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Sample records for aerocom phase ii

  1. Evaluation of the aerosol vertical distribution in global aerosol models through comparison against CALIOP measurements: AeroCom phase II results: AEROSOL PROFILES IN AEROCOM II GCM

    SciTech Connect

    Koffi, Brigitte; Schulz, Michael; Bréon, François-Marie; Dentener, Frank; Steensen, Birthe Marie; Griesfeller, Jan; Winker, David; Bauer, Susanne E.; Bellouin, Nicolas; Berntsen, Terje; Bian, Huisheng; Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven; Hauglustaine, Didier A.; Iversen, Trond; Kirkevåg, Alf; Liu, Xiaohong; Lohmann, Ulrike; Myhre, Gunnar; Rasch, Phil; Seland, Øyvind; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Steenrod, Stephen D.; Stier, Philip; Tackett, Jason; Takemura, Toshihiko; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Vuolo, Maria Raffaella; Yoon, Jinho; Zhang, Kai

    2016-06-27

    The ability of eleven models in simulating the aerosol vertical distribution from regional to global scales, as part of the second phase of the AeroCom model inter-comparison initiative (AeroCom II) is assessed and compared to results of the first phase. The evaluation is performed using a global monthly gridded dataset of aerosol extinction profiles built on purpose from the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) Layer Product 3.01. Results over 12 sub-continental regions show that five models improved whereas three degraded in reproducing the Zα 0-6 km mean extinction height diagnostic, which is computed over the 0-6 km altitude range for each studied region and season. While the models’ performance remains highly variable, it has generally improved in terms of inter-regional diversity and seasonality. The biases in Zα 0-6 km have notably decreased in the U.S. and European industrial and downwind maritime regions, whereas the timing of the Zα 0-6 km peak season has improved for all but two models. However, most of the models now show a Zα 0-6 km underestimation over land, notably in the dust and biomass burning regions in Asia and Africa. At global scale, the AeroCom II models better reproduce the Zα 0-6 km latitudinal variability over ocean than over land. Hypotheses for the (changes in the) the performance of the individual models and for the inter-model diversity are discussed. We also provide an analysis of the CALIOP limitations and uncertainties that can contribute to the differences between the simulations and observations.

  2. Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhre, G.; Samset, B. H.; Schulz, M.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Berntsen, T. K.; Bian, H.; Bellouin, N.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Easter, R. C.; Feichter, J.; Ghan, S. J.; Hauglustaine, D.; Iversen, T.; Kinne, S.; Kirkevåg, A.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Lin, G.; Liu, X.; Lund, M. T.; Luo, G.; Ma, X.; van Noije, T.; Penner, J. E.; Rasch, P. J.; Ruiz, A.; Seland, Ø.; Skeie, R. B.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, K.; Wang, P.; Wang, Z.; Xu, L.; Yu, H.; Yu, F.; Yoon, J.-H.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, C.

    2013-02-01

    We report on the AeroCom Phase II direct aerosol effect (DAE) experiment where 16 detailed global aerosol models have been used to simulate the changes in the aerosol distribution over the industrial era. All 16 models have estimated the radiative forcing (RF) of the anthropogenic DAE, and have taken into account anthropogenic sulphate, black carbon (BC) and organic aerosols (OA) from fossil fuel, biofuel, and biomass burning emissions. In addition several models have simulated the DAE of anthropogenic nitrate and anthropogenic influenced secondary organic aerosols (SOA). The model simulated all-sky RF of the DAE from total anthropogenic aerosols has a range from -0.58 to -0.02 Wm-2, with a mean of -0.27 Wm-2 for the 16 models. Several models did not include nitrate or SOA and modifying the estimate by accounting for this with information from the other AeroCom models reduces the range and slightly strengthens the mean. Modifying the model estimates for missing aerosol components and for the time period 1750 to 2010 results in a mean RF for the DAE of -0.35 Wm-2. Compared to AeroCom Phase I (Schulz et al., 2006) we find very similar spreads in both total DAE and aerosol component RF. However, the RF of the total DAE is stronger negative and RF from BC from fossil fuel and biofuel emissions are stronger positive in the present study than in the previous AeroCom study. We find a tendency for models having a strong (positive) BC RF to also have strong (negative) sulphate or OA RF. This relationship leads to smaller uncertainty in the total RF of the DAE compared to the RF of the sum of the individual aerosol components. The spread in results for the individual aerosol components is substantial, and can be divided into diversities in burden, mass extinction coefficient (MEC), and normalized RF with respect to AOD. We find that these three factors give similar contributions to the spread in results.

  3. Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhre, G.; Samset, B. H.; Schulz, M.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Berntsen, T. K.; Bian, H.; Bellouin, N.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Easter, R. C.; Feichter, J.; Ghan, S. J.; Hauglustaine, D.; Iversen, T.; Kinne, S.; Kirkevåg, A.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Lin, G.; Liu, X.; Luo, G.; Ma, X.; Penner, J. E.; Rasch, P. J.; Seland, Ø.; Skeie, R. B.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, K.; Wang, Z.; Xu, L.; Yu, H.; Yu, F.; Yoon, J.-H.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, C.

    2012-08-01

    We report on the AeroCom Phase II direct aerosol effect (DAE) experiment where 15 detailed global aerosol models have been used to simulate the changes in the aerosol distribution over the industrial era. All 15 models have estimated the radiative forcing (RF) of the anthropogenic DAE, and have taken into account anthropogenic sulphate, black carbon (BC) and organic aerosols (OA) from fossil fuel, biofuel, and biomass burning emissions. In addition several models have simulated the DAE of anthropogenic nitrate and anthropogenic influenced secondary organic aerosols (SOA). The model simulated all-sky RF of the DAE from total anthropogenic aerosols has a range from -0.58 to -0.02 W m-2, with a mean of -0.30 W m-2 for the 15 models. Several models did not include nitrate or SOA and modifying the estimate by accounting for this with information from the other AeroCom models reduces the range and slightly strengthens the mean. Modifying the model estimates for missing aerosol components and for the time period 1750 to 2010 results in a mean RF for the DAE of -0.39 W m-2. Compared to AeroCom Phase I (Schulz et al., 2006) we find very similar spreads in both total DAE and aerosol component RF. However, the RF of the total DAE is stronger negative and RF from BC from fossil fuel and biofuel emissions are stronger positive in the present study than in the previous AeroCom study. We find a tendency for models having a strong (positive) BC RF to also have strong (negative) sulphate or OA RF. This relationship leads to smaller uncertainty in the total RF of the DAE compared to the RF of the sum of the individual aerosol components. The spread in results for the individual aerosol components is substantial, and can be divided into diversities in burden, mass extinction coefficient (MEC), and normalized RF with respect to AOD. We find that these three factors give similar contributions to the spread in results.

  4. Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Myhre, G.; Samset, B. H.; Schulz, M.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Berntsen, T. K.; Bian, H.; Bellouin, N.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Easter, R. C.; Feichter, J.; Ghan, S. J.; Hauglustaine, D.; Iversen, T.; Kinne, S.; Kirkevåg, A.; Lamarque, J. -F.; Lin, G.; Liu, X.; Lund, M. T.; Luo, G.; Ma, X.; van Noije, T.; Penner, J. E.; Rasch, P. J.; Ruiz, A.; Seland, Ø.; Skeie, R. B.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, K.; Wang, P.; Wang, Z.; Xu, L.; Yu, H.; Yu, F.; Yoon, J. -H.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, C.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the AeroCom Phase II direct aerosol effect (DAE) experiment where 16 detailed global aerosol models have been used to simulate the changes in the aerosol distribution over the industrial era. All 16 models have estimated the radiative forcing (RF) of the anthropogenic DAE, and have taken into account anthropogenic sulphate, black carbon (BC) and organic aerosols (OA) from fossil fuel, biofuel, and biomass burning emissions. In addition several models have simulated the DAE of anthropogenic nitrate and anthropogenic influenced secondary organic aerosols (SOA). The model simulated all-sky RF of the DAE from total anthropogenic aerosols has a range from -0.58 to -0.02 Wm-2, with a mean of -0.27 Wm-2 for the 16 models. Several models did not include nitrate or SOA and modifying the estimate by accounting for this with information from the other AeroCom models reduces the range and slightly strengthens the mean. Modifying the model estimates for missing aerosol components and for the time period 1750 to 2010 results in a mean RF for the DAE of -0.35 Wm-2. Compared to AeroCom Phase I (Schulz et al., 2006) we find very similar spreads in both total DAE and aerosol component RF. However, the RF of the total DAE is stronger negative and RF from BC from fossil fuel and biofuel emissions are stronger positive in the present study than in the previous AeroCom study. We find a tendency for models having a strong (positive) BC RF to also have strong (negative) sulphate or OA RF. This relationship leads to smaller uncertainty in the total RF of the DAE compared to the RF of the sum of the individual aerosol components. The spread in results for the individual aerosol components is substantial, and can be divided into diversities in burden, mass extinction coefficient (MEC), and normalized RF with respect to AOD. We find that these three factors give similar contributions to the spread in results.

  5. Radiative Forcing of the Direct Aerosol Effect from AeroCom Phase II Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myhre, G.; Samset, B. H.; Schulz, M.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Berntsen, T. K.; Bian, H.; Bellouin, N.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Easter, R. C.; Feichter, J.; Ghan, S. J.; Hauglustaine, D.; Iversen, T.; Kinne, S.; Kirkevag, A.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Lin, G.; Liu, X.; Lund, M. T.; Luo, G.; Ma, X.; vanNoije, T.; Penner, J. E.; Rasch, P. J.; Ruiz, A.; Seland, O.; Skeie, R. B.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, K.; Wang, P.; Wang, Z.; Xu, L.; Yu, H.; Yu, F.; Yoon, J. -H.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, C.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the AeroCom Phase II direct aerosol effect (DAE) experiment where 16 detailed global aerosol models have been used to simulate the changes in the aerosol distribution over the industrial era. All 16 models have estimated the radiative forcing (RF) of the anthropogenic DAE, and have taken into account anthropogenic sulphate, black carbon (BC) and organic aerosols (OA) from fossil fuel, biofuel, and biomass burning emissions. In addition several models have simulated the DAE of anthropogenic nitrate and anthropogenic influenced secondary organic aerosols (SOA). The model simulated all-sky RF of the DAE from total anthropogenic aerosols has a range from -0.58 to -0.02 W m(sup-2), with a mean of -0.27 W m(sup-2 for the 16 models. Several models did not include nitrate or SOA and modifying the estimate by accounting for this with information slightly strengthens the mean. Modifying the model estimates for missing aerosol components and for the time period 1750 to 2010 results in a mean RF for the DAE of -0.35 W m(sup-2). Compared to AeroCom Phase I (Schulz et al., 2006) we find very similar spreads in both total DAE and aerosol component RF. However, the RF of the total DAE is stronger negative and RF from BC from fossil fuel and biofuel emissions are stronger positive in the present study than in the previous AeroCom study.We find a tendency for models having a strong (positive) BC RF to also have strong (negative) sulphate or OA RF. This relationship leads to smaller uncertainty in the total RF of the DAE compared to the RF of the sum of the individual aerosol components. The spread in results for the individual aerosol components is substantial, and can be divided into diversities in burden, mass extinction coefficient (MEC), and normalized RF with respect to AOD. We find that these three factors give similar contributions to the spread in results

  6. Evaluation of the aerosol vertical distribution in global aerosol models through comparison against CALIOP measurements: AeroCom phase II results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koffi, Brigitte; Schulz, Michael; Bréon, François-Marie; Dentener, Frank; Steensen, Birthe Marie; Griesfeller, Jan; Winker, David; Balkanski, Yves; Bauer, Susanne E.; Bellouin, Nicolas; Berntsen, Terje; Bian, Huisheng; Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven; Hauglustaine, Didier A.; Iversen, Trond; Kirkevâg, Alf; Liu, Xiaohong; Lohmann, Ulrike; Myhre, Gunnar; Rasch, Phil; Seland, Åyvind; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Steenrod, Stephen D.; Stier, Philip; Tackett, Jason; Takemura, Toshihiko; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Vuolo, Maria Raffaella; Yoon, Jinho; Zhang, Kai

    2016-06-01

    The ability of 11 models in simulating the aerosol vertical distribution from regional to global scales, as part of the second phase of the AeroCom model intercomparison initiative (AeroCom II), is assessed and compared to results of the first phase. The evaluation is performed using a global monthly gridded data set of aerosol extinction profiles built for this purpose from the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) Layer Product 3.01. Results over 12 subcontinental regions show that five models improved, whereas three degraded in reproducing the interregional variability in Zα0-6 km, the mean extinction height diagnostic, as computed from the CALIOP aerosol profiles over the 0-6 km altitude range for each studied region and season. While the models' performance remains highly variable, the simulation of the timing of the Zα0-6 km peak season has also improved for all but two models from AeroCom Phase I to Phase II. The biases in Zα0-6 km are smaller in all regions except Central Atlantic, East Asia, and North and South Africa. Most of the models now underestimate Zα0-6 km over land, notably in the dust and biomass burning regions in Asia and Africa. At global scale, the AeroCom II models better reproduce the Zα0-6 km latitudinal variability over ocean than over land. Hypotheses for the performance and evolution of the individual models and for the intermodel diversity are discussed. We also provide an analysis of the CALIOP limitations and uncertainties contributing to the differences between the simulations and observations.

  7. What controls the vertical distribution of aerosol? Relationships between process sensitivity in HadGEM3-UKCA and inter-model variation from AeroCom Phase II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipling, Zak; Stier, Philip; Johnson, Colin E.; Mann, Graham W.; Bellouin, Nicolas; Bauer, Susanne E.; Bergman, Tommi; Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Ghan, Steven J.; Iversen, Trond; Kirkevåg, Alf; Kokkola, Harri; Liu, Xiaohong; Luo, Gan; van Noije, Twan; Pringle, Kirsty J.; von Salzen, Knut; Schulz, Michael; Seland, Øyvind; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Zhang, Kai

    2016-02-01

    The vertical profile of aerosol is important for its radiative effects, but weakly constrained by observations on the global scale, and highly variable among different models. To investigate the controlling factors in one particular model, we investigate the effects of individual processes in HadGEM3-UKCA and compare the resulting diversity of aerosol vertical profiles with the inter-model diversity from the AeroCom Phase II control experiment. In this way we show that (in this model at least) the vertical profile is controlled by a relatively small number of processes, although these vary among aerosol components and particle sizes. We also show that sufficiently coarse variations in these processes can produce a similar diversity to that among different models in terms of the global-mean profile and, to a lesser extent, the zonal-mean vertical position. However, there are features of certain models' profiles that cannot be reproduced, suggesting the influence of further structural differences between models. In HadGEM3-UKCA, convective transport is found to be very important in controlling the vertical profile of all aerosol components by mass. In-cloud scavenging is very important for all except mineral dust. Growth by condensation is important for sulfate and carbonaceous aerosol (along with aqueous oxidation for the former and ageing by soluble material for the latter). The vertical extent of biomass-burning emissions into the free troposphere is also important for the profile of carbonaceous aerosol. Boundary-layer mixing plays a dominant role for sea salt and mineral dust, which are emitted only from the surface. Dry deposition and below-cloud scavenging are important for the profile of mineral dust only. In this model, the microphysical processes of nucleation, condensation and coagulation dominate the vertical profile of the smallest particles by number (e.g. total CN > 3 nm), while the profiles of larger particles (e.g. CN > 100 nm) are controlled by the

  8. What Controls the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol? Relationships Between Process Sensitivity in HadGEM3-UKCA and Inter-Model Variation from AeroCom Phase II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kipling, Zak; Stier, Philip; Johnson, Colin E.; Mann, Graham W.; Bellouin, Nicolas; Bauer, Susanne E.; Bergman, Tommi; Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Ghan, Steven J.; Tsigaridis, Kostas

    2016-01-01

    The vertical profile of aerosol is important for its radiative effects, but weakly constrained by observations on the global scale, and highly variable among different models. To investigate the controlling factors in one particular model, we investigate the effects of individual processes in HadGEM3-UKCA and compare the resulting diversity of aerosol vertical profiles with the inter-model diversity from the AeroCom Phase II control experiment. In this way we show that (in this model at least) the vertical profile is controlled by a relatively small number of processes, although these vary among aerosol components and particle sizes. We also show that sufficiently coarse variations in these processes can produce a similar diversity to that among different models in terms of the global-mean profile and, to a lesser extent, the zonal-mean vertical position. However, there are features of certain models' profiles that cannot be reproduced, suggesting the influence of further structural differences between models. In HadGEM3-UKCA, convective transport is found to be very important in controlling the vertical profile of all aerosol components by mass. In-cloud scavenging is very important for all except mineral dust. Growth by condensation is important for sulfate and carbonaceous aerosol (along with aqueous oxidation for the former and ageing by soluble material for the latter). The vertical extent of biomass-burning emissions into the free troposphere is also important for the profile of carbonaceous aerosol. Boundary-layer mixing plays a dominant role for sea salt and mineral dust, which are emitted only from the surface. Dry deposition and below-cloud scavenging are important for the profile of mineral dust only. In this model, the microphysical processes of nucleation, condensation and coagulation dominate the vertical profile of the smallest particles by number (e.g. total CN >3 nm), while the profiles of larger particles (e.g. CN>100 nm) are controlled by the

  9. What controls the vertical distribution of aerosol? Relationships between process sensitivity in HadGEM3-UKCA and inter-model variation from AeroCom Phase II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipling, Z.; Stier, P.; Johnson, C. E.; Mann, G. W.; Bellouin, N.; Bauer, S. E.; Bergman, T.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Ghan, S. J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevåg, A.; Kokkola, H.; Liu, X.; Luo, G.; van Noije, T.; Pringle, K. J.; von Salzen, K.; Schulz, M.; Seland, Ø.; Skeie, R. B.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, K.; Zhang, K.

    2015-09-01

    The vertical profile of aerosol is important for its radiative effects, but weakly constrained by observations on the global scale, and highly variable among different models. To investigate the controlling factors, we investigate the effects of individual processes in one particular model (HadGEM3-UKCA), and compare the resulting diversity of aerosol vertical profiles with the inter-model diversity from the AeroCom Phase II control experiment. In this way we show that (in this model at least) the vertical profile is controlled by a relatively small number of processes, although these vary among aerosol components and particle sizes. We also show that sufficiently coarse variations in these processes can produce a similar diversity to that among different models in terms of the global mean profile and zonal-mean vertical position. However, there are features of certain models' profiles that cannot be reproduced, suggesting the influence of further structural differences between models. Convective transport is found to be very important in controlling the vertical profile of all aerosol components by mass. In-cloud scavenging is very important for all except mineral dust. Growth by condensation is important for sulphate and carbonaceous aerosol (along with aqueous oxidation for the former and ageing by soluble material for the latter). The vertical extent of biomass-burning emissions into the free troposphere is also important for the profile of carbonaceous aerosol. Boundary-layer mixing plays a dominant role for sea-salt and mineral dust, which are emitted only from the surface. Dry deposition and below-cloud scavenging are important for the profile of mineral dust only. In this model, the microphysical processes of nucleation, condensation and coagulation dominate the vertical profile of the smallest particles by number, while the profiles of larger particles are controlled by the same processes as the component mass profiles, plus the size distribution of

  10. What controls the vertical distribution of aerosol? Relationships between process sensitivity in HadGEM3–UKCA and inter-model variation from AeroCom Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Kipling, Zak; Stier, Philip; Johnson, Colin E.; Mann, Graham W.; Bellouin, Nicolas; Bauer, Susanne E.; Bergman, Tommi; Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Ghan, Steven J.; Iversen, Trond; Kirkevag, Alf; Kokkola, Harri; Liu, Xiaohong; Luo, Gan; van Noije, Twan; Pringle, Kirsty J.; von Salzen, Knut; Schulz, Michael; Seland, Oyvind; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Zhang, Kai

    2016-02-26

    The vertical profile of aerosol is important for its radiative effects, but weakly constrained by observations on the global scale, and highly variable among different models. To investigate the controlling factors in one particular model, we investigate the effects of individual processes in HadGEM3–UKCA and compare the resulting diversity of aerosol vertical profiles with the inter-model diversity from the AeroCom Phase II control experiment.

    In this way we show that (in this model at least) the vertical profile is controlled by a relatively small number of processes, although these vary among aerosol components and particle sizes. We also show that sufficiently coarse variations in these processes can produce a similar diversity to that among different models in terms of the global-mean profile and, to a lesser extent, the zonal-mean vertical position. However, there are features of certain models' profiles that cannot be reproduced, suggesting the influence of further structural differences between models.

    In HadGEM3–UKCA, convective transport is found to be very important in controlling the vertical profile of all aerosol components by mass. In-cloud scavenging is very important for all except mineral dust. Growth by condensation is important for sulfate and carbonaceous aerosol (along with aqueous oxidation for the former and ageing by soluble material for the latter). The vertical extent of biomass-burning emissions into the free troposphere is also important for the profile of carbonaceous aerosol. Boundary-layer mixing plays a dominant role for sea salt and mineral dust, which are emitted only from the surface. Dry deposition and below-cloud scavenging are important for the profile of mineral dust only.

    In this model, the microphysical processes of nucleation, condensation and coagulation dominate the vertical profile of the smallest particles by number (e.g. total CN > 3 nm), while the profiles of larger particles (e.g. CN

  11. What controls the vertical distribution of aerosol? Relationships between process sensitivity in HadGEM3–UKCA and inter-model variation from AeroCom Phase II

    DOE PAGES

    Kipling, Zak; Stier, Philip; Johnson, Colin E.; ...

    2016-02-26

    The vertical profile of aerosol is important for its radiative effects, but weakly constrained by observations on the global scale, and highly variable among different models. To investigate the controlling factors in one particular model, we investigate the effects of individual processes in HadGEM3–UKCA and compare the resulting diversity of aerosol vertical profiles with the inter-model diversity from the AeroCom Phase II control experiment. In this way we show that (in this model at least) the vertical profile is controlled by a relatively small number of processes, although these vary among aerosol components and particle sizes. We also show that sufficientlymore » coarse variations in these processes can produce a similar diversity to that among different models in terms of the global-mean profile and, to a lesser extent, the zonal-mean vertical position. However, there are features of certain models' profiles that cannot be reproduced, suggesting the influence of further structural differences between models. In HadGEM3–UKCA, convective transport is found to be very important in controlling the vertical profile of all aerosol components by mass. In-cloud scavenging is very important for all except mineral dust. Growth by condensation is important for sulfate and carbonaceous aerosol (along with aqueous oxidation for the former and ageing by soluble material for the latter). The vertical extent of biomass-burning emissions into the free troposphere is also important for the profile of carbonaceous aerosol. Boundary-layer mixing plays a dominant role for sea salt and mineral dust, which are emitted only from the surface. Dry deposition and below-cloud scavenging are important for the profile of mineral dust only. In this model, the microphysical processes of nucleation, condensation and coagulation dominate the vertical profile of the smallest particles by number (e.g. total CN > 3 nm), while the profiles of larger particles (e.g. CN > 100 nm) are

  12. An AeroCom assessment of black carbon in Arctic snow and sea ice

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, C.; Flanner, M. G.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T. K.; Bian, H.; Carslaw, K. S.; Chin, M.; De Luca, N.; Diehl, T.; Ghan, S. J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevåg, A.; Koch, D.; Liu, X.; Mann, G. W.; Penner, J. E.; Pitari, G.; Schulz, M.; Seland, Ø.; Skeie, R. B.; Steenrod, S. D.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, K.; van Noije, T.; Yun, Y.; Zhang, K.

    2014-01-01

    Though many global aerosols models prognose surface deposition, only a few models have been used to directly simulate the radiative effect from black carbon (BC) deposition to snow and sea ice. In this paper, we apply aerosol deposition fields from 25 models contributing to two phases of the Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom) project to simulate and evaluate within-snow BC concentrations and radiative effect in the Arctic. We accomplish this by driving the offline land and sea ice components of the Community Earth System Model with different deposition fields and meteorological conditions from 2004 to 2009, during which an extensive field campaign of BC measurements in Arctic snow occurred. We find that models generally underestimate BC concentrations in snow in northern Russia and Norway, while overestimating BC amounts elsewhere in the Arctic. Although simulated BC distributions in snow are poorly correlated with measurements, mean values are reasonable. The multi-model mean (range) bias in BC concentrations, sampled over the same grid cells, snow depths, and months of measurements, are -4.4 (-13.2 to +10.7) ng g-1 for an earlier phase of AeroCom models (phase I), and +4.1 (-13.0 to +21.4) ng g-1 for a more recent phase of AeroCom models (phase II), compared to the observational mean of 19.2 ng g-1. Factors determining model BC concentrations in Arctic snow include Arctic BC emissions, transport of extra-Arctic aerosols, precipitation, deposition efficiency of aerosols within the Arctic, and meltwater removal of particles in snow. Sensitivity studies show that the model–measurement evaluation is only weakly affected by meltwater scavenging efficiency because most measurements were conducted in non-melting snow. The Arctic (60–90° N) atmospheric residence time for BC in phase II models ranges from 3.7 to 23.2 days, implying large inter-model variation in local BC deposition efficiency. Combined with

  13. An AeroCom Assessment of Black Carbon in Arctic Snow and Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiao, C.; Flanner, M. G.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Bernsten, T. K.; Bian, H.; Carslaw, K. S.; Chin, M.; DeLuca, N.; Diehl, T.; Ghan, S. J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Koch, D.; Liu, X.; Mann, G. W.; Penner, J. E.; Pitari, G.; Schulz, M.; Seland, O; Skeie, R. B.; Steenrod, S. D.; Stier, P.; Tkemura, T.

    2014-01-01

    Though many global aerosols models prognose surface deposition, only a few models have been used to directly simulate the radiative effect from black carbon (BC) deposition to snow and sea ice. Here, we apply aerosol deposition fields from 25 models contributing to two phases of the Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom) project to simulate and evaluate within-snow BC concentrations and radiative effect in the Arctic. We accomplish this by driving the offline land and sea ice components of the Community Earth System Model with different deposition fields and meteorological conditions from 2004 to 2009, during which an extensive field campaign of BC measurements in Arctic snow occurred. We find that models generally underestimate BC concentrations in snow in northern Russia and Norway, while overestimating BC amounts elsewhere in the Arctic. Although simulated BC distributions in snow are poorly correlated with measurements, mean values are reasonable. The multi-model mean (range) bias in BC concentrations, sampled over the same grid cells, snow depths, and months of measurements, are -4.4 (-13.2 to +10.7) ng/g for an earlier phase of AeroCom models (phase I), and +4.1 (-13.0 to +21.4) ng/g for a more recent phase of AeroCom models (phase II), compared to the observational mean of 19.2 ng/g. Factors determining model BC concentrations in Arctic snow include Arctic BC emissions, transport of extra-Arctic aerosols, precipitation, deposition efficiency of aerosols within the Arctic, and meltwater removal of particles in snow. Sensitivity studies show that the model-measurement evaluation is only weakly affected by meltwater scavenging efficiency because most measurements were conducted in non-melting snow. The Arctic (60-90degN) atmospheric residence time for BC in phase II models ranges from 3.7 to 23.2 days, implying large inter-model variation in local BC deposition efficiency. Combined with the fact that most Arctic BC deposition originates

  14. Application of the CALIOP Layer Product to Evaluate the Vertical Distribution of Aerosols Estimated by Global Models: AeroCom Phase I Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koffi, Brigitte; Schulz, Michael; Breon, Francois-Marie; Griesfeller, Jan; Winker, David; Balkanski, Yves; Bauer, Susanne; Berntsen, Terje; Chin, Mian; Collins, William D.; Dentener, Frank; Diehl, Thomas; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven; Gimoux, Paul; Gong, Sunling; Horowitz, Larry W.; Iversen, Trond; Kirkevag, Alf; Koch, Dorothy; Krol, Maarten; Myhre, Gunnar; Stier, Philip; Takemura, Toshihiko

    2012-01-01

    The CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) layer product is used for a multimodel evaluation of the vertical distribution of aerosols. Annual and seasonal aerosol extinction profiles are analyzed over 13 sub-continental regions representative of industrial, dust, and biomass burning pollution, from CALIOP 2007-2009 observations and from AeroCom (Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models) 2000 simulations. An extinction mean height diagnostic (Z-alpha) is defined to quantitatively assess the models' performance. It is calculated over the 0-6 km and 0-10 km altitude ranges by weighting the altitude of each 100 m altitude layer by its aerosol extinction coefficient. The mean extinction profiles derived from CALIOP layer products provide consistent regional and seasonal specificities and a low inter-annual variability. While the outputs from most models are significantly correlated with the observed Z-alpha climatologies, some do better than others, and 2 of the 12 models perform particularly well in all seasons. Over industrial and maritime regions, most models show higher Z-alpha than observed by CALIOP, whereas over the African and Chinese dust source regions, Z-alpha is underestimated during Northern Hemisphere Spring and Summer. The positive model bias in Z-alpha is mainly due to an overestimate of the extinction above 6 km. Potential CALIOP and model limitations, and methodological factors that might contribute to the differences are discussed.

  15. Application of the CALIOP Layer Product to Evaluate the Vertical Distribution of Aerosols Estimated by Global Models: AeroCom Phase I Results

    SciTech Connect

    Koffi, Brigitte; Schultz, Michael; Breon, Francois-Marie; Griesfeller, Jan; Winker, D.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, Susanne E.; Berntsen, T.; Chin, Mian; Collins, William D.; Dentener, Frank; Diehl, Thomas; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Ginoux, P.; Gong, S.; Horowitz, L.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Koch, Dorothy; Krol, Maarten; Myhre, G.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.

    2012-05-19

    The CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) layer product is used for a multimodel evaluation of the vertical distribution of aerosols. Annual and seasonal aerosol extinction profiles are analyzed over 13 sub-continental regions representative of industrial, dust, and biomass burning pollution, from CALIOP 2007-2009 observations and from AeroCom (Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models) 2000 simulations. An extinction mean height diagnostic (Z{sub a}) is defined to quantitatively assess the models performance. It is calculated over the 0-6 km and 0-10 km altitude ranges by weighting the altitude of each 100 m altitude layer by its aerosol extinction coefficient. The mean extinction profiles derived from CALIOP layer products provide consistent regional and seasonal specificities and a low inter-annual variability. While the outputs from most models are significantly correlated with the observed Z{sub a} climatologies, some do better than others, and 2 of the 12 models perform particularly well in all seasons. Over industrial and maritime regions, most models show higher Z{sub a} than observed by CALIOP, whereas over the African and Chinese dust source regions, Z{sub a} is underestimated during Northern Hemisphere Spring and Summer. The positive model bias in Z{sub a} is mainly due to an overestimate of the extinction above 6 km. Potential CALIOP and model limitations, and methodological factors that might contribute to the differences are discussed.

  16. Using Aerocom Results to Constrain Black Carbon, Sulphate and Total Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing and Their Uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samset, B. H.; Myhre, G.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosols affect the global radiative balance, and hence the climate, through a multitude of processes. However, even the direct interaction of aerosols with incoming sunlight is at present insufficiently constrained. Here we compare the output of 15 recent aerosol climate models (AeroCom Phase II), both column averaged and vertically resolved. Through a simple MonteCarlo approach, we show that the model based total anthropogenic aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) uncertainty may be underestimated. Constraining modelled vertical profiles of black carbon (BC) concentration to aircraft measurements in remote regions, we further show that recent BC DRF estimates may be biased high. A short modelled BC lifetime is indicated as a necessary, though not sufficient, requirement for reproducing measurements. Finally, modeled sulphate aerosol DRF is discussed in the context of differences in representation of humidity and hygroscopic growth in the models.

  17. Modelled Black Carbon Radiative Forcing and Atmospheric Lifetime in AeroCom Phase II Constrained by Aircraft Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Samset, B. H.; Myhre, G.; Herber, Andreas; Kondo, Yutaka; Li, Shao-Meng; Moteki, N.; Koike, Makoto; Oshima, N.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T.; Bian, Huisheng; Chin, M.; Diehl, Thomas; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Lin, Guang; Liu, Xiaohong; Penner, Joyce E.; Schulz, M.; Seland, O.; Skeie, R. B.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Zhang, Kai

    2014-11-27

    Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb solar radiation, and are generally held to exacerbate global warming through exerting a positive radiative forcing1. However, the total contribution of BC to the ongoing changes in global climate is presently under debate2-8. Both anthropogenic BC emissions and the resulting spatial and temporal distribution of BC concentration are highly uncertain2,9. In particular, long range transport and processes affecting BC atmospheric lifetime are poorly understood, leading to large estimated uncertainty in BC concentration at high altitudes and far from emission sources10. These uncertainties limit our ability to quantify both the historical, present and future anthropogenic climate impact of BC. Here we compare vertical profiles of BC concentration from four recent aircraft measurement campaigns with 13 state of the art aerosol models, and show that recent assessments may have overestimated present day BC radiative forcing. Further, an atmospheric lifetime of BC of less than 5 days is shown to be essential for reproducing observations in transport dominated remote regions. Adjusting model results to measurements in remote regions, and at high altitudes, leads to a 25% reduction in the multi-model median direct BC forcing from fossil fuel and biofuel burning over the industrial era.

  18. Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schuknecht, Nate; White, David; Hoste, Graeme

    2014-09-11

    The SkyTrough DSP will advance the state-of-the-art in parabolic troughs for utility applications, with a larger aperture, higher operating temperature, and lower cost. The goal of this project was to develop a parabolic trough collector that enables solar electricity generation in the 2020 marketplace for a 216MWe nameplate baseload power plant. This plant requires an LCOE of 9¢/kWhe, given a capacity factor of 75%, a fossil fuel limit of 15%, a fossil fuel cost of $6.75/MMBtu, $25.00/kWht thermal storage cost, and a domestic installation corresponding to Daggett, CA. The result of our optimization was a trough design of larger aperture and operating temperature than has been fielded in large, utility scale parabolic trough applications: 7.6m width x 150m SCA length (1,118m2 aperture), with four 90mm diameter × 4.7m receivers per mirror module and an operating temperature of 500°C. The results from physical modeling in the System Advisory Model indicate that, for a capacity factor of 75%: The LCOE will be 8.87¢/kWhe. SkyFuel examined the design of almost every parabolic trough component from a perspective of load and performance at aperture areas from 500 to 2,900m2. Aperture-dependent design was combined with fixed quotations for similar parts from the commercialized SkyTrough product, and established an installed cost of $130/m2 in 2020. This project was conducted in two phases. Phase I was a preliminary design, culminating in an optimum trough size and further improvement of an advanced polymeric reflective material. This phase was completed in October of 2011. Phase II has been the detailed engineering design and component testing, which culminated in the fabrication and testing of a single mirror module. Phase II is complete, and this document presents a summary of the comprehensive work.

  19. Evaluating AEROCOM Models with Remote Sensing Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutgens, N.; Gryspeerdt, E.; Weigum, N.; Veira, A.; Partridge, D.; Stier, P.

    2014-12-01

    We present an in-depth evaluation of AEROCOM models with a variety of remote sensing datasets: MODIS AOT (& AE over ocean), AERONET, AOT, AE & SSA and Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN) AOT & AE. Together these datasets provide extensive global and temporal coverage and measure both extensive (AOT) as well as intensive aerosol properties (AE & SSA). Models and observations differ strongly in their spatio-temporal sampling. Model results are typical of large gridboxes (100 by 100 km), while observations are made over much smaller areas (10 by 10 km for MODIS, even smaller for AERONET and MAN). Model results are always available in contrast to observations that are intermittent due to orbital constraints, retrieval limitations and instrument failure/maintenance. We find that differences in AOT due to sampling effects can be 100% for instantaneous values and can still be 40% for monthly or yearly averages. Such differences are comparable to or larger than typical retrieval errors in the observations. We propose strategies (temporal colocation, spatial aggregation) for reducing these sampling errors Finally, we evaluate one year of co-located AOT, AE and SSA from several AEROCOM models against MODIS, AERONET and MAN observations. Where the observational datasets overlap, they give similar results but in general they allow us to evaluate models in very different spatio-temporal domains. We show that even small datasets like MAN AOT or AERONET SSA, provide a useful standard for evaluating models thanks to temporal colocation. The models differ quite a bit from the observations and each model differs in its own way. These results are presented through global maps of yearly averaged differences, time-series of modelled and observed data, scatter plots of correlations among observables (e.g. SSA vs AE) and Taylor diagrams. In particular, we find that the AEROCOM emissions substantially underestimate wildfire emissions and that many models have aerosol that is too absorbing.

  20. Options Study - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  1. Combustion 2000: Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-11-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%; NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard); coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign; and cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This Phase, Phase 2, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase 3. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase 3 program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase 2 Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4,and 5) and the development of a site-specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAF Combustors; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; and Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  2. AeroCom INSITU Project: Comparing modeled and measured aerosol optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Elisabeth; Schmeisser, Lauren; Schulz, Michael; Fiebig, Markus; Ogren, John; Bian, Huisheng; Chin, Mian; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steve; Kokkola, Harri; Laakso, Anton; Myhre, Gunnar; Randles, Cynthia; da Silva, Arlindo; Stier, Phillip; Skeie, Ragnehild; Takemura, Toshihiko; van Noije, Twan; Zhang, Kai

    2016-04-01

    AeroCom, an open international collaboration of scientists seeking to improve global aerosol models, recently initiated a project comparing model output to in-situ, surface-based measurements of aerosol optical properties. The model/measurement comparison project, called INSITU, aims to evaluate the performance of a suite of AeroCom aerosol models with site-specific observational data in order to inform iterative improvements to model aerosol modules. Surface in-situ data has the unique property of being traceable to physical standards, which is an asset in accomplishing the overall goal of bettering the accuracy of aerosols processes and the predicative capability of global climate models. Here we compare dry, in-situ aerosol scattering and absorption data from ~75 surface, in-situ sites from various global aerosol networks (including NOAA, EUSAAR/ACTRIS and GAW) with a simulated optical properties from a suite of models participating in the AeroCom project. We report how well models reproduce aerosol climatologies for a variety of time scales, aerosol characteristics and behaviors (e.g., aerosol persistence and the systematic relationships between aerosol optical properties), and aerosol trends. Though INSITU is a multi-year endeavor, preliminary phases of the analysis suggest substantial model biases in absorption and scattering coefficients compared to surface measurements, though the sign and magnitude of the bias varies with location. Spatial patterns in the biases highlight model weaknesses, e.g., the inability of models to properly simulate aerosol characteristics at sites with complex topography. Additionally, differences in modeled and measured systematic variability of aerosol optical properties suggest that some models are not accurately capturing specific aerosol behaviors, for example, the tendency of in-situ single scattering albedo to decrease with decreasing aerosol extinction coefficient. The endgoal of the INSITU project is to identify specific

  3. Geology of the Phase II System

    SciTech Connect

    Laney, R.; Laughlin, A. William

    1980-11-19

    This is a report on the analysis of EE-2 cuttings and thin sections, geologic characterization of the Phase II system, comparison with Phase 1, and geologic speculations and recommendations concerning Phase II. The EE-2 litholog has been included in the pocket.

  4. Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) Report - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.I.

    1994-09-28

    This report describes the results from Phase II of the Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) Program, a joint effort to compare analytical laboratory performance on samples from the Hanford Site`s high-level waste tanks. In Phase II, the program has been expanded to include inorganic constituents in addition to radionuclides. Results from Phase II that exceeded 20% relative percent difference criteria are identified.

  5. AeroCom INSITU Project: Comparison of Aerosol Optical Properties from In-situ Surface Measurements and Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeisser, L.; Andrews, E.; Schulz, M.; Fiebig, M.; Zhang, K.; Randles, C. A.; Myhre, G.; Chin, M.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Krol, M. C.; Bian, H.; Skeie, R. B.; da Silva, A. M., Jr.; Kokkola, H.; Laakso, A.; Ghan, S.; Easter, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    AeroCom, an open international collaboration of scientists seeking to improve global aerosol models, recently initiated a project comparing model output to in-situ, surface-based measurements of aerosol optical properties. The model/measurement comparison project, called INSITU, aims to evaluate the performance of a suite of AeroCom aerosol models with site-specific observational data in order to inform iterative improvements to model aerosol modules. Surface in-situ data have the unique property of being traceable to physical standards, which is a big asset in accomplishing the overarching goal of bettering the accuracy of aerosol processes and predicative capability of global climate models. The INSITU project looks at how well models reproduce aerosol climatologies on a variety of time scales, aerosol characteristics and behaviors (e.g., aerosol persistence and the systematic relationships between aerosol optical properties), and aerosol trends. Though INSITU is a multi-year endeavor, preliminary phases of the analysis, using GOCART and other models participating in this AeroCom project, show substantial model biases in absorption and scattering coefficients compared to surface measurements, though the sign and magnitude of the bias varies with location and optical property. Spatial patterns in the biases highlight model weaknesses, e.g., the inability of models to properly simulate aerosol characteristics at sites with complex topography (see Figure 1). Additionally, differences in modeled and measured systematic variability of aerosol optical properties suggest that some models are not accurately capturing specific aerosol co-dependencies, for example, the tendency of in-situ surface single scattering albedo to decrease with decreasing aerosol extinction coefficient. This study elucidates specific problems with current aerosol models and suggests additional model runs and perturbations that could further evaluate the discrepancies between measured and modeled

  6. Centrifuge workers study. Phase II, completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Wooten, H.D.

    1994-09-01

    Phase II of the Centrifuge Workers Study was a follow-up to the Phase I efforts. The Phase I results had indicated a higher risk than expected among centrifuge workers for developing bladder cancer when compared with the risk in the general population for developing this same type of cancer. However, no specific agent could be identified as the causative agent for these bladder cancers. As the Phase II Report states, Phase I had been limited to workers who had the greatest potential for exposure to substances used in the centrifuge process. Phase II was designed to expand the survey to evaluate the health of all employees who had ever worked in Centrifuge Program Departments 1330-1339 but who had not been interviewed in Phase I. Employees in analytical laboratories and maintenance departments who provided support services for the Centrifuge Program were also included in Phase II. In December 1989, the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), now known as Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), was contracted to conduct a follow-up study (Phase II). Phase H of the Centrifuge Workers Study expanded the survey to include all former centrifuge workers who were not included in Phase I. ORISE was chosen because they had performed the Phase I tasks and summarized the corresponding survey data therefrom.

  7. The AeroCom evaluation and intercomparison of organic aerosol in global models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsigaridis, K.; Daskalakis, N.; Kanakidou, M.; Adams, P. J.; Artaxo, P.; Bahadur, R.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Benedetti, A.; Bergman, T.; Berntsen, T. K.; Beukes, J. P.; Bian, H.; Carslaw, K. S.; Chin, M.; Curci, G.; Diehl, T.; Easter, R. C.; Ghan, S. J.; Gong, S. L.; Hodzic, A.; Hoyle, C. R.; Iversen, T.; Jathar, S.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kaiser, J. W.; Kirkevåg, A.; Koch, D.; Kokkola, H.; Lee, Y. H.; Lin, G.; Liu, X.; Luo, G.; Ma, X.; Mann, G. W.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Morcrette, J.-J.; Müller, J.-F.; Myhre, G.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Ng, S.; O'Donnell, D.; Penner, J. E.; Pozzoli, L.; Pringle, K. J.; Russell, L. M.; Schulz, M.; Sciare, J.; Seland, Ø.; Shindell, D. T.; Sillman, S.; Skeie, R. B.; Spracklen, D.; Stavrakou, T.; Steenrod, S. D.; Takemura, T.; Tiitta, P.; Tilmes, S.; Tost, H.; van Noije, T.; van Zyl, P. G.; von Salzen, K.; Yu, F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Zaveri, R. A.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.

    2014-03-01

    This paper evaluates the current status of global modeling of the organic aerosol (OA) in the troposphere and analyzes the differences between models as well as between models and observations. Thirty-one global chemistry/transport and general circulation models have participated in this intercomparison, in the framework of AeroCom phase II. The simulation of OA varies greatly between models in terms of the magnitude of primary emissions, secondary OA (SOA) formation, the number of OA species used (2 to 62), the complexity of OA parameterizations (gas-particle partitioning, chemical aging, multiphase chemistry, aerosol microphysics), and the OA physical, chemical and optical properties. The diversity of the global OA simulation results has increased since earlier AeroCom experiments, mainly due to the increasing complexity of the SOA parameterization in models, and the implementation of new, highly uncertain, OA sources. Diversity of over an order of magnitude exists in the modeled vertical distribution of OA that deserves a dedicated future study. Furthermore, although the OA / OC ratio depends on OA sources and atmospheric processing and is important for model evaluation against OA and OC observations, it is resolved only by few global models. The median global primary OA (POA) source strength is 56 Tg a-1 (range 34-144 Tg a-1) and the median secondary OA source strength (natural and anthropogenic) is 19 Tg a-1 (range 13-121 Tg a-1). Among the models that take into account the semi-volatile SOA nature, the median source is calculated to be 51 Tg a-1 (range 16-121 Tg a-1), much larger than the median value of the models that calculate SOA in a more simplistic way (19 Tg a-1; range 13-20 Tg a-1, with one model at 37 Tg a-1). The median atmospheric burden of OA is 1.4 Tg (24 models in the range of 0.6-2.0 Tg and 4 between 2.4-3.8 Tg) with a median OA lifetime of 5.4 days (range 3.8-9.6 days). In models that reported both OA and sulfate burdens, the median value of

  8. The AeroCom evaluation and intercomparison of organic aerosol in global models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsigaridis, K.; Daskalakis, N.; Kanakidou, M.; Adams, P. J.; Artaxo, P.; Bahadur, R.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Benedetti, A.; Bergman, T.; Berntsen, T. K.; Beukes, J. P.; Bian, H.; Carslaw, K. S.; Chin, M.; Curci, G.; Diehl, T.; Easter, R. C.; Ghan, S. J.; Gong, S. L.; Hodzic, A.; Hoyle, C. R.; Iversen, T.; Jathar, S.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kaiser, J. W.; Kirkevåg, A.; Koch, D.; Kokkola, H.; Lee, Y. H.; Lin, G.; Liu, X.; Luo, G.; Ma, X.; Mann, G. W.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Morcrette, J.-J.; Müller, J.-F.; Myhre, G.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Ng, N. L.; O'Donnell, D.; Penner, J. E.; Pozzoli, L.; Pringle, K. J.; Russell, L. M.; Schulz, M.; Sciare, J.; Seland, Ø.; Shindell, D. T.; Sillman, S.; Skeie, R. B.; Spracklen, D.; Stavrakou, T.; Steenrod, S. D.; Takemura, T.; Tiitta, P.; Tilmes, S.; Tost, H.; van Noije, T.; van Zyl, P. G.; von Salzen, K.; Yu, F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Zaveri, R. A.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.

    2014-10-01

    This paper evaluates the current status of global modeling of the organic aerosol (OA) in the troposphere and analyzes the differences between models as well as between models and observations. Thirty-one global chemistry transport models (CTMs) and general circulation models (GCMs) have participated in this intercomparison, in the framework of AeroCom phase II. The simulation of OA varies greatly between models in terms of the magnitude of primary emissions, secondary OA (SOA) formation, the number of OA species used (2 to 62), the complexity of OA parameterizations (gas-particle partitioning, chemical aging, multiphase chemistry, aerosol microphysics), and the OA physical, chemical and optical properties. The diversity of the global OA simulation results has increased since earlier AeroCom experiments, mainly due to the increasing complexity of the SOA parameterization in models, and the implementation of new, highly uncertain, OA sources. Diversity of over one order of magnitude exists in the modeled vertical distribution of OA concentrations that deserves a dedicated future study. Furthermore, although the OA / OC ratio depends on OA sources and atmospheric processing, and is important for model evaluation against OA and OC observations, it is resolved only by a few global models. The median global primary OA (POA) source strength is 56 Tg a-1 (range 34-144 Tg a-1) and the median SOA source strength (natural and anthropogenic) is 19 Tg a-1 (range 13-121 Tg a-1). Among the models that take into account the semi-volatile SOA nature, the median source is calculated to be 51 Tg a-1 (range 16-121 Tg a-1), much larger than the median value of the models that calculate SOA in a more simplistic way (19 Tg a-1; range 13-20 Tg a-1, with one model at 37 Tg a-1). The median atmospheric burden of OA is 1.4 Tg (24 models in the range of 0.6-2.0 Tg and 4 between 2.0 and 3.8 Tg), with a median OA lifetime of 5.4 days (range 3.8-9.6 days). In models that reported both OA and

  9. The AeroCom evaluation and intercomparison of organic aerosol in global models

    DOE PAGES

    Tsigaridis, K.; Daskalakis, N.; Kanakidou, M.; ...

    2014-10-15

    This paper evaluates the current status of global modeling of the organic aerosol (OA) in the troposphere and analyzes the differences between models as well as between models and observations. Thirty-one global chemistry transport models (CTMs) and general circulation models (GCMs) have participated in this intercomparison, in the framework of AeroCom phase II. The simulation of OA varies greatly between models in terms of the magnitude of primary emissions, secondary OA (SOA) formation, the number of OA species used (2 to 62), the complexity of OA parameterizations (gas-particle partitioning, chemical aging, multiphase chemistry, aerosol microphysics), and the OA physical, chemicalmore » and optical properties. The diversity of the global OA simulation results has increased since earlier AeroCom experiments, mainly due to the increasing complexity of the SOA parameterization in models, and the implementation of new, highly uncertain, OA sources. Diversity of over one order of magnitude exists in the modeled vertical distribution of OA concentrations that deserves a dedicated future study. Furthermore, although the OA / OC ratio depends on OA sources and atmospheric processing, and is important for model evaluation against OA and OC observations, it is resolved only by a few global models. The median global primary OA (POA) source strength is 56 Tg a–1 (range 34–144 Tg a−1) and the median SOA source strength (natural and anthropogenic) is 19 Tg a–1 (range 13–121 Tg a−1). Among the models that take into account the semi-volatile SOA nature, the median source is calculated to be 51 Tg a–1 (range 16–121 Tg a−1), much larger than the median value of the models that calculate SOA in a more simplistic way (19 Tg a–1; range 13–20 Tg a–1, with one model at 37 Tg a−1). The median atmospheric burden of OA is 1.4 Tg (24 models in the range of 0.6–2.0 Tg and 4 between 2.0 and 3.8 Tg), with a median OA lifetime of 5.4 days (range 3.8–9.6 days

  10. The AeroCom evaluation and intercomparison of organic aerosol in global models

    SciTech Connect

    Tsigaridis, K.; Daskalakis, N.; Kanakidou, M.; Adams, P. J.; Artaxo, P.; Bahadur, R.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Benedetti, A.; Bergman, T.; Berntsen, T. K.; Beukes, J. P.; Bian, H.; Carslaw, K. S.; Chin, M.; Curci, G.; Diehl, T.; Easter, R. C.; Ghan, S. J.; Gong, S. L.; Hodzic, A.; Hoyle, C. R.; Iversen, T.; Jathar, S.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kaiser, J. W.; Kirkevåg, A.; Koch, D.; Kokkola, H.; Lee, Y. H.; Lin, G.; Liu, X.; Luo, G.; Ma, X.; Mann, G. W.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Morcrette, J. -J.; Müller, J. -F.; Myhre, G.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Ng, N. L.; O'Donnell, D.; Penner, J. E.; Pozzoli, L.; Pringle, K. J.; Russell, L. M.; Schulz, M.; Sciare, J.; Seland, Ø.; Shindell, D. T.; Sillman, S.; Skeie, R. B.; Spracklen, D.; Stavrakou, T.; Steenrod, S. D.; Takemura, T.; Tiitta, P.; Tilmes, S.; Tost, H.; van Noije, T.; van Zyl, P. G.; von Salzen, K.; Yu, F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Zaveri, R. A.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.

    2014-10-15

    This paper evaluates the current status of global modeling of the organic aerosol (OA) in the troposphere and analyzes the differences between models as well as between models and observations. Thirty-one global chemistry transport models (CTMs) and general circulation models (GCMs) have participated in this intercomparison, in the framework of AeroCom phase II. The simulation of OA varies greatly between models in terms of the magnitude of primary emissions, secondary OA (SOA) formation, the number of OA species used (2 to 62), the complexity of OA parameterizations (gas-particle partitioning, chemical aging, multiphase chemistry, aerosol microphysics), and the OA physical, chemical and optical properties. The diversity of the global OA simulation results has increased since earlier AeroCom experiments, mainly due to the increasing complexity of the SOA parameterization in models, and the implementation of new, highly uncertain, OA sources. Diversity of over one order of magnitude exists in the modeled vertical distribution of OA concentrations that deserves a dedicated future study. Furthermore, although the OA / OC ratio depends on OA sources and atmospheric processing, and is important for model evaluation against OA and OC observations, it is resolved only by a few global models.

    The median global primary OA (POA) source strength is 56 Tg a–1 (range 34–144 Tg a−1) and the median SOA source strength (natural and anthropogenic) is 19 Tg a–1 (range 13–121 Tg a−1). Among the models that take into account the semi-volatile SOA nature, the median source is calculated to be 51 Tg a–1 (range 16–121 Tg a−1), much larger than the median value of the models that calculate SOA in a more simplistic way (19 Tg a–1; range 13–20 Tg a–1, with one model at 37 Tg a−1). The median atmospheric burden of OA is 1.4 Tg (24 models in the range of 0

  11. Small Business Innovation Research GRC Phase I, Phase II, and Post-Phase II Opportunity Assessment for 2015

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2016-01-01

    This report outlines the 2015 Small Business Innovation Research/Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR) Phase I, Phase II, and Post-Phase II opportunity contract award results associated with NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), Science Mission Directorate (SMD), and Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) for NASA Glenn Research Center. The report also highlights the number of Phase I, Phase II, and Post-Phase II contracts awarded by mission directorate. The 2015 Phase I contract awards to companies in Ohio and their corresponding technologies are also discussed.

  12. BEATRIX-II, phase II: Data summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Slagle, O.D.; Hollenberg, G.W.

    1996-05-01

    The BEATRIX-II experimental program was an International Energy Agency sponsored collaborative effort between Japan, Canada, and the United States to evaluate the performance of ceramic solid breeder materials in a fast-neutron environment at high burnup levels. This report addresses the Phase II activities, which included two in situ tritium-recovery canisters: temperature-change and temperature-gradient. The temperature-change canister contained a Li{sub 2}O ring specimen that had a nearly uniform temperature profile and was capable of temperature changes between 530 and 640{degrees}C. The temperature-gradient canister contained a Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} pebble bed operating under a thermal gradient of 440 to 1100{degrees}C. Postirradiation examination was carried out to characterize the Phase II in situ specimens and a series of nonvented capsules designed to address the compatibility of beryllium with lithium-ceramic solid-breeder materials. The results of the BEATRIX-II, Phase II, irradiation experiment provided an extensive data base on the in situ tritium-release characteristics of Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} for lithium burnups near 5%. The composition of the sweep gas was found to be a critical parameter in the recovery of tritium from both Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}. Tritium inventories measured confirmed that Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} exhibited very low tritium retention during the Phase II irradiation. Tritium inventories in Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} after Phase II tended to be larger than those found for Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} in other in situ experiments, but the larger values may reflect the larger generation rates in BEATRIX-II. A series of 20 capsules was irradiated to determine the compatibility of lithium ceramics and beryllium under conditions similar to a fusion blanket. It is concluded that Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} should remain leading candidates for use in a solid-breeder fusion-blanket application.

  13. SLUDGE BATCH 6 PHASE II FLOWSHEET SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.; Best, D.

    2010-03-30

    Two Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) runs were used to demonstrate that a fairly wide window of acid stoichiometry was available for processing SB6 Phase II flowsheet simulant (Tank 40 simulant) while still meeting the dual goals of acceptable nitrate destruction and controlled hydrogen generation. Phase II was an intermediate flowsheet study for the projected composition of Tank 40 after transfer of SB6/Tank 51 sludge to the heel of SB5. The composition was based on August 2009 projections. A window of about 50% in total acid was found between acceptable nitrite destruction and excessive hydrogen generation.

  14. {sup 129}I Interlaboratory comparison: phase I and phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Caffee, M W; Roberts, M L

    1999-09-30

    An interlaboratory comparison exercise for {sup 129}I was organized and conducted. Nine laboratories participated in the exercise to either a full or limited extent. In Phase I of the comparison, 11 samples were measured. The suite of samples contained both synthetic ''standard type'' materials (i.e., AgI) and environmental materials. The isotopic {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratios of the samples varied from 10{sup {minus}8} to 10{sup {minus}14}. In this phase, each laboratory was responsible for its own chemical preparation of the samples. In Phase I, the {sup 129}I AMS measurements for prepared AgI were in good agreement. However, large discrepancies were seen in {sup 129}I AMS measurements of environmental samples. Because of the large discrepancies seen in the Phase I {sup 129}I intercomparison, a subsequent study was conducted. In Phase II of the {sup 129}I intercomparison, three separate laboratories prepared AgI from two environmental samples (IAEA 375 soil and maples leaves). Each laboratory used its own chemical preparation method with each of the methods being distinctly different. The resulting six samples (two sets of three) were then re-distributed to the participating {sup 129}I AMS facilities and {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratios measured. Results and discussion of both the Phase I and Phase II interlaboratory comparison are presented.

  15. Laparoscopic Radiofrequency Fibroid Ablation: Phase II and Phase III Results

    PubMed Central

    Pemueller, Rodolfo Robles; Garza Leal, José Gerardo; Abbott, Karen R.; Falls, Janice L.; Macer, James

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To review phase II and phase III treatments of symptomatic uterine fibroids (myomas) using laparoscopic radiofrequency volumetric thermal ablation (RFVTA). Methods: We performed a retrospective, multicenter clinical analysis of 206 consecutive cases of ultrasound-guided laparoscopic RFVTA of symptomatic myomas conducted on an outpatient basis under two phase II studies at 2 sites (n = 69) and one phase III study at 11 sites (n = 137). Descriptive and exploratory, general trend, and matched-pair analyses were applied. Results: From baseline to 12 months in the phase II study, the mean transformed symptom severity scores improved from 53.9 to 8.8 (P < .001) (n = 57), health-related quality-of-life scores improved from 48.5 to 92.0 (P < .001) (n = 57), and mean uterine volume decreased from 204.4 cm3 to 151.4 cm3 (P = .008) (n = 58). Patients missed a median of 4 days of work (range, 2–10 days). The rate of possible device-related adverse events was 1.4% (1 of 69). In the phase III study, approximately 98% of patients were assessed at 12 months, and their transformed symptom severity scores, health-related quality-of-life scores, mean decrease in uterine volume, and mean menstrual bleeding reduction were also significant. Patients in phase III missed a median of 5 days of work (range, 1–29 days). The rate of periprocedural device-related adverse events was 3.5% (5 of 137). Despite the enrollment requirement for patients in both phases to have completed childbearing, 4 pregnancies occurred within the first year after treatment. Conclusions: RFVTA does not require any uterine incisions and provides a uterine-sparing procedure with rapid recovery, significant reduction in uterine size, significant reduction or elimination of myoma symptoms, and significant improvement in quality of life. PMID:24960480

  16. 129I interlaboratory comparison: phase I and phase II results

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.I.; Caffee, M.W.; Proctor, I.D.

    1997-07-01

    An interlaboratory comparison exercise for 129I was organized and conducted. A total of nine laboratories participated in the exercise to either a full or limited extent. In Phase I of the comparison, a suite of 11 samples were measured. The suite of samples contained both synthetic `standard type` materials (i.e., AgI) and environmental materials. The isotopic 129I/127I ratios of the samples varied from 10`-8 to 10`-14. In this phase, each laboratory was responsible for its own chemical preparation of the environmental samples. The 129I AMS measurements obtained at different laboratories for prepared AgI were in good agreement. However, large discrepancies were seen in 129I AMS measurements of environmental samples. Because of the large discrepancies seen in the Phase I intercomparison, a subsequent study was conducted. In Phase II of the comparison, AgI was prepared from two environmental samples (IAEA 375 soil and maples leaves) by three separate laboratories. Each laboratory used its own chemical preparation method with each of the methods being distinctly different. The resulting six samples (two sets of three) were then redistributed to the participating 129I AMS facilities and 129I/127I ratios measured. Results and discussion of both the Phase I and Phase II interlaboratory comparison are presented.

  17. The Long Valley Well: Phase II operations

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    Phase II of the Long Valley Exploratory Well was completed to a depth of 7588 feet in November 1991. The drilling comprised two sub-phases: (1) drilling 17-1/2 inch hole from the Phase I casing shoe at 2558 feet to a depth of 7130 feet, plugging back to 6826 feet, and setting 13-3/8 inch casing at 6825 feet, all during August--September 1991; and (2) returning in November to drill a 3.85-inch core hole deviated out of the previous wellbore at 6868 feet and extending to 7588 feet. Ultimate depth of the well is planned to be 20,000 feet, or at a bottomhole temperature of 500{degrees}C, whichever comes first. Total cost of this drilling phase was approximately $2.3 million, and funding was shared about equally between the California Energy Commission and the Department of Energy. Phase II scientific work will commence in July 1992 and will be supported by DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, DOE Geothermal Division, and other funding sources.

  18. The Long Valley Well - Phase II Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, John T.

    1992-03-24

    Phase II of the Long Valley Exploratory Well was completed to a depth of 7588 feet in November 1991. The drilling comprised two sub-phases: (1) drilling 17-1/2 inch hole from the Phase I casing shoe at 2558 feet to a depth of 7130 feet, plugging back to 6826 feet, and setting 13-3/8 inch casing at 6825 feet, all during August-September 1991; and (2) returning in November to drill a 3.85-inch core hole deviated out of the previous wellbore at 6808 feet and extending to 7588 feet. Ultimate depth of the well is planned to be 20,000 feet, or at a bottomhole temperature of 500 C, whichever comes first. Total cost of this drilling phase was approximately $2.3 million, and funding was shared about equally between the California Energy Commission and the Department of Energy. Phase II scientific work will commence in July 1992 and will be supported by DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, DOE Geothermal Division, and other funding sources.

  19. Preliminary CALS Phase II Architecture. Volume 19

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-03

    IDEF ICAM Definition Languages 5 IDEFO ICAM Definition Language: Activity Modeling IDEFIX ICAM Definition Language: Data Modeling 3 IDS Integrated Design...level. At the Conceptual Description level, data are defined by an integrated semantic data model, such as those produced using the IDEFIX modeling...Architecture with the dominate focus on the data dictionary for the IWSDB, represented by an IDEFIX semantic data model. It is at this level that CALS Phase II

  20. Robotic dry stripping of airframes - Phase II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauli, Robert A.; Wittenberg, Art M.

    1989-03-01

    This paper describes a program for the development of a dust-free closed-cycle robotic system for dry stripping of airframes, designed to insure dust-free work environment and reduce plastic-media loss, the contamination risk, and the media inventory requirement. Phase I of the program involved building a prototype of the proposed robotic arm and its dust enclosure to prove basic automation concepts, showing reasonable paint removal rate from a curved surface, and establishing that the process is dust-free and recovers plastic media in a closed-cycle fashion. This paper contains calculations on the effect of different blasting parameters in order to determine optimum values required for the completion of Phase I. Also presented is the progress achieved by the Phase II of the program, which is to prove the total concept by building the complete system and demonstrating its capability.

  1. Status of the GERDA Phase II upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Victoria

    2016-06-01

    The GERDA experiment is designed to search for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76Ge. In Phase I of the experiment a background index of 10-2 cts/(keV.kg.yr) was reached. A lower limit on the half-life of the 0νββ decay of 76Ge was set to 2.1.1025 yr (at 90% C.L.). The aim of Phase II is to reach a sensitivity of the half-life of about 1026 yr. To increase the exposure thirty new Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors have been produced. These detectors are distinct for their improved energy resolution and enhanced pulse shape discrimination of signal from background events. Further background reduction will be reached by a light instrumentation to read out argon scintillation light. In April 2015 the light instrumentation together with eight BEGe detectors has been successfully deployed in the GERDA cryostat. In a commissioning run it was shown that two of the major background components, external γ-rays from 214Bi and 208Tl decays, were suppressed up to two orders of magnitude. We are confident to reach a background index of 10-3 cts/(keV.kg.yr) which is the design goal for GERDA Phase II.

  2. Pretest Predictions for Phase II Ventilation Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Yiming Sun

    2001-09-19

    The objective of this calculation is to predict the temperatures of the ventilating air, waste package surface, and concrete pipe walls that will be developed during the Phase II ventilation tests involving various test conditions. The results will be used as inputs to validating numerical approach for modeling continuous ventilation, and be used to support the repository subsurface design. The scope of the calculation is to identify the physical mechanisms and parameters related to thermal response in the Phase II ventilation tests, and describe numerical methods that are used to calculate the effects of continuous ventilation. The calculation is limited to thermal effect only. This engineering work activity is conducted in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Subsurface Performance Testing for License Application (LA) for Fiscal Year 2001'' (CRWMS M&O 2000d). This technical work plan (TWP) includes an AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities'', activity evaluation (CRWMS M&O 2000d, Addendum A) that has determined this activity is subject to the YMP quality assurance (QA) program. The calculation is developed in accordance with the AP-3.12Q procedure, ''Calculations''. Additional background information regarding this activity is contained in the ''Development Plan for Ventilation Pretest Predictive Calculation'' (DP) (CRWMS M&O 2000a).

  3. Spray Forming Aluminum - Final Report (Phase II)

    SciTech Connect

    D. D. Leon

    1999-07-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy - Office of Industrial Technology (DOE) has an objective to increase energy efficient and enhance competitiveness of American metals industries. To support this objective, ALCOA Inc. entered into a cooperative program to develop spray forming technology for aluminum. This Phase II of the DOE Spray Forming Program would translate bench scale spray forming technology into a cost effective world class process for commercialization. Developments under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC07-94ID13238 occurred during two time periods due to budgetary constraints; April 1994 through September 1996 and October 1997 and December 1998. During these periods, ALCOA Inc developed a linear spray forming nozzle and specific support processes capable of scale-up for commercial production of aluminum sheet alloy products. Emphasis was given to alloys 3003 and 6111, both being commercially significant alloys used in the automotive industry. The report reviews research performed in the following areas: Nozzel Development, Fabrication, Deposition, Metal Characterization, Computer Simulation and Economics. With the formation of a Holding Company, all intellectual property developed in Phases I and II of the Project have been documented under separate cover for licensing to domestic producers.

  4. AeroCOM Biomass Burning Emissions Experiment-Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrenko, M. M.; Chin, M.; Kahn, R. A.; Val Martin, M.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) is one of the major sources of optically and chemically potent carbonaceous aerosols, gaseous aerosol precursors, and volatile organic compounds. It is, therefore, important to represent these emissions as accurately as possible in the global and regional models. To correctly simulate BB emissions from a fire, the model needs two key inputs: emission source strength for the fire and the emission injection height. Based on pilot studies of injection height by M. Val Martin et al. (2010, 2012), and of source strength by M. Petrenko et al. (2012), we proposed an AeroCom-coordinated multi-model BB experiment. The core objectives of the experiment are: To inter-compare and quantify the accuracy and diversity of the AeroCom model simulated BB AOD using a common emissions inventory. To propose a region-by-region emission correction scheme based on the comparisons of model output with satellite snapshots of smoke-plume optical depth from the MODIS and MISR instruments. This will allow us to bring the widely used GFED v3 emissions inventory to the levels needed to improve model-observation comparisons. To test smoke injection height-emission intensity relationships used in global models against MISR multi-angle smoke-plume-height retrievals. With the first stage of the BB experiment focused on the source strength, this talk will provide an update on development and testing the method of using satellite-measured aerosol optical depth snapshots to constrain BB aerosol emissions in the global models. The global datasets of fire-and-smoke events, observed by MISR and MODIS during 2006, 2007 and 2008, to be used for model-satellite comparisons, will also be described. These events were selected according to a number of criteria to be suitable for model-observation comparison at the scales of global model resolution. In addition, we will showcase preliminary results of model inter-comparisons within the BB experiment, outline plans for future output analysis

  5. Monorail bridge conveyor. Phase II report

    SciTech Connect

    Gonski, J

    1982-04-30

    This report covers the second phase of a four-phase contract to develop and test a roof hung monorail bridge conveyor coal haulage system working behind a continuous miner. Phase II covers the fabrication and assembly of all the components in making up the Monoral Bridge Conveyor System. The original concept presented had to be analyzed before final design could proceed. The analysis revealed that 24 ft. long bridge conveyor segments were the optimum length; the suspension system must have the vertical hinge point between bridges, the impact point of the coal transfer point and the suspension point itself, coincidental. The propulsion system is such that each bridge is self propelled in order to minimize side loading on the monorail. The conveyor belt drive is simple since it only has to drive one single 24 ft. conveyor. The entire assembly of twelve conveyors has been pre-tested in our Murfreesboro, Tennessee, shop. The electric circuit proved successful to operate from a manual control or automatically, and successfully proved the cycle of sequential strating and stopping.

