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Sample records for aerodynamic design procedure

  1. A Rapid Aerodynamic Design Procedure Based on Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, Man Mohan

    2001-01-01

    An aerodynamic design procedure that uses neural networks to model the functional behavior of the objective function in design space has been developed. This method incorporates several improvements to an earlier method that employed a strategy called parameter-based partitioning of the design space in order to reduce the computational costs associated with design optimization. As with the earlier method, the current method uses a sequence of response surfaces to traverse the design space in search of the optimal solution. The new method yields significant reductions in computational costs by using composite response surfaces with better generalization capabilities and by exploiting synergies between the optimization method and the simulation codes used to generate the training data. These reductions in design optimization costs are demonstrated for a turbine airfoil design study where a generic shape is evolved into an optimal airfoil.

  2. Computational aerodynamics and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballhaus, W. F., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The role of computational aerodynamics in design is reviewed with attention given to the design process; the proper role of computations; the importance of calibration, interpretation, and verification; the usefulness of a given computational capability; and the marketing of new codes. Examples of computational aerodynamics in design are given with particular emphasis on the Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology. Finally, future prospects are noted, with consideration given to the role of advanced computers, advances in numerical solution techniques, turbulence models, complex geometries, and computational design procedures. Previously announced in STAR as N82-33348

  3. Aerodynamic design of axisymmetric hypersonic wind-tunnel nozzles using least-squares/parabolized Navier-Stokes procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korte, John J.

    1992-01-01

    A new procedure unifying the best of present classical design practices, CFD and optimization procedures, is demonstrated for designing the aerodynamic lines of hypersonic wind tunnel nozzles. This procedure can be employed to design hypersonic wind tunnel nozzles with thick boundary layers where the classical design procedure has been demonstrated to break down. Advantages of this procedure allow full utilization of powerful CFD codes in the design process, solves an optimization problem to determine the new contour, may be used to design new nozzles or improve sections of existing nozzles, and automatically compensates the nozzle contour for viscous effects as part of the unified design procedure.

  4. Aerodynamic design using numerical optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murman, E. M.; Chapman, G. T.

    1983-01-01

    The procedure of using numerical optimization methods coupled with computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes for the development of an aerodynamic design is examined. Several approaches that replace wind tunnel tests, develop pressure distributions and derive designs, or fulfill preset design criteria are presented. The method of Aerodynamic Design by Numerical Optimization (ADNO) is described and illustrated with examples.

  5. Aerodynamic Design Using Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, Man Mohan; Madavan, Nateri K.

    2003-01-01

    The design of aerodynamic components of aircraft, such as wings or engines, involves a process of obtaining the most optimal component shape that can deliver the desired level of component performance, subject to various constraints, e.g., total weight or cost, that the component must satisfy. Aerodynamic design can thus be formulated as an optimization problem that involves the minimization of an objective function subject to constraints. A new aerodynamic design optimization procedure based on neural networks and response surface methodology (RSM) incorporates the advantages of both traditional RSM and neural networks. The procedure uses a strategy, denoted parameter-based partitioning of the design space, to construct a sequence of response surfaces based on both neural networks and polynomial fits to traverse the design space in search of the optimal solution. Some desirable characteristics of the new design optimization procedure include the ability to handle a variety of design objectives, easily impose constraints, and incorporate design guidelines and rules of thumb. It provides an infrastructure for variable fidelity analysis and reduces the cost of computation by using less-expensive, lower fidelity simulations in the early stages of the design evolution. The initial or starting design can be far from optimal. The procedure is easy and economical to use in large-dimensional design space and can be used to perform design tradeoff studies rapidly. Designs involving multiple disciplines can also be optimized. Some practical applications of the design procedure that have demonstrated some of its capabilities include the inverse design of an optimal turbine airfoil starting from a generic shape and the redesign of transonic turbines to improve their unsteady aerodynamic characteristics.

  6. Nonlinear aerodynamic wing design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, Ellwood

    1985-01-01

    The applicability of new nonlinear theoretical techniques is demonstrated for supersonic wing design. The new technology was utilized to define outboard panels for an existing advanced tactical fighter model. Mach 1.6 maneuver point design and multi-operating point compromise surfaces were developed and tested. High aerodynamic efficiency was achieved at the design conditions. A corollary result was that only modest supersonic penalties were incurred to meet multiple aerodynamic requirements. The nonlinear potential analysis of a practical configuration arrangement correlated well with experimental data.

  7. Turbine Aerodynamics Design Tool Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Frank W.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the Marshal Space Flight Center Fluids Workshop on Turbine Aerodynamic design tool development. The topics include: (1) Meanline Design/Off-design Analysis; and (2) Airfoil Contour Generation and Analysis. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  8. Aerodynamic design via control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, Antony

    1988-01-01

    The question of how to modify aerodynamic design in order to improve performance is addressed. Representative examples are given to demonstrate the computational feasibility of using control theory for such a purpose. An introduction and historical survey of the subject is included.

  9. The aerodynamic design of an advanced rotor airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, J. A., Jr.; Hinson, B. L.

    1978-01-01

    An advanced rotor airfoil, designed utilizing supercritical airfoil technology and advanced design and analysis methodology is described. The airfoil was designed subject to stringent aerodynamic design criteria for improving the performance over the entire rotor operating regime. The design criteria are discussed. The design was accomplished using a physical plane, viscous, transonic inverse design procedure, and a constrained function minimization technique for optimizing the airfoil leading edge shape. The aerodynamic performance objectives of the airfoil are discussed.

  10. Integrated structural-aerodynamic design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haftka, R. T.; Kao, P. J.; Grossman, B.; Polen, D.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper focuses on the processes of simultaneous aerodynamic and structural wing design as a prototype for design integration, with emphasis on the major difficulty associated with multidisciplinary design optimization processes, their enormous computational costs. Methods are presented for reducing this computational burden through the development of efficient methods for cross-sensitivity calculations and the implementation of approximate optimization procedures. Utilizing a modular sensitivity analysis approach, it is shown that the sensitivities can be computed without the expensive calculation of the derivatives of the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix, and the derivatives of the structural flexibility matrix. The same process is used to efficiently evaluate the sensitivities of the wing divergence constraint, which should be particularly useful, not only in problems of complete integrated aircraft design, but also in aeroelastic tailoring applications.

  11. Aerodynamic design on high-speed trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, San-San; Li, Qiang; Tian, Ai-Qin; Du, Jian; Liu, Jia-Li

    2016-04-01

    Compared with the traditional train, the operational speed of the high-speed train has largely improved, and the dynamic environment of the train has changed from one of mechanical domination to one of aerodynamic domination. The aerodynamic problem has become the key technological challenge of high-speed trains and significantly affects the economy, environment, safety, and comfort. In this paper, the relationships among the aerodynamic design principle, aerodynamic performance indexes, and design variables are first studied, and the research methods of train aerodynamics are proposed, including numerical simulation, a reduced-scale test, and a full-scale test. Technological schemes of train aerodynamics involve the optimization design of the streamlined head and the smooth design of the body surface. Optimization design of the streamlined head includes conception design, project design, numerical simulation, and a reduced-scale test. Smooth design of the body surface is mainly used for the key parts, such as electric-current collecting system, wheel truck compartment, and windshield. The aerodynamic design method established in this paper has been successfully applied to various high-speed trains (CRH380A, CRH380AM, CRH6, CRH2G, and the Standard electric multiple unit (EMU)) that have met expected design objectives. The research results can provide an effective guideline for the aerodynamic design of high-speed trains.

  12. Aerodynamic design of electric and hybrid vehicles: A guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    A typical present-day subcompact electric hybrid vehicle (EHV), operating on an SAE J227a D driving cycle, consumes up to 35% of its road energy requirement overcoming aerodynamic resistance. The application of an integrated system design approach, where drag reduction is an important design parameter, can increase the cycle range by more than 15%. This guidebook highlights a logic strategy for including aerodynamic drag reduction in the design of electric and hybrid vehicles to the degree appropriate to the mission requirements. Backup information and procedures are included in order to implement the strategy. Elements of the procedure are based on extensive wind tunnel tests involving generic subscale models and full-scale prototype EHVs. The user need not have any previous aerodynamic background. By necessity, the procedure utilizes many generic approximations and assumptions resulting in various levels of uncertainty. Dealing with these uncertainties, however, is a key feature of the strategy.

  13. Aerodynamics Research Revolutionizes Truck Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s, researchers at Dryden Flight Research Center conducted numerous tests to refine the shape of trucks to reduce aerodynamic drag and improved efficiency. During the 1980s and 1990s, a team based at Langley Research Center explored controlling drag and the flow of air around a moving body. Aeroserve Technologies Ltd., of Ottawa, Canada, with its subsidiary, Airtab LLC, in Loveland, Colorado, applied the research from Dryden and Langley to the development of the Airtab vortex generator. Airtabs create two counter-rotating vortices to reduce wind resistance and aerodynamic drag of trucks, trailers, recreational vehicles, and many other vehicles.

  14. Efficient optimization of integrated aerodynamic-structural design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haftka, R. T.; Grossman, B.; Eppard, W. M.; Kao, P. J.; Polen, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques for reducing the computational complexity of multidisciplinary design optimization (DO) of aerodynamic structures are described and demonstrated. The basic principles of aerodynamic and structural DO are reviewed; the formulation of the combined DO problem is outlined; and particular attention is given to (1) the application of perturbation methods to cross-sensitivity computations and (2) numerical approximation procedures. Trial DOs of a simple sailplane design are presented in tables and graphs and discussed in detail. The IBM 3090 CPU time for the entire integrated DO was reduced from an estimated 10 h to about 6 min.

  15. Aerodynamic Design of Axial Flow Compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullock, R. O. (Editor); Johnsen, I. A.

    1965-01-01

    An overview of 'Aerodynamic systems design of axial flow compressors' is presented. Numerous chapters cover topics such as compressor design, ptotential and viscous flow in two dimensional cascades, compressor stall and blade vibration, and compressor flow theory. Theoretical aspects of flow are also covered.

  16. Formulation for Simultaneous Aerodynamic Analysis and Design Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, G. W.; Taylor, A. C., III; Mani, S. V.; Newman, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    An efficient approach for simultaneous aerodynamic analysis and design optimization is presented. This approach does not require the performance of many flow analyses at each design optimization step, which can be an expensive procedure. Thus, this approach brings us one step closer to meeting the challenge of incorporating computational fluid dynamic codes into gradient-based optimization techniques for aerodynamic design. An adjoint-variable method is introduced to nullify the effect of the increased number of design variables in the problem formulation. The method has been successfully tested on one-dimensional nozzle flow problems, including a sample problem with a normal shock. Implementations of the above algorithm are also presented that incorporate Newton iterations to secure a high-quality flow solution at the end of the design process. Implementations with iterative flow solvers are possible and will be required for large, multidimensional flow problems.

  17. Aerodynamic design lowers truck fuel consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steers, L.

    1978-01-01

    Energy-saving concepts in truck design are emerging from developing new shapes with improved aerodynamic flow properties that can reduce air-drag coefficient of conventional tractor-trailers without requiring severe design changes or compromising load-carrying capability. Improvements are expected to decrease somewhat with increased wind velocities and would be affected by factors such as terrain, driving techniques, and mechanical condition.

  18. Turbine Aerodynamic Design System Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Frank W.; Griffin, Lisa W.; Simpson, Steven P.

    2003-01-01

    Presentation outline includes the following: 1. Volute manifold design and analysis methodology. 2. Meanline modification for compatibility with engine analysis code. Objective is to develop a manifold design methodology for turbines and pumps, and to enable rapid screening of candidate flow paths.

  19. Aerodynamic Design Opportunities for Future Supersonic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Flamm, Jeffrey D.

    2002-01-01

    A discussion of a diverse set of aerodynamic opportunities to improve the aerodynamic performance of future supersonic aircraft has been presented and discussed. These ideas are offered to the community in a hope that future supersonic vehicle development activities will not be hindered by past efforts. A number of nonlinear flow based drag reduction technologies are presented and discussed. The subject technologies are related to the areas of interference flows, vehicle concepts, vortex flows, wing design, advanced control effectors, and planform design. The authors also discussed the importance of improving the aerodynamic design environment to allow creativity and knowledge greater influence. A review of all of the data presented show that pressure drag reductions on the order of 50 to 60 counts are achievable, compared to a conventional supersonic cruise vehicle, with the application of several of the discussed technologies. These drag reductions would correlate to a 30 to 40% increase in cruise L/D (lift-to-drag ratio) for a commercial supersonic transport.

  20. Integrated aerodynamic/structural design of a sailplane wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, B.; Gurdal, Z.; Haftka, R. T.; Strauch, G. J.; Eppard, W. M.

    1986-01-01

    Using lifting-line theory and beam analysis, the geometry (planiform and twist) and composite material structural sizes (skin thickness, spar cap, and web thickness) were designed for a sailplane wing, subject to both structural and aerodynamic constraints. For all elements, the integrated design (simultaneously designing the aerodynamics and the structure) was superior in terms of performance and weight to the sequential design (where the aerodynamic geometry is designed to maximize the performance, following which a structural/aeroelastic design minimizes the weight). Integrated designs produced less rigid, higher aspect ratio wings with favorable aerodynamic/structural interactions.

  1. Integrated aerodynamic-structural design of a transport wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, B.; Haftka, R. T.; Kao, P.-J.; Polen, D. M.; Rais-Rohani, M.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.

    1989-01-01

    The integrated aerodynamic-structural design of a subsonic transport wing for minimum weight subject to required range is formulated and solved. The problem requires large computational resources, and two methods are used to alleviate the computational burden. First, a modular sensitivity method that permits the usage of black-box disciplinary software packages, is used to reduce the cost of sensitivity derivatives. In particular, it is shown that derivatives of the aeroelastic response and divergence speed can be calculated without the costly computation of derivatives of aerodynamic influence coefficient and structural stiffness matrices. A sequential approximate optimization is used to further reduce computational cost. The optimization procedure is shown to require a relatively small number of analysis and sensitivity calculations.

  2. Aerodynamic design trends for commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilbig, R.; Koerner, H.

    1986-01-01

    Recent research on advanced-configuration commercial aircraft at DFVLR is surveyed, with a focus on aerodynamic approaches to improved performance. Topics examined include transonic wings with variable camber or shock/boundary-layer control, wings with reduced friction drag or laminarized flow, prop-fan propulsion, and unusual configurations or wing profiles. Drawings, diagrams, and graphs of predicted performance are provided, and the need for extensive development efforts using powerful computer facilities, high-speed and low-speed wind tunnels, and flight tests of models (mounted on specially designed carrier aircraft) is indicated.

  3. Aerodynamics of a promising vortex furnace design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anufriev, I. S.; Strizhak, P. A.; Chernetskii, M. Yu.; Shadrin, E. Yu.; Sharypov, O. V.

    2015-08-01

    The aerodynamics of a promising vortex furnace design with secondary top blasting has been studied. Flow velocity fields have been measured in an isothermal laboratory model of the furnace using a digital tracer imaging (particle image velocimetry) technique. Three-dimensional diagnostics of flow structure in the combustion chamber has been carried out by the method of laser Doppler anemometry. Processing of the obtained data using the criterion of "minimum total pressure" has been used to visualize the spatial structure of the vortex core.

  4. Aerodynamic Analysis of Multistage Turbomachinery Flows in Support of Aerodynamic Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, John J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes the state of 3D CFD based models of the time average flow field within axial flow multistage turbomachines. Emphasis is placed on models which are compatible with the industrial design environment and those models which offer the potential of providing credible results at both design and off-design operating conditions. The need to develop models which are free of aerodynamic input from semi-empirical design systems is stressed. The accuracy of such models is shown to be dependent upon their ability to account for the unsteady flow environment in multistage turbomachinery. The relevant flow physics associated with some of the unsteady flow processes present in axial flow multistage machinery are presented along with procedures which can be used to account for them in 3D CFD simulations. Sample results are presented for both axial flow compressors and axial flow turbines which help to illustrate the enhanced predictive capabilities afforded by including these procedures in 3D CFD simulations. Finally, suggestions are given for future work on the development of time average flow models.

  5. Designing Flightdeck Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Mauro, Robert; Degani, Asaf; Loukopoulou, Loukia

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of this document is to provide guidance on how to design, implement, and evaluate flight deck procedures. It provides a process for developing procedures that meet clear and specific requirements. This document provides a brief overview of: 1) the requirements for procedures, 2) a process for the design of procedures, and 3) a process for the design of checklists. The brief overview is followed by amplified procedures that follow the above steps and provide details for the proper design, implementation and evaluation of good flight deck procedures and checklists.

  6. Computational study of engine external aerodynamics as a part of multidisciplinary optimization procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savelyev, Andrey; Anisimov, Kirill; Kazhan, Egor; Kursakov, Innocentiy; Lysenkov, Alexandr

    2016-10-01

    The paper is devoted to the development of methodology to optimize external aerodynamics of the engine. Optimization procedure is based on numerical solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. As a method of optimization the surrogate based method is used. As a test problem optimal shape design of turbofan nacelle is considered. The results of the first stage, which investigates classic airplane configuration with engine located under the wing, are presented. Described optimization procedure is considered in the context of multidisciplinary optimization of the 3rd generation, developed in the project AGILE.

  7. Recent Improvements in Aerodynamic Design Optimization on Unstructured Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, Eric J.; Anderson, W. Kyle

    2000-01-01

    Recent improvements in an unstructured-grid method for large-scale aerodynamic design are presented. Previous work had shown such computations to be prohibitively long in a sequential processing environment. Also, robust adjoint solutions and mesh movement procedures were difficult to realize, particularly for viscous flows. To overcome these limiting factors, a set of design codes based on a discrete adjoint method is extended to a multiprocessor environment using a shared memory approach. A nearly linear speedup is demonstrated, and the consistency of the linearizations is shown to remain valid. The full linearization of the residual is used to precondition the adjoint system, and a significantly improved convergence rate is obtained. A new mesh movement algorithm is implemented and several advantages over an existing technique are presented. Several design cases are shown for turbulent flows in two and three dimensions.

  8. Integrated aerodynamic-structural design of a forward-swept transport wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haftka, Raphael T.; Grossman, Bernard; Kao, Pi-Jen; Polen, David M.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1989-01-01

    The introduction of composite materials is having a profound effect on aircraft design. Since these materials permit the designer to tailor material properties to improve structural, aerodynamic and acoustic performance, they require an integrated multidisciplinary design process. Futhermore, because of the complexity of the design process, numerical optimization methods are required. The utilization of integrated multidisciplinary design procedures for improving aircraft design is not currently feasible because of software coordination problems and the enormous computational burden. Even with the expected rapid growth of supercomputers and parallel architectures, these tasks will not be practical without the development of efficient methods for cross-disciplinary sensitivities and efficient optimization procedures. The present research is part of an on-going effort which is focused on the processes of simultaneous aerodynamic and structural wing design as a prototype for design integration. A sequence of integrated wing design procedures has been developed in order to investigate various aspects of the design process.

  9. Global Design Optimization for Aerodynamics and Rocket Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyy, Wei; Papila, Nilay; Vaidyanathan, Rajkumar; Tucker, Kevin; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Modern computational and experimental tools for aerodynamics and propulsion applications have matured to a stage where they can provide substantial insight into engineering processes involving fluid flows, and can be fruitfully utilized to help improve the design of practical devices. In particular, rapid and continuous development in aerospace engineering demands that new design concepts be regularly proposed to meet goals for increased performance, robustness and safety while concurrently decreasing cost. To date, the majority of the effort in design optimization of fluid dynamics has relied on gradient-based search algorithms. Global optimization methods can utilize the information collected from various sources and by different tools. These methods offer multi-criterion optimization, handle the existence of multiple design points and trade-offs via insight into the entire design space, can easily perform tasks in parallel, and are often effective in filtering the noise intrinsic to numerical and experimental data. However, a successful application of the global optimization method needs to address issues related to data requirements with an increase in the number of design variables, and methods for predicting the model performance. In this article, we review recent progress made in establishing suitable global optimization techniques employing neural network and polynomial-based response surface methodologies. Issues addressed include techniques for construction of the response surface, design of experiment techniques for supplying information in an economical manner, optimization procedures and multi-level techniques, and assessment of relative performance between polynomials and neural networks. Examples drawn from wing aerodynamics, turbulent diffuser flows, gas-gas injectors, and supersonic turbines are employed to help demonstrate the issues involved in an engineering design context. Both the usefulness of the existing knowledge to aid current design

  10. Hypersonic Arbitrary-Body Aerodynamics (HABA) for conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Salguero, D.E.

    1990-03-15

    The Hypersonic Arbitrary-Body Aerodynamics (HABA) computer program predicts static and dynamic aerodynamic derivatives at hypersonic speeds for any vehicle geometry. It is intended to be used during conceptual design studies where fast computational speed is required. It uses the same geometry and hypersonic aerodynamic methods as the Mark IV Supersonic/Hypersonic Arbitrary-Body Program (SHABP) developed under sponsorship of the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory; however, the input and output formats have been improved to make it easier to use. This program is available as part of the Department 9140 CAE software.

  11. Aerodynamic Design Study of Advanced Multistage Axial Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larosiliere, Louis M.; Wood, Jerry R.; Hathaway, Michael D.; Medd, Adam J.; Dang, Thong Q.

    2002-01-01

    As a direct response to the need for further performance gains from current multistage axial compressors, an investigation of advanced aerodynamic design concepts that will lead to compact, high-efficiency, and wide-operability configurations is being pursued. Part I of this report describes the projected level of technical advancement relative to the state of the art and quantifies it in terms of basic aerodynamic technology elements of current design systems. A rational enhancement of these elements is shown to lead to a substantial expansion of the design and operability space. Aerodynamic design considerations for a four-stage core compressor intended to serve as a vehicle to develop, integrate, and demonstrate aerotechnology advancements are discussed. This design is biased toward high efficiency at high loading. Three-dimensional blading and spanwise tailoring of vector diagrams guided by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are used to manage the aerodynamics of the high-loaded endwall regions. Certain deleterious flow features, such as leakage-vortex-dominated endwall flow and strong shock-boundary-layer interactions, were identified and targeted for improvement. However, the preliminary results were encouraging and the front two stages were extracted for further aerodynamic trimming using a three-dimensional inverse design method described in part II of this report. The benefits of the inverse design method are illustrated by developing an appropriate pressure-loading strategy for transonic blading and applying it to reblade the rotors in the front two stages of the four-stage configuration. Multistage CFD simulations based on the average passage formulation indicated an overall efficiency potential far exceeding current practice for the front two stages. Results of the CFD simulation at the aerodynamic design point are interrogated to identify areas requiring additional development. In spite of the significantly higher aerodynamic loadings, advanced CFD

  12. Development of an efficient procedure for calculating the aerodynamic effects of planform variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, J. E.; Geller, E. W.

    1981-01-01

    Numerical procedures to compute gradients in aerodynamic loading due to planform shape changes using panel method codes were studied. Two procedures were investigated: one computed the aerodynamic perturbation directly; the other computed the aerodynamic loading on the perturbed planform and on the base planform and then differenced these values to obtain the perturbation in loading. It is indicated that computing the perturbed values directly can not be done satisfactorily without proper aerodynamic representation of the pressure singularity at the leading edge of a thin wing. For the alternative procedure, a technique was developed which saves most of the time-consuming computations from a panel method calculation for the base planform. Using this procedure the perturbed loading can be calculated in about one-tenth the time of that for the base solution.

  13. Wind turbine design codes: A preliminary comparison of the aerodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Buhl, M.L. Jr.; Wright, A.D.; Tangler, J.L.

    1997-12-01

    The National Wind Technology Center of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory is comparing several computer codes used to design and analyze wind turbines. The first part of this comparison is to determine how well the programs predict the aerodynamic behavior of turbines with no structural degrees of freedom. Without general agreement on the aerodynamics, it is futile to try to compare the structural response due to the aerodynamic input. In this paper, the authors compare the aerodynamic loads for three programs: Garrad Hassan`s BLADED, their own WT-PERF, and the University of Utah`s YawDyn. This report documents a work in progress and compares only two-bladed, downwind turbines.

  14. Optimum aerodynamic design via boundary control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, Antony

    1994-01-01

    These lectures describe the implementation of optimization techniques based on control theory for airfoil and wing design. In previous studies it was shown that control theory could be used to devise an effective optimization procedure for two-dimensional profiles in which the shape is determined by a conformal transformation from a unit circle, and the control is the mapping function. Recently the method has been implemented in an alternative formulation which does not depend on conformal mapping, so that it can more easily be extended to treat general configurations. The method has also been extended to treat the Euler equations, and results are presented for both two and three dimensional cases, including the optimization of a swept wing.

  15. Improved Aerodynamic Analysis for Hybrid Wing Body Conceptual Design Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gern, Frank H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of ongoing efforts to develop, evaluate, and validate different tools for improved aerodynamic modeling and systems analysis of Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft configurations. Results are being presented for the evaluation of different aerodynamic tools including panel methods, enhanced panel methods with viscous drag prediction, and computational fluid dynamics. Emphasis is placed on proper prediction of aerodynamic loads for structural sizing as well as viscous drag prediction to develop drag polars for HWB conceptual design optimization. Data from transonic wind tunnel tests at the Arnold Engineering Development Center s 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel was used as a reference data set in order to evaluate the accuracy of the aerodynamic tools. Triangularized surface data and Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) models of an X-48B 2% scale wind tunnel model were used to generate input and model files for the different analysis tools. In support of ongoing HWB scaling studies within the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) program, an improved finite element based structural analysis and weight estimation tool for HWB center bodies is currently under development. Aerodynamic results from these analyses are used to provide additional aerodynamic validation data.

  16. Extended mapping and characteristics techniques for inverse aerodynamic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieczky, H.; Qian, Y. J.

    1991-01-01

    Some ideas for using hodograph theory, mapping techniques and methods of characteristics to formulate typical aerodynamic design boundary value problems are developed. The inverse method of characteristics is shown to be a fast tool for design of transonic flow elements as well as supersonic flows with given shock waves.

  17. Computational Aerodynamic Simulations of a Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation Fan Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    Quieter working environments for astronauts are needed if future long-duration space exploration missions are to be safe and productive. Ventilation and payload cooling fans are known to be dominant sources of noise, with the International Space Station being a good case in point. To address this issue cost effectively, early attention to fan design, selection, and installation has been recommended, leading to an effort by NASA to examine the potential for small-fan noise reduction by improving fan aerodynamic design. As a preliminary part of that effort, the aerodynamics of a cabin ventilation fan designed by Hamilton Sundstrand has been simulated using computational fluid dynamics codes, and the computed solutions analyzed to quantify various aspects of the fan aerodynamics and performance. Four simulations were performed at the design rotational speed: two at the design flow rate and two at off-design flow rates. Following a brief discussion of the computational codes, various aerodynamic- and performance-related quantities derived from the computed flow fields are presented along with relevant flow field details. The results show that the computed fan performance is in generally good agreement with stated design goals.

  18. A PDE Sensitivity Equation Method for Optimal Aerodynamic Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borggaard, Jeff; Burns, John

    1996-01-01

    The use of gradient based optimization algorithms in inverse design is well established as a practical approach to aerodynamic design. A typical procedure uses a simulation scheme to evaluate the objective function (from the approximate states) and its gradient, then passes this information to an optimization algorithm. Once the simulation scheme (CFD flow solver) has been selected and used to provide approximate function evaluations, there are several possible approaches to the problem of computing gradients. One popular method is to differentiate the simulation scheme and compute design sensitivities that are then used to obtain gradients. Although this black-box approach has many advantages in shape optimization problems, one must compute mesh sensitivities in order to compute the design sensitivity. In this paper, we present an alternative approach using the PDE sensitivity equation to develop algorithms for computing gradients. This approach has the advantage that mesh sensitivities need not be computed. Moreover, when it is possible to use the CFD scheme for both the forward problem and the sensitivity equation, then there are computational advantages. An apparent disadvantage of this approach is that it does not always produce consistent derivatives. However, for a proper combination of discretization schemes, one can show asymptotic consistency under mesh refinement, which is often sufficient to guarantee convergence of the optimal design algorithm. In particular, we show that when asymptotically consistent schemes are combined with a trust-region optimization algorithm, the resulting optimal design method converges. We denote this approach as the sensitivity equation method. The sensitivity equation method is presented, convergence results are given and the approach is illustrated on two optimal design problems involving shocks.

  19. Preliminary aerodynamic design considerations for advanced laminar flow aircraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Joseph L., Jr.; Yip, Long P.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Modern composite manufacturing methods have provided the opportunity for smooth surfaces that can sustain large regions of natural laminar flow (NLF) boundary layer behavior and have stimulated interest in developing advanced NLF airfoils and improved aircraft designs. Some of the preliminary results obtained in exploratory research investigations on advanced aircraft configurations at the NASA Langley Research Center are discussed. Results of the initial studies have shown that the aerodynamic effects of configuration variables such as canard/wing arrangements, airfoils, and pusher-type and tractor-type propeller installations can be particularly significant at high angles of attack. Flow field interactions between aircraft components were shown to produce undesirable aerodynamic effects on a wing behind a heavily loaded canard, and the use of properly designed wing leading-edge modifications, such as a leading-edge droop, offset the undesirable aerodynamic effects by delaying wing stall and providing increased stall/spin resistance with minimum degradation of laminar flow behavior.

  20. Advanced Aerodynamic Design of Passive Porosity Control Effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Craig A.; Viken, Sally A.; Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes aerodynamic design work aimed at developing a passive porosity control effector system for a generic tailless fighter aircraft. As part of this work, a computational design tool was developed and used to layout passive porosity effector systems for longitudinal and lateral-directional control at a low-speed, high angle of attack condition. Aerodynamic analysis was conducted using the NASA Langley computational fluid dynamics code USM3D, in conjunction with a newly formulated surface boundary condition for passive porosity. Results indicate that passive porosity effectors can provide maneuver control increments that equal and exceed those of conventional aerodynamic effectors for low-speed, high-alpha flight, with control levels that are a linear function of porous area. This work demonstrates the tremendous potential of passive porosity to yield simple control effector systems that have no external moving parts and will preserve an aircraft's fixed outer mold line.

  1. AERODYNAMIC AND BLADING DESIGN OF MULTISTAGE AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouse, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    The axial-flow compressor is used for aircraft engines because it has distinct configuration and performance advantages over other compressor types. However, good potential performance is not easily obtained. The designer must be able to model the actual flows well enough to adequately predict aerodynamic performance. This computer program has been developed for computing the aerodynamic design of a multistage axial-flow compressor and, if desired, the associated blading geometry input for internal flow analysis. The aerodynamic solution gives velocity diagrams on selected streamlines of revolution at the blade row edges. The program yields aerodynamic and blading design results that can be directly used by flow and mechanical analysis codes. Two such codes are TSONIC, a blade-to-blade channel flow analysis code (COSMIC program LEW-10977), and MERIDL, a more detailed hub-to-shroud flow analysis code (COSMIC program LEW-12966). The aerodynamic and blading design program can reduce the time and effort required to obtain acceptable multistage axial-flow compressor configurations by generating good initial solutions and by being compatible with available analysis codes. The aerodynamic solution assumes steady, axisymmetric flow so that the problem is reduced to solving the two-dimensional flow field in the meridional plane. The streamline curvature method is used for the iterative aerodynamic solution at stations outside of the blade rows. If a blade design is desired, the blade elements are defined and stacked within the aerodynamic solution iteration. The blade element inlet and outlet angles are established by empirical incidence and deviation angles to the relative flow angles of the velocity diagrams. The blade element centerline is composed of two segments tangentially joined at a transition point. The local blade angle variation of each element can be specified as a fourth-degree polynomial function of path distance. Blade element thickness can also be specified

  2. Innovation in Aerodynamic Design Features of Soviet Missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. Leroy

    2006-01-01

    Wind tunnel investigations of some tactical and strategic missile systems developed by the former Soviet Union have been included in the basic missile research programs of the NACA/NASA. Studies of the Soviet missiles sometimes revealed innovative design features that resulted in unusual or unexpected aerodynamic characteristics. In some cases these characteristics have been such that the measured performance of the missile exceeds what might have been predicted. In other cases some unusual design features have been found that would alleviate what might otherwise have been a serious aerodynamic problem. In some designs, what has appeared to be a lack of refinement has proven to be a matter of expediency. It is a purpose of this paper to describe some examples of unusual design features of some Soviet missiles and to illustrate the effectiveness of the design features on the aerodynamic behavior of the missile. The paper draws on the experience of the author who for over 60 years was involved in the aerodynamic wind tunnel testing of aircraft and missiles with the NACA/NASA.

  3. Computational methods for aerodynamic design using numerical optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peeters, M. F.

    1983-01-01

    Five methods to increase the computational efficiency of aerodynamic design using numerical optimization, by reducing the computer time required to perform gradient calculations, are examined. The most promising method consists of drastically reducing the size of the computational domain on which aerodynamic calculations are made during gradient calculations. Since a gradient calculation requires the solution of the flow about an airfoil whose geometry was slightly perturbed from a base airfoil, the flow about the base airfoil is used to determine boundary conditions on the reduced computational domain. This method worked well in subcritical flow.

  4. Aerodynamic design optimization with sensitivity analysis and computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baysal, Oktay

    1995-01-01

    An investigation was conducted from October 1, 1990 to May 31, 1994 on the development of methodologies to improve the designs (more specifically, the shape) of aerodynamic surfaces of coupling optimization algorithms (OA) with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) algorithms via sensitivity analyses (SA). The study produced several promising methodologies and their proof-of-concept cases, which have been reported in the open literature.

  5. Aerodynamic design optimization by using a continuous adjoint method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, JiaQi; Xiong, JunTao; Liu, Feng

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents the fundamentals of a continuous adjoint method and the applications of this method to the aerodynamic design optimization of both external and internal flows. General formulation of the continuous adjoint equations and the corresponding boundary conditions are derived. With the adjoint method, the complete gradient information needed in the design optimization can be obtained by solving the governing flow equations and the corresponding adjoint equations only once for each cost function, regardless of the number of design parameters. An inverse design of airfoil is firstly performed to study the accuracy of the adjoint gradient and the effectiveness of the adjoint method as an inverse design method. Then the method is used to perform a series of single and multiple point design optimization problems involving the drag reduction of airfoil, wing, and wing-body configuration, and the aerodynamic performance improvement of turbine and compressor blade rows. The results demonstrate that the continuous adjoint method can efficiently and significantly improve the aerodynamic performance of the design in a shape optimization problem.

  6. Aerodynamic Design Study of an Advanced Active Twist Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekula, Martin K.; Wilbur, Matthew L.; Yeager, William T., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    An Advanced Active Twist Rotor (AATR) is currently being developed by the U.S. Army Vehicle Technology Directorate at NASA Langley Research Center. As a part of this effort, an analytical study was conducted to determine the impact of blade geometry on active-twist performance and, based on those findings, propose a candidate aerodynamic design for the AATR. The process began by creating a baseline design which combined the dynamic design of the original Active Twist Rotor and the aerodynamic design of a high lift rotor concept. The baseline model was used to conduct a series of parametric studies to examine the effect of linear blade twist and blade tip sweep, droop, and taper on active-twist performance. Rotor power requirements and hub vibration were also examined at flight conditions ranging from hover to advance ratio = 0.40. A total of 108 candidate designs were analyzed using the second-generation version of the Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD II) code. The study concluded that the vibration reduction capabilities of a rotor utilizing controlled, strain-induced twisting are enhanced through the incorporation of blade tip sweep, droop, and taper into the blade design, while they are degraded by increasing the nose-down linear blade twist. Based on the analysis of rotor power, hub vibration, and active-twist response, a candidate aerodynamic design for the AATR consisting of a blade with approximately 10 degrees of linear blade twist and a blade tip design with 30 degree sweep, 10 degree droop, and 2.5:1 taper ratio over the outer five percent of the blade is proposed.

  7. Designing Flight Deck Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl

    2005-01-01

    Three reports address the design of flight-deck procedures and various aspects of human interaction with cockpit systems that have direct impact on flight safety. One report, On the Typography of Flight- Deck Documentation, discusses basic research about typography and the kind of information needed by designers of flight deck documentation. Flight crews reading poorly designed documentation may easily overlook a crucial item on the checklist. The report surveys and summarizes the available literature regarding the design and typographical aspects of printed material. It focuses on typographical factors such as proper typefaces, character height, use of lower- and upper-case characters, line length, and spacing. Graphical aspects such as layout, color coding, fonts, and character contrast are discussed; and several cockpit conditions such as lighting levels and glare are addressed, as well as usage factors such as angular alignment, paper quality, and colors. Most of the insights and recommendations discussed in this report are transferable to paperless cockpit systems of the future and computer-based procedure displays (e.g., "electronic flight bag") in aerospace systems and similar systems that are used in other industries such as medical, nuclear systems, maritime operations, and military systems.

  8. A New Aerodynamic Data Dispersion Method for Launch Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinier, Jeremy T.

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for implementing aerodynamic data dispersion analysis is herein introduced. A general mathematical approach combined with physical modeling tailored to the aerodynamic quantity of interest enables the generation of more realistically relevant dispersed data and, in turn, more reasonable flight simulation results. The method simultaneously allows for the aerodynamic quantities and their derivatives to be dispersed given a set of non-arbitrary constraints, which stresses the controls model in more ways than with the traditional bias up or down of the nominal data within the uncertainty bounds. The adoption and implementation of this new method within the NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Project has resulted in significant increases in predicted roll control authority, and lowered the induced risks for flight test operations. One direct impact on launch vehicles is a reduced size for auxiliary control systems, and the possibility of an increased payload. This technique has the potential of being applied to problems in multiple areas where nominal data together with uncertainties are used to produce simulations using Monte Carlo type random sampling methods. It is recommended that a tailored physics-based dispersion model be delivered with any aerodynamic product that includes nominal data and uncertainties, in order to make flight simulations more realistic and allow for leaner spacecraft designs.

  9. Aerodynamic design and analysis of a highly loaded turbine exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, F. W.; Montesdeoca, X. A.; Rowey, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and analysis of a turbine exhaust volute manifold is described. This turbine exhaust system will be used with an advanced gas generator oxidizer turbine designed for very high specific work. The elevated turbine stage loading results in increased discharge Mach number and swirl velocity which, along with the need for minimal circumferential variation of fluid properties at the turbine exit, represent challenging volute design requirements. The design approach, candidate geometries analyzed, and steady state/unsteady CFD analysis results are presented.

  10. Comprehensive missile aerodynamics programs for preliminary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillenius, M. F. E.; Hemsch, M. J.; Sawyer, W. C.; Allen, J. M.; Blair, A. B., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Two different classes of missile aeroprediction programs have been recently developed. The first class of programs provides rapid engineering predictions and includes MISSILE1 and MISSILE2 applicable to missile configurations with axisymmetric bodies. The second class of programs consists of the DEMON series, including a simplified version NSWCDM, designed to calculate detailed loadings acting on supersonic missiles which may have non-circular body cross sections. Both classes account for high angles of attack and track vortices from canard or wing section to the tail section. Extensive comparisons with experimental data are presented including nonlinear effects of canard control.

  11. Reduced truck fuel consumption through aerodynamic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steers, L. L.; Saltzman, E. J.

    1977-01-01

    Full-scale fuel consumption and drag tests were performed on a conventional cab-over-engine tractor-trailer combination and a version of the same vehicle with significant forebody modifications. The modified configuration had greatly increased radii on all front corners and edges of the tractor and a smooth fairing of the modified tractor top and sides extending to the trailer. Concurrent highway testing of the two configurations showed that the modified design used 20% to 24% less fuel than the baseline configuration at 88.5 km/hr (55 mph) with near-calm wind conditions. Coastdown test results showed that the modified configuration reduced the drag coefficient by 0.43 from the baseline value of 1.17 at 88.5 km/hr (55 mph) in calm wind conditions.

  12. Adjoint methods for aerodynamic wing design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, Bernard

    1993-01-01

    A model inverse design problem is used to investigate the effect of flow discontinuities on the optimization process. The optimization involves finding the cross-sectional area distribution of a duct that produces velocities that closely match a targeted velocity distribution. Quasi-one-dimensional flow theory is used, and the target is chosen to have a shock wave in its distribution. The objective function which quantifies the difference between the targeted and calculated velocity distributions may become non-smooth due to the interaction between the shock and the discretization of the flowfield. This paper offers two techniques to resolve the resulting problems for the optimization algorithms. The first, shock-fitting, involves careful integration of the objective function through the shock wave. The second, coordinate straining with shock penalty, uses a coordinate transformation to align the calculated shock with the target and then adds a penalty proportional to the square of the distance between the shocks. The techniques are tested using several popular sensitivity and optimization methods, including finite-differences, and direct and adjoint discrete sensitivity methods. Two optimization strategies, Gauss-Newton and sequential quadratic programming (SQP), are used to drive the objective function to a minimum.

