ON AERODYNAMIC AND BOUNDARY LAYER RESISTANCES WITHIN DRY DEPOSITION MODELS
There have been many empirical parameterizations for the aerodynamic and boundary layer resistances proposed in the literature, e.g. those of the Meyers Multi-Layer Deposition Model (MLM) used with the nation-wide dry deposition network. Many include arbitrary constants or par...
Numerical Study of Boundary-Layer in Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, Tom I-P.
1997-01-01
The accomplishments made in the following three tasks are described: (1) The first task was to study shock-wave boundary-layer interactions with bleed - this study is relevant to boundary-layer control in external and mixed-compression inlets of supersonic aircraft; (2) The second task was to test RAAKE, a code developed for computing turbulence quantities; and (3) The third task was to compute flow around the Ames ER-2 aircraft that has been retrofitted with containers over its wings and fuselage. The appendices include two reports submitted to AIAA for publication.
Interaction of aerodynamic noise with laminar boundary layers in supersonic wind tunnels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schopper, M. R.
1984-01-01
The interaction between incoming aerodynamic noise and the supersonic laminar boundary layer is studied. The noise field is modeled as a Mach wave radiation field consisting of discrete waves emanating from coherent turbulent entities moving downstream within the supersonic turbulent boundary layer. The individual disturbances are likened to miniature sonic booms and the laminar boundary layer is staffed by the waves as the sources move downstream. The mean, autocorrelation, and power spectral density of the field are expressed in terms of the wave shapes and their average arrival rates. Some consideration is given to the possible appreciable thickness of the weak shock fronts. The emphasis in the interaction analysis is on the behavior of the shocklets in the noise field. The shocklets are shown to be focused by the laminar boundary layer in its outer region. Borrowing wave propagation terminology, this region is termed the caustic region. Using scaling laws from sonic boom work, focus factors at the caustic are estimated to vary from 2 to 6 for incoming shocklet strengths of 1 to .01 percent of the free stream pressure level. The situation regarding experimental evidence of the caustic region is reviewed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Loitsianskii. L. G.
1956-01-01
The fundamental, practically the most important branch of the modern mechanics of a viscous fluid or a gas, is that branch which concerns itself with the study of the boundary layer. The presence of a boundary layer accounts for the origin of the resistance and lift force, the breakdown of the smooth flow about bodies, and other phenomena that are associated with the motion of a body in a real fluid. The concept of boundary layer was clearly formulated by the founder of aerodynamics, N. E. Joukowsky, in his well-known work "On the Form of Ships" published as early as 1890. In his book "Theoretical Foundations of Air Navigation," Joukowsky gave an account of the most important properties of the boundary layer and pointed out the part played by it in the production of the resistance of bodies to motion. The fundamental differential equations of the motion of a fluid in a laminar boundary layer were given by Prandtl in 1904; the first solutions of these equations date from 1907 to 1910. As regards the turbulent boundary layer, there does not exist even to this day any rigorous formulation of this problem because there is no closed system of equations for the turbulent motion of a fluid. Soviet scientists have done much toward developing a general theory of the boundary layer, and in that branch of the theory which is of greatest practical importance at the present time, namely the study of the boundary layer at large velocities of the body in a compressed gas, the efforts of the scientists of our country have borne fruit in the creation of a new theory which leaves far behind all that has been done previously in this direction. We shall herein enumerate the most important results by Soviet scientists in the development of the theory of the boundary layer.
Aerodynamic wake study: oscillating model wind turbine within a turbulent boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feist, Christopher J.
An experimental investigation on the aerodynamic wake behind a pitching and/or heaving model wind turbine was performed. The study was split into two quasi-coupled phases; the first phase characterized the motion of an offshore floating wind turbine subjected to linear wave forcing, the second phase replicated specific motion cases, which were driven by results from phase I, on a model wind turbine within a turbulent boundary layer. Wake measurements were made in an effort to quantify fluctuations in the flow associated with the motion of the turbine. Weak differences were observed in the mean, streamwise velocity and turbulent fluctuations between the static and oscillating turbine cases. These weak differences were a result of opposing trends in the velocity quantities based on turbine motion phases. The wake oscillations created by the turbine motion was characteristic of a 2D wave (with convection in the x plane and amplitude in the z plane) with a relatively small amplitude as compared to urms..
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Higuchi, Hiroshi; Kiura, Toshiro; Goto, Yuichiro; Hiramoto, Riho
2001-11-01
In spite of their popularity, flow structures over common baseball and flying disks have not been studied in detail. A slowly rotating baseball is subject to erratic flight paths, and is known as a knuckleball. In the present experiment, the characteristic of force acting on a baseball was obtained and the velocity vector field near the surface of the ball and the wake were measured with the DPIV technique. The seam triggered the boundary layer transition or caused the boundary layer separation itself. The laminar/turbulent boundary layer separations were identified with specific ball orientations. Corresponding three-dimensional wake pattern and the side force result in unpredictable trajectories. In the second part of the talk, flow physics regarding a spin-stabilized flying disk is addressed. The roll-up of trailing vortices was visualized in detail and their vorticity field was measured with the DPIV. The vortical flow over the disk produced flow reattachment at a very high angle of attack. The boundary layer at low angles of attack was affected by the surface motion with asymmetric boundary layer transitions as evidenced by the flow visualization and the hot wire survey. The flow separation and attachment on the underside cavity were also affected by the rotation.
Aerodynamic heating on AFE due to nonequilibrium flow with variable entropy at boundary layer edge
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ting, P. C.; Rochelle, W. C.; Bouslog, S. A.; Tam, L. T.; Scott, C. D.; Curry, D. M.
1991-01-01
A method of predicting the aerobrake aerothermodynamic environment on the NASA Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle is described. Results of a three dimensional inviscid nonequilibrium solution are used as input to an axisymmetric nonequilibrium boundary layer program to predict AFE convective heating rates. Inviscid flow field properties are obtained from the Euler option of the Viscous Reacting Flow (VRFLO) code at the boundary layer edge. Heating rates on the AFE surface are generated with the Boundary Layer Integral Matrix Procedure (BLIMP) code for a partially catalytic surface composed of Reusable Surface Insulation (RSI) times. The 1864 kg AFE will fly an aerobraking trajectory, simulating return from geosynchronous Earth orbit, with a 75 km perigee and a 10 km/sec entry velocity. Results of this analysis will provide principal investigators and thermal analysts with aeroheating environments to perform experiment and thermal protection system design.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Avery, D. E.
1978-01-01
An experimental heat-transfer investigation was conducted on two staggered arrays of metallic tiles in laminar and turbulent boundary layers. This investigation was conducted for two purposes. The impingement heating distribution where flow in a longitudinal gap intersects a transverse gap and impinges on a downstream blocking tile was defined. The influence of tile and gap geometries was analyzed to develop empirical relationships for impingement heating in laminar and turbulent boundary layers. Tests were conducted in a high temperature structures tunnel at a nominal Mach number of 7, a nominal total temperature of 1800 K, and free-stream unit Reynolds numbers from 1.0 x 10 million to 4.8 x 10 million per meter. The test results were used to assess the impingement heating effects produced by parameters that include gap width, longitudinal gap length, slope of the tile forward-facing wall, boundary-layer displacement thickness, Reynolds number, and local surface pressure.
Characterization of Aerodynamic Performance of Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Under Crosswind
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, Meng-Sing; Lee, Byung Joon
2012-01-01
NASA has been studying future transport concepts, envisioned to be technically realizable in the timeframe of 2020-2030, to meet environmental and performance goals. One concept receiving considerable interest involves a propulsion system embedded into a hybrid wing-body aircraft. While offering significant advantages in fuel savings and noise reduction by this concept, there are several technical challenges that are not encountered in the current fleet and must be overcome so as to deliver target performance and operability. One of these challenges is associated with an inlet system that ingests a significantly thick boundary layer, developing along the wing-body surface, into a serpentine diffuser before the flow meeting fan blades. The flow is subject to considerable total pressure loss and distorted at the fan face, much more significantly than in the inlet system of conventional aircraft. In our previous studies [1, 2], we have shown that through innovative design changes on the airframe surface, it is possible to simultaneously increase total pressure recovery and decrease distortion in the flow, without resorting to conventional penalty-ridden flow control concepts, such as vortex generator or boundary layer bleeding/suction. In the current study, we are interested in understanding the following issues: how the embedded propulsion system performs under a crosswind condition by studying in detail the flow characteristics of two inlets, the baseline and another optimized previously under the cruise condition. With the insight, it is hoped that it can help in the follow-on study by devising effective strategies to minimize flow distortion arising from the integration of an embedded-engine system into an airframe to the level acceptable to the operation and fuel consumption before 2030. To achieve these demanding goals, non-conventional concepts are called for; but technology gap is too big that it requires evolutionary approach by focusing various concepts and
Defraeye, Thijs; Blocken, Bert; Koninckx, Erwin; Hespel, Peter; Carmeliet, Jan
2010-08-26
This study aims at assessing the accuracy of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for applications in sports aerodynamics, for example for drag predictions of swimmers, cyclists or skiers, by evaluating the applied numerical modelling techniques by means of detailed validation experiments. In this study, a wind-tunnel experiment on a scale model of a cyclist (scale 1:2) is presented. Apart from three-component forces and moments, also high-resolution surface pressure measurements on the scale model's surface, i.e. at 115 locations, are performed to provide detailed information on the flow field. These data are used to compare the performance of different turbulence-modelling techniques, such as steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), with several k-epsilon and k-omega turbulence models, and unsteady large-eddy simulation (LES), and also boundary-layer modelling techniques, namely wall functions and low-Reynolds number modelling (LRNM). The commercial CFD code Fluent 6.3 is used for the simulations. The RANS shear-stress transport (SST) k-omega model shows the best overall performance, followed by the more computationally expensive LES. Furthermore, LRNM is clearly preferred over wall functions to model the boundary layer. This study showed that there are more accurate alternatives for evaluating flow around bluff bodies with CFD than the standard k-epsilon model combined with wall functions, which is often used in CFD studies in sports.
A fast and accurate method to predict 2D and 3D aerodynamic boundary layer flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bijleveld, H. A.; Veldman, A. E. P.
2014-12-01
A quasi-simultaneous interaction method is applied to predict 2D and 3D aerodynamic flows. This method is suitable for offshore wind turbine design software as it is a very accurate and computationally reasonably cheap method. This study shows the results for a NACA 0012 airfoil. The two applied solvers converge to the experimental values when the grid is refined. We also show that in separation the eigenvalues remain positive thus avoiding the Goldstein singularity at separation. In 3D we show a flow over a dent in which separation occurs. A rotating flat plat is used to show the applicability of the method for rotating flows. The shown capabilities of the method indicate that the quasi-simultaneous interaction method is suitable for design methods for offshore wind turbine blades.
Boundary Layer Control on Airfoils.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gerhab, George; Eastlake, Charles
1991-01-01
A phenomena, boundary layer control (BLC), produced when visualizing the fluidlike flow of air is described. The use of BLC in modifying aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils, race cars, and boats is discussed. (KR)
Aerodynamics of wings at low Reynolds numbers: Boundary layer separation and reattachment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McArthur, John
Due to advances in electronics technology, it is now possible to build small scale flying and swimming vehicles. These vehicles will have size and velocity scales similar to small birds and fish, and their characteristic Reynolds number will be between 104 and 105. Currently, these flying and swimming vehicles do not perform well, and very little research has been done to characterize them, or to explain why they perform so poorly. This dissertation documents three basic investigations into the performance of small scale lifting surfaces, with Reynolds numbers near 104. Part I. Low Reynolds number aerodynamics. Three airfoil shapes were studied at Reynolds numbers of 1 and 2x104: a flat plate airfoil, a circular arc cambered airfoil, and the Eppler 387 airfoil. Lift and drag force measurements were made on both 2D and 3D conditions, with the 3D wings having an aspect ratio of 6, and the 2D condition being approximated by placing end plates at the wing tips. Comparisons to the limited number of previous measurements show adequate agreement. Previous studies have been inconclusive on whether lifting line theory can be applied to this range of Re, but this study shows that lifting line theory can be applied when there are no sudden changes in the slope of the force curves. This is highly dependent on the airfoil shape of the wing, and explains why previous studies have been inconclusive. Part II. The laminar separation bubble. The Eppler 387 airfoil was studied at two higher Reynolds numbers: 3 and 6x10 4. Previous studies at a Reynolds number of 6x104 had shown this airfoil experiences a drag increase at moderate lift, and a subsequent drag decrease at high lift. Previous studies suggested that the drag increase is caused by a laminar separation bubble, but the experiments used to show this were conducted at higher Reynolds numbers and extrapolated down. Force measurements were combined with flow field measurements at Reynolds numbers 3 and 6x104 to determine whether
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iyer, V.; Harris, J. E.
1987-01-01
The three-dimensional boundary-layer equations in the limit as the normal coordinate tends to infinity are called the surface Euler equations. The present paper describes an accurate method for generating edge conditions for three-dimensional boundary-layer codes using these equations. The inviscid pressure distribution is first interpolated to the boundary-layer grid. The surface Euler equations are then solved with this pressure field and a prescribed set of initial and boundary conditions to yield the velocities along the two surface coordinate directions. Results for typical wing and fuselage geometries are presented. The smoothness and accuracy of the edge conditions obtained are found to be superior to the conventional interpolation procedures.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stallings, R. L., Jr.; Lamb, M.
1977-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effects of roughness size on the position of boundary layer transition and on the aerodynamic characteristics of a 55 deg swept delta wing model. Results are presented and discussed for wind tunnel tests conducted at free stream Mach numbers from 1.50 to 4.63, Reynolds numbers per meter from 3,300,000 to 1.6 x 10 to the 7th power, angles of attack from -8 to 16 deg, and roughness sizes ranging from 0.027 cm sand grit to 0.127 cm high cylinders. Comparisons were made with existing flat plate data. An approximate method was derived for predicting the drag of roughness elements used in boundary layer trips.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pierre, Thiery
2015-11-01
A new plasma device named M-DBD (Microwave Dielectric Barrier Discharge) is used for controlling the boundary layer in order to reduce the drag force. A compact resonant UHF structure comprising a resonant element in the form of a quarter-wave antenna creates a mini-plasma insulated from the UHF electrodes by mica sheets. Additional electrodes induce an electric field in the plasma and transiently move the ions of the plasma. The high collision rate with the neutral molecules induce the global transient flow of the neutral gas. The temporal variation of the applied electric field is chosen in order to obtain a modification of the local boundary layer. First tests using an array of M-DBD plasma actuators are underway (see Patent ref. WO 2014111469 A1).
The Atmospheric Boundary Layer
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tennekes, Hendrik
1974-01-01
Discusses some important parameters of the boundary layer and effects of turbulence on the circulation and energy dissipation of the atmosphere. Indicates that boundary-layer research plays an important role in long-term forecasting and the study of air-pollution meteorology. (CC)
Boundary Layer Relaminarization Device
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Creel, Theodore R. (Inventor)
1993-01-01
Relamination of a boundary layer formed in supersonic flow over the leading edge of a swept airfoil is accomplished using at least one band, especially a quadrangular band, and most preferably a square band. Each band conforms to the leading edge and the upper and lower surfaces of the airfoil as an integral part thereof and extends perpendicularly from the leading edge. Each band has a height of about two times the thickness of the maximum expected boundary layer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terekhov, V. I.; Bogatko, T. V.
2008-03-01
Results of numerical investigation of the boundary layer thickness on turbulent separation and heat transfer in a tube with an abrupt expansion are shown. The Menter turbulence model of shear stress transfer implemented in Fluent package was used for calculations. The range of Reynolds numbers was from 5·103 to 105. The air was used as the working fluid. A degree of tube expansion was ( D 2/ D 1)2 = 1.78. A significant effect of thickness of the separated boundary layer both on dynamic and thermal characteristics of the flow is shown. In particular, it was found that with an increase in the boundary layer thickness the recirculation zone increases, and the maximum heat transfer coefficient decreases.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Magliozzi, B.; Hanson, D. B.
1991-01-01
An analysis of tone noise propagation through a boundary layer and fuselage scattering effects was derived. This analysis is a three dimensional and the complete wave field is solved by matching analytical expressions for the incident and scattered waves in the outer flow to a numerical solution in the boundary layer flow. The outer wave field is constructed analytically from an incident wave appropriate to the source and a scattered wave in the standard Hankel function form. For the incident wave, an existing function - domain propeller noise radiation theory is used. In the boundary layer region, the wave equation is solved by numerical methods. The theoretical analysis is embodied in a computer program which allows the calculation of correction factors for the fuselage scattering and boundary layer refraction effects. The effects are dependent on boundary layer profile, flight speed, and frequency. Corrections can be derived for any point on the fuselage, including those on the opposite side from the source. The theory was verified using limited cases and by comparing calculations with available measurements from JetStar tests of model prop-fans. For the JetStar model scale, the boundary layer refraction effects produce moderate fuselage pressure reinforcements aft of and near the plane of rotation and significant attenuation forward of the plane of rotation at high flight speeds. At lower flight speeds, the calculated boundary layer effects result in moderate amplification over the fuselage area of interest. Apparent amplification forward of the plane of rotation is a result of effective changes in the source directivity due to boundary layer refraction effects. Full scale effects are calculated to be moderate, providing fuselage pressure amplification of about 5 dB at the peak noise location. Evaluation using available noise measurements was made under high-speed, high-altitude flight conditions. Comparisons of calculations made of free field noise, using a
Boundary Layer Theory. Part 1; Laminar Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schlichting, H.
1949-01-01
The purpose of this presentation is to give you a survey of a field of aerodynamics which has for a number of years been attracting an ever growing interest. The subject is the theory of flows with friction, and, within that field, particularly the theory of friction layers, or boundary layers. As you know, a great many considerations of aerodynamics are based on the so-called ideal fluid, that is, the frictionless incompressible fluid. By neglect of compressibility and friction the extensive mathematical theory of the ideal fluid (potential theory) has been made possible.
Boundary layer simulator improvement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Praharaj, Sarat C.; Schmitz, Craig P.; Nouri, Joseph A.
1989-01-01
Boundary Layer Integral Matrix Procedure (BLIMPJ) has been identified by the propulsion community as the rigorous boundary layer program in connection with the existing JANNAF reference programs. The improvements made to BLIMPJ and described herein have potential applications in the design of the future Orbit Transfer Vehicle engines. The turbulence model is validated to include the effects of wall roughness and a way is devised to treat multiple smooth-rough surfaces. A prediction of relaminarization regions is examined as is the combined effects of wall cooling and surface roughness on relaminarization. A turbulence model to represent the effects of constant condensed phase loading is given. A procedure is described for thrust decrement calculation in thick boundary layers by coupling the T-D Kinetics Program and BLIMPJ and a way is provided for thrust loss optimization. Potential experimental studies in rocket nozzles are identified along with the required instrumentation to provide accurate measurements in support of the presented new analytical models.
Lear jet boundary layer/shear layer laser propagation experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gilbert, K.
1980-01-01
Optical degradations of aircraft turbulent boundary layers with shear layers generated by aerodynamic fences are analyzed. A collimated 2.5 cm diameter helium-neon laser (0.63 microns) traversed the approximate 5 cm thick natural aircraft boundary layer in double pass via a reflective airfoil. In addition, several flights examined shear layer-induced optical degradation. Flight altitudes ranged from 1.5 to 12 km, while Mach numbers were varied from 0.3 to 0.8. Average line spread function (LSF) and Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) data were obtained by averaging a large number of tilt-removed curves. Fourier transforming the resulting average MTF yields an LSF, thus affording a direct comparison of the two optical measurements. Agreement was good for the aerodynamic fence arrangement, but only fair in the case of a turbulent boundary layer. Values of phase variance inferred from the LSF instrument for a single pass through the random flow and corrected for a large aperture ranged from 0.08 to 0.11 waves (lambda = .63 microns) for the boundary layer. Corresponding values for the fence vary from 0.08 to 0.16 waves. Extrapolation of these values to 10.6 microns suggests negligible degradation for a CO2 laser transmitted through a 5 cm thick, subsonic turbulent boundary layer.
Boundary layer simulator improvement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Praharaj, S. C.; Schmitz, C.; Frost, C.; Engel, C. D.; Fuller, C. E.; Bender, R. L.; Pond, J.
1984-01-01
High chamber pressure expander cycles proposed for orbit transfer vehicles depend primarily on the heat energy transmitted from the combustion products through the thrust wall chamber wall. The heat transfer to the nozzle wall is affected by such variables as wall roughness, relamarization, and the presence of particles in the flow. Motor performance loss for these nozzles with thick boundary layers is inaccurate using the existing procedure coded BLIMPJ. Modifications and innovations to the code are examined. Updated routines are listed.
Performance and boundary-layer evaluation of a sonic inlet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmidt, J. F.; Ruggeri, R. S.
1976-01-01
Tests were conducted to determine the boundary layer characteristics and aerodynamic performance of a radial vane sonic inlet with a length/diameter ratio of 1 for several vane configurations. The sonic inlet was designed with a slight wavy wall type of diffuser geometry, which permits operation at high inlet Mach numbers (sufficiently high for good noise suppression) without boundary layer flow separation and with good total pressure recovery. A new method for evaluating the turbulent boundary layer was developed to separate the boundary layer from the inviscid core flow, which is characterized by a total pressure variation from hub to tip, and to determine the experimental boundary layer parameters.
Boundary layer transition studies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watmuff, Jonathan H.
1995-01-01
A small-scale wind tunnel previously used for turbulent boundary layer experiments was modified for two sets of boundary layer transition studies. The first study concerns a laminar separation/turbulent reattachment. The pressure gradient and unit Reynolds number are the same as the fully turbulent flow of Spalart and Watmuff. Without the trip wire, a laminar layer asymptotes to a Falkner & Skan similarity solution in the FPG. Application of the APG causes the layer to separate and a highly turbulent and approximately 2D mean flow reattachment occurs downstream. In an effort to gain some physical insight into the flow processes a small impulsive disturbance was introduced at the C(sub p) minimum. The facility is totally automated and phase-averaged data are measured on a point-by-point basis using unprecedently large grids. The evolution of the disturbance has been tracked all the way into the reattachment region and beyond into the fully turbulent boundary layer. At first, the amplitude decays exponentially with streamwise distance in the APG region, where the layer remains attached, i.e. the layer is viscously stable. After separation, the rate of decay slows, and a point of minimum amplitude is reached where the contours of the wave packet exhibit dispersive characteristics. From this point, exponential growth of the amplitude of the disturbance is observed in the detached shear layer, i.e. the dominant instability mechanism is inviscid. A group of large-scale 3D vortex loops emerges in the vicinity of the reattachment. Remarkably, the second loop retains its identify far downstream in the turbulent boundary layer. The results provide a level of detail usually associated with CFD. Substantial modifications were made to the facility for the second study concerning disturbances generated by Suction Holes for laminar flow Control (LFC). The test section incorporates suction through interchangeable porous test surfaces. Detailed studies have been made using isolated
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finson, M. L.; Clarke, A. S.; Wu, P. K. S.
1981-01-01
A Reynolds stress model for turbulent boundary layers is used to study surface roughness effects on skin friction and heat transfer. The issues of primary interest are the influence of roughness character (element shape and spacing) and the nature of roughness effects at high Mach numbers. Computations based on the model compare satisfactorily with measurements from experiments involving variations in roughness character, in low speed and modestly supersonic conditions. The more limited data base at hypersonic Mach numbers is also examined with reasonable success, although no quantitative explanation is offered for the reduction of heat transfer with increasing roughness observed by Holden at Me -9.4. The present calculations indicate that the mean velocity is approximately uniform over much of the height range below the tops of the elements, y less than or equal to k. With this constant (roughness velocity,) it is simple to estimate the form drag on the elements. This roughness velocity has been investigated by systematically exercising the present model over ranges of potential parameters. The roughness velocity is found to be primarily a function of the projected element frontal area per unit surface area, thus providing a new and simple method for predicting roughness character effects. The model further suggests that increased boundary layer temperatures should be generated by roughness at high edge Mach numbers, which would tend to reduce skin friction and heat transfer, perhaps below smooth wall levels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Irshad, Ranah; Bowles, N. E.; Calcutt, S. B.; Hurley, J.
2010-10-01
The Boundary Layer Radiometer is a small, low mass (<1kg) radiometer with only a single moving part - a scan/calibration mirror. The instrument consists of a three mirror telescope system incorporating an intermediate focus for use with miniature infrared and visible filters. It also has an integrated low power blackbody calibration target to provide long-term calibration stability The instrument may be used as an upward looking boundary layer radiometer for both the terrestrial and Martian atmospheres with appropriate filters for the mid-infrared carbon dioxide band, as well as a visible channel for the detection of aerosol components such as dust. The scan mirror may be used to step through different positions from the local horizon to the zenith, allowing the vertical temperature profile of the atmosphere to be retrieved. The radiometer uses miniature infrared filter assemblies developed for previous space-based instruments by Oxford, Cardiff and Reading Universities. The intermediate focus allows for the use of upstream blocking filters and baffles, which not only simplifies the design of the filters and focal plane assembly, but also reduces the risk of problems due to stray light. Combined with the calibration target this means it has significant advantages over previous generations of small radiometers.
High speed propeller acoustics and aerodynamics - A boundary element approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farassat, F.; Myers, M. K.; Dunn, M. H.
1989-01-01
The Boundary Element Method (BEM) is applied in this paper to the problems of acoustics and aerodynamics of high speed propellers. The underlying theory is described based on the linearized Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation. The surface pressure on the blade is assumed unknown in the aerodynamic problem. It is obtained by solving a singular integral equation. The acoustic problem is then solved by moving the field point inside the fluid medium and evaluating some surface and line integrals. Thus the BEM provides a powerful technique in calculation of high speed propeller aerodynamics and acoustics.
Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Flow Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Owens, Lewis R.; Allan, Brian G.; Gorton, Susan A.
2008-01-01
An experimental study was conducted to provide the first demonstration of an active flow control system for a flush-mounted inlet with significant boundary-layer-ingestion in transonic flow conditions. The effectiveness of the flow control in reducing the circumferential distortion at the engine fan-face location was assessed using a 2.5%-scale model of a boundary-layer-ingesting offset diffusing inlet. The inlet was flush mounted to the tunnel wall and ingested a large boundary layer with a boundary-layer-to-inlet height ratio of 35%. Different jet distribution patterns and jet mass flow rates were used in the inlet to control distortion. A vane configuration was also tested. Finally a hybrid vane/jet configuration was tested leveraging strengths of both types of devices. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow rates through the duct and the flow control actuators. The distortion and pressure recovery were measured at the aerodynamic interface plane. The data show that control jets and vanes reduce circumferential distortion to acceptable levels. The point-design vane configuration produced higher distortion levels at off-design settings. The hybrid vane/jet flow control configuration reduced the off-design distortion levels to acceptable ones and used less than 0.5% of the inlet mass flow to supply the jets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costigliola, V.
2010-09-01
It has long been known that specific atmospheric processes, such as weather and longer-term climatic fluctuations, affect human health. The biometeorological literature refers to this relationship as meteorotropism, defined as a change in an organism that is correlated with a change in atmospheric conditions. Plenty of (patho)physiological functions are affected by those conditions - like the respiratory diseases - and currently it is difficult to put any limits for pathologies developed in reply. Nowadays the importance of atmospheric boundary layer and health is increasingly recognised. A number of epidemiologic studies have reported associations between ambient concentrations of air pollution, specifically particulate pollution, and adverse health effects, even at the relatively low concentrations of pollution found. Since 1995 there have been over twenty-one studies from four continents that have explicitly examined the association between ambient air pollutant mixes and daily mortality. Statistically significant and positive associations have been reported in data from various locations around the world, all with varying air pollutant concentrations, weather conditions, population characteristics and public health policies. Particular role has been given to atmospheric boundary layer processes, the impact of which for specific patient-cohort is, however, not well understood till now. Assessing and monitoring air quality are thus fundamental to improve Europe's welfare. One of current projects run by the "European Medical Association" - PASODOBLE will develop and demonstrate user-driven downstream information services for the regional and local air quality sectors by combining space-based and in-situ data with models in 4 thematic service lines: - Health community support for hospitals, pharmacies, doctors and people at risk - Public information for regions, cities, tourist industry and sporting event organizers - Compliance monitoring support on particulate
Modeling the urban boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bergstrom, R. W., Jr.
1976-01-01
A summary and evaluation is given of the Workshop on Modeling the Urban Boundary Layer; held in Las Vegas on May 5, 1975. Edited summaries from each of the session chairpersons are also given. The sessions were: (1) formulation and solution techniques, (2) K-theory versus higher order closure, (3) surface heat and moisture balance, (4) initialization and boundary problems, (5) nocturnal boundary layer, and (6) verification of models.
Approximation theory for boundary layer suction through individual slits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walz, A.
1979-01-01
The basic concepts of influencing boundary layers are summarized, especially the prevention of flow detachment and the reduction of frictional resistance. A mathematical analysis of suction through a slit is presented with two parameters, for thickness and for shape of the boundary layer, being introduced to specify the flow's velocity profile behind the slit. An approximation of the shape parameter produces a useful formula, which can be used to determine the most favorable position of the slit. An aerodynamic example is given.
Flow unsteadiness effects on boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murthy, Sreedhara V.
1989-01-01
The development of boundary layers at high subsonic speeds in the presence of either mass flux fluctuations or acoustic disturbances (the two most important parameters in the unsteadiness environment affecting the aerodynamics of a flight vehicle) was investigated. A high quality database for generating detailed information concerning free-stream flow unsteadiness effects on boundary layer growth and transition in high subsonic and transonic speeds is described. The database will be generated with a two-pronged approach: (1) from a detailed review of existing literature on research and wind tunnel calibration database, and (2) from detailed tests in the Boundary Layer Apparatus for Subsonic and Transonic flow Affected by Noise Environment (BLASTANE). Special instrumentation, including hot wire anemometry, the buried wire gage technique, and laser velocimetry were used to obtain skin friction and turbulent shear stress data along the entire boundary layer for various free stream noise levels, turbulence content, and pressure gradients. This database will be useful for improving the correction methodology of applying wind tunnel test data to flight predictions and will be helpful for making improvements in turbulence modeling laws.
Removing Boundary Layer by Suction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ackeret, J
1927-01-01
Through the utilization of the "Magnus effect" on the Flettner rotor ship, the attention of the public has been directed to the underlying physical principle. It has been found that the Prandtl boundary-layer theory furnishes a satisfactory explanation of the observed phenomena. The present article deals with the prevention of this separation or detachment of the flow by drawing the boundary layer into the inside of a body through a slot or slots in its surface.
Physics of magnetospheric boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cairns, Iver H.
1995-01-01
This final report was concerned with the ideas that: (1) magnetospheric boundary layers link disparate regions of the magnetosphere-solar wind system together; and (2) global behavior of the magnetosphere can be understood only by understanding its internal linking mechanisms and those with the solar wind. The research project involved simultaneous research on the global-, meso-, and micro-scale physics of the magnetosphere and its boundary layers, which included the bow shock, the magnetosheath, the plasma sheet boundary layer, and the ionosphere. Analytic, numerical, and simulation projects were performed on these subjects, as well as comparisons of theoretical results with observational data. Other related activity included in the research included: (1) prediction of geomagnetic activity; (2) global MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) simulations; (3) Alfven resonance heating; and (4) Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) effect. In the appendixes are list of personnel involved, list of papers published; and reprints or photocopies of papers produced for this report.
Unsteady turbulent boundary layer analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singleton, R. E.; Nash, J. F.; Carl, L. W.; Patel, V. C.
1973-01-01
The governing equations for an unsteady turbulent boundary layer on a swept infinite cylinder, composed of a continuity equation, a pair of momentum equations and a pair of turbulent energy equations which include upstream history efforts, are solved numerically. An explicit finite difference analog to the partial differential equations is formulated and developed into a computer program. Calculations were made for a variety of unsteady flows in both two and three dimensions but primarily for two dimensional flow fields in order to first understand some of the fundamental physical aspects of unsteady turbulent boundary layers. Oscillating free stream flows without pressure gradient, oscillating retarded free stream flows and monotonically time-varying flows have all been studied for a wide frequency range. It was found that to the lowest frequency considered, the lower frequency bound being determined by economic considerations (machine time), there were significant unsteady effects on the turbulent boundary layer.
Physics of magnetospheric boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cairns, I. H.
1993-01-01
The central ideas of this grant are that the magnetospheric boundary layers link disparate regions of the magnetosphere together, and the global behavior of the magnetosphere can be understood only by understanding the linking mechanisms. Accordingly the present grant includes simultaneous research on the global, meso-, and micro-scale physics of the magnetosphere and its boundary layers. These boundary layers include the bow shock, magnetosheath, the plasma sheet boundary layer, and the ionosphere. Analytic, numerical and simulation projects have been performed on these subjects, as well as comparison of theoretical results with observational data. Very good progress has been made, with four papers published or in press and two additional papers submitted for publication during the six month period 1 June - 30 November 1993. At least two projects are currently being written up. In addition, members of the group have given papers at scientific meetings. The further structure of this report is as follows: section two contains brief accounts of research completed during the last six months, while section three describes the research projects intended for the grant's final period.
Turbulent boundary layers over nonstationary plane boundaries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roper, A. T.
1976-01-01
Methods of predicting integral parameters and skin-friction coefficients of turbulent boundary layers developing over moving-ground-planes are evaluated using test information from three different wind tunnel facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center. These data include test information from the VSTOL tunnel which is presented for the first time. The three methods evaluated were: (1) relative integral parameter method, (2) relative power law method, and (3) modified law of the wall method. Methods (1) and (2) can be used to predict moving-ground-plane shape factors with an expected accuracy of + or - 10%. They may also be used to predict moving-ground-plane displacement and momentum thicknesses with lower expected accuracy. This decrease in accuracy can be traced to the failure of approximations upon which these methods are based to prove universal when compared with VSTOL tunnel test results.
Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Flow Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Owens, Lewis R.; Allan, Brian G.; Gorton, Susan A.
2006-01-01
This paper gives an overview of a research study conducted in support of the small-scale demonstration of an active flow control system for a boundary-layer-ingesting (BLI) inlet. The effectiveness of active flow control in reducing engine inlet circumferential distortion was assessed using a 2.5% scale model of a 35% boundary-layer-ingesting flush-mounted, offset, diffusing inlet. This experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at flight Mach numbers with a model inlet specifically designed for this type of testing. High mass flow actuators controlled the flow through distributed control jets providing the active flow control. A vortex generator point design configuration was also tested for comparison purposes and to provide a means to examine a hybrid vortex generator and control jets configuration. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow through the duct and the actuators. The distortion and pressure recovery were determined by 40 total pressure measurements on 8 rake arms each separated by 45 degrees and were located at the aerodynamic interface plane. The test matrix was limited to a maximum free-stream Mach number of 0.85 with scaled mass flows through the inlet for that condition. The data show that the flow control jets alone can reduce circumferential distortion (DPCPavg) from 0.055 to about 0.015 using about 2.5% of inlet mass flow. The vortex generators also reduced the circumferential distortion from 0.055 to 0.010 near the inlet mass flow design point. Lower inlet mass flow settings with the vortex generator configuration produced higher distortion levels that were reduced to acceptable levels using a hybrid vortex generator/control jets configuration that required less than 1% of the inlet mass flow.
Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Flow Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Owens, Lewis R.; Allan, Brian G.; Gorton, Susan A.
2006-01-01
This paper gives an overview of a research study conducted in support of the small-scale demonstration of an active flow control system for a boundary-layer-ingesting (BLI) inlet. The effectiveness of active flow control in reducing engine inlet circumferential distortion was assessed using a 2.5% scale model of a 35% boundary-layer-ingesting flush-mounted, offset, diffusing inlet. This experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at flight Mach numbers with a model inlet specifically designed for this type of testing. High mass flow actuators controlled the flow through distributed control jets providing the active flow control. A vortex generator point design configuration was also tested for comparison purposes and to provide a means to examine a hybrid vortex generator and control jets configuration. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow through the duct and the actuators. The distortion and pressure recovery were determined by 40 total pressure measurements on 8 rake arms each separated by 45 degrees and were located at the aerodynamic interface plane. The test matrix was limited to a maximum free-stream Mach number of 0.85 with scaled mass flows through the inlet for that condition. The data show that the flow control jets alone can reduce circumferential distortion (DPCP(sub avg)) from 0.055 to about 0.015 using about 2.5% of inlet mass flow. The vortex generators also reduced the circumferential distortion from 0.055 to 0.010 near the inlet mass flow design point. Lower inlet mass flow settings with the vortex generator configuration produced higher distortion levels that were reduced to acceptable levels using a hybrid vortex generator/control jets configuration that required less than 1% of the inlet mass flow.
Jupiter's deep magnetotail boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nicolaou, G.; McComas, D. J.; Bagenal, F.; Elliott, H. A.; Ebert, R. W.
2015-06-01
In 2007 the New Horizons (NH) spacecraft flew by Jupiter for a gravity assist en route to Pluto. After closest approach on day of year (DOY) 58, 2007, NH followed a tailward trajectory that provided a unique opportunity to explore the deep jovian magnetotail and the surrounding magnetosheath. After DOY 132, 16 magnetopause crossings were observed between 1654 and 2429 Jupiter radii (Rj) along the dusk flank tailward of the planet. In some cases the crossings were identified as rapid transitions from the magnetotail to the magnetosheath and vice versa. In other cases a boundary layer was observed just inside the magnetopause. Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) is an instrument on board NH that obtained spectra of low energy ions during the flyby period. We use a forward model including the SWAP instrument response to derive plasma parameters (density, temperature and velocity) which best reproduce the observations. We also vary the plasma parameters in our model in order to fit the observations more accurately on occasions where the measurements exhibit significant variability. We compare the properties of the plasma in the boundary layer with those of the magnetosheath plasma derived in our earlier work. We attempt to estimate the magnetic field in the boundary layer assuming pressure balance between it and the magnetosheath. Finally, we investigate several possible scenarios to assess if magnetopause movement and structure could cause the variations seen in the data.
Multi-colored layers for visualizing aerodynamic flow effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jensen, Ronald N. (Inventor)
1991-01-01
A method is provided for visualizing aerodynamic flow effects on a test surface. First, discrete quantities of a sublimating chemical such as naphthalene are distinctively colored via appropriate dyes or paints. Next, a uniform layer of the sublimating chemical having a particular color is applied to the test surface. This layer is covered with a second uniform layer of a different colored sublimating chemical, and so on until a composite of multi-colored layers is formed having a discrete thickness. Friction caused by an airflow results in the distinctly colored layers being removed in proportion to such aerodynamic flow characteristics as velocity and temperature, resulting in a multi-colored portrait which approximates the air flow on the underlying test surface.
Boundary conditions for direct computation of aerodynamic sound generation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Colonius, Tim; Lele, Sanjiva K.; Moin, Parviz
1992-01-01
A numerical scheme suitable for the computation of both the near field acoustic sources and the far field sound produced by turbulent free shear flows utilizing the Navier-Stokes equations is presented. To produce stable numerical schemes in the presence of shear, damping terms must be added to the boundary conditions. The numerical technique and boundary conditions are found to give stable results for computations of spatially evolving mixing layers.
Boundary layer receptivity and control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hill, D. C.
1993-01-01
Receptivity processes initiate natural instabilities in a boundary layer. The instabilities grow and eventually break down to turbulence. Consequently, receptivity questions are a critical element of the analysis of the transition process. Success in modeling the physics of receptivity processes thus has a direct bearing on technological issues of drag reduction. The means by which transitional flows can be controlled is also a major concern: questions of control are tied inevitably to those of receptivity. Adjoint systems provide a highly effective mathematical method for approaching many of the questions associated with both receptivity and control. The long term objective is to develop adjoint methods to handle increasingly complex receptivity questions, and to find systematic procedures for deducing effective control strategies. The most elementary receptivity problem is that in which a parallel boundary layer is forced by time-harmonic sources of various types. The characteristics of the response to such forcing form the building blocks for more complex receptivity mechanisms. The first objective of this year's research effort was to investigate how a parallel Blasius boundary layer responds to general direct forcing. Acoustic disturbances in the freestream can be scattered by flow non-uniformities to produce Tollmien-Schlichting waves. For example, scattering by surface roughness is known to provide an efficient receptivity path. The present effort is directed towards finding a solution by a simple adjoint analysis, because adjoint methods can be extended to more complex problems. In practice, flows are non-parallel and often three-dimensional. Compressibility may also be significant in some cases. Recent developments in the use of Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE) offer a promising possibility. By formulating and solving a set of adjoint parabolized equations, a method for mapping the efficiency with which external forcing excites the three
Identifying Boundary-Layer Transitions on Aircraft Skin
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holmes, B. J.; Croom, C. C.; Kelliher, W. C.; Obara, C. J.
1984-01-01
Sublimating chemicals offer accurate, low-cost way of indicating laminarto-turbulent flow transisions on surfaces of aircraft. Aerodynamic surfaces coated with thin film of such volatile chemical solids as naphthalene, diphenyl, acenaphthene, or fluorene. Film sublimes rapidly because of high local shear stress and heat transfer in boundary layer. Coating appears white in regions where chemical remained on surface indicating laminar flow; regions where chemical disappeared indicate turbulent flow.
Outline of research on oscillating boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cousteix, J.
1979-01-01
The state of the art in the field of unsteady boundary layers is outlined with emphasis on turbulent boundary layers. The unsteady flows considered are mainly periodic with the external velocity varying around a zero or nonzero mean time value. The principal results obtained on laminar boundary layers are also presented.
Turbulent boundary layer of an airfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fediaevsky, K
1937-01-01
A need has arisen for a new determination of the velocity profiles in the boundary layer. Assuming that the character of the velocity distribution depends to a large extent on the character of the shear distribution across the boundary layer, we shall consider the nature of the shear distribution for a boundary layer with a pressure gradient.
Compressible turbulent boundary layer interaction experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Settles, G. S.; Bogdonoff, S. M.
1981-01-01
Four phases of research results are reported: (1) experiments on the compressible turbulent boundary layer flow in a streamwise corner; (2) the two dimensional (2D) interaction of incident shock waves with a compressible turbulent boundary layer; (3) three dimensional (3D) shock/boundary layer interactions; and (4) cooperative experiments at Princeton and numerical computations at NASA-Ames.
Optical measurements of degradation in aircraft boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelsall, D.
1980-01-01
Visible wavelength measurements of the degradation of optical beams when transmitted through the thin aerodynamic boundary layers around an aircraft are reviewed. The measured results indicated degradation levels for the KC-135 airplanes between 0.10 to 0.13 lambda increasing to 0.18 lambda (rms wavefront distortion). For the Lear Jet, degradation with a 25 mm diameter optics was roughly 0.07 lambda. The corresponding infinite aperture degradation levels are also calculated. The corresponding measured correlation lengths of roughly 12 mm for the KC-135 aircraft and 6 mm for the Lear Jet scale to roughly 20 and 25 mm, respectively, for infinite apertures. These boundary layer correlation lengths do not appear to reflect the different boundary layer thicknesses on the two different aircraft.
Modelling the transitional boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Narasimha, R.
1990-01-01
Recent developments in the modelling of the transition zone in the boundary layer are reviewed (the zone being defined as extending from the station where intermittency begins to depart from zero to that where it is nearly unity). The value of using a new non-dimensional spot formation rate parameter, and the importance of allowing for so-called subtransitions within the transition zone, are both stressed. Models do reasonably well in constant pressure 2-dimensional flows, but in the presence of strong pressure gradients further improvements are needed. The linear combination approach works surprisingly well in most cases, but would not be so successful in situations where a purely laminar boundary layer would separate but a transitional one would not. Intermittency-weighted eddy viscosity methods do not predict peak surface parameters well without the introduction of an overshooting transition function whose connection with the spot theory of transition is obscure. Suggestions are made for further work that now appears necessary for developing improved models of the transition zone.
Nonequilibrium chemistry boundary layer integral matrix procedure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tong, H.; Buckingham, A. C.; Morse, H. L.
1973-01-01
The development of an analytic procedure for the calculation of nonequilibrium boundary layer flows over surfaces of arbitrary catalycities is described. An existing equilibrium boundary layer integral matrix code was extended to include nonequilibrium chemistry while retaining all of the general boundary condition features built into the original code. For particular application to the pitch-plane of shuttle type vehicles, an approximate procedure was developed to estimate the nonequilibrium and nonisentropic state at the edge of the boundary layer.
Vortex boundary-layer interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bradshaw, P.
1986-01-01
Parametric studies to identify a vortex generator were completed. Data acquisition in the first chosen configuration, in which a longitudinal vortex pair generated by an isolated delta wing starts to merge with a turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate fairly close to the leading edge is nearly completed. Work on a delta-wing/flat-plate combination, consisting of a flow visualization and hot wire measurements taken with a computer controlled traverse gear and data logging system were completed. Data taking and analysis have continued, and sample results for another cross stream plane are presented. Available data include all mean velocity components, second order mean products of turbulent fluctuations, and third order mean products. Implementation of a faster data logging system was accomplished.
Outer layer effects in wind-farm boundary layers: Coriolis forces and boundary layer height
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allaerts, Dries; Meyers, Johan
2015-11-01
In LES studies of wind-farm boundary layers, scale separation between the inner and outer region of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is frequently assumed, i.e., wind turbines are presumed to fall within the inner layer and are not affected by outer layer effects. However, modern wind turbine and wind farm design tends towards larger rotor diameters and farm sizes, which means that outer layer effects will become more important. In a prior study, it was already shown for fully-developed wind farms that the ABL height influences the power performance. In this study, we use the in-house LES code SP-Wind to investigate the importance of outer layer effects on wind-farm boundary layers. In a suite of LES cases, the ABL height is varied by imposing a capping inversion with varying inversion strengths. Results indicate the growth of an internal boundary layer (IBL), which is limited in cases with low inversion layers. We further find that flow deceleration combined with Coriolis effects causes a change in wind direction throughout the farm. This effect increases with decreasing boundary layer height, and can result in considerable turbine wake deflection near the end of the farm. The authors are supported by the ERC (ActiveWindFarms, grant no: 306471). Computations were performed on VSC infrastructiure (Flemish Supercomputer Center), funded by the Hercules Foundation and the Flemish Government-department EWI.
Microgravity Effects on Plant Boundary Layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stutte, Gary; Monje, Oscar
2005-01-01
The goal of these series of experiment was to determine the effects of microgravity conditions on the developmental boundary layers in roots and leaves and to determine the effects of air flow on boundary layer development. It is hypothesized that microgravity induces larger boundary layers around plant organs because of the absence of buoyancy-driven convection. These larger boundary layers may affect normal metabolic function because they may reduce the fluxes of heat and metabolically active gases (e.g., oxygen, water vapor, and carbon dioxide. These experiments are to test whether there is a change in boundary layer associated with microgravity, quantify the change if it exists, and determine influence of air velocity on boundary layer thickness under different gravity conditions.
Turbulent boundary layers with secondary flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grushwitz, E.
1984-01-01
An experimental analysis of the boundary layer on a plane wall, along which the flow occurs, whose potential flow lines are curved in plane parallel to the wall is discussed. According to the equation frequently applied to boundary layers in a plane flow, which is usually obtained by using the pulse law, a generalization is derived which is valid for boundary layers with spatial flow. The wall shear stresses were calculated with this equation.
Structure of the low latitude boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sckopke, N.; Paschmann, G.; Haerendel, G.; Sonnerup, B. U. O.; Bame, S. J.; Forbes, T. G.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Russell, C. T.
1980-01-01
Observations at high temporal resolution of the frontside magnetopause and plasma boundary layer, made with the LASL/MPE fast plasma analyzer onboard the ISEE 1 and 2 spacecraft, revealed a complex quasiperiodic structure of some of the observed boundary layers. A cool tailward streaming boundary layer plasma was seen intermittently, with intervening periods of hot tenuous plasma which has properties similar to the magnetospheric population. While individual encounters with the boundary layer plasma last only a few minutes, the total observation time may extend over one hour or more.
Aeroelastically deflecting flaps for shock/boundary-layer interaction control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gefroh, D.; Loth, E.; Dutton, C.; Hafenrichter, E.
2003-06-01
An aeroelastic mesoflap system has been developed to improve the downstream flow properties of an oblique shock/boundary-layer interaction. The mesoflap system employs a set of small flaps over a cavity, whereby the flaps downstream of the interaction bend downward aeroelastically to bleed the flow and the upstream flaps bend upward to re-inject this same mass flow upstream. This recirculating system requires no net mass bleed and therefore has advantages for boundary layer control in external or mixed-compression supersonic aircraft inlets. In addition, the system may be applicable in other aerospace applications where boundary-layer control can help remedy the adverse effects of shock interactions. Several mesoflap systems have been fabricated and examined experimentally to investigate their aerodynamic and structural performance. Each mesoflap is rigidly attached to a spar on its upstream end while the remainder of the flap is free to deflect aeroelastically. The flap length is nominally a few boundary-layer thicknesses in dimension, while the flap thickness is small enough to allow tip deflections that are of the order of the boundary-layer momentum thickness. Experiments were conducted for a Mach 2.41 impinging oblique shock wave interaction with a turbulent boundary layer. Spanwise-centered laser Doppler velocimeter measurements indicate that certain mesoflap designs can show significant flow improvement as compared to the solid-wall case, including increased stagnation pressure recovery and a 7% reduction in boundary layer thickness and sonic thickness. However, one drawback of the mesoflap system is the potential for fatigue, which in some cases led to microcracking followed by flap failure. Structural design improvements to alleviate and avoid this problem included a lower profile spar design, substitution of Nitinol for aluminum as the flap material, and use of stress-relieving holes at the ends of the flap cut-outs.
Boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eastman, T. E.; Frank, L. A.
1984-01-01
The magnetospheric boundary layer and the plasma-sheet boundary layer are the primary boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere. Recent satellite observations indicate that they provide for more than 50 percent of the plasma and energy transport in the outer magnetosphere although they constitute less than 5 percent by volume. Relative to the energy density in the source regions, plasma in the magnetospheric boundary layer is predominantly deenergized whereas plasma in the plasma-sheet boundary layer has been accelerated. The reconnection hypothesis continues to provide a useful framework for comparing data sampled in the highly dynamic magnetospheric environment. Observations of 'flux transfer events' and other detailed features near the boundaries have been recently interpreted in terms of nonsteady-state reconnection. Alternative hypotheses are also being investigated. More work needs to be done, both in theory and observation, to determine whether reconnection actually occurs in the magnetosphere and, if so, whether it is important for overall magnetospheric dynamics.
Control of Separated Boundary Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Shao-Ching; Kim, John
2003-11-01
The control of separated boundary layers are numerically investigated. Two types of flow geometry are considered. The first case is flow separation on a flat plate caused by an imposed adverse pressure gradient. The second case is flow separation downstream of a curved leading edge. These cases represent laminar separation with turbulent reattachment with and without curvature effects. Open-loop control, with distributed surface blowing and suction as control input, is first applied to establish base-line cases. We then use a system identification approach to construct approximate system models for design of closed-loop control. The models are based on the input-output relationship obtained from numerical simulations. The linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control synthesis is applied to the models to produce feedback control laws. The distributed sensors and actuators are confined to the walls. The efficacy of the controllers are quantified by pressure distribution, separation bubble size and Reynolds stresses. Visualization of the controlled and uncontrolled flow fields will also be presented.
Modeling cathode boundary layer discharges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munoz-Serrano, E.; Boeuf, J. P.; Pitchford, L. C.
2009-10-01
A Cathode Boundary Layer Discharge or CBL (Schoenbach, et al Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 13, 177,2004) is an electrode/dielectric/electrode sandwich with a central hole pierced through the dielectric and one of the electrodes (the anode). Thus, the cathode surface area available to the discharge is limited by the annular dielectric, and the discharge operates in an abnormal glow mode with a positive V-I characteristic at higher current. Using a two-dimensional fluid model, we have studied the electrical properties of CBLs in argon at 100 and 400 torr pressure. The spatial profiles of charged particle and metastable densities, potential, and gas temperature, as well as calculated V-I characteristics will be shown for a range of conditions for a 800 micron hole diameter. One interesting result (anticipated in the work of Belostotskiy, et al, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol 17, 045018, 2008) is that there is a sharp increase in the slope of the V-I characteristic when gas heating is taken into account. This current limiting effect is not observed when the discharge is able to expand on the outer surface of the cathode as in the case of the MicroHollow Cathode Discharge (MHCD) configuration, for example.
Aerodynamically-driven condensate layer thickness distributions on isothermal cylindrical surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosner, D. E.; Gunes, D.; Nazih-Anous, N.
1983-01-01
A simple yet rather general mathematical model is presented for predicting the distribution of condensate layer thickness when aerodynamic shear is the dominant mechanism of liquid flow along the surface. The Newtonian condensate film is treated using well-known thin-layer (lubrication theory) approximations, and condensate supply is taken to be the result of either convective diffusion or inertial impaction. Illustrative calculations for a circular cylinder in a crossflow at Re = 100,000 reveal the consequences of alternate condensate arrival mechanisms and the existence of thicker reverse-flow films behind the position of gas boundary-layer separation. The present formulation is readily generalized to include transient liquid layer flows on noncircular objects of variable surface temperature, as encountered in turbine-blade materials testing or operation.
Anisotropic Mesh Adaptivity for Turbulent Flows with Boundary Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chitale, Kedar C.
Turbulent flows are found everywhere in nature and are studied, analyzed and simulated using various experimental and numerical tools. For computational analysis, a variety of turbulence models are available and the accuracy of these models in capturing the phenomenon depends largely on the mesh spacings, especially near the walls, in the boundary layer region. Special semi-structured meshes called "mesh boundary layers" are widely used in the CFD community in simulations of turbulent flows, because of their graded and orthogonal layered structure. They provide an efficient way to achieve very fine and highly anisotropic mesh spacings without introducing poorly shaped elements. Since usually the required mesh spacings to accurately resolve the flow are not known a priori to the simulations, an adaptive approach based on a posteriori error indicators is used to achieve an appropriate mesh. In this study, we apply the adaptive meshing techniques to turbulent flows with a focus on boundary layers. We construct a framework to calculate the critical wall normal mesh spacings inside the boundary layers based on the flow physics and the knowledge of the turbulence model. This approach is combined with numerical error indicators to adapt the entire flow region. We illustrate the effectiveness of this hybrid approach by applying it to three aerodynamic flows and studying their superior performance in capturing the flow structures in detail. We also demonstrate the capabilities of the current developments in parallel boundary layer mesh adaptation by applying them to two internal flow problems. We also study the application of adaptive boundary layer meshes to complex geometries like multi element wings. We highlight the advantage of using such techniques for superior wake and tip region resolution by showcasing flow results. We also outline the future direction for the adaptive meshing techniques to be useful to the large scale flow computations.
Cyclone separator having boundary layer turbulence control
Krishna, Coimbatore R.; Milau, Julius S.
1985-01-01
A cyclone separator including boundary layer turbulence control that is operable to prevent undue build-up of particulate material at selected critical areas on the separator walls, by selectively varying the fluid pressure at those areas to maintain the momentum of the vortex, thereby preventing particulate material from inducing turbulence in the boundary layer of the vortical fluid flow through the separator.
Structure of relaminarizing turbulent boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramesh, O.; Patwardhan, Saurabh
2014-11-01
Relaminarization of a turbulent boundary layer in a strongly accelerated flow has received a great attention in recent times. It has been found that such relaminarization is a general and regularly occurring phenomenon in the leading-edge region of a swept wing of an airplane (van Dam et al., 1993). In this work, we investigate the effect of initial Reynolds number on the process of relaminarization in turbulent boundary layers. The experimental and numerical investigation of relaminarizing turbulent boundary layers undergoing same history reveals that the boundary layer with higher initial Reynolds number relaminarizes at a lower pressure gradient value compared to the one with lower Reynolds number. This effect can be explained on the inviscid theory proposed earlier in the literature. Further, various parameter criteria proposed to predict relaminarization, are assessed and the structure of relaminarizing boundary layers is investigated. A mechanism for stabilization of near-wall low speed streaks is proposed.
Boundary Layers of Air Adjacent to Cylinders
Nobel, Park S.
1974-01-01
Using existing heat transfer data, a relatively simple expression was developed for estimating the effective thickness of the boundary layer of air surrounding cylinders. For wind velocities from 10 to 1000 cm/second, the calculated boundary-layer thickness agreed with that determined for water vapor diffusion from a moistened cylindrical surface 2 cm in diameter. It correctly predicted the resistance for water vapor movement across the boundary layers adjacent to the (cylindrical) inflorescence stems of Xanthorrhoea australis R. Br. and Scirpus validus Vahl and the leaves of Allium cepa L. The boundary-layer thickness decreased as the turbulence intensity increased. For a turbulence intensity representative of field conditions (0.5) and for νwindd between 200 and 30,000 cm2/second (where νwind is the mean wind velocity and d is the cylinder diameter), the effective boundary-layer thickness in centimeters was equal to [Formula: see text]. PMID:16658855
A cloudiness transition in a marine boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boers, Reinout; Betts, Alan K.
1990-01-01
In situ aircraft data and lidar data are used to analyze a transition in the boundary layer thermodynamic structure from a clear boundary layer through small cumulus and broken stratocumulus to a deck of solid stratocumulus. The data was collected in conjunction with a Landsat overpass on July 7, 1987 off the coast of southern California. A steady progression in mixing line stability is seen associated with the change in cloudiness. The (empirically based) stability threshold for the breakup of this stratocumulus is that the slope of the mixing line is 0.66 + or - 0.04 of the slope of the wet virtual adiabat. A simple linear parameterization is proposed for cloud fraction in terms of mixing line stability. Surface flux measurements are consistent with bulk aerodynamic estimates.
Instabilities in Time Dependent Boundary Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Otto, Stephen Robert
Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The work in this thesis is concerned with instabilities known to occur in boundary layers. The boundary layers considered herein are of a temporal nature; that is they are time dependent. In Chapter 1 a general overview of the subject is given. In Chapter 2, we consider two Stokes layers found to occur on a sphere. Firstly, the case where the sphere oscillates along a radius, referred to as transverse oscillations, and secondly where the sphere oscillates about its axis, referred to as torsional oscillations. We also consider the oscillations to be of such an amplitude and frequency so that the resulting boundary layer is thin compared to the sphere's radius. Chapter 3, is concerned with the development of vortices in a temporally growing boundary layer occurring on an infinite flat plate, the fluid above which is started to move impulsively. Here we take account of the fact that the boundary layer is growing with time, in a similar manner as has been used for the Blasius layer to grow with a downstream coordinate. In Chapter 4, we consider a boundary layer found to occur outside a cylinder, which at a certain instant has a torsional velocity imparted to it, this layer grows with time. The development of vortices in considered in this layer, and certain parameter regimes are investigated namely those appropriate to the right hand branch of the neutral curve, and those appropriate to the development of inviscid Gortler modes.
LDV measurements of turbulent baroclinic boundary layers
Neuwald, P.; Reichenbach, H.; Kuhl, A.L.
1993-07-01
Described here are shock tube experiments of nonsteady, turbulent boundary layers with large density variations. A dense-gas layer was created by injecting Freon through the porous floor of the shock tube. As the shock front propagated along the layer, vorticity was created at the air-Freon interface by an inviscid, baroclinic mechanism. Shadow-schlieren photography was used to visualize the turbulent mixing in this baroclinic boundary layer. Laser-Doppler-Velocimetry (LDV) was used to measure the streamwise velocity histories at 14 heights. After transition, the boundary layer profiles may be approximated by a power-law function u {approximately} u{sup {alpha}} where {alpha} {approx_equal} 3/8. This value lies between the clean flat plate value ({alpha} = 1/7) and the dusty boundary layer value ({alpha} {approx_equal} 0.7), and is controlled by the gas density near the wall.
Planetary Boundary Layer Simulation Using TASS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schowalter, David G.; DeCroix, David S.; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Kaplan, Michael
1996-01-01
Boundary conditions to an existing large-eddy simulation model have been changed in order to simulate turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer. Several options are now available, including the use of a surface energy balance. In addition, we compare convective boundary layer simulations with the Wangara and Minnesota field experiments as well as with other model results. We find excellent agreement of modelled mean profiles of wind and temperature with observations and good agreement for velocity variances. Neutral boundary simulation results are compared with theory and with previously used models. Agreement with theory is reasonable, while agreement with previous models is excellent.
Calculation methods for compressible turbulent boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bushnell, D. M.; Cary, A. M., Jr.; Harris, J. E.