  6. Low Noise Borehole Triaxial Seismometer Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, James D; McClung, David W

    2006-11-06

    This report describes the preliminary design and the effort to date of Phase II of a Low Noise Borehole Triaxial Seismometer for use in networks of seismic stations for monitoring underground nuclear explosions. The design uses the latest technology of broadband seismic instrumentation. Each parameter of the seismometer is defined in terms of the known physical limits of the parameter. These limits are defined by the commercially available components, and the physical size constraints. A theoretical design is proposed, and a preliminary prototype model of the proposed instrument has been built. This prototype used the sensor module of the KS2000. The installation equipment (hole locks, etc.) has been designed and one unit has been installed in a borehole. The final design of the sensors and electronics and leveling mechanism is in process. Noise testing is scheduled for the last quarter of 2006.

  7. Busted Butte Phase II Excavation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    J.W. Keifer

    2000-11-29

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an engineering excavation and ground support design for the Busted Butte phase II mine back. The analysis will apply engineering practices and previous proven design methods for pillar design and ground support in accordance with applicable Integrated Safety Management principles and functions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the Busted Butte Test Facility. The intended use of this analysis is to provide testing excavation boundaries, ground support and pillar design input to drawing(s) to support test operations implementation. This design activity has been prepared under ''Technical Work Plan For Test Facilities Design FY01 Work Activities'' (TWP) (CRWMS M&O 2000b). No deviations from the TWP have been necessary for this analysis.

  8. The SIMPLE Phase II dark matter search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felizardo, M.; Girard, T. A.; Morlat, T.; Fernandes, A. C.; Ramos, A. R.; Marques, J. G.; Kling, A.; Puibasset, J.; Auguste, M.; Boyer, D.; Cavaillou, A.; Poupeney, J.; Sudre, C.; Carvalho, F. P.; Prudêncio, M. I.; Marques, R.; Simple Collaboration

    2014-04-01

    Phase II of SIMPLE (Superheated Instrument for Massive ParticLe Experiments) searched for astroparticle dark matter using superheated liquid C2ClF5 droplet detectors. Each droplet generally requires an energy deposition with linear energy transfer (LET) ≳150 keV/μm for a liquid-to-gas phase transition, providing an intrinsic rejection against minimum ionizing particles of order 10-10, and reducing the backgrounds to primarily α and neutron-induced recoil events. The droplet phase transition generates a millimetric-sized gas bubble that is recorded by acoustic means. We describe the SIMPLE detectors, their acoustic instrumentation, and the characterizations, signal analysis and data selection, which yield a particle-induced, "true nucleation" event detection efficiency of better than 97% at a 95% C.L. The recoil-α event discrimination, determined using detectors first irradiated with neutrons and then doped with alpha emitters, provides a recoil identification of better than 99%; it differs from those of COUPP and PICASSO primarily as a result of their different liquids with lower critical LETs. The science measurements, comprising two shielded arrays of fifteen detectors each and a total exposure of 27.77 kgd, are detailed. Removal of the 1.94 kgd Stage 1 installation period data, which had previously been mistakenly included in the data, reduces the science exposure from 20.18 to 18.24 kgd and provides new contour minima of σp=4.3×10-3 pb at 35 GeV /c2 in the spin-dependent sector of astroparticle dark matter-proton interactions and σN=3.6×10-6 pb at 35 GeV /c2 in the spin-independent sector. These results are examined with respect to the fluorine spin and halo parameters used in the previous data analysis.

  9. Sample size planning for phase II trials based on success probabilities for phase III.

    PubMed

    Götte, Heiko; Schüler, Armin; Kirchner, Marietta; Kieser, Meinhard

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, high failure rates in phase III trials were observed. One of the main reasons is overoptimistic assumptions for the planning of phase III resulting from limited phase II information and/or unawareness of realistic success probabilities. We present an approach for planning a phase II trial in a time-to-event setting that considers the whole phase II/III clinical development programme. We derive stopping boundaries after phase II that minimise the number of events under side conditions for the conditional probabilities of correct go/no-go decision after phase II as well as the conditional success probabilities for phase III. In addition, we give general recommendations for the choice of phase II sample size. Our simulations show that unconditional probabilities of go/no-go decision as well as the unconditional success probabilities for phase III are influenced by the number of events observed in phase II. However, choosing more than 150 events in phase II seems not necessary as the impact on these probabilities then becomes quite small. We recommend considering aspects like the number of compounds in phase II and the resources available when determining the sample size. The lower the number of compounds and the lower the resources are for phase III, the higher the investment for phase II should be.

  10. 78 FR 30951 - SBIR/STTR Phase I to Phase II Transition Benchmarks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SBIR/STTR Phase I to Phase II Transition Benchmarks AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice for Small Business Innovation Research Program Phase I to Phase II Transition...

  11. Phase II Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Grigg, Reid; McPherson, Brian; Lee, Rober

    2011-08-01

    The Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP) one of seven regional partnerships sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) carried out five field pilot tests in its Phase II Carbon Sequestration Demonstration effort, to validate the most promising sequestration technologies and infrastructure concepts, including three geologic pilot tests and two terrestrial pilot programs. This field testing demonstrated the efficacy of proposed sequestration technologies to reduce or offset greenhouse gas emissions in the region. Risk mitigation, optimization of monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) protocols, and effective outreach and communication were additional critical goals of these field validation tests. The program included geologic pilot tests located in Utah, New Mexico, Texas, and a region-wide terrestrial analysis. Each geologic sequestration test site was intended to include injection of a minimum of ~75,000 tons/year CO{sub 2}, with minimum injection duration of one year. These pilots represent medium- scale validation tests in sinks that host capacity for possible larger-scale sequestration operations in the future. These validation tests also demonstrated a broad variety of carbon sink targets and multiple value-added benefits, including testing of enhanced oil recovery and sequestration, enhanced coalbed methane production and a geologic sequestration test combined with a local terrestrial sequestration pilot. A regional terrestrial sequestration demonstration was also carried out, with a focus on improved terrestrial MVA methods and reporting approaches specific for the Southwest region.

  12. Phase Noise Measurement in PEP II and the Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Getaneh, Mesfin

    2003-09-05

    The Goal of this project is to provide a measurement of the phase of the radio frequency (RF) relative to electron beam traveling down the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Because the Main Drive Line (MDL) supplies the RF drive and phase reference for the entire accelerator system, the phase accuracy and amount of phase noise present in the MDL are very critical to the functionality of the accelerator. Therefore, a Phase Noise Measurement System was built to measure the phase noise in the liner accelerator (Linac) and PEP II. The system was used to determine the stability of the PEP II RF reference system. In this project a low noise Phase Locked Loop system (PLL) was built to measure timing jitter about sub picoseconds level. The phase noise measured in Master Oscillator using PLL indicates that phase noise is low enough for PEP II to run.

  13. 40 CFR 72.44 - Phase II repowering extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Compliance Plan and Compliance Options § 72.44 Phase II repowering... the requirements of paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section may include in the unit's Phase II Acid Rain... authority shall issue the Acid Rain portion of the operating permit including: (A) The approved...

  14. 40 CFR 72.44 - Phase II repowering extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Compliance Plan and Compliance Options § 72.44 Phase II repowering... the requirements of paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section may include in the unit's Phase II Acid Rain... authority shall issue the Acid Rain portion of the operating permit including: (A) The approved...

  15. 40 CFR 72.44 - Phase II repowering extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Compliance Plan and Compliance Options § 72.44 Phase II repowering... the requirements of paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section may include in the unit's Phase II Acid Rain... authority shall issue the Acid Rain portion of the operating permit including: (A) The approved...

  16. 40 CFR 72.44 - Phase II repowering extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Compliance Plan and Compliance Options § 72.44 Phase II repowering... the requirements of paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section may include in the unit's Phase II Acid Rain... authority shall issue the Acid Rain portion of the operating permit including: (A) The approved...

  17. 40 CFR 72.44 - Phase II repowering extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Compliance Plan and Compliance Options § 72.44 Phase II repowering... the requirements of paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section may include in the unit's Phase II Acid Rain... authority shall issue the Acid Rain portion of the operating permit including: (A) The approved...

  18. Final Report on Phase II; Study of Academic Library Consortia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuadra, Carlos A.; And Others

    Phase II involves a case-study analysis of 15 selected consortia to help determine the usefulness and effectiveness of academic library consortia. The two major products resulting from the project are the "Directory of Academic Library Consortia" and the "Guidelines for the Development of Academic Library Consortia." The Phase II report presents…

  19. Phase Transformations and Microstructural Evolution: Part II

    DOE PAGES

    Clarke, Amy Jean

    2015-10-30

    The activities of the Phase Transformations Committee of the Materials Processing & Manufacturing Division (MPMD) of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) are oriented toward understanding the fundamental aspects of phase transformations. Emphasis is placed on the thermodynamic driving forces for phase transformations, the kinetics of nucleation and growth, interfacial structures and energies, transformation crystallography, surface reliefs, and, above all, the atomic mechanisms of phase transformations. Phase transformations and microstructural evolution are directly linked to materials processing, properties, and performance. In this issue, aspects of liquid–solid and solid-state phase transformations and microstructural evolution are highlighted. Many papers in thismore » issue are highlighted by this paper, giving a brief summary of what they bring to the scientific community.« less

  20. Phase Transformations and Microstructural Evolution: Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Amy Jean

    2015-10-30

    The activities of the Phase Transformations Committee of the Materials Processing & Manufacturing Division (MPMD) of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) are oriented toward understanding the fundamental aspects of phase transformations. Emphasis is placed on the thermodynamic driving forces for phase transformations, the kinetics of nucleation and growth, interfacial structures and energies, transformation crystallography, surface reliefs, and, above all, the atomic mechanisms of phase transformations. Phase transformations and microstructural evolution are directly linked to materials processing, properties, and performance. In this issue, aspects of liquid–solid and solid-state phase transformations and microstructural evolution are highlighted. Many papers in this issue are highlighted by this paper, giving a brief summary of what they bring to the scientific community.

  1. Sears Point Tidal Marsh Restoration Project: Phase II

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Sears Point Tidal Marsh Restoration Project: Phase II, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  2. Planning Targets for Phase II Watershed Implementation Plans

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On August 1, 2011, EPA provided planning targets for nitrogen, phosphorus and sediment for the Phase II Watershed Implementation Plans (WIPs) of the Chesapeake Bay TMDL. This page provides the letters containing those planning targets.

  3. South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Wetland Restoration Phase II Planning

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Wetland Restoration Phase II Planning project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic re

  4. South Bay Salt Pond Restoration, Phase II at Ravenswood

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project: Phase II Construction at Ravenswood, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  5. Demonstration of Spray Booth Recirculation and Partitioning - Phase II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    electrostatic paint spray enclosures, such as the high volume, low pressure ( HVLP ) systems employed at Barstow MCLB, a minimum linear velocity of 100 fpm must be...SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Demonstration of Spray Booth Recirculation and Partitioning - Phase II N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) D. Proffitt, R.K. Clayton, & J...ANSI Std. Z39-18 298-102 * , 85-1996 Demonstration of Spray Booth Recirculation and Partitioning - Phase II David Proffitt and Russell K. Clayton

  6. Phoenix Violence Prevention Initiative, Phase II Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waits, Mary Jo; Johnson, Ryan; Kornreich, Toby; Klym, Mark; Leland, Karen

    In 1996, drawing from religious, educational, social services, media, neighborhoods, nonprofits, and health-providing sectors of the community, the Phoenix Violence Prevention Initiative (PVPI) was conceived. During Phase One of the initiative, the following seven points regarding prevention and prevention design strategies were assembled: (1)…

  7. Digitizing Images for Curriculum 21: Phase II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Alice D.

    Although visual databases exist for the study of art, architecture, geography, health care, and other areas, readily accessible sources of quality images are not available for engineering faculty interested in developing multimedia modules or for student projects. Presented here is a brief review of Phase I of the Engineering Visual Database…

  8. AGOR 27/28 Phase II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    of proposed configuration changes. The shipyard representative report, submitted separately , details specific ship checks performed against...technical standards. 4. SIO participated in Phase III mission system installation during April and May. Report of this activity will be made by separate

  9. Direct phasing in femtosecond nanocrystallography. II. Phase retrieval.

    PubMed

    Chen, Joe P J; Spence, John C H; Millane, Rick P

    2014-03-01

    X-ray free-electron laser diffraction patterns from protein nanocrystals provide information on the diffracted amplitudes between the Bragg reflections, offering the possibility of direct phase retrieval without the use of ancillary experimental diffraction data [Spence et al. (2011). Opt. Express, 19, 2866-2873]. The estimated continuous transform is highly noisy however [Chen et al. (2014). Acta Cryst. A70, 143-153]. This second of a series of two papers describes a data-selection strategy to ameliorate the effects of the high noise levels and the subsequent use of iterative phase-retrieval algorithms to reconstruct the electron density. Simulation results show that employing such a strategy increases the noise levels that can be tolerated.

  10. Adaptive Processing Experiment (APE) Phase II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-01

    FI LTE.R -R 9 0R L• k k.9 0Ms EPPMR PHASE AMPL,I (t) ( r)GR•S ) (Zi) ( flt3 POWfER) (DEGRFES) (Ob) tF(IpE A0TfR bFt-Iý- E. AF tLk EIJN• AFTER , ---,,1...t.In I ,4P -. 3/ ,a?-.•O*O9 -34,57 o1o)110O 0 .- . 614 . - " 13,𔃼h a w, 3b " 3 v5• S -01 ,19 -tgo (19.52 TUTAI 87 ,, ,21 .11 6,, .71 -34,,74SNET PF...38,95 a08 *t0 70,o so0 󈧽 -sob D8• -Sq,74 -37,5q 007 614 € 75,t) .7n ,76 .,tok) -.36,03 -37a01 ’nh o16 80,0 .76 o0P- u,. , () -32, 1,2• -36,79 aO b

  11. Continuous fiber ceramic composites. Phase II - Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, James

    1997-10-31

    This report documents Atlantic Research Corporation's (ARC) Phase 11 effort on the Department of Energy's (DOE) Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composite (CFCC) program. This project is supported by the DOE cooperative agreement DE-FCO2-92CE40998. Such DOE support does not constitute an endorsement of the views expressed in this report. ARC'S CFCC Phase II effort began during October 1993 and was suspended in March of 1997 when, for business considerations, ARC closed the Amercom operation. This report covers progress from Phase II program inception through Amercom closure. ARC'S Phase II effort built upon the results of the Phase I Applications Assessment and Process Engineering developments to produce CFCC test components for end-user evaluation. Initially, the Phase 11 effort planned to develop and produce three CFCC components: CFCC compression rings for stationary diesel engines, CFCC hot gas fans for industrial furnace applications, and CFCC hot gas filters for current and advanced coal fired power cycles. As the program progressed, the development effort for the diesel engine piston rings was suspended. This decision was based on technical issues, cost factors and reduced program funding; the status of CFCC diesel engine piston ring development will be discussed in detail in section 2.2.1.

  12. Alberta Education Energy Conservation Project. Phase II: Internal Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundmark, Dana

    This report is based on the Alberta Education Energy Conservation Project - Phase II. The project was a follow-up to an earlier study, extending from June 1980 to June 1983, in which government funding and engineering manpower were used to conduct an energy management program in 52 selected pilot schools in 5 areas of the province. The report…

  13. Probability of success for phase III after exploratory biomarker analysis in phase II.

    PubMed

    Götte, Heiko; Kirchner, Marietta; Sailer, Martin Oliver

    2017-02-23

    The probability of success or average power describes the potential of a future trial by weighting the power with a probability distribution of the treatment effect. The treatment effect estimate from a previous trial can be used to define such a distribution. During the development of targeted therapies, it is common practice to look for predictive biomarkers. The consequence is that the trial population for phase III is often selected on the basis of the most extreme result from phase II biomarker subgroup analyses. In such a case, there is a tendency to overestimate the treatment effect. We investigate whether the overestimation of the treatment effect estimate from phase II is transformed into a positive bias for the probability of success for phase III. We simulate a phase II/III development program for targeted therapies. This simulation allows to investigate selection probabilities and allows to compare the estimated with the true probability of success. We consider the estimated probability of success with and without subgroup selection. Depending on the true treatment effects, there is a negative bias without selection because of the weighting by the phase II distribution. In comparison, selection increases the estimated probability of success. Thus, selection does not lead to a bias in probability of success if underestimation due to the phase II distribution and overestimation due to selection cancel each other out. We recommend to perform similar simulations in practice to get the necessary information about the risk and chances associated with such subgroup selection designs.

  14. Steam generator tube integrity program: Phase II, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, R.J.; Bickford, R.L.; Clark, R.A.; Morris, C.J.; Simonen, F.A.; Wheeler, K.R.

    1988-08-01

    The Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program (SGTIP) was a three phase program conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The first phase involved burst and collapse testing of typical steam generator tubing with machined defects. The second phase of the SGTIP continued the integrity testing work of Phase I, but tube specimens were degraded by chemical means rather than machining methods. The third phase of the program used a removed-from-service steam generator as a test bed for investigating the reliability and effectiveness of in-service nondestructive eddy-current inspection methods and as a source of service degraded tubes for validating the Phase I and Phase II data on tube integrity. This report describes the results of Phase II of the SGTIP. The object of this effort included burst and collapse testing of chemically defected pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubing to validate empirical equations of remaining tube integrity developed during Phase I. Three types of defect geometries were investigated: stress corrosion cracking (SCC), uniform thinning and elliptical wastage. In addition, a review of the publicly available leak rate data for steam generator tubes with axial and circumferential SCC and a comparison with an analytical leak rate model is presented. Lastly, nondestructive eddy-current (EC) measurements to determine accuracy of defect depth sizing using conventional and alternate standards is described. To supplement the laboratory EC data and obtain an estimate of EC capability to detect and size SCC, a mini-round robin test utilizing several firms that routinely perform in-service inspections was conducted.

  15. Study of phase I NOx control: Lessons learned for phase II NOx control strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, B.

    1996-12-31

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) is concerned with lowering the levels of acid rain in the USA. One of the contributions to acid rain is nitric oxides referred to as NO{sub x}. Title IV seeks NO{sub x} reductions from two groupings of utility steam generators. The first group, known as Phase I, was to have their reductions made by January 1, 1996. The purpose of this paper is to look back at Phase I to see what one can learn for use in Phase II compliance planning. Phase II units are scheduled to be in compliance by January 1, 2000. As such, this paper looks to answer four questions about Phase I units.

  16. Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis. Phase II final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Through the Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis (UIICSA), the City of Chicago embarked upon an ambitious effort to identify the measure the overall industrial cogeneration market in the city and to evaluate in detail the most promising market opportunities. This report discusses the background of the work completed during Phase II of the UIICSA and presents the results of economic feasibility studies conducted for three potential cogeneration sites in Chicago. Phase II focused on the feasibility of cogeneration at the three most promising sites: the Stockyards and Calumet industrial areas, and the Ford City commercial/industrial complex. Each feasibility case study considered the energy load requirements of the existing facilities at the site and the potential for attracting and serving new growth in the area. Alternative fuels and technologies, and ownership and financing options were also incorporated into the case studies. Finally, site specific considerations such as development incentives, zoning and building code restrictions and environmental requirements were investigated.

  17. Small Business Innovation Research, Post-Phase II Opportunity Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2015-01-01

    This report outlines current Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Post-Phase II opportunity contract award results for the SBIR technology program from 2007 to 2011 for NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), Science Mission Directorate (SMD), and Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD). The report provides guidelines for incorporating SBIR technology into NASA programs and projects and provides a quantitative overview of the post-Phase II award patterns that correspond with each mission directorate at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). In recent years, one of NASA's goals has been to not only transfer SBIR technologies to commercial industries, but to ensure that NASA mission directorates incorporate SBIR technologies into their program and project activities. Before incorporating technologies into MD programs, it is important to understand each mission directorate structure because each directorate has different objectives and needs. The directorate program structures follow.

  18. Microbial Dark Matter Phase II: Stepping deeper into unknown territory

    SciTech Connect

    Jarett, Jessica; Dunfield, Peter; Peura, Sari; Wielen, Paul van der; Hedlund, Brian; Elshahed, Mostafa; Kormas, Konstantinos; Stott, Andreas Teske8, Matt; Birkeland, Nils-Kare; Zhang, Chuanlun; Rengefors, Karin; Lindemann, Stephen; Ravin, Nikolai V.; Spear, John; Hallam, Steven; Crowe, Sean; Steele, Jillian; Goudeau, Danielle; Malmstrom, Rex; Kyrpides, Nikos; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Woyke, Tanja

    2014-10-27

    Currently available microbial genomes are of limited phylogenetic breadth due to our historical inability to cultivate most microorganisms in the laboratory. The first phase of the Microbial Dark Matter project used single-cell genomics to sequence 201 single cells from uncultivated lineages, and was able to resolve new superphyla and reveal novel metabolic features in bacteria and archaea. However, many fundamental questions about the evolution and function of microbes remain unanswered, and many candidate phyla remain uncharacterized. Phase II of the Microbial Dark Matter project will target candidate phyla with no sequenced representatives at a variety of new sites using a combination of single-cell sequencing and shotgun metagenomics approaches.

  19. PWR steam generator chemical cleaning. Phase II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Two techniques believed capable of chemically dissolving the corrosion products in the annuli between tubes and support plates were developed in laboratory work in Phase I of this project and were pilot tested in Indian Point Unit No. 1 steam generators. In Phase II, one of the techniques was shown to be inadequate on an actual sample taken from an Indian Point Unit No. 2 steam generator. The other technique was modified slightly, and it was demonstrated that the tube/support plate annulus could be chemically cleaned effectively.

  20. OSAS Surgery and Postoperative Discomfort: Phase I Surgery versus Phase II Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gasparini, Giulio; Pelo, Sandro; Foresta, Enrico; Boniello, Roberto; Romandini, Mario; Cervelli, Daniele; Azzuni, Camillo; Marianetti, Tito Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. This study aims to investigate the reasons that discourage the patients affected by OSAS to undergo orthognathic surgery and compares the postoperative discomfort of phase I (soft tissue surgery) and phase II (orthognathic surgery) procedures for treatment of OSAS. Material and Methods. A pool of 46 patients affected by OSAS was divided into two groups: “surgery patients” who accepted surgical treatments of their condition and “no surgery patients” who refused surgical procedures. The “surgery patients” group was further subdivided into two arms: patients who accepted phase I procedures (IP) and those who accepted phase II (IIP). To better understand the motivations behind the refusal of II phase procedures, we asked the patients belonging to both the IP group and “no surgery” group to indicate the main reason that influenced their decision to avoid II phase procedures. We also monitored and compared five parameters of postoperative discomfort: pain, painkiller assumption, length of hospitalization, foreign body sensation, and diet assumption following IP and IIP procedures. Results. The main reason to avoid IIP procedures was the concern of a more severe postoperative discomfort. Comparison of the postoperative discomfort following IP versus IIP procedures showed that the former scored worse in 4 out of 5 parameters analyzed. Conclusion. IIP procedures produce less postoperative discomfort. IIP procedures, namely, orthognathic surgery, should be the first choice intervention in patients affected by OSAS and dentoskeletal malformation. PMID:25695081

  1. Water ice phases II, III, and V - Plastic deformation and phase relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, W. B.; Boro, C. O.; Kirby, S. H.; Stern, L. A.; Heard, H. C.

    1988-01-01

    The ordinary water phase I was transformed to the ice phases that are known to exist in the interiors of large ice moons, such as Ganymede and Callisto for the purpose of investigating plastic deformation behavior of these ices. Ices II, III, and V were prepared using an apparatus and techniques similar to those described by Durham et al. (1983) and subsequently deformed in a gas deformation apparatus, and their deformation data were obtained. It was found that ice II was the strongest of the high-pressure phases, with a strength that was comparable to that of ice I; ice III was very weak, with the flow rate 100 to 1000 times higher than that of ice II at the same levels of stress. It was also found that ices III and V can exist metastably within the ice II field and that they may be deformed plastically within much of the metastable region without reverting to ice II. It is suggested that the weakness of the ice III phase may have profoundly influenced the evolution and the present-day behavior of the icy moons.

  2. Mercury Oxidation via Catalytic Barrier Filters Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Seames; Michael Mann; Darrin Muggli; Jason Hrdlicka; Carol Horabik

    2007-09-30

    In 2004, the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory awarded the University of North Dakota a Phase II University Coal Research grant to explore the feasibility of using barrier filters coated with a catalyst to oxidize elemental mercury in coal combustion flue gas streams. Oxidized mercury is substantially easier to remove than elemental mercury. If successful, this technique has the potential to substantially reduce mercury control costs for those installations that already utilize baghouse barrier filters for particulate removal. Completed in 2004, Phase I of this project successfully met its objectives of screening and assessing the possible feasibility of using catalyst coated barrier filters for the oxidation of vapor phase elemental mercury in coal combustion generated flue gas streams. Completed in September 2007, Phase II of this project successfully met its three objectives. First, an effective coating method for a catalytic barrier filter was found. Second, the effects of a simulated flue gas on the catalysts in a bench-scale reactor were determined. Finally, the performance of the best catalyst was assessed using real flue gas generated by a 19 kW research combustor firing each of three separate coal types.

  3. A new approach to designing phase I-II cancer trials for cytotoxic chemotherapies.

    PubMed

    Bartroff, Jay; Lai, Tze Leung; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian

    2014-07-20

    Recently, there has been much work on early phase cancer designs that incorporate both toxicity and efficacy data, called phase I-II designs because they combine elements of both phases. However, they do not explicitly address the phase II hypothesis test of H0 : p ≤ p0 , where p is the probability of efficacy at the estimated maximum tolerated dose η from phase I and p0 is the baseline efficacy rate. Standard practice for phase II remains to treat p as a fixed, unknown parameter and to use Simon's two-stage design with all patients dosed at η. We propose a phase I-II design that addresses the uncertainty in the estimate p=p(η) in H0 by using sequential generalized likelihood theory. Combining this with a phase I design that incorporates efficacy data, the phase I-II design provides a common framework that can be used all the way from the first dose of phase I through the final accept/reject decision about H0 at the end of phase II, utilizing both toxicity and efficacy data throughout. Efficient group sequential testing is used in phase II that allows for early stopping to show treatment effect or futility. The proposed phase I-II design thus removes the artificial barrier between phase I and phase II and fulfills the objectives of searching for the maximum tolerated dose and testing if the treatment has an acceptable response rate to enter into a phase III trial.

  4. The PICASSO Dark Matter Experiment - Getting Ready for Phase II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, Carsten B.; Picasso Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    PICASSO is a dark matter search experiment that uses the superheated droplet technique to find spin-dependently interacting WIMPs. A set of 1 l detectors with a total active mass of 19.4 g was used to prove the validity of the technique. The data from this run disfavors WIMP-proton cross sections larger than 1.3 pb for a WIMP mass of 29 GeV. Currently phase II of PICASSO is getting started. It will consist of 32 4.5 l detectors with a projected active mass of 2.5 kg and improved detectors.

  5. Reservoir modeling of the Phase II Hot Dry Rock System

    SciTech Connect

    Zyvoloski, G.

    1984-01-01

    The Phase II system has been created with a series of hydraulic fracturing experiments at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock site. Experiment 2032, the largest of the fracturing operations, involved injecting 5.6 million gallons (21,200m/sup 3/) of water into wellbore EE-2 over the period December 6-9, 1983. The experiment has been modeled using geothermal simulator FEHM developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The modeling effort has produced strong evidence of a large highly fractured reservoir. Two long term heat extraction schemes for the reservoir are studied with the model.

  6. First Results of the Phase II SIMPLE Dark Matter Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felizardo, M.; Morlat, T.; Fernandes, A. C.; Girard, T. A.; Marques, J. G.; Ramos, A. R.; Auguste, M.; Boyer, D.; Cavaillou, A.; Sudre, C.; Poupeney, J.; Payne, R. F.; Miley, H. S.; Puibasset, J.

    2010-11-01

    We report results of a 14.1kgd measurement with 15 superheated droplet detectors of total active mass 0.208 kg, comprising the first stage of a 30kgd Phase II experiment. In combination with the results of the neutron-spin sensitive XENON10 experiment, these results yield a limit of |ap|<0.32 for MW=50GeV/c2 on the spin-dependent sector of weakly interacting massive particle-nucleus interactions with a 50% reduction in the previously allowed region of the phase space, formerly defined by XENON, KIMS, and PICASSO. In the spin-independent sector, a limit of 2.3×10-5pb at MW=45GeV/c2 is obtained.

  7. Mammalian Toxicity of Munitions Compounds. Phase II. Effects of Multiple Doses Part II. 2,4-Dinitrotoluene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-01

    II: Effects of Multiple Doses Part !I: 2,4-T)initrotoiuene I Progres Report No. 3 oNovember 1978 by 3I Cheng-Chun Lee U Hirty V. Ellis, III Jo.,n J...Sciences Division November 1978 vii :. •I~~~~AMMALIAN TOXICITY OF MUNITIONS COMPOUNDS ... ... PHASE IIz Effects of Multiple Doses m . ............... PART...161 xi MAMOMALIAN TOXICITY OF MUNITION COMPOUNDS PHASE II: Effects of Multiple Dones PART II: 2,4

  8. Phase I Report, US DOE GRED II Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbank Engineering Ltd.

    2003-04-23

    Noramex Corporation Inc, a Nevada company, owns a 100% interest in geothermal leases at the Blue Mountain Geothermal Area, Humboldt County, Nevada. The company is exploring the site for a geothermal resource suitable for development for electric power generation or In the spring of 2002, Noramex drilled the first geothermal observation hole at Blue Mountain, under a cost-share program with the U.S Department of Energy (DOE), under the DOE's Geothermal Exploration and Resource Definition (GRED) program, (Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC04-00AL66972). DEEP BLUE No.1 was drilled to a total depth of 672.1 meters (2205 feet) and recorded a maximum temperature of 144.7 C (292.5 F). Noramex Corporation will now drill a second slim geothermal observation test hole at Blue Mountain, designated DEEP BLUE No.2. The hole will be drilled under a cost-share program with the DOE, under the DOE's Geothermal Exploration and Resource Definition II (GRED II) program, (Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC04-2002AL68297). This report comprises Phase I of Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC04-2002AL68297 of the GRED II program. The report provides an update on the status of resource confirmation at the Blue Mountain Geothermal Area, incorporating the results from DEEP BLUE No.1, and provides the technical background for a second test hole. The report also outlines the proposed drilling program for slim geothermal observation test hole DEEP BLUE No.2.

  9. Isac Sc-Linac Phase-II Helium Refrigerator Commissioning and First Operational Experience at Triumf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekachev, I.; Kishi, D.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2010-04-01

    ISAC Phase-II is an upgrade of the radioactive isotope superconducting linear accelerator, SC-linac, at TRIUMF. The Phase-I section of the accelerator, medium-beta, is operational and is cooled with a 600 W helium refrigerator, commissioned in March 2005. An identical refrigerator is being used with the Phase-II segment of the accelerator; which is now under construction. The second refrigerator has been commissioned and tested with the Phase-I section of the linac and is used for Phase-II linac development, including new SC-cavity performance tests. The commissioning of the Phase-II refrigeration system and recent operational experience is presented.

  10. Host Model Uncertainties in Aerosol Radiative Forcing Estimates: Results from the AeroCom Prescribed Intercomparison Study

    SciTech Connect

    Stier, Phillip; Schutgens, Nick A.; Bellouin, N.; Bian, Huisheng; Boucher, Olivier; Chin, Mian; Ghan, Steven J.; Huneeus, N.; Kinne, Stefan; Lin, G.; Ma, Xiaoyan; Myhre, G.; Penner, J. E.; Randles, Cynthia; Samset, B. H.; Schulz, M.; Takemura, T.; Yu, Fangqun; Yu, Hongbin; Zhou, Cheng

    2013-03-20

    Simulated multi-model "diversity" in aerosol direct radiative forcing estimates is often perceived as mea- sure of aerosol uncertainty. However, current models used for aerosol radiative forcing calculations vary considerably in model components relevant for forcing calculations and the associated "host-model uncertainties" are generally convoluted with the actual aerosol uncertainty. In this AeroCom Prescribed intercomparison study we systematically isolate and quantify host model uncertainties on aerosol forcing experiments through prescription of identical aerosol radiative properties in nine participating models. Even with prescribed aerosol radiative properties,simulated clear-sky and all-sky aerosol radiative forcings show significant diversity. For a purely scattering case with globally constant optical depth of 0.2, the global-mean all-sky top-of-atmosphere radiative forcing is -4.51 Wm-2 and the inter-model standard deviation is 0.70 Wm-2, corresponding to a relative standard deviation of 15%. For a case with partially absorbing aerosol with an aerosol optical depth of 0.2 and single scattering albedo of 0.8, the forcing changes to 1.26 Wm-2, and the standard deviation increases to 1.21 W-2, corresponding to a significant relative standard deviation of 96%. However, the top-of-atmosphere forcing variability owing to absorption is low, with relative standard deviations of 9% clear-sky and 12% all-sky. Scaling the forcing standard deviation for a purely scattering case to match the sulfate radiative in the AeroCom Direct Effect experiment, demonstrates that host model uncertain- ties could explain about half of the overall sulfate forcing diversity of 0.13 Wm-2 in the AeroCom Direct Radiative Effect experiment. Host model errors in aerosol radiative forcing are largest in regions of uncertain host model components, such as stratocumulus cloud decks or areas with poorly constrained.

  11. Effect of Carbon Ion Radiotherapy for Sacral Chordoma: Results of Phase I-II and Phase II Clinical Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Imai, Reiko; Kamada, Tadashi; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Sugawara, Shinji; Serizawa, Itsuko; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Tatezaki, Shin-ichiro

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: To summarize the results of treatment for sacral chordoma in Phase I-II and Phase II carbon ion radiotherapy trials for bone and soft-tissue sarcomas. Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 38 patients with medically unresectable sacral chordomas treated with the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, Japan between 1996 and 2003. Of the 38 patients, 30 had not received previous treatment and 8 had locally recurrent tumor after previous resection. The applied carbon ion dose was 52.8-73.6 Gray equivalents (median, 70.4) in a total of 16 fixed fractions within 4 weeks. Results: The median patient age was 66 years. The cranial tumor extension was S2 or greater in 31 patients. The median clinical target volume was 523 cm{sup 3}. The median follow-up period was 80 months. The 5-year overall survival rate was 86%, and the 5-year local control rate was 89%. After treatment, 27 of 30 patients with primary tumor remained ambulatory with or without supportive devices. Two patients experienced severe skin or soft-tissue complications requiring skin grafts. Conclusion: Carbon ion radiotherapy appears effective and safe in the treatment of patients with sacral chordoma and offers a promising alternative to surgery.

  12. Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM) Phase II Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Freshley, M.; Hubbard, S.; Flach, G.; Freedman, V.; Agarwal, D.; Andre, B.; Bott, Y.; Chen, X.; Davis, J.; Faybishenko, B.; Gorton, I.; Murray, C.; Moulton, D.; Meyer, J.; Rockhold, M.; Shoshani, A.; Steefel, C.; Wainwright, H.; Waichler, S.

    2012-09-28

    quality assurance. The Platform and HPC capabilities are being tested and evaluated for EM applications through a suite of demonstrations being conducted by the Site Applications Thrust. In 2010, the Phase I Demonstration focused on testing initial ASCEM capabilities. The Phase II Demonstration, completed in September 2012, focused on showcasing integrated ASCEM capabilities. For Phase II, the Hanford Site Deep Vadose Zone (BC Cribs) served as an application site for an end-to-end demonstration of ASCEM capabilities on a site with relatively sparse data, with emphasis on integration and linkages between the Platform and HPC components. Other demonstrations included in this Phase II report included addressing attenuation-based remedies at the Savannah River Site F-Area, to exercise linked ASCEM components under data-dense and complex geochemical conditions, and conducting detailed simulations of a representative waste tank. This report includes descriptive examples developed by the Hanford Site Deep Vadose Zone, the SRS F-Area Attenuation-Based Remedies for the Subsurface, and the Waste Tank Performance Assessment working groups. The integrated Phase II Demonstration provides test cases to accompany distribution of the initial user release (Version 1.0) of the ASCEM software tools to a limited set of users in 2013. These test cases will be expanded with each new release, leading up to the release of a version that is qualified for regulatory applications in the 2015 time frame.

  13. PHASE II VAULT TESTING OF THE ARGONNE RFID SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Willoner, T.; Turlington, R.; Koenig, R.

    2012-06-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (Environmental Management [EM], Office of Packaging and Transportation [EM-45]) Packaging and Certification Program (DOE PCP) has developed a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tracking and monitoring system, called ARG-US, for the management of nuclear materials packages during transportation and storage. The performance of the ARG-US RFID equipment and system has been fully tested in two demonstration projects in April 2008 and August 2009. With the strong support of DOE-SR and DOE PCP, a field testing program was completed in Savannah River Site's K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) Facility, an active Category I Plutonium Storage Facility, in 2010. As the next step (Phase II) of continued vault testing for the ARG-US system, the Savannah River Site K Area Material Storage facility has placed the ARG-US RFIDs into the 910B storage vault for operational testing. This latest version (Mark III) of the Argonne RFID system now has the capability to measure radiation dose and dose rate. This paper will report field testing progress of the ARG-US RFID equipment in KAMS, the operability and reliability trend results associated with the applications of the system, and discuss the potential benefits in enhancing safety, security and materials accountability. The purpose of this Phase II K Area test is to verify the accuracy of the radiation monitoring and proper functionality of the ARG-US RFID equipment and system under a realistic environment in the KAMS facility. Deploying the ARG-US RFID system leads to a reduced need for manned surveillance and increased inventory periods by providing real-time access to status and event history traceability, including environmental condition monitoring and radiation monitoring. The successful completion of the testing program will provide field data to support a future development and testing. This will increase Operation efficiency and cost effectiveness for vault operation. As the next step (Phase

  14. Small Business Innovation Research. Abstracts of Phase II awards, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    The SBIR program enables DOE to obtain effective, innovative solutions to important problems through the private sector, which has a commercial incentive to pursue the resulting technology and bring it to the marketplace. The growing number of awardees, many of them started in business in response to SBIR solicitations, is becoming a significant resource for the solution of high risk, high technology problems for the Department. As detailed below, this publication describes the technical efforts and commercialization possibilities for SBIR Phase II awards in Fiscal Year (FY) 2000. It is intended for the educated layman, and maybe of particular interest to potential investors who wish to get in on the ground floor of exciting opportunities.

  15. Lunar Quest in Second Life, Lunar Exploration Island, Phase II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireton, F. M.; Day, B. H.; Mitchell, B.; Hsu, B. C.

    2010-12-01

    Linden Lab’s Second Life is a virtual 3D metaverse created by users. At any one time there may be 40,000-50,000 users on line. Users develop a persona and are seen on screen as a human figure or avatar. Avatars move through Second Life by walking, flying, or teleporting. Users form communities or groups of mutual interest such as music, computer graphics, and education. These groups communicate via e-mail, voice, and text within Second Life. Information on downloading the Second Life browser and joining can be found on the Second Life website: www.secondlife.com. This poster details Phase II in the development of Lunar Exploration Island (LEI) located in Second Life. Phase I LEI highlighted NASA’s LRO/LCROSS mission. Avatars enter LEI via teleportation arriving at a hall of flight housing interactive exhibits on the LRO/ LCROSS missions including full size models of the two spacecraft and launch vehicle. Storyboards with information about the missions interpret the exhibits while links to external websites provide further information on the mission, both spacecraft’s instrument suites, and related EPO. Other lunar related activities such as My Moon and NLSI EPO programs. A special exhibit was designed for International Observe the Moon Night activities with links to websites for further information. The sim includes several sites for meetings, a conference stage to host talks, and a screen for viewing NASATV coverage of mission and other televised events. In Phase II exhibits are updated to reflect on-going lunar exploration highlights, discoveries, and future missions. A new section of LEI has been developed to showcase NASA’s Lunar Quest program. A new exhibit hall with Lunar Quest information has been designed and is being populated with Lunar Quest information, spacecraft models (LADEE is in place) and kiosks. A two stage interactive demonstration illustrates lunar phases with static and 3-D stations. As NASA’s Lunar Quest program matures further

  16. Miniature vibration isolation system for space applications: Phase II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Jack H.; Ross, James A.; Hadden, Steve; Gonzalez, Mario; Rogers, Zach; Henderson, B. Kyle

    2004-07-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant interest in, and move towards using highly sensitive, precision payloads on space vehicles. In order to perform tasks such as communicating at extremely high data rates between satellites using laser cross-links, or searching for new planets in distant solar systems using sparse aperture optical elements, a satellite bus and its payload must remain relatively motionless. The ability to hold a precision payload steady is complicated by disturbances from reaction wheels, control moment gyroscopes, solar array drives, stepper motors, and other devices. Because every satellite is essentially unique in its construction, isolating or damping unwanted vibrations usually requires a robust system over a wide bandwidth. The disadvantage of these systems is that they typically are not retrofittable and not tunable to changes in payload size or inertias. During the Phase I MVIS program, funded by AFRL and DARPA, a hybrid piezoelectric/D-strut isolator was built and tested to prove its viability for retroffitable insertion into sensitive payload attachments. A second phase of the program, which is jointly funded between AFRL and Honeywell, was started in November of 2002 to build a hexapod and the supporting interface electronics and do a flight demonstration of the technology. The MVIS-II program is a systems-level demonstration of the application of advanced smart materials and structures technology that will enable programmable and retrofittable vibration control of spacecraft precision payloads. This paper describes the simulations, overall test plan and product development status of the overall MVIS-II program as it approaches flight.

  17. Recent application of analytical methods to phase I and phase II drugs development: a review.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Marcello; Governatori, Luciana; Carlucci, Giuseppe; Genovese, Salvatore; Mollica, Adriano; Epifano, Francesco

    2012-03-01

    Drug development is a time-consuming and costly process. It is usually divided into four phases, although it is not always possible to draw a sharp line between the various stages. In phase I and II there are many molecules investigate and it is necessary to analyze all of them in a short period of time, with lower costs, and with high-throughput assay. During phase I relevant chemical-physical parameters like the acid dissociation constant, lipophilicity, solubility and stability must be analyzed. Classic techniques such as 'shake-flask' can be used, but instrumental analytical methods such as HPLC may be helpful to improve and enhance the productivity and reproducibility of the results. During phase II the activity of a drug and factors that may have an influence on it, like metabolic profile and transformations, impurities and plasma biding proteins, must be considered. In this field, recent hyphenated analytical methods, such as LC-MS/MS, GC-MS/MS or more complex couplings, can provide more complete information. The aim of this review is to report the processes required for the validation of drug efficacy with reference to the description of 'classic' and modern techniques used.

  18. The Development of New Measures of Cognitive Variables in Elementary School Children (Phase II). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, J. William; And Others

    This report covers Phase II of a two-phase project concerned with the development of new measures of cognitive variables in elementary school children. The four tasks undertaken in Phase II were: (1) prepare, revise and describe instruments designed to measure the cognitive variables categorized as concept formation, language development, logical…

  19. Rooftop PV system. Final technical progress report, Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    Under this four-year PV:BONUS Program, ECD and United Solar are developing and demonstrating two new lightweight flexible building integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) modules specifically designed as exact replacements for conventional asphalt shingles and standing seam metal roofing. These modules can be economically and aesthetically integrated into new residential and commercial buildings, and address the even larger roofing replacement market. The modules are designed to be installed by roofing contractors without special training which minimizes the installation and balance of system costs. The modules will be fabricated from high-efficiency, multiple-junction a-Si alloy solar cells developed by ECD and United Solar. Under the Phase I Program, which ended in March 1994, we developed two different concept designs for rooftop PV modules: (1) the United Solar overlapping (asphalt shingle replacement) shingle-type modules and (2) the ECD metal roof-type modules. We also developed a plan for fabricating, testing and demonstrating these modules. Candidate demonstration sites for our rooftop PV modules were identified and preliminary engineering designs for these demonstrations were developed; a marketing study plan was also developed. The major objectives of the Phase II Program, which started in June 1994 was (1) to develop, test, and qualify these new rooftop modules; (2) to develop mechanical and electrical engineering specifications for the demonstration projects; and (3) to develop a marketing/commercialization plan.

  20. Overview of SBIR Phase II Work on Hollow Graphite Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcup, Michael; Brantley, Lott W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Ultra-Lightweight materials are enabling for producing space based optical components and support structures. Heretofore, innovative designs using existing materials has been the approach to produce lighter-weight optical systems. Graphite fiber reinforced composites, because of their light weight, have been a material of frequent choice to produce space based optical components. Hollow graphite fibers would be lighter than standard solid graphite fibers and, thus, would save weight in optical components. The Phase I SBIR program demonstrated it is possible to produce hollow carbon fibers that have strengths up to 4.2 GPa which are equivalent to commercial fibers, and composites made from the hollow fibers had substantially equivalent composite strengths as commercial fiber composites at a 46% weight savings. The Phase II SBIR program will optimize processing and properties of the hollow carbon fiber and scale-up processing to produce sufficient fiber for fabricating a large ultra-lightweight mirror for delivery to NASA. Information presented here includes an overview of the strength of some preliminary hollow fibers, photographs of those fibers, and a short discussion of future plans.

  1. Easier Phase IIs: Recent Improvements to the Gemini User Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Bryan; Nuñez, A.

    2013-01-01

    During 2011 and 2012 Gemini Observatory undertook a significant project to improve the software tools used by investigators to propose for and prepare observations. The main goal was to make the definition of observation details (the Phase II process) easier and faster. The main initiatives included rewriting the observing proposal tool (Phase I Tool) and making several major improvements to the Observing Tool, including automatic settings for arc and flat exposures, automatic guide star selection for all instruments and wavefront sensors, and more complete initial template observations with capabilities for simultaneous editing of many observations. This poster explains these major changes as well as outlines future development plans. The Gemini Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  2. Alternate Reductant Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace Phase II Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, F. C.; Stone, M. E.; Miller, D. H.

    2014-09-03

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further research and development of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the CEF cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models; Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters in support of the melter flammability model development; Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed; Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species. After charging the CEF with cullet from Phase I CEF testing, the melter was slurry-fed with glycolic flowsheet based SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36% waste

  3. MHD seed recovery and regeneration, Phase II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This final report summarizes the work performed by the Space and Technology Division of the TRW Space and Electronics Group for the U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center for the Econoseed process. This process involves the economical recovery and regeneration of potassium seed used in the MHD channel. The contract period of performance extended from 1987 through 1994 and was divided into two phases. The Phase II test results are the subject of this Final Report. However, the Phase I test results are presented in summary form in Section 2.3 of this Final Report. The Econoseed process involves the treatment of the potassium sulfate in spent MHD seed with an aqueous calcium formate solution in a continuously stirred reactor system to solubilize, as potassium formate, the potassium content of the seed and to precipitate and recover the sulfate as calcium sulfate. The slurry product from this reaction is centrifuged to separate the calcium sulfate and insoluble seed constituents from the potassium formate solution. The dilute solids-free potassium formate solution is then concentrated in an evaporator. The concentrated potassium formate product is a liquid which can be recycled as a spray into the MHD channel. Calcium formate is the seed regenerant used in the Econoseed process. Since calcium formate is produced in the United States in relatively small quantities, a new route to the continuous production of large quantities of calcium formate needed to support an MHD power industry was investigated. This route involves the reaction of carbon monoxide gas with lime solids in an aqueous medium.

  4. Emerging Roles of Nrf2 and Phase II Antioxidant Enzymes in Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meijuan; An, Chengrui; Gao, Yanqin; Leak, Rehana K.; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Phase II metabolic enzymes are a battery of critical proteins that detoxify xenobiotics by increasing their hydrophilicity and enhancing their disposal. These enzymes have long been studied for their preventative and protective effects against mutagens and carcinogens and for their regulation via the Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1) / Nrf2 (Nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2) / ARE (antioxidant response elements) pathway. Recently, a series of studies have reported the altered expression of phase II genes in postmortem tissue of patients with various neurological diseases. These observations hint at a role for phase II enzymes in the evolution of such conditions. Furthermore, promising findings reveal that overexpression of phase II genes, either by genetic or chemical approaches, confers neuroprotection in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, there is a need to summarize the current literature on phase II genes in the central nervous system (CNS). This should help guide future studies on phase II genes as therapeutic targets in neurological diseases. In this review, we first briefly introduce the concept of phase I, II and III enzymes, with a special focus on phase II enzymes. We then discuss their expression regulation, their inducers and executors. Following this background, we expand our discussion to the neuroprotective effects of phase II enzymes and the potential application of Nrf2 inducers to the treatment of neurological diseases. PMID:23025925

  5. Phased Retrofits in Existing Homes in Florida Phase II: Shallow Plus Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, K.; Parker, D.; Martin, E.; Chasar, D.; Amos, B.

    2016-02-03

    The BAPIRC team and Florida Power and Light (FPL) electric utility pursued a pilot phased energy-efficiency retrofit program in Florida by creating detailed data on the energy and economic performance of two levels of retrofit - simple and deep. For this Phased Deep Retrofit (PDR) project, a total of 56 homes spread across the utility partner's territory in east central Florida, southeast Florida, and southwest Florida were instrumented between August 2012 and January 2013, and received simple pass-through retrofit measures during the period of March 2013 - June 2013. Ten of these homes received a deeper package of retrofits during August 2013 - December 2013. A full account of Phase I of this project, including detailed home details and characterization, is found in Parker et al, 2015 (currently in draft). Phase II of this project, which is the focus of this report, applied the following additional retrofit measures to select homes that received a shallow retrofit in Phase I: a) Supplemental mini-split heat pump (MSHP) (6 homes); b) Ducted and space coupled Heat Pump Water Heater (8 homes); c) Exterior insulation finish system (EIFS) (1 homes); d) Window retrofit (3 homes); e) Smart thermostat (21 homes: 19 NESTs; 2 Lyrics); f) Heat pump clothes dryer (8 homes); g) Variable speed pool pump (5 homes).

  6. Effect of a misspecification of response rates on type I and type II errors, in a phase II Simon design.

    PubMed

    Baey, Charlotte; Le Deley, Marie-Cécile

    2011-07-01

    Phase-II trials are a key stage in the clinical development of a new treatment. Their main objective is to provide the required information for a go/no-go decision regarding a subsequent phase-III trial. In single arm phase-II trials, widely used in oncology, this decision relies on the comparison of efficacy outcomes observed in the trial to historical controls. The false positive rate generally accepted in phase-II trials, around 10%, contrasts with the very high attrition rate of new compounds tested in phase-III trials, estimated at about 60%. We assumed that this gap could partly be explained by the misspecification of the response rate expected with standard treatment, leading to erroneous hypotheses tested in the phase-II trial. We computed the false positive probability of a defined design under various hypotheses of expected efficacy probability. Similarly we calculated the power of the trial to detect the efficacy of a new compound for different expected efficacy rates. Calculations were done considering a binary outcome, such as the response rate, with a decision rule based on a Simon two-stage design. When analysing a single-arm phase-II trial, based on a design with a pre-specified null hypothesis, a 5% absolute error in the expected response rate leads to a false positive rate of about 30% when it is supposed to be 10%. This inflation of type-I error varies only slightly according to the hypotheses of the initial design. Single-arm phase-II trials poorly control for the false positive rate. Randomised phase-II trials should, therefore, be more often considered.

  7. Mercury Phase II Study - Mercury Behavior in Salt Processing Flowsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, V.; Shah, H.; Bannochie, C. J.; Wilmarth, W. R.

    2016-07-25

    Mercury (Hg) in the Savannah River Site Liquid Waste System (LWS) originated from decades of canyon processing where it was used as a catalyst for dissolving the aluminum cladding of reactor fuel. Approximately 60 metric tons of mercury is currently present throughout the LWS. Mercury has long been a consideration in the LWS, from both hazard and processing perspectives. In February 2015, a Mercury Program Team was established at the request of the Department of Energy to develop a comprehensive action plan for long-term management and removal of mercury. Evaluation was focused in two Phases. Phase I activities assessed the Liquid Waste inventory and chemical processing behavior using a system-by-system review methodology, and determined the speciation of the different mercury forms (Hg+, Hg++, elemental Hg, organomercury, and soluble versus insoluble mercury) within the LWS. Phase II activities are building on the Phase I activities, and results of the LWS flowsheet evaluations will be summarized in three reports: Mercury Behavior in the Salt Processing Flowsheet (i.e. this report); Mercury Behavior in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Flowsheet; and Mercury behavior in the Tank Farm Flowsheet (Evaporator Operations). The evaluation of the mercury behavior in the salt processing flowsheet indicates, inter alia, the following: (1) In the assembled Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 in Tank 21, the total mercury is mostly soluble with methylmercury (MHg) contributing over 50% of the total mercury. Based on the analyses of samples from 2H Evaporator feed and drop tanks (Tanks 38/43), the source of MHg in Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 can be attributed to the 2H evaporator concentrate used in assembling the salt batches. The 2H Evaporator is used to evaporate DWPF recycle water. (2) Comparison of data between Tank 21/49, Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), and Tank 50 samples suggests that the total mercury as well as speciated

  8. Clean Air Act Title IV: Lessons learned from Phase I; getting ready for Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments have required significant reductions in SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions from fossil fuel-fired power plants in the US. This paper examines some of the key technical lessons learned in Phase I following retrofit of low NO{sub x} systems, FGD systems, and continuous emissions monitors. Some of the key problems encountered have been waterwall wastage as a result of low NO{sub x} burner retrofits; high LOI (carbon) ash as a result of low NO{sub x} operation; high O&M costs associated with CEMs; and the heat rate discrepancy which has arisen between CEMs and conventional heat rate calculations. As Phase II approaches, EPRI and the electric utility industry are investigating improvements in FGD systems (e.g., clear liquor scrubbing), advances in NO{sub x} control technologies, more robust CEM systems, and tools to help in the technology decision-making process.

  9. The role of technology in reducing health care costs. Phase II and phase III.

    SciTech Connect

    Cilke, John F.; Parks, Raymond C.; Funkhouser, Donald Ray; Tebo, Michael A.; Murphy, Martin D.; Hightower, Marion Michael; Gallagher, Linda K.; Craft, Richard Layne, II; Garcia, Rudy John

    2004-04-01

    In Phase I of this project, reported in SAND97-1922, Sandia National Laboratories applied a systems approach to identifying innovative biomedical technologies with the potential to reduce U.S. health care delivery costs while maintaining care quality. The effort provided roadmaps for the development and integration of technology to meet perceived care delivery requirements and an economic analysis model for development of care pathway costs for two conditions: coronary artery disease (CAD) and benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). Phases II and III of this project, which are presented in this report, were directed at detailing the parameters of telemedicine that influence care delivery costs and quality. These results were used to identify and field test the communication, interoperability, and security capabilities needed for cost-effective, secure, and reliable health care via telemedicine.

  10. An Overview of 2014 SBIR Phase I and Phase II Materials Structures for Extreme Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Morris, Jessica R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program focuses on technological innovation by investing in development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA mission directorates address critical research needs for Agency programs. This report highlights nine of the innovative SBIR 2014 Phase I and Phase II projects that emphasize one of NASA Glenn Research Center's six core competencies-Materials and Structures for Extreme Environments. The technologies cover a wide spectrum of applications such as high temperature environmental barrier coating systems, deployable space structures, solid oxide fuel cells, and self-lubricating hard coatings for extreme temperatures. Each featured technology describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report provides an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn how NASA SBIR technologies could help their programs and projects, and lead to collaborations and partnerships between the small SBIR companies and NASA that would benefit both.

  11. Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, Mickie A.

    2003-03-01

    In 2002, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met National Marine Fisheries Service criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage and whether bypass outfall conditions allowed fish to safely return to the river. In addition, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2002, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by the National Marine Fisheries Service. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to increase safe juvenile fish passage. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well greased and operative. (5) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris should be improved at some sites.

  12. Characterization of ToxCast Phase II compounds disruption of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The development of multi-well microelectrode array (mwMEA) systems has increased in vitro screening throughput making them an effective method to screen and prioritize large sets of compounds for potential neurotoxicity. In the present experiments, a multiplexed approach was used to determine compound effects on both neural function and cell health in primary cortical networks grown on mwMEA plates following exposure to ~1100 compounds from EPA’s Phase II ToxCast libraries. On DIV 13, baseline activity (40 min) was recorded prior to exposure to each compound at 40 µM. DMSO and the GABAA antagonist bicuculline (BIC) were included as controls on each mwMEA plate. Changes in spontaneous network activity (mean firing rate; MFR) and cell viability (lactate dehydrogenase; LDH and CellTiter Blue; CTB) were assessed within the same well following compound exposure. Activity calls (“hits”) were established using the 90th and 20th percentiles of the compound-induced change in MFR (medians of triplicates) across all tested compounds; compounds above (top 10% of compounds increasing MFR), and below (bottom 20% of compounds decreasing MFR) these thresholds, respectively were considered hits. MFR was altered beyond one of these thresholds by 322 compounds. Four compound categories accounted for 66% of the hits, including: insecticides (e.g. abamectin, lindane, prallethrin), pharmaceuticals (e.g. haloperidol, reserpine), fungicides (e.g. hexaconazole, fenamidone), and h

  13. The phase II ATLAS Pixel upgrade: the Inner Tracker (ITk)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flick, T.

    2017-01-01

    The entire tracking system of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced during the LHC Phase II shutdown (foreseen to take place around 2025) by an all-silicon detector called the ITk (Inner Tracker). The pixel detector will comprise the five innermost layers, and will be instrumented with new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the HL-LHC environment, which will be severe in terms of occupancy and radiation. Several layout options are being investigated. All of these include a barrel part and ring-shaped supports in the endcap regions. All structures will be based on low mass, highly stable and highly thermally conductive carbon-based materials cooled by evaporative carbon dioxide. Different designs of planar, 3D, and CMOS sensors are being investigated to identify the optimal technology for the different pixel layers. While the RD53 Collaboration is developing the new readout chip, the pixel off-detector readout electronics will be implemented in the framework of the general ATLAS trigger and DAQ system. A readout speed of up to 5 Gbit/s per data link (FE-chip) will be needed in the innermost layers going down to 640 Mbit/s for the outermost. This paper presents an overview of the different components of the ITk and the current status of the developments.

  14. Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Vucelick, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, Mickie A.

    2004-05-01

    In 2003, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. PNNL collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met the Nation Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries, formerly the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage. In addition, PNNL conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2003, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to improve juvenile fish passage conditions. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well greased and operative. (5) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris could be improved at some sites.

  15. Background rejection of n+ surface events in GERDA Phase II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, Björn

    2016-05-01

    The GERDA experiment searches for neutrinoless double beta (0vββ) decay in 76Ge using an array of high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors immersed in liquid argon (LAr). Phase II of the experiment uses 30 new broad energy germanium (BEGe) detectors with superior pulse shape discrimination capabilities compared to the previously used semi-coaxial detector design. By far the largest background component for BEGe detectors in GERDA are n+-surface events from 42K β decays which are intrinsic in LAr. The β particles with up to 3.5 MeV can traverse the 0.5 to 0.9 mm thick electrode and deposit energy within the region of interest for the 0vββ decay. However, those events have particular pulse shape features allowing for a strong discrimination. The understanding and simulation of this background, showing a reduction by up to a factor 145 with pulse shape discrimination alone, is presented in this work.

  16. 40 CFR 72.73 - State issuance of Phase II permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.73 State issuance of Phase II permits... permit program under part 70 of this chapter and that has a State Acid Rain program accepted by the Administrator under § 72.71 shall be responsible for administering and enforcing Acid Rain permits effective...

  17. 40 CFR 72.74 - Federal issuance of Phase II permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.74 Federal issuance of Phase II permits. (a)(1) The Administrator will be responsible for administering and enforcing Acid Rain... and enforcing Acid Rain permits for such sources under § 72.73(a). (2) After and to the extent...

  18. 40 CFR 72.74 - Federal issuance of Phase II permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.74 Federal issuance of Phase II permits. (a)(1) The Administrator will be responsible for administering and enforcing Acid Rain... and enforcing Acid Rain permits for such sources under § 72.73(a). (2) After and to the extent...

  19. 40 CFR 72.73 - State issuance of Phase II permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.73 State issuance of Phase II permits... permit program under part 70 of this chapter and that has a State Acid Rain program accepted by the Administrator under § 72.71 shall be responsible for administering and enforcing Acid Rain permits effective...

  20. 40 CFR 72.74 - Federal issuance of Phase II permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.74 Federal issuance of Phase II permits. (a)(1) The Administrator will be responsible for administering and enforcing Acid Rain... and enforcing Acid Rain permits for such sources under § 72.73(a). (2) After and to the extent...

  1. 40 CFR 72.74 - Federal issuance of Phase II permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.74 Federal issuance of Phase II permits. (a)(1) The Administrator will be responsible for administering and enforcing Acid Rain... and enforcing Acid Rain permits for such sources under § 72.73(a). (2) After and to the extent...

  2. 40 CFR 72.73 - State issuance of Phase II permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.73 State issuance of Phase II permits... permit program under part 70 of this chapter and that has a State Acid Rain program accepted by the Administrator under § 72.71 shall be responsible for administering and enforcing Acid Rain permits effective...

  3. 40 CFR 72.73 - State issuance of Phase II permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.73 State issuance of Phase II permits... permit program under part 70 of this chapter and that has a State Acid Rain program accepted by the Administrator under § 72.71 shall be responsible for administering and enforcing Acid Rain permits effective...

  4. 40 CFR 72.74 - Federal issuance of Phase II permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.74 Federal issuance of Phase II permits. (a)(1) The Administrator will be responsible for administering and enforcing Acid Rain... and enforcing Acid Rain permits for such sources under § 72.73(a). (2) After and to the extent...

  5. 40 CFR 72.73 - State issuance of Phase II permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.73 State issuance of Phase II permits... permit program under part 70 of this chapter and that has a State Acid Rain program accepted by the Administrator under § 72.71 shall be responsible for administering and enforcing Acid Rain permits effective...

  6. TNX GeoSiphon Cell (TGSC-1) Phase II Single Cell Deployment/Demonstration Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, M.A.

    1999-04-15

    This Phase II final report documents the Phase II testing conducted from June 18, 1998 through November 13, 1998, and it focuses on the application of the siphon technology as a sub-component of the overall GeoSiphon Cell technology. [Q-TPL-T-00004

  7. Artwork: Johnson Space Center U.S./International Cooperation Phase II -- This is a representation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Artwork: Johnson Space Center U.S./International Cooperation Phase II -- This is a representation illustrating the United States' international cooperation in space. Phase II of the International Space Station is depicted with elements provided by the United States and Russia comprising the Human Tended Space Station. The scene was produced by John Frassanito and Associates. (JSC ref: S94-30086)

  8. 7 CFR 3403.8 - Proposal format for phase II applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Collection. Each Phase II applicant will be required to provide information to the Tech-Net Database System... applicants into Tech-Net: (i) Any business concern or subsidiary established for the commercial application... conducted under each Phase II award; and (iv) Updates to information in the Tech-Net database for any...

  9. A steerable/distance enhanced penetrometer delivery system: Phase II. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Amini, A.; Shenhar, J.; Lum, K.D.

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the phase II work on the Position Location Device (POLO) for penetrometers. Phase II was carried out to generate an integrated design of a full-scale steerable/distance enhanced penetrometer delivery system. Steering provides for the controlled and directional use of the penetrometer, while vibratory thrusting can provide greater penetration ability.

  10. 7 CFR 3403.8 - Proposal format for phase II applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Collection. Each Phase II applicant will be required to provide information to the Tech-Net Database System... applicants into Tech-Net: (i) Any business concern or subsidiary established for the commercial application... conducted under each Phase II award; and (iv) Updates to information in the Tech-Net database for any...

  11. 7 CFR 3403.8 - Proposal format for phase II applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Collection. Each Phase II applicant will be required to provide information to the Tech-Net Database System... applicants into Tech-Net: (i) Any business concern or subsidiary established for the commercial application... conducted under each Phase II award; and (iv) Updates to information in the Tech-Net database for any...

  12. 7 CFR 3403.8 - Proposal format for phase II applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Collection. Each Phase II applicant will be required to provide information to the Tech-Net Database System... applicants into Tech-Net: (i) Any business concern or subsidiary established for the commercial application... conducted under each Phase II award; and (iv) Updates to information in the Tech-Net database for any...

  13. Mechanical and Thermal Prototype Testing for a Rotatable Collimator for the LHC Phase II Collimation Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jeffrey Claiborne; Doyle, Eric; Keller, Lewis; Lundgren, Steven; Markiewicz, Thomas Walter; /SLAC

    2010-08-26

    The Phase II upgrade to the LHC collimation system calls for complementing the robust Phase I graphite collimators with high Z, low impedance Phase II collimators. The design for the collimation upgrade has not been finalized. One option is to use metallic rotatable collimators and testing of this design will be discussed here. The Phase II collimators must be robust in various operating conditions and accident scenarios. A prototype collimator jaw has been tested for both mechanical and thermal compliance with the design goals. Thermal expansion bench-top tests are compared to ANSYS simulation results.