  13. Nonlinear potential analysis techniques for supersonic-hypersonic aerodynamic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankar, V.; Clever, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    Approximate nonlinear inviscid theoretical techniques for predicting aerodynamic characteristics and surface pressures for relatively slender vehicles at supersonic and moderate hypersonic speeds were developed. Emphasis was placed on approaches that would be responsive to conceptual configuration design level of effort. Second order small disturbance and full potential theory was utilized to meet this objective. Numerical codes were developed for relatively general three dimensional geometries to evaluate the capability of the approximate equations of motion considered. Results from the computations indicate good agreement with experimental results for a variety of wing, body, and wing-body shapes.

  14. Design Exploration of Aerodynamic Wing Shape for RLV Flyback Booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Kazuhisa; Obayashi, Shigeru; Nakahashi, Kazuhiro

    The wing shape of flyback booster for a Two-Stage-To-Orbit reusable launch vehicle has been optimized considering four objectives. The objectives are to minimize the shift of aerodynamic center between supersonic and transonic conditions, transonic pitching moment and transonic drag coefficient, as well as to maximize subsonic lift coefficient. The three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computation using the modified Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model is used in aerodynamic evaluation accounting for possible flow separations. Adaptive range multi-objective genetic algorithm is used for the present study because tradeoff can be obtained using a smaller number of individuals than conventional multi-objective genetic algorithms. Consequently, four-objective optimization has produced 102 non-dominated solutions, which represent tradeoff information among four objective functions. Moreover, Self-Organizing Maps have been used to analyze the present non-dominated solutions and to visualize tradeoffs and influence of design variables to the four objectives. Self-Organizing Maps contoured by the four objective functions and design variables are found to visualize tradeoffs and effects of each design variable.

  15. Wind turbine trailing-edge aerodynamic brake design

    SciTech Connect

    Quandt, G.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the design of a centrifugally actuated aerodynamic-overspeed device for a horizontal-axis wind turbine. The device will meet the following criteria; (1) It will be effective for airfoil angles of attack 0{degrees} to 45{degrees}. (2) It will be stowed inside the blade profile prior to deployment. (3) It will be capable of offsetting the positive torque produced by the overall blade. (4) Hinge moments will be minimized to lower actuator loads and cost. (5) It will be evaluated as a potential power modulating active rotor-control system. A literature review of aerodynamic braking devices was conducted. Information from the literature review was used to conceptualize the most effective devices for subsequent testing and design. Wind-tunnel test data for several braking devices are presented in this report. Using the data for the most promising configuration, a preliminary design was developed for a MICON 65/13 wind turbine with Phoenix 7.9-m rotor blades.

  16. Aerodynamic and acoustic investigation of inverted velocity profile coannular exhaust nozzle models and development of aerodynamic and acoustic prediction procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, R. S.; Nelson, D. P.; Stevens, B. S.

    1979-01-01

    Five co-annular nozzle models, covering a systematic variation of nozzle geometry, were tested statically over a range of exhaust conditions including inverted velocity profile (IVP) (fan to primary stream velocity ratio 1) and non IVP profiles. Fan nozzle pressure ratio (FNPR) was varied from 1.3 to 4.1 at primary nozzle pressure ratios (PNPR) of 1.53 and 2.0. Fan stream temperatures of 700 K (1260 deg R) and 1089 K(1960 deg R) were tested with primary stream temperatures of 700 K (1260 deg R), 811 K (1460 deg R), and 1089 K (1960 deg R). At fan and primary stream velocities of 610 and 427 m/sec (2000 and 1400 ft/sec), respectively, increasing fan radius ratio from 0.69 to 0.83 reduced peak perceived noise level (PNL) 3 dB, and an increase in primary radius ratio from 0 to 0.81 (fan radius ratio constant at 0.83) reduced peak PNL an additional 1.0 dB. There were no noise reductions at a fan stream velocity of 853 m/sec (2800 ft/sec). Increasing fan radius ratio from 0.69 to 0.83 reduced nozzle thrust coefficient 1.2 to 1.5% at a PNPR of 1.53, and 1.7 to 2.0% at a PNPR of 2.0. The developed acoustic prediction procedure collapsed the existing data with standard deviation varying from + or - 8 dB to + or - 7 dB. The aerodynamic performance prediction procedure collapsed thrust coefficient measurements to within + or - .004 at a FNPR of 4.0 and a PNPR of 2.0.

  17. Team Software Development for Aerothermodynamic and Aerodynamic Analysis and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, N.; Atkins, H. L.; Bibb, K. L.; Biedron, R. T.; Carpenter, M. H.; Gnoffo, P. A.; Hammond, D. P.; Jones, W. T.; Kleb, W. L.; Lee-Rausch, E. M.

    2003-01-01

    A collaborative approach to software development is described. The approach employs the agile development techniques: project retrospectives, Scrum status meetings, and elements of Extreme Programming to efficiently develop a cohesive and extensible software suite. The software product under development is a fluid dynamics simulator for performing aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic analysis and design. The functionality of the software product is achieved both through the merging, with substantial rewrite, of separate legacy codes and the authorship of new routines. Examples of rapid implementation of new functionality demonstrate the benefits obtained with this agile software development process. The appendix contains a discussion of coding issues encountered while porting legacy Fortran 77 code to Fortran 95, software design principles, and a Fortran 95 coding standard.

  18. Design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly.

    PubMed

    de Croon, G C H E; Groen, M A; De Wagter, C; Remes, B; Ruijsink, R; van Oudheusden, B W

    2012-06-01

    One of the major challenges in robotics is to develop a fly-like robot that can autonomously fly around in unknown environments. In this paper, we discuss the current state of the DelFly project, in which we follow a top-down approach to ever smaller and more autonomous ornithopters. The presented findings concerning the design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly illustrate some of the properties of the top-down approach, which allows the identification and resolution of issues that also play a role at smaller scales. A parametric variation of the wing stiffener layout produced a 5% more power-efficient wing. An experimental aerodynamic investigation revealed that this could be associated with an improved stiffness of the wing, while further providing evidence of the vortex development during the flap cycle. The presented experiments resulted in an improvement in the generated lift, allowing the inclusion of a yaw rate gyro, pressure sensor and microcontroller onboard the DelFly. The autonomy of the DelFly is expanded by achieving (1) an improved turning logic to obtain better vision-based obstacle avoidance performance in environments with varying texture and (2) successful onboard height control based on the pressure sensor. PMID:22617112

  19. Design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly.

    PubMed

    de Croon, G C H E; Groen, M A; De Wagter, C; Remes, B; Ruijsink, R; van Oudheusden, B W

    2012-06-01

    One of the major challenges in robotics is to develop a fly-like robot that can autonomously fly around in unknown environments. In this paper, we discuss the current state of the DelFly project, in which we follow a top-down approach to ever smaller and more autonomous ornithopters. The presented findings concerning the design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly illustrate some of the properties of the top-down approach, which allows the identification and resolution of issues that also play a role at smaller scales. A parametric variation of the wing stiffener layout produced a 5% more power-efficient wing. An experimental aerodynamic investigation revealed that this could be associated with an improved stiffness of the wing, while further providing evidence of the vortex development during the flap cycle. The presented experiments resulted in an improvement in the generated lift, allowing the inclusion of a yaw rate gyro, pressure sensor and microcontroller onboard the DelFly. The autonomy of the DelFly is expanded by achieving (1) an improved turning logic to obtain better vision-based obstacle avoidance performance in environments with varying texture and (2) successful onboard height control based on the pressure sensor.

  20. AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO ROTARY WING UAV DESIGNS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Henry E.; Wong, Oliver D.; Noonan, Kevin W.; Reis, Deane G.; Malovrh, Brendon D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of two rotary-wing UAV designs. The primary goal of the investigation was to provide a set of interactional aerodynamic data for an emerging class of rotorcraft. The present paper provides an overview of the test and an introduction to the test articles, and instrumentation. Sample data in the form of a parametric study of fixed system lift and drag coefficient response to changes in configuration and flight condition for both rotor off and on conditions are presented. The presence of the rotor is seen to greatly affect both the character and magnitude of the response. The affect of scaled stores on body drag is observed to be dependent on body shape.

  1. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Two Rotary Wing UAV Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Henry E.; Wong, Oliver D.; Noonan, Kevin W.; Reis, Deane G.; Malovrh, Brendon D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of two rotary-wing UAV designs. The primary goal of the investigation was to provide a set of interactional aerodynamic data for an emerging class of rotorcraft. The present paper provides an overview of the test and an introduction to the test articles, and instrumentation. Sample data in the form of a parametric study of fixed system lift and drag coefficient response to changes in configuration and flight condition for both rotor off and on conditions are presented. The presence of the rotor is seen to greatly affect both the character and magnitude of the response. The affect of scaled stores on body drag is observed to be dependent on body shape.

  2. Aerodynamic design of gas and aerosol samplers for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Hazen, Nathan L.; Brune, William H.

    1991-01-01

    The aerodynamic design of airborne probes for the capture of air and aerosols is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the key parameters that affect proper sampling, such as inlet-lip design, internal duct components for low pressure drop, and exhaust geometry. Inlet designs that avoid sonic flow conditions on the lip and flow separation in the duct are shown. Cross-stream velocities of aerosols are expressed in terms of droplet density and diameter. Flow curvature, which can cause aerosols to cross streamlines and impact on probe walls, can be minimized by means of a proper inlet shape and proper probe orientation, and by avoiding bends upstream of the test section. A NASA panel code called PMARC was used successfully to compute streamlines around aircraft and probes, as well as to compute to local velocity and pressure distributions in inlets. A NACA 1-series inlet with modified lip radius was used for the airborne capture of stratospheric chlorine monoxide at high altitude and high flight speed. The device has a two-stage inlet that decelerates the inflow with little disturbance to the flow through the test section. Diffuser design, exhaust hood design, valve loss, and corner vane geometry are discussed.

  3. Aerodynamic Shape Sensitivity Analysis and Design Optimization of Complex Configurations Using Unstructured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Arthur C., III; Newman, James C., III; Barnwell, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    A three-dimensional unstructured grid approach to aerodynamic shape sensitivity analysis and design optimization has been developed and is extended to model geometrically complex configurations. The advantage of unstructured grids (when compared with a structured-grid approach) is their inherent ability to discretize irregularly shaped domains with greater efficiency and less effort. Hence, this approach is ideally suited for geometrically complex configurations of practical interest. In this work the nonlinear Euler equations are solved using an upwind, cell-centered, finite-volume scheme. The discrete, linearized systems which result from this scheme are solved iteratively by a preconditioned conjugate-gradient-like algorithm known as GMRES for the two-dimensional geometry and a Gauss-Seidel algorithm for the three-dimensional; similar procedures are used to solve the accompanying linear aerodynamic sensitivity equations in incremental iterative form. As shown, this particular form of the sensitivity equation makes large-scale gradient-based aerodynamic optimization possible by taking advantage of memory efficient methods to construct exact Jacobian matrix-vector products. Simple parameterization techniques are utilized for demonstrative purposes. Once the surface has been deformed, the unstructured grid is adapted by considering the mesh as a system of interconnected springs. Grid sensitivities are obtained by differentiating the surface parameterization and the grid adaptation algorithms with ADIFOR (which is an advanced automatic-differentiation software tool). To demonstrate the ability of this procedure to analyze and design complex configurations of practical interest, the sensitivity analysis and shape optimization has been performed for a two-dimensional high-lift multielement airfoil and for a three-dimensional Boeing 747-200 aircraft.

  4. Parametric Deformation of Discrete Geometry for Aerodynamic Shape Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, George R.; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Nemec, Marian

    2012-01-01

    We present a versatile discrete geometry manipulation platform for aerospace vehicle shape optimization. The platform is based on the geometry kernel of an open-source modeling tool called Blender and offers access to four parametric deformation techniques: lattice, cage-based, skeletal, and direct manipulation. Custom deformation methods are implemented as plugins, and the kernel is controlled through a scripting interface. Surface sensitivities are provided to support gradient-based optimization. The platform architecture allows the use of geometry pipelines, where multiple modelers are used in sequence, enabling manipulation difficult or impossible to achieve with a constructive modeler or deformer alone. We implement an intuitive custom deformation method in which a set of surface points serve as the design variables and user-specified constraints are intrinsically satisfied. We test our geometry platform on several design examples using an aerodynamic design framework based on Cartesian grids. We examine inverse airfoil design and shape matching and perform lift-constrained drag minimization on an airfoil with thickness constraints. A transport wing-fuselage integration problem demonstrates the approach in 3D. In a final example, our platform is pipelined with a constructive modeler to parabolically sweep a wingtip while applying a 1-G loading deformation across the wingspan. This work is an important first step towards the larger goal of leveraging the investment of the graphics industry to improve the state-of-the-art in aerospace geometry tools.

  5. Optimized aerodynamic design process for subsonic transport wing fitted with winglets. [wind tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    The aerodynamic design of a wind-tunnel model of a wing representative of that of a subsonic jet transport aircraft, fitted with winglets, was performed using two recently developed optimal wing-design computer programs. Both potential flow codes use a vortex lattice representation of the near-field of the aerodynamic surfaces for determination of the required mean camber surfaces for minimum induced drag, and both codes use far-field induced drag minimization procedures to obtain the required spanloads. One code uses a discrete vortex wake model for this far-field drag computation, while the second uses a 2-D advanced panel wake model. Wing camber shapes for the two codes are very similar, but the resulting winglet camber shapes differ widely. Design techniques and considerations for these two wind-tunnel models are detailed, including a description of the necessary modifications of the design geometry to format it for use by a numerically controlled machine for the actual model construction.

  6. The aerodynamic design of the oblique flying wing supersonic transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandervelden, Alexander J. M.; Kroo, Ilan

    1990-01-01

    The aerodynamic design of a supersonic oblique flying wing is strongly influenced by the requirement that passengers must be accommodated inside the wing. It was revealed that thick oblique wings of very high sweep angle can be efficient at supersonic speeds when transonic normal Mach numbers are allowed on the upper surface of the wing. The goals were motivated by the ability to design a maximum thickness, minimum size oblique flying wing. A 2-D Navier-Stokes solver was used to design airfoils up to 16 percent thickness with specified lift, drag and pitching moment. A new method was developed to calculate the required pressure distribution on the wing based on the airfoil loading, normal Mach number distribution and theoretical knowledge of the minimum drag of oblique configurations at supersonic speeds. The wing mean surface for this pressure distribution was calculated using an inverse potential flow solver. The lift to drag ratio of this wing was significantly higher than that of a comparable delta wing for cruise speeds up to Mach 2.

  7. The space shuttle ascent vehicle aerodynamic challenges configuration design and data base development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dill, C. C.; Young, J. C.; Roberts, B. B.; Craig, M. K.; Hamilton, J. T.; Boyle, W. W.

    1985-01-01

    The phase B Space Shuttle systems definition studies resulted in a generic configuration consisting of a delta wing orbiter, and two solid rocket boosters (SRB) attached to an external fuel tank (ET). The initial challenge facing the aerodynamic community was aerodynamically optimizing, within limits, this configuration. As the Shuttle program developed and the sensitivities of the vehicle to aerodynamics were better understood the requirements of the aerodynamic data base grew. Adequately characterizing the vehicle to support the various design studies exploded the size of the data base to proportions that created a data modeling/management challenge for the aerodynamicist. The ascent aerodynamic data base originated primarily from wind tunnel test results. The complexity of the configuration rendered conventional analytic methods of little use. Initial wind tunnel tests provided results which included undesirable effects from model support tructure, inadequate element proximity, and inadequate plume simulation. The challenge to improve the quality of test results by determining the extent of these undesirable effects and subsequently develop testing techniques to eliminate them was imposed on the aerodynamic community. The challenges to the ascent aerodynamics community documented are unique due to the aerodynamic complexity of the Shuttle launch. Never before was such a complex vehicle aerodynamically characterized. The challenges were met with innovative engineering analyses/methodology development and wind tunnel testing techniques.

  8. Wind Turbine Blade Design System - Aerodynamic and Structural Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Soumitr

    2011-12-01

    The ever increasing need for energy and the depletion of non-renewable energy resources has led to more advancement in the "Green Energy" field, including wind energy. An improvement in performance of a Wind Turbine will enhance its economic viability, which can be achieved by better aerodynamic designs. In the present study, a design system that has been under development for gas turbine turbomachinery has been modified for designing wind turbine blades. This is a very different approach for wind turbine blade design, but will allow it to benefit from the features inherent in the geometry flexibility and broad design space of the presented system. It starts with key overall design parameters and a low-fidelity model that is used to create the initial geometry parameters. The low-fidelity system includes the axisymmetric solver with loss models, T-Axi (Turbomachinery-AXIsymmetric), MISES blade-to-blade solver and 2D wing analysis code XFLR5. The geometry parameters are used to define sections along the span of the blade and connected to the CAD model of the wind turbine blade through CAPRI (Computational Analysis PRogramming Interface), a CAD neutral API that facilitates the use of parametric geometry definition with CAD. Either the sections or the CAD geometry is then available for CFD and Finite Element Analysis. The GE 1.5sle MW wind turbine and NERL NASA Phase VI wind turbine have been used as test cases. Details of the design system application are described, and the resulting wind turbine geometry and conditions are compared to the published results of the GE and NREL wind turbines. A 2D wing analysis code XFLR5, is used for to compare results from 2D analysis to blade-to-blade analysis and the 3D CFD analysis. This kind of comparison concludes that, from hub to 25% of the span blade to blade effects or the cascade effect has to be considered, from 25% to 75%, the blade acts as a 2d wing and from 75% to the tip 3D and tip effects have to be taken into account

  9. Two-Stage Axial Compressor Rig Designed To Develop and Validate Advanced Aerodynamic Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larosiliere, Louis M.

    2003-01-01

    Future aeropropulsion gas turbine engines must be affordable in addition to being energy efficient and environmentally benign. Progress in aerodynamic design capability is required not only to maximize the specific thrust of next-generation engines without sacrificing fuel consumption, but also to reduce parts count by increasing the aerodynamic loading of the compression system. To meet future compressor requirements, the NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating advanced aerodynamic design concepts that will lead to more compact, higher efficiency, and wider operability configurations than are currently in operation.

  10. Glottal configuration, acoustic, and aerodynamic changes induced by variation in suture direction in arytenoid adduction procedures.

    PubMed

    Inagi, Katsuhide; Connor, Nadine P; Suzuki, Tatsutoshi; Ford, Charles N; Bless, Diane M; Nakajima, Masami

    2002-10-01

    Arytenoid adduction is a phonosurgical procedure in which the arytenoid cartilages are approximated to reduce posterior glottal gap size and improve voice. Voice outcomes following arytenoid adduction are not always optimal. The goal of this study was to systematically vary suture direction and force of pull on the arytenoid cartilages in a human excised laryngeal model to determine the optimal combination of factors for reducing glottal gap and improving voice. Several factors demonstrated significant effects. Changes in suture direction and force of pull affected glottal configuration in both the horizontal and vertical planes. Increased force of pull on the muscular process resulted in increased adduction of the vocal process for all suture directions. Changes in suture direction and force of pull also affected acoustic and aerodynamic measures of induced voice. Therefore, voice outcomes can be optimized with arytenoid adduction if the vocal fold plane is accurately adjusted.

  11. Nonlinear aerodynamics and the design of wing tips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroo, Ilan; Wakayama, Sean

    1993-01-01

    This contract began in April 1990 with studies on the effect of wingtip shape on induced drag. That work considered problems of determining induced drag from computational aerodynamic methods and examined effects of wake roll up on the induced drag of elliptical and crescent wings. The research contract was continued in April 1991 and again in April 1992 with scope augmented to include considerations other than induced drag. The idea was to develop methods for comparing wing tip shapes on the basis of their effects on total drag, structural weight, and high lift performance. To accomplish this, work was done to improve methods for multidisciplinary analysis and optimization of wings. This report describes results of research conducted from April 1992 through March 1993. The general objective was to improve an existing wing optimization method and apply the method to specific problems of interest. The method, while a valuable tool for wing tip design studies, can be applied to more general problems, and has been applied to some of these other problems during its development. Specific goals that were accomplished are listed below and are explained in more detail in attached reports: analysis methods were improved in the area of structural modeling; small improvements to the high lift model were made, and ideas were collected on how clean wing c(sub l(sub max)) should vary with sweep - these ideas should provide a guide for future examination of high lift with experiment or CFD; and a calculation for drag due to the loss of leading edge suction was added to the wing analysis.

  12. The critical role of aerodynamic heating effects in the design of hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieting, Allan R.

    1989-01-01

    Hypersonic vehicles operate in a hostile aerothermal environment, which has a significant impact on their aerothermostructural performance. Significant coupling occurs between the aerodynamic flow field, structural heat transfer, and structural response, creating a multidisciplinary interaction. The critical role of aerodynamic heating effects in the design of hypersonic vehicles is identified with an example of high localized heating on an engine-cowl leading edge. Recent advances is integrated fluid-thermal-structural finite-element analyses are presented.

  13. Designing Flight-Deck Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, Asaf; Wiener, L.; Shafto, Mike (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A complex human-machine system consists of more than merely one or more human operators and a collection of hardware components. In order to operate a complex system successfully, the human-machine system must be supported by an organizational infrastructure of operating concepts, rules, guidelines, and documents. The coherency of such operating concepts, in terms of consistency and logic, is vitally important for the efficiency and safety of any complex system. In high-risk endeavors such as aircraft operations, space flight, nuclear power production, manufacturing process control, and military operations, it is essential that such support be flawless, as the price of operational error can be high. When operating rules are not adhered to, or the rules are inadequate for the task at hand, not only will the system's goals be thwarted, but there may also be tragic human and material consequences. To ensure safe and predictable operations, support to the operators, in this case flight crews, often comes in the form of standard operating procedures. These provide the crew with step-by-step guidance for carrying out their operations. Standard procedures do indeed promote uniformity, but they do so at the risk of reducing the role of human operators to a lower level. Management, however, must recognize the danger of over-procedurization, which fails to exploit one of the most valuable assets in the system, the intelligent operator who is "on the scene." The alert system designer and operations manager recognize that there cannot be a procedure for everything, and the time will come in which the operators of a complex system will face a situation for which there is no written procedure. Procedures, whether executed by humans or machines, have their place, but so does human cognition.

  14. Design procedures for compressor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starken, H.

    1983-01-01

    The conventional methods for the design of the blades in the case of axial turbomachines are considered, taking into account difficulties concerning the determination of optimal blade profiles. These difficulties have been partly overcome as a consequence of the introduction of new numerical methods during the last few years. It is pointed out that, in the case of the subsonic range, a new procedure is now available for the determination of the form of blade profile on the basis of a given velocity distribution on the profile surface. The search for a profile form with favorable characteristics is consequently transformed into a search for a favorable velocity or pressure distribution on the blade. The distribution of velocities depends to a large degree on the characteristics of the profile boundary layers. The considered concept is not new. However, its practical implementation has only recently become possible. The employment of the new design procedure is illustrated with the aid of an example involving a concrete design problem.

  15. Aerodynamic Design and Computational Analysis of a Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    Quieter working environments for astronauts are needed if future long-duration space exploration missions are to be safe and productive. Ventilation and payload cooling fans are known to be dominant sources of noise, with the International Space Station being a good case in point. To address this issue in a cost-effective way, early attention to fan design, selection, and installation has been recommended. Toward that end, NASA has begun to investigate the potential for small-fan noise reduction through improvements in fan aerodynamic design. Using tools and methodologies similar to those employed by the aircraft engine industry, most notably computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes, the aerodynamic design of a new cabin ventilation fan has been developed, and its aerodynamic performance has been predicted and analyzed. The design, intended to serve as a baseline for future work, is discussed along with selected CFD results

  16. User's manual for an aerodynamic optimization scheeme that updates flow variables and design parameters simultaneously

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizk, Magdi H.

    1988-01-01

    This user's manual is presented for an aerodynamic optimization program that updates flow variables and design parameters simultaneously. The program was developed for solving constrained optimization problems in which the objective function and the constraint function are dependent on the solution of the nonlinear flow equations. The program was tested by applying it to the problem of optimizing propeller designs. Some reference to this particular application is therefore made in the manual. However, the optimization scheme is suitable for application to general aerodynamic design problems. A description of the approach used in the optimization scheme is first presented, followed by a description of the use of the program.

  17. The aerodynamic challenges of the design and development of the space shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. C.; Underwood, J. M.; Hillje, E. R.; Whitnah, A. M.; Romere, P. O.; Gamble, J. D.; Roberts, B. B.; Ware, G. M.; Scallion, W. I.; Spencer, B., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The major aerodynamic design challenge at the beginning of the United States Space Transportation System (STS) research and development phase was to design a vehicle that would fly as a spacecraft during early entry and as an aircraft during the final phase of entry. The design was further complicated because the envisioned vehicle was statically unstable during a portion of the aircraft mode of operation. The second challenge was the development of preflight aerodynamic predictions with an accuracy consistent with conducting a manned flight on the initial orbital flight. A brief history of the early contractual studies is presented highlighting the technical results and management decisions influencing the aerodynamic challenges. The configuration evolution and the development of preflight aerodynamic predictions will be reviewed. The results from the first four test flights shows excellent agreement with the preflight aerodynamic predictions over the majority of the flight regimes. The only regimes showing significant disagreement is confined primarily to early entry, where prediction of the basic vehicle trim and the influence of the reaction control system jets on the flow field were found to be deficient. Postflight results are analyzed to explain these prediction deficiencies.

  18. A system for aerodynamic design and analysis of supersonic aircraft. Part 4: Test cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, W. D.; Lundry, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    An integrated system of computer programs was developed for the design and analysis of supersonic configurations. The system uses linearized theory methods for the calculation of surface pressures and supersonic area rule concepts in combination with linearized theory for calculation of aerodynamic force coefficients. Interactive graphics are optional at the user's request. Representative test cases and associated program output are presented.

  19. Computer program for aerodynamic and blading design of multistage axial-flow compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouse, J. E.; Gorrell, W. T.

    1981-01-01

    A code for computing the aerodynamic design of a multistage axial-flow compressor and, if desired, the associated blading geometry input for internal flow analysis codes is presented. Compressible flow, which is assumed to be steady and axisymmetric, is the basis for a two-dimensional solution in the meridional plane with viscous effects modeled by pressure loss coefficients and boundary layer blockage. The radial equation of motion and the continuity equation are solved with the streamline curvature method on calculation stations outside the blade rows. The annulus profile, mass flow, pressure ratio, and rotative speed are input. A number of other input parameters specify and control the blade row aerodynamics and geometry. In particular, blade element centerlines and thicknesses can be specified with fourth degree polynomials for two segments. The output includes a detailed aerodynamic solution and, if desired, blading coordinates that can be used for internal flow analysis codes.

  20. Post-Stall Aerodynamic Modeling and Gain-Scheduled Control Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Fen; Gopalarathnam, Ashok; Kim, Sungwan

    2005-01-01

    A multidisciplinary research e.ort that combines aerodynamic modeling and gain-scheduled control design for aircraft flight at post-stall conditions is described. The aerodynamic modeling uses a decambering approach for rapid prediction of post-stall aerodynamic characteristics of multiple-wing con.gurations using known section data. The approach is successful in bringing to light multiple solutions at post-stall angles of attack right during the iteration process. The predictions agree fairly well with experimental results from wind tunnel tests. The control research was focused on actuator saturation and .ight transition between low and high angles of attack regions for near- and post-stall aircraft using advanced LPV control techniques. The new control approaches maintain adequate control capability to handle high angle of attack aircraft control with stability and performance guarantee.

  1. Scramjet exhaust simulation technique for hypersonic aircraft nozzle design and aerodynamic tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, J. L.; Talcott, N. A., Jr.; Cubbage, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Current design philosophy for scramjet-powered hypersonic aircraft results in configurations with the entire lower fuselage surface utilized as part of the propulsion system. The lower aft-end of the vehicle acts as a high expansion ratio nozzle. Not only must the external nozzle be designed to extract the maximum possible thrust force from the high energy flow at the combustor exit, but the forces produced by the nozzle must be aligned such that they do not unduly affect aerodynamic balance. The strong coupling between the propulsion system and aerodynamics of the aircraft makes imperative at least a partial simulation of the inlet, exhaust, and external flows of the hydrogen-burning scramjet in conventional facilities for both nozzle formulation and aerodynamic-force data acquisition. Aerodynamic testing methods offer no contemporary approach for such vehicle design requirements. NASA-Langley has pursued an extensive scramjet/airframe integration R&D program for several years and has recently developed a promising technique for simulation of the scramjet exhaust flow for hypersonic aircraft. Current results of the research program to develop a scramjet flow simulation technique through the use of substitute gas blends are described in this paper.

  2. An Efficient Inverse Aerodynamic Design Method For Subsonic Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milholen, William E., II

    2000-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics based design methods are maturing to the point that they are beginning to be used in the aircraft design process. Many design methods however have demonstrated deficiencies in the leading edge region of airfoil sections. The objective of the present research is to develop an efficient inverse design method which is valid in the leading edge region. The new design method is a streamline curvature method, and a new technique is presented for modeling the variation of the streamline curvature normal to the surface. The new design method allows the surface coordinates to move normal to the surface, and has been incorporated into the Constrained Direct Iterative Surface Curvature (CDISC) design method. The accuracy and efficiency of the design method is demonstrated using both two-dimensional and three-dimensional design cases.

  3. Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a wing-winglet model designed at M = 0.8, C sub L = 0.4 using linear aerodynamic theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Wind tunnel test results have been presented herein for a subsonic transport type wing fitted with winglets. Wind planform was chosen to be representative of wings used on current jet transport aircraft, while wing and winglet camber surfaces were designed using two different linear aerodynamic design methods. The purpose of the wind tunnel investigation was to determine the effectiveness of these linear aerodynamic design computer codes in designing a non-planar transport configuration which would cruise efficiently. The design lift coefficient was chosen to be 0.4, at a design Mach number of 0.8. Force and limited pressure data were obtained for the basic wing, and for the wing fitted with the two different winglet designs, at Mach numbers of 0.60, 0.70, 0.75 and 0.80 over an angle of attack range of -2 to +6 degrees, at zero sideslip. The data have been presented without analysis to expedite publication.

  4. Using High Resolution Design Spaces for Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Under Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu; Padula, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    This paper explains why high resolution design spaces encourage traditional airfoil optimization algorithms to generate noisy shape modifications, which lead to inaccurate linear predictions of aerodynamic coefficients and potential failure of descent methods. By using auxiliary drag constraints for a simultaneous drag reduction at all design points and the least shape distortion to achieve the targeted drag reduction, an improved algorithm generates relatively smooth optimal airfoils with no severe off-design performance degradation over a range of flight conditions, in high resolution design spaces parameterized by cubic B-spline functions. Simulation results using FUN2D in Euler flows are included to show the capability of the robust aerodynamic shape optimization method over a range of flight conditions.

  5. Variable-complexity aerodynamic-structural design of a high-speed civil transport wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, M. G.; Huang, X.; Mason, W. H.; Haftka, R. T.; Grossman, B.

    1992-01-01

    A variable-complexity strategy of combining simple and detailed analysis methods is presented for the design optimization of a high-speed civil transport (HSCT) wing. Two sets of results are shown: the aerodynamic design of the wing using algebraic weight equations for structural considerations, and optimization results of the internal wing structure for a fixed wing configuration. We show example results indicating that using simple analysis methods alone for the calculation of a critical constraint can allow an optimizer to exploit weaknesses in the analysis. The structural optimization results provide a valuable check for the weight equations used in the aerodynamic design. In addition, these results confirm the need for using simple, algebraic models in conjunction with more detailed analysis methods. A strategy of interlaced aerodynanic-structural design is proposed.

  6. Aerodynamic performance of a 1.20-pressure ratio fan stage designed for low noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, G. W., Jr.; Moore, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and the overall blade element performance of a 51 centimeter diameter fan stage is presented. The stage was designed to minimize the noise generated by rotor stator interactions. The design pressure ratio was 1.20 at a flow of 30.6 kilograms per second and a rotor blade tip speed of 228.6 meters per second. At design speed the rotor peak efficiency was 0.935. The peak efficiency of the stage, however, was 0.824. The radial distribution of rotor performance parameters at peak efficiency and design speed indicated excellent agreement with design values.

  7. Aerodynamic characteristics and design guidelines of push-pull ventilation systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, R F; Lin, S Y; Jan, S-Y; Hsieh, R H; Chen, Y-K; Chen, C-W; Yeh, W-Y; Chang, C-P; Shih, T-S; Chen, C-C

    2005-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics such as the flow patterns, velocity field, streamline evolutions, characteristic flow modes and characteristic flow regimes of the push-pull ventilation system are cross-examined by using the laser-light sheet smoked-flow visualization method and laser Doppler velocimetry. Four characteristic flow modes, which are denoted as dispersion, transition, encapsulation and strong suction, are identified in the domain of the push-jet and pull-flow velocities at various open-surface tank widths and rising gas velocities. It is argued phenomenologically, from the aerodynamic point of view, that operating the system in the strong suction regime would be a better strategy than operating it in other characteristic regimes for the consideration of capture efficiency. Design guidelines are developed and summarized based on the results obtained from this study. The regression formulas for calculating the critical values of the push-jet and the pull-flow velocities are provided for easy access. The sulfur hexafluoride tracer gas validation technique is performed to measure the capture efficiency. The results of tracer gas validations are consistent with those obtained from the aerodynamic visualization and measurements. The operation points obtained by employing the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists design criteria are compared with the results obtained in this study for both the aerodynamics and the capture efficiency. Methods for improving the capture efficiency and energy consumptions are suggested.

  8. Aerodynamic Design Criteria for Class 8 Heavy Vehicles Trailer Base Devices to Attain Optimum Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Salari, K; Ortega, J

    2010-12-13

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of its Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), and Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) effort has investigated class 8 tractor-trailer aerodynamics for many years. This effort has identified many drag producing flow structures around the heavy vehicles and also has designed and tested many new active and passive drag reduction techniques and concepts for significant on the road fuel economy improvements. As part of this effort a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design for aerodynamic drag reduction devices has been established. The objective of this report is to provide design guidance for trailer base devices to improve their aerodynamic performance. These devices are commonly referred to as boattails, base flaps, tail devices, and etc. The information provided here is based on past research and our most recent full-scale experimental investigations in collaboration with Navistar Inc. Additional supporting data from LLNL/Navistar wind tunnel, track test, and on the road test will be published soon. The trailer base devices can be identified by 4 flat panels that are attached to the rear edges of the trailer base to form a closed cavity. These devices have been engineered in many different forms such as, inflatable and non-inflatable, 3 and 4-sided, closed and open cavity, and etc. The following is an in-depth discussion with some recommendations, based on existing data and current research activities, of changes that could be made to these devices to improve their aerodynamic performance. There are 6 primary factors that could influence the aerodynamic performance of trailer base devices: (1) Deflection angle; (2) Boattail length; (3) Sealing of edges and corners; (4) 3 versus 4-sided, Position of the 4th plate; (5) Boattail vertical extension, Skirt - boattail transition; and (6) Closed versus open cavity.

  9. Application of numerical optimization to rotor aerodynamic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pleasants, W. A., III; Wiggins, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    Based on initial results obtained from the performance optimization code, a number of observations can be made regarding the utility of optimization codes in supporting design of rotors for improved performance. (1) The primary objective of improving the productivity and responsiveness of current design methods can be met. (2) The use of optimization allows the designer to consider a wider range of design variables in a greatly compressed time period. (3) Optimization requires the user to carefully define his problem to avoid unproductive use of computer resources. (4) Optimization will increase the burden on the analyst to validate designs and to improve the accuracy of analysis methods. (5) Direct calculation of finite difference derivatives by the optimizer was not prohibitive for this application but was expensive. Approximate analysis in some form would be considered to improve program response time. (6) Program developement is not complete and will continue to evolve to integrate new analysis methods, design problems, and alternate optimizer options.

  10. Simultaneous Aerodynamic and Structural Design Optimization (SASDO) for a 3-D Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gumbert, Clyde R.; Hou, Gene J.-W.; Newman, Perry A.

    2001-01-01

    The formulation and implementation of an optimization method called Simultaneous Aerodynamic and Structural Design Optimization (SASDO) is shown as an extension of the Simultaneous Aerodynamic Analysis and Design Optimization (SAADO) method. It is extended by the inclusion of structure element sizing parameters as design variables and Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis responses as constraints. The method aims to reduce the computational expense. incurred in performing shape and sizing optimization using state-of-the-art Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) flow analysis, FEM structural analysis and sensitivity analysis tools. SASDO is applied to a simple. isolated, 3-D wing in inviscid flow. Results show that the method finds the saine local optimum as a conventional optimization method with some reduction in the computational cost and without significant modifications; to the analysis tools.

  11. Performance and Design Investigation of Heavy Lift Tiltrotor with Aerodynamic Interference Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeo, Yyeonsoo; Johnson, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    The aerodynamic interference effects on tiltrotor performance in cruise are investigated using comprehensive calculations, to better understand the physics and to quantify the effects on the aircraft design. Performance calculations were conducted for 146,600-lb conventional and quad tiltrotors, which are to cruise at 300 knots at 4000 ft/95 deg F condition. A parametric study was conducted to understand the effects of design parameters on the performance of the aircraft. Aerodynamic interference improves the aircraft lift-to-drag ratio of the baseline conventional tiltrotor. However, interference degrades the aircraft performance of the baseline quad tiltrotor, due mostly to the unfavorable effects from the front wing to the rear wing. A reduction of rotor tip speed increased the aircraft lift-to-drag ratio the most among the design parameters investigated.

  12. SRB ascent aerodynamic heating design criteria reduction study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crain, W. K.; Frost, C. L.; Engel, C. D.

    1989-01-01

    Data are presented for the wind tunnel interference heating factor data base, the timewise tabulated ascent design environments, and the timewise plotted environments comparing the REMTECH results to the Rockwell RI-IVBC-3 results.

  13. Nonlinear aerodynamics and the design of wing tips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroo, Ilan; Wakayama, Sean

    1992-01-01

    This report describes results of research conducted from April 1991 through March 1992. The general objective was to improve an existing wing optimization method, and apply the method to specific problems of interest. The method, while a valuable tool for wing tip design studies, can be applied to more general problems, and has been applied to some of these other problems during its development. Specific goals that were accomplished are listed and explained in more detail in the report. First, improvements were made to the portability and control flow of the existing code. The major iteration loop dealing with structural design was sped up and an alternate approach, using the optimizer to do structural sizing, was studied. Second, analysis methods were improved in the areas of structural and high lift modeling. The structural method was revised to give total wing weight and verified against data for particular commercial aircraft. The high lift analysis was improved to provide reasonable estimates of C(sub L max) in the flaps down condition. These improvements enabled making wing area a design variable, where it had been a fixed variable in the original method. Third, the method was applied to the design of wings for a Learjet. Rough studies were done to determine the effects of laminar flow design on wing shape. Finally, studies on wingtip shape were begun.

  14. Aerodynamic design considerations for efficient high-lift supersonic wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. S.; Wood, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    A previously developed technique for selecting a design space for efficient supersonic wings is reviewed; this design-space concept is expanded to include thickness and camber effects and is evaluated for cambered wings at high-lift conditions. The original design-space formulation was based on experimental upper-surface and lower-surface normal-force characteristics for flat, uncambered delta wings; it is shown that these general characteristics hold for various thickness distributions and for various amounts of leading-edge camber. The original design-space formulation was also based on the assumption that the combination of Mach number and leading-edge sweep which would produce an equal division of flat-wing lift between the upper and lower surface would also be the proper combination to give the best cambered-wing performance. Using drag-due-to-lift factor as a measure of performance, for high-lift conditions cambered-wing performance is shown to significantly increase as conditions approach the design space; this correlation is demonstrated for both subcritical and supercritical flows.

  15. Computational methods of robust controller design for aerodynamic flutter suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, L. R.

