-to-sample task (DMS) before and after the treatments. As compared to CON, both LLLT and EX reduced reaction time in the PVT [F(1.56) = 4.134, p = 0.01, η (2)  = 0.181] and increased the number of correct responses in the DMS [F(1.56) = 4.690, p = 0.005, η (2)  = 0.201], demonstrating a significant enhancing effect of LLLT and EX on cognitive performance. LLLT + EX effects were similar but showed no significantly greater improvement on PVT and DMS than LLLT or EX alone. The transcranial infrared laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise treatments were similarly effective for cognitive enhancement, suggesting that they augment prefrontal cognitive functions similarly.

  5. Degradation of acid orange 7 in an aerobic biofilm.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Michael F; Kinkle, Brian K; Bishop, Paul L

    2002-01-01

    A stable microbial biofilm community capable of completely mineralizing the azo dye acid orange 7 (AO7) was established in a laboratory scale rotating drum bioreactor (RDBR) using waste liquor from a sewage treatment plant. A broad range of environmental conditions including pH (5.8-8.2), nitrification (0.0-4.0 mM nitrite), and aeration (0.2-6.2 mg O2 l(-1)) were evaluated for their effects on the biodegradation of AO7. Furthermore the biofilm maintained its biodegradative ability for over a year while the effects of these environmental conditions were evaluated. Reduction of the azo bond followed by degradation of the resulting aromatic amine appears to be the mechanism by which this dye is biodegraded. Complete loss of color, sulfanilic acid, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) indicate that AO7 is mineralized. To our knowledge this is the first reported occurrence of a sulfonated phenylazonaphthol dye being completely mineralized under aerobic conditions. Two bacterial strains (ICX and SAD4i) originally isolated from the RDBR were able to mineralize, in co-culture, up to 90% of added AO7. During mineralization of AO7, strain ICX reduces the azo bond under aerobic conditions and consumes the resulting cleavage product 1-amino-2-naphthol. Strain SAD4i consumes the other cleavage product, sulfanilic acid. The ability of the RDBR biofilm to aerobically mineralize an azo dye without exogenous carbon and nitrogen sources suggests that this approach could be used to remediate industrial wastewater contaminated with spent dye.

  6. Aerobic Granules: Microbial Landscape and Architecture, Stages, and Practical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Holliger, Christof

    2014-01-01

    For the successful application of aerobic granules in wastewater treatment, granules containing an appropriate microbial assembly able to remove contaminants should be retained and propagated within the reactor. To manipulate and/or optimize this process, a good understanding of the formation and dynamic architecture of the granules is desirable. Models of granules often assume a spherical shape with an outer layer and an inner core, but limited information is available regarding the extent of deviations from such assumptions. We report on new imaging approaches to gain detailed insights into the structural characteristics of aerobic granules. Our approach stained all components of the granule to obtain a high quality contrast in the images; hence limitations due to thresholding in the image analysis were overcome. A three-dimensional reconstruction of the granular structure was obtained that revealed the mesoscopic impression of the cavernlike interior of the structure, showing channels and dead-end paths in detail. In “old” granules, large cavities allowed for the irrigation and growth of dense microbial colonies along the path of the channels. Hence, in some areas, paradoxically higher biomass content was observed in the inner part of the granule compared to the outer part. Microbial clusters “rooting” from the interior of the mature granule structure indicate that granules mainly grow via biomass outgrowth and not by aggregation of small particles. We identify and discuss phenomena contributing to the life cycle of aerobic granules. With our approach, volumetric tetrahedral grids are generated that may be used to validate complex models of granule formation. PMID:24657859

  7. Aerobic and anaerobic swimming performance of individual Atlantic cod.

    PubMed

    Reidy, S P; Kerr, S R; Nelson, J A

    2000-01-01

    Individual Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were exercised using three different measures of swimming performance. (1) An endurance test (critical swimming speed, U(crit), protocol) designed to assess predominantly aerobic endurance swimming (duration hours). (2) An acceleration test (U(burst)), in which the fish were required to swim against a rapidly increasing current until exhausted (duration minutes). This test was designed to assess predominantly glycolytic-based swimming capacity. (3) A sprint test that examined the animals' ability to swim away from a sudden stimulus (duration seconds). Rates of oxygen consumption ( mdot (O2)) during the endurance test and various morphological variables of the individual fish were also measured. Both aerobic and anaerobic swimming performance of individual cod were found to be significantly repeatable over a 3 month period. mdot (O2) during the U(crit) protocol was also significantly repeatable at intermediate to high swimming speeds, but not at low speeds. Our results support extrapolation from metabolic rates at incremented swimming speeds to zero activity as the best way to measure standard metabolic rate in cod. While performance in the U(crit) test and the sprint test were positively correlated, there was a negative correlation between performance in the U(crit) test and performance in the U(burst) test. This implies a potential trade-off in individual cod between stamina and the ability to use glycolytic-based locomotion. Inter-individual variation in swimming performance during these protocols, while substantial, was not correlated with individual variation in fin surface areas, age or morphology. However, U(burst) performance was dependent upon the sex of the animals, while performance during the U(crit) protocol was significantly correlated with their aerobic scope for activity.

  8. Motor abilities and aerobic fitness of obese children.

    PubMed

    Korsten-Reck, U; Kaspar, T; Korsten, K; Kromeyer-Hauschild, K; Bös, K; Berg, A; Dickhuth, H-H

    2007-09-01

    Obesity is considered to be epidemic worldwide. Stopping further progression interdisciplinary, outpatient intervention therapy programs for obese children have become increasingly important. FITOC (Freiburg Intervention Trial for Obese Children) consists of a combination of organized sports, behavioral therapy and nutritional advice. The effectiveness of the therapy is determined on the basis of anthropometrical and physical performance data. The purpose of this report is to give a differentiated view of the motor abilities of obese children and to describe changes in the course of the therapy program FITOC. Data were collected on n = 49 obese children (BMI > 97th percentile) aged 8 - 12 in a pretest at the beginning and posttest at the end of the intensive phase of the therapy. These data were compared with an age-matched German reference group. Besides the General Sports-Motor Test (Allgemeiner Sportmotorischer Test [AST]), the BMI-SDS values, the body fat mass (FM %) and the aerobic capacity (Watt/kg body weight) were recorded. In the pretest, the running exercise results and the aerobic capacity checked ranged significantly below the values of the reference group. The performance in the coordinative tests of the AST was differentiated. The medicine-ball toss was significantly above average of the reference group. In the posttest, the BMI-SDS values and the body fat mass (% FM) decreased (p < 0.001) and the aerobic capacity improved (p < 0.001). Performance in all motor abilities tests improved and the difference between the strength of the obese children and the strength of the reference group decreased. This study demonstrates that in obese children weight-bearing activities are below average but not all motor abilities.

  9. Cognitive enhancement by transcranial laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jungyun; Castelli, Darla M; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2016-08-01

    This is the first randomized, controlled study comparing the cognitive effects of transcranial laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise on the same cognitive tasks. We examined whether transcranial infrared laser stimulation of the prefrontal cortex, acute high-intensity aerobic exercise, or the combination may enhance performance in sustained attention and working memory tasks. Sixty healthy young adults were randomly assigned to one of the following four treatments: (1) low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with infrared laser to two forehead sites while seated (total 8 min, 1064 nm continuous wave, 250 mW/cm(2), 60 J/cm(2) per site of 13.6 cm(2)); (2) acute exercise (EX) of high-intensity (total 20 min, with 10-min treadmill running at 85-90 % VO2max); (3) combined treatment (LLLT + EX); or (4) sham control (CON). Participants were tested for prefrontal measures of sustained attention with the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and working memory with the delayed match-to-sample task (DMS) before and after the treatments. As compared to CON, both LLLT and EX reduced reaction time in the PVT [F(1.56) = 4.134, p = 0.01, η (2)  = 0.181] and increased the number of correct responses in the DMS [F(1.56) = 4.690, p = 0.005, η (2)  = 0.201], demonstrating a significant enhancing effect of LLLT and EX on cognitive performance. LLLT + EX effects were similar but showed no significantly greater improvement on PVT and DMS than LLLT or EX alone. The transcranial infrared laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise treatments were similarly effective for cognitive enhancement, suggesting that they augment prefrontal cognitive functions similarly. PMID:27220529

  10. [Oropharyngeal aerobic flora in patients hospitalized in an ORL department].

    PubMed

    Dumont, Y; Borderon, E; Farcy, M C; Penot, J C

    1986-01-01

    As patients with E.N.T. carcinoma have relative frequent infectious complications of E.N.T. area, we have carried out a study or oropharyngeal colonization by aerobic bacteria and fungi in 84 hospitalized patients. The results of the tests are analysed according to different parameters, essentially the presence or the absence of neoplasia and antibiotherapy. The presence of one of these two factors does not substantially modify oropharyngeal flora of patients. However their association coincides with a height percentage of colonies of enterobacteriaceae, of pseudomonas and of fungi.

  11. Electron beam/biological processing of anaerobic and aerobic sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čuba, V.; Pospíšil, M.; Múčka, V.; Jeníček, P.; Dohányos, M.; Zábranská, J.

    2003-01-01

    Besides common chemical and biological methods, the radiation technology is a promising way of sludge treatment. The paper describes possibilities of combined accelerated electrons/biological processing of both anaerobic and aerobic sludge. Besides one-shot experiments, experimental reactors for the simulation of anaerobic processes have been used. Main effort has been aimed to decrease organic compounds concentration and overall volume of solids, to improve some physico-chemical parameters of sludge, to validate hygienisation effects of the ionising radiation, and in the case of anaerobic sludge, to increase the volume of the produced biogas. Positive effects of the electron beam processing have been observed on all previously named parameters.

  12. Development of a specific anaerobic field test for aerobic gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Alves, Christiano Robles Rodrigues; Borelli, Marcello Tadeu Caetano; Paineli, Vitor de Salles; Azevedo, Rafael de Almeida; Borelli, Claudia Cristine Gomes; Lancha Junior, Antônio Herbert; Gualano, Bruno; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini

    2015-01-01

    The current investigation aimed to develop a valid specific field test to evaluate anaerobic physical performance in Aerobic Gymnastics athletes. We first designed the Specific Aerobic Gymnast Anaerobic Test (SAGAT), which included gymnastics-specific elements performed in maximal repeated sprint fashion, with a total duration of 80-90 s. In order to validate the SAGAT, three independent sub-studies were performed to evaluate the concurrent validity (Study I, n=8), the reliability (Study II, n=10) and the sensitivity (Study III, n=30) of the test in elite female athletes. In Study I, a positive correlation was shown between lower-body Wingate test and SAGAT performance (Mean power: p = 0.03, r = -0.69, CI: -0.94 to 0.03 and Peak power: p = 0.02, r = -0.72, CI: -0.95 to -0.04) and between upper-body Wingate test and SAGAT performance (Mean power: p = 0.03, r = -0.67, CI: -0.94 to 0.02 and Peak power: p = 0.03, r = -0.69, CI: -0.94 to 0.03). Additionally, plasma lactate was similarly increased in response to SAGAT (p = 0.002), lower-body Wingate Test (p = 0.021) and a simulated competition (p = 0.007). In Study II, no differences were found between the time to complete the SAGAT in repeated trials (p = 0.84; Cohen's d effect size = 0.09; ICC = 0.97, CI: 0.89 to 0.99; MDC95 = 0.12 s). Finally, in Study III the time to complete the SAGAT was significantly lower during the competition cycle when compared to the period before the preparatory cycle (p < 0.001), showing an improvement in SAGAT performance after a specific Aerobic Gymnastics training period. Taken together, these data have demonstrated that SAGAT is a specific, reliable and sensitive measurement of specific anaerobic performance in elite female Aerobic Gymnastics, presenting great potential to be largely applied in training settings. PMID:25876039

  13. Aerobic Microbial Respiration in Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene M.; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Schunck, Harald; Loescher, Carolin; Desai, Dhwani K.; LaRoche, Julie; Schmitz-Streit, Ruth; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.

    2014-05-01

    In the oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the tropical oceans, sluggish ventilation combined with strong microbial respiration of sinking organic matter results in the depletion of oxygen (O2). When O2 concentrations drop below ~5 µmol/L, organic matter is generally assumed to be respired with nitrate, ultimately leading to the loss of fixed inorganic nitrogen via anammox and denitrification. However, direct measurements of microbial O2 consumption at low O2 levels are - apart from a single experiment conducted in the OMZ off Peru - so far lacking. At the same time, consistently observed active aerobic ammonium and nitrite oxidation at non-detectable O2 concentrations (<1 µmol/L) in all major OMZs, suggests aerobic microorganisms, likely including heterotrophs, to be well adapted to near-anoxic conditions. Consequently, microaerobic (≤5 µmol/L) remineralization of organic matter, and thus release of ammonium, in low- O2 environments might be significantly underestimated at present. Here we present extensive measurements of microbial O2 consumption in OMZ waters, combined with highly sensitive O2 (STOX) measurements and meta-omic functional gene analyses. Short-term incubation experiments with labelled O2 (18-18O2) carried out in the Namibian and Peruvian OMZ, revealed persistent aerobic microbial activity at depths with non-detectable concentrations of O2 (≤50 nmol/L). In accordance, examination of metagenomes and metatranscriptomes from Chilean and Peruvian OMZ waters identified genes encoding for terminal respiratory oxidases with high O2 affinities as well as their expression by diverse microbial communities. Oxygen consumption was particularly enhanced near the upper OMZ boundaries and could mostly (~80%) be assigned to heterotrophic microbial activity. Compared to previously identified anaerobic microbial processes, microaerobic organic matter respiration was the dominant remineralization pathway and source of ammonium (~90%) in the upper Namibian and

  14. Skin temperature modifies the impact of hypohydration on aerobic performance.

    PubMed

    Kenefick, R W; Cheuvront, S N; Palombo, L J; Ely, B R; Sawka, M N

    2010-07-01

    This study determined the effects of hypohydration on aerobic performance in compensable [evaporative cooling requirement (E(req)) < maximal evaporative cooling (E(max))] conditions of 10 degrees C [7 degrees C wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT)], 20 degrees C (16 degrees C WBGT), 30 degrees C (22 degrees C WBGT), and 40 degrees C (27 degrees C WBGT) ambient temperature (T(a)). Our hypothesis was that 4% hypohydration would impair aerobic performance to a greater extent with increasing heat stress. Thirty-two men [22 +/- 4 yr old, 45 +/- 8 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) peak O(2) uptake (Vo(2 peak))] were divided into four matched cohorts (n = 8) and tested at one of four T(a) in euhydrated (EU) and hypohydrated (HYPO, -4% body mass) conditions. Subjects completed 30 min of preload exercise (cycle ergometer, 50% Vo(2 peak)) followed by a 15 min self-paced time trial. Time-trial performance (total work, change from EU) was -3% (P = 0.1), -5% (P = 0.06), -12% (P < 0.05), and -23% (P < 0.05) in 10 degrees C, 20 degrees C, 30 degrees C, and 40 degrees C T(a), respectively. During preload exercise, skin temperature (T(sk)) increased by approximately 4 degrees C per 10 degrees C T(a), while core (rectal) temperature (T(re)) values were similar within EU and HYPO conditions across all T(a). A significant relationship (P < 0.05, r = 0.61) was found between T(sk) and the percent decrement in time-trial performance. During preload exercise, hypohydration generally blunted the increases in cardiac output and blood pressure while reducing blood volume over time in 30 degrees C and 40 degrees C T(a). Our conclusions are as follows: 1) hypohydration degrades aerobic performance to a greater extent with increasing heat stress; 2) when T(sk) is >29 degrees C, 4% hypohydration degrades aerobic performance by approximately 1.6% for each additional 1 degrees C T(sk); and 3) cardiovascular strain from high skin blood flow requirements combined with blood volume reductions induced by hypohydration

  15. Development of a Specific Anaerobic Field Test for Aerobic Gymnastics

    PubMed Central

    Paineli, Vitor de Salles; Azevedo, Rafael de Almeida; Borelli, Claudia Cristine Gomes; Lancha Junior, Antônio Herbert; Gualano, Bruno; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini

    2015-01-01

    The current investigation aimed to develop a valid specific field test to evaluate anaerobic physical performance in Aerobic Gymnastics athletes. We first designed the Specific Aerobic Gymnast Anaerobic Test (SAGAT), which included gymnastics-specific elements performed in maximal repeated sprint fashion, with a total duration of 80-90 s. In order to validate the SAGAT, three independent sub-studies were performed to evaluate the concurrent validity (Study I, n=8), the reliability (Study II, n=10) and the sensitivity (Study III, n=30) of the test in elite female athletes. In Study I, a positive correlation was shown between lower-body Wingate test and SAGAT performance (Mean power: p = 0.03, r = -0.69, CI: -0.94 to 0.03 and Peak power: p = 0.02, r = -0.72, CI: -0.95 to -0.04) and between upper-body Wingate test and SAGAT performance (Mean power: p = 0.03, r = -0.67, CI: -0.94 to 0.02 and Peak power: p = 0.03, r = -0.69, CI: -0.94 to 0.03). Additionally, plasma lactate was similarly increased in response to SAGAT (p = 0.002), lower-body Wingate Test (p = 0.021) and a simulated competition (p = 0.007). In Study II, no differences were found between the time to complete the SAGAT in repeated trials (p = 0.84; Cohen’s d effect size = 0.09; ICC = 0.97, CI: 0.89 to 0.99; MDC95 = 0.12 s). Finally, in Study III the time to complete the SAGAT was significantly lower during the competition cycle when compared to the period before the preparatory cycle (p < 0.001), showing an improvement in SAGAT performance after a specific Aerobic Gymnastics training period. Taken together, these data have demonstrated that SAGAT is a specific, reliable and sensitive measurement of specific anaerobic performance in elite female Aerobic Gymnastics, presenting great potential to be largely applied in training settings. PMID:25876039

  16. New records in aerobic power among octogenarian lifelong endurance athletes

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Erik; Galpin, Andrew; Kaminsky, Leonard; Jemiolo, Bozena; Fink, William; Trappe, Todd; Jansson, Anna; Gustafsson, Thomas; Tesch, Per

    2013-01-01

    We examined whole body aerobic capacity and myocellular markers of oxidative metabolism in lifelong endurance athletes [n = 9, 81 ± 1 yr, 68 ± 3 kg, body mass index (BMI) = 23 ± 1 kg/m2] and age-matched, healthy, untrained men (n = 6; 82 ± 1 y, 77 ± 5 kg, BMI = 26 ± 1 kg/m2). The endurance athletes were cross-country skiers, including a former Olympic champion and several national/regional champions, with a history of aerobic exercise and participation in endurance events throughout their lives. Each subject performed a maximal cycle test to assess aerobic capacity (V̇o2max). Subjects had a resting vastus lateralis muscle biopsy to assess oxidative enzymes (citrate synthase and βHAD) and molecular (mRNA) targets associated with mitochondrial biogenesis [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam)]. The octogenarian athletes had a higher (P < 0.05) absolute (2.6 ± 0.1 vs. 1.6 ± 0.1 l/min) and relative (38 ± 1 vs. 21 ± 1 ml·kg−1·min−1) V̇o2max, ventilation (79 ± 3 vs. 64 ± 7 l/min), heart rate (160 ± 5 vs. 146 ± 8 beats per minute), and final workload (182 ± 4 vs. 131 ± 14 W). Skeletal muscle oxidative enzymes were 54% (citrate synthase) and 42% (βHAD) higher (P < 0.05) in the octogenarian athletes. Likewise, basal PGC-1α and Tfam mRNA were 135% and 80% greater (P < 0.05) in the octogenarian athletes. To our knowledge, the V̇o2max of the lifelong endurance athletes is the highest recorded in humans >80 yr of age and comparable to nonendurance trained men 40 years younger. The superior cardiovascular and skeletal muscle health profile of the octogenarian athletes provides a large functional reserve above the aerobic frailty threshold and is associated with lower risk for disability and mortality. PMID:23065759

  17. Aerobic bacterial flora of addled raptor eggs in Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Houston, C S; Saunders, J R; Crawford, R D

    1997-04-01

    In south-central Saskatchewan, Canada, in 1986, 1987 and 1989, the aerobic bacterial flora was evaluated from 75 unhatched raptor eggs of three species: 42 of the Swainson's hawk (Buteo Swainsoni), 21 of the ferruginous hawk (Buteo regalis), and 12 of the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus). In addled Swainson's hawk eggs, the most common bacterial genera were Enterobacter (18 eggs), Escherichia (12), and Streptococcus (10). Seven great horned owl eggs and six ferruginous hawk eggs also contained Escherichia coli. Salmonella spp. were not isolated. These bacteria were interpreted as secondary contaminants and not the primary cause of reproductive failure. PMID:9131569

  18. Acute Aerobic Swimming Exercise Induces Distinct Effects in the Contractile Reactivity of Rat Ileum to KCl and Carbachol

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Layanne C. da Cunha; de Souza, Iara L. L.; Vasconcelos, Luiz H. C.; Brito, Aline de Freitas; Queiroga, Fernando R.; Silva, Alexandre S.; da Silva, Patrícia M.; Cavalcante, Fabiana de Andrade; da Silva, Bagnólia A.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic exercise promotes short-term physiological changes in the intestinal smooth muscle associated to the ischemia-reperfusion process; however, few studies have demonstrated its effect on the intestinal contractile function. Thus, this work describes our observations regarding the influence of acute aerobic swimming exercise in the contractile reactivity, oxidative stress, and morphology of rat ileum. Wistar rats were divided into sedentary (SED) and acutely exercised (EX-AC) groups. Animals were acclimated by 10, 10, and 30 min of swimming exercise in intercalated days 1 week before exercise. Then they were submitted to forced swimming for 1 h with a metal of 3% of their body weight attached to their body. Animals were euthanized immediately after the exercise section and the ileum was suspended in organ baths for monitoring isotonic contractions. The analysis of lipid peroxidation was performed in order to determinate the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as a marker of oxidative stress, and intestinal smooth muscle morphology by histological staining. Cumulative concentration-response curves to KCl were altered in the EX-AC with an increase in both its efficacy and potency (Emax = 153.2 ± 2.8%, EC50 = 1.3 ± 0.1 × 10−2 M) compared to the SED group (Emax = 100%, EC50 = 1.8 ± 0.1 × 10−2 M). Interestingly, carbachol had its efficacy and potency reduced in the EX-AC (Emax = 67.1 ± 1.4%, EC50 = 9.8 ± 1.4 × 10−7 M) compared to the SED group (Emax = 100%, EC50 = 2.0 ± 0.2 × 10−7 M). The exercise did not alter the MDA levels in the ileum (5.4 ± 0.6 μ mol/mL) in the EX-AC compared to the SED group (8.4 ± 1.7 μ mol/mL). Moreover, neither the circular nor the longitudinal smooth muscle layers thickness were modified by the exercise (66.2 ± 6.0 and 40.2 ± 2.6 μm, respectively), compared to the SED group (61.6 ± 6.4 and 34.8 ± 3.7 μm, respectively). Therefore, the ileum sensitivity to contractile agents is differentially altered by the acute aerobic

  19. The Watergate Learning Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training in Business and Industry, 1971

    1971-01-01

    The Watergate Learning Center, recently opened by Sterling Learning Center in Washington, D. C., blueprints the plan established by Sterling and Marriott Hotels for a national chain of learning centers with much the same facilities. (EB)

  20. Fireworks Information Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / Safety Education / Safety Education Centers En Español Fireworks Information Center This is an information center on ... Video Put Safety First This Fourth of July Fireworks Information What are consumer fireworks and where are ...