1976-01-01
Calculation procedures for non-reacting compressible two- and three-dimensional turbulent boundary layers were reviewed. Integral, transformation and correlation methods, as well as finite difference solutions of the complete boundary layer equations summarized. Alternative numerical solution procedures were examined, and both mean field and mean turbulence field closure models were considered. Physics and related calculation problems peculiar to compressible turbulent boundary layers are described. A catalog of available solution procedures of the finite difference, finite element, and method of weighted residuals genre is included. Influence of compressibility, low Reynolds number, wall blowing, and pressure gradient upon mean field closure constants are reported.
Energy transport using natural convection boundary layers
Anderson, R
1986-04-01
Natural convection is one of the major modes of energy transport in passive solar buildings. There are two primary mechanisms for natural convection heat transport through an aperture between building zones: (1) bulk density differences created by temperature differences between zones; and (2) thermosyphon pumping created by natural convection boundary layers. The primary objective of the present study is to compare the characteristics of bulk density driven and boundary layer driven flow, and discuss some of the advantages associated with the use of natural convection boundary layers to transport energy in solar building applications.
Boundary-layer linear stability theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mack, L. M.
1984-01-01
Most fluid flows are turbulent rather than laminar and the reason for this was studied. One of the earliest explanations was that laminar flow is unstable, and the linear instability theory was first developed to explore this possibility. A series of early papers by Rayleigh produced many notable results concerning the instability of inviscid flows, such as the discovery of inflectional instability. Viscosity was commonly thought to act only to stabilize the flow, and flows with convex velocity profiles appeared to be stable. The investigations that led to a viscous theory of boundary layer instability was reported. The earliest application of linear stability theory to transition prediction calculated the amplitude ratio of the most amplified frequency as a function of Reynolds number for a Blasius boundary layer, and found that this quantity had values between five and nine at the observed Ret. The experiment of Schubauer and Skramstad (1947) completely reversed the prevailing option and fully vindicated the Gottingen proponents of the theory. This experiment demonstrated the existence of instability waves in a boundary layer, their connection with transition, and the quantitative description of their behavior by the theory of Tollmien and Schlichting. It is generally accepted that flow parameters such as pressure gradient, suction and heat transfer qualitatively affect transition in the manner predicted by the linear theory, and in particular that a flow predicted to be stable by the theory should remain laminar. The linear theory, in the form of the e9, or N-factor is today in routine use in engineering studies of laminar flow. The stability theory to boundary layers with pressure gradients and suction was applied. The only large body of numerical results for exact boundary layer solutions before the advent of the computer age by calculating the stability characteristics of the Falkner-Skan family of velocity profiles are given. When the digital computer
Boundary-layer linear stability theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mack, L. M.
1984-06-01
Most fluid flows are turbulent rather than laminar and the reason for this was studied. One of the earliest explanations was that laminar flow is unstable, and the linear instability theory was first developed to explore this possibility. A series of early papers by Rayleigh produced many notable results concerning the instability of inviscid flows, such as the discovery of inflectional instability. Viscosity was commonly thought to act only to stabilize the flow, and flows with convex velocity profiles appeared to be stable. The investigations that led to a viscous theory of boundary layer instability was reported. The earliest application of linear stability theory to transition prediction calculated the amplitude ratio of the most amplified frequency as a function of Reynolds number for a Blasius boundary layer, and found that this quantity had values between five and nine at the observed Ret. The experiment of Schubauer and Skramstad (1947) completely reversed the prevailing option and fully vindicated the Gottingen proponents of the theory. This experiment demonstrated the existence of instability waves in a boundary layer, their connection with transition, and the quantitative description of their behavior by the theory of Tollmien and Schlichting. It is generally accepted that flow parameters such as pressure gradient, suction and heat transfer qualitatively affect transition in the manner predicted by the linear theory, and in particular that a flow predicted to be stable by the theory should remain laminar. The linear theory, in the form of the e9, or N-factor is today in routine use in engineering studies of laminar flow. The stability theory to boundary layers with pressure gradients and suction was applied. The only large body of numerical results for exact boundary layer solutions before the advent of the computer age by calculating the stability characteristics of the Falkner-Skan family of velocity profiles are given. When the digital computer
Application of the controlled boundary layer concept for the wall interference reduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, A. I.; Kursakov, I. A.; Streltsov, E. V.
2016-10-01
Traditional boundaries of transonic wind tunnels (perforated and slotted walls) have some disadvantages that do not allow to completely remove wall interference on all main aerodynamic characteristics. This article focuses on the results of implementation of new boundary condition based, in general, on the idea of jet boundaries. Authors examine the implementation of the controlled boundary layer on solid walls, which characteristics were artificially increased with the aim of near-wall spoiler grid mounted at the test section entrance. The analysis underlines significant decreasing of wall interference on all main aerodynamic characteristics, including lift coefficient and pitching moment coefficient. We conclude that realization of the controlled boundary layer might become simple and rather effective method of wall-interference reduction.
Boundary Layers in Laminar Vortex Flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baker, Glenn Leslie
A detailed experimental study of the flow in an intense, laminar, axisymmetric vortex has been conducted in the Purdue Tornado Vortex Simulator. The complicated nature of the flow in the boundary layer of laboratory vortices and presumably on that encountered in full-scale tornadoes has been examined. After completing a number of modifications to the existing facility to improve the quality of the flow in the simulator, hot-film anemometry was employed for making velocity-component and turbulence-intensity measurements of both the free-stream and boundary layer portions of the flow. The measurements represent the first experimental boundary layer investigation of a well-defined vortex flow to appear in the literature. These results were compared with recent theoretical work by Burggraf, Stewartson and Belcher (1971) and with an exact similarity solution for line-sink boundary layers developed by the author. A comparison is also made with the numerical simulation of Wilson (1981) in which the boundary conditions were matched to those of the present experimental investigation. Expressions for the vortex core radius, the maximum tangential velocity and the maximum pressure drop are given in terms of dimensionless modeling parameters. References. Burggraf, O. R., K. Stewartson and R. Belcher, Boundary layer. induced by a potential vortex. Phys. Fluids 14, 1821-1833 (1971). Wilson, T., M. S. thesis, Vortex Boundary Layer Dynamics, Univ. Calif. Davis (1981).
F-16XL ship #1 - CAWAP boundary layer rakes and hot film on left wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1996-01-01
This photo shows the boundary layer hot film and the boundary layer rakes on the left wing of NASA's single-seat F-16XL (ship #1) used for the Cranked-Arrow Wing Aerodynamic Project (CAWAP) at Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The modified airplane features a delta 'cranked-arrow' wing with strips of tubing along the leading edge to the trailing edge to sense static on the wing and obtain pressure distribution data. The right wing receives data on pressure distribution and the left wing has three types of instrumentation - preston tubes to measure local skin friction, boundary layer rakes to measure boundary layer profiles (the layer where the air interacts with the surfaces of a moving aircraft), and hot films to determine boundary layer transition locations. The first flight of CAWAP occurred on November 21, 1995, and the test program ended in April 1996.
Boundary-layer control for drag reduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harvey, William D.
1988-01-01
Although the number of possible applications of boundary-layer control is large, a discussion is given only of those that have received the most attention recently at NASA Langley Research Center to improve airfoil drag characteristics. This research concerns stabilizing the laminar boundary layer through geometric shaping (natural laminar flow, NLF) and active control involving the removal of a portion of the laminar boundary layer (laminar flow control, LFC) either through discrete slots or a perforated surface. At low Reynolds numbers, a combination of shaping and forced transition has been used to achieve the desired run of laminar flow and control of laminar separation. In the design of both natural laminar flow and laminar flow control airfoils and wings, boundary layer stability codes play an important role. A discussion of some recent stability calculations using both incompressible and compressible codes is given.
Boundary-layer stability and airfoil design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Viken, Jeffrey K.
1986-01-01
Several different natural laminar flow (NLF) airfoils have been analyzed for stability of the laminar boundary layer using linear stability codes. The NLF airfoils analyzed come from three different design conditions: incompressible; compressible with no sweep; and compressible with sweep. Some of the design problems are discussed, concentrating on those problems associated with keeping the boundary layer laminar. Also, there is a discussion on how a linear stability analysis was effectively used to improve the design for some of the airfoils.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horstman, Raymond H.
1992-01-01
Aerodynamic flow achieved by adding fixed fairings to butterfly valve. When valve fully open, fairings align with butterfly and reduce wake. Butterfly free to turn, so valve can be closed, while fairings remain fixed. Design reduces turbulence in flow of air in internal suction system. Valve aids in development of improved porous-surface boundary-layer control system to reduce aerodynamic drag. Applications primarily aerospace. System adapted to boundary-layer control on high-speed land vehicles.
Characterization of internal boundary layer capacitors
Park, H. D.; Payne, D. A.
1980-05-01
Internal boundary layer capacitors were characterized by scanning transmission electron microscopy and by microscale electrical measurements. Data are given for the chemical and physical characteristics of the individual grains and boundaries, and their associated electric and dielectric properties. Segregated internal boundary layers were identified with resistivities of 10/sup 12/-10/sup 13/ ..cap omega..-cm. Bulk apparent dielectric constants were 10,000-60,000. A model is proposed to explain the dielectric behavior in terms of an equivalent n-c-i-c-n representation of ceramic microstructure, which is substantiated by capacitance-voltage analysis.
Modeling the summertime Arctic cloudy boundary layer
Curry, J.A.; Pinto, J.O.; McInnes, K.L.
1996-04-01
Global climate models have particular difficulty in simulating the low-level clouds during the Arctic summer. Model problems are exacerbated in the polar regions by the complicated vertical structure of the Arctic boundary layer. The presence of multiple cloud layers, a humidity inversion above cloud top, and vertical fluxes in the cloud that are decoupled from the surface fluxes, identified in Curry et al. (1988), suggest that models containing sophisticated physical parameterizations would be required to accurately model this region. Accurate modeling of the vertical structure of multiple cloud layers in climate models is important for determination of the surface radiative fluxes. This study focuses on the problem of modeling the layered structure of the Arctic summertime boundary-layer clouds and in particular, the representation of the more complex boundary layer type consisting of a stable foggy surface layer surmounted by a cloud-topped mixed layer. A hierarchical modeling/diagnosis approach is used. A case study from the summertime Arctic Stratus Experiment is examined. A high-resolution, one-dimensional model of turbulence and radiation is tested against the observations and is then used in sensitivity studies to infer the optimal conditions for maintaining two separate layers in the Arctic summertime boundary layer. A three-dimensional mesoscale atmospheric model is then used to simulate the interaction of this cloud deck with the large-scale atmospheric dynamics. An assessment of the improvements needed to the parameterizations of the boundary layer, cloud microphysics, and radiation in the 3-D model is made.
Ground observations of magnetospheric boundary layer phenomena
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mchenry, Mark A.; Clauer, C. Robert; Friis-Christensen, Eigil; Newell, Patrick T.; Kelly, J. D.
1990-01-01
Several classes of traveling vortices in the dayside ionosphere convection have been detected and tracked using the Greenland magnetometer chain (Friis-Christensen et al., 1988, McHenry et al., 1989). One class observed during quiet times consists of a continuous series of vortices moving generally antisunward for several hours at a time. The vortices' strength is seen to be approximately steady and neighboring vortices rotate in opposite directions. Sondrestrom radar observations show that the vortices are located at the ionospheric convection reversal boundary. Low altitude DMSP observations indicate the vortices are on field lines which map to the inner edge of the low latitude boundary layer. Because the vortices are conjugate to the boundary layer, repeat in a regular fashion and travel antisunward, it is argued that this class of vortices is caused by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of the inner edge of the magnetospheric boundary layer.
Numerical simulation of shock/turbulent boundary layer interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biringen, Sedat; Hatay, Ferhat F.
1993-01-01
Most flows of aerodynamic interest are compressible and turbulent. However, our present knowledge on the structures and mechanisms of turbulence is mostly based on incompressible flows. In the present work, compressibility effects in turbulent, high-speed, boundary layer flows are systematically investigated using the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) approach. Three-dimensional, time-dependent, fully nonlinear, compressible Navier-Stokes equations were numerically integrated by high-order finite-difference methods; no modeling for turbulence is used during the solution because the available resolution is sufficient to capture the relevant scales. The boundary layer problem deals with fully-turbulent compressible flows over flat geometries. Apart from its practical relevance to technological flows, turbulent compressible boundary layer flow is the simplest experimentally realizable turbulent compressible flow. Still, measuring difficulties prohibit a detailed experimental description of the flow, especially in the near-wall region. DNS studies provide a viable means to probe the physics of compressible turbulence in this region. The focus of this work is to explore the paths of energy transfer through which compressible turbulence is sustained. The structural similarities and differences between the incompressible and compressible turbulence are also investigated. The energy flow patterns or energy cascades are found to be directly related to the evolution of vortical structures which are generated in the near-wall region. Near-wall structures, and mechanisms which are not readily accessible through physical experiments are analyzed and their critical role on the evolution and the behavior of the flow is documented extensively.
Numerical Investigation of a Fuselage Boundary Layer Ingestion Propulsion Concept
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Fredericks, William J.; Guynn, Mark D.; Campbell, Richard L.
2013-01-01
In the present study, a numerical assessment of the performance of fuselage boundary layer ingestion (BLI) propulsion techniques was conducted. This study is an initial investigation into coupling the aerodynamics of the fuselage with a BLI propulsion system to determine if there is sufficient potential to warrant further investigation of this concept. Numerical simulations of flow around baseline, Boundary Layer Controlled (BLC), and propelled boundary layer controlled airships were performed. Computed results showed good agreement with wind tunnel data and previous numerical studies. Numerical simulations and sensitivity analysis were then conducted on four BLI configurations. The two design variables selected for the parametric study of the new configurations were the inlet area and the inlet to exit area ratio. Current results show that BLI propulsors may offer power savings of up to 85% over the baseline configuration. These interim results include the simplifying assumption that inlet ram drag is negligible and therefore likely overstate the reduction in power. It has been found that inlet ram drag is not negligible and should be included in future analysis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mikic, Gregor Veble; Stoll, Alex; Bevirt, JoeBen; Grah, Rok; Moore, Mark D.
2016-01-01
Theoretical and numerical aspects of aerodynamic efficiency of propulsion systems are studied. Focus is on types of propulsion that closely couples to the aerodynamics of the complete vehicle. We discuss the effects of local flow fields, which are affected both by conservative flow acceleration as well as total pressure losses, on the efficiency of boundary layer immersed propulsion devices. We introduce the concept of a boundary layer retardation turbine that helps reduce skin friction over the fuselage. We numerically investigate efficiency gains offered by boundary layer and wake interacting devices. We discuss the results in terms of a total energy consumption framework and show that efficiency gains offered depend on all the elements of the propulsion system.
High enthalpy hypersonic boundary layer flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yanow, G.
1972-01-01
A theoretical and experimental study of an ionizing laminar boundary layer formed by a very high enthalpy flow (in excess of 12 eV per atom or 7000 cal/gm) with allowance for the presence of helium driver gas is described. The theoretical investigation has shown that the use of variable transport properties and their respective derivatives is very important in the solution of equilibrium boundary layer equations of high enthalpy flow. The effect of low level helium contamination on the surface heat transfer rate is minimal. The variation of ionization is much smaller in a chemically frozen boundary layer solution than in an equilibrium boundary layer calculation and consequently, the variation of the transport properties in the case of the former was not essential in the integration. The experiments have been conducted in a free piston shock tunnel, and a detailed study of its nozzle operation, including the effects of low levels of helium driver gas contamination has been made. Neither the extreme solutions of an equilibrium nor of a frozen boundary layer will adequately predict surface heat transfer rate in very high enthalpy flows.
The Kinematics of Turbulent Boundary Layer Structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, Stephen Kern
1991-01-01
The long history of research into the internal structure of turbulent boundary layers has not provided a unified picture of the physics responsible for turbulence production and dissipation. The goals of the present research are to: (1) define the current state of boundary layer structure knowledge; and (2) utilize direct numerical simulation results to help close the unresolved issues identified in part A and to unify the fragmented knowledge of various coherent motions into a consistent kinematic model of boundary layer structure. The results of the current study show that all classes of coherent motion in the low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer may be related to vortical structures, but that no single form of vortex is representative of the wide variety of vortical structures observed. In particular, ejection and sweep motions, as well as entrainment from the free-streem are shown to have strong spatial and temporal relationships with vortical structures. Disturbances of vortex size, location, and intensity show that quasi-streamwise vortices dominate the buffer region, while transverse vortices and vortical arches dominate the wake region. Both types of vortical structure are common in the log region. The interrelationships between the various structures and the population distributions of vortices are combined into a conceptual kinematic model for the boundary layer. Aspects of vortical structure dynamics are also postulated, based on time-sequence animations of the numerically simulated flow.
Boundary Layer Cloudiness Parameterizations Using ARM Observations
Bruce Albrecht
2004-09-15
This study used DOE ARM data and facilities to: (1) study macroscopic properties of continental stratus clouds at SGP and the factors controlling these properties, (2) develop a scientific basis for understanding the processes responsible for the formation of boundary layer clouds using ARM observations in conjunction with simple parametric models and LES, and (3) evaluate cumulus cloud characteristics retrieved from the MMCR operating at TWP-Nauru. In addition we have used high resolution 94 GHz observations of boundary layer clouds and precipitation to: (1) develop techniques for using high temporal resolution Doppler velocities to study large-eddy circulations and turbulence in boundary layer clouds and estimate the limitations of using current and past MMCR data for boundary layer cloud studies, (2) evaluate the capability and limitations of the current MMCR data for estimating reflectivity, vertical velocities, and spectral under low- signal-to-noise conditions associated with weak no n-precipitating clouds, (3) develop possible sampling modes for the new MMCR processors to allow for adequate sampling of boundary layer clouds, and (4) retrieve updraft and downdraft structures under precipitating conditions.
KC-135 aero-optical turbulent boundary layer/shear layer experiment revisited
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Craig, J.; Allen, C.
1987-01-01
The aero-optical effects associated with propagating a laser beam through both an aircraft turbulent boundary layer and artificially generated shear layers are examined. The data present comparisons from observed optical performance with those inferred from aerodynamic measurements of unsteady density and correlation lengths within the same random flow fields. Using optical instrumentation with tens of microsecond temporal resolution through a finite aperture, optical performance degradation was determined and contrasted with the infinite aperture time averaged aerodynamic measurement. In addition, the optical data were artificially clipped to compare to theoretical scaling calculations. Optical instrumentation consisted of a custom Q switched Nd:Yag double pulsed laser, and a holographic camera which recorded the random flow field in a double pass, double pulse mode. Aerodynamic parameters were measured using hot film anemometer probes and a five hole pressure probe. Each technique is described with its associated theoretical basis for comparison. The effects of finite aperture and spatial and temporal frequencies of the random flow are considered.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mack, L. M.
1967-01-01
The fundamentals of stability theory, its chief results, and the physical mechanisms at work are presented. The stability theory of the laminar boundary determines whether a small disturbance introduced into the boundary layer will amplify or damp. If the disturbance damps, the boundary layer remains laminar. If the disturbance amplifies, and by a sufficient amount, then transition to turbulence eventually takes place. The stability theory establishes those states of the boundary layer which are most likely to lead to transition, identifys those frequencies which are the most dangerous, and indicates how the external parameters can best be changed to avoid transition.
Boundary layer emission in luminous LMXBs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gilfanov, M.; Revnivtsev, M.
We show that aperiodic and quasiperiodic variability of bright LMXBs -- atoll and Z- sources on sim sec -- msec time scales is caused primarily by variations of the luminosity of the boundary layer The kHz QPOs have the same origin as variability at lower frequencies i e independent of the nature of the clock the actual luminosity modulation takes place on the neutron star surface The boundary layer spectrum remains nearly constant in the course of the luminosity variations and is represented to certain accuracy by the Fourier frequency resolved spectrum In the investigated range of dot M sim 0 1-1 dot MEdd it depends weakly on the global mass accretion rate and in the limit dot M sim dot MEdd is close to Wien spectrum with kT sim 2 4 keV Its independence on the global value of dot M lends support to the theoretical suggestion by Inogamov Sunyaev 1999 that the boundary layer is radiation pressure supported Based on the knowledge of the boundary layer spectrum we attempt to relate the motion along the Z-track to changes of physically meaningful parameters Our results suggest that the contribution of the boundary layer to the observed emission decreases along the Z-track from conventional sim 50 on the horizontal branch to a rather small number on the normal branch This decrease can be caused for example by obscuration of the boundary layer by the geometrically thickened accretion disk at dot M sim dot MEdd Alternatively this can indicate significant change of
Some physical aspects of shock wave/boundary layer interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Délery, Jean; Dussauge, Jean-Paul
2009-12-01
When the flow past a vehicle flying at high velocity becomes supersonic, shock waves form, caused either by a change in the slope of a surface, a downstream obstacle or a back pressure constraining the flow to become subsonic. In modern aerodynamics, one can cite a large number of circumstances where shock waves are present. The encounter of a shock wave with a boundary layer results in complex phenomena because of the rapid retardation of the boundary layer flow and the propagation of the shock in a multilayered structure. The consequence of shock wave/boundary layer interaction (SWBLI) are multiple and often critical for the vehicle or machine performance. The shock submits the boundary layer to an adverse pressure gradient which may strongly distort its velocity profile. At the same time, in turbulent flows, turbulence production is enhanced which amplifies the viscous dissipation leading to aggravated performance losses. In addition, shock-induced separation most often results in large unsteadiness which can damage the vehicle structure or, at least, severely limit its performance. The article first presents basic and well-established results on the physics of SWBLI corresponding to a description in terms of an average two-dimensional steady flow. Such a description allows apprehending the essential properties of SWBLIs and drawing the main features of the overall flow structure associated with SWBLI. Then, some emphasis is placed on unsteadiness in SWBLI which constitutes a salient feature of this phenomenon. In spite of their importance, fluctuations in SWBLI have been considered since a relatively recent date although they represent a domain which deserves a special attention because of its importance for a clear physical understanding of interactions and of its practical consequences as in aeroelasticity.
F-16XL ship #1 wing close-up showing boundary layer detection Preston tubes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1995-01-01
This photo shows the boundary layer Preston tubes mounted on the left wing of NASA's single-seat F-16XL (ship #1) used for the Cranked-Arrow Wing Aerodynamic Project (CAWAP) at Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The modified airplane features a delta 'cranked-arrow' wing with strips of tubing along the leading edge to the trailing edge to sense static on the wing and obtain pressure distribution data. The right wing receives data on pressure distribution and the left wing has three types of instrumentation - preston tubes to measure local skin friction, boundary layer rakes to measure boundary layer profiles (the layer where the air interacts with the surfaces of a moving aircraft), and hot films to determine boundary layer transition locations. The first flight of CAWAP occurred on November 21, 1995, and the test program ended in April 1996.
Boundary layer halogens in coastal Antarctica.
Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Mahajan, Anoop S; Salmon, Rhian A; Bauguitte, Stephane J-B; Jones, Anna E; Roscoe, Howard K; Plane, John M C
2007-07-20
Halogens influence the oxidizing capacity of Earth's troposphere, and iodine oxides form ultrafine aerosols, which may have an impact on climate. We report year-round measurements of boundary layer iodine oxide and bromine oxide at the near-coastal site of Halley Station, Antarctica. Surprisingly, both species are present throughout the sunlit period and exhibit similar seasonal cycles and concentrations. The springtime peak of iodine oxide (20 parts per trillion) is the highest concentration recorded anywhere in the atmosphere. These levels of halogens cause substantial ozone depletion, as well as the rapid oxidation of dimethyl sulfide and mercury in the Antarctic boundary layer.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Braun, Scott A.; Tao, Wei-Kuo
1999-01-01
The MM5 mesoscale model is used to simulate Hurricane Bob (1991) using grids nested to high resolution (4 km). Tests are conducted to determine the sensitivity of the simulation to the available planetary boundary layer parameterizations, including the bulk-aerodynamic, Blackadar, Medium-RanGe Forecast (MRF) model, and Burk-Thompson boundary-layer schemes. Significant sensitivity is seen, with minimum central pressures varying by up to 17 mb. The Burk-Thompson and bulk-aerodynamic boundary-layer schemes produced the strongest storms while the MRF scheme produced the weakest storm. Precipitation structure of the simulated hurricanes also varied substantially with the boundary layer parameterizations. Diagnostics of boundary-layer variables indicated that the intensity of the simulated hurricanes generally increased as the ratio of the surface exchange coefficients for heat and momentum, C(sub h)/C(sub M), although the manner in which the vertical mixing takes place was also important. Findings specific to the boundary-layer schemes include: 1) the MRF scheme produces mixing that is too deep and causes drying of the lower boundary layer in the inner-core region of the hurricane; 2) the bulk-aerodynamic scheme produces mixing that is probably too shallow, but results in a strong hurricane because of a large value of C(sub h)/C(sub M) (approximately 1.3); 3) the MRF and Blackadar schemes are weak partly because of smaller surface moisture fluxes that result in a reduced value of C(sub h)/C(sub M) (approximately 0.7); 4) the Burk-Thompson scheme produces a strong storm with C(sub h)/C(sub M) approximately 1; and 5) the formulation of the wind-speed dependence of the surface roughness parameter, z(sub 0), is important for getting appropriate values of the surface exchange coefficients in hurricanes based upon current estimates of these parameters.
Temperature structure in the atmospheric boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smedman, Ann-Sofi
2010-05-01
Temperature structure in the atmospheric boundary layer It is well established from experimental and theoretical studies that the temperature structure in the atmospheric boundary layer is depends on stability. During free convection conditions the flow is dominated by circular thermals but when stratification is becoming slightly unstable longitudinal roll structures that extend vertically throughout the entire boundary layer will be present. In close to neutral conditions on the unstable side (the UVCN regime) when the Obukhov length is much greater than the surface layer depth, it is observed that the structure of the surface layer turbulence does not accord with standard similarity theory. In particular the efficiency of the turbulent exchange of sensible and latent heat is observed to be more strongly enhanced than is consistent with the standard model. Also the profiles of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy and temperature fluctuation variance are found to depend on the structure of the whole boundary layer (i.e. are non-local), indicating that a large-scale transport process is at work. At the same time, co-spectral analysis shows how the large scale eddy motions that determine the heat transport process near the surface are typically 1/5 of the surface layer depth. All these features are found to be similar in measurements at two marine sites, in the Baltic Sea and in Lake Ontario respectively and at several flat land sites ( around Uppsala and at the Island of Gotland), indicating that they are determined by the dynamics of the whole boundary layer rather than being simply dependent on the surface boundary conditions. The observed structures can also be interpreted as possible manifestations of a bifurcation of the large scale eddy structure towards a state in which there are quasi-steady longitudinal rolls and, on a smaller scale, unsteady detached eddies. Our interpretation of the results from the measurements is that, in the UVCN regime, the latter
Wing flutter boundary prediction using unsteady Euler aerodynamic method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Batina, John T.
1993-01-01
Modifications to an existing 3D implicit upwind Euler/Navier-Stokes code for the aeroelastic analysis of wings are described. These modifications include the incorporation of a deforming mesh algorithm and the addition of the structural equations of motion for their simultaneous time-integration with the governing flow equations. The paper gives a brief description of these modifications and presents unsteady calculations which check the modifications to the code. Euler flutter results for an isolated 45 deg swept-back wing are compared with experimental data for seven freestream Mach numbers which define the flutter boundary over a range of Mach number from 0.499 to 1.14. These comparisons show good agreement in flutter characteristics for freestream Mach numbers below unity. For freestream Mach numbers above unity, the computed aeroelastic results predict a premature rise in the flutter boundary as compared with the experimental boundary. Steady and unsteady contours of surface Mach number and pressure are included to illustrate the basic flow characteristics of the time-marching flutter calculations and to aid in identifying possible causes for the premature rise in the computational flutter boundary.
Wing flutter boundary prediction using an unsteady Euler aerodynamic method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Batina, John T.
1993-01-01
Modifications to an existing three-dimensional, implicit, upwind Euler/Navier-Stokes code (CFL3D Version 2.1) for the aeroelastic analysis of wings are described. These modifications, which were previously added to CFL3D Version 1.0, include the incorporation of a deforming mesh algorithm and the addition of the structural equations of motion for their simultaneous time-integration with the government flow equations. The paper gives a brief description of these modifications and presents unsteady calculations which check the modifications to the code. Euler flutter results for an isolated 45 degree swept-back wing are compared with experimental data for seven freestream Mach numbers which define the flutter boundary over a range of Mach number from 0.499 to 1.14. These comparisons show good agreement in flutter characteristics for freestream Mach numbers below unity. For freestream Mach numbers above unity, the computed aeroelastic results predict a premature rise in the flutter boundary as compared with the experimental boundary. Steady and unsteady contours of surface Mach number and pressure are included to illustrate the basic flow characteristics of the time-marching flutter calculations and to aid in identifying possible causes for the premature rise in the computational flutter boundary.
Boundary-layer theory for blast waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, K. B.; Berger, S. A.; Kamel, M. M.; Korobeinikov, V. P.; Oppenheim, A. K.
1975-01-01
It is profitable to consider the blast wave as a flow field consisting of two regions: the outer, which retains the properties of the inviscid solution, and the inner, which is governed by flow equations including terms expressing the effects of heat transfer and, concomitantly, viscosity. The latter region thus plays the role of a boundary layer. Reported here is an analytical method developed for the study of such layers, based on the matched asymptotic expansion technique combined with patched solutions.
Calculation methods for compressible turbulent boundary layers, 1976
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bushnell, D. M.; Cary, A. M., Jr.; Harris, J. E.
1977-01-01
Equations and closure methods for compressible turbulent boundary layers are discussed. Flow phenomena peculiar to calculation of these boundary layers were considered, along with calculations of three dimensional compressible turbulent boundary layers. Procedures for ascertaining nonsimilar two and three dimensional compressible turbulent boundary layers were appended, including finite difference, finite element, and mass-weighted residual methods.
Boundary Layer Transition on X-43A
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berry, Scott; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Wurster, Kathryn; Bittner, Robert
2008-01-01
The successful Mach 7 and 10 flights of the first fully integrated scramjet propulsion systems by the Hyper-X (X-43A) program have provided the means with which to verify the original design methodologies and assumptions. As part of Hyper-X s propulsion-airframe integration, the forebody was designed to include a spanwise array of vortex generators to promote boundary layer transition ahead of the engine. Turbulence at the inlet is thought to provide the most reliable engine design and allows direct scaling of flight results to groundbased data. Pre-flight estimations of boundary layer transition, for both Mach 7 and 10 flight conditions, suggested that forebody boundary layer trips were required to ensure fully turbulent conditions upstream of the inlet. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the thermocouple measurements used to infer the dynamics of the transition process during the trajectories for both flights, on both the lower surface (to assess trip performance) and the upper surface (to assess natural transition). The approach used in the analysis of the thermocouple data is outlined, along with a discussion of the calculated local flow properties that correspond to the transition events as identified in the flight data. The present analysis has confirmed that the boundary layer trips performed as expected for both flights, providing turbulent flow ahead of the inlet during critical portions of the trajectory, while the upper surface was laminar as predicted by the pre-flight analysis.
Flow visualization of turbulent boundary layer structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Head, M. R.; Bandyopadhyay, P.
1980-01-01
The results from flow visualization experiments performed using an argon-ion laser to illuminate longitudinal and transverse sections of the smoke filled boundary layer in zero pressure gradient are discussed. Most of the experiments were confined to the range 600 Re sub theta 10,000. Results indicate that the boundary layer consists almost exclusively of vortex loops or hairpins, some of which may extend through the complete boundary layer thickness and all of which are inclined at a more or less constant characteristic angle of approximately 45 deg to the wall. Since the cross-stream dimensions of the hairpins appear to scale roughly with the wall variables U sub tau and nu, while their length is limited only by the boundary layer thickness, there are very large scale effects on the turbulence structure. At high Reynolds numbers (Re sub theta = 10,000) there is little evidence of large-scale coherent motions, other than a slow overturning of random agglomerations of the hairpins just mentioned.
Planetary Boundary Layer from AERI and MPL
Sawyer, Virginia
2014-02-13
The distribution and transport of aerosol emitted to the lower troposphere is governed by the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL), which limits the dilution of pollutants and influences boundary-layer convection. Because radiative heating and cooling of the surface strongly affect the PBL top height, it follows diurnal and seasonal cycles and may vary by hundreds of meters over a 24-hour period. The cap the PBL imposes on low-level aerosol transport makes aerosol concentration an effective proxy for PBL height: the top of the PBL is marked by a rapid transition from polluted, well-mixed boundary-layer air to the cleaner, more stratified free troposphere. Micropulse lidar (MPL) can provide much higher temporal resolution than radiosonde and better vertical resolution than infrared spectrometer (AERI), but PBL heights from all three instruments at the ARM SGP site are compared to one another for validation. If there is agreement among them, the higher-resolution remote sensing-derived PBL heights can accurately fill in the gaps left by the low frequency of radiosonde launches, and thus improve model parameterizations and our understanding of boundary-layer processes.
Boundary layer control device for duct silencers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmitz, Fredric H. (Inventor); Soderman, Paul T. (Inventor)
1993-01-01
A boundary layer control device includes a porous cover plate, an acoustic absorber disposed under the porous cover plate, and a porous flow resistive membrane interposed between the porous cover plate and the acoustic absorber. The porous flow resistive membrane has a flow resistance low enough to permit sound to enter the acoustic absorber and high enough to damp unsteady flow oscillations.
Astrophysical Boundary Layers: A New Picture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belyaev, Mikhail; Rafikov, Roman R.; Mclellan Stone, James
2016-04-01
Accretion is a ubiquitous process in astrophysics. In cases when the magnetic field is not too strong and a disk is formed, accretion can proceed through the mid plane all the way to the surface of the central compact object. Unless that compact object is a black hole, a boundary layer will be formed where the accretion disk touches its surfaces. The boundary layer is both dynamically and observationally significant as up to half of the accretion energy is dissipated there.Using a combination of analytical theory and computer simulations we show that angular momentum transport and accretion in the boundary layer is mediated by waves. This breaks with the standard astrophysical paradigm of an anomalous turbulent viscosity that drives accretion. However, wave-mediated angular momentum transport is a natural consequence of "sonic instability." The sonic instability, which we describe analytically and observe in our simulations, is a close cousin of the Papaloizou-Pringle instability. However, it is very vigorous in the boundary layer due to the immense radial velocity shear present at the equator.Our results are applicable to accreting neutron stars, white dwarfs, protostars, and protoplanets.
Nonlinear Transient Growth and Boundary Layer Transition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paredes, Pedro; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei
2016-01-01
Parabolized stability equations (PSE) are used in a variational approach to study the optimal, non-modal disturbance growth in a Mach 3 at plate boundary layer and a Mach 6 circular cone boundary layer. As noted in previous works, the optimal initial disturbances correspond to steady counter-rotating streamwise vortices, which subsequently lead to the formation of streamwise-elongated structures, i.e., streaks, via a lift-up effect. The nonlinear evolution of the linearly optimal stationary perturbations is computed using the nonlinear plane-marching PSE for stationary perturbations. A fully implicit marching technique is used to facilitate the computation of nonlinear streaks with large amplitudes. To assess the effect of the finite-amplitude streaks on transition, the linear form of plane- marching PSE is used to investigate the instability of the boundary layer flow modified by spanwise periodic streaks. The onset of bypass transition is estimated by using an N- factor criterion based on the amplification of the streak instabilities. Results show that, for both flow configurations of interest, streaks of sufficiently large amplitude can lead to significantly earlier onset of transition than that in an unperturbed boundary layer without any streaks.
Orbiter Boundary Layer Transition Prediction Tool Enhancements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berry, Scott A.; King, Rudolph A.; Kegerise, Michael A.; Wood, William A.; McGinley, Catherine B.; Berger, Karen T.; Anderson, Brian P.
2010-01-01
Updates to an analytic tool developed for Shuttle support to predict the onset of boundary layer transition resulting from thermal protection system damage or repair are presented. The boundary layer transition tool is part of a suite of tools that analyze the local aerothermodynamic environment to enable informed disposition of damage for making recommendations to fly as is or to repair. Using mission specific trajectory information and details of each d agmea site or repair, the expected time (and thus Mach number) of transition onset is predicted to help define proper environments for use in subsequent thermal and stress analysis of the thermal protection system and structure. The boundary layer transition criteria utilized within the tool were updated based on new local boundary layer properties obtained from high fidelity computational solutions. Also, new ground-based measurements were obtained to allow for a wider parametric variation with both protuberances and cavities and then the resulting correlations were calibrated against updated flight data. The end result is to provide correlations that allow increased confidence with the resulting transition predictions. Recently, a new approach was adopted to remove conservatism in terms of sustained turbulence along the wing leading edge. Finally, some of the newer flight data are also discussed in terms of how these results reflect back on the updated correlations.
Boundary-layer-ingesting inlet flow control system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Owens, Lewis R. (Inventor); Allan, Brian G. (Inventor)
2010-01-01
A system for reducing distortion at the aerodynamic interface plane of a boundary-layer-ingesting inlet using a combination of active and passive flow control devices is disclosed. Active flow control jets and vortex generating vanes are used in combination to reduce distortion across a range of inlet operating conditions. Together, the vortex generating vanes can reduce most of the inlet distortion and the active flow control jets can be used at a significantly reduced control jet mass flow rate to make sure the inlet distortion stays low as the inlet mass flow rate varies. Overall inlet distortion, measured and described as average SAE circumferential distortion descriptor, was maintained at a value of 0.02 or less. Advantageous arrangements and orientations of the active flow control jets and the vortex generating vanes were developed using computational fluid dynamics simulations and wind tunnel experimentations.
Boundary layer emission in luminous LMXBs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gilfanov, M.; Revnivtsev, M.
2005-11-01
We show that aperiodic and quasiperiodic variability of bright LMXBs - atoll and Z-sources - on ˜ sec-msec time scales is caused primarily by variations of the luminosity of the boundary layer. The emission of the accretion disk is less variable on these time scales and its power density spectrum follows P_disk(f)∝ f-1 law, contributing to observed flux variation at low frequencies and low energies only. The kHz QPOs have the same origin as variability at lower frequencies, i.e. independent of the nature of the "clock", the actual luminosity modulation takes place on the neutron star surface. The boundary layer spectrum remains nearly constant in the course of the luminosity variations and is represented to certain accuracy by the Fourier frequency resolved spectrum. In the investigated range of \\dot{M}˜ (0.1-1) \\dot{M}_Edd it depends weakly on the global mass accretion rate and in the limit \\dot{M}˜ \\dot{M}_Edd is close to Wien spectrum with kT˜ 2.4 keV. Its independence on the global value of \\dot{M} lends support to the theoretical suggestion by \\citet{inogamov99} that the boundary layer is radiation pressure supported. \\ Based on the knowledge of the boundary layer spectrum we attempt to relate the motion along the Z-track to changes of physically meaningful parameters. Our results suggest that the contribution of the boundary layer to the observed emission decreases along the Z-track from conventional ˜ 50% on the horizontal branch to a rather small number on the normal branch. This decrease can be caused, for example, by obscuration of the boundary layer by the geometrically thickened accretion disk at \\dot{M}˜\\dot{M}_Edd. Alternatively, this can indicate significant change of the structure of the accretion flow at \\dot{M}˜\\dot{M}_Edd and disappearance of the boundary layer as a distinct region of the significant energy release associated with the neutron star surface.
Controls on boundary layer ventilation: Boundary layer processes and large-scale dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sinclair, V. A.; Gray, S. L.; Belcher, S. E.
2010-06-01
Midlatitude cyclones are important contributors to boundary layer ventilation. However, it is uncertain how efficient such systems are at transporting pollutants out of the boundary layer, and variations between cyclones are unexplained. In this study 15 idealized baroclinic life cycles, with a passive tracer included, are simulated to identify the relative importance of two transport processes: horizontal divergence and convergence within the boundary layer and large-scale advection by the warm conveyor belt. Results show that the amount of ventilation is insensitive to surface drag over a realistic range of values. This indicates that although boundary layer processes are necessary for ventilation they do not control the magnitude of ventilation. A diagnostic for the mass flux out of the boundary layer has been developed to identify the synoptic-scale variables controlling the strength of ascent in the warm conveyor belt. A very high level of correlation (R2 values exceeding 0.98) is found between the diagnostic and the actual mass flux computed from the simulations. This demonstrates that the large-scale dynamics control the amount of ventilation, and the efficiency of midlatitude cyclones to ventilate the boundary layer can be estimated using the new mass flux diagnostic. We conclude that meteorological analyses, such as ERA-40, are sufficient to quantify boundary layer ventilation by the large-scale dynamics.
Active Flow Control on a Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gorton, Susan Althoff; Owens, Lewis R.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Allan, Brian G.; Schuster, Ernest P.
2004-01-01
Boundary layer ingestion (BLI) is explored as means to improve overall system performance for Blended Wing Body configuration. The benefits of BLI for vehicle system performance benefit are assessed with a process derived from first principles suitable for highly-integrated propulsion systems. This performance evaluation process provides framework within which to assess the benefits of an integrated BLI inlet and lays the groundwork for higher-fidelity systems studies. The results of the system study show that BLI provides a significant improvement in vehicle performance if the inlet distortion can be controlled, thus encouraging the pursuit of active flow control (AFC) as a BLI enabling technology. The effectiveness of active flow control in reducing engine inlet distortion was assessed using a 6% scale model of a 30% BLI offset, diffusing inlet. The experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel with a model inlet designed specifically for this type of testing. High mass flow pulsing actuators provided the active flow control. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow through the duct and the actuators. The distortion was determined by 120 total pressure measurements located at the aerodynamic interface plane. The test matrix was limited to a maximum freestream Mach number of 0.15 with scaled mass flows through the inlet for that condition. The data show that the pulsed actuation can reduce distortion from 29% to 4.6% as measured by the circumferential distortion descriptor DC60 using less than 1% of inlet mass flow. Closed loop control of the actuation was also demonstrated using a sidewall surface static pressure as the response sensor.
INDIVIDUAL TURBULENT CELL INTERACTION: BASIS FOR BOUNDARY LAYER ESTABLISHMENT
Boundary layers are important in determining the forces on objects in flowing fluids, mixing characteristics, and other phenomena. For example, benthic boundary layers are frequently active resuspension layers that determine bottom turbidity and transniissivity. Traditionally, bo...
Benthic boundary layer - IOS modelling programme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richards, K. J.
1983-04-01
Factors which control the height of the benthic boundary layer in the deep ocean and the residence time of fluid and a tracer within it, were modeled numerically. In one model, the effects of steady and unsteady currents and variations in fluid density are examined. In conditions similar to those observed in the abyssal regions of the E.N. Atlantic the model predicts an average bottom layer height close to the value observed. A second model examines the effects of spatial variations in currents. Due to convergences and divergences produced by these variations, the height of the bottom mixed layer is distorted. Where thinning is large, mixing results in warm patches flanked by benthic fronts. It is proposed that within the warm regions, the bottom mixed layer is exchanged within the ocean above. The residence time of a tracer released within the bottom mixed layer, average value 100 days, is predicted to vary between 20 and 800 days.
Wind and boundary layers in Rayleigh-Bénard convection. II. Boundary layer character and scaling.
van Reeuwijk, Maarten; Jonker, Harm J J; Hanjalić, Kemo
2008-03-01
The scaling of the kinematic boundary layer thickness lambda(u) and the friction factor C(f) at the top and bottom walls of Rayleigh-Bénard convection is studied by direct numerical simulation (DNS). By a detailed analysis of the friction factor, a new parameterisation for C(f) and lambda(u) is proposed. The simulations were made of an L/H=4 aspect-ratio domain with periodic lateral boundary conditions at Ra=(10(5), 10(6), 10(7), 10(8)) and Pr=1. The continuous spectrum, as well as significant forcing due to Reynolds stresses, clearly indicates a turbulent character of the boundary layer, while viscous effects cannot be neglected, judging from the scaling of classical integral boundary layer parameters with Reynolds number. Using a conceptual wind model, we find that the friction factor C(f) should scale proportionally to the thermal boundary layer thickness as C(f) proportional variant lambda(Theta)/H, while the kinetic boundary layer thickness lambda(u) scales inversely proportionally to the thermal boundary layer thickness and wind Reynolds number lambda(u)/H proportional variant (lambda(Theta)/H)(-1)Re(-1). The predicted trends for C(f) and lambda(u) are in agreement with DNS results.
Bursting frequency prediction in turbulent boundary layers
LIOU,WILLIAM W.; FANG,YICHUNG
2000-02-01
The frequencies of the bursting events associated with the streamwise coherent structures of spatially developing incompressible turbulent boundary layers were predicted using global numerical solution of the Orr-Sommerfeld and the vertical vorticity equations of hydrodynamic stability problems. The structures were modeled as wavelike disturbances associated with the turbulent mean flow. The global method developed here involves the use of second and fourth order accurate finite difference formula for the differential equations as well as the boundary conditions. An automated prediction tool, BURFIT, was developed. The predicted resonance frequencies were found to agree very well with previous results using a local shooting technique and measured data.
Logarithmic laws for compressible turbulent boundary layers
So, R.M.C.; Zhang, H.S.; Gatski, T.B.; Speziale, C.G.
1994-11-01
Dimensional similarity arguments proposed by Millikan are used with the Morkovin hypothesis to deduce logarithmic laws for compressible turbulent boundary layers as an alternative to the traditional van Driest analysis. It is shown that an overlap exists between the wall layer and the defect layer, and this leads to logarithmic behavior in the overlap region. The von Karman constant is found to depend parametrically on the Mach number based on the friction velocity, the dimensionless total heat flux, and the specific heat ratio. Even though it remains constant at approximately 0.41 for a freestream Mach number range of 0 to 4.544 with adiabatic wall boundary conditions, it rises sharply as the Mach number increases significantly beyond 4.544. The intercept of the logarithmic law of the wall is found to depend on the Mach number based on the friction velocity, the dimensionless total heat flux, the Prandtl number evaluated at the wall, and the specific heat ratio. On the other hand, the intercept of the logarithmic defect law is parametric in the pressure gradient parameter and all of the aforementioned dimensionless variables except the Prandtl number. A skin friction law is also deduced for compressible boundary layers. The skin friction coefficient is shown to depend on the momentum thickness Reynolds number, the wall temperature ratio, and all of the other parameters already mentioned. 26 refs.
Characterization of structural response to hypersonic boundary-layer transition
Riley, Zachary B.; Deshmukh, Rohit; Miller, Brent A.; McNamara, Jack J.; Casper, Katya M.
2016-05-24
The inherent relationship between boundary-layer stability, aerodynamic heating, and surface conditions makes the potential for interaction between the structural response and boundary-layer transition an important and challenging area of study in high-speed flows. This paper phenomenologically explores this interaction using a fundamental two-dimensional aerothermoelastic model under the assumption of an aluminum panel with simple supports. Specifically, an existing model is extended to examine the impact of transition onset location, transition length, and transitional overshoot in heat flux and fluctuating pressure on the structural response of surface panels. Transitional flow conditions are found to yield significantly increased thermal gradients, and theymore » can result in higher maximum panel temperatures compared to turbulent flow. Results indicate that overshoot in heat flux and fluctuating pressure reduces the flutter onset time and increases the strain energy accumulated in the panel. Furthermore, overshoot occurring near the midchord can yield average temperatures and peak displacements exceeding those experienced by the panel subject to turbulent flow. Lastly, these results suggest that fully turbulent flow does not always conservatively predict the thermo-structural response of surface panels.« less
Flowfield Measurements Inside a Boundary-Layer Bleed Slot
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, D. O.; Willis, B. P.; Hingst, W. R.
1996-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the flowfield inside a bleed slot used to control an oblique shock-wave and turbulent boundary-layer interaction. The slot was oriented normal to the primary flow direction and had a width of 1.0 cm (primary flow direction) and a length of 2.54 cm and spanned 16.5 cm. The approach boundary layer upstream of the interaction was nominally 3.0 cm thick. Two operating conditions were studied: M = 1.98 with a shock generator deflection angle of 6 deg and M = 2.46 with a shock generator deflection angle of 8 deg. Measurements include surface and flowfield static pressure, pitot pressure, and total mass flow through the slot. The results show that despite an initially two-dimensional interaction for the zero-bleed-flow case, the slot does not remove mass uniformly in the spanwise direction. Inside the slot, the flow is characterized bv two separation regions, which significantly reduce the effective flow area. The upper separation region acts as an aerodynamic throat, resulting in supersonic flow through much of the slot.
Unified approach to aerodynamic sound generation in the presence of solid boundaries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldstein, M.
1974-01-01
A general equation governing aerodynamic sound generation in the presence of solid boundaries is derived. It is shown that all the theories in the literature appear as special cases of this general equation. Derived special equations for propeller and fan noise are likewise shown to be more general than the conventional equations in that they make allowance for variation in retarded time over the blade surfaces.
Toward parameterization of the stable boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wetzel, P. J.
1982-01-01
Wangara data is used to examine the depth of the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) and the height to which surface-linked turbulence extends. It is noted that a linearity of virtual temperature profiles has been found to extend up to a significant portion of the NBL, and then diverge where the wind shear rides over the surface-induced turbulence. A series of Richardson numbers are examined for varying degrees of turbulence and the significant cooling region is observed to have greater depth than the depth of the linear relationship layer. A three-layer parameterization of the thermodynamic structure of the NBL is developed so that a system of five equations must be solved when the wind velocity profile and the temperature at the surface are known. A correlation between the bulk Richardson number and the depth of the linear layer was found to be 0.89.
Shockwave-boundary layer interference heating analysis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hung, F. T.; Barnett, D. O.
1973-01-01
Interference heating correlations have been developed based on existing wind tunnel test data taken with simple configurations such as wedge/flat plate and compression corner models. For turbulent flow, peak interference heating was first correlated with shock strength (pressure ratio across shock wave) and then as a function of Reynolds number. The peak interference Stanton number was found to exhibit the same Reynolds number and Prandtl number characteristics as the Stanton number variation for undisturbed flow over a flat plate. Similar correlations were developed for laminar flow. Results indicated that for laminar flow at higher Reynolds number, the impinging shockwave may act as a boundary layer trip and cause boundary layer transition resulting in high interference heating. The correlations derived in this study can be used to scale wind tunnel model test data to a full-scale space vehicle at supersonic or hypersonic flight conditions.
Boundary layer control of rotating convection systems.
King, Eric M; Stellmach, Stephan; Noir, Jerome; Hansen, Ulrich; Aurnou, Jonathan M
2009-01-15
Turbulent rotating convection controls many observed features of stars and planets, such as magnetic fields, atmospheric jets and emitted heat flux patterns. It has long been argued that the influence of rotation on turbulent convection dynamics is governed by the ratio of the relevant global-scale forces: the Coriolis force and the buoyancy force. Here, however, we present results from laboratory and numerical experiments which exhibit transitions between rotationally dominated and non-rotating behaviour that are not determined by this global force balance. Instead, the transition is controlled by the relative thicknesses of the thermal (non-rotating) and Ekman (rotating) boundary layers. We formulate a predictive description of the transition between the two regimes on the basis of the competition between these two boundary layers. This transition scaling theory unifies the disparate results of an extensive array of previous experiments, and is broadly applicable to natural convection systems.
Analytic prediction for planar turbulent boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xi; She, Zhen-Su
2016-11-01
Analytic predictions of mean velocity profile (MVP) and streamwise ( x) development of related integral quantities are presented for flows in channel and turbulent boundary layer (TBL), based on a symmetry analysis of eddy length and total stress. Specific predictions include the relations for momentum Reynolds number ( Re θ) with friction Re τ and streamwise Re x : Re θ ≈ 3.27 Re τ, and Re x / Re θ = 4.94 [(ln Re θ + 1.88)2 + 1]; the streamwise development of the friction velocity u τ: U e / u τ ≈ 2.22ln Re x + 2.86 - 3.83ln(ln Re x ), and of the boundary layer thickness δ e : x/δ e ≈ 7.27ln Re x -5.18-12.52ln(ln Re x ), which are fully validated by recent reliable data.
Boundary layer transition detection by luminescence imaging
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mclachlan, B. G.; Bell, J. H.; Gallery, J.; Gouterman, M.; Callis, J.
1993-01-01
In recent experiments we have demonstrated the feasibility of a new approach to boundary layer transition detection. This new approach employs the temperature dependence of certain photoluminescent materials in the form of a surface coating or 'paint' to detect the change in heat transfer characteristics that accompany boundary layer transition. The feasibility experiments were conducted for low subsonic to transonic Mach numbers on two-dimensional airfoil and flat plate configurations. Paint derived transition locations were determined and compared to those obtained from Preston pressure probe measurements. Artificial heating of the models was used to obtain transition temperature signatures suitable for the instrumentation available to us. Initial estimates show, however, that passive kinetic heating at high Mach numbers is a promising alternative.
Boundary layer control of rotating convection systems.
King, Eric M; Stellmach, Stephan; Noir, Jerome; Hansen, Ulrich; Aurnou, Jonathan M
2009-01-15
Turbulent rotating convection controls many observed features of stars and planets, such as magnetic fields, atmospheric jets and emitted heat flux patterns. It has long been argued that the influence of rotation on turbulent convection dynamics is governed by the ratio of the relevant global-scale forces: the Coriolis force and the buoyancy force. Here, however, we present results from laboratory and numerical experiments which exhibit transitions between rotationally dominated and non-rotating behaviour that are not determined by this global force balance. Instead, the transition is controlled by the relative thicknesses of the thermal (non-rotating) and Ekman (rotating) boundary layers. We formulate a predictive description of the transition between the two regimes on the basis of the competition between these two boundary layers. This transition scaling theory unifies the disparate results of an extensive array of previous experiments, and is broadly applicable to natural convection systems. PMID:19148097
BOREAS AFM-6 Boundary Layer Height Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 915-MHz wind/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) profiler system in the Southern Study Area (SSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) site. This data set provides boundary layer height information over the site. The data were collected from 21 May 1994 to 20 Sep 1994 and are stored in tabular ASCII files. The boundary layer height data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).
The boundary layer on compressor cascade blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deutsch, S.
1981-01-01
Some redesign of the cascade facility was necessary in order to incoporate the requirements of the LDA system into the design. Of particular importance was the intended use of a combination of suction upstream of the blade pack with diverging pack walls, as opposed to blade pack suction alone, for spanwise dimensionality control. An ARL blade was used to redo some tests using this arrangement. Preliminary testing and boundary layer measurements began on the double circular arc blades.
Calculation of a separated turbulent boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baldwin, B.; Hung, C. M.
1976-01-01
The properties of a Navier-Stokes solution of a shock-separated turbulent flow over a flat wall are investigated. Refinements of an algebraic relaxation turbulence model previously shown to be of value for the simulation of separated flows are presented. A simplified analysis applicable near an adiabatic wall is developed and used to help verify the accuracy of the numerical solution. Features of the time-dependent response of a turbulent boundary layer to shock impingement are presented.
Boundary Layer Control for Hypersonic Airbreathing Vehicles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berry, Scott A.; Nowak, Robert J.; Horvath, Thomas J.
2004-01-01
Active and passive methods for tripping hypersonic boundary layers have been examined in NASA Langley Research Center wind tunnels using a Hyper-X model. This investigation assessed several concepts for forcing transition, including passive discrete roughness elements and active mass addition (or blowing), in the 20-Inch Mach 6 Air and the 31-Inch Mach 10 Air Tunnels. Heat transfer distributions obtained via phosphor thermography, shock system details, and surface streamline patterns were measured on a 0.333-scale model of the Hyper-X forebody. The comparisons between the active and passive methods for boundary layer control were conducted at test conditions that nearly match the Hyper-X nominal Mach 7 flight test-point of an angle-of-attack of 2-deg and length Reynolds number of 5.6 million. For passive roughness, the primary parametric variation was a range of trip heights within the calculated boundary layer thickness for several trip concepts. The passive roughness study resulted in a swept ramp configuration, scaled to be roughly 0.6 of the calculated boundary layer thickness, being selected for the Mach 7 flight vehicle. For the active blowing study, the manifold pressure was systematically varied (while monitoring the mass flow) for each configuration to determine the jet penetration height, with schlieren, and transition movement, with the phosphor system, for comparison to the passive results. All the blowing concepts tested, which included various rows of sonic orifices (holes), two- and three-dimensional slots, and random porosity, provided transition onset near the trip location with manifold stagnation pressures on the order of 40 times the model surface static pressure, which is adequate to ensure sonic jets. The present results indicate that the jet penetration height for blowing was roughly half the height required with passive roughness elements for an equivalent amount of transition movement.
Shock-boundary-layer interaction in flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bertelrud, Arild
1989-01-01
A brief survey is given on the study of transonic shock/boundary layer effects in flight. Then the possibility of alleviating the adverse shock effects through passive shock control is discussed. A Swedish flight experiment on a swept wing attack aircraft is used to demonstrate how it is possible to reduce the extent of separated flow and increase the drag-rise Mach number significantly using a moderate amount of perforation of the surface.
Pressure gradient influence in turbulent boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reuther, Nico; Kaehler, Christian J.
2015-11-01
Understanding wall-bounded turbulence is still an ongoing process. Although remarkable progress has been made in the last decades, many challenges still remain. Mean flow statistics are well understood in case of zero pressure gradient flows. However, almost all turbulent boundary layers in technical applications, such as aircrafts, are subjected to a streamwise pressure gradient. When subjecting turbulent boundary layers to adverse pressure gradients, significant changes in the statistical behavior of the near-wall flow have been observed in experimental studies conducted however the details dynamics and characteristics of these flows has not been fully resolved. The sensitivity to Reynolds number and the dependency on several parameters, including the dependence on the pressure gradient parameter, is still under debate and very little information exists about statistically averaged quantities such as the mean velocity profile or Reynolds stresses. In order to improve the understanding of wall-bounded turbulence, this work experimentally investigates turbulent boundary layer subjected to favorable and adverse pressure gradients by means of Particle Image Velocimetry over a wide range of Reynolds numbers, 4200
Coupled wake boundary layer model of windfarms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stevens, Richard; Gayme, Dennice; Meneveau, Charles
2014-11-01
We present a coupled wake boundary layer (CWBL) model that describes the distribution of the power output in a windfarm. The model couples the traditional, industry-standard wake expansion/superposition approach with a top-down model for the overall windfarm boundary layer structure. Wake models capture the effect of turbine positioning, while the top-down approach represents the interaction between the windturbine wakes and the atmospheric boundary layer. Each portion of the CWBL model requires specification of a parameter that is unknown a-priori. The wake model requires the wake expansion rate, whereas the top-down model requires the effective spanwise turbine spacing within which the model's momentum balance is relevant. The wake expansion rate is obtained by matching the mean velocity at the turbine from both approaches, while the effective spanwise turbine spacing is determined from the wake model. Coupling of the constitutive components of the CWBL model is achieved by iterating these parameters until convergence is reached. We show that the CWBL model predictions compare more favorably with large eddy simulation results than those made with either the wake or top-down model in isolation and that the model can be applied successfully to the Horns Rev and Nysted windfarms. The `Fellowships for Young Energy Scientists' (YES!) of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter supported by NWO, and NSF Grant #1243482.
Off-Body Boundary-Layer Measurement Techniques Development for Supersonic Low-Disturbance Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Owens, Lewis R.; Kegerise, Michael A.; Wilkinson, Stephen P.
2011-01-01
Investigations were performed to develop accurate boundary-layer measurement techniques in a Mach 3.5 laminar boundary layer on a 7 half-angle cone at 0 angle of attack. A discussion of the measurement challenges is presented as well as how each was addressed. A computational study was performed to minimize the probe aerodynamic interference effects resulting in improved pitot and hot-wire probe designs. Probe calibration and positioning processes were also developed with the goal of reducing the measurement uncertainties from 10% levels to less than 5% levels. Efforts were made to define the experimental boundary conditions for the cone flow so comparisons could be made with a set of companion computational simulations. The development status of the mean and dynamic boundary-layer flow measurements for a nominally sharp cone in a low-disturbance supersonic flow is presented.
The role of nonlinear critical layers in boundary layer transition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldstein, M.E.
1995-01-01
Asymptotic methods are used to describe the nonlinear self-interaction between pairs of oblique instability modes that eventually develops when initially linear spatially growing instability waves evolve downstream in nominally two-dimensional laminar boundary layers. The first nonlinear reaction takes place locally within a so-called 'critical layer', with the flow outside this layer consisting of a locally parallel mean flow plus a pair of oblique instability waves - which may or may not be accompanied by an associated plane wave. The amplitudes of these waves, which are completely determined by nonlinear effects within the critical layer, satisfy either a single integro-differential equation or a pair of integro-differential equations with quadratic to quartic-type nonlinearities. The physical implications of these equations are discussed.
Roughness Characterization of and Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow over flat Snow Surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gromke, C.; Guala, M.; Manes, C.; Walter, B.; Lehning, M.
