Fourier functional analysis for unsteady aerodynamic modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lan, C. Edward; Chin, Suei
1991-01-01
A method based on Fourier analysis is developed to analyze the force and moment data obtained in large amplitude forced oscillation tests at high angles of attack. The aerodynamic models for normal force, lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients are built up from a set of aerodynamic responses to harmonic motions at different frequencies. Based on the aerodynamic models of harmonic data, the indicial responses are formed. The final expressions for the models involve time integrals of the indicial type advocated by Tobak and Schiff. Results from linear two- and three-dimensional unsteady aerodynamic theories as well as test data for a 70-degree delta wing are used to verify the models. It is shown that the present modeling method is accurate in producing the aerodynamic responses to harmonic motions and the ramp type motions. The model also produces correct trend for a 70-degree delta wing in harmonic motion with different mean angles-of-attack. However, the current model cannot be used to extrapolate data to higher angles-of-attack than that of the harmonic motions which form the aerodynamic model. For linear ramp motions, a special method is used to calculate the corresponding frequency and phase angle at a given time. The calculated results from modeling show a higher lift peak for linear ramp motion than for harmonic ramp motion. The current model also shows reasonably good results for the lift responses at different angles of attack.
Feathers of archaeopteryx: asymmetric vanes indicate aerodynamic function.
Feduccia, A; Tordoff, H B
1979-03-09
Vanes in the primary flight feathers of Archaeopteryx conform to the asymmetric pattern in modern flying birds. The asymmetry has aerodynamic functions and can be assumed to have evolved in the selective context of flight.
Basis Function Approximation of Transonic Aerodynamic Influence Coefficient Matrix
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Wesley W.; Pak, Chan-gi
2011-01-01
A technique for approximating the modal aerodynamic influence coefficients matrices by using basis functions has been developed and validated. An application of the resulting approximated modal aerodynamic influence coefficients matrix for a flutter analysis in transonic speed regime has been demonstrated. This methodology can be applied to the unsteady subsonic, transonic, and supersonic aerodynamics. The method requires the unsteady aerodynamics in frequency-domain. The flutter solution can be found by the classic methods, such as rational function approximation, k, p-k, p, root-locus et cetera. The unsteady aeroelastic analysis for design optimization using unsteady transonic aerodynamic approximation is being demonstrated using the ZAERO flutter solver (ZONA Technology Incorporated, Scottsdale, Arizona). The technique presented has been shown to offer consistent flutter speed prediction on an aerostructures test wing 2 configuration with negligible loss in precision in transonic speed regime. These results may have practical significance in the analysis of aircraft aeroelastic calculation and could lead to a more efficient design optimization cycle.
Tevatron admittance measurement
Zhang, X.L.; Shiltsev, V.; Tan, C.Y.; /Fermilab
2005-05-01
We measured the Tevatron beam admittance by the means of exciting the beam with noise and causing emittance growth. The noise power was about 3W with a bandwidth of 100Hz and centered either in the horizontal betatron frequency or vertical betatron frequency. We were able to controllably blow the beam emittance up quickly. From the point where the beam emittance stopped growing, we measured the beam acceptance of the Tevatron.
Identification of aerodynamic indicial functions using flight data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gupta, N. K.; Iliff, K. W.
1982-01-01
It is pointed out that the use of indicial function representation provides a model superior to the aerodynamic derivative model. Specific derivatives can be approximated from the indicial models. The model can also be used to compute equivalent stability and control parameters not usually available from flight data. It is shown that derivatives regarding the angle-of-attack and the side slip angle can be derived directly from the indicial functions without any identifiability problem. Attention is given to the pitch moment coefficient, linear indicial function representation, the identification problem for the pitch moment equation, the identifiability of linear systems, parametric representations of the indicial functions, an identification technique, angle-of-attack and pitch rate dynamics in the pitch plane, multivariate linear models, nonlinear aerodynamic indicial functions, measurement system accuracy, and poststall and spin-entry data from a scaled research vehicle.
Basis Function Approximation of Transonic Aerodynamic Influence Coefficient Matrix
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Wesley Waisang; Pak, Chan-Gi
2010-01-01
A technique for approximating the modal aerodynamic influence coefficients [AIC] matrices by using basis functions has been developed and validated. An application of the resulting approximated modal AIC matrix for a flutter analysis in transonic speed regime has been demonstrated. This methodology can be applied to the unsteady subsonic, transonic and supersonic aerodynamics. The method requires the unsteady aerodynamics in frequency-domain. The flutter solution can be found by the classic methods, such as rational function approximation, k, p-k, p, root-locus et cetera. The unsteady aeroelastic analysis for design optimization using unsteady transonic aerodynamic approximation is being demonstrated using the ZAERO(TradeMark) flutter solver (ZONA Technology Incorporated, Scottsdale, Arizona). The technique presented has been shown to offer consistent flutter speed prediction on an aerostructures test wing [ATW] 2 configuration with negligible loss in precision in transonic speed regime. These results may have practical significance in the analysis of aircraft aeroelastic calculation and could lead to a more efficient design optimization cycle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morino, L.
1974-01-01
A general theory for indicial-potential-compressible aerodynamics around complex configurations is presented. The motion is assumed to consist of constant subsonic or supersonic speed (steady state) and small perturbations around the steady state. Using the finite-element method to discretize the space problem, a set of differential-difference equations in time relating the potential to its normal derivative on the surface of the body was obtained. The aerodynamics transfer function was derived by using standard method of operational calculus.
Introduction to Generalized Functions with Applications in Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farassat, F.
1994-01-01
Generalized functions have many applications in science and engineering. One useful aspect is that discontinuous functions can be handled as easily as continuous or differentiable functions and provide a powerful tool in formulating and solving many problems of aerodynamics and acoustics. Furthermore, generalized function theory elucidates and unifies many ad hoc mathematical approaches used by engineers and scientists. We define generalized functions as continuous linear functionals on the space of infinitely differentiable functions with compact support, then introduce the concept of generalized differentiation. Generalized differentiation is the most important concept in generalized function theory and the applications we present utilize mainly this concept. First, some results of classical analysis, are derived with the generalized function theory. Other applications of the generalized function theory in aerodynamics discussed here are the derivations of general transport theorems for deriving governing equations of fluid mechanics, the interpretation of the finite part of divergent integrals, the derivation of the Oswatitsch integral equation of transonic flow, and the analysis of velocity field discontinuities as sources of vorticity. Applications in aeroacoustics include the derivation of the Kirchhoff formula for moving surfaces, the noise from moving surfaces, and shock noise source strength based on the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation.
Satellite aerodynamics as a function of atmospheric properties.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karr, G. R.
1972-01-01
Demonstration that satellite aerodynamic properties are a function of numerous factors associated with atmospheric properties. Among these factors, the gas composition has influence on the gas surface interaction which in turn has considerable influence on the satellite drag and lift properties. The drag and lift properties, which are also influenced by the orientation of the satellite with respect to the flow, are influenced by upper atmospheric winds which cause changes in the angle of attack of the satellite. Another strong influence on the aerodynamic properties is due to the speed ratio effect which is found to cause a systematic increase in drag coefficient with respect to altitude. The study of these factors is facilitated by the introduction of a generalized gas surface interaction model which is capable of representing a wide range of possible interactions.
Nonlinear programming extensions to rational function approximations of unsteady aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tiffany, Sherwood H.; Adams, William M., Jr.
1987-01-01
This paper deals with approximating unsteady generalized aerodynamic forces in the equations of motion of a flexible aircraft. Two methods of formulating these approximations are extended to include both the same flexibility in constraining them and the same methodology in optimizing nonlinear parameters as another currently used 'extended least-squares' method. Optimal selection of 'nonlinear' parameters is made in each of the three methods by use of the same nonlinear (nongradient) optimizer. The objective of the nonlinear optimization is to obtain rational approximations to the unsteady aerodynamics whose state-space realization is of lower order than that required when no optimization of the nonlinear terms is performed. The free 'linear' parameters are determined using least-squares matrix techniques on a Lagrange multiplier formulation of an objective function which incorporates selected linear equality constraints. State-space mathematical models resulting from the different approaches are described, and results are presented which show comparative evaluations from application of each of the extended methods to a numerical example. The results obtained for the example problem show a significant (up to 63 percent) reduction in the number of differential equations used to represent the unsteady aerodynamic forces in linear time-invariant equations of motion as compared to a conventional method in which nonlinear terms are not optimized.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Haoxu; Dong, Peitao; Xie, Liqiang; Wu, Xuezhong
2014-03-01
The vibration characteristic analysis method for a quartz microgyroscope based on the admittance circle is reported in this paper. Admittance theory is introduced and the admittance circle principle is analysed to study the vibration characteristics of the quartz microgyroscope. The prototype gyroscope was fabricated by micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. The admittance and phase diagram of the work mode were obtained by vibration mode test systems. Then the admittance circle of the work mode was drawn, and the parameter identification of the transfer function between the voltage and current was completed to analyse the vibration characteristics. Therefore, the vibration characteristic analysis method based on the admittance circle can be used to build the transfer function of the quartz microgyroscope, which is helpful for the design of a high performance quartz microgyroscope.
Grasp admittance center. A concept
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimoga, K. B.; Goldenberg, A. A.
1991-05-01
The ultimate goal of the research on articulated hands in general is to use them to do tasks in a way similar to that of humans. A systematic analysis reveals that the day-to-day tasks of humans include some common task primitives such as twist, turn, insert, pullout, push, pull, lift, and place. During each of these operations, the grasp dynamic behavior plays an important role and more so in tasks involving manipulation of delicate objects. Introduced in this paper is the concept of the grasp admittance center, a notion that aims to make an articulated grasp exhibit a directionally decoupled dynamic behavior. An admittance center is conceptualized as the superposition of compliance, accommodation, and mobility centers in a desired coordinate frame. A grasp with an admittance center will have three useful features: stability, decoupled force motion relation, and decoupled time-response. These features are also useful to other closed kinematic chain robotic devices such as the cooperating multiarms and multilegged mobile robots engaged in non-quasistatic (dynamic) manipulation tasks. As a preparation to demonstrate the concept experimentally, a method of synthesizing articulated grasps so as to achieve an admittance center has been developed as well as a method of choosing appropriate location and related parameters for the center. The sensitivity of the center to its parameter imprecision has also been analyzed.
Mesoscopic admittance of a double quantum dot
Cottet, Audrey; Mora, Christophe; Kontos, Takis
2011-03-15
We calculate the mesoscopic admittance G({omega}) of a double quantum dot (DQD), which can be measured directly using microwave techniques. This quantity reveals spectroscopic information on the DQD and is also directly sensitive to a Pauli spin blockade effect. We then discuss the problem of a DQD coupled to a high quality photonic resonator. When the photon correlation functions can be developed along a random-phase-approximation-like scheme, the response of the resonator gives an access to G({omega}).
Aerodynamic Indicial Functions and Their Use in Aeroelastic Formulation of Lifting Surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marzocca, Piergiovanni; Librescu, Liviu; Silva, Walter A.
2000-01-01
An investigation related to the use of linear indicial functions in the time and frequency domains, enabling one to derive the proper aerodynamic loads as to study the subcritical response and flutter of swept lifting surfaces, respectively, of the open/closed loop aeroelastic system is presented. The expressions of the lift and aerodynamic moment in the frequency domain are given in terms of the Theodorsen's function, while, in the time domain, these are obtained directly with the help of the Wagner's function. Closed form solutions of aerodynamic derivatives are obtained, graphical representations are supplied and conclusions and prospects for further developments are outlined.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morelli, E. A.; Proffitt, M. S.
1999-01-01
The data for longitudinal non-dimensional, aerodynamic coefficients in the High Speed Research Cycle 2B aerodynamic database were modeled using polynomial expressions identified with an orthogonal function modeling technique. The discrepancy between the tabular aerodynamic data and the polynomial models was tested and shown to be less than 15 percent for drag, lift, and pitching moment coefficients over the entire flight envelope. Most of this discrepancy was traced to smoothing local measurement noise and to the omission of mass case 5 data in the modeling process. A simulation check case showed that the polynomial models provided a compact and accurate representation of the nonlinear aerodynamic dependencies contained in the HSR Cycle 2B tabular aerodynamic database.
Forcing function effects on unsteady aerodynamic gust response. I - Forcing functions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Henderson, Gregory H.; Fleeter, Sanford
1992-01-01
The paper investigates the fundamental gust modeling assumption on the basis of a series of experiments performed in the Purdue Annular Cascade Research Facility. The measured unsteady flow fields are compared to linear-theory gust requirements. The perforated plate forcing functions closely resemble linear-theory forcing functions, with the static pressure fluctuations small and the periodic velocity vectors parallel to the downstream mean-relative flow angle over the entire periodic cycle. The airfoil forcing functions exhibit characteristics far from linear-theory gusts, with the alignment of the velocity vectors and the static pressure fluctuation amplitudes dependent on the rotor-loading condition, rotor solidity, and the inlet mean-relative flow angle. It is shown that airfoil wakes, both compressor and turbine, cannot be modeled with the boundary conditions of current state-of-the-art linear unsteady aerodynamic theory.
Exact linear admittance of n+-n-n+ semiconductor structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eranen, S.; Sinkkonen, J.
1985-10-01
With the self-consistent solution of the linearized Boltzmann equation in the relaxation-time approximation for a spatially inhomogeneous electron system, the admittance of n+-n-n+ semiconductor structures is studied as a function of the length L of the moderately doped n region. It is shown that a one-dimensional treatment of the velocity space leads to the exact, analytical solution of the problem. In addition to the conventional admittance and the geometric capacitance of the n region, the equivalent circuit of the structure also includes the contact resistance and, as a new feature, the contact capacitance. For the strongly screened cases (L>>LD) the contact capacitance is approximately the permittivity ɛ of the n region divided by the Debye length LD and, further, becomes exactly equal to ɛL/6L2D in the weak-screening regime (LD>>L).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheung, Perry; Fairweather, Joseph D.; Schwartz, Daniel T.
2012-09-01
Simple laboratory methods for determining liquid water distribution in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell gas diffusion layers (GDLs) are needed to engineer better GDL materials. Capillary pressure vs. liquid saturation measurements are attractive, but lack the ability to probe the hydraulic interconnectivity and distribution within the pore structure. Hydraulic admittance measurements of simple capillary bundles have recently been shown to nicely measure characteristics of the free-interfaces and hydraulic path. Here we examine the use of hydraulic admittance with a succession of increasingly complex porous media, starting with a laser-drilled sample with 154 asymmetric pores and progress to the behavior of Toray TGP-H090 carbon papers. The asymmetric laser-drilled sample clearly shows hydraulic admittance measurements are sensitive to sample orientation, especially when examined as a function of saturation state. Finite element modeling of the hydraulic admittance is consistent with experimental measurements. The hydraulic admittance spectra from GDL samples are complex, so we examine trends in the spectra as a function of wet proofing (0% and 40% Teflon loadings) as well as saturation state of the GDL. The presence of clear peaks in the admittance spectra for both GDL samples suggests a few pore types are largely responsible for transporting liquid water.
Forcing function effects on unsteady aerodynamic gust response: Part 1--Forcing functions
Henderson, G.H.; Fleeter, S. . School of Mechanical Engineering)
1993-10-01
The fundamental gust modeling assumption is investigated by means of a series of experiments performed in the Purdue Annular Cascade Research Facility. The unsteady periodic flow field is generated by rotating rows of perforated plates and airfoil cascades. In this paper, the measured unsteady flow fields are compared to linear-theory vortical gust requirements, with the resulting unsteady gust response of a downstream stator cascade correlated with linear theory predictions in an accompanying paper. The perforated-plate forcing functions closely resemble linear-theory forcing functions, with the static pressure fluctuations small and the periodic velocity vectors parallel to the downstream mean-relative flow angle over the entire periodic cycle. In contrast, the airfoil forcing functions exhibit characteristics far from linear-theory vortical gusts, with the alignment of the velocity vectors and the static pressure fluctuation amplitudes dependent on the rotor-loading conditions, rotor solidity, and the inlet mean-relative flow angle. Thus, these unique data clearly show that airfoil wakes, both compressor and turbine, are not able to be modeled with the boundary conditions of current state-of-the-art linear unsteady aerodynamic theory.
Aerodynamic parameter estimation via Fourier modulating function techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pearson, A. E.
1995-01-01
Parameter estimation algorithms are developed in the frequency domain for systems modeled by input/output ordinary differential equations. The approach is based on Shinbrot's method of moment functionals utilizing Fourier based modulating functions. Assuming white measurement noises for linear multivariable system models, an adaptive weighted least squares algorithm is developed which approximates a maximum likelihood estimate and cannot be biased by unknown initial or boundary conditions in the data owing to a special property attending Shinbrot-type modulating functions. Application is made to perturbation equation modeling of the longitudinal and lateral dynamics of a high performance aircraft using flight-test data. Comparative studies are included which demonstrate potential advantages of the algorithm relative to some well established techniques for parameter identification. Deterministic least squares extensions of the approach are made to the frequency transfer function identification problem for linear systems and to the parameter identification problem for a class of nonlinear-time-varying differential system models.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arian, Eyal; Salas, Manuel D.
1997-01-01
We derive the adjoint equations for problems in aerodynamic optimization which are improperly considered as "inadmissible." For example, a cost functional which depends on the density, rather than on the pressure, is considered "inadmissible" for an optimization problem governed by the Euler equations. We show that for such problems additional terms should be included in the Lagrangian functional when deriving the adjoint equations. These terms are obtained from the restriction of the interior PDE to the control surface. Demonstrations of the explicit derivation of the adjoint equations for "inadmissible" cost functionals are given for the potential, Euler, and Navier-Stokes equations.
Aerodynamic interference effects on tilting proprotor aircraft. [using the Green function method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Soohoo, P.; Morino, L.; Noll, R. B.; Ham, N. D.
1977-01-01
The Green's function method was used to study tilting proprotor aircraft aerodynamics with particular application to the problem of the mutual interference of the wing-fuselage-tail-rotor wake configuration. While the formulation is valid for fully unsteady rotor aerodynamics, attention was directed to steady state aerodynamics, which was achieved by replacing the rotor with the actuator disk approximation. The use of an actuator disk analysis introduced a mathematical singularity into the formulation; this problem was studied and resolved. The pressure distribution, lift, and pitching moment were obtained for an XV-15 wing-fuselage-tail rotor configuration at various flight conditions. For the flight configurations explored, the effects of the rotor wake interference on the XV-15 tilt rotor aircraft yielded a reduction in the total lift and an increase in the nose-down pitching moment. This method provides an analytical capability that is simple to apply and can be used to investigate fuselage-tail rotor wake interference as well as to explore other rotor design problem areas.
Diallo, O.; Bavencoffe, M.; Feuillard, G.; Clezio, E. Le; Delaunay, T.
2014-01-15
This work deals with the characterization of functional properties, including determination of mechanical and electrical losses, of piezoelectric materials using only one sample and one measurement. First, the natural resonant frequencies of a piezoelectric parallelepiped are calculated and the electrical admittance is determined from calculations of the charge quantity on both electrodes of the parallelepiped. A first validation of the model is performed using a comparison with Mason's model. Results are reported for a PMN-34.5PT ceramic cube and a good agreement is found between experimental admittance measurements and their modeling. The functional properties of the PMN-34.5PT are then extracted.
Frequency dispersion in the admittance of the polycrystalline Cu2S/CdS solar cell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hmurcik, L. V.; Serway, R. A.
1987-01-01
The admittance versus frequency for the Cu2S/CdS solar cell was measured. In the dark, the dispersion fits a model of a simple Debye capacitor, with deviation due to grain-boundary scattering at low frequencies. Under illumination, the dispersion becomes a function of surface roughness. Modeled in fractal geometry, the admittance varies as (i x omega) exp m. A second term of this type occurs at high frequencies and at illuminations greater than 0.1 percent AM 1. In this case, the depletion layer extends deep into the CdS due to insufficient charge states at the interface.
1992-02-24
Chemistry University of California Davis, CA 95616 U.S.A. tOn leave from the Instituto de Fisica e Quimica de Sao Carlos, USP, Sao Carlos, SP 13560...input of the PAR 174A through an attentuator. The attentuator was introduced in order to avoid signal noise from the a.c. signal generator which is...surface begins. A.C. Admittance Measurements A.C. admittance data were gathered as a function of d.c. potential and frequency. In general , the gold
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tiffany, Sherwood H.; Adams, William M., Jr.
1988-01-01
The approximation of unsteady generalized aerodynamic forces in the equations of motion of a flexible aircraft are discussed. Two methods of formulating these approximations are extended to include the same flexibility in constraining the approximations and the same methodology in optimizing nonlinear parameters as another currently used extended least-squares method. Optimal selection of nonlinear parameters is made in each of the three methods by use of the same nonlinear, nongradient optimizer. The objective of the nonlinear optimization is to obtain rational approximations to the unsteady aerodynamics whose state-space realization is lower order than that required when no optimization of the nonlinear terms is performed. The free linear parameters are determined using the least-squares matrix techniques of a Lagrange multiplier formulation of an objective function which incorporates selected linear equality constraints. State-space mathematical models resulting from different approaches are described and results are presented that show comparative evaluations from application of each of the extended methods to a numerical example.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poirier, Vincent
Mesh deformation schemes play an important role in numerical aerodynamic optimization. As the aerodynamic shape changes, the computational mesh must adapt to conform to the deformed geometry. In this work, an extension to an existing fast and robust Radial Basis Function (RBF) mesh movement scheme is presented. Using a reduced set of surface points to define the mesh deformation increases the efficiency of the RBF method; however, at the cost of introducing errors into the parameterization by not recovering the exact displacement of all surface points. A secondary mesh movement is implemented, within an adjoint-based optimization framework, to eliminate these errors. The proposed scheme is tested within a 3D Euler flow by reducing the pressure drag while maintaining lift of a wing-body configured Boeing-747 and an Onera-M6 wing. As well, an inverse pressure design is executed on the Onera-M6 wing and an inverse span loading case is presented for a wing-body configured DLR-F6 aircraft.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Henderson, Gregory H.; Fleeter, Sanford
1992-01-01
The paper investigates the fundamental gust modeling assumption on the basis of a series of experiments performed in the Purdue Annular Cascade Research Facility. The unsteady period flow field is generated by rotating flows of perforated plates and airfoil cascades, with the resulting unsteady periodic chordwise pressure response of a downstream low solidity stator row determined by miniature pressure transducers embedded within selected airfoils. When the forcing function exhibited the characteristics of a linear-theory gust, the resulting response on the downstream stator airfoils was in excellent agreement with the linear-theory models. When the forcing function did not exhibit linear-theory gust characteristics, the resulting unsteady aerodynamic response of the downstream stators was much more complex and correlated poorly with the linear-theory gust predictions. It is shown that the forcing function generator significantly affects the resulting gust response, with the complexity of the response characteristics increasing from the perforated-plate to the airfoil-cascade forcing functions.
Henderson, G.H.; Fleeter, S. . School of Mechanical Engineering)
1993-10-01
The fundamental gust modeling assumption is investigated by means of series of experiments performed in the Purdue Annular Cascade Research Facility. The unsteady periodic flow field is generated by rotating rows of perforated plates and airfoil cascades, with the resulting unsteady periodic chord wise pressure response of a downstream low-solidity stator row determined by miniature pressure transducers embedded within selected airfoils. When the forcing function exhibited the characteristic of a linear-theory vortical gust, as was the case for the perforated-plate wake generators, the resulting response on the downstream stator airfoils was in excellent agreement with the linear-theory models. In contrast, when the forcing function did not exhibit linear-theory vortical gust characteristics, i.e., for the airfoil wake generators, the resulting unsteady aerodynamic responses of the downstream stators were much more complex and correlated poorly with the linear-theory gust predictions. Thus, this investigation has quantitatively shown that the forcing function generator significantly affects the resulting gust response, with the complexity of the response characteristics increasing from the perforated-plate to the airfoil-cascade forcing functions.
An introduction to generalized functions with some applications in aerodynamics and aeroacoustics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farassat, F.
1994-01-01
In this paper, we start with the definition of generalized functions as continuous linear functionals on the space of infinitely differentiable functions with compact support. The concept of generalization differentiation is introduced next. This is the most important concept in generalized function theory and the applications we present utilize mainly this concept. First, some of the results of classical analysis, such as Leibniz rule of differentiation under the integral sign and the divergence theorem, are derived using the generalized function theory. It is shown that the divergence theorem remains valid for discontinuous vector fields provided that the derivatives are all viewed as generalized derivatives. This implies that all conservation laws of fluid mechanics are valid as they stand for discontinuous fields with all derivatives treated as generalized deriatives. Once these derivatives are written as ordinary derivatives and jumps in the field parameters across discontinuities, the jump conditions can be easily found. For example, the unsteady shock jump conditions can be derived from mass and momentum conservation laws. By using a generalized function theory, this derivative becomes trivial. Other applications of the generalized function theory in aerodynamics discussed in this paper are derivation of general transport theorems for deriving governing equations of fluid mechanics, the interpretation of finite part of divergent integrals, derivation of Oswatiitsch integral equation of transonic flow, and analysis of velocity field discontinuities as sources of vorticity. Applications in aeroacoustics presented here include the derivation of the Kirchoff formula for moving surfaces,the noise from moving surfaces, and shock noise source strength based on the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation.
Admittance relay helps wash out system instability
Sweezy, G.; Swift, G.; Zhang, Z.
1996-01-01
This article describes how delta-current admittance relays detect severe power system disturbances and initiate a power reduction signal on the dc transmission system to help stabilize the integrated ac/HVDC transmission system. It is always desirable to transmit as much power as possible over major transmission line interconnections, and the 500 kV line linking Manitoba in Canada to Minnesota in the US is a good example. A static var system (SVS) is part of this strategy. Note the southern end of an HVDC line through which the power is delivered from northern hydro-electric generation. The ability to quickly control dc-delivered power combined with the complication of SVS switching and the installation of series capacitors has led to special circumstances requiring an unusual approach to maintenance of system stability. The availability of a new protection-oriented computing platform has made the required algorithms feasible.
Norouzi, Parviz; Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Faridbod, Farnoush; Pirali-Hamedani, Morteza; Larijani, Bagher; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza
2011-03-01
In this work, a highly sensitive carcinoembryonic antigen fast Fourier transform admittance biosensor is introduced. The proposed biosensor is based on bilayer films of ZnO/Au nanoparticles as an immobilization matrix. These layers are prepared by self-assembly and deposition method on a gold electrode surface, respectively. Carcinoembryonic antibody (anti-CEA) was immobilized on gold nanoparticles and positively charged horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used to block sites against nonspecific binding. The admittance biosensor was developed based on fast Fourier transform continuous square wave voltammetry, which produces a sensitive, fast (less than 20 s) and reliable response for determination of carcinoembryonic antigen. The technique was applied as a detector in a flow injection system. The admittances reduction current of the biosensor decreases linearly in two concentrations ranges of CEA from 0.1 to 70 ng/mL and from 70 to 200 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.01 ng/mL in presence of 0.5 mM H(2)O(2) as an eluent solution.
Derivation of Piezoelectric Losses from Admittance Spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhuang, Yuan; Ural, Seyit O.; Rajapurkar, Aditya; Tuncdemir, Safakcan; Amin, Ahmed; Uchino, Kenji
2009-04-01
High power density piezoelectrics are required to miniaturize devices such as ultrasonic motors, transformers, and sound projectors. The power density is limited by the heat generation in piezoelectrics, therefore, clarification of the loss mechanisms is necessary. This paper provides a methodology to determine the electromechanical losses, i.e., dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric loss factors in piezoelectrics by means of a detailed analysis of the admittance/impedance spectra. This method was applied to determine the piezoelectric losses for lead zirconate titanate ceramics and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate single crystals. The analytical solution provides a new method for obtaining the piezoelectric loss factor, which is usually neglected in practice by transducer designers. Finite element simulation demonstrated the importance of piezoelectric losses to yield a more accurate fitting to the experimental data. A phenomenological model based on two phase-shifts and the Devonshire theory of a polarizable-deformable insulator is developed to interpret the experimentally observed magnitudes of the mechanical quality factor at resonance and anti-resonance.
Maina, J N; Africa, M
2000-09-01
The form, geometry and epithelial morphology of the extrapulmonary primary bronchi (EPPB) of the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus var. domesticus) and the rock dove (Columba livia) were studied microscopically and by three-dimensional computer reconstruction to determine the structural features that may be involved in the rectification of the inspired air past the openings of the medioventral secondary bronchi (MVSB), i.e. the inspiratory aerodynamic valving (IAV). In both species, the EPPB were intercalated between the clavicular and the cranial thoracic air-sacs. A notable difference between the morphology of the EPPB in G. g. domesticus and C. livia was that, in the former, the EPPB were constricted at the origin of the MVSB, while a dilatation occurred at the same site in the latter. In both species, a highly vascularized, dorsally located hemispherical epithelial swelling was observed cranial to the origin of the MVSB. The MVSB were narrow at their origin and variably angled relative to the longitudinal axis of the EPPB. Conspicuous epithelial tracts and folds were observed on the luminal aspect of the EPPB in both C. livia and G. g. domesticus. From their marked development and their orientation relative to the angled MVSB, these properties may influence the flow of the air in the EPPB. It was concluded that features such as syringeal constriction, an intimate topographic relationship between the EPPB and the cranial air-sacs, prominent epithelial tracts and folds, an epithelial swelling ahead of the origin of the first MVSB (corresponding to the 'segmentun accelerans'), and narrowing and angulation of the MVSB at their origin, may together contribute to IAV to a variable extent. In as much as the mechanism of pulmonary ventilation and mode of airflow in the parabronchial lung are basically similar in all birds, the morphological differences observed between G. g. domesticus and C. livia suggest that either the mechanism of production of IAV or its functional
Keefe, Douglas H.; Hunter, Lisa L.; Feeney, M. Patrick; Fitzpatrick, Denis F.
2015-01-01
Procedures are described to measure acoustic reflectance and admittance in human adult and infant ears at frequencies from 0.2 to 8 kHz. Transfer functions were measured at ambient pressure in the ear canal, and as down- or up-swept tympanograms. Acoustically estimated ear-canal area was used to calculate ear reflectance, which was parameterized by absorbance and group delay over all frequencies (and pressures), with substantial data reduction for tympanograms. Admittance measured at the probe tip in adults was transformed into an equivalent admittance at the eardrum using a transmission-line model for an ear canal with specified area and ear-canal length. Ear-canal length was estimated from group delay around the frequency above 2 kHz of minimum absorbance. Illustrative measurements in ears with normal function are described for an adult, and two infants at 1 month of age with normal hearing and a conductive hearing loss. The sensitivity of this equivalent eardrum admittance was calculated for varying estimates of area and length. Infant-ear patterns of absorbance peaks aligned in frequency with dips in group delay were explained by a model of resonant canal-wall mobility. Procedures will be applied in a large study of wideband clinical diagnosis and monitoring of middle-ear and cochlear function. PMID:26723319
Online Stability in Human-Robot Cooperation with Admittance Control.
Dimeas, Fotios; Aspragathos, Nikos
2016-01-01
In the design of a compliant admittance controller for physical human-robot interaction, it is necessary to ensure stable and effective cooperation. The stability of the admittance controller is mainly threatened by a stiff environment. Many methods that guarantee stability in arbitrary environments, impose conservative control gains that limit the effectiveness of the cooperation. Inspired by previous work in frequency domain stability observers, a method is proposed in this paper to detect unstable behavior and stabilize the robot with online adaptation of the admittance control gains. The introduced instability index is based on frequency domain analysis, which very quickly detects unstable behavior by monitoring high frequency oscillation in the force signal. To treat the instability, an adaptation scheme of the admittance parameters is proposed, that relaxes conservative gains and improves the cooperation by considering the effect of variable admittance on the operators' effort. We investigate two human-robot co-manipulation tasks; cooperation within a zero stiffness environment and cooperation in contact with a stiff double-wall virtual environment. The proposed methods are validated experimentally with a number of subjects in cooperation with an LWR manipulator.
Harmonic admittance and dispersion equations--the theorem.
Plessky, Viktor P; Biryukov, Sergey V; Koskela, Julius
2002-04-01
The harmonic admittance is known as a powerful tool for analyzing the excitation and propagation of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) in periodic electrode arrays. In particular, the dispersion relationships for open- and short-circuited systems are indicated, respectively, by the zeros and poles of the harmonic admittance. Here, we show that a strict reverse relationship also exists: the harmonic admittance of a periodic system of electrodes may always be expressed as the ratio of two determinants, which have been specifically constructed to describe the eigen-modes of the open- and short-circuited systems. There is no need to solve these equations to find the admittance. The existence of a connection between the excitation and propagation problems was recognized within the coupling-of-modes theory by Chen and Haus and was recently used to model surface transverse waves by Koskela et al., but a rigorous mathematical proof was only found later by Biryukov. Here, we reproduce this theorem in detail, give some examples of calculations based on this theorem, and compare the results with measured admittance curves.
Details of insect wing design and deformation enhance aerodynamic function and flight efficiency.
Young, John; Walker, Simon M; Bomphrey, Richard J; Taylor, Graham K; Thomas, Adrian L R
2009-09-18
Insect wings are complex structures that deform dramatically in flight. We analyzed the aerodynamic consequences of wing deformation in locusts using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulation based on detailed wing kinematics. We validated the simulation against smoke visualizations and digital particle image velocimetry on real locusts. We then used the validated model to explore the effects of wing topography and deformation, first by removing camber while keeping the same time-varying twist distribution, and second by removing camber and spanwise twist. The full-fidelity model achieved greater power economy than the uncambered model, which performed better than the untwisted model, showing that the details of insect wing topography and deformation are important aerodynamically. Such details are likely to be important in engineering applications of flapping flight.
Admittance of multiterminal quantum Hall conductors at kilohertz frequencies
Hernández, C.; Consejo, C.; Chaubet, C.; Degiovanni, P.
2014-03-28
We present an experimental study of the low frequency admittance of quantum Hall conductors in the [100 Hz, 1 MHz] frequency range. We show that the frequency dependence of the admittance of the sample strongly depends on the topology of the contacts connections. Our experimental results are well explained within the Christen and Büttiker approach for finite frequency transport in quantum Hall edge channels taking into account the influence of the coaxial cables capacitance. In the Hall bar geometry, we demonstrate that there exists a configuration in which the cable capacitance does not influence the admittance measurement of the sample. In this case, we measure the electrochemical capacitance of the sample and observe its dependence on the filling factor.
New aperture admittance model for open-ended waveguides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stuchly, S. S.; Sibbald, C. L.; Anderson, J. M.
1994-02-01
A new model for the aperture admittance of open ended waveguide structures radiating into a homogeneous, lossy dielectric is presented. The model is based on the physical and the mathematical properties of the driving point admittance of passive, stable one-port networks. The model parameters, which depend upon the geometry of the waveguide and aperture, are determined from a relatively small number of computed admittances. This computed data is obtained by a full-wave moment method solution and, hence, includes the effects of radiation and energy storage in the near field and evanescent waveguide modes. The accuracy of the numerical method is demonstrated by comparison with measured values. As an example, the model parameters are determined for the coaxial-line geometry. The accuracy of the model, for both the direct and inverse problem, is verified and a rigorous sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is performed. The new model has important applications in the field of dielectric spectroscopy.
9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT...
9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT...
9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT...
9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT...
9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT...
Admittance Spectroscopy in CZTSSe: Metastability Behavior and Voltage Dependent Defect Study
Koeper, Mark J.; Hages, Charles J.; Li, Jian V.; Levi, Dean; Agrawal, Rakesh
2016-11-21
Admittance spectroscopy has been performed on a CZTSSe device with a carrier injection pretreatment and under electronically relaxed conditions to demonstrate metastability behavior. We show that the measurements with the carrier injection pretreatment demonstrate two admittance signatures while the relaxed measurement demonstrates only one admittance signature with a different activation energy. Additionally, voltage dependent admittance spectroscopy was performed using the carrier injection pretreatment method at each of the applied voltage bias. The activation energies of the two admittance signatures were calculated and are shown to be independent of the voltage bias.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bol'basov, E. N.; Lapin, I. N.; Tverdokhlebov, S. I.; Svetlichnyi, V. A.
2014-07-01
For applications in tissue engineering, three-dimensional biodegradable polymeric matrices, whose surface is functionalized by nanoparticles obtained in the liquid phase by the method of laser ablation from bulk metal (Ag or Zn) targets, are synthesized by the method of aerodynamic synthesis from a solution of poly-l-lactide acid. Their properties are investigated. It is demonstrated that the matrices represent a very porous spatial fibrous structure consisting of polymorphic fibers with diameters from 0.25 to 2.5 μm. It is established that functional coatings consisting of agglomerates of semiconductor (ZnO) or metal (Ag) nanoparticles can be produced on the surface of structural matrix elements by repeated matrix impregnation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nissim, E.
1977-01-01
Changes are introduced in the aerodynamic energy approach which lead to an increase in the effectiveness of both the trailing-edge (TE) and the leading-edge (LE)-TE control systems. Control laws are determined, using realizable transfer functions, which permit the introduction of aerodynamic damping and stiffness terms in accordance with the requirements of any specific system. It is shown that flutter suppression and gust alleviation problems can successfully be treated either by a TE or by a LE-TE control system. The results obtained are applicable to a very wide class of aircraft operating within the subsonic Mach number range.
System for measuring optical admittance of a thin film stack
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Sheng-Hui; Wu, Kai; Kuo, Chien-Cheng; Ma, Sheng-Ju; Lee, Cheng-Chung
2009-07-01
A new method based on the polarization interferometer structure has been applied to measure the optical admittance, the refractive index and thickness of a thin film. The structure is a vibration insensitive optical system. There is one Twyman-Green interferometer part to induce a phase difference and one Fizeau interferometer part to induce the interference in the system. The intensities coming from four different polarizers were measured at the same time to prevent mechanical vibration influence. Using the polarization interferometer, the optical admittance, the refractive index and thickness of a single layer of Ta2O5 thin film has been measured. The measurement results were compared with the results obtained by ellipsometer. The results meet reasonable values in both refractive index and thickness.
Negative admittance in resistive metal oxide gas sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varpula, A.; Novikov, S.; Sinkkonen, J.; Utriainen, M.
2008-03-01
The negative admittance effect is observed in a WO3-based resistive gas sensor MOS1 from Environics Oy. The effect is caused by electron trapping (i.e. oxygen ionization) at the grain boundary. The results show that the current component related to the modulation of the grain-boundary barrier dominates in dry clean air and the charging or discharging current dominates in humid air conditions. An equivalent electrical circuit model for the sensor response is presented.
Nozzle Admittance and Damping Analysis Using the LEE Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mu-xin, Wang; Pei-jin, Liu; Wen-jing, Yang; Xiang-geng, Wei
2017-04-01
The nozzle admittance is very important in the theoretical analysis of nozzle damping in combustion instability. The linearized Euler equations (LEE) are used to determine the nozzle admittance with consideration of the mean flow properties. The acoustic energy flux through the nozzle is calculated to evaluate the nozzle damping upon longitudinal oscillation modes. Then the parametric study, involving the nozzle convergent geometry, convergent half angle and nozzle size, is carried out. It is shown that the imaginary part of the nozzle admittance plays a non-negligible role in the determination of the nozzle damping. Under the conditions considered in this work (f*=1,000 Hz, de*=0.18 m), the acoustic energy flux released from the nozzle with a 30o convergent half angle is highest (30o:6.0 × 10^4 kg s^{-3}, 45o:5.2 × 10^4 kg s^{-3}, 60o: 4.9 × 10^4 kg s^{-3}). The change of nozzle convergent geometry is more sensitive for the large size nozzle to increase the nozzle damping.
Optical admittance spectroscopy studies near the band edge of gallium nitride
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evwaraye, A. O.; Smith, S. R.; Elhamri, S.
2014-01-01
Nominally undoped n-type GaN layers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on silicon substrates were investigated using Thermal Admittance Spectroscopy and Optical Admittance Spectroscopy (OAS). A defect level was observed at Ec - 0.051 eV, and it is correlated with the nitrogen vacancy (NV) which is a donor in GaN. Illuminating the samples with a monochromatic light with wavelengths ranging from 200 nm to 450 nm, the OAS spectrum was measured at different temperatures and with different excitation light intensities. A dominant peak was observed in the OAS spectrum at λ = 365 nm (3.40 eV); this is attributed to transitions from the valence band to the donor level. Our results show that the saturation level, Gm, of the photoconductance is a function of both light intensity and temperature. The photoconductance decay, after the illumination has been terminated, is non-exponential but it is fully described by the stretched exponential function. The value of β ranges from 0.78 to 0.86. The analysis suggests that the observed photoconductance decay is due to thermal emission of photo-excited carriers from the donor level.
Bourke, Jason M; Witmer, Lawrence M
2016-12-01
We tested the aerodynamic function of nasal conchae in birds using CT data from an adult male wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) to construct 3D models of its nasal passage. A series of digital "turbinectomies" were performed on these models and computational fluid dynamic analyses were performed to simulate resting inspiration. Models with turbinates removed were compared to the original, unmodified control airway. Results revealed that the four conchae found in turkeys, along with the crista nasalis, alter the flow of inspired air in ways that can be considered baffle-like. However, these baffle-like functions were remarkably limited in their areal extent, indicating that avian conchae are more functionally independent than originally hypothesized. Our analysis revealed that the conchae of birds are efficient baffles that-along with potential heat and moisture transfer-serve to efficiently move air to specific regions of the nasal passage. This alternate function of conchae has implications for their evolution in birds and other amniotes.
Entrainment of radio frequency chaff by wind as a function of surface aerodynamic roughness.
Gillies, John A; Nickling, William G
2003-02-01
Radio frequency (RF) chaff (approximately 2-cm x 25-microm diameter aluminum-coated glass silicate cylinders) released by military aircraft during testing and training activities has the potential to become entrained by wind upon settling to the Earth's surface. Once entrained from the surface there is the potential for RF chaff to be abraded and produce PM10 and PM2.5, which are regulated pollutants and pose health concerns. A series of portable wind tunnel tests were carried out to examine the propensity of RF chaff to become entrained by wind by defining the relationship between the threshold friction velocity of RF chaff (u(*t RF chaff)) and aerodynamic roughness (z(o)) of surfaces onto which it may deposit. The test surfaces were of varying roughness including types near the Naval Air Station (NAS), Fallon, NV, where RF chaff is released. The u(*t) of this fibrous material ranged from 0.14 m/sec for a smooth playa to 0.82 m/sec for a rough crusted playa surface with larger cobble-sized (approximately 6-26-cm diameter) rocks rising above the surface. The u(*t RF chaff) is dependent on the z(o) of the surface onto which it falls as well as the physical characteristics of the roughness. The wind regime of Fallon would allow for chaff suspension events to occur should it settle on typical surfaces in the area. However, the wind climatology of this area makes the probability of such events relatively low.
Variations in acoustic admittance related to type of ear tip. A plea for a standardized method.
Himelfarb, M Z; Rapoport, Y; Shanon, E
1976-11-01
In order to assess the validity of using various ear tips, tympanometry and acoustic admittance were studied in 20 young healthy subjects, and three different types of ear tip used to seal the external auditory canal. Significant variations in the admittance components and tympanometry curves were observed, resulting most probably from changes in the canal volume and the physical nature of the tipe. It appears advisable to develop and adopt an appropriate, standard ear tip for studies of admittance audiometry.
1975-11-01
further improve the contrast all of the interior surfaces of the test chamber are painted flat black and the bac!-,ground walls in view of the cameras...to be adequate to eliminate wall effects on the chaff aerodynamics. Secondly, the chamber air mass had to be sufficiently small that it would damp out...independently- supported special rotating-shutter system to "strobe" the dipole images. The integral shutter in each lens assembly is also retained for
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morino, L.
1980-01-01
Recent developments of the Green's function method and the computer program SOUSSA (Steady, Oscillatory, and Unsteady Subsonic and Supersonic Aerodynamics) are reviewed and summarized. Applying the Green's function method to the fully unsteady (transient) potential equation yields an integro-differential-delay equation. With spatial discretization by the finite-element method, this equation is approximated by a set of differential-delay equations in time. Time solution by Laplace transform yields a matrix relating the velocity potential to the normal wash. Premultiplying and postmultiplying by the matrices relating generalized forces to the potential and the normal wash to the generalized coordinates one obtains the matrix of the generalized aerodynamic forces. The frequency and mode-shape dependence of this matrix makes the program SOUSSA useful for multiple frequency and repeated mode-shape evaluations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McGovern, Patrick J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Head, J. W., III; Phillips, Roger J.; Simons, Mark
2001-01-01
We calculate localized gravity/topography admittances for Mars, in order to estimate elastic lithosphere thickness. A finite-amplitude correction to modeled gravity is required to properly interpret admittances in high-relief regions of Mars. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akishita, Sadao
2010-02-01
The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the
Automatically calibrating admittances in KATE's autonomous launch operations model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morgan, Steve
1992-09-01
This report documents a 1000-line Symbolics LISP program that automatically calibrates all 15 fluid admittances in KATE's Autonomous Launch Operations (ALO) model. (KATE is Kennedy Space Center's Knowledge-based Autonomous Test Engineer, a diagnosis and repair expert system created for use on the Space Shuttle's various fluid flow systems.) As a new KATE application, the calibrator described here breaks new ground for KSC's Artificial Intelligence Lab by allowing KATE to both control and measure the hardware she supervises. By automating a formerly manual process, the calibrator: (1) saves the ALO model builder untold amounts of labor; (2) enables quick repairs after workmen accidently adjust ALO's hand valves; and (3) frees the modeler to pursue new KATE applications that previously were too complicated. Also reported are suggestions for enhancing the program: (1) to calibrate ALO's TV cameras, pumps, and sensor tolerances; and (2) to calibrate devices in other KATE models, such as the shuttle's LOX and Environment Control System (ECS).
Automatically calibrating admittances in KATE's autonomous launch operations model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morgan, Steve
1992-01-01
This report documents a 1000-line Symbolics LISP program that automatically calibrates all 15 fluid admittances in KATE's Autonomous Launch Operations (ALO) model. (KATE is Kennedy Space Center's Knowledge-based Autonomous Test Engineer, a diagnosis and repair expert system created for use on the Space Shuttle's various fluid flow systems.) As a new KATE application, the calibrator described here breaks new ground for KSC's Artificial Intelligence Lab by allowing KATE to both control and measure the hardware she supervises. By automating a formerly manual process, the calibrator: (1) saves the ALO model builder untold amounts of labor; (2) enables quick repairs after workmen accidently adjust ALO's hand valves; and (3) frees the modeler to pursue new KATE applications that previously were too complicated. Also reported are suggestions for enhancing the program: (1) to calibrate ALO's TV cameras, pumps, and sensor tolerances; and (2) to calibrate devices in other KATE models, such as the shuttle's LOX and Environment Control System (ECS).
Use of paravascular admittance waveforms to monitor relative change in arterial blood pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zielinski, Todd M.; Hettrick, Doug; Cho, Yong
2010-04-01
Non-invasive methods to monitor ambulatory blood pressure often have limitations that can affect measurement accuracy and patient adherence [1]. Minimally invasive measurement of a relative blood pressure surrogate with an implantable device may provide a useful chronic diagnostic and monitoring tool. We assessed a technique that uses electrocardiogram and paravascular admittance waveform morphology analysis to one, measure a time duration (vascular tone index, VTI in milliseconds) change from the electrocardiogram R-wave to admittance waveform peak and two, measure the admittance waveform minimum, maximum and magnitude as indicators of change in arterial compliance/distensibility or pulse pressure secondary to change in afterload. Methods: Five anesthetized domestic pigs (32 ± 4.2 kg) were used to study the effects of phenylephrine (1-5 ug/kg/min) on femoral artery pressure and admittance waveform morphology measured with a quadrapolar electrode array catheter placed next to the femoral artery to assess the relative change in arterial compliance due to change in peripheral vascular tone. Results: Statistical difference was observed (p < 0.05) comparing baseline VTI to phenylephrine VTI (246 ± .05 ms to 320 ± .07 ms) and baseline admittance waveform maximum to phenylephrine admittance waveform maximum (0.0148 ± .002 siemens to 0.0151 ± .002 siemens). Conclusion: Chronic minimally invasive admittance measurement techniques that monitor relative change in blood pressure may be suitable for implantable devices to detect progression of cardiovascular disease such as hypertension.
Surface acoustic admittance of highly porous open-cell, elastic foams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lambert, R. F.
1983-01-01
This work presents a comprehensive study of the surface acoustic admittance properties of graded sizes of open-cell foams that are highly porous and elastic. The intrinsic admittance as well as properties of samples of finite depth were predicted and then measured for sound at normal incidence over a frequency range extending from about 35-3500 Hz. The agreement between theory and experiment for a range of mean pore size and volume porosity is excellent. The implications of fibrous structure on the admittance of open-cell foams is quite evident from the results.
Localized Gravity/Topography Correlation and Admittance Spectra one the Moon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishihara, Y.; Namiki, N.; Sugita, S.; Matsumoto, K.; Goossens, S.; Araki, H.; Noda, H.; Sasaki, S.; Iwata, T.; Hanada, H.
2009-04-01
attempt localized spectral analysis of the Moon first and then apply possible compensation mechanisms to explain the observed admittance. Kaguya mission has been yielding representation of lunar gravity and topography (shape) substantially superior in resolution and accuracy to earlier solutions. For global lunar gravity field, an accurate spherical harmonic model of gravitational potential up to degree and order 100 (SGM100g) was derived from one year tracking (including 4-way Doppler) data [3]. For topography, LALT has obtained more than 6 million altitude measurements with 5 m precision, from which a spherical harmonic expansion of topography to degree and order 359 (STM359_grid-02) has been determined [4]. In this study, we use those new models. We employ the spatio-spectral localization technique [5] to obtain gravity/shape correlation and admittance spectra as function of position on the Moon. In this analysis, we localize harmonic field with axisymmetric windows of constant diameter, described by Lwin zonal harmonic coefficients. This restricts the permissible range of l in the windowed fields at both the low- (l > Lwin) and high-wave number ends (l < Lobs-Lwin, ; Lobs is the maximum degree of observation) . We chose four fixed windows with Lwin = 5, 10, 17, 26 (equivalent to spatial scales 2200, 1100, 640 and 420 km, respectively). These window sizes correspond to huge-, large-, middle-, and small-size of impact basins. For up to degree 50 with Lwin = 5 scale, it is clearly shown that the near-side contains distinct anti-correlation regions whereas the far-side is mostly occupied by high correlation regions. This difference is mainly due to large mascon basins in near-side, such as mare Imbrium. For Lwin = 10 and 17 scales, we can see anti-correlation regions at not only near-side but also far-side. Locations of anti-correlation regions in the far-side correspond to impact basins (Type II basin [6]). However, lots of far side basins (Type I basin [6]) are not
Li, J. V.; Crandall, R. S.; Repins, I. L.; Nardes, A. M.; Levi, D. H.; Sulima, O.