  1. Children's cancer centers

    MedlinePlus

    Pediatric cancer center; Pediatric oncology center; Comprehensive cancer center ... Treating childhood cancer is not the same as treating adult cancer. The cancers are different. So are the treatments and the ...

  2. The Lighthouse Program: A Longitudinal Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRose, Barbara

    1986-01-01

    Longitudinal data are presented from the Lighthouse Program for gifted students which features cluster grouping and a quota identification systems to ensure proportionate inclusion of minority students. (Author/CL)

  3. Mechanistic Studies of Wacker-Type Intramolecular Aerobic Oxidative Amination of Alkenes Catalyzed by Pd(OAc)2/Pyridine

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xuan; Liu, Guosheng; Popp, Brian V.; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2011-01-01

    Wacker-type oxidative cyclization reactions have been the subject of extensive research for several decades, but few systematic mechanistic studies of these reactions have been reported. The present study features experimental and DFT computational studies of Pd(OAc)2/pyridine-catalyzed intramolecular aerobic oxidative amination of alkenes. The data support a stepwise catalytic mechanism that consists of (1) steady-state formation of a PdII-amidate-alkene chelate with release of one equivalent of pyridine and AcOH from the catalyst center, (2) alkene insertion into a Pd–N bond, (3) reversible β-hydride elimination, (4) irreversible reductive elimination of AcOH, and (5) aerobic oxidation of palladium(0) to regenerate the active trans-Pd(OAc)2(py)2 catalyst. Evidence is obtained for two energetically viable pathways for the key C–N bond-forming step, featuring a pyridine-ligated and a pyridine-dissociated PdII species. Analysis of natural charges and bond lengths of the alkene-insertion transition state suggest that this reaction is best described as an intramolecular nucleophilic attack of the amidate ligand on the coordinated alkene. PMID:21250706

  4. Effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Ko, Kwang-Jun; Baek, Un-Hyo

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 female patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus selected among the participants of a chronic disease management exercise class at C Region Public Health Center in South Korea. Subjects were randomly assigned to the exercise group (n=8; age, 55.97 ± 7.37) or the control group (n=8; age, 57.53 ± 4.63) The exercise group performed aerobic and resistance exercises for 60 minutes per day, 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical markers, physical fitness, and heart rate variability were examined. [Results] After 12 weeks of exercise, weight, body fat percentage, waist circumference, blood glucose, insulin resistance, glycated hemoglobin level, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased and cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength significantly increased in the exercise group. Although heart rate variability measures showed favorable changes with the exercise program, none were significant. [Conclusion] Although the exercise program did not show notable changes in heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes within the timeframe of the study, exercise may contribute to the prevention and control of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. PMID:27512271

  5. Effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Ko, Kwang-Jun; Baek, Un-Hyo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 female patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus selected among the participants of a chronic disease management exercise class at C Region Public Health Center in South Korea. Subjects were randomly assigned to the exercise group (n=8; age, 55.97 ± 7.37) or the control group (n=8; age, 57.53 ± 4.63) The exercise group performed aerobic and resistance exercises for 60 minutes per day, 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical markers, physical fitness, and heart rate variability were examined. [Results] After 12 weeks of exercise, weight, body fat percentage, waist circumference, blood glucose, insulin resistance, glycated hemoglobin level, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased and cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength significantly increased in the exercise group. Although heart rate variability measures showed favorable changes with the exercise program, none were significant. [Conclusion] Although the exercise program did not show notable changes in heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes within the timeframe of the study, exercise may contribute to the prevention and control of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. PMID:27512271

  6. Digital Longitudinal Tomography Using Backprojection.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampp, Thomas Dalton

    1987-09-01

    Conventional tomography allows a single section to be demonstrated on film with a single sweep of an x -ray tube. Each sweep of the x-ray tube exposes the patient to approximately one rad of radiation dose. This tomographic method has been extended by using a backprojection method to allow six degrees of freedom in the selection of the plane to be synthesized. As many planes as desired can be retrospectively tomosynthesized from a single sweep of the apparatus. This can greatly reduce the dose to the patient as well as eliminate patient motion artifacts that would occur with individually acquired slices using the traditional analogue film method. A linear tomographic table was modified by the addition of a digital imaging chain so that a set of projection images could be acquired with each sweep of the apparatus. The digital images were manipulated by a computer to tomosynthesize retrospectively any desired plane. This advanced tomographic system would complement CT which cannot yet match the resolution of this system for longitudinal studies. Various special phantoms were imaged in order to provide data which were used to determine the operating characteristics of this particular system. The characteristics measured are the system gray level response, sampling density, modulation transfer function, small area contrast, detection limits, signal-to-noise ratio, noise Wiener spectrum, and slice thickness. This laboratory piece of equipment could significantly detect approximately 1.7% contrast with a 1 mm pixel size. The MTF values and limiting resolution were approximately one -third of what can be obtained with current CT scanners. The system performed precisely as the computer simulations indicated. The dynamic range of the display is less than that of the image. Windowing of the final image can increase displayed contrast up to the limits imposed by noise. This is an improvement compared to film. With current state -of-the-art equipment, a little engineering and

  7. 14 CFR 23.145 - Longitudinal control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Longitudinal control. 23.145 Section 23.145... Maneuverability § 23.145 Longitudinal control. (a) With the airplane as nearly as possible in trim at 1.3 VS1, it... application of single-handed control forces exceeding those specified in § 23.143(c). The trimming...

  8. Diabetes Stories: Use of Patient Narratives of Diabetes to Teach Patient-Centered Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumagai, Arno K.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Ross, Paula T.

    2009-01-01

    A critical component to instituting compassionate, patient-centered diabetes care is the training of health care providers. Our institution developed the Family Centered Experience (FCE), a comprehensive 2-year preclinical program based on longitudinal conversations with patients about living with chronic illness. The goal of the FCE is to explore…

  9. Aeration control of thermophilic aerobic digestion using fluorescence monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Kee; Oh, Byung-Keun

    2009-01-01

    The thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) process is recognized as an effective method for rapid waste activated sludge (WAS) degradation and the deactivation of pathogenic microorganisms. Yet, high energy costs due to heating and aeration have limited the commercialization of economical TAD processes. Previous research on autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) has already reduced the heating cost. However, only a few studies have focused on reducing the aeration cost. Therefore, this study applied a two-step aeration control strategy to a fill-and-draw mode semicontinuous TAD process. The NADH-dependent fluorescence was monitored throughout the TAD experiment, and the aeration rate shifted according to the fluorescence intensity. As a result, the simple two-step aeration control operation achieved a 20.3% reduction in the total aeration, while maintaining an effective and stable operation. It is also expected that more savings can be achieved with a further reduction of the lower aeration rate or multisegmentation of the aeration rate. PMID:19190414

  10. Toxic effects of butyl elastomers on aerobic methane oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemann, Helge; Steinle, Lea I.; Blees, Jan H.; Krause, Stefan; Bussmann, Ingeborg; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Treude, Tina

    2013-04-01

    Large quantities of the potent greenhouse gas methane are liberated into the water column of marine and lacustrine environments where it may be consumed by aerobic methane oxidising bacteria before reaching the atmosphere.The reliable quantification of aerobic methane oxidation (MOx) rates is consequently of paramount importance for estimating methane budgets and to understand the controls on water column methane cycling. A widely used set of methods for measuring MOx rates is based on the incubation of water samples during which the consumption of methane is monitored, for instance with radio-tracer assays. Typically, incubation vessels are sealed with butyl rubber stoppers because these elastomers are essentially impermeable for gases at the relevant time scales. We tested the effect of different stopper materials (unmodified- and halogenated butyl rubber) on MOx activity in environmental samples and in cultures of methane oxidising bacteria. MOx rates in samples sealed with unmodified butyl rubber were > 75% lower compared to parallel incubations with halogenated butyl rubber seals, suggesting inhibiting/toxic effects associated with the use of unmodified butyl elastomers. To further explore the cause of these effects, we analysed aqueous extracts of the different stoppers. Halogenated butyl rubber stoppers appeared to bleed off comparably little amounts of organics. In stark contrast, extracts of unmodified butyl rubber were contaminated with various organic compounds including potential bactericides such as benzyltoluenes, phenylalkanes and benzuothiazoles. We also found tetramethylthiourea, a scavenger of active oxygen species, which may inhibit the MOx pathway.

  11. Critical period of weed control in aerobic rice.

    PubMed

    Anwar, M P; Juraimi, A S; Samedani, B; Puteh, A; Man, A

    2012-01-01

    Critical period of weed control is the foundation of integrated weed management and, hence, can be considered the first step to design weed control strategy. To determine critical period of weed control of aerobic rice, field trials were conducted during 2010/2011 at Universiti Putra Malaysia. A quantitative series of treatments comprising two components, (a) increasing duration of weed interference and (b) increasing length of weed-free period, were imposed. Critical period was determined through Logistic and Gompertz equations. Critical period varied between seasons; in main season, it started earlier and lasted longer, as compared to off-season. The onset of the critical period was found relatively stable between seasons, while the end was more variable. Critical period was determined as 7-49 days after seeding in off-season and 7-53 days in main season to achieve 95% of weed-free yield, and 23-40 days in off-season and 21-43 days in main season to achieve 90% of weed-free yield. Since 5% yield loss level is not practical from economic view point, a 10% yield loss may be considered excellent from economic view point. Therefore, aerobic rice should be kept weed-free during 21-43 days for better yield and higher economic return.

  12. The relationship between childhood aerobic fitness and brain functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Kamijo, Keita; Takeda, Yuji; Takai, Yohei; Haramura, Miki

    2016-10-01

    Several studies have indicated that higher levels of childhood aerobic fitness is associated with superior cognitive function, and this association is disproportionately observed in tasks requiring greater top-down control. We designed the current study to clarify the relationship between childhood fitness and top-down control in terms of functional connectivity among brain regions, by evaluating phase-locking values (PLVs), which is a measure of frequency-specific phase synchrony between electroencephalographic signals during a visual search task. Lower-fit and higher-fit children performed a visual search task that included feature search and conjunction search conditions. The conjunction search condition required greater top-down control to reduce interference from task-irrelevant distractors that shared a basic feature with the target. Results indicated that higher-fit children exhibited higher response accuracy relative to lower-fit children across search conditions. The results of PLVs showed that higher-fit children had greater functional connectivity for the conjunction relative to the feature search condition, whereas lower-fit children showed no difference in functional connectivity between search conditions. Furthermore, PLVs showed different time courses between groups; that is, higher-fit children sustained upregulation of top-down control throughout the task period, whereas lower-fit children transiently upregulated top-down control after stimulus onset and could not sustain the upregulation. These findings suggest that higher levels of childhood aerobic fitness is related to brain functional connectivity involved in the sustained upregulation of top-down control.

  13. Aerobic biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by bacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Robrock, Kristin R; Coelhan, Mehmet; Sedlak, David L; Alvarez-Cohent, Lisa

    2009-08-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants that have been used in consumer products and furniture for three decades. Currently, very little is known about their fate in the environment and specifically about their susceptibility to aerobic biotransformation. Here, we investigated the ability of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading bacteria Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 and Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 to transform mono- through hexa-BDEs at ppb levels. We also tested the PBDE transforming abilities of the related strain Rhodococcus sp. RR1 and the ether-degrading Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190. The two PCB-degrading strains transformed all of the mono- through penta-BDEs and strain LB400 transformed one of the hexa-BDEs. The extent of transformation was inversely proportional to the degree of bromination. Strains RR1 and CB1190 were only able to transform the less brominated mono- and di-BDE congeners. RHA1 released stoichiometric quantities of bromide while transforming mono- and tetra-BDE congeners. LB400 instead converted most of a mono-BDE to a hydroxylated mono-BDE. This is the first report of aerobic transformation of tetra-, penta,- and hexa-BDEs as well as the first report of stoichiometric release of bromide during PBDE transformation.

  14. Comparison of sidestream treatment technologies: post aerobic digestion and Anammox.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Heidi; Johnson, Thomas D; Johnson, Bruce R; Oerke, David; Graziano, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Post aerobic digestion (PAD) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) are sidestream treatment technologies which are both excellent options for the reduction of nitrogen recycled back to the liquid stream without the need for supplemental carbon or alkalinity. However, the achievement of this goal is where the similarities between the two technologies end. PAD is an advanced digestion process where aerobic digestion is designed to follow anaerobic digestion. Other benefits of PAD include volatile solids reduction, odor reduction, and struvite formation reduction. Anammox harnesses a specific species of autotrophic bacteria that can help achieve partial nitritation/deammonification. Other benefits of Anammox include lower energy consumption due to requiring less oxygen compared with conventional nitrification. This manuscript describes the unique benefits and challenges of each technology. Example installations are presented with a narrative of how and why the technology was selected. A whole plant simulator is used to compare and contrast the mass balances and net present value costs on an 'apples to apples' basis. The discussion includes descriptions of conditions under which each technology would potentially be the most beneficial and cost-effective against a baseline facility without sidestream treatment. PMID:27232417

  15. Cardiovascular response to dynamic aerobic exercise: a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Magosso, E; Ursino, M

    2002-11-01

    An original mathematical model of the cardiovascular response to dynamic exercise is presented. It includes the pulsating heart, the pulmonary and systemic circulation, a separate description of the vascular bed in active tissues, the local metabolic vasodilation in these tissues and the mechanical effects of muscular contractions on venous return. Moreover, the model provides a description of the ventilatory response to exercise and various neural regulatory mechanisms working on cardiovascular parameters. These mechanisms embrace the so-called central command, the arterial baroreflex and the lung inflation reflex. All parameters in the model have been given in accordance with physiological data from the literature. In this work, the model has been used to simulate the steady-state value of the main cardiorespiratory quantities at different levels of aerobic exercise and the temporal pattern in the transient phase from rest to moderate exercise. Results suggest that, with suitable parameter values the model is able accurately to simulate the cardiorespiratory response in the overall range of aerobic exercise. This response is characterised by a moderate hypertension (10-30%) and by a conspicuous increase in systemic conductance (80-130%), heart rate (64-150%) and cardiac output (100-200%). The transient pattern exhibits three distinct phases (lasting approximately 5s, 15s and 2 min), that reflect the temporal heterogeneity of the mechanisms involved. The model may be useful to improve understanding of exercise physiology and as an educational tool to analyse the complexity of cardiovascular and respiratory regulation.

  16. [Stability control of aerobic granules using an innovative reactor].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Yang, Fan; Li, Sheng; Xie, Lei; Wang, Xiao-Chang

    2012-06-01

    Uncontrolled variation of diameter and density of aerobic granules frequently resulted in instability and thus brought about operation failure. An innovative reactor was therefore developed for the control of diameter and density of aerobic granules. There were two ways to select the sludge, one was the short settling time select the big and dense granules in the reactor, and the other was the hydro cyclone that washed out the big and compact granules preventing big and compact fourthly growth in the reactor. By these means, the diameter of granules could maintained in the range of 300-1 000 microm for a long time, consequently, the long term stability could be obtained. According to the kinetic analysis, it was found that the energy maintenance coefficient was 0.08-0.10, which was much higher than the conventional granular system (0.06), and the ratio of the COD used for maintenance to the influent was higher than the conventional one. Additionally, the removal efficiencies of COD and ammonia were 92% and 60%, respectively.

  17. On Aerobic Exercise and Behavioral and Neural Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Swain, Rodney A.; Berggren, Kiersten L.; Kerr, Abigail L.; Patel, Ami; Peplinski, Caitlin; Sikorski, Angela M.

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic exercise promotes rapid and profound alterations in the brain. Depending upon the pattern and duration of exercise, these changes in the brain may extend beyond traditional motor areas to regions and structures normally linked to learning, cognition, and emotion. Exercise-induced alterations may include changes in blood flow, hormone and growth factor release, receptor expression, angiogenesis, apoptosis, neurogenesis, and synaptogenesis. Together, we believe that these changes underlie elevations of mood and prompt the heightened behavioral plasticity commonly observed following adoption of a chronic exercise regimen. In the following paper, we will explore both the psychological and psychobiological literatures relating to exercise effects on brain in both human and non-human animals and will attempt to link plastic changes in these neural structures to modifications in learned behavior and emotional expression. In addition, we will explore the therapeutic potential of exercise given recent reports that aerobic exercise may serve as a neuroprotectant and can also slow cognitive decline during normal and pathological aging. PMID:24961267

  18. Cardiovascular response to dynamic aerobic exercise: a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Magosso, E; Ursino, M

    2002-11-01

    An original mathematical model of the cardiovascular response to dynamic exercise is presented. It includes the pulsating heart, the pulmonary and systemic circulation, a separate description of the vascular bed in active tissues, the local metabolic vasodilation in these tissues and the mechanical effects of muscular contractions on venous return. Moreover, the model provides a description of the ventilatory response to exercise and various neural regulatory mechanisms working on cardiovascular parameters. These mechanisms embrace the so-called central command, the arterial baroreflex and the lung inflation reflex. All parameters in the model have been given in accordance with physiological data from the literature. In this work, the model has been used to simulate the steady-state value of the main cardiorespiratory quantities at different levels of aerobic exercise and the temporal pattern in the transient phase from rest to moderate exercise. Results suggest that, with suitable parameter values the model is able accurately to simulate the cardiorespiratory response in the overall range of aerobic exercise. This response is characterised by a moderate hypertension (10-30%) and by a conspicuous increase in systemic conductance (80-130%), heart rate (64-150%) and cardiac output (100-200%). The transient pattern exhibits three distinct phases (lasting approximately 5s, 15s and 2 min), that reflect the temporal heterogeneity of the mechanisms involved. The model may be useful to improve understanding of exercise physiology and as an educational tool to analyse the complexity of cardiovascular and respiratory regulation. PMID:12507317

  19. [Optimization of aerobic/anaerobic subsurface flow constructed wetlands].

