Science.gov

Sample records for aerodynamic drag reduction

  1. Opportunities for aerodynamic-drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    Methods for reducing aerodynamic drag to improve aircraft performance and reduce fuel consumption are discussed. The techniques considered are: (1) pressure drag reduction, (2) supercritical airfoils, (3) subcritical airfoils, (4) induced drag reduction by over-the-wing blowing and increased aspect ratio, and (5) friction drag reduction by laminar flow control and slot injection. It is stated that a 50 percent reduction from current drag values is expected through the application of these techniques.

  2. Aerodynamic Drag and Drag Reduction: Energy and Energy Savings (Invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    An assessment of the role of fluid dynamic resistance and/or aerodynamic drag and the relationship to energy use in the United States is presented. Existing data indicates that up to 25% of the total energy consumed in the United States is used to overcome aerodynamic drag, 27% of the total energy used in the United States is consumed by transportation systems, and 60% of the transportation energy or 16% of the total energy consumed in the United States is used to overcome aerodynamic drag in transportation systems. Drag reduction goals of 50% are proposed and discussed which if realized would produce a 7.85% total energy savings. This energy savings correlates to a yearly cost savings in the $30Billion dollar range.

  3. Fuel Savings and Aerodynamic Drag Reduction from Rail Car Covers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storms, Bruce; Salari, Kambiz; Babb, Alex

    2008-01-01

    The potential for energy savings by reducing the aerodynamic drag of rail cars is significant. A previous study of aerodynamic drag of coal cars suggests that a 25% reduction in drag of empty cars would correspond to a 5% fuel savings for a round trip [1]. Rail statistics for the United States [2] report that approximately 5.7 billion liters of diesel fuel were consumed for coal transportation in 2002, so a 5% fuel savings would total 284 million liters. This corresponds to 2% of Class I railroad fuel consumption nationwide. As part of a DOE-sponsored study, the aerodynamic drag of scale rail cars was measured in a wind tunnel. The goal of the study was to measure the drag reduction of various rail-car cover designs. The cover designs tested yielded an average drag reduction of 43% relative to empty cars corresponding to an estimated round-trip fuel savings of 9%.

  4. Structural Waveguides for Aerodynamic Turbulent Drag Reduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-30

    NUMBER NIA 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER n/A 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER One (1) Mechanical ...accomplished by developing structural waveguides within a cylinder that underactuation impart a structural surface wave disturbance in the form of a travelling...DRAG REDUCTION BY BY PAVLOS VLACHOS, MARTY JOHNSON, JAMES P CARNEAL, AND ALESSANDRO TOSSO VIRGINIA TECH MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT BLACKSBURG

  5. Riblets. [for aerodynamic drag reduction of turbulent skin friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    In addition to characterizing the various concepts reported in the literature on longitudinally-ribbed surface for aerodynamic surface drag reduction, the present development status evaluation of this technology correlates all available experimental data. An analysis of these data is then conducted to ascertain the parameters most directly involved in drag reduction, and to evaluate the effects which have thus far been exerted on turbulent boundary layer structures. Such advanced riblet techniques as compound and three-dimensional riblets, riblets in combination with large-eddy breakup devices, and riblets with suction/blowing, are also discussed.

  6. Aerodynamics of Drag Reduction Devices for Semi-Trucks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Jason; Salari, Kambiz

    2014-11-01

    An increasing number of semi-trucks throughout the United States are being retrofitted with aerodynamic drag reduction devices to improve the vehicle fuel economy. Such devices typically include both trailer skirts and boattails to mitigate trailer underbody drag and base drag, respectively. Since full-scale measurements of the device performance are especially prone to experimental noise due to the effects of the driver, route, payload, or atmospheric conditions, more precise data must be obtained within a wind tunnel. In this experimental study, the wind-averaged drag coefficient is measured for a detailed 1/8th scale semi-truck model. The Reynolds number based upon the vehicle width is 1.7e6. A number of trailer skirt and boattail device configurations are considered, as well as the effects of the boattail deflection angle. The results of this study demonstrate that a combination of a trailer skirt and boattail reduces the aerodynamic drag of a semi-truck by as much as 25%. If such a combination were applied to each of the semi-trucks throughout the United States, several billion dollars in fuel savings could be achieved each year. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-657810.

  7. Thermal lift generation and drag reduction in rarefied aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekardan, Cem; Alexeenko, Alina

    2016-11-01

    With the advent of the new technologies in low pressure environments such as Hyperloop and helicopters designed for Martian applications, understanding the aerodynamic behavior of airfoils in rarefied environments are becoming more crucial. In this paper, verification of rarefied ES-BGK solver and ideas such as prediction of the thermally induced lift and drag reduction in rarefied aerodynamics are investigated. Validation of the rarefied ES-BGK solver with Runge-Kutta discontinous Galerkin method with experiments in transonic regime with a Reynolds number of 73 showed that ES-BGK solver is the most suitable solver in near slip transonic regime. For the quantification of lift generation, A NACA 0012 airfoil is studied with a high temperature surface on the bottom for the lift creation for different Knudsen numbers. It was seen that for lower velocities, continuum solver under predicts the lift generation when the Knudsen number is 0.00129 due to local velocity gradients reaching slip regime although lift coefficient is higher with the Boltzmann ES-BGK solutions. In the second part, the feasibility of using thermal transpiration for drag reduction is studied. Initial study in drag reduction includes an application of a thermal gradient at the upper surface of a NACA 0012 airfoil near trailing edge at a 12-degree angle of attack and 5 Pa pressure. It was seen that drag is reduced by 4 percent and vortex shedding frequency is reduced due to asymmetry introduced in the flow due to temperature gradient causing reverse flow due to thermal transpiration phenomena.

  8. Aerodynamic Drag Reduction Apparatus For Wheeled Vehicles In Ground Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, Jason M.; Salari, Kambiz

    2005-12-13

    An apparatus for reducing the aerodynamic drag of a wheeled vehicle in a flowstream, the vehicle having a vehicle body and a wheel assembly supporting the vehicle body. The apparatus includes a baffle assembly adapted to be positioned upstream of the wheel assembly for deflecting airflow away from the wheel assembly so as to reduce the incident pressure on the wheel assembly.

  9. A method for the reduction of aerodynamic drag of road vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Pamadi, B.N.; Taylor, L.W.; Leary, T.O.

    1990-01-01

    A method is proposed for the reduction of the aerodynamic drag of bluff bodies, particularly for application to road transport vehicles. This technique consists of installation of panels on the forward surface of the vehicle facing the airstream. With the help of road tests, it was demonstrated that the attachment of proposed panels can reduce aerodynamic drag of road vehicles and result in significant fuel cost savings and conservation of energy resources.

  10. Aerodynamic drag reduction tests on a box-shaped vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, R. L.; Sandlin, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    The intent of the present experiment is to define a near optimum value of drag coefficient for a high volume type of vehicle through the use of a boattail, on a vehicle already having rounded front corners and an underbody seal, or fairing. The results of these tests will constitute a baseline for later follow-on studies to evaluate candidate methods of obtaining afterbody drag coefficients approaching the boattail values, but without resorting to such impractical afterbody extensions. The current modifications to the box-shaped vehicle consisted of a full and truncated boattail in conjunction with the faired and sealed underbody. Drag results from these configurations are compared with corresponding wind tunnel results of a 1/10 scale model. Test velocities ranged up to 96.6 km/h (60 mph) and the corresponding Reynolds numbers ranged up to 1.3 x 10 to the 7th power based on the vehicles length which includes the boattail. A simple coast-down technique was used to define drag.

  11. Aerodynamic performance of a drag reduction device on a full-scale tractor/trailer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanser, Wendy R.; Ross, James C.; Kaufman, Andrew E.

    1991-01-01

    The effectiveness of an aerodynamic boattail on a tractor/trailer road vehicle was measured in the NASA Ames Research Center 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel. Results are examined for the tractor/trailer with and without the drag reduction device. Pressure measurements and flow visualization show that the aerodynamic boattail traps a vortex or eddy in the corner formed between the device and the rear corner of the trailer. This recirculating flow turns the flow inward as it separates from the edges of the base of the trailer. This modified flow behavior increases the pressure acting over the base area of the truck, thereby reducing the net aerodynamic drag of the vehicle. Drag measurements and pressure distributions in the region of the boattail device are presented for selected configurations. The optimum configuration reduces the overall drag of the tractor/trailer combination by about 10 percent at a zero yaw angle. Unsteady pressure measurements do not indicate strong vortex shedding, although the addition of the boattail plates increases high frequency content of the fluctuating pressure.

  12. Aerodynamic performance of a drag reduction device on a full-scale tractor/trailer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanser, Wendy R.; Ross, James C.; Kaufman, Andrew E.

    1991-09-01

    The effectiveness of an aerodynamic boattail on a tractor/trailer road vehicle was measured in the NASA Ames Research Center 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel. Results are examined for the tractor/trailer with and without the drag reduction device. Pressure measurements and flow visualization show that the aerodynamic boattail traps a vortex or eddy in the corner formed between the device and the rear corner of the trailer. This recirculating flow turns the flow inward as it separates from the edges of the base of the trailer. This modified flow behavior increases the pressure acting over the base area of the truck, thereby reducing the net aerodynamic drag of the vehicle. Drag measurements and pressure distributions in the region of the boattail device are presented for selected configurations. The optimum configuration reduces the overall drag of the tractor/trailer combination by about 10 percent at a zero yaw angle. Unsteady pressure measurements do not indicate strong vortex shedding, although the addition of the boattail plates increases high frequency content of the fluctuating pressure.

  13. Aerodynamic performance of a drag reduction device on a full-scale tractor/trailer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanser, Wendy R.; Ross, James C.; Kaufman, Andrew E.

    1991-01-01

    The effectiveness of an aerodynamic boattail on a tractor/trailer road vehicle was measured in the NASA Ames Research Center 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel. Results are examined for the tractor/trailer with and without the drag reduction device. Pressure measurements and flow visualization show that the aerodynamic boattail traps a vortex or eddy in the corner formed between the device and the rear corner of the trailer. This recirculating flow turns the flow inward as it separates from the edges of the base of the trailer. This modified flow behavior increases the pressure acting over the base area of the truck, thereby reducing the net aerodynamic drag of the vehicle. Drag measurements and pressure distributions in the region of the boattail device are presented for selected configurations. The optimum configuration reduces the overall drag of the tractor/trailer combination by about 10 percent at a zero yaw angle. Unsteady pressure measurements do not indicate strong vortex shedding, although the addition of the boattail plates increases high frequency content of the fluctuating pressure.

  14. Investigation of Tractor Base Bleeding for Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, J; Salari, K; Storms, B

    2007-10-25

    One of the main contributors to the aerodynamic drag of a heavy vehicle is tractor-trailer gap drag, which arises when the vehicle operates within a crosswind. Under this operating condition, freestream flow is entrained into the tractor-trailer gap, imparting a momentum exchange to the vehicle and subsequently increasing the aerodynamic drag. While a number of add-on devices, including side extenders, splitter plates, vortex stabilizers, and gap sealers, have been previously tested to alleviate this source of drag, side extenders remain the primary add-on device of choice for reducing tractor-trailer gap drag. However, side extenders are not without maintenance and operational issues. When a heavy vehicle pivots sharply with respect to the trailer, as can occur during loading or unloading operations, the side extenders can become crushed against the trailer. Consequently, fleet operators are forced to incur additional costs to cover the repair or replacement of the damaged side extenders. This issue can be overcome by either shortening the side extenders or by devising an alternative drag reduction concept that can perform just as effectively as side extenders. To explore such a concept, we investigate tractor base bleeding as a means of reducing gap drag. Wind tunnel measurements are made on a 1:20 scale heavy vehicle model at a vehicle width-based Reynolds number of 420,000. The tractor bleeding flow, which is delivered through a porous material embedded within the tractor base, is introduced into the tractor-trailer gap at bleeding coefficients ranging from 0.0-0.018. To determine the performance of tractor base bleeding under more realistic operating conditions, computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed on a full-scale heavy vehicle within a crosswind for bleeding coefficients ranging from 0.0-0.13.

  15. Aerodynamic drag reduction tests on a full-scale tractor-trailer combination with several add-on devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, L. C.; Steers, L. L.

    1974-01-01

    Aerodynamic drag tests were performed on a conventional cab-over-engine tractor with a 45-foot trailer and five commercially available or potentially available add-on devices using the coast-down method. The tests ranged in velocity from approximately 30 miles per hour to 65 miles per hour and included some flow visualization. A smooth, level runway at Edwards Air Force Base was used for the tests, and deceleration measurements were taken with both accelerometers and stopwatches. An evaluation of the drag reduction results obtained with each of the five add-on devices is presented.

  16. Prediction of Aerodynamic Drag.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    prediction method for reasonable estimates of the drag of afterbodies for military airlifters has recently been published by Kolesar and May72 to...method predicts the drag due to lift reasonably well for quite general, assumed limit shock positions, as shown in Fig. 25. The drag at zero lift is not...investigators, a reasonable estimate for the drag polar could be obtained by numerically averaging the zero and full leading- edge suction drag polars. Drag

  17. Aerodynamic drag on intermodal railcars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinghorn, Philip; Maynes, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    The aerodynamic drag associated with transport of commodities by rail is becoming increasingly important as the cost of diesel fuel increases. This study aims to increase the efficiency of intermodal cargo trains by reducing the aerodynamic drag on the load carrying cars. For intermodal railcars a significant amount of aerodynamic drag is a result of the large distance between loads that often occurs and the resulting pressure drag resulting from the separated flow. In the present study aerodynamic drag data have been obtained through wind tunnel testing on 1/29 scale models to understand the savings that may be realized by judicious modification to the size of the intermodal containers. The experiments were performed in the BYU low speed wind tunnel and the test track utilizes two leading locomotives followed by a set of five articulated well cars with double stacked containers. The drag on a representative mid-train car is measured using an isolated load cell balance and the wind tunnel speed is varied from 20 to 100 mph. We characterize the effect that the gap distance between the containers and the container size has on the aerodynamic drag of this representative rail car and investigate methods to reduce the gap distance.

  18. Aerodynamic drag reduction of a simplified squareback vehicle using steady blowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littlewood, R. P.; Passmore, M. A.

    2012-08-01

    A large contribution to the aerodynamic drag of a vehicle arises from the failure to fully recover pressure in the wake region, especially on squareback configurations. A degree of base pressure recovery can be achieved through careful shape optimisation, but the freedom of an automotive aerodynamicist to implement significant shape changes is limited by a variety of additional factors such styling, ergonomics and loading capacity. Active flow control technologies present the potential to create flow field modifications without the need for external shape changes and have received much attention in previous years within the aeronautical industry and, more recently, within the automotive industry. In this work the influence of steady blowing applied at a variety of angles on the roof trailing edge of a simplified ¼ scale squareback style vehicle has been investigated. Hot-wire anemometry, force balance measurements, surface pressure measurements and PIV have been used to investigate the effects of the steady blowing on the vehicle wake structures and the resulting body forces. The energy consumption of the steady jet is calculated and is used to deduce an aerodynamic drag power change. Results show that overall gains can be achieved; however, the large mass flow rate required restricts the applicability of the technique to road vehicles. Means by which the mass flow rate requirements of the jet may be reduced are discussed and suggestions for further work put forward.

  19. Smart morphable surfaces for aerodynamic drag control.

    PubMed

    Terwagne, Denis; Brojan, Miha; Reis, Pedro M

    2014-10-01

    Smart Morphable Surfaces enable switchable and tunable aerodynamic drag reduction of bluff bodies. Their topography, resembling the morphology of golf balls, can be custom-generated through a wrinkling instability on a curved surface. Pneumatic actuation of these patterns results in the control of the drag coefficient of spherical samples by up to a factor of two, over a range of flow conditions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Aerodynamic drag reduction apparatus for gap-divided bluff bodies such as tractor-trailers

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, Jason M.; Salari, Kambiz

    2006-07-11

    An apparatus for reducing the aerodynamic drag of a bluff-bodied vehicle such as a tractor-trailer in a flowstream, the bluff-bodied vehicle of a type having a leading portion, a trailing portion connected to the leading portion, and a gap between the leading and trailing portions defining a recirculation zone. The apparatus is preferably a baffle assembly, such as a vertical panel, adapted to span a width of the gap between the leading and trailing portions so as to impede cross-flow through the gap, with the span of the baffle assembly automatically adjusting for variations in the gap width when the leading and trailing portions pivot relative to each other.

  1. DOE Project on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Castellucci, P; Pointer, D; Browand, F; Ross, J; Storms, B

    2007-01-04

    Class 8 tractor-trailers consume 11-12% of the total US petroleum use. At highway speeds, 65% of the energy expenditure for a Class 8 truck is in overcoming aerodynamic drag. The project objective is to improve fuel economy of Class 8 tractor-trailers by providing guidance on methods of reducing drag by at least 25%. A 25% reduction in drag would present a 12% improvement in fuel economy at highway speeds, equivalent to about 130 midsize tanker ships per year. Specific goals include: (1) Provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag of heavy truck vehicles; (2) Develop innovative drag reducing concepts that are operationally and economically sound; and (3) Establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information, and demonstrate the potential of new drag-reduction devices. The studies described herein provide a demonstration of the applicability of the experience developed in the analysis of the standard configuration of the Generic Conventional Model. The modeling practices and procedures developed in prior efforts have been applied directly to the assessment of new configurations including a variety of geometric modifications and add-on devices. Application to the low-drag 'GTS' configuration of the GCM has confirmed that the error in predicted drag coefficients increases as the relative contribution of the base drag resulting from the vehicle wake to the total drag increases and it is recommended that more advanced turbulence modeling strategies be applied under those circumstances. Application to a commercially-developed boat tail device has confirmed that this restriction does not apply to geometries where the relative contribution of the base drag to the total drag is reduced by modifying the geometry in that region. Application to a modified GCM geometry with an open grille and radiator has confirmed that the underbody flow, while important for underhood cooling, has little impact on the drag coefficient of

  2. Dividers for reduction of aerodynamic drag of vehicles with open cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storms, Bruce L. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A drag-reduction concept for vehicles with open cavities includes dividing a cavity into smaller adjacent cavities through installation of one or more vertical dividers. The dividers may extend the full depth of the cavity or only partial depth. In either application, the top of the dividers are typically flush with the top of the bed or cargo bay of the vehicle. The dividers may be of any material, but are strong enough for both wind loads and forces encountered during cargo loading/unloading. For partial depth dividers, a structural angle may be desired to increase strength.

  3. Methods of reducing vehicle aerodynamic drag

    SciTech Connect

    Sirenko V.; Rohatgi U.

    2012-07-08

    A small scale model (length 1710 mm) of General Motor SUV was built and tested in the wind tunnel for expected wind conditions and road clearance. Two passive devices, rear screen which is plate behind the car and rear fairing where the end of the car is aerodynamically extended, were incorporated in the model and tested in the wind tunnel for different wind conditions. The conclusion is that rear screen could reduce drag up to 6.5% and rear fairing can reduce the drag by 26%. There were additional tests for front edging and rear vortex generators. The results for drag reduction were mixed. It should be noted that there are aesthetic and practical considerations that may allow only partial implementation of these or any drag reduction options.

  4. Reduction of aerodynamic drag and fuel consumption for tractor-trailer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muirhead, V. U.; Saltzman, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests were performed on a scale model of a cab-over-engine tractor-trailer vehicle and several modifications of the model. Results from two of the model configurations were compared with full-scale drag data obtained from similar configurations during coast-down tests. Reductions in fuel consumption derived from these tests are presented in terms of fuel quantity and dollar savings per vehicle year, based on an annual driving distance of 160,900 km (100,000 mi.). The projected savings varied from 13,001 (3435) to 25,848 (6829) liters (gallons) per year which translated to economic savings from $3435 to about $6829 per vehicle year for an operating speed of 88.5 km/h (55 mph) and wind speeds near the national average of 15.3 km/h (9.5 mph). The estimated cumulative fuel savings for the entire U.S. fleet of cab-over-engine tractor, van-type trailer combinations ranged from 4.18 million kl (26.3 million bbl) per year for a low-drag configuration to approximately twice that amount for a more advanced configuration.

  5. Reduction of aerodynamic drag and fuel consumption for tractor-trailer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muirhead, V. U.; Saltzman, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests were performed on a scale model of a cab-over-engine tractor-trailer vehicle and several modifications of the model. Results from two of the model configurations were compared with full-scale drag data obtained from similar configurations during coast-down tests. Reductions in fuel consumption derived from these tests are presented in terms of fuel quantity and dollar savings per vehicle year, based on an annual driving distance of 160,900 km (100,000 mi.). The projected savings varied from 13,001 (3435) to 25,848 (6829) liters (gallons) per year which translated to economic savings from $3435 to about $6829 per vehicle year for an operating speed of 88.5 km/h (55 mph) and wind speeds near the national average of 15.3 km/h (9.5 mph). The estimated cumulative fuel savings for the entire U.S. fleet of cab-over-engine tractor, van-type trailer combinations ranged from 4.18 million kl (26.3 million bbl) per year for a low-drag configuration to approximately twice that amount for a more advanced configuration.

  6. Drag reduction in nature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, D. M.; Moore, K. J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies on the drag-reducing shapes, structures, and behaviors of swimming and flying animals are reviewed, with an emphasis on potential analogs in vehicle design. Consideration is given to form drag reduction (turbulent flow, vortex generation, mass transfer, and adaptations for body-intersection regions), skin-friction drag reduction (polymers, surfactants, and bubbles as surface 'additives'), reduction of the drag due to lift, drag-reduction studies on porpoises, and drag-reducing animal behavior (e.g., leaping out of the water by porpoises). The need for further research is stressed.

  7. Drag reduction in nature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, D. M.; Moore, K. J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies on the drag-reducing shapes, structures, and behaviors of swimming and flying animals are reviewed, with an emphasis on potential analogs in vehicle design. Consideration is given to form drag reduction (turbulent flow, vortex generation, mass transfer, and adaptations for body-intersection regions), skin-friction drag reduction (polymers, surfactants, and bubbles as surface 'additives'), reduction of the drag due to lift, drag-reduction studies on porpoises, and drag-reducing animal behavior (e.g., leaping out of the water by porpoises). The need for further research is stressed.

  8. Aerodynamic Drag Reduction Technologies Testing of Heavy-Duty Vocational Vehicles and a Dry Van Trailer

    SciTech Connect

    Ragatz, Adam; Thornton, Matthew

    2016-10-01

    This study focused on two accepted methods for quantifying the benefit of aerodynamic improvement technologies on vocational vehicles: the coastdown technique, and on-road constant speed fuel economy measurements. Both techniques have their advantages. Coastdown tests are conducted over a wide range in speed and allow the rolling resistance and aerodynamic components of road load force to be separated. This in turn allows for the change in road load and fuel economy to be estimated at any speed, as well as over transient cycles. The on-road fuel economy measurements only supply one lumped result, applicable at the specific test speed, but are a direct measurement of fuel usage and are therefore used in this study as a check on the observed coastdown results. Resulting coefficients were then used to populate a vehicle model and simulate expected annual fuel savings over real-world vocational drive cycles.

  9. Aerodynamics overview of the ground transportation systems (GTS) project for heavy vehicle drag reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, W.T.; Hassan, B.; Croll, R.H.; Rutledge, W.H.

    1995-12-31

    The focus of the research was to investigate the fundamental aerodynamics of the base flow of a tractor trailer that would prove useful in fluid flow management. Initially, industry design needs and constraints were defined. This was followed by an evaluation of state-of-the-art Navier-Stokes based computational fluid dynamics tools. Analytical methods were then used in combination with computational tools in a design process. Several geometries were tested at 1:8 scale in a low speed wind tunnel. In addition to the baseline geometry, base add-on devices of the class of ogival boattails and slants were analyzed.

  10. FY2003 Annual Report: DOE Project on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R C; Salari, K; Ortega, J; DeChant, L J; Roy, C J; Payne, J J; Hassan, B; Pointer, W D; Browand, F; Hammache, M; Hsu, T; Ross, J; Satran, D; Heineck, J; Walker, S; Yaste, D; Englar, R; Leonard, A; Rubel, M; Chatelain, P

    2003-10-24

    Objective: {sm_bullet} Provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag of heavy truck vehicles. {sm_bullet} Establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information, and demonstrate potential of new drag-reduction devices.

  11. Overview of the Langley viscous drag reduction program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hefner, Jerry N.

    1986-01-01

    As a result of reductions in form drag and roughness drag, skin friction, drag, or viscous drag now represents a major contributor to the cruise drag of subsonic business and transport aircraft, and hence, is considered a barrier problem to further significant improvements in the aerodynamic efficiency of these aircraft. To meet the challenge, research in the areas of laminar-flow control and turbulence control/drag reduction was initiated at NASA Langley Research Center. The significance of this research is discussed.

  12. Switchable and Tunable Aerodynamic Drag on Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttag, Mark; Lopéz Jiménez, Francisco; Upadhyaya, Priyank; Kumar, Shanmugam; Reis, Pedro

    We report results on the performance of Smart Morphable Surfaces (Smporhs) that can be mounted onto cylindrical structures to actively reduce their aerodynamic drag. Our system comprises of an elastomeric thin shell with a series of carefully designed subsurface cavities that, once depressurized, lead to a dramatic deformation of the surface topography, on demand. Our design is inspired by the morphology of the giant cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) which possesses an array of axial grooves, thought to help reduce aerodynamic drag, thereby enhancing the structural robustness of the plant under wind loading. We perform systematic wind tunnel tests on cylinders covered with our Smorphs and characterize their aerodynamic performance. The switchable and tunable nature of our system offers substantial advantages for aerodynamic performance when compared to static topographies, due to their operation over a wider range of flow conditions.

  13. Switchable and Tunable Aerodynamic Drag on Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttag, Mark; Lopez Jimenez, Francisco; Reis, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    We report results on the performance of Smart Morphable Surfaces (Smporhs) that can be mounted onto cylindrical structures to actively reduce their aerodynamic drag. Our system comprises of an elastomeric thin shell with a series of carefully designed subsurface cavities that, once depressurized, lead to a dramatic deformation of the surface topography, on demand. Our design is inspired by the morphology of the giant cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) which possesses an array of axial grooves, which are thought to help reduce aerodynamic drag, thereby enhancing the structural robustness of the plant under wind loading. We perform systematic wind tunnel tests on cylinders covered with our Smorphs and characterize their aerodynamic performance. The switchable and tunable nature of our system offers substantial advantages for aerodynamic performance when compared to static topographies, due to their operation over a wider range of flow conditions.

  14. Method of reducing drag in aerodynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrach, Frank J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    In the present method, boundary layer thickening is combined with laminar flow control to reduce drag. An aerodynamic body is accelerated enabling a ram turbine on the body to receive air at velocity V sub 0. The discharge air is directed over an aft portion of the aerodynamic body producing boundary layer thickening. The ram turbine also drives a compressor by applying torque to a shaft connected between the ram turbine and the compressor. The compressor sucks in lower boundary layer air through inlets in the shell of the aircraft producing laminar flow control and reducing drag. The discharge from the compressor is expanded in a nozzle to produce thrust.

  15. An aerodynamic drag model for protein ions.

    PubMed

    Douglas, D J

    1994-01-01

    The energy losses of protein ions passing through a collision cell filled with inert gas have been modeled as the aerodynamic drag on a projectile at high Knudsen number. When applied to the energy loss data of Covey and Douglas (J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 1993, 4, 616-623) with drag coefficients from the gas dynamics literature, derived protein cross sections are ∼0.8 of those found with the simple collision model used by Covey and Douglas.

  16. Reducing Aerodynamic Drag Of Bluff Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr.; Pamadi, Bandu N.

    1990-01-01

    New method found to reduce aerodynamic drag of noncircular bluff bodies like road-transport vehicles. Consists of installation of thin, flat panels on forward side of body, facing airstream. Produces streamlining effect over body. Width of wake reduced, and vortex shedding is greatly suppressed.

  17. Aerodynamic drag in cycling: methods of assessment.

    PubMed

    Debraux, Pierre; Grappe, Frederic; Manolova, Aneliya V; Bertucci, William

    2011-09-01

    When cycling on level ground at a speed greater than 14 m/s, aerodynamic drag is the most important resistive force. About 90% of the total mechanical power output is necessary to overcome it. Aerodynamic drag is mainly affected by the effective frontal area which is the product of the projected frontal area and the coefficient of drag. The effective frontal area represents the position of the cyclist on the bicycle and the aerodynamics of the cyclist-bicycle system in this position. In order to optimise performance, estimation of these parameters is necessary. The aim of this study is to describe and comment on the methods used during the last 30 years for the evaluation of the effective frontal area and the projected frontal area in cycling, in both laboratory and actual conditions. Most of the field methods are not expensive and can be realised with few materials, providing valid results in comparison with the reference method in aerodynamics, the wind tunnel. Finally, knowledge of these parameters can be useful in practice or to create theoretical models of cycling performance.

  18. An aerodynamic study of scramjet fuel injectors. [effect of injector thickness ratio on aerodynamic drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, L. A.

    1974-01-01

    The aerodynamic drag and fuel distribution patterns of injectors designed for a supersonic combustion ramjet were measured at Mach numbers of 2, 2.5, and 3. The most significant parameter effecting the drag was found to be the injector thickness ratio. A two-fold reduction in the thickness ratio caused a 65 percent decrease in drag. Changing the injector sweep angle a factor of 2 resulted in only a small change in drag. A reversal of injector sweep, from sweepback to sweepforward, did not change the measured drag. Helium gas was injected through the struts to simulate the penetration and spreading patterns of hydrogen. Sampling measurements were made at approximately 2 duct heights downstream of the combustor. The spacing required between fuel injectors was found to be about 10 jet diameters. The effect of gas injection on the measured drag was found to be minor.

  19. Drag reduction strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, D. Christopher

    1994-01-01

    previously a description was given of an active control scheme using wall transpiration that leads to a 15% reduction in surface skin friction beneath a turbulent boundary layer, according to direct numerical simulation. In this research brief further details of that scheme and its variants are given together with some suggestions as to how sensor/actuator arrays could be configured to reduce surface drag. The research which is summarized here was performed during the first half of 1994. This research is motivated by the need to understand better how the dynamics of near-wall turbulent flow can be modified so that skin friction is reduced. The reduction of turbulent skin friction is highly desirable in many engineering applications. Experiments and direct numerical simulations have led to an increased understanding of the cycle of turbulence production and transport in the boundary layer and raised awareness of the possibility of disrupting the process with a subsequent reduction in turbulent skin friction. The implementation of active feedback control in a computational setting is a viable approach for the investigation of the modifications to the flow physics that can be achieved. Bewley et al. and Hill describe how ideas from optimal control theory are employed to give 'sub-optimal' drag reduction schemes. The objectives of the work reported here is to investigate in greater detail the assumptions implicit within such schemes and their limitations. It is also our objective to describe how an array of sensors and actuators could be arranged and interconnected to form a 'smart' surface which has low skin friction.

  20. A comprehensive plan for helicopter drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Montana, P. S.

    1975-01-01

    Current helicopters have parasite drag levels 6 to 10 times as great as fixed wing aircraft. The commensurate poor cruise efficiency results in a substantial degradation of potential mission capability. The paper traces the origins of helicopter drag and shows that the problem (primarily due to bluff body flow separation) can be solved by the adoption of a comprehensive research and development plan. This plan, known as the Fuselage Design Methodology, comprises both nonaerodynamic and aerodynamic aspects. The aerodynamics are discussed in detail and experimental and analytical programs are described which will lead to a solution of the bluff body problem. Some recent results of work conducted at the Naval Ship Research and Development Center (NSRDC) are presented to illustrate these programs. It is concluded that a 75-per cent reduction of helicopter drag is possible by the full implementation of the Fuselage Design Methodology.

  1. A comprehensive plan for helicopter drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Montana, P. S.

    1975-01-01

    Current helicopters have parasite drag levels 6 to 10 times as great as fixed wing aircraft. The commensurate poor cruise efficiency results in a substantial degradation of potential mission capability. The paper traces the origins of helicopter drag and shows that the problem (primarily due to bluff body flow separation) can be solved by the adoption of a comprehensive research and development plan. This plan, known as the Fuselage Design Methodology, comprises both nonaerodynamic and aerodynamic aspects. The aerodynamics are discussed in detail and experimental and analytical programs are described which will lead to a solution of the bluff body problem. Some recent results of work conducted at the Naval Ship Research and Development Center (NSRDC) are presented to illustrate these programs. It is concluded that a 75-per cent reduction of helicopter drag is possible by the full implementation of the Fuselage Design Methodology.

  2. Reference values and improvement of aerodynamic drag in professional cyclists.

    PubMed

    García-López, Juan; Rodríguez-Marroyo, José Antonio; Juneau, Carl-Etienne; Peleteiro, José; Martínez, Alfredo Córdova; Villa, José Gerardo

    2008-02-01

    The aims of this study were to measure the aerodynamic drag in professional cyclists, to obtain aerodynamic drag reference values in static and effort positions, to improve the cyclists' aerodynamic drag by modifying their position and cycle equipment, and to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of these modifications. The study was performed in a wind tunnel with five professional cyclists. Four positions were assessed with a time-trial bike and one position with a standard racing bike. In all positions, aerodynamic drag and kinematic variables were recorded. The drag area for the time-trial bike was 31% higher in the effort than static position, and lower than for the standard racing bike. Changes in the cyclists' position decreased the aerodynamic drag by 14%. The aero-helmet was not favourable for all cyclists. The reliability of aerodynamic drag measures in the wind tunnel was high (r > 0.96, coefficient of variation < 2%). In conclusion, we measured and improved the aerodynamic drag in professional cyclists. Our results were better than those of other researchers who did not assess aerodynamic drag during effort at race pace and who employed different wheels. The efficiency of the aero-helmet, and the validity, reliability, and sensitivity of the wind tunnel and aerodynamic field testing were addressed.

  3. Aerodynamic drag modeling of alpine skiers performing giant slalom turns.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Frédéric; Le Pelley, David; Borrani, Fabio

    2012-06-01

    Aerodynamic drag plays an important role in performance for athletes practicing sports that involve high-velocity motions. In giant slalom, the skier is continuously changing his/her body posture, and this affects the energy dissipated in aerodynamic drag. It is therefore important to quantify this energy to understand the dynamic behavior of the skier. The aims of this study were to model the aerodynamic drag of alpine skiers in giant slalom simulated conditions and to apply these models in a field experiment to estimate energy dissipated through aerodynamic drag. The aerodynamic characteristics of 15 recreational male and female skiers were measured in a wind tunnel while holding nine different skiing-specific postures. The drag and the frontal area were recorded simultaneously for each posture. Four generalized and two individualized models of the drag coefficient were built, using different sets of parameters. These models were subsequently applied in a field study designed to compare the aerodynamic energy losses between a dynamic and a compact skiing technique. The generalized models estimated aerodynamic drag with an accuracy of between 11.00% and 14.28%, and the individualized models estimated aerodynamic drag with an accuracy between 4.52% and 5.30%. The individualized model used for the field study showed that using a dynamic technique led to 10% more aerodynamic drag energy loss than using a compact technique. The individualized models were capable of discriminating different techniques performed by advanced skiers and seemed more accurate than the generalized models. The models presented here offer a simple yet accurate method to estimate the aerodynamic drag acting upon alpine skiers while rapidly moving through the range of positions typical to turning technique.

  4. Aerodynamic drag of modern soccer balls.

    PubMed

    Asai, Takeshi; Seo, Kazuya

    2013-12-01

    Soccer balls such as the Adidas Roteiro that have been used in soccer tournaments thus far had 32 pentagonal and hexagonal panels. Recently, the Adidas Teamgeist II and Adidas Jabulani, respectively having 14 and 8 panels, have been used at tournaments; the aerodynamic characteristics of these balls have not yet been verified. Now, the Adidas Tango 12, having 32 panels, has been developed for use at tournaments; therefore, it is necessary to understand its aerodynamic characteristics. Through a wind tunnel test and ball trajectory simulations, this study shows that the aerodynamic resistance of the new 32-panel soccer ball is larger in the high-speed region and lower in the middle-speed region than that of the previous 14- and 8-panel balls. The critical Reynolds number of the Roteiro, Teamgeist II, Jabulani, and Tango 12 was ~2.2 × 10(5) (drag coefficient, C d  ≈ 0.12), ~2.8 × 10(5) (C d  ≈ 0.13), ~3.3 × 10(5) (C d  ≈ 0.13), and ~2.4 × 10(5) (C d  ≈ 0.15), respectively. The flight trajectory simulation suggested that the Tango 12, one of the newest soccer balls, has less air resistance in the medium-speed region than the Jabulani and can thus easily acquire large initial velocity in this region. It is considered that the critical Reynolds number of a soccer ball, as considered within the scope of this experiment, depends on the extended total distance of the panel bonds rather than the small designs on the panel surfaces.

  5. Drag reduction obtained by modifying a standard truck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan, A. E.; Grier, S. J.

    1978-01-01

    A standard two-axle truck with a box-shaped cargo compartment was tested to determine whether significant reductions in aerodynamic drag could be obtained by modifying the front of the cargo compartment. The coastdown method was used to determine the total drag of the baseline vehicle, which had a square-cornered cargo box, and of several modified configurations. Test velocities ranged from 56.3 to 94.6 kilometers per hour (35 to 60 miles per hour). At 88.5 kilometers per hour (55 miles per hour), the aerodynamic drag reductions obtained with the modified configurations ranged from 8 to 30 percent.

  6. Viscous drag reduction via surface mass injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hefner, Jerry N.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    1990-01-01

    Slot injection systems on the surfaces of aerodynamic bodies have been noted to consistently furnish substantial local skin friction reductions which are predictable on the basis of current numerical methods. Only crude systems studies, however, have been thus far completed. The most common configuration for slot ingestion in the literature involves tangential injection of air along a two-dimensional surface on which air constitutes the mainstream flow; attention is presently given to slot injection in low-speed and high-speed flows, as well as a discussion of aircraft applications and an evaluation of prospective possibilities for practical drag-reduction systems.

  7. DOE Project on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag FY 2005 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R C; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Castellucci, P; Eastwood, C; Paschkewitz, J; Pointer, W D; DeChant, L J; Hassan, B; Browand, F; Radovich, C; Merzel, T; Plocher, D; Ross, J; Storms, B; Heineck, J T; Walker, S; Roy, C J

    2005-11-14

    Class 8 tractor-trailers consume 11-12% of the total US petroleum use. At high way speeds, 65% of the energy expenditure for a Class 8 truck is in overcoming aerodynamic drag. The project objective is to improve fuel economy of Class 8 tractor-trailers by providing guidance on methods of reducing drag by at least 25%. A 25% reduction in drag would present a 12% improvement in fuel economy at highway speeds, equivalent to about 130 midsize tanker ships per year. Specific goals include: (1) Provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag of heavy truck vehicles; and (2) Establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information, and demonstrate the potential of new drag-reduction devices.

  8. Exploring the Aerodynamic Drag of a Moving Cyclist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theilmann, Florian; Reinhard, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Although the physics of cycling itself is a complex mixture of aerodynamics, physiology, mechanics, and heuristics, using cycling as a context for teaching physics has a tradition of certainly more than 30 years. Here, a possible feature is the discussion of the noticeable resistant forces such as aerodynamic drag and the associated power…

  9. Exploring the Aerodynamic Drag of a Moving Cyclist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theilmann, Florian; Reinhard, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Although the physics of cycling itself is a complex mixture of aerodynamics, physiology, mechanics, and heuristics, using cycling as a context for teaching physics has a tradition of certainly more than 30 years. Here, a possible feature is the discussion of the noticeable resistant forces such as aerodynamic drag and the associated power…

  10. Iterative optimal subcritical aerodynamic design code including profile drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A subcritical aerodynamic design computer code has been developed, which uses linearized aerodynamics along with sweep theory and airfoil data to obtain minimum total drag preliminary designs for multiple planform configurations. These optimum designs consist of incidence distributions yielding minimum total drag at design values of Mach number and lift and pitching moment coefficients. Linear lofting is used between airfoil stations. Solutions for isolated transport wings have shown that the solution is unique, and that including profile drag effects decreases tip loading and incidence relative to values obtained for minimum induced drag solutions. Further, including effects of variation of profile drag with Reynolds number can cause appreciable changes in the optimal design for tapered wings. Example solutions are also discussed for multiple planform configurations.

  11. Iterative optimal subcritical aerodynamic design code including profile drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A subcritical aerodynamic design computer code has been developed, which uses linearized aerodynamics along with sweep theory and airfoil data to obtain minimum total drag preliminary designs for multiple planform configurations. These optimum designs consist of incidence distributions yielding minimum total drag at design values of Mach number and lift and pitching moment coefficients. Linear lofting is used between airfoil stations. Solutions for isolated transport wings have shown that the solution is unique, and that including profile drag effects decreases tip loading and incidence relative to values obtained for minimum induced drag solutions. Further, including effects of variation of profile drag with Reynolds number can cause appreciable changes in the optimal design for tapered wings. Example solutions are also discussed for multiple planform configurations.

  12. Aerodynamic drag crisis and its possible effect on the flight of baseballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohlich, Cliff

    1984-04-01

    At Reynolds numbers above about 105 the aerodynamic drag force on a sphere drops sharply as the flow begins to become turbulent in the boundary layer. For baseballs, this ``drag crisis'' may occur at speeds which are typical for pitched or batted balls. The effects of the drag reduction on the behavior of both pitched and batted balls is significant, and may explain several features of the game of baseball which previously have been unexplained or attributed to other causes. In particular, the drag reduction may help to explain why pitched fastballs appear to rise, why pitched curve balls appear to drop sharply, and why home run production has increased since the introduction of the alleged ``lively ball.'' Calculations suggest that aerodynamic forces are as important a factor in fastpitch softball as in baseball, and that they are a critical factor in a number of other ball games.

  13. Does an active adjustment of aerodynamic drag make sense?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, Marek

    2016-09-01

    The article concerns evaluation of the possible impact of the gap between the tractor and semitrailer on the aerodynamic drag coefficient. The aim here is not to adjust this distance depending on the geometrical shape of the tractor and trailer, but depending solely on the speed of articulated vehicle. All the tests have form of numerical simulations. The method of simulation is briefly explained in the article. It considers various issues such as the range and objects of tests as well as the test conditions. The initial (pre-adaptive) and final (after adaptation process) computational meshes have been presented as illustrations. Some of the results have been presented in the form of run chart showing the change of value of aerodynamic drag coefficients in time, for different geometric configurations defined by a clearance gap between the tractor and semitrailer. The basis for a detailed analysis and conclusions were the averaged (in time) aerodynamic drag coefficients as a function of the clearance gap.

  14. The maximum drag reduction asymptote

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choueiri, George H.; Hof, Bjorn

    2015-11-01

    Addition of long chain polymers is one of the most efficient ways to reduce the drag of turbulent flows. Already very low concentration of polymers can lead to a substantial drag and upon further increase of the concentration the drag reduces until it reaches an empirically found limit, the so called maximum drag reduction (MDR) asymptote, which is independent of the type of polymer used. We here carry out a detailed experimental study of the approach to this asymptote for pipe flow. Particular attention is paid to the recently observed state of elasto-inertial turbulence (EIT) which has been reported to occur in polymer solutions at sufficiently high shear. Our results show that upon the approach to MDR Newtonian turbulence becomes marginalized (hibernation) and eventually completely disappears and is replaced by EIT. In particular, spectra of high Reynolds number MDR flows are compared to flows at high shear rates in small diameter tubes where EIT is found at Re < 100. The research leading to these results has received funding from the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under REA grant agreement n° [291734].

  15. DOE's effort to reduce truck aerodynamic drag through joint experiments and computations.

    SciTech Connect

    Salari, Kambiz; Browand, Fred; Sreenivas, Kidambi; Pointer, W. David; Taylor, Lafayette; Pankajakshan, Ramesh; Whitfield, David; Plocher, Dennis; Ortega, Jason M.; Merzel, Tai; McCallen, Rose; Walker, Stephen M; Heineck, James T; Hassan, Basil; Roy, Christopher John; Storms, B.; Ross, James; Englar, Robert; Rubel, Mike; Leonard, Anthony; Radovich, Charles; Eastwood, Craig; Paschkewitz, John; Castellucci, Paul; DeChant, Lawrence Justin.

    2005-08-01

    Class 8 tractor-trailers are responsible for 11-12% of the total US consumption of petroleum. Overcoming aero drag represents 65% of energy expenditure at highway speeds. Most of the drag results from pressure differences and reducing highway speeds is very effective. The goal is to reduce aerodynamic drag by 25% which would translate to 12% improved fuel economy or 4,200 million gal/year. Objectives are: (1) In support of DOE's mission, provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag; (2) To shorten and improve design process, establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information; (3) Demonstrate new drag-reduction techniques; and (4) Get devices on the road. Some accomplishments are: (1) Concepts developed/tested that exceeded 25% drag reduction goal; (2) Insight and guidelines for drag reduction provided to industry through computations and experiments; (3) Joined with industry in getting devices on the road and providing design concepts through virtual modeling and testing; and (4) International recognition achieved through open documentation and database.

  16. Drop tower with no aerodynamic drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, J. M., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Cooling air accelerated to match velocity of falling object eliminates drag. 3 meter drop tower with suction fan and specific geometry causes air to accelerate downward at 1 g. Although cooling of molten material released from top is slow because surrounding air moves with it, drop remains nearly spherical.