2009-12-01
The surface roughness is essential for all turbulent exchange processes within the lower part of the atmospheric boundary layer. Consequently, a proper representation of the surfaces roughness is needed in every mathematical description of near surface mass-, energy- and momentum exchange processes. Considering the vertical mean velocity profile of turbulent boundary layer flow, this is done by assigning an aerodynamic roughness length z0 to the surface. We followed two procedures to describe the roughness of freshly fallen snow surfaces. First, photographs of snow surfaces have been taken and evaluated using digital image analysis giving snow surface contour line coordinates. Applying structure functions to the snow surface coordinates and statistical fitting procedures, resulted in classes of surface characteristic length scales and scaling exponents. These results allow to identify the deposition process of snow fall as scaling exponents corresponded to that of Ballistic Deposition. Moreover, the resulting characteristic length scales can be assigned to typical particle size and aggregation size length scales consistent with results found by Lowe et al. (2007) and Manes et al. (2008). Second, aerodynamic roughness lengths z0 have been estimated from log-law fitting of velocity profiles over the snow surfaces measured in the SLF cold atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel. The aerodynamic roughness lengths found are in general agreement with available literature data and suggest the presence of aerodynamically rough regimes with flow independent z0. In the synthesis of both approaches, we found evidence for a linear relationship between one class of surface characteristic length scales, which is associated with typical snow particle sizes, and aerodynamic roughness lengths z0. The correlation with the aggregation length scale is weaker for the few (4) samples analyzed thus far. The relatively weak pronounced scale separation between particle and aggregation size
Leaky waves in boundary layer flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pralits, Jan
2005-11-01
Linear stability analysis of boundary layer flow is traditionally performed by solving the Orr-Sommerfeld equation (OSE), either in a temporal or a spatial framework. The mode structure of the OSE is in both cases composed of a finite number of discrete modes which decay at infinity in the wall- normal direction y, and a continuous spectrum of propagating modes behaving as (±ik y) when y->∞, with real k. A peculiarity of this structure is that the number of discrete modes changes with the Reynolds number, Re. They indeed seem to disappear behind the continuous spectrum at certain Re. This phenomenon is here investigated by studying the response of the Blasius boundary layer forced instantaneously in space and time. Since the solution of the forced and homogeneous Laplace-transformed problem both depend on the free-stream boundary conditions, it is shown here that a suitable change of variables can remove the branch cut in the Laplace plane. As a result, integration of the inverse Laplace transform along the two sides of the branch cut, which gives rise to the continuous spectrum, can be replaced by a sum of residues corresponding to an additional set of discrete eigenvalues. These new modes grow at infinity in the y direction, and are analogous to the leaky waves found in the theory of optical waveguides, i.e. optical fibers, which are attenuated in the direction of the waveguide but grow unbounded in the direction perpendicular to it.
Shock Boundary Layer Interaction Sensitivity to Upstream Geometric Perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campo, Laura; Helmer, David; Eaton, John
2012-11-01
Shock boundary layer interactions (SBLIs) can have drastic effects on the performance of external aerodynamics and propulsion systems in high speed flight vehicles. In such systems, the upstream and boundary conditions of the flow are uncertain, and the sensitivity of SBLIs to perturbations in these conditions is unknown. The sensitivity of two SBLIs - a compression corner interaction and an incident shock interaction - to small geometric perturbations was investigated using particle image velocity measurements. Tests were performed in a continuously operated, low aspect ratio, Mach 2.1 wind tunnel. The shock was generated by a 1.1mm high 20° wall-mounted compression wedge, and various configurations of small (h < 0 . 2 δ) steady bumps were introduced upstream on the opposite wall. 100 perturbed cases were tested in order to generate a dataset which is well suited for validation of CFD codes. Both SBLIs were very sensitive to perturbations in a given region and insensitive to perturbations outside of it. Depending on the location of the perturbations, the compression corner interaction could be significantly strengthened or weakened. The position of the incident SBLI was also a strong function of both the location and size of the upstream perturbations.
Acoustic radar investigations of boundary layer phenomena
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marks, J. R.
1974-01-01
A comparison is made between acoustic radar echoes and conventional meteorological data obtained from the WKY tower, for the purpose of better understanding the relationships between acoustic radar echoes and boundary layer processes. Two thunderstorm outflow cases are presented and compared to both acoustic radar data and Charba's gust front model. The acoustic radar echoes reveal the boundary between warm and cold air and other areas of mixing and strong thermal gradient quite well. The thunderstorm outflow of 27 June 1972 is found to compare with in most respects to Charba's gust front model. The major difference is the complete separation of the head from the main body of cold air, probably caused by erosion of the area behind the head by mixing with the ambient air. Two cases of nocturnal inversions caused by advection of warmer air aloft are presented. It is found that areas of turbulent mixing or strong thermal gradient can be identified quite easily in the acoustic radar record.
Flow Quality and Boundary Layer Transition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watmuff, Jonathan H; Tobak, M.; Davis, Sanford S. (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
The widely held view is that transition to turbulence in the Blasius boundary layer occurs via amplification and eventual nonlinear breakdown of initially small amplitude instabilities i.e. Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves. However this scenario is only observed for low amplitude free-stream turbulence levels, i.e. u/U < 0.1%. Bypass of linear TS instability mechanism occurs for higher EST levels, yet considerable differences exist between the few experiments carefully designed to assess the effect of EST on transition. The consensus is that EST leads to longitudinal streaks that form near the leading edge in the boundary layer . These streaks appeal to be regions of concentrated streamwise vorticity and they are often referred to as Klebanoff modes. The importance of mean flow free-stream nonuniformity (FSN) is not as widely appreciated as EST for characterizing wind tunnel flow quality. Here it is shown that, although the v like generated by a d=50micron wire located upstream of the contraction (Re(sub d)=6.6, x/d=45,000) is immeasurably small by the time it interacts with the leading edge in the test section, it is responsible for generation of a pair of weak streamwise vortices in the boundary layer downstream. The characteristics of these wake-induced vortices and their effect on TS waves are demonstrated. Small remnant FSN variations are also shown to exist downstream of a turbulence grid. The question arises Are the adverse effects introduced by the turbulence grid caused by FST or by small remnant FSN variations?
Boundary-layer Transition at Supersonic Speeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Low, George M
1956-01-01
Recent results of the effects of Mach number, stream turbulence, leading-edge geometry, leading-edge sweep, surface temperature, surface finish, pressure gradient, and angle of attack on boundary-layer transition are summarized. Factors that delay transition are nose blunting, surface cooling, and favorable pressure gradient. Leading-edge sweep and excessive surface roughness tend to promote early transition. The effects of leading-edge blunting on two-dimensional surfaces and surface cooling can be predicted adequately by existing theories, at least in the moderate Mach number range.
Measurements of a separating turbulent boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simpson, R. L.; Chew, Y. T.; Shivaprasad, B. G.
1980-04-01
The directionally sensitive laser anemometer now provides the ability to accurately measure instantaneous flow direction and magnitude. The experimental results are concerned with a nominally two dimensional separating turbulent boundary layer for an airfoil type flow in which the flow was accelerated and then decelerated until separation. Upstream of separation single and cross wire hot wire anemometer measurements are also presented. Measurements obtained in the separated zone with a directionally sensitive laser anemometer system are presented. Results lead to significant conclusions about the nature of the separated flow when the thickness of the backflow region is small as compared with the shear laer thickness. The backflow is controlled by the large scale outer region flow. The small mean backflow does not come from far downstream, but appears to be supplied intermittently by large scale structures as they pass through the separated flow. Downstream of fully developed separation, the mean backflow appears to be divided into three layers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ball, J. W.; Lindahl, R. H.
1976-01-01
The purpose of the test was to investigate the nature of the Orbiter boundary layer characteristics at angles of attack from -4 to 32 degrees at a Mach number of 4.6. The effect of large grit, employed as transition strips, on both the nature of the boundary layer and the force and moment characteristics were investigated along with the effects of large negative elevon deflection on lee side separation. In addition, laminar and turbulent boundary layer separation phenomena which could cause asymmetric flow separation were investigated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Jong-Hun
1993-01-01
The basic governing equations for the second-order three-dimensional hypersonic thermal and chemical nonequilibrium boundary layer are derived by means of an order-of-magnitude analysis. A two-temperature concept is implemented into the system of boundary-layer equations by simplifying the rather complicated general three-temperature thermal gas model. The equations are written in a surface-oriented non-orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system, where two curvilinear coordinates are non-orthogonial and a third coordinate is normal to the surface. The equations are described with minimum use of tensor expressions arising from the coordinate transformation, to avoid unnecessary confusion for readers. The set of equations obtained will be suitable for the development of a three-dimensional nonequilibrium boundary-layer code. Such a code could be used to determine economically the aerodynamic/aerothermodynamic loads to the surfaces of hypersonic vehicles with general configurations. In addition, the basic equations for three-dimensional stagnation flow, of which solution is required as an initial value for space-marching integration of the boundary-layer equations, are given along with the boundary conditions, the boundary-layer parameters, and the inner-outer layer matching procedure. Expressions for the chemical reaction rates and the thermodynamic and transport properties in the thermal nonequilibrium environment are explicitly given.
Wind tunnel study of a vertical axis wind turbine in a turbulent boundary layer flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rolin, Vincent; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2015-04-01
Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) are in a relatively infant state of development when compared to their cousins the horizontal axis wind turbines. Very few studies have been carried out to characterize the wake flow behind VAWTs, and virtually none to observe the influence of the atmospheric boundary layer. Here we present results from an experiment carried out at the EPFL-WIRE boundary-layer wind tunnel and designed to study the interaction between a turbulent boundary layer flow and a VAWT. Specifically we use stereoscopic particle image velocimetry to observe and quantify the influence of the boundary layer flow on the wake generated by a VAWT, as well as the effect the VAWT has on the boundary layer flow profile downstream. We find that the wake behind the VAWT is strongly asymmetric, due to the varying aerodynamic forces on the blades as they change their position around the rotor. We also find that the wake adds strong turbulence levels to the flow, particularly on the periphery of the wake where vortices and strong velocity gradients are present. The boundary layer is also shown to cause greater momentum to be entrained downwards rather than upwards into the wake.
Turbulent Plasmaspheric Boundary Layer: Observables and Consequences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishin, Evgeny
2014-10-01
In situ satellite observations reveal strong lower hybrid/fast magnetosonic turbulence and broadband hiss-like VLF waves in the substorm subauroral geospace at and earthward of the electron plasmasheet boundary. These coincide with subauroral ion drifts/polarization streams (SAID/SAPS) in the plasmasphere and topside ionosphere. SAID/SAPS appear in ~10 min after the substorm onset consistent with the fast propagation of substorm injection fronts. The SAID channel follows the dispersionless cutoff of the energetic electron flux at the plasmapause. This indicates that the cold plasma maintains charge neutrality within the channel, thereby short-circuiting the injected plasma jet (injection fronts over the plasmasphere. Plasma turbulence leads to the circuit resistivity and magnetic diffusion as well as significant electron heating and acceleration. As a result, a turbulent boundary layer forms between the inner edge of the electron plasmasheet and plasmasphere. The SAID/SAPS-related VLF emissions appear to constitute a distinctive subset of substorm/storm-related VLF activity in the region co-located with freshly injected energetic ions inside the plasmasphere. Significant pitch-angle diffusion coefficients suggest that substorm SAID/SAPS-related VLF waves could be responsible for the alteration of the outer radiation belt boundary during (sub)storms. Supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.
Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment Overview
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berger, Karen T.; Anderson, Brian P.; Campbell, Charles H.; Garske, Michael T.; Saucedo, Luis A.; Kinder, Gerald R.; Micklos, Ann M.
2011-01-01
In support of the Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment (BLT FE) Project, a manufactured protuberance tile was installed on the port wing of Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery for STS-119, STS-128, STS-131 and STS-133 as well as Space Shuttle Endeavour for STS-134. Additional instrumentation was installed in order to obtain more spatially resolved measurements downstream of the protuberance. This paper provides an overview of the BLT FE Project with emphasis on the STS-131 and STS-133 results. A high-level overview of the in-situ flight data is presented, along with a summary of the comparisons between pre- and post-flight analysis predictions and flight data. Comparisons show that empirically correlated predictions for boundary layer transition onset time closely match the flight data, while predicted surface temperatures were significantly higher than observed flight temperatures. A thermocouple anomaly observed on a number of the missions is discussed as are a number of the mitigation actions that will be taken on the final flight, STS-134, including potential alterations of the flight trajectory and changes to the flight instrumentation.
Soot profiles in boundary-layer flames
Beier, R.A.; Pagni, P.J.
1981-12-01
Carbon particulate volume fractions and approximate particle size distributions are measured in a free laminar combusting boundary layer for liquid hydrocarbon fuels (n-heptane, iso-octane, cyclohexane, cyclohexene, toluene) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). A multiwavelength laser transmission technique determines a most probable radius and the total particle concentration, which are two parameters in an assumed form for the size distribution. In the combusting boundary layer, a sooting region exists between the pyrolyzing fuel surface and the flame zone. The liquid fuel soot volume fractions, f/sub v/, range from f/sub v/ approx. 10/sup -7/ for n-heptane, a paraffin, to f/sub v approx. 10/sup -5/ for toluene, an aromatic. The PMMA volume fractions, f/sub v/ approx. 5 X 10/sup -7/, are approximately the same as the values previously reported for pool fires. The soot volume fractions increase with height; convection of carbon particles downstream widens the soot region with height. For all fuels tested, the most probable radius is between 20 nm and 50 nm, and it changes only slightly with height and distance from the fuel surface.
Halogen chemistry in the trosopheric boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plane, John M. C.; Mahajan, Anoop; Oetjen, Hilke
Iodine and bromine chemistry can affect the lower troposphere in several important ways: (1), change the oxidizing capacity by destroying ozone and affecting the hydroxyl radical concentration; (2), react efficiently with dimethyl sulphide (in the marine boundary layer) and mercury (in the polar regions); and (3), form ultra-fine particles (iodine oxides are highly condensable), which may contribute to cloud condensation nuclei and hence affect climate. This paper will report measurements of IO, BrO, OIO and I2 , made by the technique of differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), in several contrasting environments: equatorial clean mid-ocean (Cape Verde); mid-latitude clean coastal (Mace Head, Ireland); polluted coastal (Roscoff, France); and the polar boundary layer (Halley Bay, Antarctica and Hudson Bay, Canada). Both IO and BrO are observed in all these locations at concentrations (> 1 pptv), and so have a major impact on (1) and (2) above. The concentrations of IO in coastal Antarctica, and coastlines rich in certain species of macro-algae, are large enough (> 10 pptv) to promote ultra-fine particle formation. Recently, the first satellite measurements of IO, using the SCIAMACHY instrument on ENVISAT, have been reported by two groups; their results will be compared with the ground-based measurements.
X-33 Hypersonic Boundary Layer Transition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Hollis, Brian R.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hamilton, H. Harris, II
1999-01-01
Boundary layer and aeroheating characteristics of several X-33 configurations have been experimentally examined in the Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. Global surface heat transfer distributions, surface streamline patterns, and shock shapes were measured on 0.013-scale models at Mach 6 in air. Parametric variations include angles-of-attack of 20-deg, 30-deg, and 40-deg; Reynolds numbers based on model length of 0.9 to 6.6 million; and body-flap deflections of 0, 10 and 20-deg. The effects of discrete and distributed roughness elements on boundary layer transition, which included trip height, size, location, and distribution, both on and off the windward centerline, were investigated. The discrete roughness results on centerline were used to provide a transition correlation for the X-33 flight vehicle that was applicable across the range of reentry angles of attack. The attachment line discrete roughness results were shown to be consistent with the centerline results, as no increased sensitivity to roughness along the attachment line was identified. The effect of bowed panels was qualitatively shown to be less effective than the discrete trips; however, the distributed nature of the bowed panels affected a larger percent of the aft-body windward surface than a single discrete trip.
Turbulent boundary layer over a chine.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panchapakesan, N. R.; Joubert, P. N.
1999-11-01
The flow over an edge aligned with the streamwise direction is studied as a representative of the turbulent boundary layers developing over hard chines found on the hulls of ships and catamarans. We present results of a traditional experimental investigation of this geometry in a wind tunnel with pitot tubes and hot-wires. The chine model consisted of two surfaces made of varnished fibre boards with leading edges of airfoil sections and a 90 degree corner. The boundary layer was tripped with wires close to the leading edge. The model was housed in a test section of length 6.5 m in a closed circuit wind tunnel. The experiments were conducted at a unit Reynolds number of 680,000 /m corresponding to a nominal free stream velocity of 10 m/s. The mean velocity field and the associated integral parameters obtained with pitot tube measurements are presented for different streamwise locations from 0.2 to 4.7 m from the trip wire. The flow at the two farthest locations were also studied with single and 'x' hot-wires. The secondary mean flow and the turbulence field in the corner region are described with these measurements.
Sound Radiation from a Turbulent Boundary Layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Laufer, J.
1961-01-01
If the restriction of incompressibility in the turbulence problem is relaxed, the phenomenon of energy radiation in the form of sound from the turbulent zone arises. In order to calculate this radiated energy, it is shown that new statistical quantities, such as time-space correlation tensors, have to be known within the turbulent zone in addition to the conventional quantities. For the particular case of the turbulent boundary layer, indications are that the intensity of radiation becomes significant only in supersonic flows. Under these conditions, the recent work of Phillips is examined together with some experimental findings of the author. It is shown that the qualitative features of the radiation field (intensity, directionality) as predicted by the theory are consistent with the measurements; however, even for the highest Mach number flow, some of the assumptions of the asymptotic theory are not yet satisfied in the experiments. Finally, the question of turbulence damping due to radiation is discussed, with the result that in the Mach number range covered by the experiments, the energy lost from the boundary layer due to radiation is a small percentage of the work done by the wall shearing stresses.
Bypass transition in compressible boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vandervegt, J. J.
1992-01-01
Transition to turbulence in aerospace applications usually occurs in a strongly disturbed environment. For instance, the effects of free-stream turbulence, roughness and obstacles in the boundary layer strongly influence transition. Proper understanding of the mechanisms leading to transition is crucial in the design of aircraft wings and gas turbine blades, because lift, drag and heat transfer strongly depend on the state of the boundary layer, laminar or turbulent. Unfortunately, most of the transition research, both theoretical and experimental, has focused on natural transition. Many practical flows, however, defy any theoretical analysis and are extremely difficult to measure. Morkovin introduced in his review paper the concept of bypass transition as those forms of transition which bypass the known mechanisms of linear and non-linear transition theories and are currently not understood by experiments. In an effort to better understand the mechanisms leading to transition in a disturbed environment, experiments are conducted studying simpler cases, viz. the effects of free stream turbulence on transition on a flat plate. It turns out that these experiments are very difficult to conduct, because generation of free stream turbulence with sufficiently high fluctuation levels and reasonable homogeneity is non trivial. For a discussion see Morkovin. Serious problems also appear due to the fact that at high Reynolds numbers the boundary layers are very thin, especially in the nose region of the plate where the transition occurs, which makes the use of very small probes necessary. The effects of free-stream turbulence on transition are the subject of this research and are especially important in a gas turbine environment, where turbulence intensities are measured between 5 and 20 percent, Wang et al. Due to the fact that the Reynolds number for turbine blades is considerably lower than for aircraft wings, generally a larger portion of the blade will be in a laminar
Nanoscale Hot-Wire Probes for Boundary-Layer Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tedjojuwono, Ken T.; Herring, Gregory C.
2003-01-01
Hot-wire probes having dimensions of the order of nanometers have been proposed for measuring temperatures (and possibly velocities) in boundary-layer flows at spatial resolutions much finer and distances from walls much smaller than have been possible heretofore. The achievable resolutions and minimum distances are expected to be of the order of tens of nanometers much less than a typical mean free path of a molecule and much less than the thickness of a typical flow boundary layer in air at standard temperature and pressure. An additional benefit of the small scale of these probes is that they would perturb the measured flows less than do larger probes. The hot-wire components of the probes would likely be made from semiconducting carbon nanotubes or ropes of such nanotubes. According to one design concept, a probe would comprise a single nanotube or rope of nanotubes laid out on the surface of an insulating substrate between two metallic wires. According to another design concept, a nanotube or rope of nanotubes would be electrically connected and held a short distance away from the substrate surface by stringing it between two metal electrodes. According to a third concept, a semiconducting nanotube or rope of nanotubes would be strung between the tips of two protruding electrodes made of fully conducting nanotubes or ropes of nanotubes. The figure depicts an array of such probes that could be used to gather data at several distances from a wall. It will be necessary to develop techniques for fabricating the probes. It will also be necessary to determine whether the probes will be strong enough to withstand the aerodynamic forces and impacts of micron-sized particles entrained in typical flows of interest.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chan, William Machado; Pandya, Shishir Ashok; Rogers, Stuart E.
2013-01-01
Recent developments on the automation of the X-rays approach to hole-cutting in over- set grids is further improved. A fast method to compute an auxiliary wall-distance function used in providing a rst estimate of the hole boundary location is introduced. Subsequent iterations lead to automatically-created hole boundaries with a spatially-variable o set from the minimum hole. For each hole boundary location, an averaged cell attribute measure over all fringe points is used to quantify the compatibility between the fringe points and their respective donor cells. The sensitivity of aerodynamic loads to di erent hole boundary locations and cell attribute compatibilities is investigated using four test cases: an isolated re-entry capsule, a two-rocket con guration, the AIAA 4th Drag Prediction Workshop Common Research Model (CRM), and the D8 \\Double Bubble" subsonic aircraft. When best practices in hole boundary treatment are followed, only small variations in integrated loads and convergence rates are observed for different hole boundary locations.
Boundary layer roll circulations during FIRE
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shirer, Hampton N.; Haack, Tracy
1990-01-01
The probable mechanism underlying the development of boundary layer roll circulations are studied using wind and temperature profiles measured by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Electra during the stratocumulus phase of the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE). The expected, or preferred, roll orientations, horizontal wavelengths, and propagation periods are determined by finding the minimum values of the dynamic and thermodynamic forcing parameters, which here are the eddy Reynolds number (Re) and moist Rayleigh number (Ra sub m). These minimum values depend on the height z sub T of the capping temperature inversion and on the values of the Fourier coefficients of the background height-dependent vector wind profile. As input to our nonlinear spectral model, descent and ascent runs by the Electra provide for initial estimates of the inversion height and the wind profiles. In the first phase of the investigation presented here, a mechanism is said to be a probable contributor to the development of roll circulations within the stratocumulus-topped boundary layer if the modeled roll orientation and wavelengths agree with their observed values. Preliminary results using the 14-coefficient model of Haack-Hirschberg (1988) are discussed for the 7 July 1987 Electra Mission 188-A (Flight 5). This mission was flown across a sharp cloud boundary that was within a LANDSAT/SPOT scene. The stratocumulus deck was relatively solid in the eastern part of the scene, while there was a rapid decrease in cloud cover to scattered cumulus clouds aligned in streets to the west. These cloud streets were oriented nearly parallel to the mean wind direction in the layer, which was approximately 340 degrees. The hypothesis that roll circulations occurred in both the relatively clear and the cloudy regions is investigated using as model input a descent profile obtained in the relatively clear air and an ascent profile obtained in the cloudy air. Initial results for the
Wake Dynamics in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Over Complex Terrain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markfort, Corey D.
The goal of this research is to advance our understanding of atmospheric boundary layer processes over heterogeneous landscapes and complex terrain. The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is a relatively thin (˜ 1 km) turbulent layer of air near the earth's surface, in which most human activities and engineered systems are concentrated. Its dynamics are crucially important for biosphere-atmosphere couplings and for global atmospheric dynamics, with significant implications on our ability to predict and mitigate adverse impacts of land use and climate change. In models of the ABL, land surface heterogeneity is typically represented, in the context of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, as changes in aerodynamic roughness length and surface heat and moisture fluxes. However, many real landscapes are more complex, often leading to massive boundary layer separation and wake turbulence, for which standard models fail. Trees, building clusters, and steep topography produce extensive wake regions currently not accounted for in models of the ABL. Wind turbines and wind farms also generate wakes that combine in complex ways to modify the ABL. Wind farms are covering an increasingly significant area of the globe and the effects of large wind farms must be included in regional and global scale models. Research presented in this thesis demonstrates that wakes caused by landscape heterogeneity must be included in flux parameterizations for momentum, heat, and mass (water vapor and trace gases, e.g. CO2 and CH4) in ABL simulation and prediction models in order to accurately represent land-atmosphere interactions. Accurate representation of these processes is crucial for the predictions of weather, air quality, lake processes, and ecosystems response to climate change. Objectives of the research reported in this thesis are: 1) to investigate turbulent boundary layer adjustment, turbulent transport and scalar flux in wind farms of varying configurations and develop an improved
F-16XL ship #1 - CAWAP boundary layer rakes and hot film on left wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1996-01-01
This photo shows the boundary layer hot film and the boundary layer rakes on the left wing of NASA's single-seat F-16XL (ship #1) used for the Cranked-Arrow Wing Aerodynamic Project (CAWAP) at Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The modified airplane features a delta 'cranked-arrow' wing with strips of tubing along the leading edge to the trailing edge to sense static on the wing and obtain pressure distribution data. The right wing receives data on pressure distribution and the left wing has three types of instrumentation - preston tubes to measure local skin friction, boundary layer rakes to measure boundary layer profiles (the layer where the air interacts with the surfaces of a moving aircraft), and hot films to determine boundary layer transition locations. The program also gathered aero data on two wing planforms for NASA's High Speed Research Program. The first flight of CAWAP occurred on November 21, 1995, and the test program ended in April 1996.
Effects of shock on the stability of hypersonic boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Chau-Lyan; Malik, Mujeeb R.; Hussaini, M. Yousuff
1990-01-01
A set of linearized shock boundary conditions is derived, which is then imposed at the shock to account for the interaction of the shock wave with the boundary/shock layer instability wave; these boundary conditions are used to study the effect of shock on hypersonic boundary layer stability under the assumption of quasi-parallel flow. The result show that the shock has little effect on the boundary layer instability (subsonic first and second mode disturbances) when the shock is located outside the boundary layer edge. When the shock is located near the boundary layer edge, it exerts a stabilizing influence on the first and second modes. The shock also induces unstable supersonic modes with oscillatory structure in the shock layer, but these modes grow slower than the subsonic modes.
Geometric invariance of compressible turbulent boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bi, Wei-Tao; Wu, Bin; She, Zhen-Su; Hussain, Fazle
2015-11-01
A symmetry based approach is applied to analyze the mean velocity and temperature fields of compressible, flat plate turbulent boundary layers (CTBL). A Reynolds stress length scale and a turbulent heat flux length scale are identified to possess the same defect scaling law in the CTBL bulk, which is solely owing to the constraint of the wall to the geometry of the wall-attached eddies, but invariant to compressibility and wall heat transfer. This invariance is called the geometric invariance of CTBL eddies and is likely the origin of the Mach number invariance of Morkovin's hypothesis, as well as the similarity of energy and momentum transports. A closure for the turbulent transport by using the invariant lengths is attainted to predict the mean velocity and temperature profiles in the CTBL bulk- superior to the van Driest transformation and the Reynolds analogy based relations for its sound physics and higher accuracy. Additionally, our approach offers a new understanding of turbulent Prandtl number.
Some measurements in synthetic turbulent boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savas, O.
1980-01-01
Synthetic turbulent boundary layers are examined which were constructed on a flat plate by generating systematic moving patterns of turbulent spots in a laminar flow. The experiments were carried out in a wind tunnel at a Reynolds number based on plate length of 1,700,000. Spots were generated periodically in space and time near the leading edge to form a regular hexagonal pattern. The disturbance mechanism was a camshaft which displaced small pins momentarily into the laminar flow at frequencies up to 80 Hz. The main instrumentation was a rake of 24 hot wires placed across the flow in a line parallel to the surface. The main measured variable was local intermittency; i.e., the probability of observing turbulent flow at a particular point in space and time. The results are reported in x-t diagrams showing the evolution of various synthetic flows along the plate. The dimensionless celerity or phase velocity of the large eddies is found to be 0.88, independent of eddy scale. All patterns with sufficiently small scales eventually showed loss of coherence as they moved downstream. A novel phenomenon called eddy transposition was observed in several flows which contained appreciable laminar regions. The large eddies shifted in formation to new positions, intermediate to their original ones, while preserving their hexagonal pattern. The present results, together with some empirical properties of a turbulent spot, are used to estimate the best choice of scales for constructing a synthetic boundary layer suitable for detailed study. The values recommended are: spanwise scale/thickness = 2.5, streamwise scale/thickness = 8.
Acoustics of laminar boundary layers breakdown
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Meng
1994-12-01
Boundary layer flow transition has long been suggested as a potential noise source in both marine (sonar-dome self noise) and aeronautical (aircraft cabin noise) applications, owing to the highly transient nature of process. The design of effective noise control strategies relies upon a clear understanding of the source mechanisms associated with the unsteady flow dynamics during transition. Due to formidable mathematical difficulties, theoretical predictions either are limited to early linear and weakly nonlinear stages of transition, or employ acoustic analogy theories based on approximate source field data, often in the form of empirical correlation. In the present work, an approach which combines direct numerical simulation of the source field with the Lighthill acoustic analogy is utilized. This approach takes advantage of the recent advancement in computational capabilities to obtain detailed information about the flow-induced acoustic sources. The transitional boundary layer flow is computed by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations without model assumptions, thus allowing a direct evaluation of the pseudosound as well as source functions, including the Lighthill stress tensor and the wall shear stress. The latter are used for calculating the radiated pressure field based on the Curle-Powell solution of the Lighthill equation. This procedure allows a quantitative assessment of noise source mechanisms and the associated radiation characteristics during transition from primary instability up to the laminar breakdown stage. In particular, one is interested in comparing the roles played by the fluctuating volume Reynolds stress and the wall-shear-stresses, and in identifying specific flow processes and structures that are effective noise generators.
Soot and radiation in combusting boundary layers
Beier, R.A.
1981-12-01
In most fires thermal radiation is the dominant mode of heat transfer. Carbon particles within the fire are responsible for most of this emitted radiation and hence warrant quantification. As a first step toward understanding thermal radiation in full scale fires, an experimental and theoretical study is presented for a laminar combusting boundary layer. Carbon particulate volume fraction profiles and approximate particle size distributions are experimentally determined in both free and forced flow for several hydrocarbon fuels and PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate). A multiwavelength laser transmission technique determines a most probable radius and a total particle concentration which are two unknown parameters in an assumed Gauss size distribution. A sooting region is observed on the fuel rich side of the main reaction zone. For free flow, all the flames are in air, but the free stream ambient oxygen mass fraction is a variable in forced flow. To study the effects of radiation heat transfer, a model is developed for a laminar combusting boundary layer over a pyrolyzing fuel surface. An optically thin approximation simplifies the calculation of the radiant energy flux at the fuel surface. For the free flames in air, the liquid fuel soot volume fractions, f/sub v/, range from f/sub v/ approx. 10/sup -7/ for n-heptane, a paraffin, to f/sub v/ approx. 10/sup -7/ for toluene, an aromatic. The PMMA soot volume fractions, f/sub v/ approx. 5 x 10/sup -7/, are approximately the same as the values previously reported for pool fires. Soot volume fraction increases monotonically with ambient oxygen mass fraction in the forced flow flames. For all fuels tested, a most probable radius between 20 nm and 80 nm is obtained which varies only slightly with oxygen mass fraction, streamwise position, or distance normal to the fuel surface. The theoretical analysis yields nine dimensionless parameters, which control the mass flux rate at the pyrolyzing fuel surface.
Halogen chemistry in the marine boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plane, J. M. C.; Gomez Martin, J. C.; Kumar, R.; Mahajan, A. S.; Oetjen, H.; Saunders, R. W.
2009-04-01
Important atmospheric sources of iodine include the air-sea exchange of biogenic iodocarbons, and the emission of I2 from macro-algae. The major source of bromine is the release of bromide ions from sea-salt aerosol. The subsequent atmospheric chemistry of these halogens (1), changes the oxidizing capacity of the marine boundary layer by destroying ozone and changing the hydroxyl radical concentration; (2), reacts efficiently with dimethyl sulphide and mercury (in the polar regions); and (3), leads to the formation of ultra-fine particles which may contribute to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and hence affect climate. This paper will report observations of IO, BrO, OIO and I2 made by the technique of differential optical absorption spectroscopy, in several contrasting marine environments: the equatorial mid-Atlantic (Cape Verde); mid-latitude clean coastal (Mace Head, Ireland); polluted coastal (Roscoff, France); and the polar marine boundary layer (Hudson Bay, Canada). Both IO and BrO are observed in all these locations at significant concentrations (> 1 pptv), and so have a major impact on (1) and (2) above. To complement the field campaigns we have also carried out wide-ranging laboratory investigation. A new study of OIO photochemistry shows that absorption in the visible bands between 490 and 630 nm leads to I atom production with a quantum yield of unity, which now means that iodine is a particularly powerful ozone-depleting agent. We have also studied the formation and growth kinetics of iodine oxide nano-particles, and their uptake of water, sulphuric acid and di-carboxylic organic acids, in order to model their growth to a size where they can act as CCN. Their ice-nucleating properties will also be reported.
Acoustics of laminar boundary layers breakdown
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Meng
1994-01-01
Boundary layer flow transition has long been suggested as a potential noise source in both marine (sonar-dome self noise) and aeronautical (aircraft cabin noise) applications, owing to the highly transient nature of process. The design of effective noise control strategies relies upon a clear understanding of the source mechanisms associated with the unsteady flow dynamics during transition. Due to formidable mathematical difficulties, theoretical predictions either are limited to early linear and weakly nonlinear stages of transition, or employ acoustic analogy theories based on approximate source field data, often in the form of empirical correlation. In the present work, an approach which combines direct numerical simulation of the source field with the Lighthill acoustic analogy is utilized. This approach takes advantage of the recent advancement in computational capabilities to obtain detailed information about the flow-induced acoustic sources. The transitional boundary layer flow is computed by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations without model assumptions, thus allowing a direct evaluation of the pseudosound as well as source functions, including the Lighthill stress tensor and the wall shear stress. The latter are used for calculating the radiated pressure field based on the Curle-Powell solution of the Lighthill equation. This procedure allows a quantitative assessment of noise source mechanisms and the associated radiation characteristics during transition from primary instability up to the laminar breakdown stage. In particular, one is interested in comparing the roles played by the fluctuating volume Reynolds stress and the wall-shear-stresses, and in identifying specific flow processes and structures that are effective noise generators.
Turbulent dispersion in cloud-topped boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verzijlbergh, R. A.; Jonker, H. J. J.; Heus, T.; Vilöguerau de Arellano, J.
2009-02-01
Compared to dry boundary layers, dispersion in cloud-topped boundary layers has received less attention. In this LES based numerical study we investigate the dispersion of a passive tracer in the form of Lagrangian particles for four kinds of atmospheric boundary layers: 1) a dry convective boundary layer (for reference), 2) a "smoke" cloud boundary layer in which the turbulence is driven by radiative cooling, 3) a stratocumulus topped boundary layer and 4) a shallow cumulus topped boundary layer. We show that the dispersion characteristics of the smoke cloud boundary layer as well as the stratocumulus situation can be well understood by borrowing concepts from previous studies of dispersion in the dry convective boundary layer. A general result is that the presence of clouds enhances mixing and dispersion - a notion that is not always reflected well in traditional parameterization models, in which clouds usually suppress dispersion by diminishing solar irradiance. The dispersion characteristics of a cumulus cloud layer turn out to be markedly different from the other three cases and the results can not be explained by only considering the well-known top-hat velocity distribution. To understand the surprising characteristics in the shallow cumulus layer, this case has been examined in more detail by 1) determining the velocity distribution conditioned on the distance to the nearest cloud and 2) accounting for the wavelike behaviour associated with the stratified dry environment.
Turbulent dispersion in cloud-topped boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verzijlbergh, R. A.; Jonker, H. J. J.; Heus, T.; Vilöguerau de Arellano, J.
2008-11-01
Compared to dry boundary layers, dispersion in cloud-topped boundary layers has received less attention. In this LES based numerical study we investigate the dispersion of a passive tracer in the form of Lagrangian particles for four kinds of atmospheric boundary layers: 1) a dry convective boundary layer (for reference), 2) a "smoke" cloud boundary layer in which the turbulence is driven by radiative cooling, 3) a stratocumulus topped boundary layer and 4) a shallow cumulus topped boundary layer. We show that the dispersion characteristics of the smoke cloud boundary layer as well as the stratocumulus situation can be well understood by borrowing concepts from previous studies of dispersion in the dry convective boundary layer. A general result is that the presence of clouds enhances mixing and dispersion a notion that is not always reflected well in traditional parameterization models, in which clouds usually suppress dispersion by diminishing solar irradiance. The dispersion characteristics of a cumulus cloud layer turn out to be markedly different from the other three cases and the results can not be explained by only considering the well-known top-hat velocity distribution. To understand the surprising characteristics in the shallow cumulus layer, this case has been examined in more detail by 1) determining the velocity distribution conditioned on the distance to the nearest cloud and 2) accounting for the wavelike behaviour associated with the stratified dry environment.
Acoustic sounding in the planetary boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelly, E. H.
1974-01-01
Three case studies are presented involving data from an acoustic radar. The first two cases examine data collected during the passage of a mesoscale cold-air intrusion, probably thunderstorm outflow, and a synoptic-scale cold front. In these studies the radar data are compared to conventional meteorological data obtained from the WKY tower facility for the purpose of radar data interpretation. It is shown that the acoustic radar echoes reveal the boundary between warm and cold air and other areas of turbulent mixing, regions of strong vertical temperature gradients, and areas of weak or no wind shear. The third case study examines the relationship between the nocturnal radiation inversion and the low-level wind maximum or jet in the light of conclusions presented by Blackadar (1957). The low-level jet is seen forming well above the top of the inversion. Sudden rapid growth of the inversion occurs which brings the top of the inversion to a height equal that of the jet. Coincident with the rapid growth of the inversion is a sudden decrease in the intensity of the acoustic radar echoes in the inversion layer. It is suggested that the decrease in echo intensity reveals a decrease in turbulent mixing in the inversion layer as predicted by Blackadar. It is concluded that the acoustic radar can be a valuable tool for study in the lower atmosphere.
Improved Boundary Layer Depth Retrievals from MPLNET
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lewis, Jasper R.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Molod, Andrea M.; Joseph, Everette
2013-01-01
Continuous lidar observations of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) depth have been made at the Micropulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) site in Greenbelt, MD since April 2001. However, because of issues with the operational PBL depth algorithm, the data is not reliable for determining seasonal and diurnal trends. Therefore, an improved PBL depth algorithm has been developed which uses a combination of the wavelet technique and image processing. The new algorithm is less susceptible to contamination by clouds and residual layers, and in general, produces lower PBL depths. A 2010 comparison shows the operational algorithm overestimates the daily mean PBL depth when compared to the improved algorithm (1.85 and 1.07 km, respectively). The improved MPLNET PBL depths are validated using radiosonde comparisons which suggests the algorithm performs well to determine the depth of a fully developed PBL. A comparison with the Goddard Earth Observing System-version 5 (GEOS-5) model suggests that the model may underestimate the maximum daytime PBL depth by 410 m during the spring and summer. The best agreement between MPLNET and GEOS-5 occurred during the fall and they diered the most in the winter.
Wind-tunnel simulation of thick turbulent boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kornilov, V. I.; Boiko, A. V.
2012-06-01
An experimental study aimed at revealing the possibility of simulation, in a subsonic wind tunnel, of enhanced Reynolds numbers Re** via modeling a thick flat-plate boundary layer possessing the properties of a Clauser-equilibrium shear flow is reported. We show that turbulators prepared in the form of variable-height cylinders of height h and diameter d = 3 mm and installed in two rows along the normal to the streamlined wall offer rather an efficient means for modification of turbulent boundary layer in solving the problem. In the majority of cases, mean and fluctuating characteristics of the boundary layer exhibit values typical of naturally developing turbulent boundary layers at a distance of 530 cylinder diameters. The profiles of mean velocity with artificially enhanced boundary-layer thickness can be well approximated, in the law-of-the-wall variables, with the well-known distribution of velocities for canonical boundary layer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nowotarski, Christopher J.
Nearly all previous numerical simulations of supercell thunderstorms have neglected surface uxes of heat, moisture, and momentum as well as horizontal inhomogeneities in the near-storm environment from resulting dry boundary layer convection. This investigation uses coupled radiation and land-surface schemes within an idealized cloud model to identify the effects of organized boundary layer convection in the form of horizontal convective rolls (HCRs) on the strength, structure, and evolution of simulated supercell thunderstorms. The in uence of HCRs and the importance of their orientation relative to storm motion is tested by comparing simulations with a convective boundary layer (CBL) against those with a horizontally homogeneous base state having the same mean environment. The impact of anvil shading on the CBL is tested by comparing simulations with and without the effects of clouds in the radiative transfer scheme. The results of these simulations indicate that HCRs provide a potentially important source of environmental vertical vorticity in the sheared, near-storm boundary layer. These vorticity perturbations are amplified both beneath the main supercell updraft and along the trailing out ow boundary, leading to the formation of occasionally intense misovortices. HCRs perpendicular to storm motion are found to have a detrimental effect on the strength and persistence of the lowlevel mesocyclone, particularly during its initial development. Though the mean environment is less supportive of low-level rotation with a wind profile conducive to HCRs oriented parallel to storm motion, such HCRs are found to often enhance the low-level mesocyclone circulation. When anvil shading is included, stabilization results in generally weaker low-level mesocyclone circulation, regardless of HCR orientation. Moreover, HCRs diminish in the near-storm environment such that the effects of HCRs on the supercell are mitigated. HCRs are also shown to be a necessary condition for the
CFL3D Contribution to the AIAA Supersonic Shock Boundary Layer Interaction Workshop
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, Christopher L.
2010-01-01
This paper documents the CFL3D contribution to the AIAA Supersonic Shock Boundary Layer Interaction Workshop, held in Orlando, Florida in January 2010. CFL3D is a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes code. Four shock boundary layer interaction cases are computed using a one-equation turbulence model widely used for other aerodynamic problems of interest. Two of the cases have experimental data available at the workshop, and two of the cases do not. The effect of grid, flux scheme, and thin-layer approximation are investigated. Comparisons are made to the available experimental data. All four cases exhibit strong three-dimensional behavior in and near the interaction regions, resulting from influences of the tunnel side-walls.
Estimating convective boundary layer parameters for diffusion applications. Final report
Weil, J.
1983-04-01
Simple methods are presented for estimating those boundary layer parameters most important in controlling turbulence and diffusion within the convective boundary layer (CBL). These parameters include: surface heat flux, friction velocity, mean wind speed, and boundary layer height. Emphasis is on estimation methods requiring only routinely available data such as may exist at local airports. We focus on the CBL because the main diffusion application of interest is tall stacks, which generally produce their highest ground-level concentrations during convective conditions.
Development of a laminar boundary layer behind a suction point
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wuest, Walter
1952-01-01
A theoretical investigation is made of the development of a laminar boundary layer behind a suction slot that is assumed to cut off part of the boundary layer without exerting any sink effect. The development, which is approximate, is based on the heat conduction equation. The heat conduction equation enters the analysis through a linearization of the Prandtl-Mises form of the boundary-layer equation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacob, Chinthaka; Anderson, William
2016-06-01
Aeolian erosion of flat, arid landscapes is induced (and sustained) by the aerodynamic surface stress imposed by flow in the atmospheric surface layer. Conceptual models typically indicate that sediment mass flux, Q (via saltation or drift), scales with imposed aerodynamic stress raised to some exponent, n, where n > 1 . This scaling demonstrates the importance of turbulent fluctuations in driving aeolian processes. In order to illustrate the importance of surface-stress intermittency in aeolian processes, and to elucidate the role of turbulence, conditional averaging predicated on aerodynamic surface stress has been used within large-eddy simulation of atmospheric boundary-layer flow over an arid, flat landscape. The conditional-sampling thresholds are defined based on probability distribution functions of surface stress. The simulations have been performed for a computational domain with ≈ 25 H streamwise extent, where H is the prescribed depth of the neutrally-stratified boundary layer. Thus, the full hierarchy of spatial scales are captured, from surface-layer turbulence to large- and very-large-scale outer-layer coherent motions. Spectrograms are used to support this argument, and also to illustrate how turbulent energy is distributed across wavelengths with elevation. Conditional averaging provides an ensemble-mean visualization of flow structures responsible for erosion `events'. Results indicate that surface-stress peaks are associated with the passage of inclined, high-momentum regions flanked by adjacent low-momentum regions. Fluid in the interfacial shear layers between these adjacent quasi-uniform momentum regions exhibits high streamwise and vertical vorticity.
On the dynamic behavior of composite panels under turbulent boundary layer excitations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciappi, E.; De Rosa, S.; Franco, F.; Vitiello, P.; Miozzi, M.
2016-03-01
In this work high Mach number aerodynamic and structural measurements acquired in the CIRA (Italian Aerospace Research Center) transonic wind tunnel and the models used to analyze the response of composite panels to turbulent boundary layer excitation are presented. The two investigated panels are CFRP (Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer) composite plates and their lay-up is similar to configurations used in aeronautical structures. They differ only for the presence of an embedded viscoelastic layer. The experimental set-up has been designed to reproduce a pressure fluctuations field beneath a turbulent boundary layer as close as possible to those in flight. A tripping system, specifically conceived to this aim for this facility, has been used to generate thick turbulent boundary layers at Mach number values ranging between 0.4 and 0.8. It is shown that the designed setup provides a realistic representation of full scale size pressure spectra in the frequency range of interest for the noise component inside the fuselage, generated by turbulent boundary layer. The significant role of the viscoelastic layer at reducing panel's response is detailed and discussed. Finally, it is demonstrated that at high Mach number the aeroelastic effect cannot be neglected when analyzing the panel response, especially when composite materials are considered.
Incorporation of the planetary boundary layer in atmospheric models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moeng, Chin-Hoh; Wyngaard, John; Pielke, Roger; Krueger, Steve
1993-01-01
The topics discussed include the following: perspectives on planetary boundary layer (PBL) measurements; current problems of PBL parameterization in mesoscale models; and convective cloud-PBL interactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chitta, Subhashini; Steinhoff, John
2015-11-01
This paper describes the use of Vorticity Confinement (VC) to efficiently treat complex blunt bodies with thin shed vortex sheets and attached boundary layers. Because these flows involve turbulence in the vortical regions, there is currently no ab initio method to treat them on current or foreseeable computers. In fact, in spite of years of turbulence modeling efforts (such as LES or RANS), serious flaws in aerodynamic design involving vortex shedding may still be left undetected until the expensive prototype or production stage. Our basic premise is that, for a class of real-world problems requiring simulating ensembles of flow conditions for overall accuracy, conventional turbulence models suffer cost constraints. For these reasons, VC is used to rapidly simulate many operating conditions, as is often done in expensive testing programs for flying prototypes, and in realistic simulations. To achieve dramatically lower computational cost, VC treats the entire flow in a uniform, coarse grid with solid surfaces ``immersed'' in the grid so that they can be quickly generated for many configurations with no requirement for adaptive or conforming fine grids. Also, the VC method has the efficiency of panel methods, but the generality and ease of use of Euler equation methods. We would like to thank Dr. Frank Caradonna for his suggestions and support.
Boundary layer problem on a hyperbolic system arising from chemotaxis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, Qianqian; Wang, Zhi-An; Zhao, Kun
2016-11-01
This paper is concerned with the boundary layer problem for a hyperbolic system transformed via a Cole-Hopf type transformation from a repulsive chemotaxis model with logarithmic sensitivity proposed in [23,34] modeling the biological movement of reinforced random walkers which deposit a non-diffusible (or slowly moving) signal that modifies the local environment for succeeding passages. By prescribing the Dirichlet boundary conditions to the transformed hyperbolic system in an interval (0 , 1), we show that the system has the boundary layer solutions as the chemical diffusion coefficient ε → 0, and further use the formal asymptotic analysis to show that the boundary layer thickness is ε 1 / 2. Our work justifies the boundary layer phenomenon that was numerically found in the recent work [25]. However we find that the original chemotaxis system does not possess boundary layer solutions when the results are reverted to the pre-transformed system.
Secondary instabilities in compressible boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ng, Lian; Erlebacher, Gordon
1990-01-01
Secondary instabilities are examined in compressible boundary layers at Mach numbers M(sub infinity) = 0, 0.8, 1.6, and 4.5. It is found that there is a broad-band of highly unstable 3-d secondary disturbances whose growth rates increase with increasing primary wave amplitude. At M(sub infinity) is less than or equal to 1.6, fundamental resonance dominates at relatively high (2-d) primary disturbance amplitude, while subharmonic resonance is characterized by a low (2-d) primary amplitude. At M(sub infinity) = 4.5, the subharmonic instability which arises from the second mode disturbance is the strongest type of secondary instability. The influence of the inclination, theta, of the primary wave with respect to the mean flow direction on secondary instability is investigated at M(sub infinity) = 1.6 for small to moderate values of theta. It is found that the strongest fundamental instability occurs when the primary wave is inclined at 10 deg to the mean flow direction, although a 2-d primary mode yields the most amplified subharmonic. The subharmonic instability at a high value of theta (namely, theta = 45 deg) is also discussed. Finally, a subset of the secondary instability results are compared against direct numerical simulations.
Effect of sound on boundary layer stability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saric, William S.; Spencer, Shelly Anne
1993-01-01
Experiments are conducted in the Arizona State University Unsteady Wind Tunnel with a zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate model that has a 67:1 elliptical leading edge. Boundary-layer measurements are made of the streamwise fluctuating-velocity component in order to identify the amplified T-S waves that are forced by downstream-traveling sound waves. Measurements are taken with circular 3-D roughness elements placed at the Branch 1 neutral stability point for the frequency under consideration, and then with the roughness element downstream of Branch 1. These roughness elements have a principal chord dimension equal to 2 lambda(sub TS)/pi of the T-S waves under study and are 'stacked' in order to resemble a Gaussian height distribution. Measurements taken just downstream of the roughness (with leading-edge T-S waves, surface roughness T-S waves, instrumentation sting vibrations, and the Stokes wave subtracted) show the generation of 3-D T-S waves, but not in the characteristic heart-shaped disturbance field predicted by 3-D asymptotic theory. Maximum disturbance amplitudes are found on the roughness centerline. However, some near-field characteristics predicted by numerical modeling are observed.
Effect of sound on boundary layer stability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saric, William S. (Principal Investigator); Spencer, Shelly Anne
1993-01-01
Experiments are conducted in the Arizona State University Unsteady Wind Tunnel with a zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate model that has a 67:1 elliptical leading edge. Boundary-layer measurements are made of the streamwise fluctuating-velocity component in order to identify the amplified T-S waves that are forced by downstream-travelling, sound waves. Measurements are taken with circular 3-D roughness elements placed at the Branch 1 neutral stability point for the frequency under consideration, and then with the roughness element downstream of Branch 1. These roughness elements have a principal chord dimension equal to 2(lambda)(sub TS)/pi, of the T-S waves under study and are 'stacked' in order to resemble a Gaussian height distribution. Measurements taken just downstream of the roughness (with leading-edge T-S waves, surface roughness T-S waves, instrumentation sting vibrations and the Stokes wave subtracted) show the generation of 3-D-T-S waves, but not in the characteristic heart-shaped disturbance field predicted by 3-D asymptotic theory. Maximum disturbance amplitudes are found on the roughness centerline. However, some near-field characteristics predicted by numerical modelling are observed.
Pattern Formation in Cathode Boundary Layer Microdischarges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schoenbach, K. H.; Moselhy, M. M.
2003-10-01
Direct current glow discharges in xenon between a planar, 100 μm thick cathode and a ring shaped anode, separated by 250 μm, were found to be stable up to atmospheric pressure. Photographs in the visible and VUV (172 nm) range of the spectrum show the transition from a homogeneous to a structured plasma. The plasma patterns, regularly arranged filaments that are most pronounced at lower pressures (100 Torr), show discrete changes when the current is decreased by fractions of mA. This selforganization of the plasma requires the presence of a second stable branch in addition to the abnormal cathode fall in the voltage-current density characteristic of the "cathode boundary layer" (CBL) discharges. A model of the cathode fall by von Engel and Steenbeck [1], which was modified to take thermal conduction as a loss process into account, in addition to radiation, indicates the presence of stable plasma filaments at current densities in the range from 10 to 100 A/cm^2, before transition into an arc. [1] A. von Engel and M. Steenbeck, "Elektrische Gasentladungen, ihre Physik und Technik," Vol. 2, p. 121. Work supported by NSF (CTS-0078618 and INT-0001438).
Excimer Emission from Cathode Boundary Layer Discharges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moselhy, M. M.; Ansari, J.; Schoenbach, K. H.
2003-10-01
The excimer emission from direct current glow discharges between a planar cathode and a ring shaped anode of 0.75 mm diameter, separated by only 250 μm, was studied in high-pressure xenon and argon. The thickness of the "cathode boundary layer" (CBL) plasma, approximately 150 μm, with a discharge sustaining voltage of approximately 200 V, indicates that the discharge is restricted to the cathode fall and the negative glow. For currents on the order of 1 mA, the discharge in xenon changes from an abnormal glow into a mode showing selforganization of the plasma. At this transition, maximum excimer emission (at 172 nm) with internal efficiencies of 3 to 5% is observed. The maximum radiant emittance is 4 W/cm^2 for atmospheric pressure operation. In the case of argon, selforganization of the plasma was not seen, however the emission of the excimer radiation (128 nm) again shows a maximum, in this case at the transition from abnormal to normal glow, with efficiencies of 2%. The maximum radiant emittance is 1.6 W/cm^2 for argon at 600 Torr. The positive slope of the current-voltage characteristics at maximum excimer emission indicates the possibility to generate large area flat excimer sources. Work supported by NSF (CTS-0078618 and INT-0001438).
Modeling coupled aerodynamics and vocal fold dynamics using immersed boundary methods.
Duncan, Comer; Zhai, Guangnian; Scherer, Ronald
2006-11-01
The penalty immersed boundary (PIB) method, originally introduced by Peskin (1972) to model the function of the mammalian heart, is tested as a fluid-structure interaction model of the closely coupled dynamics of the vocal folds and aerodynamics in phonation. Two-dimensional vocal folds are simulated with material properties chosen to result in self-oscillation and volume flows in physiological frequency ranges. Properties of the glottal flow field, including vorticity, are studied in conjunction with the dynamic vocal fold motion. The results of using the PIB method to model self-oscillating vocal folds for the case of 8 cm H20 as the transglottal pressure gradient are described. The volume flow at 8 cm H20, the transglottal pressure, and vortex dynamics associated with the self-oscillating model are shown. Volume flow is also given for 2, 4, and 12 cm H2O, illustrating the robustness of the model to a range of transglottal pressures. The results indicate that the PIB method applied to modeling phonation has good potential for the study of the interdependence of aerodynamics and vocal fold motion.
Green House Gases Flux Model in Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nurgaliev, Ildus
Analytical dynamic model of the turbulent flux in the three-layer boundary system is presented. Turbulence is described as a presence of the non-zero vorticity. The generalized advection-diffusion-reaction equation is derived for an arbitrary number of components in the flux. The fluxes in the layers are objects for matching requirements on the boundaries between the layers. Different types of transport mechanisms are dominant on the different levels of the layers.
Forced unsteady deceleration of a turbulent boundary layer from a temporal perspective
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brereton, G. J.
1992-01-01
The behavior of a turbulent boundary layer which has been subjected to a local ramp-like deceleration in the external velocity field, which leads to forced separation, has been studied experimentally. The data of this study are re-interpreted in light of more recent findings concerning the temporal nature of boundary layer turbulence in the presence of forced unsteady shear. In particular, the robustness of the near-wall turbulent motions to organized deformation is recognized. Their resilence during unsteady shearing action promotes continued efficient turbulent mixing and rapid redistribution of turbulent kinetic energy during forced transients. In aerodynamic problems, the rapid nature of the adjustment of the turbulence field to a new temporal boundary condition necessitates equally rapid remedial measures to be taken if means of control/prevention of forced unsteady separation are to be deployed to maximum effect. This requirement suggests exploration of the use of simple, real-time statistical forecasting techniques, based upon time-series analysis of easily-measurable features of the flow, to help assure timely deployment of mechanisms of boundary-layer control. This paper focuses upon the nature of turbulence in boundary layers undergoing forced deceleration which would lead to separation. A preliminary form of a forecasting model is presented and evaluated. Using observations of the previous two large eddies passing a detector, it forecasts the behavior of the future large eddy rather well.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reid, E G; Bamber, M J
1928-01-01
The tests described in this report constitute a preliminary investigation of airfoil boundary layer control, as carried out in the atmospheric wind tunnel of the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, from February to August, 1927. Tests were made on a U.S.A. 27 airfoil section with various slot shapes and combinations, and at various amounts of pressure or suction on the slots. The lift of airfoils can be increased by removing or by accelerating the boundary layer. Removing the boundary layer by suction is more economical than to accelerate it by jet action. Gauze-covered suction slots apparently give the best results. When not in operation, all suction slots tested had a detrimental effect upon the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil which was not apparent with the backward-opening pressure slots. Thick, blunt-nose airfoils would seem to give best results with boundary layer control.
Force and moment, flow-visualization, and boundary-layer tests on a shuttle orbiter model at Mach 6
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Calloway, R. L.
1981-01-01
Force and moment, flow visualization, and boundary layer state tests were conducted using two 0.004 scale shuttle orbiter models. The force and moment tests were conducted for an angle of attack range from 20 to 40 deg and for Reynolds numbers based on reference length from 0.4 million to 3.6 million. Schlieren photographs were obtained for each angle of attack and Reynolds number. The boundary layer state tests, which were conducted using hot film sensors mounted in a separate model, were conducted over the same range of conditions as the force tests. Test results were combined to show that changes in the boundary layer on a typical hypersonic force test model affect measurement of the axial force coefficient and that the state of the local boundary layer is important for interpreting hypersonic aerodynamic test results.
F-16XL ship #1 - CAWAP boundary layer hot film, left wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1996-01-01
This photo shows the boundary layer hot film on the left wing of NASA's single-seat F-16XL (ship #1) used for the Cranked-Arrow Wing Aerodynamic Project (CAWAP) at Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Hot film is used to measure temperature changes on a surface. The modified airplane features a delta 'cranked-arrow' wing with strips of tubing along the leading edge to the trailing edge to sense static on the wing and obtain pressure distribution data. The right wing receives data on pressure distribution and the left wing has three types of instrumentation - preston tubes to measure local skin friction, boundary layer rakes to measure boundary layer profiles (the layer where the air interacts with the surfaces of a moving aircraft), and hot films to determine boundary layer transition locations. The program also gathered aero data on two wing planforms for NASA's High Speed Research Program. The first flight of CAWAP occurred on November 21, 1995, and the test program ended in April 1996.
Parametric investigation of boundary layer control using triangular micro vortex generators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bagheri, Milad; Muslmani, Motassem Al; Masood, Asad; Khosravi, Mahmood; Atef Mahmoud, Mohamed; Cardoz, Aniket; Akkuwari, Abdulrahman; Alanezi, Yusuf; Kim, Young
2014-03-01
Improving the aerodynamic performance of an airfoil is one of the primary interests of the Aerodynamicists. Such performance improvement can be achieved using passive or active flow control devices. One of such passive devices having a compact size along with an effective performance is the Micro Vortex Generators (MVGs). A special type of MVGs, which has been recently introduced in the aerospace industry, is "Triangular Shape" MVGs and its impact on aerodynamic characteristics is the main interest of this study. This study will compare the effects of various configurations through which delay of the flow separation using boundary layer control will be analysed by experimental and theoretical approach. The experimental investigations have been conducted using subsonic wind tunnel and the theoretical analysis using ANSYS® 13.0 FLUENT of which the final results are compared with each other.
Aerodynamic Analyses Requiring Advanced Computers, Part 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1975-01-01
Papers are presented which deal with results of theoretical research on aerodynamic flow problems requiring the use of advanced computers. Topics discussed include: viscous flows, boundary layer equations, turbulence modeling and Navier-Stokes equations, and internal flows.
Structural responses of the supersonic turbulent boundary layer to expansions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Qian-cheng; Wang, Zhen-guo; Zhao, Yu-xin
2016-09-01
Structural responses of the supersonic turbulent boundary layer to the expansions induced by a convex wall and a ramp are experimentally investigated. Relaminarization of part of the turbulent boundary layer in the near wall region is clearly visualized, which has been seldom presented before. The relaminarized layers formed over two test models are different. While a thicker relaminarized layer is observed for the ramp, a longer lasting layer is noticed for the convex wall. The structure angle is found to be increased by the expansions. Increases of turbulence scale and boundary layer thickness are observed. The contribution of the bulk dilatation to the boundary layer growth is stronger than that of the centrifugal force.