2011-07-01
Admittance spectroscopy is commonly used to characterize majority-carrier trapping defects. In today's practical photovoltaic devices, however, a number of other physical mechanisms may contribute to the admittance measurement and interfere with the data interpretation. Such challenges arise due to the violation of basic assumptions of conventional admittance spectroscopy such as single-junction, ohmic contact, highly conductive absorbers, and measurement in reverse bias. We exploit such violations to devise admittance spectroscopy-based methods for studying the respective origins of 'interference': majority-carrier mobility, non-ohmic contact potential barrier, minority-carrier inversion at hetero-interface, and minority-carrier lifetime in a device environment. These methods are applied to a variety of photovoltaic technologies: CdTe, Cu(In,Ga)Se2, Si HIT cells, and organic photovoltaic materials.
48 CFR 3022.101-70 - Admittance of union representatives to DHS installations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS... representatives to DHS installations. (a) Admittance of union representatives to Transportation Security... with the contractor's work under a DHS contract nor violate safety or security regulations that may...
Aerodynamics Via Acoustics: Application of Acoustic Formulas for Aerodynamic Calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farassat, F.; Myers, M. K.
1986-01-01
Prediction of aerodynamic loads on bodies in arbitrary motion is considered from an acoustic point of view, i.e., in a frame of reference fixed in the undisturbed medium. An inhomogeneous wave equation which governs the disturbance pressure is constructed and solved formally using generalized function theory. When the observer is located on the moving body surface there results a singular linear integral equation for surface pressure. Two different methods for obtaining such equations are discussed. Both steady and unsteady aerodynamic calculations are considered. Two examples are presented, the more important being an application to propeller aerodynamics. Of particular interest for numerical applications is the analytical behavior of the kernel functions in the various integral equations.
Bakuzanashvili, Kh N; Dzhavakhadze, M V
2005-06-01
Thrombocytes have been studied at the admittance to the hospital of patients with measles and after their discharge using light and electron microscopy. Response of thrombocytes to antigen penetrated into the organism has been shown, however, it appears to be absolutely different before and after the treatment. Structural indices of thrombocytes were studied in their functional aspect. Obtained parameters of thrombocytes at the admittance of patients to the hospital indicate that giant forms of thrombocytes are prevailed and "biological net" is absent, while before discharge of patients the number of mature thrombocytes increases, and amount of giant forms decrease to the minimum. There appears a "biological net", playing an important role in the adsorption of the antigen. Proceeding from this, functional possibilities of thrombocytes, first of all, are directed to defense of the macroorganism from viral antigen. In its turn, measles virus having an influence on the thrombocytes can induce relieve of granules from their body, which also can seem to be the defensive reaction against the antigen.
Temperature admittance spectroscopy of boron doped chemical vapor deposition diamond
Zubkov, V. I. Kucherova, O. V.; Zubkova, A. V.; Ilyin, V. A.; Afanas'ev, A. V.; Bogdanov, S. A.; Vikharev, A. L.; Butler, J. E.
2015-10-14
Precision admittance spectroscopy measurements over wide temperature and frequency ranges were carried out for chemical vapor deposition epitaxial diamond samples doped with various concentrations of boron. It was found that the experimentally detected boron activation energy in the samples decreased from 314 meV down to 101 meV with an increase of B/C ratio from 600 to 18000 ppm in the gas reactants. For the heavily doped samples, a transition from thermally activated valence band conduction to hopping within the impurity band (with apparent activation energy 20 meV) was detected at temperatures 120–150 K. Numerical simulation was used to estimate the impurity DOS broadening. Accurate determination of continuously altering activation energy, which takes place during the transformation of conduction mechanisms, was proposed by numerical differentiation of the Arrhenius plot. With increase of boron doping level the gradual decreasing of capture cross section from 3 × 10{sup −13} down to 2 × 10{sup −17} cm{sup 2} was noticed. Moreover, for the hopping conduction the capture cross section becomes 4 orders of magnitude less (∼2 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2}). At T > T{sub room} in doped samples the birth of the second conductance peak was observed. We attribute it to a defect, related to the boron doping of the material.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, R. T. (Compiler)
1979-01-01
A collection of papers on modern theoretical aerodynamics is presented. Included are theories of incompressible potential flow and research on the aerodynamic forces on wing and wing sections of aircraft and on airship hulls.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vicker, Darby
2006-01-01
A viewgraph presentation describing aerodynamics at NASA Johnson Space Center is shown. The topics include: 1) Personal Background; 2) Aerodynamic Tools; 3) The Overset Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Process; and 4) Recent Applicatoins.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Louis J.; Hessenius, Kristin A.; Corsiglia, Victor R.; Hicks, Gary; Richardson, Pamela F.; Unger, George; Neumann, Benjamin; Moss, Jim
1992-01-01
The annual accomplishments is reviewed for the Aerodynamics Division during FY 1991. The program includes both fundamental and applied research directed at the full spectrum of aerospace vehicles, from rotorcraft to planetary entry probes. A comprehensive review is presented of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications; CFD validation; transition and turbulence physics; numerical aerodynamic simulation; test techniques and instrumentation; configuration aerodynamics; aeroacoustics; aerothermodynamics; hypersonics; subsonics; fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holmes, Bruce J.; Schairer, Edward; Hicks, Gary; Wander, Stephen; Blankson, Isiaiah; Rose, Raymond; Olson, Lawrence; Unger, George
1990-01-01
Presented here is a comprehensive review of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation, transition and turbulence physics, numerical aerodynamic simulation, drag reduction, test techniques and instrumentation, configuration aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, aerothermodynamics, hypersonics, subsonic transport/commuter aviation, fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smrekar, S. E.; Anderson, F. S.
2005-01-01
We have calculated admittance spectra using the spatio-spectral method [14] for Venus by moving the central location of the spectrum over a 1 grid, create 360x180 admittance spectra. We invert the observed admittance using top-loading (TL), hot spot (HS), and bottom loading (BL) models, resulting in elastic, crustal, and lithospheric thickness estimates (Te, Zc, and Zl) [0]. The result is a global map for interpreting subsurface structure. Estimated values of Te and Zc concur with previous TL local admittance results, but BL estimates indicate larger values than previously suspected.
Defects studies in wide band gap semiconductors using optical admittance spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Wonwoo; Zvanut, Mary E.
2004-11-01
Semi-insulating SiC and GaN are excellent candidates for a variety of applications including microwave field effect transistors and other devices for high power and high temperature applications. Vanadium doping is one way to make semi-insulating material (SI). Vanadium acts as an amphoteric impurity in 4H-SiC with a V^3+/4+ acceptor level reported to be 0.8 eV below the conduction band edge and V^5+/4+ donor level reported to be 1.6 eV below the conduction band edge. Optical admittance spectroscopy (OAS) is a technique which measures the AC capacitance and conductance in the depletion region of a Schottky diode under illumination as a function of photon energy. OAS may be used to determine the deep levels of impurities such as vanadium. We have studied the OAS spectra of SI SiC, and will discuss the relevance of the spectra we observe with respect to the deep defect levels reported in the literature.
Witte, H.; Krtschil, A.; Lisker, M.; Rudloff, D.; Christen, J.; Krost, A.; Stutzmann, M.; Scholz, F.
2000-07-01
In GaN layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy as well as metal organic vapor phase epitaxy significant differences were found in the appearance of deep defects detected by thermal admittance spectroscopy as compared for deep level transient spectroscopy measurements. While, thermal admittance spectroscopy measurements which were made under zero bias conditions only show thermal emissions at activation energies between 130 and 170 meV, further deep levels existing in these GaN layers were evidenced by transient spectroscopy. This discrepancy is explained by a pinning effect of the Fermi level at the metal/GaN interface induced by high a concentration of the deep levels showing up in thermal admittance spectroscopy. The authors compare their results with a GaAs:Te Schottky-diode as a reference sample. Here, both spectroscopic methods give exactly the same deep level emissions.
Effects of wall admittance changes on duct transmission and radiation of sound.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lansing, D. L.; Zorumski, W. E.
1973-01-01
This paper is concerned with the effect of changes in duct wall acoustic properties on the transmission of sound through ducts. Two special problems are considered. The first problem is that of a rectangular infinite-length duct with airflow and a single change in duct wall acoustic admittance. The second problem is that of an axisymmetric field in a finite circular duct without airflow and with an arbitrary number of duct wall acoustic admittance changes. Results for the first problem show the effect of wall admittance change and flow on the acoustic power transmission within the duct. Results for the second problem show the interactive effects of multiple duct liner sections on power radiated from a finite duct.
An assessment of the accuracy of admittance and coherence estimates using synthetic data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crosby, A. G.
2007-10-01
Previous work has shown that estimates of the admittance between topography and free-air gravity anomalies are often biased by spectral leakage, even after the application of multiple prolate spheroidal wavefunction data-tapers. Despite this, a number of authors who have used the free-air admittance method to estimate the weighted-average effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere (Te) and to identify topography supported by mantle convection have not tested their methods using synthetic data with a known relationship between topography and gravity. In this paper, I perform a range of such tests using both synthetic surface data and synthetic line-of-sight (LOS) accelerations of satellites orbiting around an extra-terrestrial planet. It is found that spectral leakage can cause the estimated admittance and coherence to be significantly in error-but only if the box in which they are estimated is too small. The definition of `small' depends on the redness of the gravity spectrum. There is minimal error in the whole-box weighted-average estimate of Te if the admittance between surface gravity and topography is estimated within a box at least 3000-km-wide. When the synthetic (uniform) Te is less than 20 km and the coherence is high, the errors in Te are mostly +/-5 km for all box sizes greater than 1000 km. On the other hand, when the true Te is greater than 20 km and the box size is 1000 km, the best-fitting Te is likely to be at least 5-10 km less than the true Te. However, even when the coherence is high, it is not possible to use elastic plate admittance models to distinguish between real and spurious small fractions of internal loading when the boxes are smaller than 2000 km in width. Noise in the gravity introduces error and uncertainty, but no additional bias, into the estimates of the admittance. It does, however, bias estimates of Te calculated using the coherence between Bouguer gravity and topography. The admittance at wavelengths between 1000 and 4000 km
Effect of nonzero surface admittance on receptivity and stability of compressible boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choudhari, Meelan
1994-01-01
The effect of small-amplitude short-scale variations in surface admittance on the acoustic receptivity and stability of two-dimensional compressible boundary layers is examined. In the linearized limit, the two problems are shown to be related both physically and mathematically. This connection between the two problems is used, in conjunction with some previously reported receptivity results, to infer the modification of stability properties due to surface permeability. Numerical calculations are carried out for a self-similar flat-plate boundary layer at subsonic and low supersonic speeds. Variations in mean suction velocity at the perforated admittance surface can also induce receptivity to an acoustic wave. For a subsonic boundary layer, the dependence of admittance-induced receptivity on the acoustic-wave orientation is significantly different from that of the receptivity produced via mean suction variation. The admittance-induced receptivity is generally independent of the angle of acoustic incidence, except in a relatively narrow range of upstream-traveling waves for which the receptivity becomes weaker. However, this range of angles is precisely that for which the suction-induced receptivity tends to be large. At supersonic Mach numbers, the admittance-induced receptivity to slow acoustic models is relatively weaker than that in the case of the fast acoustic modes. We also find that purely real values for the surface admittance tend to have a destabilizing effect on the evolution of an instability wave over a slightly permeable surface. The limits on the validity of the linearized approximation are also assessed in one specific case.
Finite-Element Modelling of the Acoustic Input Admittance of the Newborn Ear Canal and Middle Ear.
Motallebzadeh, Hamid; Maftoon, Nima; Pitaro, Jacob; Funnell, W Robert J; Daniel, Sam J
2017-02-01
Admittance measurement is a promising tool for evaluating the status of the middle ear in newborns. However, the newborn ear is anatomically very different from the adult one, and the acoustic input admittance is different than in adults. To aid in understanding the differences, a finite-element model of the newborn ear canal and middle ear was developed and its behaviour was studied for frequencies up to 2000 Hz. Material properties were taken from previous measurements and estimates. The simulation results were within the range of clinical admittance measurements made in newborns. Sensitivity analyses of the material properties show that in the canal model, the maximum admittance and the frequency at which that maximum admittance occurs are affected mainly by the stiffness parameter; in the middle-ear model, the damping is as important as the stiffness in influencing the maximum admittance magnitude but its effect on the corresponding frequency is negligible. Scaling up the geometries increases the admittance magnitude and shifts the resonances to lower frequencies. The results suggest that admittance measurements can provide more information about the condition of the middle ear when made at multiple frequencies around its resonance.
Aerodynamic effects of flexibility in flapping wings.
Zhao, Liang; Huang, Qingfeng; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P
2010-03-06
Recent work on the aerodynamics of flapping flight reveals fundamental differences in the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation between fixed and flapping wings. When fixed wings translate at high angles of attack, they periodically generate and shed leading and trailing edge vortices as reflected in their fluctuating aerodynamic force traces and associated flow visualization. In contrast, wings flapping at high angles of attack generate stable leading edge vorticity, which persists throughout the duration of the stroke and enhances mean aerodynamic forces. Here, we show that aerodynamic forces can be controlled by altering the trailing edge flexibility of a flapping wing. We used a dynamically scaled mechanical model of flapping flight (Re approximately 2000) to measure the aerodynamic forces on flapping wings of variable flexural stiffness (EI). For low to medium angles of attack, as flexibility of the wing increases, its ability to generate aerodynamic forces decreases monotonically but its lift-to-drag ratios remain approximately constant. The instantaneous force traces reveal no major differences in the underlying modes of force generation for flexible and rigid wings, but the magnitude of force, the angle of net force vector and centre of pressure all vary systematically with wing flexibility. Even a rudimentary framework of wing veins is sufficient to restore the ability of flexible wings to generate forces at near-rigid values. Thus, the magnitude of force generation can be controlled by modulating the trailing edge flexibility and thereby controlling the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity. To characterize this, we have generated a detailed database of aerodynamic forces as a function of several variables including material properties, kinematics, aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure, which can also be used to help validate computational models of aeroelastic flapping wings. These experiments will also be useful for wing design for small
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watson, W. R.
1984-01-01
A method is developed for determining acoustic liner admittance in a rectangular duct with grazing flow. The axial propagation constant, cross mode order, and mean flow profile is measured. These measured data are then input into an analytical program which determines the unknown admittance value. The analytical program is based upon a finite element discretization of the acoustic field and a reposing of the unknown admittance value as a linear eigenvalue problem on the admittance value. Gaussian elimination is employed to solve this eigenvalue problem. The method used is extendable to grazing flows with boundary layers in both transverse directions of an impedance tube (or duct). Predicted admittance values are compared both with exact values that can be obtained for uniform mean flow profiles and with those from a Runge Kutta integration technique for cases involving a one dimensional boundary layer.
Steady incompressible variable thickness shear layer aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chi, M. R.
1976-01-01
A shear flow aerodynamic theory for steady incompressible flows is presented for both the lifting and non lifting problems. The slow variation of the boundary layer thickness is considered. The slowly varying behavior is treated by using multitime scales. The analysis begins with the elementary wavy wall problem and, through Fourier superpositions over the wave number space, the shear flow equivalents to the aerodynamic transfer functions of classical potential flow are obtained. The aerodynamic transfer functions provide integral equations which relate the wall pressure and the upwash. Computational results are presented for the pressure distribution, the lift coefficient, and the center of pressure travel along a two dimensional flat plate in a shear flow. The aerodynamic load is decreased by the shear layer, compared to the potential flow. The variable thickness shear layer decreases it less than the uniform thickness shear layer based upon equal maximum shear layer thicknesses.
Admittance model for the shuttle remote manipulator system in four configurations. M.S. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Papadopoulos, Loukas; Tolson, Robert H.
1993-01-01
A possible scenario for robot task performance in space is to mount two small, dexterous arms to the end of the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS). As these small robots perform tasks, the flexibility of the SRMS may cause unsuccessful task executions. In order to simulate the dynamic coupling between the SRMS and the arms, admittance models of the SRMS in four brakes locked configurations were developed. The admittance model permits calculation of the SRMS end-effector response due to end-effector disturbing forces. The model will then be used in conjunction with a Stewart Platform, a vehicle emulation system. An application of the admittance model was shown by simulating the disturbing forces using two SRMS payloads, the Dextrous Orbital Servicing System (DOSS) manipulator and DOSS carrying a 1000 lb. cylinder. Mode by mode comparisons were conducted to determine the minimum number of modes required in the admittance model while retaining dynamic fidelity. It was determined that for all four SRMS configurations studied, between 4 and 6 modes of the SRMS structure (depending on the excitation loads) were sufficient to retain tolerance of 0.01 inches and 0.01 deg. These tolerances correspond to the DOSS manipulator carrying no object. When the DOSS carries the 1000 lb. cylinder, between 15 and 20 modes were sufficient, approximately three or four times as many modes as for the unloaded case.
48 CFR 3022.101-70 - Admittance of union representatives to DHS installations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 3022.101-70 Admittance of union... policy of DHS to admit non-employee labor union representatives of contractor employees to DHS installations to visit work sites and transact labor union business with contractors, their employees, and...
48 CFR 3022.101-70 - Admittance of union representatives to DHS installations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 3022.101-70 Admittance of union... policy of DHS to admit non-employee labor union representatives of contractor employees to DHS installations to visit work sites and transact labor union business with contractors, their employees, and...
48 CFR 3022.101-70 - Admittance of union representatives to DHS installations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 3022.101-70 Admittance of union... policy of DHS to admit non-employee labor union representatives of contractor employees to DHS installations to visit work sites and transact labor union business with contractors, their employees, and...
Unsteady transonic aerodynamics
Nixon, D.
1989-01-01
Various papers on unsteady transonic aerodynamics are presented. The topics addressed include: physical phenomena associated with unsteady transonic flows, basic equations for unsteady transonic flow, practical problems concerning aircraft, basic numerical methods, computational methods for unsteady transonic flows, application of transonic flow analysis to helicopter rotor problems, unsteady aerodynamics for turbomachinery aeroelastic applications, alternative methods for modeling unsteady transonic flows.
Uncertainty in Computational Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luckring, J. M.; Hemsch, M. J.; Morrison, J. H.
2003-01-01
An approach is presented to treat computational aerodynamics as a process, subject to the fundamental quality assurance principles of process control and process improvement. We consider several aspects affecting uncertainty for the computational aerodynamic process and present a set of stages to determine the level of management required to meet risk assumptions desired by the customer of the predictions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tonegawa, Takashi; Araki, Eiichiro; Kimura, Toshinori; Nakamura, Takeshi
2016-04-01
A cabled seafloor network with 20 stations (DONET: Dense Oceanfloor Network System for Earthquake and Tsunamis) has been constructed on the accretionary prism at the Nankai subduction zone of Japan between March 2010 and August 2011, which means that the observation period became more than 4 years. Each station contains broadband seismometers and absolute and differential pressure gauges. In this study, we estimated the Rayleigh admittance at the seafloor for each station, i.e., an amplitude transfer function from pressure to displacement in the frequency band of microseisms, particularly for the fundamental Rayleigh mode of 0.1-0.2 Hz. The pattern of the transfer function depends on the S-wave velocity structure at shallow depths beneath stations (Ruan et al., 2014, JGR). Therefore, plotting the Rayleigh admittance as functions of time and frequency, we investigated temporal variations of S-wave velocity within the accretionary prism. We calculated the displacement seismogram by removing the instrument response from the velocity seismogram for each station. The pressure record observed at the differential pressure gauge was used in this study because of a high resolution of the pressure observation. In the frequency domain, we smoothed the two kinds of spectra (displacement and pressure) with ±2 neighboring samples, and estimated the amplitude transfer function of displacement/pressure. Here, we used the ambient noise of the two records. To display their temporal variations, we plot the averaged transfer function with intervals of 7 days. As a result, we found a long-term temporal variation of the Rayleigh admittance at two stations. These stations are located at the southern part of the array and near the trench, where the activities of very-low frequency earthquakes (VLFEs) within the accretionary prism on 2004, 2009, and 2011 have been previously reported. The admittance at a frequency of 0.1 Hz has gradually decreased during the observation period, which
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bragg, M. B.; Broeren, A. P.; Blumenthal, L. A.
2005-07-01
Past research on airfoil aerodynamics in icing are reviewed. This review emphasizes the time period after the 1978 NASA Lewis workshop that initiated the modern icing research program at NASA and the current period after the 1994 ATR accident where aerodynamics research has been more aircraft safety focused. Research pre-1978 is also briefly reviewed. Following this review, our current knowledge of iced airfoil aerodynamics is presented from a flowfield-physics perspective. This article identifies four classes of ice accretions: roughness, horn ice, streamwise ice, and spanwise-ridge ice. For each class, the key flowfield features such as flowfield separation and reattachment are discussed and how these contribute to the known aerodynamic effects of these ice shapes. Finally Reynolds number and Mach number effects on iced-airfoil aerodynamics are summarized.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Enzenroth, R. Albert; Barth, K. L.; Sampath, W. S.
2005-11-01
A correlation between the CdCl2 treatment and the change in conversion efficiency with light and heat stress indoors (stability) has been shown previously by our group for CdS/CdTe:Cu PV devices. In the present work CdTe devices were fabricated with various CdCl2 treatments and with and without a Cu containing back contact. The electrical characteristics of the defects acting as traps in these devices were studied using thermal admittance spectroscopy (TAS). The activation energy Et-EV, the apparent capture cross section and the densities of state functions (using Walter's method) of the traps in the devices were estimated.
An analysis of light-induced admittance changes in rod outer segments
Falk, G.; Fatt, P.
1973-01-01
1. Measurements were made of the time course and amplitude of the change in real part of admittance, ΔG, of a suspension of frog rod outer segments, following a flash of light bleaching about 1% of the rhodopsin content of the rods. The measurements, based on the use of a specially designed marginal oscillator, covered the frequency range between 500 Hz and 17 MHz. 2. The components of response, previously described for rods prepared by a method involving exposure to strongly hypertonic sucrose solutions, are present in similar form when rods are isolated and maintained in isotonic solutions made up with equi-osmotic concentrations of NaCl and sucrose or with Na2SO4. 3. Component I, identified as a slowly developing positive ΔG apparent at very low frequencies, is frequency-independent up to the characteristic frequency of admittance for the suspension, fY (about 2 MHz for rods suspended in a solution having the conductivity of Ringer solution), but decreases at still higher frequencies. 4. Component II, identified as a rapidly developing positive ΔG which appears only above a critical frequency about 2·5 decades below fY, increases approximately logarithmically with frequency to reach a limiting amplitude in the region of fY. 5. The amplitude of component II, ΔGII, measured in the region of fY, varies linearly with the conductivity of the suspending medium, Go, under conditions in which the conductivity of the rod interior is also a linear function of the external conductivity. The relation for a flash bleaching 1% of the rhodopsin content of the dark-adapted rod is [Formula: see text] 6. Measurements made on rods suspended in a low-conductivity solution, which has the effect of reducing the conductivity of the rod interior to about one ninth its value for rods suspended in Ringer solution, reveal a decline in component II for frequencies above 8 MHz. 7. To explain the frequency dependence of component II and its dependence on conductivity, it is proposed
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bland, S. R.
1982-01-01
Finite difference methods for unsteady transonic flow frequency use simplified equations in which certain of the time dependent terms are omitted from the governing equations. Kernel functions are derived for two dimensional subsonic flow, and provide accurate solutions of the linearized potential equation with the same time dependent terms omitted. These solutions make possible a direct evaluation of the finite difference codes for the linear problem. Calculations with two of these low frequency kernel functions verify the accuracy of the LTRAN2 and HYTRAN2 finite difference codes. Comparisons of the low frequency kernel function results with the Possio kernel function solution of the complete linear equations indicate the adequacy of the HYTRAN approximation for frequencies in the range of interest for flutter calculations.
Mathematical modeling of the aerodynamic characteristics in flight dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tobak, M.; Chapman, G. T.; Schiff, L. B.
1984-01-01
Basic concepts involved in the mathematical modeling of the aerodynamic response of an aircraft to arbitrary maneuvers are reviewed. The original formulation of an aerodynamic response in terms of nonlinear functionals is shown to be compatible with a derivation based on the use of nonlinear functional expansions. Extensions of the analysis through its natural connection with ideas from bifurcation theory are indicated.
Aerodynamic Decelerators for Planetary Exploration: Past, Present, and Future
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cruz, Juna R.; Lingard, J. Stephen
2006-01-01
In this paper, aerodynamic decelerators are defined as textile devices intended to be deployed at Mach numbers below five. Such aerodynamic decelerators include parachutes and inflatable aerodynamic decelerators (often known as ballutes). Aerodynamic decelerators play a key role in the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) of planetary exploration vehicles. Among the functions performed by aerodynamic decelerators for such vehicles are deceleration (often from supersonic to subsonic speeds), minimization of descent rate, providing specific descent rates (so that scientific measurements can be obtained), providing stability (drogue function - either to prevent aeroshell tumbling or to meet instrumentation requirements), effecting further aerodynamic decelerator system deployment (pilot function), providing differences in ballistic coefficients of components to enable separation events, and providing height and timeline to allow for completion of the EDL sequence. Challenging aspects in the development of aerodynamic decelerators for planetary exploration missions include: deployment in the unusual combination of high Mach numbers and low dynamic pressures, deployment in the wake behind a blunt-body entry vehicle, stringent mass and volume constraints, and the requirement for high drag and stability. Furthermore, these aerodynamic decelerators must be qualified for flight without access to the exotic operating environment where they are expected to operate. This paper is an introduction to the development and application of aerodynamic decelerators for robotic planetary exploration missions (including Earth sample return missions) from the earliest work in the 1960s to new ideas and technologies with possible application to future missions. An extensive list of references is provided for additional study.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weltner, Klaus
1990-01-01
Describes some experiments showing both qualitatively and quantitatively that aerodynamic lift is a reaction force. Demonstrates reaction forces caused by the acceleration of an airstream and the deflection of an airstream. Provides pictures of demonstration apparatus and mathematical expressions. (YP)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Durbin, P. A.
1983-01-01
It is shown how a high frequency analysis can be made for general problems involving flow-generated noise. In the parallel shear flow problem treated by Balsa (1976) and Goldstein (1982), the equation governing sound propagation in the moving medium could be transformed into a wave equation for a stationary medium with an inhomogeneous index of refraction. It is noted that the procedure of Avila and Keller (1963) was then used to construct a high frequency Green function. This procedure involves matching a solution valid in an inner region around the point source to an outer, ray-acoustics solution. This same procedure is used here to construct the Green function for a source in an arbitrary mean flow. In view of the fact that there is no restriction to parallel flow, the governing equations cannot be transformed into a wave equation; the analysis therefore proceeds from the equations of motion themselves.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horstman, Raymond H.
1992-01-01
Aerodynamic flow achieved by adding fixed fairings to butterfly valve. When valve fully open, fairings align with butterfly and reduce wake. Butterfly free to turn, so valve can be closed, while fairings remain fixed. Design reduces turbulence in flow of air in internal suction system. Valve aids in development of improved porous-surface boundary-layer control system to reduce aerodynamic drag. Applications primarily aerospace. System adapted to boundary-layer control on high-speed land vehicles.
Amplitude Higgs Mode and Admittance in Superconductors with a Moving Condensate.
Moor, Andreas; Volkov, Anatoly F; Efetov, Konstantin B
2017-01-27
We consider the amplitude (Higgs) mode in a superconductor with a condensate flow (supercurrent). We demonstrate that, in this case, the amplitude mode corresponding to oscillations δ|Δ|_{Ω}exp(iΩt) of the superconducting gap is excited by an external ac electric field E_{Ω}exp(iΩt) already in the first order in |E_{Ω}|, so that δ|Δ|_{Ω}∝(v_{0}E_{Ω}), where v_{0} is the velocity of the condensate. The frequency dependence δ|Δ|_{Ω} has a resonance shape with a maximum at Ω=2Δ. In contrast to the standard situation without the condensate flow, the oscillations of the amplitude δ|Δ(t)| contribute to the admittance Y_{Ω}. We provide a formula for admittance of a superconductor with a supercurrent. The predicted effect opens new ways of experimental investigation of the amplitude mode in superconductors and materials with superconductivity competing with other states.
Surface acoustic admittance and absorption of highly porous, layered, fibrous materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tesar, J. S.; Lambert, R. F.
1984-06-01
Some acoustic properties of Kevlar-29 - a fine fibered, layered material is investigated. Kevlar is characterized by very high strength, uniform filaments arranged in a parallel batt where most filaments are random in the x-y plane but ordered as planes in the z direction. For experimental purposes, volume porosity, static flow resistance and mean filament diameter are used to identify the material. To determine the acoustic surface admittance of Kevlar, batts of the material are cut into small pads and placed into a standing wave tube terminated by a rigid brass plug. The attenuation and relative phase shift are recorded at each frequency in the range of 50 to 6000 Hz. Normalized conductance and susceptance are combined to form the acoustic absorption coefficient. The data are compared with theory by plotting the normalized admittance and normal incident absorption coefficient versus cyclic frequency.
Amplitude Higgs Mode and Admittance in Superconductors with a Moving Condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moor, Andreas; Volkov, Anatoly F.; Efetov, Konstantin B.
2017-01-01
We consider the amplitude (Higgs) mode in a superconductor with a condensate flow (supercurrent). We demonstrate that, in this case, the amplitude mode corresponding to oscillations δ |Δ |Ωexp (i Ω t ) of the superconducting gap is excited by an external ac electric field EΩexp (i Ω t ) already in the first order in |EΩ|, so that δ |Δ |Ω∝(v0EΩ) , where v0 is the velocity of the condensate. The frequency dependence δ |Δ |Ω has a resonance shape with a maximum at Ω =2 Δ . In contrast to the standard situation without the condensate flow, the oscillations of the amplitude δ |Δ (t )| contribute to the admittance YΩ. We provide a formula for admittance of a superconductor with a supercurrent. The predicted effect opens new ways of experimental investigation of the amplitude mode in superconductors and materials with superconductivity competing with other states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demuzere, M.; De Ridder, K.; van Lipzig, N. P. M.
2008-08-01
During the ESCOMPTE campaign (Experience sur Site pour COntraindre les Modeles de Pollution atmospherique et de Transport d'Emissions), a 4-day intensive observation period was selected to evaluate the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS), a nonhydrostatic meteorological mesoscale model that was optimized with a parameterization for thermal roughness length to better represent urban surfaces. The evaluation shows that the ARPS model is able to correctly reproduce temperature, wind speed, and direction for one urban and two rural measurements stations. Furthermore, simulated heat fluxes show good agreement compared to the observations, although simulated sensible heat fluxes were initially too low for the urban stations. In order to improve the latter, different roughness length parameterization schemes were tested, combined with various thermal admittance values. This sensitivity study showed that the Zilitinkevich scheme combined with and intermediate value of thermal admittance performs best.
Surface acoustic admittance and absorption of highly porous, layered, fibrous materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tesar, J. S.; Lambert, R. F.
1984-01-01
Some acoustic properties of Kevlar-29 - a fine fibered, layered material is investigated. Kevlar is characterized by very high strength, uniform filaments arranged in a parallel batt where most filaments are random in the x-y plane but ordered as planes in the z direction. For experimental purposes, volume porosity, static flow resistance and mean filament diameter are used to identify the material. To determine the acoustic surface admittance of Kevlar, batts of the material are cut into small pads and placed into a standing wave tube terminated by a rigid brass plug. The attenuation and relative phase shift are recorded at each frequency in the range of 50 to 6000 Hz. Normalized conductance and susceptance are combined to form the acoustic absorption coefficient. The data are compared with theory by plotting the normalized admittance and normal incident absorption coefficient versus cyclic frequency.
Aerodynamic Design Using Neural Networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rai, Man Mohan; Madavan, Nateri K.
2003-01-01
The design of aerodynamic components of aircraft, such as wings or engines, involves a process of obtaining the most optimal component shape that can deliver the desired level of component performance, subject to various constraints, e.g., total weight or cost, that the component must satisfy. Aerodynamic design can thus be formulated as an optimization problem that involves the minimization of an objective function subject to constraints. A new aerodynamic design optimization procedure based on neural networks and response surface methodology (RSM) incorporates the advantages of both traditional RSM and neural networks. The procedure uses a strategy, denoted parameter-based partitioning of the design space, to construct a sequence of response surfaces based on both neural networks and polynomial fits to traverse the design space in search of the optimal solution. Some desirable characteristics of the new design optimization procedure include the ability to handle a variety of design objectives, easily impose constraints, and incorporate design guidelines and rules of thumb. It provides an infrastructure for variable fidelity analysis and reduces the cost of computation by using less-expensive, lower fidelity simulations in the early stages of the design evolution. The initial or starting design can be far from optimal. The procedure is easy and economical to use in large-dimensional design space and can be used to perform design tradeoff studies rapidly. Designs involving multiple disciplines can also be optimized. Some practical applications of the design procedure that have demonstrated some of its capabilities include the inverse design of an optimal turbine airfoil starting from a generic shape and the redesign of transonic turbines to improve their unsteady aerodynamic characteristics.
Development of a trans-admittance mammography (TAM) using 60×60 electrode array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Mingkang; Liu, Qin; In Oh, Tong; Woo, Eung Je; Seo, Jin Keun
2010-04-01
We have developed a trans-admittance mammography (TAM) system as a supplementary or alternative method of the X-ray mammography to diagnose the breast cancer. Mechanical structure of the system is similar to the X-ray mammography with the breast placed between two plates. The pair of plates is movable to accommodate breasts with different sizes and rotatable to provide multiple images with different projection angles. Without using ionizing radiation, it acquires a projection image of tissue admittivity values. One plate is a flat solid electrode where we apply a constant sinusoidal voltage with a variable frequency. The other is equipped with 60×60 array of current-sensing electrodes, of which potentials are kept at the signal reference level. The electrode array is connected to six switching modules and each module routes current signals from 600 electrodes to two ammeter modules. Each ammeter module includes six channels of ammeters and each one of them comprises an independent current-to-voltage converter, voltage amplifier, ADC and digital phase-sensitive demodulator. Each ammeter sequentially measures exit currents from 50 electrodes chosen by the corresponding switching module. An FPGA controls six ammeters to collect real- and imaginary-parts of trans-admittance data from 300 electrodes. A separate FPGA arbitrates data and command exchanges between a DSP-based main controller and ammeter modules. It also generates a sinusoidal voltage signal to be applied to the breast. All the 3600 complex current data from 12 ammeter modules are transferred to the main controller, which is interfaced to a PC through an isolated USB. The system is provided with a program to display real- and imaginary-parts of measured trans-admittance maps. The measured maps at multiple frequencies are incorporated into a frequency-difference anomaly detection algorithm. In this paper, we describe the design and construction of the system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dvořák, Rudolf
2016-03-01
Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird). Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust - two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc.), and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.
Norouzi, Parviz; Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Larijani, Bagher; Rasoolipour, Solmaz; Faridbod, Farnoush; Ganjali, Mohammad R
2015-01-01
An electrochemical detection technique based on combination of was coulometric differential fast Fourier transformation admittance voltammetry (CDFFTAV) and nano-composite film modified glassy carbon electrode was successfully applied for sensitive determination of Amlodipine. The nano-composite film was made by a mixture of ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMIMBF4), multiwall carbon nanotube and Au nanoparticles as electrochemical mediators. Studies reveal that the irreversible oxidation of Amlodipine was highly facile on the electrode surface. The electrochemical response was established on calculation of the charge under the admittance peak, which was obtained by discrete integration of the admittance response in a selected potential range, obtained in a flow injection analysis. Once established the best operative optimum conditions, the resulting nano-composite film electrode showed a catalytic effect on the oxidation of the analyte. The response is linear in the Amlodipine concentration range of 1.0 × 10(-9) to 2.0 × 10(-7)M with a detection limit of 1.25 × 10(-10)M. Moreover, the proposed technique exhibited high sensitivity, fast response time (less than 6s) and long-term stability and reproducibility around 96%, and it was successfully used to the determination of Amlodipine content in the pharmaceutical formulation.
Unsteady Aerodynamic Force Sensing from Measured Strain
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pak, Chan-Gi
2016-01-01
A simple approach for computing unsteady aerodynamic forces from simulated measured strain data is proposed in this study. First, the deflection and slope of the structure are computed from the unsteady strain using the two-step approach. Velocities and accelerations of the structure are computed using the autoregressive moving average model, on-line parameter estimator, low-pass filter, and a least-squares curve fitting method together with analytical derivatives with respect to time. Finally, aerodynamic forces over the wing are computed using modal aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices, a rational function approximation, and a time-marching algorithm. A cantilevered rectangular wing built and tested at the NASA Langley Research Center (Hampton, Virginia, USA) in 1959 is used to validate the simple approach. Unsteady aerodynamic forces as well as wing deflections, velocities, accelerations, and strains are computed using the CFL3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code and an MSC/NASTRAN code (MSC Software Corporation, Newport Beach, California, USA), and these CFL3D-based results are assumed as measured quantities. Based on the measured strains, wing deflections, velocities, accelerations, and aerodynamic forces are computed using the proposed approach. These computed deflections, velocities, accelerations, and unsteady aerodynamic forces are compared with the CFL3D/NASTRAN-based results. In general, computed aerodynamic forces based on the lifting surface theory in subsonic speeds are in good agreement with the target aerodynamic forces generated using CFL3D code with the Euler equation. Excellent aeroelastic responses are obtained even with unsteady strain data under the signal to noise ratio of -9.8dB. The deflections, velocities, and accelerations at each sensor location are independent of structural and aerodynamic models. Therefore, the distributed strain data together with the current proposed approaches can be used as distributed deflection
Powered-Lift Aerodynamics and Acoustics. [conferences
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1976-01-01
Powered lift technology is reviewed. Topics covered include: (1) high lift aerodynamics; (2) high speed and cruise aerodynamics; (3) acoustics; (4) propulsion aerodynamics and acoustics; (5) aerodynamic and acoustic loads; and (6) full-scale and flight research.
Applied computational aerodynamics
Henne, P.A.
1990-01-01
The present volume discusses the original development of the panel method, the mapping solutions and singularity distributions of linear potential schemes, the capabilities of full-potential, Euler, and Navier-Stokes schemes, the use of the grid-generation methodology in applied aerodynamics, subsonic airfoil design, inverse airfoil design for transonic applications, the divergent trailing-edge airfoil innovation in CFD, Euler and potential computational results for selected aerodynamic configurations, and the application of CFD to wing high-lift systems. Also discussed are high-lift wing modifications for an advanced-capability EA-6B aircraft, Navier-Stokes methods for internal and integrated propulsion system flow predictions, the use of zonal techniques for analysis of rotor-stator interaction, CFD applications to complex configurations, CFD applications in component aerodynamic design of the V-22, Navier-Stokes computations of a complete F-16, CFD at supersonic/hypersonic speeds, and future CFD developments.
Modeling of aircraft unsteady aerodynamic characteristics. Part 1: Postulated models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klein, Vladislav; Noderer, Keith D.
1994-01-01
A short theoretical study of aircraft aerodynamic model equations with unsteady effects is presented. The aerodynamic forces and moments are expressed in terms of indicial functions or internal state variables. The first representation leads to aircraft integro-differential equations of motion; the second preserves the state-space form of the model equations. The formulations of unsteady aerodynamics is applied in two examples. The first example deals with a one-degree-of-freedom harmonic motion about one of the aircraft body axes. In the second example, the equations for longitudinal short-period motion are developed. In these examples, only linear aerodynamic terms are considered. The indicial functions are postulated as simple exponentials and the internal state variables are governed by linear, time-invariant, first-order differential equations. It is shown that both approaches to the modeling of unsteady aerodynamics lead to identical models.
Computational aerodynamics and design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ballhaus, W. F., Jr.
1982-01-01
The role of computational aerodynamics in design is reviewed with attention given to the design process; the proper role of computations; the importance of calibration, interpretation, and verification; the usefulness of a given computational capability; and the marketing of new codes. Examples of computational aerodynamics in design are given with particular emphasis on the Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology. Finally, future prospects are noted, with consideration given to the role of advanced computers, advances in numerical solution techniques, turbulence models, complex geometries, and computational design procedures. Previously announced in STAR as N82-33348
Nonlinear aerodynamic wing design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bonner, Ellwood
1985-01-01
The applicability of new nonlinear theoretical techniques is demonstrated for supersonic wing design. The new technology was utilized to define outboard panels for an existing advanced tactical fighter model. Mach 1.6 maneuver point design and multi-operating point compromise surfaces were developed and tested. High aerodynamic efficiency was achieved at the design conditions. A corollary result was that only modest supersonic penalties were incurred to meet multiple aerodynamic requirements. The nonlinear potential analysis of a practical configuration arrangement correlated well with experimental data.
Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology.
Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer
2015-03-01
Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace.
Computer graphics in aerodynamic analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cozzolongo, J. V.
1984-01-01
The use of computer graphics and its application to aerodynamic analyses on a routine basis is outlined. The mathematical modelling of the aircraft geometries and the shading technique implemented are discussed. Examples of computer graphics used to display aerodynamic flow field data and aircraft geometries are shown. A future need in computer graphics for aerodynamic analyses is addressed.
Prediction of Aerodynamic Coefficients using Neural Networks for Sparse Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rajkumar, T.; Bardina, Jorge; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Basic aerodynamic coefficients are modeled as functions of angles of attack and sideslip with vehicle lateral symmetry and compressibility effects. Most of the aerodynamic parameters can be well-fitted using polynomial functions. In this paper a fast, reliable way of predicting aerodynamic coefficients is produced using a neural network. The training data for the neural network is derived from wind tunnel test and numerical simulations. The coefficients of lift, drag, pitching moment are expressed as a function of alpha (angle of attack) and Mach number. The results produced from preliminary neural network analysis are very good.
Unsteady Aerodynamics - Subsonic Compressible Inviscid Case
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balakrishnan, A. V.
1999-01-01
This paper presents a new analytical treatment of Unsteady Aerodynamics - the linear theory covering the subsonic compressible (inviscid) case - drawing on some recent work in Operator Theory and Functional Analysis. The specific new results are: (a) An existence and uniqueness proof for the Laplace transform version of the Possio integral equation as well as a new closed form solution approximation thereof. (b) A new representation for the time-domain solution of the subsonic compressible aerodynamic equations emphasizing in particular the role of the initial conditions.
Xiao, Haosu; Zuo, Baojun; Tian, Yi; Zhang, Wang; Hao, Chenglong; Liu, Chaofeng; Li, Qi; Li, Fan; Zhang, Li; Fan, Zhigang
2012-12-20
We investigated the joint influences exerted by the nonuniform aerodynamic flow field surrounding the optical dome and the aerodynamic heating of the dome on imaging quality degradation of an airborne optical system. The Spalart-Allmaras model provided by FLUENT was used for flow computations. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm based ray tracing program was used to simulate optical transmission through the aerodynamic flow field and the dome. Four kinds of imaging quality evaluation parameters were presented: wave aberration of the exit pupil, point spread function, encircled energy, and modulation transfer function. The results show that the aero-optical disturbance of the aerodynamic flow field and the aerodynamic heating of the dome significantly affect the imaging quality of an airborne optical system.
Summary analysis of the Gemini entry aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitnah, A. M.; Howes, D. B.
1972-01-01
The aerodynamic data that were derived in 1967 from the analysis of flight-generated data for the Gemini entry module are presented. These data represent the aerodynamic characteristics exhibited by the vehicle during the entry portion of Gemini 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions. For the Gemini, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions, the flight-generated lift-to-drag ratios and corresponding angles of attack are compared with the wind tunnel data. These comparisons show that the flight generated lift-to-drag ratios are consistently lower than were anticipated from the tunnel data. Numerous data uncertainties are cited that provide an insight into the problems that are related to an analysis of flight data developed from instrumentation systems, the primary functions of which are other than the evaluation of flight aerodynamic performance.
Bat flight generates complex aerodynamic tracks.
Hedenström, A; Johansson, L C; Wolf, M; von Busse, R; Winter, Y; Spedding, G R
2007-05-11
The flapping flight of animals generates an aerodynamic footprint as a time-varying vortex wake in which the rate of momentum change represents the aerodynamic force. We showed that the wakes of a small bat species differ from those of birds in some important respects. In our bats, each wing generated its own vortex loop. Also, at moderate and high flight speeds, the circulation on the outer (hand) wing and the arm wing differed in sign during the upstroke, resulting in negative lift on the hand wing and positive lift on the arm wing. Our interpretations of the unsteady aerodynamic performance and function of membranous-winged, flapping flight should change modeling strategies for the study of equivalent natural and engineered flying devices.
Identification of aerodynamic models for maneuvering aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lan, C. Edward; Hu, C. C.
1992-01-01
A Fourier analysis method was developed to analyze harmonic forced-oscillation data at high angles of attack as functions of the angle of attack and its time rate of change. The resulting aerodynamic responses at different frequencies are used to build up the aerodynamic models involving time integrals of the indicial type. An efficient numerical method was also developed to evaluate these time integrals for arbitrary motions based on a concept of equivalent harmonic motion. The method was verified by first using results from two-dimensional and three-dimensional linear theories. The developed models for C sub L, C sub D, and C sub M based on high-alpha data for a 70 deg delta wing in harmonic motions showed accurate results in reproducing hysteresis. The aerodynamic models are further verified by comparing with test data using ramp-type motions.
In vivo recording of aerodynamic force with an aerodynamic force platform: from drones to birds.
Lentink, David; Haselsteiner, Andreas F; Ingersoll, Rivers
2015-03-06
Flapping wings enable flying animals and biomimetic robots to generate elevated aerodynamic forces. Measurements that demonstrate this capability are based on experiments with tethered robots and animals, and indirect force calculations based on measured kinematics or airflow during free flight. Remarkably, there exists no method to measure these forces directly during free flight. Such in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of their flapping wings, in particular during the downstroke versus upstroke. Here, we demonstrate a new aerodynamic force platform (AFP) for non-intrusive aerodynamic force measurement in freely flying animals and robots. The platform encloses the animal or object that generates fluid force with a physical control surface, which mechanically integrates the net aerodynamic force that is transferred to the earth. Using a straightforward analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation, we verified that the method is accurate. We subsequently validated the method with a quadcopter that is suspended in the AFP and generates unsteady thrust profiles. These independent measurements confirm that the AFP is indeed accurate. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the AFP by studying aerodynamic weight support of a freely flying bird in vivo. These measurements confirm earlier findings based on kinematics and flow measurements, which suggest that the avian downstroke, not the upstroke, is primarily responsible for body weight support during take-off and landing.
In vivo recording of aerodynamic force with an aerodynamic force platform: from drones to birds
Lentink, David; Haselsteiner, Andreas F.; Ingersoll, Rivers
2015-01-01
Flapping wings enable flying animals and biomimetic robots to generate elevated aerodynamic forces. Measurements that demonstrate this capability are based on experiments with tethered robots and animals, and indirect force calculations based on measured kinematics or airflow during free flight. Remarkably, there exists no method to measure these forces directly during free flight. Such in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of their flapping wings, in particular during the downstroke versus upstroke. Here, we demonstrate a new aerodynamic force platform (AFP) for non-intrusive aerodynamic force measurement in freely flying animals and robots. The platform encloses the animal or object that generates fluid force with a physical control surface, which mechanically integrates the net aerodynamic force that is transferred to the earth. Using a straightforward analytical solution of the Navier–Stokes equation, we verified that the method is accurate. We subsequently validated the method with a quadcopter that is suspended in the AFP and generates unsteady thrust profiles. These independent measurements confirm that the AFP is indeed accurate. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the AFP by studying aerodynamic weight support of a freely flying bird in vivo. These measurements confirm earlier findings based on kinematics and flow measurements, which suggest that the avian downstroke, not the upstroke, is primarily responsible for body weight support during take-off and landing. PMID:25589565
An Assessment of the Accuracy of Admittance and Coherence Estimates Using Synthetic Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crosby, A.
2006-12-01
The estimation of the effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere (T_e) using spectral relationships between gravity and topography has become a controversial topic in recent years. However, one area which has received relatively little attention is the bias in estimates of T_e and the internal loading fraction (F_2) which results from spectral leakage and noise when using the multi-tapered free-air admittance method. In this study, I use grids of synthetic data to assess the magnitude of that bias. I also assess the bias which occurs when T_e within other planets is estimated using the admittance between observed and topographic line-of-sight accelerations of orbiting satellites. I find that leakage can cause the estimated admittance and coherence to be significantly in error, but only if the box in which they are estimated is too small. The definition of `small' depends on the redness of the gravity spectrum. On the Earth, there is minimal error in the estimate of T_e if the admittance between surface gravity and topography is estimated within a box at least 3000-km-wide. When the true T_e is less than 20~km and the true coherence is high, the errors in the estimate of T_e are mostly less than 5~km for all box sizes greater than 1000~km. On the other hand, when the true T_e is greater than 20~km and the box size is 1000~km, the best-fit T_e is likely to be at least 5-10~km less than the true T_e. Even when the true coherence is high, it is not possible to use the free-air admittance to distinguish between real and spurious small fractions of internal loading when the boxes are smaller than 2000~km in size. Furthermore, the trade-off between T_e and F_2 means that even small amounts of leakage can shift the best-fit values of T_e and F_2 by an appreciable amount when the true F_2 is greater than zero. Geological noise in the gravity is caused by subsurface loads, the flexural surface expression of which has been erased by erosion and deposition. I find that
Recent Experiments at the Gottingen Aerodynamic Institute
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ackeret, J
1925-01-01
This report presents the results of various experiments carried out at the Gottingen Aerodynamic Institute. These include: experiments with Joukowski wing profiles; experiments on an airplane model with a built-in motor and functioning propeller; and the rotating cylinder (Magnus Effect).
Admittance control of an upper limb exoskeleton--reduction of energy exchange.
Kim, Hyunchul; Miller, Levi Makaio; Li, Zhi; Roldan, Jay Ryan; Rosen, Jacob
2012-01-01
The synergy of human arms and wearable robot systems (e.g. exoskeletons) is enabled by a control algorithm that maximizes the transparency between the two subsystems. The transparency can be improved by integrating the admittance control along with an arm redundancy resolution algorithm. Recent research effort resulted in a new criterion for the human arm redundancy resolution for unconstrained arm motions estimating the swivel angle with prediction errors of less than 5°. The proposed criterion for the arm redundancy resolution defines the mouth as the primary target of the the human hand during unconstrained arm motions in free space. It was postulated based on experimental data analysis that this criterion is based on a neural mechanism directing the hand towards the head for self-feeding. In conjunction with the proposed redundancy resolution criteria a task space admittance control algorithm is introduced based on multiple force sensor inputs obtained at the interface between the human arm and the exoskeleton system. The system performance was evaluated by five healthy subjects performing a peg-in-hole task for three different target locations. The velocities and interaction forces at the upper arm, lower arm, handle and tip were recorded and further used to power exchange between the subject and the device. Results indicated that the proposed control scheme outperforms the purely reactive task space admittance control with energy exchange reduced to 11.22%. Improving the quality of the human control of a wearable robot system may allow the robot to be a natural and transparent extension of the operator's body.