  17. Exploring the aerodynamic drag of a moving cyclist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theilmann, Florian; Reinhard, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Although the physics of cycling itself is a complex mixture of aerodynamics, physiology, mechanics, and heuristics, using cycling as a context for teaching physics has a tradition of certainly more than 30 years. Here, a possible feature is the discussion of the noticeable resistant forces such as aerodynamic drag and the associated power consumption of cycling. We use an energy-based approach to model the power input for driving a bike at a constant speed. This approach uses a numerical simulation of the slowing down of a bike moving without pedaling which is implementable with standard spreadsheet software. The simulation can be compared directly to simple measurements with real bikes as well as to an analytic solution of the underlying differential equation. It is possible to derive realistic values for the aerodynamic drag coefficient {{c}\\text{D}} and the total power consumption within a secondary physics course. We also report experiences from teaching such a course to class 8 students.

  18. FY 2004 Annual Report: DOE Project on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R C; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Castellucci, P; Eastwood, C; Whittaker, K; DeChant, L J; Roy, C J; Payne, J L; Hassan, B; Pointer, W D; Browand, F; Hammache, M; Hsu, T; Ross, J; Satran, D; Heineck, J T; Walker, S; Yaste, D; Englar, R; Leonard, A; Rubel, M; Chatelain, P

    2004-11-18

    The objective of this report is: (1) Provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag of heavy truck vehicles; and (2) Establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information, and demonstrate potential of new drag-reduction devices. The approaches used were: (1) Develop and demonstrate the ability to simulate and analyze aerodynamic flow around heavy truck vehicles using existing and advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools; (2) Through an extensive experimental effort, generate an experimental data base for code validation; (3) Using experimental data base, validate computations; (4) Provide industry with design guidance and insight into flow phenomena from experiments and computations; and (5) Investigate aero devices (e.g., base flaps, tractor-trailer gap stabilizer, underbody skirts and wedges, blowing and acoustic devices), provide industry with conceptual designs of drag reducing devices, and demonstrate the full-scale fuel economy potential of these devices.

  19. Spacecraft Re-Entry Impact Point Targeting Using Aerodynamic Drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Sanny R.; Bevilacqua, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    The ability to re-enter the atmosphere at a desired location is important for spacecraft containing components that may survive re-entry. While impact point targeting has traditionally been initiated through impulsive burns with chemical thrusters on large vehicles such as the Space Shuttle, and the Soyuz and Apollo capsules, many small spacecraft do not host thrusters and require an alternative means of impact point targeting to ensure that falling debris do not cause harm to persons or property. This paper discusses the use of solely aerodynamic drag force to perform this targeting. It is shown that by deploying and retracting a drag device to vary the ballistic coefficient of the spacecraft, any desired longitude and latitude on the ground can be targeted provided that the maneuvering begins early enough and the latitude is less than the inclination of the orbit. An analytical solution based on perturbations from a numerically propagated trajectory is developed to map the initial state and ballistic coefficient profile of a spacecraft to its impact point. This allows the ballistic coefficient profile necessary to reach a given target point to be rapidly calculated, making it feasible to generate the guidance for the decay trajectory onboard the spacecraft. The ability to target an impact point using aerodynamic drag will enhance the capabilities of small spacecraft and will enable larger space vehicles containing thrusters to save fuel by more effectively leveraging the available aerodynamic drag.

  20. Reducing Aerodynamic Drag on Empty Open Cargo Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C.; Storms, Bruce L.; Dzoan, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Some simple structural modifications have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing aerodynamic drag on vehicles that have empty open cargo bays. The basic idea is to break up the airflow in a large open cargo bay by inserting panels to divide the bay into a series of smaller bays. In the case of a coal car, this involves inserting a small number (typically between two and four) of vertical full-depth or partial-depth panels.

  1. Hub and pylon fairing integration for helicopter drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, D. M.; Mort, R. W.; Squires, P. K.; Young, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    The results of testing hub and pylon fairings mounted on a one-fifth scale helicopter with the goal of reducing parasite drag are presented. Lift, drag, and pitching moment, as well as side force and yawing moment, were measured. The primary objective of the test was to validate the drag reduction capability of integrated hub and pylon configurations in the aerodynamic environment produced by a rotating hub in forward flight. In addition to the baseline helicopter without fairings, three hub fairings and three pylon fairings were tested in various combinations. The three hub fairings tested reflect two different conceptual design approaches to implementing an integrated fairing configuration on an actual aircraft. The design philosophy is discussed in detail and comparisons are made between the wind tunnel models and potential full-scale prototypes. The data show that model drag can be reduced by as much as 20.8 percent by combining a small hub fairing with circular arc upper and flat lower surfaces and a nontapered 34-percent thick pylon fairing. Aerodynamic effects caused by the fairings, which may have a significant impact on static longitudinal and directional stability, were observed. The results support previous research which showed that the greatest reduction in model drag is achieved if the hub and pylon fairings are integrated with minimum gap between the two.

  2. Hub and pylon fairing integration for helicopter drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, D. M.; Mort, R. W.; Squires, P. K.; Young, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    The results of testing hub and pylon fairings mounted on a one-fifth scale helicopter with the goal of reducing parasite drag are presented. Lift, drag, and pitching moment, as well as side force and yawing moment, were measured. The primary objective of the test was to validate the drag reduction capability of integrated hub and pylon configurations in the aerodynamic environment produced by a rotating hub in forward flight. In addition to the baseline helicopter without fairings, three hub fairings and three pylon fairings were tested in various combinations. The three hub fairings tested reflect two different conceptual design approaches to implementing an integrated fairing configuration on an actual aircraft. The design philosophy is discussed in detail and comparisons are made between the wind tunnel models and potential full-scale prototypes. The data show that model drag can be reduced by as much as 20.8 percent by combining a small hub fairing with circular arc upper and flat lower surfaces and a nontapered 34-percent thick pylon fairing. Aerodynamic effects caused by the fairings, which may have a significant impact on static longitudinal and directional stability, were observed. The results support previous research which showed that the greatest reduction in model drag is achieved if the hub and pylon fairings are integrated with minimum gap between the two.

  3. Experimental Investigation of Convoluted Contouring for Aircraft Afterbody Drag Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deere, Karen A.; Hunter, Craig A.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed in the NASA Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the aerodynamic effects of external convolutions, placed on the boattail of a nonaxisymmetric nozzle for drag reduction. Boattail angles of 15 and 22 were tested with convolutions placed at a forward location upstream of the boattail curvature, at a mid location along the curvature and at a full location that spanned the entire boattail flap. Each of the baseline nozzle afterbodies (no convolutions) had a parabolic, converging contour with a parabolically decreasing corner radius. Data were obtained at several Mach numbers from static conditions to 1.2 for a range of nozzle pressure ratios and angles of attack. An oil paint flow visualization technique was used to qualitatively assess the effect of the convolutions. Results indicate that afterbody drag reduction by convoluted contouring is convolution location, Mach number, boattail angle, and NPR dependent. The forward convolution location was the most effective contouring geometry for drag reduction on the 22 afterbody, but was only effective for M < 0.95. At M = 0.8, drag was reduced 20 and 36 percent at NPRs of 5.4 and 7, respectively, but drag was increased 10 percent for M = 0.95 at NPR = 7. Convoluted contouring along the 15 boattail angle afterbody was not effective at reducing drag because the flow was minimally separated from the baseline afterbody, unlike the massive separation along the 22 boattail angle baseline afterbody.

  4. Analog VLSI system for active drag reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, B.; Goodman, R.; Jiang, F.; Tai, Y.C.; Tung, S.; Ho, C.M.

    1996-10-01

    In today`s cost-conscious air transportation industry, fuel costs are a substantial economic concern. Drag reduction is an important way to reduce costs. Even a 5% reduction in drag translates into estimated savings of millions of dollars in fuel costs. Drawing inspiration from the structure of shark skin, the authors are building a system to reduce drag along a surface. Our analog VLSI system interfaces with microfabricated, constant-temperature shear stress sensors. It detects regions of high shear stress and outputs a control signal to activate a microactuator. We are in the process of verifying the actual drag reduction by controlling microactuators in wind tunnel experiments. We are encouraged that an approach similar to one that biology employs provides a very useful contribution to the problem of drag reduction. 9 refs., 21 figs.

  5. An investigation of drag reduction for tractor trailer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muirhead, V. U.

    1978-01-01

    Force and moment data were obtained from a one-twenty-fifth scale wind tunnel model of a cab-over-engine tractor trailer combination. The tests define the aerodynamic characteristics of the baseline (unmodified) vehicle and several modified configurations. The primary modifications consist of: (1) greatly increased forebody corner radii, (2) a smooth fairing over the cab-to-trailer gap, (3) a smoothed underbody, and (4) rear streamlining (boattailing)of the trailer. Tests were conducted for yaw angles from 0 deg to 30 deg. The reduction in drag, relative to the baseline, obtained by combining the modifications are compared for the zero yaw condition with full scale coast down drag results for similar configurations. The drag reductions obtained from the model and full scale tests are in good agreement.

  6. Reduction of Base Drag on Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naughton, Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the work accomplished during a first-year investigation of base drag reduction for launch vehicles. Interest in this work has arisen due to the large base areas associated with the current generation of launch vehicles. For example, the X-33 and Venture Star configurations all have large base areas because of the aero-spike engines they use. Because of the large base-to-wetted area ratios of these vehicles, the majority of the vehicle drag is due to base drag. Based on previous research, there appears to be a means for reducing the base drag on such vehicles. A clear relationship between viscous fore-body drag and base drag was demonstrated. For subsonic flow conditions, an increase in fore-body drag causes a decrease in base drag. This base-drag reduction is a result of boundary layer effects at the base of the vehicle. The shear layer that develops from the boundary layer separating at the back of the vehicle is the conduit through which momentum is transferred from the high energy free-stream flow to the low-energy fluid in the base area. One way to think of the base drag is that it is the momentum required to accelerate this low-energy fluid. The boundary layer that develops on the fore body acts as an "insulator" between the external flow and the low-energy air at the base. As the viscous fore-body drag is increased, the boundary layer thickness at the aft end of the fore body increases, thereby reducing the rate at which momentum is transferred to the base area. As a result of the lower momentum transfer (or reduced pumping), the base pressure coefficient rises resulting in a reduction of base drag.

  7. Bubble Drag Reduction Requires Large Bubbles.

    PubMed

    Verschoof, Ruben A; van der Veen, Roeland C A; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-09-02

    In the maritime industry, the injection of air bubbles into the turbulent boundary layer under the ship hull is seen as one of the most promising techniques to reduce the overall fuel consumption. However, the exact mechanism behind bubble drag reduction is unknown. Here we show that bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow dramatically depends on the bubble size. By adding minute concentrations (6 ppm) of the surfactant Triton X-100 into otherwise completely unchanged strongly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow containing bubbles, we dramatically reduce the drag reduction from more than 40% to about 4%, corresponding to the trivial effect of the bubbles on the density and viscosity of the liquid. The reason for this striking behavior is that the addition of surfactants prevents bubble coalescence, leading to much smaller bubbles. Our result demonstrates that bubble deformability is crucial for bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow and opens the door for an optimization of the process.

  8. Bubble Drag Reduction Requires Large Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschoof, Ruben A.; van der Veen, Roeland C. A.; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-09-01

    In the maritime industry, the injection of air bubbles into the turbulent boundary layer under the ship hull is seen as one of the most promising techniques to reduce the overall fuel consumption. However, the exact mechanism behind bubble drag reduction is unknown. Here we show that bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow dramatically depends on the bubble size. By adding minute concentrations (6 ppm) of the surfactant Triton X-100 into otherwise completely unchanged strongly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow containing bubbles, we dramatically reduce the drag reduction from more than 40% to about 4%, corresponding to the trivial effect of the bubbles on the density and viscosity of the liquid. The reason for this striking behavior is that the addition of surfactants prevents bubble coalescence, leading to much smaller bubbles. Our result demonstrates that bubble deformability is crucial for bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow and opens the door for an optimization of the process.

  9. Drag reduction by Leidenfrost vapor layers.

    PubMed

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Marston, Jeremy O; Chan, Derek Y C; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2011-05-27

    We demonstrate and quantify a highly effective drag reduction technique that exploits the Leidenfrost effect to create a continuous and robust lubricating vapor layer on the surface of a heated solid sphere moving in a liquid. Using high-speed video, we show that such vapor layers can reduce the hydrodynamic drag by over 85%. These results appear to approach the ultimate limit of drag reduction possible by different methods based on gas-layer lubrication and can stimulate the development of related energy saving technologies. © 2011 American Physical Society

  10. Drag Reduction by Leidenfrost Vapor Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakarelski, Ivan U.; Marston, Jeremy O.; Chan, Derek Y. C.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

    2011-05-01

    We demonstrate and quantify a highly effective drag reduction technique that exploits the Leidenfrost effect to create a continuous and robust lubricating vapor layer on the surface of a heated solid sphere moving in a liquid. Using high-speed video, we show that such vapor layers can reduce the hydrodynamic drag by over 85%. These results appear to approach the ultimate limit of drag reduction possible by different methods based on gas-layer lubrication and can stimulate the development of related energy saving technologies.

  11. The influence of energy deposition parameters on laser plasma drag reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Zhiguo; Liu, Zhun; Yao, Honglin; Li, Xiuqian

    2013-09-01

    experiment investigation. Aerodynamic drag, laser plasma, hypersonic, drag reduction, numerical simulation

  12. Drag Reduction Tests on Supersonic Transport Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Langley researchers recently completed supersonic tests in the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel on a nonlinear design for a supersonic transport. Although the drag reduction measured during the tests was not as great as that predicted using computational methods, significant drag reductions were achieved. Future tests will be conducted at a higher Reynolds number, which will be more representative of flight conditions. These tests will be used to identify a supersonic transport configuration that provides maximum drag reduction. Reducing drag decreases operating cost by improving fuel consumption and lowering aircraft weight. As a result, this research has the potential to help make a future high-speed civil transport (HSCT) an affordable means of travel for the flying public.

  13. Drag reductions obtained by modifying a box-shaped ground vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, E. J.; Meyer, R. R., Jr.; Lux, D. P.

    1974-01-01

    A box-shaped ground vehicle was used to simulate the aerodynamic drag of high volume transports, that is, delivery vans, trucks, or motor homes. The coast-down technique was used to define the drag of the original vehicle, having all square corners, and several modifications of the vehicle. Test velocities ranged up to 65 miles per hour, which provided maximum Reynolds numbers of 1 times 10 to the 7th power based on vehicle length. One combination of modifications produced a reduction in aerodynamic drag of 61 percent as compared with the original square-cornered vehicle.

  14. Frictional drag reduction by bubble injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murai, Yuichi

    2014-07-01

    The injection of gas bubbles into a turbulent boundary layer of a liquid phase has multiple different impacts on the original flow structure. Frictional drag reduction is a phenomenon resulting from their combined effects. This explains why a number of different void-drag reduction relationships have been reported to date, while early works pursued a simple universal mechanism. In the last 15 years, a series of precisely designed experimentations has led to the conclusion that the frictional drag reduction by bubble injection has multiple manifestations dependent on bubble size and flow speed. The phenomena are classified into several regimes of two-phase interaction mechanisms. Each regime has inherent physics of bubbly liquid, highlighted by keywords such as bubbly mixture rheology, the spectral response of bubbles in turbulence, buoyancy-dominated bubble behavior, and gas cavity breakup. Among the regimes, bubbles in some selected situations lose the drag reduction effect owing to extra momentum transfer promoted by their active motions. This separates engineers into two communities: those studying small bubbles for high-speed flow applications and those studying large bubbles for low-speed flow applications. This article reviews the roles of bubbles in drag reduction, which have been revealed from fundamental studies of simplified flow geometries and from development of measurement techniques that resolve the inner layer structure of bubble-mixed turbulent boundary layers.

  15. Measurements of drag reduction by SLIPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaha, Mohamed A.; Shang, Jessica; Fu, Matthew; Wang, Karen; Stone, Howard; Smits, Alexander; Hultmark, Marcus

    2014-11-01

    Slippery liquid infused porous surfaces (SLIPS) consist of an omniphobic lubricant impregnated into a micro/nanoscale textured substrate. These surfaces have been shown to repel a wide range of liquids. Several techniques to fabricate such surfaces are available in the literature. Here, we report on drag reduction and slip-length measurements using a parallel plate rheometer. Skin-friction measurements of different working fluids are performed on SLIPS with fluorinated boehmite substrates infused with different lubricants. The measurements are refined by considering the evaporation effect of the working fluids. The experiments are performed for different viscosity ratios, N (viscosity of working fluid to that of the lubricant). The effect of the gap height and strain rate on the drag reduction is also investigated. The results show that drag-reduction behavior is influenced by the viscosity ratio and the lubricant-film thickness. The observed drag reduction exists even for very thin film thicknesses. Furthermore, drag reduction is observed for different working fluids even with those having low surface tension such as ethanol. Supported under ONR Grants N00014-12-1-0875 and N00014-12-1-0962 (program manager Ki-Han Kim).

  16. Active skin for turbulent drag reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rediniotis, Othon K.; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.; Mani, Raghavendran; Karniadakis, George

    2002-07-01

    Drag reduction for aerial vehicles has a range of positive ramifications: reduced fuel consumption with the associated economic and environmental consequences, larger flight range and endurance and higher achievable flight speeds. This work capitalizes on recent advances in active turbulent drag reduction and active material based actuation to develop an active or 'smart' skin for turbulent drag reduction in realistic flight conditions. The skin operation principle is based on computational evidence that spanwise traveling waves of the right amplitude, wavelength and frequency can result in significant turbulent drag reduction. Such traveling waves can be induced in the smart skin via active-material actuation. The flow control technique pursued is 'micro' in the sense that only micro-scale wave amplitudes (order of 30mm) and energy inputs are sufficient to produce significant benefits. Two actuation principles have been proposed and analyzed. Different skin designs based on these two actuation principles have been discussed. The feasibility of these different actuation possibilities (such as Shape Memory Alloys and Piezoelectric material based actuators) and relative merits of different skin designs are discussed. The realization of a mechanically actuated prototype skin capable of generating a traveling wave, using a rapid prototyping machine, for the purpose of validating the proposed drag reduction technique is also presented.

  17. Bioinspired surfaces for turbulent drag reduction

    PubMed Central

    Golovin, Kevin B.; Gose, James W.; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven L.; Tuteja, Anish

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we discuss how superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) can provide friction drag reduction in turbulent flow. Whereas biomimetic SHSs are known to reduce drag in laminar flow, turbulence adds many new challenges. We first provide an overview on designing SHSs, and how these surfaces can cause slip in the laminar regime. We then discuss recent studies evaluating drag on SHSs in turbulent flow, both computationally and experimentally. The effects of streamwise and spanwise slip for canonical, structured surfaces are well characterized by direct numerical simulations, and several experimental studies have validated these results. However, the complex and hierarchical textures of scalable SHSs that can be applied over large areas generate additional complications. Many studies on such surfaces have measured no drag reduction, or even a drag increase in turbulent flow. We discuss how surface wettability, roughness effects and some newly found scaling laws can help explain these varied results. Overall, we discuss how, to effectively reduce drag in turbulent flow, an SHS should have: preferentially streamwise-aligned features to enhance favourable slip, a capillary resistance of the order of megapascals, and a roughness no larger than 0.5, when non-dimensionalized by the viscous length scale. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science’. PMID:27354731

  18. Bioinspired surfaces for turbulent drag reduction.

    PubMed

    Golovin, Kevin B; Gose, James W; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven L; Tuteja, Anish

    2016-08-06

    In this review, we discuss how superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) can provide friction drag reduction in turbulent flow. Whereas biomimetic SHSs are known to reduce drag in laminar flow, turbulence adds many new challenges. We first provide an overview on designing SHSs, and how these surfaces can cause slip in the laminar regime. We then discuss recent studies evaluating drag on SHSs in turbulent flow, both computationally and experimentally. The effects of streamwise and spanwise slip for canonical, structured surfaces are well characterized by direct numerical simulations, and several experimental studies have validated these results. However, the complex and hierarchical textures of scalable SHSs that can be applied over large areas generate additional complications. Many studies on such surfaces have measured no drag reduction, or even a drag increase in turbulent flow. We discuss how surface wettability, roughness effects and some newly found scaling laws can help explain these varied results. Overall, we discuss how, to effectively reduce drag in turbulent flow, an SHS should have: preferentially streamwise-aligned features to enhance favourable slip, a capillary resistance of the order of megapascals, and a roughness no larger than 0.5, when non-dimensionalized by the viscous length scale.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'.

  19. Turbulent drag reduction by permeable coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Mayoral, Ricardo; Abderrahaman-Elena, Nabil

    2015-11-01

    We present an assessment of permeable coatings as a form of passive drag reduction, proposing a simplified model to quantify the effect of the coating thickness and permeability. To reduce skin friction, the porous layer must be preferentially permeable in the streamwise direction, so that a slip effect is produced. For small permeability, the controlling parameter is the difference between streamwise and spanwise permeability lengths, scaled in viscous units, √{Kx+}-√{Kz+}. In this regime, the reduction in drag is proportional to that difference. However, the proportional performance eventually breaks down for larger permeabilities. A degradation mechanism is investigated, common to other obstructed surfaces in general and permeable substrates in particular, which depends critically on the geometric mean of the streamwise and wall-normal permeabilities, √{Kx+ Ky+}. For a streamwise-to-cross-plane permeability ratio of order Kx+/Ky+ = Kx+/Kz+ 10 -100, the model predicts a maximum drag reduction of order 15-25%.

  20. Drag reduction by rotation in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Wonjong; Choi, Sung Mok; Kim, Wonjung; Kim, Ho-Young

    2016-11-01

    We present quantitative measurements and mathematical analysis of the granular drag reduction by rotation inspired by some self-burrowing seeds whose morphologies respond to environmental changes in humidity. The seeds create a motion to dig into soil using their moisture-responsive awns, which are basically helical shaped in a dry environment but reversibly deform to a linear shape in a humid environment. When the tip of the awn is fixed by an external support, the hygroscopic deformation of the awn gives the seed a thrust with rotation against the soil. By measuring the granular drag of vertically penetrating intruders with rotation, we find the drag to decrease with its rotation speed. Noting that the relative motions of the grains in contact with the intruder induce the collapse of the force chains in the granular bulk, we develop a general correlation for the drag reduction by rotation in terms of the relative slip velocity of the grains, which successfully explains the drag reduction of the rotating intruders including self-burrowing rotary seeds.

  1. Drag reduction research in supersonic flow with opposing jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yisheng, Rong

    2013-10-01

    A CFD study on drag reduction in supersonic flow with opposing jet has been conducted. Flowfield parameters, reattachment point position and surface pressure distributions are obtained and validated with experiments. From the analysis on the physical mechanism of drag reduction, it shows the phenomenon that, when the opposing jet blows, the high pressure region is located between the bow shock wave and the Mach disk, which makes the nose region much lower pressure. As the pressure ratio increases, the high pressure region is gradually pushed away from the surface. Larger the total pressure ratio is, the lower of the drag coefficient is. To study the effect of the intensity of opposing jet more reasonably, a new parameter RPA has been introduced by combining the flux and the total pressure ratio. The study shows that the same shock wave position and drag coefficient can be obtained with the same RPA with different fluxes and the total pressures, which means the new parameter could stand for the intensity of opposing jet and could be used to analyze the influence of opposing jet on flow field and aerodynamic force.

  2. Large-eddy simulation of a turbulent flow over a heavy vehicle with drag reduction devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangseung; Kim, Myeongkyun; You, Donghyun

    2015-11-01

    Aerodynamic drag contributes to a considerable amount of energy loss of heavy vehicles. To reduce the energy loss, drag reduction devices such as side skirts and boat tails, are often installed to the side and the rear of a heavy vehicle. In the present study, turbulent flow around a heavy vehicle with realistic geometric details is simulated using large-eddy simulation (LES), which is capable of providing unsteady flow physics responsible for aerodynamic in sufficient detail. Flow over a heavy vehicle with and without a boat tail and side skirts as drag reduction devices is simulated. The simulation results are validated against accompanying in-house experimental measurements. Effects of a boat tail and side skirts on drag reduction are discussed in detail. Supported by the Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement (KAIA) Grant NTIS 1615007940.

  3. Rear-roof spoiler effect on the aerodynamic drag performance of a simplified hatchback model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, S. Y.; Mansor, S.

    2017-04-01

    The effect of rear-roof spoiler on the aerodynamic drag performance of simple hatchback model has been investigated for a range of spoiler pitch angles. RANS based CFD method was utilized. Validation was done by comparing the CFD results of Ahmed model without spoiler to the experimental data. The spoiler has a beneficial influence at positive inclination angle below 5°. Above that angle, the aerodynamic drag increases with pitch angle. The mechanism of how the spoiler influences the aerodynamic drag was identified through extensive flow visualization.

  4. Drag reduction using slippery liquid infused surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultmark, Marcus; Stone, Howard; Smits, Alexander; Jacobi, Ian; Samaha, Mohamed; Wexler, Jason; Shang, Jessica; Rosenberg, Brian; Hellström, Leo; Fan, Yuyang

    2013-11-01

    A new method for passive drag reduction is introduced. A surface treatment inspired by the Nepenthes pitcher plant, previously developed by Wong et al. (2011), is utilized and its design parameters are studied for increased drag reduction and durability. Nano- and micro-structured surfaces infused with a lubricant allow for mobility within the lubricant itself when the surface is exposed to flow. The mobility causes slip at the fluid-fluid interface, which drastically reduces the viscous friction. These new surfaces are fundamentally different from the more conventional superhydrophobic surfaces previously used in drag reduction studies, which rely on a gas-liquid interface. The main advantage of the liquid infused surfaces over the conventional surfaces is that the lubricant adheres more strongly to the surface, decreasing the risk of failure when exposed to turbulence and other high-shear flows. We have shown that these surfaces can reduce viscous drag up to 20% in both Taylor-Couette flow and in a parallel plate rheometer. Supported under ONR Grants N00014-12-1-0875 and N00014-12-1-0962 (program manager Ki-Han Kim).

  5. Bubble drag reduction requires large bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschoof, Ruben; van der Veen, Roeland; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-11-01

    In the maritime industry, the injection of air bubbles into the turbulent boundary layer under the ship hull is seen as one of the most promising techniques to reduce the overall fuel consumption. A few volume percent (<= 4 %) of bubbles can reduce the overall drag up to 40% and beyond. However, the exact mechanism is unknown, thus hindering further progress and optimization. Here we show that bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow dramatically depends on the bubble size. By adding minute concentrations (6 ppm) of the surfactant Triton X-100 into otherwise completely unchanged strongly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow containing bubbles, we dramatically reduce the drag reduction from more than 40% to about 4%, corresponding to the trivial effect of the bubbles on the density and viscosity of the liquid . The reason for this striking behavior is that the addition of surfactants prevents bubble coalescence, leading to much smaller bubbles. Our result demonstrates that bubble deformability is crucial for bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow. We acknowledge support from STW and FOM.

  6. Bluff-body drag reduction by passive ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryanarayana, G. K.; Pauer, Henning; Meier, G. E. A.

    1993-12-01

    The drag of a sphere at high Re can be reduced to more than half its value by passive ventilation from the stagnation region to the base. Simultaneously, the flow field around the base is stabilized and made symmetric, leading to reduction of unsteady aerodynamic forces. At high Re, the vent flow breaks through the dead water region associated with the near wake and aerodynamically streamlines the base. The streamlining is done by virtue of a base-vortex-ring beyond the point of turbulent boundary layer separation. A mean flow model for the flow around the vented sphere is proposed. Smoke flow visualized on a laser light screen placed at two diameters behind the base of the sphere shows the effectiveness of the method in suppressing the flow oscillations. The drag reduction achieved is very sensitive to the quality of the external surface and relatively insensitive to disturbances in the internal flow. Surface roughness or boundary layer tripping wire on the external flow can completely offset the benefit obtained.

  7. Kuechemann Carrots for transonic drag reduction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechert, D. W.; Hage, W.; Stanewsky, E.

    1999-11-01

    Wave drag reduction bodies on the suction side of transonic wings are investigated. Following the original invention by O. Frenzl (1942), subsequently, such bodies have been suggested by Kuechemann and Whitcomb. These devices have been used sucessfully on various TUPOLEV aircraft and on the CONVAIR 990 airliner. New transonic wind tunnel data from an unswept wing with an array of Kuechemann Carrots are presented (airfoil: CAST 10/DOA-2). In a certain parameter range (M= 0.765-0.86) the measurements exhibit a significant reduction of the shock strength on a wing between the Kuechemann Carrots. This entails a dramatic reduction of drag, in a certain Mach number and angular regime up to 50-60%.

  8. Analog VLSI for active drag reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Vidyabhusan

    In today's cost-conscious air transportation industry, fuel costs are a substantial economic concern. Drag reduction is an important way to increase fuel efficiency which reduces these costs. Even a 1% reduction in drag can translate into estimated savings of tens of millions of dollars in annual fuel costs. Fluid mechanicists believe that microscopic vortex pairs impinging on the surface play an important role in turbulent transport that may cause large skin friction drag. The microscopic nature and unpredictable appearance of these structures has limited practical approaches to their control. With the advent of micromachining technology providing the ability to build mechanical structures with microscopic dimensions, the tools finally exist with which to detect and control the vortex structures. These sensors and actuators require control circuitry between them in order to build a complete system. We propose an analog VLSI system that can process information along a surface in a moving fluid with the goal of controlling actuators to minimize the surface shear stress. We obtain the information from the surface by using microsensors which measure the surface shear stress. The actuators interact with the fluid by moving up and down in an attempt to diminish the impact of the drag-inducing structures in the fluid. We have designed the fabricated an analog control system. We have tested the system in several different experiments to verify its effectiveness in providing a control signal that energizes an actuator. We also have studied the methodology for a completely integrated wafer-scale system.

  9. Drag Reduction On Multiscale Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenner, Elliot; Barbier, Charlotte; D'Urso, Brian

    2013-11-01

    Fluid drag reduction is of great interest in a variety of fields, including hull engineering, microfluidics, and drug delivery. We fabricated samples with multi-scale superhydrophobic surfaces, which consist of hexagonally self-ordered microscopic spikes grown via anodization on macroscopic grooves cut in aluminum. The hydrodynamic drag properties were studied with a cone-and-plate rheometer, showing significant drag reduction near 15% in turbulent flow and near 30% in laminar flow. In addition to these experiments, numerical simulations were performed in order to estimate the slip length at high speeds. Furthermore, we will report on the progress of experiments with a new type of surface combining superhydrophobic surfaces like those discussed above with Slippery Liquid Infused Porous Surfaces (SLIPS), which utilize an oil layer to create a hydrophobic self-repairing surface. These ``Super-SLIPS'' may combine the best properties of both superhydrophobic surfaces and SLIPS, by combining a drag reducing air-layer and an oil layer which may improve durability and biofouling resistance. This research was supported by the ORNL Seed Money Program. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Dept. of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  10. Longevity and drag reduction of omniphobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Brian; Samaha, Mohamed A.; Jacobi, Ian; Shang, Jessica; Hultmark, Marcus; Smits, Alexander

    2013-11-01

    Omniphobic surfaces, which consist of an omniphobic lubricant impregnated into a micro/nanoscale textured substrate, have been shown to repel a wide range of liquids [Wong et al. (Nature 2011)]. Here, experiments are performed on these surfaces to investigate the drag reduction as well as the time-dependent omniphobicity in the presence of flow. Drag measurements are performed in number of different flows including parallel plate and Taylor-Couette rheometers, pipe flow, and bluff body flows. The longevity of the surfaces are measured using three techniques: (i) an in situ noninvasive optical method to characterize the the loss of lubricant with time; (ii) thin-film interferometry measurements of the lubricant thickness versus time; and (iii) goniometer measurements of the time-dependent threshold sliding angle as well as contact-angle hysteresis. The impact of the substrate morphology on the drag reduction and longevity is observed both with and without flow in the surrounding water environment. This work could help to investigate ways of enhancing the drag-reducing properties of omniphobic surfaces by controlling their morphologies. Supported under ONR Grants N00014-12-1-0875 and N00014-12-1-0962 (program manager Ki-Han Kim).

  11. Innovative Flow Control Concepts for Drag Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, John C.; Whalen, Edward A.; Eppink, Jenna L.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Alexander, Michael G.; Andino, Marlyn Y.

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights the technology development of two flow control concepts for aircraft drag reduction. The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project worked with Boeing to demonstrate these two concepts on a specially outfitted Boeing 757 ecoDemonstrator during the spring of 2015. The first flow control concept used Active Flow Control (AFC) to delay flow separation on a highly deflected rudder and increase the side force that it generates. This may enable a smaller vertical tail to provide the control authority needed in the event of an engine failure during takeoff and landing, while still operating in a conventional manner over the rest of the flight envelope. Thirty-one sweeping jet AFC actuators were installed and successfully flight-tested on the vertical tail of the 757 ecoDemonstrator. Pilot feedback, flow cone visualization, and analysis of the flight test data confirmed that the AFC is effective, as a smoother flight and enhanced rudder control authority were reported. The second flow control concept is the Insect Accretion Mitigation (IAM) innovation where surfaces were engineered to mitigate insect residue adhesion on a wing's leading edge. This is necessary because something as small as an insect residue on the leading edge of a laminar flow wing design can cause turbulent wedges that interrupt laminar flow, resulting in an increase in drag and fuel use. Several non-stick coatings were developed by NASA and applied to panels that were mounted on the leading edge of the wing of the 757 ecoDemonstrator. The performance of the coated surfaces was measured and validated by the reduction in the number of bug adhesions relative to uncoated control panels flown simultaneously. Both flow control concepts (i.e., sweeping jet actuators and non-stick coatings) for drag reduction were the culmination of several years of development, from wind tunnel tests to flight tests, and produced valuable data for the advancement of modern aircraft designs

  12. Design of Apparatus for the Determination of Aerodynamic Drag Coefficients of Automobiles.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    RD-RI51 942 DESIGN OF APPRATUS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF 1/1 AERODYNAMIC DRAG COEFFICIENTS OF AUTOMOBILES (U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA B R...LECTE MAR 141985D . - - THESIS DESIGN OF APPARATUS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF AERODYNAMIC DRAG COEFFICIENTS OF AUTOMOBILES by Brian R. Gritte June 1984...Coefficients of June 1984 Automobiles s. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTNOR(s) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMIER(s) Brian R. Gritte 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

  13. NASA research on viscous drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, R. H.; Maddalon, D. V.

    1982-01-01

    Current NASA research points toward exciting opportunities for large reductions in viscous drag. Research is underway on natural laminar flow, laminar flow control by suction, and turbulent drag reduction. Preliminary results suggest that a significant amount of natural laminar flow can be achieved on small, straight-wing airplanes. On larger, swept-wing aircraft, laminar flow control by distributed suction is expected to result in significant fuel savings. The area over which laminar flow control is applied depends on tradeoffs involving structural complexity, maintenance, and cost. Several methods of reducing turbulent skin friction by altering the turbulence structure itself have shown promise in exploratory testing. This paper reviews the status of these technologies and indicates the benefits of applying them to future aircraft.

  14. A Passive Drag Reduction Surface Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cong; Jeon, David; Gharib, Morteza

    2016-11-01

    Super hydrophobic surface could induce an air layer over the surface when submerged in water. This air layer is responsible for many fascinating properties of super hydrophobic surface, such as drag reduction. Unfortunately, the air layer is fragile and can be depleted by fast shear/turbulent flow. In this work, a dimpled surface with non-uniform surface wettability is proposed to increase the air layer stability by trapping air in individual dimples. A central pumping system is connected to each dimple to supply air and regulate pressure inside air bubble. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is used to investigate the drag reduction effect of different geometry designs. This work is supported by Office of Naval Research under Grant No. N00014-15-1-2479.

  15. Effects of Polymer Parameters on Drag Reduction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safieddine, Abbas Mohammad

    The effects of polymer parameters on fluid drag reduction using polyethylene oxide (PEO), polyacrylamide (PAM), guar gum (GG) and hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) were investigated. Due to the unavailability of high molecular weight (MW) water-soluble polymers having narrow molecular weight distribution (MWD), an aqueous preparative size exclusion chromatography (SEC) system capable of fractionating over wide MW ranges was constructed. An online low shear viscometer, coupled to the SEC, measured the instantaneous intrinsic viscosity of the eluting polymer solution and, therefore, served as a MW detector since Mark-Houwink "K" and "a" values for all four polymers were known. With the aid of the viscometer, the SEC system was calibrated. The preparative nature of the chromatography system allowed the collection of large volumes of nearly monodisperse fractions (MWD < 1.1) of high MW polymers. Depending on the polymer investigated, the MW of the fractions varied, but ranged between 2 times 10 ^5 and 8 times 10 ^6 daltons. Also, the preparative SEC approach allowed drag reduction (DR) experiments using well-characterized, narrowly dispersed polymer solutions under controlled tube flow conditions. Correlations of drag reduction performance with primary polymer parameters (i.e., concentration, intrinsic viscosity ((eta)), volume fraction (c(eta)), number of chain links (N), and combinations thereof) were used to test the validity of several theoretical DR models. Walsh's energy model, as well as the Deborah argument, did not completely account for drag reduction behavior under all experimental conditions. Within each of the flexible or rigid polymer groups, the extensional viscosity model was successful in correlating c(eta) N with DR under all turbulent conditions. However, it failed to account for the differences in chemical structure between the two polymer groups. However, when the cellulosic repeat unit was used instead of the carbon-carbon bond as the chain link for

  16. DOE's Effort to Reduce Truck Aerodynamic Drag-Joint Experiments and Computations Lead to Smart Design

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R; Salari, K; Ortega, J; DeChant, L; Hassan, B; Roy, C; Pointer, W; Browand, F; Hammache, M; Hsu, T; Leonard, A; Rubel, M; Chatalain, P; Englar, R; Ross, J; Satran, D; Heineck, J; Walker, S; Yaste, D; Storms, B

    2004-06-17

    At 70 miles per hour, overcoming aerodynamic drag represents about 65% of the total energy expenditure for a typical heavy truck vehicle. The goal of this US Department of Energy supported consortium is to establish a clear understanding of the drag producing flow phenomena. This is being accomplished through joint experiments and computations, leading to the 'smart' design of drag reducing devices. This paper will describe our objective and approach, provide an overview of our efforts and accomplishments, and discuss our future direction.

  17. DOE's effort to reduce truck aerodynamic drag : joint experiments and computations lead to smart design.

    SciTech Connect

    Yaste, David M; Salari, Kambiz; Hammache, Mustapha; Browand, Fred; Pointer, W. David; Ortega, Jason M.; McCallen, Rose; Walker, Stephen M; Heineck, James T; Hassan, Basil; Roy, Christopher John; Storms, B.; Satran, D.; Ross, James; Englar, Robert; Chatalain, Philippe; Rubel, Mike; Leonard, Anthony; Hsu, Tsu-Ya; DeChant, Lawrence Justin.

    2004-06-01

    At 70 miles per hour, overcoming aerodynamic drag represents about 65% of the total energy expenditure for a typical heavy truck vehicle. The goal of this US Department of Energy supported consortium is to establish a clear understanding of the drag producing flow phenomena. This is being accomplished through joint experiments and computations, leading to the smart design of drag reducing devices. This paper will describe our objective and approach, provide an overview of our efforts and accomplishments, and discuss our future direction.

  18. A design and analysis approach for drag reduction on aircraft with adaptive lifting surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusher, Aaron Anthony

    distributions are produced which match the classical result for minimum induced drag. Application of the profile drag reduction schemes produce solutions which force the wing to operate in the low-drag-ranges of the natural-laminar-flow airfoil sections, thereby lowering profile drag. The total drag reduction schemes use a curve-fit routine that generates airfoil drag polars given flap angle and Reynolds number. The approximated drag polars allow the prediction of profile drag values to be combined with induced drag values to form a total drag function, which is utilized with a constrained nonlinear optimizer that determines best flap angles for total drag and trim. The different drag reduction schemes each produce independent flap-angle solutions and lift distributions for a given aircraft configuration and operating condition, and provide valuable insight for aerodynamic design and trade studies. The drag reduction approach is intended to be applicable to arbitrary aircraft configurations, and can be adapted to use surface incidence, twist, and flap angles as optimization variables, thereby creating a powerful and flexible aerodynamic design and analysis tool.

  19. Dielectric barrier discharge actuator for vehicle drag reduction at highway speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Subrata; Zhao, Pengfei; DasGupta, Arnob; Soni, Jignesh

    2016-02-01

    We propose and demonstrate reduction of aerodynamic drag for a realistic geometry at highway speeds using serpentine dielectric barrier discharge actuators. A comparable linear plasma actuator fails to reduce the drag at these speeds. Experimental data collected for linear and serpentine plasma actuators under quiescent operating conditions show that the serpentine design has profound effect on near wall flow structure and resulting drag. For certain actuator arrangement, the measured drag reduced by over 14% at 26.8 m/s (60 mph) and over 10% at 31.3 m/s (70 mph) opening up realistic possibility of reasonable energy savings for full scale ground vehicles. In addition, the power consumption data and drag reduction effectiveness for different input signals are also presented.

  20. Turbulent drag reduction over liquid infused surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, Isnardo; Bernardini, Matteo; Leonardi, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    Numerical Simulations of two superposed fluids in a turbulent channel with a textured surface made of either longitudinal square bars or staggered cubes have been performed. The viscosity of the fluid inside the substrate is ten times smaller than that of the main stream (m =μ1 /μ2 = 0 . 1 where the subscripts 1 and 2 indicate the fluid in the cavities and the overlying fluid respectively). The interface between the two fluids can move due to the turbulent pressure fluctuations and it is modeled with a Level Set Approach. Two cases are compared: We = 0 , implying an interface sustained by the surface tension which can slip only in the horizontal direction, and We = ∞ where the interface can be displaced vertically and deform subject to wall normal stress. The textured surface made of staggered cubes is the most sensitive to the value of the surface tension, providing a drag reduction ranging between 15 - 30 % for We = 0 and approximately 40 % drag increase when We = ∞ . On the other hand, longitudinal square bars, even with We = ∞ present a drag smaller than that over a smooth wall. Numerical simulations were performed on XSEDE TACC under Grant CTS070066. This work was supported by ONR MURI Grants N00014-12-01-0875 and N00014-12-01-0962.

  1. NASA research on viscous drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, R. H.; Maddalon, D. V.

    1982-01-01

    Research on natural laminar flow, laminar flow control by suction, and turbulent drag reduction is discussed. Preliminary results suggest that a significant amount of natural laminar flow can be achieved on small, straight wing airplanes. On larger, swept wing aircraft, laminar flow control by distributed suction is expected to result in significant fuel savings. The area over which laminar flow control is applied depends on tradeoffs involving structural complexity, maintenance, and cost. Several methods of reducing turbulent skin friction by altering the turbulence structure itself have shown promise in exploratory testing. The status of these technologies and the benefits of applying them to future aircraft are reviewed.

  2. Drag of the complete configuration aerodynamic considerations, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.

    1975-01-01

    A number of drag items are related to the performance of a complete aircraft configuration. First, the effect of fuselage camber, wing and nacelle incidence are discussed from a viewpoint of design decision making. Second, the effect of overall cruise drag on the design gross and empty weight of the airplane is discussed. Examples show that cruise drag can have a very important influence on total airplane weight. Third, the effects of usable cruise lift-to-drag ratio and wing loading are shown to be important. Finally several research needs relating to design of the complete configuration are reviewed.

  3. Computational analysis of methods for reduction of induced drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janus, J. M.; Chatterjee, Animesh; Cave, Chris

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this effort was to perform a computational flow analysis of a design concept centered around induced drag reduction and tip-vortex energy recovery. The flow model solves the unsteady three-dimensional Euler equations, discretized as a finite-volume method, utilizing a high-resolution approximate Riemann solver for cell interface flux definitions. The numerical scheme is an approximately-factored block LU implicit Newton iterative-refinement method. Multiblock domain decomposition is used to partition the field into an ordered arrangement of blocks. Three configurations are analyzed: a baseline fuselage-wing, a fuselage-wing-nacelle, and a fuselage-wing-nacelle-propfan. Aerodynamic force coefficients, propfan performance coefficients, and flowfield maps are used to qualitatively access design efficacy. Where appropriate, comparisons are made with available experimental data.

  4. Computational analysis of methods for reduction of induced drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janus, J. M.; Chatterjee, Animesh; Cave, Chris

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this effort was to perform a computational flow analysis of a design concept centered around induced drag reduction and tip-vortex energy recovery. The flow model solves the unsteady three-dimensional Euler equations, discretized as a finite-volume method, utilizing a high-resolution approximate Riemann solver for cell interface flux definitions. The numerical scheme is an approximately-factored block LU implicit Newton iterative-refinement method. Multiblock domain decomposition is used to partition the field into an ordered arrangement of blocks. Three configurations are analyzed: a baseline fuselage-wing, a fuselage-wing-nacelle, and a fuselage-wing-nacelle-propfan. Aerodynamic force coefficients, propfan performance coefficients, and flowfield maps are used to qualitatively access design efficacy. Where appropriate, comparisons are made with available experimental data.

  5. Drag reduction in fish-like locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, D. S.; Triantafyllou, M. S.; Yue, D. K. P.; Grosenbaugh, M. A.; Wolfgang, M. J.

    1999-08-01

    We present experimental force and power measurements demonstrating that the power required to propel an actively swimming, streamlined, fish-like body is significantly smaller than the power needed to tow the body straight and rigid at the same speed U. The data have been obtained through accurate force and motion measurements on a laboratory fish-like robotic mechanism, 1.2 m long, covered with a flexible skin and equipped with a tail fin, at Reynolds numbers up to 106, with turbulence stimulation. The lateral motion of the body is in the form of a travelling wave with wavelength [lambda] and varying amplitude along the length, smoothly increasing from the front to the tail end. A parametric investigation shows sensitivity of drag reduction to the non-dimensional frequency (Strouhal number), amplitude of body oscillation and wavelength [lambda], and angle of attack and phase angle of the tail fin. A necessary condition for drag reduction is that the phase speed of the body wave be greater than the forward speed U. Power estimates using an inviscid numerical scheme compare favourably with the experimental data. The method employs a boundary-integral method for arbitrary flexible body geometry and motions, while the wake shed from the fish-like form is modelled by an evolving desingularized dipole sheet.