Turbulence Modeling for Shock Wave/Turbulent Boundary Layer Interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lillard, Randolph P.
2011-01-01
Accurate aerodynamic computational predictions are essential for the safety of space vehicles, but these computations are of limited accuracy when large pressure gradients are present in the flow. The goal of the current project is to improve the state of compressible turbulence modeling for high speed flows with shock wave / turbulent boundary layer interactions (SWTBLI). Emphasis will be placed on models that can accurately predict the separated region caused by the SWTBLI. These flows are classified as nonequilibrium boundary layers because of the very large and variable adverse pressure gradients caused by the shock waves. The lag model was designed to model these nonequilibrium flows by incorporating history effects. Standard one- and two-equation models (Spalart Allmaras and SST) and the lag model will be run and compared to a new lag model. This new model, the Reynolds stress tensor lag model (lagRST), will be assessed against multiple wind tunnel tests and correlations. The basis of the lag and lagRST models are to preserve the accuracy of the standard turbulence models in equilibrium turbulence, when the Reynolds stresses are linearly related to the mean strain rates, but create a lag between mean strain rate effects and turbulence when nonequilibrium effects become important, such as in large pressure gradients. The affect this lag has on the results for SWBLI and massively separated flows will be determined. These computations will be done with a modified version of the OVERFLOW code. This code solves the RANS equations on overset grids. It was used for this study for its ability to input very complex geometries into the flow solver, such as the Space Shuttle in the full stack configuration. The model was successfully implemented within two versions of the OVERFLOW code. Results show a substantial improvement over the baseline models for transonic separated flows. The results are mixed for the SWBLI assessed. Separation predictions are not as good as the
Turbulence modeling for shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lillard, Randolph Pascal
Accurate aerodynamic computational predictions are essential for the safety of space vehicles, but these computations are of limited accuracy when large pressure gradients are present in the flow. The goal of the current project is to improve the state of compressible turbulence modeling for high speed flows with shock wave / turbulent boundary layer interactions (SWTBLI). Emphasis is placed on models that can accurately predict the separated region caused by SWTBLI. These flows are classified as nonequilibrium boundary layers because of the very large and variable adverse pressure gradients caused by the shock waves. The Lag model was designed to model these nonequilibrium flows by incorporating history effects. Standard one- and two-equation models (Spalart Allmaras and SST) and the Lag model are run and compared to the new model. The focus of this work is thus to introduce a new model that builds on the success of the Lag model, but uses the Reynolds Stress Tensor (RST) as the lagged variable. This new model, the Reynolds stress tensor lag model (lagRST), is assessed against multiple wind tunnel tests and correlations as well as other models. The basis of the Lag and lagRST models is to preserve the accuracy of the standard turbulence models in equilibrium turbulence, when the Reynolds stresses are linearly related to the mean strain rates, but create a lag between mean strain rate effects and turbulence when nonequilibrium effects become important, such as in large pressure gradients. The effect this lag has on the results for SWTBLI and massively separated flows is determined. These computations are done with a modified version of the OVERFLOW code. This code solves the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations on overset grids. It was used for this study for its ability to input very complex geometries into the flow solver, such as the Space Shuttle in the full stack configuration. The model was successfully implemented within two versions of the
Symmetries in Turbulent Boundary Layer Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oberlack, M.
1996-01-01
The objective is the development of a new theory which enables the algorithmic computation of all self-similar mean velocity profiles. The theory is based on Liegroup analysis and unifies a large set of self-similar solutions for the mean velocity of stationary parallel turbulent shear flows. The results include the logarithmic law of the wall, an algebraic law, the viscous sublayer, the linear region in the middle of a Couette flow and in the middle of a rotating channel flow, and a new exponential mean velocity profile not previously reported. Experimental results taken in the outer parts of a high Reynolds number flat-plate boundary layer, strongly support the exponential profile. From experimental as well as from DNS data of a turbulent channel flow the algebraic scaling law could be confirmed in both the center region and in the near wall region. In the case of the logarithmic law of the wall, the scaling with the wall distance arises as a result of the analysis and has not been assumed in the derivation. The crucial part of the derivation of all the different mean velocity profiles is to consider the invariance of the equation for the velocity fluctuations at the same time as the invariance of the equation for the velocity product equations. The latter is the dyad product of the velocity fluctuations with the equation for the velocity fluctuations. It has been proven that all the invariant solutions are also consistent with similarity of all velocity moment equations up to any arbitrary order.
Boundary Layer Control of Rotating Convection Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, E. M.; Stellmach, S.; Noir, J.; Hansen, U.; Aurnou, J. M.
2008-12-01
Rotating convection is ubiquitous in the natural universe, and is likely responsible for planetary processes such magnetic field generation. Rapidly rotating convection is typically organized by the Coriolis force into tall, thin, coherent convection columns which are aligned with the axis of rotation. This organizational effect of rotation is thought to be responsible for the strength and structure of magnetic fields generated by convecting planetary interiors. As thermal forcing is increased, the relative influence of rotation weakens, and fully three-dimensional convection can exist. It has long been assumed that rotational effects will dominate convection dynamics when the ratio of buoyancy to the Coriolis force, the convective Rossby number, Roc, is less than unity. We investigate the influence of rotation on turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection via a suite of coupled laboratory and numerical experiments over a broad parameter range: Rayleigh number, 10310; Ekman number, 10-6≤ E ≤ ∞; and Prandtl number, 1≤ Pr ≤ 100. In particular, we measure heat transfer (as characterized by the Nusselt number, Nu) as a function of the Rayleigh number for several different Ekman and Prandtl numbers. Two distinct heat transfer scaling regimes are identified: non-rotating style heat transfer, Nu ~ Ra2/7, and quasigeostrophic style heat transfer, Nu~ Ra6/5. The transition between the non-rotating regime and the rotationally dominant regime is described as a function of the Ekman number, E. We show that the regime transition depends not on the global force balance Roc, but on the relative thicknesses of the thermal and Ekman boundary layers. The transition scaling provides a predictive criterion for the applicability of convection models to natural systems such as Earth's core.
Excimer emission from cathode boundary layer discharges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moselhy, Mohamed; Schoenbach, Karl H.
2004-02-01
The excimer emission from direct current glow discharges between a planar cathode and a ring-shaped anode of 0.75 and 1.5 mm diameter, respectively, separated by a gap of 250 μm, was studied in xenon and argon in a pressure range from 75 to 760 Torr. The thickness of the "cathode boundary layer" plasma, in the 100 μm range, and a discharge sustaining voltage of approximately 200 V, indicates that the discharge is restricted to the cathode fall and the negative glow. The radiant excimer emittance at 172 nm increases with pressure and reaches a value of 4 W/cm2 for atmospheric pressure operation in xenon. The maximum internal efficiency, however, decreases with pressure having highest values of 5% for 75 Torr operation. When the discharge current is reduced below a critical value, the discharge in xenon changes from an abnormal glow into a mode showing self-organization of the plasma. Also, the excimer spectrum changes from one with about equal contributions from the first and second continuum to one that is dominated by the second continuum emission. The xenon excimer emission intensity peaks at this discharge mode transition. In the case of argon, self-organization of the plasma was not seen, but the emission of the excimer radiation (128 nm) again shows a maximum at the transition from abnormal to normal glow. As was observed with xenon, the radiant emittance of argon increases with pressure, and the efficiency decreases. The maximum radiant emittance is 1.6 W/cm2 for argon at 600 Torr. The maximum internal efficiency is 2.5% at 200 Torr. The positive slope of the current-voltage characteristics at maximum excimer emission in both cases indicates the possibility of generating intense, large area, flat excimer lamps.
Effects of rarefaction on the shock wave/boundary layer interaction in hypersonic regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zuppardi, Gennaro; Boffa, Chiara
2012-11-01
Maneuverability of an aero-space-plane can be performed, besides by thrusters, also by aerodynamic surfaces on which a shock wave, generated on the front part of the vehicle, could impinge. This impingement produces on the surface local increases of heat flux and of aerodynamic load. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effects of rarefaction on the Shock Wave/Boundary Layer Interaction (SWBLI) in hypersonic regime. In rarefied regimes, in fact, the shock wave and the boundary layer are thicker than those in continuum, producing on the surface a more extended interaction zone. Furthermore, as the present analysis is carried out at Mach numbers typical of the reentry, a shock wave is much stronger than that usually met in supersonic, continuum flow. The study is carried on as a function of altitude in order to quantify the effects of both rarefaction and intensity of the shock wave on: extension of the interaction region, heat flux, aerodynamic load, slip velocity and slip temperature. The problem is studied computationally by the direct simulation Monte Carlo code DS2V. The flow field on a flat plate, on which a shock wave impinges, is simulated. The test conditions are those that should be met by the Flight Test Bed vehicle (FTB-X) along the re-entry path in the altitude interval 55-75 km. As expected, the extension of the interaction region increases with rarefaction. The maximum values of heat flux and aerodynamic load in the interaction region are about one order of magnitude higher than the same quantities without shock wave impingement and are comparable with those at the leading edge. The tests verified that the Neumann's analytical relation, linking the pressure rise to the heating rise in the interaction region, holds also in rarefied regime.
Destiny of earthward streaming plasma in the plasmasheet boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Green, J. L.; Horwitz, J. L.
1986-01-01
The dynamics of the earth's magnetotail have been investigated, and it has become clear that the plasmasheet boundary layer field lines map into the Region I Field-Aligned Currents (FAC) of the auroral zone. It is pointed out that the role of earthward streaming ions in the plasmasheet boundary layer may be of fundamental importance in the understanding of magnetotail dynamics, auroral zone physics, and especially for ionospheric-magnetospheric interactions. The present paper has the objective to evaluate propagation characteristics for the earthward streaming ions observed in the plasmasheet boundary layer. An investigation is conducted of the propagation characteristics of protons in the plasmasheet boundary layer using independent single particle dynamics, and conclusions are discussed. The density of earthward streaming ions found in the plasmasheet boundary layer should include the ring current as well as the auroral zone precipitaiton and inner plasmasheet regions of the magnetosphere.
Dusty boundary layer in a surface-burst explosion
Kuhl, A.L.; Ferguson, R.E.; Chien, K.Y.; Collins, J.P.
1993-08-01
Dusty boundary layers are an inherent feature of explosions over ground surfaces. Detailed knowledge of dusty boundary layer characteristics is needed in explosion safety analysis (e.g., to calculate the drag loads on structures). Also, to predicct the amount of dust in the rising fireball of an explsion, one must know the dusty boundary layer swept up during the positive and negative phases of the blast wave and how much of this boundary layer dust is entrained into the stem of the dust cloud. This paper describes the results of numerical simulations of the dusty boundary layer created by a surface burst explosion. The evolution of the flow was calculated by a high-order Godunov code that solves the nonsteady conservation laws.
Free-stream turbulence effects on the boundary layer of a high-lift low-pressure-turbine blade
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simoni, D.; Ubaldi, M.; Zunino, P.; Ampellio, E.
2016-06-01
The suction side boundary layer evolution of a high-lift low-pressure turbine cascade has been experimentally investigated at low and high free-stream turbulence intensity conditions. Measurements have been carried out in order to analyze the boundary layer transition and separation processes at a low Reynolds number, under both steady and unsteady inflows. Static pressure distributions along the blade surfaces as well as total pressure distributions in a downstream tangential plane have been measured to evaluate the overall aerodynamic efficiency of the blade for the different conditions. Particle Image Velocimetry has been adopted to analyze the time-mean and time-varying velocity fields. The flow field has been surveyed in two orthogonal planes (a blade-to-blade plane and a wall-parallel one). These measurements allow the identification of the Kelvin-Helmholtz large scale coherent structures shed as a consequence of the boundary layer laminar separation under steady inflow, as well as the investigation of the three-dimensional effects induced by the intermittent passage of low and high speed streaks. A close inspection of the time-mean velocity profiles as well as of the boundary layer integral parameters helps to characterize the suction side boundary layer state, thus justifying the influence of free-stream turbulence intensity on the blade aerodynamic losses measured under steady and unsteady inflows.
Towards improving efficiency of control for blowing into a boundary layer through a permeable wall
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fomin, V. M.; Kornilov, V. I.; Boiko, A. V.
2016-08-01
The results of experimental and numerical investigations of the efficiency of control by an incompressible turbulent boundary layer with the help air blowing through a permeable wall fabricated with maintenance of most of the necessary requirements for the quality and configuration of microapertures and having a low effective roughness are analyzed. Various cases of modeling the process of air blowing into the boundary layer through a specified hi-tech finely perforated surface are considered, and the data for average parameters and characteristics of turbulence of the flow types under investigation are presented. A substantial decrease in the skin-friction coefficient along the model length, which can achieve 90% with increasing the blowing coefficient, is shown. The estimate of the energy consumption for the process of blowing under terrestrial conditions testifies to the high potential of this method of control capable to provide 4-5% gain in the total aerodynamic drag of a simple modeling configuration.
Boundary Layer Rolls Observed Above and Below a Jet in a Marine Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foster, R. C.; Emmitt, G. D.; Godwin, K.; Greco, S.
2013-12-01
We have flown a coherent Doppler wind lidar (DWL) on the Cirpas Twin Otter off the California coast near Monterey since 2003. One scientific purpose of these flights is to understand the relationship between the turbulent fluxes measured on the aircraft or on other platforms and the observed structure of the marine boundary layer (MBL). Two common features are found in the MBL flow: (1) a strong jet at approximately 200 m above the sea surface; and (2) organized large eddies (OLE) in the form of roll vortices that are approximately aligned along the mean wind direction. On two flights (April 13, 2007 and September 30, 2012), the DWL data indicated that roll OLE existed simultaneously both above and below the jet. The DWL winds suggest that the OLE in these layers are sometimes independent and sometimes connected. Standard flux data are obtained on the Twin Otter at flight level, which is nominally 300 m. The 10 Hz wind and temperature data exhibit variability at spatial scales corresponding to the OLE wavelength. We have constructed a nonlinear theoretical model that includes triad wave-wave interactions to test the hypothesis that rolls could form both above and below the jet. This model shows that this is possible and that the rolls in the two layers could have unique characteristics compared to standard boundary layer rolls. The model further shows that the rolls above and below the jet are due to separate instabilities that interact. This is consistent with the observations of both connected and independent OLE above and below the jet. Contrast-enhanced DWL line-of-sight winds. Jet maximum 200 m below aircraft. Typical resonant triad solution for rolls above and below a PBL jet.
Thermocouple Rakes for Measuring Boundary Layer Flows Extremely Close to Surface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hwang, Danny P.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Martin, Lisa C.; Blaha, Charles A.
2001-01-01
Of vital interest to aerodynamic researchers is precise knowledge of the flow velocity profile next to the surface. This information is needed for turbulence model development and the calculation of viscous shear force. Though many instruments can determine the flow velocity profile near the surface, none of them can make measurements closer than approximately 0.01 in. from the surface. The thermocouple boundary-layer rake can measure much closer to the surface than conventional instruments can, such as a total pressure boundary layer rake, hot wire, or hot film. By embedding the sensors (thermocouples) in the region where the velocity is equivalent to the velocity ahead of a constant thickness strut, the boundary-layer flow profile can be obtained. The present device fabricated at the NASA Glenn Research Center microsystem clean room has a heater made of platinum and thermocouples made of platinum and gold. Equal numbers of thermocouples are placed both upstream and downstream of the heater, so that the voltage generated by each pair at the same distance from the surface is indicative of the difference in temperature between the upstream and downstream thermocouple locations. This voltage differential is a function of the flow velocity, and like the conventional total pressure rake, it can provide the velocity profile. In order to measure flow extremely close to the surface, the strut is made of fused quartz with extremely low heat conductivity. A large size thermocouple boundary layer rake is shown in the following photo. The latest medium size sensors already provide smooth velocity profiles well into the boundary layer, as close as 0.0025 in. from the surface. This is about 4 times closer to the surface than the previously used total pressure rakes. This device also has the advantage of providing the flow profile of separated flow and also it is possible to measure simultaneous turbulence levels within the boundary layer.
On Reflection of Shock Waves from Boundary Layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liepmann, H W; Roshko, A; Dhawan, S
1952-01-01
Measurements are presented at Mach numbers from about 1.3 to 1.5 of reflection characteristics and the relative upstream influence of shock waves impinging on a flat surface with both laminar and turbulent boundary layers. The difference between impulse and step waves is discussed and their interaction with the boundary layer is compared. General considerations on the experimental production of shock waves from wedges and cones and examples of reflection of shock waves from supersonic shear layers are also presented.
Synthetic Jet Interaction With A Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Douglas R.
2002-01-01
Perhaps one of the more notable advances to have occurred in flow control technology in the last fifteen years is the application of surface-issuing jets for separation control on aerodynamic surfaces. The concept was introduced by Johnston and Night (1990) who proposed using circular jets, skewed and inclined to the wall, to generate streamwise vortices for the purpose of mitigating boundary layer separation. The skew and inclination angles have subsequently been shown to affect the strength and sign of the ensuing vortices. With a non-circular orifice, in addition to skew and inclination, the yaw angle of the major axis of the orifice can influence the flow control effectiveness of the jet. In particular, a study by Chang arid Collins (1997) revealed that a non-circular orifice, yawed relative to the freestream, can be used to control the size and strength of the vortices produced by the control jet. This early work used jets with only a steady injection of mass. Seifert et al. revealed that an unsteady blowing jet, could be as effective at separation control as a steady jet but with less mass flow. Seifert et al. showed that small amplitude blowing oscillations superimposed on a low momentum steady jet Was the most effective approach to delaying separation on a NACA 0015 airfoil at post-stall angles of attack. More recent work suggests that perhaps the most efficient jet control effect comes from a synthetic (oscillatory) jet where the time-averaged mass flux through the orifice is zero, but the net wall normal momentum is non-zero. The control effectiveness of synthetic jets has been demonstrated for several internal and external flow fields used synthetic jet control on a thick, blunt-nosed airfoil to delay stall well beyond the stall angles for the uncontrolled airfoil and with a dramatic increase in the lift-to-drag performance. Amitay et al. used an array of synthetic jets to mitigate flow separation in curved and diffusing ducts. While the control
The aerodynamics of small Reynolds numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmitz, F. W.
1980-01-01
Aerodynamic characteristics of wing model gliders and bird wings in particular are discussed. Wind tunnel measurements and aerodynamics of small Reynolds numbers are enumerated. Airfoil behavior in the critical transition from laminar to turbulent boundary layer, which is more important to bird wing models than to large airplanes, was observed. Experimental results are provided, and an artificial bird wing is described.
On the theory of laminar boundary layers involving separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Von Karman, TH; Millikan, C
1934-01-01
This paper presents a mathematical discussion of the laminar boundary layer, which was developed with a view of facilitating the investigation of those boundary layers in particular for which the phenomenon of separation occurs. The treatment starts with a slight modification of the form of the boundary layer equation first published by Von Mises. Two approximate solutions of this equation are found, one of which is exact at the outer edge of the boundary layer while the other is exact at the wall. The final solution is obtained by joining these two solutions at the inflection points of the velocity profiles. The final solution is given in terms of a series of universal functions for a fairly broad class of potential velocity distributions outside of the boundary layer. Detailed calculations of the boundary layer characteristics are worked out for the case in which the potential velocity is a linear function of the distance from the upstream stagnation point. Finally, the complete separation point characteristics are determined for the boundary layer associated with a potential velocity distribution made up of two linear functions of the distance from the stagnation point. It appears that extensions of the detailed calculations to more complex potential flows can be fairly easily carried out by using the explicit formulae given in the paper. (author)
Boundary Layer Ventilation Processes During a High Pressure Event
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gray, S. L.; Dacre, H. F.; Belcher, S. E.
2006-12-01
It is often assumed that ventilation of the atmospheric boundary layer is weak during high pressure events. But is this always true? Here we investigate the processes responsible for ventilation of the atmospheric boundary layer during a high pressure event that occured on the 9 May 2005 using the UK Met Office Unifed Model. Pollution sources are represented by the constant emission of a passive tracer everywhere over land. The ventilation processes observed include a sea breeze circulation, turbulent mixing across the top of the boundary layer followed by large-scale ascent, and shallow convection. Vertical distributions of tracer are validated with AMPEP (Aircraft Measurement of chemical Processing Export fluxes of Pollutants over the UK) CO aircraft measurements and are shown to agree impressively well. Budget calculations of tracers are performed in order to determine the relative importance of these ventilation processes. The sea breeze circulation was found to ventilate 26% of the boundary layer tracer by sunset of which 2% was above 2km. A combination of the sea breeze circulation and turbulent mixing ventilated 46% of the boundary layer tracer, of which 10% was above 2km. Finally, the sea breeze circulation, turbulent mixing and shallow convection processes together ventilated 52% of the tracer into the free troposphere, of which 26% was above 2km. Hence this study shows that signicant ventilation of the boundary layer can occur during high pressure events; turbulent mixing and convection processes can double the amount of pollution ventilated from the boundary layer.
Crosshatch roughness distortions on a hypersonic turbulent boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peltier, S. J.; Humble, R. A.; Bowersox, R. D. W.
2016-04-01
The effects of periodic crosshatch roughness (k+ = 160) on a Mach 4.9 turbulent boundary layer (Reθ = 63 000) are examined using particle image velocimetry. The roughness elements generate a series of alternating shock and expansion waves, which span the entire boundary layer, causing significant (up to +50% and -30%) variations in the Reynolds shear stress field. Evidence of the hairpin vortex organization of incompressible flows is found in the comparative smooth-wall boundary layer case (Reθ = 47 000), and can be used to explain several observations regarding the rough-wall vortex organization. In general, the rough-wall boundary layer near-wall vortices no longer appear to be well-organized into streamwise-aligned packets that straddle relatively low-speed regions like their smooth-wall counterpart; instead, they lean farther away from the wall, become more spatially compact, and their populations become altered. In the lower half of the boundary layer, the net vortex swirling strength and outer-scaled Reynolds stresses increase relative to the smooth-wall case, and actually decrease in the outer half of the boundary layer, as ejection and entrainment processes are strengthened and weakened in these two regions, respectively. A spectral analysis of the data suggests a relative homogenizing of the most energetic scales near Λ = ˜ 0.5δ across the rough-wall boundary layer.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krueger, W.
1947-01-01
Calculations and test results are given about the feed-power requirement of airplanes with boundary-layer control. Curves and formulas for the rough estimate of pressure-loss and feed-power requirement are set up for the investigated arrangements which differ structurally and aerodynamically. According to these results the feed power for three different designs is calculated at the end of the report.
Prediction of 3-D boundary layer in the curved inlets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xing, Zongwen; Wang, Jianmin
1992-06-01
A prediction method for 3D compressible turbulent boundary layers in curved inlets is investigated. 3D boundary layer integral equations in nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate system are used and solved by lag-entrainment method with an introduced 3D entrainment coefficient equation. During numerical calculation, the prediction corrector method is employed. With the cubic spline function, the interpolation and differentiation accuracy and smoothness of discrete data is ensured. The developed program may be operated on a personal computer. The influence of cross flow on boundary layer development is clearly shown by the calculated results. The calculated pressure recovery of the inlet is in good agreement with experiment data.
Formation of pre-sheath boundary layers in electronegative plasmas
Vitello, P., LLNL
1998-05-01
In electronegative plasmas Coulomb scattering between positive and negative ions can lead to the formation of a pre-sheath boundary layer containing the bulk of the negative ions. The negative ion boundary layer forms when momentum transfer from positive to negative ions dominates the negative ion acceleration from the electric field. This condition is met in Inductively Coupled Plasma reactors that operate at low pressure and high plasma density. Simulations of the GEC reactor for Chlorine and Oxygen chemistries using the INDUCT95 2D model are presented showing the pre-sheath boundary layer structure as a function of applied power and neutral pressure.
Blow-up and control of marginally separated boundary layers.
Braun, Stefan; Kluwick, Alfred
2005-05-15
Interactive solutions for steady two-dimensional laminar marginally separated boundary layers are known to exist up to a critical value Gamma(c) of the controlling parameter (e.g. the angle of attack of a slender airfoil) Gamma only. Here, we investigate three-dimensional unsteady perturbations of such boundary layers, assuming that the basic flow is almost critical, i.e. in the limit Gamma(c)-Gamma-->0. It is then shown that the interactive equations governing such perturbations simplify significantly, allowing, among others, a systematic study of the blow-up phenomenon observed in earlier investigations and the optimization of devices used in boundary-layer control.
The Effects of Rotation on Boundary Layers in Turbomachine Rotors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnston, J. P.
1974-01-01
The boundary layers in turbomachine rotors are subject to Coriolis forces which can (1) contribute directly to the development of secondary flows and (2) indirectly influence the behavior of boundary layers by augmentation and/or suppression of turbulence production in the boundary layers on blades. Both these rotation-induced phenomena are particularly important in the development of understanding of flow and loss mechanisms in centrifugal and mixed flow machines. The primary objective of this paper is to review the information available on these effects.
Structure of turbulence in three-dimensional boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Subramanian, Chelakara S.
1993-01-01
This report provides an overview of the three dimensional turbulent boundary layer concepts and of the currently available experimental information for their turbulence modeling. It is found that more reliable turbulence data, especially of the Reynolds stress transport terms, is needed to improve the existing modeling capabilities. An experiment is proposed to study the three dimensional boundary layer formed by a 'sink flow' in a fully developed two dimensional turbulent boundary layer. Also, the mean and turbulence field measurement procedure using a three component laser Doppler velocimeter is described.
Further Improvements to Nozzle Boundary Layer Calculations in BLIMPJ
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Praharaj, S. C.; Gross, Klaus W.
1989-01-01
Further improvements made to advance the current Boundary Layer Integral Matrix Procedure - Version J (BLIMPJ) containing previously modeled simplified calculation methods by accounting for condensed phase, thick boundary layer and free stream turbulence effects are discussed. The condensed phase effects were included through species composition effect considered via input to the code and through particle damping effect considered via a turbulence model. The thrust loss calculation procedure for thick boundary layer effects was improved and the optimization of net thrust with respect to nozzle length was performed. The effects of free stream turbulence were approximately modeled in the turbulence model.
Size distributions of boundary-layer clouds
Stull, R.; Berg, L.; Modzelewski, H.
1996-04-01
Scattered fair-weather clouds are triggered by thermals rising from the surface layer. Not all surface layer air is buoyant enough to rise. Also, each thermal has different humidities and temperatures, resulting in interthermal variability of their lifting condensation levels (LCL). For each air parcel in the surface layer, it`s virtual potential temperature and it`s LCL height can be computed.
A Diagnostic Diagram to Understand the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer at High Wind Speeds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kettle, Anthony
2014-05-01
Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 57, 97-100, 1995). In the Froya study, plots on axes of wind speed and air-sea temperature difference provided an effective method to 'fingerprint' atmospheric conditions and summarize large segments of the data. The increasing numbers of offshore meteorological masts associated with the offshore wind industry are amenable to a similar approach to understand the main characteristics of the boundary layer. In this presentation, the Froya diagnostic figure is used interpret data from the FINO1 platform in the North Sea and understand boundary layer dynamics at high wind speeds.
Boundary Layer Ventilation by Convection and Coastal Processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dacre, H.
2008-12-01
Several observational studies measuring aerosol in the atmosphere have found multiple aerosol layers located above the marine boundary layer. It is hypothesized that the existence of these layers is influenced by the diurnal variation in the structure of the upwind continental boundary layer. Furthermore, collision between a sea breeze and the prevailing wind can result in enhanced convection at the coast which can also lead to elevated layers of pollution. In this study we investigate the processes responsible for ventilation of the atmospheric boundary layer near the coast using the UK Met Office Unified Model. Pollution sources are represented by the constant emission of a passive tracer everywhere over land. The ventilation processes observed include shallow convection, a sea breeze circulation and coastal outflow. Vertical distributions of tracer at the coast are validated qualitatively with AMPEP (Aircraft Measurement of chemical Processing Export fluxes of Pollutants over the UK) CO aircraft measurements and are shown to agree well.
Influences on the Height of the Stable Boundary Layer as seen in LES
Kosovic, B; Lundquist, J
2004-06-15
Climate models, numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, and atmospheric dispersion models often rely on parameterizations of planetary boundary layer height. In the case of a stable boundary layer, errors in boundary layer height estimation can result in gross errors in boundary-layer evolution and in prediction of turbulent mixing within the boundary layer.
The impact of vegetation on the atmospheric boundary layer and convective storms
Lee, T.J.
1992-01-01
The impact of vegetation on atmospheric boundary layer and convective storms is examined through the construction and testing of a soil-vegetation-atmospheric transfer (SVAT) model. The Land Ecosystem-Atmospheric (LEAF) model is developed using an elevated canopy structure, an above-canopy aerodynamic resistance, two in-canopy aerodynamic resistances, and one stomatal conductance functions. The air temperature and humidity are assumed to be constant in the canopy whereas the wind and radiation follow a specified vertical profile. A simple dump-bucket method is used to parameterize the interception of precipitation and a multi-layer soil model is utilized to handle the vertical transfer of soil water. Evaporation from soil and wet leaves and transpiration from dry leaves are evaluated separately. The solid water uptake is based on soil water potential rather than on length of roots. Separate energy budgets for vegetation and for soil are used in order to remove unnecessary assumptions on energy partition between the vegetation and the substrate. Primary parameters are LAI, maximum stomatal conductance, and albedo. Secondary parameters include displacement height and environmental controls on stomatal resistance function. The Multi-response Randomized Bock Permutation (MRBP) procedure is used to help choose the model parameter values. The Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST) is applied to understand the model behavior in response to changes in model parameters. LEAF is used to study growth of boundary layer and local thermal circulations generated by surface inhomogeneities. Results show that atmospheric boundary layer is cooler and more moist over unstressed vegetation than over bare dry soil. Thermally forced circulation can result from the juxtaposition of two vegetation types due to different biophysical characteristics. Simulations show that the surface spatial heterogeneities made by vegetation play an important role in generating local convective storms.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eastman, Timothy E.
1995-01-01
Evidence for the probable existence of magnetospheric boundary layers was first presented by Hones, et al. (1972), based on VELA satellite plasma observations (no magnetic field measurements were obtained). This magnetotail boundary layer is now known to be the tailward extension of the high-latitude boundary layer or plasma mantle (first uniquely identified using HEOS 2 plasma and field observations by Rosenbauer et al., 1975) and the low-latitude boundary layer (first uniquely identified using IMP 6 plasma and field observations by Eastman et al., 1976). The magnetospheric boundary layer is the region of magnetosheath-like plasma located Earthward of, but generally contiguous with the magnetopause. This boundary layer is typically identified by comparing low-energy (less than 10 keV) ion spectra across the magnetopause. Low-energy electron measurements are also useful for identifying the boundary layer because the shocked solar wind or magnetosheath has a characteristic spectral signature for electrons as well. However, there are magnetopause crossings where low-energy electrons might suggest a depletion layer outside the magnetopause even though the traditional field-rotation signature indicates that this same region is a boundary layer Earthward of the current layer. Our analyses avoided crossings which exhibit such ambiguities. Pristine magnetopause crossings are magnetopause crossings for which the current layer is well defined and for which there is no adjoining magnetospheric boundary layer as defined above. Although most magnetopause models to date apply to such crossings, few comparisons between such theory and observations of pristine magnetopause crossings have been made because most crossings have an associated magnetospheric boundary layer which significantly affects the applicable boundary conditions for the magnetopause current layer. Furthermore, almost no observational studies of magnetopause microstructure have been done even though key
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, May-Fun; Lee, Byung Joon
2013-01-01
It is known that the adverse effects of shock wave boundary layer interactions in high speed inlets include reduced total pressure recovery and highly distorted flow at the aerodynamic interface plane (AIP). This paper presents a design method for flow control which creates perturbations in geometry. These perturbations are tailored to change the flow structures in order to minimize shock wave boundary layer interactions (SWBLI) inside supersonic inlets. Optimizing the shape of two dimensional micro-size bumps is shown to be a very effective flow control method for two-dimensional SWBLI. In investigating the three dimensional SWBLI, a square duct is employed as a baseline. To investigate the mechanism whereby the geometric elements of the baseline, i.e. the bottom wall, the sidewall and the corner, exert influence on the flow's aerodynamic characteristics, each element is studied and optimized separately. It is found that arrays of micro-size bumps on the bottom wall of the duct have little effect in improving total pressure recovery though they are useful in suppressing the incipient separation in three-dimensional problems. Shaping sidewall geometry is effective in re-distributing flow on the side wall and results in a less distorted flow at the exit. Subsequently, a near 50% reduction in distortion is achieved. A simple change in corner geometry resulted in a 2.4% improvement in total pressure recovery.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hancock, Philip E.; Pascheke, Frauke
2014-04-01
Measurements have been made in both a neutral and a stable boundary layer as part of an investigation of the wakes of wind turbines in an offshore environment, in the EnFlo stratified flow wind tunnel. The working section is long enough for the flow to have become very nearly invariant with streamwise distance. In order to be systematic, the flow profile generators of Irwin-type spires and surface roughness were the same for both neutral and stable conditions. Achieving the required profiles by adjusting the flow generators, even for neutral flow, is a highly iterative art, and the present results indicate that it will be no less iterative for a stable flow (as well as there being more conditions to meet), so this was not attempted in the present investigation. The stable-case flow conformed in most respects to Monin-Obukhov similarity in the surface layer. A linear temperature profile was applied at the working section inlet, resulting in a near-linear profile in the developed flow above the boundary layer and `strong' imposed stability, while the condition at the surface was `weak'. Aerodynamic roughness length (mean velocity) was not affected by stability even though the roughness Reynolds number , while the thermal roughness length was much smaller, as is to be expected. The neutral case was Reynolds-number independent, and by inference, the stable case was also Reynolds-number independent.
Toward evaluation of heat fluxes in the convective boundary layer
Sorbjan, Z.
1995-05-01
This article demonstrates that vertical profiles of the heat flux in the convective boundary layer can be diagnosed through an integration over height of the time change rates of observed potential temperature profiles. Moreover, the basic characteristics of the convective boundary layer, such as the mixed-layer height z{sub t}, the depth of the interfacial (entrainment) layer, and the heat flux zero-crossing height h{sub 0} can be uniquely evaluated based on a time evolution of potential temperature profiles in the lower atmosphere. 12 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.
Further studies of unsteady boundary layers with flow reversal
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nash, J. F.
1976-01-01
One set of calculations was performed using the first order, time dependent turbulent boundary layer equations, and extended earlier work by Nash and Patel to a wider range of flows. Another set of calculations was performed for laminar flow using the time dependent Navier-Stokes equations. The results of the calculations confirm previous conclusions concerning the existence of a regime of unseparated flow, containing an embedded region of reversal, which is accessible to first order boundary layer theory. However, certain doubts are cast on the precise nature of the events which accompany the eventual breakdown of the theory due to singularity onset. The earlier view that the singularity appears as the final event in a sequence involving rapid thickening of the boundary layer and the formation of a localized region of steep gradients is called into question by the present results. It appears that singularity onset is not necessarily preceded by rapid boundary layer thickening, or even necessarily produces immediate thickening.
Experimental measurements of unsteady turbulent boundary layers near separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simpson, R. L.
1982-01-01
Investigations conducted to document the behavior of turbulent boundary layers on flat surfaces that separate due to adverse pressure gradients are reported. Laser and hot wire anemometers measured turbulence and flow structure of a steady free stream separating turbulent boundary layer produced on the flow of a wind tunnel section. The effects of sinusoidal and unsteadiness of the free stream velocity on this separating turbulent boundary layer at a reduced frequency were determined. A friction gage and a thermal tuft were developed and used to measure the surface skin friction and the near wall fraction of time the flow moves downstream for several cases. Abstracts are provided of several articles which discuss the effects of the periodic free stream unsteadiness on the structure or separating turbulent boundary layers.
The current structure of stratified tidal planetary boundary layer flow
Myrhaug, D.; Slaattelid, O.H.
1995-12-31
The paper presents the bottom shear stress and velocity profiles in stratified tidal planetary boundary layer flow by using similarity theory. For a given seabed roughness length, free stream current velocity components, frequency of tidal oscillation, Coriolis parameter and stratification parameter the maximum bottom shear stress is determined for flow conditions in the rough, smooth and transitional smooth-to-rough turbulent regime. Further, the direction of the bottom shear stress and the velocity profiles are given. Comparison is made with data from field measurements of time-independent as well as tidal planetary boundary layer flow for neutral conditions, and the agreement between the predictions and the data is generally good. Further, an example of application for stable stratification is given, and qualitatively the predictions show, as expected, that the bottom shear stress and the thickness of the boundary layer become smaller for stable than for neutral stratification. Other features of the tidal planetary boundary layer flow are also discussed.
Control and Identification of Turbulent Boundary Layer Separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seifert, Avi; Pack-Melton, La Tunia
2004-01-01
Effective delay of turbulent boundary layer separation could be achieved via closed-loop control. Constructing such a system requires that sensor data be processed, real-time, and fed into the controller to determine the output. Current methods for detection of turbulent boundary layer separation are lacking the capability of localized, fast and reliable identification of the boundary layer state. A method is proposed for short-time FFT processing of time series, measured by hot-film sensors, with the purpose of identifying the alternation of the balance between small and large scales as the boundary layer separates, favoring the large scales. The method has been validated by comparison to other criteria of separation detection and over a range of baseline and controlled flow conditions on a simplified high-lift system, incorporating active flow control.
Interacting turbulent boundary layer over a wavy wall
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Polak, A.; Werle, M. J.
1977-01-01
The two dimensional supersonic flow of a thick turbulent boundary layer over a train of relatively small wave-like protuberances is considered. The flow conditions and the geometry are such that there exists a strong interaction between the viscous and inviscid flow. The problem cannot be solved without inclusion of interaction effects due to the occurrence of the separation singularity in classical boundary layer methods. The interacting boundary layer equations are solved numerically using a time-like relaxation method with turbulence effects represented by the inclusion of the eddy viscosity model. Results are presented for flow over a train of up to six waves for Mach numbers of 10 and 32 million/meter, and wall temperature rations (T sub w/T sub 0) of 0.4 and 0.8. Limited comparisons with independent experimental and analytical results are also given. Detailed results on the influence of small protuberances on surface heating by boundary layers are presented.
Stress Boundary layer Development in Planar flow of Viscoelastic Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashrafi, Nariman; Mohamadali, Meysam
2015-11-01
Two-dimensional steady planar creeping flow of the nonlinear viscoelastic Upper Convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid along a flat plate is analyzed for high Weissenberg numbers, Wi. The viscoelastic boundary layer, formed in a thin region closer to the wall in which the relaxation terms are recovered. By means of similarity transformations the non-linear momentum and constitutive equations in each layer transform into a system of highly nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations. The proper similarity variable is found that asymptotically matches each two adjacent layers. The numerical simulation shows that at the outer layer, the velocity profile changes linearly with the similarity variable meaning that no velocity boundary layer is developed. In general, the boundary layer is formed in all three stress components in different fashions. The stress boundary layer divides the flow into two separate regions of viscoelastic and elastic flows, in addition to the top outer flow. The viscoelastic region is completely bounded in two directions (x and y) for horizontal normal stress, Txx, and shear stress, Txy. Finally it is observed that the stress boundary layer for vertical stress, Tyy, is formed only in x direction.
An analytic study of nonsteady two-phase laminar boundary layer around an airfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsu, Yu-Kao
1989-01-01
Recently, NASA, FAA, and other organizations have focused their attention upon the possible effects of rain on airfoil performance. Rhode carried out early experiments and concluded that the rain impacting the aircraft increased the drag. Bergrum made numerical calculation for the rain effects on airfoils. Luers and Haines did an analytic investigation and found that heavy rain induces severe aerodynamic penalties including both a momentum penalty due to the impact of the rain and a drag and lift penalty due to rain roughening of the airfoil and fuselage. More recently, Hansman and Barsotti performed experiments and declared that performance degradation of an airfoil in heavy rain is due to the effective roughening of the surface by the water layer. Hansman and Craig did further experimental research at low Reynolds number. E. Dunham made a critical review for the potential influence of rain on airfoil performance. Dunham et al. carried out experiments for the transport type airfoil and concluded that there is a reduction of maximum lift capability with increase in drag. There is a scarcity of published literature in analytic research of two-phase boundary layer around an airfoil. Analytic research is being improved. The following assumptions are made: the fluid flow is non-steady, viscous, and incompressible; the airfoil is represented by a two-dimensional flat plate; and there is only a laminar boundary layer throughout the flow region. The boundary layer approximation is solved and discussed.
Classification of structures in the stable boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belusic, Danijel
2015-04-01
Ubiquitous but generally unknown flow structures populate the stable boundary layer at scales larger than turbulence. They introduce nonstationarity, affect the generation of turbulence and induce fluxes. Classification of the structures into clusters based on a similarity measure could reduce their apparent complexity and lead to better understanding of their characteristics and mechanisms. Here we explore different approaches to detect and classify structures, the usefulness of those approaches, and their potential to provide better understanding of the stable boundary layer.
Tropical boundary layer equilibrium in the last ice age
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Betts, Alan K.; Ridgway, W.
1992-01-01
A radiative-convective boundary layer model is used to assess the effect of changing sea surface temperature, pressure, wind speed, and the energy export from the tropics on the boundary layer equilibrium equivalent potential temperature. It remains difficult to reconcile the observations that during the last glacial maximum (18,000 yr BP) the snowline on the tropical mountains fell 950 m, while the tropical sea surface temperatures fell only 1-2 K.
Aerodynamic heating on 3-D bodies including the effects of entropy-layer swallowing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dejarnette, F. R.; Hamilton, H. H.
1974-01-01
A relatively simple method was developed previously (authors, 1973) for calculating laminar, transitional, and turbulent heating rates on three-dimensional bodies in hypersonic flows. This method was shown to yield reasonably accurate results for laminar heating on blunted circular and elliptical cones and an earlier version of the space shuttle vehicle. As the boundary layer along the surface grows, more and more of the inviscid-flow mass is entrained into the boundary layer, and the streamlines which passed through the nearly normal portion of the bow shock wave are 'swallowed' by the boundary layer. This phenomenon is often referred to as entropy-layer or streamline swallowing, and it can have a significant effect on the calculated heating rates. An approximate, yet simple, method for including the effects of entropy-layer swallowing in the heating-rate calculations is given.
Structure and Growth of the Marine Boundary Layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccumber, M.
1984-01-01
LANDSAT visible imagery and a one-dimensional Lagrangian boundary layer model were used to hypothesize the nature and the development of the marine boundary layer during a winter episode of strong seaward cold air advection. Over-water heating and moistening of the cold, dry continental air is estimable from linear relations involving horizontal gradients of the near-surface air temperature and humidity. A line of enhanced convection paralleling the Atlantic U.S. coast from south of New York Bay to the vicinity of Virginia Beach, VA was attributed to stronger convergence at low levels. This feature was characterized as a mesoscale front. With the assistance of a three-dimensional mesoscale boundary layer model, initialized with data obtained from the MASEX, the marine boundary layer can be mapped over the entire Atlantic coastal domain and the evolution of the boundary layer can be studied as a function of different characteristics of important surface level forcings. The effects on boundary layer growth due to the magnitude and pattern of sea surface temperature, to the shape of the coastline, and to atmospheric conditions, such as the orientation of the prevailing wind are examined.
Large eddy simulation of boundary layer flow under cnoidal waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yin-Jun; Chen, Jiang-Bo; Zhou, Ji-Fu; Zhang, Qiang
2016-02-01
Water waves in coastal areas are generally nonlinear, exhibiting asymmetric velocity profiles with different amplitudes of crest and trough. The behaviors of the boundary layer under asymmetric waves are of great significance for sediment transport in natural circumstances. While previous studies have mainly focused on linear or symmetric waves, asymmetric wave-induced flows remain unclear, particularly in the flow regime with high Reynolds numbers. Taking cnoidal wave as a typical example of asymmetric waves, we propose to use an infinite immersed plate oscillating cnoidally in its own plane in quiescent water to simulate asymmetric wave boundary layer. A large eddy simulation approach with Smagorinsky subgrid model is adopted to investigate the flow characteristics of the boundary layer. It is verified that the model well reproduces experimental and theoretical results. Then a series of numerical experiments are carried out to study the boundary layer beneath cnoidal waves from laminar to fully developed turbulent regimes at high Reynolds numbers, larger than ever studied before. Results of velocity profile, wall shear stress, friction coefficient, phase lead between velocity and wall shear stress, and the boundary layer thickness are obtained. The dependencies of these boundary layer properties on the asymmetric degree and Reynolds number are discussed in detail.
Effects of external disturbances on turbulent boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dogan, Eda; Hanson, Ronald; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram
2014-11-01
The state of a turbulent boundary layer that develops under the influence of different types of freestream turbulence is examined. The freestream turbulence conditions with different length-scale and turbulence intensity are generated using active and passive grids. Downstream of the grid, a flat plate is placed to establish a zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer. The interaction between the freestream and the turbulent boundary layer is investigated using simultaneous measurements of the boundary layer and freestream using single component hot-wire anemometry and multi-camera Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Results from the hot-wire measurements of different cases show that the near-wall peak turbulence intensity increases with increasing levels of free stream turbulence indicating the level and extent of penetration by free stream turbulence into the boundary layer. It is also observed that for different level of freestream perturbations to the flow, the momentum loss in the turbulent boundary layer could be similar. The data from these cases will be investigated further using spectral analysis to examine the energetic scales of the flow. The PIV data will be analysed to elucidate the coherent structures associated with these interactions.
Boundary layer effects on liners for aircraft engines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabard, Gwénaël
2016-10-01
The performance of acoustic treatments installed on aircraft engines is strongly influenced by the boundary layer of the grazing flow on the surface of the liner. The parametric study presented in this paper illustrates the extent of this effect and identifies when it is significant. The acoustic modes of a circular duct with flow are calculated using a finite difference method. The parameters are representative of the flow conditions, liners and sound fields found in current turbofan engines. Both the intake and bypass ducts are considered. Results show that there is a complex interplay between the boundary layer thickness, the direction of propagation and the liner impedance and that the boundary layer can have a strong impact on liner performance for typical configurations (including changes of the order of 30 dB on the attenuation of modes associated with tonal fan noise). A modified impedance condition including the effect of a small but finite boundary layer thickness is considered and compared to the standard Myers condition based on an infinitely thin boundary layer. We show how this impedance condition can be implemented in a mode calculation method by introducing auxiliary variables. This condition is able to capture the trends associated with the boundary layer effects and in most cases provides improved predictions of liner performance.
Adaptive nonlinear polynomial neural networks for control of boundary layer/structural interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parker, B. Eugene, Jr.; Cellucci, Richard L.; Abbott, Dean W.; Barron, Roger L.; Jordan, Paul R., III; Poor, H. Vincent
1993-01-01
The acoustic pressures developed in a boundary layer can interact with an aircraft panel to induce significant vibration in the panel. Such vibration is undesirable due to the aerodynamic drag and structure-borne cabin noises that result. The overall objective of this work is to develop effective and practical feedback control strategies for actively reducing this flow-induced structural vibration. This report describes the results of initial evaluations using polynomial, neural network-based, feedback control to reduce flow induced vibration in aircraft panels due to turbulent boundary layer/structural interaction. Computer simulations are used to develop and analyze feedback control strategies to reduce vibration in a beam as a first step. The key differences between this work and that going on elsewhere are as follows: that turbulent and transitional boundary layers represent broadband excitation and thus present a more complex stochastic control scenario than that of narrow band (e.g., laminar boundary layer) excitation; and secondly, that the proposed controller structures are adaptive nonlinear infinite impulse response (IIR) polynomial neural network, as opposed to the traditional adaptive linear finite impulse response (FIR) filters used in most studies to date. The controllers implemented in this study achieved vibration attenuation of 27 to 60 dB depending on the type of boundary layer established by laminar, turbulent, and intermittent laminar-to-turbulent transitional flows. Application of multi-input, multi-output, adaptive, nonlinear feedback control of vibration in aircraft panels based on polynomial neural networks appears to be feasible today. Plans are outlined for Phase 2 of this study, which will include extending the theoretical investigation conducted in Phase 2 and verifying the results in a series of laboratory experiments involving both bum and plate models.
Adaptive nonlinear polynomial neural networks for control of boundary layer/structural interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parker, B. Eugene, Jr.; Cellucci, Richard L.; Abbott, Dean W.; Barron, Roger L.; Jordan, Paul R., III; Poor, H. Vincent
1993-12-01
The acoustic pressures developed in a boundary layer can interact with an aircraft panel to induce significant vibration in the panel. Such vibration is undesirable due to the aerodynamic drag and structure-borne cabin noises that result. The overall objective of this work is to develop effective and practical feedback control strategies for actively reducing this flow-induced structural vibration. This report describes the results of initial evaluations using polynomial, neural network-based, feedback control to reduce flow induced vibration in aircraft panels due to turbulent boundary layer/structural interaction. Computer simulations are used to develop and analyze feedback control strategies to reduce vibration in a beam as a first step. The key differences between this work and that going on elsewhere are as follows: that turbulent and transitional boundary layers represent broadband excitation and thus present a more complex stochastic control scenario than that of narrow band (e.g., laminar boundary layer) excitation; and secondly, that the proposed controller structures are adaptive nonlinear infinite impulse response (IIR) polynomial neural network, as opposed to the traditional adaptive linear finite impulse response (FIR) filters used in most studies to date. The controllers implemented in this study achieved vibration attenuation of 27 to 60 dB depending on the type of boundary layer established by laminar, turbulent, and intermittent laminar-to-turbulent transitional flows. Application of multi-input, multi-output, adaptive, nonlinear feedback control of vibration in aircraft panels based on polynomial neural networks appears to be feasible today. Plans are outlined for Phase 2 of this study, which will include extending the theoretical investigation conducted in Phase 2 and verifying the results in a series of laboratory experiments involving both bum and plate models.
Dense gas boundary layer experiments: Visualization, pressure measurements, concentration evaluation
Reichenbach, H.; Neuwald, P.; Kuhl, A.L.
1992-11-01
This technical report describes methods that were applied to investigate turbulent boundary layers generated by inviscid, baroclinic effects. The Cranz-Schardin 24-sparks camera was used to visualize the interactions of a planar shock wave with a Freon R12-layer. The shock propagates more slowly in the Freon layer than in air because of its smaller sound speed. This causes the shock front to be curved and to be reflected between the wall and the layer interface. As a consequence of the reflection process, a series of compression and expansion waves radiate from the layer. Large fluctuations in the streamwise velocity and in pressure develop for about 1 ms. These waves strongly perturb the interface shear layer, which rapidly transitions to a turbulent boundary flow. Pressure measurements showed that the fluctuations in the Freon layer reach a peak pressure 4 times higher than in the turbulent boundary flow. To characterize the preshock Freon boundary layer, concentration measurements were performed with a differential interferometry technique. The refraction index of Freon R12 is so high that Mach-Zehnder interferometry was not successful in these experiments. The evaluation of the concentration profile is described here in detail. Method and results of corresponding LDV measurements under the same conditions are presented in a different report, EMI Report T 9/92. The authors plan to continue the dense gas layer investigations with the gas combination helium/Freon.
Boundary Layer Flow Over a Moving Wavy Surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendin, Gali; Toledo, Yaron
2016-04-01
Boundary Layer Flow Over a Moving Wavy Surface Gali Hendin(1), Yaron Toledo(1) January 13, 2016 (1)School of Mechanical Engineering, Tel-Aviv University, Israel Understanding the boundary layer flow over surface gravity waves is of great importance as various atmosphere-ocean processes are essentially coupled through these waves. Nevertheless, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of this complex flow behaviour. The present work investigates the fundamentals of the boundary layer air flow over progressive, small-amplitude waves. It aims to extend the well-known Blasius solution for a boundary layer over a flat plate to one over a moving wavy surface. The current analysis pro- claims the importance of the small curvature and the time-dependency as second order effects, with a meaningful impact on the similarity pattern in the first order. The air flow over the ocean surface is modelled using an outer, inviscid half-infinite flow, overlaying the viscous boundary layer above the wavy surface. The assumption of a uniform flow in the outer layer, used in former studies, is now replaced with a precise analytical solution of the potential flow over a moving wavy surface with a known celerity, wavelength and amplitude. This results in a conceptual change from former models as it shows that the pressure variations within the boundary layer cannot be neglected. In the boundary layer, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations are formulated in a curvilinear, orthogonal coordinate system. The formulation is done in an elaborate way that presents additional, formerly neglected first-order effects, resulting from the time-varying coordinate system. The suggested time-dependent curvilinear orthogonal coordinate system introduces a platform that can also support the formulation of turbulent problems for any surface shape. In order to produce a self-similar Blasius-type solution, a small wave-steepness is assumed and a perturbation method is applied. Consequently, a
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abkar, Mahdi; Porte-Agel, Fernando
2011-11-01
Large-eddy simulations are performed to evaluate the performance of the surface boundary condition downwind of a rough-to-smooth surface transition. Two types of boundary conditions are tested: (i) the standard formulation based on local application of Monin-Obukhov similarity (MOS) theory, and (ii) a new model based on a modification of the recently proposed model of Chamorro and Porte-Agel (2009). The new model assumes that the wind velocity downwind of a rough-to-smooth transition can be estimated as a weighted average of two logarithmic profiles. The first log law is recovered above the internal boundary layer height and corresponds to the upwind velocity profile. The second log law is adjusted to the downwind aerodynamic roughness and it is recovered near the surface in the equilibrium sublayer. The performance of the new model is tested with available wind-tunnel measurements and shows improved predictions of surface shear stress and velocity distribution at different positions downwind of the transition. In addition, the prediction of the new model shows very small dependence on the height at which it is applied.
Observations of the Arctic boundary layer clouds during ACSE 2014
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Achtert, P.; Sotiropoulou, G.; Brooks, I. M.; Brooks, B. J.; Johnston, P. E.; Persson, O. P. G.; Prytherch, J.; Salisbury, D.; Sedlar, J.; Tjernstrom, M. K. H.; Wolfe, D. E.; Shupe, M.
2015-12-01
Boundary-layer structure and dynamics are intimately linked with both surface exchange processes and the properties of boundary-layer clouds, which in turn exert a strong control on the surface energy budget. Sea ice melt and formation are thus closely coupled with boundary layer clouds and turbulent exchange. Coordinated observations of boundary layer processes and cloud dynamics are sparse in over the Arctic Ocean. This holds especially for observations that extend over the entire ice melt season. Measurements with surface-based remote-sensing instruments and near-surface meteorological sensors as well as through radiosoundings were perfomed during the 3-month Arctic Clouds in Summer Experiment (ACSE) in the East Siberian Arctic Ocean during the summer and early autumn of 2014. We will present a detailed view of cloud and fog properties in connection with boundary layer structure (e.g. inversions, stratification), vertical mixing processes, and the effect of a variety of surface conditions from open water, through marginal ice to dense pack ice on the overlaying cloud layers over. Most of the observed clouds showed a base height of 300 m or less. Strongly stable near-surface conditions with fog were often observed during the beginning of the cruise (summer season), whereas deeper surface-based mixed layers capped by mixed-phase clouds occured more frequently in autumn.
High-order Finite Element Analysis of Boundary Layer Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Alvin; Sahni, Onkar
2014-11-01
Numerical analysis of boundary layer flows requires careful approximations, specifically the use of a mesh with layered and graded elements near the (viscous) walls. This is referred to as a boundary layer mesh, which for complex geometries is composed of triangular elements on the walls that are inflated or extruded into the volume along the wall-normal direction up to a desired height while the rest of the domain is filled with unstructured tetrahedral elements. Linear elements with C0 inter-element continuity are employed and in some situations higher order C0 elements are also used. However, these elements only enforce continuity whereas high-order smoothness is not attained as will be the case with C1 inter-element continuity and higher. As a result, C0 elements result in a poor approximation of the high-order boundary layer behavior. To achieve greater inter-element continuity in boundary layer region, we employ B-spline basis functions along the wall-normal direction (i.e., only in the layered portion of the mesh). In the rest of the fully unstructured mesh, linear or higher order C0 elements are used as appropriate. In this study we demonstrate the benefits of finite-element analysis based on such higher order and continuity basis functions for boundary layer flows.
Application of a Reynolds stress model to separating boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ko, Sung HO
1993-01-01
Separating turbulent boundary layers occur in many practical engineering applications. Nonetheless, the physics of separation/reattachment of flows is poorly understood. During the past decade, various turbulence models were proposed and their ability to successfully predict some types of flows was shown. However. prediction of separating/reattaching flows is still a formidable task for model developers. The present study is concerned with the process of separation from a smooth surface. Features of turbulent separating boundary layers that are relevant to modeling include the following: the occurrence of zero wall shear stress, which causes breakdown of the boundary layer approximation; the law of the wall not being satisfied in the mean back flow region; high turbulence levels in the separated region; a significant low-frequency motion in the separation bubble; and the turbulence structure of the separated shear layer being quite different from that of either the mixing layers or the boundary layers. These special characteristics of separating boundary layers make it difficult for simple turbulence models to correctly predict their behavior.
Analysis and Modeling of Boundary Layer Separation Method (BLSM).
Pethő, Dóra; Horváth, Géza; Liszi, János; Tóth, Imre; Paor, Dávid
2010-09-01
Nowadays rules of environmental protection strictly regulate pollution material emission into environment. To keep the environmental protection laws recycling is one of the useful methods of waste material treatment. We have developed a new method for the treatment of industrial waste water and named it boundary layer separation method (BLSM). We apply the phenomena that ions can be enriched in the boundary layer of the electrically charged electrode surface compared to the bulk liquid phase. The main point of the method is that the boundary layer at correctly chosen movement velocity can be taken out of the waste water without being damaged, and the ion-enriched boundary layer can be recycled. Electrosorption is a surface phenomenon. It can be used with high efficiency in case of large electrochemically active surface of electrodes. During our research work two high surface area nickel electrodes have been prepared. The value of electrochemically active surface area of electrodes has been estimated. The existence of diffusion part of the double layer has been experimentally approved. The electrical double layer capacity has been determined. Ion transport by boundary layer separation has been introduced. Finally we have tried to estimate the relative significance of physical adsorption and electrosorption. PMID:24061827
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oliver, A. B.; Lillard, R. P.; Blaisdell, G. A.; Lyrintizis, A. S.
2006-01-01
The capability of the OVERFLOW code to accurately compute high-speed turbulent boundary layers and turbulent shock-boundary layer interactions is being evaluated. Configurations being investigated include a Mach 2.87 flat plate to compare experimental velocity profiles and boundary layer growth, a Mach 6 flat plate to compare experimental surface heat transfer,a direct numerical simulation (DNS) at Mach 2.25 for turbulent quantities, and several Mach 3 compression ramps to compare computations of shock-boundary layer interactions to experimental laser doppler velocimetry (LDV) data and hot-wire data. The present paper describes outlines the study and presents preliminary results for two of the flat plate cases and two small-angle compression corner test cases.
Boundary layer equations and symmetry analysis of a Carreau fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dolapci, Ihsan Timuçin
2016-06-01
In this paper, boundary layer equations of the Carreau fluid have been examined. Lie group theory is applied to the governing equations and symmetries of the equations are determined. The non-linear partial differential equations and their boundary conditions are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations using the similarity transformations obtained from the symmetries. The system of ordinary differential equations are numerically solved for the boundary layer conditions. Finally, effects of non-Newtonian parameters on the solutions are investigated in detail.
Method of reducing drag in aerodynamic systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hrach, Frank J. (Inventor)
1993-01-01
In the present method, boundary layer thickening is combined with laminar flow control to reduce drag. An aerodynamic body is accelerated enabling a ram turbine on the body to receive air at velocity V sub 0. The discharge air is directed over an aft portion of the aerodynamic body producing boundary layer thickening. The ram turbine also drives a compressor by applying torque to a shaft connected between the ram turbine and the compressor. The compressor sucks in lower boundary layer air through inlets in the shell of the aircraft producing laminar flow control and reducing drag. The discharge from the compressor is expanded in a nozzle to produce thrust.
Numerical Studies of Boundary-Layer Receptivity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, Helen L.
1995-01-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the acoustic receptivity process on a semi-infinite flat plate with a modified-super-elliptic (MSE) leading edge are performed. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved in stream-function/vorticity form in a general curvilinear coordinate system. The steady basic-state solution is found by solving the governing equations using an alternating direction implicit (ADI) procedure which takes advantage of the parallelism present in line-splitting techniques. Time-harmonic oscillations of the farfield velocity are applied as unsteady boundary conditions to the unsteady disturbance equations. An efficient time-harmonic scheme is used to produce the disturbance solutions. Buffer-zone techniques have been applied to eliminate wave reflection from the outflow boundary. The spatial evolution of Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) waves is analyzed and compared with experiment and theory. The effects of nose-radius, frequency, Reynolds number, angle of attack, and amplitude of the acoustic wave are investigated. This work is being performed in conjunction with the experiments at the Arizona State University Unsteady Wind Tunnel under the direction of Professor William Saric. The simulations are of the same configuration and parameters used in the wind-tunnel experiments.