Delays in Admittance-Controlled Haptic Devices Make Simulated Masses Feel Heavier
Kuling, Irene A.; Smeets, Jeroen B. J.; Lammertse, Piet; Onneweer, Bram; Mugge, Winfred
2015-01-01
In an admittance-controlled haptic device, input forces are used to calculate the movement of the device. Although developers try to minimize delays, there will always be delays between the applied force and the corresponding movement in such systems, which might affect what the user of the device perceives. In this experiment we tested whether these delays in a haptic human-robot interaction influence the perception of mass. In the experiment an admittance-controlled manipulator was used to simulate various masses. In a staircase design subjects had to decide which of two virtual masses was heavier after gently pushing them leftward with the right hand in mid-air (no friction, no gravity). The manipulator responded as quickly as possible or with an additional delay (25 or 50 ms) to the forces exerted by the subject on the handle of the haptic device. The perceived mass was ~10% larger for a delay of 25 ms and ~20% larger for a delay of 50 ms. Based on these results, we estimated that the delays that are present in nowadays admittance-controlled haptic devices (up to 20ms) will give an increase in perceived mass which is smaller than the Weber fraction for mass (~10% for inertial mass). Additional analyses showed that the subjects’ decision on mass when the perceptual differences were small did not correlate with intuitive variables such as force, velocity or a combination of these, nor with any other measured variable, suggesting that subjects did not have a consistent strategy during guessing or used other sources of information, for example the efference copy of their pushes. PMID:26361353
Delays in Admittance-Controlled Haptic Devices Make Simulated Masses Feel Heavier.
Kuling, Irene A; Smeets, Jeroen B J; Lammertse, Piet; Onneweer, Bram; Mugge, Winfred
2015-01-01
In an admittance-controlled haptic device, input forces are used to calculate the movement of the device. Although developers try to minimize delays, there will always be delays between the applied force and the corresponding movement in such systems, which might affect what the user of the device perceives. In this experiment we tested whether these delays in a haptic human-robot interaction influence the perception of mass. In the experiment an admittance-controlled manipulator was used to simulate various masses. In a staircase design subjects had to decide which of two virtual masses was heavier after gently pushing them leftward with the right hand in mid-air (no friction, no gravity). The manipulator responded as quickly as possible or with an additional delay (25 or 50 ms) to the forces exerted by the subject on the handle of the haptic device. The perceived mass was ~10% larger for a delay of 25 ms and ~20% larger for a delay of 50 ms. Based on these results, we estimated that the delays that are present in nowadays admittance-controlled haptic devices (up to 20ms) will give an increase in perceived mass which is smaller than the Weber fraction for mass (~10% for inertial mass). Additional analyses showed that the subjects' decision on mass when the perceptual differences were small did not correlate with intuitive variables such as force, velocity or a combination of these, nor with any other measured variable, suggesting that subjects did not have a consistent strategy during guessing or used other sources of information, for example the efference copy of their pushes.
2014-01-01
Background In a deforming anatomic environment, the motion of an instrument suffers from complex geometrical and dynamic constraints, robot assisted minimally invasive surgery therefore requires more sophisticated skills for surgeons. This paper proposes a novel dynamic virtual fixture (DVF) to enhance the surgical operation accuracy of admittance-type medical robotics in the deforming environment. Methods A framework for DVF on the Euclidean Group SE(3) is presented, which unites rotation and translation in a compact form. First, we constructed the holonomic/non-holonomic constraints, and then searched for the corresponded reference to make a distinction between preferred and non-preferred directions. Second, different control strategies are employed to deal with the tasks along the distinguished directions. The desired spatial compliance matrix is synthesized from an allowable motion screw set to filter out the task unrelated components from manual input, the operator has complete control over the preferred directions; while the relative motion between the surgical instrument and the anatomy structures is actively tracked and cancelled, the deviation relative to the reference is compensated jointly by the operator and DVF controllers. The operator, haptic device, admittance-type proxy and virtual deforming environment are involved in a hardware-in-the-loop experiment, human-robot cooperation with the assistance of DVF controller is carried out on a deforming sphere to simulate beating heart surgery, performance of the proposed DVF on admittance-type proxy is evaluated, and both human factors and control parameters are analyzed. Results The DVF can improve the dynamic properties of human-robot cooperation in a low-frequency (0 ~ 40 rad/sec) deforming environment, and maintain synergy of orientation and translation during the operation. Statistical analysis reveals that the operator has intuitive control over the preferred directions, human and the DVF
Admittance models for open ended coaxial probes and their place in dielectric spectroscopy.
Gabriel, C; Chan, T Y; Grant, E H
1994-12-01
Starting from a rigorous formulation for the admittance of an open ended coaxial probe, this paper identifies the simplifying assumptions that are introduced to obtain more practical solutions. The predictions of the models are compared to each other and to experimental data obtained on an independently calibrated experimental set-up. The advantages and limitations of a model are determined by the theoretical derivation and the numerical solution. The model identified as most suitable for the measurement of the dielectric properties of biological materials is used to determine the relative permittivity and conductivity of muscle and skull bone in the frequency range 1 MHz to 20 GHz.
Admittance Test and Conceptual Study of a CW Positron Source for CEBAF
Golge, Serkan; Hyde, Charles E.; Freyberger, Arne
2009-09-02
A conceptual study of a Continuous Wave (CW) positron production is presented in this paper. The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at Jefferson Lab (JLAB) operates with a CW electron beam with a well-defined emittance, time structure and energy spread. Positrons created via bremsstrahlung photons in a high-Z target emerge with a large emittance compared to incoming electron beam. An admittance study has been performed at CEBAF to estimate the maximum beam phase space area that can be transported in the LINAC and in the Arcs. A positron source is described utilizing the CEBAF injector electron beam, and directly injecting the positrons into the CEBAF LINAC.
Bahner, M.
1995-12-31
New Regulations have created liabilities and fines which far outweigh costs of spill prevention systems. These systems typically consist of high and high-high level alarms in conjunction with some final control elements and/or control interlocks. Since they are safety devices they are rarely called upon to do their job. The most important point is that alarm systems always works when something goes wrong. Compete reliability, even though they have not been called on to work for years, is essential. This presentation will explore the pros and cons of Floats, RF Admittance (Capacitance) Sensors and Ultrasonic Gap Switches. Guidelines for a complete spill prevention system will be laid out.
Hole transport characteristics in phosphorescent dye-doped NPB films by admittance spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ying; Chen, Jiangshan; Huang, Jinying; Dai, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Su; Ma, Dongge
2014-05-01
Admittance spectroscopy is a powerful tool to determine the carrier mobility. The carrier mobility is a significant parameter to understand the behavior or to optimize the organic light-emitting diode or other organic semiconductor devices. Hole transport in phosphorescent dye, bis[2-(9,9-diethyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl)-1-phenyl-1Hbenzoimidazol-N,C3] iridium(acetylacetonate [(fbi)2Ir(acac)]) doped into N,N-diphenyl-N,N-bis(1-naphthylphenyl)-1,1-biphenyl-4,4-diamine (NPB) films was investigated by admittance spectroscopy. The results show that doped (fbi)2Ir(acac) molecules behave as hole traps in NPB, and lower the hole mobility. For thicker films(≳300 nm), the electric field dependence of hole mobility is as expected positive, i.e., the mobility increases exponentially with the electric field. However, for thinner films (≲300 nm), the electric field dependence of hole mobility is negative, i.e., the hole mobility decreases exponentially with the electric field. Physical mechanisms behind the negative field dependence of hole mobility are discussed. In addition, three frequency regions were divided to analyze the behaviors of the capacitance in the hole-only device and the physical mechanism was explained by trap theory and the parasitic capacitance effect.
The long-wavelength admittance and effective elastic thickness of the Canadian Shield
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirby, J. F.; Swain, C. J.
2014-06-01
The strength of the cratonic lithosphere has been controversial. On the one hand, many estimates of effective elastic thickness (Te) greatly exceed the crustal thickness, but on the other the great majority of cratonic earthquakes occur in the upper crust. This implies that the seismogenic thickness of cratons is much smaller than Te, whereas in the ocean basins they are approximately the same, leading to suspicions about the large Te estimates. One region where such estimates have been questioned is the Canadian Shield, where glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and mantle convection are thought to contribute to the long-wavelength undulations of the topography and gravity. To date these have not been included in models used to estimate Te from topography and gravity which conventionally are based only on loading and flexure. Here we devise a theoretical expression for the free-air (gravity/topography) admittance that includes the effects of GIA and convection as well as flexure and use it to estimate Te over the Canadian Shield. We use wavelet transforms for estimating the observed admittances, after showing that multitaper estimates, which have hitherto been popular for Te studies, have poor resolution at the long wavelengths where GIA and convection predominate, compared to wavelets. Our results suggest that Te over most of the shield exceeds 80 km, with a higher-Te core near the southwest shore of Hudson Bay. This means that the lack of mantle earthquakes in this craton is simply due to its high strength compared to the applied stresses.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McGovern, Patrick J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Simons, Mark; Wieczorek, Mark A.; Phillips, Roger J.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Aharonson, Oded; Head, James W.
2002-01-01
[i] From gravity and topography data collected by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft we calculate gravity/topography admittances and correlations in the spectral domain and compare them to those predicted from models of lithospheric flexure. On the basis of these comparisons we estimate the thickness of the Martian elastic lithosphere (T(sub e)) required to support the observed topographic load since the time of loading. We convert T(sub e) to estimates of heat flux and thermal gradient in the lithosphere through a consideration of the response of an elastic/plastic shell. In regions of high topography on Mars (e.g., the Tharsis rise and associated shield volcanoes), the mass-sheet (small-amplitude) approximation for the calculation of gravity from topography is inadequate. A correction that accounts for finite-amplitude topography tends to increase the amplitude of the predicted gravity signal at spacecraft altitudes. Proper implementation of this correction requires the use of radii from the center of mass (collectively known as the planetary shape ) in lieu of topography referenced to a gravitational equipotential. Anomalously dense surface layers or buried excess masses are not required to explain the observed admittances for the Tharsis Montes or Olympus Mons volcanoes when this correction is applied. Derived T, values generally decrease with increasing age of the lithospheric load, in a manner consistent with a rapid decline of mantle heat flux during the Noachian and more modest rates of decline during subsequent epochs.
Rarefield-Flow Shuttle Aerodynamics Flight Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blanchard, Robert C.; Larman, Kevin T.; Moats, Christina D.
1994-01-01
A model of the Shuttle Orbiter rarefied-flow aerodynamic force coefficients has been derived from the ratio of flight acceleration measurements. The in-situ, low-frequency (less than 1Hz), low-level (approximately 1 x 10(exp -6) g) acceleration measurements are made during atmospheric re-entry. The experiment equipment designed and used for this task is the High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP), one of the sensor packages in the Orbiter Experiments Program. To date, 12 HiRAP re-entry mission data sets spanning a period of about 10 years have been processed. The HiRAP-derived aerodynamics model is described in detail. The model includes normal and axial hypersonic continuum coefficient equations as function of angle of attack, body-flap deflection, and elevon deflection. Normal and axial free molecule flow coefficient equations as a function of angle of attack are also presented, along with flight-derived rarefied-flow transition bridging formulae. Comparisons are made between the aerodynamics model, data from the latest Orbiter Operational Aerodynamic Design Data Book, applicable computer simulations, and wind-tunnel data.
A Generic Nonlinear Aerodynamic Model for Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grauer, Jared A.; Morelli, Eugene A.
2014-01-01
A generic model of the aerodynamic coefficients was developed using wind tunnel databases for eight different aircraft and multivariate orthogonal functions. For each database and each coefficient, models were determined using polynomials expanded about the state and control variables, and an othgonalization procedure. A predicted squared-error criterion was used to automatically select the model terms. Modeling terms picked in at least half of the analyses, which totalled 45 terms, were retained to form the generic nonlinear aerodynamic (GNA) model. Least squares was then used to estimate the model parameters and associated uncertainty that best fit the GNA model to each database. Nonlinear flight simulations were used to demonstrate that the GNA model produces accurate trim solutions, local behavior (modal frequencies and damping ratios), and global dynamic behavior (91% accurate state histories and 80% accurate aerodynamic coefficient histories) under large-amplitude excitation. This compact aerodynamics model can be used to decrease on-board memory storage requirements, quickly change conceptual aircraft models, provide smooth analytical functions for control and optimization applications, and facilitate real-time parametric system identification.
Identification of aerodynamic models for maneuvering aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chin, Suei; Lan, C. Edward
1990-01-01
Due to the requirement of increased performance and maneuverability, the flight envelope of a modern fighter is frequently extended to the high angle-of-attack regime. Vehicles maneuvering in this regime are subjected to nonlinear aerodynamic loads. The nonlinearities are due mainly to three-dimensional separated flow and concentrated vortex flow that occur at large angles of attack. Accurate prediction of these nonlinear airloads is of great importance in the analysis of a vehicle's flight motion and in the design of its flight control system. A satisfactory evaluation of the performance envelope of the aircraft may require a large number of coupled computations, one for each change in initial conditions. To avoid the disadvantage of solving the coupled flow-field equations and aircraft's motion equations, an alternate approach is to use a mathematical modeling to describe the steady and unsteady aerodynamics for the aircraft equations of motion. Aerodynamic forces and moments acting on a rapidly maneuvering aircraft are, in general, nonlinear functions of motion variables, their time rate of change, and the history of maneuvering. A numerical method was developed to analyze the nonlinear and time-dependent aerodynamic response to establish the generalized indicial function in terms of motion variables and their time rates of change.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Potter, J. Leith
1992-01-01
Means for relatively simple and quick procedures are examined for estimating aerodynamic coefficients of lifting reentry vehicles. The methods developed allow aerospace designers not only to evaluate the aerodynamics of specific shapes but also to optimize shapes under given constraints. The analysis was also studied of the effect of thermomolecular flow on pressures measured by an orifice near the nose of a Space Shuttle Orbiter at altitudes above 75 km. It was shown that pressures corrected for thermomolecular flow effect are in good agreement with values predicted by independent theoretical methods. An incidental product was the insight gained about the free molecular thermal accommodation coefficient applicable under 'real' conditions of high speed flow in the Earth's atmosphere. The results are presented as abstracts of referenced papers. One reference paper is presented in its entirety.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cain, T.; Owen, R.; Walton, C.
2005-02-01
The scramjet flight test Hyshot-2, flew on the 30 July 2002. The programme, led by the University of Queensland, had the primary objective of obtaining supersonic combustion data in flight for comparison with measurements made in shock tunnels. QinetiQ was one of the sponsors, and also provided aerodynamic data and trajectory predictions for the ballistic re-entry of the spinning sounding rocket. The unconventional missile geometry created by the nose-mounted asymmetric-scramjet in conjunction with the high angle of attack during re-entry makes the problem interesting. This paper presents the wind tunnel measurements and aerodynamic calculations used as input for the trajectory prediction. Indirect comparison is made with data obtained in the Hyshot-2 flight using a 6 degree-of-freedom trajectory simulation.
Advanced Aerodynamic Control Effectors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.
1999-01-01
A 1990 research program that focused on the development of advanced aerodynamic control effectors (AACE) for military aircraft has been reviewed and summarized. Data are presented for advanced planform, flow control, and surface contouring technologies. The data show significant increases in lift, reductions in drag, and increased control power, compared to typical aerodynamic designs. The results presented also highlighted the importance of planform selection in the design of a control effector suite. Planform data showed that dramatic increases in lift (greater than 25%) can be achieved with multiple wings and a sawtooth forebody. Passive porosity and micro drag generator control effector data showed control power levels exceeding that available from typical effectors (moving surfaces). Application of an advanced planform to a tailless concept showed benefits of similar magnitude as those observed in the generic studies.
Aerodynamic Leidenfrost effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gauthier, Anaïs; Bird, James C.; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David
2016-12-01
When deposited on a plate moving quickly enough, any liquid can levitate as it does when it is volatile on a very hot solid (Leidenfrost effect). In the aerodynamic Leidenfrost situation, air gets inserted between the liquid and the moving solid, a situation that we analyze. We observe two types of entrainment. (i) The thickness of the air gap is found to increase with the plate speed, which is interpreted in the Landau-Levich-Derjaguin frame: Air is dynamically dragged along the surface and its thickness results from a balance between capillary and viscous effects. (ii) Air set in motion by the plate exerts a force on the levitating liquid. We discuss the magnitude of this aerodynamic force and show that it can be exploited to control the liquid and even to drive it against gravity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cole, Jennifer Hansen
2010-01-01
This slide presentation reviews some of the basic principles of aerodynamics. Included in the presentation are: a few demonstrations of the principles, an explanation of the concepts of lift, drag, thrust and weight, a description of Bernoulli's principle, the concept of the airfoil (i.e., the shape of the wing) and how that effects lift, and the method of controlling an aircraft by manipulating the four forces using control surfaces.
Aerodynamic shape optimization using control theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reuther, James
1996-01-01
Aerodynamic shape design has long persisted as a difficult scientific challenge due its highly nonlinear flow physics and daunting geometric complexity. However, with the emergence of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) it has become possible to make accurate predictions of flows which are not dominated by viscous effects. It is thus worthwhile to explore the extension of CFD methods for flow analysis to the treatment of aerodynamic shape design. Two new aerodynamic shape design methods are developed which combine existing CFD technology, optimal control theory, and numerical optimization techniques. Flow analysis methods for the potential flow equation and the Euler equations form the basis of the two respective design methods. In each case, optimal control theory is used to derive the adjoint differential equations, the solution of which provides the necessary gradient information to a numerical optimization method much more efficiently then by conventional finite differencing. Each technique uses a quasi-Newton numerical optimization algorithm to drive an aerodynamic objective function toward a minimum. An analytic grid perturbation method is developed to modify body fitted meshes to accommodate shape changes during the design process. Both Hicks-Henne perturbation functions and B-spline control points are explored as suitable design variables. The new methods prove to be computationally efficient and robust, and can be used for practical airfoil design including geometric and aerodynamic constraints. Objective functions are chosen to allow both inverse design to a target pressure distribution and wave drag minimization. Several design cases are presented for each method illustrating its practicality and efficiency. These include non-lifting and lifting airfoils operating at both subsonic and transonic conditions.
Fourier analysis of the aerodynamic behavior of cup anemometers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pindado, Santiago; Pérez, Imanol; Aguado, Maite
2013-06-01
The calibration results (the transfer function) of an anemometer equipped with several cup rotors were analyzed and correlated with the aerodynamic forces measured on the isolated cups in a wind tunnel. The correlation was based on a Fourier analysis of the normal-to-the-cup aerodynamic force. Three different cup shapes were studied: typical conical cups, elliptical cups and porous cups (conical-truncated shape). Results indicated a good correlation between the anemometer factor, K, and the ratio between the first two coefficients in the Fourier series decomposition of the normal-to-the-cup aerodynamic force.
Nozzle Aerodynamic Stability During a Throat Shift
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kawecki, Edwin J.; Ribeiro, Gregg L.
2005-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted on the internal aerodynamic stability of a family of two-dimensional (2-D) High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) nozzle concepts. These nozzles function during takeoff as mixer-ejectors to meet acoustic requirements, and then convert to conventional high-performance convergent-divergent (CD) nozzles at cruise. The transition between takeoff mode and cruise mode results in the aerodynamic throat and the minimum cross-sectional area that controls the engine backpressure shifting location within the nozzle. The stability and steadiness of the nozzle aerodynamics during this so called throat shift process can directly affect the engine aerodynamic stability, and the mechanical design of the nozzle. The objective of the study was to determine if pressure spikes or other perturbations occurred during the throat shift process and, if so, identify the caused mechanisms for the perturbations. The two nozzle concepts modeled in the test program were the fixed chute (FC) and downstream mixer (DSM). These 2-D nozzles differ principally in that the FC has a large over-area between the forward throat and aft throat locations, while the DSM has an over-area of only about 10 percent. The conclusions were that engine mass flow and backpressure can be held constant simultaneously during nozzle throat shifts on this class of nozzles, and mode shifts can be accomplished at a constant mass flow and engine backpressure without upstream pressure perturbations.
Ravicz, Michael E; Rosowski, John J
2012-10-01
The middle-ear input admittance relates sound power into the middle ear (ME) and sound pressure at the tympanic membrane (TM). ME input admittance was measured in the chinchilla ear canal as part of a larger study of sound power transmission through the ME into the inner ear. The middle ear was open, and the inner ear was intact or modified with small sensors inserted into the vestibule near the cochlear base. A simple model of the chinchilla ear canal, based on ear canal sound pressure measurements at two points along the canal and an assumption of plane-wave propagation, enables reliable estimates of Y(TM,) the ME input admittance at the TM, from the admittance measured relatively far from the TM. Y(TM) appears valid at frequencies as high as 17 kHz, a much higher frequency than previously reported. The real part of Y(TM) decreases with frequency above 2 kHz. Effects of the inner-ear sensors (necessary for inner ear power computation) were small and generally limited to frequencies below 3 kHz. Computed power reflectance was ~0.1 below 3.5 kHz, lower than with an intact ME below 2.5 kHz, and nearly 1 above 16 kHz.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-05-31
... Patent and Trademark Office Admittance to Practice and Roster of Registered Patent Attorneys and Agents... Attorney, Office of Enrollment and Discipline, United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), P.O. Box... regulations governing the recognition and conduct of agents, attorneys or other persons...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nondahl, David M.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Wiley, Terry L.; Tweed, Ted S.; Dalton, Dayna S.
2013-01-01
Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to measure the 16-year change in peak compensated static acoustic admittance (Peak Y[subscript tm]) in a population-based cohort of older adults, and to determine whether age was associated with any observed change in Peak Y[subscript tm]. Other tympanometric measures also were taken and analyzed.…
Incremental Aerodynamic Coefficient Database for the USA2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Richardson, Annie Catherine
2016-01-01
In March through May of 2016, a wind tunnel test was conducted by the Aerosciences Branch (EV33) to visually study the unsteady aerodynamic behavior over multiple transition geometries for the Universal Stage Adapter 2 (USA2) in the MSFC Aerodynamic Research Facility's Trisonic Wind Tunnel (TWT). The purpose of the test was to make a qualitative comparison of the transonic flow field in order to provide a recommended minimum transition radius for manufacturing. Additionally, 6 Degree of Freedom force and moment data for each configuration tested was acquired in order to determine the geometric effects on the longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients (Normal Force, Axial Force, and Pitching Moment). In order to make a quantitative comparison of the aerodynamic effects of the USA2 transition geometry, the aerodynamic coefficient data collected during the test was parsed and incorporated into a database for each USA2 configuration tested. An incremental aerodynamic coefficient database was then developed using the generated databases for each USA2 geometry as a function of Mach number and angle of attack. The final USA2 coefficient increments will be applied to the aerodynamic coefficients of the baseline geometry to adjust the Space Launch System (SLS) integrated launch vehicle force and moment database based on the transition geometry of the USA2.
Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics
Graham, Sean; Bigatel, Patrick
2004-10-17
Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by this DOE category one Inventions and Innovations grant to successfully research, develop, test, patent, market, and sell innovative fuel and emissions saving aerodynamic attachments for the trucking industry. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck's fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Market research early in this project revealed the demands of truck fleet operators regarding aerodynamic attachments. Products must not only save fuel, but cannot interfere with the operation of the truck, require significant maintenance, add significant weight, and must be extremely durable. Furthermore, SAE/TMC J1321 tests performed by a respected independent laboratory are necessary for large fleets to even consider purchase. Freight Wing used this information to create a system of three practical aerodynamic attachments for the front, rear and undercarriage of standard semi trailers. SAE/TMC J1321 Type II tests preformed by the Transportation Research Center (TRC) demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy with all three products. If Freight Wing is successful in its continued efforts to gain market penetration, the energy and environmental savings would be considerable. Each truck outfitted saves approximately 1,100 gallons of fuel every 100,000 miles, which prevents over 12 tons of CO2 from entering the atmosphere. If all applicable trailers used the technology, the country could save approximately 1.8 billion gallons of diesel fuel, 18 million tons of emissions and 3.6 billion dollars annually.
TAD- THEORETICAL AERODYNAMICS PROGRAM
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barrowman, J.
1994-01-01
This theoretical aerodynamics program, TAD, was developed to predict the aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles with sounding rocket configurations. These slender, axisymmetric finned vehicle configurations have a wide range of aeronautical applications from rockets to high speed armament. Over a given range of Mach numbers, TAD will compute the normal force coefficient derivative, the center-of-pressure, the roll forcing moment coefficient derivative, the roll damping moment coefficient derivative, and the pitch damping moment coefficient derivative of a sounding rocket configured vehicle. The vehicle may consist of a sharp pointed nose of cone or tangent ogive shape, up to nine other body divisions of conical shoulder, conical boattail, or circular cylinder shape, and fins of trapezoid planform shape with constant cross section and either three or four fins per fin set. The characteristics computed by TAD have been shown to be accurate to within ten percent of experimental data in the supersonic region. The TAD program calculates the characteristics of separate portions of the vehicle, calculates the interference between separate portions of the vehicle, and then combines the results to form a total vehicle solution. Also, TAD can be used to calculate the characteristics of the body or fins separately as an aid in the design process. Input to the TAD program consists of simple descriptions of the body and fin geometries and the Mach range of interest. Output includes the aerodynamic characteristics of the total vehicle, or user-selected portions, at specified points over the mach range. The TAD program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 360 computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 123K of 8 bit bytes. The TAD program was originally developed in 1967 and last updated in 1972.
Morse, Robert Peter
2013-10-01
Many passengers experience discomfort during flight because of the effect of low humidity on the skin, eyes, throat, and nose. In this physiological study, we have investigated whether flight and low humidity also affect the tympanic membrane. From previous studies, a decrease in admittance of the tympanic membrane through drying might be expected to affect the buffering capacity of the middle ear and to disrupt automatic pressure regulation. This investigation involved an observational study onboard an aircraft combined with experiments in an environmental chamber, where the humidity could be controlled but could not be made to be as low as during flight. For the flight study, there was a linear relationship between the peak compensated static admittance of the tympanic membrane and relative humidity with a constant of proportionality of 0.00315 mmho/% relative humidity. The low humidity at cruise altitude (minimum 22.7 %) was associated with a mean decrease in admittance of about 20 % compared with measures in the airport. From the chamber study, we further found that a mean decrease in relative humidity of 23.4 % led to a significant decrease in mean admittance by 0.11 mmho [F(1,8) = 18.95, P = 0.002], a decrease of 9.4 %. The order of magnitude for the effect of humidity was similar for the flight and environmental chamber studies. We conclude that admittance changes during flight were likely to have been caused by the low humidity in the aircraft cabin and that these changes may affect the automatic pressure regulation of the middle ear during descent.
Admittance Survey of Type 1 Coronae on Venus: Implications for Elastic Thickness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoogenboom, T.; Smrekar, S. E.; Anderson, F. S.; Houseman, G.
2003-01-01
Coronae are volcano-tectonic features on Venus which range from 60km to 2600km and are defined by their nearly circular patterns of fractures. Type 1 (regular) coronae are classified as having >50% complete fracture annuli. Previous work has examined the factors controlling the morphology, size, and fracture pattern of coronae, using lithospheric properties, loading signature and geologic characteristics. However, these studies have been limited to Type 2 (topographic) coronae (e.g. coronaes with <50% fracture annuli), and the factors controlling the formation of Type 1 coronae remain poorly understood. In this study, we apply the methodology of to survey the admittance signature for Type 1 coronae to determine the controlling parameters which govern Type 1 coronae formation.
Admittance Investigation of MIS Structures with HgTe-Based Single Quantum Wells.
Izhnin, Ihor I; Nesmelov, Sergey N; Dzyadukh, Stanislav M; Voitsekhovskii, Alexander V; Gorn, Dmitry I; Dvoretsky, Sergey A; Mikhailov, Nikolaj N
2016-12-01
This work presents results of the investigation of admittance of metal-insulator-semiconductor structure based on Hg1 - x Cd x Te grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The structure contains a single quantum well Hg0.35Cd0.65Te/HgTe/Hg0.35Cd0.65Te with thickness of 5.6 nm in the sub-surface layer of the semiconductor. Both the conductance-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics show strong oscillations when the metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure with a single quantum well based on HgTe is biased into the strong inversion mode. Also, oscillations on the voltage dependencies of differential resistance of the space charge region were observed. These oscillations were related to the recharging of quantum levels in HgTe.
Prediction of Aerodynamic Loading
1977-02-01
predictable even with knowledge of the motion and the quasi- steady aerodynamic coefficients . It sems likely that the unsteady boundary-layer...build up, which are explainable 41 terams of the stability coefficients . More research is needed on the former type of undemanded manoeuvre. In some...drag 81, 82... B5 body sections I. kg lift St strdke 1M kg m pitching moment N kg normal force T kg axial force a 0 angle of attack Coefficie its: CD, cD
Unsteady aerodynamic modeling for arbitrary motions. [for active control techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, J. W.
1977-01-01
Results indicating that unsteady aerodynamic loads derived under the assumption of simple harmonic motions executed by airfoil or wing can be extended to arbitrary motions are summarized. The generalized Theodorsen (1953) function referable to loads due to simple harmonic oscillations of a wing section in incompressible flow, the Laplace inversion integral for unsteady aerodynamic loads, calculations of root loci of aeroelastic loads, and analysis of generalized compressible transient airloads are discussed.
On Wings: Aerodynamics of Eagles.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Millson, David
2000-01-01
The Aerodynamics Wing Curriculum is a high school program that combines basic physics, aerodynamics, pre-engineering, 3D visualization, computer-assisted drafting, computer-assisted manufacturing, production, reengineering, and success in a 15-hour, 3-week classroom module. (JOW)
Aerodynamics of a Party Balloon
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cross, Rod
2007-01-01
It is well-known that a party balloon can be made to fly erratically across a room, but it can also be used for quantitative measurements of other aspects of aerodynamics. Since a balloon is light and has a large surface area, even relatively weak aerodynamic forces can be readily demonstrated or measured in the classroom. Accurate measurements…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehta, R. D.
Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zahm, A F
1924-01-01
This report gives the description and the use of a specially designed aerodynamic plane table. For the accurate and expeditious geometrical measurement of models in an aerodynamic laboratory, and for miscellaneous truing operations, there is frequent need for a specially equipped plan table. For example, one may have to measure truly to 0.001 inch the offsets of an airfoil at many parts of its surface. Or the offsets of a strut, airship hull, or other carefully formed figure may require exact calipering. Again, a complete airplane model may have to be adjusted for correct incidence at all parts of its surfaces or verified in those parts for conformance to specifications. Such work, if but occasional, may be done on a planing or milling machine; but if frequent, justifies the provision of a special table. For this reason it was found desirable in 1918 to make the table described in this report and to equip it with such gauges and measures as the work should require.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hooks, I.; Homan, D.; Romere, P. O.
1985-01-01
The approach and landing test (ALT) of the Space Shuttle Orbiter presented a number of unique challenges in the area of aerodynamics. The purpose of the ALT program was both to confirm the use of the Boeing 747 as a transport vehicle for ferrying the Orbiter across the country and to demonstrate the flight characteristics of the Orbiter in its approach and landing phase. Concerns for structural fatigue and performance dictated a tailcone be attached to the Orbiter for ferry and for the initial landing tests. The Orbiter with a tailcone attached presented additional challenges to the normal aft sting concept of wind tunnel testing. The landing tests required that the Orbiter be separated from the 747 at approximately 20,000 feet using aerodynamic forces to fly the vehicles apart. The concept required a complex test program to determine the relative effects of the two vehicles on each other. Also of concern, and tested, was the vortex wake created by the 747 and the means for the Orbiter to avoid it following separation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mehta, R. D.
1985-01-01
Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.
Unsteady aerodynamics of blade rows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verdon, Joseph M.
1989-01-01
The requirements placed on an unsteady aerodynamic theory intended for turbomachinery aeroelastic or aeroacoustic applications are discussed along with a brief description of the various theoretical models that are available to address these requirements. The major emphasis is placed on the description of a linearized inviscid theory which fully accounts for the affects of a nonuniform mean or steady flow on unsteady aerodynamic response. Although this linearization was developed primarily for blade flutter prediction, more general equations are presented which account for unsteady excitations due to incident external aerodynamic disturbances as well as those due to prescribed blade motions. The motivation for this linearized unsteady aerodynamic theory is focused on, its physical and mathematical formulation is outlined and examples are presented to illustrate the status of numerical solution procedures and several effects of mean flow nonuniformity on unsteady aerodynamic response.
Unsteady aerodynamic modeling for arbitrary motions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, J. W.; Ashley, H.; Breakwell, J. V.
1977-01-01
A study is presented on the unsteady aerodynamic loads due to arbitrary motions of a thin wing and their adaptation for the calculation of response and true stability of aeroelastic modes. In an Appendix, the use of Laplace transform techniques and the generalized Theodorsen function for two-dimensional incompressible flow is reviewed. New applications of the same approach are shown also to yield airloads valid for quite general small motions. Numerical results are given for the two-dimensional supersonic case. Previously proposed approximate methods, starting from simple harmonic unsteady theory, are evaluated by comparison with exact results obtained by the present approach. The Laplace inversion integral is employed to separate the loads into 'rational' and 'nonrational' parts, of which only the former are involved in aeroelastic stability of the wing. Among other suggestions for further work, it is explained how existing aerodynamic computer programs may be adapted in a fairly straightforward fashion to deal with arbitrary transients.
Nash equilibrium and multi criterion aerodynamic optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Zhili; Zhang, Lianhe
2016-06-01
Game theory and its particular Nash Equilibrium (NE) are gaining importance in solving Multi Criterion Optimization (MCO) in engineering problems over the past decade. The solution of a MCO problem can be viewed as a NE under the concept of competitive games. This paper surveyed/proposed four efficient algorithms for calculating a NE of a MCO problem. Existence and equivalence of the solution are analyzed and proved in the paper based on fixed point theorem. Specific virtual symmetric Nash game is also presented to set up an optimization strategy for single objective optimization problems. Two numerical examples are presented to verify proposed algorithms. One is mathematical functions' optimization to illustrate detailed numerical procedures of algorithms, the other is aerodynamic drag reduction of civil transport wing fuselage configuration by using virtual game. The successful application validates efficiency of algorithms in solving complex aerodynamic optimization problem.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, J. H. B.; Campbell, J. F.; Young, A. D. (Editor)
1992-01-01
The principal emphasis of the meeting was to be on the understanding and prediction of separation-induced vortex flows and their effects on vehicle performance, stability, control, and structural design loads. This report shows that a substantial amount of the papers covering this area were received from a wide range of countries, together with an attendance that was even more diverse. In itself, this testifies to the current interest in the subject and to the appropriateness of the Panel's choice of topic and approach. An attempt is made to summarize each paper delivered, and to relate the contributions made in the papers and in the discussions to some of the important aspects of vortex flow aerodynamics. This reveals significant progress and important clarifications, but also brings out remaining weaknesses in predictive capability and gaps in understanding. Where possible, conclusions are drawn and areas of continuing concern are identified.
Rarefied-flow Shuttle aerodynamics model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blanchard, Robert C.; Larman, Kevin T.; Moats, Christina D.
1993-01-01
A rarefied-flow shuttle aerodynamic model spanning the hypersonic continuum to the free molecule-flow regime was formulated. The model development has evolved from the High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP) experiment conducted on the Orbiter since 1983. The complete model is described in detail. The model includes normal and axial hypersonic continuum coefficient equations as functions of angle-of-attack, body flap deflection, and elevon deflection. Normal and axial free molecule flow coefficient equations as a function of angle-of-attack are presented, along with flight derived rarefied-flow transition bridging formulae. Comparisons are made with data from the Operational Aerodynamic Design Data Book (OADDB), applicable wind-tunnel data, and recent flight data from STS-35 and STS-40. The flight-derived model aerodynamic force coefficient ratio is in good agreement with the wind-tunnel data and predicts the flight measured force coefficient ratios on STS-35 and STS-40. The model is not, however, in good agreement with the OADDB. But, the current OADDB does not predict the flight data force coefficient ratios of either STS-35 or STS-40 as accurately as the flight-derived model. Also, the OADDB differs with the wind-tunnel force coefficient ratio data.
Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics Final Technical Report
Sean Graham
2007-10-31
Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by a DOE category two Inventions and Innovations grant to commercialize and improve upon aerodynamic technology for semi-tuck trailers, capable of decreasing heavy vehicle fuel consumption, related environmental damage, and U.S. consumption of foreign oil. Major project goals included the demonstration of aerodynamic trailer technology in trucking fleet operations, and the development and testing of second generation products. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck’s fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Freight Wing utilized a 2003 category one Inventions and Innovations grant to develop practical solutions to trailer aerodynamics. Fairings developed for the front, rear, and bottom of standard semi-trailers together demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy in scientific tests conducted by the Transportation Research Center (TRC). Operational tests with major trucking fleets proved the functionality of the products, which were subsequently brought to market. This category two grant enabled Freight Wing to further develop, test and commercialize its products, resulting in greatly increased understanding and acceptance of aerodynamic trailer technology. Commercialization was stimulated by offering trucking fleets 50% cost sharing on trial implementations of Freight Wing products for testing and evaluation purposes. Over 230 fairings were implemented through the program with 35 trucking fleets including industry leaders such as Wal-Mart, Frito Lay and Whole Foods. The feedback from these testing partnerships was quite positive with product performance exceeding fleet expectations in many cases. Fleet feedback also was also valuable from a product development standpoint and assisted the design of several second generation products
Payload vehicle aerodynamic reentry analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tong, Donald
An approach for analyzing the dynamic behavior of a cone-cylinder payload vehicle during reentry to insure proper deployment of the parachute system and recovery of the payload is presented. This analysis includes the study of an aerodynamic device that is useful in extending vehicle axial rotation through the maximum dynamic pressure region. Attention is given to vehicle configuration and reentry trajectory, the derivation of pitch static aerodynamics, the derivation of the pitch damping coefficient, pitching moment modeling, aerodynamic roll device modeling, and payload vehicle reentry dynamics. It is shown that the vehicle dynamics at parachute deployment are well within the design limit of the recovery system, thus ensuring successful payload recovery.
Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mehta, U. B.; Kutler, P.
1984-01-01
The general principles of artificial intelligence are reviewed and speculations are made concerning how knowledge based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use expert systems, and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. In addition, the anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics are examined. Three main conclusions are presented. First, there are two related aspects of computational aerodynamics: reasoning and calculating. Second, a substantial portion of reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence. It offers the opportunity of using computers as reasoning machines to set the stage for efficient calculating. Third, expert systems are likely to be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.
Dynamic soaring: aerodynamics for albatrosses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Denny, Mark
2009-01-01
Albatrosses have evolved to soar and glide efficiently. By maximizing their lift-to-drag ratio L/D, albatrosses can gain energy from the wind and can travel long distances with little effort. We simplify the difficult aerodynamic equations of motion by assuming that albatrosses maintain a constant L/D. Analytic solutions to the simplified equations provide an instructive and appealing example of fixed-wing aerodynamics suitable for undergraduate demonstration.
Supersonic aerodynamics of delta wings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, Richard M.
1988-01-01
Through the empirical correlation of experimental data and theoretical analysis, a set of graphs has been developed which summarize the inviscid aerodynamics of delta wings at supersonic speeds. The various graphs which detail the aerodynamic performance of delta wings at both zero-lift and lifting conditions were then employed to define a preliminary wing design approach in which both the low-lift and high-lift design criteria were combined to define a feasible design space.
Aerodynamics for the Mars Phoenix Entry Capsule
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edquist, Karl T.; Desai, Prasun N.; Schoenenberger, Mark
2008-01-01
Pre-flight aerodynamics data for the Mars Phoenix entry capsule are presented. The aerodynamic coefficients were generated as a function of total angle-of-attack and either Knudsen number, velocity, or Mach number, depending on the flight regime. The database was constructed using continuum flowfield computations and data from the Mars Exploration Rover and Viking programs. Hypersonic and supersonic static coefficients were derived from Navier-Stokes solutions on a pre-flight design trajectory. High-altitude data (free-molecular and transitional regimes) and dynamic pitch damping characteristics were taken from Mars Exploration Rover analysis and testing. Transonic static coefficients from Viking wind tunnel tests were used for capsule aerodynamics under the parachute. Static instabilities were predicted at two points along the reference trajectory and were verified by reconstructed flight data. During the hypersonic instability, the capsule was predicted to trim at angles as high as 2.5 deg with an on-axis center-of-gravity. Trim angles were predicted for off-nominal pitching moment (4.2 deg peak) and a 5 mm off-axis center-ofgravity (4.8 deg peak). Finally, hypersonic static coefficient sensitivities to atmospheric density were predicted to be within uncertainty bounds.
Admittance spectroscopy of solar cells based on GaPNAs layers
Baranov, A. I. Gudovskikh, A. S.; Zelentsov, K. S.; Nikitina, E. V.; Egorov, A. Yu.
2015-04-15
Admittance spectroscopy is used to study defect levels in the layers of a GaPNAs quaternary solid solution. Centers with an activation energy of 0.22 eV and a capture cross section of ∼2.4 × 10{sup −15} cm{sup 2} are found in doped n-GaPNAs layers grown on GaP substrates. These centers correspond to already known Si{sub Ga} + V{sub P} defects in n-GaP; annealing decreases their concentration by several times. A level with an activation energy of 0.23–0.24 eV and capture cross section of ∼9.0 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2} is found in undoped GaPNAs layers grown on Si and GaP substrates. The concentration of these centers substantially decreases upon annealing, and, at annealing temperatures exceeding 600°C, there is absolutely no response from these defects. For undoped GaPNAs layers grown on GaP substrates, a level with an activation energy of 0.18 eV and capture cross section of ∼1.1 × 10{sup −16} cm{sup 2} is also found. The concentration of these centers remains unchanged upon annealing.
An Admittance Survey of Large Volcanoes on Venus: Implications for Volcano Growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brian, A. W.; Smrekar, S. E.; Stofan, E. R.
2004-01-01
Estimates of the thickness of the venusian crust and elastic lithosphere are important in determining the rheological and thermal properties of Venus. These estimates offer insights into what conditions are needed for certain features, such as large volcanoes and coronae, to form. Lithospheric properties for much of the large volcano population on Venus are not well known. Previous studies of elastic thickness (Te) have concentrated on individual or small groups of edifices, or have used volcano models and fixed values of Te to match with observations of volcano morphologies. In addition, previous studies use different methods to estimate lithospheric parameters meaning it is difficult to compare their results. Following recent global studies of the admittance signatures exhibited by the venusian corona population, we performed a similar survey into large volcanoes in an effort to determine the range of lithospheric parameters shown by these features. This survey of the entire large volcano population used the same method throughout so that all estimates could be directly compared. By analysing a large number of edifices and comparing our results to observations of their morphology and models of volcano formation, we can help determine the controlling parameters that govern volcano growth on Venus.
Defect studies of Vanadium doped 4H-SiC using optical admittance spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Wonwoo
2005-03-01
Semi-insulating SiC is an excellent candidate for a variety of applications, including microwave FET's and other devices for high power and high temperature applications. Vanadium acts as an amphoteric impurity in 4H-SiC with a V^3+/4+ acceptor level thought to be within 1 eV of the conduction band edge and a V^4+/5+ donor level known to be 1.6 eV below the conduction band edge. Vanadium is an efficient carrier trap and recombination center. We have studied vanadium doped 4H-SiC with the optical admittance spectroscopy (OAS) at room temperature. After taking into account phonon-assisted optical transitions, the estimated threshold energies can be compared with defect levels measured using thermal techniques. Compared with data reported in the literature, our results show that the defect level Ec -1.5 eV is close to the vanadium donor level and the other level Ec -0.67 eV is within the range of the value attributed to the vanadium acceptor level.
Global Nonlinear Parametric Modeling with Application to F-16 Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morelli, Eugene A.
1998-01-01
A global nonlinear parametric modeling technique is described and demonstrated. The technique uses multivariate orthogonal modeling functions generated from the data to determine nonlinear model structure, then expands each retained modeling function into an ordinary multivariate polynomial. The final model form is a finite multivariate power series expansion for the dependent variable in terms of the independent variables. Partial derivatives of the identified models can be used to assemble globally valid linear parameter varying models. The technique is demonstrated by identifying global nonlinear parametric models for nondimensional aerodynamic force and moment coefficients from a subsonic wind tunnel database for the F-16 fighter aircraft. Results show less than 10% difference between wind tunnel aerodynamic data and the nonlinear parameterized model for a simulated doublet maneuver at moderate angle of attack. Analysis indicated that the global nonlinear parametric models adequately captured the multivariate nonlinear aerodynamic functional dependence.
Microelectromechanical Systems for Aerodynamics Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mehregany, Mehran; DeAnna, Russell G.; Reshotko, Eli
1996-01-01
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) embody the integration of sensors, actuators, and electronics on a single substrate using integrated circuit fabrication techniques and compatible micromachining processes. Silicon and its derivatives form the material base for the MEMS technology. MEMS devices, including micro-sensors and micro-actuators, are attractive because they can be made small (characteristic dimension about microns), be produced in large numbers with uniform performance, include electronics for high performance and sophisticated functionality, and be inexpensive. MEMS pressure sensors, wall-shear-stress sensors, and micromachined hot-wires are nearing application in aeronautics. MEMS actuators face a tougher challenge since they have to be scaled (up) to the physical phenomena that are being controlled. MEMS actuators are proposed, for example, for controlling the small structures in a turbulent boundary layer, for aircraft control, for cooling, and for mixing enhancement. Data acquisition or control logistics require integration of electronics along with the transducer elements with appropriate consideration of analog-to-digital conversion, multiplexing, and telemetry. Altogether, MEMS technology offers exciting opportunities for aerodynamics applications both in wind tunnels and in flight
Introduction. Computational aerodynamics.
Tucker, Paul G
2007-10-15
The wide range of uses of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for aircraft design is discussed along with its role in dealing with the environmental impact of flight. Enabling technologies, such as grid generation and turbulence models, are also considered along with flow/turbulence control. The large eddy simulation, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes and hybrid turbulence modelling approaches are contrasted. The CFD prediction of numerous jet configurations occurring in aerospace are discussed along with aeroelasticity for aeroengine and external aerodynamics, design optimization, unsteady flow modelling and aeroengine internal and external flows. It is concluded that there is a lack of detailed measurements (for both canonical and complex geometry flows) to provide validation and even, in some cases, basic understanding of flow physics. Not surprisingly, turbulence modelling is still the weak link along with, as ever, a pressing need for improved (in terms of robustness, speed and accuracy) solver technology, grid generation and geometry handling. Hence, CFD, as a truly predictive and creative design tool, seems a long way off. Meanwhile, extreme practitioner expertise is still required and the triad of computation, measurement and analytic solution must be judiciously used.
Configuration Aerodynamics: Past - Present - Future
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, Richard M.; Agrawal, Shreekant; Bencze, Daniel P.; Kulfan, Robert M.; Wilson, Douglas L.
1999-01-01
The Configuration Aerodynamics (CA) element of the High Speed Research (HSR) program is managed by a joint NASA and Industry team, referred to as the Technology Integration Development (ITD) team. This team is responsible for the development of a broad range of technologies for improved aerodynamic performance and stability and control characteristics at subsonic to supersonic flight conditions. These objectives are pursued through the aggressive use of advanced experimental test techniques and state of the art computational methods. As the HSR program matures and transitions into the next phase the objectives of the Configuration Aerodynamics ITD are being refined to address the drag reduction needs and stability and control requirements of High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft. In addition, the experimental and computational tools are being refined and improved to meet these challenges. The presentation will review the work performed within the Configuration Aerodynamics element in 1994 and 1995 and then discuss the plans for the 1996-1998 time period. The final portion of the presentation will review several observations of the HSR program and the design activity within Configuration Aerodynamics.
Aerodynamic drag on intermodal railcars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kinghorn, Philip; Maynes, Daniel
2014-11-01
The aerodynamic drag associated with transport of commodities by rail is becoming increasingly important as the cost of diesel fuel increases. This study aims to increase the efficiency of intermodal cargo trains by reducing the aerodynamic drag on the load carrying cars. For intermodal railcars a significant amount of aerodynamic drag is a result of the large distance between loads that often occurs and the resulting pressure drag resulting from the separated flow. In the present study aerodynamic drag data have been obtained through wind tunnel testing on 1/29 scale models to understand the savings that may be realized by judicious modification to the size of the intermodal containers. The experiments were performed in the BYU low speed wind tunnel and the test track utilizes two leading locomotives followed by a set of five articulated well cars with double stacked containers. The drag on a representative mid-train car is measured using an isolated load cell balance and the wind tunnel speed is varied from 20 to 100 mph. We characterize the effect that the gap distance between the containers and the container size has on the aerodynamic drag of this representative rail car and investigate methods to reduce the gap distance.
Parameter identification for nonlinear aerodynamic systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pearson, Allan E.
1990-01-01
Parameter identification for nonlinear aerodynamic systems is examined. It is presumed that the underlying model can be arranged into an input/output (I/O) differential operator equation of a generic form. The algorithm estimation is especially efficient since the equation error can be integrated exactly given any I/O pair to obtain an algebraic function of the parameters. The algorithm for parameter identification was extended to the order determination problem for linear differential system. The degeneracy in a least squares estimate caused by feedback was addressed. A method of frequency analysis for determining the transfer function G(j omega) from transient I/O data was formulated using complex valued Fourier based modulating functions in contrast with the trigonometric modulating functions for the parameter estimation problem. A simulation result of applying the algorithm is given under noise-free conditions for a system with a low pass transfer function.
Application Program Interface for the Orion Aerodynamics Database
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, Philip E.; Thompson, James
2013-01-01
The Application Programming Interface (API) for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Aerodynamic Database has been developed to provide the developers of software an easily implemented, fully self-contained method of accessing the CEV Aerodynamic Database for use in their analysis and simulation tools. The API is programmed in C and provides a series of functions to interact with the database, such as initialization, selecting various options, and calculating the aerodynamic data. No special functions (file read/write, table lookup) are required on the host system other than those included with a standard ANSI C installation. It reads one or more files of aero data tables. Previous releases of aerodynamic databases for space vehicles have only included data tables and a document of the algorithm and equations to combine them for the total aerodynamic forces and moments. This process required each software tool to have a unique implementation of the database code. Errors or omissions in the documentation, or errors in the implementation, led to a lengthy and burdensome process of having to debug each instance of the code. Additionally, input file formats differ for each space vehicle simulation tool, requiring the aero database tables to be reformatted to meet the tool s input file structure requirements. Finally, the capabilities for built-in table lookup routines vary for each simulation tool. Implementation of a new database may require an update to and verification of the table lookup routines. This may be required if the number of dimensions of a data table exceeds the capability of the simulation tools built-in lookup routines. A single software solution was created to provide an aerodynamics software model that could be integrated into other simulation and analysis tools. The highly complex Orion aerodynamics model can then be quickly included in a wide variety of tools. The API code is written in ANSI C for ease of portability to a wide variety of systems. The
Special opportunities in helicopter aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccroskey, W. J.