    1981-01-01

    The development of Riccati iteration, a tool for the design and analysis of linear control systems is examined. First, Riccati iteration is applied to the problem of pole placement and order reduction in two-time scale control systems. Order reduction, yielding a good approximation to the original system, is demonstrated using a 16th order linear model of a turbofan engine. Next, a numerical method for solving the Riccati equation is presented and demonstrated for a set of eighth order random examples. A literature review of robust controller design methods follows which includes a number of methods for reducing the trajectory and performance index sensitivity in linear regulators. Lastly, robust controller design for large parameter variations is discussed.

  16. Nonlinear Aerodynamics and the Design of Wing Tips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroo, Ilan

    1991-01-01

    The analysis and design of wing tips for fixed wing and rotary wing aircraft still remains part art, part science. Although the design of airfoil sections and basic planform geometry is well developed, the tip regions require more detailed consideration. This is important because of the strong impact of wing tip flow on wing drag; although the tip region constitutes a small portion of the wing, its effect on the drag can be significant. The induced drag of a wing is, for a given lift and speed, inversely proportional to the square of the wing span. Concepts are proposed as a means of reducing drag. Modern computational methods provide a tool for studying these issues in greater detail. The purpose of the current research program is to improve the understanding of the fundamental issues involved in the design of wing tips and to develop the range of computational and experimental tools needed for further study of these ideas.

  17. An approach to constrained aerodynamic design with application to airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    An approach was developed for incorporating flow and geometric constraints into the Direct Iterative Surface Curvature (DISC) design method. In this approach, an initial target pressure distribution is developed using a set of control points. The chordwise locations and pressure levels of these points are initially estimated either from empirical relationships and observed characteristics of pressure distributions for a given class of airfoils or by fitting the points to an existing pressure distribution. These values are then automatically adjusted during the design process to satisfy the flow and geometric constraints. The flow constraints currently available are lift, wave drag, pitching moment, pressure gradient, and local pressure levels. The geometric constraint options include maximum thickness, local thickness, leading-edge radius, and a 'glove' constraint involving inner and outer bounding surfaces. This design method was also extended to include the successive constraint release (SCR) approach to constrained minimization.

  18. Nonlinear potential analysis techniques for supersonic aerodynamic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankar, V.; Szema, K. Y.

    1985-01-01

    A numerical method based on the conservation form of the full potential equation has been applied to the problem of three-dimensional supersonic flows with embedded subsonic regions. The governing equation is cast in a nonorthogonal coordinate system, and the theory of characteristics is used to accurately monitor the type-dependent flow field. A conservative switching scheme is employed to transition from the supersonic marching procedure to a subsonic relaxation algorithm and vice versa. The newly developed computer program can handle arbitrary geometries with fuselage, canard, wing, flow through nacelle, vertical tail and wake components at combined angles of attack and sideslip. Results are obtained for a variety of configurations that include a Langley advanced fighter concept with fuselage centerline nacelle, Rockwell's Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF) with wing mounted nacelles, and the Shuttle Orbiter configuration. Comparisons with available experiments were good.

  19. Simultaneous Aerodynamic Analysis and Design Optimization (SAADO) for a 3-D Flexible Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gumbert, Clyde R.; Hou, Gene J.-W.; Newman, Perry A.

    2001-01-01

    The formulation and implementation of an optimization method called Simultaneous Aerodynamic Analysis and Design Optimization (SAADO) are extended from single discipline analysis (aerodynamics only) to multidisciplinary analysis - in this case, static aero-structural analysis and applied to a simple 3-D wing problem. The method aims to reduce the computational expense incurred in performing shape optimization using state-of-the-art Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) flow analysis, Finite Element Method (FEM) structural analysis and sensitivity analysis tools. Results for this small problem show that the method reaches the same local optimum as conventional optimization. However, unlike its application to the rigid wing (single discipline analysis), the method, as implemented here, may not show significant reduction in the computational cost. Similar reductions were seen in the two-design-variable (DV) problem results but not in the 8-DV results given here.

  20. Simultaneous Aerodynamic Analysis and Design Optimization (SAADO) for a 3-D Flexible Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gumbert, Clyde R.; Hou, Gene J.-W.

    2001-01-01

    The formulation and implementation of an optimization method called Simultaneous Aerodynamic Analysis and Design Optimization (SAADO) are extended from single discipline analysis (aerodynamics only) to multidisciplinary analysis - in this case, static aero-structural analysis - and applied to a simple 3-D wing problem. The method aims to reduce the computational expense incurred in performing shape optimization using state-of-the-art Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) flow analysis, Finite Element Method (FEM) structural analysis and sensitivity analysis tools. Results for this small problem show that the method reaches the same local optimum as conventional optimization. However, unlike its application to the win,, (single discipline analysis), the method. as I implemented here, may not show significant reduction in the computational cost. Similar reductions were seen in the two-design-variable (DV) problem results but not in the 8-DV results given here.

  1. Intermediate experimental vehicle, ESA program aerodynamics-aerothermodynamics key technologies for spacecraft design and successful flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutheil, Sylvain; Pibarot, Julien; Tran, Dac; Vallee, Jean-Jacques; Tribot, Jean-Pierre

    2016-07-01

    With the aim of placing Europe among the world's space players in the strategic area of atmospheric re-entry, several studies on experimental vehicle concepts and improvements of critical re-entry technologies have paved the way for the flight of an experimental space craft. The successful flight of the Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV), under ESA's Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (FLPP), is definitively a significant step forward from the Atmospheric Reentry Demonstrator flight (1998), establishing Europe as a key player in this field. The IXV project objectives were the design, development, manufacture and ground and flight verification of an autonomous European lifting and aerodynamically controlled reentry system, which is highly flexible and maneuverable. The paper presents, the role of aerodynamics aerothermodynamics as part of the key technologies for designing an atmospheric re-entry spacecraft and securing a successful flight.

  2. DOE's effort to reduce truck aerodynamic drag : joint experiments and computations lead to smart design.

    SciTech Connect

    Yaste, David M; Salari, Kambiz; Hammache, Mustapha; Browand, Fred; Pointer, W. David; Ortega, Jason M.; McCallen, Rose; Walker, Stephen M; Heineck, James T; Hassan, Basil; Roy, Christopher John; Storms, B.; Satran, D.; Ross, James; Englar, Robert; Chatalain, Philippe; Rubel, Mike; Leonard, Anthony; Hsu, Tsu-Ya; DeChant, Lawrence Justin.

    2004-06-01

    At 70 miles per hour, overcoming aerodynamic drag represents about 65% of the total energy expenditure for a typical heavy truck vehicle. The goal of this US Department of Energy supported consortium is to establish a clear understanding of the drag producing flow phenomena. This is being accomplished through joint experiments and computations, leading to the smart design of drag reducing devices. This paper will describe our objective and approach, provide an overview of our efforts and accomplishments, and discuss our future direction.

  3. DOE's Effort to Reduce Truck Aerodynamic Drag-Joint Experiments and Computations Lead to Smart Design

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R; Salari, K; Ortega, J; DeChant, L; Hassan, B; Roy, C; Pointer, W; Browand, F; Hammache, M; Hsu, T; Leonard, A; Rubel, M; Chatalain, P; Englar, R; Ross, J; Satran, D; Heineck, J; Walker, S; Yaste, D; Storms, B

    2004-06-17

    At 70 miles per hour, overcoming aerodynamic drag represents about 65% of the total energy expenditure for a typical heavy truck vehicle. The goal of this US Department of Energy supported consortium is to establish a clear understanding of the drag producing flow phenomena. This is being accomplished through joint experiments and computations, leading to the 'smart' design of drag reducing devices. This paper will describe our objective and approach, provide an overview of our efforts and accomplishments, and discuss our future direction.

  4. A computational system for aerodynamic design and analysis of supersonic aircraft. Part 2: User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, W. D.; Lundry, J. L.; Coleman, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    An integrated system of computer programs was developed for the design and analysis of supersonic configurations. The system uses linearized theory methods for the calculation of surface pressures and supersonic area rule concepts in combination with linearized theory for calculation of aerodynamic force coefficients. Interactive graphics are optional at the user's request. This user's manual contains a description of the system, an explanation of its usage, the input definition, and example output.

  5. Simultaneous Aerodynamic Analysis and Design Optimization (SAADO) for a 3-D Rigid Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gumbert, Clyde R.; Hou, Gene J.-W.; Newman, Perry A.

    1999-01-01

    The formulation and implementation of an optimization method called Simultaneous Aerodynamic Analysis and Design Optimization (SAADO) is presented and applied to a simple 3D wing problem. The method aims to reduce the computational expense incurred in performing shape optimization using state-of-the-art CFD flow analysis and sensitivity analysis tools. Results for this small problem show that the method reaches the same local optimum as conventional optimization methods and does so in about half the computational time.

  6. Integrating aerodynamic surface modeling for computational fluid dynamics with computer aided structural analysis, design, and manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorp, Scott A.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the development of a NASA Geometry Exchange Specification for transferring aerodynamic surface geometry between LeRC systems and grid generation software used for computational fluid dynamics research. The proposed specification is based on a subset of the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). The presentation will include discussion of how the NASA-IGES standard will accommodate improved computer aided design inspection methods and reverse engineering techniques currently being developed. The presentation is in viewgraph format.

  7. Aerodynamic Design of Axial-flow Compressors. Volume III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Irving A; Bullock, Robert O; Graham, Robert W; Costilow, Eleanor L; Huppert, Merle C; Benser, William A; Herzig, Howard Z; Hansen, Arthur G; Jackson, Robert J; Yohner, Peggy L; Dugan, Ames F , Jr

    1956-01-01

    Chapters XI to XIII concern the unsteady compressor operation arising when compressor blade elements stall. The fields of compressor stall and surge are reviewed in Chapters XI and XII, respectively. The part-speed operating problem in high-pressure-ratio multistage axial-flow compressors is analyzed in Chapter XIII. Chapter XIV summarizes design methods and theories that extend beyond the simplified two-dimensional approach used previously in the report. Chapter XV extends this three-dimensional treatment by summarizing the literature on secondary flows and boundary layer effects. Charts for determining the effects of errors in design parameters and experimental measurements on compressor performance are given in Chapters XVI. Chapter XVII reviews existing literature on compressor and turbine matching techniques.

  8. Core compressor exit stage study. 1: Aerodynamic and mechanical design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burdsall, E. A.; Canal, E., Jr.; Lyons, K. A.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of aspect ratio on the performance of core compressor exit stages was demonstrated using two three stage, highly loaded, core compressors. Aspect ratio was identified as having a strong influence on compressors endwall loss. Both compressors simulated the last three stages of an advanced eight stage core compressor and were designed with the same 0.915 hub/tip ratio, 4.30 kg/sec (9.47 1bm/sec) inlet corrected flow, and 167 m/sec (547 ft/sec) corrected mean wheel speed. The first compressor had an aspect ratio of 0.81 and an overall pressure ratio of 1.357 at a design adiabatic efficiency of 88.3% with an average diffusion factor or 0.529. The aspect ratio of the second compressor was 1.22 with an overall pressure ratio of 1.324 at a design adiabatic efficiency of 88.7% with an average diffusion factor of 0.491.

  9. An Efficient Multiblock Method for Aerodynamic Analysis and Design on Distributed Memory Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, James; Alonso, Juan Jose; Vassberg, John C.; Jameson, Antony; Martinelli, Luigi

    1997-01-01

    The work presented in this paper describes the application of a multiblock gridding strategy to the solution of aerodynamic design optimization problems involving complex configurations. The design process is parallelized using the MPI (Message Passing Interface) Standard such that it can be efficiently run on a variety of distributed memory systems ranging from traditional parallel computers to networks of workstations. Substantial improvements to the parallel performance of the baseline method are presented, with particular attention to their impact on the scalability of the program as a function of the mesh size. Drag minimization calculations at a fixed coefficient of lift are presented for a business jet configuration that includes the wing, body, pylon, aft-mounted nacelle, and vertical and horizontal tails. An aerodynamic design optimization is performed with both the Euler and Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations governing the flow solution and the results are compared. These sample calculations establish the feasibility of efficient aerodynamic optimization of complete aircraft configurations using the RANS equations as the flow model. There still exists, however, the need for detailed studies of the importance of a true viscous adjoint method which holds the promise of tackling the minimization of not only the wave and induced components of drag, but also the viscous drag.

  10. Aerodynamic Design Exploration for Reusable Launch Vehicle Using Genetic Algorithm with Navier Stokes Solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsukawa, Tomoaki; Nonomura, Taku; Oyama, Akira; Fujii, Kozo

    In this study, aerodynamic design exploration for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) is conducted using genetic algorithm with Navier-Stokes solver to understand the aerodynamic characteristics for various body configurations and find design information such as tradeoff information among objectives. The multi-objective aerodynamic design optimization for minimizing zero-lift drag at supersonic condition, maximizing maximum lift-to-drag ratio (L/D) at subsonic condition, maximizing maximum L/D at supersonic condition, and maximizing volume of shape is conducted for bi-conical shape RLV based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The total number of evaluation in multi-objective optimization is 400, and it is necessary for evaluating one body configuration to conduct 8 CFD runs. In total, 3200 CFD runs are conducted. The analysis of Pareto-optimal solutions shows that there are various trade-off relations among objectives clearly, and the analysis of flow fields shows that the shape for the minimum drag configuration is almost the same as that of the shape for the maximum L/D configuration at supersonic condition. The shape for the maximum L/D at subsonic condition obtains additional lift at the kink compared with the minimum drag configuration. It leads to enhancement of L/D.

  11. Developments in steady and unsteady aerodynamics for use in aeroelastic analysis and design. [for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, E. C., Jr.; Bland, S. R.

    1976-01-01

    A review is given of seven research projects which are aimed at improving the generality, accuracy, and computational efficiency of steady and unsteady aerodynamic theory for use in aeroelastic analysis and design. These projects indicate three major thrusts of current research efforts: (1) more realistic representation of steady and unsteady subsonic and supersonic loads on aircraft configurations of general shape with emphasis on structural-design applications, (2) unsteady aerodynamics for application in active-controls analyses, and (3) unsteady aerodynamics for the frequently critical transonic speed range. The review of each project includes theoretical background, description of capabilities, results of application, current status, and plans for further development and use.

  12. Visualization in the Design of Modern Aircraft Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Modem aircraft design involves study of airflow through both windtunnel testing and computer simulation. These computer simulations result in often very large and complex sets of numbers, which contain information critical to the aircrafts performance. This talk will describe how visualization is used to understand these simulations, using a variety of techniques including low-level analysis such as simulated particles, high-level feature detection, and virtual-reality-based techniques for exploration. We will focus on the challenges of extremely large data sets, interactive performance, and information extraction. The talk will close with a vision of the future including the integration of simulation and visualization.

  13. Application of Reduced Order Transonic Aerodynamic Influence Coefficient Matrix for Design Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-gi; Li, Wesley W.

    2009-01-01

    Supporting the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate guidelines, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA] Dryden Flight Research Center is developing a multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization [MDAO] tool. This tool will leverage existing tools and practices, and allow the easy integration and adoption of new state-of-the-art software. Today s modern aircraft designs in transonic speed are a challenging task due to the computation time required for the unsteady aeroelastic analysis using a Computational Fluid Dynamics [CFD] code. Design approaches in this speed regime are mainly based on the manual trial and error. Because of the time required for unsteady CFD computations in time-domain, this will considerably slow down the whole design process. These analyses are usually performed repeatedly to optimize the final design. As a result, there is considerable motivation to be able to perform aeroelastic calculations more quickly and inexpensively. This paper will describe the development of unsteady transonic aeroelastic design methodology for design optimization using reduced modeling method and unsteady aerodynamic approximation. The method requires the unsteady transonic aerodynamics be represented in the frequency or Laplace domain. Dynamically linear assumption is used for creating Aerodynamic Influence Coefficient [AIC] matrices in transonic speed regime. Unsteady CFD computations are needed for the important columns of an AIC matrix which corresponded to the primary modes for the flutter. Order reduction techniques, such as Guyan reduction and improved reduction system, are used to reduce the size of problem transonic flutter can be found by the classic methods, such as Rational function approximation, p-k, p, root-locus etc. Such a methodology could be incorporated into MDAO tool for design optimization at a reasonable computational cost. The proposed technique is verified using the Aerostructures Test Wing 2 actually designed

  14. Challenges and Progress in Aerodynamic Design of Hybrid Wingbody Aircraft with Embedded Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Kim, Hyoungjin; Liou, May-Fun

    2016-01-01

    We summarize the contributions to high-fidelity capabilities for analysis and design of hybrid wingbody (HWB) configurations considered by NASA. Specifically, we focus on the embedded propulsion concepts of the N2-B and N3-X configurations, some of the future concepts seriously investigated by the NASA Fixed Wing Project. The objective is to develop the capability to compute the integrated propulsion and airframe system realistically in geometry and accurately in flow physics. In particular, the propulsion system (including the entire engine core-compressor, combustor, and turbine stages) is vastly more difficult and costly to simulate with the same level of fidelity as the external aerodynamics. Hence, we develop an accurate modeling approach that retains important physical parameters relevant to aerodynamic and propulsion analyses for evaluating the HWB concepts. Having the analytical capabilities at our disposal, concerns and issues that were considered to be critical for the HWB concepts can now be assessed reliably and systematically; assumptions invoked by previous studies were found to have serious consequences in our study. During this task, we establish firmly that aerodynamic analysis of a HWB concept without including installation of the propulsion system is far from realistic and can be misleading. Challenges in delivering the often-cited advantages that belong to the HWB are the focus of our study and are emphasized in this report. We have attempted to address these challenges and have had successes, which are summarized here. Some can have broad implications, such as the concept of flow conditioning for reducing flow distortion and the modeling of fan stages. The design optimization capability developed for improving the aerodynamic characteristics of the baseline HWB configurations is general and can be employed for other applications. Further improvement of the N3-X configuration can be expected by expanding the design space. Finally, the support of

  15. The research progress on Hodograph Method of aerodynamic design at Tsinghua University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Zuoyi; Guo, Jingrong

    1991-01-01

    Progress in the use of the Hodograph method of aerodynamic design is discussed. It was found that there are some restricted conditions in the application of Hodograph design to transonic turbine and compressor cascades. The Hodograph method is suitable not only to the transonic turbine cascade but also to the transonic compressor cascade. The three dimensional Hodograph method will be developed after obtaining the basic equation for the three dimensional Hodograph method. As an example of the Hodograph method, the use of the method to design a transonic turbine and compressor cascade is discussed.

  16. The Modern Design of Experiments for Configuration Aerodynamics: A Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLoach, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The effects of slowly varying and persisting covariate effects on the accuracy and precision of experimental result is reviewed, as is the rationale for run-order randomization as a quality assurance tactic employed in the Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE) to defend against such effects. Considerable analytical complexity is introduced by restrictions on randomization in configuration aerodynamics tests because they involve hard-to-change configuration variables that cannot be randomized conveniently. Tradeoffs are examined between quality and productivity associated with varying degrees of rigor in accounting for such randomization restrictions. Certain characteristics of a configuration aerodynamics test are considered that may justify a relaxed accounting for randomization restrictions to achieve a significant reduction in analytical complexity with a comparably negligible adverse impact on the validity of the experimental results.

  17. Reductions in vehicle fuel consumption due to refinements in aerodynamic design. [for trailer trucks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    Over-the-highway fuel consumption and coastdown drag tests were performed on cab-over-engine, van type trailer trucks and modifications of these vehicles incorporating refinements in aerodynamic design. In addition, 1/25-scale models of these configurations, and derivatives of these configurations were tested in a wind tunnel to determine the effects of wind on the magnitude of the benefits that aerodynamic refinements can provide. The results of these tests are presented for a vehicle incorporating major redesign features and for a relatively simple add-on modification. These results include projected fuel savings on the basis of annual savings per vehicle year as well as probable nationwide fuel savings.

  18. Three-dimensional aerodynamic shape optimization of supersonic delta wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgreen, Greg W.; Baysal, Oktay

    1994-01-01

    A recently developed three-dimensional aerodynamic shape optimization procedure AeSOP(sub 3D) is described. This procedure incorporates some of the most promising concepts from the area of computational aerodynamic analysis and design, specifically, discrete sensitivity analysis, a fully implicit 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methodology, and 3D Bezier-Bernstein surface parameterizations. The new procedure is demonstrated in the preliminary design of supersonic delta wings. Starting from a symmetric clipped delta wing geometry, a Mach 1.62 asymmetric delta wing and two Mach 1. 5 cranked delta wings were designed subject to various aerodynamic and geometric constraints.

  19. Design and aerodynamic performance evaluation of a high-work mixed flow turbine stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neri, Remo N.; Elliott, Thomas J.; Marsh, David N.; Civinskas, Kestutis C.

    1994-01-01

    As axial and radial turbine designs have been pushed to their aerothermodynamic and mechanical limits, the mixed-flow turbine (MFT) concept has been projected to offer performance and durability improvements, especially when ceramic materials are considered. The objective of this NASA/U.S. Army sponsored mixed-flow turbine (AMFT) program was to determine the level of performance attainable with MFT technology within the mechanical constraints of 1997 projected ceramic material properties. The MFT geometry is similar to a radial turbine, exhibiting a large radius change from inlet to exit, but differing in that the inlet flowpath is not purely radial, nor axial, but mixed; it is the inlet geometry that gives rise to the name 'mixed-flow'. The 'mixed' orientation of the turbine inlet offers several advantages over radial designs by allowing a nonzero inlet blade angle yet maintaining radial-element blades. The oblique inlet not only improves the particle-impact survivability of the design, but improves the aerodynamic performance by reducing the incidence at the blade inlet. The difficulty, however, of using mixed-flow geometry lies in the scarcity of detailed data and documented design experience. This paper reports the design of a MFT stage designed with the intent to maximize aerodynamic performance by optimizing design parameters such as stage reaction, rotor incidence, flowpath shape, blade shape, vane geometry, and airfoil counts using 2-D, 3-D inviscid, and 3-D viscous computational fluid dynamics code. The aerodynamic optimization was accomplished while maintaining mechanical integrity with respect to vibration and stress levels in the rotor. A full-scale cold-flow rig test was performed with metallic hardware fabricated to the specifications of the hot ceramic geometry to evaluate the stage performance.

  20. A performance index approach to aerodynamic design with the use of analysis codes only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barger, Raymond L.; Moitra, Anutosh

    1988-01-01

    A method is described for designing an aerodynamic configuration for a specified performance vector, based on results from several similar, but not identical, trial configurations, each defined by a geometry parameter vector. The theory shows the method effective provided that: (1) the results for the trial configuration provide sufficient variation so that a linear combination of them approximates the specified performance; and (2) the difference between the performance vectors (including the specifed performance) are sufficiently small that the linearity assumption of sensitivity analysis applies to the differences. A computed example describes the design of a high supersonic Mach number missile wing body configuration based on results from a set of four trial configurations.

  1. Aerodynamic Design of a Propeller for High-Altitude Balloon Trajectory Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Richard; Somers, Dan M.

    2012-01-01

    The aerodynamic design of a propeller for the trajectory control of a high-altitude, scientific balloon has been performed using theoretical methods developed especially for such applications. The methods are described. Optimum, nonlinear chord and twist distributions have been developed in conjunction with the design of a family of airfoils, the SE403, SE404, and SE405, for the propeller. The very low Reynolds numbers along the propeller blade fall in a range that has yet to be rigorously investigated, either experimentally or theoretically.

  2. Physical Insights, Steady Aerodynamic Effects, and a Design Tool for Low-Pressure Turbine Flutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, Joshua Joseph

    The successful, efficient, and safe turbine design requires a thorough understanding of the underlying physical phenomena. This research investigates the physical understanding and parameters highly correlated to flutter, an aeroelastic instability prevalent among low pressure turbine (LPT) blades in both aircraft engines and power turbines. The modern way of determining whether a certain cascade of LPT blades is susceptible to flutter is through time-expensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. These codes converge to solution satisfying the Eulerian conservation equations subject to the boundary conditions of a nodal domain consisting fluid and solid wall particles. Most detailed CFD codes are accompanied by cryptic turbulence models, meticulous grid constructions, and elegant boundary condition enforcements all with one goal in mind: determine the sign (and therefore stability) of the aerodynamic damping. The main question being asked by the aeroelastician, "is it positive or negative?'' This type of thought-process eventually gives rise to a black-box effect, leaving physical understanding behind. Therefore, the first part of this research aims to understand and reveal the physics behind LPT flutter in addition to several related topics including acoustic resonance effects. A percentage of this initial numerical investigation is completed using an influence coefficient approach to study the variation the work-per-cycle contributions of neighboring cascade blades to a reference airfoil. The second part of this research introduces new discoveries regarding the relationship between steady aerodynamic loading and negative aerodynamic damping. Using validated CFD codes as computational wind tunnels, a multitude of low-pressure turbine flutter parameters, such as reduced frequency, mode shape, and interblade phase angle, will be scrutinized across various airfoil geometries and steady operating conditions to reach new design guidelines regarding the influence

  3. Computerized method and system for designing an aerodynamic focusing lens stack

    DOEpatents

    Gard, Eric; Riot, Vincent; Coffee, Keith; Woods, Bruce; Tobias, Herbert; Birch, Jim; Weisgraber, Todd

    2011-11-22

    A computerized method and system for designing an aerodynamic focusing lens stack, using input from a designer related to, for example, particle size range to be considered, characteristics of the gas to be flowed through the system, the upstream temperature and pressure at the top of a first focusing lens, the flow rate through the aerodynamic focusing lens stack equivalent at atmosphere pressure; and a Stokes number range. Based on the design parameters, the method and system determines the total number of focusing lenses and their respective orifice diameters required to focus the particle size range to be considered, by first calculating for the orifice diameter of the first focusing lens in the Stokes formula, and then using that value to determine, in iterative fashion, intermediate flow values which are themselves used to determine the orifice diameters of each succeeding focusing lens in the stack design, with the results being output to a designer. In addition, the Reynolds numbers associated with each focusing lens as well as exit nozzle size may also be determined to enhance the stack design.

  4. Creation of a Rapid High-Fidelity Aerodynamics Module for a Multidisciplinary Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Muktha; Whittecar, William; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    In the traditional aerospace vehicle design process, each successive design phase is accompanied by an increment in the modeling fidelity of the disciplinary analyses being performed. This trend follows a corresponding shrinking of the design space as more and more design decisions are locked in. The correlated increase in knowledge about the design and decrease in design freedom occurs partly because increases in modeling fidelity are usually accompanied by significant increases in the computational expense of performing the analyses. When running high fidelity analyses, it is not usually feasible to explore a large number of variations, and so design space exploration is reserved for conceptual design, and higher fidelity analyses are run only once a specific point design has been selected to carry forward. The designs produced by this traditional process have been recognized as being limited by the uncertainty that is present early on due to the use of lower fidelity analyses. For example, uncertainty in aerodynamics predictions produces uncertainty in trajectory optimization, which can impact overall vehicle sizing. This effect can become more significant when trajectories are being shaped by active constraints. For example, if an optimal trajectory is running up against a normal load factor constraint, inaccuracies in the aerodynamic coefficient predictions can cause a feasible trajectory to be considered infeasible, or vice versa. For this reason, a trade must always be performed between the desired fidelity and the resources available. Apart from this trade between fidelity and computational expense, it is very desirable to use higher fidelity analyses earlier in the design process. A large body of work has been performed to this end, led by efforts in the area of surrogate modeling. In surrogate modeling, an up-front investment is made by running a high fidelity code over a Design of Experiments (DOE); once completed, the DOE data is used to create a

  5. Aerodynamic Performance of Scale-Model Turbofan Outlet Guide Vanes Designed for Low Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.

    2001-01-01

    The design of effective new technologies to reduce aircraft propulsion noise is dependent on an understanding of the noise sources and noise generation mechanisms in the modern turbofan engine. In order to more fully understand the physics of noise in a turbofan engine, a comprehensive aeroacoustic wind tunnel test programs was conducted called the 'Source Diagnostic Test.' The text was cooperative effort between NASA and General Electric Aircraft Engines, as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program. A 1/5-scale model simulator representing the bypass stage of a current technology high bypass ratio turbofan engine was used in the test. The test article consisted of the bypass fan and outlet guide vanes in a flight-type nacelle. The fan used was a medium pressure ratio design with 22 individual, wide chord blades. Three outlet guide vane design configurations were investigated, representing a 54-vane radial Baseline configuration, a 26-vane radial, wide chord Low Count configuration and a 26-vane, wide chord Low Noise configuration with 30 deg of aft sweep. The test was conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center 9 by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at velocities simulating the takeoff and approach phases of the aircraft flight envelope. The Source Diagnostic Test had several acoustic and aerodynamic technical objectives: (1) establish the performance of a scale model fan selected to represent the current technology turbofan product; (2) assess the performance of the fan stage with each of the three distinct outlet guide vane designs; (3) determine the effect of the outlet guide vane configuration on the fan baseline performance; and (4) conduct detailed flowfield diagnostic surveys, both acoustic and aerodynamic, to characterize and understand the noise generation mechanisms in a turbofan engine. This paper addresses the fan and stage aerodynamic performance results from the Source Diagnostic Test.

  6. Aerodynamic aircraft design methods and their notable applications: Survey of the activity in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujii, Kozo; Takanashi, Susumu

    1991-01-01

    An overview of aerodynamic aircraft design methods and their recent applications in Japan is presented. A design code which was developed at the National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL) and is in use now is discussed, hence, most of the examples are the result of the collaborative work between heavy industry and the National Aerospace Laboratory. A wide variety of applications in transonic to supersonic flow regimes are presented. Although design of aircraft elements for external flows are the main focus, some of the internal flow applications are also presented. Recent applications of the design code, using the Navier Stokes and Euler equations in the analysis mode, include the design of HOPE (a space vehicle) and Upper Surface Blowing (USB) aircraft configurations.

  7. On the Use of Parmetric-CAD Systems and Cartesian Methods for Aerodynamic Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemec, Marian; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2004-01-01

    Automated, high-fidelity tools for aerodynamic design face critical issues in attempting to optimize real-life geometry arid in permitting radical design changes. Success in these areas promises not only significantly shorter design- cycle times, but also superior and unconventional designs. To address these issues, we investigate the use of a parmetric-CAD system in conjunction with an embedded-boundary Cartesian method. Our goal is to combine the modeling capabilities of feature-based CAD with the robustness and flexibility of component-based Cartesian volume-mesh generation for complex geometry problems. We present the development of an automated optimization frame-work with a focus on the deployment of such a CAD-based design approach in a heterogeneous parallel computing environment.

  8. Aerodynamic and mechanical design of an 8:1 pressure ratio centrifugal compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, C.; Runstadler, P. W., Jr.; Stacy, W. D.

    1974-01-01

    A high-pressure-ratio, low-mass-flow centrifugal compressor stage was designed, fabricated, and tested. The design followed specifications that the stage be representative of state-of-the-art performance and that the stage is to be used as a workhorse compressor for planned experiments using laser Doppler velocimeter equipment. The final design is a 75,000-RPM, 19-blade impeller with an axial inducer and 30 degrees of backward leaning at the impeller tip. The compressor design was tested for two- and/or quasi-three-dimensional aerodynamic and stress characteristics. Critical speed analyses were performed for the high speed rotating impeller assembly. An optimally matched, 17-channel vane island diffuser was also designed and built.

  9. Integrated Design Engineering Analysis (IDEA) Environment - Aerodynamics, Aerothermodynamics, and Thermal Protection System Integration Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hilmi N.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the work performed during from March 2010 October 2011. The Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis (IDEA) environment is a collaborative environment based on an object-oriented, multidisciplinary, distributed environment using the Adaptive Modeling Language (AML) as the underlying framework. This report will focus on describing the work done in the area of extending the aerodynamics, and aerothermodynamics module using S/HABP, CBAERO, PREMIN and LANMIN. It will also detail the work done integrating EXITS as the TPS sizing tool.

  10. CAD-Based Aerodynamic Design of Complex Configurations using a Cartesian Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemec, Marian; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2003-01-01

    A modular framework for aerodynamic optimization of complex geometries is developed. By working directly with a parametric CAD system, complex-geometry models are modified nnd tessellated in an automatic fashion. The use of a component-based Cartesian method significantly reduces the demands on the CAD system, and also provides for robust and efficient flowfield analysis. The optimization is controlled using either a genetic or quasi-Newton algorithm. Parallel efficiency of the framework is maintained even when subject to limited CAD resources by dynamically re-allocating the processors of the flow solver. Overall, the resulting framework can explore designs incorporating large shape modifications and changes in topology.

  11. Low-subsonic aerodynamic characteristics of a shuttle-orbiter configuration designed for reduced length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ware, G. M.; Spencer, B., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation has been made in a low-turbulence pressure tunnel to determine the low-subsonic aerodynamic characteristics of a 0.01875-scale model of a potential shuttle orbiter. The design has the rocket engines mounted in fairings on either side of the body on top of the wing. The wing had a leading-edge sweep of 50 and a trailing-edge sweep of minus 4. configurations investigated included engine-mounted twin dorsal tails at various rollout angles, a body-mounted center-line vertical tail, cylindrical and boattailed afterbody, and elevon and rudder at several deflections.

  12. Aerodynamic Design Optimization on Unstructured Meshes Using the Navier-Stokes Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, Eric J.; Anderson, W. Kyle

    1998-01-01

    A discrete adjoint method is developed and demonstrated for aerodynamic design optimization on unstructured grids. The governing equations are the three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations coupled with a one-equation turbulence model. A discussion of the numerical implementation of the flow and adjoint equations is presented. Both compressible and incompressible solvers are differentiated and the accuracy of the sensitivity derivatives is verified by comparing with gradients obtained using finite differences. Several simplifying approximations to the complete linearization of the residual are also presented, and the resulting accuracy of the derivatives is examined. Demonstration optimizations for both compressible and incompressible flows are given.

  13. Rotor redesign for a highly loaded 1800 ft/sec tip speed fan. 1: Aerodynamic and mechanical design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, J. M.; Tari, U.; Weber, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    A quasi three dimensional design system and multiple-circular-arc airfoil sections were used to design a fan rotor. An axisymmetric intrablade flow field calculation modeled the shroud of an isolated splitter and radial distribution. The structural analysis indicates that the design is satisfactory for evaluation of aerodynamic performance of the fan stage in a test facility.

  14. The aerodynamic design and performance of the NASA/GE E3 low pressure turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, D. G.; Dengler, R. P.

    1984-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and scaled rig test results of the low pressure turbine (LPT) component for the NASA/General Electric Energy Efficient Engine (E3) are presented. The low pressure turbine is a highly loaded five-stage design featuring high outer wall slope, controlled vortex aerodynamics, low stage flow coefficient, and reduced clearances. An assessment of its performance has been made based on a series of scaled air turbine tests which were divided into two phases: Block I (March through August, 1979) and Block II (June through September, 1981). Results from the Block II five-stage test, summarized in the paper, indicate that the E3 LPT will attain an efficiency level of 91.5 percent at the Mach 0.8/35,000 ft. max. climb altitude design point. This is relative to program goals of 91.1 percent for the E3 demonstrator engine and 91.7 percent for a fully developed flight propulsion system LPT.

  15. The use of linearized-aerodynamics and vortex-flow methods in aircraft design /invited paper/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with selected linearized-aerodynamic and vortex-flow methods as applied to aircraft design problems at high subsonic speeds. In particular, the NASA Vortex Lattice and Modified Multhopp methods are the linearized techniques employed, and the suction analogy is used to provide estimates associated with vortex-flow aerodynamics. Many examples are given as to how researchers at Langley have used these methods to design the high subsonic, wing-mean-camber shapes for various configurations such as a supersonic transport, high-aspect-ratio transport, trapezoidal fighter wing, strake wing, tandem wing, joined wing, delta wing, and slender cranked wing. Many of these have been built, tested, and have had their data compared with theory. In addition, a technique for defining efficiently performing strake planforms for use in strake-wing combinations is discussed, and further improvements in wing design are outlined. The latter may be obtained by using higher-ordered linear panel methods as well as nonlinear-transonic methods.

  16. High Reynolds Number Hybrid Laminar Flow Control (HLFC) Flight Experiment. Report 2; Aerodynamic Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the aerodynamic design of an experimental hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) wing panel intended for use on a Boeing 757 airplane to provide a facility for flight research on high Reynolds number HLFC and to demonstrate practical HLFC operation on a full-scale commercial transport airplane. The design consists of revised wing leading edge contour designed to produce a pressure distribution favorable to laminar flow, definition of suction flow requirements to laminarize the boundary layer, provisions at the inboard end of the test panel to prevent attachment-line boundary layer transition, and a Krueger leading edge flap that serves both as a high lift device and as a shield to prevent insect accretion on the leading edge when the airplane is taking off or landing.

  17. Aerodynamic and aerothermal challenges for the design of the Hermes spaceplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrier, Pierre

    1993-04-01

    The Hermes spaceplane will represent a major step in the European space activities. It will be placed into orbit by the heavy-lift launcher Ariane 5. After completion of the mission, it will glide back from low earth orbit to its landing site. In order to take the different problems linked to the ascent and the reentry phases, an aerodynamic strategy was set up. A global review of this strategy will be made. It will contain elements on the available and necessary tools (experimental and theoretical) for the Hermes definition and qualification phases. Some aspects such as the design of the Hermes spaceplane will also be highlighted. It will review the different constraints that will be faced during the ascent and reentry phases. Constraints may come from mission requirements such as crossrange capability or from technology limits such as thermal limits on the thermal protection system or from guidance and control requirements. A new methodology was selected in order to take constraints and uncertainties into account in the design oriented towards qualification of the Hermes spaceplane. The main line of this methodology is the projection on a typical reentry trajectory of the uncertainties in the aerodynamic characteristics checked on control points.

  18. An interactive version of PropID for the aerodynamic design of horizontal axis wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Ninham, C.P.; Selig, M.S.

    1997-12-31

    The original PROP code developed by AeroVironment, Inc. and its various versions have been in use for wind turbine performance predictions for over ten years. Due to its simplicity, rapid execution times and relatively accurate predictions, it has become an industry standard in the US. The Europeans have similar blade-element/momentum methods in use for design. Over the years, PROP has continued to be improved (in its accuracy and capability), e.g., PROPSH, PROPPC, PROP93, and PropID. The latter version incorporates a unique inverse design capability that allows the user to specify the desired aerodynamic characteristics from which the corresponding blade geometry is determined. Through this approach, tedious efforts related to manually adjusting the chord, twist, pitch and rpm to achieve desired aerodynamic/performance characteristics can be avoided, thereby making it possible to perform more extensive trade studies in an effort to optimize performance. Past versions of PropID did not have supporting graphics software. The more current version to be discussed includes a Matlab-based graphical user interface (GUI) and additional features that will be discussed in this paper.

  19. Aerodynamic Modeling of Transonic Aircraft Using Vortex Lattice Coupled with Transonic Small Disturbance for Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaparro, Daniel; Fujiwara, Gustavo E. C.; Ting, Eric; Nguyen, Nhan

    2016-01-01

    The need to rapidly scan large design spaces during conceptual design calls for computationally inexpensive tools such as the vortex lattice method (VLM). Although some VLM tools, such as Vorview have been extended to model fully-supersonic flow, VLM solutions are typically limited to inviscid, subcritical flow regimes. Many transport aircraft operate at transonic speeds, which limits the applicability of VLM for such applications. This paper presents a novel approach to correct three-dimensional VLM through coupling of two-dimensional transonic small disturbance (TSD) solutions along the span of an aircraft wing in order to accurately predict transonic aerodynamic loading and wave drag for transport aircraft. The approach is extended to predict flow separation and capture the attenuation of aerodynamic forces due to boundary layer viscosity by coupling the TSD solver with an integral boundary layer (IBL) model. The modeling framework is applied to the NASA General Transport Model (GTM) integrated with a novel control surface known as the Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF).