An experimental investigation of turbulent boundary layers along curved surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
So, R. M. C.; Mellor, G. L.
1972-01-01
A curved wall tunnel was designed, and an equilibrium turbulent boundary layer was set up on the straight section preceding the curved test section. Turbulent boundary layer flows with uniform and adverse pressure distributions along convex and concave walls were investigated. Hot-wire measurements along the convex surface indicated that turbulent mixing between fluid layers was very much reduced. However, the law of the wall held and the skin friction, thus determined, correlated well with other measurements. Hot-wire measurements along the concave test wall revealed a system of longitudinal vortices inside the boundary layer and confirmed that concave curvature enhances mixing. A self-consistent set of turbulent boundary layer equations for flows along curved surfaces was derived together with a modified eddy viscosity. Solution of these equations together with the modified eddy viscosity gave results that correlated well with the present data on flows along the convex surface with arbitrary pressure distribution. However, it could only be used to predict the mean characteristics of the flow along concave walls because of the existence of the system of longitudinal vortices inside the boundary layer.
A numerical investigation of boundary layer quasi-equilibrium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thayer-Calder, K.; Randall, David
2015-01-01
Despite the large energy input from surface evaporation, the moist static energy (MSE) of the tropical boundary layer remains relatively constant on large spatial and temporal scales due to lifting of vapor by cloudy updrafts and the addition of dry air from the layers above. Arakawa and Schubert (1974) suggested that drying is due mainly to clear-air turbulent entrainment between cloudy updrafts, while Raymond (1995) described drying due mainly to convective downdrafts. We used cloud-resolving numerical simulations to investigate the transport of MSE into the boundary layer and found turbulent entrainment between clouds to be the dominant process.
Boundary layer thermal stresses in angle-ply composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, S. S.; Choi, I.
1979-01-01
Boundary-layer thermal stress singularities and distributions of angle-ply composite laminates under uniform thermal loading are investigated through a system of sixth-order governing partial differential equations developed with the aid of the anisotropic elasticity field equations and Lekhnitskii's complex stress functions. Results are presented for cases of various angle-ply graphite/epoxy laminates, and it is shown that the boundary-layer thickness depends on the degree of anisotropy of each individual lamina, thermomechanical properties of each ply, and the relative thickness of adjacent layers.
Behavior of turbulent boundary layers on curved convex walls
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmidbauer, Hans
1936-01-01
The system of linear differential equations which indicated the approach of separation and the so-called "boundary-layer thickness" by Gruschwitz is extended in this report to include the case where the friction layer is subject to centrifugal forces. Evaluation of the data yields a strong functional dependence of the momentum change and wall drag on the boundary-layer thickness radius of curvature ratio for the wall. It is further shown that the transition from laminar to turbulent flow occurs at somewhat higher Reynolds Numbers at the convex wall than at the flat plate, due to the stabilizing effect of the centrifugal forces.
Shock-like structures in the tropical cyclone boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, Gabriel J.; Taft, Richard K.; McNoldy, Brian D.; Schubert, Wayne H.
2013-06-01
This paper presents high horizontal resolution solutions of an axisymmetric, constant depth, slab boundary layer model designed to simulate the radial inflow and boundary layer pumping of a hurricane. Shock-like structures of increasing intensity appear for category 1-5 hurricanes. For example, in the category 3 case, the u>(∂u/∂r>) term in the radial equation of motion produces a shock-like structure in the radial wind, i.e., near the radius of maximum tangential wind the boundary layer radial inflow decreases from approximately 22 m s-1 to zero over a radial distance of a few kilometers. Associated with this large convergence is a spike in the radial distribution of boundary layer pumping, with updrafts larger than 22 m s-1 at a height of 1000 m. Based on these model results, it is argued that observed hurricane updrafts of this magnitude so close to the ocean surface are attributable to the dry dynamics of the frictional boundary layer rather than moist convective dynamics. The shock-like structure in the boundary layer radial wind also has important consequences for the evolution of the tangential wind and the vertical component of vorticity. On the inner side of the shock the tangential wind tendency is essentially zero, while on the outer side of the shock the tangential wind tendency is large due to the large radial inflow there. The result is the development of a U-shaped tangential wind profile and the development of a thin region of large vorticity. In many respects, the model solutions resemble the remarkable structures observed in the boundary layer of Hurricane Hugo (1989).
Feasibility study of optical boundary layer transition detection method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Azzazy, M.; Modarress, D.; Trolinger, J. D.
1986-01-01
A high sensitivity differential interferometer was developed to locate the region where the boundary layer flow undergoes transition from laminar to turbulent. Two laboratory experimental configurations were used to evaluate the performance of the interferometer: open shear layer, and low speed wind tunnel turbulent spot configuration. In each experiment, small temperature fluctuations were introduced as the signal source. Simultaneous cold wire measurements were compared with the interferometer data. The comparison shows that the interferometer is sensitive to very weak phase variations in the order of 0.001 the laser wavelength. An attempt to detect boundary layer transition over a flat plate at NASA-Langley Unitary Supersonic Wind Tunnel using the interferometer system was performed. The phase variations during boundary layer transition in the supersonic wind tunnel were beyond the minimum signal-to-noise level of the instrument.
Computational Assessment of the Benefits of Boundary Layer Ingestion for the D8 Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pandya, Shishir A.; Uranga, Alejandra
2013-01-01
To substantially reduce the fuel burn of future commercial transportation aircraft, the boundary layer ingestion idea is investigated. The idea is that an engine placed in the wake of the aircraft it is propelling is more efficient than a conventional engine placement under the wing or on pods mounted to the rear of the fuselage. The top, rear of the fuselage is thus designed to act as a diffuser such that the engines can be placed there with a minimal nacelle. The boundary layer thickens over the rear of the fuselage such that a large portion of it is ingested by the fan. To assess whether the boundary layer ingesting (BLI) engine placement is indeed advantageous, a study of the nacelle aerodynamics is carried out using Overflow, a viscous CFD flow solver that uses overset meshes. The computed forces and moments are compared to a wind tunnel experiment for validation. Some aspects of the design are verified using the simulation results. Finally, the effect of the nacelle placement is assessed by comparing the BLI nacelle configuration to a podded nacelle configuration and to the unpowered (without nacelles) aircraft.
A High-Lift Building Block Flow: Turbulent Boundary Layer Relaminarization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bourassa, Corey; Thomas, Flint O.; Nelson, Robert C.
2001-01-01
A working wind tunnel test facility has been constructed at the University of Notre Dame's Hessert Center. The relaminarization test facility has been constructed in the 1.5m x 1.5m (5ft x 5 ft) atmospheric wind tunnel and generates a Re(theta)=4694 turbulent boundary layer in nominally zero-pressure gradient before it is exposed to the Case #1 pressure gradient (K approximately equal to 4.2 x 10(exp -6), which is believed to be sufficient to achieve relaminarization. Future work to be conducted will include measuring the response of the turbulent boundary layer to the favorable pressure gradients created in the test facility and documenting this response in order to understand the underlying flow physics responsible for relaminarization. It is the goal of this research to have a better understanding of accelerated turbulent boundary layers which will aid in the development of future flow diagnostic utilities to be implemented in applied aerodynamic research.
Vortex Generators to Control Boundary Layer Interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Babinsky, Holger (Inventor); Loth, Eric (Inventor); Lee, Sang (Inventor)
2014-01-01
Devices for generating streamwise vorticity in a boundary includes various forms of vortex generators. One form of a split-ramp vortex generator includes a first ramp element and a second ramp element with front ends and back ends, ramp surfaces extending between the front ends and the back ends, and vertical surfaces extending between the front ends and the back ends adjacent the ramp surfaces. A flow channel is between the first ramp element and the second ramp element. The back ends of the ramp elements have a height greater than a height of the front ends, and the front ends of the ramp elements have a width greater than a width of the back ends.
Nature, theory and modelling of geophysical convective planetary boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zilitinkevich, Sergej
2015-04-01
Geophysical convective planetary boundary layers (CPBLs) are still poorly reproduced in oceanographic, hydrological and meteorological models. Besides the mean flow and usual shear-generated turbulence, CPBLs involve two types of motion disregarded in conventional theories: 'anarchy turbulence' comprised of the buoyancy-driven plumes, merging to form larger plumes instead of breaking down, as postulated in conventional theory (Zilitinkevich, 1973), large-scale organised structures fed by the potential energy of unstable stratification through inverse energy transfer in convective turbulence (and performing non-local transports irrespective of mean gradients of transporting properties). C-PBLs are strongly mixed and go on growing as long as the boundary layer remains unstable. Penetration of the mixed layer into the weakly turbulent, stably stratified free flow causes turbulent transports through the CPBL outer boundary. The proposed theory, taking into account the above listed features of CPBL, is based on the following recent developments: prognostic CPBL-depth equation in combination with diagnostic algorithm for turbulence fluxes at the CPBL inner and outer boundaries (Zilitinkevich, 1991, 2012, 2013; Zilitinkevich et al., 2006, 2012), deterministic model of self-organised convective structures combined with statistical turbulence-closure model of turbulence in the CPBL core (Zilitinkevich, 2013). It is demonstrated that the overall vertical transports are performed mostly by turbulence in the surface layer and entrainment layer (at the CPBL inner and outer boundaries) and mostly by organised structures in the CPBL core (Hellsten and Zilitinkevich, 2013). Principal difference between structural and turbulent mixing plays an important role in a number of practical problems: transport and dispersion of admixtures, microphysics of fogs and clouds, etc. The surface-layer turbulence in atmospheric and marine CPBLs is strongly enhanced by the velocity shears in
The structure of a three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Degani, A. T.; Smith, F. T.; Walker, J. D. A.
1993-01-01
The three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer is shown to have a self-consistent two-layer asymptotic structure in the limit of large Reynolds number. In a streamline coordinate system, the streamwise velocity distribution is similar to that in two-dimensional flows, having a defect-function form in the outer layer which is adjusted to zero at the wall through an inner wall layer. An asymptotic expansion accurate to two orders is required for the cross-stream velocity which is shown to exhibit a logarithmic form in the overlap region. The inner wall-layer flow is collateral to leading order but the influence of the pressure gradient, at large but finite Reynolds numbers, is not negligible and can cause substantial skewing of the velocity profile near the wall. Conditions under which the boundary layer achieves self-similarity and the governing set of ordinary differential equations for the outer layer are derived. The calculated solution of these equations is matched asymptotically to an inner wall-layer solution and the composite profiles so formed describe the flow throughout the entire boundary layer. The effects of Reynolds number and cross-stream pressure gradient on the crossstream velocity profile are discussed and it is shown that the location of the maximum cross-stream velocity is within the overlap region.
Diamagnetic boundary layers - A kinetic theory. [for collisionless magnetized plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lemaire, J.; Burlaga, L. F.
1976-01-01
A kinetic theory is presented for boundary layers associated with MHD tangential 'discontinuities' in a collisionless magnetized plasma, such as those observed in the solar wind. The theory consists of finding self-consistent solutions of Vlasov's equation and Maxwell's equation for stationary one-dimensional boundary layers separating two Maxwellian plasma states. Layers in which the current is carried by electrons are found to have a thickness of the order of a few electron gyroradii, but the drift speed of the current-carrying electrons is found to exceed the Alfven speed, and accordingly such layers are not stable. Several types of layers in which the current is carried by protons are discussed; in particular, cases are considered in which the magnetic-field intensity, direction, or both, changed across the layer. In every case, the thickness was of the order of a few proton gyroradii, and the field changed smoothly, although the characteristics depended somewhat on the boundary conditions. The drift speed was always less than the Alfven speed, consistent with stability of such structures. These results are consistent with observations of boundary layers in the solar wind near 1 AU.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neumann, B. J.
1983-07-01
One objective of the Advanced Undersea Vehicle (AUV) program is to design a low drag vehicle. The approach in this investigation is boundary layer control by means of an annular suction slot located on the afterbody. Although wind tunnel data showed significant reduction in propulsive power over conventional shapes, an attempt was made to achieve further reduction by means of forebody shaping. Two methods were used to vary the geometric parameters for this analysis. The direct method, based on the mathematical development of the Series 58 bodies, allows the definition of a shape by a fifth-order polynomial based on the four fundamental parameters of fineness ratio, nose radius of curvature, location of maximum thickness, and prismatic coefficient. The inverse method allows various velocity distributions to define the body shape. The shapes derived by this method have flat velocity distributions and show similar trends to the polynomial shapes (about 3-percent reduction in propulsive power). The range of fineness ratios analyzed was from 1 to 10 at a volume-based Reynolds number of 3.2 million. In the range of 2.5 to 8, fineness ratio did not affect propulsive power more than 6 percent. A maximum improvement of 3 percent as shown by varying the meridian section.
The Entrainment Interface Layer of Stratocumulus-topped Boundary Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krueger, S.; Hill, S.
2010-09-01
The entrainment interface layer (EIL) is the layer between cloud top and the free atmosphere. It contains mixtures of air from the cloud layer and the free atmosphere. In addition to turbulent mixing, phase changes and radiative heating or ccoling also affect the thermodynamic properties of air in the EIL. Eventually, air from the EIL is entrained into the cloud layer. How do processes in the EIL affect the entrainment rate? What is the structure of the EIL? Is cloud-top an interface (a region of high gradients), or simply an iso-surface? We are using airborne measuurements taken in the EIL during POST (Physics of Stratocumulus Top), which took place during July and August 2008 near Monterey, California, USA, to address these questions. High-rate measurements of temperature and liquid water content made just 0.5 m apart allow us to perform a high-resolution analysis of a conserved variable (liquid water potential temperature). When combined with lower-rate measurements of water vapor, they also allow us to perform a mixture fraction analysis following vanZanten and Duynkerke (2002).
Bending Boundary Layers in Laminated-Composite Circular Cylindrical Shells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nemeth, Michael P.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III
2000-01-01
An analytical, parametric study of the attenuation of bending boundary layers or edge effects in balanced and unbalanced, symmetrically and unsymmetrically laminated thin cylindrical shells is presented for nine contemporary material systems. The analysis is based on the linear Sanders-Koiter shell equations and specializations to the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations and Donnell's equations are included. Two nondimensional parameters are identified that characterize and quantify the effects of laminate orthotropy and laminate anisotropy on the bending boundary-layer decay length in a very general and encompassing manner. A substantial number of structural design technology results are presented for a wide range of laminated-composite cylinders. For all the laminate constructions considered, the results show that the differences between results that were obtained with the Sanders-Koiter shell equations, the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations, and Donnell's equations are negligible. The results also show that the effect of anisotropy in the form of coupling between pure bending and twisting has a negligible effect on the size of the bending boundary-layer decay length of the balanced, symmetrically laminated cylinders considered. Moreover, the results show that coupling between the various types of shell anisotropies has a negligible effect on the calculation of the bending boundary-layer decay length in most cases. The results also show that in some cases neglecting the shell anisotropy results in underestimating the bending boundary-layer decay length and in other cases it results in an overestimation.
Bending Boundary Layers in Laminated-Composite Circular Cylindrical Shells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nemeth, Michael P.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III
2000-01-01
A study of the attenuation of bending boundary layers in balanced and unbalanced, symmetrically and unsymmetrically laminated cylindrical shells is presented for nine contemporary material systems. The analysis is based on the linear Sanders-Koiter shell equations and specializations to the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations and Donnell's equations are included. Two nondimensional parameters are identified that characterize the effects of laminate orthotropy and anisotropy on the bending boundary-layer decay length in a very general manner. A substantial number of structural design technology results are presented for a wide range of laminated-composite cylinders. For all laminates considered, the results show that the differences between results obtained with the Sanders-Koiter shell equations, the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations, and Donnell's equations are negligible. The results also show that the effect of anisotropy in the form of coupling between pure bending and twisting has a negligible effect on the size of the bending boundary-layer decay length of the balanced, symmetrically laminated cylinders considered. Moreover, the results show that coupling between the various types of shell anisotropies has a negligible effect on the calculation of the bending boundary-layer decay length in most cases. The results also show that, in some cases, neglecting the shell anisotropy results in underestimating the bending boundary-layer decay length and, in other cases, results in an overestimation.
Turbulent boundary-layer structure of flows over freshwater biofilms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walker, J. M.; Sargison, J. E.; Henderson, A. D.
2013-12-01
The structure of the turbulent boundary-layer for flows over freshwater biofilms dominated by the diatom Tabellaria flocculosa was investigated. Biofilms were grown on large test plates under flow conditions in an Australian hydropower canal for periods up to 12 months. Velocity-profile measurements were obtained using LDV in a recirculating water tunnel for biofouled, smooth and artificially sandgrain roughened surfaces over a momentum thickness Reynolds number range of 3,000-8,000. Significant increases in skin friction coefficient of up to 160 % were measured over smooth-wall values. The effective roughnesses of the biofilms, k s, were significantly higher than their physical roughness measured using novel photogrammetry techniques and consisted of the physical roughness and a component due to the vibration of the biofilm mat. The biofilms displayed a k-type roughness function, and a logarithmic relationship was found between the roughness function and roughness Reynolds number based on the maximum peak-to-valley height of the biofilm, R t. The structure of the boundary layer adhered to Townsend's wall-similarity hypothesis even though the scale separation between the effective roughness height and the boundary-layer thickness was small. The biofouled velocity-defect profiles collapsed with smooth and sandgrain profiles in the outer region of the boundary layer. The Reynolds stresses and quadrant analysis also collapsed in the outer region of the boundary layer.
3-D Flow Visualization of a Turbulent Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thurow, Brian; Williams, Steven; Lynch, Kyle
2009-11-01
A recently developed 3-D flow visualization technique is used to visualize large-scale structures in a turbulent boundary layer. The technique is based on the scanning of a laser light sheet through the flow field similar to that of Delo and Smits (1997). High-speeds are possible using a recently developed MHz rate pulse burst laser system, an ultra-high-speed camera capable of 500,000 fps and a galvanometric scanning mirror yielding a total acquisition time of 136 microseconds for a 220 x 220 x 68 voxel image. In these experiments, smoke is seeded into the boundary layer formed on the wall of a low-speed wind tunnel. The boundary layer is approximately 1.5'' thick at the imaging location with a free stream velocity of 24 ft/s yielding a Reynolds number of 18,000 based on boundary layer thickness. The 3-D image volume is approximately 4'' x 4'' x 4''. Preliminary results using 3-D iso-surface visualizations show a collection of elongated large-scale structures inclined in the streamwise direction. The spanwise width of the structures, which are located in the outer region, is on the order of 25 -- 50% of the boundary layer thickness.
Particle motion in atmospheric boundary layers of Mars and Earth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, B. R.; Iversen, J. D.; Greeley, R.; Pollack, J. B.
1975-01-01
To study the eolian mechanics of saltating particles, both an experimental investigation of the flow field around a model crater in an atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel and numerical solutions of the two- and three-dimensional equations of motion of a single particle under the influence of a turbulent boundary layer were conducted. Two-dimensional particle motion was calculated for flow near the surfaces of both Earth and Mars. For the case of Earth both a turbulent boundary layer with a viscous sublayer and one without were calculated. For the case of Mars it was only necessary to calculate turbulent boundary layer flow with a laminar sublayer because of the low values of friction Reynolds number; however, it was necessary to include the effects of slip flow on a particle caused by the rarefied Martian atmosphere. In the equations of motion the lift force functions were developed to act on a single particle only in the laminar sublayer or a corresponding small region of high shear near the surface for a fully turbulent boundary layer. The lift force functions were developed from the analytical work by Saffman concerning the lift force acting on a particle in simple shear flow.
Stabilization of boundary layer streaks by plasma actuators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riherd, Mark; Roy, Subrata
2014-03-01
A flow's transition from laminar to turbulent leads to increased levels of skin friction. In recent years, dielectric barrier discharge actuators have been shown to be able to delay the onset of turbulence in boundary layers. While the laminar to turbulent transition process can be initiated by several different instability mechanisms, so far, only stabilization of the Tollmien-Schlichting path to transition has received significant attention, leaving the stabilization of other transition paths using these actuators less explored. To fill that void, a bi-global stability analysis is used here to examine the stabilization of boundary layer streaks in a laminar boundary layer. These streaks, which are important to both transient and by-pass instability mechanisms, are damped by the addition of a flow-wise oriented plasma body force to the boundary layer. Depending on the magnitude of the plasma actuation, this damping can be up to 25% of the perturbation's kinetic energy. The damping mechanism appears to be due to highly localized effects in the immediate vicinity of the body force, and when examined using a linearized Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes energy balance, indicate negative production of the perturbation's kinetic energy. Parametric studies of the stabilization have also been performed, varying the magnitude of the plasma actuator's body force and the spanwise wavenumber of the actuation. Based on these parametric studies, the damping of the boundary layer streaks appears to be linear with respect to the total amount of body force applied to the flow.
The inner core thermodynamics of the tropical cyclone boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, Gabriel J.
2016-10-01
Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the inner-core dynamics of the tropical cyclone boundary layer (TCBL), our knowledge of the inner-core thermodynamics of the TCBL remains limited. In this study, the inner-core budgets of potential temperature (θ), specific humidity ( q), and reversible equivalent potential temperature (θ _e) are examined using a high-resolution multilevel boundary layer model. The potential temperature budgets show that the heat energy is dominated by latent heat release in the eyewall, evaporative cooling along the outer edge of the eyewall, and upward surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat from the underlying warm ocean. It is shown that the vertical θ advection overcompensates the sum of radial advective warming from the boundary layer outflow jet and latent heating for the development of cooling in the eyewall within the TCBL. The moisture budgets show the dominant upward transport of moisture in the eyewall updrafts, partly by the boundary-layer outflow jet from the bottom eye region, so that the eyewall remains nearly saturated. The θ _e budgets reveal that the TCBL is maintained thermodynamically by the upward surface flux of higher-θ _e air from the underlying warm ocean, the radial transport of low-θ _e air from the outer regions of the TCBL, and the dry adiabatic cooling associated by eyewall updrafts. These results underscore the significance of vertical motion and the location of the boundary layer outflow jet in maintaining the inner core thermal structure of the TCBL.
Shannon, H.D.; Young, G.S.; Yates, M.; Fuller, Mark R.; Seegar, W.
2003-01-01
An examination of boundary-layer meteorological and avian aerodynamic theories suggests that soaring birds can be used to measure the magnitude of vertical air motions within the boundary layer. These theories are applied to obtain mixed-layer normalized thermal updraft intensity over both flat and complex terrain from the climb rates of soaring American white pelicans and from diagnostic boundary-layer model-produced estimates of the boundary-layer depth zi and the convective velocity scale w*. Comparison of the flatland data with the profiles of normalized updraft velocity obtained from previous studies reveals that the pelican-derived measurements of thermal updraft intensity are in close agreement with those obtained using traditional research aircraft and large eddy simulation (LES) in the height range of 0.2 to 0.8 zi. Given the success of this method, the profiles of thermal vertical velocity over the flatland and the nearby mountains are compared. This comparison shows that these profiles are statistically indistinguishable over this height range, indicating that the profile for thermal updraft intensity varies little over this sample of complex terrain. These observations support the findings of a recent LES study that explored the turbulent structure of the boundary layer using a range of terrain specifications. For terrain similar in scale to that encountered in this study, results of the LES suggest that the terrain caused less than an 11% variation in the standard deviation of vertical velocity.
Churchfield, M. J.; Michalakes, J.; Vanderwende, B.; Lee, S.; Sprague, M. A.; Lundquist, J. K.; Moriarty, P. J.
2013-10-01
Wind plant aerodynamics are directly affected by the microscale weather, which is directly influenced by the mesoscale weather. Microscale weather refers to processes that occur within the atmospheric boundary layer with the largest scales being a few hundred meters to a few kilometers depending on the atmospheric stability of the boundary layer. Mesoscale weather refers to large weather patterns, such as weather fronts, with the largest scales being hundreds of kilometers wide. Sometimes microscale simulations that capture mesoscale-driven variations (changes in wind speed and direction over time or across the spatial extent of a wind plant) are important in wind plant analysis. In this paper, we present our preliminary work in coupling a mesoscale weather model with a microscale atmospheric large-eddy simulation model. The coupling is one-way beginning with the weather model and ending with a computational fluid dynamics solver using the weather model in coarse large-eddy simulation mode as an intermediary. We simulate one hour of daytime moderately convective microscale development driven by the mesoscale data, which are applied as initial and boundary conditions to the microscale domain, at a site in Iowa. We analyze the time and distance necessary for the smallest resolvable microscales to develop.
Interferometric data for a shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dunagan, Stephen E.; Brown, James L.; Miles, John B.
1986-01-01
An experimental study of the axisymmetric shock-wave / boundary-layer strong interaction flow generated in the vicinity of a cylinder-cone intersection was conducted. The study data are useful in the documentation and understanding of compressible turbulent strong interaction flows, and are part of a more general effort to improve turbulence modeling for compressible two- and three-dimensional strong viscous/inviscid interactions. The nominal free stream Mach number was 2.85. Tunnel total pressures of 1.7 and 3.4 atm provided Reynolds number values of 18 x 10(6) and 36 x 10(6) based on model length. Three cone angles were studied giving negligible, incipient, and large scale flow separation. The initial cylinder boundary layer upstream of the interaction had a thickness of 1.0 cm. The subsonic layer of the cylinder boundary layer was quite thin, and in all cases, the shock wave penetrated a significant portion of the boundary layer. Owing to the thickness of the cylinder boundary layer, considerable structural detail was resolved for the three shock-wave / boundary-layer interaction cases considered. The primary emphasis was on the application of the holographic interferometry technique. The density field was deduced from an interferometric analysis based on the Able transform. Supporting data were obtained using a 2-D laser velocimeter, as well as mean wall pressure and oil flow measurements. The attached flow case was observed to be steady, while the separated cases exhibited shock unsteadiness. Comparisons with Navier-Stokes computations using a two-equation turbulence model are presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanness, W.
1978-01-01
A summary report of boundary layer studies is presented. Preliminary results of experimental measurements show that: (1) A very thin layer (approximately 0.4 mm) of the boundary layer seems to be accelerated; (2) the static pressure of the outer flow does not remain exactly constant through the boundary layer; and (3) an oncoming boundary layer which is already turbulent at the suction point can again become laminar behind this point without being completely sucked off.
Stability of the Boundary Layer and the Spot
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wygnanski, I.
2007-01-01
The similarity among turbulent spots observed in various transition experiments, and the rate in which they contaminate the surrounding laminar boundary layer is only cursory. The shape of the spot depends on the Reynolds number of the surrounding boundary layer and on the pressure gradient to which it and the surrounding laminar flow are exposed. The propagation speeds of the spot boundaries depend, in addition, on the location from which the spot originated and do not simply scale with the local free stream velocity. The understanding of the manner in which the turbulent manner in which the turbulent spot destabilizes the surrounding, vortical fluid is a key to the understanding of the transition process. We therefore turned to detailed observations near the spot boundaries in general and near the spanwise tip of the spot in particular.
Effect of Far-Field Boundary Conditions on Boundary-Layer Transition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bertolotti, Fabio P.; Joslin, Ronald D.
1994-01-01
The effect of far-field boundary conditions on the evolution of a finite-amplitude two-dimensional wave in the Blasius boundary layer is assessed. With the use of the parabolized stability equations (PSE) theory for the numerical computations, either asymptotic, Dirichlet, Neumann or mixed boundary conditions are imposed at various distances from the wall. The results indicate that asymptotic and mixed boundary conditions yield the most accurate mean-flow distortion and unsteady instability modes in comparison with the results obtained with either Dirichlet or Neumann conditions.
Effect of Far-Field Boundary Conditions on Boundary-Layer Transition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bertolotti, Fabio P.; Joslin, Ronald D.
1995-01-01
The effect of far-field boundary conditions on the evolution of a finite-amplitude two-dimensional wave in the Blasius boundary layer is assessed. With the use of the parabolized stability equations (PSE) theory for the numerical computations, either asymptotic, Dirichlet, Neumann or mixed boundary conditions are imposed at various distances from the wall. The results indicate that asymptotic and mixed boundary conditions yield the most accurate mean-flow distortion and unsteady instability modes in comparison with the results obtained with either Dirichlet or Neumann conditions.
Heat transfer to the transpired turbulent boundary layer.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kays, W. M.
1972-01-01
This paper contains a summarization of five years work on an investigation on heat transfer to the transpired turbulent boundary layer. Experimental results are presented for friction coefficient and Stanton number over a wide range of blowing and suction for the case of constant free-stream velocity, holding certain blowing parameters constant. The problem of the accelerated turbulent boundary layer with transpiration is considered, experimental data are presented and discussed, and theoretical models for solution of the momentum equation under these conditions are presented. Data on turbulent Prandtl number are presented so that solutions to the energy equation may be obtained. Some examples of boundary layer heat transfer and friction coefficient predictions are presented using one of the models discussed, employing a finite difference solution method.
Influence of wall permeability on turbulent boundary-layer properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilkinson, S. P.
1983-01-01
Experimental boundary-layer studies of a series of low pressure drop, permeable surfaces have been conducted to characterize their surface interaction with a turbulent boundary layer. The models were flat and tested at nominally zero pressure gradient in low speed air. The surfaces were thin metal sheets with discrete perforations. Direct drag balance measurements of skin friction indicate that the general effect of surface permeability is to increase drag above that of a smooth plate reference level. Heuristic arguments are presented to show that this type of behavior is to be expected. Other boundary-layer data are also presented including mean velocity profiles and conditionally sampled streamwise velocity fluctuations (hot wire) for selected models.
A compilation of unsteady turbulent boundary-layer experimental data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carr, L. W.
1981-01-01
An extensive literature search was conducted and those experiments related to unsteady boundary layer behavior were cataloged. In addition, an international survey of industrial, university, and governmental research laboratories was made in which new and ongoing experimental programs associated with unsteady turbulent boundary layer research were identified. Pertinent references were reviewed and classified based on the technical emphasis of the various experiments. Experiments that include instantaneous or ensemble averaged profiles of boundary layer variables are stressed. The experimental apparatus and flow conditions are described and summaries of acquired data and significant conclusions are summarized. Measurements obtained from the experiments which exist in digital form were stored on magnetic tape. Instructions are given for accessing these data sets for further analysis.
Finite volume solution of the compressible boundary-layer equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Loyd, B.; Murman, E. M.
1986-01-01
A box-type finite volume discretization is applied to the integral form of the compressible boundary layer equations. Boundary layer scaling is introduced through the grid construction: streamwise grid lines follow eta = y/h = const., where y is the normal coordinate and h(x) is a scale factor proportional to the boundary layer thickness. With this grid, similarity can be applied explicity to calculate initial conditions. The finite volume method preserves the physical transparency of the integral equations in the discrete approximation. The resulting scheme is accurate, efficient, and conceptually simple. Computations for similar and non-similar flows show excellent agreement with tabulated results, solutions computed with Keller's Box scheme, and experimental data.
Boundary layer effects on particle impaction and capture
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosner, D. E.; Fernandez De La Mora, J.
1984-01-01
The inertial impaction and deposition of small particles on larger bodies with viscous boundary layers are considered theoretically, in a detailed comment on a paper by Menguturk et al. (1983). Topics addressed include cushion effects, the dimensionless groups corresponding to the diameter range (3-6 microns) examined by Menguturk et al. in a numerical example, analogous effects of particle-gas energy and mass exchange in boundary layers, and the combined effects of particle inertia and diffusion. It is argued that the inertial effects can be characterized in terms of a body, boundary-layer, or sublayer Stokes number. In a reply by Menguturk et al., the focus is on the application of the theoretical model to the erosion of blade surfaces in large gas turbines; the Stokes number is found to be of limited practical value in these cases, because the particle motion is not primarily normal to the blade surfaces.
The Turbulent Boundary Layer on a Rough Curvilinear Surface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Droblenkov, V. F.
1958-01-01
A number of semiempirical approximate methods exist for determining the characteristics of the turbulent boundary layer on a curvilinear surface. At present, among these methods, the one proposed by L. G. Loitsianskii is given frequent practical application. This method is sufficiently effective and permits, in the case of wing profiles with technically smooth surfaces, calculating the basic characteristics of the boundary layer and the values of the overall drag with an accuracy which suffices for practical purposes. The idea of making use of the basic integral momentum equation ((d delta(sup xx))/dx) + ((V' delta(sup xx))/V) (2 + H) = (tau(sub 0))/(rho V(exp 2)) proves to be fruitful also for the solution of the problems in the determination of the characteristics of the turbulent boundary layer on a rough surface.
Bypass transition and spot nucleation in boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kreilos, Tobias; Khapko, Taras; Schlatter, Philipp; Duguet, Yohann; Henningson, Dan S.; Eckhardt, Bruno
2016-08-01
The spatiotemporal aspects of the transition to turbulence are considered in the case of a boundary-layer flow developing above a flat plate exposed to free-stream turbulence. Combining results on the receptivity to free-stream turbulence with the nonlinear concept of a transition threshold, a physically motivated model suggests a spatial distribution of spot nucleation events. To describe the evolution of turbulent spots a probabilistic cellular automaton is introduced, with all parameters directly obtained from numerical simulations of the boundary layer. The nucleation rates are then combined with the cellular automaton model, yielding excellent quantitative agreement with the statistical characteristics for different free-stream turbulence levels. We thus show how the recent theoretical progress on transitional wall-bounded flows can be extended to the much wider class of spatially developing boundary-layer flows.
Effect of Blowing on Boundary Layer of Scarf Inlet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gerhold, Carl H.; Clark, Lorenzo R.
2004-01-01
When aircraft operate in stationary or low speed conditions, airflow into the engine accelerates around the inlet lip and pockets of turbulence that cause noise and vibration can be ingested. This problem has been encountered with engines equipped with the scarf inlet, both in full scale and in model tests, where the noise produced during the static test makes it difficult to assess the noise reduction performance of the scarf inlet. NASA Langley researchers have implemented boundary layer control in an attempt to reduce the influence of the flow nonuniformity in a 12-in. diameter model of a high bypass fan engine mounted in an anechoic chamber. Static pressures and boundary layer profiles were measured in the inlet and far field acoustic measurements were made to assess the effectiveness of the blowing treatment. The blowing system was found to lack the authority to overcome the inlet distortions. Methods to improve the implementation of boundary layer control to reduce inlet distortion are discussed.
Turbulence in the convective boundary layer observed by microwave interferometry
Shao, X.M.; Carlos, R.C.; Kirkland, M.W.
1997-12-01
A 9-antenna, 400 meter microwave interferometer was utilized in SALSA MEX on the San Pedro River area in July and August, 1997, to measure the turbulence in the Convective Boundary Layer. Water vapor has an appreciable index of refraction at radio frequencies around 10 GHz, and acts as a passive tracer of the magnitude and motion of turbulence. The relative phase changes of a signal from a satellite were tracked by an array of 9 antennas, and the phase differences between antennas were then used to derive the turbulence properties of the boundary layer. Preliminary analysis shows clearly different characteristics for the convection activity of the boundary layer between day and night. From the structure function analysis they can see that the turbulence structure starts to decorrelate at scale sizes of 200 meters for a temporal passband around 100 seconds. Derivation of average wind fields is currently in process.
Particle motion inside Ekman and Bödewadt boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duran Matute, Matias; van der Linden, Steven; van Heijst, Gertjan
2014-11-01
We present results from both laboratory experiments and numerical simulations of the motion of heavy particles inside Ekman and Bödewadt boundary layers. The particles are initially at rest on the bottom of a rotating cylinder filled with water and with its axis parallel to the axis of rotation. The particles are set into motion by suddenly diminishing the rotation rate and the subsequent creation of a swirl flow with the boundary layer above the bottom plate. We consider both spherical and non-spherical particles with their size of the same order as the boundary layer thickness. It was found that the particle trajectories define a clear logarithmic spiral with its shape depending on the different parameters of the problem. Numerical simulations show good agreement with experiments and help explain the motion of the particles. This research is funded by NWO (the Netherlands) through the VENI Grant 863.13.022.
Roughness Induced Transition in a Supersonic Boundary Layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balakumar, Ponnampalam; Kergerise, Michael A.
2013-01-01
Direct numerical simulation is used to investigate the transition induced by threedimensional isolated roughness elements in a supersonic boundary layer at a free stream Mach number of 3.5. Simulations are performed for two different configurations: one is a square planform roughness and the other is a diamond planform roughness. The mean-flow calculations show that the roughness induces counter rotating streamwise vortices downstream of the roughness. These vortices persist for a long distance downstream and lift the low momentum fluid from the near wall region and place it near the outer part of the boundary layer. This forms highly inflectional boundary layer profiles. These observations agree with recent experimental observations. The receptivity calculations showed that the amplitudes of the mass-flux fluctuations near the neutral point for the diamond shape roughness are the same as the amplitude of the acoustic disturbances. They are three times smaller for the square shape roughness.
Inverse boundary-layer theory and comparison with experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carter, J. E.
1978-01-01
Inverse boundary layer computational procedures, which permit nonsingular solutions at separation and reattachment, are presented. In the first technique, which is for incompressible flow, the displacement thickness is prescribed; in the second technique, for compressible flow, a perturbation mass flow is the prescribed condition. The pressure is deduced implicitly along with the solution in each of these techniques. Laminar and turbulent computations, which are typical of separated flow, are presented and comparisons are made with experimental data. In both inverse procedures, finite difference techniques are used along with Newton iteration. The resulting procedure is no more complicated than conventional boundary layer computations. These separated boundary layer techniques appear to be well suited for complete viscous-inviscid interaction computations.
Instability of a Supersonic Boundary-Layer with Localized Roughness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marxen, Olaf; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.
2010-01-01
A localized 3-D roughness causes boundary-layer separation and (weak) shocks. Most importantly, streamwise vortices occur which induce streamwise (low U, high T) streaks. Immersed boundary method (volume force) suitable to represent roughness element in DNS. Favorable comparison between bi-global stability theory and DNS for a "y-mode" Outlook: Understand the flow physics (investigate "z-modes" in DNS through sinuous spanwise forcing, study origin of the beat in DNS).
Boundary layer effects in optical measurements in gas dynamics.
Small, R D; Weihs, D
1976-06-01
A method for including three-dimensional boundary corrections in the analysis of interferograms of two-dimensional flows is described. An effective optical pathlength is calculated using a displacement thickness concept. Expressions and methods for determining the correction to the optical pathlength are given for laminar and turbulent boundary layers in isoenergetic or diabatic flow. An exact expression is derived for the turbulent case and results given showing the correction to be of the order of 10%.
Receptivity of Hypersonic Boundary Layers over Straight and Flared Cones
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balakumar, Ponnampalam; Kegerise, Michael A.
2010-01-01
The effects of adverse pressure gradients on the receptivity and stability of hypersonic boundary layers were numerically investigated. Simulations were performed for boundary layer flows over a straight cone and two flared cones. The steady and the unsteady flow fields were obtained by solving the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in axi-symmetric coordinates using the 5th order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for space discretization and using third-order total-variation-diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme for time integration. The mean boundary layer profiles were analyzed using local stability and non-local parabolized stability equations (PSE) methods. After the most amplified disturbances were identified, two-dimensional plane acoustic waves were introduced at the outer boundary of the computational domain and time accurate simulations were performed. The adverse pressure gradient was found to affect the boundary layer stability in two important ways. Firstly, the frequency of the most amplified second-mode disturbance was increased relative to the zero pressure gradient case. Secondly, the amplification of first- and second-mode disturbances was increased. Although an adverse pressure gradient enhances instability wave growth rates, small nose-tip bluntness was found to delay transition due to the low receptivity coefficient and the resulting weak initial amplitude of the instability waves. The computed and measured amplitude-frequency spectrums in all three cases agree very well in terms of frequency and the shape except for the amplitude.
Non-Equilibrium Effects on Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Pilbum
Understanding non-equilibrium effects of hypersonic turbulent boundary layers is essential in order to build cost efficient and reliable hypersonic vehicles. It is well known that non-equilibrium effects on the boundary layers are notable, but our understanding of the effects are limited. The overall goal of this study is to improve the understanding of non-equilibrium effects on hypersonic turbulent boundary layers. A new code has been developed for direct numerical simulations of spatially developing hypersonic turbulent boundary layers over a flat plate with finite-rate reactions. A fifth-order hybrid weighted essentially non-oscillatory scheme with a low dissipation finite-difference scheme is utilized in order to capture stiff gradients while resolving small motions in turbulent boundary layers. The code has been validated by qualitative and quantitative comparisons of two different simulations of a non-equilibrium flow and a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer. With the validated code, direct numerical simulations of four different hypersonic turbulent boundary layers, perfect gas and non-equilibrium flows of pure oxygen and nitrogen, have been performed. In order to rule out uncertainties in comparisons, the same inlet conditions are imposed for each species, and then mean and turbulence statistics as well as near-wall turbulence structures are compared at a downstream location. Based on those comparisons, it is shown that there is no direct energy exchanges between internal and turbulent kinetic energies due to thermal and chemical non-equilibrium processes in the flow field. Instead, these non-equilibria affect turbulent boundary layers by changing the temperature without changing the main characteristics of near-wall turbulence structures. This change in the temperature induces the changes in the density and viscosity and the mean flow fields are then adjusted to satisfy the conservation laws. The perturbation fields are modified according to
Optically relevant turbulence parameters in the Marine boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davidson, K. L.; Houlihan, T. M.
1976-01-01
Shipboard measurements of temperature and velocity fluctuations were performed to determine optical propagation properties of the marine boundary layer. Empirical expressions describing the temperature structure parameter in terms of the Richardson Number overland were used to analyze data obtained for open ocean conditions. Likewise, profiles of mean wind and velocity fluctuation spectra derived from shipboard observations were utilized to calculate associated boundary layer turbulence parameters. In general, there are considerable differences between the open-ocean results of this study and previously determined overland results.
Carbon vaporization into a nonequilibrium, stagnation-point boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Suzuki, T.
1978-01-01
The heat transfer to the stagnation point of an ablating carbonaceous heat shield, where both the gas-phase boundary layer and the heterogeneous surface reactions are not in chemical equilibrium, is examined. Specifically, the nonequilibrium changes in the mass fraction profiles of carbon species calculated for frozen flow are studied. A set of equations describing the steady-state, nonequilibrium laminar boundary layer in the axisymmetric stagnation region, over an ablating graphite surface, is solved, with allowance for the effects of finite rate of carbon vaporization.
Hypersonic crossing shock-wave/turbulent-boundary-layer interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kussoy, M. I.; Horstman, K. C.; Horstman, C. C.
1993-01-01
Experimental data for two three-dimensional intersecting shock-wave/turbulent boundary-layer interaction flows at Mach 8.3 are presented. The test bodies, composed of two sharp fins fastened to a flat plate test bed, were designed to generate flows with varying degrees of pressure gradient, boundary-layer separation, and turning angle. The data include surface pressure and heat transfer distributions as well as mean flow field surveys both in the undisturbed and interaction regimes. The data are presented in a convenient form to be used to validate existing or future computational models of these hypersonic flows.
Simulation of glancing shock wave and boundary layer interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hung, Ching-Mao
1989-09-01
Shock waves generated by sharp fins, glancing across a laminar boundary layer growing over a flat plate, are simulated numerically. Several basic issues concerning the resultant three-dimensional flow separation are studied. Using the same number of grid points, different grid spacings are employed to investigate the effects of grid resolution on the origin of the line of separation. Various shock strengths (generated by different fin angles) are used to study the so-called separated and unseparated boundary layer and to establish the existence or absence of the secondary separation. The usual interpretations of the flow field from previous studies and new interpretations arising from the present simulation are discussed.
Characteristics of turbulence in boundary layer with zero pressure gradient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klebanoff, P S
1955-01-01
The results of an experimental investigation of a turbulent boundary layer with zero pressure gradient are presented. Measurements with the hot-wire anemometer were made of turbulent energy and turbulent shear stress, probability density and flattening factor of u-fluctuation (fluctuation in x-direction), spectra of turbulent energy and shear stress, and turbulent dissipation. The importance of the region near the wall and the inadequacy of the concept of local isotropy are demonstrated. Attention is given to the energy balance and the intermittent character of the outer region of the boundary layer. Also several interesting features of the spectral distribution of the turbulent motions are discussed.
Passive and active control of boundary layer transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nosenchuck, Daniel Mark
It is well known that laminar-turbulent boundary layer transition is initiated by the formation of Tollmien-Schlichting laminar instability waves. The amplification rates of these waves are strongly dependent on the shape of the boundary layer velocity profile. Consequently, the transition process can be controlled by modifying the velocity profile. This can be accomplished by controlling the pressure gradient (dp/dx), using boundary layer suction, installing surface roughness elements, or by surface heating or cooling. Methods used to modify the transition process through changes in the mean velocity profile are called "passive" in this paper. There exists a large set of experiments and theory on the application of passive methods for boundary layer control. In the present work only surface heating will be addressed.Transition measurements were made on a heated flat plate in water. Results are presented for several plate wall temperature distributions. An increase by a factor of 2.5 in transition Reynolds number was observed for a 5°C isothermal wall overheat. Buoyancy effects on transition were minimal due to the small Richardson and Grashof numbers encountered in the experiments.The amplification of laminar instability waves is comparatively to process, taking place over many boundary layer thicknesses. After the slow amplification of the laminar instability waves, transition occurs by a strong three dimensional dynamic instability. It appears possible to attenuate (or reinforce) the instability waves by introducing amplitude-and phase-controlled perturbations into the laminar boundary layer using feedback control system. This method is called "active" control and forms the larger part of the research reported in this thesis.A combination of sensors, activators and feedback control electronics is required for active control. The sensors used in the experiments are flush-mounted hot film wall shear robes. A new type of activator was developed using thin, flush
Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) Final Campaign Report
Klein, P; Bonin, TA; Newman, JF; Turner, DD; Chilson, P; Blumberg, WG; Mishra, S; Wainwright, CE; Carney, M; Jacobsen, EP; Wharton, S
2015-11-01
The Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) included two measurement campaigns conducted at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains site in Oklahoma during 2012 and 2013. LABLE was designed as a multi-phase, low-cost collaboration among the University of Oklahoma, the National Severe Storms Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the ARM program. A unique aspect was the role of graduate students in LABLE. They served as principal investigators and took the lead in designing and conducting experiments using different sampling strategies to best resolve boundary-layer phenomena.
Simulation of glancing shock wave and boundary layer interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hung, Ching-Mao
1989-01-01
Shock waves generated by sharp fins, glancing across a laminar boundary layer growing over a flat plate, are simulated numerically. Several basic issues concerning the resultant three-dimensional flow separation are studied. Using the same number of grid points, different grid spacings are employed to investigate the effects of grid resolution on the origin of the line of separation. Various shock strengths (generated by different fin angles) are used to study the so-called separated and unseparated boundary layer and to establish the existence or absence of the secondary separation. The usual interpretations of the flow field from previous studies and new interpretations arising from the present simulation are discussed.
Investigation of turbulent processes in magnetospheric boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lotko, William; Sonnerup, B. U. O.
1990-01-01
A self-consistent non-evolving two dimensional slab model of a viscous low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL) coupled to the ionosphere was developed by Phan, et al., (1989). Numerical results from the model and possible use of observations to determine the model parameters are discussed. The dynamical model developed by Lotko, et al., (1987) was used by Lotko and Shen (1991) to examine dynamical processes relevant to the LLBL with particular application to post-noon auroral shear layers. Initial results from a magnetohydrodynamic study of flank-side mangetopause boundary configuration are described. Effects of compressibility, scalar viscosity, and electrical resistivity are included in the MHD equations.
Lidar observations of the planetary boundary layer during FASINEX
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melfi, S. H.; Boers, R.; Palm, S. P.
1988-01-01
Data are presented on the planetary boundary layer (PBL) over the ocean acquired with an airborne downward-looking lidar during the Frontal Air-Sea Interaction Experiment (FASINEX) with the purpose of studying the impact of an ocean front on air-sea interactions. No changes in the PBL structure were detected by lidar. Lidar data were then used along with other readily available remotely-sensed data and a one-dimensional boundary-layer-growth model to infer the mean PBL moisture and temperature structure and to estimate the surface fluxes of heat and moisture.
A model of the wall boundary layer for ducted propellers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eversman, Walter; Moehring, Willi
1987-01-01
The objective of the present study is to include a representation of a wall boundary layer in an existing finite element model of the propeller in the wind tunnel environment. The major consideration is that the new formulation should introduce only modest alterations in the numerical model and should still be capable of producing economical predictions of the radiated acoustic field. This is accomplished by using a stepped approximation in which the velocity profile is piecewise constant in layers. In the limit of infinitesimally thin layers, the velocity profile of the stepped approximation coincides with that of the continuous profile. The approach described here could also be useful in modeling the boundary layer in other duct applications, particularly in the computation of the radiated acoustic field for sources contained in a duct.
Large mixed Ekman Hartmann boundary layers in magnetohydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rousset, F.
2004-03-01
In this paper, we study the nonlinear stability of Ekman-Hartmann type boundary layers in a rotating magnetohydrodynamics flow under a sharp spectral assumption. This generalizes the result of Desjardins et al (1999 Nonlinearity 12 181-99) obtained under a smallness assumption on a Reynolds number and the result of Rousset (2003 Arch. Rat. Mech. Anal. in press) about the stability of Ekman layers.
The urban boundary-layer field campaign in marseille (ubl/clu-escompte): set-up and first results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mestayer, P.G.; Durand, P.; Augustin, P.; Bastin, S.; Bonnefond, J.-M.; Benech, B.; Campistron, B.; Coppalle, A.; Delbarre, H.; Dousset, B.; Drobinski, P.; Druilhet, A.; Frejafon, E.; Grimmond, C.S.B.; Groleau, D.; Irvine, M.; Kergomard, C.; Kermadi, S.; Lagouarde, J.-P.; Lemonsu, A.; Lohou, F.; Long, N.; Masson, V.; Moppert, C.; Noilhan, J.; Offerle, B.; Oke, T.R.; Pigeon, G.; Puygrenier, V.; Roberts, S.; Rosant, J.-M.; Sanid, F.; Salmond, J.; Talbaut, M.; Voogt, J.
The UBL/CLU (urban boundary layer/couche limite urbaine) observation and modelling campaign is a side-project of the regional photochemistry campaign ESCOMPTE. UBL/CLU focuses on the dynamics and thermodynamics of the urban boundary layer of Marseille, on the Mediterranean coast of France. The objective of UBL/CLU is to document the four-dimensional structure of the urban boundary layer and its relation to the heat and moisture exchanges between the urban canopy and the atmosphere during periods of low wind conditions, from June 4 to July 16, 2001. The project took advantage of the comprehensive observational set-up of the ESCOMPTE campaign over the Berre-Marseille area, especially the ground-based remote sensing, airborne measurements, and the intensive documentation of the regional meteorology. Additional instrumentation was installed as part of UBL/CLU. Analysis objectives focus on (i) validation of several energy balance computational schemes such as LUMPS, TEB and SM2-U, (ii) ground truth and urban canopy signatures suitable for the estimation of urban albedos and aerodynamic surface temperatures from satellite data, (iii) high resolution mapping of urban land cover, land-use and aerodynamic parameters used in UBL models, and (iv) testing the ability of high resolution atmospheric models to simulate the structure of the UBL during land and sea breezes, and the related transport and diffusion of pollutants over different districts of the city. This paper presents initial results from such analyses and details of the overall experimental set-up.
Boundary-Layer Receptivity and Integrated Transition Prediction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Chau-Lyan; Choudhari, Meelan
2005-01-01
The adjoint parabold stability equations (PSE) formulation is used to calculate the boundary layer receptivity to localized surface roughness and suction for compressible boundary layers. Receptivity efficiency functions predicted by the adjoint PSE approach agree well with results based on other nonparallel methods including linearized Navier-Stokes equations for both Tollmien-Schlichting waves and crossflow instability in swept wing boundary layers. The receptivity efficiency function can be regarded as the Green's function to the disturbance amplitude evolution in a nonparallel (growing) boundary layer. Given the Fourier transformed geometry factor distribution along the chordwise direction, the linear disturbance amplitude evolution for a finite size, distributed nonuniformity can be computed by evaluating the integral effects of both disturbance generation and linear amplification. The synergistic approach via the linear adjoint PSE for receptivity and nonlinear PSE for disturbance evolution downstream of the leading edge forms the basis for an integrated transition prediction tool. Eventually, such physics-based, high fidelity prediction methods could simulate the transition process from the disturbance generation through the nonlinear breakdown in a holistic manner.
Experimental study of a supersonic turbulent boundary layer using PIV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Lin; Yi, ShiHe; Zhao, YuXin; Tian, LiFeng; Chen, Zhi
2011-09-01
Particle image velocimetry was applied to the study of the statistical properties and the coherent structures of a flat plate turbulent boundary layer at Mach 3. The nanoparticles with a good flow-following capability in supersonic flows were adopted as the tracer particles in the present experiments. The results show that the Van Driest transformed mean velocity profile satisfies the incompressible scalings and reveals a log-law region that extends to y/δ=0.4, which is further away from the wall than that in incompressible boundary layers. The Reynolds stress profiles exhibit a plateau-like region in the log-law region. The hairpin vortices in the streamwise-wall-normal plane are identified using different velocity decompositions, which are similar to the results of the flow visualization via NPLS technique. And multiple hairpin vortices are found moving at nearly the same velocity in different regions of the boundary layer. In the streamwise-spanwise plane, elongated streaky structures are observed in the log-law region, and disappear in the outer region of the boundary layer, which is contrary to the flow visualization results.
Drizzle and Turbulence Variability in Stratocumulus-topped Boundary Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kollias, P.; Luke, E. P.; Szyrmer, W.
2015-12-01
Marine stratocumulus clouds frequently produce light precipitation in the form of drizzle. The drizzle rate at the cloud base (RCB) dictates the impact of drizzle on the boundary layer turbulence and cloud organization. Here, synergistic observations from the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) site located on Graciosa Island in the Azores are used to investigate the relationship between RCB, and boundary layer turbulence and dynamics. The ARM ENA site is a heavily instrumented ground-based facility that offers new measurement capabilities in stratocumulus-topped boundary layers (STBL). The RCB is retrieved using a radar-lidar algorithm. The STBL turbulent structure is characterized using the Doppler lidar and radar observations. The profiling radar/lidar/radiometer observations are used to describe the cloud fraction and morphology. Finally, surface-based aerosol number concentration measurements are used to investigate the connection between the boundary layer turbulence, cloud morphology and aerosol loading. Preliminary correlative relationships between the aforementioned variables will be shown.
ON HYDROMAGNETIC STRESSES IN ACCRETION DISK BOUNDARY LAYERS
Pessah, Martin E.; Chan, Chi-kwan E-mail: ckch@nordita.org
2012-05-20
Detailed calculations of the physical structure of accretion disk boundary layers, and thus their inferred observational properties, rely on the assumption that angular momentum transport is opposite to the radial angular frequency gradient of the disk. The standard model for turbulent shear viscosity satisfies this assumption by construction. However, this behavior is not supported by numerical simulations of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accretion disks, which show that angular momentum transport driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is inefficient in disk regions where, as expected in boundary layers, the angular frequency increases with radius. In order to shed light on physically viable mechanisms for angular momentum transport in this inner disk region, we examine the generation of hydromagnetic stresses and energy density in differentially rotating backgrounds with angular frequencies that increase outward in the shearing-sheet framework. We isolate the modes that are unrelated to the standard MRI and provide analytic solutions for the long-term evolution of the resulting shearing MHD waves. We show that, although the energy density of these waves can be amplified significantly, their associated stresses oscillate around zero, rendering them an inefficient mechanism to transport significant angular momentum (inward). These findings are consistent with the results obtained in numerical simulations of MHD accretion disk boundary layers and challenge the standard assumption of efficient angular momentum transport in the inner disk regions. This suggests that the detailed structure of turbulent MHD accretion disk boundary layers could differ appreciably from those derived within the standard framework of turbulent shear viscosity.
Three dimensional boundary layers on submarine conning towers and rudders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gleyzes, C.
1988-01-01
Solutions for the definition of grids adapted to the calculation of three-dimensional boundary layers on submarine conning towers and on submarine rudders and fins are described. The particular geometry of such bodies (oblique shaped hull, curved fins) required special adaptations. The grids were verified on examples from a test basin.
FLUID MODELING OF ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION IN THE CONVECTIVE BOUNDARY LAYER
Study of convective boundary layer (CBL) processes has depended largely upon laboratory analogs for many years. The pioneering work of Willis and Deardorff (1974) and some 35 subsequent papers by the same authors showed that much useful research could be accomplished with a re...
Poloidal ULF wave observed in the plasmasphere boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, W.; Cao, J.; Zong, Q.; Li, X.; Sarris, T. E.; Angelopoulos, V.
2012-12-01
We investigate an event on the formation of a plasmasphere boundary layer and its effect on ULF wave generation observed by THEMIS satellites during three consecutive outbound passes. On September 13 2011, TH-D observed a sharp plasmapause at L=3.4. The plasmasphere starts to expand and to be refilled on September 14th. On September 15th, a plasmasphere boundary layer is formed with two density drops at L=4.5 and 6.5, respectively. Strong radial magnetic field and azimuthal electric field oscillations are observed within the two density gradients, suggesting poloidal ULF wave. Even mode signature and bump-on-tail plasma distribution at ~10keV observed in this event favour the mechanism of drift-bounce resonance. We suggest that the plasma density structures in plasmasphere boundary layers can provide conditions for resonances that could generate ULF waves. All the above features suggest that plasmasphere boundary layer may have impact on the generation of ULF wave and potential impact on radiation belt acceleration.
DNS of stratified spatially-developing turbulent thermal boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Araya, Guillermo; Castillo, Luciano; Jansen, Kenneth
2012-11-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of spatially-developing turbulent thermal boundary layers under stratification are performed. It is well known that the transport phenomena of the flow is significantly affected by buoyancy, particularly in urban environments where stable and unstable atmospheric boundary layers are encountered. In the present investigation, the Dynamic Multi-scale approach by Araya et al. (JFM, 670, 2011) for turbulent inflow generation is extended to thermally stratified boundary layers. Furthermore, the proposed Dynamic Multi-scale approach is based on the original rescaling-recycling method by Lund et al. (1998). The two major improvements are: (i) the utilization of two different scaling laws in the inner and outer parts of the boundary layer to better absorb external conditions such as inlet Reynolds numbers, streamwise pressure gradients, buoyancy effects, etc., (ii) the implementation of a Dynamic approach to compute scaling parameters from the flow solution without the need of empirical correlations as in Lund et al. (1998). Numerical results are shown for ZPG flows at high momentum thickness Reynolds numbers (~ 3,000) and a comparison with experimental data is also carried out.
Hair receptor sensitivity to changes in laminar boundary layer shape.
Dickinson, B T
2010-03-01
Biologists have shown that bat wings contain distributed arrays of flow-sensitive hair receptors. The hair receptors are hypothesized to feedback information on airflows over the bat wing for enhanced stability or maneuverability during flight. Here, we study the geometric specialization of hair-like structures for the detection of changes in boundary layer velocity profiles (shapes). A quasi-steady model that relates the flow velocity profile incident on the longitudinal axis of a hair to the resultant moment and shear force at the hair base is developed. The hair length relative to the boundary layer momentum thickness that maximizes the resultant moment and shear-force sensitivity to changes in boundary layer shape is determined. The sensitivity of the resultant moment and shear force is shown to be highly dependent on hair length. Hairs that linearly taper to a point are shown to provide greater output sensitivity than hairs of uniform cross-section. On an order of magnitude basis, the computed optimal hair lengths are in agreement with the range of hair receptor lengths measured on individual bat species. These results support the hypothesis that bats use hair receptors for detecting changes in boundary layer shape and provide geometric guidelines for artificial hair sensor design and application.
Propagation of propeller tone noise through a fuselage boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hanson, D. B.; Magliozzi, B.
1984-01-01
In earlier experimental and analytical studies, it was found that the boundary layer on an aircraft could provide significant shielding from propeller noise at typical transport airplane cruise Mach numbers. In this paper a new three-dimensional theory is described that treats the combined effects of refraction and scattering by the fuselage and boundary layer. The complete wave field is solved by matching analytical expressions for the incident and scattered waves in the outer flow to a numerical solution in the boundary layer flow. The model for the incident waves is a near-field frequency-domain propeller source theory developed previously for free field studies. Calculations for an advanced turboprop (Prop-Fan) model flight test at 0.8 Mach number show a much smaller than expected pressure amplification at the noise directivity peak, strong boundary layer shielding in the forward quadrant, and shadowing around the fuselage. Results are presented showing the difference between fuselage surface and free-space noise predictions as a function of frequency and Mach number. Comparison of calculated and measured effects obtained in a Prop-Fan model flight test show good agreement, particularly near and aft of the plane of rotation at high cruise Mach number.