    PubMed

    Li, Feng-Min; Shan, Shi; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Yang; Wang, Zheng-Yu

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies showed that setting aerobic and anaerobic paragraph segments in the subsurface constructed wetlands (SFCWs) can improve the COD, NH4(+)-N, and TN removal rate, whereas the oxygen enrichment environment which produced by the artificial aeration could restrain the NO3(-)-N and NO2(-)-N removal process, and to a certain extent, inhibit the denitrification in SFCWs Therefore, in this research the structure and technology of SFCW with aerobic and anaerobic paragraph segments were optimized, by using the multi-point water inflow and setting the corresponding section for the extra pollutant removal. Results showed that with the hydraulic load of 0.06 m3 x (m2 x d)(-1), the COD, NH4(+)-N and TN removal efficiencies in the optimized SFCW achieved 91.6%, 100% and 87.7% respectively. COD/N increased to 10 speedily after the inflow supplement. The multi-point water inflow could add carbon sources, and simultaneously maximum utilization of wetland to remove pollutants. The optimized SFCW could achieve the purposes of purification process optimization, and provide theoretical basis and application foundation for improving the total nitrogen removal efficiency.

  20. Nitroglycerin degradation mediated by soil organic carbon under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Bordeleau, Geneviève; Martel, Richard; Bamba, Abraham N'Valoua; Blais, Jean-François; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia

    2014-10-01

    The presence of nitroglycerin (NG) has been reported in shallow soils and pore water of several military training ranges. In this context, NG concentrations can be reduced through various natural attenuation processes, but these have not been thoroughly documented. This study aimed at investigating the role of soil organic matter (SOM) in the natural attenuation of NG, under aerobic conditions typical of shallow soils. The role of SOM in NG degradation has already been documented under anoxic conditions, and was attributed to SOM-mediated electron transfer involving different reducing agents. However, unsaturated soils are usually well-oxygenated, and it was not clear whether SOM could participate in NG degradation under these conditions. Our results from batch- and column-type experiments clearly demonstrate that in presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) leached from a natural soil, partial NG degradation can be achieved. In presence of particulate organic matter (POM) from the same soil, complete NG degradation was achieved. Furthermore, POM caused rapid sorption of NG, which should result in NG retention in the organic matter-rich shallow horizons of the soil profile, thus promoting degradation. Based on degradation products, the reaction pathway appears to be reductive, in spite of the aerobic conditions. The relatively rapid reaction rates suggest that this process could significantly participate in the natural attenuation of NG, both on military training ranges and in contaminated soil at production facilities.

  1. Improved Aerobic Colony Count Technique for Hydrophobic Grid Membrane Filters

    PubMed Central

    Parrington, Lorna J.; Sharpe, Anthony N.; Peterkin, Pearl I.

    1993-01-01

    The AOAC International official action procedure for performing aerobic colony counts on hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMFs) uses Trypticase soy-fast green FCF agar (FGA) incubated for 48 h. Microbial growths are various shades of green on a pale green background, which can cause problems for automated as well as manual counting. HGMFs which had been incubated 24 or 48 h at 35°C on Trypticase soy agar were flooded underneath with 1 to 2 ml of 0.1% triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) solution by simply lifting one corner of the filter while it was still on the agar and adding the reagent. Microbial growths on HGMFs were counted after color had been allowed to develop for 15 min at room temperature. With representative foods, virtually all colonies stained pink to red. Automated electronic counts made by using the MI-100 HGMF Interpreter were easier and more reliable than control HGMF counts made by the AOAC International official action procedure. Manual counting was easier as well because of increased visibility of the microbial growths. Except in the case of dairy products, 24-h TTC counts did not differ significantly from 48-h FGA counts, whereas the FGA counts at 24 h were always significantly lower, indicating that for many food products the HGMF TTC flooding method permits aerobic colony counts to be made after 24 h. PMID:16349033

  2. Aerobic biodegradation of 4-methylquinoline by a soil bacterium.

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, S D; Pfaller, S L; Shann, J R; Warshawsky, D; Kinkle, B K; Vestal, J R

    1996-01-01

    Methylquinolines and related N-heterocyclic aromatic compounds are common contaminants associated with the use of hydrocarbons in both coal gasification and wood treatment processes. These compounds have been found in groundwater, and many are known mutagens. A stable, five-member bacterial consortium able to degrade 4-methylquinoline was established by selective enrichment using soil collected from an abandoned coal gasification site. The consortium was maintained for 5 years by serial transfer in a medium containing 4-methylquinoline. A gram-negative soil bacterium, strain Lep1, was isolated from the consortium and shown to utilize 4-methylquinoline as a source of carbon and energy during growth in liquid medium. A time course experiment demonstrated that both the isolate Lep1 and the consortium containing Lep1 were able to degrade 4-methylquinoline under aerobic conditions. Complete degradation of 4-methylquinoline by either strain Lep1 alone or the consortium was characterized by the production and eventual disappearance of 2-hydroxy-4-methylquinoline, followed by the appearance and persistence of a second metabolite tentatively identified as a hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin. Currently, there is no indication that 4-methylquinoline degradation proceeds differently in the consortium culture compared with Lep1 alone. This is the first report of 4-methylquinoline biodegradation under aerobic conditions. PMID:8702284

  3. Aerobic biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by bacterial isolates

    PubMed Central

    Robrock, Kristin R.; Coelhan, Mehmet; Sedlak, David; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants that have been used in consumer products and furniture for three decades. Currently, very little is known about their fate in the environment and specifically about their susceptibility to aerobic biotransformation. Here, we investigated the ability of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading bacteria Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 and Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 to transform mono- through hexa-BDEs at ppb levels. We also tested the PBDE transforming abilities of related strain Rhodococcus sp. RR1 and the ether-degrading Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190. The two PCB-degrading strains transformed all of the mono- through penta-BDEs and strain LB400 transformed one of the hexa-BDEs. The extent of transformation was inversely proportional to the degree of bromination. Strains RR1 and CB1190 were only able to transform the less brominated mono- and di- BDE congeners. RHA1 released stoichiometric quantities of bromide while transforming mono- and tetra-BDE congeners. LB400 instead converted most of a mono-BDE to a hydroxylated mono-BDE. This is the first report of aerobic transformation of tetra-, penta- and hexa-BDEs as well as the first report of stoichiometric release of bromide during PBDE transformation. PMID:19731666

  4. Comparison of sidestream treatment technologies: post aerobic digestion and Anammox.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Heidi; Johnson, Thomas D; Johnson, Bruce R; Oerke, David; Graziano, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Post aerobic digestion (PAD) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) are sidestream treatment technologies which are both excellent options for the reduction of nitrogen recycled back to the liquid stream without the need for supplemental carbon or alkalinity. However, the achievement of this goal is where the similarities between the two technologies end. PAD is an advanced digestion process where aerobic digestion is designed to follow anaerobic digestion. Other benefits of PAD include volatile solids reduction, odor reduction, and struvite formation reduction. Anammox harnesses a specific species of autotrophic bacteria that can help achieve partial nitritation/deammonification. Other benefits of Anammox include lower energy consumption due to requiring less oxygen compared with conventional nitrification. This manuscript describes the unique benefits and challenges of each technology. Example installations are presented with a narrative of how and why the technology was selected. A whole plant simulator is used to compare and contrast the mass balances and net present value costs on an 'apples to apples' basis. The discussion includes descriptions of conditions under which each technology would potentially be the most beneficial and cost-effective against a baseline facility without sidestream treatment.

  5. Aerobic and anaerobic PCB biodegradation in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Abramowicz, D.A.

    1995-06-01

    Studies have identified two distinct biological processes capable of biotransforming polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): aerobic oxidative processes and anaerobic reductive processes. It is now known that these two complementary activities are occurring naturally in the environment. Anaerobic PCB dechlorination, responsible for the conversion of highly chlorinated PCBs to lightly chlorinated ortho-enriched congeners, has been documented extensively in the Hudson River and has been observed at many other sites throughout the world. The products from this anaerobic process are readily degradable by a wide range of aerobic bacteria, and it has now been shown that this process is occurring in surficial sediments in the Hudson River. The widespread anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs that has been observed in many river and marine sediments results in reduction of both the potential risk from and potential exposure to PCBs. The reductions in potential risk include reduced dioxin like toxicity and reduced carcinogenicity. The reduced PCB exposure realized upon dechlorination is manifested by reduced bioaccumulation in the food chain and by the increased anaerobic degradability of these products. 27 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Progressive hypoxia decouples activity and aerobic performance of skate embryos

    PubMed Central

    Di Santo, Valentina; Tran, Anna H.; Svendsen, Jon C.

    2016-01-01

    Although fish population size is strongly affected by survival during embryonic stages, our understanding of physiological responses to environmental stressors is based primarily on studies of post-hatch fishes. Embryonic responses to acute exposure to changes in abiotic conditions, including increase in hypoxia, could be particularly important in species exhibiting long developmental time, as embryos are unable to select a different environment behaviourally. Given that oxygen is key to metabolic processes in fishes and aquatic hypoxia is becoming more severe and frequent worldwide, organisms are expected to reduce their aerobic performance. Here, we examined the metabolic and behavioural responses of embryos of a benthic elasmobranch fish, the little skate (Leucoraja erinacea), to acute progressive hypoxia, by measuring oxygen consumption and movement (tail-beat) rates inside the egg case. Oxygen consumption rates were not significantly affected by ambient oxygen levels until reaching 45% air saturation (critical oxygen saturation, Scrit). Below Scrit, oxygen consumption rates declined rapidly, revealing an oxygen conformity response. Surprisingly, we observed a decoupling of aerobic performance and activity, as tail-beat rates increased, rather than matching the declining metabolic rates, at air saturation levels of 55% and below. These results suggest a significantly divergent response at the physiological and behavioural levels. While skate embryos depressed their metabolic rates in response to progressive hypoxia, they increased water circulation inside the egg case, presumably to restore normoxic conditions, until activity ceased abruptly around 9.8% air saturation. PMID:27293746

  7. Cultivation of aerobic granular sludge for rubber wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Rosman, Noor Hasyimah; Nor Anuar, Aznah; Othman, Inawati; Harun, Hasnida; Sulong Abdul Razak, Muhammad Zuhdi; Elias, Siti Hanna; Mat Hassan, Mohd Arif Hakimi; Chelliapan, Shreesivadass; Ujang, Zaini

    2013-02-01

    Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) was successfully cultivated at 27±1 °C and pH 7.0±1 during the treatment of rubber wastewater using a sequential batch reactor system mode with complete cycle time of 3 h. Results showed aerobic granular sludge had an excellent settling ability and exhibited exceptional performance in the organics and nutrients removal from rubber wastewater. Regular, dense and fast settling granule (average diameter, 1.5 mm; settling velocity, 33 m h(-1); and sludge volume index, 22.3 mL g(-1)) were developed in a single reactor. In addition, 96.5% COD removal efficiency was observed in the system at the end of the granulation period, while its ammonia and total nitrogen removal efficiencies were up to 94.7% and 89.4%, respectively. The study demonstrated the capabilities of AGS development in a single, high and slender column type-bioreactor for the treatment of rubber wastewater. PMID:23317554

  8. Bioremediation of textile azo dyes by aerobic bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Senan, Resmi C; Abraham, T Emilia

    2004-08-01

    An aerobic bacterial consortium consisting of two isolated strains (BF1, BF2) and a strain of Pseudomonas putida (MTCC1194) was developed for the aerobic degradation of a mixture of textile azodyes and individual azodyes at alkaline pH (9-10.5) and salinity (0.9-3.68 g/l) at ambient temperature (28 +/- 2 degrees C). The degradation efficiency of the strains in different media (mineral media and in the Simulated textile effluent (STE)) and at different dye concentrations were studied. The presence of a H2O2 independent oxidase-laccase (26.5 IU/ml) was found in the culture filtrate of the organism BF2. The analysis of the degraded products by TLC and HPLC, after the microbial treatment of the dyes showed the absence of amines and the presence of low molecular weight oxidative degradation products. The enzymes present in the crude supernatant was found to be reusable for the dye degradation.

  9. Cyanide toxicity in hepatocytes under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Aw, T Y; Jones, D P

    1989-09-01

    The effect of cyanide on cell viability and mitochondrial function was studied in hepatocytes exposed to air or argon. Cells were more susceptible to cyanide toxicity under air than under argon. Analysis of the disposition of cyanide showed that the difference in susceptibility to KCN was not due to O2-dependent differences in cyanide metabolism or elimination. Studies of mitochondrial function revealed that cyanide under aerobic conditions resulted in substantial swelling of the mitochondria, which corresponded to a matrix loading of phosphate. In addition, cyanide caused a loss of the mitochondrial protonmotive force. This was in contrast to the results for cells exposed to 30 min of anoxia alone in which there was no loss of mitochondrial delta pH, no detectable change in mitochondrial volume, and little matrix loading of phosphate. These results show that at least some of the protective mechanisms elicited by anoxia (B. S. Andersson, T. Y. Aw, and D. P. Jones. Am. J. Physiol. 252 (Cell Physiol. 21): C349-C355, 1987) are not elicited by cyanide alone. Thus cyanide under aerobic conditions does not provide a completely valid model for simple anoxia. Moreover, the results suggest that the molecular sensor necessary to signal suppression of metabolic and transport functions during neahypoxia is dependent on O2 and is neither stimulated nor antagonized by KCN. PMID:2782387

  10. [Aerobic methanotrophic communities in the bottom sediments of Lake Baikal].

    PubMed

    Gaĭnutdinova, E A; Eshinimaev, B Ts; Tsyrenzhapova, I S; Dagurova, O P; Suzina, N E; Khmelenina, V N; Namsaraev, B B; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2005-01-01

    The results of the first methodical investigation into the aerobic methanotrophic communities inhabiting the bottom sediments of Lake Baikal are reported. Use of the radioisotopic method revealed methane consumption in 12 10- to 50-cm-long sediment cores. The maximum methane consumption rates (495-737 microl/(dm3 day) were recorded in sediments in the regions of hydrothermal vents and oil and gas occurrence. Methane consumption was most active in the surface layers of the sediments (0-4 cm); it decreased with the sediment depth and became negligible or absent at depths below 20 cm. The number of methanotrophic bacteria usually ranged from 100 to 1000 cells/cm3 of sediment and reached 1 million cells/cm3 in the regions of oil and gas occurrence. The 17 enrichment cultures obtained were represented mainly by morphotype II methanotrophs. Phylogenetic analysis of the enrichment cultures in terms of the amino acid sequence of the alpha subunit of the membrane-bound methane monooxygenase revealed the predominance of methanotrophs of the genus Methylocystis. The results obtained suggest the presence of an active aerobic methanotrophic community in Lake Baikal. PMID:16211862

  11. Efficient utilization of aerobic metabolism helps Tibetan locusts conquer hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Responses to hypoxia have been investigated in many species; however, comparative studies between conspecific geographical populations at different altitudes are rare, especially for invertebrates. The migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, is widely distributed around the world, including on the high-altitude Tibetan Plateau (TP) and the low-altitude North China Plain (NP). TP locusts have inhabited Tibetan Plateau for over 34,000 years and thus probably have evolved superior capacity to cope with hypoxia. Results Here we compared the hypoxic responses of TP and NP locusts from morphological, behavioral, and physiological perspectives. We found that TP locusts were more tolerant of extreme hypoxia than NP locusts. To evaluate why TP locusts respond to extreme hypoxia differently from NP locusts, we subjected them to extreme hypoxia and compared their transcriptional responses. We found that the aerobic metabolism was less affected in TP locusts than in NP locusts. RNAi disruption of PDHE1β, an entry gene from glycolysis to TCA cycle, increased the ratio of stupor in TP locusts and decreased the ATP content of TP locusts in hypoxia, confirming that aerobic metabolism is critical for TP locusts to maintain activity in hypoxia. Conclusions Our results indicate that TP and NP locusts have undergone divergence in hypoxia tolerance. These findings also indicate that insects can adapt to hypoxic pressure by modulating basic metabolic processes. PMID:24047108

  12. Single-culture aerobic granules with Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.

    PubMed

    Adav, Sunil S; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2008-03-01

    Aerobic granules are cultivated by a single bacterial strain, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). This strain presents as a good phenol reducer and an efficient auto coagulator in the presence of phenol, mediated by heat-sensitive adhesins proteins. Stable 2.3-mm granules were formed in the SBR following a 7-week cultivation. These granules exhibit excellent settling attributes and degrade phenol efficiently at concentrations of 250-2,000 mg l(-1). The corresponding phenol degradation rate reached 993.6 mg phenol g(-1) volatile suspended solids (VSS) day(-1) at 250 mg l(-1) phenol and 519.3 mg phenol g(-1) VSS day(-1) at 2,000 mg l(-1) phenol concentration. Meanwhile, free A. calcoaceticus cells were fully inhibited at phenol>1,500 mg l(-1). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprint profile demonstrated no genetic modification in the strain during aerobic granulation. The present single-strain granules showed long-term structural stability and performed high phenol degrading capacity and high phenol tolerance. The confocal laser scanning microscopic test revealed that live A. calcoaceticus cells principally distributed at 200-250 microm beneath the outer surface, with an extracellular polymeric substance layer covering them to defend phenol toxicity. Autoaggregation assay tests demonstrated the possibly significant role of secreted proteins on the formation of single-culture A. calcoaceticus granules.

  13. Aerobic capacity and anaerobic threshold of wheelchair basketball players.

    PubMed

    Rotstein, A; Sagiv, M; Ben-Sira, D; Werber, G; Hutzler, J; Annenburg, H

    1994-03-01

    This study evaluated the aerobic capacity and anaerobic threshold of national level Israeli wheelchair basketball players. Subjects were tested working on a wheelchair rolling on a motor driven treadmill and on an arm cycle ergometer. Metabolic and cardiopulmonary parameters were measured during graded maximal exercise tests. Blood lactic acid (LA) concentration was measured in the intervals between loads during the test on the wheelchair. Heart rate (HR) and % heart rate reserve (%HRR) corresponding to the anaerobic threshold (4 mM blood LA) were evaluated while working on the wheelchair rolling on a motor driven treadmill. While working on the wheelchair the following peak exercise values were obtained: VO2 = 24.7 ml.kg/min, VE = 92.09 l/min HR = 181.5 b/min and R = 1.22. Values corresponding to the anaerobic threshold were found to be, HR = 139 b/min and %HRR = 57.02. Low correlations were obtained between peak exercise VO2 and VE measured while working on the wheelchair and those measured with arm cycle ergometer (r = 0.57 p = 0.137 and r = 0.4 p = 0.233 respectively). As athletes, subjects in the present study may be classified as having a low aerobic capacity and anaerobic threshold. It is also concluded that the ergometer type may have an important influence on test results.

  14. Anaerobic Metabolism: Linkages to Trace Gases and Aerobic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megonigal, J. P.; Hines, M. E.; Visscher, P. T.

    2003-12-01

    Life evolved and flourished in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). As the O2 content of the atmosphere rose to the present level of 21% beginning about two billion years ago, anaerobic metabolism was gradually supplanted by aerobic metabolism. Anaerobic environments have persisted on Earth despite the transformation to an oxidized state because of the combined influence of water and organic matter. Molecular oxygen diffuses about 104 times more slowly through water than air, and organic matter supports a large biotic O2 demand that consumes the supply faster than it is replaced by diffusion. Such conditions exist in wetlands, rivers, estuaries, coastal marine sediments, aquifers, anoxic water columns, sewage digesters, landfills, the intestinal tracts of animals, and the rumen of herbivores. Anaerobic microsites are also embedded in oxic environments such as upland soils and marine water columns. Appreciable rates of aerobic respiration are restricted to areas that are in direct contact with air or those inhabited by organisms that produce O2.Rising atmospheric O2 reduced the global area of anaerobic habitat, but enhanced the overall rate of anaerobic metabolism (at least on an area basis) by increasing the supply of electron donors and acceptors. Organic carbon production increased dramatically, as did oxidized forms of nitrogen, manganese, iron, sulfur, and many other elements. In contemporary anaerobic ecosystems, nearly all of the reducing power is derived from photosynthesis, and most of it eventually returns to O2, the most electronegative electron acceptor that is abundant. This photosynthetically driven redox gradient has been thoroughly exploited by aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms for metabolism. The same is true of hydrothermal vents (Tunnicliffe, 1992) and some deep subsurface environments ( Chapelle et al., 2002), where thermal energy is the ultimate source of the reducing power.Although anaerobic habitats are currently a small fraction of Earth

  15. High abundances of aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria in the South Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Lami, Raphaël; Cottrell, Matthew T; Ras, Joséphine; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Obernosterer, Ingrid; Claustre, Hervé; Kirchman, David L; Lebaron, Philippe

    2007-07-01

    Little is known about the abundance, distribution, and ecology of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria, particularly in oligotrophic environments, which represent 60% of the ocean. We investigated the abundance of AAP bacteria across the South Pacific Ocean, including the center of the gyre, the most oligotrophic water body of the world ocean. AAP bacteria, Prochlorococcus, and total prokaryotic abundances, as well as bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) and divinyl-chlorophyll a concentrations, were measured at several depths in the photic zone along a gradient of oligotrophic conditions. The abundances of AAP bacteria and Prochlorococcus were high, together accounting for up to 58% of the total prokaryotic community. The abundance of AAP bacteria alone was up to 1.94 x 10(5) cells ml(-1) and as high as 24% of the overall community. These measurements were consistent with the high BChl a concentrations (up to 3.32 x 10(-3) microg liter(-1)) found at all stations. However, the BChl a content per AAP bacterial cell was low, suggesting that AAP bacteria are mostly heterotrophic organisms. Interestingly, the biovolume and therefore biomass of AAP bacteria was on average twofold higher than that of other prokaryotic cells. This study demonstrates that AAP bacteria can be abundant in various oligotrophic conditions, including the most oligotrophic regime of the world ocean, and can account for a large part of the bacterioplanktonic carbon stock.