  14. A phase II study of axitinib in advanced neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Strosberg, J R; Cives, M; Hwang, J; Weber, T; Nickerson, M; Atreya, C E; Venook, A; Kelley, R K; Valone, T; Morse, B; Coppola, D; Bergsland, E K

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are highly vascular neoplasms overexpressing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as well as VEGF receptors (VEGFR). Axitinib is a potent, selective inhibitor of VEGFR-1, -2 and -3, currently approved for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma. We performed an open-label, two-stage design, phase II trial of axitinib 5 mg twice daily in patients with progressive unresectable/metastatic low-to-intermediate grade carcinoid tumors. The primary end points were progression-free survival (PFS) and 12-month PFS rate. The secondary end points included time to treatment failure (TTF), overall survival (OS), overall radiographic response rate (ORR), biochemical response rate and safety. A total of 30 patients were enrolled and assessable for toxicity; 22 patients were assessable for response. After a median follow-up of 29 months, we observed a median PFS of 26.7 months (95% CI, 11.4–35.1), with a 12-month PFS rate of 74.5% (±10.2). The median OS was 45.3 months (95% CI, 24.4–45.3), and the median TTF was 9.6 months (95% CI, 5.5–12). The best radiographic response was partial response (PR) in 1/30 (3%) and stable disease (SD) in 21/30 patients (70%); 8/30 patients (27%) were unevaluable due to early withdrawal due to toxicity. Hypertension was the most common toxicity that developed in 27 patients (90%). Grade 3/4 hypertension was recorded in 19 patients (63%), leading to treatment discontinuation in six patients (20%). Although axitinib appears to have an inhibitory effect on tumor growth in patients with advanced, progressive carcinoid tumors, the high rate of grade 3/4 hypertension may represent a potential impediment to its use in unselected patients. PMID:27080472

  15. Ultrafiltration of Kraft Black Liquor: Phase II, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, M.K.

    1987-09-01

    The major justification for examining ultrafiltration was to lower the viscosity of the Kraft Black Liquor by recovering it as an ultrafiltration permeate from which the highest MW lignin had been removed. The liquor could then be concentrated to a higher percentage solids before firing into the recovery boiler. Consequent energy savings for the 1000 ton/day pulp mill would be 2.05 x 10 Btu/y for each percentage increase in TDS (total dissolved solids) to the recovery boiler. This Phase II report gives data on viscosity with percentage solids of KBL permeates. Another favorable effect of ultrafiltration on the permeate properties is disproportionate removal of multivalent ions including the major scaling ion CaS . If this high-viscosity high-Ca retentate could be treated to lower its viscosity and to release the Ca in a non-scaling form, this would enhance the possibility that ultrafiltration might be useful in a mill situation. Included in this report are data on the results of treating the retentate fraction. Other justifications for this program included further information in KBL properties: lignin MW in the KBL at high pH; elemental and sugar analyses; and differential properties of lignins in the retentate and the permeate fractions. A preliminary economic analysis of ultrafiltration is contained in this report. These analyses indicate that with flux rates now attainable, ultrafiltration would not be economically justified at this time if the only justification is to lower KBL viscosity. For certain situations where high Ca liquors present a scaling problem, especially in an evaporator-limited mill, the economics are more favorable. There are also unsolved problems relating to the use of the high viscosity retentate.

  16. Yakima Fish Passage : Phase II : Fish Screen Construction.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bureau of Reclamation. Pacific Northwest Region.

    2003-03-01

    Accomplishments in 2001--2002 were spotty and limited due primarily to right-of-way problems at several sites and unanticipated changes in scope at some sites. Changes in BPA funding procedures have also impacted our ability to accomplish previously scheduled work. The following is a brief summary of work accomplished and scheduled at the remaining Phase II sites. (1) Selah-Moxee Fish Screen--Construction at this site was started in October 2001 and was completed in March 2002. We have settled the contractor claims and have closed out the construction contract. The O&M Agreement with the irrigation district was also completed in 2002. Work remains to complete the Designer's Operating Criteria. (2) Scott Fish Screen--Considerable effort was spent in 2001 and 2002 to try to resolve right-of-way issues at this site. However, these problems proved to be insurmountable, and this site has been dropped from the Phase n Program. The only thing remaining on Scott (as far as the Phase n program is concerned) is to prepare a brief wrap-up report to send to all interested parties to summarize what has been done and to explain the status of the diversion from a fish passage standpoint. (3) Packwood Fish Screen--Designs and specifications for the civil works were completed for this screen in 2002. The screen, screen cleaner, and other metal work have already been fabricated by WDFW Screen Shop. Award of a construction contract was scheduled for September 2002. The BP A lands staff has experienced significant delays in obtaining an easement from the state of Washington for a piece of the John Wayne Trail right-of-way currently occupied by the existing screen. As a result, the construction contract has been rescheduled for award in the fall of 2003. We are ready to proceed with construction if BP A can obtain the necessary easements by May 2003. (4) Fogarty Fish Screen--We opened bids on this site in August, 2002. There was only one responsive bidder and the bid was nearly double

  17. Structural mechanisms of the Ih–II and II → Ic transitions between the crystalline phases of aqueous ice

    SciTech Connect

    Zheligovskaya, E. A.

    2015-09-15

    Structural mechanisms are proposed for experimentally observed phase transitions between crystalline modifications of aqueous ice, Ih and II, as well as II and Ic. It is known that the Ih–II transition occurs with the conservation of large structural units (hexagonal channels) common for these ices. It is shown that the Ih → II transition may occur with the conservation of 5/6 of all hydrogen bonds in crystal, including all hydrogen bonds in the retained channels (3/4 of the total number of bonds in crystal) and 1/3 of the bonds between these channels (1/12 of the total number). The transformation of other hydrogen bonds between the retained channels leads to the occurrence of proton order in ice II. A structural mechanism is proposed to explain the transformation of single crystals of ice Ih either into single crystals of ice II or into crystalline twins of ice II with c axes rotated by 180° with respect to each other, which is often observed at the Ih → II transition. It is established that up to 7/12 of all hydrogen bonds are retained at the irreversible cooperative II → Ic transition.

  18. Solid-phase extraction of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions from environmental samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS).

    PubMed

    Duran, Celal; Gundogdu, Ali; Bulut, Volkan Numan; Soylak, Mustafa; Elci, Latif; Sentürk, Hasan Basri; Tüfekci, Mehmet

    2007-07-19

    A new method using a column packed with Amberlite XAD-2010 resin as a solid-phase extractant has been developed for the multi-element preconcentration of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) ions based on their complex formation with the sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (Na-DDTC) prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometric (FAAS) determinations. Metal complexes sorbed on the resin were eluted by 1 mol L(-1) HNO3 in acetone. Effects of the analytical conditions over the preconcentration yields of the metal ions, such as pH, quantity of Na-DDTC, eluent type, sample volume and flow rate, foreign ions etc. have been investigated. The limits of detection (LOD) of the analytes were found in the range 0.08-0.26 microg L(-1). The method was validated by analyzing three certified reference materials. The method has been applied for the determination of trace elements in some environmental samples.

  19. Chitosan film loaded with silver nanoparticles-sorbent for solid phase extraction of Al(III), Cd(II), Cu(II), Co(II), Fe(III), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II).

    PubMed

    Djerahov, Lubomir; Vasileva, Penka; Karadjova, Irina; Kurakalva, Rama Mohan; Aradhi, Keshav Krishna

    2016-08-20

    The present study describes the ecofriendly method for the preparation of chitosan film loaded with silver nanoparticles (CS-AgNPs) and application of this film as efficient sorbent for separation and enrichment of Al(III), Cd(II), Cu(II), Co(II), Fe(III), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II). The stable CS-AgNPs colloid was prepared by dispersing the AgNPs sol in chitosan solution at appropriate ratio and further used to obtain a cast film with very good stability under storage and good mechanical strength for easy handling in aqueous medium. The incorporation of AgNPs in the structure of CS film and interaction between the polymer matrix and nanoparticles were confirmed by UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy. The homogeneously embedded AgNPs (average diameter 29nm, TEM analysis) were clearly observed throughout the film by SEM. The CS-AgNPs nanocomposite film shows high sorption activity toward trace metals under optimized chemical conditions. The results suggest that the CS-AgNPs nanocomposite film can be feasibly used as a novel sorbent material for solid-phase extraction of metal pollutants from surface waters.

  20. Aerosol single-scattering albedo over the global oceans: Comparing PARASOL retrievals with AERONET, OMI, and AeroCom models estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Lacagnina, Carlo; Hasekamp, Otto P.; Bian, Huisheng; Curci, Gabriele; Myhre, Gunnar; van Noije, Twan; Schulz, Michael; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zhang, Kai

    2015-09-27

    The aerosol Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) over the global oceans is evaluated based on polarimetric measurements by the PARASOL satellite. The retrieved values for SSA and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) agree well with the ground-based measurements of the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET). The global coverage provided by the PARASOL observations represents a unique opportunity to evaluate SSA and AOD simulated by atmospheric transport model runs, as performed in the AeroCom framework. The SSA estimate provided by the AeroCom models is generally higher than the SSA retrieved from both PARASOL and AERONET. On the other hand, the mean simulated AOD is about right or slightly underestimated compared with observations. An overestimate of the SSA by the models would suggest that these simulate an overly strong aerosol radiative cooling at top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and underestimate it at surface. This implies that aerosols have a potential stronger impact within the atmosphere than currently simulated.

  1. Metabolism of methandrostenolone in the horse: a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric investigation of phase I and phase II metabolism.

    PubMed

    McKinney, A R; Ridley, D D; Suann, C J

    2001-12-05

    The phase I and phase II metabolism of the anabolic steroid methandrostenolone was investigated following oral administration to a standardbred gelding. In the phase I study, metabolites were isolated from the urine by solid-phase extraction, deconjugated by acid catalysed methanolysis and converted to their O-methyloxime trimethylsilyl derivatives. GC-MS analysis indicated the major metabolic processes to be sequential reduction of the A-ring and hydroxylation at C6 and C16. In the phase II study, unconjugated, beta-glucuronidated and sulfated metabolites were fractionated and deconjugated using a combination of liquid-liquid extraction, enzyme hydrolysis, solid-phase extraction and acid catalysed methanolysis. Derivatization followed by GC-MS analysis revealed extensive conjugation to both glucuronic and sulfuric acids, with only a small proportion of metabolites occurring in unconjugated form.

  2. Thymostimulin in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: A phase II trial

    PubMed Central

    Dollinger, Matthias M; Behrens, Christa M; Lesske, Joachim; Behl, Susanne; Behrmann, Curd; Fleig, Wolfgang E

    2008-01-01

    Background Thymostimulin is a thymic peptide fraction with immune-mediated cytotoxicity against hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro. In a phase II trial, we investigated safety and efficacy including selection criteria for best response in advanced or metastasised hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods 44 patients (84 % male, median age 69 years) not suitable or refractory to conventional therapy received thymostimulin 75 mg subcutaneously five times per week for a median of 8.2 months until progression or complete response. 3/44 patients were secondarily accessible to local ablation or chemoembolisation. Primary endpoint was overall survival, secondary endpoint tumor response or progression-free survival. A multivariate Cox's regression model was used to identify variables affecting survival. Results Median survival was 11.5 months (95% CI 7.9–15.0) with a 1-, 2- and 3-year survival of 50%, 23% and 9%. In the univariate analysis, a low Child-Pugh-score (p = 0.01), a low score in the Okuda- and CLIP-classification (p < 0.001) or a low AFP-level (p < 0.001) were associated with better survival, but not therapy modalities other than thymostimulin (p = 0.1) or signs of an invasive HCC phenotype such as vascular invasion (p = 0.3) and metastases (p = 0.1). The only variables independently related to survival in the Cox's regression model were Okuda stage and presence of liver cirrhosis (p < 0.01) as well as response to thymostimulin (p < 0.05). Of 39/44 patients evaluable for response, two obtained complete responses (one after concomitant radiofrequency ablation), five partial responses (objective response 18%), twenty-four stable disease (tumor control rate 79%) and eight progressed. Median progression-free survival was 6.4 months (95% CI 0.8–12). Grade 1 local reactions following injection were the only side effects. Conclusion Outcome in our study rather depended on liver function and intrahepatic tumor growth (presence of liver cirrhosis and Okuda stage) in addition

  3. Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    In the summer and fall of 2001 the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. Data were collected to determine if velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met current National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage and whether bypass outfall conditions allowed fish to safely return to the river. Based on our studies in 2001, we concluded that: in general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set forth by the NMFS; most facilities efficiently protected juvenile fish from entrainment, impingement, or migration delay; automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were well greased and operative; and removal of sediment build-up and accumulated leafy and woody debris are areas that continue to improve. Continued periodic screen evaluations will increase the effectiveness of screen operation and maintenance practices by confirming the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of screen operating procedures at individual sites. Where procedures are being followed and problems still occur, evaluation results can be used to suggest means to better protect fish at screening facilities. There has been a progressive improvement in the maintenance and effectiveness of fish screen facilities in the Yakima River Basin during the last several years, in part, as a result of regular screen evaluations and the rapid feedback of information necessary to improve operations and design of these important fish protection devices. Continued periodic screen evaluations will increase the effectiveness of screen operation and maintenance practices by confirming the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of screen operating procedures at individual sites. Where procedures are being

  4. Microgrid Design, Development and Demonstration - Final Report for Phase I and Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, Sumit; Krok, Michael

    2011-02-08

    This document constitutes GE’s final report for the Microgrid Design, Development and Demonstration program for DOE’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Award DE-FC02-05CH11349. It contains the final report for Phase I in Appendix I, and the results the work performed in Phase II. The program goal was to develop and demonstrate a Microgrid Energy Management (MEM) framework for a broad set of Microgrid applications that provides unified controls, protection, and energy management. This project contributed to the achievement of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Renewable and Distributed Systems Integration Program goals by developing a fully automated power delivery microgrid network that: - Reduces carbon emissions and emissions of other air pollutants through increased use of optimally dispatched renewable energy, - Increases asset use through integration of distributed systems, - Enhances reliability, security, and resiliency from microgrid applications in critical infrastructure protection, constrained areas of the electric grid, etc. - Improves system efficiency with on-site, distributed generation and improved economic efficiency through demand-side management.

  5. U.S.-China Strategic Dialogue, Phase II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-12

    Chinese Presentation 12:00-1:30p Lunch – Hibiscus Suite (Kalia Tower-2nd floor) 1:30p Panel II: Crisis Escalation in Theory and History Paper...Lunch Hibiscus Suite (Kalia Tower-2nd floor) 1:30p Panel IV: Nuclear Weapons Safety and Security: Comparing national approaches and discussing... Hibiscus Suite (Kalia Tower-2nd floor) 25 APPENDIX II: CONFERENCE PARTICIPANTS 26 China Rear Admiral Yang Yi Director Institute of

  6. Orthodontists' perceptions of the impact of phase 1 treatment for Class II malocclusion on phase 2 needs.

    PubMed

    King, G J; Wheeler, T T; McGorray, S P; Aiosa, L S; Bloom, R M; Taylor, M G

    1999-11-01

    The most appropriate timing for the treatment of Class II malocclusions is controversial. Some clinicians advocate starting a first phase in the mixed dentition, followed by a phase 2 in the permanent dentition. Others see no clear advantage to that approach and recommend that the entire treatment be done in the late mixed or early permanent dentition. This study examines how orthodontists, blinded to treatment approach, perceive the impact of phase 1 treatment on phase 2 needs. The sample consisted of 242 Class II subjects, aged 10 to 15, who had completed phase 1 or observation in a randomized clinical trial (RCT). For each subject, video orthodontic records, a questionnaire, a fact sheet, and a cephalometric tracing were sent to five randomly selected reviewing orthodontists blinded to subject group and study purpose. Reviewing orthodontists were asked to assess treatment need, general approach, need for extractions, priority, difficulty, and determinants. Orthodontists agreed highly on treatment need (95%) and moderately on treatment approach (84%) and extraction need (80%). They did not perceive differences in need, approach, or extractions between treated and control groups. Treated subjects were judged as less difficult (p = 0.0001) and to have a lower treatment priority (p = 0.0001) than controls. In ranking problems that affect treatment decisions, the orthodontists ranked dental Class II (p = 0.005) and skeletal relationships (p = 0.004) more highly in control than in treated patients. These data indicate that orthodontists do not perceive phase 1 treatment for Class II as preventing the need for a second phase or as offering any particular advantage with respect to preventing the need for extractions or other skeletal treatments in that second phase. They do view early Class II treatment as an effective means of reducing the difficulty of and priority for phase 2.

  7. SELDI Validation Study Phase II — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    This project –A Comprehensive Program for the Validation of Prostate Cancer Early Detection with Novel Protein Identification Techniques -- is divided into three phases. The goal of Phase I was to assess the reproducibility and portability of Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption and Ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) using protein profiles generated from serum. Phase I was recently successfully completed at six institutions using a single source of pooled sera.

  8. Fire Fighter Trainer Environmental Considerations. Phase II. Appendixes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-31

    background ana is an expert in traceI I I BAH PERSONNEL LOCATIONS DURING TESTS LDQ I Scenario M. Halpern Control room G. McLennan Mobile to exterior of...stack-roof level Case Tech II Outside - LDQ I UDQ II M. Halpern Control room G. McLennan Mobile to exterior of facility where needed S. Armentrout Control...Generation of Aerosols, 1980. 1 79. Work Breakdown Structure for Advanced Fire Fighter Trainer, Work Order AT-784, Advanced TechnologyI Systems

  9. Public Library Information and Referral Project, Phase II. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Thomas; Krauser, Cheri

    This study is the second of a two-phase survey of public library information and referral (I&R) service. In this phase, seven public libraries offering I&R services were studied in depth to provide descriptions of their operations, organizational factors, and the reactions of their users. Organizational factors and operations were studied through…

  10. Phase II clinical trials on Investigational drugs for the Treatment of Pancreatic Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Edward J.; Semrad, Thomas J.; Bold, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite some recent advances in treatment options, pancreatic cancer remains a devastating disease with poor outcomes. In a trend contrary to most malignancies, both incidence and mortality continue to rise due to pancreatic cancer. The majority of patients present with advanced disease and there are no treatment options for this stage that have demonstrated a median survival greater than 1 year. As the penultimate step prior to phase III studies involving hundreds of patients, phase II clinical trials provide an early opportunity to evaluate the efficacy of new treatments that are desperately needed for this disease. Areas Covered This review covers the results of published phase II clinical trials in advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma published within the past 5 years. The treatment results are framed in the context of the current standards of care and the historic challenge of predicting phase III success from phase II trial results. Expert opinion Promising therapies remain elusive in pancreatic cancer based on recent phase II clinical trial results. Optimization and standardization of clinical trial design in the phase II setting, with consistent incorporation of biomarkers, is needed to more accurately identify promising therapies that warrant phase III evaluation. PMID:25809274

  11. Functional design criteria for project W-252, phase II liquid effluent treatment and disposal. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, C.E.

    1995-05-01

    This document is the Functional Design Criteria for Project W-252. Project W-252 provides the scope to provide BAT/AKART (best available technology...) to 200 Liquid Effluent Phase II streams (B-Plant). This revision (Rev. 2) incorporates a major descoping of the project. The descoping was done to reflect a combination of budget cutting measures allowed by a less stringent regulatory posture toward the Phase II streams

  12. High-Lift Flight Tunnel - Phase II Report. Phase 2 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofftus, David; Lund, Thomas; Rote, Donald; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The High-Lift Flight Tunnel (HiLiFT) concept is a revolutionary approach to aerodynamic ground testing. This concept utilizes magnetic levitation and linear motors to propel an aerodynamic model through a tube containing a quiescent test medium. This medium (nitrogen) is cryogenic and pressurized to achieve full flight Reynolds numbers higher than any existing ground test facility world-wide for the range of 0.05 to 0.50 Mach. The results of the Phase II study provide excellent assurance that the HiLiFT concept will provide a valuable low-speed, high Reynolds number ground test facility. The design studies concluded that the HiLiFT facility is feasible to build and operate and the analytical studies revealed no insurmountable difficulties to realizing a practical high Reynolds number ground test facility. It was determined that a national HiLiFT facility, including development, would cost approximately $400M and could be operational by 2013 if fully funded. Study participants included National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center as the Program Manager and MSE Technology Applications, Inc., (MSE) of Butte, Montana as the prime contractor and study integrator. MSE#s subcontractors included the University of Texas at Arlington for aerodynamic analyses and the Argonne National Laboratory for magnetic levitation and linear motor technology support.

  13. Upgrades for the Project 8 Phase II Apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettus, Walter; Project 8 Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    Project 8 employs the Cyclotron Radiation Emission Spectroscopy (CRES) technique towards the ultimate goal of a high precision tritium endpoint measurement. Following the successful first demonstration of CRES, the collaboration has pursued a number of improvements to the apparatus and has recently commissioned its second phase. A new cell design and gas handling system will allow the first measurement of molecular tritium with this setup. New data acquisition systems have been implemented providing greater trigger flexibility and scalability towards future multi-antenna phases. We will highlight the hardware and instrumentation advances defining this new experimental phase of Project 8.

  14. Signal Processor for Unattended Radar (SPUR) Phase II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    Phase I effort and revised early in Phase 11, is described below. The results described in Section 4, Validation Results, are based on the reduced...Risks* Risk Reduction Approach Analog and A/D Processing Function . Automatic Testing and Calibration of Early Conversion to Digital Domain Processor...special importance. This risk has been minimized in the optimum SPUR by converting to the digital domain as early as possible and by specifying calibration

  15. Installation Restoration Program. Phase II. Confirmation/Quantification Stage I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-24

    level below ground: vmA Temp. Addres Fahr . * Teat delivery.: pm _________________________________or -- - r Pump’ _7 Ral= _ Owner’s...esapletLea Or abadomat Of the 11." W= OWEI is oft drlled ole: - Tota2- Ii-e ,1 . p of well: at ag wter lev below O-0 Temp. Fahr . M eat er...Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). In addition, UBTL is currently licensed by the Center for Disease Control (CDC) to perform

  16. Phase II Audit Report - Energy & Water Audits of LLNL Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Horst, B I; Jacobs, P C; Pierce, S M

    2005-08-03

    This report describes Phase II of a project conducted for the Mechanical Utilities Division (UTel), Energy Management Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) by Architectural Energy Corporation (AEC). The overall project covers energy efficiency and water conservation auditing services for 215 modular and prefabricated buildings at LLNL. The primary goal of this project is to demonstrate compliance with DOE Order 430.2A, Contractor Requirements Document section 2.d (2) Document, to demonstrate annual progress of at least 10 percent toward completing energy and water audits of all facilities. Although this project covers numerous buildings, they are all similar in design and use. The approach employed for completing audits for these facilities involves a ''model-similar building'' approach. In the model-similar building approach, similarities between groups of buildings are established and quantified. A model (or test case) building is selected and analyzed for each model-similar group using a detailed DOE-2 simulation. The results are extended to the group of similar buildings based on careful application of quantified similarities, or ''extension measures''. This approach leverages the relatively minor effort required to evaluate one building in some detail to a much larger population of similar buildings. The facility wide energy savings potential was calculated for a select set of measures that have reasonable payback based on the detailed building analysis and are otherwise desirable to the LLNL facilities staff. The selected measures are: (1) HVAC Tune-up. This is considered to be a ''core measure'', based on the energy savings opportunity and the impact on thermal comfort. All HVAC units in the study are assumed to be tuned up under this measure. See the Appendix for a detailed calculation by building and HVAC unit. (2) HVAC system scheduling. This is also considered to be a ''core measure'', based on the energy savings opportunity and

  17. Nickel (II) Oxide Solubility and Phase Stability in High Temperature Aqueous Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    SE Ziemniak; MA Goyette

    2004-06-17

    A platinum-lined, flowing autoclave facility was used to investigate the solubility behavior of nickel(II) oxide (NiO) in deoxygenated ammonium and sodium hydroxide solutions between 21 and 315 C. Solubilities were found to vary between 0.4 and 400 nmol kg{sup -1}. The measured nickel ion solubilities were interpreted via a Ni(II) ion hydroxo-and amino-complexing model and thermodynamic functions for these equilibria were obtained from a least-squares analysis of the data. Two solid phase transformations were observed: at temperatures below 149 C, the activity of Ni(II) ions in aqueous solution was controlled by a hydrous Ni(II) oxide (theophrastite) solid phase rather than anhydrous NiO (bunsenite); above 247 C, Ni(II) activities were controlled by cubic rather than rhombohedral bunsenite.

  18. SH-2F LAMPS Instructional Systems Development: Phase II. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Andrew S.; Hymes, Jonah P.

    This project was one of four aircrew training development projects in a continuing study of the methodology, effectiveness, and resource requirements of the Instructional Systems Development (ISD) process. This report covers the Phase II activities of a two-phase project for the development of aircrew training for SH-2F anti-submarine warfare…

  19. Proteomic comparison of phase I and II coxiella burnetii cells reveals potential virulence biomarkers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coxiella burnetii, a category B biological warfare agent, causes several worldwide outbreaks of zoonotic disease each year. In order to identify C. burnetii virulence factors, the virulent phase I and avirulent phase II variants of the Nine Mile RSA strains, were propagated in embryonated hen eggs ...

  20. Implementation of a Proficiency-Based Diploma System in Maine: Phase II--District Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvernail, David L.; Stump, Erika K.; McCafferty, Anita Stewart; Hawes, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the findings from Phase II of a study of Maine's implementation of a proficiency-based diploma system. At the request of the Joint Standing Committee on Education and Cultural Affairs of the Maine Legislature, the Maine Policy Research Institute (MEPRI) has conducted a two-phased study of the implementation of Maine law…

  1. 40 CFR 76.8 - Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.8 Early election for Group 1... plan and: (i) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at which the unit is located has been... chapter to include the early election plan; or (ii) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source...

  2. 40 CFR 76.8 - Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.8 Early election for Group 1... plan and: (i) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at which the unit is located has been... chapter to include the early election plan; or (ii) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source...

  3. 40 CFR 76.8 - Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.8 Early election for Group 1... plan and: (i) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at which the unit is located has been... chapter to include the early election plan; or (ii) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source...

  4. 40 CFR 76.8 - Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.8 Early election for Group 1... plan and: (i) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at which the unit is located has been... chapter to include the early election plan; or (ii) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source...

  5. 40 CFR 76.8 - Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.8 Early election for Group 1... plan and: (i) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at which the unit is located has been... chapter to include the early election plan; or (ii) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source...

  6. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM LANDFILL GAS: PHASE II. PRETREATMENT SYSTEM PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes Phase II of a demonstration of the utilization of commercial phosphoric acid fuel cells to recover energy from landfill gas. This phase consisted primarily of the construction and testing of a Gas Pretreatment Unit (GPU) whose function is to remove those impu...

  7. An Experimental Evaluation of Hyperactivity and Food Additives. 1977-Phase II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, J. Preston; And Others

    Phase II of a study on the effectiveness of B. Feingold's recommended diet for hyperactive children involved the nine children (mean age 9 years) who had shown the "best" response to diet manipulation in Phase I. Each child served as his own control and was challenged with specified amounts of placebo and artificial color containing food…

  8. Nematogenic Aromatic Block Copolymers of Rigid and Flexible Units. II. Phase Equilibria.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-06

    Phase Equilibria 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) -W_ R_ Krinhaum- 7- Shuf~in-. Prpdnn- A (’ifiarri anri r. rnnin 13a 1,TAPOF -EPORT 113b TIME COVERED 14. DATE...and Flexible Units. II. Phase Equilibria by W. R. Krigbaum, Z. Shufan, Jack Preston, A. Ciferri and G. Conio q Prepared for Publication in the

  9. The STAR beam energy scan phase II physics and upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Videbaek, Flemming; STAR Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The second phase of the Beam Energy Scan at RHIC will occur in 2019-2020 and will explore with precision measurements in the part of the QCD phase diagram where baryon densities are high. The program will examine energy regime of interest and turn the trends observed in phase-I into conclusions. This will be discussed in context of some of the key measurements, kurtosis of net-protons that could pinpoint the position of a critical point, measurements of directed flow of baryons vs. energy that might prove a softening of the EOS , and chiral restoration in the di-lepton channel. The measurements will be possible with an order of magnitude better statistics thanks to the electron cooling upgrade of RHIC, and the addition of the iTPC, Event Plane, and endcap TOF upgrades to STAR. Office of Nuclear Physics within the U.S. DOE Office of Science.

  10. Grassmann phase space methods for fermions. II. Field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, B. J.; Jeffers, J.; Barnett, S. M.

    2017-02-01

    In both quantum optics and cold atom physics, the behaviour of bosonic photons and atoms is often treated using phase space methods, where mode annihilation and creation operators are represented by c-number phase space variables, with the density operator equivalent to a distribution function of these variables. The anti-commutation rules for fermion annihilation, creation operators suggests the possibility of using anti-commuting Grassmann variables to represent these operators. However, in spite of the seminal work by Cahill and Glauber and a few applications, the use of Grassmann phase space methods in quantum-atom optics to treat fermionic systems is rather rare, though fermion coherent states using Grassmann variables are widely used in particle physics. This paper presents a phase space theory for fermion systems based on distribution functionals, which replace the density operator and involve Grassmann fields representing anti-commuting fermion field annihilation, creation operators. It is an extension of a previous phase space theory paper for fermions (Paper I) based on separate modes, in which the density operator is replaced by a distribution function depending on Grassmann phase space variables which represent the mode annihilation and creation operators. This further development of the theory is important for the situation when large numbers of fermions are involved, resulting in too many modes to treat separately. Here Grassmann fields, distribution functionals, functional Fokker-Planck equations and Ito stochastic field equations are involved. Typical applications to a trapped Fermi gas of interacting spin 1/2 fermionic atoms and to multi-component Fermi gases with non-zero range interactions are presented, showing that the Ito stochastic field equations are local in these cases. For the spin 1/2 case we also show how simple solutions can be obtained both for the untrapped case and for an optical lattice trapping potential.

  11. Phase relations between total solar irradiance and the Mg II index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K. J.; Xu, J. C.; Xiang, N. B.; Feng, W.

    2016-01-01

    The Mg II index is usually used to represent the brightening contribution to total solar irradiance (TSI) by solar bright structures, such as faculae and network. In order to understand variations of TSI, phase relations of TSI and the chromospheric Mg II index is investigated on time-scales of one year and longer. The NOAA daily Mg II index at the time interval of November 17, 1978-October 24, 2007 is utilized to carry out correlation analyses respectively with the daily ACRIM and PMOD composites of TSI. The Mg II index is found to lead TSI by about one solar rotation period for time-scales of one year and longer. Correlation of TSI with the Mg II index on the time-scale of one year is sometimes significantly positive, sometimes statistically insignificant, and sometimes even significantly negative. When sunspot darkening is dominant, the correlation between TSI and Mg II is either negative or not significant. When TSI is backward shifted vs the Mg II index by about one rotation period, correlation between them becomes significantly positive in all years. Thus, it is after about one rotation period that a more prominent intensification is inferred to be contributed to TSI than that immediately, by bright constructions, which is represented by the Mg II index. We propose an explanation for the phase relationship of TSI and the Mg II index.

  12. Evaluation in Adult Literacy Research. Project ALERT. Phase II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntiri, Daphne Williams, Ed.

    This document contains an evaluation handbook for adult literacy programs and feedback from/regarding the evaluation instruments developed during the project titled Adult Literacy and Evaluation Research Team (also known as Project ALERT), a two-phase project initiated by the Detroit Literacy Coalition (DLC) for the purpose of developing and…

  13. Window Treatment Phase I and Other Energy II Conservation Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Philip E.

    Six different energy-saving treatments for large window areas were tested by Tompkins-Cortland Community College (TCCC) to coordinate energy saving with building design. The TCCC building has an open space design with 33,000 square feet of external glass and other features causing heating problems and high energy costs. Phase I of the…

  14. Design of a Rotatable Copper Collimator for the LHC Phase II Collimation Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jeffrey Claiborne; Doyle, Eric; Keller, Lewis; Lundgren, Steven; Markiewicz, Thomas Walter; Lari, Luisella; /LPHE, Lausanne

    2010-02-15

    The Phase II upgrade to the LHC collimation system calls for complementing the robust Phase I graphite collimators with high Z, low impedance Phase II collimators. The design for the collimation upgrade has not been finalized. One option is to use metallic rotatable collimators and this design will be discussed here. The Phase II collimators must be robust in various operating conditions and accident scenarios. Design issues include: (1) Collimator jaw deflection and sagitta due to heating must be small when operated in the steady state condition, (2) Collimator jaws must withstand transitory periods of high beam impaction with no permanent damage, (3) Jaws must recover from accident scenario where up to 8 full intensity beam pulses impact on the jaw surface and (4) The beam impedance contribution due to the collimators must be small to minimize coherent beam instabilities.

  15. Maximizing return on socioeconomic investment in phase II proof-of-concept trials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cong; Beckman, Robert A

    2014-04-01

    Phase II proof-of-concept (POC) trials play a key role in oncology drug development, determining which therapeutic hypotheses will undergo definitive phase III testing according to predefined Go-No Go (GNG) criteria. The number of possible POC hypotheses likely far exceeds available public or private resources. We propose a design strategy for maximizing return on socioeconomic investment in phase II trials that obtains the greatest knowledge with the minimum patient exposure. We compare efficiency using the benefit-cost ratio, defined to be the risk-adjusted number of truly active drugs correctly identified for phase III development divided by the risk-adjusted total sample size in phase II and III development, for different POC trial sizes, powering schemes, and associated GNG criteria. It is most cost-effective to conduct small POC trials and set the corresponding GNG bars high, so that more POC trials can be conducted under socioeconomic constraints. If δ is the minimum treatment effect size of clinical interest in phase II, the study design with the highest benefit-cost ratio has approximately 5% type I error rate and approximately 20% type II error rate (80% power) for detecting an effect size of approximately 1.5δ. A Go decision to phase III is made when the observed effect size is close to δ. With the phenomenal expansion of our knowledge in molecular biology leading to an unprecedented number of new oncology drug targets, conducting more small POC trials and setting high GNG bars maximize the return on socioeconomic investment in phase II POC trials.

  16. A new approach for simultaneous determination of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pd(II) using 2-thiophenaldehyde-3-thiosemicarbazone as reagent by solid phase microextraction-high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Varinder; Aulakh, Jatinder Singh; Malik, Ashok Kumar

    2007-11-05

    A new method is proposed herein for the sorption, separation and simultaneous determination of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pd(II) using 2-thiophenaldehyde-3-thiosemicarbazone (TPTS) as a reagent by solid phase microextraction-high performance liquid chromatography-UV detection. The method is based upon the sorption of metal complexes on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber from aqueous solution followed by desorption in the desorption chamber of solid phase microextraction-high performance liquid chromatography (SPME-HPLC) interface. Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography using acetonitrile:water (65:35) as an eluent on a C18 column has been used to achieve the separation. The effects of agitation, addition of salts, extraction time and desorption time are examined to obtain optimized conditions. The detection limits for Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pd(II) are 9, 6, 1 and 7 ng L(-1) based on 3sigma of blank response. The precision is calculated to be less than 3.5% (R.S.D.) for all species. A 10 time enhancement in the signal is observed for SPME when compared with direct analysis. The method is successfully applied to several synthetic mixtures without interference from other common metal ions such as Mo(VI), V(V), Ag(I), Sn(IV), Cd(II), Zn(II), Pb(II), Cr(III) and Cr(VI). The proposed method is tested for the determination of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pd(II) in alloys and water samples spiked with these metal ions.

  17. Technical Analysis of the Hydrogen Energy Station Concept, Phase I and Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    TIAX, LLC

    2005-05-04

    patterns would be most viable for an energy station, TIAX developed several criteria for selecting a representative set of technology configurations. TIAX applied these criteria to all possible technology configurations to determine an optimized set for further analysis, as shown in Table ES-1. This analysis also considered potential energy station operational scenarios and their impact upon hydrogen and power production. For example, an energy station with a 50-kWe reformer could generate enough hydrogen to serve up to 12 vehicles/day (at 5 kg/fill) or generate up to 1,200 kWh/day, as shown in Figure ES-1. Buildings that would be well suited for an energy station would utilize both the thermal and electrical output of the station. Optimizing the generation and utilization of thermal energy, hydrogen, and electricity requires a detailed look at the energy transfer within the energy station and the transfer between the station and nearby facilities. TIAX selected the Baseline configuration given in Table ES-1 for an initial analysis of the energy and mass transfer expected from an operating energy station. Phase II The purpose of this technical analysis was to analyze the development of a hydrogen-dispensing infrastructure for transportation applications through the installation of a 50-75 kW stationary fuel cell-based energy station at federal building sites. The various scenarios, costs, designs and impacts of such a station were quantified for a hypothetical cost-shared program that utilizes a natural gas reformer to provide hydrogen fuel for both the stack(s) and a limited number of fuel cell powered vehicles, with the possibility of using cogeneration to support the building heat load.

  18. Phase transitions in tumor growth: II prostate cancer cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llanos-Pérez, J. A.; Betancourt-Mar, A.; De Miguel, M. P.; Izquierdo-Kulich, E.; Royuela-García, M.; Tejera, E.; Nieto-Villar, J. M.

    2015-05-01

    We propose a mechanism for prostate cancer cell lines growth, LNCaP and PC3 based on a Gompertz dynamics. This growth exhibits a multifractal behavior and a "second order" phase transition. Finally, it was found that the cellular line PC3 exhibits a higher value of entropy production rate compared to LNCaP, which is indicative of the robustness of PC3, over to LNCaP and may be a quantitative index of metastatic potential tumors.

  19. Parasite Lactate Dehydrogenase for Diagnosis of Plasmodium Falciparum. Phase II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-04-01

    Diagnosis of Plasmodium Falciparum PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Robert C. Piper, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Flow, Incorporated Portland, Oregon 97201...Phase 11 (24 Mar 95 - 23 Mar 97) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Parasite Lactate Dehydrogenase for Diagnosis of Plasmodium Falciparum DAMD...that infected patients become ill. Four species of Plasmodium infect humans. P. falciparum accounts for -85 % of the world’s malaria. P. falciparum is

  20. Archaeological Investigations in the Upper Tombigbee Valley, Mississippi: Phase II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    previous year. Stripping allowed quick access to a cemented manganese | stratum which effectively sealed the Early Archaic component beneath it. A...I investigators (IV; Bense 1982: Chapter 10, * Figure 10.6), and judged to contain the sealed , intact early Archaic cultural deposits. During the...phase. Feature 4: a historic trash dumping area near what had been the southwest area of the ’old house. Mixed in with plastic, glass , nails, crockery

  1. Phase-space structures - II. Hierarchical Structure Finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, M.; Colombi, S.; Springel, V.; Alard, C.; Bouchet, F. R.

    2009-07-01

    A new multidimensional Hierarchical Structure Finder (HSF) to study the phase-space structure of dark matter in N-body cosmological simulations is presented. The algorithm depends mainly on two parameters, which control the level of connectivity of the detected structures and their significance compared to Poisson noise. By working in six-dimensional phase space, where contrasts are much more pronounced than in three-dimensional (3D) position space, our HSF algorithm is capable of detecting subhaloes including their tidal tails, and can recognize other phase-space structures such as pure streams and candidate caustics. If an additional unbinding criterion is added, the algorithm can be used as a self-consistent halo and subhalo finder. As a test, we apply it to a large halo of the Millennium Simulation, where 19 per cent of the halo mass is found to belong to bound substructures, which is more than what is detected with conventional 3D substructure finders, and an additional 23-36 per cent of the total mass belongs to unbound HSF structures. The distribution of identified phase-space density peaks is clearly bimodal: high peaks are dominated by the bound structures and show a small spread in their height distribution; low peaks belong mostly to tidal streams, as expected. However, the projected (3D) density distribution of the structures shows that some of the streams can have comparable density to the bound structures in position space. In order to better understand what HSF provides, we examine the time evolution of structures, based on the merger tree history. Given the resolution limit of the Millennium Simulation, bound structures typically make only up to six orbits inside the main halo. The number of orbits scales approximately linearly with the redshift corresponding to the moment of merging of the structures with the halo. At fixed redshift, the larger the initial mass of the structure which enters the main halo, the faster it loses mass. The difference in

  2. Investigation of high velocity separator for particle removal in coal gasification plants. Phase II report

    SciTech Connect

    Linhardt, H.D.

    1980-01-15

    This report summarizes the results of Phase II of the High Velocity Particle Separator Program performed under Contract EF-77-C-01-2709. This high velocity wedge separator has the potential to reduce equipment size and cost of high temperature and pressurized particulate removal equipment for coal derived gases. Phase II has been directed toward testing and detailed conceptual design of an element suitable for a commercial scale high temperature, high pressure particle separator (HTPS). Concurrently, Phase IA has been conducted, which utilized the ambient analog method (AAM) for aerodynamic and collection performance investigation of each HTPS configuration prior and during hot testing. This report summarizes the results of Phase IA and II. The AAM effort established correlation of theoretical analysis and experiment for HTPS pressure drop, purge flow ratio and collection efficiency potential. Task I defined the initial test conditions to be the contract design point of 1800/sup 0/F and 350 psia. The 1800/sup 0/F, 350 psia testing represents the main high temperature testing with coal-derived particulates in the 2 to 10 micron range. Phase IA and Phase II have demonstrated efficient particle collection with acceptable pressure drop. In view of these encouraging results, it is reasonable to apply the developed technology toward future hot gas particulate cleanup requirements.

  3. Optical spectroscopic and reverse-phase HPLC analyses of Hg(II) binding to phytochelatins.

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, R K; Miclat, J; Kodati, V R; Abdullah, R; Hunter, T C; Mulchandani, P

    1996-01-01

    Optical spectroscopy and reverse-phase HPLC were used to investigate the binding of Hg(II) to plant metal-binding peptides (phytochelatins) with the structure (gammaGlu-Cys)2Gly, (gammaGlu-Cys)3Gly and (gammaGlu-Cys)4Gly. Glutathione-mediated transfer of Hg(II) into phytochelatins and the transfer of the metal ion from one phytochelatin to another was also studied using reverse-phase HPLC. The saturation of Hg(II)-induced bands in the UV/visible and CD spectra of (gammaGlu-Cys)2Gly suggested the formation of a single Hg(II)-binding species of this peptide with a stoichiometry of one metal ion per peptide molecule. The separation of apo-(gammaGlu-Cys)2Gly from its Hg(II) derivative on a C18 reverse-phase column also indicated the same metal-binding stoichiometry. The UV/visible spectra of both (gammaGlu-Cys)3Gly and (gammaGlu-Cys)4Gly at pH 7.4 showed distinct shoulders in the ligand-to-metal charge-transfer region at 280-290 mm. Two distinct Hg(II)-binding species, occurring at metal-binding stoichiometries of around 1.25 and 2.0 Hg(II) ions per peptide molecule, were observed for (gammaGlu-Cys)3Gly. These species exhibited specific spectral features in the charge-transfer region and were separable by HPLC. Similarly, two main Hg(II)-binding species of (gammaGlu-Cys)4Gly were observed by UV/visible and CD spectroscopy at metal-binding stoichiometries of around 1.25 and 2.5 respectively. Only a single peak of Hg(II)-(gammaGlu-Cys)4Gly complexes was resolved under the conditions used for HPLC. The overall Hg(II)-binding stoichiometries of phytochelatins were similar at pH 2.0 and at pH 7.4, indicating that pH did not influence the final Hg(II)-binding capacity of these peptides. The reverse-phase HPLC assays indicated a rapid transfer of Hg(II) from glutathione to phytochelatins. These assays also demonstrated a facile transfer of the metal ion from shorter- to longer-chain phytochelatins. The strength of Hg(II) binding to glutathione and phytochelatins followed the

  4. Comparing two tetraalkylammonium ionic liquids. II. Phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Thamires A.; Paschoal, Vitor H.; Faria, Luiz F. O.; Ribeiro, Mauro C. C.; Ferreira, Fabio F.; Costa, Fanny N.; Giles, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Phase transitions of the ionic liquids n-butyl-trimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [N1114][NTf2], and methyl-tributylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [N1444][NTf2], were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, and Raman spectroscopy. XRD and Raman spectra were obtained as a function of temperature at atmospheric pressure, and also under high pressure at room temperature using a diamond anvil cell (DAC). [N1444][NTf2] experiences glass transition at low temperature, whereas [N1114][NTf2] crystallizes or not depending on the cooling rate. Both the ionic liquids exhibit glass transition under high pressure. XRD and low-frequency Raman spectra provide a consistent physical picture of structural ordering-disordering accompanying the thermal events of crystallization, glass transition, cold crystallization, pre-melting, and melting. Raman spectra in the high-frequency range of some specific cation and anion normal modes reveal conformational changes of the molecular structures along phase transitions.

  5. Comparing two tetraalkylammonium ionic liquids. II. Phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Lima, Thamires A; Paschoal, Vitor H; Faria, Luiz F O; Ribeiro, Mauro C C; Ferreira, Fabio F; Costa, Fanny N; Giles, Carlos

    2016-06-14

    Phase transitions of the ionic liquids n-butyl-trimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [N1114][NTf2], and methyl-tributylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [N1444][NTf2], were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, and Raman spectroscopy. XRD and Raman spectra were obtained as a function of temperature at atmospheric pressure, and also under high pressure at room temperature using a diamond anvil cell (DAC). [N1444][NTf2] experiences glass transition at low temperature, whereas [N1114][NTf2] crystallizes or not depending on the cooling rate. Both the ionic liquids exhibit glass transition under high pressure. XRD and low-frequency Raman spectra provide a consistent physical picture of structural ordering-disordering accompanying the thermal events of crystallization, glass transition, cold crystallization, pre-melting, and melting. Raman spectra in the high-frequency range of some specific cation and anion normal modes reveal conformational changes of the molecular structures along phase transitions.

  6. Measured Sensitivity of the First Mark II Phased Array Feed on an ASKAP Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chippendale, A. P.; Brown, A. J.; Beresford, R. J.; Hampson, G. A.; Macleod, A.; Shaw, R. D.; Brothers, M. L.; Cantrall, C.; Forsyth, A. R.; Hay, S. G.; Leach, M.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the measured sensitivity of CSIRO's first Mk. II phased array feed (PAF) on an ASKAP antenna. The Mk. II achieves a minimum system-temperature-over-efficiency T_{sys}/η of 78 K at 1.23 GHz and is 95 K or better from 835 MHz to 1.8 GHz. This PAF was designed for the Australian SKA Pathfinder telescope to demonstrate fast astronomical surveys with a wide field of view for the Square Kilometre Array (SKA).

  7. Hope-X high speed flight demonstration program phase II - a CNES/NAL/NASDA cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venel, S.; Faucon, P.; Yanagihara, M.; Miyazawa, Y.; Akimoto, T.; Sagisaka, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the frame of its cooperation with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), the CNES French Space Agency takes part in the High Speed Flight Demonstration (HSFD) Phase II. The HSFD program is planned as part of the National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL) and NASDA joint research for the H-II Orbiting Plane Experiment (HOPE-X), an unmanned re-entry vehicle project. The program consists of two phases, and the purpose of HSFD Phase II is to estimate the HOPE-X transonic aerodynamic characteristics: a sub-scaled vehicle will be lifted to high altitude by a stratospheric balloon, from where it will be released and will accelerate into free fall to transonic region. The CNES Balloon Division is responsible for the balloon system, the launch operation, and the recovery of the vehicle after touch down. Six flights are planned between May and August 2003.

  8. Using Satellite Observations to Evaluate the AeroCOM Volcanic Emissions Inventory and the Dispersal of Volcanic SO2 Clouds in MERRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Eric J.; Krotkov, Nickolay; da Silva, Arlindo; Colarco, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Simulation of volcanic emissions in climate models requires information that describes the eruption of the emissions into the atmosphere. While the total amount of gases and aerosols released from a volcanic eruption can be readily estimated from satellite observations, information about the source parameters, like injection altitude, eruption time and duration, is often not directly known. The AeroCOM volcanic emissions inventory provides estimates of eruption source parameters and has been used to initialize volcanic emissions in reanalysis projects, like MERRA. The AeroCOM volcanic emission inventory provides an eruptions daily SO2 flux and plume top altitude, yet an eruption can be very short lived, lasting only a few hours, and emit clouds at multiple altitudes. Case studies comparing the satellite observed dispersal of volcanic SO2 clouds to simulations in MERRA have shown mixed results. Some cases show good agreement with observations Okmok (2008), while for other eruptions the observed initial SO2 mass is half of that in the simulations, Sierra Negra (2005). In other cases, the initial SO2 amount agrees with the observations but shows very different dispersal rates, Soufriere Hills (2006). In the aviation hazards community, deriving accurate source terms is crucial for monitoring and short-term forecasting (24-h) of volcanic clouds. Back trajectory methods have been developed which use satellite observations and transport models to estimate the injection altitude, eruption time, and eruption duration of observed volcanic clouds. These methods can provide eruption timing estimates on a 2-hour temporal resolution and estimate the altitude and depth of a volcanic cloud. To better understand the differences between MERRA simulations and volcanic SO2 observations, back trajectory methods are used to estimate the source term parameters for a few volcanic eruptions and compared to their corresponding entry in the AeroCOM volcanic emission inventory. The nature of

  9. Project 8 Phase II: Improved beta decay electrons reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guigue, Mathieu; Project 8 Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Project 8 collaboration aims to measure the absolute neutrino mass scale using a cyclotron radiation emission spectroscopy technique on the beta decays of tritium. The second phase of the project will measure a differential spectrum of tritium beta decays and extract the tritium endpoint value with an eV or sub-eV scale precision. Monoenergetic electrons emitted by gaseous 83mKr atoms can be used to determine the coefficient between the cyclotron frequency and the electron energy and to optimize the instrument configuration for the tritium measurement. We present the progress on the processing of the electron cyclotron radiation signal to reconstruct the beta decay spectrum of krypton and tritium.

  10. Phase Equilibria and Transition in Mixtures of a Homopolymer and a Block Copolymer. II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-26

    AD-A124 929 PHASE EQUILIBRIA AND TRANSITION IN MIXTURES OF A In- NOMOPOLYMER AND’A BLOCK..(U) CINCINNATI UNJY ON DEPT OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND...REPORT NO. 7 v2 L Phase Equilibria and Transition in Mixtures of a Homopolymer and a Block Copolymer II. The Phase Diagram by R. J. Roe and W. C. Zin...homopolymers as in our systems. The phase equilibria at temperatures above the "pseudo-triple point" BCD can be interpreted in terms of the free energy of

  11. LYSIS OF T4 PHAGE BY THE SPECIFIC LIPOCARBOHYDRATE OF PHASE II SHIGELLA SONNEI

    PubMed Central

    Jesaitis, Margeris A.; Goebel, Walther F.

    1955-01-01

    When the specific lipocarbohydrate of Phase II Sh. sonnei and T4 phage react in vitro, the virus is rapidly inactivated and the content of the viral membrane is released into the surrounding medium. The reaction between phage and lipocarbohydrate proceeds only in the presence of a lipide constituent which can be extracted from the polysaccharide, rendering the latter inactive, and which can be replaced by certain fatty acids. It has been suggested that the lipocarbohydrate is the receptor substance of the Phase II bacillus which specifically combines with and brings about disintegration of the virus when the latter infects the host cell. PMID:13271686

  12. RadSTraM: Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring, Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Tracy A; Walker, Randy M; Hill, David E; Gross, Ian G; Smith, Cyrus M; Abercrombie, Robert K

    2008-12-01

    This report focuses on the technical information gained from the Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring (RadSTraM) Phase II investigation and its implications. The intent of the RadSTraM project was to determine the feasibility of tracking radioactive materials in commerce, particularly International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Category 3 and 4 materials. Specifically, Phase II of the project addressed tracking radiological medical isotopes in commerce. These categories of materials are susceptible to loss or theft but the problem is not being addressed by other agencies.

  13. OCCIDENTAL VERTICAL MODIFIED IN SITU PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF OIL FROM OIL SHALE. PHASE II

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Reid M.

    1980-09-01

    The progress presented in this report covers the period June 1, 1980 through August 31, 1980 under the work scope for.Phase II of the DOE/Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. (OOSI) Cooperative Agreement. The major activities at OOSI 1s Logan Wash site during the quarter were: mining the voids at all levels for Retorts 7, 8 and 8x; completing Mini-Retort (MR) construction; continuing surface facility construction; tracer testing the MR 1 s; conducting Retorts 7 & 8 related Rock Fragmentation tests; setting up and debugging the Sandia B-61 trailer; and preparing the Phase II instrumentation plan.

  14. Reversible Boolean networks. II. Phase transitions, oscillations, and local structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppersmith, S. N.; Kadanoff, Leo P.; Zhang, Zhitong

    2001-09-01

    We continue our consideration of a class of models describing the reversible dynamics of N Boolean variables, each with K inputs. We investigate in detail the behavior of the Hamming distance as well as of the distribution of orbit lengths as N and K are varied. We present numerical evidence for a phase transition in the behavior of the Hamming distance at a critical value Kc≈1.62 and also an analytic theory that yields the exact bounds 1.5< Kc<2. We also discuss the large oscillations that we observe in the Hamming distance for K< Kc as a function of time as well as in the distribution of cycle lengths as a function of cycle length for moderate K both greater than and less than Kc. We propose that local structures, or subsets of spins whose dynamics are not fully coupled to the other spins in the system, play a crucial role in generating these oscillations. The simplest of these structures are linear chains, called linkages, and rings, called circuits. We discuss the properties of the linkages in some detail, and sketch the properties of circuits. We argue that the observed oscillation phenomena can be largely understood in terms of these local structures.

  15. MHD coal combustor technology. Final report, phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The design, performance, and testing of a 20-MW coal combustor for scaleup to 50 MW for use in an MHD generator are described. The design incorporates the following key features: (1) a two-stage combustor with an intermediate slag separator to remove slag at a low temperture, thus minimizing enthalpy losses required for heating and vaporizing the slag; (2) a first-stage pentad (four air streams impinging on one coal stream) injector design with demonstrated efficient mixing, promoting high carbon burnout; (3) a two-section first-stage combustion chamber; the first stage using a thin slag-protected refractory layer and the second section using a thick refractory layer, both to minimize heat losses; (4) a refractory lining in the slag separator to minimize heat losses; (5) a second-stage combustor, which provided both de-swirl of the combustion products exiting from the slag separator and simple mixing of the vitiated secondary air and seed; (6) a dense-phase coal feed system to minimize cold carrier gas entering the first-stage combustors; (7) a dry seed injection system using pulverized K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ with a 1% amorphous, fumed silicon dioxide additive to enhance flowability, resulting in rapid vaporization and ionization and ensuring maximum performance; and (8) a performance evaluation module (PEM) of rugged design based on an existing, successfully-fired unit. (WHK)

  16. Application of Bayesian hierarchical models for phase I/II clinical trials in oncology.

    PubMed

    Yada, Shinjo; Hamada, Chikuma

    2017-03-01

    Treatment during cancer clinical trials sometimes involves the combination of multiple drugs. In addition, in recent years there has been a trend toward phase I/II trials in which a phase I and a phase II trial are combined into a single trial to accelerate drug development. Methods for the seamless combination of phases I and II parts are currently under investigation. In the phase II part, adaptive randomization on the basis of patient efficacy outcomes allocates more patients to the dose combinations considered to have higher efficacy. Patient toxicity outcomes are used for determining admissibility to each dose combination and are not used for selection of the dose combination itself. In cases where the objective is not to find the optimum dose combination solely for efficacy but regarding both toxicity and efficacy, the need exists to allocate patients to dose combinations with consideration of the balance of existing trade-offs between toxicity and efficacy. We propose a Bayesian hierarchical model and an adaptive randomization with consideration for the relationship with toxicity and efficacy. Using the toxicity and efficacy outcomes of patients, the Bayesian hierarchical model is used to estimate the toxicity probability and efficacy probability in each of the dose combinations. Here, we use Bayesian moving-reference adaptive randomization on the basis of desirability computed from the obtained estimator. Computer simulations suggest that the proposed method will likely recommend a higher percentage of target dose combinations than a previously proposed method.

  17. Design of Training Systems, Phase I Final Report Appendices, Volume II of II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellamy, Harold J.; And Others

    A series of five appendixes presents details related to Phase I of the three-stage project "Design of Training Systems" (DOTS). The first appendix discusses strategic assumptions and processes, while the second reviews mathematical models and data bases operational within the navel education and training command. The third appendix…

  18. Measured aperture-array noise temperature of the Mark II phased array feed for ASKAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chippendale, A. P.; Brown, A. J.; Beresford, R. J.; Hampson, G. A.; Shaw, R. D.; Hayman, D. B.; Macleod, A.; Forsyth, A. R.; Hay, S. G.; Leach, M.; Cantrall, C.; Brothers, M. L.; Hotan, A. W.

    2015-11-01

    We have measured the aperture-array noise temperature of the first Mk. II phased array feed that CSIRO has built for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. As an aperture array, the Mk. II phased array feed achieves a beam equivalent noise temperature less than 40 K from 0.78 GHz to 1.7 GHz and less than 50 K from 0.7 GHz to 1.8 GHz for a boresight beam directed at the zenith. We believe these are the lowest reported noise temperatures over these frequency ranges for ambient-temperature phased arrays. The measured noise temperature includes receiver electronics noise, ohmic losses in the array, and stray radiation from sidelobes illuminating the sky and ground away from the desired field of view. This phased array feed was designed for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder to demonstrate fast astronomical surveys with a wide field of view for the Square Kilometre Array.

  19. Defense Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR). Abstracts of Phase II Awards. 1985.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    TiXAl WITH NIOBIUM (Nb) AND ERBIUM (Er) DIPERSOIDS, WERE SUCCESSFULLY PRODUCED IN A PHASE I SBIR PROGRAM USING THE AlTi-OXY PROCESS. PHASE II WORK WILL... SILICIDES : NEW SILICON COMPATIBLE ELECTRO-OPTIC MATERIALS TOPIC: 3 OFFICE: DARPA THE GOAL OF THIS WORK IS TO OBTAIN SINGLE CRYSTAL FILMS OF SEMI...ST - STE 305 MORRISTOWN, NJ 07960 DR MURRAY S COHEN TITLE: USE OF EXPANDING MONOMER COMPOSITIONS FOR AIRCRAFT - TRANSPARENCY COATINGS • TOPIC: 45

  20. Specific threonine-4 phosphorylation and function of RNA polymerase II CTD during M phase progression

    PubMed Central

    Hintermair, Corinna; Voß, Kirsten; Forné, Ignasi; Heidemann, Martin; Flatley, Andrew; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Imhof, Axel; Eick, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic phosphorylation of Tyr1-Ser2-Pro3-Thr4-Ser5-Pro6-Ser7 heptad-repeats in the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the large subunit coordinates progression of RNA polymerase (Pol) II through the transcription cycle. Here, we describe an M phase-specific form of Pol II phosphorylated at Thr4, but not at Tyr1, Ser2, Ser5, and Ser7 residues. Thr4 phosphorylated Pol II binds to centrosomes and midbody and interacts with the Thr4-specific Polo-like kinase 1. Binding of Pol II to centrosomes does not require the CTD but may involve subunits of the non-canonical R2TP-Prefoldin-like complex, which bind to and co-localize with Pol II at centrosomes. CTD Thr4 mutants, but not Ser2 and Ser5 mutants, display severe mitosis and cytokinesis defects characterized by multipolar spindles and polyploid cells. We conclude that proper M phase progression of cells requires binding of Pol II to centrosomes to facilitate regulation of mitosis and cytokinesis in a CTD Thr4-P dependent manner. PMID:27264542

  1. 78 FR 8184 - DEEPWATER HORIZON Oil Spill; Final Phase II Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... Department of Environmental Protection and Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission; and For the State of... DEEPWATER HORIZON Oil Spill; Final Phase II Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Review AGENCY: Interior... (OPA), the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and the Framework Agreement for Early...

  2. 40 CFR 76.7 - Revised NOX emission limitations for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revised NOX emission limitations for Group 1, Phase II boilers. 76.7 Section 76.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.7 Revised...

  3. 40 CFR 76.7 - Revised NOX emission limitations for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Revised NOX emission limitations for Group 1, Phase II boilers. 76.7 Section 76.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.7 Revised...

  4. 40 CFR 76.7 - Revised NOX emission limitations for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Revised NOX emission limitations for Group 1, Phase II boilers. 76.7 Section 76.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.7 Revised...

  5. 40 CFR 76.7 - Revised NOX emission limitations for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Revised NOX emission limitations for Group 1, Phase II boilers. 76.7 Section 76.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.7 Revised...

  6. 40 CFR 76.7 - Revised NOX emission limitations for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Revised NOX emission limitations for Group 1, Phase II boilers. 76.7 Section 76.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.7 Revised...

  7. Washington Phase II Fish Diversion Screen Evaluations in the Yakima River Basin, 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, S.L.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Neitzel, D.A.

    1999-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 19 Phase II screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. The sites were examined to determine if they were being effectively operated and maintained to provide fish a safe, efficient return to the Yakima River.

  8. Emotional Intelligence and Implications for Counseling Self-Efficacy: Phase II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easton, Crystal; Martin, William E.; Wilson, Sheilah

    2008-01-01

    The authors present Phase II of a 9-month study of the relationship between emotional intelligence and counseling self-efficacy. One-hundred eighteen counselors-in-training and professional counselors completed the Counseling Self-Estimate Inventory (COSE) and Emotional Judgment Inventory (EJI). There was a significant correlation between 2 of the…

  9. Upregulation of phase II enzymes through phytochemical activation of Nrf2 protects cardiomyocytes against oxidant stress.

    PubMed

    Reuland, Danielle J; Khademi, Shadi; Castle, Christopher J; Irwin, David C; McCord, Joe M; Miller, Benjamin F; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2013-03-01

    Increased production of reactive oxygen species has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and enhanced endogenous antioxidants have been proposed as a mechanism for regulating redox balance. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a transcriptional regulator of phase II antioxidant enzymes, and activation of Nrf2 has been suggested to be an important step in attenuating oxidative stress associated with CVD. A well-defined combination of five widely studied medicinal plants derived from botanical sources (Bacopa monniera, Silybum marianum (milk thistle), Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), Camellia sinensis (green tea), and Curcuma longa (turmeric)) has been shown to activate Nrf2 and induce phase II enzymes through the antioxidant response element. The purpose of these experiments was to determine if treatment of cardiomyocytes with this phytochemical composition, marketed as Protandim, activates Nrf2, induces phase II detoxification enzymes, and protects cardiomyocytes from oxidant-induced apoptosis in a Nrf2-dependent manner. In cultured HL-1 cardiomyocytes, phytochemical treatment was associated with nuclear accumulation of Nrf2, significant induction of phase II enzymes, and concomitant protection against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis. The protection against oxidant stress was abolished when Nrf2 was silenced by shRNA, suggesting that our phytochemical treatment worked through the Nrf2 pathway. Interestingly, phytochemical treatment was found to be a more robust activator of Nrf2 than oxidant treatment, supporting the use of the phytochemicals as a potential treatment to increase antioxidant defenses and protect heart cells against an oxidative challenge.

  10. 76 FR 55947 - Industrial Relations Promotion Project, Phase II in Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... of the Secretary Industrial Relations Promotion Project, Phase II in Vietnam AGENCY: Bureau of... funded.. DAI, through its Industrial Relations Promotion Project (IRRP), is the only organization that...: white.brenda.j@dol.gov . All inquiries should make reference to the USDOL Industrial Relations...

  11. NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES (PHASE II) 2003 ANNUAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 6th annual meeting of the NATO CCMS Pilot Study, Clean Products and Processes, was held in Cetraro, Italy, from May 11 to 15, 2003. This was also the first meeting of its Phase II study. 24 country representatives attended this meeting. This meeting was very ably run by th...

  12. Project Care Phase II: A Case Study in the Evaluation of Communication and Learning Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Frederick; And Others

    Phase II was a field evaluation of a communication and learning system package of films, simulation games, discussion questions, and posters designed to promote career awareness in junior high school children. It was proposed that this evaluation serves as a prototype for the assessment of the effects of learning systems on the affective and…

  13. 78 FR 5765 - Wireline Competition Bureau Releases Connect America Phase II Cost Model Virtual Workshop...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ...] Wireline Competition Bureau Releases Connect America Phase II Cost Model Virtual Workshop Discussion Topics... Competition Bureau releases for discussion a number of virtual workshop topics related to the development and... comments. Virtual Workshop: In addition to the usual methods for filing electronic comments, the...

  14. Definition of the Semisubmersible Floating System for Phase II of OC4

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Masciola, M.; Song, H.; Goupee, A.; Coulling, A.; Luan, C.

    2014-09-01

    Phase II of the Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration Continuation (OC4) project involved modeling of a semisubmersible floating offshore wind system as shown below. This report documents the specifications of the floating system, which were needed by the OC4 participants for building aero-hydro-servo-elastic models.

  15. Webcam Delivery of the Camperdown Program for Adolescents Who Stutter: A Phase II Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Brenda; O'Brian, Sue; Lowe, Robyn; Onslow, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This Phase II clinical trial examined stuttering adolescents' responsiveness to the Webcam-delivered Camperdown Program. Method: Sixteen adolescents were treated by Webcam with no clinic attendance. Primary outcome was percentage of syllables stuttered (%SS). Secondary outcomes were number of sessions, weeks and hours to maintenance,…

  16. 40 CFR 125.91 - What is a “Phase II Existing Facility”?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...? 125.91 Section 125.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... Applicable to Cooling Water Intake Structures for Phase II Existing Facilities Under Section 316(b) of the...: (1) It is a point source. (2) It uses or proposes to use cooling water intake structures with a...

  17. 40 CFR 125.91 - What is a “Phase II Existing Facility”?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...? 125.91 Section 125.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... Applicable to Cooling Water Intake Structures for Phase II Existing Facilities Under Section 316(b) of the...: (1) It is a point source. (2) It uses or proposes to use cooling water intake structures with a...

  18. 40 CFR 125.91 - What is a “Phase II Existing Facility”?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...? 125.91 Section 125.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... Applicable to Cooling Water Intake Structures for Phase II Existing Facilities Under Section 316(b) of the...: (1) It is a point source. (2) It uses or proposes to use cooling water intake structures with a...

  19. 40 CFR 125.91 - What is a “Phase II Existing Facility”?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...? 125.91 Section 125.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... Applicable to Cooling Water Intake Structures for Phase II Existing Facilities Under Section 316(b) of the...: (1) It is a point source. (2) It uses or proposes to use cooling water intake structures with a...

  20. 40 CFR 125.91 - What is a “Phase II Existing Facility”?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...? 125.91 Section 125.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... Applicable to Cooling Water Intake Structures for Phase II Existing Facilities Under Section 316(b) of the...: (1) It is a point source. (2) It uses or proposes to use cooling water intake structures with a...

  1. 7 CFR 3403.8 - Proposal format for phase II applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... provide information to the Tech-Net Database System (http://technet.sba.gov) per OMB No. 3245-03356. The following are examples of the data to be entered by applicants into Tech-Net: (i) Any business concern or... information in the Tech-Net database for any prior Phase II award received by the small business concern. (b)...

  2. Development and Validation of Methodology to Model Flow in Ventilation Systems Commonly Found in Nuclear Facilities - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Strons, Philip; Bailey, James L.; Davis, John; Grudzinski, James; Hlotke, John

    2016-03-01

    In this report we present the results of the Phase II analysis and testing of the flow patterns encountered in the Alpha Gamma Hot Cell Facility (AGHCF), as well as the results from an opportunity to expand upon field test work from Phase I by the use of a Class IIIb laser. The addition to the Phase I work is covered before proceeding to the results of the Phase II work, followed by a summary of findings.

  3. Inactivation of human pathogens during phase II composting of manure-based mushroom growth substrate.

    PubMed

    Weil, Jennifer D; Cutter, Catherine N; Beelman, Robert B; LaBorde, Luke F

    2013-08-01

    Commercial production of white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) requires a specialized growth substrate prepared from composted agricultural by-products. Because horse and poultry manures are widely used in substrate formulations, there is a need to determine the extent to which the composting process is capable of eliminating human pathogens. In this study, partially composted substrate was inoculated with a pathogen cocktail (log 10⁶ to 10⁸ CFU/g) containing Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella. Pathogen and indicator-organism reductions were followed at temperatures that typically occurred during a standard 6-day phase II pasteurization and conditioning procedure. Controlled-temperature water bath studies at 48.8, 54.4, and 60°C demonstrated complete destruction of the three pathogens after 36.0, 8.0, and 0.5 h, respectively. Destruction of L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 at 54.4°C occurred more slowly than E. coli, total coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, and Salmonella. Microbial reductions that occurred during a standard 6-day phase II pasteurization and conditioning treatment were studied in a small-scale mushroom production research facility. After phase II composting, E. coli, coliforms, and Enterobacteriaceae were below detectable levels, and inoculated pathogens were not detected by direct plating or by enrichment. The results of this study show that a phase II composting process can be an effective control measure for eliminating risks associated with the use of composted animal manures during mushroom production. Growers are encouraged to validate and verify their own composting processes through periodic microbial testing for pathogens and to conduct studies to assure uniform distribution of substrate temperatures during phase II.