Secondary eyewall formation as a progressive boundary layer response
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abarca, S. F.; Montgomery, M. T.; Bell, M. M.
2012-12-01
The robust observational (satellite based) evidence that secondary eyewalls are common features in major hurricanes contrasts with the scarce in situ observations of the phenomena and its life cycle. This lack of observations has resulted in an incomplete understanding of the dynamics of secondary eyewall formation (SEF). A wide variety of physical processes have been invoked to explain SEF, but only the recently proposed theory of a progressive boundary layer control in SEF has been supported by a variety of full physics mesoscale numerical integrations. The RAINEX field project provided unique observations of the secondary eyewall of Hurricane Rita (2005) both before and during the time Rita exhibited a clear secondary eyewall structure. These observations have contributed to the advancement of the understanding of the secondary eyewall phenomenon. However, in the RAINEX experiment, there was limited data sampling during the development of the secondary wind maxima, thereby precluding a complete observational investigation of the dynamics of SEF. In this presentation we adopt an azimuthally-averaged perspective of the flow dynamics and we test the newly proposed theory of a progressive boundary layer control on SEF. Specifically, we use both RAINEX data as well as data from high resolution, full physics mesoscale numerical simulations to initialize and force an axisymmetric slab boundary layer model with radial diffusion included. The objective is to investigate whether such a reduced boundary layer model can generate secondary wind maxima as a response to environments like those that result in SEF in nature and in full physics simulations.
Determination of Stability and Translation in a Boundary Layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crepeau, John; Tobak, Murray
1996-01-01
Reducing the infinite degrees of freedom inherent in fluid motion into a manageable number of modes to analyze fluid motion is presented. The concepts behind the center manifold technique are used. Study of the Blasius boundary layer and a precise description of stability within the flow field are discussed.
Similarity criteria for the spectra of wall pressure fluctuations in a turbulent boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Efimtsov, B. M.
1984-02-01
Experimental data on the spectra of wall pressure fluctuations in a turbulent boundary layer are presented in order to establish a generalized law governing wall pressure for determining aerodynamic parameters in wind tunnel tests. The wall pressure fluctuation spectra are presented over a wide range of Mach numbers (M = 0.015-4), Reynolds numbers (Re = 600 to 150,000), and Strouhal numbers (S = 0.2 to 1000) which are determined by means of a unified measurement procedure and a system of sensors with high spatial resolution. It is found that the calculations of pressure fluctuations in the audio frequency range are in good agreement with measurements of pressure fluctuations on the surface of a passenger aircraft fuselage in a wind tunnel test.
Mean motion and trajectories of heavy particles falling through a boundary layer
Stout, J.E.; Arya, S.P.
1994-12-31
As particles fall through a turbulent boundary layer they experience a rather complex and unique time series of aerodynamic forces and, thus, each individual particle follows a rather complex and unique trajectory to the surface. For sufficiently large and heavy particles, the turbulence induced particle motion can be thought of as a small perturbation superimposed on the mean trajectory. By ignoring the turbulent contribution to particle motion it is possible to calculate the trajectory of a particle due to the mean flow alone. The mean trajectory provides an estimate of the ensemble-averaged path of a set of particles released from a given point in the atmosphere. The effect of turbulence on individual particle trajectories, the distribution of particle displacements from the mean trajectory, and their deposition patterns on the surface will be investigated in a separate study, using a random walk model.
Designing and Testing a Blended Wing Body with Boundary Layer Ingestion Nacelles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carter, Melissa B.; Campbell, Richard L.; Pendergraft, Odis C.; Underwood, Pamela J.; Friedman, Douglas M.; Serrano, Leonel
2006-01-01
A knowledge-based aerodynamic design method coupled with an unstructured grid Navier-Stokes flow solver was used to improve the propulsion/airframe integration for a Blended Wing Body with boundary-layer ingestion nacelles. A new zonal design capability was used that significantly reduced the time required to achieve a successful design for each nacelle and the elevon between them. A wind tunnel model was built with interchangeable parts reflecting the baseline and redesigned configurations and tested in the National Transonic Facility (NTF). Most of the testing was done at the cruise design conditions (Mach number = 0.85, Reynolds number = 75 million). In general, the predicted improvements in forces and moments as well as the changes in wing pressures between the baseline and redesign were confirmed by the wind tunnel results. The effectiveness of elevons between the nacelles was also predicted surprisingly well considering the crudeness in the modeling of the control surfaces in the flow code.
MEMS flexible thermal flow sensor for measurement of boundary layer separation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Jui-Ming; Leu, Tzong-Shyng; Miau, Jiun-Jih; Chen, Shih-Jiun
2016-05-01
Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) thermal flow sensors featured with high spatial resolutions, fast frequency response and minimal interference with fluid flow have been applied widely in boundary-layer studies and aerodynamic flow sensing and control due to the inherent outstanding performances. In this study, MEMS thermal flow sensors were designed and fabricated on a flexible skin using the MEMS technology. The dimension of a single sensing element was 200 μm × 260 μm, which had a resistance of about 200 Ω after annealing. By configuring thermal flow sensors in either a single thermal flow sensor and a thermal tuft sensor, separation points of a two-dimensional (2D) LS(1) 0417 airfoil at various angles of attack could be precisely detected. The experimental results show good agreement with the hot wire sensor and particle traced flow visualization in detecting the separation point on the suction surface of the airfoil.
MEMS flexible thermal flow sensor for measurement of boundary layer separation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Jui-Ming; Leu, Tzong-Shyng; Miau, Jiun-Jih; Chen, Shih-Jiun
2016-05-01
Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) thermal flow sensors featured with high spatial resolutions, fast frequency response and minimal interference with fluid flow have been applied widely in boundary-layer studies and aerodynamic flow sensing and control due to the inherent outstanding performances. In this study, MEMS thermal flow sensors were designed and fabricated on a flexible skin using the MEMS technology. The dimension of a single sensing element was 200 μm × 260 μm, which had a resistance of about 200 Ω after annealing. By configuring thermal flow sensors in either a single thermal flow sensor and a thermal tuft sensor, separation points of a two-dimensional (2D) LS(1) 0417 airfoil at various angles of attack could be precisely detected. The experimental results show good agreement with the hot wire sensor and particle traced flow visualization in detecting the separation point on the suction surface of the airfoil.
Fifty Years of Boundary-Layer Theory and Experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dryden, Hugh L.
1955-01-01
The year 1954 marked the 50th anniversary of the Prandtl boundary-layer theory from which we may date the beginning of man's understanding of the dynamics of real fluids. A backward look at this aspect of the history of the last 50 years may be instructive. This paper (1) attempts to compress the events of those 50 years into a few thousand words, to tell in this brief space the interesting story of the development of a new concept, its slow acceptance and growth, its spread from group to group within its country of origin, and its diffusion to other countries of the world. The original brief paper of Prandtl (2) was presented at the Third International Mathematical Congress at Heidelberg in 1904 and published in the following year. It was an attempt to explain the d'Alembert paradox, namely, that the neglect of the small friction of air in the theory resulted in the prediction of zero resistance to motion. Prandtl set himself the task of computing the motion of a fluid of small friction, so small that its effect could be neglected everywhere except where large velocity differences were present or a cumulative effect of friction occurred This led to the concept of boundary layer, or transition layer, near the wall of a body immersed in a fluid stream in which the velocity rises from zero to the free-stream value. It is interesting that Prandtl used the term Grenzsehicht (boundary layer) only once and the term Ubergangsschicht (transition layer) seven times in the brief article. Later writers also used Reibungsschicht (friction layer), but most writers today use Grenzschicht (boundary layer).
Anomalous plasma diffusion and the magnetopause boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Treumann, Rudolf A.; Labelle, James; Haerendel, Gerhard; Pottelette, Raymond
1992-01-01
An overview of the current state of anomalous diffusion research at the magnetopause and its role in the formation of the magnetopause boundary layer is presented. Plasma wave measurements in the boundary layer indicate that most of the relevant unstable wave modes contribute negligibly to the diffusion process at the magnetopause under magnetically undisturbed northward IMF conditions. The most promising instability is the lower hybrid drift instability, which may yield diffusion coefficients of the right order if the highest measured wave intensities are assumed. It is concluded that global stationary diffusion due to wave-particle interactions does not take place at the magnetopause. Microscopic wave-particle interaction and anomalous diffusion may contribute to locally break the MD frozen-in conditions and help in transporting large amounts of magnetosheath plasma across the magnetospheric boundary.
On the theory of the turbulent boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rotta, J
1953-01-01
As a rule, a division of the turbulent boundary layer is admissible: a division into a part near the wall, where the flow is governed only by the wall effects, and into an outer part, where the wall roughness and the viscosity of the flow medium affects only the wall shearing stress occurring as boundary condition but does not exert any other influence on the flow. Both parts may be investigated to a large extent independently. Under certain presuppositions there result for the outer part "similar" solutions. The theoretical considerations give a cue how to set up, by appropriate experiments and their evaluation, generally valid connections which are required for the approximate calculation of the turbulent boundary layer according to the momentum and energy theorem.
Effects of mesoscale surface inhomogeneities on atmospheric boundary layer transfer
Shaw, W.J.; Doran, J.C.; Hubbe, J.M.
1992-09-01
Defining the nature of turbulent transfer over horizontally inhomogeneous surfaces remains one of the challenges in meteorology. Because the transfer of energy and momentum through the atmospheric boundary layer forms part of the lower boundary condition for global climate models (GCMs), the problem is important. Over the last two decades, advances in sensor and computer technology wave made good point measurements of turbulent fluxes fairly routine. A fundamental question with respect to climate models, however, is how such point measurements are related to average fluxes over the area of a GCM grid box. In this paper we will use data from the field program to depict the evolution of the boundary layer over adjacent, sharply contrasting surface types on two separate occasions. We will then use simple scaling based on the observations to argue that sub-gridscale motions would often be likely to significantly alter the estimates and resulting parameterizations of GCM-scale surface fluxes in the region.
On Supersonic-Inlet Boundary-Layer Bleed Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harloff, Gary J.; Smith, Gregory E.
1995-01-01
Boundary-layer bleed in supersonic inlets is typically used to avoid separation from adverse shock-wave/boundary-layer interactions and subsequent total pressure losses in the subsonic diffuser and to improve normal shock stability. Methodologies used to determine bleed requirements are reviewed. Empirical sonic flow coefficients are currently used to determine the bleed hole pattern. These coefficients depend on local Mach number, pressure ratio, hole geometry, etc. A new analytical bleed method is presented to compute sonic flow coefficients for holes and narrow slots and predictions are compared with published data to illustrate the accuracy of the model. The model can be used by inlet designers and as a bleed boundary condition for computational fluid dynamic studies.
Boundary layer flow visualisation patterns on a riblet surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, D. G.
Boundary layer flow visualization methods, developed at Queen Mary and Westfield College, have been applied to a riblet surface. The results reveal cellular crossflows developing in the grooves between the riblets. These local flor regimes appear to have little direct effect on the flow in the wall layers immediately adjacent to them. Qualitatively, the behavior of the wall layers appears to be that which would be expected if a virtual surface existed at a level slightly above the riblet tops, but a tendency for the origin of longitudinal eddy pairs to become anchored to the top of a riblet is noted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vets, Robert
An experimental study was conducted to assess the application of a moving surface to affect boundary layers and circulation around airfoils for the purpose of altering and enhancing aerodynamic performance of finite wings at moderate Reynolds numbers. The moving surface was established by a wide, lightweight, nylon belt that enveloped a wing's symmetric airfoil profile articulated via a friction drive cylinder such that the direction of the upper surface was in the direction of the free stream. A water tunnel visualization study accompanied wind tunnel testing at the University of Washington, Kirsten Wind Tunnel of finite wings. An experimental study was conducted to assess the application of a moving surface to affect boundary layers and circulation around airfoils for the purpose of altering and enhancing aerodynamic performance of finite wings at moderate Reynolds numbers. The moving surface was established by a wide, lightweight, nylon belt that enveloped a wing's symmetric airfoil profile articulated via a friction drive cylinder such that the direction of the upper surface was in the direction of the free stream. A water tunnel visualization study accompanied wind tunnel testing at the University of Washington, Kirsten Wind Tunnel of finite wings. The defining non-dimensional parameter for the system is the ratio of the surface velocity to the free stream velocity, us/Uo. Results show a general increase in lift with increasing us/Uo. The endurance parameter served as an additional metric for the system's performance. Examining the results of the endurance parameter shows general increase in endurance and lift with the moving surface activated. Peak performance in terms of increased endurance along with increased lift occurs at or slightly above us/Uo = 1. Water tunnel visualization showed a marked difference in the downwash for velocity ratios greater than 1, supporting the measured data. Reynolds numbers for this investigation were 1.9E5 and 4.3E5, relevant
The influence of bulges on boundary-layer instability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elli, S.; Vandam, C. P.
1992-01-01
Local disturbances caused by a spanwise surface corrugation affect the position of the boundary-layer transition, and so the drag, of an object. This premature transition from laminar to turbulent flow is often associated with a separation of the laminar boundary-layer from its surface. Also the roughness-induced separation bubble provides an important link between the pressure and velocity fluctuations in the environment and the development of the disturbance in the laminar boundary-layer, i.e., the receptivity problem. To investigate the influence of a laminar separation bubble on boundary-layer instability, a separated flow generated by a velocity gradient over a flat plate was analyzed by direct numerical simulation using finite-difference solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. The bubble acts as a strong amplifier of the instability waves and a highly nonlinear flow field is shown to develop downstream of the bubble. Consequently, the results of the direct numerical simulation differ noticeably from those of the classical linear stability theory proving the fact that the nonparallel effects together with the nonlinear interactions are crucial to this flow development. In the present paper, the effect of physical perturbations such as humps and hollows on boundary-layer instability is analyzed. This problem has been considered theoretically by several researchers (e.g., Nayfeh et al., 1987 and 1990; Cebeci et al., 1988). They used linear stability theory in their approach which does not include the nonparallel nor the nonlinear effects. Therefore, to account for these important effects in studying flow over humps and hollows the direct simulation technique is being implemented in generalized coordinates.
Some Basic Aspects of Magnetohydrodynamic Boundary-Layer Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hess, Robert V.
1959-01-01
An appraisal is made of existing solutions of magnetohydrodynamic boundary-layer equations for stagnation flow and flat-plate flow, and some new solutions are given. Since an exact solution of the equations of magnetohydrodynamics requires complicated simultaneous treatment of the equations of fluid flow and of electromagnetism, certain simplifying assumptions are generally introduced. The full implications of these assumptions have not been brought out properly in several recent papers. It is shown in the present report that for the particular law of deformation which the magnetic lines are assumed to follow in these papers a magnet situated inside the missile nose would not be able to take up any drag forces; to do so it would have to be placed in the flow away from the nose. It is also shown that for the assumption that potential flow is maintained outside the boundary layer, the deformation of the magnetic lines is restricted to small values. The literature contains serious disagreements with regard to reductions in heat-transfer rates due to magnetic action at the nose of a missile, and these disagreements are shown to be mainly due to different interpretations of reentry conditions rather than more complicated effects. In the present paper the magnetohydrodynamic boundary-layer equation is also expressed in a simple form that is especially convenient for physical interpretation. This is done by adapting methods to magnetic forces which in the past have been used for forces due to gravitational or centrifugal action. The simplified approach is used to develop some new solutions of boundary-layer flow and to reinterpret certain solutions existing in the literature. An asymptotic boundary-layer solution representing a fixed velocity profile and shear is found. Special emphasis is put on estimating skin friction and heat-transfer rates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Jiyun; Wang, Zhi-Hua
2016-05-01
Urban land-atmosphere interactions can be captured by numerical modeling framework with coupled land surface and atmospheric processes, while the model performance depends largely on accurate input parameters. In this study, we use an advanced stochastic approach to quantify parameter uncertainty and model sensitivity of a coupled numerical framework for urban land-atmosphere interactions. It is found that the development of urban boundary layer is highly sensitive to surface characteristics of built terrains. Changes of both urban land use and geometry impose significant impact on the overlying urban boundary layer dynamics through modification on bottom boundary conditions, i.e., by altering surface energy partitioning and surface aerodynamic resistance, respectively. Hydrothermal properties of conventional and green roofs have different impacts on atmospheric dynamics due to different surface energy partitioning mechanisms. Urban geometry (represented by the canyon aspect ratio), however, has a significant nonlinear impact on boundary layer structure and temperature. Besides, managing rooftop roughness provides an alternative option to change the boundary layer thermal state through modification of the vertical turbulent transport. The sensitivity analysis deepens our insight into the fundamental physics of urban land-atmosphere interactions and provides useful guidance for urban planning under challenges of changing climate and continuous global urbanization.
Turbulent boundary layer on a convex, curved surface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gillis, J. C.; Johnston, J. P.; Kays, W. M.; Moffat, R. J.
1980-01-01
The effects of strong convex curvature on boundary layer turbulence were investigated. The data gathered on the behavior of Reynolds stress suggested the formulation of a simple turbulence model. Three sets of data were taken on two separate facilities. Both rigs had flow from a flat surface, over a convex surface with 90 deg of turning, and then onto a flat recovery surface. The geometry was adjusted so that, for both rigs, the pressure gradient along the test surface was zero - thus avoiding any effects of streamwise acceleration on the wall layers. Results show that after a sudden introduction of curvature, the shear stress in the outer part of the boundary layer is sharply diminished and is even slightly negative near the edge. The wall shear also drops off quickly downstream. In contrast, when the surface suddenly becomes flat again, the wall shear and shear stress profiles recover very slowly towards flat wall conditions.
Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary-Layer and Free Sheer Database Datasets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Settles, Gary S.; Dodson, Lori J.
1993-01-01
A critical assessment and compilation of data are presented on attached hypersonic turbulent boundary layers in pressure gradients and compressible turbulent mixing layers. Extensive searches were conducted to identify candidate experiments, which were subjected to a rigorous set of acceptance criteria. Accepted datasets are both tabulated and provided in machine-readable form. The purpose of this database effort is to make existing high quality data available in detailed form for the turbulence-modeling and computational fluid dynamics communities. While significant recent data were found on the subject of compressible turbulent mixing, the available boundary-layer/pressure-gradient experiments are all older ones of which no acceptable data were found at hypersonic Mach numbers.
Provenance of the K/T boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hildebrand, A. R.; Boynton, W. V.
1988-01-01
An array of chemical, physical and isotopic evidence indicates that an impact into oceanic crust terminated the Cretaceous Period. Approximately 1500 cu km of debris, dispersed by the impact fireball, fell out globally in marine and nonmarine environments producing a 2 to 4 mm thick layer (fireball layer). In North American locales, the fireball layer overlies a 15 to 25 mm thick layer of similar but distinct composition. This 15 to 25 mm layer (ejecta layer) may represent approximately 1000 cu km of lower energy ejecta from a nearby impact site. Isotopic and chemical evidence supports a mantle provenance for the bulk of the layers. The extraordinary REE pattern of the boundary clays was modelled as a mixture of oceanic crust, mantle, and approximately 10 percent continental material. The results are presented. If the siderophiles of the ejecta layer were derived solely from the mantle, a test may be available to see if the siderophile element anomaly of the fireball layer had an extraterrestrial origin. Radiogenic Os-187 is depleted in the mantle relative to an undifferentiated chondritic source. Os-187/Os-186 ratios of 1.049 and 1.108 were calculated for the ejecta and fireball layers, respectively.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oeztuerk, B; Schobeiri, M. T.; Ashpis, David E.
2005-01-01
The paper experimentally and theoretically studies the effects of periodic unsteady wake flow and aerodynamic characteristics on boundary layer development, separation and re-attachment along the suction surface of a low pressure turbine blade. The experiments were carried out at Reynolds number of 110,000 (based on suction surface length and exit velocity). For one steady and two different unsteady inlet flow conditions with the corresponding passing frequencies, intermittency behaviors were experimentally and theoretically investigated. The current investigation attempts to extend the intermittency unsteady boundary layer transition model developed in previously to the LPT cases, where separation occurs on the suction surface at a low Reynolds number. The results of the unsteady boundary layer measurements and the intermittency analysis were presented in the ensemble-averaged and contour plot forms. The analysis of the boundary layer experimental data with the flow separation, confirms the universal character of the relative intermittency function which is described by a Gausssian function.
On buffer layers as non-reflecting computational boundaries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hayder, M. Ehtesham; Turkel, Eli L.
1996-01-01
We examine an absorbing buffer layer technique for use as a non-reflecting boundary condition in the numerical simulation of flows. One such formulation was by Ta'asan and Nark for the linearized Euler equations. They modified the flow inside the buffer zone to artificially make it supersonic in the layer. We examine how this approach can be extended to the nonlinear Euler equations. We consider both a conservative and a non-conservative form modifying the governing equations in the buffer layer. We compare this with the case that the governing equations in the layer are the same as in the interior domain. We test the effectiveness of these buffer layers by a simulation of an excited axisymmetric jet based on a nonlinear compressible Navier-Stokes equations.
Investigations on entropy layer along hypersonic hyperboloids using a defect boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brazier, J. P.; Aupoix, B.; Cousteix, J.
1992-01-01
A defect approach coupled with matched asymptotic expansions is used to derive a new set of boundary layer equations. This method ensures a smooth matching of the boundary layer with the inviscid solution. These equations are solved to calculate boundary layers over hypersonic blunt bodies involving the entropy gradient effect. Systematic comparisons are made for both axisymmetric and plane flows in several cases with different Mach and Reynolds numbers. After a brief survey of the entropy layer characteristics, the defect boundary layer results are compared with standard boundary layer and full Navier-Stokes solutions. The entropy gradient effects are found to be more important in the axisymmetric case than in the plane one. The wall temperature has a great influence on the results through the displacement effect. Good predictions can be obtained with the defect approach over a cold wall in the nose region, with a first order solution. However, the defect approach gives less accurate results far from the nose on axisymmetric bodies because of the thinning of the entropy layer.
Modeling variable blowing effects in the turbulent hypersonic boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanosdol, John G.
1992-01-01
Studies of the effects of variable blowing in turbulent hypersonic boundary layers are presented. Numerical calculations of the skin friction and surface heat transfer rates are compared to the experimental measurements of Holden (1990) for a slender cone at zero angle of attack in steady flows at Mach numbers of 11 and 13. An analysis of the transpiration feed system of the cone model was performed and showed that the blowing rate could be variable along the cone surface. This effect is confirmed by internal pressure measurements which were taken inside the cone model. The blowing rates are recalibrated using the internal gauge readings and used as the wall boundary condition for a compressible turbulent boundary layer calculation using the low Reynolds number k-epsilon model of Chien (1982). At low blowing rates, the boundary layer calculations indicate that a situation where both the effects of suction and blowing are present within the same flow. The results show excellent qualitative prediction of the experimental data.
Shear Capacity as Prognostic of Nocturnal Boundary Layer Regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Hooijdonk, Ivo; Donda, Judith; Bosveld, Fred; Moene, Arnold; Clercx, Herman; van de Wiel, Bas
2015-04-01
After sunset the surface temperature can drop rapidly in some nights and may lead to ground frost. This sudden drop is closely related to the occurrence of fundamentally different behaviour of turbulence in the nocturnal boundary layer. Recent theoretical findings predict the appearance of two different regimes: the continuously turbulent (weakly stable) boundary layer and the relatively 'quiet' (very stable) boundary layer. Field observations from a large number of nights (approx. 4500 in total) are analysed using an ensemble averaging technique. The observations support the existence of these two fundamentally different regimes: weakly stable (turbulent) nights rapidly reach a steady state (within 2-3 hours). In contrast, very stable nights reach a steady state much later after a transition period (2-6 hours). During this period turbulence is weak and non-stationary. To characterise the regime a new parameter is introduced: the Shear Capacity. This parameter compares the actual shear after sunset with the minimum shear needed to sustain continuous turbulence. In turn, the minimum shear is dictated by the heat flux demand at the surface (net radiative cooling), so that the Shear Capacity combines flow information with knowledge on the boundary condition. It is shown that the Shear Capacity enables prediction of the flow regimes. The prognostic strength of this non-dimensional parameter appears to outperform the traditional ones like z/L and Ri as regime indicator.
BLSTA: A boundary layer code for stability analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wie, Yong-Sun
1992-01-01
A computer program is developed to solve the compressible, laminar boundary-layer equations for two-dimensional flow, axisymmetric flow, and quasi-three-dimensional flows including the flow along the plane of symmetry, flow along the leading-edge attachment line, and swept-wing flows with a conical flow approximation. The finite-difference numerical procedure used to solve the governing equations is second-order accurate. The flow over a wide range of speed, from subsonic to hypersonic speed with perfect gas assumption, can be calculated. Various wall boundary conditions, such as wall suction or blowing and hot or cold walls, can be applied. The results indicate that this boundary-layer code gives velocity and temperature profiles which are accurate, smooth, and continuous through the first and second normal derivatives. The code presented herein can be coupled with a stability analysis code and used to predict the onset of the boundary-layer transition which enables the assessment of the laminar flow control techniques. A user's manual is also included.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tetervin, Neal; Lin, Chia Chiao
1951-01-01
A general integral form of the boundary-layer equation, valid for either laminar or turbulent incompressible boundary-layer flow, is derived. By using the experimental finding that all velocity profiles of the turbulent boundary layer form essentially a single-parameter family, the general equation is changed to an equation for the space rate of change of the velocity-profile shape parameter. The lack of precise knowledge concerning the surface shear and the distribution of the shearing stress across turbulent boundary layers prevented the attainment of a reliable method for calculating the behavior of turbulent boundary layers.
Control of a shock wave-boundary layer interaction using localized arc filament plasma actuators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Webb, Nathan Joseph
Supersonic flight is currently possible, but expensive. Inexpensive supersonic travel will require increased efficiency of high-speed air entrainment, an integral part of air-breathing propulsion systems. Although mixed compression inlet geometry can significantly improve entrainment efficiency, numerous Shock Wave-Boundary Layer Interactions (SWBLIs) are generated in this configuration. The boundary layer must therefore develop through multiple regions of adverse pressure gradient, causing it to thicken, and, in severe cases, separate. The associated increase in unsteadiness can have adverse effects on downstream engine hardware. The most severe consequence of these interactions is the increased aerodynamic blockage generated by the thickened boundary layer. If the increase is sufficient, it can choke the flow, causing inlet unstart, and resulting in a loss of thrust and high transient forces on the engine, airframe, and aircraft occupants. The potentially severe consequences associated with SWBLIs require flow control to ensure proper operation. Traditionally, boundary layer bleed has been used to control the interaction. Although this method is effective, it has inherent efficiency penalties. Localized Arc Filament Plasma Actuators (LAFPAs) are designed to generate perturbations for flow control. Natural flow instabilities act to amplify certain perturbations, allowing the LAFPAs to control the flow with minimal power input. LAFPAs also have the flexibility to maintain control over a variety of operating conditions. This work seeks to examine the effectiveness of LAFPAs as a separation control method for an oblique, impinging SWBLI. The low frequency unsteadiness in the reflected shock was thought to be the natural manifestation of a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the shear layer above the separation region. The LAFPAs were therefore placed upstream of the interaction to allow their perturbations to convect to the receptivity region (near the shear layer origin
Discrete Roughness Effects on High-Speed Boundary Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iyer, Prahladh Satyanarayanan
This dissertation studies the effects of a discrete roughness element on a high-speed boundary layer using Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) on unstructured grids. Flow past a cylindrical roughness element placed perpendicular to the flow and a hemispherical bump is studied. A compressible linear stability theory (LST) solver for parallel flows is developed based on the algorithm by Malik and validated for a range of Mach numbers ranging from incompressible to Mach 10. The evolution of the perturbations from DNS is validated with the linear stability solver making the DNS algorithm suitable to study transition problems. Flow past a cylindrical roughness element at Mach 8.12 is simulated using DNS and the velocity profiles in the symmetry and wall---parallel planes are compared to the experiments of Bathel et al.. The flow remains steady and laminar, and does not transition. Overall, good agreement is observed between DNS and experiments, thus validating our algorithm to study effect of roughness on high-speed flows. However, differences are observed in the separation region upstream and recirculation region downstream of the roughness. The DNS results are used to quantify possible uncertainties in the measurement technique as suggested by Danehy [20]. The effect of upstream injection (5% of the free-stream velocity) is also simulated to quantify its effects on the velocity profiles to mimic the injection of NO into air in the experiment. While the boundary layer thickness of the flow increases downstream of the injection location, its effect on the velocity profiles is small when the profiles are scaled with the boundary layer thickness. Flow past a hemispherical bump at Mach 3.37, 5.26 and 8.23 are simulated using DNS with the flow conditions matching the experiments of Danehy et al. to understand the different flow features associated with the flow and the physical mechanism that causes the flow to transition to turbulence. It is observed that the Mach 3.37 and
Edge Plasma Boundary Layer Generated By Kink Modes in Tokamaks
L.E. Zakharov
2010-11-22
This paper describes the structure of the electric current generated by external kink modes at the plasma edge using the ideally conducting plasma model. It is found that the edge current layer is created by both wall touching and free boundary kink modes. Near marginal stability, the total edge current has a universal expression as a result of partial compensation of the δ-functional surface current by the bulk current at the edge. The resolution of an apparent paradox with the pressure balance across the plasma boundary in the presence of the surface currents is provided.
Numerical Simulation of a Spatially Evolving Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gatski, T. B.; Erlebacher, G.
2002-01-01
The results from direct numerical simulations of a spatially evolving, supersonic, flat-plate turbulent boundary-layer flow, with free-stream Mach number of 2.25 are presented. The simulated flow field extends from a transition region, initiated by wall suction and blowing near the inflow boundary, into the fully turbulent regime. Distributions of mean and turbulent flow quantities are obtained and an analysis of these quantities is performed at a downstream station corresponding to Re(sub x)= 5.548 x10(exp 6) based on distance from the leading edge.
Boundary layer studies related to fusion theory. Final report
1981-09-29
The described work studied the boundary between closed and open field lines in EBT geometry, with emphasis on the microstability properties. These properties were established primarily for drift waves in the lower hybrid range of frequencies. The transport due to these modes was evaluated by a self-consistent treatment, using quasilinear models in a plasma diffusion code. The model was benchmarked against the EDT experimental results from ORNL and the sensitivity to transport model established. Viscosity was estimated to be negligible compared with anomalous transport. Drift wave turbulence gave a boundary layer size much more consistent with experiment than either collisional transport or Bohm diffusion.
Turbulence spectra of the FIRE stratocumulus-topped boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Young, G. S.; Nucciarone, J. J.; Albrecht, Bruce A.
1990-01-01
There are at least four physical phenomena which contribute to the FIRE boundary layer turbulence spectra: boundary layer spanning eddies resulting from buoyant and mechanical production of turbulent kinetic energy (the microscale subrange); inertial subrange turbulence which cascades this energy to smaller scales; quasi-two dimensional mesoscale variations; and gravity waves. The relative contributions of these four phenomena to the spectra depend on the altitude of observation and variable involved (vertical velocity, temperature and moisture spectra are discussed). The physical origins of these variations in relative contribution are discussed. As expected from the theory (Kaimal et al., 1976), mixed layer scaling of the spectra (i.e., nondimensionalizing wavelength by Z(sub i) and spectral density by Z(sub i) and the dissipation rates) is successful for the microscale subrange and inertial subrange but not for the mesoscale subrange. The most striking feature of the normalized vertical velocity spectra is the lack of any significant mesoscale contribution. The spectral peak results from buoyant and mechanical production on scales similar to the boundary layer depth. The decrease in spectral density at larger scales results from the suppression of vertical velocity perturbations with large horizontal scales by the shallowness of the atmosphere. The spectral density also decreases towards smaller scales following the well known inertial subrange slope. There is a significant variation in the shape of the normalized spectra with height.
Acoustic Radiation From a Mach 14 Turbulent Boundary Layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhang, Chao; Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan M.
2016-01-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to examine the turbulence statistics and the radiation field generated by a high-speed turbulent boundary layer with a nominal freestream Mach number of 14 and wall temperature of 0:18 times the recovery temperature. The flow conditions fall within the range of nozzle exit conditions of the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) Hypervelocity Tunnel No. 9 facility. The streamwise domain size is approximately 200 times the boundary-layer thickness at the inlet, with a useful range of Reynolds number corresponding to Re 450 ?? 650. Consistent with previous studies of turbulent boundary layer at high Mach numbers, the weak compressibility hypothesis for turbulent boundary layers remains applicable under this flow condition and the computational results confirm the validity of both the van Driest transformation and Morkovin's scaling. The Reynolds analogy is valid at the surface; the RMS of fluctuations in the surface pressure, wall shear stress, and heat flux is 24%, 53%, and 67% of the surface mean, respectively. The magnitude and dominant frequency of pressure fluctuations are found to vary dramatically within the inner layer (z/delta 0.< or approx. 0.08 or z+ < or approx. 50). The peak of the pre-multiplied frequency spectrum of the pressure fluctuation is f(delta)/U(sub infinity) approx. 2.1 at the surface and shifts to a lower frequency of f(delta)/U(sub infinity) approx. 0.7 in the free stream where the pressure signal is predominantly acoustic. The dominant frequency of the pressure spectrum shows a significant dependence on the freestream Mach number both at the wall and in the free stream.
Effect of wakes from moving upstream rods on boundary layer separation from a high lift airfoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volino, Ralph J.
2011-11-01
Highly loaded airfoils in turbines allow power generation using fewer airfoils. High loading, however, can cause boundary layer separation, resulting in reduced lift and increased aerodynamic loss. Separation is affected by the interaction between rotating blades and stationary vanes. Wakes from upstream vanes periodically impinge on downstream blades, and can reduce separation. The wakes include elevated turbulence, which can induce transition, and a velocity deficit, which results in an impinging flow on the blade surface known as a ``negative jet.'' In the present study, flow through a linear cascade of very high lift airfoils is studied experimentally. Wakes are produced with moving rods which cut through the flow upstream of the airfoils, simulating the effect of upstream vanes. Pressure and velocity fields are documented. Wake spacing and velocity are varied. At low Reynolds numbers without wakes, the boundary layer separates and does not reattach. At high wake passing frequencies separation is largely suppressed. At lower frequencies, ensemble averaged velocity results show intermittent separation and reattachment during the wake passing cycle. Supported by NASA.
Small-scale behavior in distorted turbulent boundary layers at low Reynolds number
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saddoughi, Seyed G.
1994-01-01
During the last three years we have conducted high- and low-Reynolds-number experiments, including hot-wire measurements of the velocity fluctuations, in the test-section-ceiling boundary layer of the 80- by 120-foot Full-Scale Aerodynamics Facility at NASA Ames Research Center, to test the local-isotropy predictions of Kolmogorov's universal equilibrium theory. This hypothesis, which states that at sufficiently high Reynolds numbers the small-scale structures of turbulent motions are independent of large-scale structures and mean deformations, has been used in theoretical studies of turbulence and computational methods such as large-eddy simulation; however, its range of validity in shear flows has been a subject of controversy. The present experiments were planned to enhance our understanding of the local-isotropy hypothesis. Our experiments were divided into two sets. First, measurements were taken at different Reynolds numbers in a plane boundary layer, which is a 'simple' shear flow. Second, experiments were designed to address this question: will our criteria for the existence of local isotropy hold for 'complex' nonequilibrium flows in which extra rates of mean strain are added to the basic mean shear?
Design and Evaluation of a New Boundary-Layer Rake for Flight Testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bui, Trong T.; Oates, David L.; Gonsalez, Jose C.
2000-01-01
A new boundary-layer rake has been designed and built for flight testing on the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center F-15B/Flight Test Fixture. A feature unique to this rake is its curved body, which allows pitot tubes to be more densely clustered in the near-wall region than conventional rakes allow. This curved rake design has a complex three-dimensional shape that requires innovative solid-modeling and machining techniques. Finite-element stress analysis of the new design shows high factors of safety. The rake has passed a ground test in which random vibration measuring 12 g rms was applied for 20 min in each of the three normal directions. Aerodynamic evaluation of the rake has been conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center 8 x 6 Supersonic Wind Tunnel at Mach 0-2. The pitot pressures from the new rake agree with conventional rake data over the range of Mach numbers tested. The boundary-layer profiles computed from the rake data have been shown to have the standard logarithmic-law profile. Skin friction values computed from the rake data using the Clauser plot method agree with the Preston tube results and the van Driest II compressible skin friction correlation to approximately +/-5 percent.
LDV measurement of boundary layer on rotating blade surface in wind tunnel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maeda, Takao; Kamada, Yasunari; Murata, Junsuke; Suzuki, Daiki; Kaga, Norimitsu; Kagisaki, Yosuke
2014-12-01
Wind turbines generate electricity due to extracting energy from the wind. The rotor aerodynamics strongly depends on the flow around blade. The surface flow on the rotating blade affects the sectional performance. The wind turbine surface flow has span-wise component due to span-wise change of airfoil section, chord length, twisted angle of blade and centrifugal force on the flow. These span-wise flow changes the boundary layer on the rotating blade and the sectional performance. Hence, the thorough understanding of blade surface flow is important to improve the rotor performance. For the purpose of clarification of the flow behaviour around the rotor blade, the velocity in the boundary layer on rotating blade surface of an experimental HAWT was measured in a wind tunnel. The velocity measurement on the blade surface was carried out by a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV). As the results of the measurement, characteristics of surface flow are clarified. In optimum tip speed operation, the surface flow on leading edge and r/R=0.3 have large span-wise velocity which reaches 20% of sectional inflow velocity. The surface flow inboard have three dimensional flow patterns. On the other hand, the flow outboard is almost two dimensional in cross sectional plane.
Effect of Boundary Layer Thickness on Secondary Structures in a Short Inlet Curved Duct
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gartner, Jeremy; Amitay, Michael
2013-11-01
The flow pattern in short ducts with aggressive curvature can lead in some cases to an asymmetric flow field. In the current work, a two dimensional honeycomb mesh was added upstream of the curved duct to create a pressure drop across it, and therefore an increased velocity deficit in the boundary layer profile. This velocity deficit led to a stronger streamwise separation, overcoming the flow mechanisms that result in the asymmetric flowfield. Experiments were conducted at M = 0.2, 0.44 and 0.58 in an expanding aggressive duct with square cross section with an area ratio of 1.27. Pressure data, together with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), verify the symmetry of the incoming flow field. Steady pressure distributions along the lower surface of the curved duct were obtained, as well as steady and time dependent total pressure distributions at the aerodynamic interface plane, enabling the analysis of the flow characteristics throughout the duct length. The effect of inserting a honeycomb was tested by increasing its height from 0 to 2.2 times the baseline flow boundary layer thickness upstream of the curve. Crosstream flow symmetry was achieved for specific geometrical configurations with a negligible decrease in the pressure recovery.
Flowfield Measurements in a Slot-Bled Oblique Shock Wave and Turbulent Boundary-Layer Interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, D. O.; Willis, B. P.; Hingst, W. R.
1998-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the flowfield inside a bleed slot used to control an oblique shock-wave and turbulent boundary-layer interaction. The slot was oriented normal to the primary flow direction and had a width of 1.0 cm (primary flow direction), a length of 2.54 cm, and spanned 16.5 cm. The approach boundary layer upstream of the interaction was nominally 3.0 cm thick. Two operating conditions were studied: M = 1.98 with a shock generator deflection angle of 6 deg and M= 2.46 with a shock generator deflection angle of 8 deg. Measurements include surface and flowfield static pressure, Pitot pressure, and total mass-flow through the slot. The results show that despite an initially two-dimensional interaction for the zero bleed-flow case, the slot does not remove mass uniformly in the spanwise direction. Inside the slot, the flow is characterized by two separation regions which significantly reduce the effective flow area. The upper separation region acts as an aerodynamic throat resulting in supersonic flow through much of the slot.
Small-scale behavior in distorted turbulent boundary layers at low Reynolds number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saddoughi, Seyed G.
1994-12-01
During the last three years we have conducted high- and low-Reynolds-number experiments, including hot-wire measurements of the velocity fluctuations, in the test-section-ceiling boundary layer of the 80- by 120-foot Full-Scale Aerodynamics Facility at NASA Ames Research Center, to test the local-isotropy predictions of Kolmogorov's universal equilibrium theory. This hypothesis, which states that at sufficiently high Reynolds numbers the small-scale structures of turbulent motions are independent of large-scale structures and mean deformations, has been used in theoretical studies of turbulence and computational methods such as large-eddy simulation; however, its range of validity in shear flows has been a subject of controversy. The present experiments were planned to enhance our understanding of the local-isotropy hypothesis. Our experiments were divided into two sets. First, measurements were taken at different Reynolds numbers in a plane boundary layer, which is a 'simple' shear flow. Second, experiments were designed to address this question: will our criteria for the existence of local isotropy hold for 'complex' nonequilibrium flows in which extra rates of mean strain are added to the basic mean shear?
Diagnostics of boundary layer transition by shear stress sensitive liquid crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shapoval, E. S.
2016-10-01
Previous research indicates that the problem of boundary layer transition visualization on metal models in wind tunnels (WT) which is a fundamental question in experimental aerodynamics is not solved yet. In TsAGI together with Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (ITAM) a method of shear stress sensitive liquid crystals (LC) which allows flow visualization was proposed. This method allows testing several flow conditions in one wind tunnel run and does not need covering the investigated model with any special heat-insulating coating which spoils the model geometry. This coating is easily applied on the model surface by spray or even by brush. Its' thickness is about 40 micrometers and it does not spoil the surface quality. At first the coating obtains some definite color. Under shear stress the LC coating changes color and this change is proportional to shear stress. The whole process can be visually observed and during the tests it is recorded by camera. The findings of the research showed that it is possible to visualize boundary layer transition, flow separation, shock waves and the flow image on the whole. It is possible to predict that the proposed method of shear stress sensitive liquid crystals is a promise for future research.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kozak, A. A.; Brockett, W. D.; Haas, J. E.
1982-01-01
The results of an experimental investigation are presented which establish the effects of surface finish, fillet radius, inlet boundary layer thickness, and free-stream inlet turbulence level on the aerodynamic performance of a small axial flow turbine stator. The principal objective was to help understand why large turbine efficiency is not maintained when a large turbine is scaled to a smaller size and to provide the turbine designer with the performance compromises expected for a small scale design. A comprehensive test matrix was used to gain an understanding of the effects of each variable over the full range of all the other variables.
Simulation and optimal control of wind-farm boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyers, Johan; Goit, Jay
2014-05-01
In large wind farms, the effect of turbine wakes, and their interaction leads to a reduction in farm efficiency, with power generated by turbines in a farm being lower than that of a lone-standing turbine by up to 50%. In very large wind farms or `deep arrays', this efficiency loss is related to interaction of the wind farms with the planetary boundary layer, leading to lower wind speeds at turbine level. Moreover, for these cases it has been demonstrated both in simulations and wind-tunnel experiments that the wind-farm energy extraction is dominated by the vertical turbulent transport of kinetic energy from higher regions in the boundary layer towards the turbine level. In the current study, we investigate the use of optimal control techniques combined with Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) of wind-farm boundary layer interaction for the increase of total energy extraction in very large `infinite' wind farms. We consider the individual wind turbines as flow actuators, whose energy extraction can be dynamically regulated in time so as to optimally influence the turbulent flow field, maximizing the wind farm power. For the simulation of wind-farm boundary layers we use large-eddy simulations in combination with actuator-disk and actuator-line representations of wind turbines. Simulations are performed in our in-house pseudo-spectral code SP-Wind that combines Fourier-spectral discretization in horizontal directions with a fourth-order finite-volume approach in the vertical direction. For the optimal control study, we consider the dynamic control of turbine-thrust coefficients in an actuator-disk model. They represent the effect of turbine blades that can actively pitch in time, changing the lift- and drag coefficients of the turbine blades. Optimal model-predictive control (or optimal receding horizon control) is used, where the model simply consists of the full LES equations, and the time horizon is approximately 280 seconds. The optimization is performed using a
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Denison, Marie F. C.
The reduction of drag and aerodynamic heating caused by boundary layer transition is of central interest for the development of hypersonic vehicles. Receptivity to flow perturbation in the form of Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) wave growth often determines the first stage of the transition process, which can be delayed by depositing specific excitations into the boundary layer. Weakly ionized Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) actuators are being investigated as possible sources of such excitations, but little is known today about their interaction with high-speed flows. In this framework, the first part of the thesis is dedicated to a receptivity study of laminar compressible boundary layers over a flat plate by linear stability analysis following an adjoint operator formulation, under DBD representative excitations assumed independent of flow conditions. The second part of the work concentrates on the development of a coupled plasma-Navier and Stokes solver targeted at the study of supersonic flow and compressibility effects on DBD forcing and non-parallel receptivity. The linear receptivity study of quasi-parallel compressible flows reveals several interesting features such as a significant shift of the region of maximum receptivity deeper into the flow at high Mach number and strong wave amplitude reduction compared to incompressible flows. The response to DBD relevant excitation distributions and to variations of the base flow conditions and system length scales follows these trends. Observed absolute amplitude changes and relative sensitivity modifications between source types are related to the evolution of the offset between forcing peak profile and relevant adjoint mode maximum. The analysis highlights the crucial importance of designing and placing the actuator in a way that matches its force field to the position of maximum boundary layer receptivity for the specific flow conditions of interest. In order to address the broad time and length scale spectrum
The boundary layer over turbine blade models with realistic rough surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McIlroy, Hugh M., Jr.
The impact of turbine blade surface roughness on aerodynamic performance and heat loads is well known. Over time, as the turbine blades are exposed to heat loads, the external surfaces of the blades become rough. Also, for film-cooled blades, surface degradation can have a significant impact on film-cooling effectiveness. Many studies have been conducted on the effects of surface degradation/roughness on engine performance but most investigations have modeled the rough surfaces with uniform or two-dimensional roughness patterns. The objective of the present investigation is to conduct measurements that will reveal the influence of realistic surface roughness on the near-wall behavior of the boundary layer. Measurements have been conducted at the Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory with a laser Doppler velocimeter. A flat plate model of a turbine blade has been developed that produces a transitional boundary layer, elevated freestream turbulence and an accelerating freestream in order to simulate conditions on the suction side of a high-pressure turbine blade. Boundary layer measurements have been completed over a smooth plate model and over a model with a strip of realistic rough surface. The realistic rough surface was developed by scaling actual turbine blade surface data that was provided by U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory. The results indicate that bypass transition occurred very early in the flow over the model and that the boundary layer remained unstable throughout the entire length of the test plate; the boundary layer thickness and momentum thickness Reynolds numbers increased over the rough patch; and the shape factor increased over the rough patch but then decreased downstream of the patch relative to the smooth plate case; in the rough patch case the flow experienced two transition reversals with laminar-like behavior achieved by the end of the test plate; streamwise turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abkar, M.; Porté-Agel, F.
2012-04-01
Predicting the spatial distribution of surface fluxes over heterogeneous terrains remains a basic challenge in hydrology and the atmospheric sciences. The complexity of such flow, makes it difficult to obtain all the needed information through field experiments alone, and often necessitates high-resolution eddy-resolving numerical tools such as large-eddy simulation (LES). One of the outstanding issues that affect LES performance is the treatment of the surface boundary conditions. Monin-Obukhov similarity (MOS) theory has provided the most common boundary condition formulations for LES of ABL flows. Despite the fact that MOS theory was proposed for homogeneous flat surfaces and applies strictly only to mean quantities, in LES it is used in a wide range of conditions, (including over heterogeneous surfaces and over topography) to compute the fluctuating surface fluxes. Recently, Chamorro and Porté-Agel (2009 and 2010) used wind velocity and surface shear stress data collected in a wind-tunnel experiment and showed direct application of MOS theory over heterogeneous surfaces causes large errors which affect both the average value as well as higher order statistics of the predicted surface shear stress. In this study, Large-eddy simulations are performed to evaluate the performance of the surface boundary condition downwind of a rough-to-smooth surface transition. Two types of boundary conditions are tested: (i) the standard formulation based on local application of Monin-Obukhov similarity (MOS) theory, and (ii) a new model based on a modification of the recently proposed model of Chamorro and Porte-Agel (2009). The new model assumes that the wind velocity downwind of a rough-to-smooth transition can be estimated as a weighted average of two logarithmic profiles. The first log law is recovered above the internal boundary layer height and corresponds to the upwind velocity profile. The second log law is adjusted to the downwind aerodynamic roughness and it is
Boundary layer ozone - An airborne survey above the Amazon Basin
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gregory, Gerald L.; Browell, Edward V.; Warren, Linda S.
1988-01-01
Ozone data obtained over the forest canopy of the Amazon Basin during July and August 1985 in the course of NASA's Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment 2A are discussed, and ozone profiles obtained during flights from Belem to Tabatinga, Brazil, are analyzed to determine any cross-basin effects. The analyses of ozone data indicate that the mixed layer of the Amazon Basin, for the conditions of undisturbed meteorology and in the absence of biomass burning, is a significant sink for tropospheric ozone. As the coast is approached, marine influences are noted at about 300 km inland, and a transition from a forest-controlled mixed layer to a marine-controlled mixed layer is noted.
Dynamics of lee waves on the boundary layer inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sachsperger, Johannes; Serafin, Stefano; Grubišić, Vanda
2016-04-01
Lee waves are horizontally propagating non-hydrostatic internal gravity waves that may be generated when stratified flow is lifted over a mountain. Depending on the upstream conditions, two types of lee waves can be distinguished. First, resonant lee waves, which are often explored in the context of Scorer's theory of wave trapping in a two-layer atmosphere, where a discontinuity in the Scorer parameter - with evanescent conditions in the upper layer - gives rise to trapped waves. Second, interfacial lee waves, which may form along a density discontinuity, e.g. a temperature inversion, similar to surface waves on a free water surface. While resonant lee waves have been studied extensively, interfacial lee waves were only rarely discussed in meteorological literature so far. For example, observational studies as well as systematic studies on the wavelength dependencies still seem to be lacking. In this work, we modify Scorer's wave trapping theory by applying a boundary condition that accounts for a density jump between the two fluid layers. In this case, wave resonance is possible along the density discontinuity even if the lower layer is neutrally stratified. The resulting linear theory can be applied for instance to atmospheric boundary layer flows over complex terrain, where part of the mountain wave energy can be trapped along the inversion that caps the boundary layer. We validate this model with observations taken in the area of Vienna and highlight the lee wavelength dependence on the flow parameters by systematically varying the upstream conditions. Since interfacial waves have transcendental frequency dispersion relationships that cannot be solved analytically, we also discuss the implications of the shallow- and deep-water approximations on the wavelength of the resonant mode.
Numerical Simulation of Boundary Layer Ingesting (BLI) Inlet-Fan Interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Giuliani, James; Chen, Jen-Ping; Beach, Timothy; Bakhle, Milind
2014-01-01
Future civil transport designs may incorporate engine inlets integrated into the body of the aircraft to take advantage of efficiency increases due to weight and drag reduction. Additional increases in engine efficiency are predicted if the inlet ingests the lower momentum boundary layer flow. Previous studies have shown, however, that efficiency benefits of Boundary Layer Ingesting (BLI) ingestion are very sensitive to the magnitude of fan and duct losses, and blade structural response to the non-uniform flow field that results from a BLI inlet has not been studied in-depth. This paper presents an effort to extend the modeling capabilities of an existing rotating turbomachinery unsteady analysis code to include the ability to solve the external and internal flow fields of a BLI inlet. The TURBO code has been a successful tool in evaluating fan response to flow distortions for traditional engine/inlet integrations, such as the development of rotating stall and inlet distortion through compressor stages. This paper describes the first phase of an effort to extend the TURBO model to calculate the external and inlet flowfield upstream of fan so that accurate pressure distortions that result from BLI configurations can be computed and used to analyze fan aerodynamics and structural response. To validate the TURBO program modifications for the BLI flowfield, experimental test data obtained by NASA for a flushmounted S-duct with large amounts of boundary layer ingestion was modeled. Results for the flow upstream and in the inlet are presented and compared to experimental data for several high Reynolds number flows to validate the modifications to the solver. Quantitative data is presented that indicates good predictive capability of the model in the upstream flow. A representative fan is attached to the inlet and results are presented for the coupled inlet/fan model. The impact on the total pressure distortion at the AIP after the fan is attached is examined.
Bandgap tunability at single-layer molybdenum disulphide grain boundaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yu Li; Chen, Yifeng; Zhang, Wenjing; Quek, Su Ying; Chen, Chang-Hsiao; Li, Lain-Jong; Hsu, Wei-Ting; Chang, Wen-Hao; Zheng, Yu Jie; Chen, Wei; Wee, Andrew T. S.
2015-02-01
Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides have emerged as a new class of semiconductor materials with novel electronic and optical properties of interest to future nanoelectronics technology. Single-layer molybdenum disulphide, which represents a prototype two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide, has an electronic bandgap that increases with decreasing layer thickness. Using high-resolution scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy, we measure the apparent quasiparticle energy gap to be 2.40±0.05 eV for single-layer, 2.10±0.05 eV for bilayer and 1.75±0.05 eV for trilayer molybdenum disulphide, which were directly grown on a graphite substrate by chemical vapour deposition method. More interestingly, we report an unexpected bandgap tunability (as large as 0.85±0.05 eV) with distance from the grain boundary in single-layer molybdenum disulphide, which also depends on the grain misorientation angle. This work opens up new possibilities for flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices with tunable bandgaps that utilize both the control of two-dimensional layer thickness and the grain boundary engineering.
Air Flow in a Separating Laminar Boundary Layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schubauer, G B
1936-01-01
The speed distribution in a laminar boundary layer on the surface of an elliptic cylinder, of major and minor axes 11.78 and 3.98 inches, respectively, has been determined by means of a hot-wire anemometer. The direction of the impinging air stream was parallel to the major axis. Special attention was given to the region of separation and to the exact location of the point of separation. An approximate method, developed by K. Pohlhausen for computing the speed distribution, the thickness of the layer, and the point of separation, is described in detail; and speed-distribution curves calculated by this method are presented for comparison with experiment.
Transport of contaminants in the planetary boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, I. Y.; Swan, P. R.
1978-01-01
A planetary boundary layer model is described and used to simulate PBL phenomena including cloud formation and pollution transport in the San Francisco Bay Area. The effect of events in the PBL on air pollution is considered, and governing equations for the average momentum, potential temperature, water vapor mixing ratio, and air contaminants are presented. These equations are derived by integrating the basic equations vertically through the mixed layer. Characteristics of the day selected for simulation are reported, and the results suggest that the diurnally cyclic features of the mesoscale motion, including clouds and air pollution, can be simulated in a readily interpretable way with the model.
Atmospheric tides on Venus. III - The planetary boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dobrovolskis, A. R.
1983-10-01
Diurnal solar heating of Venus' surface produces variable temperatures, winds, and pressure gradients within a shallow layer at the bottom of the atmosphere. The corresponding asymmetric mass distribution experiences a tidal torque tending to maintain Venus' slow retrograde rotation. It is shown that including viscosity in the boundary layer does not materially affect the balance of torques. On the other hand, friction between the air and ground can reduce the predicted wind speeds from about 5 to about 1 m/sec in the lower atmosphere, more consistent with the observations from Venus landers and descent probes. Implications for aeolian activity on Venus' surface and for future missions are discussed.
Logarithmic Boundary Layers in Strong Taylor-Couette Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lohse, Detlef; Huisman, Sander; Ostilla, Rodolfo; Scharnowski, Sven; Cierpka, Christian; Kähler, Christian; Verzicco, Roberto; Sun, Chao; Grossmann, Siegfried
2013-11-01
We provide direct measurements of boundary layer profiles in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow up to Re = 2 ×106 using high-resolution particle image velocimetry and particle tracking velocimetry, complemented by DNS data on the same system up to Re =105 . We find that the mean azimuthal velocity profile at the inner and outer cylinder can be fitted by the von Kármán log law, but with corrections due to the curvature of the cylinder, which we theoretically account for, based on the Navier-Stokes equation and a closure assumption for the turbulent diffusivity. In particular, we study how these corrections depend on the cylinder radius ratio and show that they are different for the boundary layers at the inner and at the outer cylinder.
Characteristics of Mach 10 transitional and turbulent boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watson, R. D.
1978-01-01
Measurements of the mean flow properties of transitional and turbulent boundary layers in helium on 4 deg and 5 deg wedges were made for flows with edge Mach numbers from 9.5 to 11.3, ratios of wall temperature to total temperature of 0.4 to 0.95, and maximum length Reynolds numbers of one hundred million. The data include pitot and total temperature surveys and measurements of heat transfer and surface shear. In addition, with the assumption of local similarity, turbulence quantities such as the mixing length were derived from the mean flow profiles. Low Reynolds number and precursor transition effects were significant factors at these test conditions and were included in finite difference boundary layer predictions.
3D LDV Measurements in Oscillatory Boundary Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mier, J. M.; Garcia, M. H.
2012-12-01
The oscillatory boundary layer represents a particular case of unsteady wall-bounded flows in which fluid particles follow a periodic sinusoidal motion. Unlike steady boundary layer flows, the oscillatory flow regime and bed roughness character change in time along the period for every cycle, a characteristic that introduces a high degree of complexity in the analysis of these flows. Governing equations can be derived from the general Navier-Stokes equations for the motion of fluids, from which the exact solution for the laminar oscillatory boundary layer is obtained (also known as the 2nd Stokes problem). No exact solution exists for the turbulent case, thus, understanding of the main flow characteristics comes from experimental work. Several researchers have reported experimental work in oscillatory boundary layers since the 1960's; however, larger scale facilities and the development of newer measurement techniques with improved temporal and spatial resolution in recent years provides a unique opportunity to achieve a better understanding about this type of flows. Several experiments were performed in the Large Oscillatory Water and Sediment Tunnel (LOWST) facility at the Ven Te Chow Hydrosystems Laboratory, for a range of Reynolds wave numbers between 6x10^4 < Rew < 6x10^6 over a flat and smooth bottom. A 3D Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) system was used to measure instantaneous flow velocities with a temporal resolution up to ~ 1,000 Hz. It was mounted on a 3-axis traverse with a spatial resolution of 0.01 mm in all three directions. The closest point to the bottom was measured at z = 0.2 mm (z+ ≈ 4), which allowed to capture boundary layer features with great detail. In order to achieve true 3D measurements, 2 probes were used on a perpendicular configuration, such that u and w components were measured from a probe on the side of the flume and v component was measured from a probe pointing down through and access window on top of the flume. The top probe
Crossing shock wave-turbulent boundary layer interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Narayanswami, N.; Knight, D. D.; Bogdonoff, S. M.; Horstman, C. C.
1991-01-01
Three-dimensional interactions between crossing shock waves generated by symmetric sharp fins and a turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate are investigated experimentally and theoretically at Mach number 2.95 and freestream unit Reynolds number 1.96 x 10 to the 7th/ft. The incoming boundary layer has a thickness of 4 mm at the location of the fin leading edges. A comparison of experimental and computational results for two sets of fin angles (11 x 11 and 9 x 9 deg) shows general agreement with regard to surface pressure measurements and surface streamline patterns. The principal feature of the streamline structure is a collision of counterrotating vortical structures emanating from near the fin leading edges and meeting at the geometric centerline of the interaction.
Turbulent boundary layers with large streamline curvature effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
So, R. M. C.; Mellor, G. L.
1978-01-01
It has been shown that turbulent flows are greatly affected by streamline curvature. In spite of this and the fact that curved shear flows are frequently encountered in engineering applications, the predictions of such flows are relatively less developed than the predictions of two-dimensional plane flows. Recently, various attempts were made by different investigators; however, their methods are only successful when the product of the boundary layer thickness to the local surface curvature is approximately 0.05. The present paper investigates the more general case where this product is in the range from 0.1 to 0.5. Results show that the calculated boundary-layer characteristics for arbitrary free stream conditions are in good agreement with measurements.
Flight Experiment Verification of Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Prediction Tool
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berry, Scott A.; Berger, Karen T.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Wood, William A.
2016-01-01
Boundary layer transition at hypersonic conditions is critical to the design of future high-speed aircraft and spacecraft. Accurate methods to predict transition would directly impact the aerothermodynamic environments used to size a hypersonic vehicle's thermal protection system. A transition prediction tool, based on wind tunnel derived discrete roughness correlations, was developed and implemented for the Space Shuttle return-to-flight program. This tool was also used to design a boundary layer transition flight experiment in order to assess correlation uncertainties, particularly with regard to high Mach-number transition and tunnel-to-flight scaling. A review is provided of the results obtained from the flight experiment in order to evaluate the transition prediction tool implemented for the Shuttle program.