1983-01-01
Aerodynamic research relating to modern helicopters includes the study of three dimensional, unsteady, nonlinear flow fields. A selective review is made of some of the phenomenon that hamper the development of satisfactory engineering prediction techniques, but which provides a rich source of research opportunities: flow separations, compressibility effects, complex vortical wakes, and aerodynamic interference between components. Several examples of work in progress are given, including dynamic stall alleviation, the development of computational methods for transonic flow, rotor-wake predictions, and blade-vortex interactions.
Aerodynamics Research Revolutionizes Truck Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2008-01-01
During the 1970s and 1980s, researchers at Dryden Flight Research Center conducted numerous tests to refine the shape of trucks to reduce aerodynamic drag and improved efficiency. During the 1980s and 1990s, a team based at Langley Research Center explored controlling drag and the flow of air around a moving body. Aeroserve Technologies Ltd., of Ottawa, Canada, with its subsidiary, Airtab LLC, in Loveland, Colorado, applied the research from Dryden and Langley to the development of the Airtab vortex generator. Airtabs create two counter-rotating vortices to reduce wind resistance and aerodynamic drag of trucks, trailers, recreational vehicles, and many other vehicles.
Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test 2: Trajectory, Atmosphere, and Aerodynamics Reconstruction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karlgaard, Christopher D.; O'Farrell, Clara; Ginn, Jason M.; Van Norman, John W.
2016-01-01
The Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test is a full-scale flight test of aerodynamic decelerator technologies developed by the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator technology demonstration project. The purpose of the project is to develop and mature aerodynamic decelerator technologies for landing large-mass payloads on the surface of Mars. The technologies include a Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator and supersonic parachutes. The first Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test occurred on June 28th, 2014 at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The purpose of this test was to validate the test architecture for future tests. The flight was a success and, in addition, was able to acquire data on the aerodynamic performance of the supersonic inflatable decelerator. The Supersonic Disksail parachute developed a tear during deployment. The second flight test occurred on June 8th, 2015, and incorporated a Supersonic Ringsail parachute which was redesigned based on data from the first flight. Again, the inflatable decelerator functioned as predicted but the parachute was damaged during deployment. This paper describes the instrumentation, analysis techniques, and acquired flight test data utilized to reconstruct the vehicle trajectory, main motor thrust, atmosphere, and aerodynamics.
Langley Symposium on Aerodynamics, volume 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stack, Sharon H. (Compiler)
1986-01-01
The purpose of this work was to present current work and results of the Langley Aeronautics Directorate covering the areas of computational fluid dynamics, viscous flows, airfoil aerodynamics, propulsion integration, test techniques, and low-speed, high-speed, and transonic aerodynamics. The following sessions are included in this volume: theoretical aerodynamics, test techniques, fluid physics, and viscous drag reduction.
An Improved Theoretical Aerodynamic Derivatives Computer Program for Sounding Rockets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barrowman, J. S.; Fan, D. N.; Obosu, C. B.; Vira, N. R.; Yang, R. J.
1979-01-01
The paper outlines a Theoretical Aerodynamic Derivatives (TAD) computer program for computing the aerodynamics of sounding rockets. TAD outputs include normal force, pitching moment and rolling moment coefficient derivatives as well as center-of-pressure locations as a function of the flight Mach number. TAD is applicable to slender finned axisymmetric vehicles at small angles of attack in subsonic and supersonic flows. TAD improvement efforts include extending Mach number regions of applicability, improving accuracy, and replacement of some numerical integration algorithms with closed-form integrations. Key equations used in TAD are summarized and typical TAD outputs are illustrated for a second-stage Tomahawk configuration.
Does an active adjustment of aerodynamic drag make sense?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maciejewski, Marek
2016-09-01
The article concerns evaluation of the possible impact of the gap between the tractor and semitrailer on the aerodynamic drag coefficient. The aim here is not to adjust this distance depending on the geometrical shape of the tractor and trailer, but depending solely on the speed of articulated vehicle. All the tests have form of numerical simulations. The method of simulation is briefly explained in the article. It considers various issues such as the range and objects of tests as well as the test conditions. The initial (pre-adaptive) and final (after adaptation process) computational meshes have been presented as illustrations. Some of the results have been presented in the form of run chart showing the change of value of aerodynamic drag coefficients in time, for different geometric configurations defined by a clearance gap between the tractor and semitrailer. The basis for a detailed analysis and conclusions were the averaged (in time) aerodynamic drag coefficients as a function of the clearance gap.
Atmospheric testing of wind turbine trailing edge aerodynamic brakes
Miller, L.S.; Migliore, P.G.; Quandt, G.A.
1997-12-31
An experimental investigation was conducted using an instrumented horizontal-axis wind turbine that incorporated variable span trailing-edge aerodynamic brakes. A primary goal was to directly compare study results with (infinite-span) wind tunnel data and to provide information on how to account for device span effects during turbine design or analysis. Comprehensive measurements were utilized to define effective changes in the aerodynamic coefficients, as a function of angle of attack and control deflection, for three device spans and configurations. Differences in the lift and drag behavior are most pronounced near stall and for device spans of less than 15%. Drag performance is affected only minimally (<70%) for 15% or larger span devices. Interestingly, aerodynamic controls with characteristic vents or openings appear most affected by span reductions and three-dimensional flow.
Advanced Aerodynamic Design of Passive Porosity Control Effectors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hunter, Craig A.; Viken, Sally A.; Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.
2001-01-01
This paper describes aerodynamic design work aimed at developing a passive porosity control effector system for a generic tailless fighter aircraft. As part of this work, a computational design tool was developed and used to layout passive porosity effector systems for longitudinal and lateral-directional control at a low-speed, high angle of attack condition. Aerodynamic analysis was conducted using the NASA Langley computational fluid dynamics code USM3D, in conjunction with a newly formulated surface boundary condition for passive porosity. Results indicate that passive porosity effectors can provide maneuver control increments that equal and exceed those of conventional aerodynamic effectors for low-speed, high-alpha flight, with control levels that are a linear function of porous area. This work demonstrates the tremendous potential of passive porosity to yield simple control effector systems that have no external moving parts and will preserve an aircraft's fixed outer mold line.
The effect of aerodynamic parameters on power output of windmills
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wiesner, W.
1973-01-01
Aerodynamic results for a study on windpower generation are reported. Windmill power output is presented in terms that are commonly used in rotary wing analysis, namely, power output as a function of drag developed by the windmill. Effect of tip speed ratio, solidity, twist, wind angle, blade setting and airfoil characteristics are given.
POEMS in Newton's Aerodynamic Frustum
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sampedro, Jaime Cruz; Tetlalmatzi-Montiel, Margarita
2010-01-01
The golden mean is often naively seen as a sign of optimal beauty but rarely does it arise as the solution of a true optimization problem. In this article we present such a problem, demonstrating a close relationship between the golden mean and a special case of Newton's aerodynamical problem for the frustum of a cone. Then, we exhibit a parallel…
Aerodynamic laboratory at Cuatro Vientos
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
JUBERA
1922-01-01
This report presents a listing of the many experiments in aerodynamics taking place at Cuatro Vientos. Some of the studies include: testing spheres, in order to determine coefficients; mechanical and chemical tests of materials; and various tests of propeller strength and flexibility.
Aerodynamic design via control theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jameson, Antony
1988-01-01
The question of how to modify aerodynamic design in order to improve performance is addressed. Representative examples are given to demonstrate the computational feasibility of using control theory for such a purpose. An introduction and historical survey of the subject is included.
Dynamic Soaring: Aerodynamics for Albatrosses
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Denny, Mark
2009-01-01
Albatrosses have evolved to soar and glide efficiently. By maximizing their lift-to-drag ratio "L/D", albatrosses can gain energy from the wind and can travel long distances with little effort. We simplify the difficult aerodynamic equations of motion by assuming that albatrosses maintain a constant "L/D". Analytic solutions to the simplified…
Feedback Control for Aerodynamics (Preprint)
2006-09-01
AFRL-VA-WP-TP-2006-348 FEEDBACK CONTROL FOR AERODYNAMICS (PREPRINT) R. Chris Camphouse, Seddik M. Djouadi, and James H. Myatt...CONSTRUCTION FOR THE DESIGN OF BOUNDARY FEEDBACK CONTROLS FROM REDUCED ORDER MODELS (PREPRINT) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 0601102F 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hakkinen, Raimo J; Richardson, A S , Jr
1957-01-01
Sinusoidally oscillating downwash and lift produced on a simple rigid airfoil were measured and compared with calculated values. Statistically stationary random downwash and the corresponding lift on a simple rigid airfoil were also measured and the transfer functions between their power spectra determined. The random experimental values are compared with theoretically approximated values. Limitations of the experimental technique and the need for more extensive experimental data are discussed.
Application of Approximate Unsteady Aerodynamics for Flutter Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pak, Chan-gi; Li, Wesley W.
2010-01-01
A technique for approximating the modal aerodynamic influence coefficient (AIC) matrices by using basis functions has been developed. A process for using the resulting approximated modal AIC matrix in aeroelastic analysis has also been developed. The method requires the unsteady aerodynamics in frequency domain, and this methodology can be applied to the unsteady subsonic, transonic, and supersonic aerodynamics. The flutter solution can be found by the classic methods, such as rational function approximation, k, p-k, p, root locus et cetera. The unsteady aeroelastic analysis using unsteady subsonic aerodynamic approximation is demonstrated herein. The technique presented is shown to offer consistent flutter speed prediction on an aerostructures test wing (ATW) 2 and a hybrid wing body (HWB) type of vehicle configuration with negligible loss in precision. This method computes AICs that are functions of the changing parameters being studied and are generated within minutes of CPU time instead of hours. These results may have practical application in parametric flutter analyses as well as more efficient multidisciplinary design and optimization studies.
Anthony L. Crawford
2012-08-01
Natural movements and force feedback are important elements in using teleoperated equipment if complex and speedy manipulation tasks are to be accomplished in remote and/or hazardous environments, such as hot cells, glove boxes, decommissioning, explosives disarmament, and space to name a few. In order to achieve this end the research presented in this paper has developed an admittance type exoskeleton like multi-fingered haptic hand user interface that secures the user’s palm and provides 3-dimensional force feedback to the user’s fingertips. Atypical to conventional haptic hand user interfaces that limit themselves to integrating the human hand’s characteristics just into the system’s mechanical design this system also perpetuates that inspiration into the designed user interface’s controller. This is achieved by manifesting the property differences of manipulation and grasping activities as they pertain to the human hand into a nonlinear master-slave force relationship. The results presented in this paper show that the admittance-type system has sufficient bandwidth that it appears nearly transparent to the user when the user is in free motion and when the system is subjected to a manipulation task, increased performance is achieved using the nonlinear force relationship compared to the traditional linear scaling techniques implemented in the vast majority of systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourim, El-Mostafa; Han, Jeong In
2015-11-01
Characterizations of InGaN/GaN-quantum wells based LED heterostructure were undertaken by static and dynamic electrical measurements at different temperatures. The analysis of the current-voltage ( I- V) characteristics demonstrated different mechanisms involved in the current charge transport in the LED device. Experimental admittance spectra have been investigated in broad frequency range, at various temperature and different direct current biases. A specific extraction of the quantum well conductance, based on Nicollian and Goetzberger's model related to interface state conductance in Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor structure, has shown the effect of the quantum structure on the electric transport, and hence a correlation between the I- V electrical characteristics and the admittance spectroscopy has revealed the different conduction mechanisms involved in the charge transport in the InGaN/GaN LED. Activation energies and carrier capture velocity obtained from Arrhenius plots, determined from the thermally activated quantum well conductance peaks which are revealed with the used model, have confirmed that quantum well parameters are related to the carrier emission from confined levels in quantum wells. [Figure not available: see fulltext.
Aerodynamic Size Classification of Glass Fibers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laosmaa, Pekka J. J.
The objective of this research was to examine a technique by which fibers may be aerodynamically classified by diameter and/or length. In this study a system for fiber preparation and generation as well as an in situ fiber classifier were constructed and evaluated. A recently developed technique, the size classification of particles by opposing jets, was modified. The research set-up consisted of (1) a vibrating bed fiber generator, which also functioned as a preselector, (2) an opposing-jet classifier equipped with electrodes and high voltage power supplies to create fiber-aligning electric fields inside the classifier and (3) an optoelectric fiber sensor to measure the concentration and length of fibers. The classified fibers were also collected on filters for the counting and dimensional analysis of the fibers. Some flow instability problems were found during the initial tests of the classifier. They were attributed to random flow fluctuations in the nozzles caused by very small perturbations upstream of the nozzles. Within a critical range of flow Reynolds numbers the flow becomes "intermittent", i.e. it alternates in time between being laminar and turbulent in a random sequence. Small disturbances upstream of the point of consideration can "trigger" the changes from laminar to turbulent flow and the initial disturbance may be "amplified", sending a turbulent flash through the flow system. The classifier performed well with test aerosols after the nozzle flowrate had been decreased to correspond to a lower and less critical Reynolds number and after some modifications had been made to smooth the flow inside the classifier inlet chambers. The cut-off of test aerosols was sharp, but the loss of particles greater than 2.5 (mu)m in aerodynamic diameter was unsatisfactorily high. The classifier was able to classify fibers by aerodynamic diameter, but not as predicted through calculations. The results were difficult to interpret because of the high loss of fibers
The interference aerodynamics caused by the wing elasticity during store separation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, Yang; Zheng-yin, Ye
2016-04-01
Air-launch-to-orbit is the technology that has stores carried aloft and launched the store from the plane to the orbit. The separation between the aircraft and store is one of the most important and difficult phases in air-launch-to-orbit technology. There exists strong aerodynamic interference between the aircraft and the store in store separation. When the aspect ratio of the aircraft is large, the elastic deformations of the wing must be considered. The main purpose of this article is to study the influence of the interference aerodynamics caused by the elastic deformations of the wing to the unsteady aerodynamics of the store. By solving the coupled functions of unsteady Navier-Stokes equations, six degrees of freedom dynamic equations and structural dynamic equations simultaneously, the store separation with the elastic deformation of the aircraft considered is simulated numerically. And the interactive aerodynamic forces are analyzed. The study shows that the interference aerodynamics is obvious at earlier time during the separation, and the dominant frequency of the elastic wing determines the aerodynamic forces frequencies of the store. Because of the effect of the interference aerodynamics, the roll angle response and pitch angle response increase. When the store is mounted under the wingtip, the additional aerodynamics caused by the wingtip vortex is obvious, which accelerate the divergence of the lateral force and the lateral-directional attitude angle of the store. This study supports some beneficial conclusions to the engineering application of the air-launch-to-orbit.
(Aerodynamic focusing of particles and heavy molecules)
de la Mora, J.F.
1990-01-08
By accelerating a gas containing suspended particles or large molecules through a converging nozzle, the suspended species may be focused and therefore used to write fine lines on a surface. Our objective was to study the limits on how narrow this focal region could be as a function of particle size. We find that, for monodisperse particles with masses m{sub p} some 3.6 {times} 10{sup 5} times larger than the molecular mass m of the carrier gas (diameters above some 100{angstrom}), there is no fundamental obstacle to directly write submicron features. However, this conclusion has been verified experimentally only with particles larger than 0.1 {mu}m. Experimental, theoretical and numerical studies on the defocusing role of Brownian motion for very small particles or heavy molecules have shown that high resolution (purely aerodynamic) focusing is impossible with volatile molecules whose masses are typically smaller than 1000 Dalton. For these, the minimal focal diameter after optimization appears to be 5{radical}(m/m{sub p}) times the nozzle diameter d{sub n}. But combinations of focused lasers and aerodynamic focusing appear as promising for direct writing with molecular precursors. Theoretical and numerical schemes capable of predicting the evolution of the focusing beam, including Brownian motion effects, have been developed, although further numerical work would be desirable. 11 refs.
Control of helicopter rotorblade aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fabunmi, James A.
1991-01-01
The results of a feasibility study of a method for controlling the aerodynamics of helicopter rotorblades using stacks of piezoelectric ceramic plates are presented. A resonant mechanism is proposed for the amplification of the displacements produced by the stack. This motion is then converted into linear displacement for the actuation of the servoflap of the blades. A design which emulates the actuation of the servoflap on the Kaman SH-2F is used to demonstrate the fact that such a system can be designed to produce the necessary forces and velocities needed to control the aerodynamics of the rotorblades of such a helicopter. Estimates of the electrical power requirements are also presented. A Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 2 Program is suggested, whereby a bench-top prototype of the device can be built and tested. A collaborative effort between AEDAR Corporation and Kaman Aerospace Corporation is anticipated for future effort on this project.
Simulating Magneto-Aerodynamic Actuator
2007-12-20
2005. 19. Boeuf, J.P., Lagmich, Y., Callegari, Th., and Pitchford , L.C., Electro- hydrodynamic Force and Acceleration in Surface Discharge, AIAA 2006...Plasmadynamics and Laser Award, 2004 AFRL Point of Contact Dr. Donald B. Paul , AFRL/VA WPAFB, OH 937-255-7329, met weekly. Dr. Alan Garscadden, AFRL/PR...validating database for numerical simulation of magneto-aerodynamic actuator for hypersonic flow control. Points of contact at the AFRL/VA are Dr. D. Paul
Nonaxisymmetric Body Supersonic, Aerodynamic Prediction
1987-08-01
wing - tail configuration are compared in Figure 27. CN comparisons are good. C. is a sensitive computation for xcp close to x’. 7.2...Analytical and Experimental Supersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Forward Control Missile , AIAA Paper No. 81-0398, AIAA 19th Aerospace Sciences...body diameter. The next computational example is for a body- wing - tail configuration from Reference 32 A body-alone comparison has been made earlier in
Aerodynamics of Supersonic Lifting Bodies
1981-02-01
verso of front cover. 19 Y WOROS (Continue on rt.’,;erso side i recessary and identily by block number) Theoretical Aerodynamics Lifting Bodies Wind ...waverider solution, developed from the supersonic wedge flow solution, is then i Fused to fashion vertLcal stabilizer-likh control surfaces. Wind ...served as Project Engineers ror thE wind tunnel work. Important contributions were also made bv: Mr. iis±ung Miin; Lee, -M. Beom-Soo Kim, Mtr. Martin Weeks
Unsteady Aerodynamic Phenomena in Turbomachines
1990-02-01
The first part of a systematic variation of important parameters shows their influence on the aerodynamic forces and moments coefficients . 2-2...real physical phenomena. Besides, for reasons of stability it in necessary to introduce an additional damping coefficient , which depends on the... coefficients for the "Fourth Standard Configu- ration No. 4" /10/, using a mesh with 51 x 17 points (Fig. I). This grid represents a typical section of
X-34 Vehicle Aerodynamic Characteristics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brauckmann, Gregory J.
1998-01-01
The X-34, being designed and built by the Orbital Sciences Corporation, is an unmanned sub-orbital vehicle designed to be used as a flying test bed to demonstrate key vehicle and operational technologies applicable to future reusable launch vehicles. The X-34 will be air-launched from an L-1011 carrier aircraft at approximately Mach 0.7 and 38,000 feet altitude, where an onboard engine will accelerate the vehicle to speeds above Mach 7 and altitudes to 250,000 feet. An unpowered entry will follow, including an autonomous landing. The X-34 will demonstrate the ability to fly through inclement weather, land horizontally at a designated site, and have a rapid turn-around capability. A series of wind tunnel tests on scaled models was conducted in four facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the X-34. Analysis of these test results revealed that longitudinal trim could be achieved throughout the design trajectory. The maximum elevon deflection required to trim was only half of that available, leaving a margin for gust alleviation and aerodynamic coefficient uncertainty. Directional control can be achieved aerodynamically except at combined high Mach numbers and high angles of attack, where reaction control jets must be used. The X-34 landing speed, between 184 and 206 knots, is within the capabilities of the gear and tires, and the vehicle has sufficient rudder authority to control the required 30-knot crosswind.
Applied aerodynamics: Challenges and expectations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peterson, Victor L.; Smith, Charles A.
1993-01-01
Aerospace is the leading positive contributor to this country's balance of trade, derived largely from the sale of U.S. commercial aircraft around the world. This powerfully favorable economic situation is being threatened in two ways: (1) the U.S. portion of the commercial transport market is decreasing, even though the worldwide market is projected to increase substantially; and (2) expenditures are decreasing for military aircraft, which often serve as proving grounds for advanced aircraft technology. To retain a major share of the world market for commercial aircraft and continue to provide military aircraft with unsurpassed performance, the U.S. aerospace industry faces many technological challenges. The field of applied aerodynamics is necessarily a major contributor to efforts aimed at meeting these technological challenges. A number of emerging research results that will provide new opportunities for applied aerodynamicists are discussed. Some of these have great potential for maintaining the high value of contributions from applied aerodynamics in the relatively near future. Over time, however, the value of these contributions will diminish greatly unless substantial investments continue to be made in basic and applied research efforts. The focus: to increase understanding of fluid dynamic phenomena, identify new aerodynamic concepts, and provide validated advanced technology for future aircraft.
Raghavan, Karthik; Feldman, Marc D; Porterfield, John E; Larson, Erik R; Jenkins, J Travis; Escobedo, Daniel; Pearce, John A
2011-01-01
This paper presents the design, construction and testing of a device to measure pressure volume loops in the left ventricle of conscious, ambulatory rats. Pressure is measured with a standard sensor, but volume is derived from data collected from a tetrapolar electrode catheter using a novel admittance technique. There are two main advantages of the admittance technique to measure volume. First, the contribution from the adjacent muscle can be instantaneously removed. Second, the admittance technique incorporates the nonlinear relationship between the electric field generated by the catheter and the blood volume. A low power instrument weighing 27 g was designed, which takes pressure-volume loops every 2 minutes and runs for 24 hours. Pressure-volume data are transmitted wirelessly to a base station. The device was first validated in thirteen rats with an acute preparation with 2-D echocardiography used to measure true volume. From an accuracy standpoint, the admittance technique is superior to both the conductance technique calibrated with hypertonic saline injections, and calibrated with cuvettes. The device was then tested in six rats with a 24-hour chronic preparation. Stability of the animal preparation and careful calibration are important factors affecting the success of the device. PMID:21606560
3-D Navier-Stokes Analysis of Blade Root Aerodynamics for a Tiltrotor Aircraft In Cruise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Romander, Ethan
2006-01-01
The blade root area of a tiltrotor aircraft's rotor is constrained by a great many factors, not the least of which is aerodynamic performance in cruise. For this study, Navier-Stokes CFD techniques are used to study the aerodynamic performance in cruise of a rotor design as a function of airfoil thickness along the blade and spinner shape. Reducing airfoil thickness along the entire blade will be shown to have the greatest effect followed by smaller but still significant improvements achieved by reducing the thickness of root airfoils only. Furthermore, altering the shape of the spinner will be illustrated as a tool to tune the aerodynamic performance very near the blade root.
Orion Aerodynamics for Hypersonic Free Molecular to Continuum Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moss, James N.; Greene, Francis A.; Boyles, Katie A.
2006-01-01
Numerical simulations are performed for the Orion Crew Module, previously known as the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Command Module, to characterize its aerodynamics during the high altitude portion of its reentry into the Earth's atmosphere, that is, from free molecular to continuum hypersonic conditions. The focus is on flow conditions similar to those that the Orion Crew Module would experience during a return from the International Space Station. The bulk of the calculations are performed with two direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) codes, and these data are anchored with results from both free molecular and Navier-Stokes calculations. Results for aerodynamic forces and moments are presented that demonstrate their sensitivity to rarefaction, that is, for free molecular to continuum conditions (Knudsen numbers of 111 to 0.0003). Also included are aerodynamic data as a function of angle of attack for different levels of rarefaction and results that demonstrate the aerodynamic sensitivity of the Orion CM to a range of reentry velocities (7.6 to 15 km/s).
Development of the X-33 Aerodynamic Uncertainty Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cobleigh, Brent R.
1998-01-01
An aerodynamic uncertainty model for the X-33 single-stage-to-orbit demonstrator aircraft has been developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The model is based on comparisons of historical flight test estimates to preflight wind-tunnel and analysis code predictions of vehicle aerodynamics documented during six lifting-body aircraft and the Space Shuttle Orbiter flight programs. The lifting-body and Orbiter data were used to define an appropriate uncertainty magnitude in the subsonic and supersonic flight regions, and the Orbiter data were used to extend the database to hypersonic Mach numbers. The uncertainty data consist of increments or percentage variations in the important aerodynamic coefficients and derivatives as a function of Mach number along a nominal trajectory. The uncertainty models will be used to perform linear analysis of the X-33 flight control system and Monte Carlo mission simulation studies. Because the X-33 aerodynamic uncertainty model was developed exclusively using historical data rather than X-33 specific characteristics, the model may be useful for other lifting-body studies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsung, K. K.; So, S. K.
2009-10-01
We show that admittance spectroscopy (AS) is a better technique than time of flight (TOF) to study the charge transport properties in dispersive materials. The hole transport properties of N ,N'-diphenyl-N ,N'-bis(1-naphthyl)(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (NPB) doped with different traps were evaluated by AS and TOF techniques. It was found that both techniques can show clear signals for measuring the mobility of NPB doped with shallow traps. When NPB was doped with deep traps, the AS signals were still clear for mobility extraction. In sharp contrast, the TOF transients become featureless and the carrier transit time cannot be determined. The validity of AS in mobility determination was demonstrated by comparing the extracted AS to TOF mobilities. Generally, the hole mobilities extracted by these two techniques were in excellent agreement. In addition, we will demonstrate that AS can be employed to measure carrier dispersion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maheshwari, Muneesh; Annamdas, Venu Gopal Madhav; Pang, John H. L.; Tjin, Swee Chuan; Asundi, Anand
2015-04-01
Structural health monitoring techniques using smart materials are on rise to meet the ever ending demand due to increased construction and manufacturing activities worldwide. The civil-structural components such as slabs, beams and columns and aero-components such as wings are constantly subjected to some or the other forms of external loading. This article thus focuses on condition monitoring due to loading/unloading cycle for a simply supported aluminum beam using multiple smart materials. On the specimen, fibre optic polarimetric sensor (FOPS) and fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors were glued. Piezoelectric wafer active sensor (PWAS) was also bonded at the centre of the specimen. FOPS and FBG provided the global and local strain measurements respectively whereas, PWAS predicted boundary condition variations by electromechanical admittance signatures. Thus these multiple smart materials together successfully assessed the condition of structure for loading and unloading tests.
HIAD-2 (Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator)
The Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) project is a disruptive technology that will accommodate the atmospheric entry of heavy payloads to planetary bodies such as Mars. HIAD over...
Aerodynamic lift effect on satellite orbits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karr, G. R.; Cleland, J. G.; Devries, L. L.
1975-01-01
Numerical quadrature is employed to obtain orbit perturbation results from the general perturbation equations. Both aerodynamic lift and drag forces are included in the analysis of the satellite orbit. An exponential atmosphere with and without atmospheric rotation is used. A comparison is made of the perturbations which are caused by atmospheric rotation with those caused by satellite aerodynamic effects. Results indicate that aerodynamic lift effects on the semi-major axis and orbit inclination can be of the same order as the effects of atmosphere rotation depending upon the orientation of the lift vector. The results reveal the importance of including aerodynamic lift effects in orbit perturbation analysis.
A method for characterizing aerodynamic sound sources in turbomachines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mongeau, L.; Thompson, D. E.; Mclaughlin, D. K.
1995-03-01
A method based on Weidemann's acoustic similarity laws [1] was used to investigate the aerodynamic sound generated by a partially ducted centrifugal pump rotor. The primary objective of the method was to determine the spectral characteristics of the sound source by isolating the effects of acoustic phenomena such as duct resonances or sound reflections. Pump-radiated sound pressure spectra were measured for different impeller rotational speeds, keeping the operating condition constant. The spectra, assumed to be expressed as the product of a source spectral distribution function and an acoustic frequency response function, were then decomposed into a product form following a computer-implemented algorithm. The method was successful in accurately determining the spectral distribution of the broadband aerodynamic noise generating mechanisms involved and that of the acoustic frequency response of the system. The absolute levels of the source function and the acoustic function were established by assuming that, over a limited low frequency range, the average gain of the frequency response function is unity so that comparisons between different pump operating conditions could be made. The source spectral distribution was found to be independent of the microphone location and the acoustic loading. When applicable, this method therefore allows the characterization of aerodynamic sound sources by measuring ordinary sound pressure spectra, at any one point around the source, without having to isolate the source from the system. The source characterization method was instrumental in the study of sound generation by rotating stall presented in a previous publication [2].
Aerodynamic Separability in Tip Speed Ratio and Separability in Wind Speed- a Comparison
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gala Santos, M. L.; Leithead, W. E.; Jamieson, P.
2014-12-01
From extensive application over a number of years, it has been established that the nonlinear rotor aerodynamics of typical medium and large wind turbines exhibit an effectively global separability property, in other words the aerodynamic torque of the machine can be defined by two independent additive functions. Two versions of the separability of aerodynamic torque for variable speed wind turbines are investigated here; the separated function, related to wind speed, in the first version is only dependent on that variable and not rotor speed and in the second version is only dependent on tip speed ratio. Both provide very good approximations to the aerodynamic torque over extensive neighbourhoods of T0, at least from 0 to 2T0.
Aerodynamic performance of centrifugal compressors
Sayyed, S.
1981-12-01
Saving money with an efficient pipeline system design depends on accurately predicting compressor performance and ensuring that it meets the manufacturer's guaranteed levels. When shop testing with the actual gas is impractical, an aerodynamic test can ascertain compressor efficiency, but the accuracy and consistency of data acquisition in such tests is critical. Low test-pressure levels necessitate accounting for the effects of Reynolds number and heat transfer. Moreover, the compressor user and manufacturer must agree on the magnitude of the corrections to be applied to the test data.
Multi-Disciplinary Computational Aerodynamics
2016-01-01
However, as the DSV is shed and propagates along the wing it induces sudden and difficult to predict variations in aerodynamic forces and pitching ...circulation build- up around the airfoil. The pitching moment is also shifted to a lower value due to rotation- induced camber effects. Beyond a critical...on vortex breakdown,” AIAA J., Vol. 12, No. 5, 1974, pp. 602–607. 66Visbal, M. R., “Onset of vortex breakdown about a pitching delta wing ,” AIAA J
Simulation of iced wing aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Potapczuk, M. G.; Bragg, M. B.; Kwon, O. J.; Sankar, L. N.
1991-01-01
The sectional and total aerodynamic load characteristics of moderate aspect ratio wings with and without simulated glaze leading edge ice were studied both computationally, using a three dimensional, compressible Navier-Stokes solver, and experimentally. The wing has an untwisted, untapered planform shape with NACA 0012 airfoil section. The wing has an unswept and swept configuration with aspect ratios of 4.06 and 5.0. Comparisons of computed surface pressures and sectional loads with experimental data for identical configurations are given. The abrupt decrease in stall angle of attack for the wing, as a result of the leading edge ice formation, was demonstrated numerically and experimentally.
Satellite Aerodynamics and Density Determination from Satellite Dynamic Response
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karr, G. R.
1972-01-01
The aerodynamic drag and lift properties of a satellite are first expressed as a function of two parameters associated with gas-surface interaction at the satellite surface. The dynamic response of the satellite as it passes through the atmosphere is then expressed as a function of the two gas-surface interaction parameters, the atmospheric density, the satellite velocity, and the satellite orientation to the high speed flow. By proper correlation of the observed dynamic response with the changing angle of attack of the satellite, it is found that the two unknown gas-surface interaction parameters can be determined. Once the gas-surface interaction parameters are known, the aerodynamic properties of the satellite at all angles of attack are also determined.
General Theory of Aerodynamic Instability and the Mechanism of Flutter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Theodorsen, Theodore
1979-01-01
The aerodynamic forces on an oscillating airfoil or airfoil-aileron combination of three independent degrees of freedom were determined. The problem resolves itself into the solution of certain definite integrals, which were identified as Bessel functions of the first and second kind, and of zero and first order. The theory, based on potential flow and the Kutta condition, is fundamentally equivalent to the conventional wing section theory relating to the steady case. The air forces being known, the mechanism of aerodynamic instability was analyzed. An exact solution, involving potential flow and the adoption of the Kutta condition, was derived. The solution is of a simple form and is expressed by means of an auxiliary parameter k. The flutter velocity, treated as the unknown quantity, was determined as a function of a certain ratio of the frequencies in the separate degrees of freedom for any magnitudes and combinations of the airfoil-aileron parameters.
The aerodynamics of small Reynolds numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmitz, F. W.
1980-01-01
Aerodynamic characteristics of wing model gliders and bird wings in particular are discussed. Wind tunnel measurements and aerodynamics of small Reynolds numbers are enumerated. Airfoil behavior in the critical transition from laminar to turbulent boundary layer, which is more important to bird wing models than to large airplanes, was observed. Experimental results are provided, and an artificial bird wing is described.
A new technique for aerodynamic noise calculation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hardin, J. C.; Pope, D. S.
1992-01-01
A novel method for the numerical analysis of aerodynamic noise generation is presented. The method involves first solving for the time-dependent incompressible flow for the given geometry. This fully nonlinear method that is tailored to extract the relevant acoustic fluctuations seems to be an efficient approach to the numerical analysis of aerodynamic noise generation.
Future Computer Requirements for Computational Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1978-01-01
Recent advances in computational aerodynamics are discussed as well as motivations for and potential benefits of a National Aerodynamic Simulation Facility having the capability to solve fluid dynamic equations at speeds two to three orders of magnitude faster than presently possible with general computers. Two contracted efforts to define processor architectures for such a facility are summarized.
Aerodynamics of Sounding-Rocket Geometries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barrowman, J.
1982-01-01
Theoretical aerodynamics program TAD predicts aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles with sounding-rocket configurations. These slender, Axisymmetric finned vehicles have a wide range of aeronautical applications from rockets to high-speed armament. TAD calculates characteristics of separate portions of vehicle, calculates interference between portions, and combines results to form total vehicle solution.
Aerodynamic seal assemblies for turbo-machinery
Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Wolfe, Christopher; Fang, Biao
2015-09-29
The present application provides an aerodynamic seal assembly for use with a turbo-machine. The aerodynamic seal assembly may include a number of springs, a shoe connected to the springs, and a secondary seal positioned about the springs and the shoe.
X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.
1999-01-01
Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will design, build, and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604BOO02G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate the aerodynamic flight database for the hypersonic regime. The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. Al these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.
X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.
1999-01-01
Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will build and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604B0002G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate an aerodynamic flight database i n the hypersonic regime. The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. At these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.
Orion Crew Module Aerodynamic Testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murphy, Kelly J.; Bibb, Karen L.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Rhode, Matthew N.; Owens, Bruce; Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Bell, James H.; Wilson, Thomas M.
2011-01-01
The Apollo-derived Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), part of NASA s now-cancelled Constellation Program, has become the reference design for the new Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The MPCV will serve as the exploration vehicle for all near-term human space missions. A strategic wind-tunnel test program has been executed at numerous facilities throughout the country to support several phases of aerodynamic database development for the Orion spacecraft. This paper presents a summary of the experimental static aerodynamic data collected to-date for the Orion Crew Module (CM) capsule. The test program described herein involved personnel and resources from NASA Langley Research Center, NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Johnson Space Flight Center, Arnold Engineering and Development Center, Lockheed Martin Space Sciences, and Orbital Sciences. Data has been compiled from eight different wind tunnel tests in the CEV Aerosciences Program. Comparisons are made as appropriate to highlight effects of angle of attack, Mach number, Reynolds number, and model support system effects.
Aerodynamics of the hovering hummingbird.
Warrick, Douglas R; Tobalske, Bret W; Powers, Donald R
2005-06-23
Despite profound musculoskeletal differences, hummingbirds (Trochilidae) are widely thought to employ aerodynamic mechanisms similar to those used by insects. The kinematic symmetry of the hummingbird upstroke and downstroke has led to the assumption that these halves of the wingbeat cycle contribute equally to weight support during hovering, as exhibited by insects of similar size. This assumption has been applied, either explicitly or implicitly, in widely used aerodynamic models and in a variety of empirical tests. Here we provide measurements of the wake of hovering rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus) obtained with digital particle image velocimetry that show force asymmetry: hummingbirds produce 75% of their weight support during the downstroke and only 25% during the upstroke. Some of this asymmetry is probably due to inversion of their cambered wings during upstroke. The wake of hummingbird wings also reveals evidence of leading-edge vortices created during the downstroke, indicating that they may operate at Reynolds numbers sufficiently low to exploit a key mechanism typical of insect hovering. Hummingbird hovering approaches that of insects, yet remains distinct because of effects resulting from an inherently dissimilar-avian-body plan.
Perching aerodynamics and trajectory optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wickenheiser, Adam; Garcia, Ephrahim
2007-04-01
Advances in smart materials, actuators, and control architecture have enabled new flight capabilities for aircraft. Perching is one such capability, described as a vertical landing maneuver using in-flight shape reconfiguration in lieu of high thrust generation. A morphing, perching aircraft design is presented that is capable of post stall flight and very slow landing on a vertical platform. A comprehensive model of the aircraft's aerodynamics, with special regard to nonlinear affects such as flow separation and dynamic stall, is discussed. Trajectory optimization using nonlinear programming techniques is employed to show the effects that morphing and nonlinear aerodynamics have on the maneuver. These effects are shown to decrease the initial height and distance required to initiate the maneuver, reduce the bounds on the trajectory, and decrease the required thrust for the maneuver. Perching trajectories comparing morphing versus fixed-configuration and stalled versus un-stalled aircraft are presented. It is demonstrated that a vertical landing is possible in the absence of high thrust if post-stall flight capabilities and vehicle reconfiguration are utilized.
X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.
1999-01-01
Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will build and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604B0002G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate an aerodynamic flight database in the hypersonic regime. The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. At these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.
X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.
1999-01-01
Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will build and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604B0002G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate an aerodynamic flight database in the hypersonic regime, The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. At these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batterson, J. G.
1986-01-01
The successful parametric modeling of the aerodynamics for an airplane operating at high angles of attack or sideslip is performed in two phases. First the aerodynamic model structure must be determined and second the associated aerodynamic parameters (stability and control derivatives) must be estimated for that model. The purpose of this paper is to document two versions of a stepwise regression computer program which were developed for the determination of airplane aerodynamic model structure and to provide two examples of their use on computer generated data. References are provided for the application of the programs to real flight data. The two computer programs that are the subject of this report, STEP and STEPSPL, are written in FORTRAN IV (ANSI l966) compatible with a CDC FTN4 compiler. Both programs are adaptations of a standard forward stepwise regression algorithm. The purpose of the adaptation is to facilitate the selection of a adequate mathematical model of the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients of an airplane from flight test data. The major difference between STEP and STEPSPL is in the basis for the model. The basis for the model in STEP is the standard polynomial Taylor's series expansion of the aerodynamic function about some steady-state trim condition. Program STEPSPL utilizes a set of spline basis functions.
Training Data Requirement for a Neural Network to Predict Aerodynamic Coefficients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor); Rajkumar, T.; Bardina, Jorge
2003-01-01
Basic aerodynamic coefficients are modeled as functions of angle of attack, speed brake deflection angle, Mach number, and side slip angle. Most of the aerodynamic parameters can be well-fitted using polynomial functions. We previously demonstrated that a neural network is a fast, reliable way of predicting aerodynamic coefficients. We encountered few under fitted and/or over fitted results during prediction. The training data for the neural network are derived from wind tunnel test measurements and numerical simulations. The basic questions that arise are: how many training data points are required to produce an efficient neural network prediction, and which type of transfer functions should be used between the input-hidden layer and hidden-output layer. In this paper, a comparative study of the efficiency of neural network prediction based on different transfer functions and training dataset sizes is presented. The results of the neural network prediction reflect the sensitivity of the architecture, transfer functions, and training dataset size.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Zhang; Xu, Lijun
2013-07-01
Calderon's method was used to reconstruct electrical admittivity, i.e. conductivity as well as permittivity, for electrical tomography in this paper. It is a direct algorithm of the image reconstruction, as the value of the real and imaginary parts of the admittivity at any position can be obtained independently. A new way to construct the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map from the data collected through two-terminal/electrode excitation strategy was also introduced to calculate the scattering transform. The image reconstruction was implemented through numerical integration. Since the Gauss-Legendre quadrature was applied and can be predetermined, the image reconstruction process was fast and resulted in images of good quality. Both simulated and experimental results validated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method in dual-modality electrical tomography.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fuller, C. R.
1984-01-01
Sound propagation in infinite, semiinfinite, and finite circular ducts with circumferentially varying wall admittances is investigated analytically. The infinite case is considered, and an example demonstrates the effects of wall-admittance distribution on dispersion characteristics and mode shapes. An exact solution is obtained for the semiinfinite case, a circular duct with a flanged opening: sidelobe suppression and circumferential-mode energy scattering leading to radiated-field asymmetry are found. A finite duct system with specified hard-walled pressure sources is examined in detail, evaluating reflection coefficients, transmission losses, and radiated-field directivity. Graphs and diagrams are provided, and the implications of the results obtained for the design of aircraft-turbofan inlet liners are discussed.
Prediction of Unsteady Aerodynamic Coefficients at High Angles of Attack
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pamadi, Bandu N.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Klein, Vladislav; Brandon, Jay M.
2001-01-01
The nonlinear indicial response method is used to model the unsteady aerodynamic coefficients in the low speed longitudinal oscillatory wind tunnel test data of the 0.1 scale model of the F-16XL aircraft. Exponential functions are used to approximate the deficiency function in the indicial response. Using one set of oscillatory wind tunnel data and parameter identification method, the unknown parameters in the exponential functions are estimated. The genetic algorithm is used as a least square minimizing algorithm. The assumed model structures and parameter estimates are validated by comparing the predictions with other sets of available oscillatory wind tunnel test data.
NASA Iced Aerodynamics and Controls Current Research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Addy, Gene
2009-01-01
This slide presentation reviews the state of current research in the area of aerodynamics and aircraft control with ice conditions by the Aviation Safety Program, part of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Controls Project (IRAC). Included in the presentation is a overview of the modeling efforts. The objective of the modeling is to develop experimental and computational methods to model and predict aircraft response during adverse flight conditions, including icing. The Aircraft icing modeling efforts includes the Ice-Contaminated Aerodynamics Modeling, which examines the effects of ice contamination on aircraft aerodynamics, and CFD modeling of ice-contaminated aircraft aerodynamics, and Advanced Ice Accretion Process Modeling which examines the physics of ice accretion, and works on computational modeling of ice accretions. The IRAC testbed, a Generic Transport Model (GTM) and its use in the investigation of the effects of icing on its aerodynamics is also reviewed. This has led to a more thorough understanding and models, both theoretical and empirical of icing physics and ice accretion for airframes, advanced 3D ice accretion prediction codes, CFD methods for iced aerodynamics and better understanding of aircraft iced aerodynamics and its effects on control surface effectiveness.
Influence of a humidor on the aerodynamics of baseballs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, Edmund R.; Bohn, John L.
2008-11-01
We investigate whether storing baseballs in a controlled humidity environment significantly affects their aerodynamic properties. We measure the change in diameter and weight of baseballs as a function of relative humidity in which the balls are stored. The trajectories of pitched and batted baseballs are modeled to assess the difference between those stored at 30% relative humidity versus 50% relative humidity. We find that a drier baseball will curve slightly more than a humidified one for a given pitch velocity and rotation rate. We also find that aerodynamics alone would add 2ft to the distance a wetter baseball ball is hit. This increased distance is compensated by a 6ft reduction in the batted distance due to the change in the coefficient of restitution of the ball. We discuss consequences of these results for baseball played at Coors Field in Denver, where baseballs have been stored in a humidor at 50% relative humidity since 2002.
Automated Aerodynamic Optimization System for SST Wing-Body Configuration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sasaki, Daisuke; Yang, Guowei; Obayashi, Shigeru
In this paper, wing-body configurations for a next generation Supersonic Transport are designed by means of Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms. SST wing-body configurations are designed to reduce the aerodynamic drag and the sonic boom for supersonic flight. To lower the sonic boom intensity, the present objective function is to satisfy the equivalent area distribution for low sonic boom proposed by Darden. Wing and fuselage is defined by 131 design variables and optimized at the same time. Structured multiblock grids around SST wing-body configuration are generated automatically and an Euler solver is used to evaluate the aerodynamic performance of SST wing-body configuration. Compromised solutions are found as Pareto solutions. Although they have a variety of fuselage configurations, all of them have a similar wing planform due to the imposed constraints. The present results imply that a lifting surface should be distributed innovatively to match Darden’s distribution for low boom.
Grid Sensitivity and Aerodynamic Optimization of Generic Airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sadrehaghighi, Ideen; Smith, Robert E.; Tiwari, Surendra N.
1995-01-01
An algorithm is developed to obtain the grid sensitivity with respect to design parameters for aerodynamic optimization. The procedure is advocating a novel (geometrical) parameterization using spline functions such as NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B- Splines) for defining the airfoil geometry. An interactive algebraic grid generation technique is employed to generate C-type grids around airfoils. The grid sensitivity of the domain with respect to geometric design parameters has been obtained by direct differentiation of the grid equations. A hybrid approach is proposed for more geometrically complex configurations such as a wing or fuselage. The aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients are obtained by direct differentiation of the compressible two-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. An optimization package has been introduced into the algorithm in order to optimize the airfoil surface. Results demonstrate a substantially improved design due to maximized lift/drag ratio of the airfoil.
General Theory of Aerodynamic Instability and the Mechanism of Flutter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Theodorsen, Theodore
1949-01-01
The aerodynamic forces on an oscillating airfoil or airfoil-aileron combination of three independent degrees of freedom have been determined. The problem resolves itself into the solution of certain definite integrals, which have been identified as Bessel functions of the first and second kind and of zero and first order. The theory, being based on potential flow and the Kutta condition, is fundamentally equivalent to the conventional wing-section theory relating to the steady case. The air forces being known, the mechanism of aerodynamic instability has been analyzed in detail. An exact solution, involving potential flow and the adoption of the Kutta condition, has been analyzed in detail. An exact solution, involving potential flow and the adoption of the Kutta condition, has been arrived at. The solution is of a simple form and is expressed by means of an auxiliary parameter K.
On Cup Anemometer Rotor Aerodynamics
Pindado, Santiago; Pérez, Javier; Avila-Sanchez, Sergio
2012-01-01
The influence of anemometer rotor shape parameters, such as the cups' front area or their center rotation radius on the anemometer's performance was analyzed. This analysis was based on calibrations performed on two different anemometers (one based on magnet system output signal, and the other one based on an opto-electronic system output signal), tested with 21 different rotors. The results were compared to the ones resulting from classical analytical models. The results clearly showed a linear dependency of both calibration constants, the slope and the offset, on the cups' center rotation radius, the influence of the front area of the cups also being observed. The analytical model of Kondo et al. was proved to be accurate if it is based on precise data related to the aerodynamic behavior of a rotor's cup. PMID:22778638
On cup anemometer rotor aerodynamics.
Pindado, Santiago; Pérez, Javier; Avila-Sanchez, Sergio
2012-01-01
The influence of anemometer rotor shape parameters, such as the cups' front area or their center rotation radius on the anemometer's performance was analyzed. This analysis was based on calibrations performed on two different anemometers (one based on magnet system output signal, and the other one based on an opto-electronic system output signal), tested with 21 different rotors. The results were compared to the ones resulting from classical analytical models. The results clearly showed a linear dependency of both calibration constants, the slope and the offset, on the cups' center rotation radius, the influence of the front area of the cups also being observed. The analytical model of Kondo et al. was proved to be accurate if it is based on precise data related to the aerodynamic behavior of a rotor's cup.
System for determining aerodynamic imbalance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Churchill, Gary B. (Inventor); Cheung, Benny K. (Inventor)
1994-01-01
A system is provided for determining tracking error in a propeller or rotor driven aircraft by determining differences in the aerodynamic loading on the propeller or rotor blades of the aircraft. The system includes a microphone disposed relative to the blades during the rotation thereof so as to receive separate pressure pulses produced by each of the blades during the passage thereof by the microphone. A low pass filter filters the output signal produced by the microphone, the low pass filter having an upper cut-off frequency set below the frequency at which the blades pass by the microphone. A sensor produces an output signal after each complete revolution of the blades, and a recording display device displays the outputs of the low pass filter and sensor so as to enable evaluation of the relative magnitudes of the pressure pulses produced by passage of the blades by the microphone during each complete revolution of the blades.
Rarefaction Effects in Hypersonic Aerodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riabov, Vladimir V.
2011-05-01
The Direct Simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) technique is used for numerical analysis of rarefied-gas hypersonic flows near a blunt plate, wedge, two side-by-side plates, disk, torus, and rotating cylinder. The role of various similarity parameters (Knudsen and Mach numbers, geometrical and temperature factors, specific heat ratios, and others) in aerodynamics of the probes is studied. Important kinetic effects that are specific for the transition flow regime have been found: non-monotonic lift and drag of plates, strong repulsive force between side-by-side plates and cylinders, dependence of drag on torus radii ratio, and the reverse Magnus effect on the lift of a rotating cylinder. The numerical results are in a good agreement with experimental data, which were obtained in a vacuum chamber at low and moderate Knudsen numbers from 0.01 to 10.
Aerodynamic seals for rotary machine
Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Cirri, Massimiliano; Thatte, Azam Mihir; Williams, John Robert
2016-02-09
An aerodynamic seal assembly for a rotary machine includes multiple sealing device segments disposed circumferentially intermediate to a stationary housing and a rotor. Each of the segments includes a shoe plate with a forward-shoe section and an aft-shoe section having multiple labyrinth teeth therebetween facing the rotor. The sealing device segment also includes multiple flexures connected to the shoe plate and to a top interface element, wherein the multiple flexures are configured to allow the high pressure fluid to occupy a forward cavity and the low pressure fluid to occupy an aft cavity. Further, the sealing device segments include a secondary seal attached to the top interface element at one first end and positioned about the flexures and the shoe plate at one second end.
Integrated aerodynamic/dynamic optimization of helicopter rotor blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Walsh, Joanne L.; Riley, Michael F.