  4. Phase I and II feasibility study report for the 300-FF-5 operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this Phase I/II feasibility study is to assemble and screen a list of alternatives for remediation of the 300-FF-5 operable site on the Hanford Reservation. This screening is based on information gathered in the Phase I Remedial Investigation (RI) and on currently available information on remediation technologies. The alternatives remaining after screening provide a range of response actions for remediation. In addition, key data needs are identified for collection during a Phase II RI (if necessary). This Phase I/II FS represents a primary document as defined by the Tri-Party Agreement, but will be followed by a Phase III FS that will further develop the alternatives and provide a detailed evaluation of them. The following remedial action objectives were identified for the 300-FF-5 operable unit: Limit current human exposure to contaminated groundwater in the unit; Limit discharge of contaminated groundwater to the Columbia River; Reduce contaminant concentrations in groundwater below acceptable levels by the year 2018.

  5. Proposal for a "phase II" multicenter trial model for preclinical new antiepilepsy therapy development.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Terence J; Ben-Menachem, Elinor; Bertram, Edward H; Collins, Stephen D; Kokaia, Merab; Lerche, Holger; Klitgaard, Henrik; Staley, Kevin J; Vaudano, Elisabetta; Walker, Matthew C; Simonato, Michele

    2013-08-01

    There is a pressing need to address the current major gaps in epilepsy treatment, in particular drug-resistant epilepsy, antiepileptogenic therapies, and comorbidities. A major concern in the development of new therapies is that current preclinical testing is not sufficiently predictive for clinical efficacy. Methodologic limitations of current preclinical paradigms may partly account for this discrepancy. Here we propose and discuss a strategy for implementing a "phase II" multicenter preclinical drug trial model based on clinical phase II/III studies designed to generate more rigorous preclinical data for efficacy. The goal is to improve the evidence resulting from preclinical studies for investigational new drugs that have shown strong promise in initial preclinical "phase I" studies. This should reduce the risk for expensive clinical studies in epilepsy and therefore increase the appeal for funders (industry and government) to invest in their clinical development.

  6. Evaluation of hydrothermal resources of North Dakota. Phase II. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, K.L.; Howell, F.L.; Winczewski, L.M.; Wartman, B.L.; Umphrey, H.R.; Anderson, S.B.

    1981-06-01

    This evaluation of the hydrothermal resources of North Dakota is based on existing data on file with the North Dakota Geological Survey (NDGS) and other state and federal agencies, and field and laboratory studies conducted. The principal sources of data used during the Phase II study were WELLFILE, the computer library of oil and gas well data developed during the Phase I study, and WATERCAT, a computer library system of water well data assembled during the Phase II study. A field survey of the shallow geothermal gradients present in selected groundwater observation holes was conducted. Laboratory determinations of the thermal conductivity of core samples is being done to facilitate heat-flow calculations on those hole-of-convenience cased.

  7. Hexagonal and nematic phases of chains. I - Correlation functions. II - Phase transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selinger, Jonathan V.; Bruinsma, Robijn F.

    1991-01-01

    The statistical mechanics of a system of semiflexible chains, which can represent polymer liquid crystals, long-chain biomolecules, stiff wormlike micelles, or columns of discotic liquid crystals, are examined. A continuum theory is used to calculate static correlation functions in the hexagonal and nematic phases. Two correlation functions are considered: (1) the structure factor which describes fluctuations in the density; and (2) the director fluctuation spectrum, which describes fluctuations in the local optical axis. In addition, a model is developed for the phase transitions of a system of infinitely long, semiflexible chains which interact through a steric, excluded-volume repulsion. The model yields generic phase diagrams in terms of pressure or density vs. persistence length or temperature.

  8. 7-Methylsulfinylheptyl and 8-methylsulfinyloctyl isothiocyanates from watercress are potent inducers of phase II enzymes.

    PubMed

    Rose, P; Faulkner, K; Williamson, G; Mithen, R

    2000-11-01

    Watercress is an exceptionally rich dietary source of beta-phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC). This compound inhibits phase I enzymes, which are responsible for the activation of many carcinogens in animals, and induces phase II enzymes, which are associated with enhanced excretion of carcinogens. In this study, we show that watercress extracts are potent inducers of quinone reductase (QR) in murine hepatoma Hepa 1c1c7 cells, a widely adopted assay for measuring phase II enzyme induction. However, contrary to expectations, this induction was not associated with PEITC (which is rapidly lost to the atmosphere upon tissue disruption due to its volatility) or a naturally occurring PEITC-glutathione conjugate, but with 7-methylsulfinyheptyl and 8-methylsulfinyloctyl isothiocyanates (ITCs). While it was confirmed that PEITC does induce QR (5 microM required for a two-fold induction in QR), 7-methylsulfinyheptyl and 8-methylsulfinyloctyl ITCs were more potent inducers (0.2 microM and 0.5 microM, respectively, required for a two-fold induction in QR). Thus, while watercress contains three times more phenylethyl glucosinolate than methylsulfinylalkyl glucosinolates, ITCs derived from methylsulfinylalkyl glucosinolates may be more important phase II enzyme inducers than PEITC, having 10 - to 25-fold greater potency. Analysis of urine by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) following consumption of watercress demonstrated the presence of N:-acetylcysteine conjugates of 7-methylsulfinylheptyl, 8-methylsulfinyloctyl ITCs and PEITC, indicating that these ITCs are taken up by the gut and metabolized in the body. Watercress may have exceptionally good anticarcinogenic potential, as it combines a potent inhibitor of phase I enzymes (PEITC) with at least three inducers of phase II enzymes (PEITC, 7-methylsulfinylheptyl ITC and 8-methylsulfinyloctyl ITC). The study also demonstrates the application of LC-MS for the detection of complex glucosinolate-derived metabolites in

  9. A 2-stage phase II design with direct assignment option in stage II for initial marker validation.

    PubMed

    An, Ming-Wen; Mandrekar, Sumithra J; Sargent, Daniel J

    2012-08-15

    Biomarkers are critical to targeted therapies, as they may identify patients more likely to benefit from a treatment. Several prospective designs for biomarker-directed therapy have been previously proposed, differing primarily in the study population, randomization scheme, or both. Recognizing the need for randomization, yet acknowledging the possibility of promising but inconclusive results after a stage I cohort of randomized patients, we propose a 2-stage phase II design on marker-positive patients that allows for direct assignment in a stage II cohort. In stage I, marker-positive patients are equally randomized to receive experimental treatment or control. Stage II has the option to adopt "direct assignment" whereby all patients receive experimental treatment. Through simulation, we studied the power and type I error rate of our design compared with a balanced randomized two-stage design, and conducted sensitivity analyses to study the effect of timing of stage I analysis, population shift effects, and unbalanced randomization. Our proposed design has minimal loss in power (<1.8%) and increased type I error rate (<2.1%) compared with a balanced randomized design. The maximum increase in type I error rate in the presence of a population shift was between 3.1% and 5%, and the loss in power across possible timings of stage I analysis was less than 1.2%. Our proposed design has desirable statistical properties with potential appeal in practice. The direct assignment option, if adopted, provides for an "extended confirmation phase" as an alternative to stopping the trial early for evidence of efficacy in stage I.

  10. Phased Retrofits in Existing Homes in Florida Phase II. Shallow Plus Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    K. Sutherland; Parker, D.; Martin, E.; Chasar, D.; Amos, B.

    2016-02-01

    The BAPIRC team and Florida Power and Light (FPL) electric utility pursued a pilot phased energy-efficiency retrofit program in Florida by creating detailed data on the energy and economic performance of two levels of retrofit - simple and deep. For this Phased Deep Retrofit (PDR) project, a total of 56 homes spread across the utility partner's territory in east central Florida, southeast Florida, and southwest Florida were instrumented between August 2012 and January 2013, and received simple pass-through retrofit measures during the period of March 2013 - June 2013. Ten of these homes received a deeper package of retrofits during August 2013 - December 2013.

  11. Site Characterization of the Source Physics Experiment Phase II Location Using Seismic Reflection Data

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, Emily; Snelson, Catherine M; Chipman, Veraun D; Emer, Dudley; White, Bob; Emmit, Ryan; Wright, Al; Drellack, Sigmund; Huckins-Gang, Heather; Mercadante, Jennifer; Floyd, Michael; McGowin, Chris; Cothrun, Chris; Bonal, Nedra

    2013-12-05

    An objective of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is to identify low-yield nuclear explosions from a regional distance. Low-yield nuclear explosions can often be difficult to discriminate among the clutter of natural and man-made explosive events (e.g., earthquakes and mine blasts). The SPE is broken into three phases. Phase I has provided the first of the physics-based data to test the empirical models that have been used to discriminate nuclear events. The Phase I series of tests were placed within a highly fractured granite body. The evolution of the project has led to development of Phase II, to be placed within the opposite end member of geology, an alluvium environment, thereby increasing the database of waveforms to build upon in the discrimination models. Both the granite and alluvium sites have hosted nearby nuclear tests, which provide comparisons for the chemical test data. Phase III of the SPE is yet to be determined.

  12. The Prediction of Success in Nursing Education: Phase I and Phase II, 1959-1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, John R.; And Others

    This study concerned the development and testing of an instrument designed to provide nursing schools with meaningful information about the personalities and potential problems of their students. In Phase I, the instrument--the Luther Hospital Sentence Completions (LHSC)--was constructed along with a Nursing Education Scale (NES) which provided…

  13. 76 FR 3624 - Milford Wind Corridor Phase II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Milford Wind Corridor Phase II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding Milford Wind Corridor Phase II, LLC's application...

  14. Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study: Phase II, 1973-74, Final Report: Volume V.3. Historical Data Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Patricia; Elias, Patricia J.

    The Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study (BTES), Phase II, was a research project on effective teaching behavior--what teachers do that significantly affects what and how pupils learn. The purposes of Phase II were to (1) develop an assessment system for measuring teacher and pupil behaviors and other factors which could influence each of them and…

  15. An evaluation of a Simon 2-Stage phase II clinical trial design incorporating toxicity monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ray, H E; Rai, S N

    2011-05-01

    Phase II clinical trials are usually designed to measure efficacy but patient safety is also a very important aspect. Previous authors suggested a methodology that allows one to monitor the cumulative number of toxic events after each patient is treated, which is also known as continuous toxicity monitoring. In this work we describe how to combine the continuous toxicity monitoring methodology with the Simon 2-Stage design for response. Then we investigate through simulation the combined procedure's type I and type II error rates under various combinations of design parameters. We include the underlying relationship between toxicity and response in our examination of the error rates.

  16. Study of Acoustic Ultra-High Energy Neutrino Detection Phase II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurahashi, N.

    The Study of Acoustic Ultra-high energy Neutrino Detection has started its second phase (SAUND II). Although the general location of the hydrophones has not changed, SAUND II uses a new hydrophone array that uses a fiber-optic cable to connect to shore. Changes associated with the new hydrophone array as well as a new DAQ system that incorporates multiprocessor computing and accurate GPS timestamping are reported. Initial data of lightbulb calibration conducted in March 2005, and a future plan for a more accurate calibration are also presented.

  17. Functional design criteria for Project W-252, Phase II Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, C.E.

    1994-11-10

    This document provides the functional design criteria required for the Phase 2 Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal Project, Project W-252. Project W-252 shall provide new facilities and existing facility modifications required to implement Best Available Technology/All Known, Available, and Reasonable Methods of Prevention, Control, and Treatment (BAT/AKART) for the 200 East Phase II Liquid Effluent Streams. The project will also provide a 200 East Area Phase II Effluent Collection System (PTECS) for connection to a disposal system for relevant effluent streams to which BAT/AKART has been applied. Liquid wastestreams generated in the 200 East Area are currently discharged to the soil column. Included in these wastestreams are cooling water, steam condensate, raw water, and sanitary wastewaters. It is the policy of the DOE that the use of soil columns to treat and retain radionuclides and nonradioactive contaminants be discontinued at the earliest practical time in favor of wastewater treatment and waste minimization. In 1989, the DOE entered into an interagency agreement with Ecology and EPA. This agreement is referred to as the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). Project W-252 is one of the projects required to achieve the milestones set forth in the Tri-Party Agreement. One of the milestones requires BAT/AKART implementation for Phase II streams by October 1997. This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) document provides the technical baseline required to initiate Project W-252 to meet the Tri-Party Agreement milestone for the application of BAT/AKART to the Phase II effluents.

  18. Novel therapies for resistant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FONT) phase II clinical trial: study design

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The lack of adequate randomized clinical trials (RCT) has hindered identification of new therapies that are safe and effective for patients with primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), especially in patients who fail to respond to corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapies. Recent basic science advances have led to development of alternative treatments that specifically target aberrant pathways of fibrosis which are relevant to disease progression in FSGS. There is a need for a flexible Phase II study design which will test such novel antifibrotic strategies in order to identify agents suitable for phase III testing. Methods/Design The Novel Therapies for Resistant Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FONT) project is a multicenter Phase I/II RCT designed to investigate the potential efficacy of novel therapies for resistant FSGS. Adalimumab and galactose will be evaluated against conservative therapy consisting of the combination of lisinopril, losartan and atorvastatin. The sample size is defined to assure that if one of the treatments has a superior response rate compared to that of the other treatments, it will be selected with high probability for further evaluation. Comparison of primary and secondary endpoints in each study arm will enable a choice to be made of which treatments are worthy of further study in future Phase III RCT. Discussion This report highlights the key features of the FONT II RCT including the two-step outcome analysis that will expedite achievement of the study objectives. The proposed phase II study design will help to identify promising agents for further testing while excluding ineffective agents. This staged approach can help to prevent large expenditures on unworthy therapeutic agents in the management of serious but rare kidney diseases Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00814255 PMID:21310077

  19. A varying-stage adaptive phase II/III clinical trial design.

    PubMed

    Dong, Gaohong

    2014-04-15

    Currently, adaptive phase II/III clinical trials are typically carried out with a strict two-stage design. The first stage is a learning stage called phase II, and the second stage is a confirmatory stage called phase III. Following phase II analysis, inefficacious or harmful dose arms are dropped, then one or two promising dose arms are selected for the second stage. However, there are often situations in which researchers are in dilemma to make 'go or no-go' decision and/or to select 'best' dose arm(s), as data from the first stage may not provide sufficient information for their decision making. In this case, it is challenging to follow a strict two-stage plan. Therefore, we propose a varying-stage adaptive phase II/III clinical trial design, in which we consider whether there is a need to have an intermediate stage to obtain more data, so that a more informative decision could be made. Hence, the number of further investigational stages in our design is determined on the basis of data accumulated to the interim analysis. With respect to adaptations, we consider dropping dose arm(s), switching another plausible endpoint as the primary study endpoint, re-estimating sample size, and early stopping for futility. We use an adaptive combination test to perform final analyses. By applying closed testing procedure, we control family-wise type I error rate at the nominal level of α in the strong sense. We delineate other essential design considerations including the threshold parameters and the proportion of alpha allocated in the two-stage versus three-stage setting.

  20. Phasing the mirror segments of the Keck telescopes II: the narrow-band phasing algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chanan, G; Ohara, C; Troy, M

    2000-09-01

    In a previous paper, we described a successful technique, the broadband algorithm, for phasing the primary mirror segments of the Keck telescopes to an accuracy of 30 nm. Here we describe a complementary narrow-band algorithm. Although it has a limited dynamic range, it is much faster than the broadband algorithm and can achieve an unprecedented phasing accuracy of approximately 6 nm. Cross checks between these two independent techniques validate both methods to a high degree of confidence. Both algorithms converge to the edge-minimizing configuration of the segmented primary mirror, which is not the same as the overall wave-front-error-minimizing configuration, but we demonstrate that this distinction disappears as the segment aberrations are reduced to zero.

  1. Phase effects in guided mode resonances II: measuring the angular phase of a surface plasmon polariton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen, M. J.; Brown, T. G.

    2015-02-01

    We show how the phase of a resonant interaction between a focused beam and a guided mode can be directly observed in a pupil imaging experiment, in which the irradiance leaving the pupil of a standard microscope is relayed to an image sensor through a combination Wollaston prism, calcite beam splitter and polarizer. We apply the method to the observation of a surface plasmon polariton resonance excited in a corrugated silver film fabricated using electron beam lithography. We discuss how this particular imaging configuration could be adapted for applications in plasmonic optical sensing.

  2. Two-Phase Nozzle Theory and Parametric Analysis. Phase II. Parametric Analysis and Optimization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    Dekker, Inc., 1969. 4. Netzer, D . W.: Calculations of Flow Characteristics for Two-Phase Flow in Annular Converging-Diverging Nozzles. Report No. TM-62-3...Astronautica Acta, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 207-216, 1965. 6. Crowe, C. T., M. P. Sharma and D . E. Stock: The Particle-Source-In Cell (PSI-Cell) Model for...Dispersed Droplet-in-Vapor Flows Including Normal Shock Waves. ASME J. of Fluids Eng’g., pp. 355-362, 1978. 8. Elliott, D . G.: "Theoretical and

  3. System Integral Test by BWR Drywell Cooler Applied as Phase-II Accident Management

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasaka, Hideo; Tobimatsu, Toshimi; Tahara, Mika; Yokobori, Seiichi; Akinaga, Makoto

    2002-07-01

    This paper deals with the system interaction performance using the BWR drywell local cooler (DWC) in combination with containment spray as a Japanese Phase-II accident management (AM). By using almost full height simulation test facility (GIRAFFE-DWC) with scaling ratio of 1/600, the system integral tests simulating BWR low pressure vessel failure sequence were accomplished during about 14 hours. In case of DWC application, the containment pressure increase was found milder due to DWC heat removal performance. Initial spray timing was delayed about 3 hours and each spray period was reduced almost by half. It was concluded that the application of a BWR DWC to Phase-II AM measure is quite promising from the point of delaying or preventing the containment venting. (authors)

  4. Performance of the Tile PreProcessor Demonstrator for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase II Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrió, F.; Moreno, P.; Valero, A.

    2016-03-01

    The Tile Calorimeter PreProcessor demonstrator is a high performance double AMC board based on FPGA resources and QSFP modules. This board has been designed in the framework of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Demonstrator project for the Phase II Upgrade as the first stage of the back-end electronics. The TilePPr demonstrator has been conceived to receive and process the data coming from the front-end electronics of the TileCal Demonstrator module, as well as to configure it. Moreover, the TilePPr demonstrator handles the communication with the Detector Control System to monitor and control the front-end electronics. The TilePPr demonstrator represents 1/8 of the final TilePPr that will be designed and installed into the detector for the ATLAS Phase II Upgrade.

  5. Enantiomeric separations of ruthenium (II) polypyridyl complexes using HPLC with cyclofructan chiral stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Shu, Yang; Breitbach, Zachary S; Dissanayake, Milan K; Perera, Sirantha; Aslan, Joseph M; Alatrash, Nagham; MacDonnell, Frederick M; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2015-01-01

    The enantiomeric separation of 21 ruthenium (II) polypyridyl complexes was achieved with a novel class of cyclofructan-based chiral stationary phases (CSPs) in the polar organic mode. Aromatic derivatives on the chiral selectors proved to be essential for enantioselectivity. The R-napthylethyl carbamate functionalized cyclofructan 6 (LARIHC CF6-RN) column proved to be the most effective overall, while the dimethylphenyl carbamate cyclofructan 7 (LARIHC CF7-DMP) showed complementary selectivity. A combination of acid and base additives was necessary for optimal separations. The retention factor vs. acetonitrile/methanol ratio plot showed a U-shaped retention curve, indicating that different interactions take place at different polar organic solvent compositions. The separation results indicated that π-π interactions, steric effects, and hydrogen bonding contribute to the enantiomeric separation of ruthenium (II) polypyridyl complexes with cyclofructan chiral stationary phases in the polar organic mode.

  6. Phase Transition of a Structure II Cubic Clathrate Hydrate to a Tetragonal Form.

    PubMed

    Takeya, Satoshi; Fujihisa, Hiroshi; Yamawaki, Hiroshi; Gotoh, Yoshito; Ohmura, Ryo; Alavi, Saman; Ripmeester, John A

    2016-08-01

    The crystal structure and phase transition of cubic structure II (sII) binary clathrate hydrates of methane (CH4 ) and propanol are reported from powder X-ray diffraction measurements. The deformation of host water cages at the cubic-tetragonal phase transition of 2-propanol+CH4 hydrate, but not 1-propanol+CH4 hydrate, was observed below about 110 K. It is shown that the deformation of the host water cages of 2-propanol+CH4 hydrate can be explained by the restriction of the motion of 2-propanol within the 5(12) 6(4) host water cages. This result provides a low-temperature structure due to a temperature-induced symmetry-lowering transition of clathrate hydrate. This is the first example of a cubic structure of the common clathrate hydrate families at a fixed composition.

  7. New Round of Studies Begin in Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Division of Cancer Prevention’s Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program, also known as the Consortia for Early Phase Prevention Trials, is beginning a new round of studies in the effort toward systematic early clinical development of promising preventive agents for people at increased risk of developing cancer. Infographic Highlight New Round of Studies Begin in Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program |

  8. Rigid Polyurethane Foam (RPF) Technology for Countermines (Sea) Program Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    WOODFIN,RONALD L.; FAUCETT,DAVID L.; HANCE,BRADLEY G.; LATHAM,AMY E.; SCHMIDT,C.O.

    1999-10-01

    This Phase II report documents the results of one subtask initiated under the joint Department of Energy (DOE)/Department of Defense (DoD) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Countermine Warfare. The development of Rigid Polyurethane Foams for neutralization of mines and barriers in amphibious assault was the objective of the tasking. This phase of the program concentrated on formation of RPF in water, explosive mine simulations, and development of foam and fabric pontoons. Field experimentation was done primarily at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC) of the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM between February 1996 and September 1998.

  9. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume II - Potentiometric Data Document Package

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    Volume II of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the potentiometric data. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  10. Free-Piston Stirling Power Conversion Unit for Fission Power System, Phase II Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. Gary; Stanley, John

    2016-01-01

    In Phase II, the manufacture and testing of two 6-kW(sub e)Stirling engines was completed. The engines were delivered in an opposed 12-kW(sub e) arrangement with a common expansion space heater head. As described in the Phase I report, the engines were designed to be sealed both hermetically and with a bolted O-ring seal. The completed Phase II convertor is in the bolted configuration to allow future disassembly. By the end of Phase II, the convertor had passed all of the final testing requirements in preparation for delivery to the NASA Glenn Research Center. The electronic controller also was fabricated and tested during Phase II. The controller sets both piston amplitudes and maintains the phasing between them. It also sets the operating frequency of the machine. Details of the controller are described in the Phase I final report. Fabrication of the direct-current to direct-current (DC-DC) output stage, which would have stepped down the main controller output voltage from 700 to 120 V(sub DC), was omitted from this phase of the project for budgetary reasons. However, the main controller was successfully built, tested with the engines, and delivered. We experienced very few development issues with this high-power controller. The project extended significantly longer than originally planned because of yearly funding delays. The team also experienced several hardware difficulties along the development path. Most of these were related to the different thermal expansions of adjacent parts constructed of different materials. This issue was made worse by the large size of the machine. Thermal expansion problems also caused difficulties in the brazing of the opposed stainless steel sodium-potassium (NaK) heater head. Despite repeated attempts Sunpower was not able to successfully braze the opposed head under this project. Near the end of the project, Glenn fabricated an opposed Inconel NaK head, which was installed prior to delivery for testing at Glenn. Engine

  11. An FPGA-based trigger for the phase II of the MEG experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, A.; Bemporad, C.; Cei, F.; Galli, L.; Grassi, M.; Morsani, F.; Nicolò, D.; Ritt, S.; Venturini, M.

    2016-07-01

    For the phase II of MEG, we are going to develop a combined trigger and DAQ system. Here we focus on the former side, which operates an on-line reconstruction of detector signals and event selection within 450 μs from event occurrence. Trigger concentrator boards (TCB) are under development to gather data from different crates, each connected to a set of detector channels, to accomplish higher-level algorithms to issue a trigger in the case of a candidate signal event. We describe the major features of the new system, in comparison with phase I, as well as its performances in terms of selection efficiency and background rejection.

  12. North Atlantic simulations in Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments phase II (CORE-II). Part I: Mean states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Yeager, Steve G.; Bailey, David; Behrens, Erik; Bentsen, Mats; Bi, Daohua; Biastoch, Arne; Böning, Claus; Bozec, Alexandra; Canuto, Vittorio M.; Cassou, Christophe; Chassignet, Eric; Coward, Andrew C.; Danilov, Sergey; Diansky, Nikolay; Drange, Helge; Farneti, Riccardo; Fernandez, Elodie; Fogli, Pier Giuseppe; Forget, Gael; Fujii, Yosuke; Griffies, Stephen M.; Gusev, Anatoly; Heimbach, Patrick; Howard, Armando; Jung, Thomas; Kelley, Maxwell; Large, William G.; Leboissetier, Anthony; Lu, Jianhua; Madec, Gurvan; Marsland, Simon J.; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio; George Nurser, A. J.; Pirani, Anna; y Mélia, David Salas; Samuels, Bonita L.; Scheinert, Markus; Sidorenko, Dmitry; Treguier, Anne-Marie; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Uotila, Petteri; Valcke, Sophie; Voldoire, Aurore; Wang, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Simulation characteristics from eighteen global ocean-sea-ice coupled models are presented with a focus on the mean Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and other related fields in the North Atlantic. These experiments use inter-annually varying atmospheric forcing data sets for the 60-year period from 1948 to 2007 and are performed as contributions to the second phase of the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (CORE-II). The protocol for conducting such CORE-II experiments is summarized. Despite using the same atmospheric forcing, the solutions show significant differences. As most models also differ from available observations, biases in the Labrador Sea region in upper-ocean potential temperature and salinity distributions, mixed layer depths, and sea-ice cover are identified as contributors to differences in AMOC. These differences in the solutions do not suggest an obvious grouping of the models based on their ocean model lineage, their vertical coordinate representations, or surface salinity restoring strengths. Thus, the solution differences among the models are attributed primarily to use of different subgrid scale parameterizations and parameter choices as well as to differences in vertical and horizontal grid resolutions in the ocean models. Use of a wide variety of sea-ice models with diverse snow and sea-ice albedo treatments also contributes to these differences. Based on the diagnostics considered, the majority of the models appear suitable for use in studies involving the North Atlantic, but some models require dedicated development effort.

  13. MICS-Asia II: The model intercomparison study for Asia Phase II methodology and overview of findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmichael, G. R.; Sakurai, T.; Streets, D.; Hozumi, Y.; Ueda, H.; Park, S. U.; Fung, C.; Han, Z.; Kajino, M.; Engardt, M.; Bennet, C.; Hayami, H.; Sartelet, K.; Holloway, T.; Wang, Z.; Kannari, A.; Fu, J.; Matsuda, K.; Thongboonchoo, N.; Amann, M.

    Results from the Model Intercomparison Study Asia Phase II (MICS-Asia II) are presented. Nine different regional modeling groups simulated chemistry and transport of ozone (O 3), secondary aerosol, acid deposition, and associated precursors, using common emissions and boundary conditions derived from a global model. Four-month-long periods, representing 2 years and three seasons (i.e., March, July, and December in 2001, and March in 2002), are analyzed. New observational data, obtained under the EANET (the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia) monitoring program, were made available for this study, and these data provide a regional database to compare with model simulations. The analysis focused around seven subject areas: O 3 and related precursors, aerosols, acid deposition, global inflow of pollutants and precursor to Asia, model sensitivities to aerosol parameterization, analysis of emission fields, and detailed analyses of individual models, each of which is presented in a companion paper in this issue of Atmospheric Environment. This overview discusses the major findings of the study, as well as information on common emissions, meteorological conditions, and observations.

  14. Phase I-II study of isotopic immunoglobulin therapy for primary liver cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ettinger, D.S.; Order, S.E.; Wharam, M.D.; Parker, M.K.; Klein, J.L.; Leichner, P.K.

    1982-02-01

    A phase I-II study of isotopic immunoglobulin therapy was performed in 18 patients with primary liver cancer; 14 were evaluable for toxicity. The patients received a dose of 37-157 millicuries of 131I-labeled antibody. The dose-limiting factor appears to be hematologic toxicity, especially thrombocytopenia. An objective antitumor effect was seen in six of nine patients who were evaluable for response. Present results suggest that further clinical studies with isotopic immunoglobulin are indicated.

  15. Defense Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR). Abstracts of Phase II Awards 1983.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    INCREASE THE BANDWIDTH OF THE BAND-9 ALQ-99 TOPIC: 94 OFFICE: SPAWAR THIS IS A PHASE II SBIR PROPOSAL. IT DESCRIBES A PPM HELIX TWT DEVELOPMENT FOR THE...THE PROPOSED TWT WILL EMPLOY A BRAZED COPPER HELIX DESIGN TO OVERCOME THE HEAT DISSIPA- TION LIMITATION IN PAST HELIX DERIVED CIRCUIT TUBES. IT WILL...SUBMITTED BY DEPT ASTRON CORPORATION ARMY P.O. BOX 1047 SPRINGFIELD, VA 22151 JOSEPH R. JAHODA TITLE: BROADBAND TRANSMITTING ANTENNA TOPIC: id OFFICE

  16. An Investigation of the Physical Properties of Erupting Solar Prominences, Phase II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-30

    1 cy AFRL /RVIL Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 2 cys Official Record Copy AFRL /RVBXS/Dr. Richard Altrock 1 cy 40 Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited. ... AFRL -RV-PS- AFRL -RV-PS- TR-2014-0195 TR-2014-0195 AN INVESTIGATION OF THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ERUPTING SOLAR PROMINENCES, PHASE II...AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY Space Vehicles Directorate 3550 Aberdeen Ave SE AIR FORCE MATERIEL COMMAND KIRTLAND AIR FORCE BASE, NM

  17. Development and Testing of a Jet Assisted Polycrystalline Diamond Drilling Bit. Phase II Development Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    David S. Pixton

    1999-09-20

    Phase II efforts to develop a jet-assisted rotary-percussion drill bit are discussed. Key developments under this contract include: (1) a design for a more robust polycrystalline diamond drag cutter; (2) a new drilling mechanism which improves penetration and life of cutters; and (3) a means of creating a high-pressure mud jet inside of a percussion drill bit. Field tests of the new drill bit and the new robust cutter are forthcoming.

  18. Characterization of Vertical Impact Device Acceleration Pulses Using Parametric Assessment: Phase II Accelerated Free-Fall

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    ACCELERATED FREE -FALL Mr. Chris Perry Mr. Chris Burneka Warfighter Interface Division Ms. Rachael Christopher ORISE Mr. Chris Albery Infoscitex...of Vertical Impact Device Acceleration Pulses Using Parametric Assessment: Phase II Accelerated Free -Fall 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-14-D-6500...bungee cord system interfaced between the VID free -fall carriage and the reaction mass to provide an initial velocity at carriage release. The approach

  19. Recruitment Early Warning System and Accession Contingency Planning Process. Phase II. Part 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    RD-A154 613 RECRUITMENT EARLY WARNING SYSTEM AND ACCESSION i/7 CONTINGENCY PLANNING PROCE..(U) ECONOMIC RESEARCH LAB INC RESTON YA L GOLDBERG ET AL...11 TITLE (include Security Classification) Recruitment Early Warning System and Accession Contingency Planning Process Phase II, Part 1 Final Report...GROUP Early Warning System, Forecasting, Manpower Planning LV &V WA&Vm 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block ny.1ber

  20. Flexible designs for phase II comparative clinical trials involving two response variables.

    PubMed

    Bersimis, S; Sachlas, A; Papaioannou, T

    2015-01-30

    The aim of phase II clinical trials is to determine whether an experimental treatment is sufficiently promising and safe to justify further testing. The need for reduced sample size arises naturally in phase II clinical trials owing to both technical and ethical reasons, motivating a significant part of research in the field during recent years, while another significant part of the research effort is aimed at more complex therapeutic schemes that demand the consideration of multiple endpoints to make decisions. In this paper, our attention is restricted to phase II clinical trials in which two treatments are compared with respect to two dependent dichotomous responses proposing some flexible designs. These designs permit the researcher to terminate the clinical trial when high rates of favorable or unfavorable outcomes are observed early enough requiring in this way a small number of patients. From the mathematical point of view, the proposed designs are defined on bivariate sequences of multi-state trials, and the corresponding stopping rules are based on various distributions related to the waiting time until a certain number of events appear in these sequences. The exact distributions of interest, under a unified framework, are studied using the Markov chain embedding technique, which appears to be very useful in clinical trials for the sample size determination. Tables of expected sample size and power are presented. The numerical illustration showed a very good performance for these new designs.

  1. National Geoscience Data Repository System, Phase II. Final report, January 30, 1995--January 28, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The American Geological Institute (AGI) has completed Phase II of a project to establish a National Geoscience Data Repository System (NGDRS). The project`s primary objectives are to preserve geoscience data in jeopardy of being destroyed and to make that data available to those who have a need to use it in future investigations. These data are available for donation to the public as a result of the downsizing that has occurred in the major petroleum and mining companies in the United States for the past decade. In recent years, these companies have consolidated domestic operations, sold many of their domestic properties and relinquished many of their leases. The scientific data associated with those properties are no longer considered to be useful assets and are consequently in danger of being lost forever. The national repository project will make many of these data available to the geoscience community for the first time. To address this opportunity, AGI sought support from the Department of Energy (DOE) in 1994 to initiate the NGDRS Phase I feasibility study to determine the types and quantity of data that companies would be willing to donate. The petroleum and mining companies surveyed indicated that they were willing to donate approximately five million well logs, one hundred million miles of seismic reflection data, millions of linear feet of core and cuttings, and a variety of other types of scientific data. Based on the positive results of the Phase I study, AGI undertook Phase II of the program in 1995. Funded jointly by DOE and industry, Phase II encompasses the establishment of standards for indexing and cataloging of geoscience data and determination of the costs of transferring data from the private sector to public-sector data repositories. Pilot projects evaluated the feasibility of the project for transfer of different data types and creation of a Web-based metadata supercatalog and browser.

  2. Summary - National Dissemination and the Five Target States, Part 3, Final Report for Phase II--Dissemination, Rural Shared Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Montana Coll., Havre.

    The dissemination phase (Phase II) of the Rural Shared Services Project is reported in this document. Efforts of the dissemination phase were concentrated in 5 target states: Vermont, Georgia, Wyoming, Montana, and New Mexico; national dissemination was limited to attendance at national conferences, the U. S. Office of Education PREP materials for…

  3. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2001-07-23

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 30 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron (hot metal) consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy. The work which is labeled as Phase II will take place at two levels; namely, the bench scale level and the process development unit level. During the past quarter approval for the re-direction took place and work was initiated at both levels.

  4. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2002-01-22

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 30 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron (hot metal) consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy. The work which is labeled as Phase II will take place at two levels; namely, the bench scale level and the process development unit (PDU) level.

  5. Structure and compressibility of the high-pressure molecular phase II of carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datchi, Frédéric; Mallick, Bidyut; Salamat, Ashkan; Rousse, Gwenaëlle; Ninet, Sandra; Garbarino, Gaston; Bouvier, Pierre; Mezouar, Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    The structure and equation of state of the crystalline molecular phase II of carbon dioxide have been investigated at room temperature from 15.5 to 57.5 GPa using synchrotron x-ray diffraction methods. The CO2 samples were embedded in neon pressure medium in order to provide quasihydrostatic conditions. The x-ray diffraction patterns of phase II are best described by a tetragonal structure, with space group P42/mnm and 2 molecules per unit cell, in accordance with a previous study [Yoo et al., Phys. Rev. B 65, 104103 (2002), 10.1103/PhysRevB.65.104103]. There is however a large (15%) difference in the intramolecular C=O bond length between the present study, 1.14(3) Å, and the latter work (1.329-1.366 Å). The present value is similar to that of the free molecule and is in very good agreement with predictions based on density functional theory. The compressibility of CO2-II determined here also disagrees with the previous study: our value for the zero-pressure bulk modulus, B0=8.5(3) GPa [with B0'=(∂B/∂P)0=6.29], is 15.5 times smaller. These findings oppose the view that CO2-II is an intermediate state between the low-pressure molecular phases and the high-pressure nonmolecular forms, consistent with our previous results for phase IV [Datchi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 185701 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.185701]. The x-ray diffraction patterns of CO2-II above 15 GPa indicate the presence of a large orthorhombic microstrain. Carrying out density functional theory calculations of the elastic tensor and stress-strain relation, we interpret this as due to the softness of the crystal against deviatoric stress in the [110] and symmetry-related directions. Unlike the other dioxides of the group-14 elements, there is however no mechanical or dynamical instability of the P42/mnm structure in CO2 up to 57.5 GPa at 295 K, and therefore no symmetry lowering to Pnnm.

  6. Modeling of fluidized-bed combustion of coal: Phase II, final reports. Volume II. Detailed description of the model

    SciTech Connect

    Louis, J.F.; Tung, S.E.

    1980-10-01

    This document is the second of a seven volume series of our Phase II Final Report. This volume deals with detailed descriptions of the structure of each program member (subroutines and functions), the interrelation between the members of a submodel, and the interrelation between the various submodels as such. The systems model for fluidized bed combustors (FBC-II) consists of a systematic combination of the following interrelated areas: fluid mechanics and bubble growth, char combustion and associated kinetics for particle burnout, sulfur capture, NO/sub x/ formation and reduction, freeboard reactions, and heat transfer. Program outline is shown in Figure 1.1. Input variables (supplied by the user are inspected to check that they lie inside the allowed range of values and are input to the various routines as needed. The necessary physical and fluid mechanical properties are calculated and utilized in estimating char combustion and sulfur capture in the bed and the freeboard. NO/sub x/ and CO emissions are estimated by taking into account all relevant chemical reactions. A material and energy balance is made over the bed. Figure 1.1 shows a block diagram of the systems program. In this diagram, the overall structure of the FBC program is illustrated in terms of the various submodels that together constitute the systems program. A more detailed outline of the systems program is shown in Figure 1.2. In this figure, all important subroutine members of the FBC program are shown, and their linkage to each other, as well as to the main program is indicated. A description of the exact sequence in which these various routines are called at time of program execution is provided in Chapter 8 under the executive routine MAIN.

  7. Zinc(II) oxide solubility and phase behavior in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemniak, S.E.; Jones, M.E.; Combs, K.E.S.

    1990-02-01

    A platinum-lined, flowing autoclave facility is used to investigate the solubility/phase behavior of zinc(II) oxide in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at temperatures between 290 and 560 K. ZnO solubilities are observed to increase continuously with temperature and phosphate concentration. At higher phosphate concentrations, a solid phase transformation to NaZnPO{sub 4} is observed. NaZnPO{sub 4} solubilities are retrograde with temperature. The measured solubility behavior is examined via a Zn(II) ion hydrolysis/complexing model and thermodynamic functions for the hydrolysis/complexing reaction equilibria are obtained from a least-squares analysis of the data. The existence of two new zinc(II) ion complexes is reported for the first time: Zn(OH){sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}){sup 2{minus}} and Zn(OH){sub 3}(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sup 2{minus}}. A summary of thermochemical properties for species in the systems ZnO-H{sub 2}O and ZnO-Na{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-H{sub 2}O is also provided. 21 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Phase I and Phase II Therapies for Acute Ischemic Stroke: An Update on Currently Studied Drugs in Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Cesar; Akyol, Onat; Ho, Wing Mann; Araujo, Camila; Huang, Lei; Applegate II, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke is a devastating cause of death and disability, consequences of which depend on the time from ischemia onset to treatment, the affected brain region, and its size. The main targets of ischemic stroke therapy aim to restore tissue perfusion in the ischemic penumbra in order to decrease the total infarct area by maintaining blood flow. Advances in research of pathological process and pathways during acute ischemia have resulted in improvement of new treatment strategies apart from restoring perfusion. Additionally, limiting the injury severity by manipulating the molecular mechanisms during ischemia has become a promising approach, especially in animal research. The purpose of this article is to review completed and ongoing phases I and II trials for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, reviewing studies on antithrombotic, thrombolytic, neuroprotective, and antineuroinflammatory drugs that may translate into more effective treatments. PMID:28286764

  9. 37 GHz METHANOL MASERS : HORSEMEN OF THE APOCALYPSE FOR THE CLASS II METHANOL MASER PHASE?

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingsen, S. P.; Breen, S. L.; Sobolev, A. M.; Voronkov, M. A.; Caswell, J. L.; Lo, N.

    2011-12-01

    We report the results of a search for class II methanol masers at 37.7, 38.3, and 38.5 GHz toward a sample of 70 high-mass star formation regions. We primarily searched toward regions known to show emission either from the 107 GHz class II methanol maser transition, or from the 6.035 GHz excited OH transition. We detected maser emission from 13 sources in the 37.7 GHz transition, eight of these being new detections. We detected maser emission from three sources in the 38 GHz transitions, one of which is a new detection. We find that 37.7 GHz methanol masers are only associated with the most luminous 6.7 and 12.2 GHz methanol maser sources, which in turn are hypothesized to be the oldest class II methanol sources. We suggest that the 37.7 GHz methanol masers are associated with a brief evolutionary phase (of 1000-4000 years) prior to the cessation of class II methanol maser activity in the associated high-mass star formation region.

  10. Predicted Geology of the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley Phase II Drilling Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-04-20

    Pahute Mesa–Oasis Valley (PM-OV) Phase II drilling will occur within an area that encompasses approximately 117 square kilometers (45 square miles) near the center of the Phase I PM-OV hydrostratigraphic framework model area. The majority of the investigation area lies within dissected volcanic terrain between Pahute Mesa on the north and Timber Mountain on the south. This area consists of a complex distribution of volcanic tuff and lava of generally rhyolitic composition erupted from nearby calderas and related vents. Several large buried volcanic structural features control the distribution of volcanic units in the investigation area. The Area 20 caldera, including its structural margin and associated caldera collapse collar, underlies the northeastern portion of the investigation area. The southern half of the investigation area lies within the northwestern portion of the Timber Mountain caldera complex, including portions of the caldera moat and resurgent dome. Another significant structural feature in the area is the west-northwest-trending Northern Timber Mountain moat structural zone, which bisects the northern portion of the investigation area and forms a structural bench. The proposed wells of the UGTA Phase II drilling initiative can be grouped into four generalized volcanic structural domains based on the stratigraphic distribution and structural position of the volcanic rocks in the upper 1,000 meters (3,300 feet) of the crust, a depth that represents the approximate planned total depths of the proposed wells.

  11. Long-Term Column Leaching of Phase II Mercury Control Technology By-Products

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.; White, Fredrick; Rohar, P.C.; Kim, A.G

    2007-07-01

    An NETL research, development and demonstration program under DOE/Fossil Energy Innovations for Existing Plants is directed toward the improvement of the performance and economics of mercury control from coal-fired plants. The current Phase II of the RD&D program emphasizes the evaluation of performance and cost of control technologies through slip-stream and full scale field testing while continuing the development of novel concepts. One of the concerns of the NETL program is the fate of the captured flue gas mercury which is transferred to the condensed phase by-product stream. The stability of mercury and any co-captured elements in the by-products could have a large economic impact if it reduced by-product sales or increasing their disposal costs. As part of a greater characterization effort of Phase II facility baseline and control technology sample pairs, NETL in-house laboratories have performed continuous leaching of a select subset of the available sample pairs using four leachants: water (pH=5.7), dilute sulfuric acid (pH=1.2), dilute acetic acid (pH=2.9), and sodium carbonate (pH=11.1). This report describes results obtained for mercury, arsenic, and selenium during the 5-month leaching experiments.

  12. Early Investigational Therapeutics for Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders: From Animal Studies to Phase II Trials

    PubMed Central

    Valentin, Nelson; Acosta, Andres; Camilleri, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The most common gastrointestinal disorders which include evidence of dysmotility include: gastroparesis, the lower functional gastrointestinal disorders associated with altered bowel function [such as chronic (functional) diarrhea, chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC)], and opioid induced constipation (OIC). These conditions, which are grouped as gastrointestinal motility and functional disorders, are characterized by abnormal motor, sensory, or secretory functions that alter bowel function and result in a significant disease burden, since currently available treatments do not completely alleviate symptoms. New drugs are being developed for these disorders, targeting mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of these diseases, specifically, motor function, intestinal secretion and bile acid modulation. Areas Covered The article provides a brief overview of motility disorders and the drugs approved and currently available for these indications. It also provides an evaluation of the efficacy, safety and possible mechanisms of the drugs currently under investigation for the treatment of gastroparesis, chronic diarrhea, CIC and OIC, based on animal to phase II studies. Medications with complete phase III trials are excluded from this discussion. Expert opinion Treatment of gastrointestinal motility disorders requires the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms, biomarkers to identify subgroups of these disorders, and robust pharmacological studies from animal to phase II studies. These are prerequisites for the development of efficacious medications and individualizing therapy in order to enhance the treatment of these patients. PMID:25971881

  13. Catalytic conversion of light alkanes phase II. Topical report, January 1990--January 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The Topical Report on Phase II of the project entitled, Catalytic Conversion of Light Alkanes reviews work done between January 1, 1990 and September 30, 1992 on the Cooperative Agreement. The mission of this work is to devise a new catalyst which can be used in a simple economic process to convert the light alkanes in natural gas to oxygenate products which can either be used as clean-burning, high octane liquid fuels, as fuel components or as precursors to liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuel. This Topical Report documents our efforts to design, prepare, characterize and test novel catalysts for the mild selective reaction of light hydrocarbons with air or oxygen to produce alcohols directly. These catalysts are designed to form active metal oxo (MO) species and to be uniquely active for the homolytic cleavage of the carbon-hydrogen bonds in light alkanes producing intermediates which can form alcohols. Research on the Cooperative Agreement is divided into three Phases relating to three molecular environments for the active catalytic species that we are trying to generate. In this report we present our work on catalysts which have oxidation-active metals in polyoxoanions (PHASE II).

  14. Design of Phase II cancer trials for evaluation of cytostatic/cytotoxic agents.

    PubMed

    Kocherginsky, Masha; Cohen, Ezra E W; Karrison, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    For experimental anticancer agents that may have both cytostatic and cytotoxic effects, assessment of response rates alone may not capture the full impact of the treatment. Oncologists are therefore interested in assessing both response and stable disease rates in early phase clinical trials of such therapies. We describe the design of a single-arm, Phase II clinical trial for the simultaneous evaluation of objective response and stable disease (lack of early tumor progression) rates using standard RECIST criteria. Demonstration of a sufficiently high rate for either of these endpoints will lead to rejection of the null hypothesis and a conclusion that the treatment warrants further study. A design is chosen that satisfies the desired type I error constraint and has sufficient statistical power at several selected points within the alternative hypothesis space using a restricted search algorithm. An early stopping rule for lack of efficacy is incorporated. The method is illustrated by the design of a Phase II clinical trial in head and neck cancer.

  15. Turnable Semiconductor Laser Spectroscopy in Hollow Optical Waveguides, Phase II SBIR

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory J. Fetzer, Ph.D.

    2001-12-24

    In this study a novel optical trace gas sensor based on a perforated hollow waveguide (PHW) was proposed. The sensor has been given the acronym ESHOW for Environmental Sensor using Hollow Optical Waveguides. Realizations of the sensor have demonstrated rapid response time (<2s), low minimum detection limits (typically around 3 x 10-5 absorbance). Operation of the PHW technology has been demonstrated in the near-infrared (NIR) and mid0infrared (MIR) regions of the spectrum. Simulation of sensor performance provided in depth understanding of the signals and signal processing required to provide high sensitivity yet retain rapid response to gas changes. A dedicated sensor electronics and software foundation were developed during the course of the Phase II effort. Commercial applications of the sensor are ambient air and continuous emissions monitoring, industrial process control and hazardous waste site monitoring. There are numerous other applications for such a sensor including medical diagnosis and treatment, breath analysis for legal purposes, water quality assessment, combustion diagnostics, and chemical process control. The successful completion of Phase II resulted in additional funding of instrument development by the Nations Institute of Heath through a Phase I SBIR grant and a strategic teaming relationship with a commercial manufacture of medical instrumentation. The purpose of the NIH grant and teaming relationship is to further develop the sensor to monitor NO in exhaled breath for the purposes of asthma diagnosis.

  16. High-intensity-discharger 400-W sodium ballast. Phase II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Felper, G.

    1981-10-01

    A research and development program directed toward design, test, and evaluation of an energy efficient High Intensity Discharge (HID) Solid-State 400 Watt Ballast lighting system was undertaken. Under Phase I of the project, the existing ballast was modified, performance characteristics were measured, efficiency was compared with a core/coil ballast including energy loss analysis. Six (6) prototype 400 W High Pressure Sodium Ballasts were built, for verification tests by an independent test facility prior to follow-on performance and life tests. This report covers Phase II of the project which was designed to make test data comparisons on results received from the independent test laboratory, determine methods to increase ballast efficiency, determine the importance of power factors, conduct bulb life tests, perform specification review, performance versus cost analysis, investigate the ballast to determine compliance with new FCC requirement, and determine a line transient specification in respect to solid state ballasting. In addition, Phase II required reliability testing, a manufacturing test plan, a marketing study for solid-state ballast, and the manufacture and delivery of fifteen (15) demonstration ballast units to LBL. These requirements are discussed.

  17. [Orthodontics in general practice 3. Angle Class II/1 malocclusion: one-phase treatment treatment preferred to two-phase treatment].

    PubMed

    Kuijpers, M A R; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M

    2008-01-01

    With regard to the optimal treatment timing for children with an Angle Class II division 1 malocclusion, there is an ongoing controversy on the effectiveness of a two-phase or a one-phase therapy. Two-phase treatment involves a first phase to correct the jaw relationship starting at the age of 7 to 9 years, and, when all permanent teeth are present, a second phase of treatment by fixed appliances. A one-phase treatment involves treatment of the jaw relationship and the dental malocclusion simultaneously or consecutively, starting during the early adolescence period. In recent years, several randomized controlled clinical trials have been performed on this topic. More recently, a Cochrane meta-analysis of these trials has been published. The results show that early treatment of an Angle Class II division 1 malocclusion followed by a second phase of treatment does not have any advantages over treatment that is started later and finished in one phase. One-phase treatment is as effective as two-phase treatment, while the time needed for treatment is shorter and, as a consequence, total costs are lower. Dentists should take into account this information, when treating children with an Angle Class II division 1 malocclusion or referring them to an orthodontist.

  18. Performance Evaluation of Alcohol-Gasoline Blends in 1980 Model Automobiles. Phase II. Methanol-Gasoline Blends.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    renovation, re-inspection, and acceptance by CRC. These cars comprised three models by three automobile makers and two engine-emissions control groups for...EVALUATION OF ALCOHOL.GASOLINE BLENDS IN 1980 MODEL AUTOMOBILES PHASE II METHANOL-GASOLINE BLENDS January 1984 APPROVrD FOR pUBLIC RELEASE" DISTRIBUTION...Members: PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ALCOHOL-GASOLINE BLENDS IN 1980 MODEL AUTOMOBILES : PHASE II - METHANOL-GASOLINE BLENDS (CRC Report No. 536) -I

  19. A Phase I-II Study of Postoperative Capecitabine-Based Chemoradiotherapy in Gastric Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, Edwin; Crosby, Tom D.L.; Dubbelman, Ria; Bartelink, Harry; Verheij, Marcel

    2007-12-01

    Background: The Intergroup 0116 randomized study showed that postoperative 5-fluorouracil-based chemoradiotherapy improved locoregional control and overall survival in patients with gastric cancer. We hypothesized that these results could be improved further by using a more effective, intensified, and convenient chemotherapy schedule. Therefore, this Phase I-II dose-escalation study was performed to determine the maximal tolerated dose and toxicity profile of postoperative radiotherapy combined with concurrent capecitabine. Patients and Methods: After recovery from surgery for adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction or stomach, all patients were treated with capecitabine monotherapy, 1,000 mg/m{sup 2} twice daily for 2 weeks. After a 1-week treatment-free interval, patients received capecitabine (650-1,000 mg/m{sup 2} orally twice daily 5 days/week) in a dose-escalation schedule combined with radiotherapy on weekdays for 5 weeks. Radiotherapy was delivered to a total dose of 45 Gy in 25 fractions to the gastric bed, anastomoses, and regional lymph nodes. Results: Sixty-six patients were treated accordingly. Two patients went off study before or shortly after the start of chemoradiotherapy because of progressive disease. Therefore, 64 patients completed treatment as planned. During the chemoradiotherapy phase, 4 patients developed four items of Grade III dose-limiting toxicity (3 patients in Dose Level II and 1 patient in Dose Level IV). The predefined highest dose of capecitabine, 1,000 mg/m{sup 2} twice daily orally, was tolerated well and, therefore, considered safe for further clinical evaluation. Conclusions: This Phase I-II study shows that intensified chemoradiotherapy with daily capecitabine is feasible in postoperative patients with gastroesophageal junction and gastric cancer.

  20. In Vivo Exposure of Kaempferol Is Driven by Phase II Metabolic Enzymes and Efflux Transporters.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Liang; Zhu, Lijun; Zhao, Min; Shi, Jian; Li, Yuhuan; Yu, Jia; Jiang, Huangyu; Wu, Jinjun; Tong, Yunli; Liu, Yuting; Hu, Ming; Lu, Linlin; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2016-09-01

    Kaempferol is a well-known flavonoid; however, it lacks extensive pharmacokinetic studies. Phase II metabolic enzymes and efflux transporters play an important role in the disposition of flavonoids. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which phase II metabolic enzymes and efflux transporters determine the in vivo exposure of kaempferol. Pharmacokinetic analysis in Sprague-Dawley rats revealed that kaempferol was mostly biotransformed to conjugates, namely, kaempferol-3-glucuronide (K-3-G), kaempferol-7-glucuronide (K-7-G), and kaempferol-7-sulfate, in plasma. K-3-G represented the major metabolite. Compared with that in wild-type mice, pharmacokinetics in knockout FVB mice demonstrated that the absence of multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) significantly increased the area under the curve (AUC) of the conjugates. The lack of MRP1 resulted in a much lower AUC of the conjugates. Intestinal perfusion in rats revealed that the glucuronide conjugates were mainly excreted in the small intestine, but 7-sulfate was mainly excreted in the colon. In Caco-2 monolayers, K-7-G efflux toward the apical (AP) side was significantly higher than K-3-G efflux. In contrast, K-3-G efflux toward the basolateral (BL) side was significantly higher than K-7-G efflux. The BL-to-AP efflux was significantly reduced in the presence of the MRP2 inhibitor LTC4. The AP-to-BL efflux was significantly decreased in the presence of the BL-side MRPs inhibitor MK571. The BCRP inhibitor Ko143 decreased the glucuronide conjugate efflux. Therefore, kaempferol is mainly exposed as K-3-G in vivo, which is driven by phase II metabolic enzymes and efflux transporters (i.e., BCRP and MRPs).

  1. Solid phase extraction of copper(II) by fixed bed procedure on cation exchange complexing resins.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, Maria; Sturini, Michela; D'Agostino, Girolamo; Biesuz, Raffaela

    2010-02-19

    The efficiency of the metal ion recovery by solid phase extraction (SPE) in complexing resins columns is predicted by a simple model based on two parameters reflecting the sorption equilibria and kinetics of the metal ion on the considered resin. The parameter related to the adsorption equilibria was evaluated by the Gibbs-Donnan model, and that related to the kinetics by assuming that the ion exchange is the adsorption rate determining step. The predicted parameters make it possible to evaluate the breakthrough volume of the considered metal ion, Cu(II), from different kinds of complexing resins, and at different conditions, such as acidity and ionic composition.

  2. Nine-year change in statistical design, profile, and success rates of Phase II oncology trials.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Anastasia; Paul, Barry; Marchenko, Olga; Song, Guochen; Patel, Neerali; Moschos, Stergios J

    2016-01-01

    We investigated nine-year trends in statistical design and other features of Phase II oncology clinical trials published in 2005, 2010, and 2014 in five leading oncology journals: Cancer, Clinical Cancer Research, Journal of Clinical Oncology, Annals of Oncology, and Lancet Oncology. The features analyzed included cancer type, multicenter vs. single-institution, statistical design, primary endpoint, number of treatment arms, number of patients per treatment arm, whether or not statistical methods were well described, whether the drug was found effective based on rigorous statistical testing of the null hypothesis, and whether the drug was recommended for future studies.

  3. Design and Development of an Arctic 20,000 Gallon Collapsible Fuel Tank. Phase II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-30

    Elastomeric Coated Fabric N0*,,A"rT0&T (Continue on rever’.9 aide if nec-o ry/ and identify by block numiber) ILC Dover, after successfully developing two...further testing under various global climactic conditions and evaluated for universal POL use. ILC further recommends the V84-8-1 material be...then produced two tanks of each material . Results of Phase II efforts are presented in this report. SI I 2.0 TANK CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURE DISCUSSION The

  4. Summary of WPT FOA phase II demonstration performed on July 21, 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Perry T.; Onar, Omer C.

    2015-08-01

    This summary provides details of the activities, presentations and hardware demonstrations performed at the International Transportation Innovation Center (iTiC) in Greenville, South Carolina as deliverables for the wireless power transfer (WPT) FOA #000667 phase II gateway. This report does not attempt to identify all encompassing efforts from each of the partners leading up to the demonstration, but will attempt to provide a record which briefly describes the project deliverables met and expectations from the Department of Energy (DOE) as action items agreed to during the wrap-up session on July 21, 2015.

  5. A Disposable Microfluidic Device with a Screen Printed Electrode for Mimicking Phase II Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Vasiliadou, Rafaela; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Mehdi; Brown, Nathan J.; Welham, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Human metabolism is investigated using several in vitro methods. However, the current methodologies are often expensive, tedious and complicated. Over the last decade, the combination of electrochemistry (EC) with mass spectrometry (MS) has a simpler and a cheaper alternative to mimic the human metabolism. This paper describes the development of a disposable microfluidic device with a screen-printed electrode (SPE) for monitoring phase II GSH reactions. The proposed chip has the potential to be used as a primary screening tool, thus complementing the current in vitro methods. PMID:27598162

  6. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research Phase II: N+4 Advanced Concept Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2012-01-01

    This final report documents the work of the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team on Task 1 of the Phase II effort. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. Using a quantitative workshop process, the following technologies, appropriate to aircraft operational in the N+4 2040 timeframe, were identified: Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Hydrogen, fuel cell hybrids, battery electric hybrids, Low Energy Nuclear (LENR), boundary layer ingestion propulsion (BLI), unducted fans and advanced propellers, and combinations. Technology development plans were developed.

  7. Zero-g experiments with a He II active phase separator for space application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denner, H. D.; Klipping, G.; Lueders, K.; Ruppert, U.; Stahnke, F.; Szuecs, Z.; Elleman, D.; Petrac, D.

    An active phase separator (APS) for temperature control of He II space cooling systems was tested in a zero-g environment during a series of parabolic flights on a NASA KC 135 aircraft. The APS provides for liquid-gas separation and features an annular gap, a downstream heat exchanger and an upstream ball closure. The apparatus was operated during acceleration and floating and in two different heat load situations. The tests confirmed that adequate mass flow rates could be maintained using a vacuum pump to simulate space vacuum and that residual liquid could be evaporated from the heat exchanger after closing a ball valve to seal off flows.

  8. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils (Phase II) Field Sampling Plan

    SciTech Connect

    G. L. Schwendiman

    2006-07-27

    This Field Sampling Plan describes the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Phase II remediation field sampling activities to be performed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center located within the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Sampling activities described in this plan support characterization sampling of new sites, real-time soil spectroscopy during excavation, and confirmation sampling that verifies that the remedial action objectives and remediation goals presented in the Final Record of Decision for Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13 have been met.

  9. The multifaceted Type II-L supernova 2014G from pre-maximum to nebular phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terreran, G.; Jerkstrand, A.; Benetti, S.; Smartt, S. J.; Ochner, P.; Tomasella, L.; Howell, D. A.; Morales-Garoffolo, A.; Harutyunyan, A.; Kankare, E.; Arcavi, I.; Cappellaro, E.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Kangas, T.; Pastorello, A.; Tartaglia, L.; Turatto, M.; Valenti, S.; Wiggins, P.; Yuan, F.

    2016-10-01

    We present multiband ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared photometry, along with visual-wavelength spectroscopy, of supernova (SN) 2014G in the nearby galaxy NGC 3448 (25 Mpc). The early-phase spectra show strong emission lines of the high ionization species He II/N IV/C IV during the first 2-3 d after explosion, traces of a metal-rich circumstellar material (CSM) probably due to pre-explosion mass-loss events. These disappear by day 9 and the spectral evolution then continues matching that of normal Type II SNe. The post-maximum light curve declines at a rate typical of Type II-L class. The extensive photometric coverage tracks the drop from the photospheric stage and constrains the radioactive tail, with a steeper decline rate than that expected from the 56Co decay if γ-rays are fully trapped by the ejecta. We report the appearance of an unusual feature on the blue side of H α after 100 d, which evolves to appear as a flat spectral feature linking H α and the [O I] doublet. This may be due to interaction of the ejecta with a strongly asymmetric, and possibly bipolar CSM. Finally, we report two deep spectra at ˜190 and 340 d after explosion, the latter being arguably one of the latest spectra for a Type II-L SN. By modelling the spectral region around the [Ca II], we find a supersolar Ni/Fe production. The strength of the [O I] λλ6300,6363 doublet, compared with synthetic nebular spectra, suggests a progenitor with a zero-age main-sequence mass between 15 and 19 M⊙.

  10. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings - phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, J.L.; Stanko, G.J.

    1996-08-01

    In Phase I a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings were exposed to laboratory fireside corrosion testing simulating a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase II (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347, RA-8511, HR3C, 253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, 310 modified, 800HT, NF 709, 690 clad, and 671 clad for over 10,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW coal-fired boiler. The samples were installed on an air-cooled, retractable corrosion probe, installed in the reheater cavity, and controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle coal-fired boiler. Samples of each alloy will be exposed for 4000, 12,000, and 16,000 hours of operation. The results will be presented for the metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after 4000 hours of exposure.

  11. Domain structure in biphenyl incommensurate phase II observed by electron paramagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Véron, A.; Emery, J.; Spiesser, M.

    1994-11-01

    The domain structure in incommensurate phase II of single biphenyl crystal has been observed by investigations of the optically excited states of the Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance (E.P.R.) deuterated naphthalene molecular probes which substitute biphenyl molecules. Our results confirm that this phase is a 1q bi-domain one. The analysis of the spectra obtained in X band (9.5 GHz) experiments, in relation with the spin Hamiltonian parameter properties permits us to show that the E.P.R. probe rotates around a direction perpendicular to its long axis while the biphenyl molecule undergoes a twist movement around this axis. They also account for a regime which is like a “ multi-soliton " regime while the modulation is a plane wave one in the pure single crystal. The two molecules of the high temperature cell do not exactly experience the saure displacement field in the incommensurate phase and consequently the two domains can be distinguished. The spin Hamiltonian parameters which characterize the E.P.R. probes have been determined in the incommensurate phase II of biphenyl. La structure en domaines de la phase II du biphényle est mise en évidence par les investigations dans les états photo-excités des molécules de naphtalène deutéré, utilisées comme sondes de Résonance Paramagnétique Electronique, se substituant de manière diluée dans le mono-cristal de biphényle. Ceci confirme que cette phase est 1q bi-domaine. L'analyse des spectres obtenus dans des expériences en bande X (9.5 GHz) en relation avec les propriétés de l'hamiltonien de spin permet de montrer que la sonde moléculaire tourne autour d'une direction perpendiculaire à son grand axe alors que la molécule de biphényle subit un mouvement de twist autour de cet axe. Les résultats montrent que ces sondes rendent compte d'un régime qui est comme un régime “ multi-solitons " alors que la modulation est plane dans le cristal pur. Les deux molécules sondes de la cellule

  12. Effects of Combined Phase III and Phase II Cardiac Exercise Therapy for Middle-aged Male Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih-Wei; Wang, Ji-Hung; Hsieh, Jen-Che; Hsieh, Tsung-Cheng; Huang, Chien-Hui

    2013-11-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of cardiac exercise therapy (CET) on exercise capacity and coronary risk factors (CRFs) of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). [Methods] Patients who participated in an 8-week supervised, hospital-based phase II and 6-month home-based phase III CET with monthly telephone and/or home visits were defined as the exercise group (EG) (n=20), while those who did not receive phase II or phase III CET were defined as the no-exercise group (NEG) (n=10). CRFs were evaluated pre- and post-phase II and eight months after discharge. One and two-way repeated measures ANOVA were used to perform intra- and inter-group comparisons. [Results] Thirty men with AMI aged 49.3 ± 8.3 years were studied. EG increased their exercise capacity (METs) (6.8 ± 1.6 vs.10.0 ± 1.9) after phase II CET and was able to maintain it at 8-month follow-up. Both groups had significantly fewer persons who kept on smoking compared to the first examination. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased from 38.1 ± 11.0 to 43.7 ± 8.7 mg/dl at follow-up in EG while no significant difference was noted in NEG. [Conclusion] After phase III CET subjects had maintained the therapeutic effects of smoking cessation, and increasing exercise capacity obtained in phase II CET. HDL-C in EG continued to improve during phase III CET.

  13. High-pressure phases of group-II difluorides: Polymorphism and superionicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Joseph R.; Needs, Richard J.; Pickard, Chris J.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the high-pressure behavior of beryllium, magnesium, and calcium difluorides using ab initio random structure searching and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, over the pressure range 0 -70 GPa. Beryllium fluoride exhibits extensive polymorphism at low pressures, and we find two new phases for this compound—the silica moganite and CaCl2 structures—which are stable over the wide pressure range 12 -57 GPa. For magnesium fluoride, our searching results show that the orthorhombic "O-I" TiO2 structure (P b c a ,Z =8 ) is stable for this compound between 40 and 44 GPa. Our searches find no new phases at the static-lattice level for calcium difluoride between 0 and 70 GPa; however, a phase with P 6 ¯2 m symmetry is close to stability over this pressure range, and our calculations predict that this phase is stabilized at high temperature. The P 6 ¯2 m structure exhibits an unstable phonon mode at large volumes which may signal a transition to a superionic state at high temperatures. The group-II difluorides are isoelectronic to a number of other AB2-type compounds such as SiO2 and TiO2, and we discuss our results in light of these similarities.

  14. A modified varying-stage adaptive phase II/III clinical trial design.

    PubMed

    Dong, Gaohong; Vandemeulebroecke, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Conventionally, adaptive phase II/III clinical trials are carried out with a strict two-stage design. Recently, a varying-stage adaptive phase II/III clinical trial design has been developed. In this design, following the first stage, an intermediate stage can be adaptively added to obtain more data, so that a more informative decision can be made. Therefore, the number of further investigational stages is determined based upon data accumulated to the interim analysis. This design considers two plausible study endpoints, with one of them initially designated as the primary endpoint. Based on interim results, another endpoint can be switched as the primary endpoint. However, in many therapeutic areas, the primary study endpoint is well established. Therefore, we modify this design to consider one study endpoint only so that it may be more readily applicable in real clinical trial designs. Our simulations show that, the same as the original design, this modified design controls the Type I error rate, and the design parameters such as the threshold probability for the two-stage setting and the alpha allocation ratio in the two-stage setting versus the three-stage setting have a great impact on the design characteristics. However, this modified design requires a larger sample size for the initial stage, and the probability of futility becomes much higher when the threshold probability for the two-stage setting gets smaller. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. One-stage and two-stage designs for phase II clinical trials with survival endpoints.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, John

    2014-09-28

    This work is motivated by trials in rapidly lethal cancers or cancers for which measuring shrinkage of tumours is infeasible. In either case, traditional phase II designs focussing on tumour response are unsuitable. Usually, tumour response is considered as a substitute for the more relevant but longer-term endpoint of death. In rapidly lethal cancers such as pancreatic cancer, there is no need to use a surrogate, as the definitive endpoint is (sadly) available so soon. In uveal cancer, there is no counterpart to tumour response, and so, mortality is the only realistic response available. Cytostatic cancer treatments do not seek to kill tumours, but to mitigate their effects. Trials of such therapy might also be based on survival times to death or progression, rather than on tumour shrinkage. Phase II oncology trials are often conducted with all study patients receiving the experimental therapy, and this approach is considered here. Simple extensions of one-stage and two-stage designs based on binary responses are presented. Outcomes based on survival past a small number of landmark times are considered: here, the case of three such times is explored in examples. This approach allows exact calculations to be made for both design and analysis purposes. Simulations presented here show that calculations based on normal approximations can lead to loss of power when sample sizes are small. Two-stage versions of the procedure are also suggested.