  6. Test, Evaluation, and Demonstration of Practical Devices/Systems to Reduce Aerodynamic Drag of Tractor/Semitrailer Combination Unit Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Smith; Karla Younessi; Matt Markstaller; Dan Schlesinger; Bhaskar Bhatnagar; Donald Smith; Bruno Banceu; Ron Schoon; V.K. Sharma; Mark Kachmarsky; Srikant Ghantae; Michael Sorrels; Conal Deedy; Justin Clark; Skip Yeakel; Michael D. Laughlin; Charlotte Seigler; Sidney Diamond

    2007-04-30

    Class 8 heavy-duty trucks account for over three-quarters of the total diesel fuel used by commercial trucks (trucks with GVWRs more than 10,000 pounds) in the United States each year. At the highway speeds at which these trucks travel (i.e., 60 mph or greater), aerodynamic drag is a major part of total horsepower needed to move the truck down the highway, Reductions in aerodynamic drag can yield measurable benefits in fuel economy through the use of relatively inexpensive and simple devices. The goal of this project was to examine a number of aerodynamic drag reduction devices and systems and determine their effectiveness in reducing aerodynamic drag of Class 8 tractor/semitrailer combination-units, thus contributing to DOE's goal of reducing transportation petroleum use. The project team included major heavy truck manufacturers in the United States, along with the management and industry expertise of the Truck Manufacturers Association as the lead investigative organization. The Truck Manufacturers Association (TMA) is the national trade association representing the major North American manufacturers of Class 6-8 trucks (GVWRs over 19,500 lbs). Four major truck manufacturers participated in this project with TMA: Freightliner LLC; International Truck and Engine Corporation; Mack Trucks Inc.; and Volvo Trucks North America, Inc. Together, these manufacturers represent over three-quarters of total Class 8 truck sales in the United States. These four manufacturers pursued complementary research efforts as part of this project. The project work was separated into two phases conducted over a two-year period. In Phase I, candidate aerodynamic devices and systems were screened to focus research and development attention on devices that offered the most potential. This was accomplished using full-size vehicle tests, scale model tests, and computational fluid dynamics analyses. In Phase II, the most promising devices were installed on full-size trucks and their effect on

  7. Characterization of aerodynamic drag force on single particles: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kale, S.R.

    1987-10-01

    An electrodynamic balance was used to measure the drag coefficient and also to record the size and shape of spheres, and coal and oil shale particles (100 ..mu..m to 200 ..mu..m in size). The electrodynamic balance consisted of a central, and two end electrodes. The resulting electric field stably suspended a charged particle. A suspended particle, back illuminated by a light emitting diode, was viewed by a video camera. The image was analyzed for particle position control and was calibrated to give the diameter of spheres, or the area equivalent diameter of nonspherical particles. The drag coefficient was calculated from the air velocity and the dc voltage required to keep the particle at the balance center. The particle Reynolds number varied from 0.2 to 13. Three particles each of coal and oil shale were captured and photographed by a scanning electron microscope and the motion of all the particles was recorded on video tape. Drag coefficient vs Reynolds number data for spheres agreed well with correlations. Data for thirteen particles each of coal and oil shale indicated a power law relationship between drag coefficient and Reynolds number. All these particles exhibited higher drag than spheres and were also observed to rotate. The rotation, however, did not affect the drag coefficient. The choice of characteristic dimension affects the drag characteristics of oil shale more strongly than for coal, owing to the flake-like shape of oil shale. 38 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Nacelle drag reduction: An analytically-guided experimental program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, F. O.

    1975-01-01

    Modifications are proposed to standard estimating procedures, as well as the BODY computer program, which predict that the drag of two nacelles will equal the drag of the fuselage. A preliminary computer analysis that considers increased dimensions for the nacelle forebody so that the noise is relatively less blunt indicates a reduction in form drag much greater than the increase in skin friction drag attributable to increased surface area.

  9. Drag reduction properties of superhydrophobic mesh pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraldi, Nicasio R.; Dodd, Linzi E.; Xu, Ben B.; Wells, Gary G.; Wood, David; Newton, Michael I.; McHale, Glen

    2017-09-01

    Even with the recent extensive study into superhydrophobic surfaces, the fabrication of such surfaces on the inside walls of a pipe remains challenging. In this work we report a convenient bi-layered pipe design using a thin superhydrophobic metallic mesh formed into a tube, supported inside another pipe. A flow system was constructed to test the fabricated bi-layer pipeline, which allowed for different constant flow rates of water to be passed through the pipe, whilst the differential pressure was measured, from which the drag coefficient (ƒ) and Reynolds numbers (Re) were calculated. Expected values of ƒ were found for smooth glass pipes for the Reynolds number (Re) range 750-10 000, in both the laminar and part of the turbulent regimes. Flow through plain meshes without the superhydrophobic coating were also measured over a similar range (750  <  Re  <  14 000). After applying the superhydrophobic coating, ƒ was found for 4000  <  Re  <  14 000 and was found to be less than that of an uncoated mesh, but greater than that of a smooth glass pipe of the same diameter. This demonstrates that a superhydrophobic mesh can support a plastron and provide a drag reduction compared to a plain mesh, however, the plastron is progressively destroyed with use and in particular at higher flow rates.

  10. An Aerodynamic Assessment of Micro-Drag Generators (MDGs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1998-01-01

    Commercial transports as well as fighter aircraft of the future are being designed with very low drag (friction and pressure). Concurrently, commuter airports are being built or envisioned to be built in the centers of metropolitan areas where shorter runways and/or reduced noise footprints on takeoff and landing are required. These requirements and the fact that drag is lower on new vehicles than on older aircraft have resulted in vehicles that require a large amount of braking force (from landing-gear brakes, spoilers, high-lift flaps, thrust reversers, etc.). Micro-drag generators (MDGs) were envisioned to create a uniformly distributed drag force along a vehicle by forcing the flow to separate on the aft-facing surface of a series of deployable devices, thus, generating drag. The devices are intended to work at any speed and for any type of vehicle (aircraft, ground vehicles, sea-faring vehicles). MDGs were applied to a general aviation wing and a representative fuselage shape and tested in two subsonic wind tunnels. The results showed increases in drag of 2 to 6 times that of a "clean" configuration.

  11. The Aerodynamic Drag of Five Models of Side Floats N.A.C.A. Models 51-E, 51-F, 51-G, 51-H, 51-J

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, R O

    1938-01-01

    The drag of five models of side floats was measured in the N.A.C.A. 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel. The most promising method of reducing the drag of floats indicated by these tests is lowering the angle at which the floats are rigged. The addition of a step to a float does not always increase the drag in the flying range, floats with steps sometimes having lower drag than similar floats without steps. Making the bow chine no higher than necessary might result in a reduction in air drag because of the lower angle of pitch of the chines. Since side floats are used formally to obtain lateral stability when the seaplane is operating on the water at slow speeds or at rest, greater consideration can be given to factors affecting aerodynamic drag than is possible for other types of floats and hulls.

  12. Viscous flow drag reduction by acoustic excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, Robert T.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental program in which the effectiveness of a single large eddy break up (LEBU) blade is enhanced by proper acoustic excitation is described. Acoustic waves are generated in response to the incident large scale eddies and directed at the blade trailing edge through the test surface floor below the manipulator blade. The acoustic input is phase locked to the incident flow. Control of the acoustic input apparently allows enhancement of the large eddy cancellation process leading to a decrease of skin friction coefficient. Control of this process with acoustic excitation indicates that vortex unwinding is the mechanism for large eddy destruction in the boundary layer. A deeper understanding of this phenomena could lead to better drag reduction technology and further understanding of the physics of the turbulent boundary layer.

  13. Drag reduction in turbulent MHD pipe flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlandi, P.

    1996-01-01

    This is a preliminary study devoted to verifying whether or not direct simulations of turbulent Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) flows in liquid metals reproduce experimental observations of drag reduction. Two different cases have been simulated by a finite difference scheme which is second order accurate in space and time. In the first case, an external azimuthal magnetic field is imposed. In this case, the magnetic field acts on the mean axial velocity and complete laminarization of the flow at N(sub a) = 30 has been achieved. In the second case, an axial magnetic field is imposed which affects only fluctuating velocities, and thus the action is less efficient. This second case is more practical, but comparison between numerical and experimental results is only qualitative.

  14. Mechanics of drag reduction by shallow dimples in channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tay, C. M. J.; Khoo, B. C.; Chew, Y. T.

    2015-03-01

    Arrays of shallow dimples with depth to diameter ratios of 1.5% and 5% are studied in a turbulent channel flow at Reynolds numbers between 5000 and 35 000. Pressure measurements show that drag reduction of up to 3% is possible. The mechanism of skin friction drag reduction with dimples is the same as that observed for flat surfaces using active methods such as spanwise wall motions or transverse wall jets. The three dimensional dimples introduce streamwise vorticity into the flow which results in spanwise flow components near the wall. The result is that the normal energy cascade to the smaller scales is suppressed, which leads to a reduction in turbulent skin friction drag because of the stabilized flow. Increasing the dimple depth from 1.5% to 5% of its diameter increases the streamwise vorticity introduced, which leads to a greater reduction in skin friction. However, increasing the dimple depth also results in flow separation which increases form drag. The net effect to the total drag depends on the relative dominance between the drag reducing streamwise vorticity and the drag increasing flow separation region. As the Reynolds number increases, the region of flow separation can shrink and result in increasing drag reduction. By understanding the flow physics of drag reduction in dimples, there is opportunity to minimize the form drag by passive contouring of the dimples using non-spherical shapes to optimize the dimple performance.

  15. Evaluation of Aerodynamic Drag and Torque for External Tanks in Low Earth Orbit

    PubMed Central

    Stone, William C.; Witzgall, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    A numerical procedure is described in which the aerodynamic drag and torque in low Earth orbit are calculated for a prototype Space Shuttle external tank and its components, the “LO2” and “LH2” tanks, carrying liquid oxygen and hydrogen, respectively, for any given angle of attack. Calculations assume the hypersonic limit of free molecular flow theory. Each shell of revolution is assumed to be described by a series of parametric equations for their respective contours. It is discretized into circular cross sections perpendicular to the axis of revolution, which yield a series of ellipses when projected according to the given angle of attack. The drag profile, that is, the projection of the entire shell is approximated by the convex envelope of those ellipses. The area of the drag profile, that is, the drag area, and its center of area moment, that is, the drag center, are then calculated and permit determination of the drag vector and the eccentricity vector from the center of gravity of the shell to the drag center. The aerodynamic torque is obtained as the cross product of those vectors. The tanks are assumed to be either evacuated or pressurized with a uniform internal gas distribution: dynamic shifting of the tank center of mass due to residual propellant sloshing is not considered. PMID:27274926

  16. Evaluation of Aerodynamic Drag and Torque for External Tanks in Low Earth Orbit.

    PubMed

    Stone, William C; Witzgall, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    A numerical procedure is described in which the aerodynamic drag and torque in low Earth orbit are calculated for a prototype Space Shuttle external tank and its components, the "LO2" and "LH2" tanks, carrying liquid oxygen and hydrogen, respectively, for any given angle of attack. Calculations assume the hypersonic limit of free molecular flow theory. Each shell of revolution is assumed to be described by a series of parametric equations for their respective contours. It is discretized into circular cross sections perpendicular to the axis of revolution, which yield a series of ellipses when projected according to the given angle of attack. The drag profile, that is, the projection of the entire shell is approximated by the convex envelope of those ellipses. The area of the drag profile, that is, the drag area, and its center of area moment, that is, the drag center, are then calculated and permit determination of the drag vector and the eccentricity vector from the center of gravity of the shell to the drag center. The aerodynamic torque is obtained as the cross product of those vectors. The tanks are assumed to be either evacuated or pressurized with a uniform internal gas distribution: dynamic shifting of the tank center of mass due to residual propellant sloshing is not considered.

  17. Drag Reduction Obtained by the Addition of a Boattail to a Box Shaped Vehicle. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Coast down tests were performed on a box shaped ground vehicle used to simulate the aerodynamic drag of high volume transports such as delivery vans, motor homes and trucks. The results of these tests define the reduction in aerodynamic drag that can be obtained by the addition of either a boattail or a truncated boattail to an otherwise blunt based vehicle. Test velocities ranged up to 96.6 km/h (60 mph) with Reynolds numbers to 1.3 x 10 the 7th power. The full boattail provided an average 32 percent reduction in drag at highway speeds whereas the truncated boattail provided an average 31 percent reduction in drag as compared to the configuration having the blunt base. These results are compared with one tenth scale wind tunnel model data.

  18. Drag reduction characteristics of small amplitude rigid surface waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cary, A. M., Jr.; Weinstein, L. M.; Bushnell, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    The possibility of reducing drag by using rigid, wavy surfaces is investigated both analytically and experimentally. Although pressure drag for rigid sine-wave surfaces can be predicted empirically, viscous drag for even shallow waves was poorly predicted by state-of-the-art turbulent boundary layer calculation procedures. Calculations for the effects of geometric and fluid variables on total wave drag are presented under the philosophy that trends will be nearly correct even though levels are probably incorrect. Experiments by the present authors indicate that a total drag reduction with wavy walls is possible.

  19. Experimental investigation on drag and heat flux reduction in supersonic/hypersonic flows: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen-guo; Sun, Xi-wan; Huang, Wei; Li, Shi-bin; Yan, Li

    2016-12-01

    The drag and heat reduction problem of hypersonic vehicles has always attracted the attention worldwide, and the experimental test approach is the basis of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. In the current study, research progress of experimental investigations on drag and heat reduction are summarized by several kinds of mechanism, namely the forward-facing cavity, the opposing jet, the aerospike, the energy deposition and their combinational configurations, and the combinational configurations include the combinational opposing jet and forward-facing cavity concept and the combinational opposing jet and aerospike concept. The geometric models and flow conditions are emphasized, especially for the basic principle for the drag and heat flux reduction of each device. The measurement results of aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic are compared and analyzed as well, which can be a reference for assessing the accuracy of numerical results.

  20. Drag reduction by wing tip slots in a gliding Harris' hawk, Parabuteo unicinctus

    PubMed

    Tucker

    1995-01-01

    The anterior-most primary feathers of many birds that soar over land bend upwards and separate vertically to form slotted wing tips during flight. The slots are thought to reduce aerodynamic drag, although drag reduction has never been demonstrated in living birds. Wing theory explains how the feathers that form the tip slots can reduce induced drag by spreading vorticity horizontally along the wing and by acting as winglets, which are used on aircraft to make wings non-planar and to spread vorticity vertically. This study uses the induced drag factor to measure the induced drag of a wing relative to that of a standard planar wing with the same span, lift and speed. An induced drag factor of less than 1 indicates that the wing is non-planar. The minimum drag of a Harris' hawk gliding freely in a wind tunnel was measured before and after removing the slots by clipping the tip feathers. The unclipped hawk had 70­90 % of the drag of the clipped hawk at speeds between 7.3 and 15.0 m s-1. At a wing span of 0.8 m, the unclipped hawk had a mean induced drag factor of 0.56, compared with the value of 1.10 assumed for the clipped hawk. A Monte Carlo simulation of error propagation and a sensitivity analysis to possible errors in measured and assumed values showed that the true mean value of the induced drag factor for the unclipped hawk was unlikely to be more than 0.93. These results for a living bird support the conclusions from a previous study of a feathered tip on a model wing in a wind tunnel: the feathers that form the slotted tips reduce induced drag by acting as winglets that make the wings non-planar and spread vorticity both horizontally and vertically.

  1. Drag reduction through self-texturing compliant bionic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Eryong; Li, Longyang; Wang, Gang; Zeng, Zhixiang; Zhao, Wenjie; Xue, Qunji

    2017-01-01

    Compliant fish skin is effectively in reducing drag, thus the design and application of compliant bionic materials may be a good choice for drag reduction. Here we consider the drag reduction of compliant bionic materials. First, ZnO and PDMS mesh modified with n-octadecane were prepared, the drag reduction of self-texturing compliant n-octadecane were studied. The results show that the mesh modified by ZnO and PDMS possess excellent lipophilic and hydrophobic, thus n-octadecane at solid, semisolid and liquid state all have good adhesion with modified mesh. The states of n-octadecane changed with temperature, thus, the surface contact angle and adhesive force all varies obviously at different state. The contact angle decreases with temperature, the adhesive force shows a lower value at semisolid state. Furthermore, the drag testing results show that the compliant n-octadecane film is more effectively in drag reduction than superhydrophobic ZnO/PDMS film, indicating that the drag reduction mechanism of n-octadecane is significantly different with superhydrophobic film. Further research shows that the water flow leads to self-texturing of semisolid state n-octadecane, which is similar with compliant fish skin. Therefore, the compliant bionic materials of semisolid state n-octadecane with regular bulge plays a major role in the drag reduction.

  2. Drag reduction through self-texturing compliant bionic materials

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Eryong; Li, Longyang; Wang, Gang; Zeng, Zhixiang; Zhao, Wenjie; Xue, Qunji

    2017-01-01

    Compliant fish skin is effectively in reducing drag, thus the design and application of compliant bionic materials may be a good choice for drag reduction. Here we consider the drag reduction of compliant bionic materials. First, ZnO and PDMS mesh modified with n-octadecane were prepared, the drag reduction of self-texturing compliant n-octadecane were studied. The results show that the mesh modified by ZnO and PDMS possess excellent lipophilic and hydrophobic, thus n-octadecane at solid, semisolid and liquid state all have good adhesion with modified mesh. The states of n-octadecane changed with temperature, thus, the surface contact angle and adhesive force all varies obviously at different state. The contact angle decreases with temperature, the adhesive force shows a lower value at semisolid state. Furthermore, the drag testing results show that the compliant n-octadecane film is more effectively in drag reduction than superhydrophobic ZnO/PDMS film, indicating that the drag reduction mechanism of n-octadecane is significantly different with superhydrophobic film. Further research shows that the water flow leads to self-texturing of semisolid state n-octadecane, which is similar with compliant fish skin. Therefore, the compliant bionic materials of semisolid state n-octadecane with regular bulge plays a major role in the drag reduction. PMID:28053309

  3. Super/hypersonic aerodynamic characteristics for a transatmospheric vehicle concept having a minimum drag forebody

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. P.; Cruz, Christopher I.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics were obtained for a generic transatmospheric vehicle concept having a replaceable minimum drag forebody shape. The alternate forebody tested was a 1/4-power series body. Tests were made over a range of Mach numbers from 2 to 10 at a nominal Reynolds number, based on a length of 2.3 x 10 to the 8th and angles of attack from -4 to 20 deg. The minimum drag forebody provided significant improvements in minimum drag and L/D for the configuration as well as a longitudinally stabilizing increment. Although the baseline configuration is longitudinally unstable, the L/D improvements at low to moderate angles of attack would enhance cruise performance. Varying wing incidence angles was demonstrated as an effective horizontal trim device without significant trim drag penalties.

  4. Heavy Class Helicopter Fuselage Model Drag Reduction by Active Flow Control Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gregorio, F.

    2017-08-01

    A comprehensive experimental investigation of helicopter blunt fuselage drag reduction using active flow control is being carried out within the European Clean Sky program. The objective is to demonstrate the capability of several active flow technologies to decrease fuselage drag by alleviating the flow separation occurring in the rear area of some helicopters. The work is performed on a simplified blunt fuselage at model-scale. Two different flow control actuators are considered for evaluation: steady blowing, unsteady blowing (or pulsed jets). Laboratory tests of each individual actuator are first performed to assess their performance and properties. The fuselage model is then equipped with these actuators distributed in 3 slots located on the ramp bottom edge. This paper addresses the promising results obtained during the wind-tunnel campaign, since significant drag reductions are achieved for a wide range of fuselage angles of attack and yaw angles without detriment of the other aerodynamic characteristics.

  5. Reduction of wing lift by the drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, A; Lotz, J

    1932-01-01

    Drag and loss of lift of a wing are attributable to the same cause, wake formation, thus indicating that there is some relation between both. The analysis of measurements on Joukowsky sections revealed a typical course of curves for the interdependence between drag and loss of lift. The shape of the curves apparently depends quite regularly on the mean camber and on the thickness of the profile.

  6. May 2003 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentations and Summary of Comments and Conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Browand, F; Hammache, M; Hsu, T Y; Arcas, D; Leoard, A; Chatelain, P; Rubel, M; Roy, C; DeChant, L; Hassan, B; Ross, J; Satran, D; Walker, S; Heineck, J T; Englar, R; Pointer, D; Sofu, T

    2003-05-01

    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on May 29-30, 2003. The purpose of the meeting was to present and discuss suggested guidance and direction for the design of drag reduction devices determined from experimental and computational studies. Representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE)/Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy/Office of FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), NASA Ames Research Center (NASA), University of Southern California (USC), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Clarkson University, and PACCAR participated in the meeting. This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions, provides some highlighted items, and outlines the future action items.

  7. March 2001 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentations and Summary of Comments and Conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Greenman, R; Dunn, T; Owens, J; Laskowski, G; Flowers, D; Browand, F; Knight, A; Hammache, M; Leoard, A; Rubel, M; Salari, K; Rutledge, W; Ross, J; Satran, D; Heineck, J T; Walker, S; Driver, D; Storms, B

    2001-05-14

    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on March 28 and 29, 2001. The purpose of the meeting was to present and discuss technical details on the experimental and computational work in progress and future project plans. Due to the large participation from industry and other research organizations, a large portion of the meeting (all of the first day and part of the second day) was devoted to the presentation and discussion of industry's perspective and work being done by other organizations on the demonstration of commercial software and the demonstration of a drag reduction device. This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions, and outlines the future action items.

  8. Drag and heat flux reduction mechanism of blunted cone with aerodisks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Li, Lang-quan; Yan, Li; Zhang, Tian-tian

    2017-09-01

    The major challenge among a number of design requirements for hypersonic vehicles is the reduction of drag and aerodynamic heating. Of all these techniques of drag and heat flux reduction, application of forward facing aerospike conceived in 1950s is an effective and simpler technique to reduce the drag as well as the heat transfer rate for blunt nosed bodies at hypersonic Mach numbers. In this paper, the flow fields around a blunt cone with and without aerodisk flying at hypersonic Mach numbers are computed numerically, and the numerical simulations are conducted by specifying the freestream velocity, static pressure and static temperatures at the inlet of the computational domain with a three-dimensional, steady, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equation. An aerodisk is attached to the tip of the rod to reduce the drag and heat flux further. The influences of the length of rod and the diameter of aerodisk on the drag and heat flux reduction mechanism are analyzed comprehensively, and eight configurations are taken into consideration in the current study. The obtained results show that for all aerodisks, the reduction in drag of the blunt body is proportional to the extent of the recirculation dead air region. For long rods, the aerodisk is found not that beneficial in reducing the drag, and an aerodisk is more effective than an aerospike. The spike produces a region of recirculation separated flow that shields the blunt-nosed body from the incoming flow, and the recirculation region is formed around the root of the spike up to the reattachment point of the flow at the shoulder of the blunt body. The dynamic pressure in the recirculation area is highly reduced and thus leads to the decrease in drag and heat load on the surface of the blunt body. Because of the reattachment of the shear layer on the shoulder of the blunt body, the pressure near that point becomes large.

  9. Aircraft drag prediction and reduction. Addendum 1: Computational drag analyses and minimization; mission impossible?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slooff, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    The Special Course on Aircraft Drag Prediction was sponsored by the AGARD Fluid Dynamics Panel and the von Karman Institute and presented at the von Karman Institute, Rhode-Saint-Genese, Belgium, on 20 to 23 May 1985 and at the NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, USA, 5 to 6 August 1985. The course began with a general review of drag reduction technology. Then the possibility of reduction of skin friction through control of laminar flow and through modification of the structure of the turbulence in the boundary layer were discussed. Methods for predicting and reducing the drag of external stores, of nacelles, of fuselage protuberances, and of fuselage afterbodies were then presented followed by discussion of transonic drag rise. The prediction of viscous and wave drag by a method matching inviscid flow calculations and boundary layer integral calculations, and the reduction of transonic drag through boundary layer control are also discussed. This volume comprises Paper No. 9 Computational Drag Analyses and Minimization: Mission Impossible, which was not included in AGARD Report 723 (main volume).

  10. Reduction in parachute drag due to forebody wake effects

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.W.; Johnson, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate approximate analytical methods for predicting the reduction in parachute drag due to forebody wake effects. The drag of a 20/sup 0/ conical ribbon parachute was measured at several axial stations behind an ogive-cylinder forebody with and without fins. The same parachute was tested in undisturbed flow (where wake effects were negligible) so that the effects of suspension line length on parachute drag could be separated from the drag losses caused by the turbulent wake. Total head pressure surveys were made across the forebody wake and integrated across the canopy skirt area to determine the effective dynamic pressure acting on the parachute. Experimental results confirmed the validity of the underlying physical model of the parachute/wake interaction: the ratio of parachute drag behind a forebody divided by wake-free parachute drag is equal to the ratio of effective dynamic pressure acting on the parachute divided by freestream dynamic pressure.

  11. Aerodynamic drag and fuel spreading measurements in a simulated scramjet combustion module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, L. A.

    1974-01-01

    The drag of a simulated scramjet combustion module was measured at Mach 2, 2.5, and 3. The combustor was rectangular in cross section and incorporated six swept fuel injector struts. The effect of strut leading edge radius, position of maximum thickness, thickness ratio, sweep angle, and strut length on the drag was determined. Reduction in thickness ratio had the largest effect on drag reduction. Sweeping the struts upstream yielded the same drag as sweeping the struts downstream and potentially offers the advantages of increased mixing time for the fuel. Helium injection was used to simulate hydrogen fuel. The interstrut spacing required to achieve good distribution of fuel was was found to be about 10 jet diameters. The contribution of helium injection to drag reduction was small.

  12. Aerodynamic Drag of Heavy Vehicles (Class 7-8): Simulation and Benchmarking

    SciTech Connect

    Rose McCallen, Dan Flowers, Tim Dunn; Jerry Owens; Fred Browand; Mustapha Hammache; Anthony Leonard; Mark Brady; Kambiz Salari; Walter Rutledge; James Ross; Bruce Storms; J. T. Heineck, David Driver; James Bell; Steve Walker; Gregory Zilliac

    2000-06-19

    This paper describes research and development for reducing the aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles by demonstrating new approaches for the numerical simulation and analysis of aerodynamic flow. Experimental validation of new computational fluid dynamics methods are also an important part of this approach. Experiments on a model of an integrated tractor-trailer are underway at NASA Ames Research Center and the University of Southern California (USC). Companion computer simulations are being performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and California Institute of Technology (Caltech) using state-of-the-art techniques.

  13. The Influence of Impurities in a Water Solution with Drag Reducing Surfactants on the Flow Drag-Reduction and a Recovering Method of Its Decreased Drag Reduction Effect.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Toru; Sato, Kenji; Inaba, Hideo; Horibe, Akihiko; Haruki, Naoto

    The drag reduction of a water flow with new drag reducing surfactants (amine oxide type nonionic surfactants, mixtures of amine oxide type nonionic surfactants and betaine type amphoteric surfactants) which were selected as environmentally acceptable drag reducing additives was investigated experimentally. Addition of amine oxide type nonionic surfactants to hot or cold water can reduce flow drag in a turbulent pipe flow. The present research investigated how various ionic components dissolved in water affected this drag reducing effect. It was found that ionic impurities contained in the water affected the pipe flow drag reducing effect by amine oxide type nonionic surfactants. Moreover, it was clarified that the decrease in the pipe flow drag reducing effect was recovered by adding a mixture of amine oxide type nonionic surfactants and betaine type amphoteric surfactant to the water with ionic impurities.

  14. Aerodynamic drag of a transiting sphere by large-scale tomographic-PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terra, W.; Sciacchitano, A.; Scarano, F.

    2017-07-01

    A method is introduced to measure the aerodynamic drag of moving objects such as ground vehicles or athletes in speed sports. Experiments are conducted as proof-of-concept that yield the aerodynamic drag of a sphere towed through a square duct in stagnant air. The drag force is evaluated using large-scale tomographic PIV and invoking the time-average momentum equation within a control volume in a frame of reference moving with the object. The sphere with 0.1 m diameter moves at a velocity of 1.45 m/s, corresponding to a Reynolds number of 10,000. The measurements in the wake of the sphere are conducted at a rate of 500 Hz within a thin volume of approximately 3 × 40 × 40 cubic centimeters. Neutrally buoyant helium-filled soap bubbles are used as flow tracers. The terms composing the drag are related to the flow momentum, the pressure and the velocity fluctuations and they are separately evaluated. The momentum and pressure terms dominate the momentum budget in the near wake up to 1.3 diameters downstream of the model. The pressure term decays rapidly and vanishes within 5 diameters. The term due to velocity fluctuations contributes up to 10% to the drag. The measurements yield a relatively constant value of the drag coefficient starting from 2 diameters downstream of the sphere. At 7 diameters the measurement interval terminates due to the finite length of the duct. Error sources that need to be accounted for are the sphere support wake and blockage effects. The above findings can provide practical criteria for the drag evaluation of generic bluff objects with this measurement technique.

  15. Base Passive Porosity for Vehicle Drag Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Steven X. S. (Inventor); Wood, Richard M. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A device for controlling drag on a ground vehicle. The device consists of a porous skin or skins mounted on the trailing surface and/or aft portions of the ground vehicle. The porous skin is separated from the vehicle surface by a distance of at least the thickness of the porous skin. Alternately, the trailing surface, sides, and/or top surfaces of the ground vehicle may be porous. The device minimizes the strength of the separation in the base and wake regions of the ground vehicle, thus reducing drag.

  16. Base passive porosity for vehicle drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Steven X. S. (Inventor); Wood, Richard M. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A device for controlling drag on a ground vehicle. The device consists of a porous skin or skins mounted on the trailing surface and/or aft portions of the ground vehicle. The porous skin is separated from the vehicle surface by a distance of at least the thickness of the porous skin. Alternately, the trailing surface, sides, and/or top surfaces of the ground vehicle may be porous. The device minimizes the strength of the separation in the base and wake regions of the ground vehicle, thus reducing drag.

  17. Moving Model Test of High-Speed Train Aerodynamic Drag Based on Stagnation Pressure Measurements.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingzhi; Du, Juntao; Li, Zhiwei; Huang, Sha; Zhou, Dan

    2017-01-01

    A moving model test method based on stagnation pressure measurements is proposed to measure the train aerodynamic drag coefficient. Because the front tip of a high-speed train has a high pressure area and because a stagnation point occurs in the center of this region, the pressure of the stagnation point is equal to the dynamic pressure of the sensor tube based on the obtained train velocity. The first derivation of the train velocity is taken to calculate the acceleration of the train model ejected by the moving model system without additional power. According to Newton's second law, the aerodynamic drag coefficient can be resolved through many tests at different train speeds selected within a relatively narrow range. Comparisons are conducted with wind tunnel tests and numerical simulations, and good agreement is obtained, with differences of less than 6.1%. Therefore, the moving model test method proposed in this paper is feasible and reliable.

  18. Moving Model Test of High-Speed Train Aerodynamic Drag Based on Stagnation Pressure Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mingzhi; Du, Juntao; Huang, Sha; Zhou, Dan

    2017-01-01

    A moving model test method based on stagnation pressure measurements is proposed to measure the train aerodynamic drag coefficient. Because the front tip of a high-speed train has a high pressure area and because a stagnation point occurs in the center of this region, the pressure of the stagnation point is equal to the dynamic pressure of the sensor tube based on the obtained train velocity. The first derivation of the train velocity is taken to calculate the acceleration of the train model ejected by the moving model system without additional power. According to Newton’s second law, the aerodynamic drag coefficient can be resolved through many tests at different train speeds selected within a relatively narrow range. Comparisons are conducted with wind tunnel tests and numerical simulations, and good agreement is obtained, with differences of less than 6.1%. Therefore, the moving model test method proposed in this paper is feasible and reliable. PMID:28095441

  19. July 2004 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentation, Summary of Comments, and Conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Castellucci, P; Eastwood, C; DeChant, L; Hassan, B; Browand, F; Arcas, D; Ross, J; Heineck, J; Storms, B; Walker, S; Leonard, A; Roy, C; Whitfield, D; Pointer, D; Sofu, T; Englar, R; Funk, R

    2004-08-17

    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held in Portland, Oregon on July 1, 2004. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a summary of achievements, discuss pressing issues, present a general overview of future plans, and to provide a forum for dialogue with the Department of Energy (DOE) and industry representatives. The meeting was held in Portland, because the DOE Aero Team participated in an exclusive session on Heavy Truck Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag at the 34th AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference and Exhibit in Portland on the morning of July 1st, just preceding our Working Group meeting. Even though the paper session was on the last day of the Conference, the Team presented to a full room of interested attendees.

  20. Enhanced viscous flow drag reduction using acoustic excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    Proper acoustic excitation of a single large-eddy break-up device can increase the resulting drag reduction and, after approximately 40 to 50 delta downstream, provide net drag reduction. Precise optimization of the input time delay, amplitude and response threshold is difficult but possible to achieve. Drag reduction is improved with optimized conditions. The possibility of optimized processing strongly suggests a mechanism which involves interaction of the acoustic waves and large eddies at the trailing edge of the large eddy break-up device. Although the mechanism for spreading of this phenomenon is unknown, it is apparent that the drag reduction effect does tend to spread spanwise as the flow convects downstream. The phenomenon is not unique to a particular blade configuration or flow velocity, although all data have been obtained at relatively low Reynolds numbers. The general repeatibility of the results for small configuration changes serves as verification of the phenomenon.

  1. Slot injection for skin-friction drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cary, A. M., Jr.; Bushnell, D. M.; Hefner, J. N.

    1977-01-01

    A description and analysis of slot injection in low-speed flow, slot injection in high-speed flow, a discussion of aircraft applications, and possibilities for future improvements of slot drag reduction capability are presented.

  2. Drag Reduction by Polymeric and Nonpolymeric Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Christopher; Sreenivasan, K. R.

    1997-11-01

    To investigate the ``self-healing'' property of drag reducing surfactant micelles we have conducted a comparative study between high polymers and surfactants in six turbulent pipe flows (Reynolds numbers between 2000 and 90,000) with varying intensities o f secondary flow. Friction factor values are measured in a straight pipe of 185 diameters; three pipes, each turning through four 90 degree elbows, of lengths 1085 diameters, 875 diameters, and 600 diameters; and a twice-turned coiled pipe, radius of curv ature of 24 diameters and length of 290 diameters. All the flows are gravity driven to prevent degradation effects caused by pump impellers. The large stresses set up by the secondary flows degrade the fragile polymers, thus reducing their effectivness as a drag reducer. The ``self-healing'' of the micelles enables the surfactant to maintain its effectivness. We will present the ``self-healing'' characteristics of the surfactant micelles using the polymer data as the datum.

  3. Possibilities for drag reduction by boundary layer control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naiman, I.

    1946-01-01

    The mechanics of laminar boundary layer transition are reviewed. Drag possibilities for boundary layer control are analyzed using assumed conditions of transition Reynolds number, inlet loss, number of slots, blower efficiency, and duct losses. Although the results of such analysis are highly favorable, those obtained by experimental investigations yield conflicting results, showing only small gains, and sometimes losses. Reduction of this data indicates that there is a lower limit to the quantity of air which must be removed at the slot in order to stabilize the laminar flow. The removal of insufficient air permits transition to occur while the removal of excessive amounts of air results in high power costs, with a net drag increases. With the estimated value of flow coefficient and duct losses equal to half the dynamic pressure, drag reductions of 50% may be obtained; with twice this flow coefficient, the drag saving is reduced to 25%.

  4. Drag reduction efficiency for polymer-surfactant mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.A.; Kim, J.T.; Choi, H.J.

    1996-12-31

    In a high Reynolds number fluid flow, significant energy loss occurs due to friction. However, by the addition of a minute amount of additives into this turbulent flow, frictional drag can be drastically reduced. This drag reduction phenomenon provides considerable motivation for diverse research to investigate its origin and application. Drag reduction has been reported for several solvent/additive systems, including dilute solution of high molecular weight polymers, surfactants, and micellar systems. Polymer systems as drag reducers have been extensively investigated. Recently, Choi and Jhon investigated the concentration dependence of drag reduction for PEO in water and PIB in kerosene systems using the rotating disk apparatus (RDA). However, due to the thermal instability and molecular degradation of drag reducing polymers, it is necessary to select alternative drag reducers. The possible formation of a polymer-surfactant complex takes on the character of a polyelectrolyte and it is shown that such polymer-surfactant complexes may have enhanced drag reduction properties based on the investigation of the turbulent pipe flow properties of high molecular weight PEO in SDS solution. In this study, we discuss details of conformation transitions of PEO molecules depending on external conditions such as pH, SDS and shear rate by adding the surfactant (Sodium dodecyl sulfate SDS, C{sub 12}H{sub 25}O{sub 4}SNa, (Fw:288.4) from Sigma Co. was used as a surfactant) and the PAA molecules. We also investigate modes of intermolecular interactions of both non-ionic and ionic polymers with surfactant and, finally, the polymer-surfactant complex under turbulent flow in an RDA.

  5. September 2002 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentations and Summary of Comments and Conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R

    2002-09-01

    discussed the reorganization of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and that the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology is now part of the Office of FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies. Sid reviewed the FY03 budget and provided information on some plans for FY04. The soon to be posted DOE request for proposals from industry for projects related to parasitic energy losses was discussed. A minimum of 50% cost share by industry will be required and the proposal must be submitted by industry. Collaborative efforts in aerodynamic drag with members of the DOE consortium are encouraged. Sid also mentioned interest in aerodynamic drag contribution due to wheel wells and underbody flow. Sid also mentioned his continued interest in the application of our computational and experimental expertise to the area of locomotive and railcar aerodynamics for the reduction of drag effects and thus, the reduction of fuel consumption by trains. In summary, the technical presentations at the meeting included a review of experimental results and plans by GTRI, USC, and NASA Ames, the computational results from LLNL and SNL for the integrated tractor-trailer benchmark geometry called the Ground Transportation System (GTS) model, and by LLNL for the tractor-trailer gap and trailer wake flow, and turbulence model development and benchmark simulations being investigated by Caltech. USC is also investigating an acoustic drag reduction device that has been named ''Mozart'', GTRI continues their investigation of a blowing device, and LLNL presented their ideas for 2 new base drag reduction devices. ANL presented their plans for a DOE supported Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with Paccar Truck Company utilizing commercial software tools to simulate the flow and drag for an actual tractor and showed the results of some preliminary griding attempts. The attendees also had the opportunity to tour the 12-ft pressure wind tunnel the machine shop were the Generic Conventional

  6. Frictional drag reduction by wavy advection of deformable bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Yoshihiko; Murai, Yuichi; Tasaka, Yuji; Yasushi, Takeda

    2009-02-01

    Bubbles can reduce frictional drag in wall turbulence, and its effect is expected to use for ships and pipelines to save their power consumptions. A number of basic experiments have been carried out to date for finding out the best condition for enhancing the drag reduction. One issue that remains at present is the difference of the performance between steady and unsteady status in terms of bubble concentration. All the experiments in the past deal with the steady effect, i.e., the drag reduction is evaluated as a function of mean void fraction or given gas flow rate of continuous injection. Despite to this, the actual phenomena highly depend on local interaction between two phases upon unsteady manner. We focus on this point and elucidate the influence of time-fluctuating void fraction on the total response to the drag reduction. This view is in fact important to estimate the persistency of the bubble-based drag reduction in the flow direction since bubbles formulate wavy advection during their migration. Our experiments are designed to measure the above-mentioned effect from laminar, transitional, and turbulent flows in a horizontal channel. For avoiding the contamination effect that worsens the reproducibility of the experiment, Silicone oil is used as carrier fluid. The oil also simulates the high Weber number bubble condition because of low surface tension. The unsteady interaction between the wavy advection of bubbles and the local skin friction, a synchronized system is constructed to connect the high-speed camera with the shear transducer, which can evaluate the interaction at 1000 fps. From the results, we confirm that the drag reduction is provided at Re>3000 in the turbulent flow regime, and also the total drag reduction is enhanced by the presence of the waves.

  7. Drag Reduction Through Distributed Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoll, Alex M.; Bevirt, JoeBen; Moore, Mark D.; Fredericks, William J.; Borer, Nicholas K.

    2014-01-01

    One promising application of recent advances in electric aircraft propulsion technologies is a blown wing realized through the placement of a number of electric motors driving individual tractor propellers spaced along each wing. This configuration increases the maximum lift coefficient by providing substantially increased dynamic pressure across the wing at low speeds. This allows for a wing sized near the ideal area for maximum range at cruise conditions, imparting the cruise drag and ride quality benefits of this smaller wing size without decreasing takeoff and landing performance. A reference four-seat general aviation aircraft was chosen as an exemplary application case. Idealized momentum theory relations were derived to investigate tradeoffs in various design variables. Navier-Stokes aeropropulsive simulations were performed with various wing and propeller configurations at takeoff and landing conditions to provide insight into the effect of different wing and propeller designs on the realizable effective maximum lift coefficient. Similar analyses were performed at the cruise condition to ensure that drag targets are attainable. Results indicate that this configuration shows great promise to drastically improve the efficiency of small aircraft.

  8. Transonic Drag Reduction Through Trailing-Edge Blowing on the FAST-MAC Circulation Control Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, David T.; Jones, Gregory S.; Milholen, William E., II; Goodliff, Scott L.

    2017-01-01

    A third wind tunnel test of the FAST-MAC circulation control semi-span model was completed in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center where the model was configured for transonic testing of the cruise configuration with 0deg flap detection to determine the potential for transonic drag reduction with the circulation control blowing. The model allowed independent control of four circulation control plenums producing a high momentum jet from a blowing slot near the wing trailing edge that was directed over a 15% chord simple-hinged ap. Recent upgrades to transonic semi-span flow control testing at the NTF have demonstrated an improvement to overall data repeatability, particularly for the drag measurement, that allows for increased confidence in the data results. The static thrust generated by the blowing slot was removed from the wind-on data using force and moment balance data from wind-o thrust tares. This paper discusses the impact of the trailing-edge blowing to the transonic aerodynamics of the FAST-MAC model in the cruise configuration, where at flight Reynolds numbers, the thrust-removed corrected data showed that an overall drag reduction and increased aerodynamic efficiency was realized as a consequence of the blowing.

  9. An investigation of drag reduction on box-shaped ground vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muirhead, V. U.

    1976-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the reduction in drag which could be obtained by making various configuration changes to a box-shaped ground vehicle. Tests were conducted at yaw (relative wind) angles of 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 degrees and Reynolds numbers of 300,000 to 850,000. The power required to overcome the aerodynamic drag was reduced by a maximum of 73% for a head wind for the best configuration relative to the smooth bottom box-shape, or 75% relative to the rough bottom box-shape. The reduction for a 20 MPH wind at 30 deg to the vehicle path was, respectively, 77% and 79%.

  10. Drag reduction of boat-tailed bluff bodies through transverse grooves. Part I: experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariotti, Alessandro; Buresti, Guido; Salvetti, Maria Vittoria

    2016-11-01

    The reduction of the aerodynamic drag of elongated axisymmetric bluff bodies is interesting for several applications. One well-known method to reduce the drag of this type of body is a geometrical modification called boat-tailing, consisting in a gradual reduction of the body cross-section before a sharp-edged base. We combine boat-tailing with properly contoured transverse grooves to further delay boundary-layer separation and reduce drag. The considered geometry is axisymmetric with an elliptical forebody and a cylindrical main body followed by a circular-arc boat-tail. The effectiveness of the contoured grooves was assessed through experiments and simulations. In this talk the experimental investigation is presented. Pressure measurements show that the introduction of a single transverse groove leads to a significant increase of the pressure on the body base and, consequently, to a reduction of drag compared with the boat-tail without the groove. Velocity measurements and flow visualizations highlight that this is due to a delay of flow separation over the boat tail. A steady local recirculation is present inside the groove and downstream its reattachment the boundary layer is thinner and has higher momentum than in the case with no groove, allowing separation to be delayed.

  11. Boundary-layer control for drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, William D.

    1988-01-01

    Although the number of possible applications of boundary-layer control is large, a discussion is given only of those that have received the most attention recently at NASA Langley Research Center to improve airfoil drag characteristics. This research concerns stabilizing the laminar boundary layer through geometric shaping (natural laminar flow, NLF) and active control involving the removal of a portion of the laminar boundary layer (laminar flow control, LFC) either through discrete slots or a perforated surface. At low Reynolds numbers, a combination of shaping and forced transition has been used to achieve the desired run of laminar flow and control of laminar separation. In the design of both natural laminar flow and laminar flow control airfoils and wings, boundary layer stability codes play an important role. A discussion of some recent stability calculations using both incompressible and compressible codes is given.

  12. A nonlinear structural concept for compliant walls. [drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiss, E. L.

    1982-01-01

    Two mechanisms of drag reduction for flow over flat plates were investigated. The first mechanism employs Bushnell's hypothesis that compliant walls produce drag reduction by interfering with the formation of the turbulent spots in a turbulent boundary layer. It is shown that the amplitudes and frequencies of compliant wall motions for drag reduction might be achieved by using slightly curved walls and the resulting large amplitude motions of snap buckling. A simple structural model of an arch is used in the analysis, and an asymptotic method is developed. The required wall motions can be obtained by using materials like mylar. In addition, the delay of transition from laminar to turbulent flow by driven walls was studied for Poiseuille channel flow. The walls are driven by a periodic traveling wave. A significant increase in the transitional Reynolds number is obtained by appropriately prescibing the wavelength and phase velocity of the wall motion. Previously developed asymptotic methods are used in the analysis.