1989-01-01
An integrated aerodynamic/dynamic optimization procedure is used to minimize blade weight and 4 per rev vertical hub shear for a rotor blade in forward flight. The coupling of aerodynamics and dynamics is accomplished through the inclusion of airloads which vary with the design variables during the optimization process. Both single and multiple objective functions are used in the optimization formulation. The Global Criteria Approach is used to formulate the multiple objective optimization and results are compared with those obtained by using single objective function formulations. Constraints are imposed on natural frequencies, autorotational inertia, and centrifugal stress. The program CAMRAD is used for the blade aerodynamic and dynamic analyses, and the program CONMIN is used for the optimization. Since the spanwise and the azimuthal variations of loading are responsible for most rotor vibration and noise, the vertical airload distributions on the blade, before and after optimization, are compared. The total power required by the rotor to produce the same amount of thrust for a given area is also calculated before and after optimization. Results indicate that integrated optimization can significantly reduce the blade weight, the hub shear and the amplitude of the vertical airload distributions on the blade and the total power required by the rotor.
Transpiration Control Of Aerodynamics Via Porous Surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Banks, Daniel W.; Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.
1993-01-01
Quasi-active porous surface used to control pressure loading on aerodynamic surface of aircraft or other vehicle, according to proposal. In transpiration control, one makes small additions of pressure and/or mass to cavity beneath surface of porous skin on aerodynamic surface, thereby affecting rate of transpiration through porous surface. Porous skin located on forebody or any other suitable aerodynamic surface, with cavity just below surface. Device based on concept extremely lightweight, mechanically simple, occupies little volume in vehicle, and extremely adaptable.
Active Control of Aerodynamic Noise Sources
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reynolds, Gregory A.
2001-01-01
Aerodynamic noise sources become important when propulsion noise is relatively low, as during aircraft landing. Under these conditions, aerodynamic noise from high-lift systems can be significant. The research program and accomplishments described here are directed toward reduction of this aerodynamic noise. Progress toward this objective include correction of flow quality in the Low Turbulence Water Channel flow facility, development of a test model and traversing mechanism, and improvement of the data acquisition and flow visualization capabilities in the Aero. & Fluid Dynamics Laboratory. These developments are described in this report.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)
1999-01-01
The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop on February 25-28, 1997. The workshop was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, Flight Controls, Supersonic Laminar Flow Control, and Sonic Boom Prediction. The workshop objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT Motion Simulator results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas.
Some aspects of the aerodynamics of separating strap-ons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biswas, K. K.; Krishnan, C. G.
1994-11-01
An aerodynamics model for analyzing strap-on separation is proposed. This model comprises both interference aerodynamics and free-body aerodynamics. The interference aerodynamics is primarily due to the close proximity of core and strap-ons. The free-body aerodynamics is solely due to the body geometry of the strap-ons. Using this aerodynamic model, the dynamics of separating strap-ons has been simulated in a six-degree-of-freedom mode to determine if a collision occurs. This aerodynamic model is very handy for various off-design studies relating to separating strap-ons.
Identification of aerodynamic models for maneuvering aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lan, C. Edward; Hu, C. C.
1992-01-01
The method based on Fourier functional analysis and indicial formulation for aerodynamic modeling as proposed by Chin and Lan is extensively examined and improved for the purpose of general applications to realistic airplane configurations. Improvement is made to automate the calculation of model coefficients, and to evaluate more accurately the indicial integral. Test data of large angle-of-attack ranges for two different models, a 70 deg. delta wing and an F-18 model, are used to further verify the applicability of Fourier functional analysis and validate the indicial formulation. The results show that the general expression for harmonic motions throughout a range of k is capable of accurately modeling the nonlinear responses with large phase lag except in the region where an inconsistent hysteresis behavior from one frequency to the other occurs. The results by the indicial formulation indicate that more accurate results can be obtained when the motion starts from a low angle of attack where hysteresis effect is not important.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Messina, Michael D.
1995-01-01
The method described in this report is intended to present an overview of a process developed to extract the forebody aerodynamic increments from flight tests. The process to determine the aerodynamic increments (rolling pitching, and yawing moments, Cl, Cm, Cn, respectively) for the forebody strake controllers added to the F/A - 18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) aircraft was developed to validate the forebody strake aerodynamic model used in simulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maheshwari, Muneesh; Annamdas, Venu Gopal M.; Pang, John Hock Lye; Tjin, Swee C.; Asundi, Anand
2015-12-01
Damage monitoring is the need of the hour in this age of infrastructure. Many methods are being used for damage monitoring in different mechanical and civil structures. Some of them are strain based methods in which abruptly increased strain signifies the presence of damage in the structure. This article focuses on crack monitoring of a fixedfixed beam using fiber optic sensors which can measure strain locally or globally. The two types of fiber optic sensors used in this research are fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and fiber optic polarimetric sensors (FOPS). FBG and FOPS are used for local strain monitoring (at one point only) and global strain monitoring (in the entire specimen) respectively. At the centre of the specimen, a piezoelectric wafer active sensor (PWAS) is also attached. PWAS is used to obtain electromechanical admittance (EMA) signatures. Further, these EMA signatures are analysed to access the damage state in the beam. These multiple smart materials together provide improved information on damages in the specimen which is very valuable for the structural health monitoring (SHM) of the specimen.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hahne, David E. (Editor)
1999-01-01
NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1999 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 8-12, 1999 in Anaheim, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in the areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to: (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working on HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and midpoint optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented, along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program. This Volume 1/Part 1 publication covers configuration aerodynamics.
Bayesian inference of nonlinear unsteady aerodynamics from aeroelastic limit cycle oscillations
Sandhu, Rimple; Poirel, Dominique; Pettit, Chris; Khalil, Mohammad; Sarkar, Abhijit
2016-07-01
A Bayesian model selection and parameter estimation algorithm is applied to investigate the influence of nonlinear and unsteady aerodynamic loads on the limit cycle oscillation (LCO) of a pitching airfoil in the transitional Reynolds number regime. At small angles of attack, laminar boundary layer trailing edge separation causes negative aerodynamic damping leading to the LCO. The fluid–structure interaction of the rigid, but elastically mounted, airfoil and nonlinear unsteady aerodynamics is represented by two coupled nonlinear stochastic ordinary differential equations containing uncertain parameters and model approximation errors. Several plausible aerodynamic models with increasing complexity are proposed to describe the aeroelastic system leading to LCO. The likelihood in the posterior parameter probability density function (pdf) is available semi-analytically using the extended Kalman filter for the state estimation of the coupled nonlinear structural and unsteady aerodynamic model. The posterior parameter pdf is sampled using a parallel and adaptive Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm. The posterior probability of each model is estimated using the Chib–Jeliazkov method that directly uses the posterior MCMC samples for evidence (marginal likelihood) computation. The Bayesian algorithm is validated through a numerical study and then applied to model the nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic loads using wind-tunnel test data at various Reynolds numbers.
Bayesian inference of nonlinear unsteady aerodynamics from aeroelastic limit cycle oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sandhu, Rimple; Poirel, Dominique; Pettit, Chris; Khalil, Mohammad; Sarkar, Abhijit
2016-07-01
A Bayesian model selection and parameter estimation algorithm is applied to investigate the influence of nonlinear and unsteady aerodynamic loads on the limit cycle oscillation (LCO) of a pitching airfoil in the transitional Reynolds number regime. At small angles of attack, laminar boundary layer trailing edge separation causes negative aerodynamic damping leading to the LCO. The fluid-structure interaction of the rigid, but elastically mounted, airfoil and nonlinear unsteady aerodynamics is represented by two coupled nonlinear stochastic ordinary differential equations containing uncertain parameters and model approximation errors. Several plausible aerodynamic models with increasing complexity are proposed to describe the aeroelastic system leading to LCO. The likelihood in the posterior parameter probability density function (pdf) is available semi-analytically using the extended Kalman filter for the state estimation of the coupled nonlinear structural and unsteady aerodynamic model. The posterior parameter pdf is sampled using a parallel and adaptive Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm. The posterior probability of each model is estimated using the Chib-Jeliazkov method that directly uses the posterior MCMC samples for evidence (marginal likelihood) computation. The Bayesian algorithm is validated through a numerical study and then applied to model the nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic loads using wind-tunnel test data at various Reynolds numbers.
Aerodynamic Analyses Requiring Advanced Computers, part 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1975-01-01
Papers given at the conference present the results of theoretical research on aerodynamic flow problems requiring the use of advanced computers. Topics discussed include two-dimensional configurations, three-dimensional configurations, transonic aircraft, and the space shuttle.
Aerodynamic Analyses Requiring Advanced Computers, Part 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1975-01-01
Papers are presented which deal with results of theoretical research on aerodynamic flow problems requiring the use of advanced computers. Topics discussed include: viscous flows, boundary layer equations, turbulence modeling and Navier-Stokes equations, and internal flows.
HSR Aerodynamic Performance Status and Challenges
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gilbert, William P.; Antani, Tony; Ball, Doug; Calloway, Robert L.; Snyder, Phil
1999-01-01
This paper describes HSR (High Speed Research) Aerodynamic Performance Status and Challenges. The topics include: 1) Aero impact on HSR; 2) Goals and Targets; 3) Progress and Status; and 4) Remaining Challenges. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.
Vertical Landing Aerodynamics of Reusable Rocket Vehicle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nonaka, Satoshi; Nishida, Hiroyuki; Kato, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Inatani, Yoshifumi
The aerodynamic characteristics of a vertical landing rocket are affected by its engine plume in the landing phase. The influences of interaction of the engine plume with the freestream around the vehicle on the aerodynamic characteristics are studied experimentally aiming to realize safe landing of the vertical landing rocket. The aerodynamic forces and surface pressure distributions are measured using a scaled model of a reusable rocket vehicle in low-speed wind tunnels. The flow field around the vehicle model is visualized using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) method. Results show that the aerodynamic characteristics, such as the drag force and pitching moment, are strongly affected by the change in the base pressure distributions and reattachment of a separation flow around the vehicle.
Aerodynamics of a rolling airframe missile
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tisserand, L. E.
1981-05-01
For guidance-related reasons, there is considerable interest in rolling missiles having single-plane steering capability. To aid the aerodynamic design of these airframes, a unique investigation into the aerodynamics of a rolling, steering missile has been carried out. It represents the first known attempt to measure in a wind tunnel the aerodynamic forces and moments that act on a spinning body-canard-tail configuration that exercises canard steering in phase with body roll position. Measurements were made with the model spinning at steady-state roll rates ranging from 15 to 40 Hz over an angle-of-attack range up to about 16 deg. This short, exploratory investigation has demonstrated that a better understanding and a more complete definition of the aerodynamics of rolling, steering vehicles can be developed by way of simulative wind-tunnel testing.
Switchable and Tunable Aerodynamic Drag on Cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guttag, Mark; Lopéz Jiménez, Francisco; Upadhyaya, Priyank; Kumar, Shanmugam; Reis, Pedro
We report results on the performance of Smart Morphable Surfaces (Smporhs) that can be mounted onto cylindrical structures to actively reduce their aerodynamic drag. Our system comprises of an elastomeric thin shell with a series of carefully designed subsurface cavities that, once depressurized, lead to a dramatic deformation of the surface topography, on demand. Our design is inspired by the morphology of the giant cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) which possesses an array of axial grooves, thought to help reduce aerodynamic drag, thereby enhancing the structural robustness of the plant under wind loading. We perform systematic wind tunnel tests on cylinders covered with our Smorphs and characterize their aerodynamic performance. The switchable and tunable nature of our system offers substantial advantages for aerodynamic performance when compared to static topographies, due to their operation over a wider range of flow conditions.
Switchable and Tunable Aerodynamic Drag on Cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guttag, Mark; Lopez Jimenez, Francisco; Reis, Pedro
2015-11-01
We report results on the performance of Smart Morphable Surfaces (Smporhs) that can be mounted onto cylindrical structures to actively reduce their aerodynamic drag. Our system comprises of an elastomeric thin shell with a series of carefully designed subsurface cavities that, once depressurized, lead to a dramatic deformation of the surface topography, on demand. Our design is inspired by the morphology of the giant cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) which possesses an array of axial grooves, which are thought to help reduce aerodynamic drag, thereby enhancing the structural robustness of the plant under wind loading. We perform systematic wind tunnel tests on cylinders covered with our Smorphs and characterize their aerodynamic performance. The switchable and tunable nature of our system offers substantial advantages for aerodynamic performance when compared to static topographies, due to their operation over a wider range of flow conditions.
Hypervelocity Free-Flight Aerodynamic Facility (HFFAF)
The HFFAF is the only aeroballistic range the nation currently capable of testing in gases other than air and at sub-atmospheric pressures. It is used primarily to study the aerodynamics, Aerotherm...
Uniaxial aerodynamic attitude control of artificial satellites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sazonov, V. V.
1983-01-01
Within the context of a simple mechanical model the paper examines the movement of a satellite with respect to the center of masses under conditions of uniaxial aerodynamic attitude control. The equations of motion of the satellite take account of the gravitational and restorative aerodynamic moments. It is presumed that the aerodynamic moment is much larger than the gravitational, and the motion equations contain a large parameter. A two-parameter integrated surface of these equations is constructed in the form of formal series in terms of negative powers of the large parameter, describing the oscillations and rotations of the satellite about its lengthwise axis, approximately oriented along the orbital tangent. It is proposed to treat such movements as nominal undisturbed motions of the satellite under conditions of aerodynamic attitude control. A numerical investigation is made for the above integrated surface.
Aerodynamic Characterization of a Modern Launch Vehicle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, Robert M.; Holland, Scott D.; Blevins, John A.
2011-01-01
A modern launch vehicle is by necessity an extremely integrated design. The accurate characterization of its aerodynamic characteristics is essential to determine design loads, to design flight control laws, and to establish performance. The NASA Ares Aerodynamics Panel has been responsible for technical planning, execution, and vetting of the aerodynamic characterization of the Ares I vehicle. An aerodynamics team supporting the Panel consists of wind tunnel engineers, computational engineers, database engineers, and other analysts that address topics such as uncertainty quantification. The team resides at three NASA centers: Langley Research Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Ames Research Center. The Panel has developed strategies to synergistically combine both the wind tunnel efforts and the computational efforts with the goal of validating the computations. Selected examples highlight key flow physics and, where possible, the fidelity of the comparisons between wind tunnel results and the computations. Lessons learned summarize what has been gleaned during the project and can be useful for other vehicle development projects.
Aerodynamics as a subway design parameter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kurtz, D. W.
1976-01-01
A parametric sensitivity study has been performed on the system operational energy requirement in order to guide subway design strategy. Aerodynamics can play a dominant or trivial role, depending upon the system characteristics. Optimization of the aerodynamic parameters may not minimize the total operational energy. Isolation of the station box from the tunnel and reduction of the inertial power requirements pay the largest dividends in terms of the operational energy requirement.
Experimental Facilities and Modelling for Rarefied Aerodynamics
2011-01-01
aerodynamic forces and moments that act on an object moving in the gas . The aerodynamics of rarefied gases also investigates the flow of gases in...Originally, theoretical models for rarefied gas flows were developed in the frame of the molecular kinetic theory. Thus the first self-consistent descriptions...method [7-11]. 3.0 EXPERIMENTAL FACILITIES FOR RAREFIED FLOWS 3.1 Overview Rarefied - gas (vacuum) wind tunnel is a wind tunnel operating at low pressures
Means for controlling aerodynamically induced twist
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elber, W. (Inventor)
1982-01-01
A control mechanism which provides active compensation for aerodynamically induced twist deformation of high aspect ratio wings consists of a torque tube, internal to each wing and rigidly attached near the tip of each wing, which is moved by an actuator located in the aircraft fuselage. As changes in the aerodynamic loads on the wings occur the torque tube is rotated to compensate for the induced wing twist.
The oscillating wing with aerodynamically balanced elevator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kussner, H G; Schwartz, I
1941-01-01
The two-dimensional problem of the oscillating wing with aerodynamically balanced elevator is treated in the manner that the wing is replaced by a plate with bends and stages and the airfoil section by a mean line consisting of one or more straights. The computed formulas and tables permit, on these premises, the prediction of the pressure distribution and of the aerodynamic reactions of oscillating elevators and tabs with any position of elevator hinge in respect to elevator leading edge.
Three-dimensional aerodynamic shape optimization using discrete sensitivity analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burgreen, Gregory W.
1995-01-01
An aerodynamic shape optimization procedure based on discrete sensitivity analysis is extended to treat three-dimensional geometries. The function of sensitivity analysis is to directly couple computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with numerical optimization techniques, which facilitates the construction of efficient direct-design methods. The development of a practical three-dimensional design procedures entails many challenges, such as: (1) the demand for significant efficiency improvements over current design methods; (2) a general and flexible three-dimensional surface representation; and (3) the efficient solution of very large systems of linear algebraic equations. It is demonstrated that each of these challenges is overcome by: (1) employing fully implicit (Newton) methods for the CFD analyses; (2) adopting a Bezier-Bernstein polynomial parameterization of two- and three-dimensional surfaces; and (3) using preconditioned conjugate gradient-like linear system solvers. Whereas each of these extensions independently yields an improvement in computational efficiency, the combined effect of implementing all the extensions simultaneously results in a significant factor of 50 decrease in computational time and a factor of eight reduction in memory over the most efficient design strategies in current use. The new aerodynamic shape optimization procedure is demonstrated in the design of both two- and three-dimensional inviscid aerodynamic problems including a two-dimensional supersonic internal/external nozzle, two-dimensional transonic airfoils (resulting in supercritical shapes), three-dimensional transport wings, and three-dimensional supersonic delta wings. Each design application results in realistic and useful optimized shapes.
Sensitivity Analysis and Optimization of Aerodynamic Configurations with Blend Surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomas, A. M.; Tiwari, S. N.
1997-01-01
A novel (geometrical) parametrization procedure using solutions to a suitably chosen fourth order partial differential equation is used to define a class of airplane configurations. Inclusive in this definition are surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, vertical tail and horizontal tail. The design variables are incorporated into the boundary conditions, and the solution is expressed as a Fourier series. The fuselage has circular cross section, and the radius is an algebraic function of four design parameters and an independent computational variable. Volume grids are obtained through an application of the Control Point Form method. A graphic interface software is developed which dynamically changes the surface of the airplane configuration with the change in input design variable. The software is made user friendly and is targeted towards the initial conceptual development of any aerodynamic configurations. Grid sensitivity with respect to surface design parameters and aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients based on potential flow is obtained using an Automatic Differentiation precompiler software tool ADIFOR. Aerodynamic shape optimization of the complete aircraft with twenty four design variables is performed. Unstructured and structured volume grids and Euler solutions are obtained with standard software to demonstrate the feasibility of the new surface definition.
Atmospheric tests of trailing-edge aerodynamic devices
Miller, L S; Huang, S; Quandt, G A
1998-01-01
An experiment was conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s (NREL`s) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) using an instrumented horizontal-axis wind turbine that incorporated variable-span, trailing-edge aerodynamic brakes. The goal of the investigation was to directly compare results with (infinite-span) wind tunnel data and to provide information on how to account for device span effects during turbine design or analysis. Comprehensive measurements were used to define effective changes in the aerodynamic and hinge-moment coefficients, as a function of angle of attack and control deflection, for three device spans (7.5%, 15%, and 22.5%) and configurations (Spoiler-Flap, vented sileron, and unvented aileron). Differences in the lift and drag behavior are most pronounced near stall and for device spans of less than 15%. Drag performance is affected only minimally (about a 30% reduction from infinite-span) for 15% or larger span devices. Interestingly, aerodynamic controls with vents or openings appear most affected by span reductions and three-dimensional flow.
Aerodynamic characteristics of sixteen electric, hybrid, and subcompact vehicles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kurtz, D. W.
1979-01-01
An elementary electric and hybrid vehicle aerodynamic data base was developed using data obtained on sixteen electric, hybrid, and sub-compact production vehicles tested in the Lockheed-Georgia low-speed wind tunnel. Zero-yaw drag coefficients ranged from a high of 0.58 for a boxey delivery van and an open roadster to a low of about 0.34 for a current four-passenger proto-type automobile which was designed with aerodynamics as an integrated parameter. Vehicles were tested at yaw angles up to 40 degrees and a wing weighting analysis is presented which yields a vehicle's effective drag coefficient as a function of wing velocity and driving cycle. Other parameters investigated included the effects of windows open and closed, radiators open and sealed, and pop-up headlights. Complete six-component force and moment data are presented in both tabular and graphical formats. Only limited commentary is offered since, by its very nature, a data base should consist of unrefined reference material. A justification for pursuing efficient aerodynamic design of EHVs is presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Armstrong, Wilbur C.
1992-01-01
The piping in a liquid rocket can assume complex configurations due to multiple tanks, multiple engines, and structures that must be piped around. The capability to handle some of these complex configurations have been incorporated into the ADMIT code. The capability to modify the input on line has been implemented. The configurations allowed include multiple tanks, multiple engines, the splitting of a pipe into unequal segments going to different (or the same) engines. This program will handle the following type elements: straight pipes, bends, inline accumulators, tuned stub accumulators, Helmholtz resonators, parallel resonators, pumps, split pipes, multiple tanks, and multiple engines.
Discrete-time linear and nonlinear aerodynamic impulse responses for efficient CFD analyses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva, Walter Arturo
This dissertation discusses the mathematical existence and the numerical identification of linear and nonlinear aerodynamic impulse response functions. Differences between continuous-time and discrete-time system theories, which permit the identification and efficient use of these functions, will be detailed. Important input/output definitions and the concept of linear and nonlinear systems with memory will also be discussed. It will be shown that indicial (step or steady) responses (such as Wagner's function), forced harmonic responses (such as Theodorsen's function or those from doublet lattice theory), and responses to random inputs (such as gusts) can all be obtained from an aerodynamic impulse response function. This will establish the aerodynamic discrete-time impulse response function as the most fundamental and computationally efficient aerodynamic function that can be extracted from any given discrete-time, aerodynamic system. The results presented in this dissertation help to unify the understanding of classical two-dimensional continuous-time theories with modern three-dimensional, discrete-time theories. Nonlinear aerodynamic impulse responses are identified using the Volterra theory of nonlinear systems. The theory is described and a discrete-time kernel identification technique is presented. The kernel identification technique is applied to a simple nonlinear circuit for illustrative purposes. The method is then applied to the nonlinear viscous Burger's equation as an example of an application to a simple CFD model. Finally, the method is applied to a three-dimensional aeroelastic model using the CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code and then to a two-dimensional model using the CFL3D Navier-Stokes code. Comparisons of accuracy and computational cost savings are presented. Because of its mathematical generality, an important attribute of this methodology is that it is applicable to a wide range of nonlinear
Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals In Aerodynamic Testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parmar, Devendra S.; Holmes, Harlan K.
1994-01-01
The process of simultaneous optical visualization and quantitative measurement of aerodynamic boundary layer parameters requires new concepts, materials and utilization methods. Measurement of shear stress in terms of the transmitted or the reflected light intensity from an aligned ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) thin (approx. 1 micron) film deposited on a glass substrate has been the first step in this direction. In this paper, recent progress in utilization of FLC thin films for skin friction measurement and for studying the state of the boundary layer in a wind tunnel environment is reviewed. The switching characteristics of FLCs have been used to measure pressure from the newly devised system of partially exposed polymer dispersed ferroelectric liquid crystals (PEPDFLCs). In this configuration, a PEPDFLC thin film (approx. 10-25 microns) is sandwiched between two transparent conducting electrodes, one a rigid surface and the other a flexible sheet such as polyvinylidene fluoride or mylar. The switching characteristics of the film are a function of the pressure applied to the flexible transparent electrode and a predetermined bias voltage across the two electrodes. The results, considering the dielectrics of composite media, are discussed.
Aerodynamics of puffball mushroom spore dispersal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amador, Guillermo; Barberie, Alex; Hu, David
2012-11-01
Puffball mushrooms Lycoperdon are spherical fungi that release a cloud of spores in response to raindrop impacts. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we elucidate the aerodynamics of this unique impact-based spore-dispersal. We characterize live puffball ejections by high speed video, the geometry and elasticity of their shells by cantilever experiments, and the packing fraction and size of their spores by scanning electron microscope. We build a dynamically similar puffball mimic composed of a tied-off latex balloon filled with baby powder and topped with a 1-cm slit. A jet of powder is elicited by steady lateral compression of the mimic between two plates. The jet height is a bell-shaped function of force applied, with a peak of 18 cm at loads of 45 N. We rationalize the increase in jet height with force using Darcy's Law: the applied force generates an overpressure maintained by the air-tight elastic membrane. Pressure is relieved as the air travels through the spore interstitial spaces, entrains spores, and exits through the puffball orifice. This mechanism demonstrates how powder-filled elastic shells can generate high-speed jets using energy harvested from rain.
Skylon Aerodynamics and SABRE Plumes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mehta, Unmeel; Afosmis, Michael; Bowles, Jeffrey; Pandya, Shishir
2015-01-01
An independent partial assessment is provided of the technical viability of the Skylon aerospace plane concept, developed by Reaction Engines Limited (REL). The objectives are to verify REL's engineering estimates of airframe aerodynamics during powered flight and to assess the impact of Synergetic Air-Breathing Rocket Engine (SABRE) plumes on the aft fuselage. Pressure lift and drag coefficients derived from simulations conducted with Euler equations for unpowered flight compare very well with those REL computed with engineering methods. The REL coefficients for powered flight are increasingly less acceptable as the freestream Mach number is increased beyond 8.5, because the engineering estimates did not account for the increasing favorable (in terms of drag and lift coefficients) effect of underexpanded rocket engine plumes on the aft fuselage. At Mach numbers greater than 8.5, the thermal environment around the aft fuselage is a known unknown-a potential design and/or performance risk issue. The adverse effects of shock waves on the aft fuselage and plumeinduced flow separation are other potential risks. The development of an operational reusable launcher from the Skylon concept necessitates the judicious use of a combination of engineering methods, advanced methods based on required physics or analytical fidelity, test data, and independent assessments.
Aerodynamics of Unsteady Sailing Kinetics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keil, Colin; Schutt, Riley; Borshoff, Jennifer; Alley, Philip; de Zegher, Maximilien; Williamson, Chk
2015-11-01
In small sailboats, the bodyweight of the sailor is proportionately large enough to induce significant unsteady motion of the boat and sail. Sailors use a variety of kinetic techniques to create sail dynamics which can provide an increment in thrust, thereby increasing the boatspeed. In this study, we experimentally investigate the unsteady aerodynamics associated with two techniques, ``upwind leech flicking'' and ``downwind S-turns''. We explore the dynamics of an Olympic class Laser sailboat equipped with a GPS, IMU, wind sensor, and camera array, sailed expertly by a member of the US Olympic team. The velocity heading of a sailing boat is oriented at an apparent wind angle to the flow. In contrast to classic flapping propulsion, the heaving of the sail section is not perpendicular to the sail's motion through the air. This leads to heave with components parallel and perpendicular to the incident flow. The characteristic motion is recreated in a towing tank where the vortex structures generated by a representative 2-D sail section are observed using Particle Image Velocimetry and the measurement of thrust and lift forces. Amongst other results, we show that the increase in driving force, generated due to heave, is larger for greater apparent wind angles.
Parachute Aerodynamics From Video Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schoenenberger, Mark; Queen, Eric M.; Cruz, Juan R.
2005-01-01
A new data analysis technique for the identification of static and dynamic aerodynamic stability coefficients from wind tunnel test video data is presented. This new technique was applied to video data obtained during a parachute wind tunnel test program conducted in support of the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. Total angle-of-attack data obtained from video images were used to determine the static pitching moment curve of the parachute. During the original wind tunnel test program the static pitching moment curve had been determined by forcing the parachute to a specific total angle-of -attack and measuring the forces generated. It is shown with the new technique that this parachute, when free to rotate, trims at an angle-of-attack two degrees lower than was measured during the forced-angle tests. An attempt was also made to extract pitch damping information from the video data. Results suggest that the parachute is dynamically unstable at the static trim point and tends to become dynamically stable away from the trim point. These trends are in agreement with limit-cycle-like behavior observed in the video. However, the chaotic motion of the parachute produced results with large uncertainty bands.
Aerodynamic Analysis of Morphing Blades
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harris, Caleb; Macphee, David; Carlisle, Madeline
2016-11-01
Interest in morphing blades has grown with applications for wind turbines and other aerodynamic blades. This passive control method has advantages over active control methods such as lower manufacturing and upkeep costs. This study has investigated the lift and drag forces on individual blades with experimental and computational analysis. The goal has been to show that these blades delay stall and provide larger lift-to-drag ratios at various angles of attack. Rigid and flexible airfoils were cast from polyurethane and silicone respectively, then lift and drag forces were collected from a load cell during 2-D testing in a wind tunnel. Experimental data was used to validate computational models in OpenFOAM. A finite volume fluid-structure-interaction solver was used to model the flexible blade in fluid flow. Preliminary results indicate delay in stall and larger lift-to-drag ratios by maintaining more optimal angles of attack when flexing. Funding from NSF REU site Grant EEC 1358991 is greatly appreciated.
Aerodynamic characteristics of French consonants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demolin, Didier; Hassid, Sergio; Soquet, Alain
2004-05-01
This paper reports some aerodynamic measurements made on French consonants with a group of ten speakers. Speakers were recorded while saying nonsense words in phrases such as papa, dis papa encore. The nonsense words in the study combined each of the French consonants with three vowels /i, a, u/ to from two syllables words with the first syllable being the same as the second. In addition to the audio signal, recordings were made of the oral airflow, the pressure of the air in the pharynx above the vocal folds and the pressure of the air in the trachea just below the vocal folds. The pharyngeal pressure was recorded via a catheter (i.d. 5 mm) passed through the nose so that its open end could be seen in the pharynx below the uvula. The subglottal pressure was recorded via a tracheal puncture between the first and the second rings of the trachea or between the cricoid cartilage and the first tracheal ring. Results compare subglottal presssure, pharyngeal pressure, and airflow values. Comparisons are made between values obtained with male and female subjects and various types of consonants (voiced versus voiceless at the same place of articulation, stops, fricatives, and nasals).
A 3-D Admittance-Level Computational Model of a Rat Hippocampus for Improving Prosthetic Design
Gilbert, Andrew; Loizos, Kyle; RamRakhyani, Anil Kumar; Hendrickson, Phillip; Lazzi, Gianluca; Berger, Theodore W.
2016-01-01
Hippocampal prosthetic devices have been developed to bridge the gap between functioning portions of the hippocampus, in order to restore lost memory functionality in those suffering from brain injury or diseases. One approach taken in recent neuroprosthetic design is to use a multi-input, multi-output device that reads data from the CA3 in the hippocampus and electrically stimulates the CA1 in an attempt to mimic the appropriate firing pattern that would occur naturally between the two areas. However, further study needs to be conducted in order to optimize electrode placement, pulse magnitude, and shape for creating the appropriate firing pattern. This paper describes the creation and implementation of an anatomically correct 3D model of the hippocampus to simulate the electric field patterns and axonal activation from electrical stimulation due to an implanted electrode array. The activating function was applied to the voltage results to determine the firing patterns in possible axon locations within the CA1. PMID:26736751
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McMillin, S. Naomi (Editor)
1999-01-01
NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1998 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 9-13, in Los Angeles, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program.
Modeling Powered Aerodynamics for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Aerodynamic Database
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Robinson, Philip E.; Wilson, Thomas M.
2011-01-01
Modeling the aerodynamics of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) has presented many technical challenges to the developers of the Orion aerodynamic database. During a launch abort event, the aerodynamic environment around the LAV is very complex as multiple solid rocket plumes interact with each other and the vehicle. It is further complicated by vehicle separation events such as between the LAV and the launch vehicle stack or between the launch abort tower and the crew module. The aerodynamic database for the LAV was developed mainly from wind tunnel tests involving powered jet simulations of the rocket exhaust plumes, supported by computational fluid dynamic simulations. However, limitations in both methods have made it difficult to properly capture the aerodynamics of the LAV in experimental and numerical simulations. These limitations have also influenced decisions regarding the modeling and structure of the aerodynamic database for the LAV and led to compromises and creative solutions. Two database modeling approaches are presented in this paper (incremental aerodynamics and total aerodynamics), with examples showing strengths and weaknesses of each approach. In addition, the unique problems presented to the database developers by the large data space required for modeling a launch abort event illustrate the complexities of working with multi-dimensional data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McMillin, S. Naomi (Editor)
1999-01-01
NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1998 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 9-13, in Los Angeles, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry HighSpeed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of. Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to: (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hahne, David E. (Editor)
1999-01-01
NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1999 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 8-12, 1999 in Anaheim, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in the areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working on HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and midpoint optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented, along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program. This Volume 1/Part 2 publication covers the design optimization and testing sessions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)
1999-01-01
The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop on February 25-28, 1997. The workshop was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in area of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, Flight Controls, Supersonic Laminar Flow Control, and Sonic Boom Prediction. The workshop objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodyamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT Motion Simulator results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sekine, Katsuhisa; Yamada, Ayumi; Kageyama, Hitomi; Igarashi, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Nana; Asami, Koji
2015-06-01
Numerical calculations were carried out by the finite difference method using three-dimensional models to examine effects of the structure of skeletal muscle on the frequency-dependence of its electrical admittance Y and impedance Z in transversal and longitudinal directions. In the models, the muscle cell was represented by a rectangular solid surrounded by a smooth surface membrane, and the cells were assumed to be distributed periodically. The width of the cross section of the cell, thickness of the intercellular medium, and the relative permittivities and the conductivities of the cell interior, the intercellular medium and the surface membrane were changed. Based on the results of the calculations, reported changes in Y and Z of the muscles from 1 kHz to 1 MHz were analyzed. The analyses revealed that a decreased cell radius was reasonable to explain the Y and Z of the muscles of immature rats, rats subjected to sciatic nerve crush at chronic stage and the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mice. Changes in Y and Z due to the sciatic nerve crush at acute stage were attributable to the decreased cell radius, the increased space between the cells, the increased permittivity of the surface membrane and the increased conductivity of the cell interior. The changes in Z due to contraction were explained by the changes in the cell radius, and the conductivities of the cell interior and the intercellular medium. The changes in Z of meat due to aging were compared with the effects of the increase in the conductivity of the surface membrane.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rizk, Magdi H.
1988-01-01
This user's manual is presented for an aerodynamic optimization program that updates flow variables and design parameters simultaneously. The program was developed for solving constrained optimization problems in which the objective function and the constraint function are dependent on the solution of the nonlinear flow equations. The program was tested by applying it to the problem of optimizing propeller designs. Some reference to this particular application is therefore made in the manual. However, the optimization scheme is suitable for application to general aerodynamic design problems. A description of the approach used in the optimization scheme is first presented, followed by a description of the use of the program.
Aerodynamic Loads Induced by a Rotor on a Body of Revolution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Charles A.; Betzina, Mark D.
1986-01-01
A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted in which aerodynamic loads were measured on a small-scale helicopter rotor and a body of revolution located close to it as an idealized model of a fuselage. The objective was to study the aerodynamic interactions as a function of forward speed, rotor thrust, and rotor/body position. Results show that body loads, normalized by rotor thrust, are functions of the ratio between free-stream velocity and the hover-induced velocity predicted by momentum theory.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ciffone, D. L.; Robinson, G. H.
1973-01-01
An analysis of the influence of engine response characteristics on the approach and landing of an externally blown flap aircraft was conducted using flight simulator facilities. The configuration of the aerodynamic model is described. The aerodynamic characteristics as a function of angle of attack, thrust coefficient, and flap deflection are presented in tabular form and as graphs.
Missile Aerodynamics for Ascent and Re-entry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watts, Gaines L.; McCarter, James W.
2012-01-01
Aerodynamic force and moment equations are developed for 6-DOF missile simulations of both the ascent phase of flight and a tumbling re-entry. The missile coordinate frame (M frame) and a frame parallel to the M frame were used for formulating the aerodynamic equations. The missile configuration chosen as an example is a cylinder with fixed fins and a nose cone. The equations include both the static aerodynamic coefficients and the aerodynamic damping derivatives. The inclusion of aerodynamic damping is essential for simulating a tumbling re-entry. Appended information provides insight into aerodynamic damping.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schiff, L. B.
1974-01-01
Concepts from the theory of functionals are used to develop nonlinear formulations of the aerodynamic force and moment systems acting on bodies in large-amplitude, arbitrary motions. The analysis, which proceeds formally once the functional dependence of the aerodynamic reactions upon the motion variables is established, ensures the inclusion, within the resulting formulation, of pertinent aerodynamic terms that normally are excluded in the classical treatment. Applied to the large-amplitude, slowly varying, nonplanar motion of a body, the formulation suggests that the aerodynamic moment can be compounded of the moments acting on the body in four basic motions: steady angle of attack, pitch oscillations, either roll or yaw oscillations, and coning motion. Coning, where the nose of the body describes a circle around the velocity vector, characterizes the nonplanar nature of the general motion.
The aerodynamics of insect flight.
Sane, Sanjay P
2003-12-01
The flight of insects has fascinated physicists and biologists for more than a century. Yet, until recently, researchers were unable to rigorously quantify the complex wing motions of flapping insects or measure the forces and flows around their wings. However, recent developments in high-speed videography and tools for computational and mechanical modeling have allowed researchers to make rapid progress in advancing our understanding of insect flight. These mechanical and computational fluid dynamic models, combined with modern flow visualization techniques, have revealed that the fluid dynamic phenomena underlying flapping flight are different from those of non-flapping, 2-D wings on which most previous models were based. In particular, even at high angles of attack, a prominent leading edge vortex remains stably attached on the insect wing and does not shed into an unsteady wake, as would be expected from non-flapping 2-D wings. Its presence greatly enhances the forces generated by the wing, thus enabling insects to hover or maneuver. In addition, flight forces are further enhanced by other mechanisms acting during changes in angle of attack, especially at stroke reversal, the mutual interaction of the two wings at dorsal stroke reversal or wing-wake interactions following stroke reversal. This progress has enabled the development of simple analytical and empirical models that allow us to calculate the instantaneous forces on flapping insect wings more accurately than was previously possible. It also promises to foster new and exciting multi-disciplinary collaborations between physicists who seek to explain the phenomenology, biologists who seek to understand its relevance to insect physiology and evolution, and engineers who are inspired to build micro-robotic insects using these principles. This review covers the basic physical principles underlying flapping flight in insects, results of recent experiments concerning the aerodynamics of insect flight, as well
Experimental investigation of hypersonic aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Intrieri, Peter F.
1988-01-01
An extensive series of ballistic range tests were conducted at the Ames Research Center to determine precisely the aerodynamic characteristics of the Galileo entry probe vehicle. Figures and tables are presented which summarize the results of these ballistic range tests. Drag data were obtained for both a nonablated and a hypothesized ablated Galileo configuration at Mach numbers from about 0.7 to 14 and at Reynolds numbers from 1000 to 4 million. The tests were conducted in air and the experimental results were compared with available Pioneer Venus data since these two configurations are similar in geometry. The nonablated Galileo configuration was also tested with two different center-of-gravity positions to obtain values of pitching-moment-curve slope which could be used in determining values of lift and center-of-pressure location for this configuration. The results indicate that the drag characteristics of the Galileo probe are qualitatively similar to that of Pioneer Venus, however, the drag of the nonablated Galileo is about 3 percent lower at the higher Mach numbers and as much as 5 percent greater at transonic Mach numbers of about 1.0 to 1.5. Also, the drag of the hypothesized ablated configuration is about 3 percent lower than that of the nonablated configuration at the higher Mach numbers but about the same at the lower Mach numbers. Additional tests are required at Reynolds numbers of 1000, 500, and 250 to determine if the dramatic rise in drag coefficient measured for Pioneer Venus at these low Reynolds numbers also occurs for Galileo, as might be expected.
Aerodynamic heating in hypersonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, C. Subba
1993-01-01
Aerodynamic heating in hypersonic space vehicles is an important factor to be considered in their design. Therefore the designers of such vehicles need reliable heat transfer data in this respect for a successful design. Such data is usually produced by testing the models of hypersonic surfaces in wind tunnels. Most of the hypersonic test facilities at present are conventional blow-down tunnels whose run times are of the order of several seconds. The surface temperatures on such models are obtained using standard techniques such as thin-film resistance gages, thin-skin transient calorimeter gages and coaxial thermocouple or video acquisition systems such as phosphor thermography and infrared thermography. The data are usually reduced assuming that the model behaves like a semi-infinite solid (SIS) with constant properties and that heat transfer is by one-dimensional conduction only. This simplifying assumption may be valid in cases where models are thick, run-times short, and thermal diffusivities small. In many instances, however, when these conditions are not met, the assumption may lead to significant errors in the heat transfer results. The purpose of the present paper is to investigate this aspect. Specifically, the objectives are as follows: (1) to determine the limiting conditions under which a model can be considered a semi-infinite body; (2) to estimate the extent of errors involved in the reduction of the data if the models violate the assumption; and (3) to come up with correlation factors which when multiplied by the results obtained under the SIS assumption will provide the results under the actual conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rajkumar, T.; Aragon, Cecilia; Bardina, Jorge; Britten, Roy
2002-01-01
A fast, reliable way of predicting aerodynamic coefficients is produced using a neural network optimized by a genetic algorithm. Basic aerodynamic coefficients (e.g. lift, drag, pitching moment) are modelled as functions of angle of attack and Mach number. The neural network is first trained on a relatively rich set of data from wind tunnel tests of numerical simulations to learn an overall model. Most of the aerodynamic parameters can be well-fitted using polynomial functions. A new set of data, which can be relatively sparse, is then supplied to the network to produce a new model consistent with the previous model and the new data. Because the new model interpolates realistically between the sparse test data points, it is suitable for use in piloted simulations. The genetic algorithm is used to choose a neural network architecture to give best results, avoiding over-and under-fitting of the test data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fathi Jegarkandi, M.; Nobari, A. S.; Sabzehparvar, M.; Haddadpour, H.
2009-08-01
Aeroelastic stability of a flexible supersonic flight vehicle is considered using nonlinear dynamics, nonlinear aerodynamics, and a linear structural model. Response surfaces including global multivariate orthogonal modeling functions are invoked to derive applied nonlinear aerodynamic coefficients. A modified Gram-Schmidt method is utilized to orthogonalize the produced polynomial multivariate functions, selected and ranked by predicted squared error metric. Local variation of angle-of-attack and side-slip angle is applied to the analytical model. Identification of nonlinear aerodynamic coefficients of the flight vehicle is conducted employing a CFD code and the required analytical model for simulation purposes is constructed. The method is used to determine the aeroelastic instability and response of a selected flight vehicle.
Aerodynamic Simulation of Ice Accretion on Airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Bragg, Michael B.; Busch, Greg T.; Montreuil, Emmanuel
2011-01-01
This report describes recent improvements in aerodynamic scaling and simulation of ice accretion on airfoils. Ice accretions were classified into four types on the basis of aerodynamic effects: roughness, horn, streamwise, and spanwise ridge. The NASA Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) was used to generate ice accretions within these four types using both subscale and full-scale models. Large-scale, pressurized windtunnel testing was performed using a 72-in.- (1.83-m-) chord, NACA 23012 airfoil model with high-fidelity, three-dimensional castings of the IRT ice accretions. Performance data were recorded over Reynolds numbers from 4.5 x 10(exp 6) to 15.9 x 10(exp 6) and Mach numbers from 0.10 to 0.28. Lower fidelity ice-accretion simulation methods were developed and tested on an 18-in.- (0.46-m-) chord NACA 23012 airfoil model in a small-scale wind tunnel at a lower Reynolds number. The aerodynamic accuracy of the lower fidelity, subscale ice simulations was validated against the full-scale results for a factor of 4 reduction in model scale and a factor of 8 reduction in Reynolds number. This research has defined the level of geometric fidelity required for artificial ice shapes to yield aerodynamic performance results to within a known level of uncertainty and has culminated in a proposed methodology for subscale iced-airfoil aerodynamic simulation.
Moisture-dependent frictional and aerodynamic properties of safflower seeds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kara, M.; Bastaban, S.; Öztürk, I.; Kalkan, F.; Yildiz, C.
2012-04-01
The seeds of two safflower cultivars were investigated in order to determine their frictional and aerodynamic properties as a function of moisture content. The coefficients of dynamic friction of cultivars on aluminium, plywood, fibreglass and steel surfaces increased by 87, 56, 78, and 129% for cv. Remzibey-05 seed, and by 91, 31, 71, and 131% for cv. Dinçer seed, respectively, between the initial and final moisture content levels. The terminal velocities of the Remzibey-05 and Dinçer seeds increased by 15 and 11%, respectively, with increase in moisture content between the initial and final levels.
Genetic Evolution of Shape-Altering Programs for Supersonic Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Bencze, Daniel P. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Two constrained shape optimization problems relevant to aerodynamics are solved by genetic programming, in which a population of computer programs evolves automatically under pressure of fitness-driven reproduction and genetic crossover. Known optimal solutions are recovered using a small, naive set of elementary operations. Effectiveness is improved through use of automatically defined functions, especially when one of them is capable of a variable number of iterations, even though the test problems lack obvious exploitable regularities. An attempt at evolving new elementary operations was only partially successful.
Aerodynamic Design on Unstructured Grids for Turbulent Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, W. Kyle; Bonhaus, Daryl L.
1997-01-01
An aerodynamic design algorithm for turbulent flows using unstructured grids is described. The current approach uses adjoint (costate) variables for obtaining derivatives of the cost function. The solution of the adjoint equations is obtained using an implicit formulation in which the turbulence model is fully coupled with the flow equations when solving for the costate variables. The accuracy of the derivatives is demonstrated by comparison with finite-difference gradients and a few example computations are shown. In addition, a user interface is described which significantly reduces the time required for setting up the design problems. Recommendations on directions of further research into the Navier Stokes design process are made.
Position control optimization of aerodynamic brake device for high-speed trains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zuo, Jianyong; Luo, Zhuojun; Chen, Zhongkai
2014-03-01
The aerodynamic braking is a clean and non-adhesion braking, and can be used to provide extra braking force during high-speed emergency braking. The research of aerodynamic braking has attracted more and more attentions in recent years. However, most researchers in this field focus on aerodynamic effects and seldom on issues of position control of the aerodynamic braking board. The purpose of this paper is to explore position control optimization of the braking board in an aerodynamic braking prototype. The mathematical models of the hydraulic drive unit in the aerodynamic braking system are analyzed in detail, and the simulation models are established. Three control functions—constant, linear, and quadratic—are explored. Two kinds of criteria, including the position steady-state error and the acceleration of the piston rod, are used to evaluate system performance. Simulation results show that the position steady state-error is reduced from around 12-2 mm by applying a linear instead of a constant function, while the acceleration is reduced from 25.71-3.70 m/s2 with a quadratic control function. Use of the quadratic control function is shown to improve system performance. Experimental results obtained by measuring the position response of the piston rod on a test-bench also suggest a reduced position error and smooth movement of the piston rod. This implies that the acceleration is smaller when using the quadratic function, thus verifying the effectiveness of control schemes to improve to system performance. This paper proposes an effective and easily implemented control scheme that improves the position response of hydraulic cylinders during position control.
Photogrammetry of a Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kushner, Laura Kathryn; Littell, Justin D.; Cassell, Alan M.
2013-01-01
In 2012, two large-scale models of a Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic decelerator were tested in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at NASA Ames Research Center. One of the objectives of this test was to measure model deflections under aerodynamic loading that approximated expected flight conditions. The measurements were acquired using stereo photogrammetry. Four pairs of stereo cameras were mounted inside the NFAC test section, each imaging a particular section of the HIAD. The views were then stitched together post-test to create a surface deformation profile. The data from the photogram- metry system will largely be used for comparisons to and refinement of Fluid Structure Interaction models. This paper describes how a commercial photogrammetry system was adapted to make the measurements and presents some preliminary results.
History of the numerical aerodynamic simulation program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peterson, Victor L.; Ballhaus, William F., Jr.
1987-01-01
The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) program has reached a milestone with the completion of the initial operating configuration of the NAS Processing System Network. This achievement is the first major milestone in the continuing effort to provide a state-of-the-art supercomputer facility for the national aerospace community and to serve as a pathfinder for the development and use of future supercomputer systems. The underlying factors that motivated the initiation of the program are first identified and then discussed. These include the emergence and evolution of computational aerodynamics as a powerful new capability in aerodynamics research and development, the computer power required for advances in the discipline, the complementary nature of computation and wind tunnel testing, and the need for the government to play a pathfinding role in the development and use of large-scale scientific computing systems. Finally, the history of the NAS program is traced from its inception in 1975 to the present time.
Physics of badminton shuttlecocks. Part 1 : aerodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cohen, Caroline; Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Quéré, David; Clanet, Christophe
2011-11-01
We study experimentally shuttlecocks dynamics. In this part we show that shuttlecock trajectory is highly different from classical parabola. When one takes into account the aerodynamic drag, the flight of the shuttlecock quickly curves downwards and almost reaches a vertical asymptote. We solve the equation of motion with gravity and drag at high Reynolds number and find an analytical expression of the reach. At high velocity, this reach does not depend on velocity anymore. Even if you develop your muscles you will not manage to launch the shuttlecock very far because of the ``aerodynamic wall.'' As a consequence you can predict the length of the field. We then discuss the extend of the aerodynamic wall to other projectiles like sports balls and its importance.
Miniature Trailing Edge Effector for Aerodynamic Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Hak-Tae (Inventor); Bieniawski, Stefan R. (Inventor); Kroo, Ilan M. (Inventor)
2008-01-01
Improved miniature trailing edge effectors for aerodynamic control are provided. Three types of devices having aerodynamic housings integrated to the trailing edge of an aerodynamic shape are presented, which vary in details of how the control surface can move. A bucket type device has a control surface which is the back part of a C-shaped member having two arms connected by the back section. The C-shaped section is attached to a housing at the ends of the arms, and is rotatable about an axis parallel to the wing trailing edge to provide up, down and neutral states. A flip-up type device has a control surface which rotates about an axis parallel to the wing trailing edge to provide up, down, neutral and brake states. A rotating type device has a control surface which rotates about an axis parallel to the chord line to provide up, down and neutral states.
Aerodynamics of sounding rockets at supersonic speeds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vira, N. R.
This dissertation presents a practical and low cost method of computing the aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles such as sounding rockets, high speed bombs, projectiles and guided missiles in supersonic flight. The vehicle configuration consists of a slender axisymmetric body with a conical or ogive noise, cylinders, shoulders and boattails, if any, and have sets of two, three or four fins. Geometry of the fin cross section can be single wedge, double wedge, modified single wedge or modified double wedge. First the aerodynamics of the fins and the body are analyzed separately; then fin body and fore and aft fin interferences are accounted for when they are combined to form the total vehicle. Results and formulas documented in this work are the basis of the supersonic portion of the Theoretical Aerodynamic Derivatives (TAD) computer program operating at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
Turbine disk cavity aerodynamics and heat transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, B. V.; Daniels, W. A.