  16. ICFT: An initial closed-loop flow test of the Fenton Hill Phase II HDR reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, Z.V.; Aguilar, R.G.; Dennis, B.R.; Dreesen, D.S.; Fehler, M.C.; Hendron, R.H.; House, L.S.; Ito, H.; Kelkar, S.M.; Malzahn, M.V.

    1989-02-01

    A 30-day closed-loop circulation test of the Phase II Hot Dry Rock reservoir at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, was conducted to determine the thermal, hydraulic, chemical, and seismic characteristics of the reservoir in preparation for a long-term energy-extraction test. The Phase II heat-extraction loop was successfully tested with the injection of 37,000 m/sup 3/ of cold water and production of 23,300 m/sup 3/ of hot water. Up to 10 MW/sub t/ was extracted when the production flow rate reached 0.0139 m/sup 3//s at 192/degree/C. By the end of the test, the water-loss rate had decreased to 26% and a significant portion of the injected water was recovered; 66% during the test and an additional 20% during subsequent venting. Analysis of thermal, hydraulic, geochemical, tracer, and seismic data suggests the fractured volume of the reservoir was growing throughout the test. 19 refs., 64 figs., 19 tabs.

  17. DoE Phase II SBIR: Spectrally-Assisted Vehicle Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Villeneuve, Pierre V.

    2013-02-28

    The goal of this Phase II SBIR is to develop a prototype software package to demonstrate spectrally-aided vehicle tracking performance. The primary application is to demonstrate improved target vehicle tracking performance in complex environments where traditional spatial tracker systems may show reduced performance. Example scenarios in Figure 1 include a) the target vehicle obscured by a large structure for an extended period of time, or b), the target engaging in extreme maneuvers amongst other civilian vehicles. The target information derived from spatial processing is unable to differentiate between the green versus the red vehicle. Spectral signature exploitation enables comparison of new candidate targets with existing track signatures. The ambiguity in this confusing scenario is resolved by folding spectral analysis results into each target nomination and association processes. Figure 3 shows a number of example spectral signatures from a variety of natural and man-made materials. The work performed over the two-year effort was divided into three general areas: algorithm refinement, software prototype development, and prototype performance demonstration. The tasks performed under this Phase II to accomplish the program goals were as follows: 1. Acquire relevant vehicle target datasets to support prototype. 2. Refine algorithms for target spectral feature exploitation. 3. Implement a prototype multi-hypothesis target tracking software package. 4. Demonstrate and quantify tracking performance using relevant data.

  18. Phase II enzyme induction by a carotenoid, lutein, in a PC12D neuronal cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, Seiji; Kobayashi, Saori; Tsubota, Kazuo; Ozawa, Yoko

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • Lutein reduced ROS levels in a PC12D neuronal cell line. • Lutein induced mRNAs of phase II antioxidative enzymes in PC12D neuronal cells. • Lutein increased protein levels of HO-1, SOD2, and NQO-1 in PC12D neuronal cells. • Lutein had no effect on intranuclear Nrf2 levels in PC12D neuronal cells. • Lutein did not activate potential upstream Nrf2 nuclear translocation pathways. - Abstract: The mechanism by which lutein, a carotenoid, acts as an antioxidant in retinal cells is still not fully understood. Here, lutein treatment of a neuronal cell line (PC12D) immediately resulted in reduced intracellular ROS levels, implying that it has a direct role in ROS scavenging. Significantly, lutein treatment also induced phase II antioxidative enzyme expression, probably via a nuclear factor-like 2 (Nrf2) independent pathway. This latter mechanism could explain why lutein acts diversely to protect against oxidative/cytotoxic stress, and why it is physiologically involved in the human neural tissue, such as the retina.

  19. Purification, crystallization, X-ray diffraction analysis and phasing of an engineered single-chain PvuII restriction endonuclease

    SciTech Connect

    Meramveliotaki, Chrysi; Kotsifaki, Dina; Androulaki, Maria; Hountas, Athanasios; Eliopoulos, Elias; Kokkinidis, Michael

    2007-10-01

    PvuII is the first type II restriction endonuclease to be converted from its wild-type homodimeric form into an enzymatically active single-chain variant. The enzyme was crystallized and phasing was successfully performed by molecular replacement. The restriction endonuclease PvuII from Proteus vulgaris has been converted from its wild-type homodimeric form into the enzymatically active single-chain variant scPvuII by tandemly joining the two subunits through the peptide linker Gly-Ser-Gly-Gly. scPvuII, which is suitable for the development of programmed restriction endonucleases for highly specific DNA cleavage, was purified and crystallized. The crystals diffract to a resolution of 2.35 Å and belong to space group P4{sub 2}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 101.92, c = 100.28 Å and two molecules per asymmetric unit. Phasing was successfully performed by molecular replacement.

  20. The peculiar type II supernova 1993J in M81: Transition to the nebular phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filippenko, Alexei V.; Matheson, Thomas; Barth, Aaron J.

    1994-01-01

    We present optical spectra of the bright, peculiar Type II supernova 1993J in M81 spanning the first 14 months of its existence, revealing its transition to the nebular phase. Unlike the case in normal Type II supernovae, during the first 2-10 months the H-alpha emission line gradually becomes less prominent relative to other features such as (O I) lambda lambda 6300, 6364 and (Ca II) lambda lambda 7291, 7324, as we had predicted based on early-time (tau less than or approximately equal to 2 months) spectra. The nebular spectrum resembles those of the Type Ib/Ic supernovae 1985F and 1987M, although weak H-alpha emission is easily visible even at late times in SN 1993J. At tau = 8 months a close similarity is found with the spectrum of SN 1987K, the only other Type II supernova known to have undergone such a metamorphosis. The emission lines are considerably broader than those of normal Type II supernovae at comparable phases, consistent with the progenitor having lost a majority of its hydrogen envelope prior to exploding. Consequently, there is now little doubt that Type Ib, and probably Type Ic, supernovae result from core collapse in stripped, massive stars; models of the chemical evolution of galaxies in which these subtypes are ascribed to exploding white dwarfs must be appropriately modified. Although all of the emission lines in spectra of SN 1993J fade roughly exponentially for a considerable time, the fading of H-alpha begins to slow down at tau approximately = 8 months, and in the interval tau = 10-14 months its flux is constant, or even slightly rising in the wings of the line. This behavior, together with the box-like shape and great breadth (full width at half maximum (FWHM) approximately = 17 000 km/s) of the line profile, suggests that the H-alpha emission is being produced by the high-velocity outer layer of hydrogen ejecta interacting with circumstellar gas released by the progenitor prior to its explosion. A similar phenomenon has previously been

  1. 77 FR 23228 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program-Phase II...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... Public Law 106-554, the ``Small Business Reauthorization Act of 2000, H.R. 5667'' enacted on December 21... Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program--Phase II--Grant Application Package SUMMARY: This application package invites small business concerns to submit a Phase...

  2. Climatepipes: User-friendly data access, data manipulation, data analysis and visualization of community climate models Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhary, Aashish

    2015-09-02

    In Phase I, we successfully developed a web-based tool that provides workflow and form-based interfaces for accessing, querying, and visualizing interesting datasets from one or more sources. For Phase II of the project, we have implemented mechanisms for supporting more elaborate and relevant queries.

  3. Robust growth of avirulent phase II Coxiella burnetii in bone marrow-derived murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Cockrell, Diane C.; Long, Carrie M.; Robertson, Shelly J.; Shannon, Jeffrey G.; Miller, Heather E.; Myers, Lara; Larson, Charles L.; Starr, Tregei; Beare, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Published data show that murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) restrict growth of avirulent phase II, but not virulent phase I, Coxiella burnetii. Growth restriction of phase II bacteria is thought to result from potentiated recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns, which leads to production of inhibitory effector molecules. Past studies have used conditioned medium from L-929 murine fibroblasts as a source of macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) to promote differentiation of bone marrow-derived myeloid precursors into macrophages. However, uncharacterized components of conditioned medium, such as variable amounts of type I interferons, can affect macrophage activation status and their permissiveness for infection. In the current study, we show that the C. burnetii Nine Mile phase II (NMII) strain grows robustly in primary macrophages from C57BL/6J mice when bone marrow cells are differentiated with recombinant murine M-CSF (rmM-CSF). Bacteria were readily internalized by BMDM, and replicated within degradative, LAMP1-positive vacuoles to achieve roughly 3 logs of growth over 6 days. Uninfected BMDM did not appreciably express CD38 or Egr2, markers of classically (M1) and alternatively (M2) activated macrophages, respectively, nor did infection change the lack of polarization. In accordance with an M0 phenotype, infected BMDM produced moderate amounts of TNF and nitric oxide. Similar NMII growth results were obtained using C57BL/6J myeloid progenitors immortalized with an estrogen-regulated Hoxb8 (ER-Hoxb8) oncogene. To demonstrate the utility of the ER-Hoxb8 system, myeloid progenitors from natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (Nramp1) C57BL/6J knock-in mice were transduced with ER-Hoxb8, and macrophages were derived from immortalized progenitors using rmM-CSF and infected with NMII. No difference in growth was observed when compared to macrophages from wild type mice, indicating depletion of metal ions by the Nramp1

  4. SU-E-J-35: Clinical Performance Evaluation of a Phase II Proton CT Scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Mandapaka, A; Ghebremedhin, A; Farley, D; Giacometti, V; Vence, N; Bashkirov, V; Patyal, B; Schulte, R; Plautz, T; Zatserklyaniy, A; Johnson, R; Sadrozinski, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop the methodology to evaluate the clinical performance of a Phase II Proton CT scanner Methods: Range errors on the order of 3%-5% constitute a major uncertainty in current charged particle treatment planning based on Hounsfield Unit (HU)-relative stopping power (RSP) calibration curves. Within our proton CT collaboration, we previously developed and built a Phase I proton CT scanner that provided a sensitive area of 9 cm (axial) × 18 cm (in-plane). This scanner served to get initial experience with this new treatment planning tool and to incorporate lessons learned into the next generation design. A Phase II scanner was recently completed and is now undergoing initial performance testing. It will increase the proton acquisition rate and provide a larger detection area of 9 cm x 36 cm. We are now designing a comprehensive evaluation program to test the image quality, imaging dose, and range uncertainty associated with this scanner. The testing will be performed along the lines of AAPM TG 66. Results: In our discussion of the evaluation protocol we identified the following priorities. The image quality of proton CT images, in particular spatial resolution and low-density contrast discrimination, will be evaluated with the Catphan600 phantom. Initial testing showed that the Catphan uniformity phantom did not provide sufficient uniformity; it was thus replaced by a cylindrical water phantom. The imaging dose will be tested with a Catphan dose module, and compared to a typical cone beam CT dose for comparable image quality. Lastly, we developed a dedicated dosimetry range phantom based on the CIRS pediatric head phantom HN715. Conclusion: A formal evaluation of proton CT as a new tool for proton treatment planning is an important task. The availability of the new Phase II proton CT scanner will allow us to perform this task. This research is supported by the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering of the NIH under award number R01

  5. DOD USER-NEEDS STUDY, PHASE II -- FLOW OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION WITHIN THE DEFENSE INDUSTRY. FINAL REPORT. VOLUME II, A. TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION, B. TECHNICAL APPENDICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GOODMAN, ARNOLD F.; AND OTHERS

    IN PHASE II OF THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE (DOD) SURVEY TO FIND OUT HOW SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS IN GOVERNMENT AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES ACQUIRE INFORMATION, SCIENTIFIC PERSONNEL IN THE DEFENSE INDUSTRY WERE INTERVIEWED TO DETERMINE THEIR INFORMATION NEEDS AND THE FLOW OF INFORMATION INHERENT IN SATISFYING THESE…

  6. ADVANCED SIMULATION CAPABILITY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT- CURRENT STATUS AND PHASE II DEMONSTRATION RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, R.

    2013-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Soil and Groundwater, is supporting development of the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM). ASCEM is a state-of-the-art scientific tool and approach for understanding and predicting contaminant fate and transport in natural and engineered systems. The modular and open source high-performance computing tool facilitates integrated approaches to modeling and site characterization that enable robust and standardized assessments of performance and risk for EM cleanup and closure activities. The ASCEM project continues to make significant progress in development of computer software capabilities with an emphasis on integration of capabilities in FY12. Capability development is occurring for both the Platform and Integrated Toolsets and High-Performance Computing (HPC) Multiprocess Simulator. The Platform capabilities provide the user interface and tools for end-to-end model development, starting with definition of the conceptual model, management of data for model input, model calibration and uncertainty analysis, and processing of model output, including visualization. The HPC capabilities target increased functionality of process model representations, toolsets for interaction with Platform, and verification and model confidence testing. The Platform and HPC capabilities are being tested and evaluated for EM applications in a set of demonstrations as part of Site Applications Thrust Area activities. The Phase I demonstration focusing on individual capabilities of the initial toolsets was completed in 2010. The Phase II demonstration completed in 2012 focused on showcasing integrated ASCEM capabilities. For Phase II, the Hanford Site deep vadose zone (BC Cribs) served as an application site for an end-to-end demonstration of capabilities, with emphasis on integration and linkages between the Platform and HPC components. Other demonstrations

  7. ADVANCED SIMULATION CAPABILITY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT – CURRENT STATUS AND PHASE II DEMONSTRATION RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Roger; Freshley, Mark D.; Dixon, Paul; Hubbard, Susan S.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Flach, Gregory P.; Faybishenko, Boris; Gorton, Ian; Finsterle, Stefan A.; Moulton, John D.; Steefel, Carl I.; Marble, Justin

    2013-06-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Soil and Groundwater, is supporting development of the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM). ASCEM is a state-of-the-art scientific tool and approach for understanding and predicting contaminant fate and transport in natural and engineered systems. The modular and open source high-performance computing tool facilitates integrated approaches to modeling and site characterization that enable robust and standardized assessments of performance and risk for EM cleanup and closure activities. The ASCEM project continues to make significant progress in development of computer software capabilities with an emphasis on integration of capabilities in FY12. Capability development is occurring for both the Platform and Integrated Toolsets and High-Performance Computing (HPC) Multiprocess Simulator. The Platform capabilities provide the user interface and tools for end-to-end model development, starting with definition of the conceptual model, management of data for model input, model calibration and uncertainty analysis, and processing of model output, including visualization. The HPC capabilities target increased functionality of process model representations, toolsets for interaction with Platform, and verification and model confidence testing. The Platform and HPC capabilities are being tested and evaluated for EM applications in a set of demonstrations as part of Site Applications Thrust Area activities. The Phase I demonstration focusing on individual capabilities of the initial toolsets was completed in 2010. The Phase II demonstration completed in 2012 focused on showcasing integrated ASCEM capabilities. For Phase II, the Hanford Site deep vadose zone (BC Cribs) served as an application site for an end-to-end demonstration of capabilities, with emphasis on integration and linkages between the Platform and HPC components. Other demonstrations

  8. A Phase II Study of Sorafenib in Advanced Uterine Carcinoma / Carcinosarcoma: A Trial of the Chicago, PMH, and California Phase II Consortia

    PubMed Central

    Nimeiri, Halla S.; Oza, Amit M.; Morgan, Robert J.; Huo, Dezheng; Elit, Laurie; Knost, James A.; Wade, James L.; Agamah, Edem; Vokes, Everett E.; Fleming, Gini F.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the efficacy and safety of single agent sorafenib, an oral multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in patients with advanced uterine carcinoma and carcinosarcoma. Methods This multi-institutional non-randomized phase II trial enrolled two cohorts: patients with uterine carcinoma (cohort A) and uterine carcinosarcoma (cohort B). Eligibility criteria included measurable disease, 0–1 prior chemotherapy regimens, and ECOG performance status ≤ 2. Sorafenib at a dose of 400 mg was administered orally twice daily. A cycle was defined as 28 days. Objective tumor response was the primary endpoint and was assessed following every two cycles. Results Fifty–six patients (40 with carcinoma, 16 with carcinosarcoma) were enrolled between March 2005 and August 2007. Two (5%) patients with uterine carcinoma had a partial response (PR) and 17 (42.5%) achieved stable disease (SD). Five had SD lasting at least 4 months. The 6-month progression free survival rate for patients with carcinoma was 29%, and the median overall survival was 11.4 months. No patients with carcinosarcoma had an objective response. Four (25%) had SD, and one had SD lasting 18 months. The 6-month progression free survival rate was 13%, and the median overall survival was 5.0 months. Grade 3/4 drug related toxicities included: hypertension (13%), hand-foot syndrome (13%), hypophosphatemia (7%), anemia (5%), rash (5%), diarrhea (5%), thrombosis (5%), fatigue (5%) and bleeding (5%). Conclusion Sorafenib had minimal activity in patients with uterine carcinoma. Predictive factors for potential benefit are needed. PMID:20117828

  9. Phase II Water Rental Pilot Project: Snake River Resident Fish and Wildlife Resources and Management Recommendations.

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, Stacey H.

    1994-08-01

    The Idaho Water Rental Pilot Project was implemented in 1991 as part of the Non-Treaty Storage Fish and Wildlife Agreement between Bonneville Power Administration and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority. The goal of the project is to quantify resident fish and wildlife impacts resulting from salmon flow augmentation releases made from the upper Snake River Basin. Phase I summarized existing resource information and provided management recommendations to protect and enhance resident fish and wildlife habitat resulting from storage releases for the I improvement of an adromous fish migration. Phase II includes the following: (1) a summary of recent biological, legal, and political developments within the basin as they relate to water management issues, (2) a biological appraisal of the Snake River between American Falls Reservoir and the city of Blackfoot to examine the effects of flow fluctuation on fish and wildlife habitat, and (3) a preliminary accounting of 1993--1994 flow augmentation releases out of the upper Snake, Boise, and Payette river systems. Phase III will include the development of a model in which annual flow requests and resident fish and wildlife suitability information are interfaced with habitat time series analysis to provide an estimate of resident fish and wildlife resources.

  10. Phase Equilibria of Sn-Sb-Ag Ternary System (II): Calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierlotka, Wojcieh; Huang, Yu-Chih; Chen, Sinn-Wen

    2008-12-01

    Knowledge of the phase equilibria of the Sn-Sb-Ag ternary system is of fundamental importance in Sn-Sb-based solder applications. Thermodynamic models of the ternary Sn-Sb-Ag system and the binary Sb-Ag and Sn-Ag systems are developed using the calculation of phase diagrams (CALPHAD) method. The calculated 250 °C isothermal section, liquidus projection, and thermodynamic properties are in good agreement with the experimental results. There are two continuous solid solutions formed between the ɛ-Ag3Sn and ɛ-Ag3Sb, and ζ-Ag17Sb3 and ζ-Ag5Sn phases, but there is no ternary compound. There are three class II ternary invariant reactions, L + Sb ↔ ɛ + β-SnSb, L + β-SnSb ↔ Sn3Sb2 + ɛ, and L + Sn3Sb2 ↔ Sn + ɛ. Their reaction temperatures are 379 °C, 313 °C, and 231 °C, respectively.

  11. Electron diffraction based analysis of phase fractions and texture in nanocrystalline thin films, part II: implementation.

    PubMed

    Lábár, János L

    2009-02-01

    This series of articles describes a method that performs (semi)quantitative phase analysis for nanocrystalline transmission electron microscope samples from selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns. Volume fractions of phases and their textures are obtained separately in the method. First, the two-dimensional SAED pattern is converted into an X-ray diffraction-like one-dimensional distribution. Volume fractions of the nanocrystalline components are determined by fitting the spectral components, calculated for the previously identified phases with a priori known structures. Blackman correction is also applied to take into account dynamic effects for medium grain sizes. Peak shapes and experimental parameters (camera length, etc.) are refined during the fitting iterations. Parameter space is explored with the help of the Downhill-SIMPLEX algorithm. Part I presented the principles, while Part II now elaborates current implementation, and Part III will demonstrate its usage by examples. The method is implemented in a computer program that runs under the Windows operating system on IBM PC compatible machines.

  12. Orbit Design for Phase I and II of the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Steve P.

    2003-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) is a NASA mission intended to make fundamental advancements in our understanding of the Earth's Magnetosphere. There are three processes that MMS is intended to study including magnetic recon- nection, charged particle acceleration, and turbulence. There are four phases of the MMS mission and each phase is designed to study a particular region of the Earth's magnetosphere. The mission is composed of a formation of four spacecraft that are nominally in a regular tetrahedron formation. In this work, we present optimal orbit designs for Phase I and II. This entails designing optimal reference orbits so that the spacecraft dwell-time in the region of interest is a maximum. This is non-trivial because the Earth's magnetosphere is dynamic and its shape and position are not constant in inertial space. Optimal orbit design for MMS also entails designing the formation so that the relative motion of the four spacecraft yields the greatest science return. We develop performance metrics that are related to the science return, and use Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) to determine optimal relative motion solutions. We also ensure that practical constraints such as maximum eclipse time and minimum inter-spacecraft separation distances are not violated.

  13. Orbit Design for Phase I and II of the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Steve P.

    2004-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) is a NASA mission intended to make fundamental advancements in our understanding of the Earth s magnetosphere. There are three processes that MMS is intended to study including magnetic reconnection, charged particle acceleration, and turbulence. There are four phases of the MMS mission and each phase is designed to study a particular region of the Earth's magnetosphere. The mission is composed of a formation of four spacecraft that are nominally in a regular tetrahedron formation. In this work, we present optimal orbit designs for Phase I and II. This entails designing reference orbits such that the spacecraft dwell-time in the region of interest is a maximum. This is non-trivial because the Earth's magnetosphere is dynamic and its shape and position are not constant in inertial space. Optimal orbit design for MMS also entails designing the formation so that the relative motion of the four spacecraft yields the greatest science return. We develop performance metrics that are directly related to the science return, and use Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) to determine optimal relative motion solutions. While designing for optimal science return, we also consider practical constraints such as maximum eclipse time and minimum inter-spacecraft separation distances. Data are presented that illustrates how long we can ensure that the formation remains in the relevant region of the Earth's magnetosphere. We also draw general conclusions about where in the orbit acceptable tetrahedron configurations can be provided and for how long.

  14. Granular bed filter development program, Phase II. Quarterly report, January-March 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Moresco, L. L.; Ferguson, J.

    1981-08-01

    Phase I included the development of a mathematical model, a cold flow parametric test series in a 0.746 Nm/sup 3//s GBF, and investigations of potential dust plugging problems at the inlet screen. Collection efficiencies of 99% and filter outlet loadings less than 0.0074 g/m/sup 3/ were demonstrated. The objectives of Phase II are to investigate the effects of elevated temperature and coal combustion particulate on GBF filtration performance; to update the analytical model developed in Phase I to reflect high temperature effects; to optimize filter internal configuration; to perform parametric and long duration tests to characterize the effects of filter design improvements on filtration efficiencies. Hot flow testing to date has confirmed that the GBF configured with inlet and outlet screens has exhibited a tendency for extensive and irreversible ash plugging. The potential advantages of a screenless configuration, having higher filtration efficiency, has been confirmed. This report describes the continuation of work pertinent to the development and design improvement of the GBF system, specifically addressing: (1) the development of governing equations derived for the 3-dimensional GBF mathematical model; (2) the initial results of subcontracted experiments to establish correlations of particulate capture mechanisms for use in the numerical 3-dimensional model; and (3) the design and physical modifications incorporated into the Model 4 GBF hot test setup for the final series of hot gas tests.

  15. Membrane/distillation hybrid process research and development. Final report, phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Mazanec, T.J.

    1997-07-01

    This report covers work conducted under the grant awarded to BP by DOE in late 1991 entitled {open_quotes}Membrane/Distillation Hybrid Process Research and Development.{close_quotes} The program was directed towards development and commercialization of the BP process for separation of vapor phase olefins from non-olefins via facilitated transport using an aqueous facilitator. The program has come to a very successful conclusion, with formation of a partnership between BP and Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC) to market and commercialize the technology. The focus of this report is the final portion of the program, during which engineering re-design, facilitator optimization, economic analysis, and marketing have been the primary activities. At the end of Phase II BP was looking to partner with an engineering firm to advance the selective olefin recovery (SOR) technology from the lab/demo stage to full commercialization. In August 1995 BP and SWEC reached an agreement to advance the technology by completing additional Phase III work with DOE and beginning marketing activities.

  16. Geothermal Evaluation of The Hosston Formation Lackland Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas Phase II Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zeisloft, Jon; Foley, Duncan

    1984-05-30

    This report summarizes the results of a phased program to test the geothermal characteristics of the Hosston Formation at Lackland Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas. The geothermal resource evaluation was made possible through drilling and preliminary testing of a large diameter well, Lackland AFB No.1, at the south portion of the base. Phase I of the program had 3 major components: (1) compilation and interpretation of surface and subsurface geologic data to site the well; (2) design of the well; and (3) permitting the well. Phase II consisted of well drilling and preliminary development. The goal of the program was to identify water temperature, water quality, and productivity characteristics of the Hosston aquifer, which preliminary studies suggested might be favorable for direct applications on the base. Results reported herein suggest that heat pumps or other engineering alternatives might be needed for such applications. Results of the well drilling give data on water productivity, quality and temperature. Air-lift testing shows that, although the well does not flow to surface, good artesian pressure exists. Water quality appears acceptable, with about 2200 parts per million total dissolved solids. Equilibrated reservoir temperatures appear to be slightly less than 108 F (42 C).

  17. H2O2 preconditioning modulates phase II enzymes through p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt activation.

    PubMed

    Angeloni, Cristina; Motori, Elisa; Fabbri, Daniele; Malaguti, Marco; Leoncini, Emanuela; Lorenzini, Antonello; Hrelia, Silvana

    2011-06-01

    Ischemic preconditioning is a complex cardioprotective phenomenon that involves adaptive changes in cells and molecules and occurs in a biphasic pattern: an early phase after 1-2 h and a late phase after 12-24 h. While it is widely accepted that reactive oxygen species are strongly involved in triggering ischemic preconditiong, it is not clear if they play a major role in the early or late phase of preconditioning and which are the mechanisms involved. The present study was designed to investigate the mechanisms behind H(2)O(2)-induced cardioprotection in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. We focused on antioxidant and phase II enzymes and their modulation by protein kinase signaling pathways and nuclear-factor-E(2)-related factor-1 (Nrf1) and Nrf2. H(2)O(2) preconditioning was able to counteract oxidative stress more effectively in the late than in the early phase of adaptation. In particular, H(2)O(2) preconditioning counteracted oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by decreasing caspase-3 activity, increasing Bcl2 expression and selectively increasing the expression and activity of antioxidant and phase II enzymes through Nrf1 and Nrf2 translocation to the nucleus. The downregulation of Nrf1 and Nrf2 by small interfering RNA reduced the expression level of phase II enzymes. Specific inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and p38 MAPK activation partially reduced the cardioprotection elicited by H(2)O(2) preconditioning and the induction and activity of phase II enzymes. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, a key role for Nrf1, and not only for Nrf2, in the induction of phase II enzymes triggered by H(2)O(2) preconditioning.

  18. Dietary chemoprevention strategies for induction of phase II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in lung carcinogenesis: A review

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiang-Lin; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality for men and women in the United States and is a growing worldwide problem. Protection against lung cancer is associated with higher dietary intake of fruits and vegetables, according to recent large epidemiologic studies. One strategy for lung cancer chemoprevention focuses on the use of agents to modulate the metabolism and disposition of tobacco, environmental and endogenous carcinogens through upregulation of detoxifying phase II enzymes. We summarize the substantial evidence that suggests that induction of phase II enzymes, particularly the glutathione S-transferases, plays a direct role in chemoprotection against lung carcinogenesis. The engagement of the Keap1–Nrf2 complex regulating the antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway has been identified as a key molecular target of chemopreventive phase II inducers in several systems. Monitoring of phase II enzyme induction has led to identification of novel chemopreventive agents such as the isothiocyanate sulforaphane, and the 1,2-dithiole-3-thiones. However, no agents have yet demonstrated clear benefit in human cell systems, or in clinical trials. Alternative strategies include: (a) using intermediate cancer biomarkers for the endpoint in human trials; (b) high-throughput small molecule discovery approaches for induced expression of human phase II genes; and (c) integrative approaches that consider pharmacogenetics, along with pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in target lung tissue. These approaches may lead to a more effective strategy of tailored chemoprevention efforts using compounds with proven human activity. PMID:19185948

  19. Dietary chemoprevention strategies for induction of phase II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in lung carcinogenesis: A review.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiang-Lin; Spivack, Simon D

    2009-08-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality for men and women in the United States and is a growing worldwide problem. Protection against lung cancer is associated with higher dietary intake of fruits and vegetables, according to recent large epidemiologic studies. One strategy for lung cancer chemoprevention focuses on the use of agents to modulate the metabolism and disposition of tobacco, environmental and endogenous carcinogens through upregulation of detoxifying phase II enzymes. We summarize the substantial evidence that suggests that induction of phase II enzymes, particularly the glutathione S-transferases, plays a direct role in chemoprotection against lung carcinogenesis. The engagement of the Keap1-Nrf2 complex regulating the antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway has been identified as a key molecular target of chemopreventive phase II inducers in several systems. Monitoring of phase II enzyme induction has led to identification of novel chemopreventive agents such as the isothiocyanate sulforaphane, and the 1,2-dithiole-3-thiones. However, no agents have yet demonstrated clear benefit in human cell systems, or in clinical trials. Alternative strategies include: (a) using intermediate cancer biomarkers for the endpoint in human trials; (b) high-throughput small molecule discovery approaches for induced expression of human phase II genes; and (c) integrative approaches that consider pharmacogenetics, along with pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in target lung tissue. These approaches may lead to a more effective strategy of tailored chemoprevention efforts using compounds with proven human activity.

  20. Cinnamaldehyde enhances Nrf2 nuclear translocation to upregulate phase II detoxifying enzyme expression in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tzou-Chi; Chung, Yu-Ling; Wu, Mei-Li; Chuang, Show-Mei

    2011-05-11

    Cinnamaldehyde has been demonstrated to stimulate glutathione production and the expression of phase II detoxifying enzymes in HepG2 cells. The mechanism underlying this cinnamaldehyde-mediated gene expression relies on Nrf2 transcriptional activity. Therefore, the molecular signaling events in cinnamaldehyde-mediated detoxifying enzyme expression were further investigated in this study. Cinnamaldehyde activated ERK1/2, Akt, and JNK signaling pathways, but not the p38 MAP kinase pathway, subsequently leading to Nrf2 nuclear translocation and eventually increasing phase II enzyme expression. In contrast, inhibition of ERK1/2, Akt, or JNK pathways attenuated Nrf2 nuclear translocation and phase II enzyme expression. Depletion of Nrf2 by small RNA interference (si-RNA) showed that the protein levels of phase II enzymes were no longer induced by cinnamaldehyde. A luciferase reporter assay and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) also demonstrated that cinnamaldehyde-activated signaling resulted in the increased transcriptional activity of Nrf2 through binding to the ARE4 enhancer sequence. Altogether, these data suggest that ERK1/2, Akt, and JNK pathways activated by cinnamaldehyde collectively control Nrf2 nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity, leading to the increase of phase II enzyme expression. Application of an appropriate chemopreventive agent such as cinnamaldehyde could potentially be an alternative strategy for cancer chemoprevention.

  1. Mutual interactions between flavonoids and enzymatic and transporter elements responsible for flavonoid disposition via phase II metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Hu, Ming

    2012-09-21

    Flavonoids, existing mainly as glycosides in nature, have multiple "claimed" beneficial effects in humans. Flavonoids are extensively metabolized in enterocytes and hepatocytes by phase II enzymes such as UGTs and SULTs to form glucuronides and sulfates, respectively. These glucuronides and sulfates are subsequently excreted via ABC transporters (e.g., MRP2 or BCRP). Therefore, it is the interplay between phase II enzymes and efflux transporters that affects the disposition of flavonoids and leads to the low bioavailability of flavonoid aglycones. Flavonoids can also serve as chemical regulators that affect the activity or expression levels of phase II enzymes including UGTs, SULTs and GSTs, and transporters including P-gp, MRP2, BCRP, OATP and OAT. In general, flavonoids may exert the inhibitory or inductive effects on the phase II enzymes and transporters via multiple mechanisms that may involve different nuclear receptors. Since flavonoids may affect the metabolic pathways shared by many important clinical drugs, drug-flavonoid interaction is becoming an increasingly important concern. This review article focused on the disposition of flavonoids and effects of flavonoids on relevant enzymes (e.g. UGTs and SULTs) and transporters (e.g. MRP2 and BCRP) involved in the interplay between phase II enzymes and efflux transporters. The effects of flavonoids on other metabolic enzymes (e.g. GSTs) or transporters (e.g. P-gp, OATP and OAT) are also addressed but that is not the emphasis of this review.

  2. Mutual interactions between flavonoids and enzymatic and transporter elements responsible for flavonoid disposition via phase II metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wen; Hu, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids, existing mainly as glycosides in nature, have multiple “claimed” beneficial effects in humans. Flavonoids are extensively metabolized in enterocytes and hepatocytes by phase II enzymes such as UGTs and SULTs to form glucuronides and sulfates, respectively. These glucuronides and sulfates are subsequently excreted via ABC transporters (e.g., MRP2 or BCRP). Therefore, it is the interplay between phase II enzymes and efflux transporters that affects the disposition of flavonoids and leads to the low bioavailability of flavonoid aglycones. Flavonoids can also serve as chemical regulators that affect the activity or expression levels of phase II enzymes including UGTs, SULTs and GSTs, and transporters including P-gp, MRP2, BCRP, OATP and OAT. In general, flavonoids may exert the inhibitory or inductive effects on the phase II enzymes and transporters via multiple mechanisms that may involve different nuclear receptors. Since flavonoids may affect the metabolic pathways shared by many important clinical drugs, drug-flavonoid interaction is becoming an increasingly important concern. This review article focused on the disposition of flavonoids and effects of flavonoids on relevant enzymes (e.g. UGTs and SULTs) and transporters (e.g. MRP2 and BCRP) involved in the interplay between phase II enzymes and efflux transporters. The effects of flavonoids on other metabolic enzymes (e.g. GSTs) or transporters (e.g. P-gp, OATP and OAT) are also addressed but that is not the emphasis of this review. PMID:25400909

  3. North Atlantic Simulations in Coordinated Ocean-Ice Reference Experiments Phase II (CORE-II) . Part II; Inter-Annual to Decadal Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Yeager, Steve G.; Kim, Who M.; Behrens, Erik; Bentsen, Mats; Bi, Daohua; Biastoch, Arne; Bleck, Rainer; Boening, Claus; Bozec, Alexandra; Canuto, Vittorio M.; Howard, Armando M.; Kelley, Maxwell

    2015-01-01

    Simulated inter-annual to decadal variability and trends in the North Atlantic for the 1958-2007 period from twenty global ocean - sea-ice coupled models are presented. These simulations are performed as contributions to the second phase of the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (CORE-II). The study is Part II of our companion paper (Danabasoglu et al., 2014) which documented the mean states in the North Atlantic from the same models. A major focus of the present study is the representation of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability in the participating models. Relationships between AMOC variability and those of some other related variables, such as subpolar mixed layer depths, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and the Labrador Sea upper-ocean hydrographic properties, are also investigated. In general, AMOC variability shows three distinct stages. During the first stage that lasts until the mid- to late-1970s, AMOC is relatively steady, remaining lower than its long-term (1958-2007) mean. Thereafter, AMOC intensifies with maximum transports achieved in the mid- to late-1990s. This enhancement is then followed by a weakening trend until the end of our integration period. This sequence of low frequency AMOC variability is consistent with previous studies. Regarding strengthening of AMOC between about the mid-1970s and the mid-1990s, our results support a previously identified variability mechanism where AMOC intensification is connected to increased deep water formation in the subpolar North Atlantic, driven by NAO-related surface fluxes. The simulations tend to show general agreement in their representations of, for example, AMOC, sea surface temperature (SST), and subpolar mixed layer depth variabilities. In particular, the observed variability of the North Atlantic SSTs is captured well by all models. These findings indicate that simulated variability and trends are primarily dictated by the atmospheric datasets which include

  4. North Atlantic simulations in Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments phase II (CORE-II). Part II: Inter-annual to decadal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Yeager, Steve G.; Kim, Who M.; Behrens, Erik; Bentsen, Mats; Bi, Daohua; Biastoch, Arne; Bleck, Rainer; Böning, Claus; Bozec, Alexandra; Canuto, Vittorio M.; Cassou, Christophe; Chassignet, Eric; Coward, Andrew C.; Danilov, Sergey; Diansky, Nikolay; Drange, Helge; Farneti, Riccardo; Fernandez, Elodie; Fogli, Pier Giuseppe; Forget, Gael; Fujii, Yosuke; Griffies, Stephen M.; Gusev, Anatoly; Heimbach, Patrick; Howard, Armando; Ilicak, Mehmet; Jung, Thomas; Karspeck, Alicia R.; Kelley, Maxwell; Large, William G.; Leboissetier, Anthony; Lu, Jianhua; Madec, Gurvan; Marsland, Simon J.; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio; Nurser, A. J. George; Pirani, Anna; Romanou, Anastasia; Salas y Mélia, David; Samuels, Bonita L.; Scheinert, Markus; Sidorenko, Dmitry; Sun, Shan; Treguier, Anne-Marie; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Uotila, Petteri; Valcke, Sophie; Voldoire, Aurore; Wang, Qiang; Yashayaev, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Simulated inter-annual to decadal variability and trends in the North Atlantic for the 1958-2007 period from twenty global ocean - sea-ice coupled models are presented. These simulations are performed as contributions to the second phase of the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (CORE-II). The study is Part II of our companion paper (Danabasoglu et al., 2014) which documented the mean states in the North Atlantic from the same models. A major focus of the present study is the representation of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability in the participating models. Relationships between AMOC variability and those of some other related variables, such as subpolar mixed layer depths, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and the Labrador Sea upper-ocean hydrographic properties, are also investigated. In general, AMOC variability shows three distinct stages. During the first stage that lasts until the mid- to late-1970s, AMOC is relatively steady, remaining lower than its long-term (1958-2007) mean. Thereafter, AMOC intensifies with maximum transports achieved in the mid- to late-1990s. This enhancement is then followed by a weakening trend until the end of our integration period. This sequence of low frequency AMOC variability is consistent with previous studies. Regarding strengthening of AMOC between about the mid-1970s and the mid-1990s, our results support a previously identified variability mechanism where AMOC intensification is connected to increased deep water formation in the subpolar North Atlantic, driven by NAO-related surface fluxes. The simulations tend to show general agreement in their temporal representations of, for example, AMOC, sea surface temperature (SST), and subpolar mixed layer depth variabilities. In particular, the observed variability of the North Atlantic SSTs is captured well by all models. These findings indicate that simulated variability and trends are primarily dictated by the atmospheric datasets which

  5. Radiation Hard Silicon Particle Detectors for Phase-II LHC Trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oblakowska-Mucha, A.

    2017-02-01

    The major LHC upgrade is planned after ten years of accelerator operation. It is foreseen to significantly increase the luminosity of the current machine up to 1035 cm‑2s‑1 and operate as the upcoming High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) . The major detectors upgrade, called the Phase-II Upgrade, is also planned, a main reason being the aging processes caused by severe particle radiation. Within the RD50 Collaboration, a large Research and Development program has been underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation tolerance for HL-LHC trackers. In this summary, several results obtained during the testing of the devices after irradiation to HL-LHC levels are presented. Among the studied structures, one can find advanced sensors types like 3D silicon detectors, High-Voltage CMOS technologies, or sensors with intrinsic gain (LGAD). Based on these results, the RD50 Collaboration gives recommendation for the silicon detectors to be used in the detector upgrade.

  6. Evaluation of hydrothermal resources of North Dakota. Phase II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, K.L.; Howell, F.L.; Winczewski, L.M.; Wartman, B.L.; Umphrey, H.R.; Anderson, S.B.

    1981-06-01

    The Phase II activities dealt with three main topical areas: geothermal gradient and heat-flow studies, stratigraphic studies, and water quality studies. Efforts were concentrated on Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks. The geothermal gradient and heat-flow studies involved running temperature logs in groundwater observation holes in areas of interest, and locating, obtaining access to, and casing holes of convenience to be used as heat-flow determination sites. The stratigraphic and water quality studies involved two main efforts: updating and expanding WELLFILE and assembling a computer library system (WELLCAT) for all water wells drilled in the state. WATERCAT combines data from the United States Geological Survey Water Resources Division's WATSTOR and GWST computer libraries; and includes physical, stratigraphic, and water quality data. Goals, methods, and results are presented.

  7. SPORE/EDRN/PRE-PLCO Ovarian Phase II Validation Study — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Create a new set of phase II specimens (160 cases with pre-operative bloods representing major histologic types and including 80 early-staged and 80 late-staged cases, 160 controls with benign disease, 480 general population controls, and a small set of serial Samples collected either at least 3 months apart, but not more than 6 months apart OR between 10 months apart and no more than 14 months apart in 40 healthy controls) will be used to evaluate markers identified in preliminary work. The top 5-10 markers, plus an expanded panel of Luminex markers, will comprise a “working consensus panel” for subsequent analysis in PLCO specimens.

  8. Study of Robinson instabilities with a higher-harmonic cavity for the HLS phase II project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yu-Ning; Li, Wei-Min; Wu, Cong-Feng; Wang, Lin

    2012-11-01

    In the Phase II Project at the Hefei Light Source, a fourth-harmonic “Landau" cavity will be operated in order to suppress the coupled-bunch instabilities and increase the beam lifetime of the Hefei storage ring. Instabilities limit the utility of the higher-harmonic cavity when the storage ring is operated with a small momentum compaction. Analytical modeling and simulations show that the instabilities result from Robinson mode coupling. In the analytic modeling, we operate an algorithm to consider the Robinson instabilities. To study the evolution of unstable behavior, simulations have been performed in which macroparticles are distributed among the buckets. Both the analytic modeling and simulations agree for passive operation of the harmonic cavity.

  9. Phase transitions in Group III-V and II-VI semiconductors at high pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, S. C.; Liu, C. Y.; Spain, I. L.; Skelton, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    The structures and transition pressures of Group III-V and II-VI semiconductors and of a pseudobinary system (Ga/x/In/1-x/Sb) have been investigated. Results indicate that GaP, InSb, GaSb, GaAs and possible AlP assume Metallic structures at high pressures; a tetragonal, beta-Sn-like structure is adopted by only InSb and GaSb. The rocksalt phase is preferred in InP, InAs, AlSb, ZnO and ZnS. The model of Van Vechten (1973) gives transition pressures which are in good agreement with measured values, but must be refined to account for the occurrence of the ionic rocksalt structure in some compounds. In addition, discrepancies between the theoretical scaling values for volume changes at the semiconductor-to-metal transitions are observed.

  10. SRNL PHASE II SHELF LIFE STUDIES - SERIES 1 ROOM TEMPERATURE AND HIGH RELATIVE HUMIDITY

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.; Duffey, J.

    2012-09-12

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Phase II, Series 1 shelf-life corrosion testing for the Department of Energy Standard 3013 container is presented and discussed in terms of the localized corrosion behavior of Type 304 stainless steel in contact with moist plutonium oxide and chloride salt mixtures and the potential impact to the 3013 inner container. This testing was designed to address the influence of temperature, salt composition, initial salt moisture, residual stress and type of oxide/salt contact on the relative humidity inside a 3013 container and the initiation and propagation of localized corrosion, especially stress corrosion cracking. The integrated plan is being conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory and SRNL. SRNL is responsible for conducting a corrosion study in small scale vessels containing plutonium oxide and chloride salts under conditions of humidity, temperature and oxide/salt compositions both within the limits of 3013 storage conditions as well as beyond the 3013 storage requirements to identify margins for minimizing the initiation of stress corrosion cracking. These worst case conditions provide data that bound the material packaged in 3013 containers. Phase I of this testing was completed in 2010. The Phase II, Series 1 testing was performed to verify previous results from Phase I testing and extend our understanding about the initiation of stress corrosion cracking and pitting that occur in 304L under conditions of room temperature, high humidity, and a specific plutonium oxide/salt chemistry. These results will aid in bounding the safe storage conditions of plutonium oxides in 3013 containers. A substantial change in the testing was the addition of the capability to monitor relative humidity during test exposure. The results show that under conditions of high initial moisture ({approx}0.5 wt%) and room temperature stress corrosion cracking occurred in 304L teardrop coupons in contact with the oxide/salt mixture at times

  11. The sROD module for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase-II Upgrade Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrió, F.; Castillo, V.; Ferrer, A.; Fiorini, L.; Hernández, Y.; Higón, E.; Mellado, B.; March, L.; Moreno, P.; Reed, R.; Solans, C.; Valero, A.; Valls, J. A.

    2014-02-01

    TileCal is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The main upgrade of the LHC to increase the instantaneous luminosity is scheduled for 2022. The High Luminosity LHC, also called upgrade Phase-II, will imply a complete redesign of the read-out electronics in TileCal. In the new read-out architecture, the front-end electronics aims to transmit full digitized information to the back-end system in the counting rooms. Thus, the back-end system will also provide digital calibrated information with enhanced precision and granularity to the first level trigger to improve the trigger efficiencies. The demonstrator project is envisaged to qualify this new proposed architecture. A reduced part of the detector, 1/256 of the total, will be equipped with the new electronics during 2014 to evaluate the proposed architecture in real conditions. The upgraded Read-Out Driver (sROD) will be the core element of the back-end electronics in Phase-II. The sROD module is designed on a double mid-size AMC format and will operate under an AdvancedTCA framework. The module includes two Xilinx Series 7 Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) for data receiving and processing, as well as the implementation of embedded systems. Related to optical connectors, the sROD uses 4 QSFPs to receive and transmit data from the front-end electronics and 1 Avago MiniPOD to send preprocessed data to the first level trigger system. An SFP module maintains the compatibility with the existing hardware. A complete description of the sROD module for the demonstrator including the main functionalities, circuit design and the control software and firmware will be presented.

  12. Doxycycline in early CJD: a double-blinded randomised phase II and observational study

    PubMed Central

    Varges, Daniela; Manthey, Henrike; Heinemann, Uta; Ponto, Claudia; Schmitz, Matthias; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J; Krasnianski, Anna; Breithaupt, Maren; Fincke, Fabian; Kramer, Katharina; Friede, Tim; Zerr, Inga

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The main objective of the present study is to study the therapeutic efficiency of doxycycline in a double-blinded randomised phase II study in a cohort of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). Methods From the National Reference Center of TSE Surveillance in Germany, patients with probable or definite sCJD were recruited for a double-blinded randomised study with oral doxycycline (EudraCT 2006-003934-14). In addition, we analysed the data from patients with CJD who received compassionate treatment with doxycycline in a separate group. Potential factors which influence survival such as age at onset, gender, codon 129 polymorphism and cognitive functions were evaluated. The primary outcome measure was survival. Results Group 1: in the double-blinded randomised phase II study, 7 patients in the treatment group were compared with 5 controls. Group 2: 55 patients with sCJD treated with oral doxycycline were analysed and compared with 33 controls by a stratified propensity score applied to a Cox proportional hazard analysis. The results of both studies were combined by means of a random-effects meta-analysis. A slight increase in survival time in the doxycycline treatment group was observed (p=0.049, HR=0.63 (95% CI 0.402 to 0.999)). Conclusions On the basis of our studies, a larger trial of doxycycline should be performed in persons in the earliest stages of CJD. Trial registration number EudraCT 2006-003934-14; Results. PMID:27807198

  13. Phase II study of bevacizumab and preoperative chemoradiation for esophageal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Manjit S.; Park, Do Joong; Janjigian, Yelena Y.; Rusch, Valerie W.; Rizk, Nabil P.; Yoon, Sam S.; Millang, Brittanie; Capanu, Marinela; Goodman, Karyn A.; Ilson, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Background A standard-of-care for locally advanced esophageal and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma is pre-operative chemoradiation. Elevated levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have been associated with worse outcomes following chemoradiation and anti-VEGF therapies can potentiate radiation efficacy. Methods In this single-arm phase II study, we added bevacizumab to induction chemotherapy and concurrent chemoradiation with cisplatin/irinotecan for locally advanced esophageal and GEJ adenocarcinomas. Results Thirty-three patients were enrolled, with all evaluable. All tumors involved the GEJ and 67% were node-positive by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and imaging. Twenty-eight patients completed chemoradiation and 26 patients underwent surgery (25 R0 resections). Toxicities were not clearly increased. The pathologic complete response (pCR) rate was 15%. Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 15.1 and 30.5 months respectively. Higher baseline VEGF-A levels were associated with a trend toward improved OS (not reached vs. 21.0 months, P=0.11). Response on positron emission tomography (PET) scan after induction chemotherapy was predictive of PFS and showed trends toward improved OS and pCR rate. Conclusions The addition of bevacizumab to chemoradiation was not associated with clear worsening of toxicities but also led to no improvement in outcomes, when compared to a prior phase II study of 55 patients. Higher baseline VEGF-A levels correlated with a trend toward improved survival and might be used to stratify or select patients for future studies incorporating this or similar agents. PET scan to assess response following induction chemotherapy and change chemotherapy in non-responders during chemoradiation is the subject of a fully-accrued national trial (NCT01333033). PMID:28078107

  14. A Phase II Study of RO4929097 Gamma-Secretase Inhibitor in Metastatic Melanoma: SWOG 0933

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sylvia M.; Moon, James; Redman, Bruce G.; Chidiac, Tarek; Flaherty, Lawrence E.; Zha, Yuanyuan; Othus, Megan; Ribas, Antoni; Sondak, Vernon K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Aberrant Notch activation confers a proliferative advantage onto many human tumors, including melanoma. This phase II trial assessed the antitumor activity of RO4929097, a gamma-secretase inhibitor of Notch signaling, on the progression-free and overall survival of patients with advanced melanoma. Methods Chemotherapy-naïve patients with metastatic melanoma of cutaneous or unknown origin were treated with RO4929097 at a dose of 20 mg orally daily, 3 consecutive days per week. A two-step accrual design was used, with an interim analysis on the first 32 patients, and continuation of enrollment if ≥4/32 patients responded. Results Thirty-six patients from 23 institutions were enrolled; 32 patients were evaluable. RO4929097 was well-tolerated, and most toxicities were grade 1 or 2. The most common toxicities were nausea (53%), fatigue (41%), and anemia (22%). There was 1 confirmed partial response lasting 7 months, and 8 patients with stable disease lasting at least through week 12, with one of these continuing for 31 months. The 6-month PFS was 9% (95% CI: 2–22%), and 1-year OS was 50% (95% CI: 32–66%). Peripheral blood T cell assays showed no significant inhibition of IL-2 production, a surrogate pharmacodynamic marker of Notch inhibition, suggesting that the drug levels were insufficient to achieve Notch target inhibition. Conclusions RO4929097 showed minimal clinical activity against metastatic melanoma in this phase II trial, possibly due to inadequate exposure to therapeutic drug levels. While Notch inhibition remains a compelling target in melanoma, our results do not support further investigation of RO4929097 at this dose and schedule. PMID:25250858

  15. Environmentally benign manufacturing of compact disc stampers [Final Phase II report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-08

    Optical data storage is currently a $10B/yr. business. With the introduction of the high capacity Digital Versatile Disc (D/D) as well as the continued growth of CD-Audio and CD-ROM worldwide sales of optical data products as a whole are growing at rate of more than 10% per year. In North America, more than 2.5 billion optical discs will be sold in 1998. By 1999, the numbers of optical discs produced for the North American market will grow to almost three billion. The optical disc manufacturing industry is dominated by Asian and European companies (e.g. Sony of Japan and Philips of Netherlands). Prism Corporation has created a process that could significantly improve US competitiveness in the business of optical disc production. The objectives of the Phase II STTR project were to build and test an ion machining system (IMS) for stamper fabrication, prove overall manufacturing system feasibility by fabrication stampers and replicas, and evaluate alternative materials and alternative process parameters to optimize the process. During tie period of the Phase II project Prism Corporation was able to meet these objectives. In the course of doing so, adjustments had been made to better the project and in turn the final product. An ion machining system was designed and built that produced stampers ready for the molding process. Also, many control steps in the manufacturing process were studied to improve the current process and make it even more compatible with the industry standards, fitting seamlessly into current manufacturing lines.

  16. PAH biotransformation in terrestrial invertebrates--a new phase II metabolite in isopods and springtails.

    PubMed

    Stroomberg, Gerard J; Zappey, Herman; Steen, Ruud J C A; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Ariese, Freek; Velthorst, Nel H; van Straalen, Nico M

    2004-06-01

    Soil-living invertebrates are exposed to high concentrations of contaminants accumulating in dead organic matter, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The capacity for PAH biotransformation is not equally developed in all invertebrates. In this paper, we compare three species of invertebrates, Porcellio scaber (Isopoda), Eisenia andrei (Lumbricidae) and Folsomia candida (Collembola), for the metabolites formed upon exposure to pyrene. Metabolic products of pyrene biotransformation in extracts from whole animals or isopod hepatopancreas were compared to those found in fish bile (flounder and plaice). An optimized HPLC method was used with fluorescence detection; excitation/emission spectra were compared to reference samples of 1-hydroxypyrene and enzymatically synthesized conjugates. Enzymatic hydrolysis after fractionation was used to demonstrate that the conjugates originated from 1-hydroxypyrene. All three invertebrates were able to oxidize pyrene to 1-hydroxypyrene, however, isopods and collembolans stood out as more efficient metabolizers compared to earthworms. In contrast to fish, none of the invertebrates produced pyrene-1-glucuronide as a phase II conjugate. Both Collembola and Isopoda produced significant amounts of pyrene-1-glucoside, whereas isopods also produced pyrene-1-sulfate. A third, previously unknown, conjugate was found in both isopods and springtails, and was analysed further using electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry. Based on the obtained mass spectra, a new conjugate is proposed: pyrene-1-O-(6"-O-malonyl)glucoside. The use of glucose-malonate as a conjugant in animal phase II biotransformation has not been described before, but is understandable in the microenvironment of soil-living invertebrates. In the earthworm, three other pyrene metabolites were observed, none of which was shared with the arthropods, although two were conjugates of 1-hydroxypyrene. Our study illustrates the great

  17. Low energy threshold analysis of the phase I and phase II data sets of the Sudbury neutrino observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Seibert, S R; Hime, A; Elliott, S R; Rielage, K

    2009-01-01

    Results are reported from a joint analysis of Phase I and Phase II data from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. The effective electron kinetic energy threshold used is T{sub eff} = 3.5 MeV, the lowest analysis threshold yet achieved with water Cherenkov detector data. In units of 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2} s{sup =1}, the total flux of active-flavor neutrinos from {sup 8}B decay in the Sun measured using the neutral current (NC) reaction of neutrinos on deuterons, with no constraint on the {sup 8}B neutrino energy spectrum, is found to be {Phi}{sub NC} = 5.140{sub -0.158}{sup +0.160}(stat){sub -0.117}{sup +0.132}(syst). These uncertainties are more than a factor of two smaller than previously published results. Also presented are the spectra of recoil electrons from the charged current reaction of neutrinos on deuterons and the elastic scattering of electrons. A fit to the SNO data in which the free parameters directly describe the total {sup 8}B neutrino flux and the energy-dependent Ve survival probability provides a measure of the total {sup 8}B neutrino flux {Phi}{sub 8{sub B}} = 5.046{sub -0.152}{sup +0.159}(stat){sub -0.123}{sup +0.107}(syst). Combining these new results with results of all other solar experiments and the KamLAND reactor experiment yields best-fit values of the mixing parameters of {theta}{sub 12} = 34.06{sub -0.84}{sup +1.16} degrees and {Delta}m{sub 21}{sup 2} = 7.59{sub -0.21}{sup +0.20} x 10{sup -5} eV{sup 2}. The global value of {Phi}{sub 8{sub B}} is extracted to a precision of {sub -2.95}{sup +2.38}%. In a three-flavor analysis the best fit value of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub 13} is 2.00{sub -1.63}{sup +2.09} x 10{sup -2}. Interpreting this as a limit implies an upper bound of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub 13} < 0.057 (95% C. L.).

  18. Low-energy-threshold analysis of the Phase I and Phase II data sets of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Aharmim, B.; Chauhan, D.; Fleurot, F.; Hallman, E. D.; Schwendener, M. H.; Virtue, C. J.; Ahmed, S. N.; Boulay, M. G.; Cai, B.; Chen, M.; DiMarco, M.; Earle, E. D.; Evans, H. C.; Ewan, G. T.; Guillian, E.; Harvey, P. J.; Kormos, L. L.; Kos, M.; Kraus, C.; Leslie, J. R.

    2010-05-15

    Results are reported from a joint analysis of Phase I and Phase II data from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. The effective electron kinetic energy threshold used is T{sub eff}=3.5 MeV, the lowest analysis threshold yet achieved with water Cherenkov detector data. In units of 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, the total flux of active-flavor neutrinos from {sup 8}B decay in the Sun measured using the neutral current (NC) reaction of neutrinos on deuterons, with no constraint on the {sup 8}B neutrino energy spectrum, is found to be PHI{sub NC}=5.140{sub -0.158}{sup +0.160}(stat){sub -0.117}{sup +0.132}(syst). These uncertainties are more than a factor of 2 smaller than previously published results. Also presented are the spectra of recoil electrons from the charged current reaction of neutrinos on deuterons and the elastic scattering of electrons. A fit to the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory data in which the free parameters directly describe the total {sup 8}B neutrino flux and the energy-dependent nu{sub e} survival probability provides a measure of the total {sup 8}B neutrino flux PHI{sub {sup 8}{sub B}}=5.046{sub -0.152}{sup +0.159}(stat){sub -0.123}{sup +0.107}(syst). Combining these new results with results of all other solar experiments and the KamLAND reactor experiment yields best-fit values of the mixing parameters of theta{sub 12}=34.06{sub -0.84}{sup +1.16} degrees and DELTAm{sub 21}{sup 2}=7.59{sub -0.21}{sup +0.20}x10{sup -5} eV{sup 2}. The global value of PHI{sup 8}{sub B} is extracted to a precision of {sub -2.95}{sup +2.38}%. In a three-flavor analysis the best fit value of sin{sup 2}theta{sub 13} is 2.00{sub -1.63}{sup +2.09}x10{sup -2}. This implies an upper bound of sin{sup 2}theta{sub 13}<0.057 (95% C.L.).

  19. Enrollment and Stopping Rules for Managing Toxicity Requiring Long Follow-Up in Phase II Oncology Trials.

    PubMed

    Song, Guochen; Ivanova, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of toxicity is often conducted in Phase II trials in oncology to avoid an excessive number of toxicities if the wrong dose is chosen for Phase II. Existing stopping rules for toxicity use information from patients who have already completed follow-up. We describe a stopping rule that uses all available data to determine whether to stop for toxicity or not when follow-up for toxicity is long. We propose an enrollment rule that prescribes the maximum number of patients that may be enrolled at any given point in the trial.

  20. Effects of Simulated Surface Effect Ship Motions on Crew Habitability. Phase II. Volume 1. Summary Report and Comments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    F• 198OF1L-0/I- =•RAI. )81 -• i . _j EFFECT OF.SIMULATED 1 S URFACE EFFECT SHIP J•OTIONS_2 ON CREW HABITABILITY 1PHASE 1J_ "I ,,OLUME 1 iI SUMMARY...PMS-304 TR 1070 APRIL 1981 _4 EFFECTS OF SIMULATED SURFACE EFFECT SHIP MOTIONS -i I ON CREW HABITABILITY -PHASE ii~i VOLUME 1 i SUMMARY REPORT AND...and Habitability in Varlous SES Designs . . . . . . . . . 59 Comparison of Tested Motion to Other Ship Data . . . . . . . . . .. 63 REFERENCES

  1. Silicon strip tracking detector development and prototyping for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, S.

    2016-07-01

    In about ten years from now, the Phase-II upgrade of the LHC will be carried out. Due to increased luminosity, a severe radiation dose and high particle rates will occur for the experiments. In consequence, several detector components will have to be upgraded. In the ATLAS experiment, the current inner detector will be replaced by an all-silicon tracking detector with the goal of at least delivering the present detector performance also in the harsh Phase-II LHC conditions. This report presents the current planning and results from first prototype measurements of the upgrade silicon strip tracking detector.

  2. Phase II: Field Detector Development For Undeclared/Declared Nuclear Testing For Treaty Verfiation Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Kriz, M.; Hunter, D.; Riley, T.

    2015-10-02

    Radioactive xenon isotopes are a critical part of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) for the detection or confirmation of nuclear weapons tests as well as on-site treaty verification monitoring. On-site monitoring is not currently conducted because there are no commercially available small/robust field detector devices to measure the radioactive xenon isotopes. Xenon is an ideal signature to detect clandestine nuclear events since they are difficult to contain and can diffuse and migrate through soils due to their inert nature. There are four key radioxenon isotopes used in monitoring: 135Xe (9 hour half-life), 133mXe (2 day half-life), 133Xe (5 day half-life) and 131mXe (12 day half-life) that decay through beta emission and gamma emission. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is a leader in the field of gas collections and has developed highly selective molecular sieves that allow for the collection of xenon gas directly from air. Phase I assessed the development of a small, robust beta-gamma coincidence counting system, that combines collection and in situ detection methodologies. Phase II of the project began development of the custom electronics enabling 2D beta-gamma coincidence analysis in a field portable system. This will be a significant advancement for field detection/quantification of short-lived xenon isotopes that would not survive transport time for laboratory analysis.

  3. ART CCIM Phase II-A Off-Gas System Evaluation Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Jay Roach

    2009-01-01

    This test plan defines testing to be performed using the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) engineering-scale cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) test system for Phase II-A of the Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) CCIM Project. The multi-phase ART-CCIM Project is developing a conceptual design for replacing the joule-heated melter (JHM) used to treat high level waste (HLW) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) with a cold crucible induction melter. The INL CCIM test system includes all feed, melter off-gas control, and process control subsystems needed for fully integrated operation and testing. Testing will include operation of the melter system while feeding a non-radioactive slurry mixture prepared to simulate the same type of waste feed presently being processed in the DWPF. Process monitoring and sample collection and analysis will be used to characterize the off-gas composition and properties, and to show the fate of feed constituents, to provide data that shows how the CCIM retrofit conceptual design can operate with the existing DWPF off-gas control system.

  4. Centrifugal slurry pump wear and hydraulic studies. Phase II report. Experimental studies

    SciTech Connect

    Mistry, D.; Cooper, P.; Biswas, C.; Sloteman, D.; Onuschak, A.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes the work performed by Ingersoll-Rand Research, Inc., under Phase II, Experimental Studies for the contract entitled, Centrifugal Slurry Pump Wear and Hydraulic Studies. This work was carried out for the US Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC-82PC50035. The basic development approach pursued this phase is presented, followed by a discussion on wear relationships. The analysis, which resulted in the development of a mathematical wear model relating pump life to some of the key design and operating parameters, is presented. The results, observations, and conclusions of the experimental investigation on small scale pumps that led to the selected design features for the prototype pump are discussed. The material investigation was performed at IRRI, ORNL and Battelle. The rationale for selecting the materials for testing, the test methods and apparatus used, and the results obtained are presented followed by a discussion on materials for a prototype pump. In addition, the prototype pump test facility description, as well as the related design and equipment details, are presented. 20 references, 53 figures, 13 tables.

  5. An investigation of long-distance propagation of gravity waves under CAWSES India Phase II Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parihar, N.; Taori, A.

    2015-05-01

    Coordinated measurements of airglow features from the mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT) region were performed at Allahabad (25.5° N, 81.9° E) and Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E), India to study the propagation of gravity waves in 13-27° N latitude range during the period June 2009 to May 2010 under CAWSES (Climate And Weather of Sun Earth System) India Phase II Programme. At Allahabad, imaging observations of OH broadband emissions and OI 557.7 nm emission were made using an all-sky imager, while at Gadanki photometric measurements of OH (6, 2) Meinel band and O2 (0, 1) Atmospheric band emissions were carried out. On many occasions, the nightly observations reveal the presence of similar waves at both locations. Typically, the period of observed similar waves lay in the 2.2-4.5 h range, had large phase speeds (~ 77-331 m s-1) and large wavelengths (~ 1194-2746 km). The images of outgoing long-wave radiation activity of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the high-resolution infrared images of KALPANA-1 satellite suggest that such waves possibly originated from some nearby convective sources. An analysis of their propagation characteristics in conjunction with SABER/TIMED temperature profiles and Horizontal Wind Model (HWM 2007) wind estimates suggest that the waves propagated over long distances (~ 1200-2000 km) in atmospheric ducts.

  6. GERDA phase II detectors: Behind the production and characterisation at low background conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Maneschg, Werner; Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration; and others

    2013-08-08

    The low background GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) is designed to search for the rare neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in {sup 76}Ge. Bare germanium diodes are operated in liquid argon which is used as coolant, as passive and soon active as well shield against external radiation. Currently, Phase I of the experiment is running using ∼15 kg of co-axial High Purity Germanium diodes. In order to increase the sensitivity of the experiment 30 Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) diodes will be added within 2013. This presentation reviews the production chain of the new BEGe detectors from isotopic enrichment to diode production and testing. As demonstrated all steps were carefully planned in order to minimize the exposure of the enriched germanium to cosmic radiation. Following this premise, acceptance and characterisation measurement of the newly produced diodes have been performed within the HEROICA project in the Belgian underground laboratory HADES close to the diode manufacturer. The test program and the results from a subset of the recently terminated GERDA Phase II BEGe survey will be presented.

  7. Optimal adaptive two-stage designs for early phase II clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Shan, Guogen; Wilding, Gregory E; Hutson, Alan D; Gerstenberger, Shawn

    2016-04-15

    Simon's optimal two-stage design has been widely used in early phase clinical trials for Oncology and AIDS studies with binary endpoints. With this approach, the second-stage sample size is fixed when the trial passes the first stage with sufficient activity. Adaptive designs, such as those due to Banerjee and Tsiatis (2006) and Englert and Kieser (2013), are flexible in the sense that the second-stage sample size depends on the response from the first stage, and these designs are often seen to reduce the expected sample size under the null hypothesis as compared with Simon's approach. An unappealing trait of the existing designs is that they are not associated with a second-stage sample size, which is a non-increasing function of the first-stage response rate. In this paper, an efficient intelligent process, the branch-and-bound algorithm, is used in extensively searching for the optimal adaptive design with the smallest expected sample size under the null, while the type I and II error rates are maintained and the aforementioned monotonicity characteristic is respected. The proposed optimal design is observed to have smaller expected sample sizes compared to Simon's optimal design, and the maximum total sample size of the proposed adaptive design is very close to that from Simon's method. The proposed optimal adaptive two-stage design is recommended for use in practice to improve the flexibility and efficiency of early phase therapeutic development.