  20. Axial compressor blade design for desensitization of aerodynamic performance and stability to tip clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erler, Engin

    Tip clearance flow is the flow through the clearance between the rotor blade tip and the shroud of a turbomachine, such as compressors and turbines. This flow is driven by the pressure difference across the blade (aerodynamic loading) in the tip region and is a major source of loss in performance and aerodynamic stability in axial compressors of modern aircraft engines. An increase in tip clearance, either temporary due to differential radial expansion between the blade and the shroud during transient operation or permanent due to engine wear or manufacturing tolerances on small blades, increases tip clearance flow and results in higher fuel consumption and higher risk of engine surge. A compressor design that can reduce the sensitivity of its performance and aerodynamic stability to tip clearance increase would have a major impact on short and long-term engine performance and operating envelope. While much research has been carried out on improving nominal compressor performance, little had been done on desensitization to tip clearance increase beyond isolated observations that certain blade designs such as forward chordwise sweep, seem to be less sensitive to tip clearance size increase. The current project aims to identify through a computational study the flow features and associated mechanisms that reduces sensitivity of axial compressor rotors to tip clearance size and propose blade design strategies that can exploit these results. The methodology starts with the design of a reference conventional axial compressor rotor followed by a parametric study with variations of this reference design through modification of the camber line and of the stacking line of blade profiles along the span. It is noted that a simple desensitization method would be to reduce the aerodynamic loading of the blade tip which would reduce the tip clearance flow and its proportional contribution to performance loss. However, with the larger part of the work on the flow done in this

  1. Sensitivity of Key Parameters in Aerodynamic Wind Turbine Rotor Design on Power and Energy Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Christian

    2007-07-01

    In this paper the influence of different key parameters in aerodynamic wind turbine rotor design on the power efficiency, Cp, and energy production has been investigated. The work was divided into an analysis of 2D airfoils/blade sections and of entire rotors. In the analysis of the 2D airfoils it was seen that there was a maximum of the local Cp for airfoils with finite maximum Cl/Cd values. The local speed ratio should be between 2.4 and 3.8 for airfoils with maximum cl/cd between 50 and 200, respectively, to obtain maximum local Cp. Also, the investigation showed that Re had a significant impact on CP and especially for Re<2mio corresponding to rotors below approximately 400kW this impact was pronounced. The investigation of Cp for rotors was made with three blades and showed that with the assumption of constant maximum cl/cd along the entire blade, the design tip speed ratio changed from X=6 to X=12 for cl/cd=50 and cl/cd=200, respectively, with corresponding values of maximum cp of 0.46 and 0.525. An analysis of existing rotors re-designed with new airfoils but maintaining the absolute thickness distribution to maintain the stiffness showed that big rotors are more aerodynamic efficient than small rotors caused by higher Re. It also showed that the design tip speed ratio was very dependent on the rotor size and on the assumptions of the airfoil flow being fully turbulent (contaminated airfoil) or free transitional (clean airfoil). The investigations showed that rotors with diameter D=1.75m, should be designed for X around 5.5, whereas rotors with diameter D=126m, should be designed for Xbetween 6.5 and 8.5, depending on the airfoil performance.

  2. Comparison of Various Supersonic Turbine Tip Designs to Minimize Aerodynamic Loss and Tip Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyam, Vikram; Ameri, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The rotor tips of axial turbines experience high heat flux and are the cause of aerodynamic losses due to tip clearance flows, and in the case of supersonic tips, shocks. As stage loadings increase, the flow in the tip gap approaches and exceeds sonic conditions. This introduces effects such as shock-boundary layer interactions and choked flow that are not observed for subsonic tip flows that have been studied extensively in literature. This work simulates the tip clearance flow for a flat tip, a diverging tip gap and several contoured tips to assess the possibility of minimizing tip heat flux while maintaining a constant massflow from the pressure side to the suction side of the rotor, through the tip clearance. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code GlennHT was used for the simulations. Due to the strong favorable pressure gradients the simulations assumed laminar conditions in the tip gap. The nominal tip gap width to height ratio for this study is 6.0. The Reynolds number of the flow is 2.4 x 10(exp 5) based on nominal tip width and exit velocity. A wavy wall design was found to reduce heat flux by 5 percent but suffered from an additional 6 percent in aerodynamic loss coefficient. Conventional tip recesses are found to perform far worse than a flat tip due to severe shock heating. Overall, the baseline flat tip was the second best performer. A diverging converging tip gap with a hole was found to be the best choice. Average tip heat flux was reduced by 37 percent and aerodynamic losses were cut by over 6 percent.

  3. Rarefied-flow aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, J. Leith

    1992-01-01

    Means for relatively simple and quick procedures are examined for estimating aerodynamic coefficients of lifting reentry vehicles. The methods developed allow aerospace designers not only to evaluate the aerodynamics of specific shapes but also to optimize shapes under given constraints. The analysis was also studied of the effect of thermomolecular flow on pressures measured by an orifice near the nose of a Space Shuttle Orbiter at altitudes above 75 km. It was shown that pressures corrected for thermomolecular flow effect are in good agreement with values predicted by independent theoretical methods. An incidental product was the insight gained about the free molecular thermal accommodation coefficient applicable under 'real' conditions of high speed flow in the Earth's atmosphere. The results are presented as abstracts of referenced papers. One reference paper is presented in its entirety.

  4. Aerodynamic design and analysis of small horizontal axis wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xinzi

    This work investigates the aerodynamic design and analysis of small horizontal axis wind turbine blades via the blade element momentum (BEM) based approach and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based approach. From this research, it is possible to draw a series of detailed guidelines on small wind turbine blade design and analysis. The research also provides a platform for further comprehensive study using these two approaches. The wake induction corrections and stall corrections of the BEM method were examined through a case study of the NREL/NASA Phase VI wind turbine. A hybrid stall correction model was proposed to analyse wind turbine power performance. The proposed model shows improvement in power prediction for the validation case, compared with the existing stall correction models. The effects of the key rotor parameters of a small wind turbine as well as the blade chord and twist angle distributions on power performance were investigated through two typical wind turbines, i.e. a fixed-pitch variable-speed (FPVS) wind turbine and a fixed-pitch fixed-speed (FPFS) wind turbine. An engineering blade design and analysis code was developed in MATLAB to accommodate aerodynamic design and analysis of the blades.. The linearisation for radial profiles of blade chord and twist angle for the FPFS wind turbine blade design was discussed. Results show that, the proposed linearisation approach leads to reduced manufacturing cost and higher annual energy production (AEP), with minimal effects on the low wind speed performance. Comparative studies of mesh and turbulence models in 2D and 3D CFD modelling were conducted. The CFD predicted lift and drag coefficients of the airfoil S809 were compared with wind tunnel test data and the 3D CFD modelling method of the NREL/NASA Phase VI wind turbine were validated against measurements. Airfoil aerodynamic characterisation and wind turbine power performance as well as 3D flow details were studied. The detailed flow

  5. Aerodynamic Design of Complex Configurations Using Cartesian Methods and CAD Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemec, Marian; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2003-01-01

    The objective for this paper is to present the development of an optimization capability for the Cartesian inviscid-flow analysis package of Aftosmis et al. We evaluate and characterize the following modules within the new optimization framework: (1) A component-based geometry parameterization approach using a CAD solid representation and the CAPRI interface. (2) The use of Cartesian methods in the development Optimization techniques using a genetic algorithm. The discussion and investigations focus on several real world problems of the optimization process. We examine the architectural issues associated with the deployment of a CAD-based design approach in a heterogeneous parallel computing environment that contains both CAD workstations and dedicated compute nodes. In addition, we study the influence of noise on the performance of optimization techniques, and the overall efficiency of the optimization process for aerodynamic design of complex three-dimensional configurations. of automated optimization tools. rithm and a gradient-based algorithm.

  6. An aerodynamic design and numerical investigation of transonic centrifugal compressor stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Weilin; Ji, Lucheng; Tian, Yong; Shao, Weiwei; Li, Weiwei; Xiao, Yunhan

    2011-09-01

    In the present paper, the design of a transonic centrifugal compressor stage with the inlet relative Mach number about 1.3 and detailed flow field investigation by three-dimensional CFD are described. Firstly the CFD program was validated by an experimental case. Then the preliminary aerodynamic design of stage completed through in-house one-dimensional code. Three types of impellers and two sets of stages were computed and analyzed. It can be found that the swept shape of leading edge has prominent influence on the performance and can enlarge the flow range. Similarly, the performance of the stage with swept impeller is better than others. The total pressure ratio and adiabatic efficiency of final geometry achieve 7:1 and 80% respectively. The vane diffuser with same airfoils along span increases attack angle at higher span, and the local flow structure and performance is deteriorated.

  7. The Aerodynamic Optimization of Wings at Subsonic Speeds and the Influence of Wingtip Design. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmer, H.

    1987-01-01

    Some of the objectives of modern aircraft development are related to the achievement of reduced fuel consumption and aircraft noise. This investigation is mainly concerned with the aerodynamic aspects of aircraft development, i.e., reduction of induced drag. New studies of wing design, and in particular wing tips, are considered. Induced drag is important since, in cruising flight, it accounts for approximately one-third of the entire drag for the aircraft, and one-half while climbing. A survey is presented for the wing geometries and wing tip designs studied, and theoretical investigations of different planar wings with systematically varied wing tip forms are conducted. Attention is also paid to a theoretical study of some planar and nonplanar wings and their comparison with experimental data.

  8. Aerodynamic control, recovery, and sensor design for a first stage flyback booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The mission of the flyback group is to control and recover the first stage of a commercially developed winged booster launched from a B-52 at 40,000 ft and Mach 0.8. First-stage separation occurs at 210,000 ft and Mach 8.7; the second and third stages will continue deployment of their 600 lb payload into low Earth orbit. The job of the flyback group begins at this point, employing a modified control system developed to stabilize and maneuver the separated first-stage vehicle to a suitable landing site approximately 130 miles from the launch point over the Pacific Ocean. This multidisciplinary design was accomplished by four subgroups: aerodynamic design/vehicle configuration (ADVC), trajectory optimization, controls, and thermal management.

  9. A methodology for using nonlinear aerodynamics in aeroservoelastic analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology is presented for using the Volterra-Wiener theory of nonlinear systems in aeroservoelastic (ASE) analyses and design. The theory is applied to the development of nonlinear aerodynamic response models that can be defined in state-space form and are, therefore, appropriate for use in modern control theory. The theory relies on the identification of nonlinear kernels that can be used to predict the response of a nonlinear system due to an arbitrary input. A numerical kernel identification technique, based on unit impulse responses, is presented and applied to a simple bilinear, single-input single-output (SISO) system. The linear kernel (unit impulse response) and the nonlinear second-order kernel of the system are numerically-identified and compared with the exact, analytically-defined and linear and second-order kernels. This kernel identification technique is then applied to the CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program-Transonic Small Disturbance) code for identification of the linear and second-order kernels of a NACA64A010 rectangular wing undergoing pitch at M = 0.5, M = 8.5 (transonic), and M = 0.93 (transonic). Results presented demonstrate the feasibility of this approach for use with nonlinear, unsteady aerodynamic responses.

  10. Effect of design changes on aerodynamic and acoustic performance of translating-centerbody sonic inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, B. A.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of design changes on the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of translating centerbody sonic inlets. Scale model inlets were tested in the Lewis Research Center's V/STOL wind tunnel. The effects of centerbody position, entry lip contraction ratio, diffuser length, and diffuser area ratio on inlet total pressure recovery, distortion, and noise suppression were investigated at static conditions and at forward velocity and angle of attack. With the centerbody in the takeoff position (retracted), good aerodynamic and acoustic performance was attained at static conditions and at forward velocity. At 0 deg incidence angle with a sound pressure level reduction of 20 dB, the total pressure recovery was 0.986. Pressure recovery at 50 deg was 0.981. With the centerbody in the approach position (extended), diffuser flow separation occurred at an incidence angle of approximately 20 deg. However, good performance was attained at lower angles. With the centerbody in the takeoff position the ability of the inlet to tolerate high incidence angles was improved by increasing the lip contraction ratio. However, at static conditions with the centerbody in the approach position, an optimum lip contraction ratio appears to exist, with both thinner and thicker lips yielding reduced performance.

  11. Single stage, low noise, advanced technology fan. Volume 1: Aerodynamic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, T. J.; Younghans, J. L.; Little, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    The aerodynamic design for a half-scale fan vehicle, which would have application on an advanced transport aircraft, is described. The single stage advanced technology fan was designed to a pressure ratio of 1.8 at a tip speed of 503 m/sec 11,650 ft/sec). The fan and booster components are designed in a scale model flow size convenient for testing with existing facility and vehicle hardware. The design corrected flow per unit annulus area at the fan face is 215 kg/sec sq m (44.0 lb m/sec sq ft) with a hub-tip ratio of 0.38 at the leading edge of the fan rotor. This results in an inlet corrected airflow of 117.9 kg/sec (259.9 lb m/sec) for the selected rotor tip diameter if 90.37 cm (35.58 in.). The variable geometry inlet is designed utilizing a combination of high throat Mach number and acoustic treatment in the inlet diffuser for noise suppression (hybrid inlet). A variable fan exhaust nozzle was assumed in conjunction with the variable inlet throat area to limit the required area change of the inlet throat at approach and hence limit the overall diffusion and inlet length. The fan exit duct design was primarily influenced by acoustic requirements, including length of suppressor wall treatment; length, thickness and position on a duct splitter for additional suppressor treatment; and duct surface Mach numbers.

  12. X based interactive computer graphics applications for aerodynamic design and education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Thomas J.; Higgs, C. Fred, III

    1995-01-01

    Six computer applications packages have been developed to solve a variety of aerodynamic problems in an interactive environment on a single workstation. The packages perform classical one dimensional analysis under the control of a graphical user interface and can be used for preliminary design or educational purposes. The programs were originally developed on a Silicon Graphics workstation and used the GL version of the FORMS library as the graphical user interface. These programs have recently been converted to the XFORMS library of X based graphics widgets and have been tested on SGI, IBM, Sun, HP and PC-Lunix computers. The paper will show results from the new VU-DUCT program as a prime example. VU-DUCT has been developed as an educational package for the study of subsonic open and closed loop wind tunnels.

  13. Modification and Validation of Conceptual Design Aerodynamic Prediction Method HASC95 With VTXCHN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albright, Alan E.; Dixon, Charles J.; Hegedus, Martin C.

    1996-01-01

    A conceptual/preliminary design level subsonic aerodynamic prediction code HASC (High Angle of Attack Stability and Control) has been improved in several areas, validated, and documented. The improved code includes improved methodologies for increased accuracy and robustness, and simplified input/output files. An engineering method called VTXCHN (Vortex Chine) for prediciting nose vortex shedding from circular and non-circular forebodies with sharp chine edges has been improved and integrated into the HASC code. This report contains a summary of modifications, description of the code, user's guide, and validation of HASC. Appendices include discussion of a new HASC utility code, listings of sample input and output files, and a discussion of the application of HASC to buffet analysis.

  14. Aerodynamic heating and surface temperatures on vehicles for computer-aided design studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejarnette, F. R.; Kania, L. A.; Chitty, A.

    1983-01-01

    A computer subprogram has been developed to calculate aerodynamic and radiative heating rates and to determine surface temperatures by integrating the heating rates along the trajectory of a vehicle. Convective heating rates are calculated by applying the axisymmetric analogue to inviscid surface streamlines and using relatively simple techniques to calculate laminar, transitional, or turbulent heating rates. Options are provided for the selection of gas model, transition criterion, turbulent heating method, Reynolds Analogy factor, and entropy-layer swallowing effects. Heating rates are compared to experimental data, and the time history of surface temperatures are given for a high-speed trajectory. The computer subprogram is developed for preliminary design and mission analysis where parametric studies are needed at all speeds.

  15. A comparison of two closely-related approaches to aerodynamic design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shubin, G. R.; Frank, P. D.

    1991-01-01

    Two related methods for aerodynamic design optimization are compared. The methods, called the implicit gradient approach and the variational (or optimal control) approach, both attempt to obtain gradients necessary for numerical optimization at a cost significantly less than that of the usual black-box approach that employs finite difference gradients. While the two methods are seemingly quite different, they are shown to differ (essentially) in that the order of discretizing the continuous problem, and of applying calculus, is interchanged. Under certain circumstances, the two methods turn out to be identical. We explore the relationship between these methods by applying them to a model problem for duct flow that has many features in common with transonic flow over an airfoil. We find that the gradients computed by the variational method can sometimes be sufficiently inaccurate to cause the optimization to fail.

  16. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE). The aerodynamic and mechanical design of the QCSEE over-the-wing fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The aerodynamic and mechanical design of a fixed-pitch 1.36 pressure ratio fan for the over-the-wing (OTW) engine is presented. The fan has 28 blades. Aerodynamically, the fan blades were designed for a composite blade, but titanium blades were used in the experimental fan as a cost savings measure.

  17. Aerodynamic Design of Heavy Vehicles Reporting Period January 15, 2004 through April 15, 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, A; Chatelain, P; Heineck, J; Browand, F; Mehta, R; Ortega, J; Salari, K; Storms, B; Brown, J; DeChant, L; Rubel, M; Ross, J; Hammache, M; Pointer, D; Roy, C; Hassan, B; Arcas, D; Hsu, T; Payne, J; Walker, S; Castellucci, P; McCallen, R

    2004-04-13

    Listed are summaries of the activities and accomplishments during this second-quarter reporting period for each of the consortium participants. The following are some highlights for this reporting period: (1) Experiments and computations guide conceptual designs for reduction of drag due to tractor-trailer gap flow (splitter plate), trailer underbody (wedges), and base drag (base-flap add-ons). (2) Steady and unsteady RANS simulations for the GTS geometry are being finalized for development of clear modeling guidelines with RANS. (3) Full geometry and tunnel simulations on the GCM geometry are underway. (4) CRADA with PACCAR is supporting computational parametric study to determine predictive need to include wind tunnel geometry as limits of computational domain. (5) Road and track test options are being investigated. All is ready for field testing of base-flaps at Crows Landing in California in collaboration with Partners in Advanced Transportation Highways (PATH). In addition, MAKA of Canada is providing the device and Wabash is providing a new trailer. (6) Apparatus to investigate tire splash and spray has been designed and is under construction. Michelin has offered tires with customized threads for this study. (7) Vortex methods have improved techniques for the treatment of vorticity near surfaces and spinning geometries like rotating tires. (8) Wind tunnel experiments on model rail cars demonstrate that empty coal cars exhibit substantial aerodynamic drag compared to full coal cars, indicating that significant fuel savings could be obtained by reducing the drag of empty coal cars. (9) Papers are being prepared for an exclusive conference session on the Heavy Vehicle DOE Aerodynamic Drag Project at the 34th AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference in Portland, Oregon, June 28-July 1, 2004.

  18. The light airplane : modern theoretical aerodynamics as applied to light airplane design with a series of charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driggs, Ivan H

    1925-01-01

    T.M. 311 gave a short outline of modern theoretical aerodynamics as applied to light airplane design. This discussion may have been somewhat obscure to the nontechnical reader. A series of charts or curves should serve to clear up such obscurity as well as to more definitely emphasize those quantities most important for each flight characteristic.

  19. Development of a Computer-Aided-Design-Based Geometry and Mesh Movement Algorithm for Three-Dimensional Aerodynamic Shape Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Anh Hoang

    This thesis focuses on the development of a Computer-Aided-Design (CAD)-based geometry parameterization method and a corresponding surface mesh movement algorithm suitable for three-dimensional aerodynamic shape optimization. The geometry parameterization method includes a geometry control tool to aid in the construction and manipulation of a CAD geometry through a vendor-neutral application interface, CAPRI. It automates the tedious part of the construction phase involving data entry and provides intuitive and effective design variables that allow for both the flexibility and the precision required to control the movement of the geometry. The surface mesh movement algorithm, on the other hand, transforms an initial structured surface mesh to fit the new geometry using a discrete representation of the new CAD surface provided by CAPRI. Using a unique mapping procedure, the algorithm not only preserves the characteristics of the original surface mesh, but also guarantees that the new mesh points are on the CAD geometry. The new surface mesh is then smoothed in the parametric space before it is transformed back into three-dimensional space. The procedure is efficient in that all the processing is done in the parametric space, incurring minimal computational cost. The geometry parameterization and mesh movement tools are integrated into a three-dimensional shape optimization framework, with a linear-elasticity volume-mesh movement algorithm, a Newton-Krylov flow solver for the Euler equations, and a gradient-based optimizer. The validity and accuracy of the CAD-based optimization algorithm are demonstrated through a number of verification and optimization cases.

  20. Development of a three-dimensional multistage inverse design method for aerodynamic matching of axial compressor blading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rooij, Michael P. C.

    Current turbomachinery design systems increasingly rely on multistage Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) as a means to assess performance of designs. However, design weaknesses attributed to improper stage matching are addressed using often ineffective strategies involving a costly iterative loop between blading modification, revision of design intent, and evaluation of aerodynamic performance. A design methodology is presented which greatly improves the process of achieving design-point aerodynamic matching. It is based on a three-dimensional viscous inverse design method which generates the blade camber surface based on prescribed pressure loading, thickness distribution and stacking line. This inverse design method has been extended to allow blading analysis and design in a multi-blade row environment. Blade row coupling was achieved through a mixing plane approximation. Parallel computing capability in the form of MPI has been implemented to reduce the computational time for multistage calculations. Improvements have been made to the flow solver to reach the level of accuracy required for multistage calculations. These include inclusion of heat flux, temperature-dependent treatment of viscosity, and improved calculation of stress components and artificial dissipation near solid walls. A validation study confirmed that the obtained accuracy is satisfactory at design point conditions. Improvements have also been made to the inverse method to increase robustness and design fidelity. These include the possibility to exclude spanwise sections of the blade near the endwalls from the design process, and a scheme that adjusts the specified loading area for changes resulting from the leading and trailing edge treatment. Furthermore, a pressure loading manager has been developed. Its function is to automatically adjust the pressure loading area distribution during the design calculation in order to achieve a specified design objective. Possible objectives are overall

  1. Aerodynamic Design and Numerical Analysis of Supersonic Turbine for Turbo Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Chao; Zou, Zhengping; Kong, Qingguo; Cheng, Honggui; Zhang, Weihao

    2016-09-01

    Supersonic turbine is widely used in the turbo pump of modern rocket. A preliminary design method for supersonic turbine has been developed considering the coupling effects of turbine and nozzle. Numerical simulation has been proceeded to validate the feasibility of the design method. As the strong shockwave reflected on the mixing plane, additional numerical simulated error would be produced by the mixing plane model in the steady CFD. So unsteady CFD is employed to investigate the aerodynamic performance of the turbine and flow field in passage. Results showed that the preliminary design method developed in this paper is suitable for designing supersonic turbine. This periodical variation of complex shockwave system influences the development of secondary flow, wake and shock-boundary layer interaction, which obviously affect the secondary loss in vane passage. The periodical variation also influences the strength of reflecting shockwave, which affects the profile loss in vane passage. Besides, high circumferential velocity at vane outlet and short blade lead to high radial pressure gradient, which makes the low kinetic energy fluid moves towards hub region and produces additional loss.

  2. The DELTA MONSTER: An RPV designed to investigate the aerodynamics of a delta wing platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Kristen; Flynn, Mike; Gallagher, Randy; Greek, Chris; Kozlowski, Marc; Mcdonald, Brian; Mckenna, Matt; Sellar, Rich; Shearon, Andy

    1989-01-01

    The mission requirements for the performance of aerodynamic tests on a delta wind planform posed some problems, these include aerodynamic interference; structural support; data acquisition and transmission instrumentation; aircraft stability and control; and propulsion implementation. To eliminate the problems of wall interference, free stream turbulence, and the difficulty of achieving dynamic similarity between the test and actual flight aircraft that are associated with aerodynamic testing in wind tunnels, the concept of the remotely piloted vehicle which can perform a basic aerodynamic study on a delta wing was the main objective for the Green Mission - the Delta Monster. The basic aerodynamic studies were performed on a delta wing with a sweep angle greater than 45 degrees. These tests were performed at various angles of attack and Reynolds numbers. The delta wing was instrumented to determine the primary leading edge vortex formation and location, using pressure measurements and/or flow visualization. A data acquisition system was provided to collect all necessary data.

  3. Monte Carlo procedure for protein design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irbäck, Anders; Peterson, Carsten; Potthast, Frank; Sandelin, Erik

    1998-11-01

    A method for sequence optimization in protein models is presented. The approach, which has inherited its basic philosophy from recent work by Deutsch and Kurosky [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 323 (1996)] by maximizing conditional probabilities rather than minimizing energy functions, is based upon a different and very efficient multisequence Monte Carlo scheme. By construction, the method ensures that the designed sequences represent good folders thermodynamically. A bootstrap procedure for the sequence space search is devised making very large chains feasible. The algorithm is successfully explored on the two-dimensional HP model [K. F. Lau and K. A. Dill, Macromolecules 32, 3986 (1989)] with chain lengths N=16, 18, and 32.

  4. Influence of Reynolds Number on Multi-Objective Aerodynamic Design of a Wind Turbine Blade

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Mingwei; Fang, Le; Tian, De

    2015-01-01

    At present, the radius of wind turbine rotors ranges from several meters to one hundred meters, or even more, which extends Reynolds number of the airfoil profile from the order of 105 to 107. Taking the blade for 3MW wind turbines as an example, the influence of Reynolds number on the aerodynamic design of a wind turbine blade is studied. To make the study more general, two kinds of multi-objective optimization are involved: one is based on the maximum power coefficient (CPopt) and the ultimate load, and the other is based on the ultimate load and the annual energy production (AEP). It is found that under the same configuration, the optimal design has a larger CPopt or AEP (CPopt//AEP) for the same ultimate load, or a smaller load for the same CPopt//AEP at higher Reynolds number. At a certain tip-speed ratio or ultimate load, the blade operating at higher Reynolds number should have a larger chord length and twist angle for the maximum Cpopt//AEP. If a wind turbine blade is designed by using an airfoil database with a mismatched Reynolds number from the actual one, both the load and Cpopt//AEP will be incorrectly estimated to some extent. In some cases, the assessment error attributed to Reynolds number is quite significant, which may bring unexpected risks to the earnings and safety of a wind power project. PMID:26528815

  5. Influence of Reynolds Number on Multi-Objective Aerodynamic Design of a Wind Turbine Blade.

    PubMed

    Ge, Mingwei; Fang, Le; Tian, De

    2015-01-01

    At present, the radius of wind turbine rotors ranges from several meters to one hundred meters, or even more, which extends Reynolds number of the airfoil profile from the order of 105 to 107. Taking the blade for 3MW wind turbines as an example, the influence of Reynolds number on the aerodynamic design of a wind turbine blade is studied. To make the study more general, two kinds of multi-objective optimization are involved: one is based on the maximum power coefficient (CPopt) and the ultimate load, and the other is based on the ultimate load and the annual energy production (AEP). It is found that under the same configuration, the optimal design has a larger CPopt or AEP (CPopt//AEP) for the same ultimate load, or a smaller load for the same CPopt//AEP at higher Reynolds number. At a certain tip-speed ratio or ultimate load, the blade operating at higher Reynolds number should have a larger chord length and twist angle for the maximum Cpopt//AEP. If a wind turbine blade is designed by using an airfoil database with a mismatched Reynolds number from the actual one, both the load and Cpopt//AEP will be incorrectly estimated to some extent. In some cases, the assessment error attributed to Reynolds number is quite significant, which may bring unexpected risks to the earnings and safety of a wind power project.

  6. Influence of Reynolds Number on Multi-Objective Aerodynamic Design of a Wind Turbine Blade.

    PubMed

    Ge, Mingwei; Fang, Le; Tian, De

    2015-01-01

    At present, the radius of wind turbine rotors ranges from several meters to one hundred meters, or even more, which extends Reynolds number of the airfoil profile from the order of 105 to 107. Taking the blade for 3MW wind turbines as an example, the influence of Reynolds number on the aerodynamic design of a wind turbine blade is studied. To make the study more general, two kinds of multi-objective optimization are involved: one is based on the maximum power coefficient (CPopt) and the ultimate load, and the other is based on the ultimate load and the annual energy production (AEP). It is found that under the same configuration, the optimal design has a larger CPopt or AEP (CPopt//AEP) for the same ultimate load, or a smaller load for the same CPopt//AEP at higher Reynolds number. At a certain tip-speed ratio or ultimate load, the blade operating at higher Reynolds number should have a larger chord length and twist angle for the maximum Cpopt//AEP. If a wind turbine blade is designed by using an airfoil database with a mismatched Reynolds number from the actual one, both the load and Cpopt//AEP will be incorrectly estimated to some extent. In some cases, the assessment error attributed to Reynolds number is quite significant, which may bring unexpected risks to the earnings and safety of a wind power project. PMID:26528815

  7. NASP aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, Allen H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the critical aerodynamic technologies needed to support the development of a class of aircraft represented by the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). The air-breathing, single-stage-to-orbit mission presents a severe challenge to all of the aeronautical disciplines and demands an extension of the state-of-the-art in each technology area. While the largest risk areas are probably advanced materials and the development of the scramjet engine, there remains a host of design issues and technology problems in aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, and propulsion integration. The paper presents an overview of the most significant propulsion integration problems, and defines the most critical fluid flow phenomena that must be evaluated, defined, and predicted for the class of aircraft represented by the Aero-Space Plane.

  8. Redesigned rotor for a highly loaded, 1800 ft/sec tip speed compressor fan stage 1: Aerodynamic and mechanical design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halle, J. E.; Ruschak, J. T.

    1975-01-01

    A highly loaded, high tip-speed fan rotor was designed with multiple-circular-arc airfoil sections as a replacement for a marginally successful rotor which had precompression airfoil sections. The substitution of airfoil sections was the only aerodynamic change. Structural design of the redesigned rotor blade was guided by successful experience with the original blade. Calculated stress levels and stability parameters for the redesigned rotor are within limits demonstrated in tests of the original rotor.

  9. Integrating aerodynamics and structures in the minimum weight design of a supersonic transport wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.; Wrenn, Gregory A.; Dovi, Augustine R.; Coen, Peter G.; Hall, Laura E.

    1992-01-01

    An approach is presented for determining the minimum weight design of aircraft wing models which takes into consideration aerodynamics-structure coupling when calculating both zeroth order information needed for analysis and first order information needed for optimization. When performing sensitivity analysis, coupling is accounted for by using a generalized sensitivity formulation. The results presented show that the aeroelastic effects are calculated properly and noticeably reduce constraint approximation errors. However, for the particular example selected, the error introduced by ignoring aeroelastic effects are not sufficient to significantly affect the convergence of the optimization process. Trade studies are reported that consider different structural materials, internal spar layouts, and panel buckling lengths. For the formulation, model and materials used in this study, an advanced aluminum material produced the lightest design while satisfying the problem constraints. Also, shorter panel buckling lengths resulted in lower weights by permitting smaller panel thicknesses and generally, by unloading the wing skins and loading the spar caps. Finally, straight spars required slightly lower wing weights than angled spars.

  10. The engine design engine. A clustered computer platform for the aerodynamic inverse design and analysis of a full engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanz, J.; Pischel, K.; Hubler, D.

    1992-01-01

    An application for parallel computation on a combined cluster of powerful workstations and supercomputers was developed. A Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) is used as message passage language on a macro-tasking parallelization of the Aerodynamic Inverse Design and Analysis for a Full Engine computer code. The heterogeneous nature of the cluster is perfectly handled by the controlling host machine. Communication is established via Ethernet with the TCP/IP protocol over an open network. A reasonable overhead is imposed for internode communication, rendering an efficient utilization of the engaged processors. Perhaps one of the most interesting features of the system is its versatile nature, that permits the usage of the computational resources available that are experiencing less use at a given point in time.

  11. Aerodynamic Characteristics at High Speeds of Full-Scale Propellers having Different Shank Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Julian D.

    1947-01-01

    Tests of two 10-foot-diameter two-blade propellers which differed only in shank design have been made in the Langley 16-foot high-speed tunnel. The propellers are designated by their blade design numbers, NACA 10-(5)(08)-03, which had aerodynamically efficient airfoil shank sections, and NACA l0-(5)(08)-03R which had thick cylindrical shank sections typical of conventiona1 blades, The propellers mere tested on a 2000-horsepower dynamometer through a range of blade-angles from 20deg to 55deg at various rotational speeds and at airspeeds up to 496 miles per hour. The resultant tip speeds obtained simulate actual flight conditions, and the variation of air-stream Mach number with advance ratio is within the range of full-scale constant-speed propeller operation. Both propellers were very efficient, the maximum envelope efficiency being approximately 0,95 for the NACA 10-(5)(08)-03 propeller and about 5 percent less for the NACA 10-(5)(08)-03R propeller. Based on constant power and rotational speed, the efficiency of the NACA 10-(05)(08)-03 propeller was from 2.8 to 12 percent higher than that of the NACA 10-(5)(08)-03R propeller over a range of airspeeds from 225 to 450 miles per hour. The loss in maximum efficiency at the design blade angle for the NACA 10-(5)(08)-03 and 10-(5)(08)-03R propellers vas about 22 and 25 percent, respectively, for an increase in helical tip Mach number from 0.70 to 1.14.

  12. Design and Execution of the Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator Large-Article Wind Tunnel Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassell, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    The testing of 3- and 6-meter diameter Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) test articles was completed in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 40 ft x 80 ft Wind Tunnel test section. Both models were stacked tori, constructed as 60 degree half-angle sphere cones. The 3-meter HIAD was tested in two configurations. The first 3-meter configuration utilized an instrumented flexible aerodynamic skin covering the inflatable aeroshell surface, while the second configuration employed a flight-like flexible thermal protection system. The 6-meter HIAD was tested in two structural configurations (with and without an aft-mounted stiffening torus near the shoulder), both utilizing an instrumented aerodynamic skin.

  13. 40 CFR 240.206-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.206-2 Recommended procedures: Design. Thermal processing facilities should be designed for ease...

  14. 40 CFR 240.206-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.206-2 Recommended procedures: Design. Thermal processing facilities should be designed for ease...

  15. 40 CFR 240.206-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.206-2 Recommended procedures: Design. Thermal processing facilities should be designed for ease...

  16. 40 CFR 240.208-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.208-2 Recommended procedures: Design. Thermal processing facilities should be so designed as...

  17. 40 CFR 240.208-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.208-2 Recommended procedures: Design. Thermal processing facilities should be so designed as...

  18. 40 CFR 240.208-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.208-2 Recommended procedures: Design. Thermal processing facilities should be so designed as...

  19. 40 CFR 240.208-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.208-2 Recommended procedures: Design. Thermal processing facilities should be so designed as...

  20. 40 CFR 240.206-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.206-2 Recommended procedures: Design. Thermal processing facilities should be designed for ease...

  1. 40 CFR 240.206-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.206-2 Recommended procedures: Design. Thermal processing facilities should be designed for ease...

  2. An aerodynamic analysis computer program and design notes for low speed wing flap systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, H. W.; Walkley, K. B.

    1983-01-01

    The expanded capabilities for analysis and design of low speed flap systems afforded by recent modifications of an existing computer program is described. The program provides for the simultaneous analysis of up to 25 pairs of leading-edge and trailing-edge flap deflection schedules. Among other new features of the program are a revised attainable thrust estimation method to provide more accurate predictions for low Mach numbers, and a choice of three options for estimation of leading-edge separation vortex flow effects. Comparison of program results with low speed experimental data for an arrow wing supersonic cruise configuration with leading-edge and trailing-edge flaps showed good agreement over most of the range of flap deflections. Other force data comparisons and an independent study of airfoil and wing pressure distributions indicated that wind-tunnel measurements of the aerodynamic performance of twisted and cambered wings and wings with leading-edge flaps can be very sensitive to Reynolds number effects.

  3. Towards Exploratory Aerodynamic Design using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, David Tai Shun

    The aerodynamic optimization framework Jetstream is applied to problems involving lift-constrained drag minimization using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. A parallel Newton-Krylov algorithm is used to solve the governing equations on multiblock structured meshes; gradients are computed using the discrete-adjoint method. Geometry parameterization and mesh movement are integrated using B-spline control volumes. Drag minimization studies from past works are revisited and strategies are devised to improve optimization convergence. These strategies include linear constraints for geometric feasibility, robust flow solver parameters, and meshing with an O-O topology. The single-point and multi-point optimization of the NASA Common Research Model (CRM) wing geometry is presented. A rectangular NACA0012 wing is optimized with planform design variables, enabling significant changes in span, sweep, taper, and airfoil section. To demonstrate Jetstream's flexibility, a wing based on the B737-900 is optimized with nonplanar winglets, split-tip, and wingtip fence configurations. Finally, the box-wing optimization in subsonic flow is revisited.

  4. Venus In Situ Explorer Mission design using a mechanically deployed aerodynamic decelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, B.; Venkatapathy, E.; Wercinski, P.; Yount, B.; Prabhu, D.; Gage, P.; Glaze, L.; Baker, C.

    The Venus In Situ Explorer (VISE) Mission addresses the highest priority science questions within the Venus community outlined in the National Research Council's Decadal Survey. The heritage Venus atmospheric entry system architecture, a 45° sphere-cone rigid aeroshell with a carbon phenolic thermal protection system, may no longer be the preferred entry system architecture compared to other viable alternatives being explored at NASA. A mechanically-deployed aerodynamic decelerator, known as the Adaptive Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT), is an entry system alternative that can provide key operational benefits and risk reduction compared to a rigid aeroshell. This paper describes a mission feasibility study performed with the objectives of identifying potential adverse interactions with other mission elements and establishing requirements on decelerator performance. Feasibility is assessed through a launch-to-landing mission design study where the Venus Intrepid Tessera Lander (VITaL), a VISE science payload designed to inform the Decadal Survey results, is repackaged from a rigid aeroshell into the ADEPT decelerator. It is shown that ADEPT reduces the deceleration load on VITaL by an order of magnitude relative to a rigid aeroshell. The more benign entry environment opens up the VISE mission design environment for increased science return, reduced risk, and reduced cost. The ADEPT-VITAL mission concept of operations is presented and details of the entry vehicle structures and mechanisms are given. Finally, entry aerothermal analysis is presented that defines the operational requirements for a revolutionary structural-TPS material employed by ADEPT: three-dimensionally woven carbon cloth. Ongoing work to mitigate key risks identified in this feasibility study is presented.

  5. 17 CFR 38.3 - Procedures for designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONTRACT MARKETS § 38.3 Procedures for designation. (a) Application procedures. (1) Statutory (180-day) review procedures. A board of trade desiring to be designated as a contract market shall file an... Commission will review the application for designation as a contract market pursuant to the 180-day...

  6. Systems design study of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 1. Technical analyses and tradeoffs, section 7 (part 3 of 4). [aerodynamic design problems for small probe reentry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The aerodynamic design problems for the Pioneer Venus mission are discussed for a small probe shape that enters the atmosphere, and exhibits good stability for the subsonic portion of the flight. The problems discussed include: heat shield, structures and mechanisms, thermal control, decelerator, probe communication, data handling and command, and electric power.

  7. Aerodynamic characteristics of a rotorcraft airfoil designed for the tip region of a main rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noonan, Kevin W.

    1991-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the 2-D aerodynamic characteristics of a new rotorcraft airfoil designed for application to the tip region (stations outboard of 85 pct. radius) of a helicopter main rotor blade. The new airfoil, the RC(6)-08, and a baseline airfoil, the RC(3)-08, were investigated in the Langley 6- by 28-inch transonic tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.37 to 0.90. The Reynolds number varied from 5.2 x 10(exp 6) at the lowest Mach number to 9.6 x 10(exp 6) at the highest Mach number. Some comparisons were made of the experimental data for the new airfoil and the predictions of a transonic, viscous analysis code. The results of the investigation indicate that the RC(6)-08 airfoil met the design goals of attaining higher maximum lift coefficients than the baseline airfoil while maintaining drag divergence characteristics at low lift and pitching moment characteristics nearly the same as those of the baseline airfoil. The maximum lift coefficients of the RC(6)-08 varied from 1.07 at M=0.37 to 0.94 at M=0.52 while those of the RC(3)-08 varied from 0.91 to 0.85 over the same Mach number range. At lift coefficients of -0.1 and 0, the drag divergence Mach number of both the RC(6)-08 and the RC(3)-08 was 0.86. The pitching moment coefficients of the RC(6)-08 were less negative than those of the RC(3)-08 for Mach numbers and lift coefficients typical of those that would occur on a main rotor blade tip at high forward speeds on the advancing side of the rotor disk.

  8. Aerodynamic optimization by simultaneously updating flow variables and design parameters with application to advanced propeller designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizk, Magdi H.

    1988-01-01

    A scheme is developed for solving constrained optimization problems in which the objective function and the constraint function are dependent on the solution of the nonlinear flow equations. The scheme updates the design parameter iterative solutions and the flow variable iterative solutions simultaneously. It is applied to an advanced propeller design problem with the Euler equations used as the flow governing equations. The scheme's accuracy, efficiency and sensitivity to the computational parameters are tested.