1992-01-01
Experiments were conducted to define the nature of the aerodynamics and heat transfer for the flow within the disk cavities and blade attachments of a large-scale model, simulating the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopump drive turbines. These experiments of the aerodynamic driving mechanisms explored the following: (1) flow between the main gas path and the disk cavities; (2) coolant flow injected into the disk cavities; (3) coolant density; (4) leakage flows through the seal between blades; and (5) the role that each of these various flows has in determining the adiabatic recovery temperature at all of the critical locations within the cavities. The model and the test apparatus provide close geometrical and aerodynamic simulation of all the two-stage cavity flow regions for the SSME High Pressure Fuel Turbopump and the ability to simulate the sources and sinks for each cavity flow.
Aerodynamic optimization studies on advanced architecture computers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chawla, Kalpana
1995-01-01
The approach to carrying out multi-discipline aerospace design studies in the future, especially in massively parallel computing environments, comprises of choosing (1) suitable solvers to compute solutions to equations characterizing a discipline, and (2) efficient optimization methods. In addition, for aerodynamic optimization problems, (3) smart methodologies must be selected to modify the surface shape. In this research effort, a 'direct' optimization method is implemented on the Cray C-90 to improve aerodynamic design. It is coupled with an existing implicit Navier-Stokes solver, OVERFLOW, to compute flow solutions. The optimization method is chosen such that it can accomodate multi-discipline optimization in future computations. In the work , however, only single discipline aerodynamic optimization will be included.
Status of Nozzle Aerodynamic Technology at MSFC
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ruf, Joseph H.; McDaniels, David M.; Smith, Bud; Owens, Zachary
2002-01-01
This viewgraph presentation provides information on the status of nozzle aerodynamic technology at MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center). The objectives of this presentation were to provide insight into MSFC in-house nozzle aerodynamic technology, design, analysis, and testing. Under CDDF (Center Director's Discretionary Fund), 'Altitude Compensating Nozzle Technology', are the following tasks: Development of in-house ACN (Altitude Compensating Nozzle) aerodynamic design capability; Building in-house experience for all aspects of ACN via End-to-End Nozzle Test Program; Obtaining Experimental Data for Annular Aerospike: Thrust eta, TVC (thrust vector control) capability and surface pressures. To support selection/optimization of future Launch Vehicle propulsion we needed a parametric design and performance tool for ACN. We chose to start with the ACN Aerospike Nozzles.
Aerodynamics of magnetic levitation (MAGLEV) trains
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schetz, Joseph A.; Marchman, James F., III
1996-01-01
High-speed (500 kph) trains using magnetic forces for levitation, propulsion and control offer many advantages for the nation and a good opportunity for the aerospace community to apply 'high tech' methods to the domestic sector. One area of many that will need advanced research is the aerodynamics of such MAGLEV (Magnetic Levitation) vehicles. There are important issues with regard to wind tunnel testing and the application of CFD to these devices. This talk will deal with the aerodynamic design of MAGLEV vehicles with emphasis on wind tunnel testing. The moving track facility designed and constructed in the 6 ft. Stability Wind Tunnel at Virginia Tech will be described. Test results for a variety of MAGLEV vehicle configurations will be presented. The last topic to be discussed is a Multi-disciplinary Design approach that is being applied to MAGLEV vehicle configuration design including aerodynamics, structures, manufacturability and life-cycle cost.
Aerodynamic detuning analysis of an unstalled supersonic turbofan cascade
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoyniak, D.; Fleeter, S.
1985-01-01
An approach to passive flutter control is aerodynamic detuning, defined as designed passage-to-passage differences in the unsteady aerodynamic flow field of a rotor blade row. Thus, aerodynamic detuning directly affects the fundamental driving mechanism for flutter. A model to demonstrate the enhanced supersonic aeroelastic stability associated with aerodynamic detuning is developed. The stability of an aerodynamically detuned cascade operating in a supersonic inlet flow field with a subsonic leading edge locus is analyzed, with the aerodynamic detuning accomplished by means of nonuniform circumferential spacing of adjacent rotor blades. The unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments on the blading are defined in terms of influence coefficients in a manner that permits the stability of both a conventional uniformally spaced rotor configuration as well as the detuned nonuniform circumferentially spaced rotor to be determined. With Verdon's uniformly spaced Cascade B as a baseline, this analysis is then utilized to demonstrate the potential enhanced aeroelastic stability associated with this particular type of aerodynamic detuning.
Airfoil Ice-Accretion Aerodynamics Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bragg, Michael B.; Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Guffond, Didier; Montreuil, E.
2007-01-01
NASA Glenn Research Center, ONERA, and the University of Illinois are conducting a major research program whose goal is to improve our understanding of the aerodynamic scaling of ice accretions on airfoils. The program when it is completed will result in validated scaled simulation methods that produce the essential aerodynamic features of the full-scale iced-airfoil. This research will provide some of the first, high-fidelity, full-scale, iced-airfoil aerodynamic data. An initial study classified ice accretions based on their aerodynamics into four types: roughness, streamwise ice, horn ice, and spanwise-ridge ice. Subscale testing using a NACA 23012 airfoil was performed in the NASA IRT and University of Illinois wind tunnel to better understand the aerodynamics of these ice types and to test various levels of ice simulation fidelity. These studies are briefly reviewed here and have been presented in more detail in other papers. Based on these results, full-scale testing at the ONERA F1 tunnel using cast ice shapes obtained from molds taken in the IRT will provide full-scale iced airfoil data from full-scale ice accretions. Using these data as a baseline, the final step is to validate the simulation methods in scale in the Illinois wind tunnel. Computational ice accretion methods including LEWICE and ONICE have been used to guide the experiments and are briefly described and results shown. When full-scale and simulation aerodynamic results are available, these data will be used to further develop computational tools. Thus the purpose of the paper is to present an overview of the program and key results to date.
Aerodynamic investigations of a disc-wing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dumitrache, Alexandru; Frunzulica, Florin; Grigorescu, Sorin
2017-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics of a wing-disc, for a civil application in the fire-fighting system. The aerodynamic analysis is performed using a CFD code, named ANSYS Fluent, in the flow speed range up to 25 m/s, at lower and higher angle of attack. The simulation is three-dimensional, using URANS completed by a SST turbulence model. The results are used to examine the flow around the disc with increasing angle of attack and the structure of the wake.
Aerodynamics of the upper surface blow flap
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phelps, A. E., III
1972-01-01
The results of some preliminary wind-tunnel investigations made to provide fundamental aerodynamic information on the upper surface blown jet-flap concept incorporating high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines are summarized. The results of the investigation have shown the concept to have aerodynamic performance generally similar to that of other externally blown high-lift systems. A few of the more critical problems associated with this concept have been identified and preliminary solutions to some of these problems have been found. These results have proven to be sufficiently encouraging to warrant continuation of fundamental research efforts on the concept.
Air flow testing on aerodynamic truck
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1975-01-01
After leasing a cab-over tractor-trailer from a Southern California firm, Dryden researchers added sheet metal modifications like those shown here. They rounded the front corners and edges, and placed a smooth fairing on the cab's roofs and sides extending back to the trailer. During the investigation of truck aerodynamics, the techniques honed in flight research proved highly applicable. By closing the gap between the cab and the trailer, for example, researchers discovered a significant reduction in aerodynamic drag, one resulting in 20 to 25 percent less fuel consumption than the standard design. Many truck manufacturers subsequently incorporated similar modifications on their products.
Rarefied Transitional Bridging of Blunt Body Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilmoth, R. G.; Blanchard, R. C.; Moss, J. N.
1998-01-01
The bridging procedures discussed provide an accurate engineering method for predicting rarefied transitional aerodynamics of spherically-blunted cone entry vehicles. The single-point procedure offers a way to improve the bridging procedures while minimizing the computational effort. However, the accuracy of these procedures ultimately depends on accurate knowledge of the aerodynamics in the free-molecular and continuum limits. The excellent agreement shown for DSMC predictions and bridging relations with the Viking flight data in transitional regime enhance the coincidence in these procedures.
Unstructured mesh algorithms for aerodynamic calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, D. J.
1992-01-01
The use of unstructured mesh techniques for solving complex aerodynamic flows is discussed. The principle advantages of unstructured mesh strategies, as they relate to complex geometries, adaptive meshing capabilities, and parallel processing are emphasized. The various aspects required for the efficient and accurate solution of aerodynamic flows are addressed. These include mesh generation, mesh adaptivity, solution algorithms, convergence acceleration, and turbulence modeling. Computations of viscous turbulent two-dimensional flows and inviscid three-dimensional flows about complex configurations are demonstrated. Remaining obstacles and directions for future research are also outlined.
Transpiration effects in perforated plate aerodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szwaba, R.; Ochrymiuk, T.
2016-10-01
Perforated walls find a wide use as a method of flow control and effusive cooling. Experimental investigations of the gas flow past perforated plate with microholes (110μm) were carried out. The wide range of pressure at the inlet were investigated. Two distinguishable flow regimes were obtained: laminar and turbulent regime.The results are in good agreement with theory, simulations and experiments on large scale perforated plates and compressible flows in microtubules. Formulation of the transpiration law was associated with the porous plate aerodynamics properties. Using a model of transpiration flow the “aerodynamic porosity” could be determined for microholes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cruz, Christopher I.; Ware, George M.
1992-01-01
The aerodynamic characteristics of the HL-20 lifting body configuraiton obtained through the APAS and from wind-tunnel tests have been compared. The APAS is considered to be an easy-to-use, relatively simple tool for quick preliminary estimation of vehicle aerodynamics. The APAS estimates are found to be in good agreement with experimental results to be used for preliminary evaluation of the HL-20. The APAS accuracy in predicting aerodynamics of the HL-20 varied over the Mach range. The speed ranges of best agreement were subsonic and hypersonic, while least agreement was in the Mach range from 1.2 to about 2,5.
Techniques for estimating Space Station aerodynamic characteristics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomas, Richard E.
1993-01-01
A method was devised and calculations were performed to determine the effects of reflected molecules on the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients for a body in free molecule flow. A procedure was developed for determining the velocity and temperature distributions of molecules reflected from a surface of arbitrary momentum and energy accommodation. A system of equations, based on momentum and energy balances for the surface, incident, and reflected molecules, was solved by a numerical optimization technique. The minimization of a 'cost' function, developed from the set of equations, resulted in the determination of the defining properties of the flow reflected from the arbitrary surface. The properties used to define both the incident and reflected flows were: average temperature of the molecules in the flow, angle of the flow with respect to a vector normal to the surface, and the molecular speed ratio. The properties of the reflected flow were used to calculate the contribution of multiply reflected molecules to the force and moments on a test body in the flow. The test configuration consisted of two flat plates joined along one edge at a right angle to each other. When force and moment coefficients of this 90 deg concave wedge were compared to results that did not include multiple reflections, it was found that multiple reflections could nearly double lift and drag coefficients, with nearly a 50 percent increase in pitching moment for cases with specular or nearly specular accommodation. The cases of diffuse or nearly diffuse accommodation often had minor reductions in axial and normal forces when multiple reflections were included. There were several cases of intermediate accommodation where the addition of multiple reflection effects more than tripled the lift coefficient over the convex technique.
Aerodynamic Parameter Estimation for the X-43A (Hyper-X) from Flight Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morelli, Eugene A.; Derry, Stephen D.; Smith, Mark S.
2005-01-01
Aerodynamic parameters were estimated based on flight data from the third flight of the X-43A hypersonic research vehicle, also called Hyper-X. Maneuvers were flown using multiple orthogonal phase-optimized sweep inputs applied as simultaneous control surface perturbations at Mach 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, and 3 during the vehicle descent. Aerodynamic parameters, consisting of non-dimensional longitudinal and lateral stability and control derivatives, were estimated from flight data at each Mach number. Multi-step inputs at nearly the same flight conditions were also flown to assess the prediction capability of the identified models. Prediction errors were found to be comparable in magnitude to the modeling errors, which indicates accurate modeling. Aerodynamic parameter estimates were plotted as a function of Mach number, and compared with estimates from the pre-flight aerodynamic database, which was based on wind-tunnel tests and computational fluid dynamics. Agreement between flight estimates and values computed from the aerodynamic database was excellent overall.
A faster optimization method based on support vector regression for aerodynamic problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xixiang; Zhang, Weihua
2013-09-01
In this paper, a new strategy for optimal design of complex aerodynamic configuration with a reasonable low computational effort is proposed. In order to solve the formulated aerodynamic optimization problem with heavy computation complexity, two steps are taken: (1) a sequential approximation method based on support vector regression (SVR) and hybrid cross validation strategy, is proposed to predict aerodynamic coefficients, and thus approximates the objective function and constraint conditions of the originally formulated optimization problem with given limited sample points; (2) a sequential optimization algorithm is proposed to ensure the obtained optimal solution by solving the approximation optimization problem in step (1) is very close to the optimal solution of the originally formulated optimization problem. In the end, we adopt a complex aerodynamic design problem, that is optimal aerodynamic design of a flight vehicle with grid fins, to demonstrate our proposed optimization methods, and numerical results show that better results can be obtained with a significantly lower computational effort than using classical optimization techniques.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Wonwoo
The objective of this study is to determine the deep vanadium defect levels in semi-insulating 4H- and 6H- silicon carbide using optical admittance spectroscopy. Also infrared spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy are conducted to support the evidence of vanadium donor and acceptor levels obtained from OAS measurements. Vanadium acts as an amphoteric impurity in silicon carbide with a V3+/4+ acceptor level and V4+/5+ donor level. Although the value for the donor level is well established, the V3+/4+ defect level remains controversial. OAS shows that the vanadium donor level is isolated near Ec-1.7 eV, and the vanadium acceptor level is located at Ec-0.75 eV at a cubic site and Ec-0.94 eV at a hexagonal site in 4H-SiC, while the vanadium donor level of 6H-SiC samples is about Ec-1.5 eV. The acceptor levels of 6H-SiC were assigned to Ec-0.67 eV, E c -0.70 eV at two cubic sites, and Ec-0.87 eV at a hexagonal site. IR spectra demonstrated that the signatures of the vanadium V 3+ and V4+ charge states are present in the samples. EPR and photo-induced EPR are used to identify the V3+/4+ and V4+/5+ levels as well as the V3+ and V 4+ charge states. EPR spectra represent both V3+ and V4+ in 4H- and 6H samples consistent with FTIR data. EPR and photo-induced EPR suggest that the va nadium acceptor level is between 0.7 eV and 0.86 eV, while the donor level is near Ec-1.5 eV in 6H-SiC. The donor level of 4H-SiC is located at Ec-1.6 eV. Thus, the data obtained from EPR and FTIR support the assignment of the vanadium defect levels determined by OAS. Vanadium complexes induced by other elements such as titanium, hydrogen, and nitrogen atoms are also observed in OAS spectra and will be discussed in the text.
14 CFR 25.445 - Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces. 25.445... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.445 Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces. (a) When significant, the aerodynamic influence...
Wind Tunnel Measurements and Calculations of Aerodynamic Interactions Between Tiltrotor Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Wayne; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Derby, Michael R.; Wadcock, Alan J.
2002-01-01
Wind tunnel measurements and calculations of the aerodynamic interactions between two tiltrotor aircraft in helicopter mode are presented. The measured results include the roll moment and thrust change on the downwind aircraft, as a function of the upwind aircraft position (longitudinal, lateral, and vertical). Magnitudes and locations of the largest interactions are identified. The calculated interactions generally match the measurements, with discrepancies attributed to the unsteadiness of the wake and aerodynamic forces on the airframe. To interpret the interactions in terms of control and power changes on the aircraft, additional calculations are presented for trimmed aircraft with gimballed rotors.
The linear and non-linear aerodynamics of three-surface aircraft concepts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Agnew, J. W.; Lyerla, G. W.; Grafton, S. B.
1980-01-01
It is noted that most modern fighter aircraft rely on vortex interaction to provide lift enhancement at maneuvering angles of attack. It is shown that the close-coupled horizontal canard in a three-surface configuration provides a control surface which in addition to its other control functions, can be used to optimize this vortex interaction. Attention is given to a study intended to provide a detailed understanding of the aerodynamics of this type of configuration. The discussion examines the results of this investigation and hypotheses are presented to explain the linear and nonlinear aerodynamic phenomena observed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Green, F. M.; Resnick, D. R.
1979-01-01
An FMP (Flow Model Processor) was designed for use in the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility (NASF). The NASF was developed to simulate fluid flow over three-dimensional bodies in wind tunnel environments and in free space. The facility is applicable to studying aerodynamic and aircraft body designs. The following general topics are discussed in this volume: (1) FMP functional computer specifications; (2) FMP instruction specification; (3) standard product system components; (4) loosely coupled network (LCN) specifications/description; and (5) three appendices: performance of trunk allocation contention elimination (trace) method, LCN channel protocol and proposed LCN unified second level protocol.
Identification of Linear and Nonlinear Aerodynamic Impulse Responses Using Digital Filter Techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Silva, Walter A.
1997-01-01
This paper discusses the mathematical existence and the numerically-correct identification of linear and nonlinear aerodynamic impulse response functions. Differences between continuous-time and discrete-time system theories, which permit the identification and efficient use of these functions, will be detailed. Important input/output definitions and the concept of linear and nonlinear systems with memory will also be discussed. It will be shown that indicial (step or steady) responses (such as Wagner's function), forced harmonic responses (such as Theodorsen's function or those from doublet lattice theory), and responses to random inputs (such as gusts) can all be obtained from an aerodynamic impulse response function. This paper establishes the aerodynamic impulse response function as the most fundamental, and, therefore, the most computationally efficient, aerodynamic function that can be extracted from any given discrete-time, aerodynamic system. The results presented in this paper help to unify the understanding of classical two-dimensional continuous-time theories with modern three-dimensional, discrete-time theories. First, the method is applied to the nonlinear viscous Burger's equation as an example. Next the method is applied to a three-dimensional aeroelastic model using the CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code and then to a two-dimensional model using the CFL3D Navier-Stokes code. Comparisons of accuracy and computational cost savings are presented. Because of its mathematical generality, an important attribute of this methodology is that it is applicable to a wide range of nonlinear, discrete-time problems.
Identification of Linear and Nonlinear Aerodynamic Impulse Responses Using Digital Filter Techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Silva, Walter A.
1997-01-01
This paper discusses the mathematical existence and the numerically-correct identification of linear and nonlinear aerodynamic impulse response functions. Differences between continuous-time and discrete-time system theories, which permit the identification and efficient use of these functions, will be detailed. Important input/output definitions and the concept of linear and nonlinear systems with memory will also be discussed. It will be shown that indicial (step or steady) responses (such as Wagner's function), forced harmonic responses (such as Tbeodorsen's function or those from doublet lattice theory), and responses to random inputs (such as gusts) can all be obtained from an aerodynamic impulse response function. This paper establishes the aerodynamic impulse response function as the most fundamental, and, therefore, the most computationally efficient, aerodynamic function that can be extracted from any given discrete-time, aerodynamic system. The results presented in this paper help to unify the understanding of classical two-dimensional continuous-time theories with modem three-dimensional, discrete-time theories. First, the method is applied to the nonlinear viscous Burger's equation as an example. Next the method is applied to a three-dimensional aeroelastic model using the CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code and then to a two-dimensional model using the CFL3D Navier-Stokes code. Comparisons of accuracy and computational cost savings are presented. Because of its mathematical generality, an important attribute of this methodology is that it is applicable to a wide range of nonlinear, discrete-time problems.
Development of the Orion Crew Module Static Aerodynamic Database. Par 2; Supersonic/Subsonic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bibb, Karen L.; Walker, Eric L.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Robinson, Phil
2011-01-01
This work describes the process of developing the nominal static aerodynamic coefficients and associated uncertainties for the Orion Crew Module for Mach 8 and below. The database was developed from wind tunnel test data and computational simulations of the smooth Crew Module geometry, with no asymmetries or protuberances. The database covers the full range of Reynolds numbers seen in both entry and ascent abort scenarios. The basic uncertainties were developed as functions of Mach number and total angle of attack from variations in the primary data as well as computations at lower Reynolds numbers, on the baseline geometry, and using different flow solvers. The resulting aerodynamic database represents the Crew Exploration Vehicle Aerosciences Project's best estimate of the nominal aerodynamics for the current Crew Module vehicle.
An analytical technique for approximating unsteady aerodynamics in the time domain
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dunn, H. J.
1980-01-01
An analytical technique is presented for approximating unsteady aerodynamic forces in the time domain. The order of elements of a matrix Pade approximation was postulated, and the resulting polynomial coefficients were determined through a combination of least squares estimates for the numerator coefficients and a constrained gradient search for the denominator coefficients which insures stable approximating functions. The number of differential equations required to represent the aerodynamic forces to a given accuracy tends to be smaller than that employed in certain existing techniques where the denominator coefficients are chosen a priori. Results are shown for an aeroelastic, cantilevered, semispan wing which indicate a good fit to the aerodynamic forces for oscillatory motion can be achieved with a matrix Pade approximation having fourth order numerator and second order denominator polynomials.
Aerodynamic performance of the feathered dinosaur Microraptor and the evolution of feathered flight.
Dyke, Gareth; de Kat, Roeland; Palmer, Colin; van der Kindere, Jacques; Naish, Darren; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram
2013-01-01
Understanding the aerodynamic performance of feathered, non-avialan dinosaurs is critical to reconstructing the evolution of bird flight. Here we show that the Early Cretaceous five-winged paravian Microraptor is most stable when gliding at high-lift coefficients (low lift/drag ratios). Wind tunnel experiments and flight simulations show that sustaining a high-lift coefficient at the expense of high drag would have been the most efficient strategy for Microraptor when gliding from, and between, low elevations. Analyses also demonstrate that anatomically plausible changes in wing configuration and leg position would have made little difference to aerodynamic performance. Significant to the evolution of flight, we show that Microraptor did not require a sophisticated, 'modern' wing morphology to undertake effective glides. This is congruent with the fossil record and also with the hypothesis that symmetric 'flight' feathers first evolved in dinosaurs for non-aerodynamic functions, later being adapted to form lifting surfaces.
NWTC Aerodynamics Studies Improve Energy Capture and Lower Costs of Wind-Generated Electricity
2015-08-01
Researchers at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have expanded wind turbine aerodynamic research from blade and rotor aerodynamics to wind plant and atmospheric inflow effects. The energy capture from wind plants is dependent on all of these aerodynamic interactions. Research at the NWTC is crucial to understanding how wind turbines function in large, multiple-row wind plants. These conditions impact the cumulative fatigue damage of turbine structural components that ultimately effect the useful lifetime of wind turbines. This work also is essential for understanding and maximizing turbine and wind plant energy production. Both turbine lifetime and wind plant energy production are key determinants of the cost of wind-generated electricity.
Real-Time Onboard Global Nonlinear Aerodynamic Modeling from Flight Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brandon, Jay M.; Morelli, Eugene A.
2014-01-01
Flight test and modeling techniques were developed to accurately identify global nonlinear aerodynamic models onboard an aircraft. The techniques were developed and demonstrated during piloted flight testing of an Aermacchi MB-326M Impala jet aircraft. Advanced piloting techniques and nonlinear modeling techniques based on fuzzy logic and multivariate orthogonal function methods were implemented with efficient onboard calculations and flight operations to achieve real-time maneuver monitoring and analysis, and near-real-time global nonlinear aerodynamic modeling and prediction validation testing in flight. Results demonstrated that global nonlinear aerodynamic models for a large portion of the flight envelope were identified rapidly and accurately using piloted flight test maneuvers during a single flight, with the final identified and validated models available before the aircraft landed.
Preliminary study for a numerical aerodynamic simulation facility. Phase 1: Extension
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lincoln, N. R.
1978-01-01
Functional requirements and preliminary design data were identified for use in the design of all system components and in the construction of a facility to perform aerodynamic simulation for airframe design. A skeleton structure of specifications for the flow model processor and monitor, the operating system, and the language and its compiler is presented.
Preliminary subsonic aerodynamic model for simulation studies of the HL-20 lifting body
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackson, E. Bruce; Cruz, Christopher I.
1992-01-01
A nonlinear, six-degree-of-freedom aerodynamic model for an early version of the HL-20 lifting body is described and compared with wind tunnel data upon which it is based. Polynomial functions describing most of the aerodynamic parameters are given and tables of these functions are presented. Techniques used to arrive at these functions are described. Basic aerodynamic coefficients were modeled as functions of angles of attack and sideslip. Vehicle lateral symmetry was assumed. Compressibility (Mach) effects were ignored. Control-surface effectiveness was assumed to vary linearly with angle of deflection and was assumed to be invariant with the angle of sideslip. Dynamic derivatives were obtained from predictive aerodynamic codes. Landing-gear and ground effects were scaled from Space Shuttle data. The model described is provided to support pilot-in-the-loop simulation studies of the HL-20. By providing the data in tabular format, the model is suitable for the data interpolation architecture of many existing engineering simulation facilities. Because of the preliminary nature of the data, however, this model is not recommended for study of the absolute performance of the HL-20.
Aerodynamic and Nonlinear Dynamic Acoustic Analysis of Tension Asymmetry in Excised Canine Larynges
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Devine, Erin E.; Bulleit, Erin E.; Hoffman, Matthew R.; McCulloch, Timothy M.; Jiang, Jack J.
2012-01-01
Purpose: To model tension asymmetry caused by superior laryngeal nerve paralysis (SLNP) in excised larynges and apply perturbation, nonlinear dynamic, and aerodynamic analyses. Method: SLNP was modeled in 8 excised larynges using sutures and weights to mimic cricothyroid (CT) muscle function. Weights were removed from one side to create tension…
Design Exploration of Aerodynamic Wing Shape for RLV Flyback Booster
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiba, Kazuhisa; Obayashi, Shigeru; Nakahashi, Kazuhiro
The wing shape of flyback booster for a Two-Stage-To-Orbit reusable launch vehicle has been optimized considering four objectives. The objectives are to minimize the shift of aerodynamic center between supersonic and transonic conditions, transonic pitching moment and transonic drag coefficient, as well as to maximize subsonic lift coefficient. The three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computation using the modified Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model is used in aerodynamic evaluation accounting for possible flow separations. Adaptive range multi-objective genetic algorithm is used for the present study because tradeoff can be obtained using a smaller number of individuals than conventional multi-objective genetic algorithms. Consequently, four-objective optimization has produced 102 non-dominated solutions, which represent tradeoff information among four objective functions. Moreover, Self-Organizing Maps have been used to analyze the present non-dominated solutions and to visualize tradeoffs and influence of design variables to the four objectives. Self-Organizing Maps contoured by the four objective functions and design variables are found to visualize tradeoffs and effects of each design variable.
Aerodynamics of high frequency flapping wings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Zheng; Roll, Jesse; Cheng, Bo; Deng, Xinyan
2010-11-01
We investigated the aerodynamic performance of high frequency flapping wings using a 2.5 gram robotic insect mechanism developed in our lab. The mechanism flaps up to 65Hz with a pair of man-made wing mounted with 10cm wingtip-to-wingtip span. The mean aerodynamic lift force was measured by a lever platform, and the flow velocity and vorticity were measured using a stereo DPIV system in the frontal, parasagittal, and horizontal planes. Both near field (leading edge vortex) and far field flow (induced flow) were measured with instantaneous and phase-averaged results. Systematic experiments were performed on the man-made wings, cicada and hawk moth wings due to their similar size, frequency and Reynolds number. For insect wings, we used both dry and freshly-cut wings. The aerodynamic force increase with flapping frequency and the man-made wing generates more than 4 grams of lift at 35Hz with 3 volt input. Here we present the experimental results and the major differences in their aerodynamic performances.
Aerodynamic and Kinetic Processes in Flames
1988-05-01
Soot Extinction by Aerodynamic Straining In Counterflow Diffusion Flames," by D. X. Du, R. L. Axelbaum, W. L. Flower and C. K. Law, to appear in Proc...8217 by R. L. Axelbaum, W. L. Flower and C. K. Law, submitted. 14. "Laminar Flame Speeds pf Methane/Air Mixtures Under Reduced and Elevated Pressures," by F
Efficient Global Aerodynamic Modeling from Flight Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morelli, Eugene A.
2012-01-01
A method for identifying global aerodynamic models from flight data in an efficient manner is explained and demonstrated. A novel experiment design technique was used to obtain dynamic flight data over a range of flight conditions with a single flight maneuver. Multivariate polynomials and polynomial splines were used with orthogonalization techniques and statistical modeling metrics to synthesize global nonlinear aerodynamic models directly and completely from flight data alone. Simulation data and flight data from a subscale twin-engine jet transport aircraft were used to demonstrate the techniques. Results showed that global multivariate nonlinear aerodynamic dependencies could be accurately identified using flight data from a single maneuver. Flight-derived global aerodynamic model structures, model parameter estimates, and associated uncertainties were provided for all six nondimensional force and moment coefficients for the test aircraft. These models were combined with a propulsion model identified from engine ground test data to produce a high-fidelity nonlinear flight simulation very efficiently. Prediction testing using a multi-axis maneuver showed that the identified global model accurately predicted aircraft responses.
User's guide to program FLEXSTAB. [aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cavin, R. K., III; Colunga, D.
1975-01-01
A manual is presented for correctly submitting program runs in aerodynamics on the UNIVAC 1108 computer system. All major program modules are included. Control cards are documented for the user's convenience, and card parameters are included in order to provide some idea as to reasonable time estimates for the program modules.
Aerodynamic Design of Axial Flow Compressors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bullock, R. O. (Editor); Johnsen, I. A.
1965-01-01
An overview of 'Aerodynamic systems design of axial flow compressors' is presented. Numerous chapters cover topics such as compressor design, ptotential and viscous flow in two dimensional cascades, compressor stall and blade vibration, and compressor flow theory. Theoretical aspects of flow are also covered.
Direct Numerical Simulation of Aerodynamic Noise
1989-09-29
Noise First Annual Progress Report ONR Grant N00014-88-K-0592 Principal Investigator : Parviz Main Sr. Research Associate: Sanjiva K. Lele Research...of Aerodynamic Noise ONR Grant N00014-88-K-0592 Principal Investigator : Parviz Moin Sr. Research Associate : Sanjiva K. Lele Research Assistant : Tim
An aerodynamic load criterion for airships
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woodward, D. E.
1975-01-01
A simple aerodynamic bending moment envelope is derived for conventionally shaped airships. This criterion is intended to be used, much like the Naval Architect's standard wave, for preliminary estimates of longitudinal strength requirements. It should be useful in tradeoff studies between speed, fineness ratio, block coefficient, structure weight, and other such general parameters of airship design.
NASA Aerodynamics Program Annual Report 1990
1991-08-01
95 ROTONET Phase IV System Multirotor Source Noise Module ...................................................... 97 Acoustic Results...94 Figure 6-7. ROTONET Phase IV System Multirotor Source Noise Module .................................. 96 Figure 6-8. Effects of Reduced...focusing on the areas of hybrid laminar flow technology and the reduction of aerodynamic interference between major aircraft components. A hybrid
Aerodynamic beam generator for large particles
Brockmann, John E.; Torczynski, John R.; Dykhuizen, Ronald C.; Neiser, Richard A.; Smith, Mark F.
2002-01-01
A new type of aerodynamic particle beam generator is disclosed. This generator produces a tightly focused beam of large material particles at velocities ranging from a few feet per second to supersonic speeds, depending on the exact configuration and operating conditions. Such generators are of particular interest for use in additive fabrication techniques.
FLPP IXV Re-Entry Vehicle, Hypersonic Aerodynamics Characterisation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tran, Ph.; Dormieux, M.; Fontaine, J.; Gülhan, A.; Tribot, J.-P.; Binetti, P.; Walloschek, T.
2009-01-01
The general objective of the IXV project (Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle), led by NGL Prime in the framework of the ESA FLPP programme (Future Launchers Preparatory Programme), is to improve European capabilities in the strategic field of atmospheric re-entry for space transportation, exploration, and scientific applications. One of the key objectives and challenges of the IXV project is the vehicle re-entry guidance and control demonstration which requires an accurate determination of the aerodynamic characteristics. This paper deals with all the aerodynamic characterization in the hypersonic flow regime. Wind tunnel tests (WTT) and CFD matrices have been defined in order to provide good coverage of the foreseen flight domain, account for uncertainties, and exploit the synergy between experimental and computational activity. WTT have been performed in DLR-H2K (M=6 and 8.7) and ONERA-S4Ma (M=10) facilities, gathering forces and moment data, as well as pressure in key areas. Consistency of the two campaigns results will be addressed. These results have highlighted some flow peculiarities in the deflected flap region. Comparisons with CFD show good agreement with ground experimental results. For flight conditions, real gas and viscous effects play a significant role in the trim conditions that only CFD can currently address; this identification was supported by different partners involved in the project (CFS engineering, DLR, CIRA, and the University of Rome) providing a valuable description of key flow phenomena affecting aerodynamic characteristics. Moreover, at high altitude, limited DSMC computations have been performed for bridging function correction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mert, Yıldırım; Perihan, Durmuş; Şemsettin, Altındal
2013-10-01
In this study, Al/p—Si and Al/Bi4Ti3O12/p—Si structures are fabricated and their interface states (Nss), the values of series resistance (Rs), and AC electrical conductivity (σac) are obtained each as a function of temperature using admittance spectroscopy method which includes capacitance—voltage (C—V) and conductance—voltage (G—V) measurements. In addition, the effect of interfacial Bi4Ti3O12 (BTO) layer on the performance of the structure is investigated. The voltage-dependent profiles of Nss and Rs are obtained from the high-low frequency capacitance method and the Nicollian method, respectively. Experimental results show that Nss and Rs, as strong functions of temperature and applied bias voltage, each exhibit a peak, whose position shifts towards the reverse bias region, in the depletion region. Such a peak behavior is attributed to the particular distribution of Nss and the reordering and restructuring of Nss under the effect of temperature. The values of activation energy (Ea), obtained from the slope of the Arrhenius plot, of both structures are obtained to be bias voltage-independent, and the Ea of the metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor (MFS) structure is found to be half that of the metal—semiconductor (MS) structure. Furthermore, other main electrical parameters, such as carrier concentration of acceptor atoms (NA), built-in potential (Vbi), Fermi energy (EF), image force barrier lowering (Δ Φb), and barrier height (Φb), are extracted using reverse bias C-2—V characteristics as a function of temperature.
Aerodynamic Simulation of the MARINTEK Braceless Semisubmersible Wave Tank Tests
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stewart, Gordon; Muskulus, Michael
2016-09-01
Model scale experiments of floating offshore wind turbines are important for both platform design for the industry as well as numerical model validation for the research community. An important consideration in the wave tank testing of offshore wind turbines are scaling effects, especially the tension between accurate scaling of both hydrodynamic and aerodynamic forces. The recent MARINTEK braceless semisubmersible wave tank experiment utilizes a novel aerodynamic force actuator to decouple the scaling of the aerodynamic forces. This actuator consists of an array of motors that pull on cables to provide aerodynamic forces that are calculated by a blade-element momentum code in real time as the experiment is conducted. This type of system has the advantage of supplying realistically scaled aerodynamic forces that include dynamic forces from platform motion, but does not provide the insights into the accuracy of the aerodynamic models that an actual model-scale rotor could provide. The modeling of this system presents an interesting challenge, as there are two ways to simulate the aerodynamics; either by using the turbulent wind fields as inputs to the aerodynamic model of the design code, or by surpassing the aerodynamic model and using the forces applied to the experimental turbine as direct inputs to the simulation. This paper investigates the best practices of modeling this type of novel aerodynamic actuator using a modified wind turbine simulation tool, and demonstrates that bypassing the dynamic aerodynamics solver of design codes can lead to erroneous results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erickson, Gary E.; Deloach, Richard
2008-01-01
A collection of statistical and mathematical techniques referred to as response surface methodology was used to estimate the longitudinal stage separation aerodynamic characteristics of a generic, bimese, winged multi-stage launch vehicle configuration using data obtained on small-scale models at supersonic speeds in the NASA Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The simulated Mach 3 staging was dominated by multiple shock wave interactions between the orbiter and booster vehicles throughout the relative spatial locations of interest. This motivated a partitioning of the overall inference space into several contiguous regions within which the separation aerodynamics were presumed to be well-behaved and estimable using cuboidal and spherical central composite designs capable of fitting full second-order response functions. The primary goal was to approximate the underlying overall aerodynamic response surfaces of the booster vehicle in belly-to-belly proximity to the orbiter vehicle using relatively simple, lower-order polynomial functions that were piecewise-continuous across the full independent variable ranges of interest. The quality of fit and prediction capabilities of the empirical models were assessed in detail, and the issue of subspace boundary discontinuities was addressed. The potential benefits of augmenting the central composite designs to full third order using computer-generated D-optimality criteria were also evaluated. The usefulness of central composite designs, the subspace sizing, and the practicality of fitting low-order response functions over a partitioned inference space dominated by highly nonlinear and possibly discontinuous shock-induced aerodynamics are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erickson, Gary E.
2010-01-01
Response surface methodology was used to estimate the longitudinal stage separation aerodynamic characteristics of a generic, bimese, winged multi-stage launch vehicle configuration at supersonic speeds in the NASA LaRC Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The Mach 3 staging was dominated by shock wave interactions between the orbiter and booster vehicles throughout the relative spatial locations of interest. The inference space was partitioned into several contiguous regions within which the separation aerodynamics were presumed to be well-behaved and estimable using central composite designs capable of fitting full second-order response functions. The underlying aerodynamic response surfaces of the booster vehicle in belly-to-belly proximity to the orbiter vehicle were estimated using piecewise-continuous lower-order polynomial functions. The quality of fit and prediction capabilities of the empirical models were assessed in detail, and the issue of subspace boundary discontinuities was addressed. Augmenting the central composite designs to full third-order using computer-generated D-optimality criteria was evaluated. The usefulness of central composite designs, the subspace sizing, and the practicality of fitting lower-order response functions over a partitioned inference space dominated by highly nonlinear and possibly discontinuous shock-induced aerodynamics are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rajkumar, T.; Bardina, Jorge; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Wind tunnels use scale models to characterize aerodynamic coefficients, Wind tunnel testing can be slow and costly due to high personnel overhead and intensive power utilization. Although manual curve fitting can be done, it is highly efficient to use a neural network to define the complex relationship between variables. Numerical simulation of complex vehicles on the wide range of conditions required for flight simulation requires static and dynamic data. Static data at low Mach numbers and angles of attack may be obtained with simpler Euler codes. Static data of stalled vehicles where zones of flow separation are usually present at higher angles of attack require Navier-Stokes simulations which are costly due to the large processing time required to attain convergence. Preliminary dynamic data may be obtained with simpler methods based on correlations and vortex methods; however, accurate prediction of the dynamic coefficients requires complex and costly numerical simulations. A reliable and fast method of predicting complex aerodynamic coefficients for flight simulation I'S presented using a neural network. The training data for the neural network are derived from numerical simulations and wind-tunnel experiments. The aerodynamic coefficients are modeled as functions of the flow characteristics and the control surfaces of the vehicle. The basic coefficients of lift, drag and pitching moment are expressed as functions of angles of attack and Mach number. The modeled and training aerodynamic coefficients show good agreement. This method shows excellent potential for rapid development of aerodynamic models for flight simulation. Genetic Algorithms (GA) are used to optimize a previously built Artificial Neural Network (ANN) that reliably predicts aerodynamic coefficients. Results indicate that the GA provided an efficient method of optimizing the ANN model to predict aerodynamic coefficients. The reliability of the ANN using the GA includes prediction of aerodynamic
Screening of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of barley malt
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghodsvali, Alireza; Farzaneh, Vahid; Bakhshabadi, Hamid; Zare, Zahra; Karami, Zahra; Mokhtarian, Mohsen; Carvalho, Isabel. S.
2016-10-01
An understanding of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of barley malt is necessary for the appropriate design of equipment for the handling, shipping, dehydration, grading, sorting and warehousing of this strategic crop. Malting is a complex biotechnological process that includes steeping; germination and finally, the dehydration of cereal grains under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. In this investigation, the biophysical properties of barley malt were predicted using two models of artificial neural networks as well as response surface methodology. Stepping time and germination time were selected as the independent variables and 1 000 kernel weight, kernel density and terminal velocity were selected as the dependent variables (responses). The obtained outcomes showed that the artificial neural network model, with a logarithmic sigmoid activation function, presents more precise results than the response surface model in the prediction of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of produced barley malt. This model presented the best result with 8 nodes in the hidden layer and significant correlation coefficient values of 0.783, 0.767 and 0.991 were obtained for responses one thousand kernel weight, kernel density, and terminal velocity, respectively. The outcomes indicated that this novel technique could be successfully applied in quantitative and qualitative monitoring within the malting process.
Kinematics and aerodynamics of the velocity vector roll
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Durham, Wayne C.; Lutze, Frederick H.; Mason, W.
1993-01-01
The velocity vector roll is an angular rotation of an aircraft about its instantaneous velocity vector, constrained to be performed at constant angle-of-attack (AOA), no sideslip, and constant velocity. Consideration of the aerodynamic force equations leads to requirements for body-axis yawing and pitching rotations that satisfy these constraints. Here, the body axis rotations, and the constraints, are used in the moment equations to determine the aerodynamic moments required to perform the velocity vector roll. For representative tactical aircraft, the conditions for maximum pitching moment are a function of orientation, occurring at about 90 deg of bank in a level trajectory. Maximum required pitching moment occurs at peak roll rate, and is achieved at AOA above 45 deg. The conditions for maximum rolling moment depend on the value of the roll mode time constant. For a small time constant (fast response) the maximum rolling moment occurs at maximum roll acceleration and zero AOA, largely independent of aircraft orientation; for a large time constant, maximum required rolling moment occurs at maximum roll rate, at maximum AOA, and at 180 deg of bank in level flight. Maximum yawing moment occurs at maximum roll acceleration, maximum AOA, and is largely independent of airplane orientation.
Grid and aerodynamic sensitivity analyses of airplane components
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sadrehaghighi, Ideen; Smith, Robert E.; Tiwari, Surendra N.
1993-01-01
An algorithm is developed to obtain the grid sensitivity with respect to design parameters for aerodynamic optimization. The procedure is advocating a novel (geometrical) parameterization using spline functions such as NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines) for defining the wing-section geometry. An interactive algebraic grid generation technique, known as Two-Boundary Grid Generation (TBGG) is employed to generate C-type grids around wing-sections. The grid sensitivity of the domain with respect to geometric design parameters has been obtained by direct differentiation of the grid equations. A hybrid approach is proposed for more geometrically complex configurations such as a wing or fuselage. The aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients are obtained by direct differentiation of the compressible two-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. An optimization package has been introduced into the algorithm in order to optimize the wing-section surface. Results demonstrate a substantially improved design due to maximized lift/drag ratio of the wing-section.
Linear unsteady aerodynamic forces on vibrating annular cascade blades
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagasaki, Taketo; Yamasaki, Nobuhiko
2003-05-01
The paper presents the formulation to compute numerically the unsteady aerodynamic forces on the vibrating annular cascade blades. The formulation is based on the finite volume method. By applying the TVD scheme to the linear unsteady calculations, the precise calculation of the peak of unsteady aerodynamic forces at the shock wave location like the delta function singularity becomes possible without empirical constants. As a further feature of the present paper, results of the present numerical calculation are compared with those of the double linearization theory (DLT), which assumes small unsteady and steady disturbances but the unsteady disturbances are much smaller than the steady disturbances. Since DLT requires far less computational resources than the present numerical calculation, the validation of DLT is quite important from the engineering point of view. Under the conditions of small steady disturbances, a good agreement between these two results is observed, so that the two codes are cross-validated. The comparison also reveals the limitation on the applicability of DLT.
Fully integrated aerodynamic/dynamic optimization of helicopter rotor blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walsh, Joanne L.; Lamarsh, William J., II; Adelman, Howard M.
1992-01-01
A fully integrated aerodynamic/dynamic optimization procedure is described for helicopter rotor blades. The procedure combines performance and dynamic analyses with a general purpose optimizer. The procedure minimizes a linear combination of power required (in hover, forward flight, and maneuver) and vibratory hub shear. The design variables include pretwist, taper initiation, taper ratio, root chord, blade stiffnesses, tuning masses, and tuning mass locations. Aerodynamic constraints consist of limits on power required in hover, forward flight and maneuvers; airfoil section stall; drag divergence Mach number; minimum tip chord; and trim. Dynamic constraints are on frequencies, minimum autorotational inertia, and maximum blade weight. The procedure is demonstrated for two cases. In the first case, the objective function involves power required (in hover, forward flight and maneuver) and dynamics. The second case involves only hover power and dynamics. The designs from the integrated procedure are compared with designs from a sequential optimization approach in which the blade is first optimized for performance and then for dynamics. In both cases, the integrated approach is superior.
Aerodynamic Simulation of Runback Ice Accretion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Broeren, Andy P.; Whalen, Edward A.; Busch, Greg T.; Bragg, Michael B.
2010-01-01
This report presents the results of recent investigations into the aerodynamics of simulated runback ice accretion on airfoils. Aerodynamic tests were performed on a full-scale model using a high-fidelity, ice-casting simulation at near-flight Reynolds (Re) number. The ice-casting simulation was attached to the leading edge of a 72-in. (1828.8-mm ) chord NACA 23012 airfoil model. Aerodynamic performance tests were conducted at the ONERA F1 pressurized wind tunnel over a Reynolds number range of 4.7?10(exp 6) to 16.0?10(exp 6) and a Mach (M) number ran ge of 0.10 to 0.28. For Re = 16.0?10(exp 6) and M = 0.20, the simulated runback ice accretion on the airfoil decreased the maximum lift coe fficient from 1.82 to 1.51 and decreased the stalling angle of attack from 18.1deg to 15.0deg. The pitching-moment slope was also increased and the drag coefficient was increased by more than a factor of two. In general, the performance effects were insensitive to Reynolds numb er and Mach number changes over the range tested. Follow-on, subscale aerodynamic tests were conducted on a quarter-scale NACA 23012 model (18-in. (457.2-mm) chord) at Re = 1.8?10(exp 6) and M = 0.18, using low-fidelity, geometrically scaled simulations of the full-scale castin g. It was found that simple, two-dimensional simulations of the upper- and lower-surface runback ridges provided the best representation of the full-scale, high Reynolds number iced-airfoil aerodynamics, whereas higher-fidelity simulations resulted in larger performance degrada tions. The experimental results were used to define a new subclassification of spanwise ridge ice that distinguishes between short and tall ridges. This subclassification is based upon the flow field and resulting aerodynamic characteristics, regardless of the physical size of the ridge and the ice-accretion mechanism.
Experimental Investigation of the Aerodynamic Forces on a Curveball
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jemmott, Colin; Utvich, Alexis; Logan, Sheldon; Rossmann, Jenn
2003-11-01
The physics of baseball has fascinated researchers nearly as long as the game has existed, yet research into aerodynamic forces on curveballs has often been conflicting and incomplete. A team of undergraduates used the newly completed Harvey Mudd College wind tunnel with a specially designed apparatus to quantify these forces. The coefficient of lift was found to be a non-linear function of both the dimensionless spin number and the Reynolds number, suggesting a stronger Reynolds number dependence than previously reported. The coefficient of drag was found to be primarily a function of spin number over the range of Reynolds numbers investigated and is significantly higher than that for a static baseball over the same Reynolds number range. While these findings help to quantify and interpret what pitchers know intuitively, they also motivate further investigations of both forces and the resulting flow field over a wider parameter range.
Team Software Development for Aerothermodynamic and Aerodynamic Analysis and Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alexandrov, N.; Atkins, H. L.; Bibb, K. L.; Biedron, R. T.; Carpenter, M. H.; Gnoffo, P. A.; Hammond, D. P.; Jones, W. T.; Kleb, W. L.; Lee-Rausch, E. M.
2003-01-01
A collaborative approach to software development is described. The approach employs the agile development techniques: project retrospectives, Scrum status meetings, and elements of Extreme Programming to efficiently develop a cohesive and extensible software suite. The software product under development is a fluid dynamics simulator for performing aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic analysis and design. The functionality of the software product is achieved both through the merging, with substantial rewrite, of separate legacy codes and the authorship of new routines. Examples of rapid implementation of new functionality demonstrate the benefits obtained with this agile software development process. The appendix contains a discussion of coding issues encountered while porting legacy Fortran 77 code to Fortran 95, software design principles, and a Fortran 95 coding standard.
A smoke generator system for aerodynamic flight research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Richwine, David M.; Curry, Robert E.; Tracy, Gene V.
1989-01-01
A smoke generator system was developed for in-flight vortex flow studies on the F-18 high alpha research vehicle (HARV). The development process included conceptual design, a survey of existing systems, component testing, detailed design, fabrication, and functional flight testing. Housed in the forebody of the aircraft, the final system consists of multiple pyrotechnic smoke cartridges which can be fired simultaneously or in sequence. The smoke produced is ducted to desired locations on the aircraft surface. The smoke generator system (SGS) has been used successfully to identify vortex core and core breakdown locations as functions of flight condition. Although developed for a specific vehicle, this concept may be useful for other aerodynamic flight research which requires the visualization of local flows.
Multi-objective aerodynamic shape optimization of small livestock trailers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gilkeson, C. A.; Toropov, V. V.; Thompson, H. M.; Wilson, M. C. T.; Foxley, N. A.; Gaskell, P. H.
2013-11-01
This article presents a formal optimization study of the design of small livestock trailers, within which the majority of animals are transported to market in the UK. The benefits of employing a headboard fairing to reduce aerodynamic drag without compromising the ventilation of the animals' microclimate are investigated using a multi-stage process involving computational fluid dynamics (CFD), optimal Latin hypercube (OLH) design of experiments (DoE) and moving least squares (MLS) metamodels. Fairings are parameterized in terms of three design variables and CFD solutions are obtained at 50 permutations of design variables. Both global and local search methods are employed to locate the global minimum from metamodels of the objective functions and a Pareto front is generated. The importance of carefully selecting an objective function is demonstrated and optimal fairing designs, offering drag reductions in excess of 5% without compromising animal ventilation, are presented.
A Rapid Aerodynamic Design Procedure Based on Artificial Neural Networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rai, Man Mohan
2001-01-01
An aerodynamic design procedure that uses neural networks to model the functional behavior of the objective function in design space has been developed. This method incorporates several improvements to an earlier method that employed a strategy called parameter-based partitioning of the design space in order to reduce the computational costs associated with design optimization. As with the earlier method, the current method uses a sequence of response surfaces to traverse the design space in search of the optimal solution. The new method yields significant reductions in computational costs by using composite response surfaces with better generalization capabilities and by exploiting synergies between the optimization method and the simulation codes used to generate the training data. These reductions in design optimization costs are demonstrated for a turbine airfoil design study where a generic shape is evolved into an optimal airfoil.