  8. Phase II randomised discontinuation trial of the MET/VEGF receptor inhibitor cabozantinib in metastatic melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Daud, Adil; Kluger, Harriet M; Kurzrock, Razelle; Schimmoller, Frauke; Weitzman, Aaron L; Samuel, Thomas A; Moussa, Ali H; Gordon, Michael S; Shapiro, Geoffrey I

    2017-01-01

    Background: A phase II randomised discontinuation trial assessed cabozantinib (XL184), an orally bioavailable inhibitor of tyrosine kinases including VEGF receptors, MET, and AXL, in a cohort of patients with metastatic melanoma. Methods: Patients received cabozantinib 100 mg daily during a 12-week lead-in. Patients with stable disease (SD) per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) at week 12 were randomised to cabozantinib or placebo. Primary endpoints were objective response rate (ORR) at week 12 and postrandomisation progression-free survival (PFS). Results: Seventy-seven patients were enroled (62% cutaneous, 30% uveal, and 8% mucosal). At week 12, the ORR was 5% 39% of patients had SD. During the lead-in phase, reduction in target lesions from baseline was seen in 55% of evaluable patients overall and in 59% of evaluable patients with uveal melanoma. Median PFS after randomisation was 4.1 months with cabozantinib and 2.8 months with placebo (hazard ratio of 0.59; P=0.284). Median PFS from study day 1 was 3.8 months, 6-month PFS was 33%, and median overall survival was 9.4 months. The most common grade 3/4 adverse events were fatigue (14%), hypertension (10%), and abdominal pain (8%). One treatment-related death was reported from peritonitis due to diverticular perforation. Conclusions: Cabozantinib has clinical activity in patients with metastatic melanoma, including uveal melanoma. Further clinical investigation is warranted. PMID:28103611

  9. Population pharmacokinetics of TC-5214, a nicotinic channel modulator, in phase I and II clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongmei; Henningsson, Anja; Alverlind, Sofie; Tummala, Raj; Toler, Steven; Beaver, Jessica S; Al-Huniti, Nidal

    2014-06-01

    TC-5214 (dexmecamylamine) is a nicotinic channel modulator that has previously been evaluated for treatment of major depression disorder (MDD) and is currently being evaluated by Targacept as a treatment for overactive bladder. A comprehensive population pharmacokinetic (POP PK) model of TC-5214 was developed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling of pooled plasma concentration data from 6 early phase I studies in 179 healthy participants or patients with non-MDD and 1 phase II study in 68 MDD patients. Concentration-time profiles of TC-5214 after either single or multiple oral doses of TC-5214 was described by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption with lag time and first-order elimination. Covariate analysis revealed that creatinine clearance was a significant covariate on clearance and that body weight significantly influenced the central volume of distribution. The final model (with identified covariates) was used to simulate steady-state exposure for patients with impaired renal function. Results from forest plots reveal that patients with moderate to severe renal impairment or end stage renal disease are associated with significantly higher Cssmax and AUC compared to patients with normal renal function. The proposed final POP PK model could be employed in defining a TC-5214 dosage regimen in patients with impaired renal function.

  10. GERDA phase II detectors: Behind the production and characterisation at low background conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maneschg, Werner; Gerda Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    The low background GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) is designed to search for the rare neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in 76Ge. Bare germanium diodes are operated in liquid argon which is used as coolant, as passive and soon active as well shield against external radiation. Currently, Phase I of the experiment is running using ˜15 kg of co-axial High Purity Germanium diodes. In order to increase the sensitivity of the experiment 30 Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) diodes will be added within 2013. This presentation reviews the production chain of the new BEGe detectors from isotopic enrichment to diode production and testing. As demonstrated all steps were carefully planned in order to minimize the exposure of the enriched germanium to cosmic radiation. Following this premise, acceptance and characterisation measurement of the newly produced diodes have been performed within the HEROICA project in the Belgian underground laboratory HADES close to the diode manufacturer. The test program and the results from a subset of the recently terminated GERDA Phase II BEGe survey will be presented.

  11. Efficacy and safety of liposomal anthracyclines in phase I/II clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Alberts, David S; Muggia, Franco M; Carmichael, James; Winer, Eric P; Jahanzeb, Mohammad; Venook, Alan P; Skubitz, Keith M; Rivera, Edgardo; Sparano, Joseph A; DiBella, Nicholas J; Stewart, Simon J; Kavanagh, John J; Gabizon, Alberto A

    2004-12-01

    Preclinical studies have established the pharmacologic advantages of liposomal anthracyclines, including pharmacokinetic profiles after bolus dosing that resemble continuous infusion of conventional anthracyclines, increased drug concentrations in tumor cells compared with the surrounding tissues, and reduced toxicity relative to conventional anthracycline treatment. Based on these studies, many phase I and phase II clinical trials were conducted to assess the safety and potential activity of liposomal anthracyclines in the management of both solid and hematologic tumors. These studies provided valuable insight into the safety of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil/Caelyx [PLD]), nonpegylated liposomal doxorubicin (Myocet [NPLD]), and liposomal daunorubicin (DaunoXome [DNX]) over a range of doses, either as single-agent therapy or in combination with other cytotoxic agents. Other liposomal anthracyclines in development may be well tolerated but their activity remains to be elucidated by clinical trials. The available data also suggest that liposomal anthracyclines have activity not only against tumor types with known sensitivity to conventional anthracyclines, but also potentially for tumors that are typically anthracycline-resistant. Despite the availability of clinical data from a wide variety of tumor types and patient populations, further studies of liposomal anthracycline therapy are needed to fully establish their safety, efficacy, and dosing in the treatment of these patients.

  12. The Potential Economic Impact of Electricity Restructuring in the State of Oklahoma: Phase II Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, SW

    2001-10-30

    Because of the recent experiences of several states undergoing restructuring (e.g., higher prices, greater volatility, lower reliability), concerns have been raised in states currently considering restructuring as to whether their systems are equally vulnerable. Factors such as local generation costs, transmission constraints, market concentration, and market design can all play a role in the success or failure of the market. These factors along with the mix of generation capacity supplying the state will influence the relative prices paid by consumers. The purpose of this project is to provide a model and process to evaluate the potential price and economic impacts of restructuring the Oklahoma electric industry. The Phase I report concentrated on providing an analysis of the Oklahoma system in the near-term, using only present generation resources and customer demands. This Phase II study analyzed the Oklahoma power market in 2010, incorporating the potential of new generation resources and customer responses. Five key findings of this Phase II were made: (1) Projected expansion in generating capacity exceeds by over 3,000 MW the demands within the state plus the amount that could be exported with the current transmission system. (2) Even with reduced new plant construction, most new plants could lose money (although residential consumers would see lower rates) unless they have sufficient market power to raise their prices without losing significant market share (Figure S-1). (3) If new plants can raise prices to stay profitable, existing low-cost coal and hydro plants will have very high profits. Average prices to customers could be 5% to 25% higher than regulated rates (Figure S-1). If the coal and hydro plants are priced at cost-based rates (through long-term contracts or continued regulation) while all other plants use market-based rates then prices are lower. (4) Customer response to real-time prices can lower the peak capacity requirements by around 9

  13. Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management - Current Status and Phase II Demonstration Results - 13161

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Roger R.; Flach, Greg; Freshley, Mark D.; Freedman, Vicky; Gorton, Ian; Dixon, Paul; Moulton, J. David; Hubbard, Susan S.; Faybishenko, Boris; Steefel, Carl I.; Finsterle, Stefan; Marble, Justin

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Soil and Groundwater, is supporting development of the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM). ASCEM is a state-of-the-art scientific tool and approach for understanding and predicting contaminant fate and transport in natural and engineered systems. The modular and open source high-performance computing tool facilitates integrated approaches to modeling and site characterization that enable robust and standardized assessments of performance and risk for EM cleanup and closure activities. The ASCEM project continues to make significant progress in development of computer software capabilities with an emphasis on integration of capabilities in FY12. Capability development is occurring for both the Platform and Integrated Tool-sets and High-Performance Computing (HPC) Multi-process Simulator. The Platform capabilities provide the user interface and tools for end-to-end model development, starting with definition of the conceptual model, management of data for model input, model calibration and uncertainty analysis, and processing of model output, including visualization. The HPC capabilities target increased functionality of process model representations, tool-sets for interaction with Platform, and verification and model confidence testing. The Platform and HPC capabilities are being tested and evaluated for EM applications in a set of demonstrations as part of Site Applications Thrust Area activities. The Phase I demonstration focusing on individual capabilities of the initial tool-sets was completed in 2010. The Phase II demonstration completed in 2012 focused on showcasing integrated ASCEM capabilities. For Phase II, the Hanford Site deep vadose zone (BC Cribs) served as an application site for an end-to-end demonstration of capabilities, with emphasis on integration and linkages between the Platform and HPC components. Other demonstrations

  14. Photosensitizer Radachlorin®: Skin cancer PDT phase II clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Kochneva, Elena V; Filonenko, Elena V; Vakulovskaya, Elena G; Scherbakova, Elena G; Seliverstov, Oleg V; Markichev, Nikolay A; Reshetnickov, Andrei V

    2010-12-01

    "Radachlorin"(®), also known in the EU as Bremachlorin, a composition of 3 chlorophyll a derivatives in an aqueous solution, was introduced into the Russian Pharmacopoeia. Its GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) facility based manufacturing method was patented. Laboratory experiments and clinical phase I were performed. Protocols were designed for PDT of basal cell carcinoma of the skin to result in GCP (Good Clinical Practice)-conformed randomized phase II clinical studies. "Radachlorin"(®) solution for intravenous infusions 0.35% 10mL in the doses of 0.5-0.6 and 1.0-1.2mg/kg and a gel for topical application 0.1% 25g in the dose of 0.1g/cm(2) were photoactivated by 2.5W 662nm semiconductor laser "LAKHTA-MILON(®)" (St. Petersburg, Russia) in light doses of 200, 300 (solution), 400, 600, 800 (gel) J/cm(2). Safety study showed no side effects and a good tolerability of "Radachlorin"(®) by patients. There was no normal skin/subdermal tissue damage after both laser and sun light exposure. The main part (98%) of the drug was excreted or metabolized in the first 48h. Drug administration at a dose of 1.0-1.2mg/kg and irradiation at 3h with 662±3nm light at a dose of 300J/cm(2) (solution) and 4 PDT sessions at an interval of 1 week with 3h gel exposure, followed by 400J/cm(2) light exposure (gel) were found to be the optimal treatment regimes. Having successfully passed clinical trials, "Radachlorin"(®) achieved marketing authorization in Russia in 2009 and a conditional approval in South Korea in 2008. It is a candidate for phase III clinical trials in the EC and may be commercialized as a prospective second-generation photosensitizer.

  15. Spin Forming Aluminum Crew Module (CM) Metallic Aft Pressure Vessel Bulkhead (APVBH) - Phase II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Eric K.; Domack, Marcia S.; Torres, Pablo D.; McGill, Preston B.; Tayon, Wesley A.; Bennett, Jay E.; Murphy, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    The principal focus of this project was to assist the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) program in developing a spin forming fabrication process for manufacture of the Orion crew module (CM) aft pressure vessel bulkhead. The spin forming process will enable a single piece aluminum (Al) alloy 2219 aft bulkhead resulting in the elimination of the current multiple piece welded construction, simplify CM fabrication, and lead to an enhanced design. Phase I (NASA TM-2014-218163, (1)) of this assessment explored spin forming the single-piece CM forward pressure vessel bulkhead. The MPCV Program and Lockheed Martin (LM) recently made two critical decisions relative to the NESC Phase I work scope: (1) LM selected the spin forming process to manufacture a singlepiece aft bulkhead for the Orion CM, and (2) the aft bulkhead will be manufactured from Al 2219. Based on the Program's new emphasis related to the spin forming process, the NESC was asked to conduct a Phase II assessment to assist in the LM manufacture of the aft bulkhead and to conduct a feasibility study into spin forming the Orion CM cone. This activity was approved on June 19, 2013. Dr. Robert Piascik, NASA Technical Fellow for Materials at the Langley Research Center (LaRC), was selected to lead this assessment. The project plan was approved by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Review Board (NRB) on July 18, 2013. The primary stakeholders for this assessment are the NASA and LM MPCV Program offices. Additional benefactors are commercial launch providers developing CM concepts.

  16. Spin Forming Aluminum Crew Module (CM) Metallic Aft Pressure Vessel Bulkhead (APVBH) - Phase II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Eric K.; Domack, Marcia S.; Torres, Pablo D.; McGill, Preston B.; Tayon, Wesley A.; Bennett, Jay E.; Murphy, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    The principal focus of this project was to assist the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program in developing a spin forming fabrication process for manufacture of the Orion crew module (CM) aft pressure vessel bulkhead. The spin forming process will enable a single piece aluminum (Al) alloy 2219 aft bulkhead resulting in the elimination of the current multiple piece welded construction, simplify CM fabrication, and lead to an enhanced design. Phase I (NASA TM-2014-218163 (1)) of this assessment explored spin forming the single-piece CM forward pressure vessel bulkhead. The Orion MPCV Program and Lockheed Martin (LM) recently made two critical decisions relative to the NESC Phase I work scope: (1) LM selected the spin forming process to manufacture a single-piece aft bulkhead for the Orion CM, and (2) the aft bulkhead will be manufactured from Al 2219. Based on the Program's new emphasis related to the spin forming process, the NESC was asked to conduct a Phase II assessment to assist in the LM manufacture of the aft bulkhead and to conduct a feasibility study into spin forming the Orion CM cone. This activity was approved on June 19, 2013. Dr. Robert Piascik, NASA Technical Fellow for Materials at the Langley Research Center (LaRC), was selected to lead this assessment. The project plan was approved by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Review Board (NRB) on July 18, 2013. The primary stakeholders for this assessment were the NASA and LM MPCV Program offices. Additional benefactors are commercial launch providers developing CM concepts.

  17. A-Train Aerosol Observations Preliminary Comparisons with AeroCom Models and Pathways to Observationally Based All-Sky Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, J.; Livingston, J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Russell, P.; LeBlanc, S.; Vaughan, M.; Ferrare, R.; Hostetler, C.; Rogers, R.; Burton, S.; Torres, O.; Remer, L.; Stier, P.; Schutgens, N.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a technique for combining CALIOP aerosol backscatter, MODIS spectral AOD (aerosol optical depth), and OMI AAOD (absorption aerosol optical depth) retrievals for the purpose of estimating full spectral sets of aerosol radiative properties, and ultimately for calculating the 3-D distribution of direct aerosol radiative forcing. We present results using one year of data collected in 2007 and show comparisons of the aerosol radiative property estimates to collocated AERONET retrievals. Use of the recently released MODIS Collection 6 data for aerosol optical depths derived with the dark target and deep blue algorithms has extended the coverage of the multi-sensor estimates towards higher latitudes. We compare the spatio-temporal distribution of our multi-sensor aerosol retrievals and calculations of seasonal clear-sky aerosol radiative forcing based on the aerosol retrievals to values derived from four models that participated in the latest AeroCom model intercomparison initiative. We find significant inter-model differences, in particular for the aerosol single scattering albedo, which can be evaluated using the multi-sensor A-Train retrievals. We discuss the major challenges that exist in extending our clear-sky results to all-sky conditions. On the basis of comparisons to suborbital measurements, we present some of the limitations of the MODIS and CALIOP retrievals in the presence of adjacent or underlying clouds. Strategies for meeting these challenges are discussed.

  18. Lamellar-to-hexagonal/sub II/ phase transitions in the plasma membrane of isolated protoplasts after freeze-induced dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon-Kamm, W.J.; Steponkus, P.L.

    1984-10-01

    In protoplasts isolated from nonacclimated rye leaves (Secale cereale L. cultivar Puma), cooling to -10/sup 0/C at a rate of 1/sup 0/C/min results in extensive freeze-induced dehydration (osmotic contraction), and injury is manifested as the loss of osmotic responsiveness during warming. Under these conditions, several changes were observed in the freeze-fracture morphology of the plasma membrane. These included (i) lateral phase separations in the plasma membrane, (ii) aparticulate lamellae lying next to the plasma membrane, and (iii) regions of the plasma membrane and associated lamellae in various stages of lamellar-to-hexagonal/sub II/ transition. These morphological changes also were observed after equilibration in 5.37 osmolal sorbitol at 0/sup 0/C, which produced a similar extent of dehydration as did freezing to -10/sup 0/C. In contrast, only small areas of lateral phase separation in the plasma membrane, with no observable aparticulate lamellae or hexagonal/sub II/ configurations, were observed in protoplasts supercooled to -10/sup 0/C. Therefore, freeze-induced lamellar-to-hexagonal/sub II/ phase transitions in the plasma membrane are a consequence of dehydration rather than subzero temperature per se. When suspensions of protoplasts isolated from cold-acclimated leaves were frozen to -10/sup 0/C, no injury was incurred, and hexagonal/sub II/ phase transitions were not observed. No hexagonal/sub II/ phase was observed even at -35/sup 0/C, though acclimated protoplasts are injured at this temperature. 34 references, 2 figures.

  19. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Roadway Lighting, I-35W Bridge, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Phase II Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kinzey, B. R.; Davis, R. G.

    2014-09-30

    On the I-35W Bridge in Minneapolis, Minnesota, the GATEWAY program conducted a two-phase demonstration of LED roadway lighting on the main span, which is one of the country's oldest continuously operated exterior LED lighting installations. The Phase II report documents longer-term performance of the LED lighting system that was installed in 2008, and is the first report on the longer-term performance of LED lighting in the field.

  20. Recruitment Early Warning System. Phase II. Volume 1. Research and Development of the Recruitment EWS (Early Warning System).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-30

    36? RECRUITMENT EARLY WARNING SYSTEM PHASE 11 VOLUME I / RESEARCH RND EELOPHE..U) ECONMIC RESEARCH LAS INC RSTM YAPGEENSTOM ET AL. 36 SEP 85 OMR-85...Recruitment Early Warning System, Phase II Final Report (unclassified) 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Goldberg, Lawrencel Greenston, Peter; Hermansen, Sigurd...FIELD [GROUP SUB-GROUP manpower planning, early warning system, I N /A /A forecasting 𔄃 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necesary and identify by block

  1. Phase I/II Study of Nilotinib/Ruxolitinb Therapy for TKI Resistant Ph-Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-04

    Chronic Phase Chronic Myeloid Leukemia; Accelerated Phase Chronic Myeloid Leukemia; Blastic Phase Chronic Myeloid Leukemia; Philadelphia Positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Resistant to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Therapy

  2. Change of mandibular position during two-phase orthodontic treatment of skeletal class II in the Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Rhonda Nga Yi; Hägg, Urban; Wong, Ricky Wing Kit; Liao, Chongshan; Yang, Yanqi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in mandibular position during a two-phase orthodontic treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion. Thirty consecutively treated Chinese male adolescents who had undergone two-phase treatment with Herbst appliance and fixed appliance and fulfilled the specific selection criteria were sampled. Cephalograms taken at T0 (before treatment), T1 (at the end of functional appliance treatment), and T2 (at the end of fixed appliance treatment) were analyzed. The change in sagittal positioning of the mandible was 6.8 ± 3.44 mm in phase I (T0-T1), 0.4 ± 2.79 mm in phase II (T1-T2), and 7.2 ± 4.61 mm in total. The mandible came forward in 100% of the patients at T1. In phase II, it came forward in one-third (positive group) remained unchanged in one-third (stable group) and went backward in one-third (negative group) of the patients. At T2, it came forward twice as much in the positive group compared to the negative group. Mandibular length was significantly increased in 100% of the patients in both phases. In conclusion, during the treatment with functional appliance, the mandibular prognathism increases in all patients, whereas during the treatment with fixed appliance there is no significant change in mandibular prognathism.

  3. Change of Mandibular Position during Two-Phase Orthodontic Treatment of Skeletal Class II in the Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Hägg, Urban; Wong, Ricky Wing Kit; Liao, Chongshan; Yang, Yanqi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in mandibular position during a two-phase orthodontic treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion. Thirty consecutively treated Chinese male adolescents who had undergone two-phase treatment with Herbst appliance and fixed appliance and fulfilled the specific selection criteria were sampled. Cephalograms taken at T0 (before treatment), T1 (at the end of functional appliance treatment), and T2 (at the end of fixed appliance treatment) were analyzed. The change in sagittal positioning of the mandible was 6.8±3.44 mm in phase I (T0-T1), 0.4±2.79 mm in phase II (T1-T2), and 7.2±4.61 mm in total. The mandible came forward in 100% of the patients at T1. In phase II, it came forward in one-third (positive group) remained unchanged in one-third (stable group) and went backward in one-third (negative group) of the patients. At T2, it came forward twice as much in the positive group compared to the negative group. Mandibular length was significantly increased in 100% of the patients in both phases. In conclusion, during the treatment with functional appliance, the mandibular prognathism increases in all patients, whereas during the treatment with fixed appliance there is no significant change in mandibular prognathism. PMID:25695103

  4. Prediction of potential mushroom yield by visible and near-infrared spectroscopy using fresh phase II compost.

    PubMed

    Sharma, H S S; Kilpatrick, M; Lyons, G

    2005-08-01

    Potential mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) yield of phase II compost is determined by interactions of key quality parameters including dry matter, nitrogen dry matter, ammonia, pH, conductivity, thermophilic microorganisms, C : N ratio, fiber fractions, ash, and certain minerals. This study was aimed at generating robust visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR) calibrations for predicting potential yield, using spectra from fresh phase II compost. Four compost comparative trials were carried out during the winter and summer months of 2001-2003, under controlled experimental conditions employing six commercially prepared composts, with eight replicate (8 bag) plots per treatment (48 x 8 = 384). The substrates were prepared by windrow or bunker phase I, followed by phase II production. The fresh samples were scanned for Vis-NIR (400-2498 nm) spectra, averaged, transformed, and regressed against the recorded yield by employing a modified partial least squares algorithm. The best calibration model generated from the database explained 84% of yield variation within the data set with a standard error of calibration of 13.75 kg/tonne of fresh compost. The model was successfully tested for robustness with yield results obtained from a validation trial, carried out under similar experimental conditions in early 2004, and the standard error of prediction was 18.21 kg/tonne, which was slightly higher than the mean experimental error (17.94 kg/tonne) of the trial. The accuracy of the model is acceptable for estimating potential yield by classifying phase II substrate as poor (180-220 kg), medium (220-260 kg), and high (260-300 kg) yielding compost. The yield prediction model is being transferred to a new instrument based at Loughgall for routine evaluation of commercial phase II samples.

  5. Advanced Start of Combustion Sensor Phases I and II-A: Feasibility Demonstration, Design and Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Chad Smutzer

    2010-01-31

    Homogeneous Compressed Charge Ignition (HCCI) has elevated the need for Start of Combustion (SOC) sensors. HCCI engines have been the exciting focus of engine research recently, primarily because HCCI offers higher thermal efficiency than the conventional Spark Ignition (SI) engines and significantly lower NOx and soot emissions than conventional Compression Ignition (CI) engines, and could be fuel neutral. HCCI has the potential to unify all the internal combustion engine technology to achieve the high-efficiency, low-emission goal. However, these advantages do not come easy. It is well known that the problems encountered with HCCI combustion center on the difficulty of controlling the Start of Combustion. TIAX has an SOC sensor under development which has shown promise. In previous work, including a DOE-sponsored SBIR project, TIAX has developed an accelerometer-based method which was able to determine SOC within a few degrees crank angle for a range of operating conditions. A signal processing protocol allows reconstruction of the combustion pressure event signal imbedded in the background engine vibration recorded by the accelerometer. From this reconstructed pressure trace, an algorithm locates the SOC. This SOC sensor approach is nonintrusive, rugged, and is particularly robust when the pressure event is strong relative to background engine vibration (at medium to high engine load). Phase I of this project refined the previously developed technology with an engine-generic and robust algorithm. The objective of the Phase I research was to answer two fundamental questions: Can the accelerometer-based SOC sensor provide adequate SOC event capture to control an HCCI engine in a feedback loop? And, will the sensor system meet cost, durability, and software efficiency (speed) targets? Based upon the results, the answer to both questions was 'YES'. The objective of Phase II-A was to complete the parameter optimization of the SOC sensor prototype in order to reach a

  6. Coxiella burnetii total immunoglobulin G, phase I and phase II immunoglobulin G antibodies, and bacterial shedding in young dams in persistently infected dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Pérez, Beatriz; Almería, Sonia; Tutusaus, Joan; Jado, Isabel; Anda, Pedro; Monleón, Eva; Badiola, Juan; Garcia-Ispierto, Irina; López-Gatius, Fernando

    2015-03-01

    The current study examines Coxiella burnetii infection patterns in young dairy dams around the calving period in persistently infected high-producing dairy herds. Infection patterns were determined in terms of total immunoglobulin G (IgG) and phase-specific IgG antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and bacterial shedding by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). On days 171-177 of gestation, at parturition, and on days 15-21 and 91-97 postpartum, 7 first-parity cows and 7 second-parity cows were sampled for serology and qPCR. Total phase-specific I (PhI) and II (PhII) IgG antibodies were detected in 2 animals at days 171-177 of gestation. Four additional animals underwent seroconversion on days 91-97 postpartum. Three of 6 seropositive dams according to total IgG, showed a PhI+/PhII+ profile, whereas dams that seroconverted exhibited a PhI-/PhII+ (2/6) or PhI+/PhII- (1/6) profile. An indirect fluorescent antibody test for PhI and PhII immunoglobulin M (IgM) was performed on plasma samples from the shedding dams, confirming seropositivity in a first-parity dam that seroconverted, and detecting a sudden spike of PhI-IgM antibodies in 1 further dam. No relationship was detected in young C. burnetii-infected animals between total IgG, PhI and/or PhII antibodies, and bacterial shedding throughout the study period. The highest bacterial load measured by qPCR was recorded in a second-parity dam. This animal presented abnormal peripheral blood counts, which would be an indication of severe peripheral blood alterations in some infected cattle. This study suggests that young shedder cows are mostly seronegative in early stages of infection.

  7. Intrapleural administration of interleukin 2 in pleural mesothelioma: a phase I-II study.

    PubMed Central

    Goey, S. H.; Eggermont, A. M.; Punt, C. J.; Slingerland, R.; Gratama, J. W.; Oosterom, R.; Oskam, R.; Bolhuis, R. L.; Stoter, G.

    1995-01-01

    mesothelioma. A formal phase II study is warranted. Based on the observed toxicity, the lack of dose-response relationship and the immunomodulatory effects seen at relatively low-dose IL-2, the recommended dose for a phase II study is 3 x 10(6) IU day-1 using the present treatment schedule. Images Figure 1 PMID:7577483

  8. DOE SBIR Phase II Final Report: Distributed Relevance Ranking in Heterogeneous Document Collections

    SciTech Connect

    Abe Lederman

    2007-01-08

    This report contains the comprehensive summary of the work performed on the SBIR Phase II project (“Distributed Relevance Ranking in Heterogeneous Document Collections”) at Deep Web Technologies (http://www.deepwebtech.com). We have successfully completed all of the tasks defined in our SBIR Proposal work plan (See Table 1 - Phase II Tasks Status). The project was completed on schedule and we have successfully deployed an initial production release of the software architecture at DOE-OSTI for the Science.gov Alliance's search portal (http://www.science.gov). We have implemented a set of grid services that supports the extraction, filtering, aggregation, and presentation of search results from numerous heterogeneous document collections. Illustration 3 depicts the services required to perform QuickRank™ filtering of content as defined in our architecture documentation. Functionality that has been implemented is indicated by the services highlighted in green. We have successfully tested our implementation in a multi-node grid deployment both within the Deep Web Technologies offices, and in a heterogeneous geographically distributed grid environment. We have performed a series of load tests in which we successfully simulated 100 concurrent users submitting search requests to the system. This testing was performed on deployments of one, two, and three node grids with services distributed in a number of different configurations. The preliminary results from these tests indicate that our architecture will scale well across multi-node grid deployments, but more work will be needed, beyond the scope of this project, to perform testing and experimentation to determine scalability and resiliency requirements. We are pleased to report that a production quality version (1.4) of the science.gov Alliance's search portal based on our grid architecture was released in June of 2006. This demonstration portal is currently available at http://science.gov/search30 . The portal

  9. Anti-IP-10 antibody (BMS-936557) for ulcerative colitis: a phase II randomised study

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Lloyd; Sandborn, William J; Stepanov, Yuriy; Geboes, Karel; Hardi, Robert; Yellin, Michael; Tao, Xiaolu; Xu, Li An; Salter-Cid, Luisa; Gujrathi, Sheila; Aranda, Richard; Luo, Allison Y

    2014-01-01

    Objective Interferon-γ-inducible protein-10 (IP-10 or CXCL10) plays a role in inflammatory cell migration and epithelial cell survival and migration. It is expressed in higher levels in the colonic tissue and plasma of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). This phase II study assessed the efficacy and safety of BMS-936557, a fully human, monoclonal antibody to IP-10, in the treatment of moderately-to-severely active UC. Design In this 8-week, phase II, double-blind, multicentre, randomised study, patients with active UC received placebo or BMS-936557 (10 mg/kg) intravenously every other week. The primary endpoint was the rate of clinical response at Day 57; clinical remission and mucosal healing rates were secondary endpoints. Post hoc analyses evaluated the drug exposure–response relationship and histological improvement. Results 109 patients were included (BMS-936557: n=55; placebo: n=54). Prespecified primary and secondary endpoints were not met; clinical response rate at Day 57 was 52.7% versus 35.2% for BMS-936557 versus placebo (p=0.083), and clinical remission and mucosal healing rates were 18.2% versus 16.7% (p=1.00) and 41.8% versus 35.2% (p=0.556), respectively. However, higher BMS-936557 steady-state trough concentration (Cminss) was associated with increased clinical response (87.5% vs 37.0% (p<0.001) for patients with Cminss 108–235 μg/ml vs placebo) and histological improvements (73.0% vs 41.0%; p=0.004). Infections occurred in 7 (12.7%) BMS-936557-treated patients and 3 (5.8%) placebo-treated patients. 2 (3.6%) BMS-936557 patients discontinued due to adverse events. Conclusions Anti-IP-10 antibody, BMS-936557, is a potentially effective therapy for moderately-to-severely active UC. Higher drug exposure correlated with increasing clinical response and histological improvement. Further dose–response studies are warranted. Clinical Trial Registration Number: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00656890. PMID:23461895

  10. Clinical and Biomarker Outcomes of the Phase II Vandetanib Study from the BATTLE Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Anne S.; Liu, Suyu; Lee, J. Jack; Alden, Christine M.; Blumenschein, George R.; Herbst, Roy; Davis, Suzanne E.; Kim, Edward; Lippman, Scott; Heymach, John; Tran, Hai; Tang, XiMing; Wistuba, Ignacio; Hong, Waun Ki

    2016-01-01

    Background The Biomarker-integrated Approaches of Targeted Therapy for Lung Cancer Elimination trial1 prospectively obtained serum and tumor core biopsies and randomized 255 chemorefractory non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients into four phase II trials: erlotinib, erlotinib-bexarotene, vandetanib, or sorafenib. Herein, we report the clinical and biomarker results of the phase II vandetanib trial. Results Fifty-four patients received vandetanib. The 8-week disease control rate was 33%, median progression-free survival (PFS) 1.81 months, and median overall survival (OS) 6.5 months. No demographic subgroups had PFS or OS benefit. Eight patients with EGFR mutations had a trend for higher 8-week disease control rate (63% versus 31%; p = 0.12) but worse OS (5.9 months versus 9 months; p = 0.8). Patients with EGFR gene amplification (n = 6) had a worse OS (3.9 months versus 9.5 months; p = 0.04). KRAS mutation patients (3.9 months versus 9.5 months; p = 0.23) also had a worse OS. For the serum biomarker analysis, patients with below the median serum expression of interleukin 9c (p = 0.019) and eotaxin (p = 0.007) had a shorter PFS. A trend toward a shorter PFS was also seen in patients with higher than the median neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (p = 0.079) and lower than the median TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (p = 0.087). Conclusion Our trial results are largely consistent with the literature in unselected pretreated NSCLC patients. Although vandetanib improved median PFS in EGFR mutation patients with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor–resistance compared with EGFR wild-type, there was no OS advantage. Although vandetanib is no longer in development in NSCLC, identification of a molecular phenotype that responds to dual epidermal growth factor receptor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibition would contribute to the field. PMID:23584298

  11. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE IN DEEP AQUIFER MEDIA - PHASE II

    SciTech Connect

    Neeraj Gupta; Bruce Sass; Jennifer Ickes

    2000-11-28

    In 1998 Battelle was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under a Novel Concepts project grant to continue Phase II research on the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in deep saline formations. The focus of this investigation is to conduct detailed laboratory experiments to examine factors that may affect chemical sequestration of CO{sub 2} in deep saline formations. Reactions between sandstone and other geologic media from potential host reservoirs, brine solutions, and CO{sub 2} are being investigated under high-pressure conditions. Some experiments also include sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) gases to evaluate the potential for co-injection of CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} related gases in the deep formations. In addition, an assessment of engineering and economic aspects is being conducted. This current Technical Progress Report describes the status of the project as of September 2000. The major activities undertaken during the quarter included several experiments conducted to investigate the effects of pressure, temperature, time, and brine composition on rock samples from potential host reservoirs. Samples (both powder and slab) were taken from the Mt. Simon Sandstone, a potential CO{sub 2} host formation in the Ohio, the Eau Claire Shale, and Rome Dolomite samples that form the caprock for Mt. Simon Sandstone. Also, a sample with high calcium plagioclase content from Frio Formation in Texas was used. In addition, mineral samples for relatively pure Anorthite and glauconite were experimented on with and without the presence of additional clay minerals such as kaolinite and montmorillonite. The experiments were run for one to two months at pressures similar to deep reservoirs and temperatures set at 50 C or 150 C. Several enhancements were made to the experimental equipment to allow for mixing of reactants and to improve sample collection methods. The resulting fluids (gases and liquids) as

  12. Ultra-secure RF Tags for Safeguards and Security - SBIR Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Twogood, Richard E

    2015-01-27

    This is the Final Report for the DOE Phase II SBIR project “Ultra-secure RF Tags for Safeguards and Security.” The topics covered herein include technical progress made, progress against the planned milestones and deliverables, project outcomes (results, collaborations, intellectual property, etc.), and a discussion on future expectations of deployment and impacts of the results of this work. In brief, all planned work for the project was successfully completed, on or ahead of schedule and on budget. The major accomplishment was the successful development of a very advanced passive ultra-secure RFID tag system with combined security features unmatched by any commercially available ones. These tags have high-level dynamic encrypted authentication, a novel tamper-proofing mechanism, system software including graphical user interfaces and networking, and integration with a fiber-optic seal mechanism. This is all accomplished passively (with no battery) by incorporating sophisticated hardware in the tag which harvests the energy from the RFID readers that are interrogating the tag. Based on initial feedback (and deployments) at DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), it is anticipated these tags and their offspring will meet DOE and international community needs for highly secure RFID systems. Beyond the accomplishment of those original objectives for the ultra-secure RF tags, major new spin-off thrusts from the original work were identified and successfully pursued with the cognizance of the DOE sponsor office. In particular, new classes of less sophisticated RFID tags were developed whose lineage derives from the core R&D thrusts of this SBIR. These RF “tag variants” have some, but not necessarily all, of the advanced characteristics described above and can therefore be less expensive and meet far wider markets. With customer pull from the DOE and its national laboratories, new RFID tags and systems (including custom readers and software) for

  13. 78 FR 12006 - Wireline Competition Bureau Seeks Comment on Connect America Phase II Support for Price Cap Areas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 54 Wireline Competition Bureau Seeks Comment on Connect America Phase II Support for.... ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Federal Communications Commission seeks to further... this Public Notice, the Wireline Competition Bureau (Bureau) seeks to further develop the record...

  14. Toxicity Screening of the ToxCast Phase II Chemical Library Using a Zebrafish Developmental Assay (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the chemical screening and prioritization research program of the US EPA, the ToxCast Phase II chemicals were assessed using a vertebrate screen for developmental toxicity. Zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) were exposed in 96-well plates from late-blastula stage (6hr pos...

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, C. LEE COOK DIVISION, DOVER CORPORATION, STATIC PAC (TM) SYSTEM, PHASE II REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Static Pac System, Phase II, natural gas reciprocating compressor rod packing manufactured by the C. Lee Cook Division, Dover Corporation. The Static Pac System is designed to seal th...

  16. Clinical phase I/II research on ultrasound thermo-chemotherapy in oral and maxillofacial-head and neck carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Guofeng; Ren, Guoxin; Guo, Wei; Chen, Yazhu

    2012-11-01

    The principle of a ultrasound thermo-chemotherapy instrument and the clinical phase I/II research on short-term and long-term therapeutic effect and main side-effect of ultrasound hyperthermia combined with chemotherapy in oral and maxillofacial-head & neck carcinoma by the instrument will be presented in this paper.

  17. 75 FR 5279 - Sucker Creek Channel and Floodplain Restoration Project (Phase II), Rogue River-Siskiyou National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Sucker Creek Channel and Floodplain Restoration Project (Phase II..., Oregon. Purpose and Need for Action The purpose of the Sucker Creek Channel and Floodplain Restoration... show that the stream channel was more sinuous and contained a larger floodplain, characteristic of...

  18. Interaction-Point Phase-Space Characterization using Single-Beam and Luminous-Region Measurements at PEP-II

    SciTech Connect

    Kozanecki, W; Bevan, A.J.; Viaud, B.F.; Cai, Y.; Fisher, A.S.; O'Grady, C.; Lindquist, B.; Roodman, A.; J.M.Thompson, M.Weaver; /SLAC

    2008-09-09

    We present an extensive experimental characterization of the e{sup {+-}} phase space at the interaction point of the SLAC PEP-II B-Factory, that combines a detailed mapping of luminous-region observables using the BABAR detector, with stored-beam measurements by accelerator techniques.

  19. Pediatric Phase II Trials of Poly-ICLC in the Management of Newly Diagnosed and Recurrent Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Lisa L.R.; Crawford, John R.; Makale, Milan T.; Milburn, Mehrzad; Joshi, Shweta; Salazar, Andres M.; Hasenauer, Beth; VandenBerg, Scott R.; MacDonald, Tobey J.; Durden, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Brain tumors are the most common solid tumor diagnosed in childhood that account for significant morbidity and mortality. New therapies are urgently needed; hence, we conducted the first ever prospective open-label phase II trials of the biological response modifier, poly-ICLC, in children with brain tumors. Poly-ICLC is a synthetic double-stranded RNA that has direct antiviral, antineoplastic, and immune adjuvant effects. A total of 47 children representing a variety of brain tumor histopathologic subtypes were treated with poly-ICLC. On the basis of the results of the initial phase II trial, an expanded prospective phase II trial in low-grade glioma (LGG) has been initiated. MRI was used to acquire volume-based measures of tumor response. No dose-limiting toxicities have been observed. In the initial study 3 of 12 subjects with progressive high-grade gliomas (HGGs) responded, and 2 of 4 children with progressive LGG experienced stable disease for 18 to 24 months. In the follow-up LGG phase II study, 2 of 5 LGG patients were stable over 18 months, with 1 stable for 6 months. Overall 5 of 10 LGG patients have responded. On the basis of low toxicity and the promising LGG response, poly-ICLC may be effective for childhood LGG, and the results justify biomarker studies for personalization of poly-ICLC as a single agent or adjuvant. PMID:24309609

  20. Pediatric phase II trials of poly-ICLC in the management of newly diagnosed and recurrent brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Lisa L R; Crawford, John R; Makale, Milan T; Milburn, Mehrzad; Joshi, Shweta; Salazar, Andres M; Hasenauer, Beth; VandenBerg, Scott R; MacDonald, Tobey J; Durden, Donald L

    2014-08-01

    Brain tumors are the most common solid tumor diagnosed in childhood that account for significant morbidity and mortality. New therapies are urgently needed; hence, we conducted the first ever prospective open-label phase II trials of the biological response modifier, poly-ICLC, in children with brain tumors. Poly-ICLC is a synthetic double-stranded RNA that has direct antiviral, antineoplastic, and immune adjuvant effects. A total of 47 children representing a variety of brain tumor histopathologic subtypes were treated with poly-ICLC. On the basis of the results of the initial phase II trial, an expanded prospective phase II trial in low-grade glioma (LGG) has been initiated. MRI was used to acquire volume-based measures of tumor response. No dose-limiting toxicities have been observed. In the initial study 3 of 12 subjects with progressive high-grade gliomas (HGGs) responded, and 2 of 4 children with progressive LGG experienced stable disease for 18 to 24 months. In the follow-up LGG phase II study, 2 of 5 LGG patients were stable over 18 months, with 1 stable for 6 months. Overall 5 of 10 LGG patients have responded. On the basis of low toxicity and the promising LGG response, poly-ICLC may be effective for childhood LGG, and the results justify biomarker studies for personalization of poly-ICLC as a single agent or adjuvant.

  1. Synthesis and Temperature-Induced Structural Phase and Spin Transitions in Hexadecylboron-Capped Cobalt(II) Hexachloroclathrochelate and Its Diamagnetic Iron(II)-Encapsulating Analogue.

    PubMed

    Vologzhanina, Anna V; Belov, Alexander S; Novikov, Valentin V; Dolganov, Alexander V; Romanenko, Galina V; Ovcharenko, Victor I; Korlyukov, Alexander A; Buzin, Mikhail I; Voloshin, Yan Z

    2015-06-15

    Template condensation of dichloroglyoxime with n-hexadecylboronic acid on the corresponding metal ion as a matrix under vigorous reaction conditions afforded n-hexadecylboron-capped iron and cobalt(II) hexachloroclathrochelates. The complexes obtained were characterized using elemental analysis, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, IR, UV-vis, (1)H and (13)C{(1)H} NMR, (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopies, SQUID magnetometry, electron paramagnetic resonance, and cyclic voltammetry (CV) and by X-ray crystallography. The multitemperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction, SQUID magnetometry, and differential scanning calorimetry experiments were performed to study the temperature-induced spin-crossover [for the paramagnetic cobalt(II) complex] and the crystal-to-crystal phase transitions (for both of these clathrochelates) in the solid state. Analysis of their crystal packing using the molecular Voronoi polyhedra and the Hirshfeld surfaces reveals the structural rearrangements of the apical long-chain alkyl substituents resulting from such phase transitions being more pronounced for a macrobicyclic cobalt(II) complex. Its fine-crystalline sample undergoes the gradual and fully reversible spin transition centered at approximately 225 K. The density functional theory calculated parameters for an isolated molecule of this cobalt(II) hexachloroclathrochelate in its low- and high-spin states were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental data and allowed to localize the spin density within a macrobicyclic framework. CV of the cobalt(II) complex in the cathodic range contains one reversible wave assigned to the Co(2+/+) redox couple with the reduced anionic cobalt(I)-containing species stabilized by the electronic effect of six strong electron-withdrawing chlorine substituents. The quasireversible character of the Fe(2+/+) wave suggests that the anionic iron(I)-containing macrobicyclic species undergo substantial structural changes and side chemical reactions after such

  2. Phase I to II cross-induction of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes: A feedforward control mechanism for potential hormetic responses

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Qiang Pi Jingbo; Woods, Courtney G.; Andersen, Melvin E.

    2009-06-15

    Hormetic responses to xenobiotic exposure likely occur as a result of overcompensation by the homeostatic control systems operating in biological organisms. However, the mechanisms underlying overcompensation that leads to hormesis are still unclear. A well-known homeostatic circuit in the cell is the gene induction network comprising phase I, II and III metabolizing enzymes, which are responsible for xenobiotic detoxification, and in many cases, bioactivation. By formulating a differential equation-based computational model, we investigated in this study whether hormesis can arise from the operation of this gene/enzyme network. The model consists of two feedback and one feedforward controls. With the phase I negative feedback control, xenobiotic X activates nuclear receptors to induce cytochrome P450 enzyme, which bioactivates X into a reactive metabolite X'. With the phase II negative feedback control, X' activates transcription factor Nrf2 to induce phase II enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase and glutamate cysteine ligase, etc., which participate in a set of reactions that lead to the metabolism of X' into a less toxic conjugate X''. The feedforward control involves phase I to II cross-induction, in which the parent chemical X can also induce phase II enzymes directly through the nuclear receptor and indirectly through transcriptionally upregulating Nrf2. As a result of the active feedforward control, a steady-state hormetic relationship readily arises between the concentrations of the reactive metabolite X' and the extracellular parent chemical X to which the cell is exposed. The shape of dose-response evolves over time from initially monotonically increasing to J-shaped at the final steady state-a temporal sequence consistent with adaptation-mediated hormesis. The magnitude of the hormetic response is enhanced by increases in the feedforward gain, but attenuated by increases in the bioactivation or phase II feedback loop gains. Our study suggests a

  3. Predicting Pattern Tooling and Casting Dimensions for Investment Casting, Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Cannell; Adrian S. Sabau

    2005-09-30

    The investment casting process allows the production of complex-shape parts and close dimensional tolerances. One of the most important phases in the investment casting process is the design of the pattern die. Pattern dies are used to create wax patterns by injecting wax into dies. The first part of the project involved preparation of reports on the state of the art at that time for all the areas under consideration (die-wax, wax-shell, and shell-alloy). The primary R&D focus during Phase I was on the wax material since the least was known about it. The main R&D accomplishments during this phase were determination of procedures for obtaining the thermal conductivity and viscoelastic properties of an unfilled wax and validating those procedures. Phase II focused on die-wax and shell-alloy systems. A wax material model was developed based on results obtained during the previous R&D phase, and a die-wax model was successfully incorporated into and used in commercial computer programs. Current computer simulation programs have complementary features. A viscoelastic module was available in ABAQUS but unavailable in ProCAST, while the mold-filling module was available in ProCAST but unavailable in ABAQUS. Thus, the numerical simulation results were only in good qualitative agreement with experimental results, the predicted shrinkage factors being approximately 2.5 times larger than those measured. Significant progress was made, and results showed that the testing and modeling of wax material had great potential for industrial applications. Additional R&D focus was placed on one shell-alloy system. The fused-silica shell mold and A356 aluminum alloy were considered. The experimental part of the program was conducted at ORNL and commercial foundries, where wax patterns were injected, molds were invested, and alloys were poured. It was very important to obtain accurate temperature data from actual castings, and significant effort was made to obtain temperature profiles in

  4. Evaluation of qPCR and phase I and II antibodies for detection of Coxiella burnetii infection in cattle.

    PubMed

    Szymańska-Czerwińska, Monika; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Jodełko, Agnieszka

    2016-10-01

    Diagnosis of Q fever in cattle is not easy due to the need to test the samples by both serological and molecular methods. Aim of this study was to evaluate qPCR, and phase I and II antibodies for detection of C. burnetii infection in cattle. A total of 187 bovine blood and vaginal swabs, and 97 milk samples, were tested. Limitations of serological tests were that the available indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) could lose positive results if antibody titres were low; or phase II antibodies were present. The highest level of correlation between iELISA and complement fixation test (CFT) was noted with the antigen specific phase I antibodies. Neither the mode of shedding nor its intensity correlated with phase I and II antibodies, but positive results in CFT mixed-phase and shedding in vaginal mucous did correlate, and showed the highest correlation. Antigenic diversity, and variability could be crucial in laboratory diagnosis of Q fever.

  5. Web-based data management for a phase II clinical trial in ALS.

    PubMed

    Buchsbaum, Richard; Kaufmann, Petra; Barsdorf, Alexandra I; Arbing, Rachel; Montes, Jacqueline; Thompson, John L P

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to report on the creation, features and performance of a web-based data management system for a two-stage phase II randomized clinical trial of Co-Enzyme Q10 in ALS. We created a relatively comprehensive web-based data system that provided electronic data entry; patient management utilities; adverse event reporting, safety monitoring, and invoice generation; and standardized coding for medications and adverse events. In stage 1, clinical sites submitted 7207 forms reporting on 105 patients followed for 10 months. Less than 0.7% of submitted forms contained errors. At the time of the delivery of the analysis data set, only four errors remained unresolved. Data were available quickly, with a median time from event to data posting of two days. The data set was locked and the analysis data set produced nine days after the final patient visit. A survey of trial personnel yielded generally positive feedback, with 75% of respondents wishing to use a similar system in the future. Given sufficient resources, a comprehensive web-based data management system can meet the need for clean, available data in clinical trials in ALS and similar diseases, and can contribute significantly to their efficient execution.

  6. Spectral and thermal studies of solid-phase thermochromism of Co(II) double metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AL-Sha'alan, Noura H.

    2007-09-01

    Tetrahedral solid state structures of the blue potassium tris(aryloxo)cobaltate(II)-tetrahydrofurane complexes of the formula KCo(OAr) 3·2thf (OAr = o-chloro-, o-bromo-, m-chloro-, p-bromo, 2,6-dichloro-, 2,4-dichloro- or 2,4-dimethylphenoxide) undergo solid-phase thermal tetrahedral to octahedral transformation accompanied by change in their colours from blue to rose (one-step thermochromism). Magnetic moments, electronic and infrared spectral studies supported these results. Thermal treatment of theses complexes leads to the loss of the crystallized thf molecule yielding also blue tetrahedral complexes. However, further heating leads to the loss of the coordinated thf molecule and the formation of rose octahedral trimeric products. TG-DTA results showed that the, two solvated thf molecules were eliminated in two steps. Mass spectral studies and IR intensity measurements confirmed the trimeric behaviour of the rose octahedral geometry of thermal products. Conductance measurements of solutions of these complexes in thf indicated that they behave as non-electrolytes.

  7. THE WIDE-AREA ENERGY STORAGE AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM PHASE II Final Report - Flywheel Field Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Makarov, Yuri V.; Weimar, Mark R.; Rudolph, Frank; Murthy, Shashikala; Arseneaux, Jim; Loutan, Clyde; Chowdhury, S.

    2010-08-31

    This research was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operated for the U.S. department of Energy (DOE) by Battelle Memorial Institute for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), California Institute for Energy and Environment (CIEE) and California Energy Commission (CEC). A wide-area energy management system (WAEMS) is a centralized control system that operates energy storage devices (ESDs) located in different places to provide energy and ancillary services that can be shared among balancing authorities (BAs). The goal of this research is to conduct flywheel field tests, investigate the technical characteristics and economics of combined hydro-flywheel regulation services that can be shared between Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and California Independent System Operator (CAISO) controlled areas. This report is the second interim technical report for Phase II of the WAEMS project. This report presents: 1) the methodology of sharing regulation service between balancing authorities, 2) the algorithm to allocate the regulation signal between the flywheel and hydro power plant to minimize the wear-and-tear of the hydro power plants, 3) field results of the hydro-flywheel regulation service (conducted by the Beacon Power), and 4) the performance metrics and economic analysis of the combined hydro-flywheel regulation service.

  8. Non-thermal Plasma Activates Human Keratinocytes by Stimulation of Antioxidant and Phase II Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Anke; Dietrich, Stephan; Steuer, Anna; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; von Woedtke, Thomas; Masur, Kai; Wende, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma provides a novel therapeutic opportunity to control redox-based processes, e.g. wound healing, cancer, and inflammatory diseases. By spatial and time-resolved delivery of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, it allows stimulation or inhibition of cellular processes in biological systems. Our data show that both gene and protein expression is highly affected by non-thermal plasma. Nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (NRF2) and phase II enzyme pathway components were found to act as key controllers orchestrating the cellular response in keratinocytes. Additionally, glutathione metabolism, which is a marker for NRF2-related signaling events, was affected. Among the most robustly increased genes and proteins, heme oxygenase 1, NADPH-quinone oxidoreductase 1, and growth factors were found. The roles of NRF2 targets, investigated by siRNA silencing, revealed that NRF2 acts as an important switch for sensing oxidative stress events. Moreover, the influence of non-thermal plasma on the NRF2 pathway prepares cells against exogenic noxae and increases their resilience against oxidative species. Via paracrine mechanisms, distant cells benefit from cell-cell communication. The finding that non-thermal plasma triggers hormesis-like processes in keratinocytes facilitates the understanding of plasma-tissue interaction and its clinical application. PMID:25589789

  9. NRF2 and the Phase II Response in Acute Stress Resistance Induced by Dietary Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Hine, Christopher M.; Mitchell, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) as a means to increase longevity is well-established in a number of model organisms from yeast to primates. DR also improves metabolic fitness and increases resistance to acute oxidative, carcinogenic and toxicological stressors - benefits with more immediate potential for clinical translation than increased lifespan. While the detailed mechanism of DR action remains unclear, a conceptual framework involving an adaptive, or hormetic response to the stress of nutrient/energy deprivation has been proposed. A key prediction of the hormesis hypothesis of DR is that beneficial adaptations occur in response to an increase in reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS). These ROS may be derived either from increased mitochondrial respiration or increased xenobiotic metabolism in the case of some DR mimetics. This review will focus on the potential role of the redox-sensing transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and its control of the evolutionarily conserved antioxidant/redox cycling and detoxification systems, collectively known as the Phase II response, in the adaptive response to DR. PMID:23505614

  10. Phage idiotype vaccination: first phase I/II clinical trial in patients with multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Multiple myeloma is characterized by clonal expansion of B cells producing monoclonal immunoglobulins or fragments thereof, which can be detected in the serum and/or urine and are ideal target antigens for patient-specific immunotherapies. Methods Using phage particles as immunological carriers, we employed a novel chemically linked idiotype vaccine in a clinical phase I/II trial including 15 patients with advanced multiple myeloma. Vaccines composed of purified paraproteins linked to phage were manufactured successfully for each patient. Patients received six intradermal immunizations with phage idiotype vaccines in three different dose groups. Results Phage idiotype was well tolerated by all study participants. A subset of patients (80% in the middle dose group) displayed a clinical response indicated by decrease or stabilization of paraprotein levels. Patients exhibiting a clinical response to phage vaccines also raised idiotype-specific immunoglobulins. Induction of a cellular immune response was demonstrated by a cytotoxicity assay and delayed type hypersensitivity tests. Conclusion We present a simple, time- and cost-efficient phage idiotype vaccination strategy, which represents a safe and feasible patient-specific therapy for patients with advanced multiple myeloma and produced promising anti-tumor activity in a subset of patients. PMID:24885819

  11. Weekly pegylated liposomal doxorubicin and paclitaxel in patients with metastatic breast carcinoma: A phase II study

    PubMed Central

    LEONARDI, VITA; PALMISANO, VALENTINA; PEPE, ALESSIO; USSET, ANTONELLA; MANUGUERRA, GIOVANNA; SAVIO, GIUSEPPINA; DE BELLA, MANUELA TAMBURO; LAUDANI, AGATA; ALÙ, MASSIMO; CUSIMANO, MARIA PIA; SCIANNA, CATERINA; GIRESI, ARMANDO; AGOSTARA, BIAGIO

    2010-01-01

    Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) has the advantage of delivering active anthracycline directly to the tumor site, while exposing the patient to a lesser degree of doxorubicin-associated toxicities. Recently, a regimen in which paclitaxel is infused weekly over 1 h produced substantial antitumor activity with little myelosuppression. We designed a phase II trial to study the efficacy and toxicity of 10 mg/m2 PLD on Days 1, 8 and 15, plus 70 mg/m2 paclitaxel weekly in patients with untreated metastatic breast cancer and a high risk of cardiotoxicity. The study included 35 patients, with 31 (88.5%) evaluable for efficacy and 35 (100%) for toxicity. A total of 28 patients (80%) had two or more sites of disease. Overall, 4 complete and 16 partial responses were noted with an overall response rate of 64.5%, with 6 cases of stable and 5 cases of progressive disease. Toxicity was found to be manageable in that the only grade 3–4 side effects recorded were palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia, 8.5%; mucositis, 2.8%; leucopenia, 12.5%; anemia, 2.8% and AST/ALT, 2.8%. No cardiotoxicity was observed. In conclusion, weekly PLD plus paclitaxel appears to be a well-tolerated and effective approach for metastatic breast cancer patients with a high risk of cardiotoxicity. PMID:22966374

  12. Xanthohumol induces phase II enzymes via Nrf2 in human hepatocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Krajka-Kuźniak, Violetta; Paluszczak, Jarosław; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether xanthohumol may exert chemoprotective activity through the modulation of the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway in immortalized normal THLE-2 hepatocytes and a hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line. Cells were incubated in the presence of xanthohumol and the activation of Nrf2 and expression of genes controlled by this transcription factor were evaluated. Additionally, p53 level was assessed. Xanthohumol increased the expression and led to the activation of Nrf2 in both cell lines. However, in contrast to normal cells the expression of genes controlled by this transcription factor was not affected in HepG2 cells, except for GSTA and GSTP. Xanthohumol, beside the induction of GSTs and HO-1, significantly elevated NQO1 expression in concert with p53 level in normal hepatocytes. The activation of Nrf2 pathway and subsequently phase II enzymes in concert with p53 induction in normal hepatocytes may account for the molecular mechanism of the chemopreventive activity of xanthohumol. On the other hand its cytotoxicity towards HCC cells shown in this study indicates that it may also be considered as potentially chemotherapeutic.

  13. A wet dressing for male genital surgery: A phase II clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, Fábio de Oliveira; Pinto, Flávia Cristina Morone; Albuquerque, Amanda Vasconcelos; Martins, Ana Gabriela Santos; de Araújo, Luiz Alberto Pereira; Aguiar, José Lamartine de Andrade; Lima, Salvador Vilar Correia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: This study was to confirm the safety and efficacy of BC dressing when used in surgical male wound healing at the urogenital area. Methods: Open, non-controlled clinical study of phase II. A total of 141 patients, among those children, adolescents and adults with hypospadias (112), epispadias (04), phymosis (13) and Peyronie's disease (12) that had a BC dressing applied over the operated area after surgery. A written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Study exclusion criteria were patients with other alternative treatment indications due to the severity, extent of the injury or the underlying disease. The outcomes evaluated were efficacy, safe and complete healing. The costs were discussed. Results: In 68% patients, the BC dressing fell off spontaneously. The BC was removed without complications in 13% of patients at the outpatient clinic during the follow-up visit and 17% not reported the time of removal. In 3% of the cases, the dressing fell off early. Complete healing was observed between 8th and 10th days after surgery. The BC dressings have shown a good tolerance by all the patients and there were no reports of serious adverse events. Conclusion: The bacterial cellulose dressings have shown efficacy, safety and that can be considered as a satisfactory alternative for postoperative wound healing in urogenital area and with low cost. PMID:27649111

  14. Culture and Use of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Phase I and II Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Philippe, Bourin; Luc, Sensebé; Valérie, Planat-Bénard; Jérôme, Roncalli; Alessandra, Bura-Rivière; Louis, Casteilla

    2010-01-01

    Present in numerous tissues, mesenchymal stem cells/multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) can differentiate into different cell types from a mesoderm origin. Their potential has been extended to pluripotency, by their possibility of differentiating into tissues and cells of nonmesodermic origin. Through the release of cytokines, growth factors and biologically active molecules, MSCs exert important paracrine effects during tissue repair and inflammation. Moreover, MSCs have immunosuppressive properties related to non-HLA restricted immunosuppressive capacities. All these features lead to an increasing range of possible applications of MSCs, from treating immunological diseases to tissue and organ repair, that should be tested in phase I and II clinical trials. The most widely used MSCs are cultured from bone marrow or adipose tissue. For clinical trial implementation, BM MSCs and ADSCs should be produced according to Good Manufacturing Practices. Safety remains the major concern and must be ensured during culture and validated with relevant controls. We describe some applications of MSCs in clinical trials. PMID:21052537

  15. Phase-II conjugation ability for PAH metabolism in amphibians: characteristics and inter-species differences.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Haruki; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Tanaka-Ueno, Tomoko; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2011-10-01

    The present study examines amphibian metabolic activity - particularly conjugation - by analysis of pyrene (a four ring, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) metabolites using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detector (FD), a mass spectrometry detector (MS) system and kinetic analysis of conjugation enzymes. Six amphibian species were exposed to pyrene (dissolved in water): African claw frog (Xenopus laevis); Tago's brown frog (Rana tagoi); Montane brown frog (Rana ornativentris); Wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa); Japanese newt (Cynops pyrrhogaster); and Clouded salamander (Hynobius nebulosus); plus one fish species, medaka (Oryzias latipes); and a fresh water snail (Clithon retropictus), and the resultant metabolites were collected. Identification of pyrene metabolites by HPLC and ion-trap MS system indicated that medaka mainly excreted pyrene-1-glucuronide (PYOG), while pyrene-1-sulfate (PYOS) was the main metabolite in all amphibian species. Pyrene metabolites in amphibians were different from those in invertebrate fresh water snails. Inter-species differences were also observed in pyrene metabolism among amphibians. Metabolite analysis showed that frogs relied more strongly on sulfate conjugation than did Japanese newts and clouded salamanders. Furthermore, urodelan amphibians, newts and salamanders, excreted glucose conjugates of pyrene that were not detected in the anuran amphibians. Kinetic analysis of conjugation by hepatic microsomes and cytosols indicated that differences in excreted metabolites reflected differences in enzymatic activities. Furthermore, pyrenediol (PYDOH) glucoside sulfate was detected in the Japanese newt sample. This novel metabolite has not been reported previously to this report, in which we have identified unique characteristics of amphibians in phase II pyrene metabolism.

  16. Silicon sensor prototypes for the Phase II upgrade of the CMS tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergauer, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    The High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) has been identified as the highest priority program in High Energy Physics in the mid-term future. It will provide the experiments an additional integrated luminosity of about 2500 fb-1 over 10 years of operation, starting in 2025. In order to meet the experimental challenges of unprecedented p-p luminosity, especially in terms of radiation levels and occupancy, the CMS collaboration will need to replace its entire strip tracker by a new one. In this paper the baseline layout option for this new Phase-II tracker is shown, together with two variants using a tilted barrel geometry or larger modules from 8-inch silicon wafers. Moreover, the two module concepts are discussed, which consist either of two strip sensors (2S) or of one strip and one pixel sensor (PS). These two designs allow pT discrimination at module level enabling the tracker to contribute to the L1 trigger decision. The paper presents testing results of the macro-pixel-light sensor for the PS module and shows the first electrical characterization of unirradiated, full-scale strip sensor prototypes for the 2S module concept, both on 6- and 8-inch wafers.

  17. Excretion of norsteroids' phase II metabolites of different origin in human.

    PubMed

    Guay, Claudiane; Goudreault, Danielle; Schänzer, Wilhem; Flenker, Ulrich; Ayotte, Christiane

    2009-03-01

    The urinary phase II metabolites of norsteroids, 19-norandrosterone, 19-noretiocholanolone and 19-norepiandrosterone glucuronide and sulphate, were analyzed in samples collected during the pregnancy, following the administration of norsteroids or the consumption of edible parts of non-castrated pig and in athletes' samples in which they were found during routine controls. The level of the sulfo- and glucuroconjugated metabolites was precisely determined by GC/HRMS, after selective hydrolysis. The goal was to evaluate whether the fine analysis of the norsteroid conjugates produced and excreted in different conditions would show a pattern that could be linked to their origin. The delta (13)C values of the metabolites formed following the ingestion of edible parts of non-castrated pig were measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Our results indicated that it is not possible to determine the origin of the urinary metabolites based upon the sole evaluation of the different metabolites and conjugates. The GC/C/IRMS is the only method permitting to distinguish between the exogenous and endogenous origin of the metabolites.

  18. Final Analysis and Results of the Phase II SIMPLE Dark Matter Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felizardo, M.; Girard, T. A.; Morlat, T.; Fernandes, A. C.; Ramos, A. R.; Marques, J. G.; Kling, A.; Puibasset, J.; Auguste, M.; Boyer, D.; Cavaillou, A.; Poupeney, J.; Sudre, C.; Miley, H. S.; Payne, R. F.; Carvalho, F. P.; Prudêncio, M. I.; Gouveia, A.; Marques, R.

    2012-05-01

    We report the final results of the Phase II SIMPLE measurements, comprising two run stages of 15 superheated droplet detectors each, with the second stage including an improved neutron shielding. The analyses include a refined signal analysis, and revised nucleation efficiency based on a reanalysis of previously reported monochromatic neutron irradiations. The combined results yield a contour minimum of σp=5.7×10-3pb at 35GeV/c2 in the spin-dependent sector of weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) proton interactions, the most restrictive to date for MW≤60GeV/c2 from a direct search experiment and overlapping, for the first time, with results previously obtained only indirectly. In the spin-independent sector, a minimum of 4.7×10-6pb at 35GeV/c2 is achieved, with the exclusion contour challenging a significant part of the light mass WIMP region of current interest.

  19. OPTIMIZED MONOSODIUM TITANATE PHASE II SUPPLEMENTAL TESTING REPORT URANIUM ADSORPTION AND SHELF-LIFE MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D

    2008-01-01

    The DOE Office of Waste Processing recently funded supplemental Phase II testing to further investigate the uranium affinity and shelf-life of modified monosodium titanate (mMST). Testing results confirmed earlier findings that the mMST exhibits much lower affinity for uranium than the baseline monosodium titanate (MST) material. The loading of uranium onto the mMST sample measured more than an order of magnitude lower than that of the MST. This finding indicates that the use of mMST provides a significant advantage over MST in that the mMST will not concentrate enriched uranium to the degree that MST does. The reduced affinity of mMST for uranium allows more operational flexibility in treating waste solutions from a nuclear criticality safety perspective. Testing results also indicate that the mMST exhibits good shelf-life with no measurable loss in plutonium and neptunium removal upon storage of samples at ambient laboratory temperatures for up to 30-months. Testing did exhibit a change in strontium removal performance for both the mMST and MST samples at the most recent testing event. However, the decrease in strontium removal performance proved lower for the mMST than the MST sample. Given these positive findings SRNL recommends continued development of mMST as a replacement for MST in pretreatment facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  20. An Overview of Power, Energy Storage, and Conversion Efforts for 2014 SBIR Phases I and II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2016-01-01

    Technological innovation is the overall focus of NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The program invests in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for agency projects. NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program focuses on technological innovation by investing in development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA mission directorates address critical research needs for Agency programs. This report highlights 15 of the innovative SBIR 2014 Phase I and II projects that focus on one of NASA Glenn Research Center's six core competencies-Power, Energy Storage and Conversion. The technologies cover a wide spectrum of applications such as high-radiation-tolerant ceramic voltage isolators, development of hermetic sealing glasses for solid oxide fuel cells, rechargeable lithium metal cells, high-efficiency direct methane solid oxide fuel cell systems, Li metal protection for high-energy space batteries, isolated bidirectional direct current converters for distributed battery energy applications, and high-efficiency rad-hard ultrathin Si photovoltaic cell technology for space. Each article describes an innovation and technical objective and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report provides an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn how NASA SBIR technologies could help their programs and projects, and lead to collaborations and partnerships between the small SBIR companies and NASA that would benefit both.

  1. Washington Phase II Fish Diversion Screen Evaluations in the Yakima River Basin, 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vucelick, J.; McMichael, G.; Chamness, M.

    2004-05-01

    In 2003, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. PNNL collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries, formerly the National Marine Fisheries Service [NMFS]) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage. In addition, PNNL conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2003, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by the NOAA Fisheries. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to improve juvenile fish passage conditions. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well greased and operative. (5) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris could be improved at some sites.

  2. Washington Phase II Fish Diversion Screen Evaluations in the Yakima River Basin, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.; McMichael, G.; Chamness, M.

    2003-01-01

    In 2002, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met National Marine Fisheries Service criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage and whether bypass outfall conditions allowed fish to safely return to the river. In addition, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2002, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by the National Marine Fisheries Service. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to increase safe juvenile fish passage. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well greased and operative. (5) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris should be improved at some sites.