  16. We Huff and Puff: The Parameters and the Program of Aerobics for Children under Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Wayne

    In today's society, young children have few experiences with aerobic activities, a pattern of exercise traditionally reserved for adults. This paper discusses how aerobic exercises can be used in a preschool environment, arguing that such activities are best presented using a thematic approach so that young children can form impressions about…

  17. Active Female Maximal and Anaerobic Threshold Cardiorespiratory Responses to Six Different Water Aerobics Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antunes, Amanda H.; Alberton, Cristine L.; Finatto, Paula; Pinto, Stephanie S.; Cadore, Eduardo L.; Zaffari, Paula; Kruel, Luiz F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Maximal tests conducted on land are not suitable for the prescription of aquatic exercises, which makes it difficult to optimize the intensity of water aerobics classes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the maximal and anaerobic threshold cardiorespiratory responses to 6 water aerobics exercises. Volunteers performed 3 of the…

  18. Degradation of TCE using sequential anaerobic biofilm and aerobic immobilized bed reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapatwala, Kirit D.; Babu, G. R. V.; Baresi, Larry; Trunzo, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    Bacteria capable of degrading trichloroethylene (TCE) were isolated from contaminated wastewaters and soil sites. The aerobic cultures were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (four species) and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The optimal conditions for the growth of aerobic cultures were determined. The minimal inhibitory concentration values of TCE for Pseudomonas sps. were also determined. The aerobic cells were immobilized in calcium alginate in the form of beads. Degradation of TCE by the anaerobic and dichloroethylene (DCE) by aerobic cultures was studied using dual reactors - anaerobic biofilm and aerobic immobilized bed reactor. The minimal mineral salt (MMS) medium saturated with TCE was pumped at the rate of 1 ml per hour into the anaerobic reactor. The MMS medium saturated with DCE and supplemented with xylenes and toluene (3 ppm each) was pumped at the rate of 1 ml per hour into the fluidized air-uplift-type reactor containing the immobilized aerobic cells. The concentrations of TCE and DCE and the metabolites formed during their degradation by the anaerobic and aerobic cultures were monitored by GC. The preliminary study suggests that the anaerobic and aerobic cultures of our isolates can degrade TCE and DCE.

  19. Sweat Rates During Continuous and Interval Aerobic Exercise: Implications for NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Scott, Jessica; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic deconditioning is one of the effects spaceflight. Impaired crewmember performance due to loss of aerobic conditioning is one of the risks identified for mitigation by the NASA Human Research Program. Missions longer than 8 days will involve exercise countermeasures including those aimed at preventing the loss of aerobic capacity. The NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will be NASA's centerpiece architecture for human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Aerobic exercise within the small habitable volume of the MPCV is expected to challenge the ability of the Air Revitalization System, especially in terms of moisture and temperature control. Exercising humans contribute moisture to the environment by increased respiratory rate (exhaling air saturated with moisture) and sweat. Current acceptable values are based on theoretical models that rely on an "average" crew member working continuously at 75% of their aerobic capacity (Human Systems Integration Requirements Document). Evidence suggests that high intensity interval exercise for much shorter durations are equally effective or better in building and maintaining aerobic capacity. This investigation will examine metabolic moisture and heat production for operationally relevant continuous and interval aerobic exercise protocols. The results will directly inform what types of aerobic exercise countermeasures will be feasible to prescribe for crewmembers aboard the MPCV.

  20. Carbon offsets from improved swine manure management using aerobic treatment technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerobic treatment of manure is an accepted manure management system under protocols adopted through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Our objectives were to determine greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions from replacement of anaerobic lagoons with aerobic treatme...

  1. Noise Levels during Aerobics and the Potential Effects on Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torre, Peter, III; Howell, Jennifer C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure noise levels during aerobics classes and to examine how outer hair cell (OHC) function, using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), may be affected by this exposure. Fifty individuals (48 women and 2 men, ages 19-41 years) participated in 50-min aerobics classes. Noise levels were measured…

  2. Aerobic exercise increases peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity in sedentary adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data are limited on the effects of controlled aerobic exercise programs (without weight loss) on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in children and adolescents. To determine whether a controlled aerobic exercise program (without weight loss) improves peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivi...

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY - AUTOTHERMAL THERMOPHILIC AEROBIC DIGESTION OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document describes a promising technology — autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion — for meeting the current and proposed U.S. federal requirements for pathogen controJ and land application of municipal wastewater sludge. Autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion, or AT...

  4. Sweat Rates During Continuous and Interval Aerobic Exercise: Implications for NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Scott, Jessica; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic deconditioning is one of the effects spaceflight. Impaired crewmember performance due to loss of aerobic conditioning is one of the risks identified for mitigation by the NASA Human Research Program. Missions longer than 8 days will involve exercise countermeasures including those aimed at preventing the loss of aerobic capacity. The NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will be NASA's centerpiece architecture for human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Aerobic exercise within the small habitable volume of the MPCV is expected to challenge the ability of the environmental control systems, especially in terms of moisture control. Exercising humans contribute moisture to the environment by increased respiratory rate (exhaling air at 100% humidity) and sweat. Current acceptable values are based on theoretical models that rely on an "average" crew member working continuously at 75% of their aerobic capacity (Human Systems Integration Requirements Document). Evidence suggests that high intensity interval exercise for much shorter durations are equally effective or better in building and maintaining aerobic capacity. This investigation will examine sweat and respiratory rates for operationally relevant continuous and interval aerobic exercise protocols using a variety of different individuals. The results will directly inform what types of aerobic exercise countermeasures will be feasible to prescribe for crewmembers aboard the MPCV.

  5. Acute Effects of 30 Minutes Resistance and Aerobic Exercise on Cognition in a High School Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harveson, Andrew T.; Hannon, James C.; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Podlog, Leslie; Papadopoulos, Charilaos; Durrant, Lynne H.; Hall, Morgan S.; Kang, Kyoung-doo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine differences in cognition between acute bouts of resistance exercise, aerobic exercise, and a nonexercise control in an untrained youth sample. Method: Ninety-four participants performed 30 min of aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, or nonexercise separated by 7 days each in a randomized…

  6. Associations between Attitudes toward Physical Education and Aerobic Capacity in Hungarian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaj, Mónika; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Karsai, István; Vass, Zoltán; Csányi, Tamás; Boronyai, Zoltán; Révész, László

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to create a physical education (PE) attitude scale and examine how it is associated with aerobic capacity (AC). Method: Participants (n = 961, aged 15-20 years) were randomly selected from 26 Hungarian high schools. AC was estimated from performance on the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular and Endurance Run…

  7. Disturbance of aerobic metabolism accompanies neurobehavioral changes induced by nickel in mice.

    PubMed

    He, Min-Di; Xu, Shang-Cheng; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Yan; Xiong, Jia-Chuan; Zhang, Xiao; Lu, Yong-Hui; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Zheng-Ping; Zhou, Zhou

    2013-09-01

    The oral ingestion of soluble nickel compounds leads to neurological symptoms in humans. Deficiencies in aerobic metabolism induced by neurotoxic stimulus can cause an energy crisis in the brain that results in a variety of neurotoxic effects. In the present study, we focused on the aerobic metabolic states to investigate whether disturbance of aerobic metabolism was involved in nickel-induced neurological effects in mice. Mice were orally administered nickel chloride, and neurobehavioral performance was evaluated using the Morris water maze and open field tests at different time points. Aerobic metabolic states in the cerebral cortex were analyzed at the same time points at which neurobehavioral changes were evident. We found that nickel exposure caused deficits in both spatial memory and exploring activity in mice and that nickel was deposited in their cerebral cortex. Deficient aerobic metabolism manifested as decreased O2 consumption and ATP concentrations, lactate and NADH accumulation, and oxidative stress. Meanwhile, the activity of prototypical iron-sulfur clusters (ISCs) containing enzymes that are known to control aerobic metabolism, including complex I and aconitase, and the expression of ISC assembly scaffold protein (ISCU) were inhibited following nickel deposition. Overall, these data suggest that aerobic metabolic disturbances, which accompanied the neurobehavioral changes, may participate in nickel-induced neurologic effects. The inactivation of ISC containing metabolic enzymes may result in the disturbance of aerobic metabolism. A better understanding of how nickel impacts the energy metabolic processes may provide insight into the prevention of nickel neurotoxicity.

  8. Is the effect of aerobic exercise on cognition a placebo effect?

    PubMed

    Stothart, Cary R; Simons, Daniel J; Boot, Walter R; Kramer, Arthur F

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies and meta-analyses conclude that aerobic fitness (walking) interventions improve cognition. Such interventions typically compare improvements from these interventions to an active control group in which participants engage in non-aerobic activities (typically stretching and toning) for an equivalent amount of time. However, in the absence of a double-blind design, the presence of an active control group does not necessarily control for placebo effects; participants might expect different amounts of improvement for the treatment and control interventions. We conducted a large survey to explore whether people expect greater cognitive benefits from an aerobic exercise intervention compared to a control intervention. If participants expect greater improvement following aerobic exercise, then the benefits of such interventions might be due in part to a placebo effect. In general, expectations did not differ between aerobic and non-aerobic interventions. If anything, some of the results suggest the opposite (e.g., respondents expected the control, non-aerobic intervention to yield bigger memory gains). These results provide the first evidence that cognitive improvements following aerobic fitness training are not due to differential expectations.

  9. [Aerobic capacity and quality of life in school children from 8 to 12].

    PubMed

    Gálvez Casas, Arancha; Rodríguez García, Pedro L; García-Cantó, Eliseo; Rosa Guillamón, Andrés; Pérez-Soto, Juan J; Tarraga Marcos, Loreto; Tarraga Lopez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic capacity is a powerful physiological indicator of the overall health status. The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between aerobic capacity and quality of life in a sample of 298 (159 girls) school children aged 8-12 years. Aerobic capacity was tested using the Course-Navette test. Quality of life was assessed using the KIDSCREEN-10 Index scale. Males showed higher performance in the Course-Navette test and highest values of VO2max (P<.001 for both). ANOVA statistical analysis showed that the quality of life was significantly higher in school children with increased level of aerobic capacity compared to those with a low level (P=.001). Children with high aerobic capacity showed higher quality of life scores in relation to their peers with low scores (P<.001). As for the females, significant differences were found among those with high aerobic capacity level and their peers low levels (P<.031). The results of this study suggest that school children with higher level of aerobic capacity show better results in the quality of life index. Long-term intervention studies are needed to verify if an aerobic capacity development programme may upgrade the quality of life of children and adolescents.

  10. Steps Counts among Middle School Students Vary with Aerobic Fitness Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Masurier, Guy C.; Corbin, Charles B.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if steps/day taken by middle school students varied based on aerobic fitness classification. Middle school students (N = 223; 112 girls, 111 boys) were assigned to three aerobic fitness categories (HIGH, MOD, LOW) based on results of the FITNESSGRAM PACER test. Four weekdays of pedometer monitoring…

  11. Degradation of TCE using sequential anaerobic biofilm and aerobic immobilized bed reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapatwala, Kirit D.; Babu, G. R. V.; Baresi, Larry; Trunzo, Richard M.

    1995-03-01

    Bacteria capable of degrading trichloroethylene (TCE) were isolated from contaminated wastewaters and soil sites. The aerobic cultures were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (four species) and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The optimal conditions for the growth of aerobic cultures were determined. The minimal inhibitory concentration values of TCE for Pseudomonas sps. were also determined. The aerobic cells were immobilized in calcium alginate in the form of beads. Degradation of TCE by the anaerobic and dichloroethylene (DCE) by aerobic cultures was studied using dual reactors - anaerobic biofilm and aerobic immobilized bed reactor. The minimal mineral salt (MMS) medium saturated with TCE was pumped at the rate of 1 ml per hour into the anaerobic reactor. The MMS medium saturated with DCE and supplemented with xylenes and toluene (3 ppm each) was pumped at the rate of 1 ml per hour into the fluidized air-uplift-type reactor containing the immobilized aerobic cells. The concentrations of TCE and DCE and the metabolites formed during their degradation by the anaerobic and aerobic cultures were monitored by GC. The preliminary study suggests that the anaerobic and aerobic cultures of our isolates can degrade TCE and DCE.

  12. Studies on soft centered coated snacks.

    PubMed

    Pavithra, A S; Chetana, Ramakrishna; Babylatha, R; Archana, S N; Bhat, K K

    2013-04-01

    Roasted groundnut seeds, amaranth and dates pulp formed the center filling which was coated with sugar, breadings, desiccated coconut and roasted Bengalgram flour (BGF) to get 4 coated snacks. Physicochemical characteristics, microbiological profile, sorption behaviour and sensory quality of 4 coated snacks were determined. Centre filling to coating ratio of the products were in the range of 3:2-7:1, the product having BGF coating had the thinnest coating. Center filling had soft texture and the moisture content was 10.2-16.2% coating had lower moisture content (4.4-8.6%) except for Bengal gram coating, which had 11.1% moisture. Sugar coated snack has lowest fat (11.6%) and protein (7.2%) contents. Desiccated coconut coated snack has highest fat (25.4%) and Bengal gram flour coated snack had highest protein content (15.4%). Sorption studies showed that the coated snack had critical moisture content of 11.2-13.5%. The products were moisture sensitive and hence require packaging in films having higher moisture barrier property. In freshly prepared snacks coliforms, yeast and mold were absent. Mesophillic aerobes count did not show significant change during 90 days of storage at 27 °C and 37 °C. Sensory analysis showed that products had a unique texture due to combined effect of fairly hard coating and soft center. Flavour and overall quality of all the products were rated as very good. PMID:24425933

  13. Aerobic N2O emission for activated sludge acclimated under different aeration rates in the multiple anoxic and aerobic process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huoqing; Guan, Yuntao; Pan, Min; Wu, Guangxue

    2016-05-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas that can be emitted during biological nitrogen removal. N2O emission was examined in a multiple anoxic and aerobic process at the aeration rates of 600mL/min sequencing batch reactor (SBRL) and 1200mL/min (SBRH). The nitrogen removal percentage was 89% in SBRL and 71% in SBRH, respectively. N2O emission mainly occurred during the aerobic phase, and the N2O emission factor was 10.1% in SBRL and 2.3% in SBRH, respectively. In all batch experiments, the N2O emission potential was high in SBRL compared with SBRH. In SBRL, with increasing aeration rates, the N2O emission factor decreased during nitrification, while it increased during denitrification and simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND). By contrast, in SBRH the N2O emission factor during nitrification, denitrification and SND was relatively low and changed little with increasing aeration rates. The microbial competition affected the N2O emission during biological nitrogen removal.

  14. Aerobic N2O emission for activated sludge acclimated under different aeration rates in the multiple anoxic and aerobic process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huoqing; Guan, Yuntao; Pan, Min; Wu, Guangxue

    2016-05-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas that can be emitted during biological nitrogen removal. N2O emission was examined in a multiple anoxic and aerobic process at the aeration rates of 600mL/min sequencing batch reactor (SBRL) and 1200mL/min (SBRH). The nitrogen removal percentage was 89% in SBRL and 71% in SBRH, respectively. N2O emission mainly occurred during the aerobic phase, and the N2O emission factor was 10.1% in SBRL and 2.3% in SBRH, respectively. In all batch experiments, the N2O emission potential was high in SBRL compared with SBRH. In SBRL, with increasing aeration rates, the N2O emission factor decreased during nitrification, while it increased during denitrification and simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND). By contrast, in SBRH the N2O emission factor during nitrification, denitrification and SND was relatively low and changed little with increasing aeration rates. The microbial competition affected the N2O emission during biological nitrogen removal. PMID:27155411

  15. Dryden Flight Research Center: Center Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnayake, Nalin

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a general overview of Dryden Flight Research Center. Strategic partnerships, Dryden's mission activity, exploration systems and aeronautics research programs are also described.

  16. Design of Highly Selective Platinum Nanoparticle Catalysts for the Aerobic Oxidation of KA-Oil using Continuous-Flow Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Gill, Arran M; Hinde, Christopher S; Leary, Rowan K; Potter, Matthew E; Jouve, Andrea; Wells, Peter P; Midgley, Paul A; Thomas, John M; Raja, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Highly active and selective aerobic oxidation of KA-oil to cyclohexanone (precursor for adipic acid and ɛ-caprolactam) has been achieved in high yields using continuous-flow chemistry by utilizing uncapped noble-metal (Au, Pt & Pd) nanoparticle catalysts. These are prepared using a one-step in situ methodology, within three-dimensional porous molecular architectures, to afford robust heterogeneous catalysts. Detailed spectroscopic characterization of the nature of the active sites at the molecular level, coupled with aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, reveals that the synthetic methodology and associated activation procedures play a vital role in regulating the morphology, shape and size of the metal nanoparticles. These active centers have a profound influence on the activation of molecular oxygen for selective catalytic oxidations.

  17. Volcanic hotspots on Io - Stability and longitudinal distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, T. V.; Morrison, D.; Matson, D. L.; Veeder, G. J.; Brown, R. H.; Nelson, R. M.

    1984-10-01

    The first results of a program to determine the longitudinal distribution of volcanic activity on Jupiter's satellite Io are presented. Infrared measurements at 8.7, 10, and 20 micrometers have been taken at a variety of orbital longitudes: strong variation in the 8.7- and 10-micrometer flux with longitude demonstrates that infrared emission arising from volcanic hotspots on Io is strongly concentrated in a few locations. Analysis of these data suggests that the active volcanic regions observed by the Voyager experimenters are still active, particularly the region around the feature known as Loki. Another source of flux, although of somewhat smaller magnitude, is indicated on the opposite hemisphere. If these sources are the only major volcanic centers on Io, then current global heat flow estimates must be revised downward. However, heat flow from as yet unobserved longitudes, hotspots at high latitudes, and conducted heat flow must still be measured.

  18. Longitudinal target-spin asymmetries for deeply virtual Compton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Seder, E.; Biselli, A.; Pisano, S.; Niccolai, S.; Smith, G. D.; Joo, K.; Adhikari, K.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bono, J.; Boiarinov, S.; Bosted, P.; Briscoe, W.; Brock, J.; Brooks, W. K.; Bültmann, S.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Carlin, C.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crabb, D.; Crede, V.; D’Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Fradi, A.; Garillon, B.; Garçon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guegan, B.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hirlinger Saylor, N.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jo, H. S.; Joosten, S.; Keith, C. D.; Keller, D.; Khachatryan, G.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Meekins, D. G.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R.; Moody, C. I.; Moutarde, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paolone, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Peng, P.; Phelps, W.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Senderovich, I.; Simonyan, A.; Skorodumina, I.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Tian, Y.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zonta, I.

    2015-01-22

    A measurement of the electroproduction of photons off protons in the deeply inelastic regime was performed at Jefferson Lab using a nearly 6-GeV electron beam, a longitudinally polarized proton target and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Target-spin asymmetries for ep → e'p'y events, which arise from the interference of the deeply virtual Compton scattering and the Bethe-Heitler processes, were extracted over the widest kinematics in Q2, xB, t and Φ, for 166 four-dimensional bins. In the framework of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), at leading twist the t dependence of these asymmetries provides insight on the spatial distribution of the axial charge of the proton, which appears to be concentrated in its center. In conclusion, these results bring important and necessary constraints for the existing parametrizations of chiral-even GPDs.