  13. The use of velodrome tests to evaluate aerodynamic drag in professional cyclists.

    PubMed

    García-López, J; Ogueta-Alday, A; Larrazabal, J; Rodríguez-Marroyo, J A

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the validity, reliability and sensitivity of velodrome tests to detect small changes in aerodynamic drag in cycling. 12 professional cyclists were assessed to obtain the drag area (SCx) during wind tunnel and velodrome tests. Incremental and steady-state protocols were performed in the velodrome with a portable power meter, and 6 bicycle positions were analysed and compared that involved lowering the handlebars and advancing the pads between 2-5 cm. A significant relationship (r=0.88, p<0.001) between the SCx in the wind tunnel and velodrome tests was found (0.240 ± 0.007 and 0.237 ± 0.008 m2, respectively). The velodrome tests underestimated the SCx (0.0035 ± 0.0038 m2 and p<0.01), which decreased (p<0.001) when the bicycle speed increased (0.0013 m2 each 1 km · h(-1)). The SCx values showed high reliability during the steady-state (r=0.99, p<0.001) and incremental protocols (r=0.94, p<0.001). Small changes in the aerodynamic position affected the SCx (p<0.001), which decreased by 0.011 ± 0.007 m2 (4.6 ± 2.9%, 95% CI=2.7-6.4%). In conclusion, the validity, reliability and sensitivity of velodrome tests to detect small changes in aerodynamic drag in cycling were demonstrated. Although SCx values were not interchangeable between different studies, the velodrome tests presented advantages with respect to the wind tunnel tests. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. On the formation of meteoritic chondrules by aerodynamic drag heating in the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    During the formation of the solar nebula, interstellar grains were falling into the nebula with velocities of the order of 10 km/s at the radial distance where the meteorites were to form. This kinetic energy is 20 times the amount of thermal energy needed to melt the grains. The grains were decelerated by aerodynamic drag in the nebula. Where grain-rich parcels of interstellar material fell into the nebula, heat generated by drag could not be radiated away because of the opacity imparted to the system by the grains, and high temperatures were reached. In this situation presolar aggregations of grains would melt to form chondrules. Many of the properties of chondrules (and also Ca/Al-rich inclusions) are consistent with their formation by this means. The infall-heating concept provides a new framework in which the formation and significance of chondritic meteorites can be understood.

  15. Progress in Reducing Aerodynamic Drag for Higher Efficiency of Heavy Duty Trucks (Class 7-8)

    SciTech Connect

    Rose McCallen; Richard Couch; Juliana Hsu; Fred Browand; Mustapha Hammache; Anthony Leonard; Mark Brady; Kambiz Salari; Walter Rutledge; James Ross; Bruce Storms; J.T. Heineck; David Driver; James Bell; Gregory Zilliac

    1999-12-31

    This paper describes research and development for reducing the aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles by demonstrating new approaches for the numerical simulation and analysis of aerodynamic flow. In addition, greater use of newly developed computational tools holds promise for reducing the number of prototype tests, for cutting manufacturing costs, and for reducing overall time to market. Experimental verification and validation of new computational fluid dynamics methods are also an important part of this approach. Experiments on a model of an integrated tractor-trailer are underway at NASA Ames Research Center and the University of Southern California. Companion computer simulations are being performed by Sandia National Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and California Institute of Technology using state-of-the-art techniques, with the intention of implementing more complex methods in the future.

  16. Progress in reducing aerodynamic drag for higher efficiency of heavy duty trucks (class 7-8)

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M; Browand, F; Hammache, M; Heineck, J T; Leonard, A; McCallen, R; Ross, J; Rutledge, W; Salari, K; Storms, B

    1999-04-01

    This paper describes research and development for reducing the aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles by demonstrating new approaches for the numerical simulation and analysis of aerodynamic flow. In addition, greater use of newly developed computational tools holds promise for reducing the number of prototype tests, for cutting manufacturing costs, and for reducing overall time to market. Experimental verification and validation of new computational fluid dynamics methods are also an important part of this approach. Experiments on a model of an integrated tractor-trailer are underway at NASA Ames Research Center and the University of Southern California. Companion computer simulations are being performed by Sandia National Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and California Institute of Technology using state-of-the-art techniques, with the intention of implementing more complex methods in the future.

  17. Systematic approach to analyzing and reducing aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R.; Browand, F.; Leonard, A.; Rutledge, W.

    1997-09-16

    This paper presents an approach for reducing aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles by systematically analyzing trailer components using existing computational tools and moving on to the analyses of integrated tractor-trailers using advanced computational tools. Experimental verification and validation are also an important part of this approach. The project is currently in the development phase while we are in the process of constructing a Multi-Year Program Plan. Projects I and 2 as described in this paper are the anticipated project direction. Also included are results from past and current related activities by the project participants which demonstrate the analysis approach.

  18. Drag reduction in electro-osmosis of polymer solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Feng-Ming; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2007-05-01

    Electro-osmosis is the preferred transport mechanism in microfluidic systems. Drag reduction in electro-osmosis of polymer solutions is observed due to polymer depletion in the electric double layer (EDL). The well-known Helmholtz-Smoluchowski (HS) equation indicates that the electro-osmosis mobility is inversely proportional to the solution viscosity. For low molecular weight the polymer size (R) is smaller than the EDL thickness (λ) and the HS equation is valid. For high molecular weight (R>λ) the chains in the EDL are partially sheared and the effective viscosity is smaller than the solution viscosity. Salt addition reduces λ and can enhance drag reduction substantially.

  19. Wall-based Actuation for Transition Delay and Drag Reduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2014-0005 Wall-based Actuation for Transition Delay and Drag Reduction Tamer Zaki I C Consultants Limited 58 Prince’s Gate...August 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Wall-based Actuation for Transition Delay and Drag Reduction 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8655-11-M-4002 5b. GRANT...three dimensionality of the base state can lead to new instabilities. On the other hand, the streaks which are often observed in bypass transition can be

  20. Wind-tunnel studies of advanced cargo aircraft concepts. [leading edge vortex flaps for drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, D. M.; Goglia, G. L.

    1981-01-01

    Accomplishments in vortex flap research are summarized. A singular feature of the vortex flap is that, throughout the range of angle of attack range, the flow type remains qualitatively unchanged. Accordingly, no large or sudden change in the aerodynamic characteristics, as happens when forcibly maintained attached flow suddenly reverts to separation, will occur with the vortex flap. Typical wind tunnel test data are presented which show the drag reduction potential of the vortex flap concept applied to a supersonic cruise airplane configuration. The new technology offers a means of aerodynamically augmenting roll-control effectiveness on slender wings at higher angles of attack by manipulating the vortex flow generated from leading edge separation. The proposed manipulator takes the form of a flap hinged at or close to the leading edge, normally retracted flush with the wing upper surface to conform to the airfoil shape.

  1. Numerical studies of laminar and turbulent drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanian, R.; Orszag, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    Two-dimensional incompressible flow over wavy surfaces is studied numerically by spectral methods. Turbulence effects are modeled. Results for symmetric and asymmetric wave forms are presented. Effect of propagating surface waves on drag reduction is studied. Comparisons between computer simulations and experimental results are made.

  2. Advanced Fluid Research On Drag reduction In Turbulence Experiments -- AFRODITE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fransson, Jens H. M.

    2011-11-01

    A hot topic in today's debate on global warming is drag reduction in aeronautics. The most beneficial concept for drag reduction is to maintain the major portion of the airfoil laminar. Estimations show that the potential drag reduction can be as much as 15%, which would give a significant reduction of NOx and CO emissions in the atmosphere considering that the number of aircraft take offs, only in the EU, is over 19 million per year. In previous tuned wind tunnel measurements it has been shown that roughness elements can be used to sensibly delay transition to turbulence. Fransson et al. 2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 064501. The result is revolutionary, since the common belief has been that surface roughness causes earlier transition and in turn increases the drag, and is a proof of concept of the passive control method per se. The beauty with a passive control technique is that no external energy has to be added to the flow system in order to perform the control, instead one uses the existing energy in the flow. Within the research programme AFRODITE, funded by ERC, we will take this passive control method to the next level by making it twofold, more persistent and more robust. Financial support from the European Research Council (ERC) is acknowledged.

  3. Flexible conformable hydrophobized surfaces for turbulent flow drag reduction

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Joseph C; Geraldi, Nicasio R; Morris, Robert H; Fairhurst, David J; McHale, Glen; Newton, Michael I

    2015-01-01

    In recent years extensive work has been focused onto using superhydrophobic surfaces for drag reduction applications. Superhydrophobic surfaces retain a gas layer, called a plastron, when submerged underwater in the Cassie-Baxter state with water in contact with the tops of surface roughness features. In this state the plastron allows slip to occur across the surface which results in a drag reduction. In this work we report flexible and relatively large area superhydrophobic surfaces produced using two different methods: Large roughness features were created by electrodeposition on copper meshes; Small roughness features were created by embedding carbon nanoparticles (soot) into Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Both samples were made into cylinders with a diameter under 12 mm. To characterize the samples, scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and confocal microscope images were taken. The confocal microscope images were taken with each sample submerged in water to show the extent of the plastron. The hydrophobized electrodeposited copper mesh cylinders showed drag reductions of up to 32% when comparing the superhydrophobic state with a wetted out state. The soot covered cylinders achieved a 30% drag reduction when comparing the superhydrophobic state to a plain cylinder. These results were obtained for turbulent flows with Reynolds numbers 10,000 to 32,500. PMID:25975704

  4. NASA aerodynamics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Schairer, Edward; Hicks, Gary; Wander, Stephen; Blankson, Isiaiah; Rose, Raymond; Olson, Lawrence; Unger, George

    1990-01-01

    Presented here is a comprehensive review of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation, transition and turbulence physics, numerical aerodynamic simulation, drag reduction, test techniques and instrumentation, configuration aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, aerothermodynamics, hypersonics, subsonic transport/commuter aviation, fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.

  5. Aeroelastic Modeling of Elastically Shaped Aircraft Concept via Wing Shaping Control for Drag Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan; James Urnes, Sr.

    2012-01-01

    Lightweight aircraft design has received a considerable attention in recent years as a means for improving cruise efficiency. Reducing aircraft weight results in lower lift requirements which directly translate into lower drag, hence reduced engine thrust requirements during cruise. The use of lightweight materials such as advanced composite materials has been adopted by airframe manufacturers in current and future aircraft. Modern lightweight materials can provide less structural rigidity while maintaining load-carrying capacity. As structural flexibility increases, aeroelastic interactions with aerodynamic forces and moments become an increasingly important consideration in aircraft design and aerodynamic performance. Furthermore, aeroelastic interactions with flight dynamics can result in issues with vehicle stability and control. Abstract This paper describes a recent aeroelastic modeling effort for an elastically shaped aircraft concept (ESAC). The aircraft model is based on the rigid-body generic transport model (GTM) originally developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The ESAC distinguishes itself from the GTM in that it is equipped with highly flexible wing structures as a weight reduction design feature. More significantly, the wings are outfitted with a novel control effector concept called variable camber continuous trailing edge (VCCTE) flap system for active control of wing aeroelastic deflections to optimize the local angle of attack of wing sections for improved aerodynamic efficiency through cruise drag reduction and lift enhancement during take-off and landing. The VCCTE flap is a multi-functional and aerodynamically efficient device capable of achieving high lift-to-drag ratios. The flap system is comprised of three chordwise segments that form the variable camber feature of the flap and multiple spanwise segments that form a piecewise continuous trailing edge. By configuring the flap camber and trailing edge shape, drag reduction could be

  6. Rotorcraft low-speed download drag definition and its reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    Download drag for rotorcraft in hover and low-speed flight is a burden which significantly affects useful load, fuel, and payload. Reduction of the burden will enhance these aspects of rotorcraft and complement the forthcoming improvements in isolated rotor performance. Analyses and experimental data are available, though fragmentary, regarding gross drag, thrust recovery, and other characteristics which can be utilized to define interim rotorcraft design changes to reduce the burden. Eventually the experimental data and a comprehensive combination of rotor, rotor-wake, and potential-flow analyses can evolve to reduce the burden to an absolute minimum.

  7. Turbulent drag reduction characteristics induced by calf-thymus DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, S. T.; Park, S. J.; Chan, C. K.; Choi, H. J.

    2005-05-01

    We report novel turbulent drag reduction (DR) behaviors of polydisperse calf-thymus DNA (CT-DNA) as a potential drag reducing candidate, by injecting appropriately prepared concentrated stock solution of the CT-DNA into a buffer solution in a rotating disk apparatus. By putting emphasis on the effect of DNA concentration, its DR characteristics were compared with that of λ-DNA possessing monodisperse molecular weight characteristics based on both DR efficiency and a mechanical degradation under turbulence. The DNA chains having much higher molecular size than that of λ-DNA are observed to be more susceptible to mechanical degradation in a turbulent flow. This result was verified via electrophoresis.

  8. Assessment of dual-point drag reduction for an executive-jet modified airfoil section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Dennis O.; Mineck, Raymond E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents aerodynamic characteristics and pressure distributions for an executive-jet modified airfoil and discusses drag reduction relative to a baseline airfoil for two cruise design points. A modified airfoil was tested in the adaptive-wall test section of the NASA Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (0.3-m TCT) for Mach numbers ranging from 0.250 to 0.780 and chord Reynolds numbers ranging from 3.0 x 10(exp 6) to 18.0 x 10(exp 6). The angle of attack was varied from minus 2 degrees to almost 10 degrees. Boundary-layer transition was fixed at 5 percent of chord on both the upper and lower surfaces of the model for most of the test. The two design Mach numbers were 0.654 and 0.735, chord Reynolds numbers were 4.5 x 10(exp 6) and 8.9 x 10(exp 6), and normal-force coefficients were 0.98 and 0.51. Test data are presented graphically as integrated force and moment coefficients and chordwise pressure distributions. The maximum normal-force coefficient decreases with increasing Mach number. At a constant normal-force coefficient in the linear region, as Mach number increases an increase occurs in the slope of normal-force coefficient versus angle of attack, negative pitching-moment coefficient, and drag coefficient. With increasing Reynolds number at a constant normal-force coefficient, the pitching-moment coefficient becomes more negative and the drag coefficient decreases. The pressure distributions reveal that when present, separation begins at the trailing edge as angle of attack is increased. The modified airfoil, which is designed with pitching moment and geometric constraints relative to the baseline airfoil, achieved drag reductions for both design points (12 and 22 counts). The drag reductions are associated with stronger suction pressures in the first 10 percent of the upper surface and weakened shock waves.

  9. Inlet Aerodynamics and Ram Drag of Laser-Propelled Lightcraft Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langener, Tobias; Myrabo, Leik; Rusak, Zvi

    2010-05-01

    Numerical simulations are used to study the aerodynamic inlet properties of three axisymmetric configurations of laser-propelled Lightcraft vehicles operating at subsonic, transonic and supersonic speeds up to Mach 5. The 60 cm vehicles were sized for launching 0.1-1.0 kg nanosatellites with combined-cycle airbreathing/rocket engines, transitioning between propulsion modes at roughly Mach 5-6. Results provide the pressure, temperature, density, and velocity flowfields around and through the three representative vehicle/engine configurations, as well as giving the resulting ram drag and total drag coefficients—all as a function of flight Mach number. Simulations with rotating boundaries were also carried out, since for stability reasons, Lightcraft are normally spun up before lift-off. Given the three alternatives, it is demonstrated that the optimal geometry for minimum drag is the configuration with a parabola nose; hence, these inlet flow conditions are being applied in subsequent "direct connect" 2D laser propulsion experiments in a small transonic flow facility.

  10. Superhydrophobic drag reduction in laminar flows: a critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Choongyeop; Choi, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Chang-Jin

    2016-12-01

    A gas in between micro- or nanostructures on a submerged superhydrophobic (SHPo) surface allows the liquid on the structures to flow with an effective slip. If large enough, this slippage may entail a drag reduction appreciable for many flow systems. However, the large discrepancies among the slippage levels reported in the literature have led to a widespread misunderstanding on the drag-reducing ability of SHPo surfaces. Today we know that the amount of slip, generally quantified with a slip length, is mainly determined by the structural features of SHPo surfaces, such as the pitch, solid fraction, and pattern type, and further affected by secondary factors, such as the state of the liquid-gas interface. Reviewing the experimental data of laminar flows in the literature comprehensively and comparing them with the theoretical predictions, we provide a global picture of the liquid slip on structured surfaces to assist in rational design of SHPo surfaces for drag reduction. Because the trapped gas, called plastron, vanishes along with its slippage effect in most application conditions, lastly we discuss the recent efforts to prevent its loss. This review is limited to laminar flows, for which the SHPo drag reduction is reasonably well understood.

  11. Streamwise shear stress driven compliant wall for drag reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Józsa, Tamás István; Viola, Ignazio Maria; Balaras, Elias

    2015-11-01

    The interaction between a viscous fluid and a solid wall in relative motion to each other leads to wall shear stress, which results in often-undesirable friction drag. In fully turbulent flow, it has been shown that a compliant wall whose streamwise velocity is equal to the streamwise flow velocity fluctuation in the buffer layer can lead to drag reduction (Choi et al., JFM, 1994; 262:75-110). Practical exploitation of this mechanism would require knowledge of the instantaneous velocity fluctuations in the near-wall region and active control of the wall velocity. However, the near-wall fluid velocity can be approximated by the wall shear stresses through a first-order Taylor expansion; therefore we propose a passively controlled compliant wall whose streamwise wall velocity is driven by the streamwise wall shear stress fluctuations. We show that this wall behaviour can be modelled with a damped harmonic oscillator, where the damping coefficient is related to the target distance of the flow fluctuation from the wall. Our results suggest that a passively-controlled shear-stress-driven compliant wall can be developed for drag reduction. On-going works include the use of direct numerical simulation where the proposed slip condition is applied to quantify the potential drag reduction.

  12. Working group meeting on heavy vehicle aerodynamic drag: presentations and summary of comments and

    SciTech Connect

    Browand, F; Gutierrez, W; Leonard, A; McBride, D; McCallen, R; Ross, J; Roth, K; Rutledge, W; Salari, K.

    1998-09-28

    The first Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, New Mexico on August 28, 1998. The purpose of the meeting was to review the proposed Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) and provide an update on the Group s progress. In addition, the technical details of each organization s activities were presented and discussed. Presentations were given by representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Transportation Technology Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology (OHVT), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), SNL, University of Southern California (USC), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and NASA Ames Research Center. These presenters are part of a DOE appointed Technical Team assigned to developing the MYPP. The goal of the MYPP is to develop and demonstrate the ability to simulate and analyze aerodynamic flow around heavy truck vehicles using existing and advanced computational tools (A Multi-Year Program Plan for the Aerodynamic Design of Heavy Vehicles, R. McCallen, D. McBride, W. Rutledge, F. Browand, A. Leonard, .I. Ross, UCRL-PROP- 127753 Dr. Rev 2, May 1998). This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions from the Meeting participants, and outlines the future actions.

  13. Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentations and Summary of Comments and Conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Browand, F; Gutierrez, W; Leonard, A; McBride, D; McCallen, R; Ross, J; Roth, K; Rutledge, W; Salari, K

    1998-09-28

    The first Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, New Mexico on August 28, 1998. The purpose of the meeting was to review the proposed Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) and provide an update on the Group"s progress. In addition, the technical details of each organization"s activities were presented and discussed. Presentations were given by representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Transportation Technology Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology (OHVT), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), SNL, University of Southern California (USC), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and NASA Ames Research Center. These presenters are part of a DOE appointed Technical Team assigned to developing the MYPP. The goal of the MYPP is to develop and demonstrate the ability to simulate and analyze aerodynamic flow around heavy truck vehicles using existing and advanced computational tools (A Multi-Year Program Plan for the Aerodynamic Design of Heavy Vehicles, R. McCallen, D. McBride, W. Rutledge, F. Browand, A. Leonard, .I. Ross, UCRL-PROP- 127753 Dr. Rev 2, May 1998). This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions from the Meeting participants, and outlines the future action items.

  14. Aerodynamic resistance reduction of electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The generation of an EHV aerodynamic data base was initiated by conducting full-scale wind tunnel tests on 16 vehicles. Zero-yaw drag coefficients ranged from a high of 0.58 for a boxey delivery van and an open roadster to a low of about 0.34 for a current 4-passenger prototype automobile which was designed with aerodynamics as an integrated parameter. Characteristic effects of aspect ratio or fineness ratio which might appear if electric vehicle shape proportions were to vary significantly from current automobiles were identified. Some preliminary results indicate a 5 to 10% variation in drag over the range of interest. Effective drag coefficient wind-weighting factors over J227a driving cycles in the presence of annual mean wind fields were identified. Such coefficients, when properly weighted, were found to be from 5 to 65% greater than the zero-yaw drag coefficient in the cases presented. A vehicle aerodynamics bibliography of over 160 entries, in six general categories is included.

  15. Prediction of Drag Reduction in Supersonic and Hypersonic Flows with Counterflow Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daso, Endwell O.; Beaulieu, Warren; Hager, James O.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics solutions of the flowfield of a truncated cone-cylinder with and without counterflow jets have been obtained for the short penetration mode (SPM) and long penetration mode (LPM) of the freestream-counterflow jet interaction flowfield. For the case without the counterflow jet, the comparison of the normalized surface pressures showed very good agreement with experimental data. For the case with the SPM jet, the predicted surface pressures did not compare as well with the experimental data upstream of the expansion corner, while aft of the expansion corner, the comparison of the solution and the data is seen to give much better agreement. The difference in the prediction and the data could be due to the transient character of the jet penetration modes, possible effects of the plasma physics that are not accounted for here, or even the less likely effect of flow turbulence, etc. For the LPM jet computations, one-dimensional isentropic relations were used to derived the jet exit conditions in order to obtain the LPM solutions. The solution for the jet exit Mach number of 3 shows a jet penetration several times longer than that of the SPM, and therefore much weaker bow shock, with an attendant reduction in wave drag. The LPM jet is, in essence, seen to be a "pencil" of fluid, with much higher dynamic pressure, embedded in the oncoming supersonic or hypersonic freestream. The methodology for determining the conditions for the LPM jet could enable a practical approach for the design and application of counterflow LPM jets for the reduction of wave drag and heat flux, thus significantly enhancing the aerodynamic characteristics and aerothermal performance of supersonic and hypersonic vehicles. The solutions show that the qualitative flow structure is very well captured. The obtained results, therefore, suggest that counterflowing jets are viable candidate technology concepts that can be employed to give significant reductions in wave drag, heat

  16. Reduction of aqueous fluid drag with poly(vinylamine)

    SciTech Connect

    McAndrew, T.P.; Miller, S.

    1993-12-31

    During the past several years, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has developed technology to prepare a family of water-soluble polymers containing primary amine functionality. Heretofore, such amine functional polymers (AFP`s) had been commercially unavailable. One of these AFP`s poly(vinylamine) (PVAm) has been examined as a drag reducing agent for aqueous solutions. Specifically, a protonated derivative of PVAm, PVAm-HCl (Mw: 0.8 million, excluding HCl) shows outstanding performance in comparison to well-established drag reducing polymers such as poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(acrylamide). The level of drag reduction is far above that expected based upon Mw and resistance to degradation is superior to any polymer examined. Both phenomena are explained in terms of PVAm-HCl having a high intrinsic viscosity and a relatively linear form in solution. Because of the excellent performance at low Mw and superior stability, commercial use of PVAm-HCl (and potentially other AFP`s) in aqueous fluid drag reduction may be possible.

  17. A Preliminary Flight Investigation of Formation Flight for Drag Reduction on the C-17 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pahle, Joe; Berger, Dave; Venti, Michael W.; Faber, James J.; Duggan, Chris; Cardinal, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    Many theoretical and experimental studies have shown that aircraft flying in formation could experience significant reductions in fuel use compared to solo flight. To date, formation flight for aerodynamic benefit has not been thoroughly explored in flight for large transport-class vehicles. This paper summarizes flight data gathered during several two ship, C-17 formation flights at a single flight condition of 275 knots, at 25,000 ft MSL. Stabilized test points were flown with the trail aircraft at 1,000 and 3,000 ft aft of the lead aircraft at selected crosstrack and vertical offset locations within the estimated area of influence of the vortex generated by the lead aircraft. Flight data recorded at test points within the vortex from the lead aircraft are compared to data recorded at tare flight test points outside of the influence of the vortex. Since drag was not measured directly, reductions in fuel flow and thrust for level flight are used as a proxy for drag reduction. Estimated thrust and measured fuel flow reductions were documented at several trail test point locations within the area of influence of the leads vortex. The maximum average fuel flow reduction was approximately 7-8%, compared to the tare points flown before and after the test points. Although incomplete, the data suggests that regions with fuel flow and thrust reduction greater than 10% compared to the tare test points exist within the vortex area of influence.

  18. Determination of aerodynamic stability and drag of the Titan 3 C SRM during entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, P. E.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental aerodynamic investigation was conducted in the NASA/MSFC 14-inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel on a 0.00736 scale model of Titan 3 C Solid Rocket Motor (SRM). Static stability and drag data were obtained for Mach numbers of 0.6 to 4.96, angles of attack of minus 10 deg to 190 deg, and roll angles of 0 to 360 deg. The resulting data will be used to predict the dynamic motions of the SRM during entry which will then be compared to flight data. This comparison will improve and lend credibility to methods for predicting the entry dynamics of the space shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), which is needed for recovery studies and design of the parachute recovery system.

  19. On drag reduction in a two-phase flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatapova, E. Ya.; Ajaev, V. S.; Kabov, O. A.

    2015-02-01

    Bubbles collected on a local hydrophobic surface with nanocoating in a two-phase flow in a minichannel have been detected experimentally. It has been proposed to use the effect of concentration of gas bubbles on hydrophobic segments of the surface of the channel with contrast wettability for ensuring drag reduction. A two-dimensional flow model with the Navier slip condition in the region of the bubble layer gives criteria of drag reduction, depending on the slip length, dimension of bubbles, and dimension of the segment with nanocoating. The presence of the bubble layer on half of the surface of the channel can increase the flow rate of a liquid flowing through the channel by 40% at a fixed pressure gradient.

  20. Turbulent Drag Reduction Using Micro and Nanotextured Ultrahydrophobic Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Gabour, J., and Rothstein, J. P., "The effect of superhydrophobic surface geometry on turbulent drag reduction," Submitted to J. Fluid Mech...different design criteria. We originally used etched silicon wafers in order to precisely control the micro- geometry and therefore unambiguously control the...have the most data, but will also discuss surfaces with other geometries as well. Numerical Simulations Direct numerical simulations are currently

  1. Analytic investigation of advancing blade drag reduction by tip modifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tauber, M. E.

    1978-01-01

    Analytic techniques were applied to study the effect on the performance of the nonlifting advancing blade when the outboard 5% of the blade is modified to reduce drag. The tip modifications studied consisted of reducing airfoil thickness, sweepback, and planform taper. The reductions in instantaneous drag and torque were calculated for tip speed ratios from about 0.19 to 0.30, corresponding to advancing blade tip Mach numbers of 0.855 to 0.936, respectively. Approximations required in the analysis introduce uncertainties into the computed absolute values of drag and torque; however, the differences in the quantities should be a fairly reliable measure of the effect of changing tip geometry. For example, at the highest tip speed, instantaneous drag, and torque were reduced by 20% and 24%, respectively, for tip sweep of 40 deg on a blade using an NACA 0010 airfoil and by comparable amounts for 30-deg sweep on a blade having an NACA 0012 airfoil section. The present method should prove to be a useful, inexpensive technique for identifying promising configurations for additional study and testing.

  2. Hydrodynamic and Aerodynamic Tests of Models of Flying-boat Hulls Designed Flow Aerodynamic Drag - NACA Models 74, 74-A, and 75

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truscott, Starr; Parkinson, J B; Ebert, John W , Jr; Valentine, E Floyd

    1938-01-01

    The present tests illustrate how the aerodynamic drag of a flying boat hull may be reduced by following closely the form of a low drag aerodynamic body and the manner in which the extent of the aerodynamic refinement is limited by poorer hydrodynamic performance. This limit is not sharply defined but is first evidenced by an abnormal flow of water over certain parts of the form accompanied by a sharp increase in resistance. In the case of models 74-A and 75, the resistance (sticking) occurs only at certain combinations of speed, load, and trim and can be avoided by proper control of the trim at high water speeds. Model 75 has higher water resistance at very high speeds than does model 74-A. With constant speed propellers and high takeoff speeds, it appears that the form of model 75 would give slightly better takeoff performance. Model 74-A, however, has lower aerodynamic drag than does model 75 for the same volume of hull.

  3. Enhanced viscous flow drag reduction using acoustic excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, R. T.

    1988-01-01

    Large eddy break up devices (LEBUs) constitute a promising method of obtaining drag reduction in a turbulent boundary layer. Enhancement of the LEBU effectiveness by exciting its trailing edge with acoustic waves phase locked to the large scale structure influencing the momentum transfer to the wall is sought. An initial estimate of the required sound pressure level for an effective pulse was obtained by considering the magnitude of the pressure perturbations at the near wake of a thin plate in inviscid flow. Detailed skin friction measurments were obtained in the flow region downstream of a LEBU excited with acoustic waves. The data are compared with skin friction measurements of a simply manipulated flow, without acoustic excitation and with a plain flow configuration. The properties and the scales of motion in the flow regime downstream of the acoustically excited LEBU are studied. A parametric study based upon the characteristics of the acoustic input was pursued in addition to the careful mapping of the drag reduction phenomenon within the acoustically manipulated boundary layer. This study of boundary layer manipulation has lead to improved skin friction drag reduction and further understanding of the turbulent boundary layer.

  4. Biomimetics inspired surfaces for drag reduction and oleophobicity/philicity.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Bharat

    2011-01-01

    The emerging field of biomimetics allows one to mimic biology or nature to develop nanomaterials, nanodevices, and processes which provide desirable properties. Hierarchical structures with dimensions of features ranging from the macroscale to the nanoscale are extremely common in nature and possess properties of interest. There are a large number of objects including bacteria, plants, land and aquatic animals, and seashells with properties of commercial interest. Certain plant leaves, such as lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) leaves, are known to be superhydrophobic and self-cleaning due to the hierarchical surface roughness and presence of a wax layer. In addition to a self-cleaning effect, these surfaces with a high contact angle and low contact angle hysteresis also exhibit low adhesion and drag reduction for fluid flow. An aquatic animal, such as a shark, is another model from nature for the reduction of drag in fluid flow. The artificial surfaces inspired from the shark skin and lotus leaf have been created, and in this article the influence of structure on drag reduction efficiency is reviewed. Biomimetic-inspired oleophobic surfaces can be used to prevent contamination of the underwater parts of ships by biological and organic contaminants, including oil. The article also reviews the wetting behavior of oil droplets on various superoleophobic surfaces created in the lab.

  5. Drag reduction: enticing turbulence, and then an industry.

    PubMed

    Spalart, Philippe R; McLean, J Douglas

    2011-04-13

    We examine drag-reduction proposals, as presented in this volume and in general, first with concrete examples of how to bridge the distance from pure science through engineering to what makes inventions go into service; namely, the value to the public. We point out that the true drag reduction can be markedly different from an estimate based simply on the difference between turbulent and laminar skin friction over the laminarized region, or between the respective skin frictions of the baseline and the riblet-treated flow. In some situations, this difference is favourable, and is due to secondary differences in pressure drag. We reiterate that the benefit of riblets, if it is expressed as a percentage in skin-friction reduction, is unfortunately lower at full-size Reynolds numbers than in a small-scale experiment or simulation. The Reynolds number-independent measure of such benefits is a shift of the logarithmic law, or 'ΔU(+)'. Anticipating the design of a flight test and then a product, we note the relative ease in representing riblets or laminarization in computational fluid dynamics, in contrast with the huge numerical and turbulence-modelling challenge of resolving active flow control systems in a calculation of the full flow field. We discuss in general terms the practical factors that have limited applications of concepts that would appear more than ready after all these years, particularly riblets and laminar-flow control.

  6. Biomimetics inspired surfaces for drag reduction and oleophobicity/philicity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Summary The emerging field of biomimetics allows one to mimic biology or nature to develop nanomaterials, nanodevices, and processes which provide desirable properties. Hierarchical structures with dimensions of features ranging from the macroscale to the nanoscale are extremely common in nature and possess properties of interest. There are a large number of objects including bacteria, plants, land and aquatic animals, and seashells with properties of commercial interest. Certain plant leaves, such as lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) leaves, are known to be superhydrophobic and self-cleaning due to the hierarchical surface roughness and presence of a wax layer. In addition to a self-cleaning effect, these surfaces with a high contact angle and low contact angle hysteresis also exhibit low adhesion and drag reduction for fluid flow. An aquatic animal, such as a shark, is another model from nature for the reduction of drag in fluid flow. The artificial surfaces inspired from the shark skin and lotus leaf have been created, and in this article the influence of structure on drag reduction efficiency is reviewed. Biomimetic-inspired oleophobic surfaces can be used to prevent contamination of the underwater parts of ships by biological and organic contaminants, including oil. The article also reviews the wetting behavior of oil droplets on various superoleophobic surfaces created in the lab. PMID:21977417

  7. May 2005 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentation, Summary of Comments and Conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R C

    2005-08-17

    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California on May 12th and 13th of 2005. The purpose of the first day's meeting, May 12th, was to provide a summary of achievements, discuss issues, present a general overview of future plans, and to offer a forum for dialogue with the Department of Energy (DOE) and representatives from industry, universities, and research and development organizations performing work related to heavy vehicle aerodynamics. This first meeting day was open to participants from industry and research organizations from both the US and Canada. The second day, May 13th, was attended only by representatives from the 9 organizations that form the DOE Consortium effort and their government sponsors. The purpose of the second day's meeting was to further discuss fiscal year 2005's activities, any further specific pressing issues, identify individual action items, and provide an overview of plans for fiscal year 2006. Based on discussions at the Meeting, the existing project goals remain unchanged and enhancing interactions with fleet owners and operators was emphasized: (1) Perform heavy vehicle computations and experiments, (2) Validate computations using experimental data, (3) Provide design guidance and insight into flow phenomena from experiments and computations, and (4) Investigate aero devices with emphasis on collaborative efforts with fleet owners and operators.

  8. Investigation of the Aerodynamic Drag of an Eight-Channel Centrifugal Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serebryanskii, D. A.; Semenyuk, N. S.; Plashikhin, S. V.

    2015-03-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics and the structure of vortices of the central region of the channel system of an eight-channel centrifugal filter have been investigated. An overview of the foreign and home literature on the filtration of solid particles in the gas flow in centrifugal apparatuses is given [1, 2]. We present the design and the principle of operation of the eight-channel centrifugal filter based on a system of curvilinear channels with equal turn angles and equal cross-sectional areas connected in series. We have performed numerical calculations of the dependence of the aerodynamic drag of the centrifugal filter on the rate of fl ow obtained by three different methods: analytical calculation, experiments on the laboratory facility, and with the help of modern means of computer modeling. Computational modeling of the flow was carried out by solving Reynolds (RANS, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes) equations by the SFD method with the use of a k-ɛ model of turbulence for three modes of operation of the apparatus. The results of computer modeling permitted visualizing the vortex structure of the central region of the separation chamber in the form of 3D graphs. The obtained results have been confirmed experimentally on a laboratory model of the centrifugal filter of capacity up to 200 m3/h of purified air.

  9. Mechanically Robust Superhydrophobic Surfaces for Turbulent Drag Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovin, Kevin; Boban, Mathew; Xia, Charlotte; Tuteja, Anish

    2014-11-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS) resist wetting by keeping a thin air layer within their texture. Such surfaces have been shown to reduce skin friction during laminar and transitional flows. However, turbulent boundary layer flows exhibit high shear stresses that damage the fragile microstructure of most SHS, and it is yet unclear to what extent these surfaces can reduce drag. Moreover, the increasing pressure fluctuations and decreasing wall unit length experienced during turbulent flow makes designing mechanically robust SHS with the correct roughness scales a challenge. In this work we evaluate many different SHS in terms of their hydrophobicity, mechanical durability and roughness. Whereas even commercially available SHS lose their superhydrophobic properties after slight mechanical abrasion, our novel coatings survive up to 200x longer. Moreover, we evaluate how the roughness of such surfaces changes with mechanical abrasion, and we design SHS with the correct roughness to display optimal drag reduction in turbulent boundary layer flows. Funding from ONR.

  10. Investigation of an Oscillating Surface Plasma for Turbulent Drag Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, Stephen P.

    2003-01-01

    An oscillating, weakly ionized surface plasma has been investigated for use in turbulent boundary layer viscous drag reduction. The study was based on reports showing that mechanical spanwise oscillations of a wall can reduce viscous drag due to a turbulent boundary layer by up to 40%. It was hypothesized that the plasma induced body force in high electric field gradients of a surface plasma along strip electrodes could also be configured to oscillate the flow. Thin dielectric panels with millimeter-scale, flush- mounted, triad electrode arrays with one and two-phase high voltage excitation were tested. Results showed that while a small oscillation could be obtained, the effect was lost at a low frequency (less than 100Hz). Furthermore, a mean flow was generated during the oscillation that complicates the effect. Hot-wire and pitot probe diagnostics are presented along with phase-averaged images revealing plasma structure.

  11. Wind-Tunnel Investigations of Blunt-Body Drag Reduction Using Forebody Surface Roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Sprague, Stephanie; Naughton, Jonathan W.; Curry, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents results of wind-tunnel tests that demonstrate a novel drag reduction technique for blunt-based vehicles. For these tests, the forebody roughness of a blunt-based model was modified using micomachined surface overlays. As forebody roughness increases, boundary layer at the model aft thickens and reduces the shearing effect of external flow on the separated flow behind the base region, resulting in reduced base drag. For vehicle configurations with large base drag, existing data predict that a small increment in forebody friction drag will result in a relatively large decrease in base drag. If the added increment in forebody skin drag is optimized with respect to base drag, reducing the total drag of the configuration is possible. The wind-tunnel tests results conclusively demonstrate the existence of a forebody dragbase drag optimal point. The data demonstrate that the base drag coefficient corresponding to the drag minimum lies between 0.225 and 0.275, referenced to the base area. Most importantly, the data show a drag reduction of approximately 15% when the drag optimum is reached. When this drag reduction is scaled to the X-33 base area, drag savings approaching 45,000 N (10,000 lbf) can be realized.

  12. Drag reduction of nata de coco suspensions in circular pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warashina, J.; Ogata, S.

    2015-04-01

    Reducing pipe friction by adding a drag-reducing agent has attracted interest as a means to reduce energy consumption. In addition to reducing drag, these agents are required to have a low environmental load and conserve natural resources. However, no drag-reducing agent currently satisfies both these conditions. We focused on nata de coco and found that the nata de coco fiber reduced drag by up to 25%. With respect to the mechanism of drag reduction by nata de coco fiber, the relationship between drag-reduction phenomena and the fiber form of nata de coco was investigated by visualization. We also found that the drag-reduction effect appeared to be due to the formation of networks of tangled fibers of nata de coco. However, drag reduction did not occur in the case in which fibers of nata de coco did not form networks.

  13. Drag reduction by polymer additives in decaying turbulence.

    PubMed

    Kalelkar, Chirag; Govindarajan, Rama; Pandit, Rahul

    2005-07-01

    We present results from a systematic numerical study of decaying turbulence in a dilute polymer solution by using a shell-model version of the finitely extensible nonlinear elastic and Peterlin equations. Our study leads to an appealing definition of the drag reduction for the case of decaying turbulence. We exhibit several new results, such as the potential-energy spectrum of the polymer, hitherto unobserved features in the temporal evolution of the kinetic-energy spectrum, and characterize intermittency in such systems. We compare our results with the Gledzer-Ohkitani-Yamada shell model for fluid turbulence.

  14. Drag reduction by polymer additives in decaying turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalelkar, Chirag; Govindarajan, Rama; Pandit, Rahul

    2005-07-01

    We present results from a systematic numerical study of decaying turbulence in a dilute polymer solution by using a shell-model version of the finitely extensible nonlinear elastic and Peterlin equations. Our study leads to an appealing definition of the drag reduction for the case of decaying turbulence. We exhibit several new results, such as the potential-energy spectrum of the polymer, hitherto unobserved features in the temporal evolution of the kinetic-energy spectrum, and characterize intermittency in such systems. We compare our results with the Gledzer-Ohkitani-Yamada shell model for fluid turbulence.

  15. Bioinspired air-retaining nanofur for drag reduction.

    PubMed

    Kavalenka, Maryna N; Vüllers, Felix; Lischker, Simone; Zeiger, Claudia; Hopf, Andreas; Röhrig, Michael; Rapp, Bastian E; Worgull, Matthias; Hölscher, Hendrik

    2015-05-27

    Bioinspired nanofur, covered by a dense layer of randomly distributed high aspect ratio nano- and microhairs, possesses superhydrophobic and air-retaining properties. Nanofur is fabricated using a highly scalable hot pulling method in which softened polymer is elongated with a heated sandblasted plate. Here we investigate the stability of the underwater air layer retained by the irregular nanofur topography by applying hydraulic pressure to the nanofur kept underwater, and evaluate the gradual changes in the air-covered area. Furthermore, the drag reduction resulting from the nanofur air retention is characterized by measuring the pressure drop across channels with and without nanofur.

  16. Studies of compressible shear flows and turbulent drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orszag, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    Compressible shear flows and drag reduction were examined and three methods are addressed: (1) the analytical and numerical aspects of conformal mapping were summarized and a new method for computation of these maps is presented; (2) the computer code SPECFD for solution of the three dimensional time dependent Navier-Stokes equations for compressible flow on the CYBER 203 computer is described; (3) results of two equation turbulence modeling of turbulent flow over wavy walls are presented. A modified Jones-Launder model is used in two dimensional spectral code for flow in general wavy geometries.

  17. Drag reduction of a car model by linear genetic programming control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruiying; Noack, Bernd R.; Cordier, Laurent; Borée, Jacques; Harambat, Fabien

    2017-08-01

    We investigate open- and closed-loop active control for aerodynamic drag reduction of a car model. Turbulent flow around a blunt-edged Ahmed body is examined at ReH≈ 3× 105 based on body height. The actuation is performed with pulsed jets at all trailing edges (multiple inputs) combined with a Coanda deflection surface. The flow is monitored with 16 pressure sensors distributed at the rear side (multiple outputs). We apply a recently developed model-free control strategy building on genetic programming in Dracopoulos and Kent (Neural Comput Appl 6:214-228, 1997) and Gautier et al. (J Fluid Mech 770:424-441, 2015). The optimized control laws comprise periodic forcing, multi-frequency forcing and sensor-based feedback including also time-history information feedback and combinations thereof. Key enabler is linear genetic programming (LGP) as powerful regression technique for optimizing the multiple-input multiple-output control laws. The proposed LGP control can select the best open- or closed-loop control in an unsupervised manner. Approximately 33% base pressure recovery associated with 22% drag reduction is achieved in all considered classes of control laws. Intriguingly, the feedback actuation emulates periodic high-frequency forcing. In addition, the control identified automatically the only sensor which listens to high-frequency flow components with good signal to noise ratio. Our control strategy is, in principle, applicable to all multiple actuators and sensors experiments.

  18. Enhancements to the high speed convective heating and viscous drag prediction techniques of the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System (APAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Christopher I.; Engelund, Walter C.

    1991-01-01

    APAS is an interactive computer program that allows a user to quickly estimate the aerodynamic characteristics of aerospace and aeronautical vehicles throughout the speed range using a single geometry definition. This report documents the major differences between the high speed analysis portion of the APAS and the Mark III version of the hypersonic arbitrary-body program from which it has evolved and compares convective heating and viscous drag results from the APAS with CFD results, experimental data, and flight data.

  19. The effect of plasma actuator on the depreciation of the aerodynamic drag on box model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harinaldi, Budiarso, Julian, James; Rabbani M., N.

    2016-06-01

    Recent active control research advances have provided many benefits some of which in the field of transportation by land, sea as well as by air. Flow engineering by using active control has proven advantages in energy saving significantly. One of the active control equipment that is being developed, especially in the 21st century, is a plasma actuator, with the ability to modify the flow of fluid by the approach of ion particles makes these actuators a very powerful and promising tool. This actuator can be said to be better to the previously active control such as suction, blowing and synthetic jets because it is easier to control, more flexible because it has no moving parts, easy to be manufactured and installed, and consumes a small amount of energy with maximum capability. Plasma actuator itself is the composition of a material composed of copper and a dielectric sheet, where the copper sheets act as an electricity conductor and the dielectric sheet as electricity insulator. Products from the plasma actuators are ion wind which is the result of the suction of free air around the actuator to the plasma zone. This study investigates the ability of plasma actuators in lowering aerodynamic drag which is commonly formed in the models of vehicles by varying the shape of geometry models and the flow speed.

  20. Turbulent drag reduction with liquid-infused surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smits, Alexander; van Buren, Tyler

    2016-11-01

    We present turbulent skin friction reduction over liquid-impregnated surfaces in Taylor-Couette flow. The surface of the inner cylinder of the facility contains square grooves, with widths from 100 μm to 800 μm and a fixed liquid area of half the total area. Alkane liquids are infused in the surface with viscosities from 1/3 to 2 times that of water. For Reynolds numbers up to Red =10,500 corresponding to a flow shear of τ=50 Pa, we achieve drag reduction exceeding 30%, three times higher than ever reported for liquid-infused surfaces. Supported by the ONR through MURI Grant Nos. N00014-12-1-0875 and N00014-12-1-0962.