  3. Washington Phase II Fish Diversion Screen Evaluations in the Yakima River Basin, 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Chamness, M. A.

    2001-03-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 21 Phase II screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. The sites were examined in 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000 to determine if they were being effectively operated and maintained to provide fish a safe, efficient return to the Yakima River. Data were collected to determine if velocities in front of the screens and in the bypass met current National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) criteria to promote safe and timely fish bypass and whether bypass outfall conditions allowed fish to safely return to the river. Based on the results of our studies in 2000, we conclude that: in general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set forth by the NMFS; most facilities were efficiently protecting juvenile fish from entrainment, impingement, or migration delay; automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were well greased and inoperative; and removal of sediment build-up and accumulated leafy and woody debris are areas that continue to improve.

  4. Phase II study of liposomal doxorubicin and gemcitabine in the salvage treatment of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, G; Ferrandina, G; Ludovisi, M; Testa, A; Lorusso, D; Gbaguidi, N; Breda, E; Mancuso, S; Scambia, G

    2003-10-06

    In total, 70 patients were enrolled into this phase II study, to evaluate the activity of the pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) and gemcitabine (GEM) combination in recurrent ovarian cancer patients. PLD, 30 mg m(-2), was administered on day 1 by 60' i.v. infusion, followed by GEM, 1000 mg m(-2), given by 30' i.v. on days 1 and 8; cycles were repeated every 21 days. In all, 67 patients are so far evaluable for response. Seven complete responses (10.4%, 95% CI: 3.1-17.7), 16 partial responses (23.9%, 95% CI: 13.7-34.1), 26 disease stabilisations (38.8%, 95% CI: 27.1-50.5) and 18 progressions (26.9%, 95% CI: 16.3-37.5) have been registered. Within the resistant population (n=36), the response rate was 25% (95% CI: 10.9-39.1). Within the group of platinum-sensitive patients (n=31), the response rate was 45.2% (95% CI: 27.7-62.7). A total of 443 courses are evaluable for toxicity. Grade 3-4 hematological toxicity was registered in 30 patients (42.8%), mainly represented by neutropenia (35.6%); palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia affected 24 patients (34.2%), but it was of grade 3 in only seven of them (10%).

  5. Results of the phase II study of photodynamic therapy in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konaka, Chimori; Kato, Harubumi; Okunaka, Tetsuya; Hayata, Yoshihiro

    1994-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) utilizing Photofrin has proven to be an effective modality used in the treatment of solid tumors. In particular, it can be applied via endoscopy to lesions developing in luminal organs. A phase II study was conducted for submission to the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare. In this protocol an excimer dye laser was used to deliver 630 nm light via a quartz fiber passed through an endoscopic working channel two days subsequent to i.v. injection of photosensitizer. In this study, 98 patients with superficial cancer of various organs were treated. Of these, 88 patients could be evaluated, including 33 with roentgenographically occult lung cancer, 10 with esophageal cancer, 24 with gastric cancer, 18 with cervical cancer and three with bladder cancer. Complete remission as evaluated endoscopically, pathologically, and cytologically was obtained in 83 out of 98 (84.7). There was no serious complication except mild skin photosensitivity, which was seen in four patients. It was concluded that PDT can be efficacious in the treatment of superficial cancers and that complete remission can be achieved when suitable photoradiation conditions are met.

  6. A decision-theoretic phase I-II design for ordinal outcomes in two cycles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Juhee; Thall, Peter F; Ji, Yuan; Müller, Peter

    2016-04-01

    This paper is motivated by a phase I-II clinical trial of a targeted agent for advanced solid tumors. We study a stylized version of this trial with the goal to determine optimal actions in each of two cycles of therapy. A design is presented that generalizes the decision-theoretic two-cycle design of Lee and others (2015. Bayesian dose-finding in two treatment cycles based on the joint utility of efficacy and toxicity. Journal of the American Statistical Association, to appear) to accommodate ordinal outcomes. Backward induction is used to jointly optimize the actions taken for each patient in each of the two cycles, with the second action accounting for the patient's cycle 1 dose and outcomes. A simulation study shows that simpler designs obtained by dichotomizing the ordinal outcomes either perform very similarly to the proposed design, or have much worse performance in some scenarios. We also compare the proposed design with the simpler approaches of optimizing the doses in each cycle separately, or ignoring the distinction between cycles 1 and 2.

  7. Intensified Adjuvant Treatment of Prostate Carcinoma: Feasibility Analysis of a Phase I/II Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mantini, Giovanna; Fersino, Sergio; Frascino, Vincenzo; Massaccesi, Mariangela; Fionda, Bruno; Luzi, Stefano; Balducci, Mario; De Belvis, Antonio; Morganti, Alessio Giuseppe; Valentini, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To perform a preliminary feasibility acute and late toxicity evaluation of an intensified and modulated adjuvant treatment in prostate cancer (PCa) patients after radical prostatectomy. Material and Methods. A phase I/II has been designed. Eligible patients were 79 years old or younger, with an ECOG of 0–2, previously untreated, histologically proven prostate adenocarcinoma with no distant metastases, pT2–4 N0-1, and with at least one of the following risk factors: capsular perforation, positive surgical margins, and seminal vesicle invasion. All patients received a minimum dose on tumor bed of 64.8 Gy, or higher dose (70.2 Gy; 85.4%), according to the pathological stage, pelvic lymph nodes irradiation (57.7%), and/or hormonal therapy (69.1%). Results. 123 patients were enrolled and completed the planned treatment, with good tolerance. Median follow-up was 50.6 months. Grade 3 acute toxicity was only 2.4% and 3.3% for genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) tract, respectively. No patient had late grade 3 GI toxicity, and the GU grade 3 toxicity incidence was 5.8% at 5 years. 5-year BDSF was 90.2%. Conclusions. A modulated and intensified adjuvant treatment in PCa was feasible in this trial. A further period of observation can provide a complete assessment of late toxicity and confirm the BDSF positive results. PMID:25093169

  8. Thermal imaging QC for silicon strip staves of the ATLAS phase II upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergel Infante, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    A new silicon strip detector is part of the phase II upgrade of the ATLAS inner tracker. Light-material carbon fiber honeycomb sandwich staves serve as mechanical support for the strip sensors and readout modules and to move the dissipated heat out of the detector. A cooling pipe inside the stave is embedded in heat-conducting foam that thermally connects the pipe with the readout modules. The staves are required to pass a set of quality control (QC) tests before they are populated with readout modules. One test uses a non-invasive inspection method of infrared (IR) thermal imaging of the heat path while the stave is cooled to around -40°C at ambient room temperature. Imperfections in the manufacturing, such as the delamination of the stave facing from the foam, will exhibit a different temperature profile compared to a flawless stave. We report on the current status of the thermal imaging QC measurements including a characterization of various contributions to the uncertainties in the temperature reading of the IR camera such as pedestal variations, common-mode noise, vignetting, and statistical fluctuations across the field of view.

  9. Investigation of HV/HR-CMOS technology for the ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Grabas, H.; Grillo, A. A.; Liang, Z.; Martinez-Mckinney, F.; Seiden, A.; Volk, J.; Affolder, A.; Buckland, M.; Meng, L.; Arndt, K.; Bortoletto, D.; Huffman, T.; John, J.; McMahon, S.; Nickerson, R.; Phillips, P.; Plackett, R.; Shipsey, I.; Vigani, L.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Kanisauskas, K.; Maneuski, D.; Benoit, M.; Di Bello, F.; Caragiulo, P.; Dragone, A.; Grenier, P.; Kenney, C.; Rubbo, F.; Segal, J.; Su, D.; Tamma, C.; Das, D.; Dopke, J.; Turchetta, R.; Wilson, F.; Worm, S.; Ehrler, F.; Peric, I.; Gregor, I. M.; Stanitzki, M.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Seidel, S.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Kramberger, G.; Mandić, I.; Mikuž, M.; Muenstermann, D.; Wang, R.; Zhang, J.; Warren, M.; Song, W.; Xiu, Q.; Zhu, H.

    2016-09-01

    ATLAS has formed strip CMOS project to study the use of CMOS MAPS devices as silicon strip sensors for the Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade. This choice of sensors promises several advantages over the conventional baseline design, such as better resolution, less material in the tracking volume, and faster construction speed. At the same time, many design features of the sensors are driven by the requirement of minimizing the impact on the rest of the detector. Hence the target devices feature long pixels which are grouped to form a virtual strip with binary-encoded z position. The key performance aspects are radiation hardness compatibility with HL-LHC environment, as well as extraction of the full hit position with full-reticle readout architecture. To date, several test chips have been submitted using two different CMOS technologies. The AMS 350 nm is a high voltage CMOS process (HV-CMOS), that features the sensor bias of up to 120 V. The TowerJazz 180 nm high resistivity CMOS process (HR-CMOS) uses a high resistivity epitaxial layer to provide the depletion region on top of the substrate. We have evaluated passive pixel performance, and charge collection projections. The results strongly support the radiation tolerance of these devices to radiation dose of the HL-LHC in the strip tracker region. We also describe design features for the next chip submission that are motivated by our technology evaluation.

  10. Phase I/II Study of Temozolomide Plus Nimustine Chemotherapy for Recurrent Malignant Gliomas: Kyoto Neuro-oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    AOKI, Tomokazu; ARAKAWA, Yoshiki; UEBA, Tetsuya; ODA, Masashi; NISHIDA, Namiko; AKIYAMA, Yukinori; TSUKAHARA, Tetsuya; IWASAKI, Koichi; MIKUNI, Nobuhiro; MIYAMOTO, Susumu

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this phase I/II study was to examine the efficacy and toxicity profile of temozolomide (TMZ) plus nimustine (ACNU). Patients who had received a standard radiotherapy with one or two previous chemo-regimens were enrolled. In phase I, the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) by TMZ (150 mg/m2/day) (Day 1–5) plus various doses of ACNU (30, 35, 40, 45 mg/m2/day) (Day 15) per 4 weeks was defined on a standard 3 + 3 design. In phase II, these therapeutic activity and safety of this regimen were evaluated. Forty-nine eligible patients were enrolled. The median age was 50 years-old. Eighty percent had a KPS of 70–100. Histologies were glioblastoma (73%), anaplastic astrocytoma (22%), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (4%). In phase I, 15 patients were treated at four cohorts by TMZ plus ACNU. MTD was TMZ (150 mg/m2) plus ACNU (40 mg/m2). In phase II, 40 patients were treated at the dose of cohort 3 (MTD). Thirty-five percent of patients experienced grade 3 or 4 toxicities, mainly hematologic. The overall response rate was 11% (4/37). Sixty-eight percent (25/37) had stable disease. Twenty-two percent (8/37) showed progression. Progression-free survival (PFS) rates at 6 and 12 months were 24% (95% CI, 12–35%) and 8% (95% CI, 4–15%). Median PFS was 13 months (95% CI, 9.2–17.2 months). Overall survival (OS) at 6 and 12 were 78% (95% CI, 67–89%) and 49% (95% CI, 33–57%). Median OS was 11.8 months (95% CI, 8.2–14.5 months). This phase I/II study showed a moderate toxicity in hematology and may has a promising efficacy in OS, without inferiority in PFS. PMID:27725524

  11. Design of Training Systems, Phase II Report, Volume II; Detailed Model Descriptions. TAEG Report No. 12-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Training Equipment Center, Orlando, FL. Training Analysis and Evaluation Group.

    The Design of Training Systems (DOTS) project was initiated by the Department of Defense (DOD) to develop tools for the effective management of military training organizations. Phase 2 involved the design and development of three computer-based mathematical models, described in detail in this report. The models described are the System…

  12. Phase II Contaminant Transport Parameters for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat, Nye County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    DeNovio, Nicole M.; Bryant, Nathan; King, Chrissi B.; Bhark, Eric; Drellack, Sigmund L.; Pickens, John F.; Farnham, Irene; Brooks, Keely M.; Reimus, Paul; Aly, Alaa

    2005-04-01

    This report documents pertinent transport data and data analyses as part of the Phase II Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) for Frenchman Flat (FF) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 98. The purpose of this data compilation and related analyses is to provide the primary reference to support parameterization of the Phase II FF CAU transport model.

  13. Phase II Hydrologic Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat, Nye County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    John McCord

    2004-12-01

    This report documents pertinent hydrologic data and data analyses as part of the Phase II Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) for Frenchman Flat (FF) Corrective Action Unit (CAU): CAU 98. The purpose of this data compilation and related analyses is to provide the primary reference to support the development of the Phase II FF CAU groundwater flow model.

  14. The Development of a Computer-Directed Training Subsystem and Computer Operator Training Material for the Air Force Phase II Base Level System. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    System Development Corp., Santa Monica, CA.

    The design, development, and evaluation of an integrated Computer-Directed Training Subsystem (CDTS) for the Air Force Phase II Base Level System is described in this report. The development and evaluation of a course to train computer operators of the Air Force Phase II Base Level System under CDTS control is also described. Detailed test results…

  15. Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study: Phase II, 1973-74, Final Report: Volume V.4. Special Study: Reading Difficulties: Viedetape Test of Teachers' Diagnostic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Patricia J.; Hare, Gail

    The Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study (BTES), Phase II, was a research project on effective teaching behavior--what teachers do that significantly affects what and how pupils learn. The purposes of Phase II were to (1) develop an assessment system for measuring teacher and pupil behaviors and other factors which could influence each of them and…

  16. Application of Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (C-SPE) to Monitoring Nickel(II) and Lead(II) in Spacecraft Water Supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Neil C.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Fritz, James S.; Porter, Marc D.; Rutz, Jeff; Mudgett, Paul; Schultz, John

    2004-01-01

    Archived water samples collected on the International Space Station (ISS) and returned to Earth for analysis have, in a few instances, contained trace levels of heavy metals. Building on our previous advances using Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (C-SPE) as a biocide monitoring technique, we are devising methods for the low level monitoring of nickel(II), lead(II) and other heavy metals. C-SPE is a sorption-spectrophotometric platform based on the extraction of analytes onto a membrane impregnated with a colorimetric reagent that are then quantified on the surface of the membrane using a diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer. Along these lines, we have determined nickel(II) via complexation with dimethylglyoxime (DMG) and begun to examine the analysis of lead(II) by its reaction with 2,5- dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (DMTD) and 4-(2- pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR). These developments are also extending a new variant of C-SPE in which immobilized reagents are being incorporated into this methodology in order to optimize sample reaction conditions and to introduce the colorimetric reagent. This paper describes the status of our development of these two new methods.

  17. The Harvard/Brown Anxiety Research Project-Phase II (HARP-II): rationale, methods, and features of the sample at intake.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Risa B; Beard, Courtney; Dyck, Ingrid; Keller, Martin B

    2012-05-01

    We describe the rationale, method, and intake demographic and clinical findings of the Harvard/Brown Anxiety Research Project-Phase II (HARP-II). HARP-II is the first prospective, observational, longitudinal study to describe the characteristics and course of anxiety in African American, Latino, and Non-Latino White individuals. Participants met criteria for at least one of the following disorders: Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Social Phobia, Panic Disorder with or without Agoraphobia, Agoraphobia without history of Panic Disorder, Post-traumatic Stress Disorder. Initial intake data, collected between 2004 and 2011, are presented for 165 African American, 150 Latino, and 172 Non-Latino White participants. Participants evidenced substantial psychiatric comorbidity (mean number of Axis I disorders=3.4), and moderate to severe symptoms and functional impairment. HARP-II will examine clinical course, in the context of potential socio-cultural and individual moderators (e.g., discrimination, acculturation, negative affect). Results should lead to improved understanding, prognostics, and treatment of anxiety in diverse populations.

  18. Final Report: Phase II Nevada Water Resources Data, Modeling, and Visualization (DMV) Center

    SciTech Connect

    Jackman, Thomas; Minor, Timothy; Pohll, Gregory

    2013-07-22

    Water is unquestionably a critical resource throughout the United States. In the semi-arid west -- an area stressed by increase in human population and sprawl of the built environment -- water is the most important limiting resource. Crucially, science must understand factors that affect availability and distribution of water. To sustain growing consumptive demand, science needs to translate understanding into reliable and robust predictions of availability under weather conditions that could be average but might be extreme. These predictions are needed to support current and long-term planning. Similar to the role of weather forecast and climate prediction, water prediction over short and long temporal scales can contribute to resource strategy, governmental policy and municipal infrastructure decisions, which are arguably tied to the natural variability and unnatural change to climate. Change in seasonal and annual temperature, precipitation, snowmelt, and runoff affect the distribution of water over large temporal and spatial scales, which impact the risk of flooding and the groundwater recharge. Anthropogenic influences and impacts increase the complexity and urgency of the challenge. The goal of this project has been to develop a decision support framework of data acquisition, digital modeling, and 3D visualization. This integrated framework consists of tools for compiling, discovering and projecting our understanding of processes that control the availability and distribution of water. The framework is intended to support the analysis of the complex interactions between processes that affect water supply, from controlled availability to either scarcity or deluge. The developed framework enables DRI to promote excellence in water resource management, particularly within the Lake Tahoe basin. In principle, this framework could be replicated for other watersheds throughout the United States. Phase II of this project builds upon the research conducted during

  19. Auto-inhibitory regulation of angiotensin II functionality in hamster aorta during the early phases of dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Priscila Cristina; Pernomian, Larissa; Côco, Hariane; Gomes, Mayara Santos; Franco, João José; Marchi, Kátia Colombo; Hipólito, Ulisses Vilela; Uyemura, Sergio Akira; Tirapelli, Carlos Renato; de Oliveira, Ana Maria

    2016-06-15

    Emerging data point the crosstalk between dyslipidemia and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Advanced dyslipidemia is described to induce RAS activation in the vasculature. However, the interplay between early dyslipidemia and the RAS remains unexplored. Knowing that hamsters and humans have a similar lipid profile, we investigated the effects of early and advanced dyslipidemia on angiotensin II-induced contraction. Cumulative concentration-response curves for angiotensin II (1.0pmol/l to 1.0µmol/l) were obtained in the hamster thoracic aorta. We also investigated the modulatory action of NAD(P)H oxidase on angiotensin II-induced contraction using ML171 (Nox-1 inhibitor, 0.5µmol/l) and VAS2870 (Nox-4 inhibitor, 5µmol/l). Early dyslipidemia was detected in hamsters treated with a cholesterol-rich diet for 15 days. Early dyslipidemia decreased the contraction induced by angiotensin II and the concentration of Nox-4-derived hydrogen peroxide. Advanced dyslipidemia, observed in hamsters treated with cholesterol-rich diet for 30 days, restored the contractile response induced by angiotensin II by compensatory mechanism that involves Nox-4-mediated oxidative stress. The hyporresponsiveness to angiotensin II may be an auto-inhibitory regulation of the angiotensinergic function during early dyslipidemia in an attempt to reduce the effects of the upregulation of the vascular RAS during the advanced stages of atherogenesis. The recovery of vascular angiotensin II functionality during the advanced phases of dyslipidemia is the result of the upregulation of redox-pro-inflammatory pathway that might be most likely involved in atherogenesis progression rather than in the recovery of vascular function. Taken together, our findings show the early phase of dyslipidemia may be the most favorable moment for effective atheroprotective therapeutic interventions.

  20. Supervised Phase II Cardiac Exercise Therapy Shortens the Recovery of Exercise Capacity in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chih-Wei; Wang, Ji-Hung; Hsieh, Jen-Che; Hsieh, Tsung-Cheng; Wu, Yu-Zu; Chen, Tung-Wei; Huang, Chien-Hui

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of Phase II cardiac exercise therapy (CET) on exercise capacity and changes in coronary risk factors (CRFs) of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). [Subjects] Thirty male subjects with AMI were divided into an experimental group (EG) and a control group (CG). Another 30 age-matched subjects with patent coronary arteries served as a normal-control group (NCG). [Methods] Subjects in EG (n=20) trained using a stationary bicycle for 30 min at their target heart rate twice a week for 8 weeks. Exercise capacity was defined as the maximal metabolic equivalents (METs) that subjects reached during the symptom-limited maximal exercise test. HR, BP and RPP were recorded. Subjects in EG and CG received exercise tests and screening for CRFs at the beginning of, end of, and 3 months after Phase II CET, while subjects in NCG participated only in the 1st test. [Results] METs of CG did not improve until the 3rd test, while RPP at the 2nd test showed a significant increase. However, EG showed increased METs at the 2nd test without increase of RPP, and increased their high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) during the follow-up period between the 2nd and 3rd tests. [Conclusion] Phase II CET shortens the recovery time of exercise capacity, helps to maintain the gained exercise capacity and increases HDL-C in phase III. PMID:25276046

  1. A randomized two-stage design for phase II clinical trials based on a Bayesian predictive approach.

    PubMed

    Cellamare, Matteo; Sambucini, Valeria

    2015-03-15

    The rate of failure in phase III oncology trials is surprisingly high, partly owing to inadequate phase II studies. Recently, the use of randomized designs in phase II is being increasingly recommended, to avoid the limits of studies that use a historical control. We propose a two-arm two-stage design based on a Bayesian predictive approach. The idea is to ensure a large probability, expressed in terms of the prior predictive probability of the data, of obtaining a substantial posterior evidence in favour of the experimental treatment, under the assumption that it is actually more effective than the standard agent. This design is a randomized version of the two-stage design that has been proposed for single-arm phase II trials by Sambucini. We examine the main features of our novel design as all the parameters involved vary and compare our approach with Jung's minimax and optimal designs. An illustrative example is also provided online as a supplementary material to this article.

  2. Simultaneous determination of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) in surface waters by solid phase extraction and flow injection analysis with spectrophotometric detection.

    PubMed

    Castillo, E; Cortina, J L; Beltrán, J; Prat, M D; Granados, M

    2001-07-01

    A method for heavy metal monitoring using spectrophotometric detection is presented. Traces of Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) at the low microg l(-1) level can be determined simultaneously after both selective removal of metal interferences and preconcentration using 'extraction chromatographic resins'. Lewatit TP807'84, which contains di(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid as active component, was used as solid adsorbent. Two minicolumns containing this resin were used: one at pH 3.2 for the removal of interferences, such as Zn(II) and Fe(III), and the other at pH 5.5 for the selective preconcentration of the target analytes. Spectrophotometric determination used FIA methodology with sulfarsazene as chromogenic reagent and partial least-squares multivariate calibration. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of surface waters from the Llobregat river and ground water samples from wells in the Guadiamar basin. Accuracy, expressed in terms of recoveries, was in the range 80-120% and relative standard deviations were below 10%.

  3. Can high pressure I-II transitions in semiconductors be affected by plastic flow and nanocrystal precipitation in phase I?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, B. A.; Lindberg, G. P.

    Pressure-Raman spectroscopy in ZnSe and ZnTe single crystals reveals that Se and Te nano-crystals (NCs) precipitate in these II-VI hosts for pressures far below their I-II phase transitions. The inclusions are evident from the appearance and negative pressure-shift of the A1 Raman peaks of Se and Te (trigonal phase). The Se and Te NCs nucleate at dislocations and grain boundaries that arise from pressure-induced plastic flow. This produces chemical and structural inhomogeneities in the zincblende phase of the host. At substantially higher pressures, the I-II transition proceeds in the presence of these inhomogenities. This can affect the transition's onset pressure Pt and width ΔPt, and the occurrence of metastable phases along the transition path. Precipitation models in metals show that nucleation of inclusions depends on the Peierls stress τp and a parameter α related to the net free energy gained on nucleation. For favorable values of τp and α, NC precipitation at pressures below the I-II transition could occur in other compounds. We propose criteria to judge whether this is likely based on the observed ranges of τp in the hosts, and estimates of α derived from the cohesive energy densities of the NC materials. One finds trends that can serve as a useful guide, both to test the proposed criteria, and to decide when closer scrutiny of phase transition experiments is warranted, e.g., in powders where high dislocation densities are initially created

  4. Equilibrium and kinetic modelling of cadmium(II) biosorption by nonliving algal biomass Oedogonium sp. from aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Gupta, V K; Rastogi, A

    2008-05-01

    The biosorption of cadmium(II) ions on Oedogonium sp. is studied in a batch system with respect to initial pH, algal dose, contact time and the temperature. The algal biomass exhibited the highest cadmium(II) uptake capacity at 25 degrees C, at the initial pH value of 5.0 in 55 min and at the initial cadmium(II) ion concentration of 200 mg L(-1). Biosorption capacity decreased from 88.9 to 80.4 mg g(-1) with an increase in temperature from 25 to 45 degrees C at this initial cadmium(II) concentration. Uptake kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order model and equilibrium is well described by Langmuir isotherm. Isotherms have been used to determine thermodynamic parameters of the process, viz., free energy change, enthalpy change and entropy change. FTIR analysis of algal biomass revealed the presence of amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl and carbonyl groups, which are responsible for biosorption of metal ions. Acid pretreatments did not substantially increase metal sorption capacity but alkali like NaOH pretreatment slightly enhanced the metal removal ability of the biomass. During repeated sorption/desorption cycles at the end of fifth cycle, Cd(II) sorption decreased by 18%, with 15-20% loss of biomass. Nevertheless, Oedogonium sp. appears to be a good sorbent for removing metal Cd(II) from aqueous phase.

  5. A topoisomerase II-dependent mechanism for resetting replicons at the S–M-phase transition

    PubMed Central

    Cuvier, Olivier; Stanojcic, Slavica; Lemaitre, Jean-Marc; Mechali, Marcel

    2008-01-01

    Topoisomerase II (topo II) is required for chromosome segregation and for reprogramming replicons. Here, we show that topo II couples DNA replication termination with the clearing of replication complexes for resetting replicons at mitosis. Topo II inhibition impairs completion of DNA replication, accounting for replication protein A (RPA) stabilization onto ssDNA. Topo II inhibition does not affect the caffeine-sensitive ORC1 degradation found upon origin firing, but it impairs the cdk-dependent degradation/chromatin dissociation of an ORC1/2 reservoir at mitosis. Our results show that ORC1 degradation is rescued by Pin1 depletion and that this topo II-dependent clearing of ORC1/2 from chromatin involves the APC. PMID:18381889

  6. Phase II study of tivozanib, an oral VEGFR inhibitor, in patients with recurrent glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Chandra, Vyshak; Da, Xiao; Ou, Yangming; Emblem, Kyrre E; Muzikansky, Alona; Cai, Xuezhu; Douw, Linda; Evans, John G; Dietrich, Jorg; Chi, Andrew S; Wen, Patrick Y; Stufflebeam, Stephen; Rosen, Bruce; Duda, Dan G; Jain, Rakesh K; Batchelor, Tracy T; Gerstner, Elizabeth R

    2017-02-01

    Targeting tumor angiogenesis is a potential therapeutic strategy for glioblastoma because of its high vascularization. Tivozanib is an oral pan-VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor that hits a central pathway in glioblastoma angiogenesis. We conducted a phase II study to test the effectiveness of tivozanib in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. Ten adult patients were enrolled and treated with tivozanib 1.5 mg daily, 3 weeks on/1 week off in 28-day cycles. Brain MRI and blood biomarkers of angiogenesis were performed at baseline, within 24-72 h of treatment initiation, and monthly thereafter. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI, dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI, and vessel architecture imaging were used to assess vascular effects. Resting state MRI was used to assess brain connectivity. Best RANO criteria responses were: 1 complete response, 1 partial response, 4 stable diseases, and 4 progressive disease (PD). Two patients were taken off study for toxicity and 8 patients were taken off study for PD. Median progression-free survival was 2.3 months and median overall survival was 8.1 months. Baseline abnormal tumor vascular permeability, blood flow, tissue oxygenation and plasma sVEGFR2 significantly decreased and plasma PlGF and VEGF increased after treatment, suggesting an anti-angiogenic effect of tivozanib. However, there were no clear structural changes in vasculature as vessel caliber and enhancing tumor volume did not significantly change. Despite functional changes in tumor vasculature, tivozanib had limited anti-tumor activity, highlighting the limitations of anti-VEGF monotherapy. Future studies in glioblastoma should leverage the anti-vascular activity of agents targeting VEGF to enhance the activity of other therapies.

  7. A multicentre phase II study of cisplatin and gemcitabine for malignant mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, A K; Byrne, M J; Williamson, R; Ryan, G; Segal, A; Fielding, D; Mitchell, P; Musk, A W; Robinson, B W S

    2002-01-01

    Our previous phase II study of cisplatin and gemcitabine in malignant mesothelioma showed a 47.6% (95% CI 26.2–69.0%) response rate with symptom improvement in responding patients. Here we confirm these findings in a multicentre setting, and assess the effect of this treatment on quality of life and pulmonary function. Fifty-three patients with pleural malignant mesothelioma received cisplatin 100 mg m−2 i.v. day 1 and gemcitabine 1000 mg m−2 i.v. days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28 day cycle for a maximum of six cycles. Quality of life and pulmonary function were assessed at each cycle. The best response achieved in 52 assessable patients was: partial response, 17 (33%, 95% CI 20–46%); stable disease, 31 (60%); and progressive disease, four (8%). The median time to disease progression was 6.4 months, median survival from start of treatment 11.2 months, and median survival from diagnosis 17.3 months. Vital capacity and global quality of life remained stable in all patients and improved significantly in responding patients. Major toxicities were haematological, limiting the mean relative dose intensity of gemcitabine to 75%. This schedule of cisplatin and gemcitabine is active in malignant mesothelioma in a multicentre setting. Investigation of alternative scheduling is needed to decrease haematological toxicity and increase the relative dose intensity of gemcitabine whilst maintaining response rate and quality of life. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 491–496. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600505 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12189542

  8. Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle; Orth, Rick; Zacher, Alan

    2007-09-28

    The purpose of the Department of Energy (DOE)-supported corn fiber conversion project, “Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation” is to develop and demonstrate an integrated, economical process for the separation of corn fiber into its principal components to produce higher value-added fuel (ethanol and biodiesel), nutraceuticals (phytosterols), chemicals (polyols), and animal feed (corn fiber molasses). This project has successfully demonstrated the corn fiber conversion process on the pilot scale, and ensured that the process will integrate well into existing ADM corn wet-mills. This process involves hydrolyzing the corn fiber to solubilize 50% of the corn fiber as oligosaccharides and soluble protein. The solubilized fiber is removed and the remaining fiber residue is solvent extracted to remove the corn fiber oil, which contains valuable phytosterols. The extracted oil is refined to separate the phytosterols and the remaining oil is converted to biodiesel. The de-oiled fiber is enzymatically hydrolyzed and remixed with the soluble oligosaccharides in a fermentation vessel where it is fermented by a recombinant yeast, which is capable of fermenting the glucose and xylose to produce ethanol. The fermentation broth is distilled to remove the ethanol. The stillage is centrifuged to separate the yeast cell mass from the soluble components. The yeast cell mass is sold as a high-protein yeast cream and the remaining sugars in the stillage can be purified to produce a feedstock for catalytic conversion of the sugars to polyols (mainly ethylene glycol and propylene glycol) if desirable. The remaining materials from the purification step and any materials remaining after catalytic conversion are concentrated and sold as a corn fiber molasses. Additional high-value products are being investigated for the use of the corn fiber as a dietary fiber sources.

  9. Model based design and analysis of phase II HIV-1 trials.

    PubMed

    Rekić, Dinko; Röshammar, Daniel; Simonsson, Ulrika S H

    2013-08-01

    This work explores the advantages of a model based drug development (MBDD) approach for the design and analysis of antiretroviral phase II trials. Two different study settings were investigated: (1) a 5-arm placebo-controlled parallel group dose-finding/proof of concept (POC) study and (2) a comparison of investigational drug and competitor. Studies were simulated using a HIV-1 dynamics model in NONMEM. The Monte-Carlo Mapped Power method determined the sample size required for detecting a dose-response relationship and a significant difference in effect compared to the competitor using a MBDD approach. Stochastic simulation and re-estimation were used for evaluation of model parameter precision and bias given different sample sizes. Results were compared to those from an unpaired, two-sided t test and ANOVA (p ≤ 0.05). In all scenarios, the MBDD approach resulted in smaller study sizes and more precisely estimated treatment effect than conventional statistical analysis. Using a MBDD approach, a sample size of 15 patients could be used to show POC and estimate ED50 with a good precision (relative standard error, 25.7 %). A sample size of 10 patients per arm was needed using the MBDD approach for detecting a difference in treatment effect of ≥20 % at 80 % power, a 3.4-fold reduction in sample size compared to a t test. The MBDD approach can be used to achieve more precise dose-response characterization facilitating decision making and dose selection. If necessitated, the sample size needed to reach a desired power can potentially be reduced compared to traditional statistical analyses. This may allow for comparison against competitors already in early clinical studies.

  10. Phase II Study of Temozolomide (TMZ) and Everolimus (RAD001) Therapy for Metastatic Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Dronca, Roxana S.; Allred, Jacob B.; Perez, Domingo G.; Nevala, Wendy K.; Lieser, Elizabeth A.T.; Thompson, Michael; Maples, William J.; Creagan, Edward T.; Pockaj, Barbara A.; Kaur, Judith S.; Moore, Timothy D.; Marchello, Benjamin T.; Markovic, Svetomir N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is activated in malignant melanoma and in situ lesions as opposed to benign nevi. Inhibition of PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling is implicated in sensitization of melanoma cells to alkylating agents [temozolomide (TMZ)] and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Methods We conducted a single-arm phase II multi-institution cooperative group study to assess the antitumor activity and safety profile of the combination of TMZ and the rapamycin derivative everolimus in patients with metastatic unresectable malignant melanoma. Patients received 10 mg/d of RAD001 for 5 of 7 days (ie, 50 mg/ wk) and 200 mg/m2/d of TMZ for 5 days each cycle. Results Of the first 39 eligible patients, 17 were PFS-9 successes, for a predetermined threshold of 18/39 patients for a positive trial. Overall, 21 of 48 patients were progression free at 9 weeks, for an event-free survival rate of 44% (95% confidence interval, 29%–59%). The median progression-free survival was 2.4 months and the median overall survival was 8.6 months. Four patients achieved a partial response; the median duration of response was 15.1 months. No complete remissions were observed. Treatment was in general well tolerated with only 1 patient discontinuing therapy due to toxicity (hyperlipidemia). Conclusions The combination of TMZ and RAD001 was well tolerated but failed to meet/exceed our study threshold for promising clinical activity in patients with metastatic melanoma. PMID:23357973

  11. Intraoperative Radiotherapy in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Results of the Montpellier Phase II Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Lemanski, Claire; Azria, David; Gourgon-Bourgade, Sophie; Gutowski, Marian; Rouanet, Phillippe; Saint-Aubert, Bernard; Ailleres, Norbert; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Dubois, Jean-Bernard

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: We recently presented the intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) technique given as a reliable alternative to conventional boost radiation after breast-conserving surgery. The low crude numbers of recurrence in elderly patients led us to investigate the feasibility and the efficacy of this procedure as a sole treatment. Methods and Materials: We included 94 patients older than 65 years in this phase II trial. Among them, 42 patients presented with all the inclusion criteria, i.e., stages pT0 to pT1 and pN0, ductal invasive unifocal carcinoma, and tumor-free margin of >2 mm. IORT was delivered using a dedicated linear accelerator. One 21-Gy fraction was prescribed and specified at the 90% isodose, using electrons. In vivo dosimetry was performed for all patients. The primary endpoint was the quality index. Secondary endpoints were quality of life, local recurrences, cosmetic results, and specific and overall rates of survival. Results: The median follow-up was 30 months (range, 12-49 months), and median age was 72 years (range, 66-80 years). The median tumor diameter was 10 mm. All patients received the total prescribed dose. No acute grade 3 toxicities were observed. Endpoints for all but one patient corresponded to acceptable quality index criteria. Pretreatment quality-of-life scores were maximal, and no significant decrease was observed during follow-up. Cosmesis was good to excellent at 6 months. Two patients experienced recurrence but underwent salvage mastectomy. Conclusion: Our results confirm that exclusive partial-breast IORT is feasible for treating early-stage breast cancer in the elderly. IORT may be considered an alternative treatment for a selected population and offers a safe one-step treatment.

  12. Gemcitabine and oxaliplatin in advanced biliary tract carcinoma: a phase II study

    PubMed Central

    André, T; Reyes-Vidal, J M; Fartoux, L; Ross, P; Leslie, M; Rosmorduc, O; Clemens, M R; Louvet, C; Perez, N; Mehmud, F; Scheithauer, W

    2008-01-01

    Advanced biliary tract carcinomas (BTCs) are often diagnosed at an advanced/metastatic stage and have a poor prognosis. The combination of gemcitabine and oxaliplatin (GEMOX) has shown promising activity in this setting. This international phase II study evaluated the efficacy and safety of GEMOX as first-line therapy in patients with advanced BTCs. Eligible patients with previously untreated locally advanced or metastatic BTC received gemcitabine 1000 mg m−2 (day 1) and oxaliplatin 100 mg m−2 (day 2), every 2 weeks. Seventy patients were enroled; 72.9% had metastatic disease. Sixty-seven patients were treated. There were 10 confirmed partial responses (14.9%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 7.4–25.7%) in the treated population (RECIST). Twenty-four patients (35.8 %) had stable disease. The objective response rate was 20.5% in patients with non-gallbladder cancers (9/44 patients) and 4.3% in patients with gallbladder cancers (1/23). Median overall survival for the intent-to-treat population was 8.8 months (95% CI, 6.9–11.1%) and progression-free survival was 3.4 months (95% CI, 2.5–4.6%). Grade 3/4 toxicities included thrombocytopenia (14.9% of patients), alanine aminotransferase elevation (13.4%), anaemia (10.4%), neutropenia (11.9%) and pain (11.9%). In this study, GEMOX demonstrated activity in non-gallbladder carcinoma, but poor activity in gallbladder carcinoma. GEMOX is well tolerated in advanced BTCs. PMID:19238628

  13. Phase II Study of Everolimus and Letrozole in Patients With Recurrent Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Slomovitz, Brian M.; Jiang, Yunyun; Yates, Melinda S.; Soliman, Pamela T.; Johnston, Taren; Nowakowski, Maureen; Levenback, Charles; Zhang, Qian; Ring, Kari; Munsell, Mark F.; Gershenson, David M.; Lu, Karen H.; Coleman, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) pathway is frequently dysregulated in endometrial cancer (EC). Hormonal manipulation leads to response in some patients with EC, but resistance derived from PI3K pathway activation has been documented. Targeting mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) may overcome endocrine resistance. We conducted a two-institution phase II trial of everolimus and letrozole in women with recurrent EC. Patients and Methods Patients were considered incurable, had measurable disease, and were treated with up to two prior cytotoxic regimens. Everolimus was administered orally at 10 mg daily and letrozole was administered orally at 2.5 mg daily. Each cycle consisted of 4 weeks of therapy. Patients were treated until progression, toxicity, or complete response (CR). The primary end point was the clinical benefit rate (CBR), which was defined as CR, partial response, or stable disease (≥ 16 weeks) by RECIST 1.0 criteria. Translational studies were performed to correlate biomarkers with response. Results Thirty-eight patients were enrolled (median age, 62 years; range, 24 to 82 years). Thirty-five patients were evaluable for response. The CBR was 40% (14 of 35 patients); the median number of cycles among responders was 15 (range, seven to 29 cycles). The confirmed objective response rate (RR) was 32% (11 of 35 patients; nine CRs and two partial responses; median, 15 cycles; range, eight to 29 cycles). Twenty percent of patients (seven of 35 patients) were taken off treatment after a prolonged CR and at the discretion of the treating clinician. None of the patients discontinued treatment as a result of toxicity. Serous histology was the best predictor of lack of response. Patients with endometrioid histology and CTNNB1 mutations responded well to everolimus and letrozole. Conclusion Everolimus plus letrozole results in a high CBR and RR in patients with recurrent EC. Further development of this combination in recurrent endometrioid EC is under way

  14. Phase II Study of Nilotinib in Melanoma Harboring KIT Alterations Following Progression to Prior KIT Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal, Richard D.; Lawrence, Donald P.; Weber, Jeffrey S.; Gajewski, Thomas F.; Gonzalez, Rene; Lutzky, Jose; O’Day, Steven J.; Hamid, Omid; Wolchok, Jedd D.; Chapman, Paul B.; Sullivan, Ryan J.; Teitcher, Jerrold B.; Ramaiya, Nikhil; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Antonescu, Cristina R.; Heinrich, Michael C.; Bastian, Boris C.; Corless, Christopher L.; Fletcher, Jonathan A.; Hodi, F. Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although durable responses can be achieved with tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as imatinib in melanomas harboring KIT mutations, the efficacy of alternative inhibitors after progression to imatinib and the activity of these agents on brain metastases is unknown. Experimental Design We conducted a phase II study of nilotinib 400 mg BID in two cohorts of patients with melanomas harboring KIT mutations or amplification: A) those refractory or intolerant to a prior KIT inhibitor; and B) those with brain metastases. The primary endpoint was 4-month disease control rate. Secondary endpoints included response rate, time-to-progression and overall survival. A Simon two-stage and a single-stage design was planned to assess for the primary endpoint in Cohorts A and B, respectively. Results Twenty patients were enrolled and 19 treated (11-Cohort A; 8-Cohort B). Three patients on Cohort A (27%; 95% CI, 8% – 56%) and 1 on Cohort B (12.5%; 90% CI, 0.6% – 47%) achieved the primary endpoint. Two partial responses were observed in Cohort A (18.2%, 90% CI, 3% – 47%); none were observed in Cohort B. The median time-to-progression and overall survival was 3·3 (90% CI, 2.1 – 3.9 months) and 9.1 months (90% CI, 4.3 – 14.2 months), respectively, in all treated patients. Conclusion Nilotinib may achieve disease control in patients with melanoma harboring KIT alterations and whose disease progressed after imatinib therapy. The efficacy of this agent in KIT altered melanoma with brain metastasis is limited. PMID:25695690

  15. Ethanol production via fungal decomposition and fermentation of biomass. Phase II (FY 1981) annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Antonopoulos, A. A.; Wene, E. G.

    1981-10-01

    This program has as its main goal the isolation and development of Fusarium strains that can efficiently and economically decompose plant polysaccharides to pentoses and hexoses and ferment them to ethanol for fuel purposes. During Phase II (FY 1981) of this program, more than 800 new Fusarium isolates were isolated and screened. All showed cellulolytic activity. The Fusarium mutant ANL 3-72181 (derived after uv exposure of ANL 22 isolate) produced 2.45 iu cellulase after 14 days. This cellulase activity was achieved in the presence of 0.7 mg/mL extracellular protein. In separate tests, the use of both proteose peptone and yeast extract with 1% cellulose increased the production of extracellular protein three times over that on cellulose alone. Initial fermentation by Fusarium strains on 1% glucose produced up to 4.2 mg/mL ethanol in 48 hours. All Fusarium isolates and mutants found during this period were screened for xylose fermentation. Ethanol production during early experimentation required from 120 to 144 hours to yield 4.0 to 4.5 mg/mL ethanol from 1% xylose solutions. Through continuous selection of isolates, this time was reduced to 66 hours. By recycling Fusarium cell mass, fermentations of 1% xylose yielded 4.0 to 4.3 mg/mL ethanol in 48 hours. Consecutive fermentations of 2% xylose produced an average of 8.1 mg/mL ethanol in 48 hours. Fermentation of a 4.5% xylose + 2% glucose solution produced 21 mg/mL ethanol and 0.8 mg/mL acetic acid, while fermentation of a 7% xylose + 2% glucose solution yielded 25.5 mg/mL ethanol and 0.85 mg/mL acetic acid; these fermentations were aerated at a rate of 0.03 v/v-min.

  16. A phase II trial of ISIS 3521 in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Marshall, John L; Eisenberg, Steven G; Johnson, Michael D; Hanfelt, John; Dorr, F Andrew; El-Ashry, Dorraya; Oberst, Michael; Fuxman, Yair; Holmlund, Jon; Malik, Shakun

    2004-11-01

    This phase II study was designed to characterize the clinical activity of ISIS 3521 in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Sixteen patients with pretreated or refractory CRC were treated with ISIS 3521. Eleven patients were given a dose of 2.0 mg/kg per day, and 5 patients received 3.0 mg/kg per day given over 21 days followed by a 7-day rest period. Patients continued with study until evidence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity was detected. Patients underwent baseline tumor biopsies followed by a second biopsy during the last week of the first 21-day infusion. All 16 patients underwent baseline tumor biopsies, and 12 of the 16 patients underwent on-study tumor biopsies. No evidence of tumor response was observed. One patient had stable disease after 2 cycles and remained on for 1 additional cycle only to demonstrate progression of disease at that time. No dose-limiting or other significant toxicities were observed at both dosages, which could not be explained by progression of disease. Fatigue was common in all patients treated but was not dose limiting, and there was no evidence of coagulopathy. Analysis of the tumor biopsies obtained from the 11 evaluable samples showed marked uptake of ISIS 3521 in the normal liver parenchyma. However, there was minimal uptake within the tumor cells. In addition, no evidence of any alteration in protein kinase C-a within the tumors or any downstream effects leading to apoptosis were observed. ISIS 3521 demonstrated no clinical activity or target modulation in refractory metastatic CRC.

  17. Efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics and biomarkers of cediranib monotherapy in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: A phase II study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Andrew X.; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Supko, Jeffrey G.; Sahani, Dushyant V.; Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Abrams, Thomas A.; McCleary, Nadine Jackson; Bhargava, Pankaj; Muzikansky, Alona; Sheehan, Susan; Regan, Eileen; Vasudev, Eamala; Knowles, Michelle; Fuchs, Charles S.; Ryan, David P.; Jain, Rakesh K.; Duda, Dan G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We performed a single-arm phase II study of cediranib, a pan-VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients and Methods Patients with histologically confirmed measurable advanced HCC and adequate hematologic, hepatic, and renal functions received cediranib 30-mg orally once daily (4 weeks/cycle). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) rate at 3 months. Other endpoints included response rates, overall survival (OS), pharmacokinetics (PK) and biomarkers for cediranib. Results Cediranib treatment resulted in an estimated 3-month-PFS rate of 77% [60%, 99%]. Median PFS was 5.3 [3.5,9.7] months, stable disease was seen in 5/17 patients (29%), and median OS was 11.7 [7.5–13.6] months. Grade 3 toxicities included hypertension (29%), hyponatremia (29%) and hyperbilirubinemia (18%). Cediranib PK were comparable to those seen in cancer patients with normal hepatic function. Plasma levels of VEGF and PlGF increased and sVEGFR1, sVEGFR2 and Ang-2 decreased after cediranib treatment. PFS was inversely correlated with baseline levels of VEGF, sVEGFR2, and bFGF and with on-treatment levels of bFGF and IGF-1, and directly associated with on-treatment levels of IFN-γ. OS was inversely correlated with baseline levels of sVEGFR1, Ang-2, TNF-α, CAIX and CD34+CD133+CD45dim circulating progenitor cells and on-treatment levels of sVEGFR2. Conclusions Despite the limitations of primary endpoint selection, cediranib at 30-mg daily showed a high incidence of toxicity and preliminary evidence of antitumor activity in advanced HCC. Hepatic dysfunction did not appear to affect the steady-state PK of cediranib. Exploratory studies suggested pro-angiogenic and inflammatory factors as potential biomarkers of anti-VEGF therapy in HCC. PMID:23362324

  18. Phase II Trial of Neoadjuvant Bevacizumab, Capecitabine, and Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, Christopher H.; Eng, Cathy; Feig, Barry W.; Das, Prajnan; Skibber, John M.; Chang, George J.; Wolff, Robert A.; Krishnan, Sunil; Hamilton, Stanley; Janjan, Nora A.; Maru, Dipen M.; Ellis, Lee M.; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel A.

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: We designed this Phase II trial to assess the efficacy and safety of the addition of bevacizumab to concurrent neoadjuvant capecitabine-based chemoradiation in locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods: Between April 2004 and December 2007, 25 patients with clinically staged T3N1 (n = 20) or T3N0 (n = 5) rectal cancer received neoadjuvant therapy with radiotherapy (50.4 Gy in 28 fractions over 5.5 weeks), bevacizumab every 2 weeks (3 doses of 5 mg/kg), and capecitabine (900 mg/m{sup 2} orally twice daily only on days of radiation), followed by surgical resection a median of 7.3 weeks later. Results: Procedures included abdominoperineal resection (APR; 6 patients), proctectomy with coloanal anastamosis (8 patients), low anterior resection (10 patients), and local excision (1 patient). Eight (32%) of 25 patients had a pathologic complete response, and 6 (24%) of 25 had <10% viable tumor cells in the specimen. No patient had Grade 3 hand-foot syndrome, gastrointestinal toxicity, or significant hematologic toxicity. Three wound complications required surgical intervention (one coloanal anastamostic dehiscence requiring completion APR and two perineal wound dehiscences after initial APR). Five minor complications occurred that resolved without operative intervention. With a median follow-up of 22.7 months (range, 4.5-32.4 months), all patients were alive; one patient has had a recurrence in the pelvis (2-year actuarial rate, 6.2%) and 3 had distant recurrences. Conclusions: The addition of bevacizumab to neoadjuvant chemoradiation resulted in encouraging pathologic complete response without an increase in acute toxicity. The impact of bevacizumab on perineal wound and anastamotic healing due to concurrent bevacizumab requires further study.

  19. Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration, Continuation: Phase II Results of a Floating Semisubmersible Wind System: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Musial, W.; Vorpahl, F.; Popko, W.

    2013-11-01

    Offshore wind turbines are designed and analyzed using comprehensive simulation tools that account for the coupled dynamics of the wind inflow, aerodynamics, elasticity, and controls of the turbine, along with the incident waves, sea current, hydrodynamics, and foundation dynamics of the support structure. The Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration (OC3), which operated under the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Task 23, was established to verify the accuracy of these simulation tools [1]. This work was then extended under the Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration, Continuation (OC4) project under IEA Wind Task 30 [2]. Both of these projects sought to verify the accuracy of offshore wind turbine dynamics simulation tools (or codes) through code-to-code comparison of simulated responses of various offshore structures. This paper describes the latest findings from Phase II of the OC4 project, which involved the analysis of a 5-MW turbine supported by a floating semisubmersible. Twenty-two different organizations from 11 different countries submitted results using 24 different simulation tools. The variety of organizations contributing to the project brought together expertise from both the offshore structure and wind energy communities. Twenty-one different load cases were examined, encompassing varying levels of model complexity and a variety of metocean conditions. Differences in the results demonstrate the importance and accuracy of the various modeling approaches used. Significant findings include the importance of mooring dynamics to the mooring loads, the role nonlinear hydrodynamic terms play in calculating drift forces for the platform motions, and the difference between global (at the platform level) and local (at the member level) modeling of viscous drag. The results from this project will help guide development and improvement efforts for these tools to ensure that they are providing the accurate information needed to support the design and

  20. Toward Reanalysis of the Tight-Pitch HCLWR-PROTEUS Phase II Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perret, Grégory; Vlassopoulos, Efstathios; Hursin, Mathieu; Pautz, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The HCLWR-Proteus Phase II experiments were conducted from 1985 to 1990 in the zero-power reactor Proteus at PSI in Switzerland. The experimental program was dedicated to the physics of high conversion light water reactors and in particular to the measurement of reactor parameters such as reaction rate traverses, spectral indices, absorber reactivity worths and void coefficients. The HCLWR experiments are especially interesting because they generated knowledge in the epithermal range of the neutron flux spectrum, for which little integral experimental data is available. In an effort to assess the interest of this experimental data to validate modern nuclear data and improve their uncertainties, a preliminary re-analysis of selected configurations was conducted with Monte-Carlo codes (MCNP6/SERPENT2) and modern nuclear data libraries (ENDF/B-VII.0, JEFF-3.1.1 and JENDL-4.0). The spectral ndices, flux spectra and sensitivity coefficients on k∞ were calculated using cell models representative of the tight-pitch measurement configurations containing 11% PuO2-UO2 fuel rods in different moderation conditions (air, water and dowtherm). Spectral index predictions using the three nuclear data libraries agreed within two standard deviations with the measured values. The only exception is the Pu-242-capture-to-Pu-239-fission ratio, which was overestimated with all libraries by more than four standard deviations, i.e. 13%, in the non-moderated configuration. In this configuration, Pu-242 captures are few since the flux spectrum in the Pu-242 capture resonance region (between 1eV and 1keV) is small making this spectral index hard to measure. Sensitivity coefficient predictions with both MCNP6 and SERPENT2 were in good agreement.

  1. Treatment of Geographic Atrophy With Subconjunctival Sirolimus: Results of a Phase I/II Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Wai T.; Dresner, Samuel; Forooghian, Farzin; Glaser, Tanya; Doss, Lauren; Zhou, Mei; Cunningham, Denise; Shimel, Katherine; Harrington, Molly; Hammel, Keri; Cukras, Catherine A.; Ferris, Frederick L.; Chew, Emily Y.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the safety and effects of subconjunctival sirolimus, an mTOR inhibitor and immunosuppressive agent, for the treatment of geographic atrophy (GA). Methods. The study was a single-center, open-label phase II trial, enrolling 11 participants with bilateral GA; eight participants completed 24 months of follow-up. Sirolimus (440 μg) was administered every 3 months as a subconjunctival injection in only one randomly assigned eye in each participant for 24 months. Fellow eyes served as untreated controls. The primary efficacy outcome measure was the change in the total GA area at 24 months. Secondary outcomes included changes in visual acuity, macular sensitivity, central retinal thickness, and total drusen area. Results. The study drug was well tolerated with few symptoms and related adverse events. Study treatment in study eyes was not associated with structural or functional benefits relative to the control fellow eyes. At month 24, mean GA area increased by 54.5% and 39.7% in study and fellow eyes, respectively (P = 0.41), whereas mean visual acuity decreased by 21.0 letters and 3.0 letters in study and fellow eyes, respectively (P = 0.03). Substantial differences in mean changes in drusen area, central retinal thickness, and macular sensitivity were not detected for all analysis time points up to 24 months. Conclusions. Repeated subconjunctival sirolimus was well-tolerated in patients with GA, although no positive anatomic or functional effects were identified. Subconjunctival sirolimus may not be beneficial in the prevention of GA progression, and may potentially be associated with effects detrimental to visual acuity. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00766649.) PMID:23548622

  2. Phase II Study of Aflibercept in Recurrent Malignant Glioma: A North American Brain Tumor Consortium Study

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, John F.; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Chang, Susan M.; Gilbert, Mark R.; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; Aldape, Kenneth; Yao, Jun; Jackson, Edward F.; Lieberman, Frank; Robins, H. Ian; Mehta, Minesh P.; Lassman, Andrew B.; DeAngelis, Lisa M.; Yung, W.K. Alfred; Chen, Alice; Prados, Michael D.; Wen, Patrick Y.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy is a promising treatment approach for patients with recurrent glioblastoma. This single-arm phase II study evaluated the efficacy of aflibercept (VEGF Trap), a recombinantly produced fusion protein that scavenges both VEGF and placental growth factor in patients with recurrent malignant glioma. Patients and Methods Forty-two patients with glioblastoma and 16 patients with anaplastic glioma who had received concurrent radiation and temozolomide and adjuvant temozolomide were enrolled at first relapse. Aflibercept 4 mg/kg was administered intravenously on day 1 of every 2-week cycle. Results The 6-month progression-free survival rate was 7.7% for the glioblastoma cohort and 25% for patients with anaplastic glioma. Overall radiographic response rate was 24% (18% for glioblastoma and 44% for anaplastic glioma). The median progression-free survival was 24 weeks for patients with anaplastic glioma (95% CI, 5 to 31 weeks) and 12 weeks for patients with glioblastoma (95% CI, 8 to 16 weeks). A total of 14 patients (25%) were removed from the study for toxicity, on average less than 2 months from treatment initiation. The main treatment-related National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria grades 3 and 4 adverse events (38 total) included fatigue, hypertension, and lymphopenia. Two grade 4 CNS ischemias and one grade 4 systemic hemorrhage were reported. Aflibercept rapidly decreases permeability on dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, and molecular analysis of baseline tumor tissue identified tumor-associated markers of response and resistance. Conclusion Aflibercept monotherapy has moderate toxicity and minimal evidence of single-agent activity in unselected patients with recurrent malignant glioma. PMID:21606416

  3. Washington Phase II Fish Diversion Screen Evaluations in the Yakima River Basin, 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, S.L.; Neitzel, Duane A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.

    2000-04-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 20 Phase II screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. The sites were examined to determine if they were being effectively operated and maintained to provide fish a safe, efficient return to the Yakima River. Data were collected to determine if velocities in front of the screens and in the bypass met current National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) criteria to promote safe and timely fish bypass and whether bypass outfall conditions allowed fish to safely return to the river. In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set forth by the NMFS. Although velocities often fluctuated from one sampling location to the next, average sweep velocities typically exceeded approach velocities and increased toward the bypass. Mean approach velocities were below the NMFS criteria of < 0.4 feet per second (fps) at most sites (Table 1). Based on our observations in 1999, we believe that most facilities were efficiently protecting juvenile fish from entrainment, impingement, or migration delay. Most screens were properly sealed to prevent fish entrainment and injury, although potential problems were identified at several screen sites. Six sites (one fewer than the seven sites identified in 1998) had loose or damaged seals that might have allowed fish to be entrained (Table 1). Other sites still had spaces larger than 3/32 in. where small fish could possibly pass into the irrigation canal.

  4. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: Interim Results of a Prospective Phase II Clinical Trial

    SciTech Connect

    King, Christopher R. Brooks, James D.; Gill, Harcharan; Pawlicki, Todd; Cotrutz, Cristian; Presti, Joseph C.

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: The radiobiology of prostate cancer favors a hypofractionated dose regimen. We report results of a prospective Phase II clinical trial of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty-one low-risk prostate cancer patients with 6 months' minimum follow-up received 36.25 Gy in five fractions of 7.25 Gy with image-guided SBRT alone using the CyberKnife. The early (<3 months) and late (>6 months) urinary and rectal toxicities were assessed using validated quality of life questionnaires (International Prostate Symptom Score, Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite) and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) toxicity criteria. Patterns of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response are analyzed. Results: The median follow-up was 33 months. There were no RTOG Grade 4 acute or late rectal/urinary complications. There were 2 patients with RTOG Grade 3 late urinary toxicity and none with RTOG Grade 3 rectal complications. A reduced rate of severe rectal toxicities was observed with every-other-day vs. 5 consecutive days treatment regimen (0% vs. 38%, p = 0.0035). A benign PSA bounce (median, 0.4 ng/mL) was observed in 12 patients (29%) occurring at 18 months (median) after treatment. At last follow-up, no patient has had a PSA failure regardless of biochemical failure definition. Of 32 patients with 12 months minimum follow-up, 25 patients (78%) achieved a PSA nadir {<=}0.4 ng/mL. A PSA decline to progressively lower nadirs up to 3 years after treatment was observed. Conclusions: The early and late toxicity profile and PSA response for prostate SBRT are highly encouraging. Continued accrual and follow-up will be necessary to confirm durable biochemical control rates and low toxicity profiles.

  5. Erythropoietin Neuroprotection in Neonatal Cardiac Surgery: A Phase I/II Safety and Efficacy Trial

    PubMed Central

    Andropoulos, Dean B.; Brady, Ken; Easley, R. Blaine; Dickerson, Heather A.; Voigt, Robert G.; Shekerdemian, Lara S.; Meador, Marcie R.; Eisenman, Carol A.; Hunter, Jill V.; Turcich, Marie; Rivera, Carlos; McKenzie, E. Dean; Heinle, Jeffrey S.; Fraser, Charles D.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Neonates undergoing complex congenital heart surgery have a significant incidence of neurological problems. Erythropoietin has anti-apoptotic, anti-excitatory, and anti-inflammatory properties to prevent neuronal cell death in animal models, and improves neurodevelopmental outcomes in full term neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. We designed a prospective phase I/II trial of erythropoietin neuroprotection in neonatal cardiac surgery to assess safety, and indicate efficacy. Methods Neonates undergoing surgery for D-transposition of the great vessels, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, or aortic arch reconstruction were randomized to 3 perioperative doses of erythropoietin, or placebo. Neurodevelopmental testing with Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III was performed at age 12 months. Results 59 patients received study drug. Safety profile, including MRI brain injury, clinical events, and death, was not different between groups. 3 patients in each group died. 42 patients (22 erythropoietin, 20 placebo, 79% of survivors) returned for 12-month follow-up. The mean Cognitive Scores were erythropoietin, 101.1 ± 13.6, placebo, 106.3 ± 10.8 (p=0.19); Language Scores were erythropoietin 88.5 ± 12.8, placebo 92.4 ± 12.4 (p=0.33); and Motor Scores were erythropoietin 89.9 ± 12.3, placebo 92.6 ± 14.1, (p=0.51). Conclusions Safety profile for erythropoietin administration was not different than placebo. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were not different between groups, however this pilot study was not powered to definitively address this outcome. Lessons learned from the current study suggest optimized study design features for a larger prospective trial to definitively address the utility of erythropoietin for neuroprotection in this population. PMID:23102686

  6. Raman signatures of inversion symmetry breaking and structural phase transition in type-II Weyl semimetal MoTe2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kenan; Bao, Changhua; Gu, Qiangqiang; Ren, Xiao; Zhang, Haoxiong; Deng, Ke; Wu, Yang; Li, Yuan; Feng, Ji; Zhou, Shuyun

    2016-01-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenide MoTe2 is an important candidate for realizing the newly predicted type-II Weyl fermions, for which the breaking of the inversion symmetry is a prerequisite. Here we present direct spectroscopic evidence for the inversion symmetry breaking in the low-temperature phase of MoTe2 by systematic Raman experiments and first-principles calculations. We identify five lattice vibrational modes that are Raman-active only in the low-temperature noncentrosymmetric structure. A hysteresis is also observed in the peak intensity of inversion symmetry-activated Raman modes, confirming a temperature-induced structural phase transition with a concomitant change in the inversion symmetry. Our results provide definitive evidence for the low-temperature noncentrosymmetric Td phase from vibrational spectroscopy, and suggest MoTe2 as an ideal candidate for investigating the temperature-induced topological phase transition. PMID:27934874

  7. Raman signatures of inversion symmetry breaking and structural phase transition in type-II Weyl semimetal MoTe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kenan; Bao, Changhua; Gu, Qiangqiang; Ren, Xiao; Zhang, Haoxiong; Deng, Ke; Wu, Yang; Li, Yuan; Feng, Ji; Zhou, Shuyun

    2016-12-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenide MoTe2 is an important candidate for realizing the newly predicted type-II Weyl fermions, for which the breaking of the inversion symmetry is a prerequisite. Here we present direct spectroscopic evidence for the inversion symmetry breaking in the low-temperature phase of MoTe2 by systematic Raman experiments and first-principles calculations. We identify five lattice vibrational modes that are Raman-active only in the low-temperature noncentrosymmetric structure. A hysteresis is also observed in the peak intensity of inversion symmetry-activated Raman modes, confirming a temperature-induced structural phase transition with a concomitant change in the inversion symmetry. Our results provide definitive evidence for the low-temperature noncentrosymmetric Td phase from vibrational spectroscopy, and suggest MoTe2 as an ideal candidate for investigating the temperature-induced topological phase transition.

  8. Cysteine racemization during the Fmoc solid phase peptide synthesis of the Nav1.7-selective peptide--protoxin II.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae H; Carlin, Kevin P; Wu, Gang; Ilyin, Victor I; Kyle, Donald J

    2012-07-01

    Protoxin II is biologically active peptide containing the inhibitory cystine knot motif. A synthetic version of the toxin was generated with standard Fmoc solid phase peptide synthesis. If N-methylmorpholine was used as a base during synthesis of the linear protoxin II, it was found that a significant amount of racemization (approximately 50%) was observed during the process of cysteine residue coupling. This racemization could be suppressed by substituting N-methylmorpholine with 2,4,6-collidine. The crude linear toxin was then air oxidized and purified. Electrophysiological assessment of the synthesized protoxin II confirmed its previously described interactions with voltage-gated sodium channels. Eight other naturally occurring inhibitory knot peptides were also synthesized using this same methodology. The inhibitory potencies of these synthesized toxins on Nav1.7 and Nav1.2 channels are summarized.

  9. Generalized optimal design for two-arm, randomized phase II clinical trials with endpoints from the exponential dispersion family.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Mahnken, Jonathan D; He, Jianghua; Mayo, Matthew S

    2016-11-01

    For two-arm randomized phase II clinical trials, previous literature proposed an optimal design that minimizes the total sample sizes subject to multiple constraints on the standard errors of the estimated event rates and their difference. The original design is limited to trials with dichotomous endpoints. This paper extends the original approach to be applicable to phase II clinical trials with endpoints from the exponential dispersion family distributions. The proposed optimal design minimizes the total sample sizes needed to provide estimates of population means of both arms and their difference with pre-specified precision. Its applications on data from specific distribution families are discussed under multiple design considerations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Using Quality of Life Measures in a Phase I Clinical Trial of Noni in Patients with Advanced Cancer to Select a Phase II Dose

    PubMed Central

    Issell, Brian F.; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Pagano, Ian; Franke, A. Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We conducted a Phase I study of noni in patients with advanced cancer. Quality of life measures were examined as an alternate way to select a Phase II dose of this popular dietary supplement. Patients and Methods Starting at two capsules twice daily (2 grams), the dose suggested for marketed products, dose levels were escalated by 2 grams daily in cohorts of at least five patients until a maximum tolerated dose was found. Patients completed QLQ-C30 Quality of Life, and the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI), questionnaires at baseline and at four week intervals. Scopoletin was measured in blood and urine collected at baseline and at approximately four week intervals. Results Fifty-one patients were enrolled at seven dose levels. Seven capsules four times daily (14 grams) was the maximum tolerated dose. No dose limiting toxicity was found but four of eight patients at this level withdrew from the study due to the challenges of ingesting so many capsules. There was a dose response for self reported physical functioning and the control of pain and fatigue. Patients taking four capsules four times daily experienced less fatigue than patients taking lower or higher doses. A relationship between noni dose and blood and urinary scopoletin concentrations was found. Conclusion Measuring quality of life to determine a dose for subsequent Phase II testing is feasible. A noni dose of four capsules four times daily (8 grams) is recommended for Phase II testing where controlling fatigue and maintaining physical function is the efficacy of interest. Scopoletin is a measurable noni ingredient for pharmacokinetic studies in patients with cancer. PMID:22435516

  11. Phase II Investigation at the Former CCC/USDA Grain Storage Facility in Savannah, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M.

    2012-05-01

    contamination potentially associated with a number of former CCC/USDA grain storage facilities in Missouri. The site characterization at Savannah is being conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory. The investigation is being conducted in phases, so that information obtained and interpretations developed during each incremental stage can be used most effectively to guide subsequent phases of the program. Phase II objectives: Investigate the more detailed characteristics of groundwater flow in the vicinity of the former CCC/USDA facility and the contaminated Morgan and MoDOT private wells; Obtain additional information on the vertical and lateral distribution and concentrations of carbon tetrachloride in groundwater in the vicinity of the former CCC/USDA facility and the contaminated Morgan and MoDOT private wells; Investigate further for possible evidence of carbon tetrachloride in the subsurface (vadose zone) and deeper soils beneath the former CCC/USDA facility, as well as in the vicinity of the contaminated MoDOT private well.

  12. Fabricate and Install Yakima Basin Phase II Fish Screens; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, 2006 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Staff,

    2006-12-01

    The goal of this project was to restore ESA listed and resident fish stocks within the Yakima Basin by preventing mortality and/or injury to all life stages of anadromous and resident fish at irrigation diversions. This goal is being accomplished through an on-going effort by the Yakima Basin Phase II Technical Work Group (TWG), which is comprised of local, state, federal, tribal and private groups who prioritize and assign screening projects.