Aerodynamic control with passively pitching wings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gravish, Nick; Wood, Robert
Flapping wings may pitch passively under aerodynamic and inertial loads. Such passive pitching is observed in flapping wing insect and robot flight. The effect of passive wing pitch on the control dynamics of flapping wing flight are unexplored. Here we demonstrate in simulation and experiment the critical role wing pitching plays in yaw control of a flapping wing robot. We study yaw torque generation by a flapping wing allowed to passively rotate in the pitch axis through a rotational spring. Yaw torque is generated through alternating fast and slow upstroke and and downstroke. Yaw torque sensitively depends on both the rotational spring force law and spring stiffness, and at a critical spring stiffness a bifurcation in the yaw torque control relationship occurs. Simulation and experiment reveal the dynamics of this bifurcation and demonstrate that anomalous yaw torque from passively pitching wings is the result of aerodynamic and inertial coupling between the pitching and stroke-plane dynamics.
Mimicking the humpback whale: An aerodynamic perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aftab, S. M. A.; Razak, N. A.; Mohd Rafie, A. S.; Ahmad, K. A.
2016-07-01
This comprehensive review aims to provide a critical overview of the work on tubercles in the past decade. The humpback whale is of interest to aerodynamic/hydrodynamic researchers, as it performs manoeuvres that baffle the imagination. Researchers have attributed these capabilities to the presence of lumps, known as tubercles, on the leading edge of the flipper. Tubercles generate a unique flow control mechanism, offering the humpback exceptional manoeuverability. Experimental and numerical studies have shown that the flow pattern over the tubercle wing is quite different from conventional wings. Research on the Tubercle Leading Edge (TLE) concept has helped to clarify aerodynamic issues such as flow separation, tonal noise and dynamic stall. TLE shows increased lift by delaying and restricting spanwise separation. A summary of studies on different airfoils and reported improvement in performance is outlined. The major contributions and limitations of previous work are also reported.
Aerodynamics of the Mars Microprobe Entry Vehicles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mitcheltree, R. A.; Moss, J. N.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Greene, F. A.; Braun, R. D.
1997-01-01
The selection of the unique aeroshell shape for the Mars Microprobes is discussed. A description of its aerodynamics in hypersonic rarefied, hypersonic continuum, supersonic and transonic flow regimes is then presented. This description is based on Direct Simulation Monte Carlo analyses in the rarefied-flow regime, thermochemical nonequilibrium Computational Fluid Dynamics in the hypersonic regime, existing wind tunnel data in the supersonic and transonic regime, additional computational work in the transonic regime, and finally, ballistic range data. The aeroshell is shown to possess the correct combination of aerodynamic stability and drag to convert the probe's initial tumbling attitude and high velocity at atmospheric-interface into the desired surface-impact orientation and velocity.
CFD research, parallel computation and aerodynamic optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ryan, James S.
1995-01-01
Over five years of research in Computational Fluid Dynamics and its applications are covered in this report. Using CFD as an established tool, aerodynamic optimization on parallel architectures is explored. The objective of this work is to provide better tools to vehicle designers. Submarine design requires accurate force and moment calculations in flow with thick boundary layers and large separated vortices. Low noise production is critical, so flow into the propulsor region must be predicted accurately. The High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) has been the subject of recent work. This vehicle is to be a passenger vehicle with the capability of cutting overseas flight times by more than half. A successful design must surpass the performance of comparable planes. Fuel economy, other operational costs, environmental impact, and range must all be improved substantially. For all these reasons, improved design tools are required, and these tools must eventually integrate optimization, external aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, heat transfer and other disciplines.
Wind turbine trailing edge aerodynamic brakes
Migliore, P G; Miller, L S; Quandt, G A
1995-04-01
Five trailing-edge devices were investigated to determine their potential as wind-turbine aerodynamic brakes, and for power modulation and load alleviation. Several promising configurations were identified. A new device, called the spoiler-flap, appears to be the best alternative. It is a simple device that is effective at all angles of attack. It is not structurally intrusive, and it has the potential for small actuating loads. It is shown that simultaneous achievement of a low lift/drag ratio and high drag is the determinant of device effectiveness, and that these attributes must persist up to an angle of attack of 45{degree}. It is also argued that aerodynamic brakes must be designed for a wind speed of at least 45 m/s (100 mph).
Transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doig, G.
2014-08-01
A review of recent and historical work in the field of transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics has been conducted, focussing on applied research on wings and aircraft, present and future ground transportation, projectiles, rocket sleds and other related bodies which travel in close ground proximity in the compressible regime. Methods for ground testing are described and evaluated, noting that wind tunnel testing is best performed with a symmetry model in the absence of a moving ground; sled or rail testing is ultimately preferable, though considerably more expensive. Findings are reported on shock-related ground influence on aerodynamic forces and moments in and accelerating through the transonic regime - where force reversals and the early onset of local supersonic flow is prevalent - as well as more predictable behaviours in fully supersonic to hypersonic ground effect flows.
Aerodynamic characteristics of the HL-20
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ware, George M.; Cruz, Christopher I.
1993-09-01
Wind tunnel tests were made from subsonic to hypersonic speeds to define the aerodynamic characteristics of the HL-20 lifting-body configuration. The data have been assembled into an aerodynamic database for flight analysis of this proposed vehicle. The wind tunnel data indicates that the model is longitudinally and laterally stable (about a center-of-gravity location of 0.54 body length) over the test range from Mach 20 to 0.3. At hypersonic speeds, the HL-20 model trimmed at a lift/drag (L/D) ratio of 1.4. This value gives the vehicle a crossrange capability similar to that of the space shuttle. At subsonic speeds, the HL-20 has a trimmed L/D ratio of about 3.6. Replacing the flat-plate outboard fins with fins having an airfoil shape increased the maximum subsonic trimmed L/D to 4.2.
The aerodynamic challenges of SRB recovery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bacchus, D. L.; Kross, D. A.; Moog, R. D.
1985-01-01
Recovery and reuse of the Space Shuttle solid rocket boosters was baselined to support the primary goal to develop a low cost space transportation system. The recovery system required for the 170,000-lb boosters was for the largest and heaviest object yet to be retrieved from exoatmospheric conditions. State-of-the-art design procedures were ground-ruled and development testing minimized to produce both a reliable and cost effective system. The ability to utilize the inherent drag of the boosters during the initial phase of reentry was a key factor in minimizing the parachute loads, size and weight. A wind tunnel test program was devised to enable the accurate prediction of booster aerodynamic characteristics. Concurrently, wind tunnel, rocket sled and air drop tests were performed to develop and verify the performance of the parachute decelerator subsystem. Aerodynamic problems encountered during the overall recovery system development and the respective solutions are emphasized.
Aerodynamic shape optimization of arbitrary hypersonic vehicles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dulikravich, George S.; Sheffer, Scott G.
1991-01-01
A new method was developed to optimize, in terms of aerodynamic wave drag minimization, arbitrary (nonaxisymmetric) hypersonic vehicles in modified Newtonian flow, while maintaining the initial volume and length of the vehicle. This new method uses either a surface fitted Fourier series to represent the vehicle's geometry or an independent point motion algorithm. In either case, the coefficients of the Fourier series or the spatial locations of the points defining each cross section were varied and a numerical optimization algorithm based on a quasi-Newton gradient search concept was used to determine the new optimal configuration. Results indicate a significant decrease in aerodynamic wave drag for simple and complex geometries at relatively low CPU costs. In the case of a cone, the results agreed well with known analytical optimum ogive shapes. The procedure is capable of accepting more complex flow field analysis codes.
Flight Test Maneuvers for Efficient Aerodynamic Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morelli, Eugene A.
2011-01-01
Novel flight test maneuvers for efficient aerodynamic modeling were developed and demonstrated in flight. Orthogonal optimized multi-sine inputs were applied to aircraft control surfaces to excite aircraft dynamic response in all six degrees of freedom simultaneously while keeping the aircraft close to chosen reference flight conditions. Each maneuver was designed for a specific modeling task that cannot be adequately or efficiently accomplished using conventional flight test maneuvers. All of the new maneuvers were first described and explained, then demonstrated on a subscale jet transport aircraft in flight. Real-time and post-flight modeling results obtained using equation-error parameter estimation in the frequency domain were used to show the effectiveness and efficiency of the new maneuvers, as well as the quality of the aerodynamic models that can be identified from the resultant flight data.
High speed civil transport aerodynamic optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ryan, James S.
1994-01-01
This is a report of work in support of the Computational Aerosciences (CAS) element of the Federal HPCC program. Specifically, CFD and aerodynamic optimization are being performed on parallel computers. The long-range goal of this work is to facilitate teraflops-rate multidisciplinary optimization of aerospace vehicles. This year's work is targeted for application to the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), one of four CAS grand challenges identified in the HPCC FY 1995 Blue Book. This vehicle is to be a passenger aircraft, with the promise of cutting overseas flight time by more than half. To meet fuel economy, operational costs, environmental impact, noise production, and range requirements, improved design tools are required, and these tools must eventually integrate optimization, external aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, heat transfer, controls, and perhaps other disciplines. The fundamental goal of this project is to contribute to improved design tools for U.S. industry, and thus to the nation's economic competitiveness.
Specialized computer architectures for computational aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stevenson, D. K.
1978-01-01
In recent years, computational fluid dynamics has made significant progress in modelling aerodynamic phenomena. Currently, one of the major barriers to future development lies in the compute-intensive nature of the numerical formulations and the relative high cost of performing these computations on commercially available general purpose computers, a cost high with respect to dollar expenditure and/or elapsed time. Today's computing technology will support a program designed to create specialized computing facilities to be dedicated to the important problems of computational aerodynamics. One of the still unresolved questions is the organization of the computing components in such a facility. The characteristics of fluid dynamic problems which will have significant impact on the choice of computer architecture for a specialized facility are reviewed.
Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Using Hybridized Differential Evolution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Madavan, Nateri K.
2003-01-01
An aerodynamic shape optimization method that uses an evolutionary algorithm known at Differential Evolution (DE) in conjunction with various hybridization strategies is described. DE is a simple and robust evolutionary strategy that has been proven effective in determining the global optimum for several difficult optimization problems. Various hybridization strategies for DE are explored, including the use of neural networks as well as traditional local search methods. A Navier-Stokes solver is used to evaluate the various intermediate designs and provide inputs to the hybrid DE optimizer. The method is implemented on distributed parallel computers so that new designs can be obtained within reasonable turnaround times. Results are presented for the inverse design of a turbine airfoil from a modern jet engine. (The final paper will include at least one other aerodynamic design application). The capability of the method to search large design spaces and obtain the optimal airfoils in an automatic fashion is demonstrated.
Aerodynamic interference between two Darrieus wind turbines
Schatzle, P.R.; Klimas, P.C.; Spahr, H.R.
1981-04-01
The effect of aerodynamic interference on the performance of two curved bladed Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbines has been calculated using a vortex/lifting line aerodynamic model. The turbines have a tower-to-tower separation distance of 1.5 turbine diameters, with the line of turbine centers varying with respect to the ambient wind direction. The effects of freestream turbulence were neglected. For the cases examined, the calculations showed that the downwind turbine power decrement (1) was significant only when the line of turbine centers was coincident with the ambient wind direction, (2) increased with increasing tipspeed ratio, and (3) is due more to induced flow angularities downstream than to speed deficits near the downstream turbine.
Aerodynamic design of the National Rotor Testbed.
Kelley, Christopher Lee
2015-10-01
A new wind turbine blade has been designed for the National Rotor Testbed (NRT) project and for future experiments at the Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility with a specific focus on scaled wakes. This report shows the aerodynamic design of new blades that can produce a wake that has similitude to utility scale blades despite the difference in size and location in the atmospheric boundary layer. Dimensionless quantities circulation, induction, thrust coefficient, and tip-speed-ratio were kept equal between rotor scales in region 2 of operation. The new NRT design matched the aerodynamic quantities of the most common wind turbine in the United States, the GE 1.5sle turbine with 37c model blades. The NRT blade design is presented along with its performance subject to the winds at SWiFT. The design requirements determined by the SWiFT experimental test campaign are shown to be met.
Performance of an aerodynamic particle separator
Ragland, K.; Han, J.; Aerts, D.
1996-12-31
This compact, high-flow device aerodynamically separates small particles from a gas stream by a series of annular truncated airfoils. The operating concept, design and performance of this novel particle separator are described. Tests results using corn starch and post-cyclone coal fly ash are presented. Particle collection efficiencies of 90% for corn starch and 70% for coal fly ash were measured at inlet velocities of 80 ft s{sup {minus}1} (2,700 cfm) and (6 inches) water pressure drop with particle loading up to 4 gr ft{sup {minus}3} in air at standard conditions. Results from computer modeling using FLUENT are presented and compared to the tests. The aerodynamic particle separator is an attractive alternative to a cyclone collector.
Device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance
Graham, Sean C.
2006-03-07
A device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance for vehicles having a generally rectangular flat front face comprising a plurality of load bearing struts of a predetermined size attached to the flat front face adjacent the sides and top thereof, a pair of pliable opposing flat sheets having an outside edge portion attached to the flat front face adjacent the sides thereof and an upper edge with a predetermined curve; the opposing flat sheets being bent and attached to the struts to form effective curved airfoil shapes, and a top pliable flat sheet disposed adjacent the top of the flat front face and having predetermined curved side edges, which, when the top sheet is bent and attached to the struts to form an effective curved airfoil shape, mate with the curved upper edges of the opposing sheets to complete the aerodynamic device.
Device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance
Graham, Sean C.
2006-08-22
A device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance for vehicles having a generally rectangular body disposed above rear wheels, comprising a plurality of load bearing struts attached to the bottom of the rectangular body adjacent its sides, a plurality of opposing flat sheets attached to the load bearing struts, and angled flaps attached to the lower edge of the opposing sheets defining an obtuse angle with the opposing flat sheets extending inwardly with respect to the sides of the rectangular body to a predetermined height above the ground, which, stiffen the opposing flat sheets, bend to resist damage when struck by the ground, and guide airflow around the rear wheels of the vehicle to reduce its aerodynamic resistance when moving.
An Interactive Educational Tool for Compressible Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Benson, Thomas J.
1994-01-01
A workstation-based interactive educational tool was developed to aid in the teaching of undergraduate compressible aerodynamics. The tool solves for the supersonic flow past a wedge using the equations found in NACA 1135. The student varies the geometry or flow conditions through a graphical user interface and the new conditions are calculated immediately. Various graphical formats present the variation of flow results to the student. One such format leads the student to the generation of some of the graphs found in NACA-1135. The tool includes interactive questions and answers to aid in both the use of the tool and to develop an understanding of some of the complexities of compressible aerodynamics. A series of help screens make the simulator easy to learn and use. This paper will detail the numerical methods used in the tool and describe how it can be used and modified.
Rarefaction effects on Galileo probe aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moss, James N.; LeBeau, Gerald J.; Blanchard, Robert C.; Price, Joseph M.
1996-01-01
Solutions of aerodynamic characteristics are presented for the Galileo Probe entering Jupiter's hydrogen-helium atmosphere at a nominal relative velocity of 47.4 km/s. Focus is on predicting the aerodynamic drag coefficient during the transitional flow regime using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Accuracy of the probe's drag coefficient directly impacts the inferred atmospheric properties that are being extracted from the deceleration measurements made by onboard accelerometers as part of the Atmospheric Structure Experiment. The range of rarefaction considered in the present study extends from the free molecular limit to continuum conditions. Comparisons made with previous calculations and experimental measurements show the present results for drag to merge well with Navier-Stokes and experimental results for the least rarefied conditions considered.
Parameter identification and modeling of longitudinal aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aksteter, J. W.; Parks, E. K.; Bach, R. E., Jr.
1995-01-01
Using a comprehensive flight test database and a parameter identification software program produced at NASA Ames Research Center, a math model of the longitudinal aerodynamics of the Harrier aircraft was formulated. The identification program employed the equation error method using multiple linear regression to estimate the nonlinear parameters. The formulated math model structure adhered closely to aerodynamic and stability/control theory, particularly with regard to compressibility and dynamic manoeuvring. Validation was accomplished by using a three degree-of-freedom nonlinear flight simulator with pilot inputs from flight test data. The simulation models agreed quite well with the measured states. It is important to note that the flight test data used for the validation of the model was not used in the model identification.
Integrated structural-aerodynamic design optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haftka, R. T.; Kao, P. J.; Grossman, B.; Polen, D.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.
1988-01-01
This paper focuses on the processes of simultaneous aerodynamic and structural wing design as a prototype for design integration, with emphasis on the major difficulty associated with multidisciplinary design optimization processes, their enormous computational costs. Methods are presented for reducing this computational burden through the development of efficient methods for cross-sensitivity calculations and the implementation of approximate optimization procedures. Utilizing a modular sensitivity analysis approach, it is shown that the sensitivities can be computed without the expensive calculation of the derivatives of the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix, and the derivatives of the structural flexibility matrix. The same process is used to efficiently evaluate the sensitivities of the wing divergence constraint, which should be particularly useful, not only in problems of complete integrated aircraft design, but also in aeroelastic tailoring applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schneider, C. P.
1980-05-01
A theoretical method for the determination of unsteady aerodynamic coefficients associated with the longitudinal stability of slender wings in supersonic flight is presented. It is based on the indicial functional theory of Tobak. Extension to higher incidences is effected by combining the indicial functions with steady nonlinear coefficients derived from a semiempiricial procedure. The unsteady nonlinear aerodynamic coefficients are determined for delta wings with subsonic and supersonic leading edges, respectively.
Aerodynamic design lowers truck fuel consumption
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steers, L.
1978-01-01
Energy-saving concepts in truck design are emerging from developing new shapes with improved aerodynamic flow properties that can reduce air-drag coefficient of conventional tractor-trailers without requiring severe design changes or compromising load-carrying capability. Improvements are expected to decrease somewhat with increased wind velocities and would be affected by factors such as terrain, driving techniques, and mechanical condition.
Aerodynamic considerations in open shelters. Final report
Hickman, R.G.
1984-11-01
Aerodynamic factors are addressed bearing on the suitability of open structures as blast shelters. Blast closures and attenuator designs are discussed. The research on shelter filling is reviewed; this includes both experimental and theoretical work on scale models and full-scale structures of large dimensions. Shock-dominated and pressure-gradient-dominated shelter-filling mechanisms are described and their potential effects on people are discussed.
The aerodynamics of hovering flight in Drosophila.
Fry, Steven N; Sayaman, Rosalyn; Dickinson, Michael H
2005-06-01
Using 3D infrared high-speed video, we captured the continuous wing and body kinematics of free-flying fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, during hovering and slow forward flight. We then 'replayed' the wing kinematics on a dynamically scaled robotic model to measure the aerodynamic forces produced by the wings. Hovering animals generate a U-shaped wing trajectory, in which large drag forces during a downward plunge at the start of each stroke create peak vertical forces. Quasi-steady mechanisms could account for nearly all of the mean measured force required to hover, although temporal discrepancies between instantaneous measured forces and model predictions indicate that unsteady mechanisms also play a significant role. We analyzed the requirements for hovering from an analysis of the time history of forces and moments in all six degrees of freedom. The wing kinematics necessary to generate sufficient lift are highly constrained by the requirement to balance thrust and pitch torque over the stroke cycle. We also compare the wing motion and aerodynamic forces of free and tethered flies. Tethering causes a strong distortion of the stroke pattern that results in a reduction of translational forces and a prominent nose-down pitch moment. The stereotyped distortion under tethered conditions is most likely due to a disruption of sensory feedback. Finally, we calculated flight power based directly on the measurements of wing motion and aerodynamic forces, which yielded a higher estimate of muscle power during free hovering flight than prior estimates based on time-averaged parameters. This discrepancy is mostly due to a two- to threefold underestimate of the mean profile drag coefficient in prior studies. We also compared our values with the predictions of the same time-averaged models using more accurate kinematic and aerodynamic input parameters based on our high-speed videography measurements. In this case, the time-averaged models tended to overestimate flight
Aerodynamic measurement techniques. [laser based diagnostic techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hunter, W. W., Jr.
1976-01-01
Laser characteristics of intensity, monochromatic, spatial coherence, and temporal coherence were developed to advance laser based diagnostic techniques for aerodynamic related research. Two broad categories of visualization and optical measurements were considered, and three techniques received significant attention. These are holography, laser velocimetry, and Raman scattering. Examples of the quantitative laser velocimeter and Raman scattering measurements of velocity, temperature, and density indicated the potential of these nonintrusive techniques.
HSCT high lift system aerodynamic requirements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paulson, John A.
1992-01-01
The viewgraphs and discussion of high lift system aerodynamic requirements are provided. Low speed aerodynamics has been identified as critical to the successful development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). The airplane must takeoff and land at a sufficient number of existing or projected airports to be economically viable. At the same time, community noise must be acceptable. Improvements in cruise drag, engine fuel consumption, and structural weight tend to decrease the wing size and thrust required of engines. Decreasing wing size increases the requirements for effective and efficient low speed characteristics. Current design concepts have already been compromised away from better cruise wings for low speed performance. Flap systems have been added to achieve better lift-to-drag ratios for climb and approach and for lower pitch attitudes for liftoff and touchdown. Research to achieve improvements in low speed aerodynamics needs to be focused on areas most likely to have the largest effect on the wing and engine sizing process. It would be desirable to provide enough lift to avoid sizing the airplane for field performance and to still meet the noise requirements. The airworthiness standards developed in 1971 will be the basis for performance requirements for an airplane that will not be critical to the airplane wing and engine size. The lift and drag levels that were required to meet the performance requirements of tentative airworthiness standards established in 1971 and that were important to community noise are identified. Research to improve the low speed aerodynamic characteristics of the HSCT needs to be focused in the areas of performance deficiency and where noise can be reduced. Otherwise, the wing planform, engine cycle, or other parameters for a superior cruising airplane would have to be changed.
New aspects of subsonic aerodynamic noise theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldstein, M. E.; Howes, W. L.
1973-01-01
A theory of aerodynamic noise is presented which differs from Lighthill's theory primarily in the way in which convection of the noise sources is treated. The sound directivity pattern obtained from the present theory agrees better with jet-noise directivity data than does that obtained from Lighthill's theory. The results imply that the shear-noise contribution to jet noise is smaller than previously expected.
Device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance
Graham, Sean C.
2005-02-15
A device for a vehicle with a pair of swinging rear doors, which converts flat sheets of pliable material hinged to the sides of the vehicle adjacent the rear thereof into effective curved airfoils that reduce the aerodynamic resistance of the vehicle, when the doors are closed by hand, utilizing a plurality of stiffeners disposed generally parallel to the doors and affixed to the sheets and a plurality of collapsible tension bearings struts attached to each stiffener and the adjacent door.
Conformable M3 Microsystems for Aerodynamic Control
2007-11-02
we have fabricated sensors, actuators, and electronics all on the same chip. Control: • A CMOS control circuit has been designed and sent to MOSIS ...macro aerodynamic devices. (3) After the chip from MOSIS is fabricated, it will be tested to confirm that it works as designed. (4) The process and...identify the separation point from the outputs of shear stress sensors and drive the corresponding actuators. The layout has been sent to MOSIS for
Aerodynamic Forces Experienced during Ejection.
1981-03-01
BIOMECHANICAL DATA The blomechanical properties of long bones vary significantly with geometry, material properties , loading method, pathology, etc...side if neceseesary and Identify by block number) Ejection F -4 Aircraft Acceleration (abrupt Windblast Injury Biomechanical data Long bones 20...Ligaments-medial collateral tear-dislocation Menisci-medlal meniscus tear e Frequency: 44% e Mechanism: The function of the ligament Is to prevent abnormal
Flapping wing aerodynamics: from insects to vertebrates.
Chin, Diana D; Lentink, David
2016-04-01
More than a million insects and approximately 11,000 vertebrates utilize flapping wings to fly. However, flapping flight has only been studied in a few of these species, so many challenges remain in understanding this form of locomotion. Five key aerodynamic mechanisms have been identified for insect flight. Among these is the leading edge vortex, which is a convergent solution to avoid stall for insects, bats and birds. The roles of the other mechanisms - added mass, clap and fling, rotational circulation and wing-wake interactions - have not yet been thoroughly studied in the context of vertebrate flight. Further challenges to understanding bat and bird flight are posed by the complex, dynamic wing morphologies of these species and the more turbulent airflow generated by their wings compared with that observed during insect flight. Nevertheless, three dimensionless numbers that combine key flow, morphological and kinematic parameters - the Reynolds number, Rossby number and advance ratio - govern flapping wing aerodynamics for both insects and vertebrates. These numbers can thus be used to organize an integrative framework for studying and comparing animal flapping flight. Here, we provide a roadmap for developing such a framework, highlighting the aerodynamic mechanisms that remain to be quantified and compared across species. Ultimately, incorporating complex flight maneuvers, environmental effects and developmental stages into this framework will also be essential to advancing our understanding of the biomechanics, movement ecology and evolution of animal flight.
Asymmetric Uncertainty Expression for High Gradient Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pinier, Jeremy T
2012-01-01
When the physics of the flow around an aircraft changes very abruptly either in time or space (e.g., flow separation/reattachment, boundary layer transition, unsteadiness, shocks, etc), the measurements that are performed in a simulated environment like a wind tunnel test or a computational simulation will most likely incorrectly predict the exact location of where (or when) the change in physics happens. There are many reasons for this, includ- ing the error introduced by simulating a real system at a smaller scale and at non-ideal conditions, or the error due to turbulence models in a computational simulation. The un- certainty analysis principles that have been developed and are being implemented today do not fully account for uncertainty in the knowledge of the location of abrupt physics changes or sharp gradients, leading to a potentially underestimated uncertainty in those areas. To address this problem, a new asymmetric aerodynamic uncertainty expression containing an extra term to account for a phase-uncertainty, the magnitude of which is emphasized in the high-gradient aerodynamic regions is proposed in this paper. Additionally, based on previous work, a method for dispersing aerodynamic data within asymmetric uncer- tainty bounds in a more realistic way has been developed for use within Monte Carlo-type analyses.
Mars Pathfider Rarefied Aerodynamics: Computations and Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moss, James N.; Blanchard, Robert C.; Wilmoth, Richard G.; Braun, Robert D.
1998-01-01
On July 4, 1997, after traveling close to 500 million km, the Pathfinder spacecraft successfully completed entry, descent, and landing at Mars. In the present paper, the focus is on the hypersonic rarefied portion of Pathfinder's atmospheric entry where the synergy of flight measurements, aerodynamic calculations, and atmospheric modeling tools are used to extract Pathfinder's attitude and the freestream density. Accuracy of the capsule aerodynamics directly impacts the inferred atmospheric properties extracted from deceleration measurements made by on-board accelerometers. The range of rarefaction considered in this study extends from the free molecular to continuum conditions and angles of attack from O to 30 deg. The aerodynamic computations are made with free-molecular and direct simulation Monte Carlo codes. The calculations show that Pathfinder is statically unstable for much of the transitional rarefied regime. Due to the relatively modest forces and the gyroscopic motion of the spacecraft, the angle of attack excursions were less than 5 deg as inferred from force measurements for the rarefied portion of entry and approached a nominal zero degree trim angle near hypersonic continuum conditions.
Future Challenges and Opportunities in Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kumar, Ajay; Hefner, Jerry N.
2000-01-01
Investments in aeronautics research and technology have declined substantially over the last decade, in part due to the perception that technologies required in aircraft design are fairly mature and readily available. This perception is being driven by the fact that aircraft configurations, particularly the transport aircraft, have evolved only incrementally, over last several decades. If however, one considers that the growth in air travel is expected to triple in the next 20 years, it becomes quickly obvious that the evolutionary development of technologies is not going to meet the increased demands for safety, environmental compatibility, capacity, and economic viability. Instead, breakthrough technologies will he required both in traditional disciplines of aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, materials, controls, and avionics as well as in the multidisciplinary integration of these technologies into the design of future aerospace vehicles concepts. The paper discusses challenges and opportunities in the field of aerodynamics over the next decade. Future technology advancements in aerodynamics will hinge on our ability, to understand, model, and control complex, three-dimensional, unsteady viscous flow across the speed range. This understanding is critical for developing innovative flow and noise control technologies and advanced design tools that will revolutionize future aerospace vehicle systems and concepts. Specifically, the paper focuses on advanced vehicle concepts, flow and noise control technologies, and advanced design and analysis tools.
Integrated aerodynamic-structural-control wing design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rais-Rohani, M.; Haftka, R. T.; Grossman, B.; Unger, E. R.
1992-01-01
The aerodynamic-structural-control design of a forward-swept composite wing for a high subsonic transport aircraft is considered. The structural analysis is based on a finite-element method. The aerodynamic calculations are based on a vortex-lattice method, and the control calculations are based on an output feedback control. The wing is designed for minimum weight subject to structural, performance/aerodynamic and control constraints. Efficient methods are used to calculate the control-deflection and control-effectiveness sensitivities which appear as second-order derivatives in the control constraint equations. To suppress the aeroelastic divergence of the forward-swept wing, and to reduce the gross weight of the design aircraft, two separate cases are studied: (1) combined application of aeroelastic tailoring and active controls; and (2) aeroelastic tailoring alone. The results of this study indicated that, for this particular example, aeroelastic tailoring is sufficient for suppressing the aeroelastic divergence, and the use of active controls was not necessary.
Aerodynamic Design Opportunities for Future Supersonic Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Flamm, Jeffrey D.
2002-01-01
A discussion of a diverse set of aerodynamic opportunities to improve the aerodynamic performance of future supersonic aircraft has been presented and discussed. These ideas are offered to the community in a hope that future supersonic vehicle development activities will not be hindered by past efforts. A number of nonlinear flow based drag reduction technologies are presented and discussed. The subject technologies are related to the areas of interference flows, vehicle concepts, vortex flows, wing design, advanced control effectors, and planform design. The authors also discussed the importance of improving the aerodynamic design environment to allow creativity and knowledge greater influence. A review of all of the data presented show that pressure drag reductions on the order of 50 to 60 counts are achievable, compared to a conventional supersonic cruise vehicle, with the application of several of the discussed technologies. These drag reductions would correlate to a 30 to 40% increase in cruise L/D (lift-to-drag ratio) for a commercial supersonic transport.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tang, Chun; Muppidi, Suman; Bose, Deepak; Van Norman, John W.; Tanimoto, Rebekah; Clark, Ian
2015-01-01
NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator Program is developing new technologies that will enable the landing of heavier payloads in low density environments, such as Mars. A recent flight experiment conducted high above the Hawaiian Islands has demonstrated the performance of several decelerator technologies. In particular, the deployment of the Robotic class Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD-R) was highly successful, and valuable data were collected during the test flight. This paper outlines the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis used to estimate the aerodynamic and aerothermal characteristics of the SIAD-R. Pre-flight and post-flight predictions are compared with the flight data, and a very good agreement in aerodynamic force and moment coefficients is observed between the CFD solutions and the reconstructed flight data.
Aerodynamic characteristics of airplanes at high angles of attack
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chambers, J. R.; Grafton, S. B.
1977-01-01
An introduction to, and a broad overiew of, the aerodynamic characteristics of airplanes at high angles of attack are provided. Items include: (1) some important fundamental phenomena which determine the aerodynamic characteristics of airplanes at high angles of attack; (2) static and dynamic aerodynamic characteristics near the stall; (3) aerodynamics of the spin; (4) test techniques used in stall/spin studies; (5) applications of aerodynamic data to problems in flight dynamics in the stall/spin area; and (6) the outlook for future research in the area. Although stalling and spinning are flight dynamic problems of importance to all aircraft, including general aviation aircraft, commercial transports, and military airplanes, emphasis is placed on military configurations and the principle aerodynamic factors which influence the stability and control of such vehicles at high angles of attack.
System Identification of a Vortex Lattice Aerodynamic Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juang, Jer-Nan; Kholodar, Denis; Dowell, Earl H.
2001-01-01
The state-space presentation of an aerodynamic vortex model is considered from a classical and system identification perspective. Using an aerodynamic vortex model as a numerical simulator of a wing tunnel experiment, both full state and limited state data or measurements are considered. Two possible approaches for system identification are presented and modal controllability and observability are also considered. The theory then is applied to the system identification of a flow over an aerodynamic delta wing and typical results are presented.
On Improving Efficiency of Differential Evolution for Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Madavan, Nateri K.
2004-01-01
Differential Evolution (DE) is a simple and robust evolutionary strategy that has been provEn effective in determining the global optimum for several difficult optimization problems. Although DE offers several advantages over traditional optimization approaches, its use in applications such as aerodynamic shape optimization where the objective function evaluations are computationally expensive is limited by the large number of function evaluations often required. In this paper various approaches for improving the efficiency of DE are reviewed and discussed. Several approaches that have proven effective for other evolutionary algorithms are modified and implemented in a DE-based aerodynamic shape optimization method that uses a Navier-Stokes solver for the objective function evaluations. Parallelization techniques on distributed computers are used to reduce turnaround times. Results are presented for standard test optimization problems and for the inverse design of a turbine airfoil. The efficiency improvements achieved by the different approaches are evaluated and compared.
On Improving Efficiency of Differential Evolution for Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Madavan, Nateri K.
2004-01-01
Differential Evolution (DE) is a simple and robust evolutionary strategy that has been proven effective in determining the global optimum for several difficult optimization problems. Although DE offers several advantages over traditional optimization approaches, its use in applications such as aerodynamic shape optimization where the objective function evaluations are computationally expensive is limited by the large number of function evaluations often required. In this paper various approaches for improving the efficiency of DE are reviewed and discussed. These approaches are implemented in a DE-based aerodynamic shape optimization method that uses a Navier-Stokes solver for the objective function evaluations. Parallelization techniques on distributed computers are used to reduce turnaround times. Results are presented for the inverse design of a turbine airfoil. The efficiency improvements achieved by the different approaches are evaluated and compared.
Aerodynamic control of bridge cables through shape modification: A preliminary study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kleissl, K.; Georgakis, C. T.
2011-10-01
This paper examines the viability of modifying bridge cable shape and surface for the purpose of controlling wind-induced vibrations. To this end, an extensive wind-tunnel test campaign was carried out on various cable shapes about the critical Reynolds number region. Cable shapes were chosen to passively modify the flow in a particular manner. Tested shapes included those which have some form of waviness, faceting and shrouding. Section models were tested using a static inclined rig, allowing them to be installed at yawed cable-wind angles for both smooth and turbulent flow conditions. The aerodynamic damping of the tested cylinders is evaluated by applying both 1- and 2-dof quasi-steady aerodynamic instability models. This allows for the prediction of regions of aerodynamic instability, as a function of flow angle and Reynolds number. Whilst the plain, wavy and faceted cylinders are predicted to suffer from either dry inclined galloping, “drag crisis” or Den Hartog galloping, the shrouded cylinder is found to be stable for all angles of attack, albeit with an increase in drag at typical design wind velocities. Finally, turbulent flow is found to introduce an increased amount of aerodynamic damping mainly by providing a more constant lift force over tested Reynolds numbers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Guofeng
Large-amplitude forced oscillation data for an F-18 configuration are analyzed with two modeling methods: Fourier functional analysis to form the indicial integrals, and a generalized dynamic aerodynamic model for stability and control analysis. The indicial integral is first applied to calculate the pitch damping parameter for comparison with the conventional forced oscillation test. It is shown that the reduced frequency affects the damping much more strongly than the test amplitude. Using the indicial integral models in a flight simulation code for an F-18 configuration, it is found that the configuration with unsteady aerodynamics becomes unstable in pitch if the pitch rate is high, in contrast to the quasi-steady configuration which depends mainly on the instantaneous angle of attack. In a pitch-up maneuver in the post-stall regime the configuration with unsteady aerodynamics can stay at a high pitch attitude and angle of attack without losing altitude for a much longer duration than the quasi-steady model. However, the speed will decrease faster because of higher drag. The newly developed generalized dynamic aerodynamic model is of the nonlinear algebraic form with the coefficients being determined from a set of large amplitude oscillatory experimental data by using least-square fitting. The resulting model coefficients are functions of the reduced frequency and amplitude. The new aerodynamic models have been verified with data in harmonic oscillation with a smaller amplitude and in constant pitch-rate motions. The new algebraic models are especially useful in stability and control analysis, and are used in bifurcation analysis and control studies for the same F-18 HARV configuration. The results show significant differences in the equilibrium surfaces and dynamic stability. It is also shown that control gains developed with the conventional quasi-steady aerodynamic data may not be adequate when the effect of unsteady aerodynamics is significant. A numerical
Subsonic potential aerodynamics for complex configurations - A general theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morino, L.; Kuo, C.-C.
1974-01-01
A general theory of subsonic potential aerodynamic flow around a lifting body having arbitrary shape and motion is presented. By using the Green function method, an integral representation for the velocity potential is obtained for both supersonic and subsonic flow. Under the small perturbation assumption, the potential at any point in the field depends only upon the values of the potential and its normal derivative on the surface of the body. On the surface of the body, this representation reduces to an integro-differential equation relating the potential and its normal derivative (which is known from the boundary conditions) on the surface. The theory is applied to finite-thickness wings in subsonic steady and oscillatory flows.
Domain decomposition for aerodynamic and aeroacoustic analyses, and optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baysal, Oktay
1995-01-01
The overarching theme was the domain decomposition, which intended to improve the numerical solution technique for the partial differential equations at hand; in the present study, those that governed either the fluid flow, or the aeroacoustic wave propagation, or the sensitivity analysis for a gradient-based optimization. The role of the domain decomposition extended beyond the original impetus of discretizing geometrical complex regions or writing modular software for distributed-hardware computers. It induced function-space decompositions and operator decompositions that offered the valuable property of near independence of operator evaluation tasks. The objectives have gravitated about the extensions and implementations of either the previously developed or concurrently being developed methodologies: (1) aerodynamic sensitivity analysis with domain decomposition (SADD); (2) computational aeroacoustics of cavities; and (3) dynamic, multibody computational fluid dynamics using unstructured meshes.
High altitude aerodynamic platform concept evaluation and prototype engine testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Akkerman, J. W.
1984-01-01
A design concept has been developed for maintaining a 150-pound payload at 60,000 feet altitude for about 50 hours. A 600-pound liftoff weight aerodynamic vehicle is used which operates at sufficient speeds to withstand prevailing winds. It is powered by a turbocharged four-stoke cycle gasoline fueled engine. Endurance time of 100 hours or more appears to be feasible with hydrogen fuel and a lighter payload. A prototype engine has been tested to 40,000 feet simulated altitude. Mismatch of the engine and the turbocharger system flow and problems with fuel/air mixture ratio control characteristics prohibited operation beyond 40,000 feet. But there seems to be no reason why the concept cannot be developed to function as analytically predicted.
Aerodynamic coefficients in generalized unsteady thin airfoil theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, M. H.
1980-01-01
Two cases are considered: (1) rigid body motion of an airfoil-flap combination consisting of vertical translation of given amplitude, rotation of given amplitude about a specified axis, and rotation of given amplitude of the control surface alone about its hinge; the upwash for this problem is defined mathematically; and (2) sinusoidal gust of given amplitude and wave number, for which the upwash is defined mathematically. Simple universal formulas are presented for the most important aerodynamic coefficients in unsteady thin airfoil theory. The lift and moment induced by a generalized gust are evaluated explicitly in terms of the gust wavelength. Similarly, in the control surface problem, the lift, moment, and hinge moments are given as explicit algebraic functions of hinge location. These results can be used together with any of the standard numerical inversion routines for the elementary loads (pitch and heave).
Analysis of the Hessian for Aerodynamic Optimization: Inviscid Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arian, Eyal; Ta'asan, Shlomo
1996-01-01
In this paper we analyze inviscid aerodynamic shape optimization problems governed by the full potential and the Euler equations in two and three dimensions. The analysis indicates that minimization of pressure dependent cost functions results in Hessians whose eigenvalue distributions are identical for the full potential and the Euler equations. However the optimization problems in two and three dimensions are inherently different. While the two dimensional optimization problems are well-posed the three dimensional ones are ill-posed. Oscillations in the shape up to the smallest scale allowed by the design space can develop in the direction perpendicular to the flow, implying that a regularization is required. A natural choice of such a regularization is derived. The analysis also gives an estimate of the Hessian's condition number which implies that the problems at hand are ill-conditioned. Infinite dimensional approximations for the Hessians are constructed and preconditioners for gradient based methods are derived from these approximate Hessians.
Workshop on Aircraft Surface Representation for Aerodynamic Computation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gregory, T. J. (Editor); Ashbaugh, J. (Editor)
1980-01-01
Papers and discussions on surface representation and its integration with aerodynamics, computers, graphics, wind tunnel model fabrication, and flow field grid generation are presented. Surface definition is emphasized.
Fundamental Aspects of the Aerodynamics of Turbojet Engine Combustors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barrere, M.
1978-01-01
Aerodynamic considerations in the design of high performance combustors for turbojet engines are discussed. Aerodynamic problems concerning the preparation of the fuel-air mixture, the recirculation zone where primary combustion occurs, the secondary combustion zone, and the dilution zone were examined. An aerodynamic analysis of the entire primary chamber ensemble was carried out to determine the pressure drop between entry and exit. The aerodynamics of afterburn chambers are discussed. A model which can be used to investigate the evolution of temperature, pressure, and rate and efficiency of combustion the length of the chamber was developed.
Integrated aerodynamic/structural design of a sailplane wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grossman, B.; Gurdal, Z.; Haftka, R. T.; Strauch, G. J.; Eppard, W. M.
1986-01-01
Using lifting-line theory and beam analysis, the geometry (planiform and twist) and composite material structural sizes (skin thickness, spar cap, and web thickness) were designed for a sailplane wing, subject to both structural and aerodynamic constraints. For all elements, the integrated design (simultaneously designing the aerodynamics and the structure) was superior in terms of performance and weight to the sequential design (where the aerodynamic geometry is designed to maximize the performance, following which a structural/aeroelastic design minimizes the weight). Integrated designs produced less rigid, higher aspect ratio wings with favorable aerodynamic/structural interactions.
A climatology of formation conditions for aerodynamic contrails
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gierens, K.; Dilger, F.
2013-06-01
Aerodynamic contrails are defined in this paper as line shaped ice clouds caused by aerodynamically triggered cooling over the wings of an aircraft in cruise which become visible immediately at the trailing edge of the wing or close to it. Effects at low altitudes like condensation to liquid droplets and their potential heterogeneous freezing are excluded from our definition. We study atmospheric conditions that allow formation of aerodynamic contrails. These conditions are stated and then applied to atmospheric data, first to a special case where an aerodynamic contrail was actually observed and then to a full year of global reanalysis data. We show where, when (seasonal variation), and how frequently (probability) aerodynamic contrails can form, and how this relates to actual patterns of air traffic. We study the formation of persistent aerodynamic contrails as well. Finally we check whether aerodynamic and exhaust contrails can coexist in the atmosphere. We show that visible aerodynamic contrails are possible only in an altitude range between roughly 540 and 250 hPa, and that the ambient temperature is the most important parameter, not the relative humidity. Finally we give an argument for our believe that currently aerodynamic contrails have a much smaller climate effect than exhaust contrails, which may however change in future with more air traffic in the tropics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haviland, J. K.; Yoo, Y. S.
1976-01-01
Expressions for calculation of subsonic and supersonic, steady and unsteady aerodynamic forces are derived, using the concept of aerodynamic elements applied to the downwash velocity potential method. Aerodynamic elements can be of arbitrary out of plane polygon shape, although numerical calculations are restricted to rectangular elements, and to the steady state case in the supersonic examples. It is suggested that the use of conforming, in place of rectangular elements, would give better results. Agreement with results for subsonic oscillating T tails is fair, but results do not converge as the number of collocation points is increased. This appears to be due to the form of expression used in the calculations. The methods derived are expected to facilitate automated flutter analysis on the computer. In particular, the aerodynamic element concept is consistent with finite element methods already used for structural analysis. The method is universal for the complete Mach number range, and, finally, the calculations can be arranged so that they do not have to be repeated completely for every reduced frequency.
Effects of ice accretions on aircraft aerodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lynch, Frank T.; Khodadoust, Abdollah
2001-11-01
This article is a systematic and comprehensive review, correlation, and assessment of test results available in the public domain which address the aerodynamic performance and control degradations caused by various types of ice accretions on the lifting surfaces of fixed wing aircraft. To help put the various test results in perspective, overviews are provided first of the important factors and limitations involved in computational and experimental icing simulation techniques, as well as key aerodynamic testing simulation variables and governing flow physics issues. Following these are the actual reviews, assessments, and correlations of a large number of experimental measurements of various forms of mostly simulated in-flight and ground ice accretions, augmented where appropriate by similar measurements for other analogous forms of surface contamination and/or disruptions. In-flight icing categories reviewed include the initial and inter-cycle ice accretions inherent in the use of de-icing systems which are of particular concern because of widespread misconceptions about the thickness of such accretions which can be allowed before any serious consequences occur, and the runback/ridge ice accretions typically associated with larger-than-normal water droplet encounters which are of major concern because of the possible potential for catastrophic reductions in aerodynamic effectiveness. The other in-flight ice accretion category considered includes the more familiar large rime and glaze ice accretions, including ice shapes with rather grotesque features, where the concern is that, in spite of all the research conducted to date, the upper limit of penalties possible has probably not been defined. Lastly, the effects of various possible ground frost/ice accretions are considered. The concern with some of these is that for some types of configurations, all of the normally available operating margins to stall at takeoff may be erased if these accretions are not
Aerodynamic yawing moment characteristics of bird wings.
Sachs, Gottfried
2005-06-21
The aerodynamic yawing moments due to sideslip are considered for wings of birds. Reference is made to the experience with aircraft wings in order to identify features which are significant for the yawing moment characteristics. Thus, it can be shown that wing sweep, aspect ratio and lift coefficient have a great impact. Focus of the paper is on wing sweep which can considerably increase the yawing moment due to sideslip when compared with unswept wings. There are many birds the wings of which employ sweep. To show the effect of sweep for birds, the aerodynamic characteristics of a gull wing which is considered as a representative example are treated in detail. For this purpose, a sophisticated aerodynamic method is used to compute results of high precision. The yawing moments of the gull wing with respect to the sideslip angle and the lift coefficient are determined. They show a significant level of yaw stability which strongly increases with the lift coefficient. It is particularly high in the lift coefficient region of best gliding flight conditions. In order to make the effect of sweep more perspicuous, a modification of the gull wing employing no sweep is considered for comparison. It turns out that the unswept wing yields yawing moments which are substantially smaller than those of the original gull wing with sweep. Another feature significant for the yawing moment characteristics concerns the fact that sweep is at the outer part of bird wings. By considering the underlying physical mechanism, it is shown that this feature is most important for the efficiency of wing sweep. To sum up, wing sweep provides a primary contribution to the yawing moments. It may be concluded that this is an essential reason why there is sweep in bird wings.
A climatology of formation conditions for aerodynamic contrails
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gierens, K.; Dilger, F.
2013-11-01
Aircraft at cruise levels can cause two kinds of contrails, the well known exhaust contrails and the less well-known aerodynamic contrails. While the possible climate impact of exhaust contrails has been studied for many years, research on aerodynamic contrails began only a few years ago and nothing is known about a possible contribution of these ice clouds to climate impact. In order to make progress in this respect, we first need a climatology of their formation conditions and this is given in the present paper. Aerodynamic contrails are defined here as line shaped ice clouds caused by aerodynamically triggered cooling over the wings of an aircraft in cruise which become visible immediately at the trailing edge of the wing or close to it. Effects at low altitudes like condensation to liquid droplets and their potential heterogeneous freezing are excluded from our definition. We study atmospheric conditions that allow formation of aerodynamic contrails. These conditions are stated and then applied to atmospheric data: first to a special case where an aerodynamic contrail was actually observed and then to a full year of global reanalysis data. We show where, when (seasonal variation), and how frequently (probability) aerodynamic contrails can form, and how this relates to actual patterns of air traffic. We study the formation of persistent aerodynamic contrails as well. Furthermore, we check whether aerodynamic and exhaust contrails can coexist in the atmosphere. We show that visible aerodynamic contrails are possible only in an altitude range between roughly 540 and 250 hPa, and that the ambient temperature is the most important parameter, not the relative humidity. Finally, we argue that currently aerodynamic contrails have a much smaller climate effect than exhaust contrails, which may however change in future with more air traffic in the tropics.
High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Shape Optimization for Natural Laminar Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rashad, Ramy
To ensure the long-term sustainability of aviation, serious effort is underway to mitigate the escalating economic, environmental, and social concerns of the industry. Significant improvement to the energy efficiency of air transportation is required through the research and development of advanced and unconventional airframe and engine technologies. In the quest to reduce airframe drag, this thesis is concerned with the development and demonstration of an effective design tool for improving the aerodynamic efficiency of subsonic and transonic airfoils. The objective is to advance the state-of-the-art in high-fidelity aerodynamic shape optimization by incorporating and exploiting the phenomenon of laminar-turbulent transition in an efficient manner. A framework for the design and optimization of Natural Laminar Flow (NLF) airfoils is developed and demonstrated with transition prediction capable of accounting for the effects of Reynolds number, freestream turbulence intensity, Mach number, and pressure gradients. First, a two-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) flow solver has been extended to incorporate an iterative laminar-turbulent transition prediction methodology. The natural transition locations due to Tollmien-Schlichting instabilities are predicted using the simplified eN envelope method of Drela and Giles or, alternatively, the compressible form of the Arnal-Habiballah-Delcourt criterion. The boundary-layer properties are obtained directly from the Navier-Stokes flow solution, and the transition to turbulent flow is modeled using an intermittency function in conjunction with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. The RANS solver is subsequently employed in a gradient-based sequential quadratic programming shape optimization framework. The laminar-turbulent transition criteria are tightly coupled into the objective and gradient evaluations. The gradients are obtained using a new augmented discrete-adjoint formulation for non-local transition
MEMS Applications in Aerodynamic Measurement Technology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reshotko, E.; Mehregany, M.; Bang, C.