  19. Longitudinal target-spin asymmetries for deeply virtual Compton scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Seder, E.; Biselli, A.; Pisano, S.; Niccolai, S.; Smith, G. D.; Joo, K.; Adhikari, K.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; et al

    2015-01-22

    A measurement of the electroproduction of photons off protons in the deeply inelastic regime was performed at Jefferson Lab using a nearly 6-GeV electron beam, a longitudinally polarized proton target and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Target-spin asymmetries for ep → e'p'y events, which arise from the interference of the deeply virtual Compton scattering and the Bethe-Heitler processes, were extracted over the widest kinematics in Q2, xB, t and Φ, for 166 four-dimensional bins. In the framework of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), at leading twist the t dependence of these asymmetries provides insight on the spatial distribution of the axialmore » charge of the proton, which appears to be concentrated in its center. In conclusion, these results bring important and necessary constraints for the existing parametrizations of chiral-even GPDs.« less

  20. Longitudinal chromatic aberration of the human infant eye

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyun; Candy, T. Rowan; Teel, Danielle F. W.; Jacobs, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Although the longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) of the adult eye has been studied, there are no data collected from the human infant eye. A chromatic retinoscope was used to measure cyclopleged infant and adult refractions with four pseudomonochromatic sources (centered at 472, 538, 589, and 652 nm) and with polychromatic light. The LCA of the infant eyes between 472 and 652 nm was a factor of 1.7 greater than the LCA found in the adult group: infant mean=1.62 D, SD±0.14 D; adult mean=0.96 D, SD±0.17 D. The elevated level of LCA in infant eyes is consistent with the greater optical power of the immature eye and indicates similar chromatic dispersion in infant and adult eyes. The implications for visual performance, defocus detection, and measurement of refraction are discussed. PMID:18758552

  1. Women's Centers: The Frameworks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, Jodi

    1988-01-01

    Presents a typology of women's centers and provides an overview of state, regional, and national networks of women's centers, including the evolution of the Women's Center/Services Caucus of the National Women's Studies Association and the more recently organized National Association of Women's Centers. (NB)

  2. Student Success Center Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobs For the Future, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Student Success Center Toolkit" is a compilation of materials organized to assist Student Success Center directors as they staff, launch, operate, and sustain Centers. The toolkit features materials created and used by existing Centers, such as staffing and budgeting templates, launch materials, sample meeting agendas, and fundraising…

  3. Complete remediation of PCE contaminated unsaturated soils by sequential anaerobic-aerobic bioventing.

    PubMed

    Mihopoulos, P G; Suidan, M T; Sayles, G D

    2001-01-01

    Bioventing principles have been applied to completely dechlorinate tetrachloroethylene vapors in the unsaturated zone in a sequential anaerobic-aerobic pattern. The aerobic step yields trans-DCE and VC as PCE reductive dechlorination byproducts, while TCE and cis-DCE are observed as intermediates. The aerobic step results in rapid oxidation of the VC and trans-DCE to carbon dioxide. Hydrogen was delivered in the gas phase as a reducing agent for the anaerobic step at levels of 1%, and oxygen at 4.2% was used as an electron acceptor in the aerobic step. PCE and VC half lives in the anaerobic and aerobic steps respectively, where less than 10 min.

  4. Grey water treatment in a series anaerobic--aerobic system for irrigation.

    PubMed

    Abu Ghunmi, Lina; Zeeman, Grietje; Fayyad, Manar; van Lier, Jules B

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at treatment of grey water for irrigation, focusing on a treatment technology that is robust, simple to operate and with minimum energy consumption. The result is an optimized system consisting of an anaerobic unit operated in upflow mode, with a 1 day operational cycle, a constant effluent flow rate and varying liquid volume. Subsequent aerobic step is equipped with mechanical aeration and the system is insulated for sustaining winter conditions. The COD removal achieved by the anaerobic and aerobic units in summer and winter are 45%, 39% and 53%, 64%, respectively. Sludge in the anaerobic and aerobic reactor has a concentration of 168 and 8 mg VSL(-1), respectively. Stability of sludge in the anaerobic and aerobic reactors is 80% and 93%, respectively, based on COD. Aerobic effluent quality, except for pathogens, agrees with the proposed irrigation water quality guidelines for reclaimed water in Jordan.

  5. Is There "White Flight" into Private Schools? Evidence from the National Educational Longitudinal Survey. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairlie, Robert W.; Resch, Alexandra M.

    This report investigates the issue of white flight into private schools by examining data from the National Educational Longitudinal Survey (NELS) and a dataset from the National Center for Educational Statistics. The NELS provides information on student and parental characteristics such as geographical location, religious affiliation, school…

  6. Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002) Third Follow-up Data File Documentation. NCES 2014-364

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; Pratt, Daniel J.; Alexander, Christopher P.; Jewell, Donna M.; Lauff, Erich; Mattox, Tiffany L.; Wilson, David

    2014-01-01

    This report provides guidance and documentation for users of the combined base-year to third follow-up data of the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002). ELS:2002 is sponsored by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) of the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. The base-year and follow-up studies…

  7. Goals Set in the Land of the Living/Dying: A Longitudinal Study of Patients Living with Advanced Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissim, Rinat; Rennie, David; Fleming, Stephen; Hales, Sarah; Gagliese, Lucia; Rodin, Gary

    2012-01-01

    A longitudinal qualitative research study was undertaken to provide an understanding of a prolonged experience of advanced cancer, as seen through the eyes of dying individuals. Using a variant of the grounded theory method, the authors theoretically sampled, from outpatient clinics in a large comprehensive cancer treatment center, 27 patients…

  8. National Institute of Statistical Sciences Configuration and Data Integration for Longitudinal Studies Technical Panel. Final Report. NCES 2011-607

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karr, Alan F.

    2011-01-01

    This is the final report of the National Institute of Statistical Sciences (NISS) Technical Panel on Configuration and Data Integration for Longitudinal Studies (hereafter, CDI). The principal recommendations regarding configuration are as follows: (1) The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) should configure grades K-12 studies as a…

  9. Imputation of Test Scores in the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88). Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokossa, Maxime C.; Huang, Gary G.

    This report describes the imputation procedures used to deal with missing data in the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), the only current National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) dataset that contains scores from cognitive tests given the same set of students at multiple time points. As is inevitable, cognitive test…

  10. Effects of an Incentive Based Budgeting System on Institutional Performance Indicators: An Exploratory Longitudinal Case Study of a Public University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory longitudinal case study was to examine how the implementation of an Incentive Based Budgeting (IBB) system (i.e., Responsibility-Centered Management [RCM]) affected selected institutional performance indicators at the campus level and two comparable schools at a large Mid-Western public University. The value of…

  11. Measuring aerobic cycling power as an assessment of childhood fitness.

    PubMed

    Carrel, Aaron L; Sledge, Jeffrey S; Ventura, Steve J; Clark, R Randall; Peterson, Susan E; Eickhoff, Jens; Allen, David B

    2007-08-01

    The emergence of obesity, insulin resistance (IR), and type-2 diabetes (T2DM) in children requires a rational, effective public health response. Physical activity remains an important component of prevention and treatment for obesity, T2DM, and IR. Studies in adults show cardiovascular fitness (CVF) to be more important than obesity in predicting IR. We recently demonstrated that a school-based fitness intervention in children who were overweight can improve cardiovascular fitness, body composition, and insulin sensitivity, but it remains unclear whether accurate assessment of fitness could be performed at the school or outside of an exercise laboratory. The purpose of the study was to determine if a new methodology using measurement of cycling power could estimate cardiovascular aerobic fitness (as defined by maximum oxygen consumption; VO(2)max) in middle school children who were overweight. Thirty-five middle school children who were overweight (mean age 12 +/- 0.4 years) underwent testing on a power sensor- equipped Cycle Ops Indoor Cycle (IC), as well as body composition by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and VO(2)max by treadmill determination. Insulin sensitivity was also estimated by fasting glucose and insulin. Maximal heart rate (MHR) was determined during VO(2)max testing, and power produced at 80% of MHR was recorded. Spearman's rank correlation was performed to evaluate associations. Mean power determined on the IC at 80% of MHR was 129 +/- 77 watts, and average power at 80% MHR divided by total body weight (TBW) was 1.5 +/- 0.5. A significant correlation between watts/TBW was seen for VO(2)max (ml/kg/min) (p = 0.03), and significant negative correlation was seen between watts/TBW and fasting insulin (p < 0.05). In middle-school children who were overweight, there was a significant relationship between the power component of fitness and cardiovascular aerobic fitness (measured by VO(2)max). This more accessible and less intimidating field

  12. Measuring aerobic cycling power as an assessment of childhood fitness.

    PubMed

    Carrel, Aaron L; Sledge, Jeffrey S; Ventura, Steve J; Clark, R Randall; Peterson, Susan E; Eickhoff, Jens C; Allen, David B

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes in children requires a rational, effective public health response. Physical activity remains an important component of prevention and treatment for obesity, type 2 diabetes, and insulin resistance. Studies in adults show cardiovascular fitness to be more important than obesity in predicting insulin resistance. We recently demonstrated that a school-based fitness intervention in children who are overweight could improve cardiovascular fitness, body composition, and insulin sensitivity, but it remains unclear whether accurate assessment of fitness could be performed at the school or outside of an exercise laboratory. To determine whether new methodology using measurement of cycling power could estimate cardiovascular aerobic fitness (as defined by VO2max) in middle school children who were overweight. Thirty-five middle school children (mean age 12 +/- 0.4 years) who were overweight underwent testing on a power sensor-equipped Cycle Ops indoor cycle (Saris Cycling Group, Fitchburg, WI) as well as body composition by dual x-ray absorptiometry and VO2max by treadmill determination. Insulin sensitivity was also estimated by fasting glucose and insulin. Maximal heart rate (MHR) was determined during VO2max testing, and power produced at 80%MHR was recorded. Spearman's rank correlation was performed to evaluate associations. Mean power determined on the indoor cycle at 80% of MHR was 129 +/- 77 watts, and average power at 80% MHR divided by total body weight was 1.5 +/- 0.5. A significant correlation between watts and total body weight was seen for VO2max (P = 0.03), and significant negative correlation was seen between watts/total body weight and fasting insulin (P < 0.05). Among middle school children who were overweight, there was a significant relationship between the power component of fitness and cardiovascular aerobic fitness (measured by VO2max). This more accessible and less intimidating field

  13. Measuring aerobic cycling power as an assessment of childhood fitness.

    PubMed

    Carrel, Aaron L; Sledge, Jeffrey S; Ventura, Steve J; Clark, R Randall; Peterson, Susan E; Eickhoff, Jens C; Allen, David B

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes in children requires a rational, effective public health response. Physical activity remains an important component of prevention and treatment for obesity, type 2 diabetes, and insulin resistance. Studies in adults show cardiovascular fitness to be more important than obesity in predicting insulin resistance. We recently demonstrated that a school-based fitness intervention in children who are overweight could improve cardiovascular fitness, body composition, and insulin sensitivity, but it remains unclear whether accurate assessment of fitness could be performed at the school or outside of an exercise laboratory. To determine whether new methodology using measurement of cycling power could estimate cardiovascular aerobic fitness (as defined by VO2max) in middle school children who were overweight. Thirty-five middle school children (mean age 12 +/- 0.4 years) who were overweight underwent testing on a power sensor-equipped Cycle Ops indoor cycle (Saris Cycling Group, Fitchburg, WI) as well as body composition by dual x-ray absorptiometry and VO2max by treadmill determination. Insulin sensitivity was also estimated by fasting glucose and insulin. Maximal heart rate (MHR) was determined during VO2max testing, and power produced at 80%MHR was recorded. Spearman's rank correlation was performed to evaluate associations. Mean power determined on the indoor cycle at 80% of MHR was 129 +/- 77 watts, and average power at 80% MHR divided by total body weight was 1.5 +/- 0.5. A significant correlation between watts and total body weight was seen for VO2max (P = 0.03), and significant negative correlation was seen between watts/total body weight and fasting insulin (P < 0.05). Among middle school children who were overweight, there was a significant relationship between the power component of fitness and cardiovascular aerobic fitness (measured by VO2max). This more accessible and less intimidating field

  14. A multicenter two by two factorial trial of cognitive behavioral therapy and aerobic exercise for Gulf War veterans' illnesses: design of a veterans affairs cooperative study (CSP #470).

    PubMed

    Guarino, P; Peduzzi, P; Donta, S T; Engel, C C; Clauw, D J; Williams, D A; Skinner, J S; Barkhuizen, A; Kazis, L E; Feussner, J R

    2001-06-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Cooperative Studies Program (CSP) Study #470 is a 2 x 2 factorial trial designed to evaluate the hypothesis that both cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and aerobic exercise will significantly improve physical function in participants with Gulf War veterans' illnesses (GWVI), and that adding CBT to aerobic exercise will provide further incremental benefit. One thousand three hundred fifty-six veterans will be randomized to one of four treatment arms: CBT plus aerobic exercise plus usual and customary care, aerobic exercise plus usual and customary care, CBT plus usual and customary care, or usual and customary care alone. The study duration is 2.5 years with 1.5 years of intake and 1 year of follow-up. The primary outcome measure is the proportion of veterans improved more than seven units on the physical component summary (PCS) scale of the Short Form Health Survey for Veterans (SF-36V) measured 12 months after randomization. This generic quality-of-life measure was chosen because there is no disease-specific measure for GWVI and the symptoms of GWVI span a wide range of physical manifestations that are related to the domains covered by the PCS scale. Sample size was determined to detect all six pairwise comparisons between the four treatment arms with 90% power and a Bonferroni adjustment for an overall type I error of 0.05 or 0.05/6 = 0.0083. CSP #470 was initiated in May 1999 in 18 VA and two Department of Defense medical centers. To date this represents the largest randomized trial designed to evaluate treatments for individuals with unexplained physical symptoms. This paper will focus on the rationale and unique features of the study design. Control Clin Trials 2001;22:310-332

  15. Reinvestigation of a New Type of Aerobic Benzoate Metabolism in the Proteobacterium Azoarcus evansii

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Magdy El-Said; Zaar, Annette; Ebenau-Jehle, Christa; Fuchs, Georg

    2001-01-01

    The aerobic metabolism of benzoate in the proteobacterium Azoarcus evansii was reinvestigated. The known pathways leading to catechol or protocatechuate do not operate in this bacterium. The presumed degradation via 3-hydroxybenzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and gentisate could not be confirmed. The first committed step is the activation of benzoate to benzoyl-CoA by a specifically induced benzoate-CoA ligase (AMP forming). This enzyme was purified and shown to differ from an isoenzyme catalyzing the same reaction under anaerobic conditions. The second step postulated involves the hydroxylation of benzoyl-CoA to a so far unknown product by a novel benzoyl-CoA oxygenase, presumably a multicomponent enzyme system. An iron-sulfur flavoprotein, which may be a component of this system, was purified and characterized. The homodimeric enzyme had a native molecular mass of 98 kDa as determined by gel filtration and contained 0.72 mol flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), 10.4 to 18.4 mol of Fe, and 13.3 to 17.9 mol of acid-labile sulfur per mol of native protein, depending on the method of protein determination. This benzoate-induced enzyme catalyzed a benzoyl-CoA-, FAD-, and O2-dependent NADPH oxidation surprisingly without hydroxylation of the aromatic ring; however, H2O2 was formed. The gene (boxA, for benzoate oxidation) coding for this protein was cloned and sequenced. It coded for a protein of 46 kDa with two amino acid consensus sequences for two [4Fe-4S] centers at the N terminus. The deduced amino acid sequence showed homology with subunits of ferredoxin-NADP reductase, nitric oxide synthase, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, and phenol hydroxylase. Upstream of the boxA gene, another gene, boxB, encoding a protein of 55 kDa was found. The boxB gene exhibited homology to open reading frames in various other bacteria which code for components of a putative aerobic phenylacetyl-CoA oxidizing system. The boxB gene product was one of at least five proteins induced when A. evansii

  16. Joint multiple imputation for longitudinal outcomes and clinical events that truncate longitudinal follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Li, Liang; Greene, Tom

    2016-07-30

    Longitudinal cohort studies often collect both repeated measurements of longitudinal outcomes and times to clinical events whose occurrence precludes further longitudinal measurements. Although joint modeling of the clinical events and the longitudinal data can be used to provide valid statistical inference for target estimands in certain contexts, the application of joint models in medical literature is currently rather restricted because of the complexity of the joint models and the intensive computation involved. We propose a multiple imputation approach to jointly impute missing data of both the longitudinal and clinical event outcomes. With complete imputed datasets, analysts are then able to use simple and transparent statistical methods and standard statistical software to perform various analyses without dealing with the complications of missing data and joint modeling. We show that the proposed multiple imputation approach is flexible and easy to implement in practice. Numerical results are also provided to demonstrate its performance. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Modeling Longitudinal Changes in 5 m Sprinting Performance Among Young Male Tennis Players.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Tamara; Valente-Dos-Santos, João; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel J; Malina, Robert M; Huijgen, Barbara C H; Smith, Joanne; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris

    2016-02-01

    Year-to-year changes in sprinting in youth tennis players were examined in a mixed-longitudinal study (256 male players, aged 10-15 years: 993 measurements). Height (h), body mass (BM), lower limb explosive strength (LLES), and a 5-m sprint were measured over five years. During that period, players were classified as elite or sub-elite. To account for the repeated measurements within the individual nature of longitudinal data, multilevel random effects regression analyses were used. Sprint performance improved with age at each additional 1 year of age, thus predicting ∼.016 sec improvement in five-meter sprint time by all variables of the model. It was possible to predict the performance of elite tennis players in the 5-m sprint (sec) for elite players (1.1493 - (0.0159 ċ centered age) - (0.009 ċ BM) - (0.044 ċ LLES) and sub-elite players (1.1493 - (0.0159 ċ centered age) + 0.0135 - (0.009 ċ BM) - (0.044 ċ LLES) - (0.0557 ċ centered age). Sprint performance differences between elite and sub-elite players was related to longitudinal changes in body size and lower limb strength up until age 13. PMID:27420323

  18. Modeling Longitudinal Changes in 5 m Sprinting Performance Among Young Male Tennis Players.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Tamara; Valente-Dos-Santos, João; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel J; Malina, Robert M; Huijgen, Barbara C H; Smith, Joanne; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris

    2016-02-01

    Year-to-year changes in sprinting in youth tennis players were examined in a mixed-longitudinal study (256 male players, aged 10-15 years: 993 measurements). Height (h), body mass (BM), lower limb explosive strength (LLES), and a 5-m sprint were measured over five years. During that period, players were classified as elite or sub-elite. To account for the repeated measurements within the individual nature of longitudinal data, multilevel random effects regression analyses were used. Sprint performance improved with age at each additional 1 year of age, thus predicting ∼.016 sec improvement in five-meter sprint time by all variables of the model. It was possible to predict the performance of elite tennis players in the 5-m sprint (sec) for elite players (1.1493 - (0.0159 ċ centered age) - (0.009 ċ BM) - (0.044 ċ LLES) and sub-elite players (1.1493 - (0.0159 ċ centered age) + 0.0135 - (0.009 ċ BM) - (0.044 ċ LLES) - (0.0557 ċ centered age). Sprint performance differences between elite and sub-elite players was related to longitudinal changes in body size and lower limb strength up until age 13.

  19. From Teacher Centered to Student Centered Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockemy, M. J.; Summers, Sylvia

    In 1991, staff at the Business Resource Center (BRC) at Tacoma Community College, in Washington, began to reevaluate their approach to serving students. Up to that point, the BRC had been teacher centered, with staff operating under the assumptions that only the students who succeeded were actually "college material," that students would cheat if…

  20. Longitudinal stability in multiharmonic standing wave linacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carver, L. R.; Jones, R. M.; Jiang, Y.; Hirshfield, J. L.

    2016-09-01

    Accelerating cavities that excite multiple modes at integer harmonics of the fundamental frequency have the potential to be used to suppress the onset of rf breakdown and reduce the pulsed surface heating at high accelerating gradients. Understanding the effect of an additional harmonic cavity mode on the longitudinal beam dynamics is important to their development and use. A Hamiltonian that describes the longitudinal motion of a particle as it traverses a chain of multiharmonic cavities has been derived and is applied to the case of a second harmonic cavity. The Hamiltonian is based upon formalisms found in literature for the fundamental harmonic and is extended to include different longitudinal field distributions and harmonic frequencies. The study initially explores the longitudinal motion for moderate accelerating gradients with high-β protons, as this will allow fundamental properties of the stable region (acceptance and shape of the rf bucket) to be determined. High accelerating gradients are also investigated but the focus will be on phase stability throughout. This work concludes by considering the longitudinal dynamics of a modified European Spallation Source accelerator, comprised of multiharmonic cavities that has specifications broadly consistent with the accelerator.

  1. Response-adaptive regression for longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuang; Müller, Hans-Georg

    2011-09-01

    We propose a response-adaptive model for functional linear regression, which is adapted to sparsely sampled longitudinal responses. Our method aims at predicting response trajectories and models the regression relationship by directly conditioning the sparse and irregular observations of the response on the predictor, which can be of scalar, vector, or functional type. This obliterates the need to model the response trajectories, a task that is challenging for sparse longitudinal data and was previously required for functional regression implementations for longitudinal data. The proposed approach turns out to be superior compared to previous functional regression approaches in terms of prediction error. It encompasses a variety of regression settings that are relevant for the functional modeling of longitudinal data in the life sciences. The improved prediction of response trajectories with the proposed response-adaptive approach is illustrated for a longitudinal study of Kiwi weight growth and by an analysis of the dynamic relationship between viral load and CD4 cell counts observed in AIDS clinical trials. PMID:21133880

  2. Enzymatic aerobic ring rearrangement of optically active furylcarbinols.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Daniel; Doknić, Diana; Deska, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Biogenic furans are currently discussed as highly attractive alternative feedstock in a post-fossil society; thus, also the creation of sustainable furan valorization pathways appears of great importance. Here an artificial Achmatowicz monooxygenase activity for the aerobic ring expansion of furans is achieved by the combination of commercial glucose oxidase as oxygen-activating biocatalyst and wild-type chloroperoxidase as oxygen-transfer mediator, providing a biological ready-to-use solution for this truly synthetic furan rearrangement. In concert with enzymatic transformations for the enantioselective preparation of optically active furylcarbinols, purely biocatalytic reaction cascades for the stereocontrolled construction of complex pyranones are obtained, exhibiting high functional group tolerance even to oxidation-sensitive moieties. PMID:25335580

  3. Enzymes and genes involved in aerobic alkane degradation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wanpeng; Shao, Zongze

    2013-01-01

    Alkanes are major constituents of crude oil. They are also present at low concentrations in diverse non-contaminated because many living organisms produce them as chemo-attractants or as protecting agents against water loss. Alkane degradation is a widespread phenomenon in nature. The numerous microorganisms, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic, capable of utilizing alkanes as a carbon and energy source, have been isolated and characterized. This review summarizes the current knowledge of how bacteria metabolize alkanes aerobically, with a particular emphasis on the oxidation of long-chain alkanes, including factors that are responsible for chemotaxis to alkanes, transport across cell membrane of alkanes, the regulation of alkane degradation gene and initial oxidation. PMID:23755043

  4. [The aerobic air microflora in airplanes on various international routes].