  1. Sunspots and the physics of magnetic flux tubes. I - The general nature of the sunspot. II - Aerodynamic drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, E. N.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of the dynamical stability of a large flux tube suggests that the field of a sunspot must divide into many separate tubes within the first 1000 km below the surface. Buoyancy of the Wilson depression at the visible surface and probably also a downdraft beneath the sunspot hold the separate tubes in a loose cluster. Convective generation of Alfven waves, which are emitted preferentially downward, cools the tubes. Aerodynamic drag on a slender flux tube stretched vertically across a convective cell is also studied. Since the drag is approximately proportional to the local kinetic energy density, the density stratification weights the drag in favor of the upper layers. Horizontal motions concentrated in the bottom of the convective cell may reverse this density effect. A downdraft of about two km/sec through the flux tubes beneath the sunspot is hypothesized.

  2. Drag reduction for the combination of spike and counterflow jet on blunt body at high Mach number flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eghlima, Z.; Mansour, K.

    2017-04-01

    Drag reduction at high speed flows around blunt bodies is one of the major challenges in the field of aerodynamics. Using of spikes and counterflow jets each of them separately for reducing of drag force is well known. The present work is description of flow field around a hemispherical nose cylinder with a new combination of spike and counterflow jet at free stream of Mach number of 6.The air gas was injected through the nozzle at the nose of the hemispherical model at sonic speed. In this numerical analysis, axisymmetric Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations was solved by k-ω (SST) turbulence model. The results were validated with experimental results for spiked body without jet condition. Then the results presented for different lengths of spike and different pressures of counterflow jets. The results show a significant reduction in the drag coefficient about 86-90% compared to the spherical cylinder model without jet and spike for practical models (L/D=1.5 and 2). Furthermore also our results indicate that the drag reduction is increased even more with increasing of the length of the spike.

  3. Drag reduction - Jet breakup correlation with kerosene-based additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, J. W.; Altman, R. L.; Taylor, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    The drag-reduction effectiveness of a number of high-polymer additives dissolved in aircraft fuel has been measured in a turbulent-flow rheometer. These solutions were further subjected to high elongational stress and breakup forces in a jet discharging in air. The jet was photographed using a high-resolution camera with special lighting. The object of the work was to study the possible spray-suppression ability of high-polymer additives to aircraft fuel and to correlate this with the drag-reducing properties of the additives. It was found, in fact, that the rheometer results indicate the most effective spray-suppressing additives. Using as a measure the minimum polymer concentration to give a maximum friction-reducing effect, the order of effectiveness of eight different polymer additives as spray-suppressing agents was predicted. These results may find application in the development of antimisting additives for aircraft fuel which may increase fire safety in case of crash or accident.

  4. Drag reduction in turbulent pipe flow by applied electric potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waskaas, Magne; Daujotis, Vytautas; Wolden, Kjell; Raudonis, Rimantas; Plausinaitis, Deivis

    2006-11-01

    A novel approach to drag reduction is presented on the basis of applied positive electric potentials to a pipe. This has been studied by measuring the pressure drop over a 13.1 m epoxy-coated pipe made of carbon steel, through which water was flowing under conditions of constant flow rate. Potentials were applied between the pipe and the counter electrode located at the pipe inlet. The results show a decrease in the pressure drop (up to 2%) when positive electric DC-potentials in the range 0.6 -- 1.6V were applied to the pipe. However, no significant changes was obtained for applied potentials in the ranges of 0 to 0.6 V, 1.6 to 2.0 V or 0 to -2.0 V. Waterflow through an epoxy coated turbine pipe (length 1562 m, diameter 1 m, total fall 380 m) in a hydroelectric power plant has also been studied. A 1.1 V potential was applied between the pipe and the manlock (made of stainless steel and electrically insulated from the pipe). Results show that the head loss decreased from 45.9 m to 39.8 m at maximum flow rate, which corresponds to a 1.8% increase in the electricity production. Although small, the effect represents the possibility of significant cost savings. The mechanism by which the drag is reduced is not currently understood.

  5. Drag reduction - Jet breakup correlation with kerosene-based additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, J. W.; Altman, R. L.; Taylor, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    The drag-reduction effectiveness of a number of high-polymer additives dissolved in aircraft fuel has been measured in a turbulent-flow rheometer. These solutions were further subjected to high elongational stress and breakup forces in a jet discharging in air. The jet was photographed using a high-resolution camera with special lighting. The object of the work was to study the possible spray-suppression ability of high-polymer additives to aircraft fuel and to correlate this with the drag-reducing properties of the additives. It was found, in fact, that the rheometer results indicate the most effective spray-suppressing additives. Using as a measure the minimum polymer concentration to give a maximum friction-reducing effect, the order of effectiveness of eight different polymer additives as spray-suppressing agents was predicted. These results may find application in the development of antimisting additives for aircraft fuel which may increase fire safety in case of crash or accident.

  6. Preliminary Assessment of Optimal Longitudinal-Mode Control for Drag Reduction through Distributed Aeroelastic Shaping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ippolito, Corey; Nguyen, Nhan; Lohn, Jason; Dolan, John

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of advanced lightweight materials is resulting in a new generation of lighter, flexible, more-efficient airframes that are enabling concepts for active aeroelastic wing-shape control to achieve greater flight efficiency and increased safety margins. These elastically shaped aircraft concepts require non-traditional methods for large-scale multi-objective flight control that simultaneously seek to gain aerodynamic efficiency in terms of drag reduction while performing traditional command-tracking tasks as part of a complete guidance and navigation solution. This paper presents results from a preliminary study of a notional multi-objective control law for an aeroelastic flexible-wing aircraft controlled through distributed continuous leading and trailing edge control surface actuators. This preliminary study develops and analyzes a multi-objective control law derived from optimal linear quadratic methods on a longitudinal vehicle dynamics model with coupled aeroelastic dynamics. The controller tracks commanded attack-angle while minimizing drag and controlling wing twist and bend. This paper presents an overview of the elastic aircraft concept, outlines the coupled vehicle model, presents the preliminary control law formulation and implementation, presents results from simulation, provides analysis, and concludes by identifying possible future areas for research

  7. Development of a plasma injector for supersonic drag reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macnab, Angus; Hashim, Akel; Graham, Robert; Ziemba, Timothy; Miller, Kenneth

    2013-10-01

    Eagle Harbor Technologies, Inc. is developing and optimizing a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma injector, designed to reduce viscous skin friction of supersonic aircraft. The broad goals are to 1. Computationally investigate and verify the dominant physical mechanisms for MHD plasma drag reduction; 2. Develop a proof of concept plasma injector demo, which performs within the power limitations of an onboard flight-relevant system; and 3. Use insights gained through computational investigations to optimize the performance of our MHD plasma injector for maximum efficiency. This investigation focuses on flight-relevant Reynolds and magnetic Reynolds numbers at low supersonic (1

  8. Active viscoelastic matter: from bacterial drag reduction to turbulent solids.

    PubMed

    Hemingway, E J; Maitra, A; Banerjee, S; Marchetti, M C; Ramaswamy, S; Fielding, S M; Cates, M E

    2015-03-06

    A paradigm for internally driven matter is the active nematic liquid crystal, whereby the equations of a conventional nematic are supplemented by a minimal active stress that violates time-reversal symmetry. In practice, active fluids may have not only liquid-crystalline but also viscoelastic polymer degrees of freedom. Here we explore the resulting interplay by coupling an active nematic to a minimal model of polymer rheology. We find that adding a polymer can greatly increase the complexity of spontaneous flow, but can also have calming effects, thereby increasing the net throughput of spontaneous flow along a pipe (a "drag-reduction" effect). Remarkably, active turbulence can also arise after switching on activity in a sufficiently soft elastomeric solid.

  9. Fluid Mechanics, Drag Reduction and Advanced Configuration Aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses Advanced Aircraft configurational approaches across the speed range, which are either enabled, or greatly enhanced, by clever Flow Control. Configurations considered include Channel Wings with circulation control for VTOL (but non-hovering) operation with high cruise speed, strut-braced CTOL transports with wingtip engines and extensive ('natural') laminar flow control, a midwing double fuselage CTOL approach utilizing several synergistic methods for drag-due-to-lift reduction, a supersonic strut-braced configuration with order of twice the L/D of current approaches and a very advanced, highly engine flow-path-integrated hypersonic cruise machine. This paper indicates both the promise of synergistic flow control approaches as enablers for 'Revolutions' in aircraft performance and fluid mechanic 'areas of ignorance' which impede their realization and provide 'target-rich' opportunities for Fluids Research.

  10. Spatially distributed control for optimal drag reduction of the flow past a circular cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poncet, Philippe; Hildebrand, Roland; Cottet, Georges-Henri; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    We report high drag reduction in direct numerical simulations of controlled flows past circular cylinders at Reynolds numbers of 300 and 1000. The flow is controlled by the azimuthal component of the tangential velocity of the cylinder surface. Starting from a spanwise-uniform velocity profile that leads to high drag reduction, the optimization procedure identifies, for the same energy input, spanwise-varying velocity profiles that lead to higher drag reduction. The three-dimensional variations of the velocity field, corresponding to modes A and B of three-dimensional wake instabilities, are largely responsible for this drag reduction. The spanwise wall velocity variations introduce streamwise vortex braids in the wake that are responsible for reducing the drag induced by the primary spanwise vortices shed by the cylinder. The results demonstrate that extending two-dimensional controllers to three-dimensional flows is not optimal as three-dimensional control strategies can lead efficiently to higher drag reduction.

  11. Mechanisms of Active Aerodynamic Load Reduction on a Rotorcraft Fuselage With Rotor Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaeffler, Norman W.; Allan, Brian G.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Bartram, Scott M.; Mace, W. Derry; Wong, Oliver D.; Tanner, Philip E.

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of the aerodynamic load that acts on a generic rotorcraft fuselage by the application of active flow control was investigated in a wind tunnel test conducted on an approximately 1/3-scale powered rotorcraft model simulating forward flight. The aerodynamic mechanisms that make these reductions, in both the drag and the download, possible were examined in detail through the use of the measured surface pressure distribution on the fuselage, velocity field measurements made in the wake directly behind the ramp of the fuselage and computational simulations. The fuselage tested was the ROBIN-mod7, which was equipped with a series of eight slots located on the ramp section through which flow control excitation was introduced. These slots were arranged in a U-shaped pattern located slightly downstream of the baseline separation line and parallel to it. The flow control excitation took the form of either synthetic jets, also known as zero-net-mass-flux blowing, and steady blowing. The same set of slots were used for both types of excitation. The differences between the two excitation types and between flow control excitation from different combinations of slots were examined. The flow control is shown to alter the size of the wake and its trajectory relative to the ramp and the tailboom and it is these changes to the wake that result in a reduction in the aerodynamic load.

  12. Aerodynamic Drag Analysis of 3-DOF Flex-Gimbal GyroWheel System in the Sense of Ground Test.

    PubMed

    Huo, Xin; Feng, Sizhao; Liu, Kangzhi; Wang, Libin; Chen, Weishan

    2016-12-07

    GyroWheel is an innovative device that combines the actuating capabilities of a control moment gyro with the rate sensing capabilities of a tuned rotor gyro by using a spinning flex-gimbal system. However, in the process of the ground test, the existence of aerodynamic disturbance is inevitable, which hinders the improvement of the specification performance and control accuracy. A vacuum tank test is a possible candidate but is sometimes unrealistic due to the substantial increase in costs and complexity involved. In this paper, the aerodynamic drag problem with respect to the 3-DOF flex-gimbal GyroWheel system is investigated by simulation analysis and experimental verification. Concretely, the angular momentum envelope property of the spinning rotor system is studied and its integral dynamical model is deduced based on the physical configuration of the GyroWheel system with an appropriately defined coordinate system. In the sequel, the fluid numerical model is established and the model geometries are checked with FLUENT software. According to the diversity and time-varying properties of the rotor motions in three-dimensions, the airflow field around the GyroWheel rotor is analyzed by simulation with respect to its varying angular velocity and tilt angle. The IPC-based experimental platform is introduced, and the properties of aerodynamic drag in the ground test condition are obtained through comparing the simulation with experimental results.

  13. Aerodynamic Drag Analysis of 3-DOF Flex-Gimbal GyroWheel System in the Sense of Ground Test

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Xin; Feng, Sizhao; Liu, Kangzhi; Wang, Libin; Chen, Weishan

    2016-01-01

    GyroWheel is an innovative device that combines the actuating capabilities of a control moment gyro with the rate sensing capabilities of a tuned rotor gyro by using a spinning flex-gimbal system. However, in the process of the ground test, the existence of aerodynamic disturbance is inevitable, which hinders the improvement of the specification performance and control accuracy. A vacuum tank test is a possible candidate but is sometimes unrealistic due to the substantial increase in costs and complexity involved. In this paper, the aerodynamic drag problem with respect to the 3-DOF flex-gimbal GyroWheel system is investigated by simulation analysis and experimental verification. Concretely, the angular momentum envelope property of the spinning rotor system is studied and its integral dynamical model is deduced based on the physical configuration of the GyroWheel system with an appropriately defined coordinate system. In the sequel, the fluid numerical model is established and the model geometries are checked with FLUENT software. According to the diversity and time-varying properties of the rotor motions in three-dimensions, the airflow field around the GyroWheel rotor is analyzed by simulation with respect to its varying angular velocity and tilt angle. The IPC-based experimental platform is introduced, and the properties of aerodynamic drag in the ground test condition are obtained through comparing the simulation with experimental results. PMID:27941602

  14. Viscous flow drag reduction; Symposium, Dallas, Tex., November 7, 8, 1979, Technical Papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hough, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    The symposium focused on laminar boundary layers, boundary layer stability analysis of a natural laminar flow glove on the F-111 TACT aircraft, drag reduction of an oscillating flat plate with an interface film, electromagnetic precipitation and ducting of particles in turbulent boundary layers, large eddy breakup scheme for turbulent viscous drag reduction, blowing and suction, polymer additives, and compliant surfaces. Topics included influence of environment in laminar boundary layer control, generation rate of turbulent patches in the laminar boundary layer of a submersible, drag reduction of small amplitude rigid surface waves, and hydrodynamic drag and surface deformations generated by liquid flows over flexible surfaces.

  15. Viscous flow drag reduction; Symposium, Dallas, Tex., November 7, 8, 1979, Technical Papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hough, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    The symposium focused on laminar boundary layers, boundary layer stability analysis of a natural laminar flow glove on the F-111 TACT aircraft, drag reduction of an oscillating flat plate with an interface film, electromagnetic precipitation and ducting of particles in turbulent boundary layers, large eddy breakup scheme for turbulent viscous drag reduction, blowing and suction, polymer additives, and compliant surfaces. Topics included influence of environment in laminar boundary layer control, generation rate of turbulent patches in the laminar boundary layer of a submersible, drag reduction of small amplitude rigid surface waves, and hydrodynamic drag and surface deformations generated by liquid flows over flexible surfaces.

  16. The myth and reality of Gray's paradox: implication of dolphin drag reduction for technology.

    PubMed

    Fish, Frank E

    2006-06-01

    The inconsistency for the calculated high drag on an actively swimming dolphin and underestimated muscle power available resulted in what has been termed Gray's paradox. Although Gray's paradox was flawed, it has been the inspiration for a variety of drag reduction mechanisms. This review examines the present state of knowledge of drag reduction specific to dolphins. Streamlining and special behaviors provide the greatest drag reduction for dolphins. Mechanisms to control flow by maintaining a completely laminar boundary layer over the body have not been demonstrated for dolphins.

  17. Active Aerodynamic Load Reduction on a Rotorcraft Fuselage With Rotor Effects: A CFD Validation Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, Brian G.; Schaeffler, Norman W.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Wong, Oliver D.; Tanner, Philip E.

    2015-01-01

    A rotorcraft fuselage is typically designed with an emphasis on operational functionality with aerodynamic efficiency being of secondary importance. This results in a significant amount of drag during high-speed forward flight that can be a limiting factor for future high-speed rotorcraft designs. To enable higher speed flight, while maintaining a functional fuselage design (i.e., a large rear cargo ramp door), the NASA Rotary Wing Project has conducted both experimental and computational investigations to assess active flow control as an enabling technology for fuselage drag reduction. This paper will evaluate numerical simulations of a flow control system on a generic rotorcraft fuselage with a rotor in forward flight using OVERFLOW, a structured mesh Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver developed at NASA. The results are compared to fuselage forces, surface pressures, and PN flow field data obtained in a wind tunnel experiment conducted at the NASA Langley 14-by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel where significant drag and download reductions were demonstrated using flow control. This comparison showed that the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver was unable to predict the fuselage forces and pressure measurements on the ramp for the baseline and flow control cases. While the CFD was able to capture the flow features, it was unable to accurately predict the performance of the flow control.

  18. On the impact of size and position of semi-trailer on the aerodynamic drag of an articulated vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, M.

    2016-09-01

    The paper relates to the numerical aerodynamic simulation of an articulated vehicle. All simulations were comparative, where variables were only three geometric parameters: the height and length of the semi-trailer, and the gap between the tractor and semi-trailer. Simulation results have been investigated and compared in terms of observed values of aerodynamic drag coefficients. These coefficients have been presented in time (for example only), but above all, as constant, averaged magnitudes which are more suitable for comparisons. Total number of simulations and thereby geometrical configurations was 125, i.e. for 5 sizes of the height and length of trailer, and 5 clearance gaps between the tractor and trailer. Results have been presented graphically and discussed.

  19. The Aerodynamic Drag of Flying-boat Hull Model as Measured in the NACA 20-foot Wind Tunnel I.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Edwin P

    1935-01-01

    Measurements of aerodynamic drag were made in the 20-foot wind tunnel on a representative group of 11 flying-boat hull models. Four of the models were modified to investigate the effect of variations in over-all height, contours of deck, depth of step, angle of afterbody keel, and the addition of spray strips and windshields. The results of these tests, which cover a pitch-angle range from -5 to 10 degrees, are presented in a form suitable for use in performance calculations and for design purposes.

  20. Optical Model Reduction and Robust Feedback Control for Aerodynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-29

    LQR ) control formulation, roughly 1210 Riccati unknowns need to be calculated for a discretized flow model describing 610 states. Existing computing...1 Optimal Model Reduction and Robust Feedback Control for Aerodynamics AFoSR Grant AF-FA9550-08-1-0450 Seddik M. Djouadi Department of...methods of model reduction that integrate feedback active flow control with applications to nonlinear convection and turbulent flows governed by

  1. Effect of structure height on the drag reduction performance using rotating disk apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashed, Musaab K.; Abdulbari, Hayder A.; Amran Mohd Salleh, Mohamad; Halim Shah Ismail, M.

    2017-02-01

    The drag reduction characteristics in a rotating disk apparatus were investigated by using structured disks with different riblet types and dimensions. Two disk types were fabricated with right angle triangular (RAT) grooves and space v-shape (SV) grooves, with six dimensions for each type. A high-accuracy rotating disk apparatus was fabricated and then used to investigate the turbulent drag reduction characterization of the disk in diesel fuel. In this work, the effects of several parameters are investigated; riblet types, riblet dimensions, and rotational disk speed (rpm) on the drag reduction performance. It was found that the surface structure of the disk reduced the drag, this was clearly seen from the comparison of torque values of smooth and structured disks. Drag reduction for structured disks was higher than that for smooth disks, and SV-grooves showed better drag reduction performance than RAT-grooves. In addition, it was observed that the drag reduction performance increased with decreasing groove height for both groove types. The maximum drag reduction achieved in this study was 37.368% for SV-groove at 1000 rpm, compared with 30% for RAT-groove, at the same rotational speed.

  2. A unified approach to aerodynamic damping and drag/lift instabilities, and its application to dry inclined cable galloping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, J. H. G.; Larose, G. L.

    2006-02-01

    Inclined cables of cable-stayed bridges often experience large amplitude vibrations. One of the potential excitation mechanisms is dry inclined cable galloping, which has been observed in wind tunnel tests but which has not previously been fully explained theoretically. In this paper, a general expression is derived for the quasi-steady aerodynamic damping (positive or negative) of a cylinder of arbitrary cross-section yawed/inclined to the flow, for small amplitude vibrations in any plane. The expression covers the special cases of conventional quasi-steady aerodynamic damping, Den Hartog galloping and the drag crisis, as well as dry inclined cable galloping. A nondimensional aerodynamic damping parameter governing this behaviour is proposed, which is a function of only the Reynolds number, the angle between the wind velocity and the cable axis, and the orientation of the vibration plane. Measured static force coefficients from wind tunnel tests have been used with the theoretical expression to predict values of this parameter. Two main areas of instability (i.e. negative aerodynamic damping) have been identified, both in the critical Reynolds number region, one of which was previously observed in separate wind tunnel tests on a dynamic cable model. The minimum values of structural damping required to prevent dry inclined cable galloping are defined, and other factors in the behaviour in practice are discussed.

  3. Characterization of the LISA Pathfinder Drag Reduction System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slutsky, Jacob; LISA Pathfinder Team

    2016-03-01

    The LISA Pathfinder (LPF) mission launched in December 2015 with operations beginning March 2016. LPF is a technology demonstration mission built to prove and fully characterize the performance of the use of drag free test masses as Gravitational Reference Sensors (GRS) for future space based gravitational-wave observatories. As a joint ESA-NASA mission, LPF is comprised of both European and NASA payloads, the LISA Technology Package (LTP) and Disturbance Reduction System (DRS), respectively. DRS includes Colloid Micro-Newton Thruster (CMNT) systems, to precisely maneuver the spacecraft without disturbing the GRS, and a control system that directs spacecraft and test mass actuation. In order to fully characterize DRS/CMNT performance, we have developed a series of experiments, to take place during DRS operations beginning later this year. We have built analysis pipelines, validated on simulated data, to rapidly process experimental data and to identify any performance issues as they occur. European partners have developed the LTP Data Analysis (LTPDA) Matlab extension, and we have adapted and expanded this to DRS missions as the basis of our analysis pipelines. I will discuss the anticipated DRS performance and measurement accuracy, illustrated on simulated data.

  4. Evaluation of viscous drag reduction schemes for subsonic transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marino, A.; Economos, C.; Howard, F. G.

    1975-01-01

    The results are described of a theoretical study of viscous drag reduction schemes for potential application to the fuselage of a long-haul subsonic transport aircraft. The schemes which were examined included tangential slot injection on the fuselage and various synergetic combinations of tangential slot injection and distributed suction applied to wing and fuselage surfaces. Both passive and mechanical (utilizing turbo-machinery) systems were examined. Overall performance of the selected systems was determined at a fixed subsonic cruise condition corresponding to a flight Mach number of free stream M = 0.8 and an altitude of 11,000 m. The nominal aircraft to which most of the performance data was referenced was a wide-body transport of the Boeing 747 category. Some of the performance results obtained with wing suction are referenced to a Lockheed C-141 Star Lifter wing section. Alternate designs investigated involved combinations of boundary layer suction on the wing surfaces and injection on the fuselage, and suction and injection combinations applied to the fuselage only.

  5. Turbulent drag reduction in one and two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odijk, Theo

    2001-09-01

    Drag reduction is investigated in one- and two-dimensional turbulent flows that are stationary and homogeneous. In the two-dimensional case, the polymer chains are deformed though advected passively through the Kraichnan cascades within a scaling analysis. The typical rate of shear must then be larger than the time of deformation of a chain. Ultimately, elastic forces compete with Reynolds stresses at an elastic cut-off similar to that defined in the Tabor-de Gennes scenario in three dimensions. There are several regimes in two dimensions because there are two cascades. In the one-dimensional case, a Burgers-type equation is coupled to a frame-indifferent equation for the viscoelastic Maxwell stress together with a stochastic force. Dissipation arises within viscoelastic shocks. The (effectively longitudinal) speed of the elastic waves is a cut-off for the shocks. This elastic cut-off shows up in velocity correlations. The implications for soap film and wire experiments are discussed.

  6. Effect of Interface Curvature on Super-Hydrophobic Drag Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegari, Amirreza; Akhavan, Rayhaneh

    2015-11-01

    The effect of interface curvature on Super-Hydrophobic (SH) Drag Reduction (DR) has been investigated using DNS with lattice Boltzmann methods in laminar (Rebulk = 50) and turbulent (Rebulk = 3600 , Reτ0 ~ 223) channel flows. SH surfaces with longitudinal arrays of micro-grooves (MG) of size 0 . 1 <= g / h <= 0 . 47 & g / w = 1 , 7 were investigated, where g and w denote the width of the MG and the separation in between them, respectively, and h denotes the channel half-height. The liquid/gas interfaces on the SH MG were modeled as `idealized', stationary, curved, shear-free boundaries, with the interface curvatures determined from the Young-Laplace equation. The presence of interface curvature leads to enhancements of DR by up to 10% in laminar flow, and more modest enhancements or even decreases in DR in turbulent flow, compared to flat, shear-free interfaces. These enhancements or decreases in DR, relative to flat, shear-free interfaces, in both laminar and turbulent flow, are shown to arise primarily from the modified shape of the cross section of the channel in the presence of the curved interface.

  7. MISDRAG- AERODYNAMIC DRAG ON WING-BODY COMBINATIONS AT SMALL ANGLES OF ATTACK IN SUPERSONIC FLOW

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, W. C.

    1994-01-01

    A computer program has been written to obtain the wave and friction drag of configurations with bodies of revolution and fins. These inviscid flow fields are superimposed and the wave drag of the configuration is obtained by integration of the surface pressures. The friction drag is obtained from the viscous flow field of the body and a flat-plate friction analysis of the fins. The numerical solution of these flow fields, superposition, and integration to obtain total drag have been programmed for high-speed digital computation. A large portion of the input required by the program is involved with the description of the configuration geometry and the specific surface positions where pressures are to be evaluated. In addition to drag forces, an output is available whereby the pressure distributions on the body and fins can be obtained.

  8. Langley Symposium on Aerodynamics, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stack, Sharon H. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to present current work and results of the Langley Aeronautics Directorate covering the areas of computational fluid dynamics, viscous flows, airfoil aerodynamics, propulsion integration, test techniques, and low-speed, high-speed, and transonic aerodynamics. The following sessions are included in this volume: theoretical aerodynamics, test techniques, fluid physics, and viscous drag reduction.

  9. The Berlin oil channel for drag reduction research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechert, D. W.; Hoppe, G.; van der Hoeven, J. G. Th.; Makris, R.

    1992-03-01

    For drag reduction research an oil channel has been designed and built. It is also well suited for investigations on turbulent flow and in particular on the dynamics of the viscous sublayer near the wall. The thickness of the viscous sublayer ( y += 5) can be varied between 1 and 4 mm. Surfaces with longitudinal ribs (“riblets”), which are known to reduce drag, can have fairly large dimensions. The lateral spacing of the ribs can lie between 3 and 10 mm, as compared to about 0.5 mm spacing for conventional wind tunnels. It has been proved by appropriate tests that the oil channel data are completely equivalent to data from other facilities and with other mean flow geometries. However, the shear stress data from the new oil channel are much more accurate than previous data due to a novel differential shear force balance with an accuracy of ±0.2%. In addition to shear stress measurements, velocity fluctuation measurements can be carried out with hot wire or hot film probes. In order to calibrate these probes, a moving sled permits to emulate the flow velocities with the fluid in the channel at rest. A number of additional innovations contribute to the improvement of the measurements, such as, e.g., (i) novel adjustable turbulators to maintain equilibrium turbulence in the channel, (ii) a “bubble trap” to avoid bubbles in the channel at high flow velocities, (iii) a simple method for the precision calibration of manometers, and (iv) the elimination of (Coulomb) friction in ball bearings. This latter fairly general invention is used for the wheels of the calibration unit of the balance. The channel has a cross section of 25 × 85 cm and is 11 m long. It is filled with about 4.5 metric tons of baby oil (white paraffine oil), which is transparent and odorless like water. The kinematic viscosity of the oil is v = 1.2×10-5 m2/s, and the highest (average) velocity is 1.29 m/s. Thus, the Reynolds number range (calculated with the channel width, 0.25 m) lies between

  10. Aerodynamic Measurements of a Gulfstream Aircraft Model With and Without Noise Reduction Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuhart, Dan H.; Hannon, Judith A.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.

    2014-01-01

    Steady and unsteady aerodynamic measurements of a high-fidelity, semi-span 18% scale Gulfstream aircraft model are presented. The aerodynamic data were collected concurrently with acoustic measurements as part of a larger aeroacoustic study targeting airframe noise associated with main landing gear/flap components, gear-flap interaction noise, and the viability of related noise mitigation technologies. The aeroacoustic tests were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel with the facility in the acoustically treated open-wall (jet) mode. Most of the measurements were obtained with the model in landing configuration with the flap deflected at 39º and the main landing gear on and off. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0.16, 0.20, and 0.24. Global forces (lift and drag) and extensive steady and unsteady surface pressure measurements were obtained. Comparison of the present results with those acquired during a previous test shows a significant reduction in the lift experienced by the model. The underlying cause was traced to the likely presence of a much thicker boundary layer on the tunnel floor, which was acoustically treated for the present test. The steady and unsteady pressure fields on the flap, particularly in the regions of predominant noise sources such as the inboard and outboard tips, remained unaffected. It is shown that the changes in lift and drag coefficients for model configurations fitted with gear/flap noise abatement technologies fall within the repeatability of the baseline configuration. Therefore, the noise abatement technologies evaluated in this experiment have no detrimental impact on the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft model.

  11. Drag reduction by controlled base flow separation for missile shaped bodies flying at hypersonic Mach number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, V.; Sun, M.; Jagadeesh, G.; Reddy, K. P. J.; Takayama, K.

    The problem of wake flow at high speeds and the drag associated with it are a significant source of observation in the design of missiles, projectiles and other typical high speed vehicles. A large separated wake at the base of the body in flight would cause an increase in the overall drag due to reduced base pressure force, which otherwise would oppose the axial force on the body. The wake studies of high speed bodies also gain importance due to the severe aerodynamic heating problem and a high rise in the temperature of the base flow.

  12. An investigation of drag reduction for tractor trailer vehicles with air deflector and boattail. [wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muirhead, V. U.

    1981-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the influence of several physical variables on the aerodynamic drag of a trailer model. The physical variables included: a cab mounted wind deflector, boattail on trailer, flow vanes on trailer front, forced transition on trailer, and decreased gap between tractor and trailer. Tests were conducted at yaw angles (relative wind angles) of 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 degrees and Reynolds numbers of 3.58 x 10 to the 5th power 6.12 x 10 to the 5th power based upon the equivalent diameter of the vehicles. The wind deflector on top of the cab produced a calculated reduction in fuel consumption of about 5 percent of the aerodynamic portion of the fuel budget for a wind speed of 15.3 km/hr (9.5 mph) over a wind angle range of 0 deg to 180 deg and for a vehicle speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). The boattail produced a calculated 7 percent to 8 percent reduction in fuel consumption under the same conditions. The decrease in gap reduced the calculated fuel consumption by about 5 percent of the aerodynamic portion of the fuel budget.

  13. An Experimental Study of Drag Reduction Devices for a Trailer Underbody and Base

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, J M; Salari, K

    2004-05-07

    Low speed wind tunnel measurements are made on a 1/16th scale generic tractor-trailer model at a width-based Reynolds number of 325,000. The model is fixed to a turntable, allowing the yaw angle to be varied between {+-}14 degrees in 2 degree increments. Various add-on drag reduction devices are mounted to the model underbody and base. The wind-averaged drag coefficient at 65 mph is computed for each configuration, allowing the effectiveness of the add-on devices to be assessed. The most effective add-on drag reduction device for the trailer underbody is a wedge-shaped skirt, which reduces the wind-averaged drag coefficient by 2.0%. For the trailer base, the most effective add-on drag reduction device is a set of curved base flaps having a radius of curvature of 0.91 times the trailer width. These curved base flaps reduce the wind-averaged drag coefficient by 18.8%, providing the greatest drag reduction of any of the devices tested. When the wedge-shaped skirt and curved base flaps are used in conjunction with one another, the wind-averaged drag coefficient is reduced by 20%.

  14. Enhancement in counterflow drag reduction by supersonic jet in high enthalpy flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Vinayak; Reddy, K. P. J.

    2008-01-01

    Counterflow drag reduction by supersonic jet for a 60° apex angle blunt cone flying at hypersonic Mach number is investigated for two different flow enthalpies using conventional and free piston driven hypersonic shock tunnels. Enhancement in drag reduction has been observed with increase in freestream stagnation enthalpy. It is shown that the percentage of drag reduction goes up by a factor of 2 when the flow enthalpy increases by a factor of 2.5 for a given ratio of total pressure of supersonic jet and freestream flow.

  15. A theoretical prediction of friction drag reduction in turbulent flow by superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukagata, Koji; Kasagi, Nobuhide; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2006-05-01

    We present a theoretical prediction for the drag reduction rate achieved by superhydrophobic surfaces in a turbulent channel flow. The predicted drag reduction rate is in good agreement with results obtained from direct numerical simulations at Reτ≃180 and 400. The present theory suggests that large drag reduction is possible also at Reynolds numbers of practical interest (Reτ˜105-106) by employing a hydrophobic surface, which induces a slip length on the order of ten wall units or more.

  16. Skin friction drag reduction in turbulent flow using spanwise traveling surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musgrave, Patrick F.; Tarazaga, Pablo A.

    2017-04-01

    A major technological driver in current aircraft and other vehicles is the improvement of fuel efficiency. One way to increase the efficiency is to reduce the skin friction drag on these vehicles. This experimental study presents an active drag reduction technique which decreases the skin friction using spanwise traveling waves. A novel method is introduced for generating traveling waves which is low-profile, non-intrusive, and operates under various flow conditions. This wave generation method is discussed and the resulting traveling waves are presented. These waves are then tested in a low-speed wind tunnel to determine their drag reduction potential. To calculate the drag reduction, the momentum integral method is applied to turbulent boundary layer data collected using a pitot tube and traversing system. The skin friction coefficients are then calculated and the drag reduction determined. Preliminary results yielded a drag reduction of ≍ 5% for 244Hz traveling waves. Thus, this novel wave generation method possesses the potential to yield an easily implementable, non-invasive drag reduction technology.

  17. Numerical Simulation of High Drag Reduction in a Turbulent Channel Flow with Polymer Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubief, Yves

    2003-01-01

    The addition of small amounts of long chain polymer molecules to wall-bounded flows can lead to dramatic drag reduction. Although this phenomenon has been known for about fifty years, the action of the polymers and its effect on turbulent structures are still unclear. Detailed experiments have characterized two distinct regimes (Warholic et al. 1999), which are referred to as low drag reduction (LDR) and high drag reduction (HDR). The first regime exhibits similar statistical trends as Newtonian flow: the log-law region of the mean velocity profile remains parallel to that of the Newtonian ow but its lower bound moves away from the wall and the upward shift of the log-region is a function of drag reduction, DR. Although streamwise fluctuations are increased and transverse ones are reduced, the shape of the rms velocity profiles is not qualitatively modified. At higher drag reductions, of the order of 40-50%, the ow enters the HDR regime for which the slope of the log-law is dramatically augmented and the Reynolds shear stress is small (Warholic et al. 1999; Ptasinski et al. 2001). The drag reduction is eventually bounded by a maximum drag reduction (MDR) (Virk & Mickley 1970) which is a function of the Reynolds number. While several experiments report mean velocity profiles very close to the empirical profile of Virk & Mickley (1970) for MDR conditions, the observations regarding the structure of turbulence can differ significantly. For instance, Warholic et al. (1999) measured a near-zero Reynolds shear stress, whereas a recent experiment (Ptasinski et al. 2001) shows evidence of non-negligible Reynolds stress in their MDR flow. To the knowledge of the authors, only the LDR regime has been documented in numerical simulations (Sureshkumar et al. 1997; Dimitropoulos et al. 1998; Min et al. 2001; Dubief & Lele 2001; Sibilla & Baron 2002). This paper discusses the simulation of polymer drag reduced channel ow at HDR using the FENE-P (Finite Elastic non

  18. Turbulent Taylor-Couette flow over riblets: drag reduction and the effect of bulk fluid rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greidanus, A. J.; Delfos, R.; Tokgoz, S.; Westerweel, J.

    2015-05-01

    A Taylor-Couette facility was used to measure the drag reduction of a riblet surface on the inner cylinder. The drag on the surfaces of the inner and outer cylinders is determined from the measured torque when the cylinders are in exact counter-rotation. The three velocity components in the instantaneous flow field were obtained by tomographic PIV and indicate that the friction coefficients are strongly influenced by the flow regimes and structures. The riblet surface changes the friction at the inner-cylinder wall, which generates an average bulk fluid rotation. A simple model is proposed to distinguish drag changes due to the rotation effect and the riblet effect, as a function of the measured drag change and shear Reynolds number . An uncorrected maximum drag reduction of 5.3 % was found at that corresponds to riblet spacing Reynolds number . For these conditions, the model predicts an azimuthal bulk velocity shift of 1.4 %, which is confirmed by PIV measurements. This shift indicates a drag change due to a rotation effect of -1.9 %, resulting in a net maximum drag reduction of 3.4 %. The results correspond well with earlier reported results and demonstrate that the Taylor-Couette facility is a suitable and accurate measurement tool to characterize the drag performance of surfaces.

  19. Drag reduction mechanisms employed by burrowing razor clams (Ensis directus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Amos; Hosoi, Anette

    2008-11-01

    In this work we describe how razor clams use localized fluidization to reduce drag and efficiently burrow through a granular substrate. Razor clams require nearly two orders of magnitude less force to move through sand than a blunt body of the same size and shape. By visualizing substrate deformation during burrowing, we investigate the clamshell kinematics which fluidize a small pocket of substrate around the body of the organism. Through experimentation and scaling arguments, we show that moving through a fluidized substrate rather than a packed granular medium dramatically reduces the drag force on the clam's body to a point within the animal's strength capabilities.

  20. A preliminary investigation of drag reduction and mechanism for a blunt body of revolution with slanted base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xia, Xuejian; Yu, Xiaoshen

    1988-01-01

    This is a preliminary study of the drag reduction effect and its mechanism of a blunt body of revolution with a 21-deg slant angle by using a series of base plates. Drag coefficients were measured to investigate the effect of base installation position and plate height. An effective drag reduction device was found. Through the measurement of base pressure and total pressure distribution and flow pattern display, flow characteristics and drag reduction mechanism in the vortex near the wake were investigated.

  1. Drag reduction through wave-current interactions with a marine hydrofoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tully, Susan; Viola, Ignazio Maria; Ingram, David

    2015-11-01

    A hydrofoil exposed to oscillating flow experiences a reduction in drag due to the Knoller-Betz effect. This is experimentally identifiable by an increasingly inverted von Kármán wake and a corresponding thrust force on the foil. The rate of drag reduction, dependent on plunge amplitude and frequency, reduces with unsteady flow phenomena at higher reduced frequencies. For experimental ease, investigations of this effect have relied on actively plunging/pitching a foil within a steady current. However, one potential application is to drag reduction in high-speed ships adopting submerged foils. In this case the foil is travelling through wave-current induced oscillatory flow, resulting in an additional dynamic variation of hydrostatic pressure across the chord; a phenomena not fully addressed in previous experiments. Here we investigate the effects of this pressure gradient on drag reduction for a stationary foil in combined waves and current, through a combination of force measurements and particle image velocimetry.

  2. Bubbly drag reduction in a vertical Couette-Taylor system with superimposed axial flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maryami, R.; Farahat, S.; Javad poor, M.; Shafiei Mayam, M. H.

    2014-10-01

    The effect of axial flow on bubbly drag reduction has been experimentally investigated in a vertical Couette-Taylor flow system. The water flow is combined from circumferential and axial flow. Flow condition is fully turbulence and Taylor vortices have appeared in the annulus gap. The shear stress modification in the simultaneous presence of air bubbles and axial flow in the system has been studied by measuring torque acting on the inner cylinder. The results show that axial flow improves the effect of bubbles on drag reduction by damping Taylor vortices and increasing upward velocity of bubbles. In this case, drag reduction of more than 25% has been achieved, which corresponds to lower tested {{\\operatorname{Re}}_{\\omega }} and this amount is gradually decreased with increasing {{\\operatorname{Re}}_{\\omega }} in each {{\\operatorname{Re}}_{a}} and {{Q}_{a}}. Increasing {{Q}_{a}} causes drag reduction enhancement which could be due to the effect of bubbles on flow density reduction, flow fluctuations and Taylor vortices. Moreover, it is observed that skin friction is affected by axial flow solely and by increasing its volume rates, drag reduction reaches 11%. It is concluded that when bubbles and axial flow are simultaneously applied into the Couette-Taylor flow, the amount of achieved drag reduction is more than when they are separately applied.

  3. Feedback Control of a Square-Back Ahmed Body Flow for Form-Drag Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evstafyeva, Olga; Morgans, Aimee

    2015-11-01

    Road transport accounts for roughly 22% of CO2 emissions worldwide, and at highway speeds two thirds of usable energy is consumed overcoming aerodynamic drag. For square-back vehicles, aerodynamic drag is dominated by form- drag, originating from pressure difference between the front and the back face (base) of the vehicle. This study explores using feedback control to increase mean base pressure and thus reduce the form-drag of 3D Ahmed body flows at low (laminar) and medium (transitioning to turbulence) Reynolds numbers. Using Large Eddy Simulations as a test-bed, a linear control strategy to attenuate base-pressure force fluctuations is investigated. Body-mounted sensing and actuation is used: sensing of the base pressure force fluctuations, and actuation of a zero-mean slot jet just ahead of the base. The dynamic linearity of the response to actuation is tested and a feedback controller then designed using frequency domain harmonic forcing system identification data. Recent advances in understanding of the Ahmed body wake dynamics such as top-to-bottom and left-to-right bi-stable behaviour, are considered in the feedback control implementation.

  4. Experimental evaluation of compliant surfaces at low speeds. [aerodynamic drag of subsonic wind tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcalister, K. W.; Wynn, T. M.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental study was devised to determine the profile drag on a subsonic wind tunnel model partially covered with various compliant surface materials. The model consisted of a large section of constant thickness bounded fore and aft by symmetric airfoil fairings. A flat rigid plate, the control surface, could be exchanged for four contiguous complaint panels. The flexible media generally consisted of thin polyvinylchloride membranes stretched to various tensions over trapped fluid cavities of air, water, or polyethelene oxide solution, or over dry or flooded open-celled polyurethane foams. On the basis of very accurate direct-force cell measurements, all configurations were found to yield profile drags equal to or slightly higher than that obtained for the conventional rigid surface case. The results indicate that the potential for practical drag-reducing applications will be limited to either high-density or high-speed flows where more sensible pressure perturbations occur.

  5. A New Paradigm for Turbulence Control for Drag Reduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-27

    explicit algebraic heat flux models consistently displayed increasing disagreement with DNS data with increasing rotation rate. DNS results were also...DNS data for rotational flows and turbulent heat flux distributions obtained from two explicit algebraic heat flux models consistently displayed...turbine design due to its flow regime consisting of chaotic property changes and instabilities, leading to undesirable results such as higher drag

  6. Numerical studies of laminar and turbulent drag reduction, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanian, R.; Orszag, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    The flow over wave shaped surfaces is studied using a Navier Stokes solver. Detailed comparisons with theoretical results are presented, including the stability of a laminar flow over wavy surfaces. Drag characteristics of nonplanar surfaces are predicted using the Navier-Stokes solver. The secondary instabilities of wall bounded and free shear flows are also discussed.

  7. Re-Entry Point Targeting for LEO Spacecraft using Aerodynamic Drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Sanny; Bevilacqua, Riccardo; Fineberg, Laurence; Treptow, Justin; Johnson, Yusef; Clark, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Most Low Earth Orbit (LEO) spacecraft do not have thrusters and re-enter atmosphere in random locations at uncertain times. Objects pose a risk to persons, property, or other satellites. Has become a larger concern with the recent increase in small satellites. Working on a NASA funded project to design a retractable drag device to expedite de-orbit and target a re-entry location through modulation of the drag area. Will be discussing the re-entry point targeting algorithm here.

  8. Investigation of drag reduction through a flapping mechanism on circular cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asif, Md. Asafuddoula; Gupta, Avijit Das; Rana, M. D. Juwel; Ahmed, Dewan Hasan

    2016-07-01

    During flapping wing, a bird develops sufficient lift force as well as counteracts drag and increases its speed through different orientations of feathers on the flapping wings. Differently oriented feathers play a significant role in drag reduction during flying of a bird. With an objective to investigate the effect of installation of such flapping mechanism as a mean of drag reduction in case of flow over circular cylinder, this concept has been implemented through installation of continuous and mini flaps, made of MS sheet metal, where flaps are oriented at different angles as like feathers of flapping wings. The experiments are carried out in a subsonic wind tunnel. After validation and comparison with conventional result of drag analysis of a single cylinder, effects of flapping with Reynolds number variation, implementation of different orientations of mini flaps and variation of different interspacing distance between mini flaps are studied to find the most effective angle of attack of drag reduction on the body of circular cylinder. This research show that, installation of continuous flap reduces value of drag co-efficient, CD up to 66%, where as mini flaps are found more effective by reducing it up to 73%. Mini flaps of L/s=6.25, all angled at 30O, at the 30O angular position on the body of circular cylinder has been found the most effective angle of attack for drag reduction in case of flow over circular cylinder.

  9. Experimental study of delta wing leading-edge devices for drag reduction at high lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. D., Jr.; Rao, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    The drag reduction devices selected for evaluation were the fence, slot, pylon-type vortex generator, and sharp leading-edge extension. These devices were tested on a 60 degree flatplate delta (with blunt leading edges) in the Langley Research Center 7- by 10-foot high-speed tunnel at low speed and to angles of attack of 28 degrees. Balance and static pressure measurements were taken. The results indicate that all the devices had significant drag reduction capability and improved longitudinal stability while a slight loss of lift and increased cruise drag occurred.