  9. Integrated design and manufacturing for the high speed civil transport (a combined aerodynamics/propulsion optimization study)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baecher, Juergen; Bandte, Oliver; DeLaurentis, Dan; Lewis, Kemper; Sicilia, Jose; Soboleski, Craig

    1995-01-01

    This report documents the efforts of a Georgia Tech High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aerospace student design team in completing a design methodology demonstration under NASA's Advanced Design Program (ADP). Aerodynamic and propulsion analyses are integrated into the synthesis code FLOPS in order to improve its prediction accuracy. Executing the integrated product and process development (IPPD) methodology proposed at the Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory (ASDL), an improved sizing process is described followed by a combined aero-propulsion optimization, where the objective function, average yield per revenue passenger mile ($/RPM), is constrained by flight stability, noise, approach speed, and field length restrictions. Primary goals include successful demonstration of the application of the response surface methodolgy (RSM) to parameter design, introduction to higher fidelity disciplinary analysis than normally feasible at the conceptual and early preliminary level, and investigations of relationships between aerodynamic and propulsion design parameters and their effect on the objective function, $/RPM. A unique approach to aircraft synthesis is developed in which statistical methods, specifically design of experiments and the RSM, are used to more efficiently search the design space for optimum configurations. In particular, two uses of these techniques are demonstrated. First, response model equations are formed which represent complex analysis in the form of a regression polynomial. Next, a second regression equation is constructed, not for modeling purposes, but instead for the purpose of optimization at the system level. Such an optimization problem with the given tools normally would be difficult due to the need for hard connections between the various complex codes involved. The statistical methodology presents an alternative and is demonstrated via an example of aerodynamic modeling and planform optimization for a HSCT.

  10. An analytical design procedure for the determination of effective leading edge extensions on thick delta wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffari, F.; Chaturvedi, S. K.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical design procedure for leading edge extensions (LEE) was developed for thick delta wings. This LEE device is designed to be mounted to a wing along the pseudo-stagnation stream surface associated with the attached flow design lift coefficient of greater than zero. The intended purpose of this device is to improve the aerodynamic performance of high subsonic and low supersonic aircraft at incidences above that of attached flow design lift coefficient, by using a vortex system emanating along the leading edges of the device. The low pressure associated with these vortices would act on the LEE upper surface and the forward facing area at the wing leading edges, providing an additional lift and effective leading edge thrust recovery. The first application of this technique was to a thick, round edged, twisted and cambered wing of approximately triangular planform having a sweep of 58 deg and aspect ratio of 2.30. The panel aerodynamics and vortex lattice method with suction analogy computer codes were employed to determine the pseudo-stagnation stream surface and an optimized LEE planform shape.

  11. High-Tip-Speed, Low-Loading Transonic Fan Stage. Part 1: Aerodynamic and Mechanical Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, L. C.; Vitale, N. G.; Ware, T. C.; Erwin, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    A high-tip-speed, low-loading transonic fan stage was designed to deliver an overall pressure ratio of 1.5 with an adiabatic efficiency of 86 percent. The design flow per unit annulus area is 42.0 pounds per square foot. The fan features a hub/tip ratio of 0.46, a tip diameter of 28.74 in. and operates at a design tip speed of 1600 fps. For these design conditions, the rotor blade tip region operates with supersonic inlet and supersonic discharge relative velocities. A sophisticated quasi-three-dimensional characteristic section design procedure was used for the all-supersonic sections and the inlet of the midspan transonic sections. For regions where the relative outlet velocities are supersonic, the blade operates with weak oblique shocks only.

  12. Computational Design and Analysis of a Micro-Tab Based Aerodynamic Loads Control System for Lifting Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dam, C P; Nakafuji, D Y; Bauer, C; Chao, D; Standish, K

    2002-11-01

    A computational design and analysis of a microtab based aerodynamic loads control system is presented. The microtab consists of a small tab that emerges from a wing approximately perpendicular to its surface in the vicinity of its trailing edge. Tab deployment on the upper side of the wing causes a decrease in the lift generation whereas deployment on the pressure side causes an increase. The computational methods applied in the development of this concept solve the governing Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations on structured, overset grids. The application of these methods to simulate the flows over lifting surface including the tabs has been paramount in the development of these devices. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the microtab and that it is possible to carry out a sensitivity analysis on the positioning and sizing of the tabs before they are implemented in successfully controlling the aerodynamic loads.

  13. A general design for energy test procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan

    2000-06-15

    Appliances are increasingly controlled by microprocessors. Unfortunately, energy test procedures have not been modified to capture the positive and negative contributions of the microprocessor to the appliance's energy use. A new test procedure is described which captures both the mechanical and logical features present in many new appliances. We developed an energy test procedure for refrigerators that incorporates most aspects of the proposed new approach. Some of the strengths and weaknesses of the new test are described.

  14. Design procedures for flutter-free surface panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurenson, R. M.; Mcpherson, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    An approach for the design of lightweight external surface panel configurations to preclude panel flutter was developed. Design procedures were developed for flat orthotropic panels under the interacting influence of parameters such as support flexibility, inplane loads, pressure differential, and flow angularity. The basic relationships required to define these design procedures were based on theoretical panel flutter analyses. Where possible, the design procedures were verified through comparison with available experimental panel flutter data.

  15. Design of control laws for flutter suppression based on the aerodynamic energy concept and comparisons with other design methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, Eli

    1990-01-01

    The aerodynamic energy method is used to synthesize control laws for NASA's drone for aerodynamic and structural testing-aerodynamic research wing 1 (DAST-ARW1) mathematical model. The performance of these control laws in terms of closed-loop flutter dynamic pressure, control surface activity, and robustness is compared with other control laws that relate to the same model. A control law synthesis technique that makes use of the return difference singular values is developed. It is based on the aerodynamic energy approach and is shown to yield results that are superior to those results given in the literature and are based on optimal control theory. Nyquist plots are presented, together with a short discussion regarding the relative merits of the minimum singular value as a measure of robustness as compared with the more traditional measure involving phase and gain margins.

  16. Supersonic Aerodynamic Design Improvements of an Arrow-Wing HSCT Configuration Using Nonlinear Point Design Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unger, Eric R.; Hager, James O.; Agrawal, Shreekant

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the supersonic nonlinear point design optimization efforts at McDonnell Douglas Aerospace under the High-Speed Research (HSR) program. The baseline for these optimization efforts has been the M2.4-7A configuration which represents an arrow-wing technology for the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Optimization work on this configuration began in early 1994 and continued into 1996. Initial work focused on optimization of the wing camber and twist on a wing/body configuration and reductions of 3.5 drag counts (Euler) were realized. The next phase of the optimization effort included fuselage camber along with the wing and a drag reduction of 5.0 counts was achieved. Including the effects of the nacelles and diverters into the optimization problem became the next focus where a reduction of 6.6 counts (Euler W/B/N/D) was eventually realized. The final two phases of the effort included a large set of constraints designed to make the final optimized configuration more realistic and they were successful albeit with a loss of performance.

  17. In-Trail Procedure (ITP) Algorithm Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2007-01-01

    The primary objective of this document is to provide a detailed description of the In-Trail Procedure (ITP) algorithm, which is part of the Airborne Traffic Situational Awareness In-Trail Procedure (ATSA-ITP) application. To this end, the document presents a high level description of the ITP Algorithm and a prototype implementation of this algorithm in the programming language C.

  18. 21 CFR 26.66 - Designation and listing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM... COMMUNITY âFrameworkâ Provisions § 26.66 Designation and listing procedures. The following procedures...

  19. Ultra high tip speed (670.6 m/sec) fan stage with composite rotor: Aerodynamic and mechanical design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halle, J. E.; Burger, G. D.; Dundas, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    A highly loaded, single-stage compressor having a tip speed of 670.6 m/sec was designed for the purpose of investigating very high tip speeds and high aerodynamic loadings to obtain high stage pressure ratios at acceptable levels of efficiency. The design pressure ratio is 2.8 at an adiabatic efficiency of 84.4%. Corrected design flow is 83.4 kg/sec; corrected design speed is 15,200 rpm; and rotor inlet tip diameter is 0.853 m. The rotor uses multiple-circular-arc airfoils from 0 to 15% span, precompression airfoils assuming single, strong oblique shocks from 21 to 43% span, and precompression airfoils assuming multiple oblique shocks from 52% span to the tip. Because of the high tip speeds, the rotor blades are designed to be fabricated of composite materials. Two composite materials were investigated: Courtaulds HTS graphite fiber in a Kerimid 601 polyimide matrix and the same fibers in a PMR polyimide matrix. In addition to providing a description of the aerodynamic and mechanical design of the 670.0 m/sec fan, discussion is presented of the results of structural tests of blades fabricated with both types of matrices.

  20. Computation of radar cross section with the coupling of aerodynamic performance in a multidisciplinary design optimization of aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seng Muy

    The computation or prediction of plane wave scattering widths is one of the major design considerations of future aircraft and weapon systems. The control of scattering and penetration of electromagnetic waves is the primary objective of emerging low observable technology. The task in computing the electromagnetic backscattered field of an airframe structure is by no means a new endeavor. Whereas predicting a minimal backscattered field return under the manipulation of airframe geometry in the context of multidisciplinary design is considered the most prudent approach to obtain the optimal solution. The objective of this paper is to develop a mathematical method to couple the backscattered field with the defined aerodynamic performance constraints in the design process of future airframes. This paper will address the basic concept of integrating the radio frequency (RF) backscattered field or electromagnetic (EM) discipline with the Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) methodology. The development of the MDO system is complex and the result appears to be intractable and time consuming despite the availability of high-speed super computers. Due to the fact that many disciplines and analyses were implemented with various optimization methods and techniques, such as the Finite Element Method (FEM), Method of Moment (MoM), the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method, the integration of multiple individual disciplines with various software coding formats would be the most difficult task. In spite of this expected challenge, this paper will address: (a) The effects and benefits of employing the EM discipline in MDO systems in preliminary configuration design of aircraft structure. (b) The criteria to minimize backscattered field return while maximizing aerodynamic performance and the methods of optimization, trade-off, and implementation. (c) The integration issue of electromagnetic discipline into the grand scheme of MDO. Furthermore, this paper explores the

  1. Off-design computer code for calculating the aerodynamic performance of axial-flow fans and compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, James F.

    1995-01-01

    An off-design axial-flow compressor code is presented and is available from COSMIC for predicting the aerodynamic performance maps of fans and compressors. Steady axisymmetric flow is assumed and the aerodynamic solution reduces to solving the two-dimensional flow field in the meridional plane. A streamline curvature method is used for calculating this flow-field outside the blade rows. This code allows for bleed flows and the first five stators can be reset for each rotational speed, capabilities which are necessary for large multistage compressors. The accuracy of the off-design performance predictions depend upon the validity of the flow loss and deviation correlation models. These empirical correlations for the flow loss and deviation are used to model the real flow effects and the off-design code will compute through small reverse flow regions. The input to this off-design code is fully described and a user's example case for a two-stage fan is included with complete input and output data sets. Also, a comparison of the off-design code predictions with experimental data is included which generally shows good agreement.

  2. Aerodynamic Design of Axial-flow Compressors. VI - Experimental Flow in Two-Dimensional Cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieblein, Seymour

    1955-01-01

    Available experimental two-dimensional cascade data for conventional compressor blade sections are correlated at a reference incidence angle in the region of minimum loss. Variations of reference incidence angle, total-pressure loss, and deviation angle with cascade geometry, inlet Mach number, and Reynolds number are investigated. From the analysis and the correlations of the available data, rules and relations are evolved for the prediction of blade-profile performance. These relations are developed in simplified forms readily applicable to compressor design procedures.

  3. Aerodynamic design applying automatic differentiation and using robust variable fidelity optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemiya, Tetsushi

    , and that (2) the AMF terminates optimization erroneously when the optimization problems have constraints. The first problem is due to inaccuracy in computing derivatives in the AMF, and the second problem is due to erroneous treatment of the trust region ratio, which sets the size of the domain for an optimization in the AMF. In order to solve the first problem of the AMF, automatic differentiation (AD) technique, which reads the codes of analysis models and automatically generates new derivative codes based on some mathematical rules, is applied. If derivatives are computed with the generated derivative code, they are analytical, and the required computational time is independent of the number of design variables, which is very advantageous for realistic aerospace engineering problems. However, if analysis models implement iterative computations such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD), which solves system partial differential equations iteratively, computing derivatives through the AD requires a massive memory size. The author solved this deficiency by modifying the AD approach and developing a more efficient implementation with CFD, and successfully applied the AD to general CFD software. In order to solve the second problem of the AMF, the governing equation of the trust region ratio, which is very strict against the violation of constraints, is modified so that it can accept the violation of constraints within some tolerance. By accepting violations of constraints during the optimization process, the AMF can continue optimization without terminating immaturely and eventually find the true optimum design point. With these modifications, the AMF is referred to as "Robust AMF," and it is applied to airfoil and wing aerodynamic design problems using Euler CFD software. The former problem has 21 design variables, and the latter 64. In both problems, derivatives computed with the proposed AD method are first compared with those computed with the finite

  4. A Multi-Year Program Plan for the Aerodynamic Design of Heavy Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2001-09-01

    The project tasks and deliverables are as follows: Computations and Experiments--(1) Simulation and analysis of a range of generic shapes, simplified to more complex, representative of tractor and integrated tractor-trailer flow characteristics using computational tools, (2) The establishment of an experimental data base for tractor-trailer models for code/computational method development and validation. The first shapes to be considered will be directed towards the investigation of tractor-trailer gaps and mismatch of tractor-trailer heights. (3) The evaluation and documentation of effective computational approaches for application to heavy vehicle aerodynamics based on the benchmark results with existing and advanced computational tools compared to experimental data, and (4) Computational tools and experimental methods for use by industry, National Laboratories, and universities for the aerodynamic modeling of heavy truck vehicles. Evaluation of current and new technologies--(1) The evaluation and documentation of current and new technologies for drag reduction based on published literature and continued communication with the heavy vehicle industry (e.g., identification and prioritization of tractor-trailer drag-sources, blowing and/or suction devices, body shaping, new experimental methods or facilities), and the identification and analysis of tractor and integrated tractor-trailer aerodynamic problem areas and possible solution strategies. (2) Continued industrial site visits. It should be noted that ''CFD tools'' are not only the actual computer codes, but descriptions of appropriate numerical solution methods. Part of the project effort will be to determine the restrictions or avenues for technology transfer.

  5. Aerodynamic performances of three fan stator designs operating with rotor having tip speed of 337 meters per second and pressure ratio of 1.54. 1: Experimental performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelder, T. F.

    1980-01-01

    The aerodynamic performances of four stator-blade rows are presented and evaluated. The aerodynamic designs of two of these stators were compromised to reduce noise, a third design was not. On a calculated operating line passing through the design point pressure ratio, the best stator had overall pressure-ratio and efficiency decrements of 0.031 and 0.044, respectively, providing a stage pressure ratio of 1.483 and efficiency of 0.865. The other stators showed some correctable deficiencies due partly to the design compromises for noise. In the end-wall regions blade-element losses were significantly less for the shortest chord studied.

  6. Analytical procedure validation and the quality by design paradigm.

    PubMed

    Rozet, Eric; Lebrun, Pierre; Michiels, Jean-François; Sondag, Perceval; Scherder, Tara; Boulanger, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Since the adoption of the ICH Q8 document concerning the development of pharmaceutical processes following a quality by design (QbD) approach, there have been many discussions on the opportunity for analytical procedure developments to follow a similar approach. While development and optimization of analytical procedure following QbD principles have been largely discussed and described, the place of analytical procedure validation in this framework has not been clarified. This article aims at showing that analytical procedure validation is fully integrated into the QbD paradigm and is an essential step in developing analytical procedures that are effectively fit for purpose. Adequate statistical methodologies have also their role to play: such as design of experiments, statistical modeling, and probabilistic statements. The outcome of analytical procedure validation is also an analytical procedure design space, and from it, control strategy can be set.

  7. Simplified design procedures for fiber composite structural components/joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, P. L. N.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1990-01-01

    Simplified step-by-step design procedures are summarized, which are suitable for the preliminary design of composite structural components such as panels (laminates) and composite built-up structures (box beams). Similar procedures are also summarized for the preliminary design of composite bolted and adhesively bonded joints. The summary is presented in terms of sample design cases complemented with typical results. Guidelines are provided which can be used in the design selection process of composite structural components/joints. Also, procedures to account for cyclic loads, hygrothermal effects and lamination residual stresses are included.

  8. The development and application of aerodynamic uncertainties in the design of the entry trajectory and flight control system of the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, J. D.; Young, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    In connection with the decision to conduct with the Shuttle an orbital, manned mission on its first launch, certain problems arose related to mission safety, which had to be provided without the benefit of either a graduated flight test program or an initial unmanned flight concept. In an attempt to overcome these problems, the philosophy was adopted to provide a reasonable estimate of maximum possible errors in the preflight predicted aerodynamics. The flight control system (FCS) was to be certified on the basis of the estimated errors prior to STS-1. A set of 'worst case' aerodynamic uncertainties, defined as variations, was developed. As part of the first flight certification, variations, combined with other system uncertainties, were used to 'stress' the FCS through a multitude of simulations. Attention is given to an Orbiter description, the entry mission, the correlation of aerodynamic uncertainties, the application of aerodynamic variation in FCS and trajectory design, and the flight test results.

  9. Aerodynamic potpourri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Aerodynamic developments for vertical axis and horizontal axis wind turbines are given that relate to the performance and aerodynamic loading of these machines. Included are: (1) a fixed wake aerodynamic model of the Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine; (2) experimental results that suggest the existence of a laminar flow Darrieus vertical axis turbine; (3) a simple aerodynamic model for the turbulent windmill/vortex ring state of horizontal axis rotors; and (4) a yawing moment of a rigid hub horizontal axis wind turbine that is related to blade coning.

  10. Aerodynamic potpourri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. E.

    1981-05-01

    Aerodynamic developments for vertical axis and horizontal axis wind turbines are given that relate to the performance and aerodynamic loading of these machines. Included are: (1) a fixed wake aerodynamic model of the Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine; (2) experimental results that suggest the existence of a laminar flow Darrieus vertical axis turbine; (3) a simple aerodynamic model for the turbulent windmill/vortex ring state of horizontal axis rotors; and (4) a yawing moment of a rigid hub horizontal axis wind turbine that is related to blade coning.

  11. Numerical investigation of the aerodynamic performance for the newly designed cavity vane type vertical axis wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suffer, K. H.; Usubamatov, R.; Quadir, G. A.; Ismail, K. A.

    2015-05-01

    Research and development activities in the field of renewable energy, especially wind and solar, have been considerably increased, due to the worldwide energy crisis and high global emission. However, the available technical designs are not yet adequate to develop a reliable distributed wind energy converter for low wind speed conditions. The last few years have proved that Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) are more suitable for urban areas than Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs). To date, very little has been published in this area to assess good performance and lifetime of VAWTs either in open or urban areas. The power generated by vertical axis wind turbines is strongly dependent on the aerodynamic performance of the turbines. The main goal of this current research is to investigate numerically the aerodynamic performance of a newly designed cavity type vertical axis wind turbine. In the current new design the power generated depends on the drag force generated by the individual blades and interactions between them in a rotating configuration. For numerical investigation, commercially available computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software GAMBIT and FLUENT were used. In this numerical analysis the Shear Stress Transport (SST) k-ω turbulence model is used which is better than the other turbulence models available as suggested by some researchers. The computed results show good agreement with published experimental results.

  12. Hydrodynamic and Aerodynamic Tests of Models of Flying-boat Hulls Designed Flow Aerodynamic Drag - NACA Models 74, 74-A, and 75

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truscott, Starr; Parkinson, J B; Ebert, John W , Jr; Valentine, E Floyd

    1938-01-01

    The present tests illustrate how the aerodynamic drag of a flying boat hull may be reduced by following closely the form of a low drag aerodynamic body and the manner in which the extent of the aerodynamic refinement is limited by poorer hydrodynamic performance. This limit is not sharply defined but is first evidenced by an abnormal flow of water over certain parts of the form accompanied by a sharp increase in resistance. In the case of models 74-A and 75, the resistance (sticking) occurs only at certain combinations of speed, load, and trim and can be avoided by proper control of the trim at high water speeds. Model 75 has higher water resistance at very high speeds than does model 74-A. With constant speed propellers and high takeoff speeds, it appears that the form of model 75 would give slightly better takeoff performance. Model 74-A, however, has lower aerodynamic drag than does model 75 for the same volume of hull.

  13. Simple procedure for schematic design of passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, W.O.; Kosiewicz, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    A simple procedure for use during the schematic phase of passive solar building design is presented in this article. The procedure is quantitative and accurate enough to insure that designs based on the provided starting point values of the primary building parameters will be cost effective.

  14. Statistical design of mass spectrometry calibration procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Bayne, C.K.

    1996-11-01

    The main objective of this task was to agree on calibration procedures to estimate the system parameters (i.e., dead-time correction, ion-counting conversion efficiency, and detector efficiency factors) for SAL`s new Finnigan MAT-262 mass spectrometer. SAL will use this mass spectrometer in a clean-laboratory which was opened in December 1995 to measure uranium and plutonium isotopes on environmental samples. The Finnigan MAT-262 mass spectrometer has a multi-detector system with seven Faraday cup detectors and one ion- counter for the measurement of very small signals (e.g. 10{sup -17} Ampere range). ORNL has made preliminary estimates of the system parameters based on SAL`s experimental data measured in late 1994 when the Finnigan instrument was relatively new. SAL generated additional data in 1995 to verify the calibration procedures for estimating the dead-time correction factor, the ion-counting conversion factor and the Faraday cup detector efficiency factors. The system parameters estimated on the present data will have to be reestablished when the Finnigan MAT-262 is moved-to the new clean- laboratory. Different methods will be used to analyzed environmental samples than the current measurement methods being used. For example, the environmental samples will be electroplated on a single filament rather than using the current two filament system. An outline of the calibration standard operating procedure (SOP) is included.

  15. Aerodynamic Shutoff Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horstman, Raymond H.

    1992-01-01

    Aerodynamic flow achieved by adding fixed fairings to butterfly valve. When valve fully open, fairings align with butterfly and reduce wake. Butterfly free to turn, so valve can be closed, while fairings remain fixed. Design reduces turbulence in flow of air in internal suction system. Valve aids in development of improved porous-surface boundary-layer control system to reduce aerodynamic drag. Applications primarily aerospace. System adapted to boundary-layer control on high-speed land vehicles.

  16. Aerodynamic design of a Coanda induced force and thruster anti-torque system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velkoff, Henry R.; Tung, Chee

    1991-01-01

    A general method of analysis of the external and internal aerodynamics of a generic Coanda induced circulation anti-torque system is presented. The technique gives moment about the yaw axis and download induced on the boom as well as the force developed by an aft jet. The external flows including downwash, wake swirl and the boom circulation are considered. The internal flow and losses through the duct, fan, blown slots, cascades and nozzle are considered on a step-by-step basis. Limited comparison is made with open data where available.

  17. Assessment of two fast codes used for preliminary aerodynamic design of guided projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhail, Ameer G.

    1986-07-01

    Two missile aerodynamic prediction fast codes, namely NSWCAP and Missile-DATCOM, have been applied to the geometry of the guided, gun-launched Copperhead projectile. Assessment of the two codes was made in comparison with wind tunnel and free-flight range test data. Two configurations were considered for computation: the launch configuration (body-tail) in the Mach range of 0.5 to 1.8 and the maneuvering configuration (body-wing-tail) in the Mach range of 0.3 to 0.95. Results show reasonable agreement for the drag coefficient, C sub D, and show very large disagreements for both C sub N sub alpha and C sub M sub alpha. The incapability of both codes to include body slots and fin gap effects seems to have contributed largely to these differences. The dynamic derivatives C sub l sub p and (C sub M sub q + C sub M sub alpha) are not adequately estimated by the NSWCAP code, and are not calculated in the DATCOM code. For the coefficients actually computed, the DATCOM code results were slightly more accurate than those of the NSWCAP code. Both codes lack the determination of the explicit effects of control surface deflection angles on the aerodynamic coefficients. Development is needed for the determination if both codes are to be used for predictions for guided projectiles. Several areas of improvements in both codes are identified.

  18. Lobed Mixer Design for Noise Suppression: Plume, Aerodynamic and Acoustic Data. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengle, Vinod G.; Baker, V. David; Dalton, William N.; Bridges, James (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive database for the acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics of several model-scale lobe mixers of bypass ratio 5 to 6 has been created for mixed jet speeds up to 1080 ft per s at typical take-off (TO) conditions of small-to-medium turbofan engines. The flight effect was simulated for Mach numbers up to 0.3. The static thrust performance and plume data were also obtained at typical TO and cruise conditions. The tests were done at NASA Lewis anechoic dome and ASE's FluiDyne Laboratories. The effect of several lobe mixer and nozzle parameters, such as, lobe scalloping, lobe count, lobe penetration and nozzle length was examined in terms of flyover noise at constant altitude and also noise in the reference frame of the nozzle. This volume is divided into three parts: in the first two parts, we collate the plume survey data in graphical form (line, contour and surface plots) and analyze it; in part 3, we tabulate the aerodynamic data for the acoustics tests and the acoustic data in one-third octave band levels.

  19. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 13 percent thick medium speed airfoil designed for general aviation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcghee, R. J.; Beasley, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to determine the low speed, two dimensional aerodynamic characteristics of a 13percent thick medium speed airfoil designed for general aviation applications. The results were compared with data for the 13 percent thick low speed airfoil. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.10 to 0.32, a chord Reynolds number range from 2.0 x 10 to the 6th power to 12.0 x 10 to the 6th power, and an angle of attack frange from about -8 deg to 10 deg. The objective of retaining good high-lift low speed characteristics for an airfoil designed to have good medium speed cruise performance was achieved.

  20. JSC Design and Procedural Standards, JSC-STD-8080

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Punch, Danny T.

    2011-01-01

    This document provides design and procedural requirements appropriate for inclusion in specifications for any human spaceflight program, project, spacecraft, system, or end item. The term "spacecraft" as used in the standards includes launch vehicles, orbital vehicles, non-terrestrial surface vehicles, and modules. The standards are developed and maintained as directed by Johnson Space Center (JSC) Policy Directive JPD 8080.2, JSC Design and Procedural Standards for Human Space Flight Equipment. The Design and Procedural Standards contained in this manual represent human spacecraft design and operational knowledge applicable to a wide range of spaceflight activities. These standards are imposed on JSC human spaceflight equipment through JPD 8080.2. Designers shall comply with all design standards applicable to their design effort.

  1. Efficient algorithms for future aircraft design: Contributions to aerodynamic shape optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicken, Jason Edward

    Advances in numerical optimization have raised the possibility that efficient and novel aircraft configurations may be "discovered" by an algorithm. To begin exploring this possibility, a fast and robust set of tools for aerodynamic shape optimization is developed. Parameterization and mesh-movement are integrated to accommodate large changes in the geometry. This integrated approach uses a coarse B-spline control grid to represent the geometry and move the computational mesh; consequently, the mesh-movement algorithm is two to three orders faster than a node-based linear elasticity approach, without compromising mesh quality. Aerodynamic analysis is performed using a flow solver for the Euler equations. The governing equations are discretized using summation-by-parts finite-difference operators and simultaneous approximation terms, which permit C0 mesh continuity at block interfaces. The discretization results in a set of nonlinear algebraic equations, which are solved using an efficient parallel Newton-Krylov-Schur strategy. A gradient-based optimization algorithm is adopted. The gradient is evaluated using adjoint variables for the flow and mesh equations in a sequential approach. The flow adjoint equations are solved using a novel variant of the Krylov solver GCROT. This variant of GCROT is flexible to take advantage of non-stationary preconditioners and is shown to outperform restarted flexible GMRES. The aerodynamic optimizer is applied to several studies of induced-drag minimization. An elliptical lift distribution is recovered by varying spanwise twist, thereby validating the algorithm. Planform optimization based on the Euler equations produces a nonelliptical lift distribution, in contrast with the predictions of lifting-line theory. A study of spanwise vertical shape optimization confirms that a winglet-up configuration is more efficient than a winglet-down configuration. A split-tip geometry is used to explore nonlinear wake-wing interactions: the

  2. 40 CFR 240.204-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204-2 Recommended procedures: Design. (a) Effluent waters should not be discharged indiscriminately. Consideration should be given to onsite treatment of process and waste waters before...

  3. 40 CFR 240.200-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... stumps, large timbers, furniture, and major appliances), digested and dewatered sludges from waste water... WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.200-2 Recommended procedures: Design. (a) In addition to the residential and commercial...

  4. 40 CFR 243.200-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... certified by the National Sanitation Foundation. Single-use bags containing food wastes should be stored... WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE STORAGE AND COLLECTION OF RESIDENTIAL, COMMERCIAL, AND INSTITUTIONAL SOLID WASTE Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 243.200-2 Recommended procedures: Design. (a)...

  5. 40 CFR 243.200-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... certified by the National Sanitation Foundation. Single-use bags containing food wastes should be stored... WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE STORAGE AND COLLECTION OF RESIDENTIAL, COMMERCIAL, AND INSTITUTIONAL SOLID WASTE Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 243.200-2 Recommended procedures: Design. (a)...

  6. 40 CFR 243.200-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... certified by the National Sanitation Foundation. Single-use bags containing food wastes should be stored... WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE STORAGE AND COLLECTION OF RESIDENTIAL, COMMERCIAL, AND INSTITUTIONAL SOLID WASTE Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 243.200-2 Recommended procedures: Design. (a)...

  7. 40 CFR 240.200-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... stumps, large timbers, furniture, and major appliances), digested and dewatered sludges from waste water... WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.200-2 Recommended procedures: Design. (a) In addition to the residential and commercial...

  8. Aerodynamic characteristics of the ventilated design for flapping wing micro air vehicle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G Q; Yu, S C M

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by superior flight performance of natural flight masters like birds and insects and based on the ventilating flaps that can be opened and closed by the changing air pressure around the wing, a new flapping wing type has been proposed. It is known that the net lift force generated by a solid wing in a flapping cycle is nearly zero. However, for the case of the ventilated wing, results for the net lift force are positive which is due to the effect created by the "ventilation" in reducing negative lift force during the upstroke. The presence of moving flaps can serve as the variable in which, through careful control of the areas, a correlation with the decrease in negative lift can be generated. The corresponding aerodynamic characteristics have been investigated numerically by using different flapping frequencies and forward flight speeds. PMID:24683339

  9. Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Ventilated Design for Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, G. Q.; Yu, S. C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by superior flight performance of natural flight masters like birds and insects and based on the ventilating flaps that can be opened and closed by the changing air pressure around the wing, a new flapping wing type has been proposed. It is known that the net lift force generated by a solid wing in a flapping cycle is nearly zero. However, for the case of the ventilated wing, results for the net lift force are positive which is due to the effect created by the “ventilation” in reducing negative lift force during the upstroke. The presence of moving flaps can serve as the variable in which, through careful control of the areas, a correlation with the decrease in negative lift can be generated. The corresponding aerodynamic characteristics have been investigated numerically by using different flapping frequencies and forward flight speeds. PMID:24683339

  10. SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURE FOR DESIGNING PROCESSES WITH MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of multiple objectives is very important in designing environmentally benign processes. It requires a systematic procedure for solving multiobjective decision-making problems, due to the complex nature of the problems, the need for complex assessments, and complicated ...

  11. The design of fibre-reinforced composite blades for passive and active wind turbine rotor aerodynamic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaolis, Nicos M.

    An alternative method of varying the pitch of wind turbine rotor blades is examined, which relies on the use of fiber reinforced composite materials to design the blades so as to develop elastic coupling between an applied load of a generally twisting and non-twisting nature. With such an approach, twist can be obtained either by using one of the forces experienced by the blade during operation to alter passively the blade pitch, or by internal pressurization to control actively the blade pitch by varying the pressure. The passive control option is considered in detail. First the relevant composite construction geometries that produce the desired coupling effect are identified and then a theoretical model is developed. This is also used to explore the variation in coupling and stiffness properties with the fiber orientation. Various materials are considered including glass, aramid, and carbon fiber epoxy composites. Subsequently, the structural model is confirmed experimentally by a series of tests on composite, foam-cored beams specially designed and manufactured for this purpose. It is then combined with existing aerodynamic theories in order to model the performance of horizontal and vertical axis rotors employing such blades. The effect of passively induced twist on the aerodynamic performance is examined both theoretically and experimentally. Additionally, a simplified dynamic model is developed to obtain a general idea on how built-in elastic coupling may affect the dynamic stability of a horizontal axis rotor system. The active control option is considered in general as an alternative mechanism of inducing twist. The relevant theory is derived and illustrated with examples, and the realistic practicability of this concept is discussed. To validate the theory, a composite cylindrical shell has been designed, manufactured and tested under pressure.

  12. Applied computational aerodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Henne, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The present volume discusses the original development of the panel method, the mapping solutions and singularity distributions of linear potential schemes, the capabilities of full-potential, Euler, and Navier-Stokes schemes, the use of the grid-generation methodology in applied aerodynamics, subsonic airfoil design, inverse airfoil design for transonic applications, the divergent trailing-edge airfoil innovation in CFD, Euler and potential computational results for selected aerodynamic configurations, and the application of CFD to wing high-lift systems. Also discussed are high-lift wing modifications for an advanced-capability EA-6B aircraft, Navier-Stokes methods for internal and integrated propulsion system flow predictions, the use of zonal techniques for analysis of rotor-stator interaction, CFD applications to complex configurations, CFD applications in component aerodynamic design of the V-22, Navier-Stokes computations of a complete F-16, CFD at supersonic/hypersonic speeds, and future CFD developments.

  13. The strengths and weaknesses of Computational Fluid Mechanics (CFM) in aerodynamic design and analysis. Part 1: Background and philosophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, B.; Marchbank, W. R.; Hewitt, B. L.

    The capabilities of modern theoretical methods for predicting some of the more important types of aerodynamic flow are summarized and the likelihood of their development and acceptance as routine, mainstream tools of the aircraft aerodynamicist are discussed. The impact of the new generation of computers and the associated numerical algorithms on the ability to solve large systems of differential equations, significantly reducing the need for expensive, time-consuming wind-tunnel tests and transforming aircraft design from a black art to an exact science is examined. The concept of validation of computational fluid mechanics methods is developed, involving the assessment of the accuracy with which the numerical method solves the boundary value problem posed. The methods discussed include linearized potential flow methods, nonlinear potential flow methods, the transonic small perturbation theory and exact inviscid flow methods.

  14. Modeling of pulverized coal combustion processes in a vortex furnace of improved design. Part 1: Flow aerodynamics in a vortex furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasinsky, D. V.; Salomatov, V. V.; Anufriev, I. S.; Sharypov, O. V.; Shadrin, E. Yu.; Anikin, Yu. A.

    2015-02-01

    Some results of the complex experimental and numerical study of aerodynamics and transfer processes in a vortex furnace, whose design was improved via the distributed tangential injection of fuel-air flows through the upper and lower burners, were presented. The experimental study of the aerodynamic characteristics of a spatial turbulent flow was performed on the isothermal laboratory model (at a scale of 1 : 20) of an improved vortex furnace using a laser Doppler measurement system. The comparison of experimental data with the results of the numerical modeling of an isothermal flow for the same laboratory furnace model demonstrated their agreement to be acceptable for engineering practice.

  15. The application of aerodynamic uncertainties in the design of the entry trajectory and flight control system of the space shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    The process used in the application of aerodynamic uncertainties for the design and verification of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Entry Flight Control System is presented. The uncertainties were used to help set center of gravity, angle of attack and dynamic pressure lateral control divergence parameter as well as C sub n sub beta dynamic were instrumental in setting these placards.

  16. Approach, Design and Procedure: Their Role in Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jack C.; Rodgers, Ted

    Three interrelated pedagogical elements--approach, design, and procedure--are basic in a discussion of language teaching. Approach defines those foundational assumptions, beliefs, and theories about the nature of language and language learning. Design specifies the relationships of theories to both the form and use of instructional materials.…

  17. Lobed Mixer Design for Noise Suppression Acoustic and Aerodynamic Test Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengle, Vinod G.; Dalton, William N.; Boyd, Kathleen (Technical Monitor); Bridges, James (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive database for the acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics of several model-scale lobe mixers of bypass ratio 5 to 6 has been created for mixed jet speeds up to 1080 ft/s at typical take-off (TO) conditions of small-to-medium turbofan engines. The flight effect was simulated for Mach numbers up to 0.3. The static thrust performance and plume data were also obtained at typical TO and cruise conditions. The tests were done at NASA Lewis anechoic dome and ASK's FluiDyne Laboratories. The effect of several lobe mixer and nozzle parameters, such as, lobe scalloping, lobe count, lobe penetration and nozzle length was examined in terms of flyover noise at constant altitude. Sound in the nozzle reference frame was analyzed to understand the source characteristics. Several new concepts, mechanisms and methods are reported for such lobed mixers, such as, "boomerang" scallops, "tongue" mixer, detection of "excess" internal noise sources, and extrapolation of flyover noise data from one flight speed to different flight speeds. Noise reduction of as much as 3 EPNdB was found with a deeply scalloped mixer compared to annular nozzle at net thrust levels of 9500 lb for a 29 in. diameter nozzle after optimizing the nozzle length.

  18. Geometry Control System for Exploratory Shape Optimization Applied to High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Design of Unconventional Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Hugo

    This thesis represents a step forward to bring geometry parameterization and control on par with the disciplinary analyses involved in shape optimization, particularly high-fidelity aerodynamic shape optimization. Central to the proposed methodology is the non-uniform rational B-spline, used here to develop a new geometry generator and geometry control system applicable to the aerodynamic design of both conventional and unconventional aircraft. The geometry generator adopts a component-based approach, where any number of predefined but modifiable (parametric) wing, fuselage, junction, etc., components can be arbitrarily assembled to generate the outer mold line of aircraft geometry. A unique Python-based user interface incorporating an interactive OpenGL windowing system is proposed. Together, these tools allow for the generation of high-quality, C2 continuous (or higher), and customized aircraft geometry with fast turnaround. The geometry control system tightly integrates shape parameterization with volume mesh movement using a two-level free-form deformation approach. The framework is augmented with axial curves, which are shown to be flexible and efficient at parameterizing wing systems of arbitrary topology. A key aspect of this methodology is that very large shape deformations can be achieved with only a few, intuitive control parameters. Shape deformation consumes a few tenths of a second on a single processor and surface sensitivities are machine accurate. The geometry control system is implemented within an existing aerodynamic optimizer comprising a flow solver for the Euler equations and a sequential quadratic programming optimizer. Gradients are evaluated exactly with discrete-adjoint variables. The algorithm is first validated by recovering an elliptical lift distribution on a rectangular wing, and then demonstrated through the exploratory shape optimization of a three-pronged feathered winglet leading to a span efficiency of 1.22 under a height

  19. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE): The aerodynamic and mechanical design of the QCSEE under-the-wing fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of two experimental high bypass geared turbofan engines and propulsion systems for short haul passenger aircraft are described. The aerodynamic and mechanical design of a variable pitch 1.34 pressure ratio fan for the under the wing (UTW) engine are included. The UTW fan was designed to permit rotation of the 18 composite fan blades into the reverse thrust mode of operation through both flat pitch and stall pitch directions.

  20. Unsteady aerodynamics of blade rows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdon, Joseph M.

    1989-01-01

    The requirements placed on an unsteady aerodynamic theory intended for turbomachinery aeroelastic or aeroacoustic applications are discussed along with a brief description of the various theoretical models that are available to address these requirements. The major emphasis is placed on the description of a linearized inviscid theory which fully accounts for the affects of a nonuniform mean or steady flow on unsteady aerodynamic response. Although this linearization was developed primarily for blade flutter prediction, more general equations are presented which account for unsteady excitations due to incident external aerodynamic disturbances as well as those due to prescribed blade motions. The motivation for this linearized unsteady aerodynamic theory is focused on, its physical and mathematical formulation is outlined and examples are presented to illustrate the status of numerical solution procedures and several effects of mean flow nonuniformity on unsteady aerodynamic response.