    PubMed

    Năstoiu, I; Răduică, C; Soitu, V; Gavrilă, I

    1989-01-01

    Aerobic microflora (bacteria, fungi), in the cock pits of the TAROM company (Boeing 707 and Il 62 M) airships flying on various international routes and airports was studied during November 1988-January 1989. 157-8,800 bacteria and 78-1,336 fungi per m3 air were recorded. Except for Staphylococcus aureus (hemolytic and non hemolytic) the greatest part of the isolated microorganisms was nonpathogenic for man: Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Neisseria, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Sarcina, Aspergillus, Penicillium etc. Several airships on the Asian airports contained a higher amount of bacteria and fungi but not higher than in the living rooms. Likewise, in high altitude flights, the microorganism amount was less than on the ground. The taxonomic spectrum of the bacteria and fungi isolated was almost identical on all the 9 international airports, thus suggesting the homogeneous and international character of saprophyte and pathogenic air microflora by means of the passenger and goods air flights.

  5. Aerobic fitness, psychological characteristics, and cardiovascular reactivity to stress.

    PubMed

    Czajkowski, S M; Hindelang, R D; Dembroski, T M; Mayerson, S E; Parks, E B; Holland, J C

    1990-01-01

    Examined the relations among aerobic fitness (AF), psychological characteristics, and cardiovascular reactivity using 62 men divided into highly fit and less fit groups based on a maximal treadmill exercise test. Several psychological and physiological variables were measured, and subjects' cardiovascular reactivity was assessed during a mental arithmetic task and during a video game task. Highly fit subjects showed a significantly smaller increase in both diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) and reported themselves to be less anxious and less angry than less fit subjects. Furthermore, controlling for subjects' scores on a scale assessing angry temperament reduced the relationship between AF and DBP reactivity to nonsignificant levels. These results suggest that degree of dispositional anger, which covaries with increased fitness, may contribute to the apparent relationship between AF and DBP--but not HR--reactivity.

  6. Growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria by aerobic hydrogen oxidation.

    PubMed

    Koch, Hanna; Galushko, Alexander; Albertsen, Mads; Schintlmeister, Arno; Gruber-Dorninger, Christiane; Lücker, Sebastian; Pelletier, Eric; Le Paslier, Denis; Spieck, Eva; Richter, Andreas; Nielsen, Per H; Wagner, Michael; Daims, Holger

    2014-08-29

    The bacterial oxidation of nitrite to nitrate is a key process of the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria are considered a highly specialized functional group, which depends on the supply of nitrite from other microorganisms and whose distribution strictly correlates with nitrification in the environment and in wastewater treatment plants. On the basis of genomics, physiological experiments, and single-cell analyses, we show that Nitrospira moscoviensis, which represents a widely distributed lineage of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, has the genetic inventory to utilize hydrogen (H2) as an alternative energy source for aerobic respiration and grows on H2 without nitrite. CO2 fixation occurred with H2 as the sole electron donor. Our results demonstrate a chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria outside the nitrogen cycle, suggesting greater ecological flexibility than previously assumed.

  7. Aerobic sludge granulation at high temperatures for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Ab Halim, Mohd Hakim; Nor Anuar, Aznah; Azmi, Siti Izaidah; Jamal, Nur Syahida Abdul; Wahab, Norhaliza Abdul; Ujang, Zaini; Shraim, Amjad; Bob, Mustafa M

    2015-06-01

    With inoculum sludge from a conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, three sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) fed with synthetic wastewater were operated at different high temperatures (30, 40 and 50±1°C) to study the formation of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) for simultaneous organics and nutrients removal with a complete cycle time of 3h. The AGS were successfully cultivated with influent loading rate of 1.6CODg(Ld)(-1). The COD/N ratio of the influent wastewater was 8. The results revealed that granules developed at 50°C have the highest average diameter, (3.36mm) with 98.17%, 94.45% and 72.46% removal efficiency observed in the system for COD, ammonia and phosphate, respectively. This study also demonstrated the capabilities of AGS formation at high temperatures which is suitable to be applied for hot climate conditions. PMID:25851807

  8. Denitrification kinetics in anoxic/aerobic activated sludge systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, G.M.

    1998-12-11

    Nitrogen removal needs at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have increased due to greater concerns about eutrophication and increased interest in reuse of treated municipal effluents. Biological processes are the most cost-effective method for nitrogen removal. Biological nitrogen removal is accomplished in two distinctly different processes by the conversion of nitrogen in the wastewater from organic nitrogen and ammonia to nitrate, followed by reduction of the nitrate to nitrogen gas. Nitrate production occurs in an aerobic activated sludge treatment zone during a process called nitrification. The nitrate is then converted through a series of intermediate steps to nitrogen gas in an anoxic zone (an anaerobic condition with nitrate present) during a process called denitrification, effectively removing the nitrogen from the wastewater. Many different WWTP designs have been developed to incorporate these two conditions for nitrogen removal.

  9. Aerobic exercise improves gastrointestinal motility in psychiatric inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Song, Bong Kil; Oh, Ji Sun; Woo, Seung Seok

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the benefit of aerobic exercise on colonic transit time (CTT) for psychiatric inpatients in a closed ward. METHODS: Sixty consecutive adult inpatients of the Somang Hospital Psychiatry Unit (Eumsung-gun, South Korea), without CTT-related diseases or drug therapies, were recruited for study from March to June of 2012. Upon enrollment, the patients were randomly assigned to partake in a 12-wk instructor-led group aerobic exercise program (exercise group; n = 30) or to maintain their ordinary daily activities (control group; n = 30). The exercise program was structured as 10 min warm-up (stretching), 40 min exercise, and 10 min cool-down (stretching) for three days each week. The exercise sessions consisted of walking only in week one and aerobics from weeks two to 12, with increasing intensity (50% heart rate reserve (HRR) for weeks one to four, 60% HRR for weeks five to eight, and 70% HRR for weeks nine to 12). CTT was measured before (baseline) and after (week 12) the exercise program, in duplicate (on days four and seven), using abdominal radiography and the multiple radio-opaque marker technique. Changes in the exercising patients’ CTT and weight-, cardiovascular- and fitness-related parameters were statistically assessed. RESULTS: The study dropout rate was 30.0%, with 23 patients in the exercise group and 19 patients in the control group completing the study. At week 12, the exercise group showed decreases in body weight (mean ± SE) baseline: 69.4 ± 2.8 vs study-end: 67.6 ± 2.7; P < 0.635) and body mass index (BMI) (25.2 ± 1.1 vs 24.9 ± 0.8; P < 0.810), but the extent of change was not significantly different from that experienced by the control group (body weight: 68.8 ± 4.0 vs 68.8 ± 3.9; BMI: 24.3 ± 1.1 vs 24.4 ± 1.2). However, the exercise group showed significant improvements in leg muscle strength (baseline: 41.7 ± 4.3 vs study-end: 64.1 ± 5.0; P < 0.001), cardio-respiratory endurance (120.5 ± 4.5 vs 105.4 ± 2.8; P < 0

  10. Aerobic sludge granulation at high temperatures for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Ab Halim, Mohd Hakim; Nor Anuar, Aznah; Azmi, Siti Izaidah; Jamal, Nur Syahida Abdul; Wahab, Norhaliza Abdul; Ujang, Zaini; Shraim, Amjad; Bob, Mustafa M

    2015-06-01

    With inoculum sludge from a conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, three sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) fed with synthetic wastewater were operated at different high temperatures (30, 40 and 50±1°C) to study the formation of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) for simultaneous organics and nutrients removal with a complete cycle time of 3h. The AGS were successfully cultivated with influent loading rate of 1.6CODg(Ld)(-1). The COD/N ratio of the influent wastewater was 8. The results revealed that granules developed at 50°C have the highest average diameter, (3.36mm) with 98.17%, 94.45% and 72.46% removal efficiency observed in the system for COD, ammonia and phosphate, respectively. This study also demonstrated the capabilities of AGS formation at high temperatures which is suitable to be applied for hot climate conditions.

  11. Aerobic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria: Environmental selection and diversification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, D.

    1985-01-01

    Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria oxidize reduced inorganic compounds to sulfuric acid. Lithotrophic sulfur oxidizer use the energy obtained from oxidation for microbial growth. Heterotrophic sulfur oxidizers obtain energy from the oxidation of organic compounds. In sulfur-oxidizing mixotrophs energy are derived either from the oxidation of inorganic or organic compounds. Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria are usually located within the sulfide/oxygen interfaces of springs, sediments, soil microenvironments, and the hypolimnion. Colonization of the interface is necessary since sulfide auto-oxidizes and because both oxygen and sulfide are needed for growth. The environmental stresses associated with the colonization of these interfaces resulted in the evolution of morphologically diverse and unique aerobic sulfur oxidizers.

  12. Cerebral Regulation in Different Maximal Aerobic Exercise Modes.

    PubMed

    Pires, Flávio O; Dos Anjos, Carlos A S; Covolan, Roberto J M; Pinheiro, Fabiano A; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Noakes, Timothy D; Magalhães, Fernando H; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We investigated cerebral responses, simultaneously with peripheral and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) responses, during different VO2MAX-matched aerobic exercise modes. Nine cyclists (VO2MAX of 57.5 ± 6.2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed a maximal, controlled-pace incremental test (MIT) and a self-paced 4 km time trial (TT4km). Measures of cerebral (COX) and muscular (MOX) oxygenation were assessed throughout the exercises by changes in oxy- (O2Hb) and deoxy-hemoglobin (HHb) concentrations over the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscle, respectively. Primary motor cortex (PMC) electroencephalography (EEG), VL, and rectus femoris EMG were also assessed throughout the trials, together with power output and cardiopulmonary responses. The RPE was obtained at regular intervals. Similar motor output (EMG and power output) occurred from 70% of the duration in MIT and TT4km, despite the greater motor output, muscle deoxygenation (↓ MOX) and cardiopulmonary responses in TT4km before that point. Regarding cerebral responses, there was a lower COX (↓ O2Hb concentrations in PFC) at 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60%, but greater at 100% of the TT4km duration when compared to MIT. The alpha wave EEG in PMC remained constant throughout the exercise modes, with greater values in TT4km. The RPE was maximal at the endpoint in both exercises, but it increased slower in TT4km than in MIT. Results showed that similar motor output and effort tolerance were attained at the closing stages of different VO2MAX-matched aerobic exercises, although the different disturbance until that point. Regardless of different COX responses during most of the exercises duration, activation in PMC was preserved throughout the exercises, suggesting that these responses may be part of a centrally-coordinated exercise regulation. PMID:27458381

  13. Parallel pathways of ethoxylated alcohol biodegradation under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Zembrzuska, Joanna; Budnik, Irena; Lukaszewski, Zenon

    2016-07-01

    Non-ionic surfactants (NS) are a major component of the surfactant flux discharged into surface water, and alcohol ethoxylates (AE) are the major component of this flux. Therefore, biodegradation pathways of AE deserve more thorough investigation. The aim of this work was to investigate the stages of biodegradation of homogeneous oxyethylated dodecanol C12E9 having 9 oxyethylene subunits, under aerobic conditions. Enterobacter strain Z3 bacteria were chosen as biodegrading organisms under conditions with C12E9 as the sole source of organic carbon. Bacterial consortia of river water were used in a parallel test as an inoculum for comparison. The LC-MS technique was used to identify the products of biodegradation. Liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate was selected for the isolation of C12E9 and metabolites from the biodegradation broth. The LC-MS/MS technique operating in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used for quantitative determination of C12E9, C12E8, C12E7 and C12E6. Apart from the substrate, the homologues C12E8, C12E7 and C12E6, being metabolites of C12E9 biodegradation by shortening of the oxyethylene chain, as well as intermediate metabolites having a carboxyl end group in the oxyethylene chain (C12E8COOH, C12E7COOH, C12E6COOH and C12E5COOH), were identified. Poly(ethylene glycols) (E) having 9, 8 and 7 oxyethylene subunits were also identified, indicating parallel central fission of C12E9 and its metabolites. Similar results were obtained with river water as inoculum. It is concluded that AE, under aerobic conditions, are biodegraded via two parallel pathways: by central fission with the formation of PEG, and by Ω-oxidation of the oxyethylene chain with the formation of carboxylated AE and subsequent shortening of the oxyethylene chain by a single unit. PMID:27037882

  14. Anaerobic/aerobic treatment of selected azo dyes in wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Seshadri, S.; Bishop, P.L. . Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering); Agha, A.M. . Faculty of Civil Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    Azo dyes represent the largest class of dyes in use today. Current environmental concern with these dyes revolves around the potential carcinogenic health risk presented by these dyes or their intermediate biodegradation products when exposed to microflora in the human digestive tract. These dyes may build up in the environment, since many wastewater treatment plants allow these dyes to pass through the system virtually untreated. The initial step in the degradation of these dyes is the cleavage of the Azo bond. This cleavage is often impossible under aerobic conditions, but has been readily demonstrated under anaerobic conditions. The focus of the study was to determine the feasibility of using an anaerobic fluidized-bed reactor to accomplish this cleavage. The effects of typical process variables such as hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent dye concentration levels, and degree of bed fluidization on removal efficiencies were also studied. The four dyes selected for this study were Acid-Orange 7, Acid-Orange 8, Acid-Orange 10, and Acid-Red 14. The effectiveness of using a bench-scale-activated sludge reactor as a sequenced second stage was also examined. Results indicate that nearly complete cleavage of the Azo bond is easily accomplished for each of the four dyes under hydraulic retention times of either 12 or 24 h. Initial results indicate, though, that aromatic amine by-products remain. The sequenced second stage was able to remove the remaining Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) load to acceptable levels. Work is presently underway to determine the face of the anaerobic by-products in the aerobic second stage.

  15. Assessment of bacterial and structural dynamics in aerobic granular biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Weissbrodt, David G.; Neu, Thomas R.; Kuhlicke, Ute; Rappaz, Yoan; Holliger, Christof

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) is based on self-granulated flocs forming mobile biofilms with a gel-like consistence. Bacterial and structural dynamics from flocs to granules were followed in anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBR) fed with synthetic wastewater, namely a bubble column (BC-SBR) operated under wash-out conditions for fast granulation, and two stirred-tank enrichments of Accumulibacter (PAO-SBR) and Competibacter (GAO-SBR) operated at steady-state. In the BC-SBR, granules formed within 2 weeks by swelling of Zoogloea colonies around flocs, developing subsequently smooth zoogloeal biofilms. However, Zoogloea predominance (37–79%) led to deteriorated nutrient removal during the first months of reactor operation. Upon maturation, improved nitrification (80–100%), nitrogen removal (43–83%), and high but unstable dephosphatation (75–100%) were obtained. Proliferation of dense clusters of nitrifiers, Accumulibacter, and Competibacter from granule cores outwards resulted in heterogeneous bioaggregates, inside which only low abundance Zoogloea (<5%) were detected in biofilm interstices. The presence of different extracellular glycoconjugates detected by fluorescence lectin-binding analysis showed the complex nature of the intracellular matrix of these granules. In the PAO-SBR, granulation occurred within two months with abundant and active Accumulibacter populations (56 ± 10%) that were selected under full anaerobic uptake of volatile fatty acids and that aggregated as dense clusters within heterogeneous granules. Flocs self-granulated in the GAO-SBR after 480 days during a period of over-aeration caused by biofilm growth on the oxygen sensor. Granules were dominated by heterogeneous clusters of Competibacter (37 ± 11%). Zoogloea were never abundant in biomass of both PAO- and GAO-SBRs. This study showed that Zoogloea, Accumulibacter, and Competibacter affiliates can form granules, and that the granulation mechanisms rely on the dominant

  16. Mechanism of aerobic biological destabilisation of wool scour effluent emulsions.

    PubMed

    Poole, Andrew J; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf; William Jones, F

    2005-07-01

    Wool scouring effluent is a highly polluted industrial wastewater in which the main pollutant, wool wax, is held in a stable oil-in-water emulsion by non-ionic detergent. The use of microbial action to cause emulsion destabilisation has been proposed as a new treatment strategy for this effluent stream. This strategy aims at improving aerobic treatment performance by physically removing the high-COD, slowly bio-degradable wool wax from the system without bio-degradation. The mechanism by which an aerobic-mixed culture destabilises the wool scouring effluent emulsion was investigated. Our results show that destabilisation is due to partial bio-degradation of both the scouring detergent and the wool wax. Cleavage of the wool wax esters was the first stage in wax degradation, when 40-50% of wax was de-emulsified. Over the same period, detergent degradation was low, at 7-21%. With further incubation, detergent degradation increased, aiding further breakdown of the emulsion. The degradation of the detergent, a nonylphenol ethoxylate, resulted in both a reduction in molar concentration (of up to 82%) and a shortening of the ethoxylate chain length. The latter reduced the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) from 12 to approximately 7, thereby reducing the ability of the residual detergent to stabilise the emulsion. Analysis of the emulsified and de-emulsified wax fractions could not identify a group of compounds that were preferentially de-emulsified based on molecular weight or polarity. These findings will assist in using a de-emulsification strategy in both existing and new treatment systems in order to save on aeration costs and treatment times for biological treatment of this highly polluted wastewater. PMID:15979119

  17. Aerobic power and peak power of elite America's Cup sailors.

    PubMed

    Neville, Vernon; Pain, Matthew T G; Folland, Jonathan P

    2009-05-01

    Big-boat yacht racing is one of the only able bodied sporting activities where standing arm-cranking ('grinding') is the primary physical activity. However, the physiological capabilities of elite sailors for standing arm-cranking have been largely unreported. The purpose of the study was to assess aerobic parameters, VO(2peak) and onset of blood lactate (OBLA), and anaerobic performance, torque-crank velocity and power-crank velocity relationships and therefore peak power (P (max)) and optimum crank-velocity (omega(opt)), of America's Cup sailors during standing arm-cranking. Thirty-three elite professional sailors performed a step test to exhaustion, and a subset of ten grinders performed maximal 7 s isokinetic sprints at different crank velocities, using a standing arm-crank ergometer. VO(2peak) was 4.7 +/- 0.5 L/min (range 3.6-5.5 L/min) at a power output of 332 +/- 44 W (range 235-425 W). OBLA occurred at a power output of 202 +/- 31 W (61% of W(max)) and VO(2) of 3.3 +/- 0.4 L/min (71% of VO(2peak)). The torque-crank velocity relationship was linear for all participants (r = 0.9 +/- 0.1). P (max) was 1,420 +/- 37 W (range 1,192-1,617 W), and omega(opt) was 125 +/- 6 rpm. These data are among the highest upper-body anaerobic and aerobic power values reported. The unique nature of these athletes, with their high fat-free mass and specific selection and training for standing arm cranking, likely accounts for the high values. The influence of crank velocity on peak power implies that power production during on-board 'grinding' may be optimised through the use of appropriate gear-ratios and the development of efficient gear change mechanisms. PMID:19234715

  18. Mechanism of aerobic biological destabilisation of wool scour effluent emulsions.

    PubMed

    Poole, Andrew J; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf; William Jones, F

    2005-07-01

    Wool scouring effluent is a highly polluted industrial wastewater in which the main pollutant, wool wax, is held in a stable oil-in-water emulsion by non-ionic detergent. The use of microbial action to cause emulsion destabilisation has been proposed as a new treatment strategy for this effluent stream. This strategy aims at improving aerobic treatment performance by physically removing the high-COD, slowly bio-degradable wool wax from the system without bio-degradation. The mechanism by which an aerobic-mixed culture destabilises the wool scouring effluent emulsion was investigated. Our results show that destabilisation is due to partial bio-degradation of both the scouring detergent and the wool wax. Cleavage of the wool wax esters was the first stage in wax degradation, when 40-50% of wax was de-emulsified. Over the same period, detergent degradation was low, at 7-21%. With further incubation, detergent degradation increased, aiding further breakdown of the emulsion. The degradation of the detergent, a nonylphenol ethoxylate, resulted in both a reduction in molar concentration (of up to 82%) and a shortening of the ethoxylate chain length. The latter reduced the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) from 12 to approximately 7, thereby reducing the ability of the residual detergent to stabilise the emulsion. Analysis of the emulsified and de-emulsified wax fractions could not identify a group of compounds that were preferentially de-emulsified based on molecular weight or polarity. These findings will assist in using a de-emulsification strategy in both existing and new treatment systems in order to save on aeration costs and treatment times for biological treatment of this highly polluted wastewater.