  10. Longitudinal afterbody grooves and shoulder radiusing for low-speed bluff body drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, F. G.; Quass, B. F.; Weinstein, L. M.; Bushnell, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    A new low-speed drag reduction approach is proposed which employs longitudinal surface V-shaped grooves cutting through the afterbody shoulder region. The test Reynolds number range was from 20,000 to 200,000 based on undisturbed free-stream flow and a body diameter of 6.08 cm. The V-grooves are shown to be most effective in reducing drag when the afterbody shoulder radius is zero. Reductions in drag of up to 33% have been measured for this condition. For large shoulder radius, the grooves are only effective at the lower Reynolds numbers of the test.

  11. Skin-friction drag reduction in the turbulent regime using random-textured hydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidkar, Rahul A.; Leblanc, Luc; Kulkarni, Ambarish J.; Bahadur, Vaibhav; Ceccio, Steven L.; Perlin, Marc

    2014-08-01

    Technologies for reducing hydrodynamic skin-friction drag have a huge potential for energy-savings in applications ranging from propulsion of marine vessels to transporting liquids through pipes. The majority of previous experimental studies using hydrophobic surfaces have successfully shown skin-friction drag reduction in the laminar and transitional flow regimes (typically Reynolds numbers less than ≃106 for external flows). However, this hydrophobicity induced drag reduction is known to diminish with increasing Reynolds numbers in experiments involving wall bounded turbulent flows. Using random-textured hydrophobic surfaces (fabricated using large-length scalable thermal spray processes) on a flat plate geometry, we present water-tunnel test data with Reynolds numbers ranging from 106 to 9 × 106 that show sustained skin-friction drag reduction of 20%-30% in such turbulent flow regimes. Furthermore, we provide evidence that apart from the formation of a Cassie state and hydrophobicity, we also need a low surface roughness and an enhanced ability of the textured surface to retain trapped air, for sustained drag reduction in turbulent flow regimes. Specifically, for the hydrophobic test surfaces of the present and previous studies, we show that drag reduction seen at lower Reynolds numbers diminishes with increasing Reynolds number when the surface roughness of the underlying texture becomes comparable to the viscous sublayer thickness. Conversely, test data show that textures with surface roughness significantly smaller than the viscous sublayer thickness and textures with high porosity show sustained drag reduction in the turbulent flow regime. The present experiments represent a significant technological advancement and one of the very few demonstrations of skin-friction reduction in the turbulent regime using random-textured hydrophobic surfaces in an external flow configuration. The scalability of the fabrication method, the passive nature of this surface

  12. Copolymers for Drag Reduction in Marine Propulsion: New Molecular Structures with Enhanced Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-31

    refractive index and vis- Wiley & Sons, New York, 1987, p. 161. cosity chromatograms using polydispersed samples. 6. A. R. Weiss and E. Cohn-Ginsberg...first time direct comparisons of polymer type by assessing drag reduction efficiency as a function of polymer volume fraction. A master curve has been...characterized for dilute solution properties including drag reduction behavior as a function of solvent ionic strength. Since zwitterionic polyampholytes have

  13. Aerodynamic Assessment of Flight-Determined Subsonic Lift and Drag Characteristics of Seven Lifting-Body and Wing-Body Reentry Vehicle Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Edwin J.; Wang, K. Charles; Iliff, Kenneth W.

    2002-01-01

    This report examines subsonic flight-measured lift and drag characteristics of seven lifting-body and wing-body reentry vehicle configurations with truncated bases. The seven vehicles are the full-scale M2-F1, M2-F2, HL-10, X-24A, X-24B, and X-15 vehicles and the Space Shuttle Enterprise. Subsonic flight lift and drag data of the various vehicles are assembled under aerodynamic performance parameters and presented in several analytical and graphical formats. These formats are intended to unify the data and allow a greater understanding than individually studying the vehicles allows. Lift-curve slope data are studied with respect to aspect ratio and related to generic wind-tunnel model data and to theory for low-aspect-ratio platforms. The definition of reference area is critical for understanding and comparing the lift data. The drag components studied include minimum drag coefficient, lift-related drag, maximum lift-to drag ratio, and, where available, base pressure coefficients. The influence of forebody drag on afterbody and base drag at low lift is shown to be related to Hoerner's compilation for body, airfoil, nacelle, and canopy drag. This feature may result in a reduced need of surface smoothness for vehicles with a large ratio of base area to wetted area. These analyses are intended to provide a useful analytical framework with which to compare and evaluate new vehicle configurations of the same generic family.

  14. Drag reduction of boat-tailed bluff bodies through transverse grooves. Part II: large-eddy simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvetti, Maria Vittoria; Mariotti, Alessandro; Buresti, Guido

    2016-11-01

    The present work focuses on strategies for aerodynamic drag reduction of elongated axisymmetric bluff bodies, which can be viewed as simplified models of a road vehicles. We combine boat-tailing, i.e. a gradual reduction of the body cross-section before a sharp-edged base, with properly contoured transverse grooves. The effectiveness of this strategy was assessed through experiments and simulations. Experiments showed that the introduction of a single groove leads to a further delay of boundary-layer separation and to a reduction of drag compared with the boat-tail configuration without grooves. In this talk, we present Large-Eddy Simulations (LES). LES results agree with the experimental findings. The success of the proposed flow control strategy is due to the relaxation of the no-slip condition in the small recirculation region inside the groove, which reduces the momentum losses near the wall and thus delays boundary layer separation. The effects of the introduction of the groove on the mean topology and on the dynamics of the near wake are also highlighted. Finally, a sensitivity analysis of the proposed control strategy efficiency to the groove location and to the boat-tail geometry is shown.

  15. The effect of solar forcing induced atmospheric perturbations on LEO satellites' nominal aerodynamic drag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwankwo, Victor U. J.; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Weigel, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric drag is the strongest force perturbing the motion of satellites in low Earth orbits LEO, and could cause re-entry of satellites, difficulty in identifying and tracking of the satellites and other space objects, manuvering and prediction of lifetime and re-entry. Solar activities influence the temperature, density and composition of the upper atmosphere. These effects thus strongly depend on the phase of a solar cycle. The frequency of intense flares and storms increase during solar maximum. Heating up of the atmosphere causes its expansion eventually leading to accelerated drag of orbiting satellites, especially those in LEO. In this paper, we present the model of the atmospheric drag effect on the trajectory of hypothetical LEO satellites of different ballistic coefficients. We investigate long-term trend of atmospheric drag on LEO satellites due to solar forcing induced atmospheric perturbations and heating at different phases of the solar cycle, and during interval of strong geomagnetic disturbances or storms. We show the dependence of orbital decay on severity of both the solar cycle and phase, and the extent of geomagnetic perturbations. The result of the model compares well with the observed decay profile of existing LEO satellites and provides a better understanding of the issue of the orbital decay. Our result may also be useful for selection of launch window of satellites for an extended lifetime in the orbit.

  16. October 1998 working group meeting on heavy vehicle aerodynamic drag: presentations and summary of comments and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Browand, F; Heineck, J T; Leonard, A; McBride, D; McCallen, R; Ross, J; Rutledge, W; Salari, K; Storms, B

    1998-10-01

    A Working Group 1Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California on October 22, 1998. The purpose of the meeting was to present an overview of the computational and experimental approach for modeling the integrated tractor-trailer benchmark geometry called the Sandia IModel and to review NASA' s test plan for their experiments in the 7 ft x 10 ft wind tunnel. The present and projected funding situation was also discussed. Presentations were given by representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Transportation Technology Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology (OHVT). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and NASA Ames Research Center. This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions. and outlines the future action items.

  17. April 2002 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentations and Summary of Comments and Conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Salari, K; Dunn, T; Ortega, J; Yen-Nakafuji, D; Browand, F; Arcas, D; Jammache, M; Leoard, A; Chatelain, P; Rubel, M; Rutledge, W; McWherter-Payne, M; Roy, Ca; Ross, J; Satran, D; Heineck, J T; Storms, B; Pointer, D; Sofu, T; Weber, D; Chu, E; Hancock, P; Bundy, B; Englar, B

    2002-08-22

    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on April 3 and 4, 2002. The purpose of the meeting was to present and discuss technical details on the experimental and computational work in progress and future project plans. Representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Transportation Technology Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology (OHVT), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), NASA Ames Research Center, University of Southern California (USC), and California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Volvo Trucks, and Freightliner Trucks presented and participated in discussions. This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions, and outlines the future action items.

  18. Wetting behavior and drag reduction of superhydrophobic layered double hydroxides films on aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Yin, Liang; Liu, Xiaowei; Weng, Rui; Wang, Yang; Wu, Zhiwen

    2016-09-01

    We present a novel method to fabricate Zn-Al LDH (layered double hydroxides) film with 3D flower-like micro-and nanostructure on the aluminum foil. The wettability of the Zn-Al LDH film can be easily changed from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic with a simple chemical modification. The as-prepared superhydrophobic surfaces have water CAs (contact angles) of 165 ± 2°. In order to estimate the drag reduction property of the surface with different adhesion properties, the experimental setup of the liquid/solid friction drag is proposed. The drag reduction ratio for the as-prepared superhydrophobic sample is 20-30% at low velocity. Bearing this in mind, we construct superhydrophobic surfaces that have numerous technical applications in drag reduction field.

  19. Drag reduction by reconfiguration of a full tree in a wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Langre, Emmanuel; Tadrist, Loic; Leclercq, Tristan; Hemon, Pascal; Amandolese, Xavier; Saudreau, Marc; Marquier, Andre; Knapp, Graham; Flamand, Olivier

    2015-11-01

    The results of drag measurements performed on a full 3 m-tall cherry tree in an atmospheric wind tunnel are presented. The drag on the trunk alone is shown to increase quadratically with the velocity of the flow, as expected, but the drag on the whole tree with branches and leaves follows a smaller power law with velocity, after the reconfiguration of most leaves. The transition from the quadratic law to a linear increase of the drag of the leaves with the magnitude of the flow is observed. Data is also obtained on moment loading on the base of the tree showing also an effect of the reconfiguration. Finally, these results are compared with current models of drag reduction by reconfiguration.

  20. Drag reduction on a rectangular bluff body with base flaps and fluidic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, H.-J.; Woszidlo, R.; Nayeri, C. N.; Paschereit, C. O.

    2015-07-01

    The present paper investigates drag reduction on a rectangular bluff body by employing base flaps and controlling flow separation with fluidic oscillators. Wind tunnel experiments are conducted to assess the influence of various parameters. The flap length has to be sufficiently long to shift the wake structures far enough downstream away from the base plate. Any additional increase in flap length does not yield any further benefits. The flap angle has to be large enough to provide a sufficient inward deflection of the outer flow. If the angle is too large, actuation becomes inefficient due to the pressure gradient imposed by the opposite side of the base perimeter. Furthermore, the flaps at high deflection angles provide additional area for low pressure to act in the streamwise direction and therefore negate the positive effects of actuation. The required actuation intensity is best governed by the ratio between jet and freestream velocity for varying oscillator spacing. For a flap angle of 20°, the smallest net drag is obtained at a velocity ratio of 4.5. Furthermore, the optimal velocity ratio for the most efficient drag reduction changes linearly with flap angle. Smaller flap deflections require a smaller velocity ratio for optimal control at different oscillator spacing. A net drag reduction of about 13 % is measured at a flap angle of 20° when the drag is corrected by the momentum input. Even if the measured drag is conservatively corrected by the energy coefficient, a net improvement of 7 % is achieved. For the current setup, the most efficient drag reduction is still obtained at smaller flap angles with a lower momentum input. However, the presented results support the general feasibility of this drag reduction approach with significant room left for optimization.

  1. CFD analysis on effect of front windshield angle on aerodynamic drag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdellah, Essaghouri; Wang, Bo

    2017-09-01

    The external aerodynamics plays an important role in the design process of any automotive. The whole performance of the vehicle can be improved with the help of external aerodynamics. The aerodynamic analysis nowadays is implemented in the recent research in the automotive industry to achieve better cars in terms of design and efficiency. The major objective of the present work is to find out the effect of changing the angle between the engine hood and the front windshield on reducing the car air resistance. A full scale three dimensional (BMW 3 series) sedan car model was carried out using the ALIAS AUTOSTUDIO 2016 a NURBS modeling tool with high quality surfaces, only the external shape of the car was modeled while the interior was not modeled. The ANSYS 17.0 WORKBENCH software package was used to analyse the airflow around the external shape of the car – the solutions of Reynolds Average Navier Stokes (RANS) equations has been carried out using realizable k-epsilon turbulence model (which is perfectly suitable for the automated calculation process) for the given car domain. In this work, the boundary layer, mesh quality, and turbulent value simulation has been compared and discussed in the result section. Finally the optimal model was selected and the redesigned car was analysed to verify the results.

  2. Copolymers for Drag Reduction in Marine Propulsion: New Molecular Structures with Enhanced Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-31

    and C. McCormick, National ACS Meeting, Denver, CO, March 1993. "Derivatization of Chitin and Cellulose Utilizing LiC1/N,N-Dimethylacetamide Solvent...pH- and salt-responsive drag reducing systems based on zwitterionic and ionic polymer structures which have the best drag reducing properties reported...reduction efficiency as measured by a rotating disk apparatus. The polymer can be prepared by inverse emulsion or microemulsion techniques for rapid

  3. Reduction of profile drag by blowing out through peg holes in areas of streamline separation bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horstmann, K. H.; Quast, A.

    1981-01-01

    Streamline separation bubbles on aircraft profiles and fuselages were investigated. The additional drag was examined in relation to increased angle of incidence and unusually high wall sheer stress. A reduction of the separation bubble and a decrease in drag is obtained with pneumatic turbulators that blow ram air out of 0.6mm pilot tubes at a distance of 16 mm. The pneumatic models are implemented at various positions and are found to be effective after the position of separation.

  4. Trim drag reduction concepts for horizontal takeoff single-stage-to-Orbit vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaughnessy, John D.; Gregory, Irene M.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a study to investigate concepts for minimizing trim drag of horizontal takeoff single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicles are presented. A generic hypersonic airbreathing conical configuration was used as the subject aircraft. The investigation indicates that extreme forward migration of the aerodynamic center as the vehicle accelerates to orbital velocities causes severe aerodynamic instability and trim moments that must be counteracted. Adequate stability can be provided by active control of elevons and rudder, but use of elevons to produce trim moments results in excessive trim drag and fuel consumption. To alleviate this problem, two solution concepts are examined. Active control of the center of gravity (COG) location to track the aerodynamic center decreases trim moment requirements, reduces elevon deflections, and leads to significant fuel savings. Active control of the direction of the thrust vector produces required trim moments, reduces elevon deflections, and also results in significant fuel savings. It is concluded that the combination of active flight control to provide stabilization, (COG) position control to minimize trim moment requirements, and thrust vectoring to generate required trim moments has the potential to significantly reduce fuel consumption during ascent to orbit of horizontal takeoff SSTO vehicles.

  5. Buoyancy increase and drag-reduction through a simple superhydrophobic coating.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Gi Byoung; Patir, Adnan; Page, Kristopher; Lu, Yao; Allan, Elaine; Parkin, Ivan P

    2017-06-08

    A superhydrophobic paint was fabricated using 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane (PFOTES), TiO2 nanoparticles and ethanol. The paint has potential for aquatic application of a superhydrophobic coating as it induces increased buoyancy and drag reduction. Buoyance testing showed that the reduction of surface energy by superhydrophobic coating made it feasible that glass, a high density material, was supported by the surface tension of water. In a miniature boat sailing test, it was shown that the low energy surface treatment decreased the adhesion of water molecules to the surface of the boat resulting in a reduction of the drag force. Additionally, a robust superhydrophobic surface was fabricated through layer-by-layer coating using adhesive double side tape and the paint, and after a 100 cm abrasion test with sand paper, the surface still retained its water repellency, enhanced buoyancy and drag reduction.

  6. Drag reductions and the air-water interface stability of superhydrophobic surfaces in rectangular channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingxian; Yao, Zhaohui; Hao, Pengfei

    2016-11-01

    Flow in a rectangular channel with superhydrophobic (SH) top and bottom walls was investigated experimentally. Different SH surfaces, including hierarchical structured surfaces and surfaces with different micropost sizes (width and spacing) but the same solid fraction, were fabricated and measured. Pressure loss and flow rate in the channel with SH top and bottom walls were measured, with Reynolds number changing from 700 to 4700, and the corresponding friction factor for the SH surface was calculated. The statuses of the air plastron on different SH surfaces were observed during the experiment. In our experiment, compared with the experiment for the smooth surface, drag reductions were observed for all SH surfaces, with the largest drag reduction of 42.2%. It was found that the hierarchy of the microstructure can increase the drag reduction by decreasing the solid fraction and enhancing the stability of the air-water interface. With a fixed solid fraction, the drag reduction decreases as the post size (width and spacing) increases, due to the increasing curvature and instability effects of the air-water interface. A correlation parameter between the contact angle hysteresis, the air-water interface stability, and the drag reduction of the SH surfaces was found.

  7. Drag reductions and the air-water interface stability of superhydrophobic surfaces in rectangular channel flow.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingxian; Yao, Zhaohui; Hao, Pengfei

    2016-11-01

    Flow in a rectangular channel with superhydrophobic (SH) top and bottom walls was investigated experimentally. Different SH surfaces, including hierarchical structured surfaces and surfaces with different micropost sizes (width and spacing) but the same solid fraction, were fabricated and measured. Pressure loss and flow rate in the channel with SH top and bottom walls were measured, with Reynolds number changing from 700 to 4700, and the corresponding friction factor for the SH surface was calculated. The statuses of the air plastron on different SH surfaces were observed during the experiment. In our experiment, compared with the experiment for the smooth surface, drag reductions were observed for all SH surfaces, with the largest drag reduction of 42.2%. It was found that the hierarchy of the microstructure can increase the drag reduction by decreasing the solid fraction and enhancing the stability of the air-water interface. With a fixed solid fraction, the drag reduction decreases as the post size (width and spacing) increases, due to the increasing curvature and instability effects of the air-water interface. A correlation parameter between the contact angle hysteresis, the air-water interface stability, and the drag reduction of the SH surfaces was found.

  8. The BMW analytic aerodynamic drag method for the Vinti satellite theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, J. S.; Mistretta, G. D.; Bonavito, N. L.

    1972-01-01

    In order to retain separability in the Vinti theory of earth satellite motion when a non conservative force such as air drag is considered, a set of variational equations for the orbital elements are introduced, and expressed as functions of the transverse, radial, and normal components of the nonconservative forces acting on the system. In particular, the atmospheric density profile is written as a fitted exponential function of the eccentric anomaly, which reproduces tabular values of static model atmospheric densities at all altitudes to within ninety-eight percent and simultaneously reduces the variational equations to indefinite integrals with closed form evaluations, whose limits are in terms of the eccentric anomaly. The values of the limits for any arbitrary time interval are obtained from the Vinti program. Results of the BMW (Bonavito, Mistretta, Watson) theory for the case of the intense air drag satellites San Marco-2 and Air Force Cannonball are given. These results indicate that the satellite ephemerides produced by the BMW theory in conjunction with the Vinti program are of very high accuracy. In addition, since the program is entirely analytic, several months of ephemerides can be obtained within a few seconds of computer time.

  9. Wave drag reduction with a self-aligning aerodisk on a missile configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnepf, C.; Wysocki, O.; Schülein, E.

    2017-06-01

    A self-aligning aerodisk to reduce the wave drag on a pitching missile is numerically investigated. The motion and the Mach number were chosen to match a maneuver flight of an actual missile: pitching frequency f = 7.5 Hz, Mach number M = 2.2, and range of angle of attack 0° < < 21° . The self-alignment was realized with a coupling of the §ow solver with a 6DoF (6 degrees of freedom) tool. In the entire range of angle of attack, the drag could be reduced with the self-aligning aerodisk. A comparison with experimental data showed in parts a quite good agreement in the aerodynamic coe©cients, in the shock structure, and in the alignment of the aerodisk.

  10. The Effect of Various Wing-Gun Installations on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Airplane Model Equipped with an NACA Low-Drag Wing, Special Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muse, Thomas C.

    1941-01-01

    An investigation was made in the NACA 19-foot pressure wind tunnel to determine the effect of various win-gun installation on the aerodynamic characteristics of a model with an NACA low-drag wing. Measurements were made of lift and drag over an angle-of-attack range and for several values of dynamic pressure on a four-tenths scale model of a high-speed airplane equipped with the low-drag wing and with various wing-gun installations. Two installations were tested: one in which the blast tube and part of the gun barrel protrude ahead of the wing and another in which the guns is mounted wholly within the wing. Two types of openings for the latter installation were tested. For each installation three simulated guns were mounted in each wing. The results are given in the form of nondimensional coefficients. The installations tested appear to have little effect on the maximum-lift coefficient of the model. However, the drag coefficient shows a definite change. The least adverse effect was obtained with the completely internal mounting and small nose entrance. The results indicate that a properly designed wing-gun installation will have very little adverse effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of the low-drag wing.

  11. Kevlar/PMR-15 polyimide matrix composite for a complex shaped DC-9 drag reduction fairing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawai, R. T.; Mccarthy, R. F.; Willer, M. S.; Hrach, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    The Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Program was established by NASA to improve the fuel efficiency of commercial transport aircraft and thereby to reduce the amount of fuel consumed by the air transportation industry. One of the final items developed by the program is an improved fairing which is the aft closure for the thrust reverser actuators on the JT8D nacelles on DC-9 aircraft. The reduced-drag fairing uses, in the interest of weight savings, an advanced composite construction. The composite material contains Kevlar 49 fibers in a PMR-15 matrix. Attention is given to the aerodynamic configuration, the material system, and aspects of fabrication development.

  12. Kevlar/PMR-15 polyimide matrix composite for a complex shaped DC-9 drag reduction fairing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawai, R. T.; Mccarthy, R. F.; Willer, M. S.; Hrach, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    The Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Program was established by NASA to improve the fuel efficiency of commercial transport aircraft and thereby to reduce the amount of fuel consumed by the air transportation industry. One of the final items developed by the program is an improved fairing which is the aft closure for the thrust reverser actuators on the JT8D nacelles on DC-9 aircraft. The reduced-drag fairing uses, in the interest of weight savings, an advanced composite construction. The composite material contains Kevlar 49 fibers in a PMR-15 matrix. Attention is given to the aerodynamic configuration, the material system, and aspects of fabrication development.

  13. Longitudinal Aerodynamic Characteristics and Effect of Rocket Jet on Drag of Models of the Hermes A-3A and A-3B Missiles in Free Flight at Mach Numbers From 0.6 to 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, H. Herbert

    1955-01-01

    A free-flight investigation over a Mach number range from 0.6 to 2.0 has been conducted to determine the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics and effect of rocket jet on zero-lift drag of 1/5-scale models of two ballistic-type missiles, the Hermes A-3A and A-3B. Models of both types of missiles exhibited very nearly linear normal forces and pitching moments over the angle-of-attack range of 8 deg to -4 deg and Mach number range tested. The centers of pressure for both missiles were not appreciably affected by Mach number over the subsonic range; however, between a Mach number of 1.02 and 1.50 the center of pressure for the A-3A model moved forward 0.34 caliber with increasing Mach number. At a trim angle-of-attack of approximately 30 deg, the A-3A model indicated a total drag coefficient 30% higher than the power-off zero-lift drag over the subsonic Mach number range and 10% higher over the supersonic range. Under the conditions of the present test, and excluding the effect of the jet on base drag, there was no indicated effect of the propulsive jet on the total drag of the A-3A model. The propulsive jet operating at a jet pressure ratio p(sub j)/p(sub o) of 0.8 caused approximately 100% increase in base drag over the Mach number range M = 0.6 to 1.0. This increase in base drag amounts to 15% of the total drag. An underexpanded jet operating at jet pressure ratios corresponding approximately to those of the full-scale missile caused a 22% reduction in base drag at M = 1.55 (p(sub j)/p(sub o) = 1.76) but indicated no change at M = 1.30 (p(sub j)/p(sub o) = 1.43). At M = 1.1 and p(sub j)/p(sub o) = 1.55, the jet caused a 50% increase in base drag.

  14. Lubricant-impregnated surfaces for drag reduction in viscous laminar flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Brian; Khalil, Karim; Varanasi, Kripa; MIT Team

    2013-11-01

    For the first time, we explore the potential of lubricant impregnated surfaces (LIS) in reducing drag. LIS, inspired by the surface of the Nepenthes pitcher plant, have been introduced as a novel way of functionalizing a surface. LIS are characterized by extremely low contact angle hysteresis and have been show to effectively repel various liquids including water, oils, ketchup and blood. Motivated by the slippery nature of such surfaces, we explore the potential of LIS to reduce drag in internal flows. We observe a reduction in drag for LIS surfaces in a viscous laminar drag flow and model the impact of relevant system parameters (lubricant viscosity, working fluid viscosity, solid fraction, depth of texture, etc.).

  15. Re-examination of compliant wall experiments in air with water substrates. [for drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hefner, J. N.; Weinstein, L. M.

    1976-01-01

    A possible alternative explanation is proposed for compliant wall drag reductions measured in previous investigations. Standing waves were observed to form on the surfaces of compliant wall models in air with water substrates as the freestream velocity was increased from 15 to 30 m/s. These waves resembled sine waves with half of the wave protruding over the upstream portion of the model and the other half being recessed over the downstream end of the model. These data coupled with results of recent drag reduction experiments suggest that standing waves could have caused a shift in the model center of gravity creating a bending moment that was interpreted as a reduction in the skin friction drag.

  16. Re-examination of compliant wall experiments in air with water substrates. [for drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hefner, J. N.; Weinstein, L. M.

    1976-01-01

    A possible alternative explanation is proposed for compliant wall drag reductions measured in previous investigations. Standing waves were observed to form on the surfaces of compliant wall models in air with water substrates as the freestream velocity was increased from 15 to 30 m/s. These waves resembled sine waves with half of the wave protruding over the upstream portion of the model and the other half being recessed over the downstream end of the model. These data coupled with results of recent drag reduction experiments suggest that standing waves could have caused a shift in the model center of gravity creating a bending moment that was interpreted as a reduction in the skin friction drag.

  17. Drag reduction over liquid-infused surfaces in turbulent Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Buren, Tyler; Rosenberg, Brian; Smits, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    We present an experimental study on aqueous turbulent flow over a liquid-infused textured surface for the purpose of drag reduction. Taylor-Couette flow experiments are performed over a range of laminar to turbulent conditions (Re = 1500 to 7000), where the skin friction is compared to (i) a baseline case that consists of a textured surface with no impregnated fluid and (ii) an air-impregnated superhydrophic surface. We achieve drag reduction as high as 11% with superhydrophic surfaces and 4% with liquid infused surfaces. Of particular interest in this study is (1) the impact of surface texture shape and gap size on the resulting surface skin friction, (2) the importance of the viscosity ratios of the two fluids and its relationship to drag reduction, and (3) longevity of effectiveness when comparing liquid- to air-infused surfaces. This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research under MURI grant numbers: N000141210875, N000141210962, and N000141310458.

  18. On the effect of sea spray on the aerodynamic surface drag under severe winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Ezhova, Ekaterina; Soustova, Irina; Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the effect of the sea spray on the air-sea momentum exchange during the entire "life cycle" of a droplet, torn off the crest of a steep surface wave, and its fall down to the water, in the framework of a model covering the following aspects of the phenomenon: (1) motion of heavy particle in the driving air flow (equations of motion); (2) structure of the wind field (wind velocity, wave-induced disturbances, turbulent fluctuations); (3) generation of the sea spray; and (4) statistics of droplets (size distribution, wind speed dependence). It is demonstrated that the sea spray in strong winds leads to an increase in the surface drag up to 40 % on the assumption that the velocity profile is neutral.

  19. Aerodynamic drag is not the major determinant of performance during giant slalom skiing at the elite level.

    PubMed

    Supej, M; Saetran, L; Oggiano, L; Ettema, G; Šarabon, N; Nemec, B; Holmberg, H-C

    2013-02-01

    This investigation was designed to (a) develop an individualized mechanical model for measuring aerodynamic drag (F(d) ) while ski racing through multiple gates, (b) estimate energy dissipation (E(d) ) caused by F(d) and compare this to the total energy loss (E(t) ), and (c) investigate the relative contribution of E(d) /E(t) to performance during giant slalom skiing (GS). Nine elite skiers were monitored in different positions and with different wind velocities in a wind tunnel, as well as during GS and straight downhill skiing employing a Global Navigation Satellite System. On the basis of the wind tunnel measurements, a linear regression model of drag coefficient multiplied by cross-sectional area as a function of shoulder height was established for each skier (r > 0.94, all P < 0.001). Skiing velocity, F(d) , E(t) , and E(d) per GS turn were 15-21 m/s, 20-60 N, -11 to -5 kJ, and -2.3 to -0.5 kJ, respectively. E(d) /E(t) ranged from ∼5% to 28% and the relationship between E(t) /v(in) and E(d) was r = -0.12 (all NS). In conclusion, (a) F(d) during alpine skiing was calculated by mechanical modeling, (b) E(d) made a relatively small contribution to E(t) , and (c) higher relative E(d) was correlated to better performance in elite GS skiers, suggesting that reducing ski-snow friction can improve this performance. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. March 2000 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic DragL Presentations and Summary of Comments and Conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R.; Flowers, D.; Dunn, T.; Owens, J.; Browand, F.; Hammache, M.; Loenard, A.; Brady, M.; Salari, K.; Rutledge, W.; Scheckler, R.; Ross, J.; Storms, B.; Heineck, J.T.; Arledge, T

    2000-05-15

    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on March 16, 2000. The purpose of the meeting was to present technical details on the experimental and computational plans and approaches and provide an update on progress in the analysis of experimental results, model developments, simulations, and an investigation of an aerodynamic device. The focus of the meeting was a review of University of Southern California's (USC) experimental plans and results, NASA Ames experimental plans, the computational results from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the integrated tractor-trailer benchmark geometry called the Ground Transportation System (GTS) Model, and turbulence model development and benchmark simulation for a rounded cube from California Institute of Technology (Caltech). Much of the meeting discussion involved deficiencies in commercial software, needed modeling improvements, and the importance of detailed data for code validation. The present and projected budget and funding situation was also discussed. Presentations were given by representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Transportation Technology Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology (OHVT), LLNL, SNL, NASA Ames, USC, and Caltech. Representatives from Argonne National Laboratory also participated via telephone. This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions, and outlines the future action items. There were 3 major issues raised at the meeting. (1) Our funding is inadequate to satisfy industries request for high Reynolds number experimentation and computation. Plans are to respond to the DOD and DOE requests for proposals, which require a 50-50 cost share with industry, to acquire funding for high Reynolds number experiments at NASA Ames. (2) The deficiencies in commercial software, the need for

  1. The influence of polyvinylacetate additive in water on turbulent velocity field and drag reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodes, A.; Macho, V.

    1989-06-01

    The effect of polymer concentration on drag reduction was studied experimentally with diluted water solutions of polyvinylacetate in a 2.4 cm I. D. pipe. The instantaneous local velocities of the velocity fields were measured by a one-channel differential laser-Doppler anemometer DISA Mark II, with forward scattering. Concentrations of water-polyvinylacetate over the range from 10 to 2,000 ppm were used. The drag reduction coefficient is proportional to the concentration and hydrolysis degree of the saponificated polyvinylacetate (PVAC) employed. A mechanical degradation in the turbulent shear flow was not observed.

  2. A mechanism of wave drag reduction in the thermal energy deposition experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Markhotok, A.

    2015-06-15

    Many experimental studies report reduced wave drag when thermal energy is deposited in the supersonic flow upstream of a body. Though a large amount of research on this topic has been accumulated, the exact mechanism of the drag reduction is still unknown. This paper is to fill the gap in the understanding connecting multiple stages of the observed phenomena with a single mechanism. The proposed model provides an insight on the origin of the chain of subsequent transformations in the flow leading to the reduction in wave drag, such as typical deformations of the front, changes in the gas pressure and density in front of the body, the odd shapes of the deflection signals, and the shock wave extinction in the plasma area. The results of numerical simulation based on the model are presented for three types of plasma parameter distribution. The spherical and cylindrical geometry has been used to match the data with the experimental observations. The results demonstrate full ability of the model to exactly explain all the features observed in the drag reduction experiments. Analytical expressions used in the model allow separating out a number of adjustment parameters that can be used to optimize thermal energy input and thus achieve fundamentally lower drag values than that of conventional approaches.

  3. Investigations on drag reduction in turbulent pipe flows by addition of ionic and nonionic high polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graeger, Helmut

    Drag reduction in turbulent pipe flow is obtained by addition of polymeric flow accelerator. Turbulent flow pattern is described on the basis of existing theories and reduction of loss of pressure heads is discussed. A turbulence rheometer is developed permitting the measurement of friction reduction for Reynolds numbers 1100 to 90,000. Effectiveness of water soluble polymer systems like polyacrylamide and coacrylate is studied in dependence of concentration, chemical composition, product aging and polymer chain deformation.

  4. Superhydrophobic copper tubes with possible flow enhancement and drag reduction.

    PubMed

    Shirtcliffe, Neil J; McHale, Glen; Newton, Michael I; Zhang, Yong

    2009-06-01

    The transport of a Newtonian liquid through a smooth pipe or tube is dominated by the frictional drag on the liquid against the walls. The resistance to flow against a solid can, however, be reduced by introducing a layer of gas at or near the boundary between the solid and liquid. This can occur by the vaporization of liquid at a surface at a temperature above the Leidenfrost point, by a cushion of air (e.g. below a hovercraft), or by producing bubbles at the interface. These methods require a continuous energy input, but a more recent discovery is the possibility of using a superhydrophobic surface. Most reported research uses small sections of lithographically patterned surfaces and rarely considers pressure differences or varying flow rates. In this work we present a method for creating a uniform superhydrophobic nanoribbon layer on the inside of round copper tubes of millimetric internal radius. Two types of experiments are described, with the first involving a simultaneous comparison of four tubes with different surface finishes (as received, as received with hydrophobic coating, nanoribbon, and nanoribbon with a hydrophobic coating) under constant flow rate conditions using water and water-glycerol mixtures. The results show that the superhydrophobic nanoribbon with a hydrophobic coating surface finish allows greater flow at low pressure differences but that the effect disappears as the pressure at the inlet of the tube is increased. The second experiment is a simple visual demonstration of the low-pressure behavior using two nominally identical tubes in terms of length and cross-section, but with one tube possessing a superhydrophobic internal surface finish. In this experiment a reservoir is allowed to feed the two tubes with open ends via a T-piece and it is observed that, once flow commences, it preferentially occurs down the superhydrophobic tube.

  5. Boattail Plates With Non-Rectangular Geometries For Reducing Aerodynamic Base Drag Of A Bluff Body In Ground Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, Jason M.; Sabari, Kambiz

    2006-03-07

    An apparatus for reducing the aerodynamic base drag of a bluff body having a leading end, a trailing end, a top surface, opposing left and right side surfaces, and a base surface at the trailing end substantially normal to a longitudinal centerline of the bluff body, with the base surface joined (1) to the left side surface at a left trailing edge, (2) to the right side surface at a right trailing edge, and (3) to the top surface at a top trailing edge. The apparatus includes left and right vertical boattail plates which are orthogonally attached to the base surface of the bluff body and inwardly offset from the left and right trailing edges, respectively. This produces left and right vertical channels which generate, in a flowstream substantially parallel to the longitudinal centerline, respective left and right vertically-aligned vortical structures, with the left and right vertical boattail plates each having a plate width defined by a rear edge of the plate spaced from the base surface. Each plate also has a peak plate width at a location between top and bottom ends of the plate corresponding to a peak vortex of the respective vertically-aligned vortical structures.

  6. July 1999 working group meeting on heavy vehicle aerodynamic drag: presentations and summary of comments and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M; Browand, F; Flowers, D; Hammache, M; Landreth, G; Leonard, A; McCallen, R; Ross, J; Rutledge, W; Salari, K

    1999-08-16

    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California on July 30, 1999. The purpose of the meeting was to present technical details on the experimental and computational plans and approaches and provide an update on progress in obtaining experimental results, model developments, and simulations. The focus of the meeting was a review of University of Southern California's (USC) experimental plans and results and the computational results from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the integrated tractor-trailer benchmark geometry called the Sandia Model. Much of the meeting discussion involved the NASA Ames 7 ft x 10 ft wind tunnel tests and the need for documentation of the results. The present and projected budget and funding situation was also discussed. Presentations were given by representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Transportation Technology Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology (OHVT), LLNL, SNL, USC, and California Institute of Technology (Caltech). This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions, and outlines the future action items.

  7. March 1999 working group meeting on heavy vehicle aerodynamic drag: presentations and summary of comments and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M; Browand, F; McCallen, R; Ross, J; Salari, K

    1999-03-01

    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California on March 11, 1999. The purpose of the meeting was to present technical details on the experimental and computational plans and approaches and provide an update on progress in obtaining experimental results, model developments, and simulations. The focus of the meeting was a review of the experimental results for the integrated tractor-trailer benchmark geometry called the Sandia Model in the NASA Ames 7 ft x 10 ft wind tunnel. The present and projected budget and funding situation was also discussed. Presentations were given by representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Transportation Technology Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology (OHVT), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), University of Southern California (USC), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and NASA Ames Research Center.This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions, and outlines the future action items.

  8. Reduction of granular drag inspired by self-burrowing rotary seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Wonjong; Choi, Sung Mok; Kim, Wonjung; Kim, Ho-Young

    2017-04-01

    We present quantitative measurements and mat hematical analysis of the granular drag reduction by rotation, as motivated by the digging of Erodium and Pelargonium seeds. The seeds create a motion to dig into soil before germination using their moisture-responsive awns, which are originally helical shaped but reversibly deform to a linear configuration in a humid environment. We show that the rotation greatly lowers the resistance of soil against penetration because grain rearrangements near the intruder change the force chain network. We find a general correlation for the drag reduction by relative slip, leading to a mathematical model for the granular drag of a rotating intruder. In addition to shedding light on the mechanics of a rotating body in granular media, this work can guide us to design robots working in granular media with enhanced maneuverability.

  9. Investigation of passive shock wave-boundary layer control for transonic airfoil drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagamatsu, H. T.; Brower, W. B., Jr.; Bahi, L.; Ross, J.

    1982-01-01

    The passive drag control concept, consisting of a porous surface with a cavity beneath it, was investigated with a 12-percent-thick circular arc and a 14-percent-thick supercritical airfoil mounted on the test section bottom wall. The porous surface was positioned in the shock wave/boundary layer interaction region. The flow circulating through the porous surface, from the downstream to the upstream of the terminating shock wave location, produced a lambda shock wave system and a pressure decrease in the downstream region minimizing the flow separation. The wake impact pressure data show an appreciably drag reduction with the porous surface at transonic speeds. To determine the optimum size of porosity and cavity, tunnel tests were conducted with different airfoil porosities, cavities and flow Mach numbers. A higher drag reduction was obtained by the 2.5 percent porosity and the 1/4-inch deep cavity.

  10. A Base Drag Reduction Experiment on the X-33 Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) Flight Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Moes, Timothy R.

    1999-01-01

    Drag reduction tests were conducted on the LASRE/X-33 flight experiment. The LASRE experiment is a flight test of a roughly 20% scale model of an X-33 forebody with a single aerospike engine at the rear. The experiment apparatus is mounted on top of an SR-71 aircraft. This paper suggests a method for reducing base drag by adding surface roughness along the forebody. Calculations show a potential for base drag reductions of 8-14%. Flight results corroborate the base drag reduction, with actual reductions of 15% in the high-subsonic flight regime. An unexpected result of this experiment is that drag benefits were shown to persist well into the supersonic flight regime. Flight results show no overall net drag reduction. Applied surface roughness causes forebody pressures to rise and offset base drag reductions. Apparently the grit displaced streamlines outward, causing forebody compression. Results of the LASRE drag experiments are inconclusive and more work is needed. Clearly, however, the forebody grit application works as a viable drag reduction tool.

  11. The economic impact of drag in general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    General aviation aircraft fuel consumption and operating costs are closely linked to drag reduction methods. Improvements in airplane drag are envisioned for new models; their effects will be in the 5 to 10% range. Major improvements in fuel consumption over existing turbofan airplanes will be the combined results of improved aerodynamics plus additional effects from advanced turbofan engine designs.

  12. Frictional Drag Reduction - A Literature Survey of Progress from Summer 1976 to Fall 1977,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    of Cambridge (1977). 112. Stenberg , L.-G., 1. Lagerstedt, and E.R. Lindgren , “Polymer Additive Mixing and Turbulent Drag Reduction ,” Physics of...Fluids , Vol . 20, No. 10, Part 2, pp. S276-S278 (Oct 1977). 113. Stenberg , L.-G., 1. Lagerstedt, 0. Sehl~n, and E.R. Lindgren , “Mechanical Mixing of

  13. Turbulent Boundary Layer Drag Reduction by Active Control of Streak Transient Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Flint; Corke, Thomas; Hussain, Fazle; Duong, Alan; McGowan, Ryan; Jasinski, Chrisotpher; Simmons, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Experiments are reported employing a novel method of large-scale active flow control that was designed to intervene in Streak Transient Growth (STG) which was first postulated by Schoppa and Hussain as the primary mechanism in the production of streamwise vorticity in wall-bounded turbulence. We term the actuator SLIPPS ("Smart Longitudinal Instability Prevention via Plasma Surface). It consists of a new pulsed-DC plasma actuator array that is mounted flush with the wall in a zero pressure gradient, high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer. The array induces a near-wall spanwise mean velocity component that is comparable in magnitude to the local friction velocity. This prevents the lift-up of low-speed streaks, thereby limiting their flanking wall-normal vorticity, which has been shown to be a critical parameter is STG. Experiments demonstrate friction drag reduction of up to 68%. Measured drag reduction is found to scale with the actuator array spanwise inter-electrode spacing, with the maximum drag reduction corresponding to the simultaneous control of approximately 8-10 low-speed streaks. Due to the unique voltage-current characteristics of the pulsed-DC actuator, the drag reduction is obtained with net power savings. Supported by NASA Langley under NNX15CL65P.

  14. Copolymers for Drag Reduction in Marine Propulsion: New Molecular Structures with Enhanced Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    34 C. L. McCormick, National ACS Meeting, Miami, FL (1989). "Synthesis of Pyrene-Labeled High Molecular Weight Acrylamide Copolymers ," C. L. McCormick...and Characterization of Water-Soluble Acrylamide Copolymers for the Study of Drag Reduction," C. L. McCormick and P. S. Mumick, Abstracts MAS, 34, 55

  15. Drag reduction using metallic engineered surfaces with highly ordered hierarchical topographies: nanostructures on micro-riblets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taekyung; Shin, Ryung; Jung, Myungki; Lee, Jinhyung; Park, Changsu; Kang, Shinill

    2016-03-01

    Durable drag-reduction surfaces have recently received much attention, due to energy-saving and power-consumption issues associated with harsh environment applications, such as those experienced by piping infrastructure, ships, aviation, underwater vehicles, and high-speed ground vehicles. In this study, a durable, metallic surface with highly ordered hierarchical structures was used to enhance drag-reduction properties, by combining two passive drag-reduction strategies: an air-layer effect induced by nanostructures and secondary vortex generation by micro-riblet structures. The nanostructures and micro-riblet structures were designed to increase slip length. The top-down fabrication method used to form the metallic hierarchical structures combined laser interference lithography, photolithography, thermal reflow, nanoimprinting, and pulse-reverse-current electrochemical deposition. The surfaces were formed from nickel, which has high hardness and corrosion resistance, making it suitable for use in harsh environments. The drag-reduction properties of various metal surfaces were investigated based on the surface structure: a bare surface, a nanostructured surface, a micro-riblet surface, and a hierarchically structured surface of nanostructures on micro-riblets.

  16. Simulation of drag reduction in superhydrophobic microchannels based on parabolic gas-liquid interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunxi; Zhang, Shuo; Xue, Quanxi; Ye, Xuemin

    2016-10-01

    Based on the given parabolic gas-liquid interfaces, a two-dimensional fluid flow in superhydrophobic microchannels is numerically simulated with the steady volume of fluid model in the laminar regime. The influence of several crucial parameters on drag reduction effect is discussed. The results indicate that the superhydrophobic microchannel containing rectangular cavities displays significant drag reduction effect. With increasing inlet velocity, the pressure drop reduction decreases slightly. Augments in the pressure drop reduction tend to be large with the increase of the cavity fraction or the decrease of the channel height. The results also reveal that the variation of the normalized slip length with the cavity fraction tends to be more dramatic when the channel height is smaller. As the parabolic height of the gas-liquid interface is enlarged, both the pressure drop reduction and the normalized slip length decrease linearly, while fRe increases linearly. The impact of the cavity depth on the normalized slip length, fRe, and the pressure drop reduction is minimal supposing the depth of the cavity is greater than 40% of its width. The drag reduction effect corresponding to the dovetail cavity model is the best, and the consequence of the rectangular, trapezoidal, and triangular cavity models sequentially worsens.

  17. Effect of tail size reductions on longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a three surface F-15 model with nonaxisymmetric nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frassinelli, Mark C.; Carson, George T., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the effects of horizontal and vertical tail size reductions on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a modified F-15 model with canards and 2-D convergent-divergent nozzles. Quantifying the drag decrease at low angles of attack produced by tail size reductions was the primary focus. The model was tested at Mach numbers of 0.40, 0.90, and 1.20 over an angle of attack of -2 degree to 10 degree. The nozzle exhaust flow was simulated using high pressure air at nozzle pressure ratios varying from 1.0 (jet off) to 7.5. Data were obtained on the baseline configuration with and without tails as well as with reduced horizontal and/or vertical tail sizes that were 75, 50, and 25 percent of the baseline tail areas.