  1. Multilevel decomposition approach to integrated aerodynamic/dynamic/structural optimization of helicopter rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Joanne L.; Young, Katherine C.; Pritchard, Jocelyn I.; Adelman, Howard M.; Mantay, Wayne R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated aerodynamic, dynamic, and structural (IADS) optimization procedure for helicopter rotor blades. The procedure combines performance, dynamics, and structural analyses with a general purpose optimizer using multilevel decomposition techniques. At the upper level, the structure is defined in terms of local quantities (stiffnesses, mass, and average strains). At the lower level, the structure is defined in terms of local quantities (detailed dimensions of the blade structure and stresses). The IADS procedure provides an optimization technique that is compatible with industrial design practices in which the aerodynamic and dynamic design is performed at a global level and the structural design is carried out at a detailed level with considerable dialogue and compromise among the aerodynamic, dynamic, and structural groups. The IADS procedure is demonstrated for several cases.

  2. Integrated aerodynamic/dynamic/structural optimization of helicopter rotor blades using multilevel decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Joanne L.; Young, Katherine C.; Pritchard, Jocelyn I.; Adelman, Howard M.; Mantay, Wayne R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated aerodynamic/dynamic/structural (IADS) optimization procedure for helicopter rotor blades. The procedure combines performance, dynamics, and structural analyses with a general-purpose optimizer using multilevel decomposition techniques. At the upper level, the structure is defined in terms of global quantities (stiffness, mass, and average strains). At the lower level, the structure is defined in terms of local quantities (detailed dimensions of the blade structure and stresses). The IADS procedure provides an optimization technique that is compatible with industrial design practices in which the aerodynamic and dynamic designs are performed at a global level and the structural design is carried out at a detailed level with considerable dialog and compromise among the aerodynamic, dynamic, and structural groups. The IADS procedure is demonstrated for several examples.

  3. Aerodynamic performance of conventional and advanced design labyrinth seals with solid-smooth abradable, and honeycomb lands. [gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, H. L.; Cox, D. M.; Holle, G. F.

    1977-01-01

    Labyrinth air seal static and dynamic performance was evaluated using solid, abradable, and honeycomb lands with standard and advanced seal designs. The effects on leakage of land surface roughness, abradable land porosity, rub grooves in abradable lands, and honeycomb land cell size and depth were studied using a standard labyrinth seal. The effects of rotation on the optimum seal knife pitch were also investigated. Selected geometric and aerodynamic parameters for an advanced seal design were evaluated to derive an optimized performance configuration. The rotational energy requirements were also measured to determine the inherent friction and pumping energy absorbed by the various seal knife and land configurations tested in order to properly assess the net seal system performance level. Results indicate that: (1) seal leakage can be significantly affected with honeycomb or abradable lands; (2) rotational energy absorption does not vary significantly with the use of a solid-smooth, an abradable, or a honeycomb land; and (3) optimization of an advanced lab seal design produced a configuration that had leakage 25% below a conventional stepped seal.

  4. Numerical methods and a computer program for subsonic and supersonic aerodynamic design and analysis of wings with attainable thrust considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, H. W.; Walkley, K. B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes methodology and an associated computer program for the design of wing lifting surfaces with attainable thrust taken into consideration. The approach is based on the determination of an optimum combination of a series of candidate surfaces rather than the more commonly used candidate loadings. Special leading-edge surfaces are selected to provide distributed leading-edge thrust forces which compensate for any failure to achieve the full theoretical leading-edge thrust, and a second series of general candidate surfaces is selected to minimize drag subject to constraints on the lift coefficient and, if desired, on the pitching moment coefficient. A primary purpose of the design approach is the introduction of attainable leading-edge thrust considerations so that relatively mild camber surfaces may be employed in the achievement of aerodynamic efficiencies comparable to those attainable if full theoretical leading-edge thrust could be achieved. The program provides an analysis as well as a design capability and is applicable to both subsonic and supersonic flow.

  5. Development of direct-inverse 3-D methods for applied transonic aerodynamic wing design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Leland A.

    1989-01-01

    Progress in the direct-inverse wing design method in curvilinear coordinates has been made. This includes the remedying of a spanwise oscillation problem and the assessment of grid skewness, viscous interaction, and the initial airfoil section on the final design. It was found that, in response to the spanwise oscillation problem that designing at every other spanwise station produced the best results for the cases presented, a smoothly varying grid is especially needed for the accurate design at the wing tip, the boundary layer displacement thicknesses must be included in a successful wing design, the design of high and medium aspect ratio wings is possible with this code, and the final airfoil section designed is fairly independent of the initial section.

  6. Strain measurement of objects subjected to aerodynamic heating using digital image correlation: experimental design and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Pan, Bing; Jiang, Tianyun; Wu, Dafang

    2014-11-01

    In thermomechanical testing of hypersonic materials and structures, direct observation and quantitative strain measurement of the front surface of a test specimen directly exposed to severe aerodynamic heating has been considered as a very challenging task. In this work, a novel quartz infrared heating device with an observation window is designed to reproduce the transient thermal environment experienced by hypersonic vehicles. The specially designed experimental system allows the capture of test article's surface images at various temperatures using an optical system outfitted with a bandpass filter. The captured images are post-processed by digital image correlation to extract full-field thermal deformation. To verify the viability and accuracy of the established system, thermal strains of a chromiumnickel austenite stainless steel sample heated from room temperature up to 600 °C were determined. The preliminary results indicate that the air disturbance between the camera and the specimen due to heat haze induces apparent distortions in the recorded images and large errors in the measured strains, but the average values of the measured strains are accurate enough. Limitations and further improvements of the proposed technique are discussed.

  7. Strain measurement of objects subjected to aerodynamic heating using digital image correlation: experimental design and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Pan, Bing; Jiang, Tianyun; Wu, Dafang

    2014-11-01

    In thermomechanical testing of hypersonic materials and structures, direct observation and quantitative strain measurement of the front surface of a test specimen directly exposed to severe aerodynamic heating has been considered as a very challenging task. In this work, a novel quartz infrared heating device with an observation window is designed to reproduce the transient thermal environment experienced by hypersonic vehicles. The specially designed experimental system allows the capture of test article's surface images at various temperatures using an optical system outfitted with a bandpass filter. The captured images are post-processed by digital image correlation to extract full-field thermal deformation. To verify the viability and accuracy of the established system, thermal strains of a chromiumnickel austenite stainless steel sample heated from room temperature up to 600 °C were determined. The preliminary results indicate that the air disturbance between the camera and the specimen due to heat haze induces apparent distortions in the recorded images and large errors in the measured strains, but the average values of the measured strains are accurate enough. Limitations and further improvements of the proposed technique are discussed. PMID:25430144

  8. An analytical framework for the design and comparative analysis of galloping energy harvesters under quasi-steady aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibo, Amin; Daqaq, Mohammed F.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a generalized formulation, analysis, and optimization of energy harvesters subjected to galloping and base excitations. The harvester consists of a cantilever beam with a bluff body attached at the free end. A nondimensional lumped-parameter model which accounts for the combined loading and different electro-mechanical transduction mechanisms is presented. The aerodynamic loading is modeled using the quasi-steady assumption with polynomial approximation. A nonlinear analysis is carried out and an approximate analytical solution is obtained. A dimensional analysis is performed to identify the important parameters that affect the system's response. The analysis of the response is divided into two parts. The first treats a harvester subjected to only galloping excitations. It is shown that, for a given shape of the bluff body and under quasi-steady flow conditions, the harvester's dimensionless response can be described by a single universal curve irrespective to the geometric, mechanical, and electrical design parameters of the harvester. In the second part, a harvester under concurrent galloping and base excitations is analyzed. It is shown that, the total output power depends on three dimensionless loading parameters; wind speed, base excitation amplitude, and excitation frequency. The response curves of the harvester are generated in terms of the loading parameters. These curves can serve as a complete design guide for scaling and optimizing the performance of galloping-based harvesters.

  9. 40 CFR 228.4 - Procedures for designation of sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 228.4 Section 228.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.4 Procedures for designation... permits. Areas where ocean dumping is permitted subject to the specific conditions of individual...

  10. 40 CFR 228.4 - Procedures for designation of sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 228.4 Section 228.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.4 Procedures for designation... permits. Areas where ocean dumping is permitted subject to the specific conditions of individual...

  11. 40 CFR 228.4 - Procedures for designation of sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 228.4 Section 228.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.4 Procedures for designation... permits. Areas where ocean dumping is permitted subject to the specific conditions of individual...

  12. 40 CFR 240.209-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Design. 240.209-2 Section 240.209-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended...

  13. 40 CFR 240.210-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Design. 240.210-2 Section 240.210-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended...

  14. 40 CFR 240.207-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Design. 240.207-2 Section 240.207-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended...

  15. 40 CFR 240.205-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Design. 240.205-2 Section 240.205-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended...

  16. 40 CFR 240.205-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Design. 240.205-2 Section 240.205-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended...

  17. 40 CFR 240.209-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Recommended procedures: Design. 240.209-2 Section 240.209-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended...

  18. 40 CFR 240.209-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Design. 240.209-2 Section 240.209-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended...

  19. 40 CFR 240.207-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Design. 240.207-2 Section 240.207-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended...

  20. 40 CFR 240.205-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Recommended procedures: Design. 240.205-2 Section 240.205-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended...

  1. 40 CFR 240.204-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Design. 240.204-2 Section 240.204-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended...

  2. 40 CFR 240.211-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Design. 240.211-2 Section 240.211-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended...

  3. 40 CFR 240.205-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Design. 240.205-2 Section 240.205-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended...

  4. 40 CFR 240.207-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Design. 240.207-2 Section 240.207-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended...

  5. 40 CFR 240.204-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Recommended procedures: Design. 240.204-2 Section 240.204-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended...

  6. 40 CFR 240.205-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Design. 240.205-2 Section 240.205-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended...

  7. 40 CFR 240.204-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Design. 240.204-2 Section 240.204-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended...

  8. 40 CFR 240.210-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Design. 240.210-2 Section 240.210-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended...

  9. 40 CFR 240.207-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Recommended procedures: Design. 240.207-2 Section 240.207-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended...

  10. 40 CFR 228.4 - Procedures for designation of sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.4 Procedures for designation... permits. Areas where ocean dumping is permitted subject to the specific conditions of individual special... studies for the evaluation and potential selection of dumping sites will be conducted in accordance...

  11. 40 CFR 240.201-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... carcasses, automobile bodies, dewatered sludges from water treatment plants, and industrial process wastes. ... WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures... or excluded wastes inadvertently left at the facility should be considered in design. (b) Examples...

  12. 40 CFR 228.4 - Procedures for designation of sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.4 Procedures for designation... environmental studies of each site, regions adjacent to the site, and on historical knowledge of the impact of... environmental studies of each site, regions adjacent to the site, and on historical knowledge of the impact...

  13. 21 CFR 26.66 - Designation and listing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Designation and listing procedures. 26.66 Section 26.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL...

  14. 21 CFR 26.66 - Designation and listing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Designation and listing procedures. 26.66 Section 26.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL...

  15. 40 CFR 240.201-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... carcasses, automobile bodies, dewatered sludges from water treatment plants, and industrial process wastes. ... WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures... or excluded wastes inadvertently left at the facility should be considered in design. (b) Examples...

  16. A SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURE FOR DESIGNING PROCESSES WITH MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation and analysis of multiple objectives are very important in designing environmentally benign processes. They require a systematic procedure for solving multi-objective decision-making problems due to the complex nature of the problems and the need for complex assessment....

  17. Design and Construction Procedures for Public School Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    Confusion and frustration can often accompany local school boards of education and facilities designers who attempt to meet classroom facilities needs pursuant to North Carolina legislative requirements when building or renovating schools. This booklet identifies a number of procedures, regulations, and agencies associated with the construction of…

  18. 40 CFR 240.210-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Design. 240.210-2 Section 240.210-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended...

  19. 40 CFR 240.209-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Design. 240.209-2 Section 240.209-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended...

  20. 40 CFR 240.211-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Design. 240.211-2 Section 240.211-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended...

  1. 40 CFR 240.211-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Recommended procedures: Design. 240.211-2 Section 240.211-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended...

  2. 40 CFR 240.210-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Recommended procedures: Design. 240.210-2 Section 240.210-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended...

  3. 40 CFR 240.211-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Design. 240.211-2 Section 240.211-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended...

  4. Aerodynamic design of turbomachinery blading in three-dimensional flow - An application to radial inflow turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Y. L.; Tan, C. S.; Hawthorne, W. R.

    1992-01-01

    A computational method, based on a theory for turbomachinery blading design in three-dimensional inviscid flow, is applied to a parametric design study of a radial inflow turbine wheel. As the method requires the specification of swirl distribution, a technique for its smooth generation within the blade region is proposed. Excellent agreements have been obtained between the computed results from this design method and those from direct Euler computations, demonstrating the correspondence and consistency between the two. The computed results indicate the sensitivity of the pressure distribution to a lean in the stacking axis and a minor alteration in the hub/shroud profiles. Analysis based on Navier-Stokes solver shows no breakdown of flow within the designed blade passage and agreement with that from design calculation; thus the flow in the designed turbine rotor closely approximates that of an inviscid one. These calculations illustrate the use of a design method coupled to an analysis tool for establishing guidelines and criteria for designing turbomachinery blading.

  5. Development of direct-inverse 3-D methods for applied transonic aerodynamic wing design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Leland A.

    1989-01-01

    An inverse wing design method was developed around an existing transonic wing analysis code. The original analysis code, TAWFIVE, has as its core the numerical potential flow solver, FLO30, developed by Jameson and Caughey. Features of the analysis code include a finite-volume formulation; wing and fuselage fitted, curvilinear grid mesh; and a viscous boundary layer correction that also accounts for viscous wake thickness and curvature. The development of the inverse methods as an extension of previous methods existing for design in Cartesian coordinates is presented. Results are shown for inviscid wing design cases in super-critical flow regimes. The test cases selected also demonstrate the versatility of the design method in designing an entire wing or discontinuous sections of a wing.

  6. Study of blade aspect ratio on a compressor front stage aerodynamic and mechanical design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, G. D.; Lee, D.; Snow, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    A single stage compressor was designed with the intent of demonstrating that, for a tip speed and hub-tip ratio typical of an advanced core compressor front stage, the use of low aspect ratio can permit high levels of blade loading to be achieved at an acceptable level of efficiency. The design pressure ratio is 1.8 at an adiabatic efficiency of 88.5 percent. Both rotor and stator have multiple-circular-arc airfoil sections. Variable IGV and stator vanes permit low speed matching adjustments. The design incorporates an inlet duct representative of an engine transition duct between fan and high pressure compressor.

  7. The use of artificial neural networks in experimental data acquisition and aerodynamic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meade, Andrew J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    It is proposed that an artificial neural network be used to construct an intelligent data acquisition system. The artificial neural networks (ANN) model has a potential for replacing traditional procedures as well as for use in computational fluid dynamics validation. Potential advantages of the ANN model are listed. As a proof of concept, the author modeled a NACA 0012 airfoil at specific conditions, using the neural network simulator NETS, developed by James Baffes of the NASA Johnson Space Center. The neural network predictions were compared to the actual data. It is concluded that artificial neural networks can provide an elegant and valuable class of mathematical tools for data analysis.

  8. A system for aerodynamic design and analysis of supersonic aircraft. Part 3: Computer program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, W. D.; Lundry, J. L.; Coleman, R. G.

    1980-01-01

    The computer program documentation for the design and analysis of supersonic configurations is presented. Schematics and block diagrams of the major program structure, together with subroutine descriptions for each module are included.

  9. Study of controlled diffusion stator blading. 1. Aerodynamic and mechanical design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canal, E.; Chisholm, B. C.; Lee, D.; Spear, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney Aircraft is conducting a test program for NASA in order to demonstrate that a controlled-diffusion stator provides low losses at high loadings and Mach numbers. The technology has shown great promise in wind tunnel tests. Details of the design of the controlled diffusion stator vanes and the multiple-circular-arc rotor blades are presented. The stage, including stator and rotor, was designed to be suitable for the first-stage of an advanced multistage, high-pressure compressor.

  10. Supersonic aerodynamic trade data for a low-profile monoplanar missile concept. [air launched maneuvering missile design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, E. B.; Robins, A. W.

    1979-01-01

    A monoplanar missile concept has been studied which shows promise of improving the aerodynamic performance of air-launched missiles. This missile concept has a constant eccentricity elliptical cross-section body. Since current guidance and propulsion technologies influence missile nose and base shapes, an experimental investigation has been conducted at Mach number 2.50 to determine the effects of variations in these shapes on the missile aerodynamics. Results of these tests are presented.

  11. An aerodynamic investigation of two 1.83-meter-diameter fan systems designed to drive a subsonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, V. R.; Eckert, W. T.; Mort, K. W.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental, aerodynamic investigation was made of two 1.83 m diameter fan systems which are being considered for the repowered drive section of the 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. One system was low speed, the other was high speed. The low speed fan was tested at various stagger angles from 32.9 deg to 62.9 deg. At a fan blade stagger angle of 40.8 deg and operating at a tip speed of 1155 m/sec, the low speed fan developed 207.3 m of head. The high speed fan had a design blade stagger angle of 56.2 deg and was tested at this stagger angle only. The high speed fan operating at 191.5 m/sec developed 207.3 m of head. Radial distributions of static pressure coefficients, total pressure coefficients, and angles of swirl are presented. Radial surveys were conducted at four azimuth locations in front of the fan, and repeated downstream of the fan. Data were taken for various flow control devices and for two inlet contraction lengths.

  12. EET theoretical design techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwoyer, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    As a part of the EET aerodynamics program an out-of-house program was developed and monitored to provide theoretical procedures useful in the design of transport aircraft. The focus of the effort was to provide tools valid in the nonlinear transonic speed range. The effort was divided into two basic areas, inviscid configuration analysis and design procedures and viscous correction procedures.

  13. Two stage low noise advanced technology fan. 1: Aerodynamic, structural, and acoustic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, H. E.; Ruschak, J. T.; Sofrin, T. G.

    1974-01-01

    A two-stage fan was designed to reduce noise 20 db below current requirements. The first-stage rotor has a design tip speed of 365.8 m/sec and a hub/tip ratio of 0.4. The fan was designed to deliver a pressure ratio of 1.9 with an adiabatic efficiency of 85.3 percent at a specific inlet corrected flow of 209.2kg/sec/sq m. Noise reduction devices include acoustically treated casing walls, a flowpath exit acoustic splitter, a translating centerbody sonic inlet device, widely spaced blade rows, and the proper ratio of blades and vanes. Multiple-circular-arc rotor airfoils, resettable stators, split outer casings, and capability to go to close blade-row spacing are also included.

  14. Aerodynamics of Race Cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.

  15. Aerodynamic design and performance testing of an advanced 30 deg swept, eight bladed propeller at Mach numbers from 0.2 to 0.85

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. M.; Menthe, R. W.; Wainauski, H. S.

    1978-01-01

    The increased emphasis on fuel conservation in the world has stimulated a series of studies of both conventional and unconventional propulsion systems for commercial aircraft. Preliminary results from these studies indicate that a fuel saving of from 15 to 28 percent may be realized by the use of an advanced high speed turboprop. The turboprop must be capable of high efficiency at Mach 0.8 above 10.68 km (35,000 ft) altitude if it is to compete with turbofan powered commercial aircraft. An advanced turboprop concept was wind tunnel tested. The model included such concepts as an aerodynamically integrated propeller/nacelle, blade sweep and power (disk) loadings approximately three times higher than conventional propeller designs. The aerodynamic design for the model is discussed. Test results are presented which indicate propeller net efficiencies near 80 percent were obtained at high disk loadings at Mach 0.8.

  16. Aerodynamic design and analysis system for supersonic aircraft. Part 3: Computer program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, W. D.; Lundry, J. L.; Coleman, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    The computer program for the design and analysis of supersonic aircraft configurations is presented. The schematics of the program structure are provided. The individual overlays and subroutines are described. The system is useful in determining surface pressures and supersonic area rule concepts.

  17. Aerodynamic optimization, comparison, and trim design of canard and conventional high performance general aviation configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, M. W.; Selberg, B. P.

    1983-01-01

    A design study has been conducted to optimize trim cruise flight of high performance general aviation canard aircraft which achieve minimum drag. In order to investigate the advantages and disadvantages of canard configured aircraft, corresponding conventional tail-aft 'baseline' aircraft were designed and used for comparison. Two-dimensional predictions were obtained by coupling inviscid results from a vortex panel multi-element program to a momentum integral boundary layer analysis. Using the results of the two-dimensional vortex panel analysis, a vortex lattice method was employed to predict the finite wing results. The analysis utilized a turbulent airfoil and a natural laminar airfoil which are two NASA state-of-the-art airfoil sections. The canard aircraft designs give quantitative results of wing and canard loadings, wing-to-canard moment arm ratios, and aspect ratio effects for trim cruise flight for a wide range of wing-to-canard area ratios. Both canard and baseline aircraft achieved a 25 to 30 percent improvement in performance over typical current technology aircraft, but high canard loading necessary for trim resulted in slightly poorer performance of the canard aircraft as compared to the baseline designs.

  18. Aerodynamic design optimization of a fuel efficient high-performance, single-engine, business airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.

    1980-01-01

    A design study has been conducted to optimize a single-engine airplane for a high-performance cruise mission. The mission analyzed included a cruise speed of about 300 knots, a cruise range of about 1300 nautical miles, and a six-passenger payload (5340 N (1200 lb)). The purpose of the study is to investigate the combinations of wing design, engine, and operating altitude required for the mission. The results show that these mission performance characteristics can be achieved with fuel efficiencies competitive with present-day high-performance, single- and twin-engine, business airplanes. It is noted that relaxation of the present Federal Aviation Regulation, Part 23, stall-speed requirement for single-engine airplanes facilitates the optimization of the airplane for fuel efficiency.

  19. Aerodynamic Design Optimization on Unstructured Grids with a Continuous Adjoint Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. Kyle; Venkatakrishnan, V.

    1997-01-01

    A continuous adjoint approach for obtaining sensitivity derivatives on unstructured grids is developed and analyzed. The derivation of the costate equations is presented, and a second-order accurate discretization method is described. The relationship between the continuous formulation and a discrete formulation is explored for inviscid, as well as for viscous flow. Several limitations in a strict adherence to the continuous approach are uncovered, and an approach that circumvents these difficulties is presented. The issue of grid sensitivities, which do not arise naturally in the continuous formulation, is investigated and is observed to be of importance when dealing with geometric singularities. A method is described for modifying inviscid and viscous meshes during the design cycle to accommodate changes in the surface shape. The accuracy of the sensitivity derivatives is established by comparing with finite-difference gradients and several design examples are presented.

  20. Three-dimensional aerodynamic shape optimization using discrete sensitivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgreen, Gregory W.

    1995-01-01

    An aerodynamic shape optimization procedure based on discrete sensitivity analysis is extended to treat three-dimensional geometries. The function of sensitivity analysis is to directly couple computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with numerical optimization techniques, which facilitates the construction of efficient direct-design methods. The development of a practical three-dimensional design procedures entails many challenges, such as: (1) the demand for significant efficiency improvements over current design methods; (2) a general and flexible three-dimensional surface representation; and (3) the efficient solution of very large systems of linear algebraic equations. It is demonstrated that each of these challenges is overcome by: (1) employing fully implicit (Newton) methods for the CFD analyses; (2) adopting a Bezier-Bernstein polynomial parameterization of two- and three-dimensional surfaces; and (3) using preconditioned conjugate gradient-like linear system solvers. Whereas each of these extensions independently yields an improvement in computational efficiency, the combined effect of implementing all the extensions simultaneously results in a significant factor of 50 decrease in computational time and a factor of eight reduction in memory over the most efficient design strategies in current use. The new aerodynamic shape optimization procedure is demonstrated in the design of both two- and three-dimensional inviscid aerodynamic problems including a two-dimensional supersonic internal/external nozzle, two-dimensional transonic airfoils (resulting in supercritical shapes), three-dimensional transport wings, and three-dimensional supersonic delta wings. Each design application results in realistic and useful optimized shapes.

  1. Aerodynamic Design of Axial-Flow Compressors. VII - Blade-Element Flow in Annular Cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, William H.; Jackson, Robert J.; Lieblein, Seymour

    1955-01-01

    Annular blade-element data obtained primarily from single-stage compressor installations are correlated over a range of inlet Mach numbers and cascade geometry. The correlation curves are presented in such a manner that they are related directly to the low-speed two-dimensional-cascade data of part VI of this series. Thus, the data serve as both an extension and a verification of the two-dimensional-cascade data. In addition, the correlation results are applied to compressor design.

  2. On the design of flight-deck procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl L.

    1994-01-01

    In complex human-machine systems, operations, training, and standardization depend on a elaborate set of procedures which are specified and mandated by the operational management of the organization. The intent is to provide guidance to the pilots, to ensure a logical, efficient, safe, and predictable means of carrying out the mission objectives. In this report the authors examine the issue of procedure use and design from a broad viewpoint. The authors recommend a process which we call 'The Four P's:' philosophy, policies, procedures, and practices. We believe that if an organization commits to this process, it can create a set of procedures that are more internally consistent, less confusing, better respected by the flight crews, and that will lead to greater conformity. The 'Four-P' model, and the guidelines for procedural development in appendix 1, resulted from cockpit observations, extensive interviews with airline management and pilots, interviews and discussion at one major airframe manufacturer, and an examination of accident and incident reports. Although this report is based on airline operations, we believe that the principles may be applicable to other complex, high-risk systems, such as nuclear power production, manufacturing process control, space flight, and military operations.

  3. Simplified procedures for designing adhesively bonded composite joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Murthy, P. L. N.

    1989-01-01

    Procedures for the preliminary design of composite adhesive joints are described. Typical joints, their respective free body diagrams, and approximate equations for estimating the stresses in each of these typical joints are summarized. Equations are also presented to check the critical conditions of the joint such as minimum length, maximum adhesive shear stress, and peel-off stress. To illustrate the procedure, sample designs are described in step-by-step fashion for a butt joint with single doubler subjected to static loads, cyclic loads, and environmental effects. The results show that unsymmetric adhesive joints are inefficient and should be avoided, and hygrothermal environments and cyclic loads dramatically reduce the structural integrity of the joint and require several joint lengths compared with those for static load with no environmental effects.

  4. Integration of Rotor Aerodynamic Optimization with the Conceptual Design of a Large Civil Tiltrotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Coupling of aeromechanics analysis with vehicle sizing is demonstrated with the CAMRAD II aeromechanics code and NDARC sizing code. The example is optimization of cruise tip speed with rotor/wing interference for the Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR2) concept design. Free-wake models were used for both rotors and the wing. This report is part of a NASA effort to develop an integrated analytical capability combining rotorcraft aeromechanics, structures, propulsion, mission analysis, and vehicle sizing. The present paper extends previous efforts by including rotor/wing interference explicitly in the rotor performance optimization and implicitly in the sizing.

  5. Aerodynamic design guidelines and computer program for estimation of subsonic wind tunnel performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, W. T.; Mort, K. W.; Jope, J.

    1976-01-01

    General guidelines are given for the design of diffusers, contractions, corners, and the inlets and exits of non-return tunnels. A system of equations, reflecting the current technology, has been compiled and assembled into a computer program (a user's manual for this program is included) for determining the total pressure losses. The formulation presented is applicable to compressible flow through most closed- or open-throat, single-, double-, or non-return wind tunnels. A comparison of estimated performance with that actually achieved by several existing facilities produced generally good agreement.

  6. A Formal Approach for Designing and Evaluating Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, Asaf; Heymann, Michael; Shafto, Michael; Remington, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Operator interaction with modern control systems is a topic of great concern in high-risk industries such as nuclear power and commercial aviation. The issues associated with such systems focus on the ability of the operators (e.g., pilots) to achieve mission goals safely while containing failures. Operators must be able to interact safely and reliably with highly automatic and complex systems across the full spectrum of possible operating conditions, including normal, abnormal, and emergency situations. In environments such as commercial aviation, operator interaction with the machine is specified through a set of standard operating procedures (SOP). A procedure represents a collective agreement on the 'best' way to perform a given task. The intent of this paper is to suggest a formal methodology, for designing and evaluating procedures, that is both reliable and systematic. Our approach involves two major elements: a model of the machine and a list of the operator's task specifications (goals). We use formal modeling paradigms for describing the system and super-imposing on it the operator's tasks. Such paradigms, based on recent frameworks such as Statecharts and Hierarchical Hybrid Machines appear to be adequate methods for analyzing operator interaction with modern control systems. To illustrate this methodology, we model and analyze the sequence of actions for an emergency procedure. The procedure, Irregular Engine Start, for a medium-range aircraft, specifies the sequence of immediate actions that must be performed by the crew to avoid an uncontrolled rise in engine temperature during start-up. A model of engine behavior during a hot start is constructed. It also describes the various actions that can be taken by the crew and the resulting outcomes. The model is then opened up as a tree of all possible action sequences. This action tree allows us to trace the correct sequences necessary to achieve the desired end-goal (secure and shut down of the engine). In

  7. Design and Predictions for a High-Altitude (Low-Reynolds-Number) Aerodynamic Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, Donald; Hamory, Phil; Krake, Keith; Drela, Mark

    1999-01-01

    A sailplane being developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center will support a high-altitude flight experiment. The experiment will measure the performance parameters of an airfoil at high altitudes (70,000 to 100,000 ft), low Reynolds numbers (200,000 to 700,000), and high subsonic Mach numbers (0.5 and 0.65). The airfoil section lift and drag are determined from pitot and static pressure measurements. The locations of the separation bubble, Tollmien-Schlichting boundary layer instability frequencies, and vortex shedding are measured from a hot-film strip. The details of the planned flight experiment are presented. Several predictions of the airfoil performance are also presented. Mark Drela from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology designed the APEX-16 airfoil, using the MSES code. Two-dimensional Navier-Stokes analyses were performed by Mahidhar Tatineni and Xiaolin Zhong from the University of California, Los Angeles, and by the authors at NASA Dryden.

  8. The Design of Cruciform Test Specimens for Planar Biaxial Testing of Fabrics for Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbin, Cole K.

    2012-01-01

    A preliminary analytical study was conducted to investigate the effects of cruciform test specimen geometries on strain distribution uniformity in the central gage section under biaxial loads. Three distinct specimen geometries were considered while varying the applied displacements in the two orthogonal directions. Two sets of woven fabric material properties found in literature were used to quantify the influence of specimen geometries on the resulting strain distributions. The uniformity of the strain distribution is quantified by taking the ratio between the two orthogonal strain components and characterizing its gradient across the central area of the gage section. The analysis results show that increasing the specimen s length relative to its width promotes a more uniform strain distribution in the central section of the cruciform test specimen under equibiaxial enforced tensile displacements. However, for the two sets of material properties used in this study, this trend did not necessary hold, when the enforced tensile displacements in the two orthogonal directions were not equal. Therefore, based on the current study, a tail length that is 1.5 times that of the tail width is recommended to be the baseline/initial specimen design.

  9. Advanced Aerodynamic Control Effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1999-01-01

    A 1990 research program that focused on the development of advanced aerodynamic control effectors (AACE) for military aircraft has been reviewed and summarized. Data are presented for advanced planform, flow control, and surface contouring technologies. The data show significant increases in lift, reductions in drag, and increased control power, compared to typical aerodynamic designs. The results presented also highlighted the importance of planform selection in the design of a control effector suite. Planform data showed that dramatic increases in lift (greater than 25%) can be achieved with multiple wings and a sawtooth forebody. Passive porosity and micro drag generator control effector data showed control power levels exceeding that available from typical effectors (moving surfaces). Application of an advanced planform to a tailless concept showed benefits of similar magnitude as those observed in the generic studies.

  10. Neural Net-Based Redesign of Transonic Turbines for Improved Unsteady Aerodynamic Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madavan, Nateri K.; Rai, Man Mohan; Huber, Frank W.

    1998-01-01

    A recently developed neural net-based aerodynamic design procedure is used in the redesign of a transonic turbine stage to improve its unsteady aerodynamic performance. The redesign procedure used incorporates the advantages of both traditional response surface methodology (RSM) and neural networks by employing a strategy called parameter-based partitioning of the design space. Starting from the reference design, a sequence of response surfaces based on both neural networks and polynomial fits are constructed to traverse the design space in search of an optimal solution that exhibits improved unsteady performance. The procedure combines the power of neural networks and the economy of low-order polynomials (in terms of number of simulations required and network training requirements). A time-accurate, two-dimensional, Navier-Stokes solver is used to evaluate the various intermediate designs and provide inputs to the optimization procedure. The optimization procedure yields a modified design that improves the aerodynamic performance through small changes to the reference design geometry. The computed results demonstrate the capabilities of the neural net-based design procedure, and also show the tremendous advantages that can be gained by including high-fidelity unsteady simulations that capture the relevant flow physics in the design optimization process.

  11. Improving the Unsteady Aerodynamic Performance of Transonic Turbines using Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, Man Mohan; Madavan, Nateri K.; Huber, Frank W.

    1999-01-01

    A recently developed neural net-based aerodynamic design procedure is used in the redesign of a transonic turbine stage to improve its unsteady aerodynamic performance. The redesign procedure used incorporates the advantages of both traditional response surface methodology and neural networks by employing a strategy called parameter-based partitioning of the design space. Starting from the reference design, a sequence of response surfaces based on both neural networks and polynomial fits are constructed to traverse the design space in search of an optimal solution that exhibits improved unsteady performance. The procedure combines the power of neural networks and the economy of low-order polynomials (in terms of number of simulations required and network training requirements). A time-accurate, two-dimensional, Navier-Stokes solver is used to evaluate the various intermediate designs and provide inputs to the optimization procedure. The procedure yielded a modified design that improves the aerodynamic performance through small changes to the reference design geometry. These results demonstrate the capabilities of the neural net-based design procedure, and also show the advantages of including high-fidelity unsteady simulations that capture the relevant flow physics in the design optimization process.

  12. Computational aerodynamics and supercomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballhaus, W. F., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Some of the progress in computational aerodynamics over the last decade is reviewed. The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Program objectives, computational goals, and implementation plans are described.

  13. Revised MITG design, fabrication procedure, and performance predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, A.

    1983-01-01

    The design, analysis, and key features of the Modular Isotopic Thermoelectric Generator (MITG) were described in a 1981 IECEC paper; and the design, fabrication, testing, and post-test analysis of test assemblies simulating prototypical MITG modules were described in preceding papers in these proceedings. These analyses succeeded in identifying and explaining the principal causes of thermal-stress problems encountered in the tests, and in confirming the effectiveness of design changes for alleviating them. The present paper presents additional design improvements for solving these and other problems, and describes new thermoelectric material properties generated by independent laboratories over the past two years. Based on these changes and on a revised fabrication procedure, it presents a reoptimization of the MITG design and computes the power-to-weight ratio for the revised design. That ratio is appreciably lower than the 1981 prediction, primarily because of changes in material properties; but it is still much higher than the specific power of current-generation RTGs.

  14. Advanced missile technology. A review of technology improvement areas for cruise missiles. [including missile design, missile configurations, and aerodynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronvich, L. L.; Liepman, H. P.

    1979-01-01

    Technology assessments in the areas of aerodynamics, propulsion, and structures and materials for cruise missile systems are discussed. The cruise missiles considered cover the full speed, altitude, and target range. The penetrativity, range, and maneuverability of the cruise missiles are examined and evaluated for performance improvements.

  15. New technology in turbine aerodynamics.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, A. J.; Moffitt, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    Cursory review of some recent work that has been done in turbine aerodynamic research. Topics discussed include the aerodynamic effect of turbine coolant, high work-factor (ratio of stage work to square of blade speed) turbines, and computer methods for turbine design and performance prediction. Experimental cooled-turbine aerodynamics programs using two-dimensional cascades, full annular cascades, and cold rotating turbine stage tests are discussed with some typical results presented. Analytically predicted results for cooled blade performance are compared to experimental results. The problems and some of the current programs associated with the use of very high work factors for fan-drive turbines of high-bypass-ratio engines are discussed. Computer programs have been developed for turbine design-point performance, off-design performance, supersonic blade profile design, and the calculation of channel velocities for subsonic and transonic flowfields. The use of these programs for the design and analysis of axial and radial turbines is discussed.

  16. Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutler, P.; Mehta, U. B.

    1984-01-01

    Some aspects of artificial intelligence are considered and questions are speculated on, including how knowledge-based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use 'expert' systems and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. The anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements are examined for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics. Considering two of the essentials of computational aerodynamics - reasoniing and calculating - it is believed that a substantial part of the reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence, with computers being used as reasoning machines to set the stage for calculating. Expert systems will probably be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

  17. Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, U. B.; Kutler, P.

    1984-01-01

    The general principles of artificial intelligence are reviewed and speculations are made concerning how knowledge based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use expert systems, and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. In addition, the anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics are examined. Three main conclusions are presented. First, there are two related aspects of computational aerodynamics: reasoning and calculating. Second, a substantial portion of reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence. It offers the opportunity of using computers as reasoning machines to set the stage for efficient calculating. Third, expert systems are likely to be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

  18. Sensitivity analysis in computational aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bristow, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    Information on sensitivity analysis in computational aerodynamics is given in outline, graphical, and chart form. The prediction accuracy if the MCAERO program, a perturbation analysis method, is discussed. A procedure for calculating perturbation matrix, baseline wing paneling for perturbation analysis test cases and applications of an inviscid sensitivity matrix are among the topics covered.

  19. Recent advances in computational aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Ramesh K.; Desse, Jerry E.

    1991-04-01

    The current state of the art in computational aerodynamics is described. Recent advances in the discretization of surface geometry, grid generation, and flow simulation algorithms have led to flowfield predictions for increasingly complex and realistic configurations. As a result, computational aerodynamics is emerging as a crucial enabling technology for the development and design of flight vehicles. Examples illustrating the current capability for the prediction of aircraft, launch vehicle and helicopter flowfields are presented. Unfortunately, accurate modeling of turbulence remains a major difficulty in the analysis of viscosity-dominated flows. In the future inverse design methods, multidisciplinary design optimization methods, artificial intelligence technology and massively parallel computer technology will be incorporated into computational aerodynamics, opening up greater opportunities for improved product design at substantially reduced costs.

  20. Aerodynamic characteristics of wings designed with a combined-theory method to cruise at a Mach number of 4.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    A wind-tunnel study was conducted to determine the capability of a method combining linear theory and shock-expansion theory to design optimum camber surfaces for wings that will fly at high-supersonic/low-hypersonic speeds. Three force models (a flat-plate reference wing and two cambered and twisted wings) were used to obtain aerodynamic lift, drag, and pitching-moment data. A fourth pressure-orifice model was used to obtain surface-pressure data. All four wing models had the same planform, airfoil section, and centerbody area distribution. The design Mach number was 4.5, but data were also obtained at Mach numbers of 3.5 and 4.0. Results of these tests indicated that the use of airfoil thickness as a theoretical optimum, camber-surface design constraint did not improve the aerodynamic efficiency or performance of a wing as compared with a wing that was designed with a zero-thickness airfoil (linear-theory) constraint.

  1. Aerodynamic performance and particle image velocimetery of piezo actuated biomimetic manduca sexta engineered wings towards the design and application of a flapping wing flight vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLuca, Anthony M.

    Considerable research and investigation has been conducted on the aerodynamic performance, and the predominate flow physics of the Manduca Sexta size of biomimetically designed and fabricated wings as part of the AFIT FWMAV design project. Despite a burgeoning interest and research into the diverse field of flapping wing flight and biomimicry, the aerodynamics of flapping wing flight remains a nebulous field of science with considerable variance into the theoretical abstractions surrounding aerodynamic mechanisms responsible for aerial performance. Traditional FWMAV flight models assume a form of a quasi-steady approximation of wing aerodynamics based on an infinite wing blade element model (BEM). An accurate estimation of the lift, drag, and side force coefficients is a critical component of autonomous stability and control models. This research focused on two separate experimental avenues into the aerodynamics of AFIT's engineered hawkmoth wings|forces and flow visualization. 1. Six degree of freedom force balance testing, and high speed video analysis was conducted on 30°, 45°, and 60° angle stop wings. A novel, non-intrusive optical tracking algorithm was developed utilizing a combination of a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and ComputerVision (OpenCV) tools to track the wing in motion from multiple cameras. A complete mapping of the wing's kinematic angles as a function of driving amplitude was performed. The stroke angle, elevation angle, and angle of attack were tabulated for all three wings at driving amplitudes ranging from A=0.3 to A=0.6. The wing kinematics together with the force balance data was used to develop several aerodynamic force coefficient models. A combined translational and rotational aerodynamic model predicted lift forces within 10%, and vertical forces within 6%. The total power consumption was calculated for each of the three wings, and a Figure of Merit was calculated for each wing as a general expression of the overall efficiency of

  2. Some effects of wing and body geometry on the aerodynamic characteristics of configurations designed for high supersonic Mach numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.; Tice, David C.; Braswell, Dorothy O.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical results are presented for a family of aerodynamic configurations for flight Mach numbers as high as Mach 8. All of these generic configurations involved 70-deg sweep delta planform wings of three different areas and three fuselage shapes with circular-to-elliptical cross sections. It is noted that fuselage ellipticity enhances lift-curve slope and maximum L/D, while decreasing static longitudinal stability (especially with smaller wing areas).