1998-01-01
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) embodies the integration of sensors, actuators, and electronics on a single substrate using integrated circuit fabrication techniques and compatible bulk and surface micromachining processes. Silicon and its derivatives form the material base for the MEMS technology. MEMS devices, including microsensors and microactuators, are attractive because they can be made small (characteristic dimension about 100 microns), be produced in large numbers with uniform performance, include electronics for high performance and sophisticated functionality, and be inexpensive. For aerodynamic measurements, it is preferred that sensors be small so as to approximate measurement at a point, and in fact, MEMS pressure sensors, wall shear-stress sensors, heat flux sensors and micromachined hot wires are nearing application. For the envisioned application to wind tunnel models, MEMS sensors can be placed on the surface or in very shallow grooves. MEMS devices have often been fabricated on stiff, flat silicon substrates, about 0.5 mm thick, and therefore were not easily mounted on curved surfaces. However, flexible substrates are now available and heat-flux sensor arrays have been wrapped around a curved turbine blade. Electrical leads can also be built into the flexible substrate. Thus MEMS instrumented wind tunnel models do not require deep spanwise grooves for tubes and leads that compromise the strength of conventionally instrumented models. With MEMS, even the electrical leads can potentially be eliminated if telemetry of the signals to an appropriate receiver can be implemented. While semiconductor silicon is well known for its electronic properties, it is also an excellent mechanical material for MEMS applications. However, silicon electronics are limited to operations below about 200 C, and silicon's mechanical properties start to diminish above 400 C. In recent years, silicon carbide (SiC) has emerged as the leading material candidate for
Aerodynamics and Hovering Control of LTA Vehicles
1977-05-01
Cylinders (From Reference 7). 28 ~~0 0 - iI- ~43 0 C*4 JoJ o Di 29rtf IrI ALLEN ( NACA REPT 1048) f ( k a ~~ 01 WHER IS MAX.NEGATIVEdx2 FUR2...size, the propulsive power will decrease as che propeller remote inlet velocity V, decreases. Hence, a wake-immersed propeller can produce the same...M.: "The Aerodynamic Forces on Airship Hulls", NACA Report 184, 1924. 2. Milne-Thompson: THEORETICAL HYDRODYNAMICS, MacMillan, 1955. 3. Koebn, N. E
Aerodynamic prediction techniques for hypersonic configuration design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1981-01-01
An investigation of approximate theoretical techniques for predicting aerodynamic characteristics and surface pressures for relatively slender vehicles at moderate hypersonic speeds was performed. Emphasis was placed on approaches that would be responsive to preliminary configuration design level of effort. Potential theory was examined in detail to meet this objective. Numerical pilot codes were developed for relatively simple three dimensional geometries to evaluate the capability of the approximate equations of motion considered. Results from the computations indicate good agreement with higher order solutions and experimental results for a variety of wing, body, and wing-body shapes for values of the hypersonic similarity parameter M delta approaching one.
Aerodynamic design trends for commercial aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hilbig, R.; Koerner, H.
1986-01-01
Recent research on advanced-configuration commercial aircraft at DFVLR is surveyed, with a focus on aerodynamic approaches to improved performance. Topics examined include transonic wings with variable camber or shock/boundary-layer control, wings with reduced friction drag or laminarized flow, prop-fan propulsion, and unusual configurations or wing profiles. Drawings, diagrams, and graphs of predicted performance are provided, and the need for extensive development efforts using powerful computer facilities, high-speed and low-speed wind tunnels, and flight tests of models (mounted on specially designed carrier aircraft) is indicated.
Optimal impulsive manoeuvres and aerodynamic braking
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jezewski, D. J.
1985-01-01
A method developed for obtaining solutions to the aerodynamic braking problem, using impulses in the exoatmospheric phases is discussed. The solution combines primer vector theory and the results of a suboptimal atmospheric guidance program. For a specified initial and final orbit, the solution determines: (1) the minimum impulsive cost using a maximum of four impulses, (2) the optimal atmospheric entry and exit-state vectors subject to equality and inequality constraints, and (3) the optimal coast times. Numerical solutions which illustrate the characteristics of the solution are presented.
Coupled Aerodynamic-Thermal-Structural (CATS) Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1995-01-01
Coupled Aerodynamic-Thermal-Structural (CATS) Analysis is a focused effort within the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) program to streamline multidisciplinary analysis of aeropropulsion components and assemblies. Multidisciplinary analysis of axial-flow compressor performance has been selected for the initial focus of this project. CATS will permit more accurate compressor system analysis by enabling users to include thermal and mechanical effects as an integral part of the aerodynamic analysis of the compressor primary flowpath. Thus, critical details, such as the variation of blade tip clearances and the deformation of the flowpath geometry, can be more accurately modeled and included in the aerodynamic analyses. The benefits of this coupled analysis capability are (1) performance and stall line predictions are improved by the inclusion of tip clearances and hot geometries, (2) design alternatives can be readily analyzed, and (3) higher fidelity analysis by researchers in various disciplines is possible. The goals for this project are a 10-percent improvement in stall margin predictions and a 2:1 speed-up in multidisciplinary analysis times. Working cooperatively with Pratt & Whitney, the Lewis CATS team defined the engineering processes and identified the software products necessary for streamlining these processes. The basic approach is to integrate the aerodynamic, thermal, and structural computational analyses by using data management and Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) based data mapping. Five software products have been defined for this task: (1) a primary flowpath data mapper, (2) a two-dimensional data mapper, (3) a database interface, (4) a blade structural pre- and post-processor, and (5) a computational fluid dynamics code for aerothermal analysis of the drum rotor. Thus far (1) a cooperative agreement has been established with Pratt & Whitney, (2) a Primary Flowpath Data Mapper has been prototyped and delivered to General Electric
Aerodynamic noise emission from turbulent shear layers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pao, S. P.
1973-01-01
The Phillips (1960) convected wave equation is employed in this paper to study aerodynamic noise emission processes in subsonic and supersonic shear layers. The wave equation in three spatial dimensions is first reduced to an ordinary differential equation by Fourier transformation and then solved via the WKBJ method. Three typical solutions are required for discussions in this paper. The current results are different from the classical conclusions. The effects of refraction, convection, Mach-number dependence and temperature dependence of turbulent noise emission are analyzed in the light of solutions to the Phillips equation.
Modification of Aerodynamic Surfaces Using Plasma
2005-07-01
slading discharge (Task 3) ……………………………………………………………………..…………...35 § 2.1. Development of discharge physical model. General properties of sliding discharge...be called for solution of plasma aerodynamic problems. A sliding discharge possess a number of unique properties (simplicity of realization...investigation of sub-layer material effect on the discharge properties . 6. Test experiments on sliding discharge’s forming at a curvilinear surface
Generic Wing-Body Aerodynamics Data Base
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holst, Terry L.; Olsen, Thomas H.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The wing-body aerodynamics data base consists of a series of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations about a generic wing body configuration consisting of a ogive-circular-cylinder fuselage and a simple symmetric wing mid-mounted on the fuselage. Solutions have been obtained for Nonlinear Potential (P), Euler (E) and Navier-Stokes (N) solvers over a range of subsonic and transonic Mach numbers and angles of attack. In addition, each solution has been computed on a series of grids, coarse, medium and fine to permit an assessment of grid refinement errors.
Report of the Panel on Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bradley, Richard G.; Bushnell, Dennis
1984-01-01
Progress in aerodynamics over the past 50 years has been evidenced by the development of increasingly sophisticated and efficient flight vehicles throughout the flight spectrum. Advances have generally arisen in an evolutionary manner from experience gained in wind tunnel testing, flight testing, and improvements in analytical and computational capabilities. As a result of this evolutionary development, both military and commercial vehicles operate at a relatively high efficiency level. This observation plus the fact that airplanes have not changed appreciably in outward appearance over recent years has led some skeptics to conclude incorrectly that aerodynamics is a mature technology, with little to be gained from further developments in the field. It is of interest to note that progress in aerodynamics has occurred without a thorough understanding of the fundamental physics of flow, turbulence, vortex dynamics, and separated flow, for example. The present understanding of transition, turbulence, and boundary layer separation is actually very limited. However, these fundamental flow phenomena provide the key to reducing the viscous drag of aircraft. Drag reduction provides the greatest potential for increased flight efficiency from the standpoint of both saving energy and maximizing performance. Recent advances have led to innovative concepts for reducing turbulent friction drag by modifying the turbulent structure within the boundary layer. Further advances in this basic area should lead to methods for reducing skin friction drag significantly. The current challenges for military aircraft open entirely new fields of investigation for the aerodynamicist. The ability through very high speed information processing technology to totally integrate the flight and propulsion controls can permit an aircraft to fly with "complete abandon," avoiding departure, buffet, and other undesirable characteristics. To utilize these new control concepts, complex aerodynamic
Dual nozzle aerodynamic and cooling analysis study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meagher, G. M.
1981-01-01
Analytical models to predict performance and operating characteristics of dual nozzle concepts were developed and improved. Aerodynamic models are available to define flow characteristics and bleed requirements for both the dual throat and dual expander concepts. Advanced analytical techniques were utilized to provide quantitative estimates of the bleed flow, boundary layer, and shock effects within dual nozzle engines. Thermal analyses were performed to define cooling requirements for baseline configurations, and special studies of unique dual nozzle cooling problems defined feasible means of achieving adequate cooling.
Aerodynamics/ACEE: aircraft energy efficiency
Not Available
1981-01-01
An overview is presented of a 10 year program managed by NASA which seeks to make possible the most efficient use of energy for aircraft propulsion and lift as well as provide a technology that can be used by U.S. manufacturers of air transports and engines. Supercritical wings, winglets, vortex drag reduction, high lift, active control, laminar flow control, and aerodynamics by computer are among the topics discussed. Wind tunnel models in flight verification of advanced technology, and the design, construction and testing of various aircraft structures are also described.
Fluidization technologies: Aerodynamic principles and process engineering.
Dixit, Rahul; Puthli, Shivanand
2009-11-01
The concept of fluidization has been adapted to different unit processes of pharmaceutical product development. Till date a lot of improvements have been made in the engineering design to achieve superior process performance. This review is focused on the fundamental principles of aerodynamics and hydrodynamics associated with the fluidization technologies. Fluid-bed coating, fluidized bed granulation, rotor processing, hot melt granulation, electrostatic coating, supercritical fluid based fluidized bed technology are highlighted. Developments in the design of processing equipments have been explicitly elucidated. This article also discusses processing problems from the operator's perspective along with latest developments in the application of these principles.
Variable volume combustor with aerodynamic support struts
Ostebee, Heath Michael; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Stewart, Jason Thurman; Keener, Christopher Paul
2017-03-07
The present application provides a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles and a fuel injection system for providing a flow of fuel to the micro-mixer fuel nozzles. The fuel injection system may include a number of support struts supporting the fuel nozzles and providing the flow of fuel therethrough. The support struts may include an aerodynamic contoured shape so as to distribute evenly a flow of air to the micro-mixer fuel nozzles.
Sensor Systems Collect Critical Aerodynamics Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2010-01-01
With the support of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Dryden Flight Research Center, Tao of Systems Integration Inc. developed sensors and other components that will ultimately form a first-of-its-kind, closed-loop system for detecting, measuring, and controlling aerodynamic forces and moments in flight. The Hampton, Virginia-based company commercialized three of the four planned components, which provide sensing solutions for customers such as Boeing, General Electric, and BMW and are used for applications such as improving wind turbine operation and optimizing air flow from air conditioning systems. The completed system may one day enable flexible-wing aircraft with flight capabilities like those of birds.
Aerodynamic Focusing Of High-Density Aerosols
Ruiz, D. E.; Fisch, Nathaniel
2014-02-24
High-density micron-sized particle aerosols might form the basis for a number of applications in which a material target with a particular shape might be quickly ionized to form a cylindrical or sheet shaped plasma. A simple experimental device was built in order to study the properties of high-density aerosol focusing for 1 m silica spheres. Preliminary results recover previous findings on aerodynamic focusing at low densities. At higher densities, it is demonstrated that the focusing properties change in a way which is consistent with a density dependent Stokes number.
Aerodynamic sound generation caused by viscous processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Obermeier, F.
1985-03-01
A theoretical investigation of the effects of viscosity on aerodynamic sound generation by unheated low Mach-number flow is discussed. By means of the method of matched asymptotic expansions, which allows for a consistent estimation of the order of magnitude of each term in the hydrodynamic flow field as well as in the sound field, an analytical solution in terms of a multipole expansion is derived. The physical interpretation of the mathematical outcome of various theories by Morfey (1976), Kempton (1976), Hardin, and Kambe and Minota (1983) is compared and re-examined.
Aerodynamics/ACEE: Aircraft energy efficiency
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1981-01-01
An overview is presented of a 10 year program managed by NASA which seeks to make possible the most efficient use of energy for aircraft propulsion and lift as well as provide a technology that can be used by U.S. manufacturers of air transports and engines. Supercritical wings, winglets, vortex drag reduction, high lift, active control, laminar flow control, and aerodynamics by computer are among the topics discussed. Wind tunnel models in flight verification of advanced technology, and the design, construction and testing of various aircraft structures are also described.
Identification of Experimental Unsteady Aerodynamic Impulse Responses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Silva, Walter A.; Piatak, David J.; Scott, Robert C.
2003-01-01
The identification of experimental unsteady aerodynamic impulse responses using the Oscillating Turntable (OTT) at NASA Langley's Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) is described. Results are presented for two configurations: a Rigid Semispan Model (RSM) and a rectangular wing with a supercritical airfoil section. Both models were used to acquire unsteady pressure data due to pitching oscillations on the OTT. A deconvolution scheme involving a step input in pitch and the resultant step response in pressure, for several pressure transducers, is used to identify the pressure impulse responses. The identified impulse responses are then used to predict the pressure response due to pitching oscillations at several frequencies. Comparisons with the experimental data are presented.
Relevance of aerodynamic modelling for load reduction control strategies of two-bladed wind turbines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luhmann, B.; Cheng, P. W.
2014-06-01
A new load reduction concept is being developed for the two-bladed prototype of the Skywind 3.5MW wind turbine. Due to transport and installation advantages both offshore and in complex terrain two-bladed turbine designs are potentially more cost-effective than comparable three-bladed configurations. A disadvantage of two-bladed wind turbines is the increased fatigue loading, which is a result of asymmetrically distributed rotor forces. The innovative load reduction concept of the Skywind prototype consists of a combination of cyclic pitch control and tumbling rotor kinematics to mitigate periodic structural loading. Aerodynamic design tools must be able to model correctly the advanced dynamics of the rotor. In this paper the impact of the aerodynamic modelling approach is investigated for critical operational modes of a two-bladed wind turbine. Using a lifting line free wake vortex code (FVM) the physical limitations of the classical blade element momentum theory (BEM) can be evaluated. During regular operation vertical shear and yawed inflow are the main contributors to periodic blade load asymmetry. It is shown that the near wake interaction of the blades under such conditions is not fully captured by the correction models of BEM approach. The differing prediction of local induction causes a high fatigue load uncertainty especially for two-bladed turbines. The implementation of both cyclic pitch control and a tumbling rotor can mitigate the fatigue loading by increasing the aerodynamic and structural damping. The influence of the time and space variant vorticity distribution in the near wake is evaluated in detail for different cyclic pitch control functions and tumble dynamics respectively. It is demonstrated that dynamic inflow as well as wake blade interaction have a significant impact on the calculated blade forces and need to be accounted for by the aerodynamic modelling approach. Aeroelastic simulations are carried out using the high fidelity multi body
Comparing Aerodynamic Efficiency in Birds and Bats Suggests Better Flight Performance in Birds
Muijres, Florian T.; Johansson, L. Christoffer; Bowlin, Melissa S.; Winter, York; Hedenström, Anders
2012-01-01
Flight is one of the energetically most costly activities in the animal kingdom, suggesting that natural selection should work to optimize flight performance. The similar size and flight speed of birds and bats may therefore suggest convergent aerodynamic performance; alternatively, flight performance could be restricted by phylogenetic constraints. We test which of these scenarios fit to two measures of aerodynamic flight efficiency in two passerine bird species and two New World leaf-nosed bat species. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of the wake of the animals flying in a wind tunnel, we derived the span efficiency, a metric for the efficiency of generating lift, and the lift-to-drag ratio, a metric for mechanical energetic flight efficiency. We show that the birds significantly outperform the bats in both metrics, which we ascribe to variation in aerodynamic function of body and wing upstroke: Bird bodies generated relatively more lift than bat bodies, resulting in a more uniform spanwise lift distribution and higher span efficiency. A likely explanation would be that the bat ears and nose leaf, associated with echolocation, disturb the flow over the body. During the upstroke, the birds retract their wings to make them aerodynamically inactive, while the membranous bat wings generate thrust and negative lift. Despite the differences in performance, the wake morphology of both birds and bats resemble the optimal wake for their respective lift-to-drag ratio regimes. This suggests that evolution has optimized performance relative to the respective conditions of birds and bats, but that maximum performance is possibly limited by phylogenetic constraints. Although ecological differences between birds and bats are subjected to many conspiring variables, the different aerodynamic flight efficiency for the bird and bat species studied here may help explain why birds typically fly faster, migrate more frequently and migrate longer distances
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Periaux, J.
1979-01-01
The numerical simulation of the transonic flows of idealized fluids and of incompressible viscous fluids, by the nonlinear least squares methods is presented. The nonlinear equations, the boundary conditions, and the various constraints controlling the two types of flow are described. The standard iterative methods for solving a quasi elliptical nonlinear equation with partial derivatives are reviewed with emphasis placed on two examples: the fixed point method applied to the Gelder functional in the case of compressible subsonic flows and the Newton method used in the technique of decomposition of the lifting potential. The new abstract least squares method is discussed. It consists of substituting the nonlinear equation by a problem of minimization in a H to the minus 1 type Sobolev functional space.
Aerodynamic optimization of supersonic compressor cascade using differential evolution on GPU
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aissa, Mohamed Hasanine; Verstraete, Tom; Vuik, Cornelis
2016-06-01
Differential Evolution (DE) is a powerful stochastic optimization method. Compared to gradient-based algorithms, DE is able to avoid local minima but requires at the same time more function evaluations. In turbomachinery applications, function evaluations are performed with time-consuming CFD simulation, which results in a long, non affordable, design cycle. Modern High Performance Computing systems, especially Graphic Processing Units (GPUs), are able to alleviate this inconvenience by accelerating the design evaluation itself. In this work we present a validated CFD Solver running on GPUs, able to accelerate the design evaluation and thus the entire design process. An achieved speedup of 20x to 30x enabled the DE algorithm to run on a high-end computer instead of a costly large cluster. The GPU-enhanced DE was used to optimize the aerodynamics of a supersonic compressor cascade, achieving an aerodynamic loss minimization of 20%.
Exploring the Aerodynamic Drag of a Moving Cyclist
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Theilmann, Florian; Reinhard, Christopher
2016-01-01
Although the physics of cycling itself is a complex mixture of aerodynamics, physiology, mechanics, and heuristics, using cycling as a context for teaching physics has a tradition of certainly more than 30 years. Here, a possible feature is the discussion of the noticeable resistant forces such as aerodynamic drag and the associated power…
Reliability and Applicability of Aerodynamic Measures in Dysphonia Assessment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yiu, Edwin M.-L.; Yuen, Yuet-Ming; Whitehill, Tara; Winkworth, Alison
2004-01-01
Aerodynamic measures are frequently used to analyse and document pathological voices. Some normative data are available for speakers from the English-speaking population. However, no data are available yet for Chinese speakers despite the fact that they are one of the largest populations in the world. The high variability of aerodynamic measures…
Aerodynamic tailoring of the Learjet Model 60 wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chandrasekharan, Reuben M.; Hawke, Veronica M.; Hinson, Michael L.; Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Madson, Michael D.
1993-01-01
The wing of the Learjet Model 60 was tailored for improved aerodynamic characteristics using the TRANAIR transonic full-potential computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. A root leading edge glove and wing tip fairing were shaped to reduce shock strength, improve cruise drag and extend the buffet limit. The aerodynamic design was validated by wind tunnel test and flight test data.
Advanced aerodynamics and active controls. Selected NASA research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1981-01-01
Aerodynamic and active control concepts for application to commercial transport aircraft are discussed. Selected topics include in flight direct strike lightning research, triply redundant digital fly by wire control systems, tail configurations, winglets, and the drones for aerodynamic and structural testing (DAST) program.
Influence matrix program for aerodynamic lifting surface theory. [in subsonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Medan, R. T.; Ray, K. S.
1973-01-01
A users manual is described for a USA FORTRAN 4 computer program which computes an aerodynamic influence matrix and is one of several computer programs used to analyze lifting, thin wings in steady, subsonic flow according to a kernel function method lifting surface theory. The most significant features of the program are that it can treat unsymmetrical wings, control points can be placed on the leading and/or trailing edges, and a stable, efficient algorithm is used to compute the influence matrix.
Rotor/wing aerodynamic interactions in hover
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Felker, F. F.; Light, J. S.
1986-01-01
An experimental and theoretical investigation of rotor/wing aerodynamic interactions in hover is described. The experimental investigation consisted of both a large-scale and small-scale test. A 0.658-scale, V-22 rotor and wing was used in the large-scale test. Wind download, wing surface pressure, rotor performance, and rotor downwash data from the large-scale test are presented. A small-scale experiment was conducted to determine how changes in the rotor/wing geometry affected the aerodynamic interactions. These geometry variations included the distance between the rotor and wing, wing incidence angle, and configurations both with the rotor axis at the tip of the wing (tilt rotor configuration) and with the rotor axis at the center of the wing (compound helicopter configuration). A wing with boundary-layer control was also tested to evaluate the effect of leading and trailing edge upper surface blowing on the wing download. A computationally efficient, semi-empirical theory was developed to predict the download on the wing. Finally, correlations between the theoretical predictions and test data are presented.
Cascade flutter analysis with transient response aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bakhle, Milind A.; Mahajan, Aparajit J.; Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Stefko, George L.
1991-01-01
Two methods for calculating linear frequency domain aerodynamic coefficients from a time marching Full Potential cascade solver are developed and verified. In the first method, the Influence Coefficient, solutions to elemental problems are superposed to obtain the solutions for a cascade in which all blades are vibrating with a constant interblade phase angle. The elemental problem consists of a single blade in the cascade oscillating while the other blades remain stationary. In the second method, the Pulse Response, the response to the transient motion of a blade is used to calculate influence coefficients. This is done by calculating the Fourier Transforms of the blade motion and the response. Both methods are validated by comparison with the Harmonic Oscillation method and give accurate results. The aerodynamic coefficients obtained from these methods are used for frequency domain flutter calculations involving a typical section blade structural model. An eigenvalue problem is solved for each interblade phase angle mode and the eigenvalues are used to determine aeroelastic stability. Flutter calculations are performed for two examples over a range of subsonic Mach numbers.
Cricket Ball Aerodynamics: Myth Versus Science
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mehta, Rabindra D.; Koga, Demmis J. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Aerodynamics plays a prominent role in the flight of a cricket ball released by a bowler. The main interest is in the fact that the ball can follow a curved flight path that is not always under the control of the bowler. ne basic aerodynamic principles responsible for the nonlinear flight or "swing" of a cricket ball were identified several years ago and many papers have been published on the subject. In the last 20 years or so, several experimental investigations have been conducted on cricket ball swing, which revealed the amount of attainable swing, and the parameters that affect it. A general overview of these findings is presented with emphasis on the concept of late swing and the effects of meteorological conditions on swing. In addition, the relatively new concept of "reverse" swing, how it can be achieved in practice and the role in it of ball "tampering", are discussed in detail. A discussion of the "white" cricket ball used in last year's World Cup, which supposedly possesses different swing properties compared to a conventional red ball, is also presented.
Aerodynamic Control using Distributed Active Bleed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kearney, John; Glezer, Ari
2015-11-01
The global aerodynamic loads on a stationary and pitching airfoil at angles of attack beyond the static and dynamic stall margins, respectively are controlled in wind tunnel experiments using regulated distributed bleed driven by surface pressure differences. High-speed PIV and proper orthogonal decomposition of the vorticity flux on the static airfoil show that the bleed engenders trains of discrete vortices that advect along the surface and are associated with a local instability that is manifested by a time-averaged bifurcation of the vorticity layer near the bleed outlets and alters the vorticity flux over the airfoil and thereby the aerodynamic loads. Active bleed is used on a dynamically pitching airfoil (at reduced frequencies up to k = 0.42) to modulate the evolution of vorticity concentrations during dynamic stall. Time-periodic bleed improved the pitch stability by reducing adverse pitching moment (``negative damping'') that can precipitate structural instabilities. At the same time, the maintains the cycle-average loads to within 5% of the base flow levels by segmenting the vorticity layer during upstroke and promoting early flow attachment during downstroke segments of the pitch cycle. Supported by Georgia Tech VLRCOE.
Aerodynamic Simulation of the MEXICO Rotor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herraez, I.; Medjroubi, W.; Stoevesandt, B.; Peinke, J.
2014-12-01
CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations are a very promising method for predicting the aerodynamic behavior of wind turbines in an inexpensive and accurate way. One of the major drawbacks of this method is the lack of validated models. As a consequence, the reliability of numerical results is often difficult to assess. The MEXICO project aimed at solving this problem by providing the project partners with high quality measurements of a 4.5 meters rotor diameter wind turbine operating under controlled conditions. The large measurement data-set allows the validation of all kind of aerodynamic models. This work summarizes our efforts for validating a CFD model based on the open source software OpenFoam. Both steady- state and time-accurate simulations have been performed with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model for several operating conditions. In this paper we will concentrate on axisymmetric inflow for 3 different wind speeds. The numerical results are compared with pressure distributions from several blade sections and PIV-flow data from the near wake region. In general, a reasonable agreement between measurements the and our simulations exists. Some discrepancies, which require further research, are also discussed.
Aerodynamic and Acoustic Effects of Ventricular Gap
Alipour, Fariborz; Karnell, Michael
2013-01-01
Purpose Supraglottic compression is frequently observed in individuals with dysphonia. It is commonly interpreted as an indication of excessive circumlaryngeal muscular tension and ventricular medialization. The purpose of this study was to describe the aerodynamic and acoustic impact of varying ventricular medialization in a canine model. Methods Subglottal air pressure, glottal airflow, electroglottograph, acoustic signals and high-speed video images were recorded in seven excised canine larynges mounted in vitro for laryngeal vibratory experimentation. The degree of gap between the ventricular folds was adjusted and measured using sutures and weights. Data was recorded during phonation when the ventricular gap was narrow, neutral, and large. Glottal resistance was estimated by measures of subglottal pressure and glottal flow. Results Glottal resistance increased systematically as ventricular gap became smaller. Wide ventricular gaps were associated with increases in fundamental frequency and decreases in glottal resistance. Sound pressure level did not appear to be impacted by the adjustments in ventricular gap used in this research. Conclusions Increases in supraglottic compression and associated reduced ventricular width may be observed in a variety of disorders that affect voice quality. Ventricular compression may interact with true vocal fold posture and vibration resulting in predictable changes in aerodynamic, physiologic, acoustic, and perceptual measures of phonation. The data from this report supports the theory that narrow ventricular gaps may be associated with disordered phonation. In vitro and in vivo human data are needed to further test this association. PMID:24321590
Aerodynamic Design of a Locomotive Fairing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stucki, Chad; Maynes, Daniel
2016-11-01
Rising fuel cost has motivated increased fuel efficiency of freight trains. At cruising speed, the largest contributing factor to the fuel consumption is the aerodynamic drag. As a result of air stagnation at the front of the train and substantial flow separation behind, the leading locomotive and trailing railcar experience greater drag than intermediate cars. This work introduces the design of streamlined nose fairings to be attached to freight locomotives as a means of reducing the leading locomotive drag. The aerodynamic performance of each fairing design is modeled using a commercial CFD software package. The K-epsilon turbulence model is used, and fluid properties are equivalent to atmospheric air at standard conditions. A selection of isolated screening studies are performed, and a multidimensional regression is used to predict optimal-performing fairing designs. Between screening studies, careful examination of the flow field is performed to inspire subsequent fairing designs. Results are presented for 250 different nose fairings. The best performing fairing geometry predicts a nominal drag reduction of 17% on the lead locomotive in a train set. This drag reduction is expected to result in nearly 1% fuel savings for the entire train.
Investigation of Factors Affecting Aerodynamic Performance of Nebulized Nanoemulsion
Kamali, Hosein; Abbasi, Shayan; Amini, Mohammad Ali; Amani, Amir
2016-01-01
This work aimed to prepare a nanoemulsion preparation containing budesonide and assess its aerodynamic behavior in comparison with suspension of budesonide. In-vitro aerodynamic performance of the corresponding micellar solution (ie. nanoemulsion preparation without oil) was investigated too. Nanoemulsions of almond oil containing budesonide, as a hydrophobic model drug molecule, were prepared and optimized. Then, the effect of variation of surfactant/co-surfactant concentration on the aerodynamic properties of the nebulized aerosol was studied. The results indicated that the most physically stable formulation makes the smallest aerodynamic size. The concentration of co-surfactant was also shown to be critical in determination of aerodynamic size. Furthermore, the optimized sample, with 3% w/w almond oil, 20% w/w Tween 80+Span 80 and 2% w/w ethanol showed a smaller MMAD in comparison with the commercially available suspension and the micellar solution. PMID:28243265
A flight experiment to measure rarefied-flow aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blanchard, Robert C.
1990-01-01
A flight experiment to measure rarefied-flow aerodynamics of a blunt lifting body is being developed by NASA. This experiment, called the Rarefied-Flow Aerodynamic Measurement Experiment (RAME), is part of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) mission, which is a Pathfinder design tool for aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles. The RAME will use flight measurements from accelerometers, rate gyros, and pressure transducers, combined with knowledge of AFE in-flight mass properties and trajectory, to infer aerodynamic forces and moments in the rarefied-flow environment, including transition into the hypersonic continuum regime. Preflight estimates of the aerodynamic measurements are based upon environment models, existing computer simulations, and ground test results. Planned maneuvers at several altitudes will provide a first-time opportunity to examine gas-surface accommondation effects on aerodynamic coefficients in an environment of changing atmospheric composition. A description is given of the RAME equipment design.
Launch vehicle aerodynamic data base development comparison with flight data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamilton, J. T.; Wallace, R. O.; Dill, C. C.
1983-01-01
The aerodynamic development plan for the Space Shuttle integrated vehicle had three major objectives. The first objective was to support the evolution of the basic configuration by establishing aerodynamic impacts to various candidate configurations. The second objective was to provide continuing evaluation of the basic aerodynamic characteristics in order to bring about a mature data base. The third task was development of the element and component aerodynamic characteristics and distributed air loads data to support structural loads analyses. The complexity of the configurations rendered conventional analytic methods of little use and therefore required extensive wind tunnel testing of detailed complex models. However, the ground testing and analyses did not predict the aerodynamic characteristics that were extracted from the Space Shuttle flight test program. Future programs that involve the use of vehicles similar to the Space Shuttle should be concerned with the complex flow fields characteristics of these types of complex configurations.
Aerodynamic Optimization Design of Multi-stage Turbine Using the Continuous Adjoint Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Lei; Chen, Jiang
2015-05-01
This paper develops a continuous adjoint formulation for the aerodynamic shape design of a turbine in a multi-stage environment based on S2 surface governed by the Euler equations with source terms. First, given the general expression of the objective function, the adjoint equations and their boundary conditions are derived by introducing the adjoint variable vectors. Then, the final expression of the objective function gradient only includes the terms pertinent to the physical shape variations. The adjoint system is solved numerically by a finite-difference method with the Jameson spatial scheme employing first and third order dissipative flux and the time-marching is conducted by Runge-Kutta time method. Integrating the blade stagger angles, stacking lines and passage perturbation parameterization with the Quasi-Newton method of BFGS, a gradient-based aerodynamic optimization design system is constructed. Finally, the application of the adjoint method is validated through the blade and passage optimization of a 2-stage turbine with an objective function of entropy generation. The efficiency increased by 0.37% with the deviations of the mass flow rate and the pressure ratio within 1% via the optimization, which demonstrates the capability of the gradient-based system for turbine aerodynamic design.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Andrisani, D., II; Daughaday, H.; Dittenhauser, J.; Rynaski, E.
1978-01-01
The aerodynamics, control system, instrumentation complement and recording system of the USAF Total In/Flight Simulator (TIFS) airplane are described. A control system that would allow the ailerons to be operated collectively, as well as, differentially to entrance the ability of the vehicle to perform the dual function of maneuver load control and gust alleviation is emphasized. Mathematical prediction of the rigid body and the flexible equations of longitudinal motion using the level 2.01 FLEXSTAB program are included along with a definition of the vehicle geometry, the mass and stiffness distribution, the calculated mode frequencies and mode shapes, and the resulting aerodynamic equations of motion of the flexible vehicle. A complete description of the control and instrumentation system of the aircraft is presented, including analysis, ground test and flight data comparisons of the performance and bandwidth of the aerodynamic surface servos. Proposed modification for improved performance of the servos are also presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, L. W., Jr.; Pamadi, B. N.
1983-01-01
The difficulty in applying parameter estimation techniques to spinning airplanes is due in part to the unwieldy number of possible combinations of terms in the equations of motion, when the model structure is unknown. The combination of high angle of attack and high rotation rate results in aerodynamic functions which are quite complex. For wing dominated configurations it is advantageous to use aerodynamic theory to generate the model structure. In this way, the number of unknown parameters is reduced and the model accuracy may be increased. Under conditions for which the theory is inadequate, however, model accuracy may be reduced. Strip theory, for example, is incapable of predicting autorotative rolling moments indicated by wind tunnel tests at angles of attack exceeding 40 degrees. An improved aerodynamic theory would be necessary to successfully apply the technique advanced for such regions.
Aerodynamic design optimization using sensitivity analysis and computational fluid dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baysal, Oktay; Eleshaky, Mohamed E.
1991-01-01
A new and efficient method is presented for aerodynamic design optimization, which is based on a computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-sensitivity analysis algorithm. The method is applied to design a scramjet-afterbody configuration for an optimized axial thrust. The Euler equations are solved for the inviscid analysis of the flow, which in turn provides the objective function and the constraints. The CFD analysis is then coupled with the optimization procedure that uses a constrained minimization method. The sensitivity coefficients, i.e. gradients of the objective function and the constraints, needed for the optimization are obtained using a quasi-analytical method rather than the traditional brute force method of finite difference approximations. During the one-dimensional search of the optimization procedure, an approximate flow analysis (predicted flow) based on a first-order Taylor series expansion is used to reduce the computational cost. Finally, the sensitivity of the optimum objective function to various design parameters, which are kept constant during the optimization, is computed to predict new optimum solutions. The flow analysis of the demonstrative example are compared with the experimental data. It is shown that the method is more efficient than the traditional methods.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ericsson, L. E.; Reding, J. P.
1976-01-01
An analysis of the steady and unsteady aerodynamics of the space shuttle orbiter has been performed. It is shown that slender wing theory can be modified to account for the effect of Mach number and leading edge roundness on both attached and separated flow loads. The orbiter unsteady aerodynamics can be computed by defining two equivalent slender wings, one for attached flow loads and another for the vortex-induced loads. It is found that the orbiter is in the transonic speed region subject to vortex-shock-boundary layer interactions that cause highly nonlinear or discontinuous load changes which can endanger the structural integrity of the orbiter wing and possibly cause snap roll problems. It is presently impossible to simulate these interactions in a wind tunnel test even in the static case. Thus, a well planned combined analytic and experimental approach is needed to solve the problem.
Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Characteristics of a Tension Cone Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clark, Ian G.; Cruz, Juan R.; Hughes, Monica F.; Ware, Joanne S.; Madlangbayan, Albert; Braun, Robert D.
2009-01-01
The supersonic aerodynamic and aeroelastic characteristics of a tension cone inflatable aerodynamic decelerator were investigated by wind tunnel testing. Two sets of tests were conducted: one using rigid models and another using textile models. Tests using rigid models were conducted over a Mach number range from 1.65 to 4.5 at angles of attack from -12 to 20 degrees. The axial, normal, and pitching moment coefficients were found to be insensitive to Mach number over the tested range. The axial force coefficient was nearly constant (C(sub A) = 1.45 +/- 0.05) with respect to angle of attack. Both the normal and pitching moment coefficients were nearly linear with respect to angle of attack. The pitching moment coefficient showed the model to be statically stable about the reference point. Schlieren images and video showed a detached bow shock with no evidence of large regions of separated flow and/or embedded shocks at all Mach numbers investigated. Qualitatively similar static aerodynamic coefficient and flow visualization results were obtained using textile models at a Mach number of 2.5. Using inflatable textile models the torus pressure required to maintain the model in the fully-inflated configuration was determined. This pressure was found to be sensitive to details in the structural configuration of the inflatable models. Additional tests included surface pressure measurements on rigid models and deployment and inflation tests with inflatable models.
Ares I Aerodynamic Testing at the Boeing Polysonic Wind Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pinier, Jeremy T.; Niskey, Charles J.; Hanke, Jeremy L.; Tomek, William G.
2011-01-01
Throughout three full design analysis cycles, the Ares I project within the Constellation program has consistently relied on the Boeing Polysonic Wind Tunnel (PSWT) for aerodynamic testing of the subsonic, transonic and supersonic portions of the atmospheric flight envelope (Mach=0.5 to 4.5). Each design cycle required the development of aerodynamic databases for the 6 degree-of-freedom (DOF) forces and moments, as well as distributed line-loads databases covering the full range of Mach number, total angle-of-attack, and aerodynamic roll angle. The high fidelity data collected in this facility has been consistent with the data collected in NASA Langley s Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) at the overlapping condition ofMach=1.6. Much insight into the aerodynamic behavior of the launch vehicle during all phases of flight was gained through wind tunnel testing. Important knowledge pertaining to slender launch vehicle aerodynamics in particular was accumulated. In conducting these wind tunnel tests and developing experimental aerodynamic databases, some challenges were encountered and are reported as lessons learned in this paper for the benefit of future crew launch vehicle aerodynamic developments.
Aerodynamic Parameters of High Performance Aircraft Estimated from Wind Tunnel and Flight Test Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klein, Vladislav; Murphy, Patrick C.
1998-01-01
A concept of system identification applied to high performance aircraft is introduced followed by a discussion on the identification methodology. Special emphasis is given to model postulation using time invariant and time dependent aerodynamic parameters, model structure determination and parameter estimation using ordinary least squares an mixed estimation methods, At the same time problems of data collinearity detection and its assessment are discussed. These parts of methodology are demonstrated in examples using flight data of the X-29A and X-31A aircraft. In the third example wind tunnel oscillatory data of the F-16XL model are used. A strong dependence of these data on frequency led to the development of models with unsteady aerodynamic terms in the form of indicial functions. The paper is completed by concluding remarks.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tiffany, Sherwood H.; Karpel, Mordechay
1989-01-01
Various control analysis, design, and simulation techniques for aeroelastic applications require the equations of motion to be cast in a linear time-invariant state-space form. Unsteady aerodynamics forces have to be approximated as rational functions of the Laplace variable in order to put them in this framework. For the minimum-state method, the number of denominator roots in the rational approximation. Results are shown of applying various approximation enhancements (including optimization, frequency dependent weighting of the tabular data, and constraint selection) with the minimum-state formulation to the active flexible wing wind-tunnel model. The results demonstrate that good models can be developed which have an order of magnitude fewer augmenting aerodynamic equations more than traditional approaches. This reduction facilitates the design of lower order control systems, analysis of control system performance, and near real-time simulation of aeroservoelastic phenomena.
Aerodynamic shape optimization of a HSCT type configuration with improved surface definition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomas, Almuttil M.; Tiwari, Surendra N.
1994-01-01
Two distinct parametrization procedures of generating free-form surfaces to represent aerospace vehicles are presented. The first procedure is the representation using spline functions such as nonuniform rational b-splines (NURBS) and the second is a novel (geometrical) parametrization using solutions to a suitably chosen partial differential equation. The main idea is to develop a surface which is more versatile and can be used in an optimization process. Unstructured volume grid is generated by an advancing front algorithm and solutions obtained using an Euler solver. Grid sensitivity with respect to surface design parameters and aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients based on potential flow is obtained using an automatic differentiator precompiler software tool. Aerodynamic shape optimization of a complete aircraft with twenty four design variables is performed. High speed civil transport aircraft (HSCT) configurations are targeted to demonstrate the process.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klein, Vladislav; Noderer, Keith D.
1995-01-01
Aerodynamic equations with unsteady effects were formulated for an aircraft in one-degree-of-freedom, small-amplitude, harmonic motion. These equations were used as a model for aerodynamic parameter estimation from wind tunnel oscillatory data. The estimation algorithm was based on nonlinear least squares and was applied in three examples to the oscillatory data in pitch and roll of 70 deg triangular wing and an X-31 model, and in-sideslip oscillatory data of the High Incidence Research Model 2 (HIRM 2). All three examples indicated that a model using a simple indicial function can explain unsteady effects observed in measured data. The accuracy of the estimated parameters and model verification were strongly influenced by the number of data points with respect to the number of unknown parameters.
Using High Resolution Design Spaces for Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Under Uncertainty
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Wu; Padula, Sharon
2004-01-01
This paper explains why high resolution design spaces encourage traditional airfoil optimization algorithms to generate noisy shape modifications, which lead to inaccurate linear predictions of aerodynamic coefficients and potential failure of descent methods. By using auxiliary drag constraints for a simultaneous drag reduction at all design points and the least shape distortion to achieve the targeted drag reduction, an improved algorithm generates relatively smooth optimal airfoils with no severe off-design performance degradation over a range of flight conditions, in high resolution design spaces parameterized by cubic B-spline functions. Simulation results using FUN2D in Euler flows are included to show the capability of the robust aerodynamic shape optimization method over a range of flight conditions.
Incompressible lifting-surface aerodynamics for a rotor-stator combination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramachandra, S. M.
1984-01-01
Current literature on the three dimensional flow through compressor cascades deals with a row of rotor blades in isolation. Since the distance between the rotor and stator is usually 10 to 20 percent of the blade chord, the aerodynamic interference between them has to be considered for a proper evaluation of the aerothermodynamic performance of the stage. A unified approach to the aerodynamics of the incompressible flow through a stage is presented that uses the lifting surface theory for a compressor cascade of arbitrary camber and thickness distribution. The effects of rotor stator interference are represented as a linear function of the rotor and stator flows separately. The loading distribution on the rotor and stator flows separately. The loading distribution on the rotor and stator blades and the interference factor are determined concurrently through a matrix iteration process.
Aerodynamic and Aerothermal TPS Instrumentation Reference Guide
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woollard, Bryce A.; Braun, Robert D.; Bose, Deepack
2016-01-01
The hypersonic regime of planetary entry combines the most severe environments that an entry vehicle will encounter with the greatest amount of uncertainty as to the events unfolding during that time period. This combination generally leads to conservatism in the design of an entry vehicle, specifically that of the thermal protection system (TPS). Each planetary entry provides a valuable aerodynamic and aerothermal testing opportunity; the utilization of this opportunity is paramount in better understanding how a specific entry vehicle responds to the demands of the hypersonic entry environment. Previous efforts have been made to instrument entry vehicles in order to collect data during the entry period and reconstruct the corresponding vehicle response. The purpose of this paper is to cumulatively document past TPS instrumentation designs for applicable planetary missions, as well as to list pertinent results and any explainable shortcomings.
Aerodynamic levitation : an approach to microgravity.
Glorieux, B.; Saboungi, M.-L.; Millot, F.; Enderby, J.; Rifflet, J.-C.
2000-12-05
Measurements of the thermophysical and structural properties of liquid materials at high temperature have undergone considerable development in the past few years. Following improvements in electromagnetic levitation, aerodynamic levitation associated with laser heating has shown promise for assessing properties of different molten materials (metals, oxides, and semiconductors), preserving sample purity over a wide range of temperatures and under different gas environments. The density, surface tension and viscosity are measured with a high-speed video camera and an image analysis system. Results on nickel and alumina show that small droplets can be considered in the first approximation to be under microgravity conditions. Using a non-invasive contactless technique recently developed to measure electrical conductivity, results have been extended to variety of materials ranging from liquid metals and liquid semiconductors to ionically conducting materials. The advantage of this technique is the feasibility of monitoring changes in transport occurring during phase transitions and in deeply undercooled states.
Multiprocessing on supercomputers for computational aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yarrow, Maurice; Mehta, Unmeel B.
1991-01-01
Little use is made of multiple processors available on current supercomputers (computers with a theoretical peak performance capability equal to 100 MFLOPS or more) to improve turnaround time in computational aerodynamics. The productivity of a computer user is directly related to this turnaround time. In a time-sharing environment, such improvement in this speed is achieved when multiple processors are used efficiently to execute an algorithm. The concept of multiple instructions and multiple data (MIMD) is applied through multitasking via a strategy that requires relatively minor modifications to an existing code for a single processor. This approach maps the available memory to multiple processors, exploiting the C-Fortran-Unix interface. The existing code is mapped without the need for developing a new algorithm. The procedure for building a code utilizing this approach is automated with the Unix stream editor.
Improving the efficiency of aerodynamic shape optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burgreen, Greg W.; Baysal, Oktay; Eleshaky, Mohamed E.
1994-01-01
The computational efficiency of an aerodynamic shape optimization procedure that is based on discrete sensitivity analysis is increased through the implementation of two improvements. The first improvement involves replacing a grid-point-based approach for surface representation with a Bezier-Bernstein polynomial parameterization of the surface. Explicit analytical expressions for the grid sensitivity terms are developed for both approaches. The second improvement proposes the use of Newton's method in lieu of an alternating direction implicit methodology to calculate the highly converged flow solutions that are required to compute the sensitivity coefficients. The modified design procedure is demonstrated by optimizing the shape of an internal-external nozzle configuration. Practically identical optimization results are obtained that are independent of the method used to represent the surface. A substantial factor of 8 decrease in computational time for the optimization process is achieved by implementing both of the design procedure improvements.
Methods of reducing vehicle aerodynamic drag
Sirenko V.; Rohatgi U.
2012-07-08
A small scale model (length 1710 mm) of General Motor SUV was built and tested in the wind tunnel for expected wind conditions and road clearance. Two passive devices, rear screen which is plate behind the car and rear fairing where the end of the car is aerodynamically extended, were incorporated in the model and tested in the wind tunnel for different wind conditions. The conclusion is that rear screen could reduce drag up to 6.5% and rear fairing can reduce the drag by 26%. There were additional tests for front edging and rear vortex generators. The results for drag reduction were mixed. It should be noted that there are aesthetic and practical considerations that may allow only partial implementation of these or any drag reduction options.
Aerodynamics of seeing on large transport aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rose, W. C.
1986-01-01
Data were obtained in the full scale flight environment of the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) on the nature of turbulent shear layer over the open cavity. These data were used to verify proposed aerodynamic scaling relationships to describe the behavior of the turbulent layers and to estimate the optical performance of systems of various wavelengths operating within the KAO environment. These data and wind tunnel data are used to scale the expected optical effects for a potential stratospheric observatory for infrared astronomy (SOFIA) in which a telescope approximately 3.5 times larger than that on the KAO is envisioned. It appears that the use of combinations of active and passive aeromechanical flow control techniques can improve the optical behavior of systems in the SOFIA environment. Experiments to verify these potential improvements can be performed on the KAO with sufficient modifications to the cavity and aero-mechanical technique installations.
Upper surface blowing aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ryle, D. M., Jr.; Braden, J. A.; Gibson, J. S.
1977-01-01
Aerodynamic performance at cruise, and noise effects due to variations in nacelle and wing geometry and mode of operation are studied using small aircraft models that simulate upper surface blowing (USB). At cruise speeds ranging from Mach .50 to Mach .82, the key determinants of drag/thrust penalties are found to be nozzle aspect ratio, boattailing angle, and chordwise position; number of nacelles; and streamlined versus symmetric configuration. Recommendations are made for obtaining favorable cruise configurations. The acoustic studies, which concentrate on the noise created by the jet exhaust flow and its interaction with wing and flap surfaces, isolate several important sources of USB noise, including nozzle shape, exit velocity, and impingement angle; flow pathlength; and flap angle and radius of curvature. Suggestions for lessening noise due to trailing edge flow velocity, flow pathlength, and flow spreading are given, though compromises between some design options may be necessary.
Faster Aerodynamic Simulation With Cart3D
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2003-01-01
A NASA-developed aerodynamic simulation tool is ensuring the safety of future space operations while providing designers and engineers with an automated, highly accurate computer simulation suite. Cart3D, co-winner of NASA's 2002 Software of the Year award, is the result of over 10 years of research and software development conducted by Michael Aftosmis and Dr. John Melton of Ames Research Center and Professor Marsha Berger of the Courant Institute at New York University. Cart3D offers a revolutionary approach to computational fluid dynamics (CFD), the computer simulation of how fluids and gases flow around an object of a particular design. By fusing technological advancements in diverse fields such as mineralogy, computer graphics, computational geometry, and fluid dynamics, the software provides a new industrial geometry processing and fluid analysis capability with unsurpassed automation and efficiency.
Unsteady transonic aerodynamics - An aeronautics challenge
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spreiter, J. R.; Stahara, S. S.
1975-01-01
The paper presents a review of the historical development in unsteady transonic aerodynamics, along with the foundations and accomplishments of several approaches to solve the equations of unsteady transonic flow. The discussion covers the linearized unsteady flow theory, numerical solution of the exact equations for an inviscid compressible gas, nonlinear small disturbance theory of transonic flow and linearization of the unsteady component about the nonlinear solution for the steady state, local linearization solution for unsteady transonic flow, unsteady transonic flow theory for slender wings and bodies, and three-dimensional unsteady transonic flows. The relation between the calculated results and experiment is examined. It is shown that the newly emerging numerical methods are capable of solving the nonlinear equations for two-dimensional flow and can be extended to three-dimensional flows.
Aerodynamic analysis of hypersonic waverider aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sandlin, Doral R.; Pessin, David N.
1993-01-01
The purpose of this study is to validate two existing codes used by the Systems Analysis Branch at NASA ARC, and to modify the codes so they can be used to generate and analyze waverider aircraft at on-design and off-design conditions. To generate waverider configurations and perform the on-design analysis, the appropriately named Waverider code is used. The Waverider code is based on the Taylor-Maccoll equations. Validation is accomplished via a comparison with previously published results. The Waverider code is modified to incorporate a fairing to close off the base area of the waverider configuration. This creates a more realistic waverider. The Hypersonic Aircraft Vehicle Optimization Code (HAVOC) is used to perform the off-design analysis of waverider configurations generated by the Waverider code. Various approximate analysis methods are used by HAVOC to predict the aerodynamic characteristics, which are validated via a comparison with experimental results from a hypersonic test model.
Numerical aerodynamic simulation facility feasibility study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1979-01-01
There were three major issues examined in the feasibility study. First, the ability of the proposed system architecture to support the anticipated workload was evaluated. Second, the throughput of the computational engine (the flow model processor) was studied using real application programs. Third, the availability reliability, and maintainability of the system were modeled. The evaluations were based on the baseline systems. The results show that the implementation of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility, in the form considered, would indeed be a feasible project with an acceptable level of risk. The technology required (both hardware and software) either already exists or, in the case of a few parts, is expected to be announced this year. Facets of the work described include the hardware configuration, software, user language, and fault tolerance.
Aerodynamic Shape Optimization using an Evolutionary Algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoist, Terry L.; Pulliam, Thomas H.
2003-01-01
A method for aerodynamic shape optimization based on an evolutionary algorithm approach is presented and demonstrated. Results are presented for a number of model problems to access the effect of algorithm parameters on convergence efficiency and reliability. A transonic viscous airfoil optimization problem-both single and two-objective variations is used as the basis for a preliminary comparison with an adjoint-gradient optimizer. The evolutionary algorithm is coupled with a transonic full potential flow solver and is used to optimize the inviscid flow about transonic wings including multi-objective and multi-discipline solutions that lead to the generation of pareto fronts. The results indicate that the evolutionary algorithm approach is easy to implement, flexible in application and extremely reliable.