  18. Preparation, anti-biofouling and drag-reduction properties of a biomimetic shark skin surface

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Xia; Li, Guangji; Huang, Hanlu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Shark skin surfaces show non-smoothness characteristics due to the presence of a riblet structure. In this study, biomimetic shark skin was prepared by using the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-embedded elastomeric stamping (PEES) method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the surface microstructure and fine structure of shark skin and biomimetic shark skin. To analyse the hydrophobic mechanism of the shark skin surface microstructure, the effect of biomimetic shark skin surface microstructure on surface wettability was evaluated by recording water contact angle. Additionally, protein adhesion experiments and anti-algae adhesion performance testing experiments were used to investigate and evaluate the anti-biofouling properties of the surface microstructure of biomimetic shark skin. The recorded values of the water contact angle of differently microstructured surfaces revealed that specific microstructures have certain effects on surface wettability. The anti-biofouling properties of the biomimetic shark skin surface with microstructures were superior to a smooth surface using the same polymers as substrates. Moreover, the air layer fixed on the surface of the biomimetic shark skin was found to play a key role in their antibiont adhesion property. An experiment into drag reduction was also conducted. Based on the experimental results, the microstructured surface of the prepared biomimetic shark skin played a significant role in reducing drag. The maximum of drag reduction rate is 12.5%, which is higher than the corresponding maximum drag reduction rate of membrane material with a smooth surface. PMID:26941105

  19. Reynolds number effects on flow over twisted cylinder with drag reduction and vortex suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jae Hwan; Yoon, Hyun Sik

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the Reynolds number effects on the flow over a twisted cylinder in the range of 3×103 <= Re <=1×104. To analyze the effect of the twisted cylinder, a large eddy simulation (LES) with a dynamic subgrid model was employed. A simulation of the smooth cylinder was also carried out to compare the results with those of the twisted cylinder. As Re increased, the mean drag and lift coefficient of the twisted cylinder increased with the same tendency as those of the smooth cylinder. However, the increases in the mean drag and lift coefficient of the twisted cylinder were much smaller than those of the smooth. Furthermore, elongated shear layer and suppressed vortex shedding from the twisted cylinder occurred compared to those of the smooth cylinder, resulting in a drag reduction and suppression of the vortex-induced vibration (VIV). In particular, the twisted cylinder achieved a significant reduction of over 96% in VIV compared with that of the smooth cylinder, regardless of increasing Re. As a result, we concluded that the twisted cylinder effectively controlled the flow structures with reductions in the drag and VIV compared with the smooth cylinder, irrespective of increasing Re. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) through GCRC-SOP (No. 2011-0030013) and (NRF-2015R1D1A3A01020867).

  20. An Examination of Drag Reduction Mechanisms in Marine Animals, with Potential Applications to Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musick, John A.; Patterson, Mark R.; Dowd, Wesley W.

    2002-01-01

    Previous engineering research and development has documented the plausibility of applying biomimetic approaches to aerospace engineering. Past cooperation between the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) and NASA focused on the drag reduction qualities of the microscale dermal denticles of shark skin. This technology has subsequently been applied to submarines and aircraft. The present study aims to identify and document the three-dimensional geometry of additional macroscale morphologies that potentially confer drag reducing hydrodynamic qualities upon marine animals and which could be applied to enhance the range and endurance of Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Such morphologies have evolved over eons to maximize organismal energetic efficiency by reducing the energetic input required to maintain cruising speeds in the viscous marine environment. These drag reduction qualities are manifested in several groups of active marine animals commonly encountered by ongoing VIMS research programs: namely sharks, bony fishes such as tunas, and sea turtles. Through spatial data acquired by molding and digital imagery analysis of marine specimens provided by VIMS, NASA aims to construct scale models of these features and to test these potential drag reduction morphologies for application to aircraft design. This report addresses the efforts of VIMS and NASA personnel on this project between January and November 2001.

  1. Traces of surfactants limit the drag reduction potential of superhydrophobic surfaces in realistic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peaudecerf, Francois J.; Landel, Julien R.; Luzzatto-Fegiz, Paolo

    2015-11-01

    Large drag reductions have been measured for laminar flows over superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS), making them attractive for applications in pipelines, ships and submarines. However, experiments involving turbulent flows, typical of these applications, have often yielded limited drag reductions. A complete explanation for this issue has so far proved elusive. We propose that trace amounts of surfactants, unavoidable in the environment and in large-scale experiments, can yield poor performances of SHS, by producing Marangoni stresses when the edges of the SHS pattern are not aligned with the local flow velocity. To explore our hypothesis, we develop numerical simulations (inclusive of surfactants) for a flow over a textured SHS in a micro-channel, whose background shear is similar to a viscous sublayer. The texture consists of micro ridges perpendicular to the flow. We find that even small amounts of surfactants can prevent any drag reduction. As an experimental test, we flow de-ionised water with known surfactant concentrations through SHS micro-channels with texture similar to the simulations, while performing micro-PIV. At negligible surfactant concentrations, we find higher velocities between the ridges, as expected by classical models. However, as the concentration increases, we discover that the slip velocity drops to very small values even in the presence of a plastron. Our results show that the drag-reducing potential of superhydrophobic surfaces can be limited in realistic flow conditions

  2. Friction drag reduction achievable by near-wall turbulence manipulation in spatially developing boundary-layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannier, Amaury; Garnier, Eric; Sagaut, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Various control strategies, such as active feedback control or riblets, end up restraining near-wall turbulence. An analytical study is conducted to estimate the drag-reduction achievable by such control in zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary-layers. Based on an idealized control which damps all fluctuations within a near-wall layer, a composite flow profile is established. It leads to explicit models for both the drag-reduction and the boundary-layer development rate. A skin-friction decomposition is applied and gives physical insights on the underlying phenomena. The control is found to alter the spatial development of the boundary-layer, resulting in detrimental impact on the skin-friction. However, the drag-reducing mechanism, attributed to the turbulence weakening, is found predominant and massive drag reductions remain achievable at high Reynolds number, although a minute part of the boundary-layer is manipulated. The model is finally assessed against Large Eddy Simulations of riblet-controlled flow.

  3. Drag reduction using wrinkled surfaces in high Reynolds number laminar boundary layer flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raayai-Ardakani, Shabnam; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2017-09-01

    Inspired by the design of the ribbed structure of shark skin, passive drag reduction methods using stream-wise riblet surfaces have previously been developed and tested over a wide range of flow conditions. Such textures aligned in the flow direction have been shown to be able to reduce skin friction drag by 4%-8%. Here, we explore the effects of periodic sinusoidal riblet surfaces aligned in the flow direction (also known as a "wrinkled" texture) on the evolution of a laminar boundary layer flow. Using numerical analysis with the open source Computational Fluid Dynamics solver OpenFOAM, boundary layer flow over sinusoidal wrinkled plates with a range of wavelength to plate length ratios (λ /L ), aspect ratios (2 A /λ ), and inlet velocities are examined. It is shown that in the laminar boundary layer regime, the riblets are able to retard the viscous flow inside the grooves creating a cushion of stagnant fluid that the high-speed fluid above can partially slide over, thus reducing the shear stress inside the grooves and the total integrated viscous drag force on the plate. Additionally, we explore how the boundary layer thickness, local average shear stress distribution, and total drag force on the wrinkled plate vary with the aspect ratio of the riblets as well as the length of the plate. We show that riblets with an aspect ratio of close to unity lead to the highest reduction in the total drag, and that because of the interplay between the local stress distribution on the plate and stream-wise evolution of the boundary layer the plate has to exceed a critical length to give a net decrease in the total drag force.

  4. Progress Towards Fuselage Drag Reduction via Active Flow Control: A Combined CFD and Experimental Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaeffler, Norman W.; Allan, Brian G.; Lienard, Caroline; LePape, Arnaud

    2010-01-01

    A combined computational and experimental effort has been undertaken to study fuselage drag reduction on a generic, non-proprietary rotorcraft fuselage by the application of active ow control. Fuselage drag reduction is an area of research interest to both the United States and France and this area is being worked collaboratively as a task under the United States/France Memorandum of Agreement on Helicopter Aeromechanics. In the first half of this task, emphasis is placed on the US generic fuselage, the ROBIN-mod7, with the experimental work being conducted on the US side and complementary US and French CFD analysis of the baseline and controlled cases. Fuselage simulations were made using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes ow solvers and with multiple turbulence models. Comparisons were made to experimental data for numerical simulations of the isolated fuselage and for the fuselage as installed in the tunnel, which includes modeling of the tunnel contraction, walls, and support fairing. The numerical simulations show that comparisons to the experimental data are in good agreement when the tunnel and model support are included. The isolated fuselage simulations compare well to each other, however, there is a positive shift in the centerline pressure when compared to the experiment. The computed flow separation locations on the rear ramp region had only slight differences with and without the tunnel walls and model support. For the simulations, the flow control slots were placed at several locations around the flow separation lines as a series of eight slots that formed a nearly continuous U-shape. Results from the numerical simulations resulted in an estimated 35% fuselage drag reduction from a steady blowing flow control configuration and a 26% drag reduction for unsteady zero-net-mass flow control configuration. Simulations with steady blowing show a delayed flow separation at the rear ramp of the fuselage that increases the surface pressure acting on the ramp

  5. Re-Entrant Structure for Robust Superhydrophobicity and Drag Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hong; Gad-El-Hak, Mohamed

    2014-11-01

    A re-entrant structure is required for superoleophobicity by effectively pinning low-surface-tension liquids from wetting the textures and forming a solid-liquid-air composite interface. In this work, we examine the contribution of a re-entrant structure to the robustness of superhydrophobicity and skin-friction reduction capabilities. Textured surfaces with wavy sidewall pillars provide re-entrant structures and are used as model surfaces. Gibbs energy analysis is conducted to study the pinning sites and wetting stability. The wetting robustness against pressure is characterized by breakthrough pressure, which is obtained by conservation of energy and force balance at the pinning sites. The slip length and slip velocity are evaluated through a shear stress and strain rate correlation, which is obtained using an Anton Paar rheometer. Gibbs energy analysis indicates that the breakthrough pressure provided by the wavy sidewall structure for water is about 18 times of that on the straight sidewall structure. This is mostly due to the energy barrier at the re-entrant structure. When a contact line advances onto and pins at the re-entrant structure, its slip performance degrades due to the increased no-slip fraction on the composite interface, but Cassie-Baxter state still remains.

  6. Disturbance reduction system: testing technology for drag-free operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, John; Keiser, George; Buchman, Sasha; Byer, Robert L.; Lauben, Dave; Shelef, Ben; Shelef, Gad; Hruby, Vlad; Gamero-Castano, Manuel

    2003-03-01

    The Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) is designed to demonstrate technology required for future gravity missions, including the planned LISA gravitational-wave observatory, and for precision formation-flying missions. The DRS is based on a freely floating test mass contained within a spacecraft that shields the test mass from external forces. The spacecraft position will be continuously adjusted to stay centered about the test mass, essentially flying in formation with the test mass. Any departure of the test mass from a gravitational trajectory is characterized as acceleration noise, resulting from unwanted forces acting on the test mass. The DRS goal is to demonstrate a level of acceleration noise more than four orders of magnitude lower than previously demonstrated in space. The DRS will consist of an instrument package and a set of microthrusters, which will be attached to a suitable spacecraft. The instrument package will include two Gravitational Reference Sensors comprised of a test mass within a reference housing. The spacecraft position will be adjusted using colloidal microthrusters, which are miniature ion engines that provide continuous thrust with a range of 1-20 mN with resolution of 0.1 mN. The DRS will be launched in 2007 as part of the ESA SMART-2 spacecraft. The DRS is a project within NASA's New Millennium Program.

  7. Development of FDR-AF (Frictional Drag Reduction Anti-Fouling) Marine Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Inwon; Park, Hyun; Chun, Ho Hwan; GCRC-SOP Team

    2013-11-01

    In this study, a novel skin-friction reducing marine paint has been developed by mixing fine powder of PEO(PolyEthyleneOxide) with SPC (Self-Polishing Copolymer) AF (Anti-Fouling) paint. The PEO is well known as one of drag reducing agent to exhibit Toms effect, the attenuation of turbulent flows by long chain polymer molecules in the near wall region. The frictional drag reduction has been implemented by injecting such polymer solutions to liquid flows. However, the injection holes have been a significant obstacle to marine application. The present PEO-containing marine paint is proposed as an alternative to realize Toms effect without any hole on the ship surface. The erosion mechanism of SPC paint resin and the subsequent dissolution of PEO enable the controlled release of PEO solution from the coating. Various tests such as towing tank drag measurement of flat plate and turbulence measurement in circulating water tunnel demonstrated over 10% frictional drag reduction compared with conventional AF paint. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) through GCRC-SOP(No. 2011-0030013).

  8. A bio-inspired device for drag reduction on a three-dimensional model vehicle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongri; Lee, Hoon; Yi, Wook; Choi, Haecheon

    2016-03-10

    In this paper, we introduce a bio-mimetic device for the reduction of the drag force on a three-dimensional model vehicle, the Ahmed body (Ahmed et al 1984 SAE Technical Paper 840300). The device, called automatic moving deflector (AMD), is designed inspired by the movement of secondary feathers on bird's wing suction surface: i.e., secondary feathers pop up when massive separation occurs on bird's wing suction surface at high angles of attack, which increases the lift force at landing. The AMD is applied to the rear slanted surface of the Ahmed body to control the flow separation there. The angle of the slanted surface considered is 25° at which the drag coefficient on the Ahmed body is highest. The wind tunnel experiment is conducted at Re H  = 1.0 × 10(5)-3.8 × 10(5), based on the height of the Ahmed body (H) and the free-stream velocity (U ∞). Several AMDs of different sizes and materials are tested by measuring the drag force on the Ahmed body, and showed drag reductions up to 19%. The velocity and surface-pressure measurements show that AMD starts to pop up when the pressure in the thin gap between the slanted surface and AMD is much larger than that on the upper surface of AMD. We also derive an empirical formula that predicts the critical free-stream velocity at which AMD starts to operate. Finally, it is shown that the drag reduction by AMD is mainly attributed to a pressure recovery on the slanted surface by delaying the flow separation and suppressing the strength of the longitudinal vortices emanating from the lateral edges of the slanted surface.

  9. Liquid-Infused Surfaces with Trapped Air (LISTA) for Drag Force Reduction.

    PubMed

    Hemeda, A A; Tafreshi, H Vahedi

    2016-03-29

    Superhydrophobic (SHP) surfaces are known for their drag-reducing attributes thanks to their ability to trap air in their surface pores and thereby reduce the contact between water and the frictional solid area. SHP surfaces are prone to failure under elevated pressures or because of air-layer dissolution into the surrounding water. Slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS) or liquid-infused surfaces (LIS) in which the trapped air is replaced with a lubricant have been proposed in the literature as a way of eliminating the air dissolution problem as well as improving the surface stability under pressure. While an LIS surface has been shown to reduce drag for flow of water-glycerol mixture (ref 18), no significant drag reduction has yet been reported for the flow of water (a lower viscosity fluid) over LIS. In this concern, we have designed a new surface in which a layer of air is trapped underneath the infused lubricant to reduce the frictional forces preventing the LIS to provide drag reduction for water or any fluid with a viscosity less than that of the lubricant. Drag reduction performance of such surfaces, referred to here as liquid-infused surfaces with trapped air (LISTA), is predicted by solving the biharmonic equation for the water-oil-air three-phase system in transverse grooves with enhanced meniscus stability thanks to double-reentry designs. For the arbitrary dimensions considered in our proof-of-concept study, LISTA designs showed 20-37% advantage over their LIS counterparts.

  10. Numerical Investigation of Rotorcraft Fuselage Drag Reduction Using Active Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, Brian G.; Schaeffler, Norman W.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of unsteady zero-net-mass-flux jets for fuselage drag reduction was evaluated numerically on a generic rotorcraft fuselage in forward flight with a rotor. Previous efforts have shown significant fuselage drag reduction using flow control for an isolated fuselage by experiment and numerical simulation. This work will evaluate a flow control strategy, that was originally developed on an isolated fuselage, in a more relevant environment that includes the effects of a rotor. Evaluation of different slot heights and jet velocity ratios were performed. Direct comparisons between an isolated fuselage and rotor/fuselage simulations were made showing similar flow control performance at a -3deg fuselage angle-of-attack condition. However, this was not the case for a -5deg angle-of-attack condition where the performance between the isolated fuselage and rotor/fuselage were different. The fuselage flow control resulted in a 17% drag reduction for a peak C(sub mu) of 0.0069 in a forward flight simulation where mu = 0:35 and CT/sigma = 0:08. The CFD flow control results also predicted a favorable 22% reduction of the fuselage download at this same condition, which can have beneficial compounding effects on the overall performance of the vehicle. This numerical investigation was performed in order to provide guidance for a future 1/3 scale wind tunnel experiment to be performed at the NASA 14-by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel.

  11. Sustainable Drag Reduction in Turbulent Taylor-Couette Flows using Sprayable Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Siddarth; Kleingartner, Justin; Gilbert, Jonathan; Milne, Andrew; Cohen, Robert; McKinley, Gareth

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate a reduction in the measured inner wall shear stress in moderately turbulent Taylor-Couette (TC) flows by depositing sprayable superhydrophobic (SH) microstructures on the inner moving rigid surface rotor. The surface morphology and the liquid meniscus are characterized using confocal microscopy from which we determine the initial overall wetted solid fraction. We find that the magnitude of drag reduction on our SH coating in turbulent TC flow becomes progressively larger at higher Reynolds numbers up to a maximum of 22 % at Re = 8 ×104 . We show that the mean skin friction coefficient Cf in the presence of the SH coating can be expressed by a modified Prandtl-von Karman type relationship of the form (Cf / 2) - 1 / 2 = Mln Re(Cf / 2) 1 / 2 + N + (b / Δr) Re(Cf / 2) 1 / 2 . From this relationship we extract an effective slip length of b = 19 μm which remains constant provided the air-layer is not depleted. Thus, a single value of the slip length b is shown to account for the observed drag reduction over the entire range of Re . Finally, we show that the dimensionless effective slip length b+ = b /δν is the key parameter that governs the drag reduction, and scales as b+ ~ Re 1 / 2 in the limit of high Reynolds number.

  12. Drag reduction and the dynamics of turbulence in simple and complex fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Addition of a small amount of very large polymer molecules or micelle-forming surfactants to a liquid can dramatically reduce the energy dissipation it exhibits in the turbulent flow regime. This rheological drag reduction phenomenon is widely used, for example in the Alaska pipeline, but it is not well-understood, and no comparable technology exists to reduce turbulent energy consumption in flows of gases, in which polymers or surfactants cannot be dissolved. The most striking feature of this phenomenon is the existence of a so-called maximum drag reduction (MDR) asymptote: for a given geometry and driving force, there is a maximum level of drag reduction that can be achieved through addition of polymers. Changing the concentration, molecular weight or even the chemical structure of the additives has no effect on this asymptotic value. This universality is the major puzzle of drag reduction. We describe direct numerical simulations of turbulent channel flow of Newtonian fluids and viscoelastic polymer solutions. Even in the absence of polymers, we show that there are intervals of ``hibernating'' turbulence that display very low drag as well as many other features of the MDR asymptote observed in polymer solutions. As viscoelasticity increases, the frequency of these intervals also increases, leading to flows that increasingly resemble MDR. A simple theory captures key features of the intermittent dynamics observed in the simulations. Additionally, simulations of ``edge states,'' dynamical trajectories that lie on the boundary between turbulent and laminar flow, display characteristics that are similar to those of hibernating turbulence and thus to the MDR asymptote, again even in the absence of polymer additives. Based on these observations, we propose a tentative unified description of rheological drag reduction. The existence of ``MDR-like'' intervals even in the absence of additives sheds light on the observed universality of MDR and may ultimately lead to new

  13. Drag reduction and the dynamics of turbulence in simple and complex fluidsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Michael D.

    2014-10-01

    Addition of a small amount of very large polymer molecules or micelle-forming surfactants to a liquid can dramatically reduce the energy dissipation it exhibits in the turbulent flow regime. This rheological drag reduction phenomenon is widely used, for example, in the Alaska pipeline, but it is not well-understood, and no comparable technology exists to reduce turbulent energy consumption in flows of gases, in which polymers or surfactants cannot be dissolved. The most striking feature of this phenomenon is the existence of a so-called maximum drag reduction (MDR) asymptote: for a given geometry and driving force, there is a maximum level of drag reduction that can be achieved through addition of polymers. Changing the concentration, molecular weight or even the chemical structure of the additives has little to no effect on this asymptotic value. This universality is the major puzzle of drag reduction. We describe direct numerical simulations of turbulent minimal channel flow of Newtonian fluids and viscoelastic polymer solutions. Even in the absence of polymers, we show that there are intervals of "hibernating" turbulence that display very low drag as well as many other features of the MDR asymptote observed in polymer solutions. As Weissenberg number increases to moderate values the frequency of these intervals also increases, and a simple theory captures key features of the intermittent dynamics observed in the simulations. At higher Weissenberg number, these intervals are altered - for example, their duration becomes substantially longer and the instantaneous Reynolds shear stress during them becomes very small. Additionally, simulations of "edge states," dynamical trajectories that lie on the boundary between turbulent and laminar flow, display characteristics that are similar to those of hibernating turbulence and thus to the MDR asymptote, again even in the absence of polymer additives. Based on these observations, we propose a tentative unified description

  14. Feature-resolved computational and analytical study of laminar drag reduction by superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yixuan; Alame, Karim; Mahesh, Krishnan

    2017-05-01

    Direct numerical simulations are used to study the drag reduction by superhydrophobic surfaces in laminar channel flow. Resolved multiphase simulations using the volume of fluid methodology are performed to study the effects of groove geometry, interface shear rate, and meniscus penetration independently. An analytical solution for the flow in a laminar channel with a grooved surface with a gas pocket within is obtained. The solution accounts for both the groove geometry and the trapped fluid properties, and shows good agreement with simulation results. The solution is used to propose a scaling law that collapses data across fully wetted to fully gas-filled regimes. The trapped gas is simulated as both flat and meniscal interfaces. The drag reduction initially increases with interface deflection into the groove and then decreases for large deflections as the interface velocity approaches zero due to the proximity to the bottom of the groove.

  15. Direct simulation of polymer drag reduction in free shear flows and vortex dipoles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlandi, P.; Homsy, G. M.; Azaiez, J.

    1992-01-01

    One of the most efficient techniques for drag reduction is the injection of polymers near a wall which can achieve a reduction in drag up to 80 percent. Several experimental observations tend to indicate that polymers modify the turbulence structures within the buffer layer and show that the changes consist of a weakening of the strength of the streamwise vortices. In this paper, we investigate the effects of viscoelasticity on two different types of flows: the vortex dipole impinging walls to model streamwise vortices in a turbulent boundary layer and the mixing layer that represents free shear flows. For this purpose, we examined three different rheological models: the Oldroyd-B model, the Jeffrey's corotational model, and the FENE-P model.

  16. Drag reduction effects facilitated by microridges inside the mouthparts of honeybee workers and drones.

    PubMed

    Li, Chu-Chu; Wu, Jia-Ning; Yang, Yun-Qiang; Zhu, Ren-Gao; Yan, Shao-Ze

    2016-01-21

    The mouthpart of a honeybee is a natural well-designed micropump that uses a reciprocating glossa through a temporary tube comprising a pair of galeae and labial palpi for loading nectar. The shapes and sizes of mouthparts differ among castes of honeybees, but the diversities of the functional microstructures inside the mouthparts of honeybee workers and drones remain poorly understood. Through scanning electron microscopy, we found the dimensional difference of uniformly distributed microridges on the inner galeae walls of Apis mellifera ligustica workers and drones. Subsequently, we recorded the feeding process of live honeybees by using a specially designed high-speed camera system. Considering the microridges and kinematics of the glossa, we constructed a hydrodynamic model to calculate the friction coefficient of the mouthpart. In addition, we test the drag reduction through the dimensional variations of the microridges on the inner walls of mouthparts. Theoretical estimations of the friction coefficient with respect to dipping frequency show that inner microridges can reduce friction during the feeding process of honeybees. The effects of drag reduction regulated by specific microridges were then compared. The friction coefficients of the workers and drones were found to be 0.011±0.007 (mean±s.d.) and 0.045±0.010, respectively. These results indicate that the mouthparts of workers are more capable of drag reduction compared with those of drones. The difference was analyzed by comparing the foraging behavior of the workers and drones. Workers are equipped with well-developed hypopharyngeal, and their dipping frequency is higher than that of drones. Our research establishes a critical link between microridge dimensions and drag reduction capability during the nectar feeding of honeybees. Our results reveal that microridges inside the mouthparts of honeybee workers and drones reflect the caste-related life cycles of honeybees.

  17. Assessments of Bubble Dynamics Model and Influential Parameters in Microbubble Drag Reduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    July 1, 2004 to December 31, 2005 Report Date: March 2006 Prepared Under Award No: N00014-04-1-0717 Submitted to Patrick Purtell Office...data of Merkle and Deutsch (1992) and the numerical model of Kunz et al. (2003). 8 Figure 6. Schematic diagram of the computational domain used for...Kim and Cleaver 1995; Meng and Uhlman 1998; Xu et al. 2002; Kunz et al. 2003) to reveal the mechanism of the microbubble drag reduction phenomenon

  18. Sustained drag reduction in a turbulent flow using a low-temperature Leidenfrost surface

    PubMed Central

    Saranadhi, Dhananjai; Chen, Dayong; Kleingartner, Justin A.; Srinivasan, Siddarth; Cohen, Robert E.; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2016-01-01

    Skin friction drag contributes a major portion of the total drag for small and large water vehicles at high Reynolds number (Re). One emerging approach to reducing drag is to use superhydrophobic surfaces to promote slip boundary conditions. However, the air layer or “plastron” trapped on submerged superhydrophobic surfaces often diminishes quickly under hydrostatic pressure and/or turbulent pressure fluctuations. We use active heating on a superhydrophobic surface to establish a stable vapor layer or “Leidenfrost” state at a relatively low superheat temperature. The continuous film of water vapor lubricates the interface, and the resulting slip boundary condition leads to skin friction drag reduction on the inner rotor of a custom Taylor-Couette apparatus. We find that skin friction can be reduced by 80 to 90% relative to an unheated superhydrophobic surface for Re in the range 26,100 ≤ Re ≤ 52,000. We derive a boundary layer and slip theory to describe the hydrodynamics in the system and show that the plastron thickness is h = 44 ± 11 μm, in agreement with expectations for a Leidenfrost surface. PMID:27757417

  19. Sustained drag reduction in a turbulent flow using a low-temperature Leidenfrost surface.

    PubMed

    Saranadhi, Dhananjai; Chen, Dayong; Kleingartner, Justin A; Srinivasan, Siddarth; Cohen, Robert E; McKinley, Gareth H

    2016-10-01

    Skin friction drag contributes a major portion of the total drag for small and large water vehicles at high Reynolds number (Re). One emerging approach to reducing drag is to use superhydrophobic surfaces to promote slip boundary conditions. However, the air layer or "plastron" trapped on submerged superhydrophobic surfaces often diminishes quickly under hydrostatic pressure and/or turbulent pressure fluctuations. We use active heating on a superhydrophobic surface to establish a stable vapor layer or "Leidenfrost" state at a relatively low superheat temperature. The continuous film of water vapor lubricates the interface, and the resulting slip boundary condition leads to skin friction drag reduction on the inner rotor of a custom Taylor-Couette apparatus. We find that skin friction can be reduced by 80 to 90% relative to an unheated superhydrophobic surface for Re in the range 26,100 ≤ Re ≤ 52,000. We derive a boundary layer and slip theory to describe the hydrodynamics in the system and show that the plastron thickness is h = 44 ± 11 μm, in agreement with expectations for a Leidenfrost surface.

  20. Micro-bubble drag reduction on a high speed vessel model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanuar; Gunawan; Sunaryo; Jamaluddin, A.

    2012-09-01

    Ship hull form of the underwater area strongly influences the resistance of the ship. The major factor in ship resistance is skin friction resistance. Bulbous bows, polymer paint, water repellent paint (highly water-repellent wall), air injection, and specific roughness have been used by researchers as an attempt to obtain the resistance reduction and operation efficiency of ships. Micro-bubble injection is a promising technique for lowering frictional resistance. The injected air bubbles are supposed to somehow modify the energy inside the turbulent boundary layer and thereby lower the skin friction. The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of injected micro bubbles on a navy fast patrol boat (FPB) 57 m type model with the following main dimensions: L=2 450 mm, B=400 mm, and T=190 mm. The influence of the location of micro bubble injection and bubble velocity was also investigated. The ship model was pulled by an electric motor whose speed could be varied and adjusted. The ship model resistance was precisely measured by a load cell transducer. Comparison of ship resistance with and without micro-bubble injection was shown on a graph as a function of the drag coefficient and Froude number. It was shown that micro bubble injection behind the mid-ship is the best location to achieve the most effective drag reduction, and the drag reduction caused by the micro-bubbles can reach 6%-9%.

  1. Drag reduction in reservoir rock surface: Hydrophobic modification by SiO2 nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yong-Li; Cui, Ming-Yue; Jiang, Wei-Dong; He, An-Le; Liang, Chong

    2017-02-01

    Based on the adsorption behavior of modified silica nanoparticles in the sandstone core surface, the hydrophobic surface was constructed, which consists of micro-nanoscale hierarchical structure. This modified core surface presents a property of drag reduction and meets the challenge of high injection pressure and low injection rate in low or ultra-low permeability reservoir. The modification effects on the surface of silica nanoparticles and reservoir cores, mainly concerning hydrophobicity and fine structure, were determined by measurements of contact angle and scanning electron microscopy. Experimental results indicate that after successful modification, the contact angle of silica nanoparticles varies from 19.5° to 141.7°, exhibiting remarkable hydrophobic properties. These modified hydrophobic silica nanoparticles display a good adsorption behavior at the core surface to form micro-nanobinary structure. As for the wettability of these modified core surfaces, a reversal has happened from hydrophilic into hydrophobic and its contact angle increases from 59.1° to 105.9°. The core displacement experiments show that the relative permeability for water has significantly increased by an average of 40.3% via core surface modification, with the effects of reducing injection pressure and improving injection performance of water flooding. Meanwhile, the mechanisms of drag reduction and improving water injection operation induced from the modified core surface were uncovered. The present study will establish a fundamental understanding on the drag reduction at the core surface modified by nanofluids and its applications in more industries.

  2. Application of opposition control to disks actuators for turbulent drag reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosh Aghdam, Sohrab; Ricco, Pierre; Seddighi, Mehdi

    2014-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations have been performed to study an active control technique in which the steadily rotating flush-mounted of either disks or rings is combined with the opposition control approach of Choi et al. (J. Fluid Mech. 262, 75). Active blowing and suction are applied such that the controlled velocity on the wall has the same amplitude but opposite sign to that of the optimum detection plane at y+ = 15 . Various configurations are examined using the out-of-phase v and w control, and the steadily rotating discs and rings. The net drag reduction and turbulence structure of the controlled cases are studied and compared with those when individual controls are applied. The results show that when the ``optimum'' rotating disks case of Ricco and Hahn (J. Fluid Mech. 722, 267) are used together with the opposition control of wall-normal velocity, an additional drag reduction of 5% is achieved. Moreover, in the particular case where the disks are replaced with the rings configuration, the drag reduction is better improved reaching a value of 30%. Airbus Group.

  3. Drag Reduction and Performance Improvement of Hydraulic Torque Converters with Multiple Biological Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Chunbao, Liu; Changsuo, Liu; Yubo, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Fish-like, dolphin-like, and bionic nonsmooth surfaces were employed in a hydraulic torque converter to achieve drag reduction and performance improvement, which were aimed at reducing profile loss, impacting loss and friction loss, respectively. YJSW335, a twin turbine torque converter, was bionically designed delicately. The biological characteristics consisted of fish-like blades in all four wheels, dolphin-like structure in the first turbine and the stator, and nonsmooth surfaces in the pump. The prediction performance of bionic YJSW335, obtained by computational fluid dynamics simulation, was improved compared with that of the original model, and then it could be proved that drag reduction had been achieved. The mechanism accounting for drag reduction of three factors was also investigated. After bionic design, the torque ratio and the highest efficiencies of YJSW335 were both advanced, which were very difficult to achieve through traditional design method. Moreover, the highest efficiency of the low speed area and high speed area is 85.65% and 86.32%, respectively. By economic matching analysis of the original and bionic powertrains, the latter can significantly reduce the fuel consumption and improve the operating economy of the loader. PMID:27752220

  4. Near-hydrophobic-surface flow measurement by micro-3D PTV for evaluation of drag reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Motosuke, M.

    2017-09-01

    This study reports the estimation of drag reduction effect, which is obtained from slip flow measurement in hydrophobic microchannels by direct measurement of near-wall velocity distribution. To reveal laminar drag reduction effect of hydrophobic surfaces, it is necessary to investigate near-microstructured-surface flow. In this study, we employed a hydrophobic surface, which has longitudinal microribs and microgrooves oriented parallel to the water flow direction in a microchannel, and measured a near-microstructured-surface flow by astigmatism particle tracking velocimetry (APTV) that enables to obtain the three-dimensional and three-component velocity profile. From the flow measurement results, the curvature and profile of liquid-gas interfaces formed at the microgrooves were obtained. Additionally, since the APTV has the ability to measure the three-dimensional velocity distribution near interfaces, it is possible to determine the shear stress on the interfaces if the interface position is known. Moreover, the procedure about a numerical simulation, which used the experimental results as a boundary condition was examined, and its verification in terms of the drag reduction effect estimation was conducted by comparing with experimental results.

  5. Drag reduction in turbulent channel laden with finite-size oblate spheroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niazi Ardekani, Mehdi; Pedro Costa Collaboration; Wim-Paul Breugem Collaboration; Francesco Picano Collaboration; Luca Brandt Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    Suspensions of oblate rigid particles in a turbulent plane channel flow are investigated for different values of the particle volume fraction. We perform direct numerical simulations (DNS), using a direct-forcing immersed boundary method to account for the particle-fluid interactions, combined with a soft-sphere collision model and lubrication corrections for short-range particle-particle and particle-wall interactions. We show a clear drag reduction and turbulence attenuation in flows laden with oblate spheroids, both with respect to the single phase turbulent flow and to suspensions of rigid spheres. We explain the drag reduction by the lack of the particle layer at the wall, observed before for spherical particles. In addition, the special shape of the oblate particles creates a tendency to stay parallel to the wall in its vicinity, forming a shield of particles that prevents strong fluctuations in the outer layer to reach the wall and vice versa. Detailed statistics of the fluid and particle phase will be presented at the conference to explain the observed drag reduction. Supported by the European Research Council Grant No. ERC-2013-CoG-616186, TRITOS. The authors acknowledge computer time provided by SNIC (Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing) and the support from the COST Action MP1305: Flowing matter.

  6. Drag Reduction and Performance Improvement of Hydraulic Torque Converters with Multiple Biological Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Chunbao, Liu; Li, Li; Yulong, Lei; Changsuo, Liu; Yubo, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Fish-like, dolphin-like, and bionic nonsmooth surfaces were employed in a hydraulic torque converter to achieve drag reduction and performance improvement, which were aimed at reducing profile loss, impacting loss and friction loss, respectively. YJSW335, a twin turbine torque converter, was bionically designed delicately. The biological characteristics consisted of fish-like blades in all four wheels, dolphin-like structure in the first turbine and the stator, and nonsmooth surfaces in the pump. The prediction performance of bionic YJSW335, obtained by computational fluid dynamics simulation, was improved compared with that of the original model, and then it could be proved that drag reduction had been achieved. The mechanism accounting for drag reduction of three factors was also investigated. After bionic design, the torque ratio and the highest efficiencies of YJSW335 were both advanced, which were very difficult to achieve through traditional design method. Moreover, the highest efficiency of the low speed area and high speed area is 85.65% and 86.32%, respectively. By economic matching analysis of the original and bionic powertrains, the latter can significantly reduce the fuel consumption and improve the operating economy of the loader.

  7. Effect of Off-Body Laser Discharge on Drag Reduction of Hemisphere Cylinder in Supersonic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kianvashrad, Nadia; Knight, Doyle; Wilkinson, Stephen P.; Chou, Amanda; Horne, Robert A.; Herring, Gregory C.; Beeler, George B.; Jangda, Moazzam

    2017-01-01

    The interaction of an off-body laser discharge with a hemisphere cylinder in supersonic flow is investigated. The objectives are 1) experimental determination of the drag reduction and energetic efficiency of the laser discharge, and 2) assessment of the capability for accurate simulation of the interaction. The combined computational and experimental study comprises two phases. In the first phase, laser discharge in quiescent air was examined. The temporal behavior of the shock wave formed by the laser discharge was compared between experiment and simulation and good agreement is observed. In the second phase, the interaction of the laser discharge with a hemisphere cylinder was investigated numerically. Details of the pressure drag reduction and the physics of the interaction of the heated region with the bow shock are included. The drag reduction due to this interaction persisted for about five characteristic times where one characteristic time represents the time for the flow to move a distance equal to the hemisphere radius. The energetic efficiency of laser discharge for the case with 50 mJ energy absorbed by the gas is calculated as 3.22.

  8. Application of reduced-order controller to turbulent flows for drag reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Keun H.; Cortelezzi, Luca; Kim, John; Speyer, Jason

    2001-05-01

    A reduced-order linear feedback controller is designed and applied to turbulent channel flow for drag reduction. From the linearized two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations a distributed feedback controller, which produces blowing/suction at the wall based on the measured turbulent streamwise wall-shear stress, is derived using model reduction techniques and linearquadratic-Gaussian/loop-transfer-recovery control synthesis. The quadratic cost criterion used for synthesis is composed of the streamwise wall-shear stress, which includes the control effort of blowing/suction. This distributed two-dimensional controller developed from a linear system theory is shown to reduce the skin friction by 10% in direct numerical simulations of a low-Reynolds number turbulent nonlinear channel flow. Spanwise shear-stress variation, not captured by the distributed two-dimensional controller, is suppressed by augmentation of a simple spanwise ad hoc control scheme. This augmented three-dimensional controller, which requires only the turbulent streamwise velocity gradient, results in a further reduction in the skin-friction drag. It is shown that the input power requirement is significantly less than the power saved by reduced drag. Other turbulence characteristics affected by these controllers are also discussed.

  9. Supersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Low-Drag Aircraft Configuration having an Arrow Wing of Aspect Ratio 1.86 and a Body of Fineness Ratio 20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, Warren, Jr.

    1960-01-01

    A free-flight rocket-propelled-model investigation was conducted at Mach numbers of 1.2 to 1.9 to determine the longitudinal and lateral aero-dynamic characteristics of a low-drag aircraft configuration. The model consisted of an aspect-ratio -1.86 arrow wing with 67.5 deg. leading-edge sweep and NACA 65A004 airfoil section and a triangular vertical tail with 60 deg. sweep and NACA 65A003 section in combination with a body of fineness ratio 20. Aerodynamic data in pitch, yaw, and roll were obtained from transient motions induced by small pulse rockets firing at intervals in the pitch and yaw directions. From the results of this brief aerodynamic investigation, it is observed that very slender body shapes can provide increased volumetric capacity with little or no increase in zero-lift drag and that body fineness ratios of the order of 20 should be considered in the design of long-range supersonic aircraft. The zero-lift drag and the drag-due-to-lift parameter of the test configuration varied linearly with Mach number. The maximum lift-drag ratio was 7.0 at a Mach number of 1.25 and decreased slightly to a value of 6.6 at a Mach number of 1.81. The optimum lift coefficient, normal-force-curve slope, lateral-force-curve slope, static stability in pitch and yaw, time to damp to one-half amplitude in pitch and yaw, the sum of the rotary damping derivatives in pitch and also in yaw, and the static rolling derivatives all decreased with an increase in Mach number. Values of certain rolling derivatives were obtained by application of the least-squares method to the differential equation of rolling motion. A comparison of the experimental and calculated total rolling-moment-coefficient variation during transient oscillations of the model indicated good agreement when the damping-in-roll contribution was included with the static rolling-moment terms.

  10. Studies of Aerodynamic Drag.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    permit very accurate absolute measurements of viscosity (see Kestin & Leidenfrost (1959) for example). Other absolute measurements have been made using...disc. A rough calculation does give agreement within several percent with values obtained by Kestin & Leidenfrost (1959) with this configuration, but...and, also, D,h << R (cf equation 3.57, but with added restriction on B and D) and this was used by Kestin & Leidenfrost (1959) in some absolute

  11. Research on the drag reduction performance induced by the counterflowing jet for waverider with variable blunt radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shi-bin; Wang, Zhen-guo; Barakos, George N.; Huang, Wei; Steijl, Rene

    2016-10-01

    Waverider will endure the huge aero-heating in the hypersonic flow, thus, it need be blunt for the leading edge. However, the aerodynamic performance will decrease for the blunt waverider because of the drag hoik. How to improve the aerodynamic performance and reduce the drag and aero-heating is very important. The variable blunt radii method will improve the aerodynamic performance, however, the huge aero-heating and bow shock wave at the head is still serious. In the current study, opposing jet is used in the waverider with variable blunt radii to improve its performance. The three-dimensional coupled implicit Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes(RANS) equation and the two equation SST k-ω turbulence model have been utilized to obtain the flow field properties. The numerical method has been validated against the available experimental data in the open literature. The obtained results show that the L/D will drop 7-8% when R changes from 2 to 8. The lift coefficient will increase, and the drag coefficient almost keeps the same when the variable blunt radii method is adopted, and the L/D will increase. The variable blunt radii method is very useful to improve the whole characteristics of blunt waverider and the L/D can improve 3%. The combination of the variable blunt radii method and opposing jet is a novel way to improve the whole performance of blunt waverider, and L/D can improve 4-5%. The aperture as a novel way of opposing jet is suitable for blunt waverider and also useful to improve the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic characteristics of waverider in the hypersonic flow. There is the optimal P0in/P0 that can make the detached shock wave reattach the lower surface again so that the blunt waverider can get the better aerodynamic performance.

  12. Changes in the turbulent boundary layer structure associated with net drag reduction by outer layer manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashidnia, N.; Falco, R. E.

    1987-01-01

    A specially designed wind tunnel was used to examine the effects of tandemly arranged parallel plate manipulators (TAPPMs) on a turbulent boundary-layer structure and the associated drag. Momentum balances, as well as measurements of the local shear stress from the velocity gradient near the wall, were used to obtain the net drag and local skin friction changes. Two TAPPMs, identical except for the thickness of their plates, were used in the study. Results with .003 inch plates were a maximum net drag reduction of 10 percent at 58 beta sub o (using a momentum balance). At 20 beta sub o, simultaneous laser sheet flow visualization and hot-wire anemometry data showed that the Reynolds stress in the large eddies was significantly reduced, as were the streamwise and normal velocity components. Using space-time correlations the reductions were again identified. Furthermore, quantitative flow visualization showed that the outward normal velocity of the inner region was also significantly decreased in the region around 20 beta sub o. However, throughout the first 130 beta sub o, the measured sublayer thickness with the TAPPMs in place was 15 to 20 percent greater. The data showed that the skin friction, as well as the structure of the turbulence, was strongly modified in the first 35 beta sub o, but that they both significantly relaxed toward unmanipulated boundary layer values by 50 beta sub o.

  13. Skin-Friction Drag Reduction over Super-Hydrophobic Materials in Fully-Developed Turbulent Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gose, James W.; Golovin, Kevin; Ceccio, Steven L.; Perlin, Marc; Tuteja, Anish

    2015-11-01

    As part an on-going research initiative to develop super-hydrophobic (SH) materials for high-speed naval applications, a team at the University of Michigan investigated SH materials for drag reduction in fully-developed turbulent flow. The SH materials were evaluated in a high-aspect ratio (width/height) channel flow facility capable of producing average flow speeds of 20 m/s, yielding a height (7 mm) based Reynolds number of 140,000. The SH materials examined were developed for large-scale application using various technologies including spraying, chemical etching, and mechanical abrasion. The materials were applied over a 100 mm (spanwise/width) by 1100 mm (streamwise/length) area. The drag measurement methods were pressure drop along the test surface over length 150H (1050 mm) and by means of the velocity profile via particle image velocimetry. The SH materials were investigated further to determine the effects of various flow conditions including low (vacuum) and high pressures. The drag reduction measurements were coupled with extensive topological evaluation of the materials to illustrate the importance of each aspect of the individual SH features, as well as the collective structure of the surface, leading to insight regarding the relevant characteristics of an SH material's ability to reduce skin-friction in fully-developed turbulent flow. The authors recognize the support of ONR.

  14. Significant and stable drag reduction with air rings confined by alternated superhydrophobic and hydrophilic strips

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Haibao; Wen, Jun; Bao, Luyao; Jia, Laibing; Song, Dong; Song, Baowei; Pan, Guang; Scaraggi, Michele; Dini, Daniele; Xue, Qunji; Zhou, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces have the potential to reduce the viscous drag of liquids by significantly decreasing friction at a solid-liquid interface due to the formation of air layers between solid walls and interacting liquids. However, the trapped air usually becomes unstable due to the finite nature of the domain over which it forms. We demonstrate for the first time that a large surface energy barrier can be formed to strongly pin the three-phase contact line of air/water/solid by covering the inner rotor of a Taylor-Couette flow apparatus with alternating superhydrophobic and hydrophilic circumferential strips. This prevents the disruption of the air layer, which forms stable and continuous air rings. The drag reduction measured at the inner rotor could be as much as 77.2%. Moreover, the air layers not only significantly reduce the strength of Taylor vortexes but also influence the number and position of the Taylor vortex pairs. This has strong implications in terms of energy efficiency maximization for marine applications and reduction of drag losses in, for example, fluid transport in pipelines and carriers. PMID:28879234

  15. Elasto-Inertial Turbulence: From Subcritical Turbulence to Maximum Drag Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubief, Yves; Sid, Samir; Egan, Raphael; Terrapon, Vincent

    2015-11-01

    Elasto Inertial Turbulence (EIT) is a turbulence state found so far in polymer solutions. Upon the appropriate initial perturbation, an autonomous regeneration cycle emerges between polymer dynamics, pressure and velocity fluctuations. This cycle is best explained by the Poisson equation derived from viscoelastic flow models such as FENE-P (used in this study). This presentation provides an overview of the structure of EIT in 2D channel flows for Reynolds numbers ranging from Reτ = 10 to 100 and for 3D simulations up to Ret au = 300 . For flows below the Newtonian critical Reynolds number, EIT increases the drag. For higher Reynolds numbers, EIT is surmised to be the energetic bound of Maximum Drag Reduction (MDR), the asymptotic state of drag reduction in polymer solutions. The very existence of EIT at low Reynolds numbers (Reτ < 60) highlights a backward energy transfer from the small scale polymer dynamics to larger flow scales. Similar dynamics is identified at higher Reynolds numbers, which could explain why polymer flows never become fully laminar. The authors acknowledge computational resources from CÉCI (F.R.S.-FNRS grant No.2.5020.11), the PRACE infrastructure, and the Vermont Advanced Computing Core.