  3. Rarefied Transitional Bridging of Blunt Body Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilmoth, R. G.; Blanchard, R. C.; Moss, J. N.

    1998-01-01

    The bridging procedures discussed provide an accurate engineering method for predicting rarefied transitional aerodynamics of spherically-blunted cone entry vehicles. The single-point procedure offers a way to improve the bridging procedures while minimizing the computational effort. However, the accuracy of these procedures ultimately depends on accurate knowledge of the aerodynamics in the free-molecular and continuum limits. The excellent agreement shown for DSMC predictions and bridging relations with the Viking flight data in transitional regime enhance the coincidence in these procedures.

  4. Index for aerodynamic data from the Bumblebee program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronvich, L. L.; Barnes, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    The Bumblebee program, was designed to provide a supersonic guided missile. The aerodynamics program included a fundamental research effort in supersonic aerodynamics as well as a design task in developing both test vehicles and prototypes of tactical missiles. An index of aerodynamic missile data developed in this program is presented.

  5. Grid Sensitivity and Aerodynamic Optimization of Generic Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadrehaghighi, Ideen; Smith, Robert E.; Tiwari, Surendra N.

    1995-01-01

    An algorithm is developed to obtain the grid sensitivity with respect to design parameters for aerodynamic optimization. The procedure is advocating a novel (geometrical) parameterization using spline functions such as NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B- Splines) for defining the airfoil geometry. An interactive algebraic grid generation technique is employed to generate C-type grids around airfoils. The grid sensitivity of the domain with respect to geometric design parameters has been obtained by direct differentiation of the grid equations. A hybrid approach is proposed for more geometrically complex configurations such as a wing or fuselage. The aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients are obtained by direct differentiation of the compressible two-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. An optimization package has been introduced into the algorithm in order to optimize the airfoil surface. Results demonstrate a substantially improved design due to maximized lift/drag ratio of the airfoil.

  6. New procedures of ergonomics design in a large oil company.

    PubMed

    Alhadeff, Cynthia Mossé; Silva, Rosana Fernandes da; Reis, Márcia Sales dos

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the challenge involved in the negotiation and construction of a standard process in a major petroleum company that has the purpose of guiding the implementation of ergonomic studies in the development of projects, systemising the implementation of ergonomics design. The standard was created by a multi-disciplinary working group consisting of specialists in ergonomics, who work in a number of different areas of the company. The objective was to guide "how to" undertake ergonomics in all projects, taking into consideration the development of the ergonomic appraisals of work. It also established that all the process, in each project phase, should be accompanied by a specialist in ergonomics. This process as an innovation in the conception of projects in this company, signals a change of culture, and, for this reason requires broad dissemination throughout the several company leadership levels, and training of professionals in projects of ergonomics design. An implementation plan was also prepared and approved by the corporate governance, complementing the proposed challenge. In this way, this major oil company will implement new procedures of ergonomics design to promote health, safety, and wellbeing of the workforce, besides improving the performance and reliability of its systems and processes. PMID:22316810

  7. New procedures of ergonomics design in a large oil company.

    PubMed

    Alhadeff, Cynthia Mossé; Silva, Rosana Fernandes da; Reis, Márcia Sales dos

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the challenge involved in the negotiation and construction of a standard process in a major petroleum company that has the purpose of guiding the implementation of ergonomic studies in the development of projects, systemising the implementation of ergonomics design. The standard was created by a multi-disciplinary working group consisting of specialists in ergonomics, who work in a number of different areas of the company. The objective was to guide "how to" undertake ergonomics in all projects, taking into consideration the development of the ergonomic appraisals of work. It also established that all the process, in each project phase, should be accompanied by a specialist in ergonomics. This process as an innovation in the conception of projects in this company, signals a change of culture, and, for this reason requires broad dissemination throughout the several company leadership levels, and training of professionals in projects of ergonomics design. An implementation plan was also prepared and approved by the corporate governance, complementing the proposed challenge. In this way, this major oil company will implement new procedures of ergonomics design to promote health, safety, and wellbeing of the workforce, besides improving the performance and reliability of its systems and processes.

  8. Integration of dynamic, aerodynamic, and structural optimization of helicopter rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, David A.

    1991-01-01

    Summarized here is the first six years of research into the integration of structural, dynamic, and aerodynamic considerations in the design-optimization process for rotor blades. Specifically discussed here is the application of design optimization techniques for helicopter rotor blades. The reduction of vibratory shears and moments at the blade root, aeroelastic stability of the rotor, optimum airframe design, and an efficient procedure for calculating system sensitivities with respect to the design variables used are discussed.

  9. Fast-Running Aeroelastic Code Based on Unsteady Linearized Aerodynamic Solver Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, T. S. R.; Bakhle, Milind A.; Keith, T., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been developing aeroelastic analyses for turbomachines for use by NASA and industry. An aeroelastic analysis consists of a structural dynamic model, an unsteady aerodynamic model, and a procedure to couple the two models. The structural models are well developed. Hence, most of the development for the aeroelastic analysis of turbomachines has involved adapting and using unsteady aerodynamic models. Two methods are used in developing unsteady aerodynamic analysis procedures for the flutter and forced response of turbomachines: (1) the time domain method and (2) the frequency domain method. Codes based on time domain methods require considerable computational time and, hence, cannot be used during the design process. Frequency domain methods eliminate the time dependence by assuming harmonic motion and, hence, require less computational time. Early frequency domain analyses methods neglected the important physics of steady loading on the analyses for simplicity. A fast-running unsteady aerodynamic code, LINFLUX, which includes steady loading and is based on the frequency domain method, has been modified for flutter and response calculations. LINFLUX, solves unsteady linearized Euler equations for calculating the unsteady aerodynamic forces on the blades, starting from a steady nonlinear aerodynamic solution. First, we obtained a steady aerodynamic solution for a given flow condition using the nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic code TURBO. A blade vibration analysis was done to determine the frequencies and mode shapes of the vibrating blades, and an interface code was used to convert the steady aerodynamic solution to a form required by LINFLUX. A preprocessor was used to interpolate the mode shapes from the structural dynamic mesh onto the computational dynamics mesh. Then, we used LINFLUX to calculate the unsteady aerodynamic forces for a given mode, frequency, and phase angle. A postprocessor read these unsteady pressures and

  10. 48 CFR 570.305 - Two-phase design-build selection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Two-phase design-build...-phase design-build selection procedures. (a) These procedures apply to acquisitions of leasehold interests if the contracting officer uses the two-phase design-build selection procedures authorized by...

  11. 23 CFR 636.202 - When are two-phase design-build selection procedures appropriate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When are two-phase design-build selection procedures... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING Selection Procedures, Award Criteria § 636.202 When are two-phase design-build selection procedures appropriate? You may consider the...

  12. 48 CFR 36.301 - Use of two-phase design-build selection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of two-phase design-build selection procedures. 36.301 Section 36.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL...-Phase Design-Build Selection Procedures 36.301 Use of two-phase design-build selection procedures....

  13. Design guidelines and procedures for guided horizontal drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, M.J.; Kramer, S.R.; Pittard, G.T.; Mamoun, M.

    1996-08-01

    Jason Consultants International, Inc., under the sponsorship of the Gas Research Institute (GRI), has developed guidelines, procedures and software, which are described in this paper, for the installation of polyethylene gas pipe using guided horizontal drilling. Jason was aided in this development by two key subcontractors; Maurer Engineering who wrote the software and NICOR Technologies who reviewed the software and guidelines from a utility perspective. This program resulted in the development of commerically viable software for utilities, contractors, engineering firms, and others involved with the installation of pipes using guided horizontal drilling. The software is an interactive design tool that allows the user to enter ground elevation data, alignment information and pipe data. The software aides the engineer in designing a drill path and provides plan and profile views along with tabular data for pipe depth and surface profile. Finally, the software calculates installation loads and pipe stresses, compares these values against pipe manufacturer`s recommendations, and provides this information graphically and in tabular form. 5 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. New technology in turbine aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, A. J.; Moffitt, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    A cursory review is presented of some of the recent work that has been done in turbine aerodynamic research at NASA-Lewis Research Center. Topics discussed include the aerodynamic effect of turbine coolant, high work-factor (ratio of stage work to square of blade speed) turbines, and computer methods for turbine design and performance prediction. An extensive bibliography is included. Experimental cooled-turbine aerodynamics programs using two-dimensional cascades, full annular cascades, and cold rotating turbine stage tests are discussed with some typical results presented. Analytically predicted results for cooled blade performance are compared to experimental results. The problems and some of the current programs associated with the use of very high work factors for fan-drive turbines of high-bypass-ratio engines are discussed. Turbines currently being investigated make use of advanced blading concepts designed to maintain high efficiency under conditions of high aerodynamic loading. Computer programs have been developed for turbine design-point performance, off-design performance, supersonic blade profile design, and the calculation of channel velocities for subsonic and transonic flow fields. The use of these programs for the design and analysis of axial and radial turbines is discussed.

  15. Evaluation of vertical profiles to design continuous descent approach procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradeep, Priyank

    The current research focuses on predictability, variability and operational feasibility aspect of Continuous Descent Approach (CDA), which is among the key concepts of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The idle-thrust CDA is a fuel economical, noise and emission abatement procedure, but requires increased separation to accommodate for variability and uncertainties in vertical and speed profiles of arriving aircraft. Although a considerable amount of researches have been devoted to the estimation of potential benefits of the CDA, only few have attempted to explain the predictability, variability and operational feasibility aspect of CDA. The analytical equations derived using flight dynamics and Base of Aircraft and Data (BADA) Total Energy Model (TEM) in this research gives insight into dependency of vertical profile of CDA on various factors like wind speed and gradient, weight, aircraft type and configuration, thrust settings, atmospheric factors (deviation from ISA (DISA), pressure and density of the air) and descent speed profile. Application of the derived equations to idle-thrust CDA gives an insight into sensitivity of its vertical profile to multiple factors. This suggests fixed geometric flight path angle (FPA) CDA has higher degree of predictability and lesser variability at the cost of non-idle and low thrust engine settings. However, with optimized design this impact can be overall minimized. The CDA simulations were performed using Future ATM Concept Evaluation Tool (FACET) based on radar-track and aircraft type data (BADA) of the real air-traffic to some of the busiest airports in the USA (ATL, SFO and New York Metroplex (JFK, EWR and LGA)). The statistical analysis of the vertical profiles of CDA shows 1) mean geometric FPAs derived from various simulated vertical profiles are consistently shallower than 3° glideslope angle and 2) high level of variability in vertical profiles of idle-thrust CDA even in absence of

  16. Aerodynamics of Small Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Thomas J.

    In this review we describe the aerodynamic problems that must be addressed in order to design a successful small aerial vehicle. The effects of Reynolds number and aspect ratio (AR) on the design and performance of fixed-wing vehicles are described. The boundary-layer behavior on airfoils is especially important in the design of vehicles in this flight regime. The results of a number of experimental boundary-layer studies, including the influence of laminar separation bubbles, are discussed. Several examples of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in this regime are described. Also, a brief survey of analytical models for oscillating and flapping-wing propulsion is presented. These range from the earliest examples where quasi-steady, attached flow is assumed, to those that account for the unsteady shed vortex wake as well as flow separation and aeroelastic behavior of a flapping wing. Experiments that complemented the analysis and led to the design of a successful ornithopter are also described.

  17. Model of Procedure Usage – Results from a Qualitative Study to Inform Design of Computer-Based Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Johanna H Oxstrand; Katya L Le Blanc

    2012-07-01

    The nuclear industry is constantly trying to find ways to decrease the human error rate, especially the human errors associated with procedure use. As a step toward the goal of improving procedure use performance, researchers, together with the nuclear industry, have been looking at replacing the current paper-based procedures with computer-based procedure systems. The concept of computer-based procedures is not new by any means; however most research has focused on procedures used in the main control room. Procedures reviewed in these efforts are mainly emergency operating procedures and normal operating procedures. Based on lessons learned for these previous efforts we are now exploring a more unknown application for computer based procedures - field procedures, i.e. procedures used by nuclear equipment operators and maintenance technicians. The Idaho National Laboratory, the Institute for Energy Technology, and participants from the U.S. commercial nuclear industry are collaborating in an applied research effort with the objective of developing requirements and specifications for a computer-based procedure system to be used by field operators. The goal is to identify the types of human errors that can be mitigated by using computer-based procedures and how to best design the computer-based procedures to do this. The underlying philosophy in the research effort is “Stop – Start – Continue”, i.e. what features from the use of paper-based procedures should we not incorporate (Stop), what should we keep (Continue), and what new features or work processes should be added (Start). One step in identifying the Stop – Start – Continue was to conduct a baseline study where affordances related to the current usage of paper-based procedures were identified. The purpose of the study was to develop a model of paper based procedure use which will help to identify desirable features for computer based procedure prototypes. Affordances such as note taking, markups

  18. Sensitivity Analysis and Optimization of Aerodynamic Configurations with Blend Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, A. M.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1997-01-01

    A novel (geometrical) parametrization procedure using solutions to a suitably chosen fourth order partial differential equation is used to define a class of airplane configurations. Inclusive in this definition are surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, vertical tail and horizontal tail. The design variables are incorporated into the boundary conditions, and the solution is expressed as a Fourier series. The fuselage has circular cross section, and the radius is an algebraic function of four design parameters and an independent computational variable. Volume grids are obtained through an application of the Control Point Form method. A graphic interface software is developed which dynamically changes the surface of the airplane configuration with the change in input design variable. The software is made user friendly and is targeted towards the initial conceptual development of any aerodynamic configurations. Grid sensitivity with respect to surface design parameters and aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients based on potential flow is obtained using an Automatic Differentiation precompiler software tool ADIFOR. Aerodynamic shape optimization of the complete aircraft with twenty four design variables is performed. Unstructured and structured volume grids and Euler solutions are obtained with standard software to demonstrate the feasibility of the new surface definition.

  19. Aerodynamic design and analysis of the AST-204, AST-205, and AST-206 blended wing-fuse large supersonic transport configuration concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, G. L.; Walkley, K. B.

    1980-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and analysis of three blended wing-fuselage supersonic cruise configurations providing four, five, and six abreast seating was conducted using a previously designed supersonic cruise configuration as the baseline. The five abreast configuration was optimized for wave drag at a Mach number of 2.7. The four and six abreast configurations were also optimized at Mach 2.7, but with the added constraint that the majority of their structure be common with the five abreast configuration. Analysis of the three configurations indicated an improvement of 6.0, 7.5, and 7.7 percent in cruise lift-to-drag ratio over the baseline configuration for the four, five, and six abreast configurations, respectively.

  20. Aerodynamic characteristics at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 2.16 of a supersonic cruise fighter configuration with a design Mach number of 1.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrout, B. L.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was made in the Langley 8-foot transonic tunnel and the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel, over a Mach number range of 0.6 to 2.16, to determine the static longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics of a model of a supersonic-cruise fighter. The configuration, which is designed for efficient cruise at Mach number 1.8, is a twin-engine tailless arrow-wing concept with a single rectangular inlet beneath the fuselage and outboard vertical tails and ventral fins. It had untrimmed values of lift-drage ratio ranging from 10 at subsonic speeds to 6.4 at the design Mach number. The configuration was statically stable both longitudinally and laterally.

  1. An experimental study of nanoparticle focusing with aerodynamic lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; McMurry, Peter H.

    2006-12-01

    High sampling efficiencies of analyte ions, molecules or particles are needed to maximize the sensitivity of mass spectrometers. "Ion funnels", which utilize electrodynamic focusing, have been shown to effectively focus ions with mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) ranging from ~100 to 5000. Focusing efficiencies of ion funnels drop for higher m/z values because very high voltages are needed to overcome the particle inertia. Conventional "aerodynamic lenses" utilize inertia to focus down to 25 nm in diameter (~5 MDa); to date, Brownian diffusion has prevented the effective focusing of particles smaller than this. We recently reported a design procedure that should, in principle, extend focusing with aerodynamic lenses to particles as small as 3 nm (~10 kDa), thereby bridging the gap between the ion funnel and the conventional aerodynamic lenses. In this paper, we report for the first time experimental results for the performance of these new "nanolenses". Measurements were done using spherical oil droplets, proteins, and sodium chloride particles ranging in size from 3 to 30 nm diameter. We found that particle transport efficiencies from atmospheric pressure to vacuum through the aerodynamic lens system were greater than 80% for 10-30 nm particles, and greater than 50% for a ~3.8 nm protein (Lysozyme from chicken egg white, molecular weight 14.3 kDa). Particle beam diameters were about a factor of two greater than predicted by our numerical simulations, but provide clear evidence that the nanolenses effectively focus all three particle types.

  2. Classical Aerodynamic Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T. (Compiler)

    1979-01-01

    A collection of papers on modern theoretical aerodynamics is presented. Included are theories of incompressible potential flow and research on the aerodynamic forces on wing and wing sections of aircraft and on airship hulls.

  3. 24 CFR 8.53 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and adoption of grievance procedures. 8.53 Section 8.53 Housing and Urban Development Office of the... Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of responsible... coordinate its efforts to comply with this part. (b) Adoption of grievance procedures. A recipient...

  4. 22 CFR 142.7 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... adoption of grievance procedures. 142.7 Section 142.7 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS... Provisions § 142.7 Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation... person to coordinate its efforts to comply with this part. (b) Adoption of grievance procedures....

  5. 24 CFR 8.53 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and adoption of grievance procedures. 8.53 Section 8.53 Housing and Urban Development Office of the... Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of responsible... coordinate its efforts to comply with this part. (b) Adoption of grievance procedures. A recipient...

  6. 22 CFR 142.7 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... adoption of grievance procedures. 142.7 Section 142.7 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS... Provisions § 142.7 Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation... person to coordinate its efforts to comply with this part. (b) Adoption of grievance procedures....

  7. 24 CFR 8.53 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and adoption of grievance procedures. 8.53 Section 8.53 Housing and Urban Development Office of the... Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of responsible... coordinate its efforts to comply with this part. (b) Adoption of grievance procedures. A recipient...

  8. 22 CFR 142.7 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... adoption of grievance procedures. 142.7 Section 142.7 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS... Provisions § 142.7 Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation... person to coordinate its efforts to comply with this part. (b) Adoption of grievance procedures....

  9. 24 CFR 8.53 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and adoption of grievance procedures. 8.53 Section 8.53 Housing and Urban Development Office of the... Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of responsible... coordinate its efforts to comply with this part. (b) Adoption of grievance procedures. A recipient...

  10. 22 CFR 142.7 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... adoption of grievance procedures. 142.7 Section 142.7 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS... Provisions § 142.7 Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation... person to coordinate its efforts to comply with this part. (b) Adoption of grievance procedures....

  11. 23 CFR 636.202 - When are two-phase design-build selection procedures appropriate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When are two-phase design-build selection procedures... When are two-phase design-build selection procedures appropriate? You may consider the following criteria in deciding whether two-phase selection procedures are appropriate. A negative response...

  12. 48 CFR 570.105-2 - Two-phase design-build selection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Two-phase design-build selection procedures. 570.105-2 Section 570.105-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES...-phase design-build selection procedures. Unless you use another acquisition procedure authorized by...

  13. Configuration Aerodynamics: Past - Present - Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Agrawal, Shreekant; Bencze, Daniel P.; Kulfan, Robert M.; Wilson, Douglas L.

    1999-01-01

    The Configuration Aerodynamics (CA) element of the High Speed Research (HSR) program is managed by a joint NASA and Industry team, referred to as the Technology Integration Development (ITD) team. This team is responsible for the development of a broad range of technologies for improved aerodynamic performance and stability and control characteristics at subsonic to supersonic flight conditions. These objectives are pursued through the aggressive use of advanced experimental test techniques and state of the art computational methods. As the HSR program matures and transitions into the next phase the objectives of the Configuration Aerodynamics ITD are being refined to address the drag reduction needs and stability and control requirements of High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft. In addition, the experimental and computational tools are being refined and improved to meet these challenges. The presentation will review the work performed within the Configuration Aerodynamics element in 1994 and 1995 and then discuss the plans for the 1996-1998 time period. The final portion of the presentation will review several observations of the HSR program and the design activity within Configuration Aerodynamics.

  14. NASA aerodynamics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Louis J.; Hessenius, Kristin A.; Corsiglia, Victor R.; Hicks, Gary; Richardson, Pamela F.; Unger, George; Neumann, Benjamin; Moss, Jim

    1992-01-01

    The annual accomplishments is reviewed for the Aerodynamics Division during FY 1991. The program includes both fundamental and applied research directed at the full spectrum of aerospace vehicles, from rotorcraft to planetary entry probes. A comprehensive review is presented of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications; CFD validation; transition and turbulence physics; numerical aerodynamic simulation; test techniques and instrumentation; configuration aerodynamics; aeroacoustics; aerothermodynamics; hypersonics; subsonics; fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.

  15. Airframe-propulsion system aerodynamic interference predictions at high transonic Mach numbers including off-design engine airflow effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulfan, R. M.; Sigalla, A.

    1981-01-01

    The transonic speed regime for airplanes at conditions where inlet spillage takes place is discussed. A wind tunnel test program to evaluate aerodynamic performance penalties associated with propulsion system installation and operation at subsonic through low supersonic speeds was conducted. The accuracy of analytic methods for predicting transonic engine airframe interference effects was assessed. Study variables included Mach number, angle of attack, relative nacelle location, and nacelle mass flow ratio. Results include test theory comparisons of forces as well as induced pressure fields. Prediction capability of induced shock wave strength and locations is assessed. It was found that large interference forces due to engine location and flow spillage occur at transonic speeds, that theory explains these effects; and that theory can predict quantitatively these effects.

  16. NASA aerodynamics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Schairer, Edward; Hicks, Gary; Wander, Stephen; Blankson, Isiaiah; Rose, Raymond; Olson, Lawrence; Unger, George

    1990-01-01

    Presented here is a comprehensive review of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation, transition and turbulence physics, numerical aerodynamic simulation, drag reduction, test techniques and instrumentation, configuration aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, aerothermodynamics, hypersonics, subsonic transport/commuter aviation, fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.

  17. Application of two procedures for dual-point design of transonic airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineck, Raymond E.; Campbell, Richard L.; Allison, Dennis O.

    1994-01-01

    Two dual-point design procedures were developed to reduce the objective function of a baseline airfoil at two design points. The first procedure to develop a redesigned airfoil used a weighted average of the shapes of two intermediate airfoils redesigned at each of the two design points. The second procedure used a weighted average of two pressure distributions obtained from an intermediate airfoil redesigned at each of the two design points. Each procedure was used to design a new airfoil with reduced wave drag at the cruise condition without increasing the wave drag or pitching moment at the climb condition. Two cycles of the airfoil shape-averaging procedure successfully designed a new airfoil that reduced the objective function and satisfied the constraints. One cycle of the target (desired) pressure-averaging procedure was used to design two new airfoils that reduced the objective function and came close to satisfying the constraints.

  18. Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Sean; Bigatel, Patrick

    2004-10-17

    Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by this DOE category one Inventions and Innovations grant to successfully research, develop, test, patent, market, and sell innovative fuel and emissions saving aerodynamic attachments for the trucking industry. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck's fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Market research early in this project revealed the demands of truck fleet operators regarding aerodynamic attachments. Products must not only save fuel, but cannot interfere with the operation of the truck, require significant maintenance, add significant weight, and must be extremely durable. Furthermore, SAE/TMC J1321 tests performed by a respected independent laboratory are necessary for large fleets to even consider purchase. Freight Wing used this information to create a system of three practical aerodynamic attachments for the front, rear and undercarriage of standard semi trailers. SAE/TMC J1321 Type II tests preformed by the Transportation Research Center (TRC) demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy with all three products. If Freight Wing is successful in its continued efforts to gain market penetration, the energy and environmental savings would be considerable. Each truck outfitted saves approximately 1,100 gallons of fuel every 100,000 miles, which prevents over 12 tons of CO2 from entering the atmosphere. If all applicable trailers used the technology, the country could save approximately 1.8 billion gallons of diesel fuel, 18 million tons of emissions and 3.6 billion dollars annually.

  19. TAD- THEORETICAL AERODYNAMICS PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrowman, J.

    1994-01-01

    This theoretical aerodynamics program, TAD, was developed to predict the aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles with sounding rocket configurations. These slender, axisymmetric finned vehicle configurations have a wide range of aeronautical applications from rockets to high speed armament. Over a given range of Mach numbers, TAD will compute the normal force coefficient derivative, the center-of-pressure, the roll forcing moment coefficient derivative, the roll damping moment coefficient derivative, and the pitch damping moment coefficient derivative of a sounding rocket configured vehicle. The vehicle may consist of a sharp pointed nose of cone or tangent ogive shape, up to nine other body divisions of conical shoulder, conical boattail, or circular cylinder shape, and fins of trapezoid planform shape with constant cross section and either three or four fins per fin set. The characteristics computed by TAD have been shown to be accurate to within ten percent of experimental data in the supersonic region. The TAD program calculates the characteristics of separate portions of the vehicle, calculates the interference between separate portions of the vehicle, and then combines the results to form a total vehicle solution. Also, TAD can be used to calculate the characteristics of the body or fins separately as an aid in the design process. Input to the TAD program consists of simple descriptions of the body and fin geometries and the Mach range of interest. Output includes the aerodynamic characteristics of the total vehicle, or user-selected portions, at specified points over the mach range. The TAD program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 360 computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 123K of 8 bit bytes. The TAD program was originally developed in 1967 and last updated in 1972.

  20. 1997 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop on February 25-28, 1997. The workshop was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, Flight Controls, Supersonic Laminar Flow Control, and Sonic Boom Prediction. The workshop objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT Motion Simulator results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas.

  1. Bifurcations in unsteady aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobak, M.; Unal, A.

    1986-01-01

    Nonlinear algebraic functional expansions are used to create a form for the unsteady aerodynamic response that is consistent with solutions of the time dependent Navier-Stokes equations. An enumeration of means of invalidating Frechet differentiability of the aerodynamic response, one of which is aerodynamic bifurcation, is proposed as a way of classifying steady and unsteady aerodynamic phenomena that are important in flight dynamics applications. Accomodating bifurcation phenomena involving time dependent equilibrium states within a mathematical model of the aerodynamic response raises an issue of memory effects that becomes more important with each successive bifurcation.

  2. 48 CFR 36.301 - Use of two-phase design-build selection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of two-phase design...-Phase Design-Build Selection Procedures 36.301 Use of two-phase design-build selection procedures. (a) During formal or informal acquisition planning (see part 7), if considering the use of two-phase...

  3. 48 CFR 36.301 - Use of two-phase design-build selection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of two-phase design...-Phase Design-Build Selection Procedures 36.301 Use of two-phase design-build selection procedures. (a) During formal or informal acquisition planning (see part 7), if considering the use of two-phase...

  4. 42 CFR 5.3 - Procedures for designation of health professional(s) shortage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for designation of health professional(s) shortage areas. 5.3 Section 5.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS DESIGNATION OF HEALTH PROFESSIONAL(S) SHORTAGE AREAS § 5.3 Procedures for designation of health professional(s)...

  5. 49 CFR 27.13 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption... General § 27.13 Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation... subsequent change. (b) Adoption of complaint procedures. A recipient that employs fifteen or more...

  6. 7 CFR 15a.7 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 15a.7 Section 15a.7 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION... Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of...

  7. 7 CFR 15b.6 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of... Provisions § 15b.6 Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation... one person to coordinate its efforts to comply with this part. (b) Adoption of grievance procedures....

  8. 36 CFR 1211.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 1211.135 Section 1211.135 Parks, Forests, and Public... Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of...

  9. 10 CFR 5.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 5.135 Section 5.135 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE....135 Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation...

  10. 7 CFR 15b.6 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of... Provisions § 15b.6 Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation... one person to coordinate its efforts to comply with this part. (b) Adoption of grievance procedures....

  11. 44 CFR 19.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 19.135 Section 19.135 Emergency Management and Assistance... § 19.135 Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation...

  12. 7 CFR 15a.7 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 15a.7 Section 15a.7 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION... Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of...

  13. 10 CFR 5.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 5.135 Section 5.135 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE....135 Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation...

  14. 45 CFR 2555.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 2555.135 Section 2555.135 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of...

  15. 36 CFR 1211.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 1211.135 Section 1211.135 Parks, Forests, and Public... Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of...

  16. 46 CFR 169.218 - Procedures for designating sailing school vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procedures for designating sailing school vessels. 169... SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Letter of Designation § 169.218 Procedures for designating sailing school vessels. (a) Upon written request by a qualified institution, a determination...

  17. 46 CFR 169.218 - Procedures for designating sailing school vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Procedures for designating sailing school vessels. 169... SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Letter of Designation § 169.218 Procedures for designating sailing school vessels. (a) Upon written request by a qualified institution, a determination...

  18. 46 CFR 169.218 - Procedures for designating sailing school vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Procedures for designating sailing school vessels. 169... SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Letter of Designation § 169.218 Procedures for designating sailing school vessels. (a) Upon written request by a qualified institution, a determination...

  19. 46 CFR 169.218 - Procedures for designating sailing school vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Procedures for designating sailing school vessels. 169... SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Letter of Designation § 169.218 Procedures for designating sailing school vessels. (a) Upon written request by a qualified institution, a determination...

  20. 46 CFR 164.019-9 - Procedure for acceptance of revisions of design, process, or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedure for acceptance of revisions of design, process... Device Components § 164.019-9 Procedure for acceptance of revisions of design, process, or materials. (a) The manufacturer shall not change the design, material, manufacturing process, or construction of...

  1. Integrating nonlinear aerodynamic and structural analysis for a complete fighter configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatum, Kenneth E.; Giles, Gary L.

    1987-01-01

    The coupling of a nonlinear aerodynamics program with a structural analysis program to include the effects of static aeroelasticity in early preliminary design studies is described. A nonlinear, full potential aerodynamics method with capability to model geometric details of a complete aircraft in supersonic flow is used. The deflections of the lifting surfaces are calculated using an equivalent plate structural representation which can readily accommodate the changes in stiffness and geometric properties required during the preliminary design process. An iterative solution procedure is used to obtain consistent aerodynamic loads and structural deflections at the specified flight conditions. The volume of data transmitted between programs is minimized. The procedure is applied to a complete aircraft and the numerical results illustrate the aeroelastic effects on pressure distribution as well as total forces and moments. During this design study, the thickness distribution of the wing cover skins was initially sized based on rigid loads and subsequently resized under aeroelastic loads. Comparisons are made between these nonlinear aeroelastic results and results obtained from linear aerodynamic methods applied to a rigid shape during conceptual design studies.

  2. The Aerodynamic Plane Table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F

    1924-01-01

    This report gives the description and the use of a specially designed aerodynamic plane table. For the accurate and expeditious geometrical measurement of models in an aerodynamic laboratory, and for miscellaneous truing operations, there is frequent need for a specially equipped plan table. For example, one may have to measure truly to 0.001 inch the offsets of an airfoil at many parts of its surface. Or the offsets of a strut, airship hull, or other carefully formed figure may require exact calipering. Again, a complete airplane model may have to be adjusted for correct incidence at all parts of its surfaces or verified in those parts for conformance to specifications. Such work, if but occasional, may be done on a planing or milling machine; but if frequent, justifies the provision of a special table. For this reason it was found desirable in 1918 to make the table described in this report and to equip it with such gauges and measures as the work should require.

  3. Distributed Aerodynamic Sensing and Processing Toolbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Martin; Jutte, Christine; Mangalam, Arun

    2011-01-01

    A Distributed Aerodynamic Sensing and Processing (DASP) toolbox was designed and fabricated for flight test applications with an Aerostructures Test Wing (ATW) mounted under the fuselage of an F-15B on the Flight Test Fixture (FTF). DASP monitors and processes the aerodynamics with the structural dynamics using nonintrusive, surface-mounted, hot-film sensing. This aerodynamic measurement tool benefits programs devoted to static/dynamic load alleviation, body freedom flutter suppression, buffet control, improvement of aerodynamic efficiency through cruise control, supersonic wave drag reduction through shock control, etc. This DASP toolbox measures local and global unsteady aerodynamic load distribution with distributed sensing. It determines correlation between aerodynamic observables (aero forces) and structural dynamics, and allows control authority increase through aeroelastic shaping and active flow control. It offers improvements in flutter suppression and, in particular, body freedom flutter suppression, as well as aerodynamic performance of wings for increased range/endurance of manned/ unmanned flight vehicles. Other improvements include inlet performance with closed-loop active flow control, and development and validation of advanced analytical and computational tools for unsteady aerodynamics.

  4. Low Reynolds Number Aerodynamic Characteristics of Several Airplane Configurations Designed to Fly in the Mars Atmosphere at Subsonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Re, Richard J.; Pendergraft, Odis C., Jr.; Campbell, Richard L.

    2006-01-01

    A 1/4-scale wind tunnel model of an airplane configuration developed for short duration flight at subsonic speeds in the Martian atmosphere has been tested in the Langley Research Center Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The tunnel was pumped down to extremely low pressures to represent Martian Mach/Reynolds number conditions. Aerodynamic data were obtained and upper and lower surface wind pressures were measured at one spanwise station on some configurations. Three unswept wings of the same planform but different airfoil sections were tested. Horizontal tail incidence was varied as was the deflection of plain and split trailing-edge flaps. One unswept wing configuration was tested with the lower part of the fuselage removed and the vertical/horizontal tail assembly inverted and mounted from beneath the fuselage. A sweptback wing was also tested. Tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.50 to 0.90. Wing chord Reynolds number was varied from 40,000 to 100,000 and angles of attack and sideslip were varied from -10deg to 20deg and -10deg to 10deg, respectively.

  5. Minimum-mass design of filamentary composite panels under combined loads: Design procedure based on a rigorous buckling analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, W. J.; Agranoff, N.; Anderson, M. S.

    1977-01-01

    A procedure is presented for designing uniaxially stiffened panels made of composite material and subjected to combined inplane loads. The procedure uses a rigorous buckling analysis and nonlinear mathematical programing techniques. Design studies carried out with the procedure consider hat-stiffened and corrugated panels made of graphite-epoxy material. Combined longitudinal compression and shear and combined longitudinal and transverse compression are the loadings used in the studies. The capability to tailor the buckling response of a panel is also explored. Finally, the adequacy of another, simpler, analysis-design procedure is examined.

  6. Helicopter rotor blade aerodynamic optimization by mathematical programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, J. L.; Bingham, G. J.; Riley, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    Formal mathematical programing was applied to the aerodynamic rotor blade design process. The approach is to couple hover and forward flight analysis programs with the general-purpose optimization program CONMIN to determine the blade taper ratio, percent taper, twist distribution, and solidity which minimize the horsepower required at hover while meeting constraints on forward flight performance. Designs obtained using this approach for the blade of a representative Army helicopter compare well with those obtained using a conventional approach involving personnel-intensive parametric studies. Results from the present method can be obtained in 2 days as compared to 5 weeks required by the conventional procedure. Also the systematic manipulation of the design variables by the optimization procedure minimizes the need for the researcher to have a vast body of past experience and data in determining the influence of a design change on the performance.

  7. Golf Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A former Martin Marietta Manned Space Systems engineer, Robert T. Thurman went from analyzing airloads on the Space Shuttle External Tank to analyzing airloads on golf balls for Wilson Sporting Goods Company. Using his NASA know-how, Thurman designed the Ultra 500 golf ball, which has three different-sized dimples in 60 triangular faces (instead of the usual 20) formed by a series of intersecting "parting" lines. This balances the asymmetry caused by the molding line in all golf balls. According to Wilson, the ball sustains initial velocity longer and produces the most stable ball flight for "unmatched" accuracy and distance.

  8. Revised procedure for pavement design under seasonal frost conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, R. L.; Johnson, T. C.

    1983-09-01

    This report presents engineering guidance and design criteria for pavements at Army and Air Force facilities in seasonal frost areas. Design methods for controlling surface roughness and loss of subgrade strength during thawing periods are provided. Criteria for using thermal insulating materials and membrane encapsulated soil layers in seasonal frost areas are presented. Six design examples are included.

  9. 15 CFR 8b.7 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and adoption of grievance procedures. 8b.7 Section 8b.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the... adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of responsible employee. A recipient, other than a small...) Adoption of grievance procedures. A recipient, other than a small recipient, shall adopt...

  10. 38 CFR 18.407 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 18.407 Section 18.407 Pensions, Bonuses, and... adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of responsible employee. A recipient that employs fifteen... part. (b) Adoption of grievance procedures. A recipient that employs fifteen or more persons...

  11. 14 CFR 1251.106 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... adoption of grievance procedures. 1251.106 Section 1251.106 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of responsible employee. A... comply with this part. (b) Adoption of grievance procedures. A recipient that employs 15 or more...

  12. 38 CFR 18.407 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 18.407 Section 18.407 Pensions, Bonuses, and... adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of responsible employee. A recipient that employs fifteen... part. (b) Adoption of grievance procedures. A recipient that employs fifteen or more persons...

  13. Aerodynamic Simulation of the MARINTEK Braceless Semisubmersible Wave Tank Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Gordon; Muskulus, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Model scale experiments of floating offshore wind turbines are important for both platform design for the industry as well as numerical model validation for the research community. An important consideration in the wave tank testing of offshore wind turbines are scaling effects, especially the tension between accurate scaling of both hydrodynamic and aerodynamic forces. The recent MARINTEK braceless semisubmersible wave tank experiment utilizes a novel aerodynamic force actuator to decouple the scaling of the aerodynamic forces. This actuator consists of an array of motors that pull on cables to provide aerodynamic forces that are calculated by a blade-element momentum code in real time as the experiment is conducted. This type of system has the advantage of supplying realistically scaled aerodynamic forces that include dynamic forces from platform motion, but does not provide the insights into the accuracy of the aerodynamic models that an actual model-scale rotor could provide. The modeling of this system presents an interesting challenge, as there are two ways to simulate the aerodynamics; either by using the turbulent wind fields as inputs to the aerodynamic model of the design code, or by surpassing the aerodynamic model and using the forces applied to the experimental turbine as direct inputs to the simulation. This paper investigates the best practices of modeling this type of novel aerodynamic actuator using a modified wind turbine simulation tool, and demonstrates that bypassing the dynamic aerodynamics solver of design codes can lead to erroneous results.

  14. 40 CFR 240.204-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....204-2 Section 240.204-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures... indiscriminately. Consideration should be given to onsite treatment of process and waste waters before...

  15. 33 CFR 263.17 - Planning, design and construction procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...” plan, and the assessment of impacts of alternative plans. Plans are to be formulated to provide the... procedures. (3) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) requirements. Requirements for preparation, coordination... on planning matters to DAEN-CWP-E, C or W, or on technical engineering matters to DAEN-CWE-B,...

  16. 33 CFR 263.17 - Planning, design and construction procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...” plan, and the assessment of impacts of alternative plans. Plans are to be formulated to provide the... procedures. (3) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) requirements. Requirements for preparation, coordination... on planning matters to DAEN-CWP-E, C or W, or on technical engineering matters to DAEN-CWE-B,...

  17. Aerodynamic Characterization of a Modern Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Robert M.; Holland, Scott D.; Blevins, John A.

    2011-01-01

    A modern launch vehicle is by necessity an extremely integrated design. The accurate characterization of its aerodynamic characteristics is essential to determine design loads, to design flight control laws, and to establish performance. The NASA Ares Aerodynamics Panel has been responsible for technical planning, execution, and vetting of the aerodynamic characterization of the Ares I vehicle. An aerodynamics team supporting the Panel consists of wind tunnel engineers, computational engineers, database engineers, and other analysts that address topics such as uncertainty quantification. The team resides at three NASA centers: Langley Research Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Ames Research Center. The Panel has developed strategies to synergistically combine both the wind tunnel efforts and the computational efforts with the goal of validating the computations. Selected examples highlight key flow physics and, where possible, the fidelity of the comparisons between wind tunnel results and the computations. Lessons learned summarize what has been gleaned during the project and can be useful for other vehicle development projects.