  19. Aerobic power and peak power of elite America's Cup sailors.

    PubMed

    Neville, Vernon; Pain, Matthew T G; Folland, Jonathan P

    2009-05-01

    Big-boat yacht racing is one of the only able bodied sporting activities where standing arm-cranking ('grinding') is the primary physical activity. However, the physiological capabilities of elite sailors for standing arm-cranking have been largely unreported. The purpose of the study was to assess aerobic parameters, VO(2peak) and onset of blood lactate (OBLA), and anaerobic performance, torque-crank velocity and power-crank velocity relationships and therefore peak power (P (max)) and optimum crank-velocity (omega(opt)), of America's Cup sailors during standing arm-cranking. Thirty-three elite professional sailors performed a step test to exhaustion, and a subset of ten grinders performed maximal 7 s isokinetic sprints at different crank velocities, using a standing arm-crank ergometer. VO(2peak) was 4.7 +/- 0.5 L/min (range 3.6-5.5 L/min) at a power output of 332 +/- 44 W (range 235-425 W). OBLA occurred at a power output of 202 +/- 31 W (61% of W(max)) and VO(2) of 3.3 +/- 0.4 L/min (71% of VO(2peak)). The torque-crank velocity relationship was linear for all participants (r = 0.9 +/- 0.1). P (max) was 1,420 +/- 37 W (range 1,192-1,617 W), and omega(opt) was 125 +/- 6 rpm. These data are among the highest upper-body anaerobic and aerobic power values reported. The unique nature of these athletes, with their high fat-free mass and specific selection and training for standing arm cranking, likely accounts for the high values. The influence of crank velocity on peak power implies that power production during on-board 'grinding' may be optimised through the use of appropriate gear-ratios and the development of efficient gear change mechanisms.

  20. Aerobic glycolysis tunes YAP/TAZ transcriptional activity

    PubMed Central

    Enzo, Elena; Santinon, Giulia; Pocaterra, Arianna; Aragona, Mariaceleste; Bresolin, Silvia; Forcato, Mattia; Grifoni, Daniela; Pession, Annalisa; Zanconato, Francesca; Guzzo, Giulia; Bicciato, Silvio; Dupont, Sirio

    2015-01-01

    Increased glucose metabolism and reprogramming toward aerobic glycolysis are a hallmark of cancer cells, meeting their metabolic needs for sustained cell proliferation. Metabolic reprogramming is usually considered as a downstream consequence of tumor development and oncogene activation; growing evidence indicates, however, that metabolism on its turn can support oncogenic signaling to foster tumor malignancy. Here, we explored how glucose metabolism regulates gene transcription and found an unexpected link with YAP/TAZ, key transcription factors regulating organ growth, tumor cell proliferation and aggressiveness. When cells actively incorporate glucose and route it through glycolysis, YAP/TAZ are fully active; when glucose metabolism is blocked, or glycolysis is reduced, YAP/TAZ transcriptional activity is decreased. Accordingly, glycolysis is required to sustain YAP/TAZ pro-tumorigenic functions, and YAP/TAZ are required for the full deployment of glucose growth-promoting activity. Mechanistically we found that phosphofructokinase (PFK1), the enzyme regulating the first committed step of glycolysis, binds the YAP/TAZ transcriptional cofactors TEADs and promotes their functional and biochemical cooperation with YAP/TAZ. Strikingly, this regulation is conserved in Drosophila, where phosphofructokinase is required for tissue overgrowth promoted by Yki, the fly homologue of YAP. Moreover, gene expression regulated by glucose metabolism in breast cancer cells is strongly associated in a large dataset of primary human mammary tumors with YAP/TAZ activation and with the progression toward more advanced and malignant stages. These findings suggest that aerobic glycolysis endows cancer cells with particular metabolic properties and at the same time sustains transcription factors with potent pro-tumorigenic activities such as YAP/TAZ. PMID:25796446

  1. Optimizing aerobic conversion of glycerol to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Slininger, P.J.; Bothast, R.J.

    1985-12-01

    Chemical oxidation of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) leads to acrylic acid, an industrially important polymerizable monomer currently derived from petroleum. As the availability of petroleum declines, 3-HPA may become attractive as a product to be obtained through fermentation of glycerol, a renewable resource. When cells of Klebsiella pneumoniae NRRL B-199 (ATCC 8724) were grown aerobically on a rich glycerol medium and then suspended in buffer supplemented with semicarbazide and glycerol, aerobic conversion of glycerol to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) ensued. Depending on conditions, 0.38 to 0.67 g of 3-HPA were formed per gram of glycerol consumed. This means that up to 83.8% of the carbon invested as glycerol could potentially be recovered as the target product, 3-HPA. Production of 3-HPA was sensitive to the age of cells harvested for resuspension and was nonexistent if cells were cultivated on glucose instead of glycerol as the sole carbon source. Compared with 24- and 72-h cells, 48-h cells produced 3-HPA at the highest rate and with the greatest yield. The cell biomass concentration present during the fermentation was never particularly critical to the 3-HPA yield, but initial fermentation rates and 3-HPA accumulation displayed a linear dependence on biomass concentration that faded when biomass exceeded 3 g/liter. Fermentation performance was a function of temperature, and an optimum initial specific 3-HPA productivity occurred at 32/sup 0/C, although the overall 3-HPA yield increased continuously within the 25 to 37/sup 0/C range studied. The pH optimum based on fermentation rate was different from that based on overall yield; 8 versus 7, respectively. Initial glycerol concentrations in the 20 to 50 g/liter range optimized initial 3-HPA productivity and yield.

  2. Cerebral Regulation in Different Maximal Aerobic Exercise Modes

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Flávio O.; dos Anjos, Carlos A. S.; Covolan, Roberto J. M.; Pinheiro, Fabiano A.; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Noakes, Timothy D.; Magalhães, Fernando H.; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We investigated cerebral responses, simultaneously with peripheral and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) responses, during different VO2MAX-matched aerobic exercise modes. Nine cyclists (VO2MAX of 57.5 ± 6.2 ml·kg−1·min−1) performed a maximal, controlled-pace incremental test (MIT) and a self-paced 4 km time trial (TT4km). Measures of cerebral (COX) and muscular (MOX) oxygenation were assessed throughout the exercises by changes in oxy- (O2Hb) and deoxy-hemoglobin (HHb) concentrations over the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscle, respectively. Primary motor cortex (PMC) electroencephalography (EEG), VL, and rectus femoris EMG were also assessed throughout the trials, together with power output and cardiopulmonary responses. The RPE was obtained at regular intervals. Similar motor output (EMG and power output) occurred from 70% of the duration in MIT and TT4km, despite the greater motor output, muscle deoxygenation (↓ MOX) and cardiopulmonary responses in TT4km before that point. Regarding cerebral responses, there was a lower COX (↓ O2Hb concentrations in PFC) at 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60%, but greater at 100% of the TT4km duration when compared to MIT. The alpha wave EEG in PMC remained constant throughout the exercise modes, with greater values in TT4km. The RPE was maximal at the endpoint in both exercises, but it increased slower in TT4km than in MIT. Results showed that similar motor output and effort tolerance were attained at the closing stages of different VO2MAX-matched aerobic exercises, although the different disturbance until that point. Regardless of different COX responses during most of the exercises duration, activation in PMC was preserved throughout the exercises, suggesting that these responses may be part of a centrally-coordinated exercise regulation. PMID:27458381

  3. Molecular evolution of aerobic energy metabolism in primates.

    PubMed

    Grossman, L I; Schmidt, T R; Wildman, D E; Goodman, M

    2001-01-01

    As part of our goal to reconstruct human evolution at the DNA level, we have been examining changes in the biochemical machinery for aerobic energy metabolism. We find that protein subunits of two of the electron transfer complexes, complex III and complex IV, and cytochrome c, the protein carrier that connects them, have all undergone a period of rapid protein evolution in the anthropoid lineage that ultimately led to humans. Indeed, subunit IV of cytochrome c oxidase (COX; complex IV) provides one of the best examples of positively selected changes of any protein studied. The rate of subunit IV evolution accelerated in our catarrhine ancestors in the period between 40 to 18 million years ago and then decelerated in the descendant hominid lineages, a pattern of rate changes indicative of positive selection of adaptive changes followed by purifying selection acting against further changes. Besides clear evidence that adaptive evolution occurred for cytochrome c and subunits of complexes III (e.g., cytochrome c(1)) and IV (e.g., COX2 and COX4), modest rate accelerations in the lineage that led to humans are seen for other subunits of both complexes. In addition the contractile muscle-specific isoform of COX subunit VIII became a pseudogene in an anthropoid ancestor of humans but appears to be a functional gene in the nonanthropoid primates. These changes in the aerobic energy complexes coincide with the expansion of the energy-dependent neocortex during the emergence of the higher primates. Discovering the biochemical adaptations suggested by molecular evolutionary analysis will be an exciting challenge.

  4. Aerobic biodegradation of organic compounds in hydraulic fracturing fluids.

    PubMed

    Kekacs, Daniel; Drollette, Brian D; Brooker, Michael; Plata, Desiree L; Mouser, Paula J

    2015-07-01

    Little is known of the attenuation of chemical mixtures created for hydraulic fracturing within the natural environment. A synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluid was developed from disclosed industry formulas and produced for laboratory experiments using commercial additives in use by Marcellus shale field crews. The experiments employed an internationally accepted standard method (OECD 301A) to evaluate aerobic biodegradation potential of the fluid mixture by monitoring the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from an aqueous solution by activated sludge and lake water microbial consortia for two substrate concentrations and four salinities. Microbial degradation removed from 57 % to more than 90 % of added DOC within 6.5 days, with higher removal efficiency at more dilute concentrations and little difference in overall removal extent between sludge and lake microbe treatments. The alcohols isopropanol and octanol were degraded to levels below detection limits while the solvent acetone accumulated in biological treatments through time. Salinity concentrations of 40 g/L or more completely inhibited degradation during the first 6.5 days of incubation with the synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluid even though communities were pre-acclimated to salt. Initially diverse microbial communities became dominated by 16S rRNA sequences affiliated with Pseudomonas and other Pseudomonadaceae after incubation with the synthetic fracturing fluid, taxa which may be involved in acetone production. These data expand our understanding of constraints on the biodegradation potential of organic compounds in hydraulic fracturing fluids under aerobic conditions in the event that they are accidentally released to surface waters and shallow soils.

  5. Aerobic Fitness Does Not Contribute to Prediction of Orthostatic Intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Sather, Tom M.; Goldwater, Danielle J.; Alford, William R.

    1986-01-01

    Several investigations have suggested that orthostatic tolerance may be inversely related to aerobic fitness (VO (sub 2max)). To test this hypothesis, 18 males (age 29 to 51 yr) underwent both treadmill VO(sub 2max) determination and graded lower body negative pressures (LBNP) exposure to tolerance. VO(2max) was measured during the last minute of a Bruce treadmill protocol. LBNP was terminated based on pre-syncopal symptoms and LBNP tolerance (peak LBNP) was expressed as the cumulative product of LBNP and time (torr-min). Changes in heart rate, stroke volume cardiac output, blood pressure and impedance rheographic indices of mid-thigh-leg initial accumulation were measured at rest and during the final minute of LBNP. For all 18 subjects, mean (plus or minus SE) fluid accumulation index and leg venous compliance index at peak LBNP were 139 plus or minus 3.9 plus or minus 0.4 ml-torr-min(exp -2) x 10(exp 3), respectively. Pearson product-moment correlations and step-wise linear regression were used to investigate relationships with peak LBNP. Variables associated with endurance training, such as VO(sub 2max) and percent body fat were not found to correlate significantly (P is less than 0.05) with peak LBNP and did not add sufficiently to the prediction of peak LBNP to be included in the step-wise regression model. The step-wise regression model included only fluid accumulation index leg venous compliance index, and blood volume and resulted in a squared multiple correlation coefficient of 0.978. These data do not support the hypothesis that orthostatic tolerance as measured by LBNP is lower in individuals with high aerobic fitness.

  6. Aerobic degradation of sulfanilic acid using activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Cheng, Ka Yu; Ginige, Maneesha P; Kaksonen, Anna H

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the aerobic degradation of sulfanilic acid (SA) by an acclimatized activated sludge. The sludge was enriched for over three months with SA (>500 mg/L) as the sole carbon and energy source and dissolved oxygen (DO, >5mg/L) as the primary electron acceptor. Effects of aeration rate (0-1.74 L/min), DO concentration (0-7 mg/L) and initial SA concentration (104-1085 mg/L) on SA biodegradation were quantified. A modified Haldane substrate inhibition model was used to obtain kinetic parameters of SA biodegradation and oxygen uptake rate (OUR). Positive linear correlations were obtained between OUR and SA degradation rate (R(2)≥ 0.91). Over time, the culture consumed more oxygen per SA degraded, signifying a gradual improvement in SA mineralization (mass ratio of O(2): SA at day 30, 60 and 120 were 0.44, 0.51 and 0.78, respectively). The concomitant release of near stoichiometric quantity of sulphate (3.2 mmol SO(4)(2-) released from 3.3 mmol SA) and the high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficacy (97.1%) indicated that the enriched microbial consortia could drive the overall SA oxidation close to a complete mineralization. In contrast to other pure-culture systems, the ammonium released from the SA oxidation was predominately converted into nitrate, revealing the presence of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the mixed culture. No apparent inhibitory effect of SA on the nitrification was noted. This work also indicates that aerobic SA biodegradation could be monitored by real-time DO measurement.

  7. Aerobic biodegradation of organic compounds in hydraulic fracturing fluids.

    PubMed

    Kekacs, Daniel; Drollette, Brian D; Brooker, Michael; Plata, Desiree L; Mouser, Paula J

    2015-07-01

    Little is known of the attenuation of chemical mixtures created for hydraulic fracturing within the natural environment. A synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluid was developed from disclosed industry formulas and produced for laboratory experiments using commercial additives in use by Marcellus shale field crews. The experiments employed an internationally accepted standard method (OECD 301A) to evaluate aerobic biodegradation potential of the fluid mixture by monitoring the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from an aqueous solution by activated sludge and lake water microbial consortia for two substrate concentrations and four salinities. Microbial degradation removed from 57 % to more than 90 % of added DOC within 6.5 days, with higher removal efficiency at more dilute concentrations and little difference in overall removal extent between sludge and lake microbe treatments. The alcohols isopropanol and octanol were degraded to levels below detection limits while the solvent acetone accumulated in biological treatments through time. Salinity concentrations of 40 g/L or more completely inhibited degradation during the first 6.5 days of incubation with the synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluid even though communities were pre-acclimated to salt. Initially diverse microbial communities became dominated by 16S rRNA sequences affiliated with Pseudomonas and other Pseudomonadaceae after incubation with the synthetic fracturing fluid, taxa which may be involved in acetone production. These data expand our understanding of constraints on the biodegradation potential of organic compounds in hydraulic fracturing fluids under aerobic conditions in the event that they are accidentally released to surface waters and shallow soils. PMID:26037076

  8. Acute Hypotensive Response to Continuous and Accumulated Isocaloric Aerobic Bouts.

    PubMed

    Cunha, F; Midgley, A W; Pescatello, L; Soares, P P; Farinatti, P

    2016-10-01

    Evidence indicates that chronic reductions in blood pressure (BP) due to aerobic exercise depend on the ability to induce post-exercise hypotension (PEH) after each training bout. The purpose of this study was to investigate PEH after isocaloric bouts of continuous and accumulated running. 10 healthy pre-hypertensive men (aged 27.6±3.5 years) performed the following bouts of exercise: a) A continuous bout (CONT) expending a total of 400 kcal; and b) An accumulated bout split into 2×200 kcal (INTER1 and INTER2) to total 400 kcal at 75% of oxygen uptake reserve. BP, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate variability were monitored 10 min before and 60 min after control and all exercise conditions. The decrease in MAP over time after continuous (400 kcal) and accumulated (2×200 kcal) bouts of exercise was more pronounced than during control (mean diff between 1.6 and 5.4 mmHg, P≤0.01), although the magnitude of change was similar between continuous and accumulated bouts (mean diff=0.1 mmHg, P=0.79). Concomitant to the PEH, sympathovagal balance was inversely related to changes in MAP after isocaloric bouts performed continuously and cumulatively (r=- 0.72 and-0.85, P=0.019 and 0.002, respectively). In conclusion, BP decreased to similar levels after continuous and accumulated acute aerobic exercise matched for total energy expenditure. Our findings also indicate that the recovery pattern of cardiac autonomic activity may have an important role in eliciting PEH. PMID:27551937

  9. Aerobic profile of climbers during maximal arm test.

    PubMed

    Pires, F O; Lima-Silva, A E; Hammond, J; Franchini, E; Dal' Molin Kiss, M A P; Bertuzzi, R

    2011-02-01

    This study compared measurements of upper body aerobic fitness in elite (EC; n=7) and intermediate rock climbers (IC; n=7), and a control group (C; n=7). Subjects underwent an upper limb incremental test on hand cycle ergometer, with increments of 23 W · min(-1), until exhaustion. Ventilation (VE) data were smoothed to 10 s averages and plotted against time for the visual determination of the first (VT1) and second (VT2) ventilatory thresholds. Peak power output was not different among groups [EC=130.9 (±11.8) W; IC=122.1 (±28.4) W; C=115.4 (±15.1) W], but time to exhaustion was significantly higher in EC than IC and C. VO(2 PEAK) was significantly higher in EC [36.8 (±5.7) mL.kg(-1).min(-1)] and IC [35.5 (±5.2) mL.kg(-1).min(-1)] than C [28.8 (±5.0) mL.kg(-1).min(-1)], but there was no difference between EC and IC. VT1 was significantly higher in EC than C [EC=69.0 (±9.4) W; IC=62.4 (±13.0) W; C=52.1 (±11.8) W], but no significant difference was observed in VT2 [EC=103.5 (±18.8) W; IC=92.0 (±22.0) W; C=85.6 (±19.7) W]. These results show that elite indoor rock climbers elicit higher aerobic fitness profile than control subjects when measured with an upper body test.

  10. Aerobic fitness, maturation, and training experience in youth basketball.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Humberto M; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J; Eisenmann, Joey C; Malina, Robert M

    2013-07-01

    Relationships among chronological age (CA), maturation, training experience, and body dimensions with peak oxygen uptake (VO2max) were considered in male basketball players 14-16 y of age. Data for all players included maturity status estimated as percentage of predicted adult height attained at the time of the study (Khamis-Roche protocol), years of training, body dimensions, and VO2max (incremental maximal test on a treadmill). Proportional allometric models derived from stepwise regressions were used to incorporate either CA or maturity status and to incorporate years of formal training in basketball. Estimates for size exponents (95% CI) from the separate allometric models for VO2max were height 2.16 (1.23-3.09), body mass 0.65 (0.37-0.93), and fat-free mass 0.73 (0.46-1.02). Body dimensions explained 39% to 44% of variance. The independent variables in the proportional allometric models explained 47% to 60% of variance in VO2max. Estimated maturity status (11-16% of explained variance) and training experience (7-11% of explained variance) were significant predictors with either body mass or estimated fat-free mass (P ≤ .01) but not with height. Biological maturity status and training experience in basketball had a significant contribution to VO2max via body mass and fat-free fat mass and also had an independent positive relation with aerobic performance. The results highlight the importance of considering variation associated with biological maturation in aerobic performance of late-adolescent boys.

  11. Entanglement from longitudinal and scalar photons

    SciTech Connect

    Franson, J. D

    2011-09-15

    The covariant quantization of the electromagnetic field in the Lorentz gauge gives rise to longitudinal and scalar photons in addition to the usual transverse photons. It is shown here that the exchange of longitudinal and scalar photons can produce entanglement between two distant atoms or harmonic oscillators. The form of the entangled states produced in this way is very different from that obtained in the Coulomb gauge, where the longitudinal and scalar photons do not exist. A generalized gauge transformation is used to show that all physically observable effects are the same in the two gauges, despite the differences in the form of the entangled states. An approach of this kind may be useful for a covariant description of the dynamics of quantum information processing.