  13. Visible and near-infrared calibrations for quality assessment of fresh phase I and II mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) compost.

    PubMed

    Sharma, H S S; Kilpatrick, M; Lyons, G; Sturgeon, S; Archer, J; Moore, S; Cheung, L; Finegan, K

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that visible and near-infrared spectra (Vis-NIR) of dry and milled compost can be used for generating partial least squares (PLS) calibrations of phase II compost parameters including ammonia, nitrogen dry matter (NDM), dry matter (DM), pH, conductivity, carbon, microbial population, and potential productivity. The objective of this study was to develop robust calibrations for some of the key parameters from the spectra of fresh phase I and II composts. Samples of substrates from six commercial production yards were obtained during winter and summer months of 2000-2004 to monitor changes in quality and were analyzed for the test factors. Vis-NIR reflectance measurements of fresh samples (740) were made over the range of 400-2500 nm. After mathematical pretreatments, PLS calibrations of the key parameters were developed using the NIR (1100-2500 nm) and visible and NIR (400-2500 nm) regions and subsequently validated using an independent sample set of 123 phase I and II samples obtained during 2004-2005. The phase I and II standard errors of laboratory measurements of ammonia, pH, conductivity, DM, NDM, and ash were lower than the standard error of predictions of the same parameters, respectively, by the best NIR or Vis-NIR models. The degree of precision for some of the calibrations, especially ammonia, NDM, and DM, is suitable for composters to monitor changes in quality parameters during production. The laboratory measurement errors for phase I samples were greater than those of the phase II samples, except for ash, due to a higher degree of heterogeneity in the substrate. The calibrations, especially for pH, conductivity, and ash, need to be improved with new sample sets. A major advantage of NIR spectroscopy is the ability to assess substrate quality for a range of target parameters simultaneously, within a few hours of receiving the samples. The main drawbacks are the expensive instrumentation, expertise, and training necessary for

  14. Effects of blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) on DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, and phase II enzyme activities in rats.

    PubMed

    Dulebohn, Rachel V; Yi, Weiguang; Srivastava, Anita; Akoh, Casimir C; Krewer, Gerard; Fischer, Joan G

    2008-12-24

    Blueberry extracts have high antioxidant potential and increase phase II enzyme activities in vitro. This study tested the hypothesis that blueberries would reduce DNA damage and lipid peroxidation and increase phase II enzyme activities in vivo. Young, healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 8 per group) were fed control AIN-93 diets or AIN-93 diets supplemented with blueberries or blueberry extracts for 3 weeks. Diets were supplemented with 10% freeze-dried whole blueberries, blueberry polyphenol extract and sugars to match the 10% blueberry diet, or 1 and 0.2% blueberry flavonoids, which were primarily anthocyanins. Liver and colon mucosa glutathione-S-transferase (GST), quinone reductase, and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activities in colon mucosa and liver were not significantly increased by freeze-dried whole blueberries or blueberry fractions. Liver GST activity, however, was approximately 25% higher than controls for the freeze-dried whole blueberry, blueberry polyphenol, and 1% flavonoid groups. DNA damage was significantly lower than control only in the liver of animals fed the 1% flavonoid diet. The level of urinary F(2)-isoprostanes, a measure of lipid peroxidation, was unaffected. In summary, in healthy rats, short-term supplementation with freeze-dried whole blueberries, blueberry polyphenols, or blueberry flavonoids did not significantly increase phase II enzyme activities. However, supplementation with 1% blueberry flavonoids did decrease oxidative DNA damage in the liver.

  15. New hits as phase II enzymes inducers from a focused library with heteroatom-heteroatom and Michael-acceptor motives.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Mauricio; de Ovalle, Stefani; Bollati-Fogolín, Mariela; Nascimento, Fabiana; Corbelini, Patrícia; Janarelli, Fernanda; Kawano, Daniel; Eifler-Lima, Vera Lucia; González, Mercedes; Cerecetto, Hugo

    2015-11-01

    The increased activity of phase-II-detoxification enzymes, such as quinone reductase (QR) and glutation S-transferase (GST), correlates with protection against chemically induced carcinogenesis. Herein we studied 11 different chemotypes, pyrazole, 1,2,4-oxadiazole, 1,2,5-oxadiazole, 1,2,3-thiadiazole, 1,2,4-thiazole, 1,3,4-oxathiazole, thienyl hydrazone, α,β-unsaturated-oxime, α,β-unsaturated-N-oxide, coumarin and α,β-unsaturated-carbonyl, as phase-II enzymes inducers in order to identify new pharmacophores with chemopreventive activity. Fifty-four compounds were analyzed on wild-type mouse-hepatoma Hepa-1c1c7 and on the aryl-hydrocarbon-nuclear-translocator (Arnt)-defective mutant BpRc1 cells. New monofunctional inducers of QR and GST were identified, the 1,2,5-oxadiazol-2-oxide (3), the 1,2,4-triazine-4-oxides (23) and (32) and the tetrahydropyrimidinones (28) and (49). It was confirmed that Nrf2 nuclear translocation is the operative molecular mechanism that allows compound (3) to exert protective effects via expression of downstream phase-II enzymes.

  16. New hits as phase II enzymes inducers from a focused library with heteroatom–heteroatom and Michael-acceptor motives

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Mauricio; de Ovalle, Stefani; Bollati-Fogolín, Mariela; Nascimento, Fabiana; Corbelini, Patrícia; Janarelli, Fernanda; Kawano, Daniel; Eifler-Lima, Vera Lucia; González, Mercedes; Cerecetto, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The increased activity of phase-II-detoxification enzymes, such as quinone reductase (QR) and glutation S-transferase (GST), correlates with protection against chemically induced carcinogenesis. Herein we studied 11 different chemotypes, pyrazole, 1,2,4-oxadiazole, 1,2,5-oxadiazole, 1,2,3-thiadiazole, 1,2,4-thiazole, 1,3,4-oxathiazole, thienyl hydrazone, α,β-unsaturated-oxime, α,β-unsaturated-N-oxide, coumarin and α,β-unsaturated-carbonyl, as phase-II enzymes inducers in order to identify new pharmacophores with chemopreventive activity. Fifty-four compounds were analyzed on wild-type mouse-hepatoma Hepa-1c1c7 and on the aryl-hydrocarbon-nuclear-translocator (Arnt)-defective mutant BpRc1 cells. New monofunctional inducers of QR and GST were identified, the 1,2,5-oxadiazol-2-oxide (3), the 1,2,4-triazine-4-oxides (23) and (32) and the tetrahydropyrimidinones (28) and (49). It was confirmed that Nrf2 nuclear translocation is the operative molecular mechanism that allows compound (3) to exert protective effects via expression of downstream phase-II enzymes. PMID:28031894

  17. Effects of laser immunotherapy on late-stage, metastatic breast cancer patients in a Phase II clinical trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrel, Gabriela L.; Zhou, Feifan; Li, Xiaosong; Hode, Tomas; Nordquist, Robert E.; Alleruzzo, Luciano; Chen, Wei R.

    2014-03-01

    Laser immunotherapy (LIT), a novel technique with a local intervention to induce systemic antitumor effects, was developed to treat metastatic cancers. The pre-clinical studies of LIT have shown its unique characteristics in generating a specific antitumor immunity in treating metastatic tumors in rats and mice. For late-stage, metastatic breast cancer patients, who were considered to be out of other available treatment options, we conducted a small Phase II clinical trial using LIT starting in 2009 in Lima, Peru. This Phase II study was closed in December of 2012, as acknowldged by the Ministry of Health (MOH) of Peur letter 438-2014-OGITT/INS dated March 5th, 2014. Ten patients were enrolled and received LIT in one or multiple 4-week treatment cycles. At the study closing date, four patients were alive and two of them remained cancer free. Here, following the successful conclusion of our Phase II study, we report the clinical effects of LIT on metastatic breast cancer patients. Specifically, we present the overall status of all the patients three years after the treatment and also the outcomes of two long-term surviving patients.

  18. Development of a man-portable room-temperature gradiometer--phase II: portable and fieldable prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czipott, Peter V.; Mathews, Robert; Perry, Alexander R.; Koch, Roger H.; Allen, George I.

    1999-07-01

    In Phase II of a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract funded through the Office of Secretary of Defense (OSD), Quantum Magnetics is developing a fieldable room- temperature gradiometer (RTG). The RTG uses an innovative sensor configuration, called the three-sensor gradiometer (TSG), invented at IBM. The TSG affords unprecedented dynamic range that enables detection of signals near fluxgate sensor noise while the system is in motion int eh earth's field. Sensor enhancements undertaken in this Phase II program include: incorporation of ancillary sensors to enable gradiometer balancing in the presence of ambient field gradients; improved feedback linearity and use of a wideband reference fluxgate sensor to reduce motion noise; and improved filter matching between channels. Operational developments in progress include reduction of the sensor electronics package for man-portability and implementation of real-time operating and target localizing software. The Phase II system will be used for land-based operations to locate unexploded ordnance, and the sensor is being integrated with differential global position satellite navigation to locate targets in geographical coordinates. Separately funded programs will adapt the RTG for use by divers or AUVs in finding naval mines and obstacles.

  19. A phase I/II trial of BNC105P with everolimus in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC)

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Sumanta; Azad, Arun; Bhatia, Shailender; Drabkin, Harry; Costello, Brian; Sarantopoulos, John; Kanesvaran, Ravindran; Lauer, Richard; Starodub, Alexander; Hauke, Ralph; Sweeney, Christopher J.; Hahn, Noah M.; Sonpavde, Guru; Richey, Stephen; Breen, Timothy; Kremmidiotis, Gabriel; Leske, Annabell; Doolin, Elizabeth; Bibby, David C.; Simpson, Jeremy; Iglesias, Jose; Hutson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose BNC105P inhibits tubulin polymerization, and preclinical studies suggest possible synergy with everolimus. In this phase I/II study, efficacy and safety of the combination were explored in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Experimental Design A phase I study in patients with clear cell mRCC and any prior number of therapies was conducted using a classical 3+3 design to evaluate standard doses of everolimus with increasing doses of BNC105P. At the recommended phase II dose (RP2D), patients with clear cell mRCC and 1-2 prior therapies (including ≥1 VEGF-TKI) were randomized to BNC105P with everolimus (Arm A) or everolimus alone (Arm B). The primary endpoint of the study was 6-month progression-free survival (6MPFS). Secondary endpoints included response rate, PFS, overall survival (OS) and exploratory biomarker analyses. Results In the phase I study (n=15), a dose of BNC105P at 16 mg/m2 with everolimus at 10 mg daily was identified as the RP2D. In the phase II study, 139 patients were randomized, with 69 and 67 evaluable patients in Arms A and B, respectively. 6MPFS was similar in the treatment arms (Arm A: 33.82% v Arm B: 30.30%, P=0.66) and no difference in median PFS was observed (Arm A: 4.7 mos v Arm B: 4.1 mos; P=0.49). Changes in matrix metalloproteinase-9, stem cell factor, sex hormone binding globulin and serum amyloid A protein were associated with clinical outcome with BNC105P. Conclusions Although the primary endpoint was not met in an unselected population, correlative studies suggest several biomarkers that warrant further prospective evaluation. PMID:25788492

  20. Family and Community Studies (FACS) Fourth Interim Report, Phase I and Activities and Timelines for Phase II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Renato; And Others

    Discussed in this paper is a preliminary analysis of findings from data gathered during the first phase of a research project exploring the processes whereby the nature of the mother's occupation affects her family life, especially (1) her partnership in decisions about housework, child care and education and (2) the negotiation of the allocation…

  1. Effectiveness of a hand-held fan for breathlessness: a randomised phase II trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Breathlessness is common and distressing in advanced disease. This phase II study aimed to determine the use and acceptance of a hand-held fan (HHF) to relieve breathlessness, to test the effectiveness of the HHF and to evaluate the recruitment into the study. Methods RCT embedded within a longitudinal study testing a HHF over time compared to a wristband. Patients were included in the longitudinal study when suffering from breathlessness due to advanced cancer or COPD III/IV and could opt in the RCT. Primary outcome was use of the HHF and the wristband after two months. Secondary outcomes were recruitment into the trial and change of breathlessness severity after two months, measured on the modified Borg scale. Baseline data were collected in a personal interview and follow-up data by monthly postal questionnaires. Results 109 patients were recruited in the longitudinal study of which 70 patients (64%) participated in the RCT. Non-participants had statistically significant less breathlessness (Borg mean 2.6 (SD 1.48) versus 3.7 (SD 1.83); p = 0.003) and a better functional status (Karnofsky status mean 61.9 (SD 11.2) versus 66.7 (SD 11.0); p = 0.03). Attrition due to drop out or death was high in both groups. After two months, about half of the patients used the HHF but only 20% the wristband without a statistical difference (Fisher's exact test p = 0.2). 9/16 patients judged the HHF as helpful after two months and 4/5 patients the wristband. There was no difference in mean breathlessness change scores between the HHF (Borg change score: mean 0.6 (SD 2.10)) and the wristband (mean 0.8 (SD 2.67)) after two months (p = 0.90). Conclusions Symptom burden and low functional status did not restrain patients from participation in the study. Finding a control for a visible intervention is challenging and needs careful consideration to what is acceptable to patients. The preliminary evidence of effectiveness of the HHF could not be proved. Patients often stopped

  2. Randomized Placebo-Controlled Phase II Trial of Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Yolanda; Marín, Pedro; Moreno, Beatriz; Berenguer, Joan; Gabilondo, Iñigo; Martínez-Heras, Eloy; Sola-Valls, Nuria; Arnaiz, Joan-Albert; Andreu, Enrique J.; Fernández, Begoña; Bullich, Santi; Sánchez-Dalmau, Bernardo; Graus, Francesc; Villoslada, Pablo; Saiz, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Objective Uncontrolled studies of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in multiple sclerosis suggested some beneficial effect. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover phase II study we investigated their safety and efficacy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients. Efficacy was evaluated in terms of cumulative number of gadolinium-enhancing lesions (GEL) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 6 months and at the end of the study. Methods Patients unresponsive to conventional therapy, defined by at least 1 relapse and/or GEL on MRI scan in past 12 months, disease duration 2 to 10 years and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 3.0–6.5 were randomized to receive IV 1–2×106 bone-marrow-derived-MSCs/Kg or placebo. After 6 months, the treatment was reversed and patients were followed-up for another 6 months. Secondary endpoints were clinical outcomes (relapses and disability by EDSS and MS Functional Composite), and several brain MRI and optical coherence tomography measures. Immunological tests were explored to assess the immunomodulatory effects. Results At baseline 9 patients were randomized to receive MSCs (n = 5) or placebo (n = 4). One patient on placebo withdrew after having 3 relapses in the first 5 months. We did not identify any serious adverse events. At 6 months, patients treated with MSCs had a trend to lower mean cumulative number of GEL (3.1, 95% CI = 1.1–8.8 vs 12.3, 95% CI = 4.4–34.5, p = 0.064), and at the end of study to reduced mean GEL (−2.8±5.9 vs 3±5.4, p = 0.075). No significant treatment differences were detected in the secondary endpoints. We observed a non-significant decrease of the frequency of Th1 (CD4+ IFN-γ+) cells in blood of MSCs treated patients. Conclusion Bone-marrow-MSCs are safe and may reduce inflammatory MRI parameters supporting their immunomodulatory properties. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01228266 PMID:25436769

  3. Cerebral near infrared spectroscopy oximetry in extremely preterm infants: phase II randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Pellicer, Adelina; Alderliesten, Thomas; Austin, Topun; van Bel, Frank; Benders, Manon; Claris, Olivier; Dempsey, Eugene; Franz, Axel R; Fumagalli, Monica; Gluud, Christian; Grevstad, Berit; Hagmann, Cornelia; Lemmers, Petra; van Oeveren, Wim; Pichler, Gerhard; Plomgaard, Anne Mette; Riera, Joan; Sanchez, Laura; Winkel, Per; Wolf, Martin; Greisen, Gorm

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if it is possible to stabilise the cerebral oxygenation of extremely preterm infants monitored by cerebral near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) oximetry. Design Phase II randomised, single blinded, parallel clinical trial. Setting Eight tertiary neonatal intensive care units in eight European countries. Participants 166 extremely preterm infants born before 28 weeks of gestation: 86 were randomised to cerebral NIRS monitoring and 80 to blinded NIRS monitoring. The only exclusion criterion was a decision not to provide life support. Interventions Monitoring of cerebral oxygenation using NIRS in combination with a dedicated treatment guideline during the first 72 hours of life (experimental) compared with blinded NIRS oxygenation monitoring with standard care (control). Main outcome measures The primary outcome measure was the time spent outside the target range of 55-85% for cerebral oxygenation multiplied by the mean absolute deviation, expressed in %hours (burden of hypoxia and hyperoxia). One hour with an oxygenation of 50% gives 5%hours of hypoxia. Secondary outcomes were all cause mortality at term equivalent age and a brain injury score assessed by cerebral ultrasonography. Randomisation Allocation sequence 1:1 with block sizes 4 and 6 in random order concealed for the investigators. The allocation was stratified for gestational age (<26 weeks or ≥26 weeks). Blinding Cerebral oxygenation measurements were blinded in the control group. All outcome assessors were blinded to group allocation. Results The 86 infants randomised to the NIRS group had a median burden of hypoxia and hyperoxia of 36.1%hours (interquartile range 9.2-79.5%hours) compared with 81.3 (38.5-181.3) %hours in the control group, a reduction of 58% (95% confidence interval 35% to 73%, P<0.001). In the experimental group the median burden of hypoxia was 16.6 (interquartile range 5.4-68.1) %hours, compared with 53.6 (17.4-171.3) %hours in the control group (P=0.0012). The

  4. Final Technical Report for DOE Grant DE-FG02-02ER83371, Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, William; Wilkinson, David; Hamel, William; Zhou, Renbin; Nycz, Andrzej; Humphreys, Heather

    2006-04-14

    The purpose of this research was to develop a telerobotic master device consisting of a 7-axis backdrivable robotic arm, and a pressure-sensitive grip-controller integrated with a Compact Remote Console (CRC), thus creating a highly functional teleoperation station targeted to control a 6-axis industrial robotic arm and dexterous robotic hand to be used for demolition work in a nuclear setting. We successfully completed the development of one of the world?s smallest brushless motor controllers due partially to funding through this grant. These controllers are used to drive the motors in the master robotic arm. We also completed the development of an improved model of a highly advanced 4 degree-of-freedom arm ? this same arm is the core component in the teleoperation system. The WAM arm and a 3-axis gimbals were integrated with a commercially available CRC at our consultant?s lab at University of Tennessee. Additional support hardware and software were combined to tie the master control system to an existing industrial robot in the lab. A master controller for a dexterous hand was developed and became an integral part of the gimbals handle. Control algorithms were developed and the software was written and implemented. The entire system was then debugged and tested. Results of the prototype system are promising. The WAM Arm, gimbals, hand controller and CRC were successful integrated. Testing of the system to control the 6-axis industrial arm and prototype dexterous hand showed great potential. Relatively simple tasks were successfully performed at slow speeds. Some of the testing was hampered by problems with the slave dexterous hand. This is a prototype hand being developed by Barrett under a different Phase II program. Potential improvements and advancements to the system include improving the control code, and integration of a 2nd master controller arm in order to drive a 2nd slave arm and hand. In summary, the device is a complex system with advanced features

  5. REFINEMENT OF THE NEPHELINE DISCRIMINATOR: RESULTS OF A PHASE II STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T

    2008-11-21

    Twenty five glass compositions were selected for a Phase II study to assess the potential for reducing the conservatism in the nepheline discriminator. The glass compositions were restricted to regions that fell within the validation ranges of the DWPF PCCS models. In addition, the liquidus temperature model was used to restrict the glass compositions so that they could all be melted at the same temperature. The nepheline discriminator was used to force the glass compositions into regions where nepheline formation was predicted to occur. The glasses were fabricated in the laboratory and characterized for crystallization and chemical durability after both quenching and slow cooling. Chemical analysis showed that the fabricated glasses met the target compositions. Nepheline was identified in one of the quenched glasses and several of the CCC glasses. There was no clear relationship between the types of crystallization that occurred in a particular glass and its location on the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2} ternary diagram. A partitioning algorithm was used to identify trends in crystallization behavior based on glass composition. Generally, for the CCC glasses MnO influenced the crystallization of spinels and B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} influenced the crystallization of nepheline. Measured durability responses varied from acceptable to unacceptable depending on the glass composition and type and extent of crystallization that occurred. It was not possible to identify any linear effects of composition on chemical durability performance for this set of study glasses. The results were not sufficient to recommend modification of the current nepheline discriminator at this time. It is recommended that the next series of experiments continue to focus not only on compositional regions where the PCCS models are considered applicable (i.e., the model validation ranges), but also be restricted to compositional regions where acceptable glasses are predicted to be

  6. A Phase II Dose Titration Study of Thalidomide for Cancer-Associated Anorexia

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Mellar; Lasheen, Wael; Walsh, Declan; Mahmoud, Fade; Bicanovsky, Leslie; Lagman, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Context Sixty-five percent of people with advanced cancer suffer from loss of appetite. Several inflammatory cytokines appear to cause appetite loss in animal models. Thalidomide is an immunomodulatory drug that has been associated with improved appetite in those with HIV infections, and in cancer. Objectives We completed a two-stage Phase II dose titration study of thalidomide, the primary purpose of which was to assess appetite response to thalidomide in cancer-associated anorexia. Methods Individuals older than 18 years of age with active cancer, loss of appetite by numerical rating scale (NRS), life expectancy of at least four weeks, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0–3 were entered into the study. Pre-treatment screening included medical history, neurologic examination, and symptoms by NRS and categorical scale. Patients received 50 mg of thalidomide by mouth at bedtime for two weeks. Individuals who did not respond were dose escalated to 100 mg at night for two weeks. Assessment of appetite, early satiety, fatigue, insomnia, night sweats, pain, and quality of life occurred at two-week intervals. Toxicity also was assessed. The primary outcome was appetite response defined as a two-point reduction in the NRS, or one-point improvement in the categorical scale. Results Thirty-five patients entered the study; 33 completed 14 days of therapy and were analyzed for efficacy and toxicity. Sixty-four percent who completed at least two weeks of thalidomide had improved appetite. The categorical scale scores for appetite, insomnia and quality of life improved significantly. The 95% confidence intervals did not overlap. Five participants dropped out because of toxicity: two before two weeks and three later. Conclusion Thalidomide reduced multiple symptoms commonly associated with cancer-related anorexia and improved quality of life. Our findings confirmed and validated a previously published single arm trial. A recent randomized trial

  7. Phase II Study of Olaparib (AZD-2281) After Standard Systemic Therapies for Disseminated Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Groshen, Susan; O’Neil, Bert H.; Messersmith, Wells; Berlin, Jordan; Chan, Emily; Leichman, Cynthia G.; Cohen, Steven J.; Cohen, Deirdre; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Gold, Philip; Boman, Bruce; Fielding, Anitra; Locker, Gershon; Cason, Ronald C.; Hamilton, Stan R.; Hochster, Howard S.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Effective new agents for patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) with disease progression during standard therapy regimens are needed. We hypothesized that poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitor therapy in patients with CRC and inefficient tumor DNA repair mechanisms, such as those with high-level microsatellite instability (MSI-H), would result in synthetic lethality. Methods. This was an open-label phase II trial testing olaparib 400 mg p.o. b.i.d. for patients with disseminated, measurable CRC failing standard therapies with centrally confirmed tumor MSI status. The primary endpoint was the tumor response, assessed by RECIST, version 1.0. The secondary endpoints were safety/toxicity, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Results. Thirty-three patients (20 microsatellite stable [MSS], 13 MSI-H) were enrolled. The median age for all patients was 57 years and for MSS and MSI-H patients was 51 and 61 years, respectively. All patients received at least one 28-day cycle of olaparib. No patient had a complete or partial response. Nausea (48%), fatigue (36%), and vomiting (33%) were the most commonly reported treatment-related adverse events. The median PFS for all patients was 1.84 months. No statistically significant differences were found in the median PFS or OS for the MSS group compared with the MSI-H group. Conclusion. Single-agent olaparib delivered after failure of standard systemic therapy did not demonstrate activity for CRC patients, regardless of microsatellite status. Future trials, testing PARP inhibitors in patients with CRC should focus on the use of DNA-damaging chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, combined with PARP inhibitors, remembering the toxicity reported in the present study. Implications for Practice: Microsatellite instability (MSI-H) colorectal tumors exhibit hypermethylation in tumor mismatch repair genes, or have mutations in one or more of these genes resulting from a germ-line defect (Lynch syndrome

  8. A Cytostatic Ruthenium(II)-Platinum(II) Bis(terpyridyl) Anticancer Complex That Blocks Entry into S Phase by Up-regulating p27(KIP1).

    PubMed

    Ramu, Vadde; Gill, Martin R; Jarman, Paul J; Turton, David; Thomas, Jim A; Das, Amitava; Smythe, Carl

    2015-06-15

    Cytostatic agents that interfere with specific cellular components to prevent cancer cell growth offer an attractive alternative, or complement, to traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Here, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a new binuclear Ru(II) -Pt(II) complex [Ru(tpy)(tpypma)Pt(Cl)(DMSO)](3+) (tpy=2,2':6',2''-terpyridine and tpypma=4-([2,2':6',2''-terpyridine]-4'-yl)-N-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)aniline), VR54, which employs the extended terpyridine tpypma ligand to link the two metal centres. In cell-free conditions, VR54 binds DNA by non-intercalative reversible mechanisms (Kb =1.3×10(5)  M(-1) ) and does not irreversibly bind guanosine. Cellular studies reveal that VR54 suppresses proliferation of A2780 ovarian cancer cells with no cross-resistance in the A2780CIS cisplatin-resistant cell line. Through the preparation of mononuclear Ru(II) and Pt(II) structural derivatives it was determined that both metal centres are required for this anti-proliferative activity. In stark contrast to cisplatin, VR54 neither activates the DNA-damage response network nor induces significant levels of cell death. Instead, VR54 is cytostatic and inhibits cell proliferation by up-regulating the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(KIP1) and inhibiting retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation, which blocks entry into S phase and results in G1 cell cycle arrest. Thus, VR54 inhibits cancer cell growth by a gain of function at the G1 restriction point. This is the first metal-coordination compound to demonstrate such activity.

  9. Phase II Study of Chemoradiotherapy With 5-Fluorouracil and Cisplatin for Stage II-III Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: JCOG Trial (JCOG 9906)

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Ken; Muro, Kei; Minashi, Keiko; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Ishikura, Satoshi; Boku, Narikazu; Takiuchi, Hiroya; Komatsu, Yoshito; Miyata, Yoshinori; Fukuda, Haruhiko

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: In this Phase II study, we evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with cisplatin (CDDP) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for Stage II-III esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Patients and Methods: Patients with clinical Stage II-III (T1N1M0 or T2-3N0-1M0) thoracic ESCC were enrolled between April 2000 and March 2002. Chemotherapy comprised two courses of protracted infusion of 5-FU (400 mg/m{sup 2}/day) on Days 1-5 and 8-12, and 2-h infusion of CDDP (40 mg/m{sup 2}) on Days 1 and 8; this regimen was repeated every 5 weeks. Concurrent radiotherapy involved 60-Gy irradiation (30 fractions) for 8 weeks with a 2-week break. Responders received two courses of 5-FU (800 mg/m{sup 2}/day) on Days 1-5 and CDDP (80 mg/m{sup 2}) on Day 1. Final analysis was conducted in March 2007. Survival and late toxicities were monitored for 5 years. Results: The characteristics of the 76 patients enrolled were as follows: median age, 61 years; male/female, 68/8; performance status 0/1, 59/17 patients; Stage IIA/IIB/III, 26/12/38 patients. Of the 74 eligible patients, 46 (62.2%) achieved complete response. Median survival time was 29 months, with 3- and 5-year survival rates of 44.7% and 36.8%, respectively. Acute toxicities included Grade 3/4 esophagitis (17%), nausea (17%), hyponatremia (16%), and infection without neutropenia (12%). Late toxicities comprised Grade 3/4 esophagitis (13%), pericardial (16%) and pleural (9%) effusion, and radiation pneumonitis (4%), causing 4 deaths. Conclusions: CRT is effective for Stage II-III ESCC with manageable acute toxicities and can provide a nonsurgical treatment option. However, further improvement is required for reduction in late toxicity.

  10. A solid phase extraction procedure for the determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in food and water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Daşbaşı, Teslima; Saçmacı, Şerife; Ülgen, Ahmet; Kartal, Şenol

    2015-05-01

    A relatively rapid, accurate and precise solid phase extraction method is presented for the determination of cadmium(II) and lead(II) in various food and water samples. Quantitation is carried out by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The method is based on the retention of the trace metal ions on Dowex Marathon C, a strong acid cation exchange resin. Some important parameters affecting the analytical performance of the method such as pH, flow rate and volume of the sample solution; type, concentration, volume, flow rate of the eluent; and matrix effects on the retention of the metal ions were investigated. Common coexisting ions did not interfere on the separation and determination of the analytes. The detection limits (3 σb) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were found as 0.13 and 0.18 μg L(-1), respectively, while the limit of quantification values (10 σb) were computed as 0.43 and 0.60 μg L(-1) for the same sequence of the analytes. The precision (as relative standard deviation was lower than 4% at 5 μg L(-1) Cd(II) and 10 μg L(-1) Pb(II) levels, and the preconcentration factor was found to be 250. The accuracy of the proposed procedure was verified by analysing the certified reference materials, SPS-WW2 Batch 108 wastewater level 2 and INCT-TL-1 tea leaves, with the satisfactory results. In addition, for the accuracy of the method the recovery studies (⩾ 95%) were carried out. The method was applied to the determination of the analytes in the various natural waters (lake water, tap water, waste water with boric acid, waste water with H2SO4) and food samples (pomegranate flower, organic pear, radish leaf, lamb meat, etc.), and good results were obtained. While the food samples almost do not contain cadmium, they have included lead at low levels of 0.13-1.12 μg g(-1).

  11. Regulation of Sticholysin II-Induced Pore Formation by Lipid Bilayer Composition, Phase State, and Interfacial Properties.

    PubMed

    Palacios-Ortega, Juan; García-Linares, Sara; Åstrand, Mia; Al Sazzad, Md Abdullah; Gavilanes, José G; Martínez-del-Pozo, Álvaro; Slotte, J Peter

    2016-04-12

    Sticholysin II (StnII) is a pore-forming toxin that uses sphingomyelin (SM) as the recognition molecule in targeting membranes. After StnII monomers bind to SM, several toxin monomers act in concert to oligomerize into a functional pore. The regulation of StnII binding to SM, and the subsequent pore-formation process, is not fully understood. In this study, we examined how the biophysical properties of bilayers, originating from variations in the SM structure, from the presence of sterol species, or from the presence of increasingly polyunsaturated glycerophospholipids, affected StnII-induced pore formation. StnII-induced pore formation, as determined from calcein permeabilization, was fastest in the pure unsaturated SM bilayers. In 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC)/saturated SM bilayers (4:1 molar ratio), pore formation became slower as the chain length of the saturated SMs increased from 14 up to 24 carbons. In the POPC/palmitoyl-SM (16:0-SM) 4:1 bilayers, SM could not support pore formation by StnII if dimyristoyl-PC was included at 1:1 stoichiometry with 16:0-SM, suggesting that free clusters of SM were required for toxin binding and/or pore formation. Cholesterol and other sterols facilitated StnII-induced pore formation markedly, but the efficiency did not appear to correlate with the sterol structure. Benzyl alcohol was more efficient than sterols in enhancing the pore-formation process, suggesting that the effect on pore formation originated from alcohol-induced alteration of the hydrogen-bonding network in the SM-containing bilayers. Finally, we observed that pore formation by StnII was enhanced in the PC/16:0-SM 4:1 bilayers, in which the PC was increasingly unsaturated. We conclude that the physical state of bilayer lipids greatly affected pore formation by StnII. Phase boundaries were not required for pore formation, although SM in a gel state attenuated pore formation.

  12. Disentangling the ISM phases of the dwarf galaxy NGC 4214 using [C ii] SOFIA/GREAT observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahrion, K.; Cormier, D.; Bigiel, F.; Hony, S.; Abel, N. P.; Cigan, P.; Csengeri, T.; Graf, U. U.; Lebouteiller, V.; Madden, S. C.; Wu, R.; Young, L.

    2017-02-01

    Context. The [C ii] 158 μm fine structure line is one of the dominant cooling lines in the interstellar medium (ISM) and is an important tracer of star formation. Recent velocity-resolved studies with Herschel/HIFI and SOFIA/GREAT showed that the [C ii] line can constrain the properties of the ISM phases in star-forming regions. The [C ii] line as a tracer of star formation is particularly important in low-metallicity environments where CO emission is weak because of the presence of large amounts of CO-dark gas. Aims: The nearby irregular dwarf galaxy NGC 4214 offers an excellent opportunity to study an actively star-forming ISM at low metallicity. We analyzed the spectrally resolved [C ii] line profiles in three distinct regions at different evolutionary stages of NGC 4214 with respect to ancillary H i and CO data in order to study the origin of the [C ii] line. Methods: We used SOFIA/GREAT [C ii] 158 μm observations, H i data from THINGS, and CO(2 → 1) data from HERACLES to decompose the spectrally resolved [C ii] line profiles into components associated with neutral atomic and molecular gas. We use this decomposition to infer gas masses traced by [C ii] under different ISM conditions. Results: Averaged over all regions, we associate about 46% of the [C ii] emission with the H i emission. However, we can assign only 9% of the total [C ii] emission to the cold neutral medium (CNM). We found that about 79% of the total molecular hydrogen mass is not traced by CO emission. Conclusions: On average, the fraction of CO-dark gas dominates the molecular gas mass budget. The fraction seems to depend on the evolutionary stage of the regions: it is highest in the region covering a super star cluster in NGC 4214, while it is lower in a more compact, more metal-rich region. Reduced SOFIA/GREAT data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/599/A9

  13. How to improve the clinical development paradigm and its division into phases I, II and III.

    PubMed

    Bamberger, Marion; Moore, Nicholas; Lechat, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    of improvement of the medical benefit (ASMR) [level II/III or IV/V]. Such requests mainly concern uncertainties regarding the transposability, the patient profile or correct usage in real life. Among the studies whose results were provided, in 15 cases the results were in line with expectations, in 6 cases they resulted in downward re-evaluations and the final 3 cases were inconclusive. The final recommendations of the round table were: Defining the medical need that is not covered by working in consultation (Industry and Health Authorities); Providing a Complementary Investigations Plan (PIC) after the MA at a very early stage to reinforce the early MA, and/or HTA (health technology assessment) preparation and monitoring (possible constraining actions); Enhanced use of modelling techniques and their transposability; "Intussusception" of phases to optimise the development of a complete dossier; Early "scientific opinions" (EMA, French Health Products Safety Agency [Afssaps], French Health Authority [HAS]); Raising the awareness of the authorities, industry, doctors and patients with regard to controlled observational studies; Developing the use of public data bases.

  14. CHEMICALLY BONDED CEMENTS FROM BOILER ASH AND SLUDGE WASTES. PHASE II REPORT, SEPT.1998-JULY 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    SUGAMA,T.YAGER,K.A.BLANKENHORN,D.

    1999-08-01

    Based upon the previous Phase I research program aimed at looking for ways of recycling the KeySpan-generated wastes, such as waste water treatment sludge (WWTS) and bottom ash (BA), into the potentially useful cementitious materials called chemically bonded cement (CBC) materials, the emphasis of this Phase II program done at Brookhaven National Laboratory, in a period of September 1998 through July 1999, was directed towards the two major subjects: One was to assess the technical feasibility of WWTS-based CBC material for use as Pb-exchange adsorbent (PEA) which remediates Pb-contaminated soils in the field; and the other was related to the establishment of the optimum-packaging storage system of dry BA-based CBC components that make it a promising matrix material for the steam-cured concrete products containing sand and coarse aggregate. To achieve the goal of the first subject, a small-scale field demonstration test was carried out. Using the PEA material consisting of 30 wt% WWTS, 13 wt% Type I cement and 57 wt% water, the PES slurry was prepared using a rotary shear concrete mixer, and then poured on the Pb-contaminated soil. The PEA-to-soil ratio by weight was a factor of 2.0. The placed PEA slurry was blended with soil using hand mixing tools such as claws and shovels. The wettability of soils with the PEA was very good, thereby facilitating the soil-PEA mix procedures. A very promising result was obtained from this field test; in fact, the mount of Pb leached out from the 25-day-aged PEA-treated soil specimen was only 0.74 mg/l, meeting the requirement for EPA safe regulation of < 5 mg/l. In contrast, a large amount (26.4 mg/l) of Pb was detected from the untreated soil of the same age. Thus, this finding demonstrated that the WWTS-based CBC has a potential for use as PEA material. Regarding the second subject, the dry-packed storage system consisting of 68.7 wt% BA, 13.0 wt% calcium aluminate cement (CAC), 13.0 wt% Type I portland cement and 5.3 wt

  15. Syracuse Univesity Test Report On Uptake Factor Resulting From A Dropped Storage Container - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhi; Zhang, Jianshun S.

    2012-01-01

    rate was once every 2 seconds during the first 2 hours. A test procedure was developed and verified. A total of thirty two drop tests were performed, eight in Phase I and twenty four in Phase II, covering variations in dropping height (8 ft or 4 ft from the floor), room air movement (0.25-0.30 m/s or 0.10-0.15 m/s near the ceiling), landing scenario (on a flat plate or a block), and lid condition (¼” lid hole or no lid). There were ten tests with flat plate and ¼” lid hole, ten tests with flat plate no lid and twelve tests with block no lid.

  16. Developmental Effects of the ToxCast™ Phase I and Phase II Chemicals in Caenorhabditis elegans and Corresponding Responses in Zebrafish, Rats, and Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Windy A.; Smith, Marjolein V.; Co, Caroll A.; Pirone, Jason R.; Rice, Julie R.; Shockley, Keith R.; Freedman, Jonathan H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Modern toxicology is shifting from an observational to a mechanistic science. As part of this shift, high-throughput toxicity assays are being developed using alternative, nonmammalian species to prioritize chemicals and develop prediction models of human toxicity. Methods: The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) was used to screen the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) ToxCast™ Phase I and Phase II libraries, which contain 292 and 676 chemicals, respectively, for chemicals leading to decreased larval development and growth. Chemical toxicity was evaluated using three parameters: a biologically defined effect size threshold, half-maximal activity concentration (AC50), and lowest effective concentration (LEC). Results: Across both the Phase I and Phase II libraries, 62% of the chemicals were classified as active ≤ 200 μM in the C. elegans assay. Chemical activities and potencies in C. elegans were compared with those from two zebrafish embryonic development toxicity studies and developmental toxicity data for rats and rabbits. Concordance of chemical activity was higher between C. elegans and one zebrafish assay across Phase I chemicals (79%) than with a second zebrafish assay (59%). Using C. elegans or zebrafish to predict rat or rabbit developmental toxicity resulted in balanced accuracies (the average value of the sensitivity and specificity for an assay) ranging from 45% to 53%, slightly lower than the concordance between rat and rabbit (58%). Conclusions: Here, we present an assay that quantitatively and reliably describes the effects of chemical toxicants on C. elegans growth and development. We found significant overlap in the activity of chemicals in the ToxCast™ libraries between C. elegans and zebrafish developmental screens. Incorporating C. elegans toxicological assays as part of a battery of in vitro and in vivo assays provides additional information for the development of models to predict a chemical

  17. In vitro Phase I and Phase II metabolism of α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP), methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and methedrone by human liver microsomes and human liver cytosol.

    PubMed

    Negreira, Noelia; Erratico, Claudio; Kosjek, Tina; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Heath, Ester; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the in vitro Phase I and Phase II metabolites of three new psychoactive substances: α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP), methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), and methedrone, using human liver microsomes and human liver cytosol. Accurate-mass spectra of metabolites were obtained using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Six Phase I metabolites of α-PVP were identified, which were formed involving reduction, hydroxylation, and pyrrolidine ring opening reactions. The lactam compound was the major metabolite observed for α-PVP. Two glucuronidated metabolites of α-PVP, not reported in previous in vitro studies, were further identified. MDPV was transformed into 10 Phase I metabolites involving reduction, hydroxylation, and loss of the pyrrolidine ring. Also, six glucuronidated and two sulphated metabolites were detected. The major metabolite of MDPV was the catechol metabolite. Methedrone was transformed into five Phase I metabolites, involving N- and O-demethylation, hydroxylation, and reduction of the ketone group. Three metabolites of methedrone are reported for the first time. In addition, the contribution of individual human CYP enzymes in the formation of the detected metabolites was investigated.

  18. Identification and determination of phase II nabumetone metabolites by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array and mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Nobilis, M; Holcapek, M; Kolárová, L; Kopecký, J; Kunes, M; Svoboda, Z; Kvetina, J

    2004-03-26

    Chromatographic analyses play an important role in the identification and determination of phase I and phase II drug metabolites. While the chemical standards of phase I metabolites are usually available from commercial sources or by various synthetic, degradation or isolation methods, the phase II drug metabolites have usually more complicated structures, their standards are in general inaccessible and their identification and determination require a comprehensive analytical approach involving the use of xenobiochemical methods and the employment of hyphenated analytical techniques. In this work, various high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods were employed in the evaluation of xenobiochemical experiments leading to the identification and determination of phase II nabumetone metabolites. Optimal conditions for the quantitative enzymatic deconjugation of phase II metabolites were found for the samples of minipig bile, small intestine contents and urine. Comparative HPLC analyses of the samples of above-mentioned biomatrices and of the same biomatrices after their enzymatic treatment using beta-glucuronidase and arylsulfatase afforded the qualitative and quantitative information about phase II nabumetone metabolites. Hereby, three principal phase II nabumetone metabolites (ether glucuronides) were discovered in minipig's body fluids and their structures were confirmed using liquid chromatography (LC)-electrospray ionization mass spectrometric (MS) analyses.

  19. Background Characterization and Discrimination in the Final Analysis of the CDMS II Phase of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search

    SciTech Connect

    Fritts, Matthew C.

    2011-02-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) is designed to detectWeakly-Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) in the Milky Way halo. The phase known as CDMS II was performed in the Soudan Underground Laboratory. The final set of CDMS II data, collected in 2007-8 and referred to as Runs 125-8, represents the largest exposure to date for the experiment. We seek collisions between WIMPs and atomic nuclei in disk-shaped germanium and silicon detectors. A key design feature is to keep the rate of collisions from known particles producing WIMP-like signals very small. The largest category of such background is interactions with electrons in the detectors that occur very close to one of the faces of the detector. The next largest category is collisions between energetic neutrons that bypass the experimental shielding and nuclei in the detectors. Analytical efforts to discriminate these backgrounds and to estimate the rate at which such discrimination fails have been refined and improved throughout each phase of CDMS. Next-generation detectors for future phases of CDMS require testing at cryogenic test facilities. One such facility was developed at the University of Minnesota in 2007 and has been used continuously since then to test detectors for the next phase of the experiment, known as SuperCDMS.

  20. Lipoplatin monotherapy: A phase II trial of second-line treatment of metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ravaioli, A; Papi, M; Pasquini, E; Marangolo, M; Rudnas, B; Fantini, M; Nicoletti, S V L; Drudi, F; Panzini, I; Tamburini, E; Gianni, L; Pasini, G

    2009-02-01

    Lipoplatin is a liposome encapsulated form of cisplatin. phase i studies on lipoplatin have demonstrated that the compound has an excellent toxicity profile. therefore we performed a phase ii trial in heavily pre-treated patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSClC), performance status 0-2 in which the primary endpoint was response rate and secondary endpoints were safety and overall survival.Nineteen patients, average age 64 years old, with stage iV NSClC, were treated with lipoplatin 100 mg/m(2) every two weeks, as second line chemotherapy.We observed 1 partial remission (5.2%) and 3 stable diseases (15.9%). Time to progression (ttp) was 16 weeks and median overall survival (OS) was 31 weeks (7.2 months). We observed G1-G2 toxicity during chemotherapy, mainly gastrointestinal with nausea and vomiting (4 patients), asthenia (3 patients), mucositis (2 patients) and anemia (4 patients).Our phase ii study does not support a more extensive use of lipoplatin in phase III studies. An increase of dosage and a better selection of patients are mandatory to understand the real therapeutic activity of lipoplatin.

  1. New formalism for two-photon quantum optics. I - Quadrature phases and squeezed states. II - Mathematical foundation and compact notation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caves, C. M.; Schumaker, B. L.

    1985-01-01

    A new formalism for analyzing two-photon devices, such as parametric amplifiers and phase-conjugate mirrors, is proposed in part I, focusing on the properties and the significance of the quadrature-phase amplitudes and two-mode squeezed states. Time-stationary quasi-probability noise is also detailed for the case of Gaussian noise, and uncertainty principles for the quadrature-phase amplitudes are outlined, as well as some important properties of the two-mode states. Part II establishes a mathematical foundation for the formalism, with introduction of a vector notation for compact representation of two-mode properties. Fundamental unitary operators and special quantum states are also examined with an emphasis on the two-mode squeezed states. The results are applied to a previously studied degenerate limit (epsilon = 0).

  2. Solid phase extraction of zinc(II) using a PVC-based polymer inclusion membrane with di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as the carrier.

    PubMed

    Kolev, Spas D; Baba, Yoshinari; Cattrall, Robert W; Tasaki, Tsutomu; Pereira, Natalie; Perera, Jilska M; Stevens, Geoffrey W

    2009-05-15

    A polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) is reported consisting of 45% (m/m) di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) immobilized in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) for use as a solid phase absorbent for selectively extracting Zn(II) from aqueous solutions in the presence of Cd(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Fe(II). Interference from Fe(III) in the sample is eliminated by precipitation with orthophosphate prior to the extraction of Zn(II). Studies using a dual compartment transport cell have shown that the Zn(II) flux (2.58 x 10(-6)mol m(-2)s(-1)) is comparable to that observed for supported liquid membranes. The stoichiometry of the extracted complex is shown to be ZnR(2).HR, where R is the D2EHPA anion.

  3. Targeting radioimmunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma with iodine ({sup 131}I) metuximab injection: Clinical Phase I/II trials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Zhinan . E-mail: chcerc2@fmmu.edu.cn; Mi Li; Xu Jing

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: HAb18G/CD147 is a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-associated antigen. We developed iodine ({sup 131}I) metuximab injection (Licartin), a novel {sup 131}I-labeled HAb18G/CD147-specific monoclonal antibody F(ab'){sub 2} fragment, and evaluated its safety, pharmacokinetics, and clinical efficacy on HCC in Phase I/II trials. Methods and Materials: In a Phase I trial, 28 patients were randomly assigned to receive the injection in 9.25-, 18.5-, 27.75-, or 37-MBq/kg doses by hepatic artery infusion. In a multicenter Phase II trial, 106 patients received the injection (27.75 MBq/kg) on Day 1 of a 28-day cycle. Response rate and survival rate were the endpoints. Results: No life-threatening toxic effects were found. The safe dosage was 27.75 MBq/kg. The blood clearance fitted a biphasic model, and its half-life was 90.56-63.93 h. In the Phase II trial, the injection was found to be targeted and concentrated to tumor tissues. Of the 73 patients completing two cycles, 6 (8.22%) had a partial response, 14 (19.18%) minor response, and 43 (58.90%) stable disease. The 21-month survival rate was 44.54%. The survival rate of progression-free patients was significantly higher than that of patients with progressive disease after either one or two cycles (p < 0.0001 or p 0.0019). Conclusion: Iodine ({sup 131}I) metuximab injection is safe and active for HCC patients.

  4. A phase I-II trial of fludarabine, bendamustine and rituximab (FBR) in previously treated patients with CLL.

    PubMed

    Jain, Nitin; Balakrishnan, Kumudha; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; O'Brien, Susan M; Burger, Jan A; Kadia, Tapan M; Cortes, Jorge E; Ayres, Mary L; Tambaro, Francesco Paolo; Keating, Michael J; Gandhi, Varsha; Wierda, William G

    2016-09-15

    Chemoimmunotherapy regimens have been the standard first-line therapy for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). For young, fit patients the standard of care is combination of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR). Based on the preclinical work demonstrating that bendamustine combined with fludarabine resulted in increased DNA damage, we designed a phase I-II clinical trial with fludarabine, bendamustine, and rituximab (FBR) for patients with relapsed/refractory CLL. Treatment consisted of fludarabine 20 mg/m2 daily x 3 days and rituximab 375-500 mg/m2 x 1 day. Phase I included bendamustine at increasing doses of 20, 30, 40, or 50 mg/m2 daily x 3 days; phase II was with FR, and B at the selected dose. DNA damage response (H2AX phosphorylation) was evaluated in a subset of patients. Fifty-one patients were enrolled. The median age was 62 years; median number of prior therapies was 2; 40% had del(11q); and 41 patients had received prior FCR-based therapies. Hematologic toxicity was more common in ≥40 mg/m2 dose cohorts. Maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was not identified. Bendamustine-elicited H2AX phosphorylation was not dose-dependent, but markedly increased after fludarabine. We identified bendamustine 30 mg/m2 as the safe dose for phase II. The overall response rate (ORR) was 67% with 36% complete response (CR) / CR with incomplete count recovery (CRi). Younger patients (<65 years) had significantly higher ORR (81% vs. 50%; p=0.038). The median progression-free survival was 19 months, and the median overall survival was 52.5 months. FBR is an effective and tolerable CIT regimen for patients with relapsed CLL.

  5. A comprehensive analysis of phase I and phase II metabolism gene polymorphisms and risk of non-small cell lung cancer in smokers.

    PubMed

    Zienolddiny, Shanbeh; Campa, Daniele; Lind, Helge; Ryberg, David; Skaug, Vidar; Stangeland, Lodve B; Canzian, Federico; Haugen, Aage

    2008-06-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide with smoking and occupational exposure to carcinogenic compounds as the major risk factors. Susceptibility to lung cancer is affected by existence of polymorphic genes controlling the levels of metabolic activation and detoxification of carcinogens. We have investigated 105 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 31 genes from the phase I and phase II metabolism genes and antioxidant defense genes for association with the risk of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a Norwegian population-based study. Our results indicate that several SNPs in the phase I genes, CYP1B1, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4, are associated with the risk of NSCLC. Moreover, significant associations with multiple SNPs in the phase II genes ALDH2, COMT, EPHX1, SOD2, NAT1, NAT2, GSTM3, GSTP1, GSTT2 and MPO were also found. We prioritized our findings by use of two different recently developed Bayesian statistical tools, employing conservative prior probabilities of association. When we corrected for multiple testing using these statistical tools, three novel associations of NSCLC risk with SNPs in the CYP1B1 (Arg48Gly), COMT (Val158Met) and GSTT2 (Met139Ile) genes were found noteworthy. However, only four of the previously reported associations with polymorphisms in the GSTP1 (Ala14Val), SOD2 (Val16Ala), EPHX1 (His139Arg) genes and the NAT1 fast acetylator phenotype remained significantly associated with lung cancer.

  6. Divalent and trivalent gas-phase coordination complexes of californium: evaluating the stability of Cf(ii).

    PubMed

    Dau, Phuong D; Shuh, David K; Sturzbecher-Hoehne, Manuel; Abergel, Rebecca J; Gibson, John K

    2016-08-02

    The divalent oxidation state is increasingly stable relative to the trivalent state for the later actinide elements, with californium the first actinide to exhibit divalent chemistry under moderate conditions. Although there is evidence for divalent Cf in solution and solid compounds, there are no reports of discrete complexes in which Cf(II) is coordinated by anionic ligands. Described here is the divalent Cf methanesulfinate coordination complex, Cf(II)(CH3SO2)3(-), prepared in the gas phase by reductive elimination of CH3SO2 from Cf(III)(CH3SO2)4(-). Comparison with synthesis of the corresponding Sm and Cm complexes reveals reduction of Cf(III) and Sm(III), and no evidence for reduction of Cm(III). This reflects the comparative 3+/2+ reduction potentials: Cf(3+) (-1.60 V) ≈ Sm(3+) (-1.55 V) ≫ Cm(3+) (-3.7 V). Association of O2 to the divalent complexes is attributed to formation of superoxides, with recovery of the trivalent oxidation state. The new gas-phase chemistry of californium, now the heaviest element to have been studied in this manner, provides evidence for Cf(II) coordination complexes and similar chemistry of Cf and Sm.

  7. Buoyant thermocapillary flow with nonuniform supra-heating. I - Liquid-phase behavior. II - Two-phase behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiller, David N.; Sirignano, William A.

    1992-01-01

    The present computational study of transient heat transfer and fluid flow in a circular pool of n-decane which is undergoing central radiative heating from above gives attention to the volumetric absorption of the radiation incident on the pool surface. The first part of this study notes that buoyancy influences the number and recirculation rates of the subsurface vortices by stabilizing hot subsurface fluid above the colder core fluid; this affects the liquid surface temperature profile and in turn governs the velocity profile that is due to thermocapillarity. In the second part, the effects of gas-liquid phase coupling, variable density and thermophysical properties, and vaporization are considered.

  8. TAILORING INORGANIC SORBENTS FOR SRS STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS: OPTIMIZED MONOSODIUM TITANATE PHASE II FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D; Thomas Peters, T; Michael Poirier, M; Mark Barnes, M; Major Thompson, M; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-06-29

    This document provides a final report of Phase II testing activities for the development of a modified monosodium titanate (MST) that exhibits improved strontium and actinide removal characteristics compared to the baseline MST material. The activities included determining the key synthesis conditions for preparation of the modified MST, preparation of the modified MST at a larger scale by a commercial vendor, demonstration of the strontium and actinide removal characteristics with actual tank waste supernate and measurement of filtration characteristics. Key findings and conclusions include the following. Testing evaluated three synthetic methods and eleven process parameters for the optimum synthesis conditions for the preparation on an improved form of MST. We selected the post synthesis method (Method 3) for continued development based on overall sorbate removal performance. We successfully prepared three batches of the modified MST using Method 3 procedure at a 25-gram scale. The laboratory prepared modified MST exhibited increased sorption kinetics with simulated and actual waste solutions and similar filtration characteristics to the baseline MST. Characterization of the modified MST indicated that the post synthesis treatment did not significantly alter the particle size distribution, but did significantly increase the surface area and porosity compared to the original MST. Testing indicated that the modified MST exhibits reduced affinity for uranium compared to the baseline MST, reducing risk of fissile loading. Shelf-life testing indicated no change in strontium and actinide performance removal after storing the modified MST for 12-months at ambient laboratory temperature. The material releases oxygen during the synthesis and continues to offgas after the synthesis at a rapidly diminishing rate until below a measurable rate after 4 months. Optima Chemical Group LLC prepared a 15-kilogram batch of the modified MST using the post synthesis procedure (Method

  9. Pilot Phase II Trial of Imatinib Mesylate in Neurofibromatosis Type 1 patients with Plexiform Neurofibromas

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Kent A.; Nalepa, Grzegorz; Yang, Feng-Chun; Bowers, Daniel C.; Ho, Chang Y.; Hutchins, Gary D.; Croop, James M.; Vik, Terry A.; Denne, Scott C.; Parada, Luis F.; Hingtgen, Cynthia M.; Walsh, Laurence E.; Yu, Menggang; Pradhan, Kamnesh R.; Edwards-Brown, Mary K.; Cohen, Mervyn D.; Fletcher, James W.; Travers, Jeffrey B.; Staser, Karl W.; Lee, Melissa W.; Sherman, Marcie R.; Davis, Cynthia J.; Miller, Lucy C.; Ingram, David A.; Clapp, D. Wade

    2016-01-01

    Summary BACKGROUND Plexiform neurofibromas (PN) are slow growing chemoradiotherapy resistant tumours arising in patients with neurofibromatosis type I (NF1). Currently there are no viable therapeutic options for patients whose life-threatening plexiform neurofibromas cannot be surgically removed due to proximity to vital body structures. Based on identification of molecular targets in genetic mouse models of human NF1 tumours, we hypothesized that the oral kinase inhibitor, imatinib mesylate, may be effective in targeted treatment of these chemoradiotherapy-refractory tumours. METHODS An open-label pilot Phase II clinical trial was designed to test whether treatment with imatinib mesylate can decrease volume burden of clinically significant plexiform neurofibromas in NF1 patients. The entry criteria require patients only to have NF1 and a clinically significant plexiform neurofibroma with the specified age limitations (age 3–65). Patients were treated with daily oral imatinib at 440 mg/m2/day for children and 800 mg/day for adults divided twice daily for 6 months. The primary endpoint measure of significant response was a 20% or more reduction in plexiform size by sequential volumetric MRI imaging. Clinical data was analyzed on an intent to treat basis, however to determine the activity of imatinib on NF1-related plexiform tumours, patients able to take imatinib for 6 months were evaluated for their response. Secondary outcomes included evaluation of safety of imatinib mesylate in this group of patients. The trial is registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov/; study number 0512-25. The trial currently is closed to enrollment, however there is a single patient that continues to respond and remains on study. FINDINGS On an intent to treat basis, 6 out of 36 patients or 17% (95% CI: 6 – 33%) experienced objective response to imatinib mesylate. In the evaluable study population of patients (n=23) who received drug for at least six months, six patients (26%; 95% CI

  10. Signature of type-II Weyl semimetal phase in MoTe2.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J; Liu, Z K; Sun, Y; Yang, H F; Rajamathi, C R; Qi, Y P; Yang, L X; Chen, C; Peng, H; Hwang, C-C; Sun, S Z; Mo, S-K; Vobornik, I; Fujii, J; Parkin, S S P; Felser, C; Yan, B H; Chen, Y L

    2017-01-13

    Topological Weyl semimetal (TWS), a new state of quantum matter, has sparked enormous research interest recently. Possessing unique Weyl fermions in the bulk and Fermi arcs on the surface, TWSs offer a rare platform for realizing many exotic physical phenomena. TWSs can be classified into type-I that respect Lorentz symmetry and type-II that do not. Here, we directly visualize the electronic structure of MoTe2, a recently proposed type-II TWS. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), we unravel the unique surface Fermi arcs, in good agreement with our ab initio calculations that have nontrivial topological nature. Our work not only leads to new understandings of the unusual properties discovered in this family of compounds, but also allows for the further exploration of exotic properties and practical applications of type-II TWSs, as well as the interplay between superconductivity (MoTe2 was discovered to be superconducting recently) and their topological order.

  11. Signature of type-II Weyl semimetal phase in MoTe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, J.; Liu, Z. K.; Sun, Y.; Yang, H. F.; Rajamathi, C. R.; Qi, Y. P.; Yang, L. X.; Chen, C.; Peng, H.; Hwang, C.-C.; Sun, S. Z.; Mo, S.-K.; Vobornik, I.; Fujii, J.; Parkin, S. S. P.; Felser, C.; Yan, B. H.; Chen, Y. L.

    2017-01-01

    Topological Weyl semimetal (TWS), a new state of quantum matter, has sparked enormous research interest recently. Possessing unique Weyl fermions in the bulk and Fermi arcs on the surface, TWSs offer a rare platform for realizing many exotic physical phenomena. TWSs can be classified into type-I that respect Lorentz symmetry and type-II that do not. Here, we directly visualize the electronic structure of MoTe2, a recently proposed type-II TWS. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), we unravel the unique surface Fermi arcs, in good agreement with our ab initio calculations that have nontrivial topological nature. Our work not only leads to new understandings of the unusual properties discovered in this family of compounds, but also allows for the further exploration of exotic properties and practical applications of type-II TWSs, as well as the interplay between superconductivity (MoTe2 was discovered to be superconducting recently) and their topological order.

  12. Systems Description; Sperry Low Temperature Geothermal Conversion System - Phase I and Phase II; Final Report, Volume III

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Hugh B.

    1982-01-01

    This Volume should be considered the introductory volume to the series of six volumes even though numbered out of sequence. Volumes I and II were completed first and released in 1981 while a staff member was available to do the work. Volumes III through VI are being written and released some two years later as DOE funding became available for the purpose. They are as complete as possible considering that almost all the people involved in the program are now unavailable. This Volume III is an overview of the entire program, and many of the items presented herein briefly will be found in expanded form in one of the other five volumes. It will be noticed that assumptions and parameters such as well flow, well temperature, wet bulb temperatures, etc., involved in the several different performance calculations in the volume vary somewhat. These calculations were made at different times for different purposes and no attempt has been made to bring them into exact agreement.

  13. Catastrophic phase inversion in region II of an ionomeric polymer-water system.

    PubMed

    Saw, L K; Brooks, B W; Carpenter, K J; Keight, D V

    2004-11-01

    Previous work has identified distinct regions, on a phase inversion map, for dispersions of polyurethane ionomer (PUI) and water. In this study, events that occur, before, during, and after catastrophic phase inversion (provoked by adding water to polyurethane ionomer (PUI) in the RII regions of the phase inversion map) have been studied in order to characterise the inversion mechanism. Before phase inversion, initial water addition leads to the hydration of ionic groups and eventually water drops start to form in the hydrophobic portions of the polymer matrix. At the phase inversion point, the PUI-water interface restructures and the ionomer disintegrates into a dispersion of spherical particles enclosed by a continuous aqueous phase. It is suggested that pseudo-drop structures are formed simultaneously during the production of the small polymer-in-water drops. After phase inversion, water addition dilutes the emulsion and destroys the apparent ionic-centre-rich environment surrounding any isolated ionic groups on a particle surface. The larger water-in-polymer drops are likely to have participated in the phase inversion and the smaller water drops form the primary water drops in the multiple emulsions. The resultant emulsions are stable over a period of a few months but very few multiple drops remain after 1(1/4) years.

  14. Capturing Bioavailable Organic Contaminants for Phase II Whole Sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluations

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Phase I of whole sediment TIEs, causes of toxicity to freshwater and marine organisms are characterized into broad toxicant classes including ammonia, metals and organic chemicals. In the whole sediment Phase I TIEs performed so far, organic chemicals have been shown to be t...

  15. Cell surface energy, contact angles and phase partition. II. Bacterial cells in biphasic aqueous mixtures.

    PubMed

    Gerson, D F; Akit, J

    1980-11-04

    Partition coefficients in biphasic mixtures of poly(ethylene glycol) and Dextran are compared to cell surface energies obtained from contact angles of each liquid phase on cell layers. Linear relationships are observed between these two independent measurements for a variety of bacterial cells. The results demonstrate the importance of interfacial phenomena and contact angles in the phase-partition process.

  16. Frequency modulation reveals the phasing of orbital eccentricity during Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event II and the Eocene hyperthermals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurin, Jiří; Meyers, Stephen R.; Galeotti, Simone; Lanci, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Major advances in our understanding of paleoclimate change derive from a precise reconstruction of the periods, amplitudes and phases of the 'Milankovitch cycles' of precession, obliquity and eccentricity. While numerous quantitative approaches exist for the identification of these astronomical cycles in stratigraphic data, limitations in radioisotopic dating, and instability of the theoretical astronomical solutions beyond ∼50 Myr ago, can challenge identification of the phase relationships needed to constrain climate response and anchor floating astrochronologies. Here we demonstrate that interference patterns accompanying frequency modulation (FM) of short eccentricity provide a robust basis for identifying the phase of long eccentricity forcing in stratigraphic data. One- and two-dimensional models of sedimentary distortion of the astronomical signal are used to evaluate the veracity of the FM method, and indicate that pristine eccentricity FM can be readily distinguished in paleo-records. Apart from paleoclimatic implications, the FM approach provides a quantitative technique for testing and calibrating theoretical astronomical solutions, and for refining chronologies for the deep past. We present two case studies that use the FM approach to evaluate major carbon-cycle perturbations of the Eocene and Late Cretaceous. Interference patterns in the short-eccentricity band reveal that Eocene hyperthermals ETM2 ('Elmo'), H2, I1 and ETM3 (X; ∼52-54 Myr ago) were associated with maxima in the 405-kyr cycle of orbital eccentricity. The same eccentricity configuration favored regional anoxic episodes in the Mediterranean during the Middle and Late Cenomanian (∼94.5-97 Myr ago). The initial phase of the global Oceanic Anoxic Event II (OAE II; ∼93.9-94.5 Myr ago) coincides with maximum and falling 405-kyr eccentricity, and the recovery phase occurs during minimum and rising 405-kyr eccentricity. On a Myr scale, the event overlaps with a node in eccentricity

  17. Randomized Phase II Trial of Adjuvant WT-1 Analog Peptide Vaccine in Patients with Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma after Completion of Multimodality Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Scheinberg DA. Vaccination with Synthetic Analog Peptides Derived from WT1 Oncoprotein Induces T Cell Responses in Patients with Complete Remission ...TITLE:Randomized Phase II Trial of Adjuvant WT-1 Analog Peptide Vaccine in Patients with Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma after Completion of...TITLE:Randomized Phase II Trial of Adjuvant WT-1 Analog Peptide Vaccine in Patients with Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma after Completion of Multimodality

  18. Randomized Phase II Trial of Adjuvant WT-1 Analog Peptide Vaccine in Patients with Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma after Completion of Multimodality Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    10-1-0699 TITLE: Randomized Phase II Trial of Adjuvant WT-1 Analog Peptide Vaccine in Patients with Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma after...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 W81XWH-10-1-0699 Randomized Phase II Trial of Adjuvant WT-1 Analog Peptide Vaccine in Patients with Malignant... peptides that are given together with Montanide and GM-CSF as immunologic adjuvants. This WT1 vaccine was previously tested in a small pilot trial

  19. Final Report: Phase II Geothermal Exploration and Geothermal Power Plant Update for Ascension Island, South Atlantic Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, D.L.; Sibbett, B.S.; Shane, M.K.; Whitbeck, J.F.

    1984-07-01

    The Phase I study of the geothermal potential of Ascension Island concluded that the possibility of a geothermal resource existing under the island was excellent. This conclusion was based on the presence of young volcanic rocks (a heat source close to the surface), an ample supply of water from the sea, and high permeability of many of the rocks which make up the island. The assumption was made that the resource would be similar to geothermal systems in the Azores or Japan, and a conceptual design of a power plant to utilize the resource was prepared upon which cost estimates and an economic analysis were subsequently performed. The results of the economic analysis were very favorable, and the Air Force decided to proceed into Phase II of the project. Under Phase II, an exploration program was designed and carried out. The purpose of the program was to ascertain whether or not a geothermal resource existed beneath Ascension island and, to the extent possible, to evaluate the quality of that resource. The exploration involved a detailed aeromagnetic survey of the island, reconnaissance and detailed electrical resistivity surveys, and drilling of holes for the measurement of temperatures. These methods have confirmed the existence of geothermal activity beneath Ascension. Measured temperature gradients and bottom hole temperatures as well as chemical geothermometers indicate temperatures sufficient for the generation of electricity within reasonable drilling depths. This report documents those conclusions and the supporting data. This report also documents the results of the power plant update with new data supplied from the Phase II exploration activities on the island. The power plant scenario has been changed to reflect the fact that the resource temperature may not be as high as that originally assumed in the Phase I study, the location of the production wells will in all likelihood be farther from the existing Air Force facilities--either north of Grazing

  20. Evidence for the Phase Transition from Rule I to Rule II on the Balance Scale Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Brenda R. J.; Van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2001-01-01

    Two experiments used a formal model of developmental discontinuity derived from catastrophe theory to test whether the transition from Rule I to Rule II on the balance scale task proceeds discontinuously from ages 6 to 10, focusing on five catastrophe flags. Found that bimodality, inaccessible region, hysteresis, and sudden jump were clearly…