  18. 1999 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, David E. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1999 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 8-12, 1999 in Anaheim, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in the areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to: (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working on HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and midpoint optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented, along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program. This Volume 1/Part 1 publication covers configuration aerodynamics.

  19. Effects of nonlinear aerodynamics and static aeroelasticity on mission performance calculations for a fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, Gary L.; Tatum, Kenneth E.; Foss, Willard E., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    During conceptual design studies of advanced aircraft, the usual practice is to use linear theory to calculate the aerodynamic characteristics of candidate rigid (nonflexible) geometric external shapes. Recent developments and improvements in computational methods, especially computational fluid dynamics (CFD), provide significantly improved capability to generate detailed analysis data for the use of all disciplines involved in the evaluation of a proposed aircraft design. A multidisciplinary application of such analysis methods to calculate the effects of nonlinear aerodynamics and static aeroelasticity on the mission performance of a fighter aircraft concept is described. The aircraft configuration selected for study was defined in a previous study using linear aerodynamics and rigid geometry. The results from the previous study are used as a basis of comparison for the data generated herein. Aerodynamic characteristics are calculated using two different nonlinear theories, potential flow and rotational (Euler) flow. The aerodynamic calculations are performed in an iterative procedure with an equivalent plate structural analysis method to obtain lift and drag data for a flexible (nonrigid) aircraft. These static aeroelastic data are then used in calculating the combat and mission performance characteristics of the aircraft.

  20. Aerodynamic effects of flexibility in flapping wings.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang; Huang, Qingfeng; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P

    2010-03-01

    Recent work on the aerodynamics of flapping flight reveals fundamental differences in the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation between fixed and flapping wings. When fixed wings translate at high angles of attack, they periodically generate and shed leading and trailing edge vortices as reflected in their fluctuating aerodynamic force traces and associated flow visualization. In contrast, wings flapping at high angles of attack generate stable leading edge vorticity, which persists throughout the duration of the stroke and enhances mean aerodynamic forces. Here, we show that aerodynamic forces can be controlled by altering the trailing edge flexibility of a flapping wing. We used a dynamically scaled mechanical model of flapping flight (Re approximately 2000) to measure the aerodynamic forces on flapping wings of variable flexural stiffness (EI). For low to medium angles of attack, as flexibility of the wing increases, its ability to generate aerodynamic forces decreases monotonically but its lift-to-drag ratios remain approximately constant. The instantaneous force traces reveal no major differences in the underlying modes of force generation for flexible and rigid wings, but the magnitude of force, the angle of net force vector and centre of pressure all vary systematically with wing flexibility. Even a rudimentary framework of wing veins is sufficient to restore the ability of flexible wings to generate forces at near-rigid values. Thus, the magnitude of force generation can be controlled by modulating the trailing edge flexibility and thereby controlling the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity. To characterize this, we have generated a detailed database of aerodynamic forces as a function of several variables including material properties, kinematics, aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure, which can also be used to help validate computational models of aeroelastic flapping wings. These experiments will also be useful for wing design for small

  1. Aerodynamic effects of flexibility in flapping wings

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liang; Huang, Qingfeng; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P.

    2010-01-01

    Recent work on the aerodynamics of flapping flight reveals fundamental differences in the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation between fixed and flapping wings. When fixed wings translate at high angles of attack, they periodically generate and shed leading and trailing edge vortices as reflected in their fluctuating aerodynamic force traces and associated flow visualization. In contrast, wings flapping at high angles of attack generate stable leading edge vorticity, which persists throughout the duration of the stroke and enhances mean aerodynamic forces. Here, we show that aerodynamic forces can be controlled by altering the trailing edge flexibility of a flapping wing. We used a dynamically scaled mechanical model of flapping flight (Re ≈ 2000) to measure the aerodynamic forces on flapping wings of variable flexural stiffness (EI). For low to medium angles of attack, as flexibility of the wing increases, its ability to generate aerodynamic forces decreases monotonically but its lift-to-drag ratios remain approximately constant. The instantaneous force traces reveal no major differences in the underlying modes of force generation for flexible and rigid wings, but the magnitude of force, the angle of net force vector and centre of pressure all vary systematically with wing flexibility. Even a rudimentary framework of wing veins is sufficient to restore the ability of flexible wings to generate forces at near-rigid values. Thus, the magnitude of force generation can be controlled by modulating the trailing edge flexibility and thereby controlling the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity. To characterize this, we have generated a detailed database of aerodynamic forces as a function of several variables including material properties, kinematics, aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure, which can also be used to help validate computational models of aeroelastic flapping wings. These experiments will also be useful for wing design for small robotic

  2. 40 CFR 240.201-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... carcasses, automobile bodies, dewatered sludges from water treatment plants, and industrial process wastes. ... or excluded wastes inadvertently left at the facility should be considered in design. (b) Examples...

  3. 40 CFR 240.201-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... carcasses, automobile bodies, dewatered sludges from water treatment plants, and industrial process wastes. ... or excluded wastes inadvertently left at the facility should be considered in design. (b) Examples...

  4. 40 CFR 240.201-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... carcasses, automobile bodies, dewatered sludges from water treatment plants, and industrial process wastes. ... or excluded wastes inadvertently left at the facility should be considered in design. (b) Examples...

  5. Vortex flow aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. H. B.; Campbell, J. F.; Young, A. D. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The principal emphasis of the meeting was to be on the understanding and prediction of separation-induced vortex flows and their effects on vehicle performance, stability, control, and structural design loads. This report shows that a substantial amount of the papers covering this area were received from a wide range of countries, together with an attendance that was even more diverse. In itself, this testifies to the current interest in the subject and to the appropriateness of the Panel's choice of topic and approach. An attempt is made to summarize each paper delivered, and to relate the contributions made in the papers and in the discussions to some of the important aspects of vortex flow aerodynamics. This reveals significant progress and important clarifications, but also brings out remaining weaknesses in predictive capability and gaps in understanding. Where possible, conclusions are drawn and areas of continuing concern are identified.

  6. 34 CFR 104.7 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of... responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of responsible employee. A... to comply with this part. (b) Adoption of grievance procedures. A recipient that employs fifteen...

  7. 34 CFR 106.8 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 106.8 Section 106.8 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of responsible employee....

  8. 18 CFR 1317.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 1317.135 Section 1317.135 Conservation of Power and... responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of responsible employee....

  9. 18 CFR 1317.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 1317.135 Section 1317.135 Conservation of Power and... responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of responsible employee....

  10. 34 CFR 106.8 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 106.8 Section 106.8 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of responsible employee....

  11. 6 CFR 17.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 17.135 Section 17.135 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of responsible employee. Each recipient shall...

  12. 45 CFR 1170.53 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption... Enforcement § 1170.53 Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a... one person to coordinate its efforts to comply with this part. (b) Adoption of grievance procedures....

  13. 45 CFR 1170.53 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption... Enforcement § 1170.53 Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a... one person to coordinate its efforts to comply with this part. (b) Adoption of grievance procedures....

  14. 24 CFR 3.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 3.135 Section 3.135 Housing and Urban Development Office of the... responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of responsible employee....

  15. 10 CFR 1042.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 1042.135 Section 1042.135 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS... Introduction § 1042.135 Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures....

  16. 38 CFR 23.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 23.135 Section 23.135 Pensions, Bonuses, and... responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of responsible employee....

  17. 24 CFR 3.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 3.135 Section 3.135 Housing and Urban Development Office of the... responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of responsible employee....

  18. 34 CFR 106.8 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 106.8 Section 106.8 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of responsible employee....

  19. 18 CFR 1317.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 1317.135 Section 1317.135 Conservation of Power and... responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of responsible employee....

  20. 34 CFR 104.7 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of... responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of responsible employee. A... to comply with this part. (b) Adoption of grievance procedures. A recipient that employs fifteen...

  1. 32 CFR 196.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 196.135 Section 196.135 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of responsible...

  2. 45 CFR 618.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 618.135 Section 618.135 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of responsible employee....

  3. 18 CFR 1317.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 1317.135 Section 1317.135 Conservation of Power and... responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of responsible employee....

  4. 45 CFR 618.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 618.135 Section 618.135 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of responsible employee....

  5. 45 CFR 605.7 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption... adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of responsible employee. A recipient that employs fifteen... part. (b) Adoption of grievance procedures. A recipient that employs fifteen or more persons...

  6. 6 CFR 17.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 17.135 Section 17.135 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of responsible employee. Each recipient shall...

  7. 45 CFR 605.7 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption... adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of responsible employee. A recipient that employs fifteen... part. (b) Adoption of grievance procedures. A recipient that employs fifteen or more persons...

  8. 24 CFR 3.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 3.135 Section 3.135 Housing and Urban Development Office of the... responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of responsible employee....

  9. 24 CFR 3.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 3.135 Section 3.135 Housing and Urban Development Office of the... responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of responsible employee....

  10. 32 CFR 196.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 196.135 Section 196.135 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of responsible...

  11. 34 CFR 104.7 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of... responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of responsible employee. A... to comply with this part. (b) Adoption of grievance procedures. A recipient that employs fifteen...

  12. 28 CFR 35.107 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 35.107 Section 35.107 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. (a) Designation of responsible employee. A...

  13. 40 CFR 63.8687 - What performance tests, design evaluations, and other procedures must I use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... What performance tests, design evaluations, and other procedures must I use? (a) You must conduct each... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What performance tests, design evaluations, and other procedures must I use? 63.8687 Section 63.8687 Protection of Environment...

  14. 24 CFR 3285.306 - Design procedures for concrete block piers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Design procedures for concrete....306 Design procedures for concrete block piers. (a) Frame piers less than 36 inches high. (1) Frame piers less than 36 inches high are permitted to be constructed of single, open, or closed-cell...

  15. 24 CFR 3285.306 - Design procedures for concrete block piers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Design procedures for concrete....306 Design procedures for concrete block piers. (a) Frame piers less than 36 inches high. (1) Frame piers less than 36 inches high are permitted to be constructed of single, open, or closed-cell...

  16. 24 CFR 3285.306 - Design procedures for concrete block piers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Design procedures for concrete....306 Design procedures for concrete block piers. (a) Frame piers less than 36 inches high. (1) Frame piers less than 36 inches high are permitted to be constructed of single, open, or closed-cell...

  17. 24 CFR 3285.306 - Design procedures for concrete block piers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Design procedures for concrete....306 Design procedures for concrete block piers. (a) Frame piers less than 36 inches high. (1) Frame piers less than 36 inches high are permitted to be constructed of single, open, or closed-cell...

  18. 24 CFR 3285.306 - Design procedures for concrete block piers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Design procedures for concrete....306 Design procedures for concrete block piers. (a) Frame piers less than 36 inches high. (1) Frame piers less than 36 inches high are permitted to be constructed of single, open, or closed-cell...

  19. 46 CFR 169.218 - Procedures for designating sailing school vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for designating sailing school vessels. 169.218 Section 169.218 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Letter of Designation § 169.218 Procedures...

  20. 47 CFR 6.18 - Procedure; designation of agents for service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICE, TELECOMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT AND CUSTOMER PREMISES EQUIPMENT BY PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES Enforcement § 6.18 Procedure; designation of agents for service. (a) The Commission shall promptly forward any... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedure; designation of agents for service....

  1. Alternate design charts for fixed tubesheet design procedure included in ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section 8, Division 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kuppan, T.

    1995-05-01

    Design formulas and calculation procedure for the design of fixed tubesheets of shell and tube heat exchangers are included in Appendix AA--Nonmandatory of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel code, Section 8, Division 1. To minimize the number of calculations, charts are provided as part of the design procedure. This article provides alternate charts for certain parameters and the original version of the charts are extended for larger values of tubesheet design parameter. Numerical values are given in tabular form for certain functions used in plotting the design charts. This will help to do design calculations without referring to the charts.

  2. Interservice Procedures for Instructional Systems Development. Phase II: Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Robert K.; And Others

    The document is the second of a five-part series focusing in minute detail on the processes involved in the formulation of an instructional systems development (ISD) program for military interservice training that will adequately train individuals to do a particular job. Phase II, Design, is concerned with designing instructional materials based…

  3. Anthropometric Procedures for Protective Equipment Sizing and Design

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This article presented four anthropometric theories (univariate, bivariate/probability distribution, multivariate, and shape-based methods) for protective equipment design decisions. Background While the significance of anthropometric information for product design is well recognized, designers continue to face challenges in selecting efficient anthropometric data processing methods and translating the acquired information into effective product designs. Methods For this study, 100 farm tractor operators, 3,718 respirator users, 951 firefighters, and 816 civilian workers participated in four studies on the design of tractor roll-over protective structures (ROPS), respirator test panels, fire truck cabs, and fall-arrest harnesses, respectively. Their anthropometry and participant-equipment interfaces were evaluated. Results Study 1 showed a need to extend the 90-cm vertical clearance for tractor ROPS in the current industrial standards to 98.3 to 101.3 cm. Study 2 indicated that current respirator test panel would have excluded 10% of the male firefighter population; a systematic adjustment to the boundaries of test panel cells was suggested. Study 3 provided 24 principal component analysis-based firefighter body models to facilitate fire truck cab design. Study 4 developed an improved gender-based fall-arrest harness sizing scheme to supplant the current unisex system. Conclusions This article presented four anthropometric approaches and a six-step design paradigm for ROPS, respirator test panel, fire truck cab, and fall-arrest harness applications, which demonstrated anthropometric theories and practices for defining protective equipment fit and sizing schemes. Applications The study provided a basis for equipment designers, standards writers, and industry manufacturers to advance anthropometric applications for product design and improve product efficacy. PMID:23516791

  4. 1999 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, David E. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1999 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 8-12, 1999 in Anaheim, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in the areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working on HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and midpoint optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented, along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program. This Volume 1/Part 2 publication covers the design optimization and testing sessions.

  5. Switchable and Tunable Aerodynamic Drag on Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttag, Mark; Lopéz Jiménez, Francisco; Upadhyaya, Priyank; Kumar, Shanmugam; Reis, Pedro

    We report results on the performance of Smart Morphable Surfaces (Smporhs) that can be mounted onto cylindrical structures to actively reduce their aerodynamic drag. Our system comprises of an elastomeric thin shell with a series of carefully designed subsurface cavities that, once depressurized, lead to a dramatic deformation of the surface topography, on demand. Our design is inspired by the morphology of the giant cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) which possesses an array of axial grooves, thought to help reduce aerodynamic drag, thereby enhancing the structural robustness of the plant under wind loading. We perform systematic wind tunnel tests on cylinders covered with our Smorphs and characterize their aerodynamic performance. The switchable and tunable nature of our system offers substantial advantages for aerodynamic performance when compared to static topographies, due to their operation over a wider range of flow conditions.

  6. Switchable and Tunable Aerodynamic Drag on Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttag, Mark; Lopez Jimenez, Francisco; Reis, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    We report results on the performance of Smart Morphable Surfaces (Smporhs) that can be mounted onto cylindrical structures to actively reduce their aerodynamic drag. Our system comprises of an elastomeric thin shell with a series of carefully designed subsurface cavities that, once depressurized, lead to a dramatic deformation of the surface topography, on demand. Our design is inspired by the morphology of the giant cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) which possesses an array of axial grooves, which are thought to help reduce aerodynamic drag, thereby enhancing the structural robustness of the plant under wind loading. We perform systematic wind tunnel tests on cylinders covered with our Smorphs and characterize their aerodynamic performance. The switchable and tunable nature of our system offers substantial advantages for aerodynamic performance when compared to static topographies, due to their operation over a wider range of flow conditions.

  7. 40 CFR 240.200-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... stumps, large timbers, furniture, and major appliances), digested and dewatered sludges from waste water treatment facilities, raw sewage sludges, and septic tank pumpings. (b) If the facility is designed...

  8. 40 CFR 240.200-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... stumps, large timbers, furniture, and major appliances), digested and dewatered sludges from waste water treatment facilities, raw sewage sludges, and septic tank pumpings. (b) If the facility is designed...

  9. 40 CFR 240.200-2 - Recommended procedures: Design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... stumps, large timbers, furniture, and major appliances), digested and dewatered sludges from waste water treatment facilities, raw sewage sludges, and septic tank pumpings. (b) If the facility is designed...

  10. Fatigue design procedure for the American SST prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    For supersonic airline operations, significantly higher environmental temperature is the primary new factor affecting structural service life. Methods for incorporating the influence of temperature in detailed fatigue analyses are shown along with current test indications. Thermal effects investigated include real-time compared with short-time testing, long-time temperature exposure, and stress-temperature cycle phasing. A method is presented which allows designers and stress analyzers to check fatigue resistance of structural design details. A communicative rating system is presented which defines the relative fatigue quality of the detail so that the analyst can define cyclic-load capability of the design detail by entering constant-life charts for varying detail quality. If necessary then, this system allows the designer to determine ways to improve the fatigue quality for better life or to determine the operating stresses which will provide the required service life.

  11. Proposed design procedure for transmission shafting under fatigue loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    A new standard for the design of transmission shafting is reported. Computed was the diameter of rotating solid steel shafts under combined cyclic bending and steady torsion is presented. The formula is based on an elliptical variation of endurance strength with torque exhibited by combined stress fatigue data. Fatigue factors are cited to correct specimen bending endurance strength data for use in the shaft formula. A design example illustrates how the method is to be applied.

  12. X-34 Vehicle Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brauckmann, Gregory J.

    1998-01-01

    The X-34, being designed and built by the Orbital Sciences Corporation, is an unmanned sub-orbital vehicle designed to be used as a flying test bed to demonstrate key vehicle and operational technologies applicable to future reusable launch vehicles. The X-34 will be air-launched from an L-1011 carrier aircraft at approximately Mach 0.7 and 38,000 feet altitude, where an onboard engine will accelerate the vehicle to speeds above Mach 7 and altitudes to 250,000 feet. An unpowered entry will follow, including an autonomous landing. The X-34 will demonstrate the ability to fly through inclement weather, land horizontally at a designated site, and have a rapid turn-around capability. A series of wind tunnel tests on scaled models was conducted in four facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the X-34. Analysis of these test results revealed that longitudinal trim could be achieved throughout the design trajectory. The maximum elevon deflection required to trim was only half of that available, leaving a margin for gust alleviation and aerodynamic coefficient uncertainty. Directional control can be achieved aerodynamically except at combined high Mach numbers and high angles of attack, where reaction control jets must be used. The X-34 landing speed, between 184 and 206 knots, is within the capabilities of the gear and tires, and the vehicle has sufficient rudder authority to control the required 30-knot crosswind.

  13. Control of helicopter rotorblade aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabunmi, James A.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study of a method for controlling the aerodynamics of helicopter rotorblades using stacks of piezoelectric ceramic plates are presented. A resonant mechanism is proposed for the amplification of the displacements produced by the stack. This motion is then converted into linear displacement for the actuation of the servoflap of the blades. A design which emulates the actuation of the servoflap on the Kaman SH-2F is used to demonstrate the fact that such a system can be designed to produce the necessary forces and velocities needed to control the aerodynamics of the rotorblades of such a helicopter. Estimates of the electrical power requirements are also presented. A Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 2 Program is suggested, whereby a bench-top prototype of the device can be built and tested. A collaborative effort between AEDAR Corporation and Kaman Aerospace Corporation is anticipated for future effort on this project.

  14. Guidelines and procedures for design of Class 1 elevated temperature nuclear system components

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    This standard provides guidelines and procedures which may be used by the manufacturer in satisfying the requirements given for design of class 1 elevated temperature nuclear system components. Guidance is given regarding planning and control of design analysis. A sequence for calculations is recommended. Methods of analysis, including procedures to account for environmental effects, are given which are acceptable in principle to the owner. A format is provided for use in documentation of design analyses.

  15. Students' Design of a Biometric Procedure in Upper Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzin, Patricia; de Vries, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Making the connection between science and technology might be important for students to learn to identify and solve problems and to acquire scientific knowledge and skills. The research reported in this article concerned the development of a design situation in a science classroom and the study of students performing in this situation. More…

  16. 17 CFR 38.3 - Procedures for designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... legal status and governance structure, including governance fitness information; (D) An executed or... copies of such documents must be submitted prior to designation); (E) A copy of any manual or other... in § 38.3(a)(1)(ii)(A) through (E) enable or empower the applicant to comply with each...

  17. 21 CFR 26.66 - Designation and listing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM... apply with regard to the designation of conformity assessment bodies (CAB's) and the inclusion of...

  18. 21 CFR 26.66 - Designation and listing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM... apply with regard to the designation of conformity assessment bodies (CAB's) and the inclusion of...

  19. 1997 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop on February 25-28, 1997. The workshop was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in area of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, Flight Controls, Supersonic Laminar Flow Control, and Sonic Boom Prediction. The workshop objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodyamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT Motion Simulator results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas.

  20. Aerodynamic shape optimization of a HSCT type configuration with improved surface definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Almuttil M.; Tiwari, Surendra N.

    1994-01-01

    Two distinct parametrization procedures of generating free-form surfaces to represent aerospace vehicles are presented. The first procedure is the representation using spline functions such as nonuniform rational b-splines (NURBS) and the second is a novel (geometrical) parametrization using solutions to a suitably chosen partial differential equation. The main idea is to develop a surface which is more versatile and can be used in an optimization process. Unstructured volume grid is generated by an advancing front algorithm and solutions obtained using an Euler solver. Grid sensitivity with respect to surface design parameters and aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients based on potential flow is obtained using an automatic differentiator precompiler software tool. Aerodynamic shape optimization of a complete aircraft with twenty four design variables is performed. High speed civil transport aircraft (HSCT) configurations are targeted to demonstrate the process.

  1. Unsteady transonic aerodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, D.

    1989-01-01

    Various papers on unsteady transonic aerodynamics are presented. The topics addressed include: physical phenomena associated with unsteady transonic flows, basic equations for unsteady transonic flow, practical problems concerning aircraft, basic numerical methods, computational methods for unsteady transonic flows, application of transonic flow analysis to helicopter rotor problems, unsteady aerodynamics for turbomachinery aeroelastic applications, alternative methods for modeling unsteady transonic flows.

  2. Uncertainty in Computational Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckring, J. M.; Hemsch, M. J.; Morrison, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    An approach is presented to treat computational aerodynamics as a process, subject to the fundamental quality assurance principles of process control and process improvement. We consider several aspects affecting uncertainty for the computational aerodynamic process and present a set of stages to determine the level of management required to meet risk assumptions desired by the customer of the predictions.

  3. 1998 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillin, S. Naomi (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1998 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 9-13, in Los Angeles, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry HighSpeed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of. Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to: (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program.

  4. 1998 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillin, S. Naomi (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1998 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 9-13, in Los Angeles, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program.

  5. A design procedure for fan inflow control structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedge, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    Significant differences exist in the noise generated by engine in flight and engines operating on the test stand. It was observed that these differences can be reduced by use of an inflow control structure (ICS) in the static test configuration. The results of the second phase of a three phase program are described and the results of a test program conducted to assess and modify various theoretical models, leading to the development of an ICS design system is summarized.

  6. Introduction. Computational aerodynamics.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Paul G

    2007-10-15

    The wide range of uses of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for aircraft design is discussed along with its role in dealing with the environmental impact of flight. Enabling technologies, such as grid generation and turbulence models, are also considered along with flow/turbulence control. The large eddy simulation, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes and hybrid turbulence modelling approaches are contrasted. The CFD prediction of numerous jet configurations occurring in aerospace are discussed along with aeroelasticity for aeroengine and external aerodynamics, design optimization, unsteady flow modelling and aeroengine internal and external flows. It is concluded that there is a lack of detailed measurements (for both canonical and complex geometry flows) to provide validation and even, in some cases, basic understanding of flow physics. Not surprisingly, turbulence modelling is still the weak link along with, as ever, a pressing need for improved (in terms of robustness, speed and accuracy) solver technology, grid generation and geometry handling. Hence, CFD, as a truly predictive and creative design tool, seems a long way off. Meanwhile, extreme practitioner expertise is still required and the triad of computation, measurement and analytic solution must be judiciously used.

  7. A consistent design procedure for supercritical airfoils in free air and a wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankar, V.; Malmuth, N. D.; Cole, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    A computational inverse procedure for transonic airfoils in which shapes are determined supporting prescribed pressure distributions is presented. The method uses the small disturbance equation and a consistent analysis-design differencing procedure at the airfoil surface. This avoids the intermediate analysis-design-analysis iterations. The effect of any openness at the trailing edge is taken onto account by adding an effective source term in the far field. The final results from a systematic expansion procedure which models the far field for solid, ideal slotted, and free jet tunnel walls are presented along with some design results for the associated boundary conditions and those for a free flight.

  8. "Pierce and inhale" design in capsule based dry powder inhalers: Effect of capsule piercing and motion on aerodynamic performance of drugs.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Francesco; Balducci, Anna Giulia; Rossi, Alessandra; Sonvico, Fabio; Colombo, Paolo; Buttini, Francesca

    2015-06-20

    In this work three capsule-based dry powder inhalers, available for generics product development, were compared. Two technologically different dry powder formulations were used in order to relate the capsule piercing position and motion in the device to their aerodynamic performance. A "pierce and inhale" design, in which the capsules pierced with RS01, HandiHaler or Turbospin devices were aerosolized in the same device or transferred and aerosolized with another device, was constructed and carried out. The results obtained showed that two dry powder formulations, i.e., a drug/lactose blend or a carrier-free powder, aerosolized using capsule based inhalers, performed differently. The aerosolization of drug carrier mixture in terms of drug dispersion and emitted dose, was more sensible to the piercing and device combination than the carrier free powder. The motion of the capsule during the aerosolization boosted the powder emission, whereas the powder disaggregation was more influenced by the airflow pattern around the capsule and inside the inhaler turbulence chamber.

  9. Aerodynamic characteristics at Mach numbers from 0.33 to 1.20 of a wing-body design concept for a hypersonic research airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillon, J. L.; Pittman, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the static aerodynamic characteristics of a model of one design concept for the proposed National Hypersonic Flight Research Facility was conducted in the Langley 8 foot transonic pressure tunnel. The experiment consisted of configuration buildup from the basic body by adding a wing, center vertical tail, and a three module or six module scramjet engine. The freestream test Mach numbers were 0.33, 0.80, 0.90, 0.95, 0.98, 1.10, and 1.20 at Reynolds numbers per meter ranging from 4.8 x 1 million to 10.4 x 1 million. The test angle of attack range was approximately -4 deg to 22 deg at constant angles of sideslip of 0 deg and 4 deg; the angle of sideslip ranged from about -6 deg to 6 deg at constant angles of attack of 0 deg and 17 deg. The elevons were deflected 0 deg, -10 deg, and -20 deg with rudder deflections of 0 deg and 15.6 deg.

  10. An annotated summary of the Information Model Design Procedure (IMDP)

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, S.D.

    1994-05-01

    This presentation documents the essential elements of the IMDP as applied at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The IMDP is an adaptation of the Natural-Language Information Analysis Methodology (NIAM) of G. M. Nijssen. The underlying purpose of both of these methodologies is to provide a formal, reproducible, and verifiable approach to specifying the information requirements of an information system. The IMDP spans the specification process from initial scoping; through verbalization of problem-domain facts, specification of constraints, and subtype analysis; and finally to application of a formal algorithm for developing a fifth-normal-form relational database design.

  11. Advancement of proprotor technology. Task 1: Design study summary. [aerodynamic concept of minimum size tilt proprotor research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    A tilt-proprotor proof-of-concept aircraft design study has been conducted. The results are presented. The ojective of the contract is to advance the state of proprotor technology through design studies and full-scale wind-tunnel tests. The specific objective is to conduct preliminary design studies to define a minimum-size tilt-proprotor research aircraft that can perform proof-of-concept flight research. The aircraft that results from these studies is a twin-engine, high-wing aircraft with 25-foot, three-bladed tilt proprotors mounted on pylons at the wingtips. Each pylon houses a Pratt and Whitney PT6C-40 engine with a takeoff rating of 1150 horsepower. Empty weight is estimated at 6876 pounds. The normal gross weight is 9500 pounds, and the maximum gross weight is 12,400 pounds.

  12. 43 CFR 420.21 - Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted Events § 420.21 Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. The Regional Director shall, to...) Regional Directors shall designate and publicize those areas and trails which are open to off-road...

  13. 48 CFR 570.305 - Two-phase design-build selection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... design information or cost or price information in phase one. Do not use cost related or price related... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Two-phase design-build... for Leasehold Interests in Real Property 570.305 Two-phase design-build selection procedures....

  14. High-loading, 1800 ft/sec tip speed transonic compressor fan stage. 1: Aerodynamic and mechanical design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, A. L.; Halle, J. E.; Kennedy, E. E.

    1972-01-01

    A single stage fan with a tip speed of 1800 ft/sec (548.6m/sec) and hub/tip ratio of 0.5 was designed to produce a pressure ratio of 2.285:1 with an adiabatic efficiency of 84.0%. The design flow per inlet annulus area is 38.7 lbm/sq ft-sec (188.9KG/sqm-sec). Rotor blades have modified multiple-circular-arc and precompression airfoil sections. The stator vanes have multiple-circular-arc airfoil sections.

  15. 47 CFR 7.18 - Procedure; designation of agents for service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procedure; designation of agents for service. 7.18 Section 7.18 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO VOICEMAIL AND INTERACTIVE MENU SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Enforcement § 7.18 Procedure;...

  16. 47 CFR 7.18 - Procedure; designation of agents for service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedure; designation of agents for service. 7.18 Section 7.18 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO VOICEMAIL AND INTERACTIVE MENU SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Enforcement § 7.18 Procedure;...

  17. Effects of Covariance Heterogeneity on Three Procedures for Analyzing Multivariate Repeated Measures Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallejo, Guillermo; Fidalgo, Angel; Fernandez, Paula

    2001-01-01

    Estimated empirical Type I error rate and power rate for three procedures for analyzing multivariate repeated measures designs: (1) the doubly multivariate model; (2) the Welch-James multivariate solution (H. Keselman, M. Carriere, a nd L. Lix, 1993); and (3) the multivariate version of the modified Brown-Forsythe procedure (M. Brown and A.…

  18. 6 CFR 25.6 - Procedures for designation of qualified anti-terrorism technologies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-terrorism technologies. 25.6 Section 25.6 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REGULATIONS TO SUPPORT ANTI-TERRORISM BY FOSTERING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 25.6 Procedures for designation of qualified anti-terrorism technologies. (a) Application Procedure. Any person, firm or...

  19. 6 CFR 25.6 - Procedures for designation of qualified anti-terrorism technologies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-terrorism technologies. 25.6 Section 25.6 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REGULATIONS TO SUPPORT ANTI-TERRORISM BY FOSTERING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 25.6 Procedures for designation of qualified anti-terrorism technologies. (a) Application Procedure. Any person, firm or...

  20. 47 CFR 68.418 - Procedure; designation of agents for service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedure; designation of agents for service. 68.418 Section 68.418 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK Complaint Procedures §...

  1. 47 CFR 7.18 - Procedure; designation of agents for service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Procedure; designation of agents for service. 7.18 Section 7.18 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO VOICEMAIL AND INTERACTIVE MENU SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Enforcement § 7.18 Procedure;...

  2. 47 CFR 7.18 - Procedure; designation of agents for service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Procedure; designation of agents for service. 7.18 Section 7.18 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO VOICEMAIL AND INTERACTIVE MENU SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Enforcement § 7.18 Procedure;...

  3. 6 CFR 25.6 - Procedures for designation of qualified anti-terrorism technologies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-terrorism technologies. 25.6 Section 25.6 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REGULATIONS TO SUPPORT ANTI-TERRORISM BY FOSTERING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 25.6 Procedures for designation of qualified anti-terrorism technologies. (a) Application Procedure. Any person, firm or...

  4. Viking entry aerodynamics and heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polutchko, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of the Mars entry including the mission sequence of events and associated spacecraft weights are described along with the Viking spacecraft. Test data are presented for the aerodynamic characteristics of the entry vehicle showing trimmed alpha, drag coefficient, and trimmed lift to drag ratio versus Mach number; the damping characteristics of the entry configuration; the angle of attack time history of Viking entries; stagnation heating and pressure time histories; and the aeroshell heating distribution as obtained in tests run in a shock tunnel for various gases. Flight tests which demonstrate the aerodynamic separation of the full-scale aeroshell and the flying qualities of the entry configuration in an uncontrolled mode are documented. Design values selected for the heat protection system based on the test data and analysis performed are presented.

  5. Automated procedure for design of wing structures to satisfy strength and flutter requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haftka, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    A pilot computer program was developed for the design of minimum mass wing structures under flutter, strength, and minimum gage constraints. The wing structure is idealized by finite elements, and second-order piston theory aerodynamics is used in the flutter calculation. Mathematical programing methods are used for the optimization. Computation times during the design process are reduced by three techniques. First, iterative analysis methods used to reduce significantly reanalysis times. Second, the number of design variables is kept small by not using a one-to-one correspondence between finite elements and design variables. Third, a technique for using approximate second derivatives with Newton's method for the optimization is incorporated. The program output is compared witH previous published results. It is found that some flutter characteristics, such as the flutter speed, can display discontinous dependence on the design variables (which are the thicknesses of the structural elements). It is concluded that it is undesirable to use such quantities in the formulation of the flutter constraint.

  6. Learning Activities: Students and Recycling. [and] Automobile Aerodynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Charles H., Jr.; Schieber, Rich

    1994-01-01

    The first learning activity is intended to heighten students' awareness of the need for recycling, reuse, and reduction of materials; the second explores the aerodynamics of automobiles. Both include context, concept, objectives, procedure, and materials needed. (SK)

  7. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 13-percent-thick airfoil section designed for general aviation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcghee, R. J.; Beasley, W. D.; Somers, D. M.

    1975-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests were conducted to determine the low-speed section characteristics of a 13 percent-thick airfoil designed for general aviation applications. The results were compared with NACA 12 percent-thick sections and with the 17 percent-thick NASA airfoil. The tests were conducted ovar a Mach number range from 0.10 to 0.35. Chord Reynolds numbers varied from about 2,000,000 to 9,000,000.

  8. Aerodynamics of magnetic levitation (MAGLEV) trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schetz, Joseph A.; Marchman, James F., III

    1996-01-01

    High-speed (500 kph) trains using magnetic forces for levitation, propulsion and control offer many advantages for the nation and a good opportunity for the aerospace community to apply 'high tech' methods to the domestic sector. One area of many that will need advanced research is the aerodynamics of such MAGLEV (Magnetic Levitation) vehicles. There are important issues with regard to wind tunnel testing and the application of CFD to these devices. This talk will deal with the aerodynamic design of MAGLEV vehicles with emphasis on wind tunnel testing. The moving track facility designed and constructed in the 6 ft. Stability Wind Tunnel at Virginia Tech will be described. Test results for a variety of MAGLEV vehicle configurations will be presented. The last topic to be discussed is a Multi-disciplinary Design approach that is being applied to MAGLEV vehicle configuration design including aerodynamics, structures, manufacturability and life-cycle cost.

  9. Characterization of Flapping Wing Aerodynamics and Flight Dynamics Analysis using Computational Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rege, Alok Ashok

    Insect flight comes with a lot of intricacies that cannot be explained by conventional aerodynamics. Even with their small-size, insects have the ability to generate the required aerodynamic forces using high frequency flapping motion of their wings to perform different maneuvers. The maneuverability obtained by these flyers using flapping motion belies the classical aerodynamics theory and calls for a new approach to study this highly unsteady aerodynamics. Research is on to find new ways to realize the flight capabilities of these insects and engineer a micro-flyer which would have various applications, ranging from autonomous pollination of crop fields and oil & gas exploration to area surveillance and detection & rescue missions. In this research, a parametric study of flapping trajectories is performed using a two-dimensional wing to identify the factors that affect the force production. These factors are then non-dimensionalized and used in a design of experiments set-up to conduct sensitivity analysis. A procedure to determine an aerodynamic model comprising cycle-averaged force coefficients is described. This aerodynamic model is then used in a nonlinear dynamics framework to perform flight dynamics analysis using a micro-flyer with model properties based on Drosophila. Stability analysis is conducted to determine different steady state flight conditions that could achieved by the micro-flyer with the given model properties. The effect of scaling the mass properties is discussed. An LQR design is used for closed-loop control. Open and closed-loop simulations are performed. The results show that nonlinear dynamics framework can be used to determine values for model properties of a micro-flyer that would enable it to perform different flight maneuvers.

  10. Direct use of linear time-domain aerodynamics in aeroservoelastic analysis: Aerodynamic model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, J. A.; Gilbert, Michael G.

    1990-01-01

    The work presented here is the first part of a continuing effort to expand existing capabilities in aeroelasticity by developing the methodology which is necessary to utilize unsteady time-domain aerodynamics directly in aeroservoelastic design and analysis. The ultimate objective is to define a fully integrated state-space model of an aeroelastic vehicle's aerodynamics, structure and controls which may be used to efficiently determine the vehicle's aeroservoelastic stability. Here, the current status of developing a state-space model for linear or near-linear time-domain indicial aerodynamic forces is presented.

  11. Aerodynamic performance of 0.5 meter-diameter, 337 meter-per-second tip speed, 1.5 pressure-ratio, single-stage fan designed for low noise aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelder, T. F.; Lewis, G. W., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Overall and blade-element aerodynamic performance of a 0.271-scale model of QF-1 are presented, examined, and then compared and evaluated with that from similar low noise fan stage designs. The tests cover a wide range of speeds and weight flows along with variations in stator setting angle and stator axial spacing from the rotor. At design speed with stator at design setting angle and a fixed distance between stage measuring stations, there were no significant effects of increasing the axial spacing between rotor stator from 1.0 to 3.5 rotor chords on stage overall pressure ratio, efficiency or stall margin.

  12. Advanced turboprop installation aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    The expected aerodynamic effects of a propfan installed on a thick supercritical wing are summarized qualitatively. Nacelle/wing and jet interactions, slipstream incremental velocity, nonuniform inflow, and swirl loss recovery are discussed.

  13. Aerodynamic Lifting Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltner, Klaus

    1990-01-01

    Describes some experiments showing both qualitatively and quantitatively that aerodynamic lift is a reaction force. Demonstrates reaction forces caused by the acceleration of an airstream and the deflection of an airstream. Provides pictures of demonstration apparatus and mathematical expressions. (YP)

  14. Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Haecheon; Lee, Jungil; Park, Hyungmin

    2014-01-01

    We present an overview of the aerodynamics of heavy vehicles, such as tractor-trailers, high-speed trains, and buses. We introduce three-dimensional flow structures around simplified model vehicles and heavy vehicles and discuss the flow-control devices used for drag reduction. Finally, we suggest important unsteady flow structures to investigate for the enhancement of aerodynamic performance and future directions for experimental and numerical approaches.

  15. Fundamental Aspects of the Aerodynamics of Turbojet Engine Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrere, M.

    1978-01-01

    Aerodynamic considerations in the design of high performance combustors for turbojet engines are discussed. Aerodynamic problems concerning the preparation of the fuel-air mixture, the recirculation zone where primary combustion occurs, the secondary combustion zone, and the dilution zone were examined. An aerodynamic analysis of the entire primary chamber ensemble was carried out to determine the pressure drop between entry and exit. The aerodynamics of afterburn chambers are discussed. A model which can be used to investigate the evolution of temperature, pressure, and rate and efficiency of combustion the length of the chamber was developed.

  16. 22 CFR 229.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 229.135 Section 229.135 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 229.135 Designation of responsible employee and adoption of...

  17. 45 CFR 84.7 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 84.7 Designation of responsible employee and adoption of...) Adoption of grievance procedures. A recipient that employs fifteen or more persons shall adopt...

  18. 22 CFR 146.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 146.135 Section 146.135 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 146.135 Designation of responsible employee and adoption of...

  19. 22 CFR 229.135 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures. 229.135 Section 229.135 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 229.135 Designation of responsible employee and adoption of...

  20. 45 CFR 84.7 - Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Designation of responsible employee and adoption... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 84.7 Designation of responsible employee and adoption of...) Adoption of grievance procedures. A recipient that employs fifteen or more persons shall adopt...