Excitation of Crossflow Instabilities in a Swept Wing Boundary Layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carpenter, Mark H.; Choudhari, Meelan; Li, Fei; Streett, Craig L.; Chang, Chau-Lyan
2010-01-01
The problem of crossflow receptivity is considered in the context of a canonical 3D boundary layer (viz., the swept Hiemenz boundary layer) and a swept airfoil used recently in the SWIFT flight experiment performed at Texas A&M University. First, Hiemenz flow is used to analyze localized receptivity due to a spanwise periodic array of small amplitude roughness elements, with the goal of quantifying the effects of array size and location. Excitation of crossflow modes via nonlocalized but deterministic distribution of surface nonuniformity is also considered and contrasted with roughness induced acoustic excitation of Tollmien-Schlichting waves. Finally, roughness measurements on the SWIFT model are used to model the effects of random, spatially distributed roughness of sufficiently small amplitude with the eventual goal of enabling predictions of initial crossflow disturbance amplitudes as functions of surface roughness parameters.
Possibilities for drag reduction by boundary layer control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Naiman, I.
1946-01-01
The mechanics of laminar boundary layer transition are reviewed. Drag possibilities for boundary layer control are analyzed using assumed conditions of transition Reynolds number, inlet loss, number of slots, blower efficiency, and duct losses. Although the results of such analysis are highly favorable, those obtained by experimental investigations yield conflicting results, showing only small gains, and sometimes losses. Reduction of this data indicates that there is a lower limit to the quantity of air which must be removed at the slot in order to stabilize the laminar flow. The removal of insufficient air permits transition to occur while the removal of excessive amounts of air results in high power costs, with a net drag increases. With the estimated value of flow coefficient and duct losses equal to half the dynamic pressure, drag reductions of 50% may be obtained; with twice this flow coefficient, the drag saving is reduced to 25%.
Falkner-Skan Boundary Layer Flow of a Sisko Fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Masood; Shahzad, Azeem
2012-09-01
In this paper, we investigate the steady boundary layer flow of a non-Newtonian fluid, represented by a Sisko fluid, over a wedge in a moving fluid. The equations of motion are derived for boundary layer flow of an incompressible Sisko fluid using appropriate similarity variables. The governing equations are reduced to a single third-order highly nonlinear ordinary differential equation in the dimensionless stream function, which is then solved analytically using the homotopy analysis method. Some important parameters have been discussed by this study, which include the power law index n, the material parameter A, the wedge shape factor b, and the skin friction coefficient Cf. A comprehensive study is made between the results of the Sisko and the power-law fluids.
Boundary-layer turbulence as a kangaroo process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dekker, H.; de Leeuw, G.; Maassen van den Brink, A.
1995-09-01
A nonlocal mixing-length theory of turbulence transport by finite size eddies is developed by means of a novel evaluation of the Reynolds stress. The analysis involves the contruct of a sample path space and a stochastic closure hypothesis. The simplifying property of exhange (strong eddies) is satisfied by an analytical sampling rate model. A nonlinear scaling relation maps the path space onto the semi-infinite boundary layer. The underlying near-wall behavior of fluctuating velocities perfectly agrees with recent direct numerical simulations. The resulting integro-differential equation for the mixing of scalar densities represents fully developed boundary-layer turbulence as a nondiffusive (Kubo-Anderson or kangaroo) type of stochastic process. The model involves a scaling exponent ɛ (with ɛ-->∞ in the diffusion limit). For the (partly analytical) solution for the mean velocity profile, excellent agreement with the experimental data yields ɛ~=0.58.
Heat conduction boundary layers of condensed clumps in cooling flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boehringer, H.; Fabian, A. C.
1989-04-01
The structure of heat conduction boundary layers of gaseous condensations embedded in the hot intergalactic gas in clusters of galaxies is investigated by means of steady, one-dimensional, hydrodynamic models. It is assumed that heat conduction is effective only on scales much smaller than the total region of the cooling flow. Models are calculated for an arbitrary scaling factor, accounting for the reduction in heat conduction efficiency compared to the classical Spitzer case. The results imply a lower limit to the size spectrum of the condensations. The enhancement of cooling in the ambient medium due to heat conduction losses is calculated for a range of clump parameters. The luminosity of several observable emission lines, the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray emission spectrum, and the column density of some important ions are determined for the model boundary layers and compared with observations.
Atmospheric surface and boundary layers of the Amazon Basin
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garstang, Michael
1987-01-01
Three phases of work were performed: design of and preparation for the Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2-A); execution of the ABLE 2-A field program; and analysis of the ABLE 2-A data. Three areas of experiment design were dealt with: surface based meteorological measurements; aircraft missions; and project meteorological support. The primary goal was to obtain a good description of the structure of the atmosphere immediately above the rain forest canopy (top of canopy to a few thousand meters), to describe this region during the growing daytime phase of the boundary layer; and to examine the nighttime stratified state. A secondary objective was to examine the role that deep convective storms play in the vertical transport of heat, water vapor, and other trace gases. While significant progress was made, much of the analysis remains to be done.
Optimal disturbances in boundary layers subject to streamwise pressure gradient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ashpis, David E.; Tumin, Anatoli
2003-01-01
An analysis of the optimal non-modal growth of perturbations in a boundary layer in the presence of a streamwise pressure gradient is presented. The analysis is based on PSE equations for an incompressible fluid. Examples with Falkner-Scan profiles indicate that a favorable pressure gradient decreases the non-modal growth, while an unfavorable pressure gradient leads to an increase of the amplification. It is suggested that the transient growth mechanism be utilized to choose optimal parameters of tripping elements on a low-pressure turbine (LPT) airfoil. As an example, a boundary layer flow with a streamwise pressure gradient corresponding to the pressure distribution over a LPT airfoil is considered. It is shown that there is an optimal spacing of the tripping elements and that the transient growth effect depends on the starting point.
Calculation of turbulent shear stress in supersonic boundary layer flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sun, C. C.; Childs, M. E.
1974-01-01
An analysis of turbulent boundary layer flow characteristics and the computational procedure used are discussed. The integrated mass and momentum flux profiles and differentials of the integral quantities are used in the computations so that local evaluation of the streamwise velocity gradient is not necessary. The computed results are compared with measured shear stress data obtained by using hot wire anemometer and laser velocimeter techniques. The flow measurements were made upstream and downstream of an adiabatic unseparated interaction of an oblique shock wave with the turbulent boundary layer on the flat wall of a two dimensional wind tunnel. A comparison of the numerical analysis and actual measurements is made and the effects of small differences in mean flow profiles on the computed shear stress distributions are discussed.
A review of unsteady turbulent boundary-layer experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carr, L. W.
1981-01-01
The essential results of a comprehensive review of existing unsteady turbulent boundary-layer experiments are presented. Different types of unsteady flow facilities are described, and the related unsteady turbulent boundary-layer experiments are cataloged and discussed. The measurements that were obtained in the various experiments are described, and a complete list of experimental results is presented. All the experiments that measured instantaneous values of velocity, turbulence intensity, or turbulent shear stress are identified, and the availability of digital data is indicated. The results of the experiments are analyzed, and several significant trends are identified. An assessment of the available data is presented, delineating gaps in the existing data, and indicating where new or extended information is needed. Guidelines for future experiments are included.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blumberg, Dan G.; Greeley, Ronald
1992-01-01
The part of the troposphere influenced by the surface of the earth is termed the atmospheric boundary layer. Flow within this layer is influenced by the roughness of the surface; rougher surfaces induce more turbulence than smoother surfaces and, hence, higher atmospheric transfer rates across the surface. Roughness elements also shield erodible particles, thus decreasing the transport of windblown particles. Therefore, the aerodynamic roughness length (z(sub 0)) is an important parameter in aeolian and atmospheric boundary layer processes as it describes the aerodynamic properties of the underlying surface. z(sub 0) is assumed to be independent of wind velocity or height, and dependent only on the surface topography. It is determined using in situ measurements of the wind speed distribution as a function of height. For dry, unvegetated soils the intensity of the radar backscatter (sigma(sup 0)) is affected primarily by surface roughness at a scale comparable with the radar wavelength. Thus, both wind and radar respond to surface roughness variations on a scale of a few meters or less. Greeley showed the existence of a correlation between z(sub 0) and sigma(sup 0). This correlation was based on measurements over lava flows, alluvial fans, and playas in the southwest deserts of the United States. It is shown that the two parameters behave similarly also when there are small changes over a relatively homogeneous surface.
Linear stability theory and three-dimensional boundary layer transition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spall, Robert E.; Malik, Mujeeb R.
1992-01-01
The viewgraphs and discussion of linear stability theory and three dimensional boundary layer transition are provided. The ability to predict, using analytical tools, the location of boundary layer transition over aircraft-type configurations is of great importance to designers interested in laminar flow control (LFC). The e(sup N) method has proven to be fairly effective in predicting, in a consistent manner, the location of the onset of transition for simple geometries in low disturbance environments. This method provides a correlation between the most amplified single normal mode and the experimental location of the onset of transition. Studies indicate that values of N between 8 and 10 correlate well with the onset of transition. For most previous calculations, the mean flows were restricted to two-dimensional or axisymmetric cases, or have employed simple three-dimensional mean flows (e.g., rotating disk, infinite swept wing, or tapered swept wing with straight isobars). Unfortunately, for flows over general wing configurations, and for nearly all flows over fuselage-type bodies at incidence, the analysis of fully three-dimensional flow fields is required. Results obtained for the linear stability of fully three-dimensional boundary layers formed over both wing and fuselage-type geometries, and for both high and low speed flows are discussed. When possible, transition estimates form the e(sup N) method are compared to experimentally determined locations. The stability calculations are made using a modified version of the linear stability code COSAL. Mean flows were computed using both Navier Stokes and boundary-layer codes.
LASTRAC.3d: Transition Prediction in 3D Boundary Layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Chau-Lyan
2004-01-01
Langley Stability and Transition Analysis Code (LASTRAC) is a general-purpose, physics-based transition prediction code released by NASA for laminar flow control studies and transition research. This paper describes the LASTRAC extension to general three-dimensional (3D) boundary layers such as finite swept wings, cones, or bodies at an angle of attack. The stability problem is formulated by using a body-fitted nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate system constructed on the body surface. The nonorthogonal coordinate system offers a variety of marching paths and spanwise waveforms. In the extreme case of an infinite swept wing boundary layer, marching with a nonorthogonal coordinate produces identical solutions to those obtained with an orthogonal coordinate system using the earlier release of LASTRAC. Several methods to formulate the 3D parabolized stability equations (PSE) are discussed. A surface-marching procedure akin to that for 3D boundary layer equations may be used to solve the 3D parabolized disturbance equations. On the other hand, the local line-marching PSE method, formulated as an easy extension from its 2D counterpart and capable of handling the spanwise mean flow and disturbance variation, offers an alternative. A linear stability theory or parabolized stability equations based N-factor analysis carried out along the streamline direction with a fixed wavelength and downstream-varying spanwise direction constitutes an efficient engineering approach to study instability wave evolution in a 3D boundary layer. The surface-marching PSE method enables a consistent treatment of the disturbance evolution along both streamwise and spanwise directions but requires more stringent initial conditions. Both PSE methods and the traditional LST approach are implemented in the LASTRAC.3d code. Several test cases for tapered or finite swept wings and cones at an angle of attack are discussed.
Grey zone simulations of the morning convective boundary layer development
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Efstathiou, G. A.; Beare, R. J.; Osborne, S.; Lock, A. P.
2016-05-01
Numerical simulations of two cases of morning boundary layer development are conducted to investigate the impact of grid resolution on mean profiles and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) partitioning from the large eddy simulation (LES) to the mesoscale limit. Idealized LES, using the 3-D Smagorinsky scheme, is shown to be capable of reproducing the boundary layer evolution when compared against measurements. However, increasing grid spacing results in the damping of resolved TKE and the production of superadiabatic temperature profiles in the boundary layer. Turbulence initiation is significantly delayed, exhibiting an abrupt onset at intermediate resolutions. Two approaches, the bounding of vertical diffusion coefficient and the blending of the 3-D Smagorinsky with a nonlocal 1D scheme, are used to model subgrid diffusion at grey zone resolutions. Simulations are compared against the coarse-grained fields from the validated LES results for each case. Both methods exhibit particular strengths and weaknesses, indicating the compromise that needs to be made currently in high-resolution numerical weather prediction. The blending scheme is able to reproduce the adiabatic profiles although turbulence is underestimated in favor of the parametrized heat flux, and the spin-up of TKE remains delayed. In contrast, the bounding approach gives an evolution of TKE that follows the coarse-grained LES very well, relying on the resolved motions for the nonlocal heat flux. However, bounding gives unrealistic static instability in the early morning temperature profiles (similar to the 3-D Smagorinsky scheme) because model dynamics are unable to resolve TKE when the boundary layer is too shallow compared to the grid spacing.
A pulsed CO2 Doppler lidar for boundary layer monitoring
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pearson, Guy N.
1992-01-01
A monostatic, master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA), CO2 pulsed Doppler lidar was constructed and tested. The system is compact (120 x 60 cm), operates at high pulse repetition rates (greater than 1 kHz) and is intended for simultaneous Doppler/Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) monitoring of the planetary boundary layer. Details of the system design, hard target calibrations, and aerosol returns are presented.
Boundary Layer Transition Experiments in Support of the Hypersonics Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berry, Scott A.; Chen, Fang-Jenq; Wilder, Michael C.; Reda, Daniel C.
2007-01-01
Two experimental boundary layer transition studies in support of fundamental hypersonics research are reviewed. The two studies are the HyBoLT flight experiment and a new ballistic range effort. Details are provided of the objectives and approach associated with each experimental program. The establishment of experimental databases from ground and flight are to provide better understanding of high-speed flows and data to validate and guide the development of simulation tools.
Vortex/boundary-layer interactions: Data report, volume 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cutler, A. D.; Bradshaw, P.
1987-01-01
This report summarizes the work done under NASA Grant NAGw-581, Vortex/Boundary Layer Interactions. The experimental methods are discussed in detail and numerical results are presented, but are not fully interpreted. This report should be useful to anyone who wishes to make further use of the data (available on floppy disc or magnetic tape) for the development of turbulence models or the validation of predictive methods. Journal papers are in course of preparation.
Boundary layer elasto-optic switching in ferroelectric liquid crystals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parmar, D. S.
1992-01-01
The first experimental observation of a change in the director azimuthal angle due to applied shear stress is reported in a sample configuration involving a liquid-crystal-coated top surface exposed directly to gas flow. The electrooptic response caused by the shear stress is large, fast, and reversible. These findings are relevant to the use of liquid crystals in boundary layer investigations on wind tunnel models.
Partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystals for boundary layer investigations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parmar, Devendra S.; Singh, Jag J.
1992-01-01
A new configuration termed partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystal in which the liquid crystal microdroplets dispersed in a rigid polymer matrix are partially entrapped on the free surface of the thin film deposited on a glass substrate is reported. Optical transmission characteristics of the partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystal thin film in response to an air flow induced shear stress field reveal its potential as a sensor for gas flow and boundary layer investigations.
Boundary layer and separation control on wings at low Reynolds numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Shanling
Results on boundary layer and separation control through acoustic excitation at low Re numbers are reported. The Eppler 387 profile is specifically chosen because of its pre-stall hysteresis and bi-stable state behavior in the transitional Re regime, which is a result of flow separation and reattachment. External acoustic forcing on the wing yields large improvements (more than 70%) in lift-to-drag ratio and flow reattachment at forcing frequencies that correlate with the measured anti-resonances in the wind tunnel. The optimum St/Re1/2 range for Re = 60,000 matches the proposed optimum range in the literature, but there is less agreement for Re = 40,000, which suggests that correct St scaling has not been determined. The correlation of aerodynamic improvements to wind tunnel resonances implies that external acoustic forcing is facility-dependent, which inhibits practical application. Therefore, internal acoustic excitation for the same wing profile is also pursued. Internal acoustic forcing is designed to be accomplished by embedding small speakers inside a custom-designed wing that contains many internal cavities and small holes in the suction surface. However, initial testing of this semi-porous wing model shows that the presence of the small holes in the suction surface completely transforms the aerodynamic performance by changing the mean chordwise separation location and causing an originally separated, low-lift state flow to reattach into a high-lift state. The aerodynamic improvements are not caused by the geometry of the small holes themselves, but rather by Helmholtz resonance that occurs in the cavities, which generate tones that closely match the intrinsic flow instabilities. Essentially, opening and closing holes in the suction surface of a wing, perhaps by digital control, can be used as a means of passive separation control. Given the similarity of wing-embedded pressure tap systems to Helmholtz resonators, particular attention must be given to the
Investigation of the Interaction of External Disturbances with Roughened Flat Plate Boundary Layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, Sanford S.; Dietz, A. J.
1996-01-01
The interaction of an external disturbance with a laminar boundary layer over a flat plate with distributed roughness is investigated using combined experimental and numerical methods. The experiment is modeled with an unsteady boundary layer code using second order backward differencing. The simulation includes the second order scattering from roughness elements at and near the first streamwise station of predicted boundary layer instability. A comparison of experimental measurements of the boundary layer perturbation due to the wake from a vibrating ribbon with the computed first order forced boundary layer perturbation showed excellent agreement. Second order roughness induced eigenfunctions from boundary layer theory are examined and compared with other forms of excitation
Improving Subtropical Boundary Layer Cloudiness in the 2011 NCEP GFS
Fletcher, J. K.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Xiao, Heng; Sun, Ruiyu N.; Han, J.
2014-09-23
The current operational version of National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecasting System (GFS) shows significant low cloud bias. These biases also appear in the Coupled Forecast System (CFS), which is developed from the GFS. These low cloud biases degrade seasonal and longer climate forecasts, particularly of short-wave cloud radiative forcing, and affect predicted sea surface temperature. Reducing this bias in the GFS will aid the development of future CFS versions and contributes to NCEP's goal of unified weather and climate modelling. Changes are made to the shallow convection and planetary boundary layer parameterisations to make them more consistent with current knowledge of these processes and to reduce the low cloud bias. These changes are tested in a single-column version of GFS and in global simulations with GFS coupled to a dynamical ocean model. In the single-column model, we focus on changing parameters that set the following: the strength of shallow cumulus lateral entrainment, the conversion of updraught liquid water to precipitation and grid-scale condensate, shallow cumulus cloud top, and the effect of shallow convection in stratocumulus environments. Results show that these changes improve the single-column simulations when compared to large eddy simulations, in particular through decreasing the precipitation efficiency of boundary layer clouds. These changes, combined with a few other model improvements, also reduce boundary layer cloud and albedo biases in global coupled simulations.
Review of Orbiter Flight Boundary Layer Transition Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcginley, Catherine B.; Berry, Scott A.; Kinder, Gerald R.; Barnell, maria; Wang, Kuo C.; Kirk, Benjamin S.
2006-01-01
In support of the Shuttle Return to Flight program, a tool was developed to predict when boundary layer transition would occur on the lower surface of the orbiter during reentry due to the presence of protuberances and cavities in the thermal protection system. This predictive tool was developed based on extensive wind tunnel tests conducted after the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia. Recognizing that wind tunnels cannot simulate the exact conditions an orbiter encounters as it re-enters the atmosphere, a preliminary attempt was made to use the documented flight related damage and the orbiter transition times, as deduced from flight instrumentation, to calibrate the predictive tool. After flight STS-114, the Boundary Layer Transition Team decided that a more in-depth analysis of the historical flight data was needed to better determine the root causes of the occasional early transition times of some of the past shuttle flights. In this paper we discuss our methodology for the analysis, the various sources of shuttle damage information, the analysis of the flight thermocouple data, and how the results compare to the Boundary Layer Transition prediction tool designed for Return to Flight.
Unsteady low Reynolds number shock boundary layer interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loth, E.; Matthys, Mark W.
1995-05-01
Finite element methods were used to perform an investigation of the interaction between a reflected shock wave and a low Reynolds number laminar boundary layer in Mach 2 flow. The finite element scheme makes use of the time-accurate flux-corrected transport technique and a fully unstructured mesh, which is adaptive to both viscous and gasdynamic effects. A boundary layer transformation was employed to eliminate both the upstream pressure gradient and resolution issues of the leading edge flow. Shock wave/boundary layer interactions were simulated for four different shock intersection Reynolds numbers: 600, 2400, 9600, and 24 000. While significant amounts of flow separation were found for all Reynolds numbers, the character and size of the separated region varied significantly. It was also noted that separation bubble lengths when normalized by the distance from the leading edge to the shock intersection point decreased as the Reynolds number increased for the conditions considered herein. However, the most interesting observation was the inherent unsteadiness found for the higher Reynolds numbers. This led to separation bubble instability and vortex shedding for the two highest Reynolds number cases. The results indicated a natural shedding frequency of 1.3 based on ambient velocity and primary separation bubble length for these two cases.
Manipulation of Turbulent Boundary Layers Using Synthetic Jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berger, Zachary; Gomit, Guillaume; Lavoie, Philippe; Ganapathisubramani, Bharath
2015-11-01
This work focuses on the application of active flow control, in the form of synthetic jet actuators, of turbulent boundary layers. An array of 2 synthetic jets are oriented in the spanwise direction and located approximately 2.7 meters downstream from the leading edge of a flat plate. Actuation is applied perpendicular to the surface of the flat plate with varying blowing ratios and reduced frequencies (open-loop). Two-component large window particle image velocimetry (PIV) was performed at the University of Southampton, in the streamwise-wall-normal plane. Complementary stereo PIV measurements were performed at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies (UTIAS), in the spanwise-wall-normal plane. The freestream Reynolds number is 3x104, based on the boundary layer thickness. The skin friction Reynolds number is 1,200 based on the skin friction velocity. The experiments at Southampton allow for the observation of the control effects as the flow propagates downstream. The experiments at UTIAS allow for the observation of the streamwise vorticity induced from the actuation. Overall the two experiments provide a 3D representation of the flow field with respect to actuation effects. The current work focuses on the comparison of the two experiments, as well as the effects of varying blowing ratios and reduced frequencies on the turbulent boundary layer. Funded Supported by Airbus.
Study of the morning transition of the atmospheric boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sastre, M.; Yagüe, C.; Maqueda, G.; Viana, S.
2009-04-01
In this work it will be analyzed the main physical processes related to the transition of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) that takes place from the last hours of the night until the first hours of the morning. In order to achieve that, it will be used data from field campaigns which took place in the Research Centre for the Lower Atmosphere (CIBA), especially those gathered in the campaign carried out in June, 2008 where information was obtained from a 10m height mast provided with temperature, wind speed and direction, and moisture sensors at several levels. Also a sonic anemometer (20 Hz sampling rate) at 10m was available. The database is complemented by a triangle of microbarometers installed next to the surface, and another two microbarometers placed in a 100m meteorological tower at 50 and 100m respectively. A GRIMM particle monitor (MODEL 365), which can be used to continuously measure each six seconds simultaneously the PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 values, was also available to evaluate the degree of mixing taking place near the surface. The thermodynamic characteristics of the first hundreds of meters remain registered from information obtained with a tethered balloon and with a RASS-SODAR. The main turbulent and stability parameters, as well as coherent structures present in the Nocturnal Boundary Layer are studied in connection to their influence in the developing of the next Convective Boundary Layer.
Boundary Layer Transition in the NTF: HSR Experience and Plans
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Owens, Lewis R., Jr.; Wahls, Richard A.; Hamner, Marvine P.
1999-01-01
Efforts towards understanding boundary layer transition characteristics on a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT)-class configuration in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) are ongoing. The majority of the High Speed Research (HSR) data base in the NTF has free transition on the wing, even at low Reynolds numbers (Rn) attainable in conventional facilities. Limited data has been obtained and is described herein showing the effects of a conventional, Braslow method based wing boundary-layer trip on drag. Comparisons are made using force data polars and surface flow visualization at selected angles-of-attack and Mach number. Minimum drag data obtained in this study suggest that boundary layer transition occurred very near the wing leading edge by a chord Rn of 30 million. Sublimating chemicals were used in the air mode of operation only at low Rn and low angles-of-attack with no flap deflections; sublimation results suggest that the forebody and outboard wing panel are the only regions with significant laminar flow. The process and issues related to the sublimating chemical technique as applied in the NTF are discussed. Beyond the existing experience, status of efforts to develop a production transition detection system applicable to both air and cryogenic nitrogen environments is presented.
Minnowbrook II 1997 Workshop on Boundary Layer Transition in Turbomachines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
LaGraff John E. (Editor); Ashpis, David E. (Editor)
1998-01-01
The volume contains materials presented at the Minnowbrook II - 1997 Workshop on Boundary Layer Transition in Turbomachines, held at Syracuse University Minnowbrook Conference Center, New York, on September 7-10, 1997. The workshop followed the informal format at the 1993 Minnowbrook I workshop, focusing on improving the understanding of late stage (final breakdown) boundary layer transition, with the engineering application of improving design codes for turbomachinery in mind. Among the physical mechanisms discussed were hydrodynamic instabilities, laminar to turbulent transition, bypass transition, turbulent spots, wake interaction with boundary layers, calmed regions, and separation, all in the context of flow in turbomachinery, particularly in compressors and high and low pressure turbines. Results from experiments, DNS, computation, modeling and theoretical analysis were presented. Abstracts and copies of viewgraphs, a specifically commissioned summation paper prepared after the workshop, and a transcript of the extensive working group reports and discussions are included in this volume. They provide recommendations for future research and clearly highlight the need for continued vigorous research in the technologically important area of transition in turbomachines.
Vertical coupling of the stratocumulus boundary layer by penetrating cumulus
Wang, Q.; Lenschow, D.H.
1994-12-31
During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX), small cumulus clouds that penetrate through the stratocumulus sheets were observed frequently. Radar observations show that the reflectivity cores in the penetrating cumuli are generally 1--2 km in diameter with a much larger enhanced patch of stratocumulus approximately 15--20 km across, whereas visual estimates of the diameter of the cumuli are generally in the neighborhood of several kilometers. In this study, the authors analyze measurements made on 10 June 1992 from the NCAR Electra aircraft. They are particularly interested in the role penetrating cumuli play in transporting moisture and other scalar between the sea surface and the top of the boundary layer, which is directly related to the important practical question of whether or not the penetrating cumuli tend to break up or dissipate the overlying stratocumulus cloud and aid the transition from a stratocumulus to a cumulus boundary layer. Large variations in temperature, specific humidity, and ozone are observed on both in-cloud legs. The differences between the maximum and minimum values of potential temperature, specific humidity, and ozone on these legs are around 1.1 deg, 1.4 g kg{sup {minus}1}, and 7 ppbv, respectively. To the authors` knowledge, such substantial horizontal variations of scalar variables have never been reported before in stratocumulus-topped boundary layers over the ocean. Close inspections of the time series indicate that the highest temperature and moisture and the lowest ozone concentration are found in the Cu region on both legs.
Thermocapillary Bubble Migration: Thermal Boundary Layers for Large Marangoni Numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balasubramaniam, R.; Subramanian, R. S.
1996-01-01
The migration of an isolated gas bubble in an immiscible liquid possessing a temperature gradient is analyzed in the absence of gravity. The driving force for the bubble motion is the shear stress at the interface which is a consequence of the temperature dependence of the surface tension. The analysis is performed under conditions for which the Marangoni number is large, i.e. energy is transferred predominantly by convection. Velocity fields in the limit of both small and large Reynolds numbers are used. The thermal problem is treated by standard boundary layer theory. The outer temperature field is obtained in the vicinity of the bubble. A similarity solution is obtained for the inner temperature field. For both small and large Reynolds numbers, the asymptotic values of the scaled migration velocity of the bubble in the limit of large Marangoni numbers are calculated. The results show that the migration velocity has the same scaling for both low and large Reynolds numbers, but with a different coefficient. Higher order thermal boundary layers are analyzed for the large Reynolds number flow field and the higher order corrections to the migration velocity are obtained. Results are also presented for the momentum boundary layer and the thermal wake behind the bubble, for large Reynolds number conditions.
Measurements Of Instability And Transition In Hypersonic Boundary Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casper, Katya M.; Schneider, Steven P.; Beresh, Steven J.
2011-05-01
Several studies on boundary-layer instability and transition have been conducted in the Boeing/AFOSR-Mach 6 Quiet Tunnel (BAM6QT) and the Sandia Hypersonic Wind Tunnels (HWT) at Mach 5 and 8. The first study looked at the effect of freestream noise on roughness- induced transition on a blunt cone. Temperature-sensitive paints were used to visualize the wake of an isolated roughness element at zero deg angle of attack in the BAM6QT. Transition was always delayed under quiet flow compared to noisy flow, even for an effective trip height. The second study measured transitional surface pressure fluctuations on a seven degree half-angle sharp cone in the HWT under noisy flow and in the BAM6QT under noisy and quiet flow. Fluctuations under laminar boundary layers reflected tunnel noise levels. Transition on the model only occurred under noisy flow, and fluctuations peaked during transition. Measurements of second- mode waves showed the waves started to grow under a laminar boundary layer, saturated, and then broke down near the peak in transitional pressure fluctuations. The third study looked at the development of wave packets and turbulent spots on the BAM6QT nozzle wall. A spark perturber was used to generate controlled disturbances. Measurements of the internal structure of the pressure field of the disturbances were made.
Boundary-layer equations in generalized curvilinear coordinates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panaras, Argyris G.
1987-01-01
A set of higher-order boundary-layer equations is derived valid for three-dimensional compressible flows. The equations are written in a generalized curvilinear coordinate system, in which the surface coordinates are nonorthogonal; the third axis is restricted to be normal to the surface. Also, higher-order viscous terms which are retained depend on the surface curvature of the body. Thus, the equations are suitable for the calculation of the boundary layer about arbitrary vehicles. As a starting point, the Navier-Stokes equations are derived in a tensorian notation. Then by means of an order-of-magnitude analysis, the boundary-layer equations are developed. To provide an interface between the analytical partial differentiation notation and the compact tensor notation, a brief review of the most essential theorems of the tensor analysis related to the equations of the fluid dynamics is given. Many useful quantities, such as the contravariant and the covariant metrics and the physical velocity components, are written in both notations.
Turbulent thermal boundary layers subjected to severe acceleration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Araya, Guillermo; Castillo, Luciano
2013-11-01
Favorable turbulent boundary layers are flows of great importance in industry. Particularly, understanding the mechanisms of quasi-laminarization by means of a very strong favorable streamwise pressure gradient is indeed crucial in drag reduction and energy management applications. Furthermore, due to the low Reynolds numbers involved in the quasi-laminarization process, abundant experimental investigation can be found in the literature for the past few decades. However, several grey zones still remain unsolved, principally associated with the difficulties that experiments encounter as the boundary layer becomes smaller. In addition, little attention has been paid to the heat transfer in a quasi-laminarization process. In this investigation, DNS of spatially-developing turbulent thermal boundary layers with prescribed very strong favorable pressure gradients (K = 4 × 10-6) are performed. Realistic inflow conditions are prescribed based on the Dynamic Multi-scale Approach (DMA) [Araya et al. JFM, Vol. 670, pp. 581-605, 2011]. In this sense the flow carries the footprint of turbulence, particularly in the streamwise component of the Reynolds stresses.
Some characteristics of bypass transition in a heated boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sohn, K. H.; Reshotko, E.; O'Brien, J. E.
Experimental measurements of both mean and conditionally sampled characteristics of laminar, transitional and low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers on a heated flat plate are presented. Measurements were obtained in air over a range of freestream turbulence intensities from 0.3 percent to 6 percent with a freestream velocity of 30.5 m/s and zero pressure gradient. Conditional sampling performed in the transitional boundary layers indicate the existence of a near-wall drop in intermittency, especially pronounced at low intermittencies. Nonturbulent intervals were observed to possess large levels of low-frequency unsteadiness, and turbulent intervals had peak intensities as much as 50 percent higher than were measured at fully turbulent stations. Heat transfer results were consistent with results of previous researches and Reynolds analogy factors were found to be well predicted by laminar and turbulent correlations which accounted for unheated starting length. A small dependence of the turbulent Reynolds analogy factors on freestream turbulence level was observed. Laminar boundary layer spectra indicated selective amplification of unstable frequencies. These instabilities appear to play a dominant role in the transition process only for the lowest freestream turbulence level studied, however.
Some characteristics of bypass transition in a heated boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sohn, K. H.; Obrien, J. E.; Reshotko, E.
Experimental measurements of both mean and conditionally sampled characteristics of laminar, transitional and low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers on a heated flat plate are presented. Measurements were obtained in air over a range of freestream turbulence intensities from 0.3 percent to 6 percent with a freestream velocity of 30.5 m/s and zero pressure gradient. Conditional sampling performed in the transitional boundary layers indicate the existence of a near-wall drop in intermittency, especially pronounced at low intermittencies. Nonturbulent intervals were observed to possess large levels of low-frequency unsteadiness, and turbulent intervals had peak intensities as much as 50 percent higher than were measured at fully turbulent stations. Heat transfer results were consistent with results of previous researchers and Reynolds analogy factors were found to be well predicted by laminar and turbulent correlations which accounted for unheated starting length. A small dependence of the turbulent Reynolds analogy factors on freestream turbulence level was observed. Laminar boundary layer spectra indicated selective amplification of unstable frequencies. These instabilities appear to play a dominant role in the transition process only for the lowest freestream turbulence level studied, however.
Destiny of earthward streaming plasma in the plasmasheet boundary layer
Green, J.L.; Horwitz, J.L.
1986-01-01
Propagation characteristics of earthward streaming protons in the plasmasheet boundary layer are investigated in a model magnetosphere from the analysis of single particle trajectories. The phase space of initial proton distributions within the plasmasheet boundary layer out to 40 Earth radii (R/sub e/) can be separated into four major components. In a region outside the loss cone, protons with pitch angles less than about 2.6/sup 0/ can make it to the auroral zone at S3-3 altitudes and below. Protons at all other pitch angles, with speeds greater than about 1100 km/s, reflect (or mirror) at high latitudes near the Earth and return tailward, often convecting toward the inner plasmasheet. Protons with velocities as high as 800 km/s, regardless of pitch angle, are found to mirror such that they are ''trapped'' in the ring current region of the magnetosphere. These results are dependent on the magnitude and direction of the convection electric field, such that during geomagnetic storms with higher convection electric fields, higher energies of the plasmasheet boundary layer protons would be expected to reach the low-latitude portions of the ring current.
Coupling of magnetopause-boundary layer to the polar ionosphere
Wei, C.Q.; Lee, L.C. )
1993-04-01
The authors develop a model which seeks to explain ultraviolet auroral images from the Viking satellite which show periodic bright regions which resemble [open quotes]beads[close quotes] or [open quotes]pearls[close quotes] aligned along the postnoon auroral oval. ULF geomagnetic pulsations observed in the cusp region are also addressed by this model. The model addresses plasma dynamics in the low-latitude boundary layer and interactions with the polar ionosphere by means of field-aligned current. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability can develop in the presence of driven plasma flow, which can lead to the formation and growth of plasma vortices in the boundary layer. The finite conductivity of the earth ionosphere causes these vortices to decay. However regions of enhanced field-aligned power density in the postnoon auroral oval can be associated with field-aligned current filaments and boundary layer vortices. These structures may explain the observed bright spots. The authors also discuss the frequency spectrum and the polarization state of the pulsations.
On Parameterizing Turbulence in the Stably Stratified Atmospheric Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, Jordan M.; Venayagamoorthy, Subhas K.
2014-11-01
Parameterizing turbulent mixing in the stably stratified atmospheric boundary layer remains an active area of research connecting available field measurements with appropriate model parameters. The research presented studies the pertinent mixing lengths for shear- and buoyancy-dominated (or weakly stable and very stable) regimes in the stable atmospheric boundary layer (SABL). Incorporating shear and buoyancy effects, two length scales can be constructed, LkS =k 1 / 2 / S and LkN =k 1 / 2 / N , respectively. Extending the conceptual framework of Mater & Venayagamoorthy (2014), LkS and LkN are shown to be accurate representations of large-scale motions from which relevant model parameters are developed using observations from three field campaigns. An a priori analysis of large-eddy simulation (LES) data evaluates the efficacy of parameterizations applied to the vertical structure of the SABL. The results of this study provide a thorough evaluation of the pertinent mixing lengths in stably stratified turbulence through applications to atmospheric observations and numerical models for the boundary layer extendable to larger-scale weather prediction or global circulation models. S.K.V. gratefully acknowledges the support of the National Science Foundation under Grant No. OCE-1151838.
RANS Modeling of Benchmark Shockwave / Boundary Layer Interaction Experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Georgiadis, Nick; Vyas, Manan; Yoder, Dennis
2010-01-01
This presentation summarizes the computations of a set of shock wave / turbulent boundary layer interaction (SWTBLI) test cases using the Wind-US code, as part of the 2010 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) shock / boundary layer interaction workshop. The experiments involve supersonic flows in wind tunnels with a shock generator that directs an oblique shock wave toward the boundary layer along one of the walls of the wind tunnel. The Wind-US calculations utilized structured grid computations performed in Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes mode. Three turbulence models were investigated: the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model, the Menter Shear Stress Transport wavenumber-angular frequency two-equation model, and an explicit algebraic stress wavenumber-angular frequency formulation. Effects of grid resolution and upwinding scheme were also considered. The results from the CFD calculations are compared to particle image velocimetry (PIV) data from the experiments. As expected, turbulence model effects dominated the accuracy of the solutions with upwinding scheme selection indicating minimal effects.!
A Parameterization of Intermittent Turbulence in the Stable Boundary Layer
Lundquist, J K; Nitao, E N; Loosmore, G A
2003-08-01
This model explores the interaction between a cooling vegetated surface and the lower atmosphere. Neglecting any possibility of intermittence generated from the top of the stable boundary layer, the frequency of intermittency can be defined as a function of the three input quantities--pressure gradient force, cloud cover fraction, and boundary layer height. It is not clear if the amplitude of the intermittency and the time to reach a quasi-steady state can also be described as a function of the inputs. In addition, time-dependent inputs have an effect on the overall intermittency. Fluctuations in the pressure gradient force have the most influence in decreasing the periods while varying cloud cover fraction decreases the amplitude of the intermittence. It is unclear whether the transition time is affected by the fluctuating inputs. To gauge the sufficiency of this model, the results must be compared to experimental studies and models that include the forcing at the top of the stable boundary layer.
Cloud-Scale Numerical Modeling of the Arctic Boundary Layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krueger, Steven K.
1998-01-01
The interactions between sea ice, open ocean, atmospheric radiation, and clouds over the Arctic Ocean exert a strong influence on global climate. Uncertainties in the formulation of interactive air-sea-ice processes in global climate models (GCMs) result in large differences between the Arctic, and global, climates simulated by different models. Arctic stratus clouds are not well-simulated by GCMs, yet exert a strong influence on the surface energy budget of the Arctic. Leads (channels of open water in sea ice) have significant impacts on the large-scale budgets during the Arctic winter, when they contribute about 50 percent of the surface fluxes over the Arctic Ocean, but cover only 1 to 2 percent of its area. Convective plumes generated by wide leads may penetrate the surface inversion and produce condensate that spreads up to 250 km downwind of the lead, and may significantly affect the longwave radiative fluxes at the surface and thereby the sea ice thickness. The effects of leads and boundary layer clouds must be accurately represented in climate models to allow possible feedbacks between them and the sea ice thickness. The FIRE III Arctic boundary layer clouds field program, in conjunction with the SHEBA ice camp and the ARM North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean site, will offer an unprecedented opportunity to greatly improve our ability to parameterize the important effects of leads and boundary layer clouds in GCMs.
Using UAV's to Measure the Urban Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacob, R. L.; Sankaran, R.; Beckman, P. H.
2015-12-01
The urban boundary layer is one of the most poorly studied regions of the atmospheric boundary layer. Since a majority of the world's population now lives in urban areas, it is becoming a more important region to measure and model. The combination of relatively low-cost unmanned aerial vehicles and low-cost sensors can together provide a new instrument for measuring urban and other boundary layers. We have mounted a new sensor and compute platform called Waggle on an off-the-shelf XR8 octo-copter from 3DRobotics. Waggle consists of multiple sensors for measuring pressure, temperature and humidity as well as trace gases such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and ozone. A single board computer running Linux included in Waggle on the UAV allows in-situ processing and data storage. Communication of the data is through WiFi or 3G and the Waggle software can save the data in case communication is lost during flight. The flight pattern is a deliberately simple vertical ascent and descent over a fixed location to provide vertical profiles and so flights can be confined to urban parks, industrial areas or the footprint of a single rooftop. We will present results from test flights in urban and rural areas in and around Chicago.
Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Dynamics with Constant Bowen Ratio
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Porporato, Amilcare
2009-08-01
Motivated by the observation that the diurnal evolution of sensible and latent heat fluxes tends to maintain a constant Bowen ratio, we derive approximate solutions of the ordinary differential equations of a simplified atmospheric boundary-layer (ABL) model. Neglecting the early morning transition, the potential temperature and specific humidity of the mixed layer are found to be linearly related to the ABL height. Similar behaviour is followed by the inversion strengths of temperature and humidity at the top of the ABL. The potential temperature of the mixed layer depends on the entrainment parameter and the free-atmosphere temperature lapse rate, while the specific humidity also depends on the free-atmosphere humidity lapse rate and the Bowen ratio. The temporal dynamics appear only implicitly in the evolution of the height of the boundary layer, which in turn depends on the time-integrated surface sensible heat flux. Studying the limiting behaviour of the Bowen ratio for very low and very large values of net available energy, we also show how the tendency to maintain constant Bowen ratio during midday hours stems from its relative insensitivity to the atmospheric conditions for large values of net available energy. The analytical expression for the diurnal evolution of the ABL obtained with constant Bowen ratio is simple and provides a benchmark for the results of more complex models.
The Benthic Boundary Layer: Transport Processes and Biogeochemistry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Duren, Luca A.; Middelburg, Jack J.
Interdisciplinary research is certainly one of the current buzzwords that needs to be incorporated in virtually every grant proposal. The idea that integration of different scientific fields is a prerequisite for progress in Earth sciences is now well recognized. The benthic boundary layer (BBL) is one area of research in which physicists, chemists, biologists, geologists, and engineers have worked in close and fruitful cooperation for several decades. The BBL comprises the near-bottom layer of water, the sediment-water interface, and the top layer of sediment that is directly influenced by the overlying water. In 1974, a BBL conference in France resulted in a book titled The Benthic Boundary Layer edited by I.N. McCave. This publication contained contributions from scientists from a wide range of disciplines and gave an overview of the state-of-the-art of BBL research. However, science has moved on in the past 25 years. Significant conceptual and technological progress has been made, and it is definitely time for an update.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spina, Eric F.
1995-01-01
The primary objective in the two research investigations performed under NASA Langley sponsorship (Turbulence measurements in hypersonic boundary layers using constant temperature anemometry and Reynolds stress measurements in hypersonic boundary layers) has been to increase the understanding of the physics of hypersonic turbulent boundary layers. The study began with an extension of constant-temperature thermal anemometry techniques to a Mach 11 helium flow, including careful examinations of hot-wire construction techniques, system response, and system calibration. This was followed by the application of these techniques to the exploration of a Mach 11 helium turbulent boundary layer (To approximately 290 K). The data that was acquired over the course of more than two years consists of instantaneous streamwise mass flux measurements at a frequency response of about 500 kHz. The data are of exceptional quality in both the time and frequency domain and possess a high degree of repeatability. The data analysis that has been performed to date has added significantly to the body of knowledge on hypersonic turbulence, and the data reduction is continuing. An attempt was then made to extend these thermal anemometry techniques to higher enthalpy flows, starting with a Mach 6 air flow with a stagnation temperature just above that needed to prevent liquefaction (To approximately 475 F). Conventional hot-wire anemometry proved to be inadequate for the selected high-temperature, high dynamic pressure flow, with frequent wire breakage and poor system frequency response. The use of hot-film anemometry has since been investigated for these higher-enthalpy, severe environment flows. The difficulty with using hot-film probes for dynamic (turbulence) measurements is associated with construction limitations and conduction of heat into the film substrate. Work continues under a NASA GSRP grant on the development of a hot film probe that overcomes these shortcomings for hypersonic
Lecture Series "Boundary Layer Theory". Part I - Laminar Flows. Part 1; Laminar Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schlichting, H.
1949-01-01
In the lecture series starting today author want to give a survey of a field of aerodynamics which has for a number of years been attracting an ever growing interest. The subject is the theory of flows with friction, and, within that field, particularly the theory of friction layers, or boundary layers. A great many considerations of aerodynamics are based on the ideal fluid, that is the frictionless incompressibility and fluid. By neglect of compressibility and friction the extensive mathematical theory of the ideal fluid, (potential theory) has been made possible. Actual liquids and gases satisfy the condition of incomressibility rather well if the velocities are not extremely high or, more accurately, if they are small in comparison with sonic velocity. For air, for instance, the change in volume due to compressibility amounts to about 1 percent for a velocity of 60 meters per second. The hypothesis of absence of friction is not satisfied by any actual fluid; however, it is true that most technically important fluids, for instance air and water, have a very small friction coefficient and therefore behave in many cases almost like the ideal frictionless fluid. Many flow phenomena, in particular most cases of lift, can be treated satisfactorily, - that is, the calculations are in good agreement with the test results, -under the assumption of frictionless fluid. However, the calculations with frictionless flow show a very serious deficiency; namely, the fact, known as d'Alembert's paradox, that in frictionless flow each body has zero drag whereas in actual flow each body experiences a drag of greater or smaller magnitude. For a long time the theory has been unable to bridge this gap between the theory of frictionless flow and the experimental findings about actual flow. The cause of this fundamental discrepancy is the viscosity which is neglected in the theory of ideal fluid; however, in spite of its extraordinary smallness it is decisive for the course of the flow
PIV-based pressure fluctuations in the turbulent boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghaemi, Sina; Ragni, Daniele; Scarano, Fulvio
2012-12-01
The unsteady pressure field is obtained from time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry (Tomo-PIV) measurement within a fully developed turbulent boundary layer at free stream velocity of U ∞ = 9.3 m/s and Reθ = 2,400. The pressure field is evaluated from the velocity fields measured by Tomo-PIV at 10 kHz invoking the momentum equation for unsteady incompressible flows. The spatial integration of the pressure gradient is conducted by solving the Poisson pressure equation with fixed boundary conditions at the outer edge of the boundary layer. The PIV-based evaluation of the pressure field is validated against simultaneous surface pressure measurement using calibrated condenser microphones mounted behind a pinhole orifice. The comparison shows agreement between the two pressure signals obtained from the Tomo-PIV and the microphones with a cross-correlation coefficient of 0.6 while their power spectral densities (PSD) overlap up to 3 kHz. The impact of several parameters governing the pressure evaluation from the PIV data is evaluated. The use of the Tomo-PIV system with the application of three-dimensional momentum equation shows higher accuracy compared to the planar version of the technique. The results show that the evaluation of the wall pressure can be conducted using a domain as small as half the boundary layer thickness (0.5δ99) in both the streamwise and the wall normal directions. The combination of a correlation sliding-average technique, the Lagrangian approach to the evaluation of the material derivative and the planar integration of the Poisson pressure equation results in the best agreement with the pressure measurement of the surface microphones.
A complex-lamellar description of boundary layer transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolla, Maureen Louise
Flow transition is important, in both practical and phenomenological terms. However, there is currently no method for identifying the spatial locations associated with transition, such as the start and end of intermittency. The concept of flow stability and experimental correlations have been used, however, flow stability only identifies the location where disturbances begin to grow in the laminar flow and experimental correlations can only give approximations as measuring the start and end of intermittency is difficult. Therefore, the focus of this work is to construct a method to identify the start and end of intermittency, for a natural boundary layer transition and a separated flow transition. We obtain these locations by deriving a complex-lamellar description of the velocity field that exists between a fully laminar and fully turbulent boundary condition. Mathematically, this complex-lamellar decomposition, which is constructed from the classical Darwin-Lighthill-Hawthorne drift function and the transport of enstrophy, describes the flow that exists between the fully laminar Pohlhausen equations and Prandtl's fully turbulent one seventh power law. We approximate the difference in enstrophy density between the boundary conditions using a power series. The slope of the power series is scaled by using the shape of the universal intermittency distribution within the intermittency region. We solve the complex-lamellar decomposition of the velocity field along with the slope of the difference in enstrophy density function to determine the location of the laminar and turbulent boundary conditions. Then from the difference in enstrophy density function we calculate the start and end of intermittency. We perform this calculation on a natural boundary layer transition over a flat plate for zero pressure gradient flow and for separated shear flow over a separation bubble. We compare these results to existing experimental results and verify the accuracy of our transition
Grain-boundary layering transitions and phonon engineering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rickman, J. M.; Harmer, M. P.; Chan, H. M.
2016-09-01
We employ semi-grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation to investigate layering transitions at grain boundaries in a prototypical binary alloy. We demonstrate the existence of such transitions among various interfacial states and examine the role of elastic fields in dictating state equilibria. The results of these studies are summarized in the form of diagrams that highlight interfacial state coexistence in this system. Finally, we examine the impact of layering transitions on the phononic properties of the system, as given by the specific heat and, by extension, the thermal conductivity. Thus, it is suggested that by inducing interfacial layering transitions via changes in temperature or pressure, one can thereby engineer thermodynamic and transport properties in materials.
The simulation of coherent structures in a laminar boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Breuer, Kenny; Landahl, Marten T.; Spalart, Philippe R.
1987-01-01
Coherent structures in turbulent shear flows were studied extensively by several techniques, including the VITA technique which selects rapidly accelerating or decelerating regions in the flow. The evolution of a localized disturbance in a laminar boundary layer shows strong similarity to the evolution of coherent structures in a turbulent-wall bounded flow. Starting from a liftup-sweep motion, a strong shear layer develops which shares many of the features seen in conditionally-sampled turbulent velocity fields. The structure of the shear layer, Reynolds stress distribution, and wall pressure footprint are qualitatively the same, indicating that the dynamics responsible for the structure's evolution are simple mechanisms dependent only on the presence of a high mean shear and a wall and independent of the effects of local random fluctuations and outer flow effects. As the disturbance progressed, the development of streak-like-high- and low-speed regions associated with the three-dimensionality.
Bifurcation of the cusp: Implications for understanding boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maynard, N. C.; Burke, W. J.; Moen, J.; Sandholt, P. E.; Lester, M.; Ober, D. M.; Weimer, D. R.; White, W. E.
Event analyses and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modeling provide complementary insights into solar-wind/magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) has a stronger Y than Z component. The sources for convection and particle precipitation within the cusp become spatially bifurcated. Incoming surfaces of constant phase in the interplanetary electric field (IEF) can be tilted with respect to the Sun-Earth line. This forces the two hemispheres to respond to the same elements of the solar wind stream at significantly different times. We consider a case in which ground and rocket measurements indicate that IEF phase planes interacted first with the magnetopause in the Southern Hemisphere at lag times significantly less than the simple adjection time between an L1 monitor and Earth. Magnetic merging on the Northern Hemisphere magnetopause occurred later. The timing differences are related to the phase-plane tilts and the strong IMF BX. Auroral emissions created by electrons injected from the Southern Hemisphere merging line can appear in close proximity to those from Northern Hemisphere sites, within an all-sky imager's field-of-view. Bifurcation is driven by IMF BY, while BX controls differences in the timing of interactions with the two hemispheres. Detailed harmonization of auroral features with interplanetary drivers strongly supports the utility of the antiparallel merging criterion for estimating when and where the IMF-magnetosphere interactions occur. We compare empirical results with MHD simulations to help constrain interpretations of magnetospheric boundary layers. Merging at high latitudes creates layers of open field lines that drape over the dayside magnetosphere to form an open boundary layer. MHD modeling suggests that open boundary layers may become quite thick along the magnetospheric flank equatorward of the sash. Simulations and the empirical results indicate that merging in the conjugate hemisphere drives the smaller
Three-dimensional boundary layer calculation by a characteristic method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Houdeville, R.
1992-01-01
A numerical method for solving the three-dimensional boundary layer equations for bodies of arbitrary shape is presented. In laminar flows, the application domain extends from incompressible to hypersonic flows with the assumption of chemical equilibrium. For turbulent boundary layers, the application domain is limited by the validity of the mixing length model used. In order to respect the hyperbolic nature of the equations reduced to first order partial derivative terms, the momentum equations are discretized along the local streamlines using of the osculator tangent plane at each node of the body fitted coordinate system. With this original approach, it is possible to overcome the use of the generalized coordinates, and therefore, it is not necessary to impose an extra hypothesis about the regularity of the mesh in which the boundary conditions are given. By doing so, it is possible to limit, and sometimes to suppress, the pre-treatment of the data coming from an inviscid calculation. Although the proposed scheme is only semi-implicit, the method remains numerically very efficient.
Computation of three-dimensional mixed convective boundary layer flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gadepalli, Prashandt; Rahman, Muhammad M.
1995-01-01
The paper presents the numerical solution of heat and mass transfer during cross-flow (orthogonal) mixed convection. In this class of flow, a buoyancy-driven transport in the vertical direction and a forced convective flow in the horizontal direction results in a three-dimensional boundary layer structure adjacent to the plate. The rates of heat and mass transfer are determined by a combined influence of the two transport processes. The equations for the conservation of mass, momentum, energy, and species concentration were solved along with appropriate boundary conditions to determine the distributions of velocity components, temperature, and concentration across the thickness of the boundary layer at different locations on the plate. Results were expressed in dimensionless form using Reynolds number, Richardson number for heat transfer, Richardson number for mass transfer, Prandtl number, and Schmidt number as parameters. It was found that the transport is dominated by buoyancy at smaller vertical locations and at larger distances away from the forced convection leading edge. Effects of forced convection appeared to be very strong at smaller horizontal distances from the leading edge. The cross stream forced convection enhanced the rate of heat and mass transfer by a very significant amount.
Turbulent boundary layer flow over broad-banded roughness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pawlak, Geno; Aghsaee, Payam; Mazrouei, Saeed; Leonardi, Stefano; Rajagopalan, Krishnakumar; Kobayashi, Marcelo
2014-11-01
The response of the boundary layer to a regular roughness is often parameterized in terms of the length scales defining the roughness. Difficulty arises in the case of broad-banded and highly irregular roughness distributions such as over coral reefs or urban canopies where the length scale that determines the response of the boundary layer is not clear. Here we use a spectral description for roughness to create idealized two-dimensional irregular roughness profiles, using square waves as a basis function. Laboratory experiments along with Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) are used to examine the hydrodynamic response to the broad-banded roughness and flow characteristics are related to geometric characteristics of the boundary. The simulations and experiments show that the nature of the flow over two-dimensional irregular walls can be determined as a function of the hydrodynamic origin, which, in turn, can be determined as a function of a mean cavity shape. Results are interpreted in terms of the spectral characteristics of the roughness. The contribution of the various spectral components to the total drag is analyzed for each case. The roughness spectrum influences the flow through the shape of the cavities on the wall and can provide some guidance in predicting the nature of the flow.
Coupling the dynamics of boundary layers and evolutionary dunes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ortiz, Pablo; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.
2009-04-01
A theoretical formulation and corresponding numerical solutions are presented for fluid flow and sediment transport past evolutionary sand dunes. Time-dependent curvilinear coordinates are employed to fully couple flow aloft with the developing landform. The differential conservation law that defines shape of the lower boundary depends on details of local surface stress, thereby favoring the large eddy simulation of the boundary layer. To shrink the gap between the time scales characteristic of planetary boundary layer flows O(103)s and sand dune evolution O(106)s , a hypothetical “severe-wind scenario” is adopted with the saltation flux amplified up to 3 orders of magnitude. While the results are largely insensitive to the rescaling, the efficacy of computations is greatly improved. The flux-form partial differential equation for the interface profile—via saltation and sand avalanches—is formulated as an advection-diffusion equation, to facilitate discrete integrations. Numerical experiments verify the adopted theoretical framework by reproducing scaling results reported in the literature. The versatility of the approach is illustrated with evolution of a sandhole—an example of application likely never addressed in the literature, yet realizable in nature.
Defining the Entrainment Zone in Stratocumulus-topped Boundary Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Q.; Zhou, M.; Kalogiros, J. A.; Lenschow, D. H.; Dai, C.; Wang, S.
2010-12-01
The presence of an entrainment zone near the top of the stratocumulus-topped boundary layers has been identified by many early studies. However, the definition of the entrainment zone was rather vague. We have examined the fine vertical variations of cloud liquid water content, wind, temperature and humidity near the stratocumulus top and developed a new method to identify the entrainment zone objectively. Aircraft measurements from various field projects in stratocumulus-topped boundary layers are used, taking advantage of the fast sampling capability of many of the aircraft sensors. Because of the inhomogeneous mixing of two air masses with distinctively different thermodynamic properties, the magnitude of temperature perturbations within the entrainment zone is significantly larger than those above or below. This characteristics is used to define the upper and lower boundaries of the entrainment zone using a wavelet spectra analyses. The definition of the entrainment zone is further evaluated by the presence of a linear mixing line through mixing line analyses. Various other interfaces at the cloud top are also examined, including the cloud interface, temperature interface (inversion), and moisture interface. The heights of these interfaces are examined relative to the height of the entrainment zone. This study also systematically revealed the presence of turbulence above the local cloud top and/or above the entrainment zone. Wind shear near the cloud top is one possible source that generated local turbulence. Other potential sources of turbulence will also be discussed.
The effects of external conditions in turbulent boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brzek, Brian G.
The effects of multiple external conditions on turbulent boundary layers were studied in detail. These external conditions include: surface roughness, upstream turbulence intensity, and pressure gradient. Furthermore, the combined effects of these conditions show the complicated nature of many realistic flow conditions. It was found that the effects of surface roughness are difficult to generalize, given the importance of so many parameters. These parameters include: roughness geometry, roughness regime, roughness height to boundary layer thickness, (k/delta), roughness parameter, ( k+), Reynolds number, and roughness function (Delta B+). A further complication, is the difficulty in computing the wall shear stress, tauw/rho. For the sand grain type roughness, the mean velocity and Reynolds stresses were studied in inner and outer variables, as well as, boundary layer parameters, anisotropy tensor, production term, and viscous stress and form drag contributions. To explore the effects of roughness and Reynolds number dependence in the boundary layer, a new experiment was carefully designed to properly capture the x-dependence of the single-point statistics. It was found that roughness destroys the viscous layer near the wall, thus, reducing the contribution of the viscous stress in the wall region. As a result, the contribution in the skin friction due to form drag increases, while the viscous stress decreases. This yields Reynolds number invariance in the skin friction, near-wall roughness parameters, and inner velocity profiles as k + increases into the fully rough regime. However, in the transitionally rough regime, (i.e., 5 < k+ < 70), it was found that these parameters are functions of both Reynolds number and roughness. For the sand grain type roughnesses, only the Zagarola and Smits scaling, Uinfinitydelta*/delta, is able to remove the effects of roughness and Reynolds number from the velocity profiles in outer variables, provided there is no freestream
Dynamic Immersed Boundary Method for Modeling of Turbulent Boundary Layers over Bio-Fouled Surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xiang; Sadique, Jasim; Mittal, Rajat; Meneveau, Charles
2013-11-01
The growth of large organisms on ship surfaces, i.e. macrobiofouling, is a major contributor to drag, and consequently, fuel consumption. The problem of turbulence over biofouled surfaces may be reduced to that of a developing turbulent boundary layer over a surface with a wide range of roughness length scales. Due to the presence of these scales, direct numerical simulation (DNS) or even wall-resolved large-eddy-simulation (LES) is prohibitively expensive. We address this challenge by developing a dynamic immersed boundary method that does not require the flow field nor the roughness to be fully resolved. The effect of unresolved small eddies are included via an LES sub-grid model. The large-scale roughness elements are resolved by a sharp-interface immersed boundary method and the effect of small (unresolved) roughness elements is incorporated through the use of a wall model that assumes a log-law at the grid point closest to the wall. This computationally efficient method is validated against experiments of developing turbulent boundary layer with multiple-scale roughness elements. We present results from this study and provide a discussion of our findings. This work is funded by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) grant N00014-12-1-0582. Fruitful interactions with M. Schultz (USNA), B. Ganapathisubramani and M. Placidi (Southhampton) are also gratefully acknowledged.
The effects of micro-vortex generators on normal shock wave/boundary layer interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herges, Thomas G.