  12. Longitudinal coupling effect in microfiber Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ping; Zhang, Jihua; Wang, Guanghui; Jiang, Meng; Ping Shum, Perry; Zhang, Xinliang

    2012-10-01

    We theoretically present longitudinal coupling effect (LCE) in air-cladding microfiber Bragg gratings (MFBGs). Distinct from conventional weakly-guiding optical fibers, large longitudinal electric field (Ez) exists in wavelength-scale microfibers. Due to LCE, MFBG reflectivity can be reduced by more than 30% within the band-gap and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) is obviously narrowed. This theoretical analytical work is instructive to precisely design and fabricate MFBGs that are promising in the areas of optical sensing and nanophotonics.

  13. Longitudinal stent deformation during coronary bifurcation stenting.

    PubMed

    Vijayvergiya, Rajesh; Sharma, Prafull; Gupta, Ankush; Goyal, Praveg; Panda, Prashant

    2016-03-01

    A distortion of implanted coronary stent along its longitudinal axis during coronary intervention is known as longitudinal stent deformation (LSD). LSD is frequently seen with newer drug eluting stents (DES), specifically with PROMUS Element stent. It is usually caused by impact of guide catheter tip, or following passage of catheters like balloon catheter, IVUS catheter, guideliner, etc. We hereby report a case of LSD during coronary bifurcation lesion intervention, using two-stents technique. Patient had acute stent thrombosis as a complication of LSD, which was successfully managed. PMID:26811144

  14. Kinetics of aerobic cometabolic biodegradation of chlorinated and brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons: A review.

    PubMed

    Jesus, João; Frascari, Dario; Pozdniakova, Tatiana; Danko, Anthony S

    2016-05-15

    This review analyses kinetic studies of aerobic cometabolism (AC) of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) from 2001-2015 in order to (i) compare the different kinetic models proposed, (ii) analyse the estimated model parameters with a focus on novel HAHs and the identification of general trends, and (iii) identify further research needs. The results of this analysis show that aerobic cometabolism can degrade a wide range of HAHs, including HAHs that were not previously tested such as chlorinated propanes, highly chlorinated ethanes and brominated methanes and ethanes. The degree of chlorine mineralization was very high for the chlorinated HAHs. Bromine mineralization was not determined for studies with brominated aliphatics. The examined research period led to the identification of novel growth substrates of potentially high interest. Decreasing performance of aerobic cometabolism were found with increasing chlorination, indicating the high potential of aerobic cometabolism in the presence of medium- and low-halogenated HAHs. Further research is needed for the AC of brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons, the potential for biofilm aerobic cometabolism processes, HAH-HAH mutual inhibition and the identification of the enzymes responsible for each aerobic cometabolism process. Lastly, some indications for a possible standardization of future kinetic studies of HAH aerobic cometabolism are provided.

  15. Pim-2 Modulates Aerobic Glycolysis and Energy Production during the Development of Colorectal Tumors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-hui; Yu, Hong-liang; Wang, Fu-jing; Han, Yong-long; Yang, Wei-liang

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cells have higher rates of glucose uptake and aerobic glycolysis to meet energy demands for proliferation and metastasis. The characteristics of increased glucose uptake, accompanied with aerobic glycolysis, has been exploited for the diagnosis of cancers. Although much progress has been made, the mechanisms regulating tumor aerobic glycolysis and energy production are still not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that Pim-2 is required for glycolysis and energy production in colorectal tumor cells. Our results show that Pim-2 is highly expressed in colorectal tumor cells, and may be induced by nutrient stimulation. Activation of Pim-2 in colorectal cells led to increase glucose utilization and aerobic glycolysis, as well as energy production. While knockdown of Pim-2 decreased energy production in colorectal tumor cells and increased their susceptibility to apoptosis. Moreover, the effects of Pim-2 kinase on aerobic glycolysis seem to be partly dependent on mTORC1 signaling, because inhibition of mTORC1 activity reversed the aerobic glycolysis mediated by Pim-2. Our findings suggest that Pim-2-mediated aerobic glycolysis is critical for monitoring Warburg effect in colorectal tumor cells, highlighting Pim-2 as a potential metabolic target for colorectal tumor therapy. PMID:26078709

  16. Assessment of Aerobic and Respiratory Growth in the Lactobacillus casei Group

    PubMed Central

    Zotta, Teresa; Ricciardi, Annamaria; Ianniello, Rocco G.; Parente, Eugenio; Reale, Anna; Rossi, Franca; Iacumin, Lucilla; Comi, Giuseppe; Coppola, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    One hundred eighty four strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus casei, L. paracasei and L. rhamnosus were screened for their ability to grow under aerobic conditions, in media containing heme and menaquinone and/or compounds generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), in order to identify respiratory and oxygen-tolerant phenotypes. Most strains were able to cope with aerobic conditions and for many strains aerobic growth and heme or heme/menaquinone supplementation increased biomass production compared to anaerobic cultivation. Only four L. casei strains showed a catalase-like activity under anaerobic, aerobic and respiratory conditions and were able to survive in presence of H2O2 (1 mM). Almost all L. casei and L. paracasei strains tolerated menadione (0.2 mM) and most tolerated pyrogallol (50 mM), while L. rhamnosus was usually resistant only to the latter compound. This is the first study in which an extensive screening of oxygen and oxidative stress tolerance of members of the L. casei group has been carried out. Results allowed the selection of strains showing the typical traits of aerobic and respiratory metabolism (increased pH and biomass under aerobic or respiratory conditions) and unique oxidative stress response properties. Aerobic growth and respiration may confer technological and physiological advantages in the L. casei group and oxygen-tolerant phenotypes could be exploited in several food industry applications. PMID:24918811

  17. Influence of an aniline supplement on the stability of aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yajie; Jiang, Yixin; Su, Haijia

    2015-10-01

    In order to evaluate the stability of aerobic granules in a toxic environment, this study discussed the influence of an aniline supplement on the properties and microbial community of aerobic granules. In the early stages of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) operation, an aniline supplement slightly affected the properties of the aerobic granules (strength, growth rate, SVI and so on). This effect was thereafter removed because of a change in the microbial community and the structure of aerobic granules: with the present of aniline, microbes with biodegradation ability appeared and gathered in the aerobic granules and the aerobic granules densified and settled faster as their SVI decreased to 35 mL/g and settling velocity increased to 41.56 m/h. When a synthetic waste water containing acetate as carbon source was used as influent, aniline (10-500 mg/L) could be degraded in 6 h, at a rate as high as 37.5 mg aniline/(L·h), with a removal rate in excess of 90%, while the effluent COD fell below 100 mg/L from the initial about 2000 mg/L. The aerobic granules cultured by acetate were compact, stable and resistant to aniline.

  18. [Formation Mechanism of Aerobic Granular Sludge and Removal Efficiencies in Integrated ABR-CSTR Reactor].

    PubMed

    Wu, Kai-cheng; Wu, Peng; Xu, Yue-zhong; Li, Yue-han; Shen, Yao-liang

    2015-08-01

    Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) was altered to make an integrated anaerobic-aerobic reactor. The research investigated the mechanism of aerobic sludge granulation, under the condition of continuous-flow. The last two compartments of the ABR were altered into aeration tank and sedimentation tank respectively with seeded sludge of anaerobic granular sludge in anaerobic zone and conventional activated sludge in aerobic zone. The HRT was gradually decreased in sedimentation tank from 2.0 h to 0.75 h and organic loading rate was increased from 1.5 kg x (M3 x d)(-1) to 2.0 kg x (M3 x d)(-1) while the C/N of 2 was controlled in aerobic zone. When the system operated for 110 days, the mature granular sludge in aerobic zone were characterized by compact structure, excellent sedimentation performance (average sedimentation rate was 20.8 m x h(-1)) and slight yellow color. The system performed well in nitrogen and phosphorus removal under the conditions of setting time of 0.75 h and organic loading rate of 2.0 kg (m3 x d)(-1) in aerobic zone, the removal efficiencies of COD, NH4+ -N, TP and TN were 90%, 80%, 65% and 45%, respectively. The results showed that the increasing selection pressure and the high organic loading rate were the main propulsions of the aerobic sludge granulation.

  19. Aerobic conditions increase isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway gene expression levels for carotenoid production in Enterococcus gilvus.

    PubMed

    Hagi, Tatsuro; Kobayashi, Miho; Nomura, Masaru

    2015-06-01

    Some lactic acid bacteria that harbour carotenoid biosynthesis genes (crtNM) can produce carotenoids. Although aerobic conditions can increase carotenoid production and crtNM expression levels, their effects on the pathways that synthesize carotenoid precursors such as mevalonate and isoprene are not completely understood. In this study, we investigated whether aerobic conditions affected gene expression levels involved in the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway that includes the mevalonate and isoprene biosynthesis pathways in Enterococcus gilvus using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. NADH oxidase (nox) and superoxide dismutase (sod) gene expression levels were investigated as controls for aerobic conditions. The expression levels of nox and sod under aerobic conditions were 7.2- and 8.0-fold higher, respectively, than those under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic conditions concomitantly increased the expression levels of crtNM carotenoid biosynthesis genes. HMG-CoA synthase gene expression levels in the mevalonate pathway were only slightly increased under aerobic conditions, whereas the expression levels of HMG-CoA reductase and five other genes in the isoprene biosynthesis pathways were 1.2-2.3-fold higher than those under anaerobic conditions. These results demonstrated that aerobic conditions could increase the expression levels of genes involved in the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway via mevalonate in E. gilvus.

  20. Aerobic fitness predicts relational memory but not item memory performance in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Baym, Carol L; Khan, Naiman A; Pence, Ari; Raine, Lauren B; Hillman, Charles H; Cohen, Neal J

    2014-11-01

    Health factors such as an active lifestyle and aerobic fitness have long been linked to decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and other adverse health outcomes. Only more recently have researchers begun to investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness and memory function. Based on recent findings in behavioral and cognitive neuroscience showing that the hippocampus might be especially sensitive to the effects of exercise and fitness, the current study assessed hippocampal-dependent relational memory and non-hippocampal-dependent item memory in young adults across a range of aerobic fitness levels. Aerobic fitness was assessed using a graded exercise test to measure oxygen consumption during maximal exercise (VO2max), and relational and item memory were assessed using behavioral and eye movement measures. Behavioral results indicated that aerobic fitness was positively correlated with relational memory performance but not item memory performance, suggesting that the beneficial effects of aerobic fitness selectively affect hippocampal function and not that of the surrounding medial temporal lobe cortex. Eye movement results further supported the specificity of this fitness effect to hippocampal function, in that aerobic fitness predicted disproportionate preferential viewing of previously studied relational associations but not of previously viewed items. Potential mechanisms underlying this pattern of results, including neurogenesis, are discussed.

  1. Kinetics of aerobic cometabolic biodegradation of chlorinated and brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons: A review.

    PubMed

    Jesus, João; Frascari, Dario; Pozdniakova, Tatiana; Danko, Anthony S

    2016-05-15

    This review analyses kinetic studies of aerobic cometabolism (AC) of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) from 2001-2015 in order to (i) compare the different kinetic models proposed, (ii) analyse the estimated model parameters with a focus on novel HAHs and the identification of general trends, and (iii) identify further research needs. The results of this analysis show that aerobic cometabolism can degrade a wide range of HAHs, including HAHs that were not previously tested such as chlorinated propanes, highly chlorinated ethanes and brominated methanes and ethanes. The degree of chlorine mineralization was very high for the chlorinated HAHs. Bromine mineralization was not determined for studies with brominated aliphatics. The examined research period led to the identification of novel growth substrates of potentially high interest. Decreasing performance of aerobic cometabolism were found with increasing chlorination, indicating the high potential of aerobic cometabolism in the presence of medium- and low-halogenated HAHs. Further research is needed for the AC of brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons, the potential for biofilm aerobic cometabolism processes, HAH-HAH mutual inhibition and the identification of the enzymes responsible for each aerobic cometabolism process. Lastly, some indications for a possible standardization of future kinetic studies of HAH aerobic cometabolism are provided. PMID:26874310

  2. When Worlds Collide: Microbial Ecophysiology at the Aerobic/Anaerobic Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girguis, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    The aerobic/anaerobic interface is a transition zone, where conditions, from chemical concentrations to pH, vary along the oxycline. It has long been known that microbes flourish at such interfaces, presumably due to the potential energy available from catalyzing reduction-oxidation reactions using chemicals derived from the anaerobic and aerobic milieus. Indeed, some studies suggest that both microbial diversity and activity is greatest in such settings, and evidenced by the 2-10 fold greater cell abundances associated with such transition zones. That said, the nature of microbial activity found in such transition zones, and the precise extent of their activity, is usually poorly constrained. At hydrothermal vents, for example, scientists have found that distinct communities are associated with each microhabitat, yet our recent studies have shown that canonical anaerobic microbes are found to be active in fully aerobic waters, seemingly well beyond the aerobic/anaerobic interface. Moreover, our research has also shown that the activity of microbes at the aerobic/anaerobic interface can -through extracellular electron transfer- directly influence the activity of microbes in canonically reduced or oxidized habitats. Here we will present these results and discuss the implications for our understanding of how aerobic and anaerobic microbial communities are physiologically coupled across the aerobic/anaerobic interface.

  3. Characterization, Modeling and Application of Aerobic Granular Sludge for Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xian-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing; Ni, Bing-Jie; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    Recently extensive studies have been carried out to cultivate aerobic granular sludge worldwide, including in China. Aerobic granules, compared with conventional activated sludge flocs, are well known for their regular, dense, and strong microbial structure, good settling ability, high biomass retention, and great ability to withstand shock loadings. Studies have shown that the aerobic granules could be applied for the treatment of low- or high-strength wastewaters, simultaneous removal of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, and decomposition of toxic wastewaters. Thus, this new form of activate sludge, like anaerobic granular sludge, could be employed for the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters in near future. This chapter attempts to provide an up-to-date review on the definition, cultivation, characterization, modeling and application of aerobic granular sludge for biological wastewater treatment. This review outlines some important discoveries with regard to the factors affecting the formation of aerobic granular sludge, their physicochemical characteristics, as well as their microbial structure and diversity. It also summarizes the modeling of aerobic granule formation. Finally, this chapter highlights the applications of aerobic granulation technology in the biological wastewater treatment. It is concluded that the knowledge regarding aerobic granular sludge is far from complete. Although previous studies in this field have undoubtedly improved our understanding on aerobic granular sludge, it is clear that much remains to be learned about the process and that many unanswered questions still remain. One of the challenges appears to be the integration of the existing and growing scientific knowledge base with the observations and applications in practice, which this paper hopes to partially achieve.

  4. What Can We Learn From Longitudinal Studies of Adult Development?

    PubMed Central

    Schaie, K. Warner

    2005-01-01

    This article distinguishes between normal and pathological aging, provides an interdisciplinary context, and then considers a sample case of cognitive aging. Developmental influences on cognition include the physiological infrastructure, genetic predispositions, and environmental influences. Different types of longitudinal studies are distinguished, and contrasting findings of cross-sectional and longitudinal are examined in the sample case of the Seattle Longitudinal Study. Also considered is the longitudinal context for intervention studies and the role of longitudinal family studies in assessing rate of aging and generational differences in rates of aging. Finally, attention is given to the role of longitudinal studies in the early detection of risk for dementia in advanced age. PMID:16467912

  5. NIST Diffusion Data Center

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Diffusion Data Center (Web, free access)   The NIST Diffusion Data Center is a collection of over 14,100 international papers, theses, and government reports on diffusion published before 1980.

  6. Taking Center Stage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Describes Ohio's 390,000 square-foot Perry High School and Community Fitness Center and its ability to accommodate all segments of both school and community group activities. A list of companies that supply the center is included. (GR)

  7. Tornadoes: A Center Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christman-Rothlein, Liz; Meinbach, Anita M.

    1981-01-01

    Information is given on how to put together a learning center. Discusses information and activity packets for a complete learning center on tornadoes including objectives, directions, materials, photographs of physical arrangements, and posttest. (DC)

  8. Evaluating Teacher Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiman, Sharon

    1977-01-01

    Considers what teacher centers actually are, what they do, what they are supposed to do, and how they are formed. Discusses three types of centers, their organizational structure and function, and the theory underlying them. (Editor/RK)

  9. National Health Information Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... About ODPHP Dietary Guidelines Physical Activity Guidelines Health Literacy and Communication Health Care Quality and Patient Safety Healthy People healthfinder health.gov About ODPHP National Health Information Center National Health Information Center The National Health ...

  10. BKG Data Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorandt, Volkmar; Wojdziak, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities and background information of the IVS Data Center for the year 2012. Included is information about functions, structure, technical equipment, and staff members of the BKG Data Center.

  11. ACTS data center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syed, Ali; Vogel, Wolfhard J.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on ACTS Data Center status report are included. Topics covered include: ACTS Data Center Functions; data flow overview; PPD flow; RAW data flow; data compression; PPD distribution; RAW Data Archival; PPD Audit; and data analysis.

  12. Nonschool Learning Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Doris B.

    1972-01-01

    Describes a privately financed science center, museum and planetarium - observatory in Twin Falls, Idaho. Centers three hour program includes a lecture on archaeology, time to look at displays, a lunch break, and a planetarium lecture. (RB)

  13. Accredited Birth Centers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Birth Center Accredited 624 Smith Avenue St. Paul, MN 55107 651-689-3988 Accredited since April 2015 ... Birth Center Accredited 1901 44th Avenue North Minneapolis, MN 55343 612-338-2784 Accredited since November 2015 ...

  14. Regional Instrumentation Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromie, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on the activities of regional instrumentation centers that utilize the state-of-the-art instruments and methodology in basic scientific research. The emphasis is on the centers involved in mass spectroscopy, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, lasers, and accelerators. (SA)

  15. Frequency and duration of interval training programs and changes in aerobic power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, E. L.; Bartels, R. L.; Obrien, R.; Bason, R.; Mathews, D. K.; Billings, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    The present study was designed to ascertain whether a training frequency of 2 days/wk for a 7- and 13-wk interval training program would produce improvement in maximal aerobic power comparable to that obtained from 7- and 13-wk programs of the same intensity consisting of 4 training days/wk. After training, there was a significant increase in maximal aerobic power that was independent of both training frequency and duration. Maximal heart rate was significantly decreased following training. Submaximal aerobic power did not change with training, but submaximal heart rate decreased significantly with greater decreases the more frequent and the longer the training.

  16. Vertebrate blood cell volume increases with temperature: implications for aerobic activity.

    PubMed

    Gillooly, James F; Zenil-Ferguson, Rosana

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic activity levels increase with body temperature across vertebrates. Differences in these levels, from highly active to sedentary, are reflected in their ecology and behavior. Yet, the changes in the cardiovascular system that allow for greater oxygen supply at higher temperatures, and thus greater aerobic activity, remain unclear. Here we show that the total volume of red blood cells in the body increases exponentially with temperature across vertebrates, after controlling for effects of body size and taxonomy. These changes are accompanied by increases in relative heart mass, an indicator of aerobic activity. The results point to one way vertebrates may increase oxygen supply to meet the demands of greater activity at higher temperatures.

  17. Treatment of HMX-production wastewater in an aerobic granular reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Hua; Wang, Min-Hui; Zhu, Xiao-Meng

    2013-04-01

    Aerobic granules were applied to the treatment of HMX-production wastewater using a gradual domestication method in a SBR. During the process, the granules showed a good settling ability, a high biomass retention rate, and high biological activity. After 40 days of stable operation, aerobic granular sludge performed very effectively in the removal of carbon and nitrogen compounds from HMX-production wastewater. Organic matter removal rates up to 97.57% and nitrogen removal efficiencies up to 80% were achieved during the process. Researchers conclude that using aerobic granules to treat explosive wastewater has good prospects for success.

  18. Resistance VS aerobic exercise--is the later a better choice?

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Tapas; Adhikari, Prakash

    2006-03-01

    Pulse pressures of two groups of young (18-35 yrs) normotensive non smoker men were compared. One group used to do regular resistance exercise in gymnasium & anther group used to practice aerobic exercise (playing football basketball etc.) regularly. Duration of exercise for both the group was same. Higher pulse pressure was noted in the group taking strength training than that of the persons taking aerobic exercise. Higher pulse pressure is an indication of endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness. It promotes vascular damage and atherosclerosis. It seems that, practice of regular aerobic exercise is preferable for maintaining physical fitness, normal blood pressure and endothelial health.

  19. Teachers' Centers Exchange Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lance, Jeanne; Kreitzman, Ruth

    This directory has three major sections. The foreword is a brief essay describing the purpose of the Teachers' Centers Exchange, the "network" of teachers' centers, and the reasons for compiling and publishing this directory. The second section gives descriptions of 78 teachers' centers in the Exchange's network. These descriptions highlight each…

  20. Data center cooling method

    DOEpatents

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Dang, Hien P.; Parida, Pritish R.; Schultz, Mark D.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-08-11

    A method aspect for removing heat from a data center may use liquid coolant cooled without vapor compression refrigeration on a liquid cooled information technology equipment rack. The method may also include regulating liquid coolant flow to the data center through a range of liquid coolant flow values with a controller-apparatus based upon information technology equipment temperature threshold of the data center.