Shock wave/boundary-layer interactions (SWBLIs) are complex flow phenomena that are important in the design and performance of internal supersonic and transonic flow fields such as engine inlets. This investigation was undertaken to study the effects of passive flow control devices on normal shock wave/boundary layer interactions in an effort to gain insight into the physics that govern these complex interactions. The work concentrates on analyzing the effects of vortex generators (VGs) as a flow control method by contributing a greater understanding of the flowfield generated by these devices and characterizing their effects on the SWBLI. The vortex generators are utilized with the goal of improving boundary layer health (i.e., reducing/increasing the boundary-layer incompressible shape factor/skin friction coefficient) through a SWBLI, increasing pressure recovery, and reducing flow distortion at the aerodynamic interface plane while adding minimal drag to the system. The investigation encompasses experiments in both small-scale and large-scale inlet testing, allowing multiple test beds for improving the characterization and understanding of vortex generators. Small-scale facility experiments implemented instantaneous schlieren photography, surface oil-flow visualization, pressure-sensitive paint, and particle image velocimetry to characterize the effects of an array of microramps on a normal shock wave/boundary-layer interaction. These diagnostics measured the time-averaged and instantaneous flow organization in the vicinity of the microramps and SWBLI. The results reveal that a microramp produces a complex vortex structure in its wake with two primary counter-rotating vortices surrounded by a train of Kelvin- Helmholtz (K-H) vortices. A streamwise velocity deficit is observed in the region of the primary vortices in addition to an induced upwash/downwash which persists through the normal shock with reduced strength. The microramp flow control also increased the
On the Partially Reacted Boundary Layer in Rate Sticks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Partom, Yehuda
2013-06-01
Using our reactive flow model TDRR to simulate detonation in a rate stick, we observe that a partially reacted layer (PRL) is formed near the boundary. We are not aware that such a PRL has been observed in tests, and this is why we regarded it in the past as a numerical artifact. Assuming that such an artifact may be caused by the finite rise time of the detonation shock, we showed in how it can be eliminated by delaying the outward boundary motion for a length of time comparable with the shock rise time. Here we revisit the PRL problem. First we show that it is not a numerical artifact but a real phenomenon. We do this by repeating the reactive flow run with a finer resolution. By looking at the PRL structure, we see doubling the resolution affects the PRL only slightly. We then conjecture that the PRL formation has to do with the finite duration of the reaction process (or the finite extent of the reaction zone). By the time the boundary rarefaction reaches a cell near the boundary, it is only partially reacted, and its reaction is cut off. To strengthen our conjecture we also show how the PRL structure changes with the reaction duration.
On the partially reacted boundary layer in rate sticks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Partom, Y.
2014-05-01
Using our temperature dependent reactive flow model (TDRR) to simulate detonation in a rate stick, we observe that a partially reacted layer (PRL) is formed near the boundary. We are not aware that such a PRL has been observed in tests, and this is why we regarded it in the past as a numerical artifact. Assuming that such an artefact may be caused by the finite rise time of the detonation shock, we showed in [1] how it can be eliminated by delaying the outward boundary motion for a length of time comparable with the shock rise time. Here we revisit the PRL problem. We first show that it is not a numerical artifact but a real phenomenon. We do this by repeating the reactive flow run with a finer mesh. By looking at the PRL structure, we see that doubling the resolution affects the PRL only slightly. We then conjecture that the PRL formation has to do with the finite duration of the reaction process (or the finite extent of the reaction zone). By the time the boundary rarefaction reaches a cell near the boundary, it may be only partially reacted, and its reaction may therefore be cut off. To establish our conjecture we show how the PRL structure changes with the reaction duration.
Characteristics of convective boundary layer over the Arabian sea region
Parasnis, S.S.
1996-12-31
The Convective Boundary Layer (CBL) over the oceanic regions plays an important role in regulating the transport of energy and moisture upward into the atmosphere from the surface. CBL structure over the Arabian sea region has been explored using the aerological soundings at two ships viz. SHIRSHOV (12.5{degrees}N, 68{degrees}E ) and OKEAN (14.5{degrees} N, 66{degrees} E) during MONSOON-77. Conserved variable analysis of the mean data sets obtained during the period of 29 June - 16 July, 1977 revealed salient features of the CBL over these regions. The vertical gradients of saturation point parameters viz. virtual potential temperature ({Theta}{sub v}), equivalent potential temperature ({Theta}{sub e}), saturated equivalent potential temperature ({Theta}{sub es}), saturation pressure deficit (P*) and the mixing ratio (q) were used to characterize the different sublayers such as subcloud layer, cloud layer and inversion/stable layer. The mean cloud base was around 950 hPa and the subcloud layer has nearly constant {Theta}{sub v}. The moist layer was associated with unstable {Theta}{sub es} with nearly constant value of P* ({approximately} -40 hPa). This cloud layer was capped by the stable (over OKEAN). The {Theta}{sub e} minimum over OKEAN was observed at 650 hPa (50 hPa above the CBL top) indicating that at some time the convection had reached deeper levels. The {Theta}{sub e} -q diagrams showed a characteristic mixing line up through the cloud and stable layer to the top of CBL. The low level stability analysis using the {Theta}{sub e} and {Theta}{sub es} profiles indicated conditions favorable for shallow convection over OKEAN and for deep convection over SHIRSHOV. The above characteristic features could be attributed to the prevailing weather conditions at OKEAN and SHIRSHOV. The results are discussed.
Current state and prospects of researches on the control of turbulent boundary layer by air blowing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kornilov, V. I.
2015-07-01
The paper presents the analytical review of the current state of the investigations and development trends on the problem of turbulent friction and aerodynamic drag reduction in simple model configurations, which is among key ones in modern aeromechanics. Under consideration is the modern fast progressing method of the turbulent flow control by air- and other gases (micro)blowing through a permeable surface, which is utilized in incompressible and compressible turbulent boundary layers. Several computational results to understand the essential flow physics are also included. The problem of simulation of the flow over a perforated wall where some ambiguities, in particular, at the permeable/impermeable boundary being still remained is discussed. Special attention is paid to the analysis of most important experimental and numerical results obtained with the air blowing through a finely-perforated surface, analysis of the physical peculiarities and regularities of the flow with the blowing, probability to describe the properties of such a flow within simple approach frameworks, evaluation of the efficiency of this control method, as well as the trends and opportunities of this method progress in view of state-of-the-art achievements. Although this technology has a penalty for developing the effective turbulent-flow control method, some modifications of the air blowing are an attractive alternative for real applications.
A scaling procedure for panel vibro-acoustic response induced by turbulent boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiaojian, Zhao; Bangcheng, AI; Ziqiang, Liu; Dun, Li
2016-10-01
A new method of predicting structure vibration based on scaled model is proposed for panel vibration induced by turbulent boundary layer. The aerodynamic effects such as the variation of TBL excitation and its frequency for a scaled model used, and the material properties are also considered in the proposed scaling law. The contributions of resonant modes dominate the energy of low-frequency vibration, and the scaling procedure is derived with the analytical expansion method. For high-frequency vibration, the SEA method is used to derive the scaling law because of the highly coupled modes in the frequency range of analysis. A criterion is also proposed to identify the boundary between high-frequency and low-frequency vibration. For the validation of the proposed scaling procedure, an experiment is conducted with scaled plate models under external excitation. Despite slightly offset of resonant frequencies in the low frequency range likely caused by the difference in the condition of panel fixing, the results reveal that the proposed scaling procedure is effective.
The Jovian boundary layer as formed by magnetic-anomaly effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dessler, A. J.
1979-01-01
A model is presented in which a plasma boundary layer of Jupiter is formed from plasma of internal origin. It is proposed that, unlike the Earth's boundary layer, which is thought to consist principally of solar wind plasma, Jupiter's boundary layer consists principally of sulphur and oxygen from the Io plasma torus, plus a small component of hydrogen from Jupiter's ionosphere. Fresh plasma is supplied to the boundary layer once each planetary rotation period by a convection pattern that rotates with Jupiter.
Large eddy simulation and study of the urban boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miao, Shiguang; Jiang, Weimei
2004-08-01
Based on a pseudo-spectral large eddy simulation (LES) model, an LES model with an anisotropy turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) closure model and an explicit multi-stage third-order Runge-Kutta scheme is established. The modeling and analysis show that the LES model can simulate the planetary boundary layer (PBL) with a uniform underlying surface under various stratifications very well. Then, similar to the description of a forest canopy, the drag term on momentum and the production term of TKE by subgrid city buildings are introduced into the LES equations to account for the area-averaged effect of the subgrid urban canopy elements and to simulate the meteorological fields of the urban boundary layer (UBL). Numerical experiments and comparison analysis show that: (1) the result from the LES of the UBL with a proposed formula for the drag coefficient is consistent and comparable with that from wind tunnel experiments and an urban subdomain scale model; (2) due to the effect of urban buildings, the wind velocity near the canopy is decreased, turbulence is intensified, TKE, variance, and momentum flux are increased, the momentum and heat flux at the top of the PBL are increased, and the development of the PBL is quickened; (3) the height of the roughness sublayer (RS) of the actual city buildings is the maximum building height (1.5 3 times the mean building height), and a constant flux layer (CFL) exists in the lower part of the UBL.
Vertical ozone characteristics in urban boundary layer in Beijing.
Ma, Zhiqiang; Xu, Honghui; Meng, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoling; Xu, Jing; Liu, Quan; Wang, Yuesi
2013-07-01
Vertical ozone and meteorological parameters were measured by tethered balloon in the boundary layer in the summer of 2009 in Beijing, China. A total of 77 tethersonde soundings were taken during the 27-day campaign. The surface ozone concentrations measured by ozonesondes and TEI 49C showed good agreement, albeit with temporal difference between the two instruments. Two case studies of nocturnal secondary ozone maxima are discussed in detail. The development of the low-level jet played a critical role leading to the observed ozone peak concentrations in nocturnal boundary layer (NBL). The maximum of surface ozone was 161.7 ppbv during the campaign, which could be attributed to abundant precursors storage near surface layer at nighttime. Vertical distribution of ozone was also measured utilizing conventional continuous analyzers on 325-m meteorological observation tower. The results showed the NBL height was between 47 and 280 m, which were consistent with the balloon data. Southerly air flow could bring ozone-rich air to Beijing, and the ozone concentrations exceeded the China's hourly ozone standard (approximately 100 ppb) above 600 m for more than 12 h.
On the nature of the plasma sheet boundary layer
Hones, E.W. Jr. Los Alamos National Lab., NM )
1990-01-01
The regions of the plasma sheet adjacent to the north and south lobes of the magnetotail have been described by many experimenters as locations of beams of energetic ions and fast-moving plasma directed primarily earthward and tailward along magnetic field lines. Measurements taken as satellites passed through one or the other of these boundary layers have frequently revealed near-earth mirroring of ions and a vertical segregation of velocities of both earthward-moving and mirroring ions with the fastest ions being found nearest the lobe-plasma sheet interface. These are features expected for particles from a distant tail source {bar E} {times} {bar B} drifting in a dawn-to-dusk electric field and are consistent with the source being a magnetic reconnection region. The plasma sheet boundary layers are thus understood as separatrix layers, bounded at their lobeward surfaces by the separatrices from the distant neutral line. This paper will review the observations that support this interpretation. 10 refs., 7 figs.
Cloud-Scale Numerical Modeling of the Arctic Boundary Layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kruegen, Steven K.; Delnore, Victor E. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The research objective of this NASA grant-funded project was to determine in detail how large-scale processes. in combination with cloud-scale radiative, microphysical, and dynamical processes, govern the formation and multi-layered structure of Arctic stratus clouds. This information will be useful for developing and improving 1D (one dimensional) boundary layer models for the Arctic. Also, to quantitatively determine the effects of leads on the large-scale budgets of sensible heat, water vapor, and condensate in a variety of Arctic winter conditions. This information will be used to identify the most important lead-flux processes that require parameterization in climate models. Our approach was to use a high-resolution numerical model, the 2D (two dimensional) University of Utah Cloud Resolving Model (UU CRM), and its 1D version, the University of Utah Turbulence Closure Model (UU TCM), a boundary layer model based on third-moment turbulence closure, as well as a large-eddy simulation (LES) model originally developed by C.H. Moeng.
Mechanisms leading to net drag reduction in manipulated turbulent boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guezennec, Y. G.; Nagib, H. M.
1990-02-01
Turbulent boundary layers have been manipulated successfully using passive devices called BLADES (boundary-layer alteration devices) leading to net drag reduction. Measurements of various turbulence quantities including intermittency have led to the identification of some of the mechanisms involved in skin-friction reduction. Velocity and vorticity fluctuations associated with oncoming large scales are inhibited significantly by the manipulator blades and the vorticity shed in their wake. The manipulated boundary layers exhibit a reduced intermittency in the outer part of the layer. The effects of manipulation relax with downstream distance and the boundary layer returns toward normal conditions after 100 or 150 boundary-layer thicknesses.
Tollmien-Schlichting/vortex interactions in compressible boundary layer flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blackaby, Nicholas D.
1993-01-01
The weakly nonlinear interaction of oblique Tollmien-Schlichting waves and longitudinal vortices in compressible, high Reynolds number, boundary-layer flow over a flat plate is considered for all ranges of the Mach number. The interaction equations comprise of equations for the vortex which is indirectly forced by the waves via a boundary condition, whereas a vortex term appears in the amplitude equation for the wave pressure. The downstream solution properties of interaction equations are found to depend on the sign of an interaction coefficient. Compressibility is found to have a significant effect on the interaction properties; principally through its impact on the waves and their governing mechanism, the triple-deck structure. It is found that, in general, the flow quantities will grow slowly with increasing downstream co-ordinate; i.e. in general, solutions do not terminate in abrupt, finite-distance 'break-ups'.
Fullerenes in the cretaceous-tertiary boundary layer
Heymann, D.; Chibante, L.P.F.; Smalley, R.E. ); Brooks, R.R. ); Wolbach, W.S. )
1994-07-29
High-pressure liquid chromatography with ultraviolet-visible spectral analysis of toluene extracts of samples from two Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary sites in New Zealand has revealed the presence of C[sub 60] at concentrations of 0.1 to 0.2 parts per million of the associated soot. This technique verified also that fullerenes are produced in similar amounts in the soots of common flames under ambient atmospheric conditions. Therefore, the C[sub 60] in the K-T boundary layer may have originated in the extensive wildfires that were associated with the cataclysmic impact event that terminated the Mezozoic era about 65 million years ago.
Nonlinear spatial evolution of inviscid instabilities on hypersonic boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wundrow, David W.
1996-01-01
The spatial development of an initially linear vorticity-mode instability on a compressible flat-plate boundary layer is considered. The analysis is done in the framework of the hypersonic limit where the free-stream Mach number M approaches infinity. Nonlinearity is shown to become important locally, in a thin critical layer, when sigma, the deviation of the phase speed from unity, becomes o(M(exp -8/7)) and the magnitude of the pressure fluctuations becomes 0(sigma(exp 5/2)M(exp 2)). The unsteady flow outside the critical layer takes the form of a linear instability wave but with its amplitude completely determined by the nonlinear flow within the critical layer. The coupled set of equations which govern the critical-layer dynamics reflect a balance between spatial-evolution, (linear and nonlinear) convection and nonlinear vorticity-generation terms. The numerical solution to these equations shows that nonlinear effects produce a dramatic reduction in the instability-wave amplitude.
Interaction of a Boundary Layer with a Turbulent Wake
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piomelli, Ugo
2004-01-01
The objective of this grant was to study the transition mechanisms on a flat-plate boundary layer interacting with the wake of a bluff body. This is a simplified configuration presented and designed to exemplify the phenomena that occur in multi-element airfoils, in which the wake of an upstream element impinges on a downstream one. Some experimental data is available for this configuration at various Reynolds numbers. The first task carried out was the implementation and validation of the immersed-boundary method. This was achieved by performing calculations of the flow over a cylinder at low and moderate Reynolds numbers. The low-Reynolds number results are discussed, which is enclosed as Appendix A. The high-Reynolds number results are presented in a paper in preparation for the Journal of Fluid Mechanics. We performed calculations of the wake-boundary-layer interaction at two Reynolds numbers, Re approximately equal to 385 and 1155. The first case is discussed and a comparison of the two calculations is reported. The simulations indicate that at the lower Reynolds number the boundary layer is buffeted by the unsteady Karman vortex street shed by the cylinder. This is shown: long streaky structures appear in the boundary layer in correspondence of the three-dimensionalities in the rollers. The fluctuations, however, cannot be self-sustained due to the low Reynolds-number, and the flow does not reach a turbulent state within the computational domain. In contrast, in the higher Reynolds-number case, boundary-layer fluctuations persist after the wake has decayed (due, in part, to the higher values of the local Reynolds number Re achieved in this case); some evidence could be observed that a self-sustaining turbulence generation cycle was beginning to be established. A third simulation was subsequently carried out at a higher Reynolds number, Re=3900. This calculation gave results similar to those of the Re=l155 case. Turbulence was established at fairly low
Sub-layers inside the entrainment zone of a dry, shear-free convective boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia, Jade Rachele; Mellado, Juan Pedro
2013-11-01
The entrainment zone of a dry, shear-free convective boundary layer growing into a homogeneously stably-stratified fluid is studied using direct numerical simulation. Based on the self-similar analysis of the mean and variance buoyancy profiles, we identify two sub-layers within the entrainment zone, defined as the region of negative buoyancy flux: i) an upper sub-layer with a thickness comparable to the penetrative length scale based on the convective velocity and the buoyancy frequency of the free troposphere and ii) a lower sub-layer acting as a transition towards the mixed layer, with a thickness equal to a constant fraction of the boundary layer height. The capping region of the penetrative thermals belongs to the upper sub-layer of the entrainment zone, and the troughs between the penetrating thermals belong to the lower sub-layer of the entrainment zone. Correspondingly, different buoyancy scales are identified in the different regions; parametrizations thereof are provided and explained. This multiplicity of characteristic scales inside the entrainment zone helps to explain the uncertainty associated with previous analysis of entrainment zone properties and the difficulty to parametrize them based on a single length scale and a single buoyancy scale. Juelich Research Centre for the computing time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marzooqi, Mohamed Al; Basha, Ghouse; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.; Armstrong, Peter; Molini, Annalisa
2014-05-01
Strong sensible heat fluxes and deep turbulent mixing - together with marked dustiness and a low substrate water content - represent a characteristic signature in the boundary layer over hot deserts, resulting in "thicker" mixing layers and peculiar optical properties. Beside these main features however, desert ABLs present extremely complex local structures that have been scarcely addressed in the literature, and whose understanding is essential in modeling processes such as the transport of dust and pollutants, and turbulent fluxes of momentum, heat and water vapor in hyper-arid regions. In this study, we analyze a continuous record of observations of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) height from a single lens LiDAR ceilometer operated at Masdar Institute Field Station (24.4oN, 54.6o E, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates), starting March 2013. We compare different methods for the estimation of the ABL height from Ceilometer data such as, classic variance-, gradient-, log gradient- and second derivation-methods as well as recently developed techniques such as the Bayesian Method and Wavelet covariance transform. Our goal is to select the most suited technique for describing the climatology of the ABL in desert environments. Comparison of our results with radiosonde observations collected at the nearby airport of Abu Dhabi indicate that the WCT and the Bayesian method are the most suitable tools to accurately identify the ABL height in all weather conditions. These two methods are used for the definition of diurnal and seasonal climatologies of the boundary layer conditional to different atmospheric stability classes.
Shock Train/Boundary-Layer Interaction in Rectangular Scramjet Isolators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geerts, Jonathan Simon
Numerous studies of the dual-mode scramjet isolator, a critical component in preventing inlet unstart and/or vehicle loss by containing a collection of flow disturbances called a shock train, have been performed since the dual-mode propulsion cycle was introduced in the 1960s. Low momentum corner flow and other three-dimensional effects inherent to rectangular isolators have, however, been largely ignored in experimental studies of the boundary layer separation driven isolator shock train dynamics. Furthermore, the use of two dimensional diagnostic techniques in past works, be it single-perspective line-of-sight schlieren/shadowgraphy or single axis wall pressure measurements, have been unable to resolve the three-dimensional flow features inside the rectangular isolator. These flow characteristics need to be thoroughly understood if robust dual-mode scramjet designs are to be fielded. The work presented in this thesis is focused on experimentally analyzing shock train/boundary layer interactions from multiple perspectives in aspect ratio 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 rectangular isolators with inflow Mach numbers ranging from 2.4 to 2.7. Secondary steady-state Computational Fluid Dynamics studies are performed to compare to the experimental results and to provide additional perspectives of the flow field. Specific issues that remain unresolved after decades of isolator shock train studies that are addressed in this work include the three-dimensional formation of the isolator shock train front, the spatial and temporal low momentum corner flow separation scales, the transient behavior of shock train/boundary layer interaction at specific coordinates along the isolator's lateral axis, and effects of the rectangular geometry on semi-empirical relations for shock train length prediction. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).
Boundary layer polarization and voltage in the 14 MLT region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lundin, R.; Yamauchi, M.; Woch, J.; Marklund, G.
1995-05-01
Viking midlatitude observations of ions and electrons in the postnoon auroral region show that field-aligned acceleration of electrons and ions with energies up to a few kiloelectron volts takes place. The characteristics of the upgoing ion beams and the local transverse electric field observed by Viking indicate that parallel ion acceleration is primarily due to a quasi-electrostatic field-aligned acceleration process below Viking altitudes, i.e., below 10,000-13,500 km. A good correlation is found between the maximum upgoing ion beam energy and the depth of the local potential well determined by the Viking electric field experiment within dayside 'ion inverted Vs.' The total transverse potential throughout the entire region near the ion inverted Vs. is generally much higher than the field-aligned potential and may reach well above 10 kV. However, the detailed mapping of the transverse potential out to the boundary layer, a fundamental issue which remains controversial, was not attempted here. An important finding in this study is the strong correlation between the maximum up going ion beam energy of dayside ion inverted Vs and the solar wind velocity. This suggests a direct coupling of the solar wind plasma dynamo/voltage generator to the region of field-aligned particle acceleration. The fact that the center of dayside ion inverted Vs coincide with convection reversals/flow stagnation and upward Birkeland currents on what appears to be closed field lines (Woch et al., 1993), suggests that field-aligned potential structures connect to the inner part of an MHD dyanmo in the low-latitude boundary layer. Thus the Viking observations substantiate the idea of a solar wind induced boundary layer polarization where negatively charged perturbations in the postnoon sector persistently develops along the magnetic field lines, establishing accelerating potential drops along the geomagnetic field lines in the 0.5-10 kV range.
Planetary Boundary Layer Dynamics over Reno, Nevada in Summer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liming, A.; Sumlin, B.; Loria Salazar, S. M.; Holmes, H.; Arnott, W. P.
2014-12-01
Quantifying the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is important to understand the transport behavior, mixing, and surface concentrations of air pollutants. In Reno, NV, located in complex, mountainous terrain with high desert climate, the daytime boundary layer can rise to an estimated 3km or more on a summer day due to surface heating and convection. The nocturnal boundary layer, conversely, tends to be much lower and highly stable due to radiative cooling from the surface at night and downslope flow of cool air from nearby mountains. With limited availability of radiosonde data, current estimates of the PBL height at any given time or location are potentially over or underestimated. To better quantify the height and characterize the PBL physics, we developed portable, lightweight sensors that measure CO2 concentrations, temperature, pressure, and humidity every 5 seconds. Four of these sensors are used on a tethered balloon system to monitor CO2 concentrations from the surface up to 300m. We will combine this data with Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) data that measures vertical profiles of wind speed, temperature, and humidity from 40m to 400m. This experiment will characterize the diurnal evolution of CO2 concentrations at multiple heights in the PBL, provide insight into PBL physics during stability transition periods at sunrise and sunset, and estimate the nighttime PBL depth during August in Reno. Further, we expect to gain a better understanding of the impact of mixing volume changes (i.e., PBL height) on air quality and pollution concentrations in Reno. The custom portable sensor design will also be presented. It is expected that these instruments can be used for indoor or outdoor air quality studies, where lightness, small size, and battery operation can be of benefit.
Spherical bubble motion in a turbulent boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Felton, Keith; Loth, Eric
2001-09-01
Monodisperse dilute suspensions of spherical air bubbles in a tap-water turbulent vertical boundary layer were experimentally studied to note their motion and distribution. Bubbles with diameters of 0.37-1.2 mm were injected at various transverse wall-positions for free-stream velocities between 0.4 and 0.9 m/s. The bubbles were released from a single injector at very low frequencies such that two-way coupling and bubble-bubble interaction were negligible. The experimental diagnostics included ensemble-averaged planar laser intensity profiles for bubble concentration distribution, as well as Cinematic Particle Image Velocimetry with bubble tracking for bubble hydrodynamic forces. A variety of void distributions within the boundary layer were found. For example, there was a tendency for bubbles to collect along the wall for higher Stokes number conditions, while the lower Stokes number conditions produced Gaussian-type profiles throughout the boundary layer. In addition, three types of bubble trajectories were observed—sliding bubbles, bouncing bubbles, and free-dispersion bubbles. Instantaneous liquid forces acting on individual bubbles in the turbulent flow were also obtained to provide the drag and lift coefficients (with notable experimental uncertainty). These results indicate that drag coefficient decreases with increasing Reynolds number as is conventionally expected but variations were observed. In general, the instantaneous drag coefficient (for constant bubble Reynolds number) tended to be reduced as the turbulence intensity increased. The averaged lift coefficient is higher than that given by inviscid theory (and sometimes even that of creeping flow theory) and tends to decrease with increasing bubble Reynolds number.
Infrared Imaging of Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J., Jr.; Schwartz, Richard; Ross, Martin; Anderson, Brian; Campbell, Charles H.
2008-01-01
The Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurement (HYTHIRM) project is presently focused on near term support to the Shuttle program through the development of an infrared imaging capability of sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to augment existing on-board Orbiter instrumentation. Significant progress has been made with the identification and inventory of relevant existing optical imaging assets and the development, maturation, and validation of simulation and modeling tools for assessment and mission planning purposes, which were intended to lead to the best strategies and assets for successful acquisition of quantitative global surface temperature data on the Shuttle during entry. However, there are longer-term goals of providing global infrared imaging support to other flight projects as well. A status of HYTHIRM from the perspective of how two NASA-sponsored boundary layer transition flight experiments could benefit by infrared measurements is provided. Those two flight projects are the Hypersonic Boundary layer Transition (HyBoLT) flight experiment and the Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment (BLT FE), which are both intended for reducing uncertainties associated with the extrapolation of wind tunnel derived transition correlations for flight application. Thus, the criticality of obtaining high quality flight data along with the impact it would provide to the Shuttle program damage assessment process are discussed. Two recent wind tunnel efforts that were intended as risk mitigation in terms of quantifying the transition process and resulting turbulent wedge locations are briefly reviewed. Progress is being made towards finalizing an imaging strategy in support of the Shuttle BLT FE, however there are no plans currently to image HyBoLT.
Direct simulation of a turbulent oscillating boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spalart, Philippe R.; Baldwin, Barrett S.
1987-01-01
The turbulent boundary layer driven by a freestream velocity that varies sinusoidally in time around a zero mean is considered. The flow has a rich behavior including strong pressure gradients, inflection points, and reversal. A theory for the velocity and stress profiles at high Reynolds number is formulated. Well-resolved direct Navier-Stokes simulations are conducted over a narrow range of Reynolds numbers, and the results are compared with the theoretical predictions. The flow is also computed over a wide range of Reynolds numbers using a new algebraic turbulence model; the results are compared with the direct simulations and the theory.
Boundary Layer Control by Means of Plasma Actuators
Quadros, R.
2007-09-06
The development of controlled transition in a flat-plate boundary layer is investigated using Large Eddy Simulations (LES) with the dynamic Smagorinsky model. The analysis of flow control with the objective to optimize the effects of Tollmien-Schlichting waves on a flat plate by means of plasma actuators was studied. The plasma effect is modeled as a body force in the momentum equations. These equations are solved in a uniform grid using a 2nd-order finite difference scheme in time and space. The response of plasma actuators operating in different time-dependent conditions, produced by transient or periodic inputs at different frequencies, is also analyzed.
Asymptotically optimal unsaturated lattice cubature formulae with bounded boundary layer
Ramazanov, M D
2013-07-31
This paper describes a new algorithm for constructing lattice cubature formulae with bounded boundary layer. These formulae are unsaturated (in the sense of Babenko) both with respect to the order and in regard to the property of asymptotic optimality on W{sub 2}{sup m}-spaces, m element of (n/2,∞). Most of the results obtained apply also to W{sub 2}{sup μ}(R{sup n})-spaces with a hypoelliptic multiplier of smoothness μ. Bibliography: 6 titles.
Inner scaling for boundary layers in strong pressure-gradients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nickels, Tim
2003-11-01
Strong pressure-gradients can have a marked effect on scaling in the inner region of turbulent boundary layers. In particular the usual universal logarithmic law for the mean velocity profile "breaks down" in these circumstances. It is shown that the modification to the mean velocity can be explained by a universal critical Reynolds number for the sublayer. Further it is shown that this theoretical model also provides the correct scaling for the streamwise turbulence intensity and Reynolds shear-stress. The concept can be further extended to explain modifications due to other imposed effects such as wall suction.
Numerical analysis of Weyl's method for integrating boundary layer equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Najfeld, I.
1982-01-01
A fast method for accurate numerical integration of Blasius equation is proposed. It is based on the limit interchange in Weyl's fixed point method formulated as an iterated limit process. Each inner limit represents convergence to a discrete solution. It is shown that the error in a discrete solution admits asymptotic expansion in even powers of step size. An extrapolation process is set up to operate on a sequence of discrete solutions to reach the outer limit. Finally, this method is extended to related boundary layer equations.
Shock wave-turbulent boundary layer interactions in transonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adamson, T. C., Jr.; Messiter, A. F.
1976-01-01
The method of matched asymptotic expansions is used in analyzing the structure of the interaction region formed when a shock wave impinges on a turbulent flat plate boundary layer in transonic flow. Solutions in outer regions, governed by inviscid flow equations, lead to relations for the wall pressure distribution. Solutions in the inner regions, governed by equations in which Reynolds and/or viscous stresses are included, lead to a relation for the wall shear stress. Solutions for the wall pressure distribution are reviewed for both oblique and normal incoming shock waves. Solutions for the wall shear stress are discussed.
Effect of roughness on the stability of boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nayfeh, Ali H.; Ragab, Saad A.; Al-Maaitah, Ayman
1987-01-01
An analysis is conducted on the effect of imperfections consisting of humps and dips on the stability of incompressible flows over flat plates. The mean flow is calculated using interacting boundary layers. Linear quasiparallel spatial stability is used to calculate the growth rates and mode shapes of two-dimensional disturbances. Then, the amplification factor is computed. A search for the most dangerous frequency is conducted based on an amplification factor of 9 in the shortest distance. Correlations are made with the transition experiment of Walker and Greening using the e sup 9 method.
Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer in Transitional Boundary Layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Ting
2007-01-01
Experiments have been performed to investigate the effects of elevated free-stream turbulence and streamwise acceleration on flow and thermal structures in transitional boundary layers. The free-stream turbulence ranges from 0.5 to 6.4% and the streamwise acceleration ranges from K = 0 to 0.8 x 10(exp -6). The onset of transition, transition length and the turbulent spot formation rate are determined. The statistical results and conditionally sampled results of th streamwise and cross-stream velocity fluctuations, temperature fluctuations, Reynolds stress and Reynolds heat fluxes are presented.
Numerical simulation of transition control in boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laurien, E.; Kleiser, L.
The transition process from laminar to turbulent boundary layers is simulated by numerical integration of the 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Spatially periodic wave disturbances in a parallel Blasius flow are assumed. A spectral method with real-space Chebyshev collocation in the normal direction is employed. Both the classical K-type and the subharmonic type of transition are investigated. Good agreement with measurements and flow visualizations of transition experiments is obtained. Control of transition by wave superposition is simulated using periodic wall suction/blowing. It is shown that 2D control works well at an early stage but fails after significant 3D disturbances have developed.
Experiments on the active control of transitional boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nelson, P. A.; Rioual, J.-L.; Fisher, M. J.
Experimental results are presented which demonstrate that the streamwise position of the transition region of a flat plate boundary layer can be actively controlled. The means of control is through the application of suction through the surface of the plate, a progressive increase in suction rate being capable of producing transition at progressively larger distances downstream from the plate leading edge. A simple digital feedback regulator based on an integral control law is shown to be most effective in regulating the position of transition, an error signal being derived from measurements of pressure fluctuations on the surface of the plate.
An investigation of planetary convection: The role of boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, Eric M.
Thermal and gravitational energy sources drive turbulent convection in Earth's vast liquid metal outer core. These fluid motions generate the electric currents that are believed to power Earth's magnetic field through a process known as dynamo action. Core flow is subject to the influence of Earth's rotation via the Coriolis force, which has an organizational effect on otherwise chaotic motions. Furthermore the magnetic field generated by convection acts back on the flow via Lorentz forces. Fluid motions in Earth's core, and the magnetic field generating regions of other planets and stars, are then governed by three main ingredients: convection, rotation, and magnetic fields. The goal of my Ph.D. research is to further our understanding of the systematic fluid dynamics occurring in dynamo systems. To accomplish this, I have developed a unique experimental device that allows me to produce fluid conditions approaching those expected in Earth's core and other planetary and stellar environments. The results presented here stem from a broad parameter survey of non-magnetic, rotating convection. In this study, I examine the interplay between rotation and convection by broadly varying the strength of each and measuring the efficiency of convective heat transfer. This parameter survey allows me to argue that the importance of rotation in convection dynamics is determined by boundary layer physics, where the Ekman (rotating) and thermal (non-rotating) boundary layers compete for control of convection dynamics. I develop a simple predictive scaling of this convective regime transition using theoretical boundary layer thickness scalings. This transition scaling permits a unified description of heat transfer in rotating convection, which reconciles contrasting results from previous studies. I also extend this experimental result to a broad array of numerical dynamo models, arguing that the boundary layer control of convective regimes is also evident in the dynamo models. A
Kubo-Anderson Mixing in the Turbulent Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dekker, H.; de Leeuw, G.; Brink, A. Maassen Van Den
A novel ab initio analysis of the Reynolds stress is presented in order to model non-local turbulence transport. The theory involves a sample path space and a stochastic hypothesis. A scaling relation maps the path space onto the boundary layer. Analytical sampling rates are shown to model mixing by exchange. Nonlocal mixing involves a scaling exponent ɛ≈0.58 (ɛ→∞ in the diffusion limit). The resulting transport equation represents a nondiffusive (Kubo-Anderson or kangaroo) type stochastic process.
Direct simulation of the turbulent boundary layer on a plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krupa, V. G.
2016-08-01
A numerical method for the integration of three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for compressible fluid as applied to direct numerical simulation is proposed. By way of example, the boundary layer on a plate is simulated. The computations were carried out for Reθ = 1500. The computational grid consisted of a half billion nodes. The flow region includes the laminar, transitional, and turbulent zones. The numerically obtained distributions of average velocity, friction, and pulsations are compared with experimental data and available numerical solutions.
Notes on an Internal Boundary-Layer Height Formula
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savelyev, Sergiya.; Taylor, Petera.
The derivation of the Panofsky-Dutton internal boundary-layer(IBL) height formula has been revisited. We propose that the upwindroughness length (rather than downwind) should be used in theformula and that a turbulent vertical velocity (w) ratherthan the surface friction velocity (u*) should be considered asthe appropriate scaling for the rate of propagation ofdisturbances into the turbulent flow. A published set ofwind-tunnel and atmospheric data for neutral stratification hasbeen used to investigate the influence of the magnitude ofroughness change on the IBL height.
Supersonic and hypersonic shock/boundary-layer interaction database
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Settles, Gary S.; Dodson, Lori J.
1994-01-01
An assessment is given of existing shock wave/tubulent boundary-layer interaction experiments having sufficient quality to guide turbulence modeling and code validation efforts. Although the focus of this work is hypersonic, experiments at Mach numbers as low as 3 were considered. The principal means of identifying candidate studies was a computerized search of the AIAA Aerospace Database. Several hundred candidate studies were examined and over 100 of these were subjected to a rigorous set of acceptance criteria for inclusion in the data-base. Nineteen experiments were found to meet these criteria, of which only seven were in the hypersonic regime (M is greater than 5).
Regional scale evaporation and the atmospheric boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parlange, Marc B.; Eichinger, William E.; Albertson, John D.
1995-01-01
In this review we briefly summarize some current models of evaporation and the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and discuss new experimental and computational oppurtunities that may aid our understanding of evaporation at these larger scales. In particular, consideration is given to remote sensing of the atmosphere, computational fluid dynamics and the role numerical models can play in understanding land-atmosphere interactions. These powerful modeling and measurement tools are allowing us to visualize and study spatial and temporal scales previously untouched, thereby increasing the oppurtunities to improve our understanding of land-atmosphere interaction.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yates, E. Carson, Jr.; Desmarais, Robert N.
1990-01-01
The technique of implicit differentiation has been used in combination with linearized lifting-surface theory to derive analytical expressions for aerodynamic sensitivities (i.e., rates of change of lifting pressures with respect to general changes in aircraft geometry, including planform variations) for steady or oscillating planar or nonplanar lifting surfaces in subsonic, sonic, or supersonic flow. The geometric perturbation is defined in terms of a single variable, and the user need only provide simple expressions or similar means for defining the continuous or discontinuous global or local perturbation of interest. Example expressions are given for perturbations of the sweep, taper, and aspect ratio of a wing with trapezoidal semispan planform. The present process appears to be readily adaptable to more general surface-panel methods.
Discussion of boundary-layer characteristics near the casing of an axial-flow compressor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mager, Artur; Mahoney, John J; Budinger, Ray E
1951-01-01
Boundary-layer velocity profiles on the casing of an axial-flow compressor behind the guide vanes and rotor were measured and resolved into two components: along the streamline of the flow and perpendicular to it. Boundary-layer thickness and the deflection of the boundary layer at the wall were the generalizing parameters. By use of these results and the momentum-integral equations, the characteristics of boundary on the walls of axial-flow compressor are qualitatively discussed. Important parameters concerning secondary flow in the boundary layer appear to be turning of the flow and the product of boundary-layer thickness and streamline curvature outside the boundary layer. Two types of separation are shown to be possible in three dimensional boundary layer.
Orbiter Entry Aeroheating Working Group Viscous CFD Boundary Layer Transition Trailblazer Solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, William A.; Erickson, David W.; Greene, Francis A.
2007-01-01
Boundary layer transition correlations for the Shuttle Orbiter have been previously developed utilizing a two-layer boundary layer prediction technique. The particular two-layer technique that was used is limited to Mach numbers less than 20. To allow assessments at Mach numbers greater than 20, it is proposed to use viscous CFD to the predict boundary layer properties. This report addresses if the existing Orbiter entry aeroheating viscous CFD solutions, which were originally intended to be used for heat transfer rate predictions, adequately resolve boundary layer edge properties and if the existing two-layer results could be leveraged to reduce the number of needed CFD solutions. The boundary layer edge parameters from viscous CFD solutions are extracted along the wind side centerline of the Space Shuttle Orbiter at reentry conditions, and are compared with results from the two-layer boundary layer prediction technique. The differences between the viscous CFD and two-layer prediction techniques vary between Mach 6 and 18 flight conditions and Mach 6 wind tunnel conditions, and there is not a straightforward scaling between the viscous CFD and two-layer values. Therefore: it is not possible to leverage the existing two-layer Orbiter flight boundary layer data set as a substitute for a viscous CFD data set; but viscous CFD solutions at the current grid resolution are sufficient to produce a boundary layer data set suitable for applying edge-based boundary layer transition correlations.
Effect of bulges on the stability of boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nayfeh, Ali H.; Ragab, Saad A.; Al-Maaitah, Ayman A.
1988-01-01
The instability of flows around hump and dip imperfections is investigated. The mean flow is calculated using interacting boundary layers, thereby accounting for viscous/inviscid interaction and separation bubbles. Then, the two-dimensional linear stability of this flow is analyzed, and the amplification factors are computed. Results are obtained for several height/width ratios and locations. The theoretical results have been used to correlate the experimental results of Walker and Greening (1942). The observed transition locations are found to correspond to amplification factors varying between 7.4 and 10.0, consistent with previous results for flat plates. The method accounts for both viscous and shear-layer instabilities. Separation is found to increase significantly the amplification factor.
Nanodiamonds in the Younger Dryas boundary sediment layer.
Kennett, D J; Kennett, J P; West, A; Mercer, C; Hee, S S Que; Bement, L; Bunch, T E; Sellers, M; Wolbach, W S
2009-01-01
We report abundant nanodiamonds in sediments dating to 12.9 +/- 0.1 thousand calendar years before the present at multiple locations across North America. Selected area electron diffraction patterns reveal two diamond allotropes in this boundary layer but not above or below that interval. Cubic diamonds form under high temperature-pressure regimes, and n-diamonds also require extraordinary conditions, well outside the range of Earth's typical surficial processes but common to cosmic impacts. N-diamond concentrations range from approximately 10 to 3700 parts per billion by weight, comparable to amounts found in known impact layers. These diamonds provide strong evidence for Earth's collision with a rare swarm of carbonaceous chondrites or comets at the onset of the Younger Dryas cool interval, producing multiple airbursts and possible surface impacts, with severe repercussions for plants, animals, and humans in North America.
Amplitude-dependent neutral modes in compressible boundary layer flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gajjar, J. S. B.
1990-01-01
The ideas of Benney and Bergeron (1969) and Davies (1970) on nonlinear critical layers are extended, and some new nonlinear neutral modes are computed for compressible boundary layer flow. A special case of the work is when the generalized inflexion point criterion holds. Neutral modes are found for a range of phase-speeds, dependent on the Mach number, and the properties of these are discussed. As in the linear case when the flow is relatively supersonic, multiple neutral modes exist. The behavior of the neutral amplitude in some limiting cases is also considered, and it is found that the results are significantly different from that in incompressible flow when the flow is locally supersonic.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yakushev, Evgeniy
2013-04-01
Climate Change affects oxygen depletion and leads to spreading of the bottom areas with hypoxic and anoxic conditions in the coastal areas of the seas and inland waters. This work aimed in estimation of a role of changes of redox conditions in the biogeochemical structure there. We use a 1-dimensional C-N-P-Si-O-S-Mn-Fe vertical transport-reaction model describing the water column, bottom boundary layer and benthic boundary layer with biogeochemical block simulating redox conditions changeability. A biogeochemical block is based on ROLM (RedOx Layer Model), that was constructed to simulate basic features of the water column biogeochemical structure changes in oxic, anoxic and changeable conditions (Yakushev et al., 2007). Organic matter formation and decay, reduction and oxidation of species of nitrogen, sulfur, manganese, iron, and the transformation of phosphorus species are parameterized in the model. ROLM includes a simplified ecological model with phytoplankton, zooplankton, aerobic autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria, anaerobic autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria. We simulate changes in the parameters distributions and fluxes connected with the vertical displacement of redox interface from the sediments to the water.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dehghan Manshadi, Mojtaba; Rabani, Ramin
2016-09-01
Shock formation due to flow compressibility and its interaction with boundary layers has adverse effects on aerodynamic characteristics, such as drag increase and flow separation. The objective of this paper is to appraise the practicability of weakening shock waves and, hence, reducing the wave drag in transonic flight regime using a two-dimensional jagged wall and thereby to gain an appropriate jagged wall shape for future empirical study. Different shapes of the jagged wall, including rectangular, circular, and triangular shapes, were employed. The numerical method was validated by experimental and numerical studies involving transonic flow over the NACA0012 airfoil, and the results presented here closely match previous experimental and numerical results. The impact of parameters, including shape and the length-to-spacing ratio of a jagged wall, was studied on aerodynamic forces and flow field. The results revealed that applying a jagged wall method on the upper surface of an airfoil changes the shock structure significantly and disintegrates it, which in turn leads to a decrease in wave drag. It was also found that the maximum drag coefficient decrease of around 17 % occurs with a triangular shape, while the maximum increase in aerodynamic efficiency (lift-to-drag ratio) of around 10 % happens with a rectangular shape at an angle of attack of 2.26°.
Multi-spacecraft tracing of turbulent boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savin, S.; Zelenyi, L.; Maynard, N.; Sandahl, I.; Kawano, H.; Russell, C. T.; Romanov, S.; Amata, E.; Avanov, L.; Blecki, J.; Buechner, J.; Consolini, G.; Gustafsson, G.; Klimov, S.; Marcucci, F.; Nemecek, Z.; Nikutowski, B.; Pickett, J.; Rauch, J. L.; Safrankova, J.; Skalsky, A.; Smirnov, V.; Stasiewicz, K.; Song, P.; Trotignon, J. G.; Yermolaev, Yu.
Multi-spacecraft tracing of the high latitude magnetopause (MP) and boundary layers and Interball-1 statistics indicate that: (a) The turbulent boundary layer (TBL) is a persistent feature in the region of the cusp and 'sash', a noticeable part of the disturbances weakly depends on the interplanetary magnetic field By component; TBL is a major site for magnetosheath (MSH) plasma penetration inside the magnetosphere through percolation and local reconnection. (b) The TBL disturbances are mainly inherent with the characteristic kinked double-slope spectra and, most probably, 3-wave cascading. The bi-spectral phase coupling indicates self-organization of the TBL as the entire region with features of the non-equilibrium multi-scale and multi-phase system in the near-critical state. (c) We've found the different outer cusp topologies in summer/winter periods: the summer cusp throat is open for the decelerated MSH flows, the winter one is closed by the distant MP with a large-scale (˜several Re) diamagnetic 'plasma ball' inside the MP; the 'ball' is filled from MSH through patchy merging rather than large-scale reconnection. (d) A mechanism for the energy release and mass inflow is the local TBL reconnection, which operates at the larger scales for the average anti-parallel fields and at the smaller scales for the nonlinear fluctuating fields; the latter is operative throughout the TBL. The remote from TBL anti-parallel reconnection seems to happen independently.
Retrievals of boundary layer methane and isotope fractionation on Titan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adamkovics, Mate; Lora, Juan M.; Mitchell, Jonathan L.
2016-10-01
The amount of methane in the boundary layer on Titan is an interesting diagnostic of whether or not it might be seeping out of the regolith. We know that kinetic fractionation of methane isotopes can be diagnostic of evaporation at the surface and condensation in the atmosphere. If a parcel is constrained to follow a moist adiabat while condensation occurs, we can predict the amount of fractionation that is expected (Ádámkovics & Mitchell, 2016). We will present our most recent efforts to measure boundary layer methane abundance and isotopic composition, which include our recently published Keck NIRSPAO observations from 17 July 2014 (Ádámkovics et al., 2016), as well as preliminary results from follow-up measurements made on 15 May 2016. Our measurements are tantalizingly close to being able to distinguish between different hydrological parameterizations of the polar regions in the Titan Atmospheric Model (Lora & Ádámkovics, 2016). We will discuss the systematic uncertainties that can be evaluated with the combination of these two datasets and the prospects for exceptionally high S/N observations via particularly deep integrations over multiple nights.
Analytical Studies of Boundary Layer Generated Aircraft Interior Noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howe, M. S.; Shah, P. L.
1997-01-01
An analysis is made of the "interior noise" produced by high, subsonic turbulent flow over a thin elastic plate partitioned into "panels" by straight edges transverse to the mean flow direction. This configuration models a section of an aircraft fuselage that may be regarded as locally flat. The analytical problem can be solved in closed form to represent the acoustic radiation in terms of prescribed turbulent boundary layer pressure fluctuations. Two cases are considered: (i) the production of sound at an isolated panel edge (i.e., in the approximation in which the correlation between sound and vibrations generated at neighboring edges is neglected), and (ii) the sound generated by a periodic arrangement of identical panels. The latter problem is amenable to exact analytical treatment provided the panel edge conditions are the same for all panels. Detailed predictions of the interior noise depend on a knowledge of the turbulent boundary layer wall pressure spectrum, and are given here in terms of an empirical spectrum proposed by Laganelli and Wolfe. It is expected that these analytical representations of the sound generated by simplified models of fluid-structure interactions can used to validate more general numerical schemes.
Carbon transport in the bottom boundary layer. Final report
Lohrenz, S.E.; Asper, V.L.
1997-09-01
The authors objective was to characterize distributions of chloropigment fluorescence in relation to physical processes in the benthic boundary layer in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) Ocean Margins Program`s (OMP) goal of quantifying carbon transport across the continental shelf. Their approach involved participation in the Ocean Margins Program (OMP) field experiment on the continental shelf off Cape Hatteras by conducting multi-sensor fluorescence measurements of photosynthetic pigments. Specific tasks included (1) pre- and post-deployment calibration of multiple fluorescence sensors in conjunction with Woods Hole personnel; (2) collection and analysis of photosynthetic pigment concentrations and total particulate carbon in water column samples to aid in interpretation of the fluorescence time-series during the field experiment; (3) collaboration in the analysis and interpretation of 1994 and 1996 time-series data in support of efforts to quantify pigment and particulate organic carbon transport on the continental shelf off Cape Hatteras. This third component included analysis of data obtained with a multi-sensor fiber-optic fluorometer in the benthic boundary layer of the inner shelf off Cape Hatteras during summer 1994.
Turbulent Boundary Layer Facility to Investigate Superhydrophobic Drag Reduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gose, James W.; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven L.
2013-11-01
Recent developments in superhydrophobic surfaces have led to potential economic and environmental benefits, perhaps most notably in skin-friction drag reduction. A team from the University of Michigan has developed a recirculating turbulent boundary layer facility to investigate the reduction of drag along engineered superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS). The facility can accommodate both small and large SHS samples in a test section 7 mm (depth)×100 mm (span)×1000 mm (length). Coupled with an 11.2 kilowatt pump and a 30:1 contraction the facility is capable of producing an average flow velocity of 25 m/s, yielding a Reynolds number of 84,000. Flexure-mounted test samples subjected to shear deflect to a max of 50 microns; movements are measured using a digital microscope composed of a high-resolution camera and a water immersion objective. The setup yields an optical resolution of about one micron whereas sub-micron resolution is achieved by implementing an FFT of two Ronchi rulings. Additional drag measurement methods include pressure drop across the test specimen and PIV measured boundary layers. Additional SHS investigations include the implementation of active gas replenishment, providing an opportunity to replace gas-pockets that would otherwise be disrupted in traditional passive SHS surfaces due to high shear stress and turbulent pressure fluctuations. The authors recognize the support of ONR.
Transition Delay in Hypersonic Boundary Layers via Optimal Perturbations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paredes, Pedro; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei
2016-01-01
The effect of nonlinear optimal streaks on disturbance growth in a Mach 6 axisymmetric flow over a 7deg half-angle cone is investigated in an e ort to expand the range of available techniques for transition control. Plane-marching parabolized stability equations are used to characterize the boundary layer instability in the presence of azimuthally periodic streaks. The streaks are observed to stabilize nominally planar Mack mode instabilities, although oblique Mack mode disturbances are destabilized. Experimentally measured transition onset in the absence of any streaks correlates with an amplification factor of N = 6 for the planar Mack modes. For high enough streak amplitudes, the transition threshold of N = 6 is not reached by the Mack mode instabilities within the length of the cone, but subharmonic first mode instabilities, which are destabilized by the presence of the streaks, reach N = 6 near the end of the cone. These results suggest a passive flow control strategy of using micro vortex generators to induce streaks that would delay transition in hypersonic boundary layers.
Contrasting Vertical Structures of the Stable Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahrt, L.; Vickers, Dean
2002-01-01
Wyngaard (1973) introduced the concept of z-less stratification for cases where the stratification is sufficiently strong, that the turbulence no longer is in significant communication with the surface (see also Holtslag and Nieuwstadt, 1986). Then z is no longer a primary scaling variable, nor is the boundary-layer depth. The eddies are vertically constrained by strong stratification. However, the z-less concept implies more than small eddies, since vertically continuous turbulence can still organize according to z even if the eddies at any level are small compared to z. For example, with local similarity where the relevant Obukhov length must be recast in terms of local fluxes at level z instead of surface fluxes (Nieuwstadt, 1984), the overall vertical structure is still posed in terms of z/h even if the eddy size is small compared to z. In this sense, local similarity still satisfies the criteria for traditional boundary layers. On the other hand, continuous turbulence between the surface and level z might still qualify as primarily z-less turbulence if the principal source of turbulence is detached from the surface and the distance above the ground surface is only a secondary influence.
Scaling of pressure spectrum in turbulent boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patwardhan, Saurabh S.; Ramesh, O. N.
2014-04-01
Scaling of pressure spectrum in zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers is discussed. Spatial DNS data of boundary layer at one time instant (Reθ = 4500) are used for the analysis. It is observed that in the outer regions the pressure spectra tends towards the -7/3 law predicted by Kolmogorov's theory of small-scale turbulence. The slope in the pressure spectra varies from -1 close to the wall to a value close to -7/3 in the outer region. The streamwise velocity spectra also show a -5/3 trend in the outer region of the flow. The exercise carried out to study the amplitude modulation effect of the large scales on the smaller ones in the near-wall region reveals a strong modulation effect for the streamwise velocity, but not for the pressure fluctuations. The skewness of the pressure follows the same trend as the amplitude modulation coefficient, as is the case for the velocity. In the inner region, pressure spectra were seen to collapse better when normalized with the local Reynolds stress than when scaled with the local turbulent kinetic energy
Vortex Roll Breakup in Three-Dimensional Turbulent Boundary Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamman, Curtis; Moin, Parviz
2011-11-01
Large helical vortex rolls with axes in the general direction of the mean wind commonly appear in the unstably stratified atmospheric boundary layer. When a rapid shift in the mean wind direction occurs, the vertical transport of momentum and heat flux is sharply reduced compared to the equilibrium value. At long times, this non-equilibrium turbulent flow may develop back into a stable pattern of organized vortex rolls, now aligned with the new wind direction. This transition process is studied via direct numerical simulation of plane channel flow heated from below with impulsively started transverse pressure gradient (Ri = - Ra / PrRe2 = - 0 . 25 , Ra =107 , and Pr = 0 . 71). The timescale for heat flux recovery is approximately the same for turning angles larger than 30 degrees. For higher turning angles, however, the Nusselt number will temporarily drop below one due to a significant reduction in vertical transport. Horizontal velocity and temperature spectra suggest that scale separation between large-scale, organized convective motions and turbulent eddies can prevent heat transfer reduction in transversely accelerated three-dimensional turbulent boundary layers. Supported by the DOE CSGF, grant no. DE-FG02-97ER25308.
Boundary layer structure over areas of heterogeneous heat fluxes
Doran, J.C.; Barnes, F.J.; Coulter, R.L.; Crawford, T.L.
1993-04-01
In general circulation models (GCMs), some properties of a grid element are necessarily considered homogeneous. That is, for each grid volume there is associated a particular combination of boundary layer depth, vertical profiles of wind and temperature, surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, etc. In reality, all of these quantities may exhibit significant spatial variations within the grid area, and the larger the area the greater the likely variations. In balancing the benefits of higher resolution against increased computational time and expense, it is useful to consider what the consequences of such subgrid-scale variability may be. Moveover, in interpreting the results of a simulation, one must be able to define an appropriate average value over a grid. There are two aspects of this latter problem: (1) in observations, how does one take a set of discrete or volume-averaged measurements and relate these to properties of the entire domain, and (2) in computations, how can subgrid-scale features be accounted for in the model parameterizations? To address these and related issues, two field campaigns were carried out near Boardman, Oregon, in June 1991 and 1992. These campaigns were designed to measure the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over adjacent areas with strongly contrasting surface types and to measure the response of the boundary layer to those fluxes. This paper discuses some initial findings from those campaigns.
Boundary layer structure over areas of heterogeneous heat fluxes
Doran, J.C.; Barnes, F.J.; Coulter, R.L.; Crawford, T.L.
1993-01-01
In general circulation models (GCMs), some properties of a grid element are necessarily considered homogeneous. That is, for each grid volume there is associated a particular combination of boundary layer depth, vertical profiles of wind and temperature, surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, etc. In reality, all of these quantities may exhibit significant spatial variations the grid area, and the larger the area the greater the likely variations. In balancing the benefits of higher resolution against increased computational time and expense, it is useful to consider what the consequences of such subgrid-scale variability may be. Moreover, in interpreting the results of a simulation, one must be able to define an appropriate average value over a grid. There are two aspects of this latter problem: (1) in observations, how does one take a set of discrete or volume-averaged measurements and relate these to properties of the entire domain, and (2) in computations, how can subgrid-scale features be accounted for in the model parameterizations? To address these and related issues, two field campaigns were carried out near Boardman, Oregon, in June 1991 and 1992. These campaigns were designed to measure the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over adjacent areas with strongly contrasting surface types and to measure the response of the boundary layer to those fluxes. This paper discusses some initial findings from those campaigns.
Boundary layer structure over areas of heterogeneous heat fluxes
Doran, J.C. ); Barnes, F.J. ); Coulter, R.L. ); Crawford, T.L. . Air Resources Lab. Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Div.)
1993-01-01
In general circulation models (GCMs), some properties of a grid element are necessarily considered homogeneous. That is, for each grid volume there is associated a particular combination of boundary layer depth, vertical profiles of wind and temperature, surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, etc. In reality, all of these quantities may exhibit significant spatial variations within the grid area, and the larger the area the greater the likely variations. In balancing the benefits of higher resolution against increased computational time and expense, it is useful to consider what the consequences of such subgrid-scale variability may be. Moveover, in interpreting the results of a simulation, one must be able to define an appropriate average value over a grid. There are two aspects of this latter problem: (1) in observations, how does one take a set of discrete or volume-averaged measurements and relate these to properties of the entire domain, and (2) in computations, how can subgrid-scale features be accounted for in the model parameterizations To address these and related issues, two field campaigns were carried out near Boardman, Oregon, in June 1991 and 1992. These campaigns were designed to measure the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over adjacent areas with strongly contrasting surface types and to measure the response of the boundary layer to those fluxes. This paper discuses some initial findings from those campaigns.
Boundary layer structure over areas of heterogeneous heat fluxes
Doran, J.C. ); Barnes, F.J. ); Coulter, R.L. ); Crawford, T.L. . Air Resources Lab. Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Div.)
1993-01-01
In general circulation models (GCMs), some properties of a grid element are necessarily considered homogeneous. That is, for each grid volume there is associated a particular combination of boundary layer depth, vertical profiles of wind and temperature, surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, etc. In reality, all of these quantities may exhibit significant spatial variations the grid area, and the larger the area the greater the likely variations. In balancing the benefits of higher resolution against increased computational time and expense, it is useful to consider what the consequences of such subgrid-scale variability may be. Moreover, in interpreting the results of a simulation, one must be able to define an appropriate average value over a grid. There are two aspects of this latter problem: (1) in observations, how does one take a set of discrete or volume-averaged measurements and relate these to properties of the entire domain, and (2) in computations, how can subgrid-scale features be accounted for in the model parameterizations To address these and related issues, two field campaigns were carried out near Boardman, Oregon, in June 1991 and 1992. These campaigns were designed to measure the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over adjacent areas with strongly contrasting surface types and to measure the response of the boundary layer to those fluxes. This paper discusses some initial findings from those campaigns.
Aeromechanics Analysis of a Boundary Layer Ingesting Fan
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bakhle, Milind A.; Reddy, T. S. R.; Herrick, Gregory P.; Shabbir, Aamir; Florea, Razvan V.
2013-01-01
Boundary layer ingesting propulsion systems have the potential to significantly reduce fuel burn but these systems must overcome the challe nges related to aeromechanics-fan flutter stability and forced response dynamic stresses. High-fidelity computational analysis of the fan a eromechanics is integral to the ongoing effort to design a boundary layer ingesting inlet and fan for fabrication and wind-tunnel test. A t hree-dimensional, time-accurate, Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes computational fluid dynamics code is used to study aerothermodynamic and a eromechanical behavior of the fan in response to both clean and distorted inflows. The computational aeromechanics analyses performed in th is study show an intermediate design iteration of the fan to be flutter-free at the design conditions analyzed with both clean and distorte d in-flows. Dynamic stresses from forced response have been calculated for the design rotational speed. Additional work is ongoing to expan d the analyses to off-design conditions, and for on-resonance conditions.
Space Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment Ground Testing Overview
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berger, Karen T.; Anderson, Brian P.; Campbell, Charles H.
2014-01-01
In support of the Boundary Layer Transition (BLT) Flight Experiment (FE) Project in which a manufactured protuberance tile was installed on the port wing of Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery for STS-119, STS- 128, STS-131 and STS-133 as well as Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour for STS-134, a significant ground test campaign was completed. The primary goals of the test campaign were to provide ground test data to support the planning and safety certification efforts required to fly the flight experiment as well as validation for the collected flight data. These test included Arcjet testing of the tile protuberance, aerothermal testing to determine the boundary layer transition behavior and resultant surface heating and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) testing in order to gain a better understanding of the flow field characteristics associated with the flight experiment. This paper provides an overview of the BLT FE Project ground testing. High-level overviews of the facilities, models, test techniques and data are presented, along with a summary of the insights gained from each test.