  16. Drag Reduction CFD Simulations and Flow Visualization of Light Vehicle-Trailer Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurdson, Lorenz; Boyer, Henry; Lange, Carlos F.

    2016-11-01

    Experiments and CFD were performed to study the effect a deflector had on the flow and drag force associated with a 2010 F-150 truck and cargo trailer Light Vehicle-Trailer System (LVTS). Image Correlation Velocimetry (ICV) on smokewire streaklines measured the velocity field on the model mid-plane. CFD estimated the drag reduction as 13% at a Re of 14,900 with a moving ground-plane, and 17% without. Experiments suggested that the low Re does not diminish the full-scale relevance of the drag reduction results. One low Re effect was the presence of a separation bubble on the hood of the tow vehicle whose size reduced with an increase in Re. Three other characteristic flow patterns were identified: separation off the lead vehicle cab, stagnation of the free-stream on the trailer face for the no-deflector case, and subsequent separation at the trailer front corner. Comparisons of the ICV and CFD results with no deflector indicated good agreement in the direction of the velocity vectors, and the smoke streaklines and CFD streamlines also agreed well. However, for the deflector case, the CFD found an entirely different topological solution absent in the experiment. A pair of vertically-oriented mid-plane vortices were wrapped around the front of the trailer. Support from the Canadian Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council Grant 41747 is gratefully acknowledged.

  17. Experiments on the effects of aging on compliant coating drag reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, P. R.; Henoch, C.; Hrubes, J. D.; Semenov, B. N.; Amirov, A. I.; Kulik, V. M.; Malyuga, A. G.; Choi, K.-S.; Escudier, M. P.

    2005-08-01

    We report the experimental results from a collaborative effort between USA, Russia, and UK on the development of compliant coatings for undersea application of reduction of drag. The focus is on "shelf-life" of coatings. The coatings are based on a linear interference theory of interaction between turbulence pressure fluctuation and the viscoelastic coating. The phase shift between boundary displacement and pressure fluctuation embodies the interference effect. The natural frequency of the coating is matched to the turbulent boundary layer region of maximum Reynolds stress production. Low-molecular weight rubber-like silicone coatings have been manufactured whose properties include slow and fast damping, slow and fast aging, and varying magnitudes of elasticity, density, and thickness as well as transparency. The dynamic modulus and loss tangent vary weakly over a range of frequencies and temperature allowing compatibility with broad spectrum of turbulence. Drag measurements have been carried out over a year by the three teams in their water tunnels independently of identical coated models. We show that, with some exceptions, drag reduction generally deteriorates with the age of the coatings.

  18. Significant and stable drag reduction with air rings confined by alternated superhydrophobic and hydrophilic strips.

    PubMed

    Hu, Haibao; Wen, Jun; Bao, Luyao; Jia, Laibing; Song, Dong; Song, Baowei; Pan, Guang; Scaraggi, Michele; Dini, Daniele; Xue, Qunji; Zhou, Feng

    2017-09-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces have the potential to reduce the viscous drag of liquids by significantly decreasing friction at a solid-liquid interface due to the formation of air layers between solid walls and interacting liquids. However, the trapped air usually becomes unstable due to the finite nature of the domain over which it forms. We demonstrate for the first time that a large surface energy barrier can be formed to strongly pin the three-phase contact line of air/water/solid by covering the inner rotor of a Taylor-Couette flow apparatus with alternating superhydrophobic and hydrophilic circumferential strips. This prevents the disruption of the air layer, which forms stable and continuous air rings. The drag reduction measured at the inner rotor could be as much as 77.2%. Moreover, the air layers not only significantly reduce the strength of Taylor vortexes but also influence the number and position of the Taylor vortex pairs. This has strong implications in terms of energy efficiency maximization for marine applications and reduction of drag losses in, for example, fluid transport in pipelines and carriers.

  19. An Experimental Study of Drag Reduction in a Pipe with Superhydrophobic Coating at Moderate Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. H.; Tsai, C. C.; Kehr, Y. Z.; Horng, L.; Chang, K.; Kuo, L.

    2010-06-01

    This paper experimentally investigates drag reduction, durability for operations and effects for preventing microorganism from adhering to the surface when the superhydrophobic coating is applied on a solid surface. The experiments are divided into two parts. In the first part, a pipe flow system was established to measure the drag and to test the durability of the micro-structure of superhydrophobic coating at average speeds varying from 1m/sec to 6m/sec. In the second part, we tested the effect for preventing microorganism from adhering to the surface by putting the coated steel plates into sea water. There are four different superhydrophobic coatings in the present study. The experimental results were compared to those applied by ship paint usually used at CSBC.

  20. "Fluid bearing" effect of enclosed liquids in grooves on drag reduction in microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haosheng; Gao, Yang; Stone, Howard A.; Li, Jiang

    2016-12-01

    We report details of the fluid motion formed within and above grooves when a laminar continuous phase fluid flows over a second immiscible fluid enclosed in a grooved microchannel. Vortical structures within the transverse grooves were caused by a slip velocity at the fluid-fluid interface and act as "fluid bearings" on the boundary to lubricate the flow of the continuous phase. We investigated the drag reduction in the laminar flow in the microchannel by measuring slip at the boundaries and calculating an effective slip length, taking into account the influence of the effect of the viscosity ratio of the two fluids on the effective slip length. The "fluid bearing" effect can be used to transport high viscosity fluids using low viscosity fluids trapped in cavities to reduce drag.

  1. Improving the aerodynamics of top fuel dragsters

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, R.C.; Kohlman, D.L.; Kenner, M.T.

    1998-07-01

    The standard drag race is a straight ahead quarter mile race from a standing stop. As engine technology has improved, the speeds attained at the end of the quarter mile have increased. As the speed has increased, the importance of aerodynamic effects on the dragster has also increased. Lift and drag are the two primary aerodynamic effects. Lift is produced vertically downward to increase the normal force on the rear wheels, thereby increasing the ability to transmit energy from the engine through the wheels to the racetrack. Drag is an unwanted aerodynamic effect. Drag is produced by viscous interaction between the dragster and the air, by separation causing profile drag, and as a result of the lift being produced. This paper addresses the mechanisms of lift and drag production by a high speed dragster and proposes some design changes that can decrease the drag while maintaining the necessary negative lift. Preliminary wind tunnel tests on dragster models confirm that reductions in drag can be achieved. The effects of these changes on the elapsed time and final speed are estimated using a computer simulation of a quarter mile drag race. The simulation predicts a decrease in elapsed time of almost 0.1 seconds and an increase in top speed of approximately 10 miles per hour.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Aerodynamic Heating Reduction due to Opposing Jet in Supersonic Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. Y.; Eri, Q. T.

    In supersonic flight, severe aerodynamic heating takes place at the nose of blunt body and causes ablation. Accurate prediction of aerodynamic heating and construction of proper thermal protection system are required. The numerical study on a reduction of aerodynamic heating by opposing jet has been conducted. Flow field around a hemisphere model is calculated in supersonic free stream of Mach number 3.98 and the coolant gas is injected through the nozzle at the nose the model. CFD method was Finite Volume Method for time integration be used, axisymmetric full Navier-Stokes equations were applied as governing equations and k-ɛturbulence model is used. Numerical simulation demonstrated, compared with no jet, the reduction of aerodynamic heating due to opposing jet was to be proved quite effective at the nose of blunt body. Parameters in this numerical study insofar, as the pressure ratio is increased, caused the wall pressure and heat flux decrease, and recirculation region size largen. effective reduction of the aerodynamic heating remarkably. As the opposing nozzle diameter ratio was decreased, the pressure and heat flux increased, and recirculation region size lessening, the effect of reduction aerodynamic heating was reduced.

  3. The mechanism of the polymer-induced drag reduction in blood.

    PubMed

    Pribush, Alexander; Hatzkelzon, Lev; Meyerstein, Dan; Meyerstein, Naomi

    2013-03-01

    Literature reports provide evidence that nanomolar concentrations of spaghetti-like, high molecular weight polymers decrease the hydrodynamic resistance of blood thereby improving impaired blood circulation. It has been suggested that the polymer-induced drag reduction is caused by the corralling of red blood cells (RBCs) among extended macromolecules aligned in the flow direction. This mechanism predicts that drag-reducing polymers must affect the conductivity of completely dispersed blood, time-dependent and steady state structural organization of aggregated RBCs at rest. However, experimental results obtained at the concentration of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO, MW=4 × 10(6)) of 35 ppm show that neither the conductivity of completely dispersed blood, nor the kinetics of RBC aggregation occurring after the stoppage of flow, nor the structural organization of aggregated RBCs in the quiescent blood are affected by PEO. As these results are at odds with the "corralling" hypothesis, it is assumed that the effect of these polymers on the drag is associated with their interactions with local irregularities of disturbed laminar blood flow.

  4. Investigation to optimize the passive shock wave/boundary layer control for supercritical airfoil drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagamatsu, H. T.; Dyer, R.

    1984-01-01

    The passive shock wave/boundary layer control for reducing the drag of 14%-thick supercritical airfoil was investigated in the 3 in. x 15.4 in. RPI Transonic Wind Tunnel with and without the top wall insert at transonic Mach numbers. Top wall insert was installed to increase the flow Mach number to 0.90 with the model mounted on the test section bottom wall. Various porous surfaces with a cavity underneath were positioned on the area of the airfoil where the shock wave occurs. The higher pressure behind the shock wave circulates flow through the cavity to the lower pressure ahead of the shock wave. The effects from this circulation prevent boundary layer separation and enthropy increase hrough the shock wave. The static pressure distributions over the airfoil, the wake impact pressure survey for determining the profile drag and the Schlieren photographs for porous surfaces are presented and compared with the results for solid surface airfoil. With a 2.8% uniform porosity the normal shock wave for the solid surface was changed to a lambda shock wave, and the wake impact pressure data indicate a drag coefficient reduction as much as 45% lower than for the solid surface airfoil at high transonic Mach numbers.

  5. Boundary layer drag reduction research hypotheses derived from bio-inspired surface and recent advanced applications.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuehao; Yuan, Lu; Li, Jianhua; Wang, Jianshe

    2015-12-01

    Nature has supplied the inexhaustible resources for mankind, and at the same time, it has also progressively developed into the school for scientists and engineers. Through more than four billions years of rigorous and stringent evolution, different creatures in nature gradually exhibit their own special and fascinating biological functional surfaces. For example, sharkskin has the potential drag-reducing effect in turbulence, lotus leaf possesses the self-cleaning and anti-foiling function, gecko feet have the controllable super-adhesion surfaces, the flexible skin of dolphin can accelerate its swimming velocity. Great profits of applying biological functional surfaces in daily life, industry, transportation and agriculture have been achieved so far, and much attention from all over the world has been attracted and focused on this field. In this overview, the bio-inspired drag-reducing mechanism derived from sharkskin is explained and explored comprehensively from different aspects, and then the main applications in different fluid engineering are demonstrated in brief. This overview will inevitably improve the comprehension of the drag reduction mechanism of sharkskin surface and better understand the recent applications in fluid engineering.

  6. On the Application of Contour Bumps for Transonic Drag Reduction(Invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milholen, William E., II; Owens, Lewis R.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of discrete contour bumps on reducing the transonic drag at off-design conditions on an airfoil have been examined. The research focused on fully-turbulent flow conditions, at a realistic flight chord Reynolds number of 30 million. State-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics methods were used to design a new baseline airfoil, and a family of fixed contour bumps. The new configurations were experimentally evaluated in the 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research center, which utilizes an adaptive wall test section to minimize wall interference. The computational study showed that transonic drag reduction, on the order of 12% - 15%, was possible using a surface contour bump to spread a normal shock wave. The computational study also indicated that the divergence drag Mach number was increased for the contour bump applications. Preliminary analysis of the experimental data showed a similar contour bump effect, but this data needed to be further analyzed for residual wall interference corrections.

  7. Reductions in vehicle fuel consumption due to refinements in aerodynamic design. [for trailer trucks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    Over-the-highway fuel consumption and coastdown drag tests were performed on cab-over-engine, van type trailer trucks and modifications of these vehicles incorporating refinements in aerodynamic design. In addition, 1/25-scale models of these configurations, and derivatives of these configurations were tested in a wind tunnel to determine the effects of wind on the magnitude of the benefits that aerodynamic refinements can provide. The results of these tests are presented for a vehicle incorporating major redesign features and for a relatively simple add-on modification. These results include projected fuel savings on the basis of annual savings per vehicle year as well as probable nationwide fuel savings.

  8. Drag Reduction Devices for Aircraft (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the modeling, application, testing, and development of drag reduction devices for aircraft. Slots, flaps, fences, large-eddy breakup (LEBU) devices, vortex generators and turbines, Helmholtz resonators, and winglets are among the devices discussed. Contour shaping to ensure laminar flow, control boundary layer transition, or minimize turbulence is also covered. Applications include the wings, nacelles, fuselage, empennage, and externals of aircraft designed for high-lift, subsonic, or supersonic operation. The design, testing, and development of directional grooves, commonly called riblets, are covered in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Influence of Wall Strain Rate, Polymer Concentration and Channel Height upon Drag Reduction and Turbulent Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    1000 3 - 1 1 1000 5 0 0 2500 4 1 - 1 4000 3 1 1 4000 5 0 - 4" 2500 2.6 -Ŗ 0 380 4 0 o 2500 5.4 0 4620 4 2.8 Burst Detection Analysis In order to...Report PME-FM-89- 1 AD-A215 378 INFLUENCE OF WALL STRAIN RATE, POLYMER CONCENTRATION AND CHANNEL HEIGHT UPON DRAG REDUCTION AND TURBULENT STRUCTURE...RESEARCH So ECO41989 800 North QuineT Street Arlington, VA 22217-5000 n n I r SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (10%an Dea bf~erevd REPCRT

  10. Drag Reduction Devices for Aircraft (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the modeling, application, testing, and development of drag reduction devices for aircraft. Slots, flaps, fences, large-eddy breakup (LEBU) devices, vortex generators and turbines, Helmholtz resonators, and winglets are among the devices discussed. Contour shaping to ensure laminar flow, control boundary layer transition, or minimize turbulence is also covered. Applications include the wings, nacelles, fuselage, empennage, and externals of aircraft designed for high-lift, subsonic, or supersonic operation. The design, testing, and development of directional grooves, commonly called riblets, are covered in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the reduction in parachute drag caused by forebody wake effects: data compilation and program summary

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.W.; Johnson, D.W.

    1982-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate approximate analytical methods for predicting the reduction in parachute drag caused by forebody wake effects. The drag of a 20/sup 0/ conical ribbon parachute was measured at several axial stations behind an ogive cylinder forebody with and without fins. The same parachute was tested in undisturbed flow (where wake effects were negligible) so that the effects of suspension line length on parachute drag could be separated from the drag losses caused by the turbulent wake. Total head pressure surveys were made across the forebody wake and integrated across the canopy skirt area to determine the effective dynamic pressure acting on the parachute. Experimental results confirmed the validity of the underlying physical model of the parachute/wake interaction: the ratio of parachute drag behind a forebody divided by wake-free parachute drag is equal to the ratio of effective dynamic pressure acting on the parachute divided by free-stream dynamic pressure. However, the inability of existing turbulent wake theoretical models to make accurate predictions of wake velocity distributions for arbitrary forebody shapes is a fundamental limitation of the drag-loss analysis. If wake velocity profiles are known, the empirical constants in the turbulent wake theoretical models can be adjusted and accurate estimates of wake-induced parachute drag loss can be obtained from existing theory.

  12. An investigation of drag reduction for a standard truck with various modifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muirhead, V. U.

    1981-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the influence of several physical variables on the aerodynamic drag of a standard truck model. The physical variables included: a cab mounted air deflector; a boattail on the rear of the cargo compartment; flow-vanes on the front of the cargo compartment; and a forebody fairing over the cab. Tests were conducted at yaw angles (relative wind angle) of 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 degrees and Reynolds numbers of 3.4 x 100,000 to 6.1 x 100,000 based upon the equivalent diameter of the vehicles. The forebody fairing and the flow-vane with the closed bottom were very effective in improving the flow over the forward part of the cargo compartment. The forebody fairing provided a calculated fuel saving of 5.6 liters per hour (1.5 gallons per hour) over the baseline configuration for a ground speed of 88.6 km/hr (55 mph) in national average winds.

  13. Drag reduction of motor vehicles by active flow control using the Coanda effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geropp, D.; Odenthal, H.-J.

    A test facility has been constructed to realistically simulate the flow around a two dimensional car shaped body in a wind tunnel. A moving belt simulator has been employed to generate the relative motion between model and ground. In a first step, the aerodynamic coefficients cL and cD of the model are determined using static pressure and force measurements. LDA-measurements behind the model show the large vortex and turbulence structures of the near and far wake. In a second step, the ambient flow around the model is modified by way of an active flow control which uses the Coanda effect, whereby the base-pressure increases by nearly 50% and the total drag can be reduced by 10%. The recirculating region is completely eliminated. The current work reveals the fundamental physical phenomena of the new method by observing the pressure forces on the model surface as well as the time averaged velocities and turbulence distributions for the near and far wake. A theory resting on this empirical information is developed and provides information about the effectiveness of the blowing method. For this, momentum and energy equations were applied to the flow around the vehicle to enable a validation of the theoretical results using experimental values.

  14. Vibration reduction in helicopters using active control of structural response (ACSR) with improved aerodynamic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cribbs, Richard Clay

    This dissertation describes the development of a coupled rotor/flexible fuselage aeroelastic response model including rotor/fuselage aerodynamic interactions. This model is used to investigate fuselage vibrations and their suppression using active control of structural response (ACSR). The fuselage, modeled by a three dimensional structural dynamic finite element model, is combined with a flexible, four-bladed, hingeless rotor. Each rotor blade is structurally modeled as an isotropic Euler-Bernoulli beam with coupled flap-lag-torsional dynamics assuming moderate deflections. A free wake model is incorporated into the aeroelastic response model and is validated against previous studies. Two and three dimensional sources model the fuselage aerodynamics. Direct aerodynamic influences of the rotor and wake on the fuselage are calculated by integrating pressures over the surface of the fuselage. The fuselage distorts the wake and influences the air velocities at the rotor which alters the aerodynamic loading. This produces fully coupled rotor/fuselage aerodynamic interactions. The influence of the aerodynamic refinements on vibrations is studied in detail. Results indicate that a free wake model and the inclusion of fuselage aerodynamic effects on the rotor and wake are necessary for vibration prediction at all forward speeds. The direct influence of rotor and wake aerodynamics on the fuselage plays a minor role in vibrations. Accelerations with the improved aerodynamic model are significantly greater than uniform inflow results. The influence of vertical separation between the rotor and fuselage on vibrations is also studied. An ACSR control algorithm is developed that preferentially reduces accelerations at selected airframe locations of importance. Vibration reduction studies are carried out using this improved control algorithm and a basic algorithm studied previously at UCLA. Both ACSR methods markedly reduce acceleration amplitudes with no impact on the rotor

  15. Active control for drag reduction in turbulent channel flow: the opposition control schemes revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yin-Shan; Huang, Wei-Xi; Xu, Chun-Xiao

    2016-10-01

    The opposition control schemes first proposed by Choi et al (1994 J. Fluid Mech. 262 75) employing wall-normal (v) and spanwise (w) velocity are revisited in the present study by performing direct numerical simulation to turbulent channel flow at R{e}τ = 180. Special attention is paid to the combined control, in which the wall-normal and spanwise velocities are imposed at the wall just instantaneously opposite to those at a small distance to the wall. In comparison to the v- and w-controls, combined-control could achieve the best drag reduction rate and control efficiency, with the greatest suppression of turbulence intensities. The influence of control on the statistical properties of vortices is scrutinized. By control, the numbers of vortices with every circulation and radius apparently decrease at the same normal location near the wall, while the vortex radius scaled by the actual wall-friction velocity almost remains the same. The streamwise vortices and the induced Reynolds shear stress undergo the greatest suppression by combined control. It is shown that combined control achieves a better efficacy, attributed to the co-work of the mechanisms of the v- and w-controls. At a higher Reynolds number R{e}τ = 1000, combined control is also more effective than v- and w-controls. The better suppression effect on the outer large scales is the primary reason for the larger drag reduction rate in combined control.

  16. Newest Results from the Investigation of Polymer-Induced Drag Reduction through Direct Numerical Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitropoulos, Costas D.; Beris, Antony N.; Sureshkumar, R.; Handler, Robert A.

    1998-11-01

    This work continues our attempts to elucidate theoretically the mechanism of polymer-induced drag reduction through direct numerical simulations of turbulent channel flow, using an independently evaluated rheological model for the polymer stress. Using appropriate scaling to accommodate effects due to viscoelasticity reveals that there exists a great consistency in the results for different combinations of the polymer concentration and chain extension. This helps demonstrate that our obervations are applicable to very dilute systems, currently not possible to simulate. It also reinforces the hypothesis that one of the prerequisites for the phenomenon of drag reduction is sufficiently enhanced extensional viscosity, corresponding to the level of intensity and duration of extensional rates typically encountered during the turbulent flow. Moreover, these results motivate a study of the turbulence structure at larger Reynolds numbers and for different periodic computational cell sizes. In addition, the Reynolds stress budgets demonstrate that flow elasticity adversely affects the activities represented by the pressure-strain correlations, leading to a redistribution of turbulent kinetic energy amongst all directions. Finally, we discuss the influence of viscoelasticity in reducing the production of streamwise vorticity.

  17. Direct Numerical Simulation of Air Layer Drag Reduction over a Backward-facing Step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dokyun; Moin, Parviz

    2010-11-01

    Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of two-phase flow is performed to investigate the air layer drag reduction (ALDR) phenomenon in turbulent flow over a backward-facing step. In their experimental study, Elbing et al. (JFM, 2008) have observed a stable air layer on an entire flat plate if air is injected beyond the critical air-flow rate. In the present study, air is injected at the step on the wall into turbulent water flow for ALDR. The Reynolds and Weber numbers based on the water properties and step height are 22,800 and 560, respectively. An inlet section length before the step is 3h and the post expansion length is 30h, where h is the step height. The total number of grid points is about 271 million for DNS. The level set method is used to track the phase interface and the structured-mesh finite volume solver is used with an efficient algorithm for two-phase DNS. Two cases with different air-flow rates are performed to investigate the mechanism and stability of air layer. For high air-flow rate, the stable air layer is formed on the plate and more than 90% drag reduction is obtained. In the case of low air-flow rate, the air layer breaks up and ALDR is not achieved. The parameters governing the stability of air layer from the numerical simulations is also consistent with the results of stability analysis.

  18. A numerical study of air layer drag reduction phenomenon on a flat plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dokyun; Moin, Parviz

    2009-11-01

    The objective of the present study is to predict and understand the air layer drag reduction (ALDR) phenomenon. Recent experiments (Elbing et al. JFM 2008) have shown large net drag reductions if air is injected beyond a critical rate at the wall. The stability analysis and numerical simulations are performed to investigate mechanisms of ALDR on a flat plate using the same geometry as in the experiment. The linear stability of air-liquid interface is investigated by solving the Orr-Sommerfeld equations, and numerical simulations of two-phase flow have been performed to describe the evolution of air-water interface. The stability analysis shows that the air flow rates, Reynolds number, Weber number, and Froude number are important parameters determining the stability of the air layer. In laminar boundary layer, it is observed from the numerical simulations that the Froude number is the key to the stability of the air layer. The presentation will include a new and very efficient numerical method for two-phase flow calculations used in this study.

  19. Anomalous Drag Reduction and Hydrodynamic Interactions of Nanoparticles in Polymer Nanocomposite Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Jaydeep; Begam, Nafisa; Chandran, Sivasurender; Sprung, Michael

    2015-03-01

    One of the central dogma of fluid physics is the no-slip boundary condition whose validity has come under intense scrutiny, especially in the fields of micro and nanofluidics. Although various studies show the violation of the no-slip condition its effect on flow of colloidal particles in viscous media has been rarely explored. Here we report unusually large reduction of effective drag experienced by polymer grafted nanoparticles moving through a highly viscous film of polymer, well above its glass transition temperature. The extent of drag reduction increases with decreasing temperature and polymer film thickness. We also observe apparent divergence of the wave vector dependent hydrodynamic interaction function of these nanoparticles with an anomalous power law exponent of ~ 2 at the lowest temperatures and film thickness. Such strong hydrodynamic interactions are not expected in polymer melts where these interactions are known to be screened to molecular dimensions. We provide evidence for the presence of large hydrodynamic slip at the nanoparticle-polymer interface and demonstrate its tunability with temperature and confinement. Our study suggests novel physics emerging in dynamics nanoparticles due to confinement and interface wettability in thin films of polymer nanocomposites.

  20. Stream-wise distribution of skin-friction drag reduction on a flat plate with bubble injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Shijie; Chu, Ning; Yao, Yan; Liu, Jingting; Huang, Bin; Wu, Dazhuan

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the stream-wise distribution of skin-friction drag reduction on a flat plate with bubble injection, both experiments and simulations of bubble drag reduction (BDR) have been conducted in this paper. Drag reductions at various flow speeds and air injection rates have been tested in cavitation tunnel experiments. Visualization of bubble flow pattern is implemented synchronously. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method, in the framework of Eulerian-Eulerian two fluid modeling, coupled with population balance model (PBM) is used to simulate the bubbly flow along the flat plate. A wide range of bubble sizes considering bubble breakup and coalescence is modeled based on experimental bubble distribution images. Drag and lift forces are fully modeled based on applicable closure models. Both predicted drag reductions and bubble distributions are in reasonable concordance with experimental results. Stream-wise distribution of BDR is revealed based on CFD-PBM numerical results. In particular, four distinct regions with different BDR characteristics are first identified and discussed in this study. Thresholds between regions are extracted and discussed. And it is highly necessary to fully understand the stream-wise distribution of BDR in order to establish a universal scaling law. Moreover, mechanism of stream-wise distribution of BDR is analysed based on the near-wall flow parameters. The local drag reduction is a direct result of near-wall max void fraction. And the near-wall velocity gradient modified by the presence of bubbles is considered as another important factor for bubble drag reduction.

  1. Winglet and long duct nacelle aerodynamic development for DC-10 derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, A. B.

    1978-01-01

    Advanced technology for application to the Douglas DC-10 transport is discussed. Results of wind tunnel tests indicate that the winglet offers substantial cruise drag reduction with less wing root bending moment penalty than a wing-tip extension of the same effectiveness and that the long duct nacelle offers substantial drag reduction potential as a result of aerodynamic and propulsion improvements. The aerodynamic design and test of the nacelle and pylon installation are described.

  2. Drag Reduction by Laser-Plasma Energy Addition in Hypersonic Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, A. C.; Minucci, M. A. S.; Toro, P. G. P.; Chanes, J. B. Jr; Myrabo, L. N.

    2008-04-28

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the drag reduction by laser-plasma energy addition in a low density Mach 7 hypersonic flow. The experiments were conducted in a shock tunnel and the optical beam of a high power pulsed CO{sub 2} TEA laser operating with 7 J of energy and 30 MW peak power was focused to generate the plasma upstream of a hemispherical model installed in the tunnel test section. The non-intrusive schlieren optical technique was used to visualize the effects of the energy addition to hypersonic flow, from the plasma generation until the mitigation of the shock wave profile over the model surface. Aside the optical technique, a piezoelectric pressure transducer was used to measure the impact pressure at stagnation point of the hemispherical model and the pressure reduction could be observed.

  3. Experimental investigation on momentum and drag reduction of Malaysian crop suspensions in closed conduit flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, S. M.; Kazi, S. N.; Khan, G.; Dahari, M.; Zubir, M. N. M.; Ahmad, P.; Montazer, E.

    2017-06-01

    The study of frictional losses in fiber suspension flow is one of the significant scientific interests as the characteristics of suspension flow considerably changes with shear stress, fiber source, and treatments applied on fibers. Pressure drop measurements were obtained for different Malaysian crop fiber suspensions flowing through a closed conduit. The generated data were gathered over a range of flow rates and suspension concentrations. It was found that the magnitude of the pressure drop of the fiber suspensions is dependent on the concentration, characteristics, and fiber source. Considerable drag reduction is obtained for concentration of 0.6 wt. % at high flow rates. Such a reduction of pressure drop at the particular concentrations and the flow rates is interesting and useful as these data can be used for design and optimization of fiber handling equipment and piping systems. Furthermore, the effect of different fibers, fiber properties and flexibility on pressure drop were studied.

  4. Advanced Aerodynamic Control Effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1999-01-01

    A 1990 research program that focused on the development of advanced aerodynamic control effectors (AACE) for military aircraft has been reviewed and summarized. Data are presented for advanced planform, flow control, and surface contouring technologies. The data show significant increases in lift, reductions in drag, and increased control power, compared to typical aerodynamic designs. The results presented also highlighted the importance of planform selection in the design of a control effector suite. Planform data showed that dramatic increases in lift (greater than 25%) can be achieved with multiple wings and a sawtooth forebody. Passive porosity and micro drag generator control effector data showed control power levels exceeding that available from typical effectors (moving surfaces). Application of an advanced planform to a tailless concept showed benefits of similar magnitude as those observed in the generic studies.

  5. Quasi-analytical solutions for the dynamics of a class of tethered satellites with Danby's aerodynamical drag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonzani, I.; Zavattaro Chiado Piat, M. G.

    1985-12-01

    An analytic solution, in terms of expansion of a small parameter, for the classical two-body tethered satellite with a specific drag model (Danby, 1962) is obtained. The time of flight as well as the solution regarding the state variable of the system are expressed in terms of quadratures of the anomaly.

  6. Aerodynamic characteristics of some modified conical bodies with low lift-drag ratios at Mach numbers of 2.30 and 4.63

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, E. E.

    1972-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted at Mach numbers of 2.30 and 4.63 to determine the static aerodynamic characteristics of three 60 deg half-angle cone models. Configuration 1 was obtained by raking off a symmetrical cone at a base angle of 6.15 deg, and configuration 2 and 3 were obtained by adding flaps to a symmetrical cone. The models were tested at angles of attack from about -5 deg to about 20 deg at roll angles of 0 deg to -180 deg and at a freestream Reynolds number of 1.09 x one million, based on body diameter. The results showed that all three configurations produced finite values of lift-drag ratio useful for lifting planetary entry. All three configurations exhibited increases in yawing moment and side force with roll angle; thus, the capability for lateral trajectory control is provided.

  7. Helicopter hub fairing and pylon interference drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, D. R.; Sung, D. Y.; Young, L. A.; Louie, A. W.; Stroub, R. H.

    1989-01-01

    A wind tunnel test was conducted to study the aerodynamics of helicopter hub and pylon fairings. The test was conducted in the 7-by 10 Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel (Number 2) at Ames Research Center using a 1/5-scale XH-59A fuselage model. The primary focus of the test was on the rotor hub fairing and pylon mutual interference drag. Parametric studies of pylon and hub fairing geometry were also conducted. This report presents the major findings of the test as well as tabulated force and moment data, flow visualization photographs, and graphical presentations of the drag data. The test results indicate that substantial drag reduction can be attained through the use of a cambered hub fairing with circular arc upper surface and flat lower surface. Furthermore, a considerable portion of the overall drag reduction is attributed to the reduction in the hub-on-pylon interference drag. It is also observed that the lower surface curvature of the fairing has a strong influence on the hub fairing and on pylon interference drag. However, the drag reduction benefit that was obtained by using the cambered hub fairing with a flat lower surface was adversely affected by the clearance between the hub fairing and the pylon.

  8. Effects of Side Walls on Pipe Inlet Flow(Drag Reduction by Separated Flow Control Using Ring Shaped Small Obstacle)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Toshitake; Shakouchi, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Koichi

    The flow from a wide space into a pipe has a large annular separated vortex region just after the inlet corner. This vortex region produces large flow resistance, or drag, in this kind of flow. To reduce the drag, a means to control flow in order to suppress the vortex region is needed. In this study, a simple method to reduce the drag of the pipe inlet flow by mounting a small ring-shaped obstacle instead of a bell-mouth has been proposed and examined. The effects of the side-walls and their offset distance on drag reduction were also examined. The small offset distance corresponds to the case in which the pipe inlet is placed near the bottom or corner of the tank. The distributions of pressure and velocity components in the axial direction at several cross-sections were measured, and a visualized flow pattern of the water flow just after the pipe inlet was examined. The effects of the small ring-shaped obstacle on drag reduction were also examined. It was clarified that the inlet loss (drag) coefficient was reduced by a maximum of about 90 percent by mounting the ring-shaped obstacle.

  9. Bio-inspired Gecko Micro-surface for Drag Reduction in Turbulent Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, Isnardo; Carrasquillo, Kenneth; Araya, Guillermo; Castillo, Luciano; Leonardi, Stefano

    2014-11-01

    Direct Numerical Simulations of a turbulent channel flow with a porous wall inspired from the Gecko lizard were performed at Reynolds number of Reτ = 450 . Two superposed fluids were considered. As initial condition, one fluid fills the microfibrillar surface, the interface with the overlying fluid being flat and corresponding to the crests plane. The code is based on a finite difference scheme with a Runge Kutta and fractional step. The porous wall is modeled with the immersed boundary method, while the dynamic of the interface between the two fluids is solved with a level set method. A parametric study has been performed varying the viscosity ratio between the two fluids. Two cases have been considered, with and without surface tension. Without surface tension the microfibrillar wall acts as a rough wall increasing the drag. However, when the surface tension is large enough to maintain the interface stable, the external fluid cannot enter into the porous wall and an effective slip is produced. When the fluid in the porous wall has a viscosity 100 times smaller than that of the overlying fluid, a drag reduction of about 60 % can be observed. In this case, the near wall coherent structures become significantly weaker. The numerical simulations were performed on XSEDE TACC under Grant No. CTS070066. S.L., I.A. and K.C. were supported by ONR MURI grant.

  10. Robust Airfoil Optimization to Achieve Consistent Drag Reduction Over a Mach Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu; Huyse, Luc; Padula, Sharon; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We prove mathematically that in order to avoid point-optimization at the sampled design points for multipoint airfoil optimization, the number of design points must be greater than the number of free-design variables. To overcome point-optimization at the sampled design points, a robust airfoil optimization method (called the profile optimization method) is developed and analyzed. This optimization method aims at a consistent drag reduction over a given Mach range and has three advantages: (a) it prevents severe degradation in the off-design performance by using a smart descent direction in each optimization iteration, (b) there is no random airfoil shape distortion for any iterate it generates, and (c) it allows a designer to make a trade-off between a truly optimized airfoil and the amount of computing time consumed. For illustration purposes, we use the profile optimization method to solve a lift-constrained drag minimization problem for 2-D airfoil in Euler flow with 20 free-design variables. A comparison with other airfoil optimization methods is also included.

  11. Marked drag reduction in non-affine viscoelastic turbulence in homogeneous isotropic and pipe flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuti, K.; Matsumoto, K.; Adati, M.

    2011-12-01

    Effect of non-affinity of the molecular motions to the macroscopic deformation in the polymer-diluted flow on turbulent drag reduction (DR) is studied using the DNS data for homogeneous isotropic turbulence and pipe flow. The polymer stress is obtained by solving the non-affine Johnson-Segalman constitutive equation. In both flows, DR is maximal when non-affinity is either minimum or maximum, but the largest reduction is achieved when non-affinity is maximum. As an extreme case, in pipe flow, the mean velocity profile exceeds the Virk's maximum DR limit and almost complete relaminarization of turbulent state is achieved. The normal-stress difference (NSD) is obtained on the basis of new eigenvectors which span the isosurfaces of vortex tube and sheet. It is shown that the first NSD is predominantly positive, while the second NSD is negative along the sheets and tubes. Thus, an extra tension is exerted on the sheet and tube. With an increase of effective viscosity by an addition of elongation viscosity, resistance of the sheet and tube to their stretching is enhanced. The principal mechanism for DR when non-affinity is maximum is that the transformation of the sheet into the tube is restrained because the sheet tends to snap back to the original flat form. When non-affinity is minimum, the tubes are created but its stretching is suppressed by annihilation of lowering of the pressure in the tube-core region. In both cases, cascade of the energy into the small scales is diminished leading to the reduction of drag.

  12. Coupled Vortex-Lattice Flight Dynamic Model with Aeroelastic Finite-Element Model of Flexible Wing Transport Aircraft with Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap for Drag Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Ting, Eric; Nguyen, Daniel; Dao, Tung; Trinh, Khanh

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a coupled vortex-lattice flight dynamic model with an aeroelastic finite-element model to predict dynamic characteristics of a flexible wing transport aircraft. The aircraft model is based on NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) with representative mass and stiffness properties to achieve a wing tip deflection about twice that of a conventional transport aircraft (10% versus 5%). This flexible wing transport aircraft is referred to as an Elastically Shaped Aircraft Concept (ESAC) which is equipped with a Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system for active wing shaping control for drag reduction. A vortex-lattice aerodynamic model of the ESAC is developed and is coupled with an aeroelastic finite-element model via an automated geometry modeler. This coupled model is used to compute static and dynamic aeroelastic solutions. The deflection information from the finite-element model and the vortex-lattice model is used to compute unsteady contributions to the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients. A coupled aeroelastic-longitudinal flight dynamic model is developed by coupling the finite-element model with the rigid-body flight dynamic model of the GTM.

  13. Drag reduction in a channel with microstructure grooves using the lattice Boltzmann method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daeian, M. A.; Moosavi, A.; Nouri-Borujerdi, A.; Taghvaei, E.

    2017-03-01

    Using the Shan–Chen lattice Boltzmann multi-phase model, we investigate the effect of adding microstructured grooves to the walls of a 2D parallel-plate channel on the pressure drop in the channel. The effects of the size of the grooves on the pressure drop in the channel were considered. It was observed that the pitch of the grooves has a considerable effect on the pressure drop in the channel, and even for some values of the pitch we observe an increase in the pressure drop. As the pitch decreases, a lower pressure drop is achieved. The results also show that as the ratio of the solid–liquid contact surface to the whole surface is decreased, the pressure drop decreases. It is also observed that the grooves should be deep enough to yield drag reduction, otherwise it would have a negative effect.

  14. Intelligent Control for Drag Reduction on the X-48B Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brian Joseph; Brown, Nelson Andrew; Yoo, Seung Yeun

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of an intelligent control technology for in-flight drag reduction. The system is integrated with and demonstrated on the full X-48B nonlinear simulation. The intelligent control system utilizes a peak-seeking control method implemented with a time-varying Kalman filter. Performance functional coordinate and magnitude measurements, or independent and dependent parameters respectively, are used by the Kalman filter to provide the system with gradient estimates of the designed performance function which is used to drive the system toward a local minimum in a steepestdescent approach. To ensure ease of integration and algorithm performance, a single-input single-output approach was chosen. The framework, specific implementation considerations, simulation results, and flight feasibility issues related to this platform are discussed.

  15. Sustained Drag Reduction in Turbulent Taylor-Couette Flows Enabled by Low-Temperature Leidenfrost Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saranadhi, Dhananjai; Chen, Dayong; Kleingartner, Justin; Srinivasan, Siddarth; Cohen, Robert; McKinley, Gareth

    2015-11-01

    A submerged body can be heated past its Leidenfrost temperature to form a thick, continuous film of steam between itself and the water. Here we employ a superhydrophobic surface to drastically reduce the energy input required to create and sustain such a boiling film, and use the resulting slip boundary condition to achieve skin friction drag reduction on the inner rotor of a bespoke Taylor-Couette apparatus. We find that skin friction can be reduced by over 90% relative to an unheated superhydrophobic surface at Re = 19,200, and derive a boundary layer and slip theory to fit the data to a model that calculates a slip length of 3.12 +/- 0.4 mm. This indicates that the boiling film has a thickness of 112 μm, which is consistent with literature.

  16. Experimental investigation of the ground transportation systems (GTS) project for heavy vehicle drag reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Croll, R.H.; Gutierrez, W.T.; Hassan, B.; Suazo, J.E.; Riggins, A.J.

    1995-12-31

    A wind tunnel experimental research program was conducted on a heavily instrumented Ground Transportation System (GTS) vehicle. The GTS baseline model represented a generic 1:8 scale Class-8 van-type tractor trailer geometry. Five base drag reduction add-on devices, instrumented with surface pressure ports, were also tested. These add-on devices included two ogive boattail shapes and three slant geometry devices. Six component force and moment data, surface pressure contours, and wake velocity surveys are presented for each configuration along with qualitative insights gained from flow visualization. This wind tunnel program was designed to complement a parallel research effort in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) which modeled many of these same vehicle geometries. The wind tunnel data are documented and archived in ASCII format on floppy discs and available to researchers interested in further analysis or comparison to other CFD solutions.

  17. Comparison of superhydrophobic drag reduction between turbulent pipe and channel flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Hyung Jae; Lee, Jae Hwa

    2017-09-01

    It has been known over several decades that canonical wall-bounded internal flows of a pipe and channel share flow similarities, in particular, close to the wall due to the negligible curvature effect. In the present study, direct numerical simulations of fully developed turbulent pipe and channel flows are performed to investigate the influence of the superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) on the turbulence dynamics and the resultant drag reduction (DR) of the flows under similar conditions. SHSs at the wall are modeled in spanwise-alternating longitudinal regions with a boundary with no-slip and shear-free conditions, and the two parameters of the spanwise periodicity (P/δ) and SHS fraction (GF) within a pitch are considered. It is shown, in agreement with previous investigations in channels, that the turbulent drag for the pipe and channel flows over SHSs is continuously decreased with increases in P/δ and GF. However, the DR rate in the pipe flows is greater than that in the channel flows with an accompanying reduction of the Reynolds stress. The enhanced performance of the DR for the pipe flow is attributed to the increased streamwise slip and weakened Reynolds shear stress contributions. In addition, a mathematical analysis of the spanwise mean vorticity equation suggests that the presence of a strong secondary flow due to the increased spanwise slip of the pipe flows makes a greater negative contribution of advective vorticity transport than the channel flows, resulting in a higher DR value. Finally, an inspection of the origin of the mean secondary flow in turbulent flows over SHSs based on the spatial gradients of the turbulent kinetic energy demonstrates that the secondary flow is both driven and sustained by spatial gradients in the Reynolds stress components, i.e., Prandtl's secondary flow of the second kind.

  18. Aerodynamics of road vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Hucho, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    This introduction to aerodynamic aspects of motor vehicle design will be of use both to vehicle designers and students of automobile engineering. Content covers vehicle systems, ventilation and aerodynamic design to reduce drag and increase stability of cars, commercial vehicles and PSVs. Topics considered include automobile aerodynamics; some fundamentals of fluid mechanics; performance of cars and light vans; aerodynamic drag of passenger cars; driving stability in sidewinds; operation, safety and comfort; high-performance vehicle aerodynamics; commercial vehicles; engine cooling systems; heating, ventilation and air conditioning of motor vehicles; wind tunnels for automobile aerodynamics; measuring and testing techniques; and numerical methods for computation of flow around road vehicles.

  19. Sustainable Drag Reduction in Turbulent Taylor-Couette Flows by Depositing Sprayable Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Siddarth; Kleingartner, Justin A.; Gilbert, Jonathan B.; Cohen, Robert E.; Milne, Andrew J. B.; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a reduction in the measured inner wall shear stress in moderately turbulent Taylor-Couette flows by depositing sprayable superhydrophobic microstructures on the inner rotor surface. The magnitude of reduction becomes progressively larger as the Reynolds number increases up to a value of 22% at Re =8.0 ×1 04 . We show that the mean skin friction coefficient Cf in the presence of the superhydrophobic coating can be fitted to a modified Prandtl-von Kármán-type relationship of the form (Cf/2 )-1 /2=M ln (Re (Cf/2 )1 /2) +N +(b /Δ r )Re (Cf/2 )1 /2 from which we extract an effective slip length of b ≈19 μ m . The dimensionless effective slip length b+=b /δν, where δν is the viscous length scale, is the key parameter that governs the drag reduction and is shown to scale as b+˜Re1 /2 in the limit of high Re.

  20. Biomimetic spiroid winglets for lift and drag control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, Joel E.; Maestro, Dario; Bottaro, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    In aeronautical engineering, drag reduction constitutes a challenge and there is room for improvement and innovative developments. The drag breakdown of a typical transport aircraft shows that the lift-induced drag can amount to as much as 40% of the total drag at cruise conditions and 80-90% of the total drag in take-off configuration. One way of reducing lift-induced drag is by using wingtip devices. By applying biomimetic abstraction of the principle behind a bird's wingtip feathers, we study spiroid wingtips, which look like an extended blended wingtip that bends upward by 360 degrees to form a large rigid ribbon. The numerical investigation of such a wingtip device is described and preliminary indications of its aerodynamic performance are provided.

  1. Design, manufacture, and testing of compliant coatings for reduction of turbulent drag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, S. C.; Power, J. L.; Eynck, J. J.

    1984-08-01

    The drag of three compliant coatings was measured in the DTNSRDC 36-inch water tunnel. Two coatings were of the Kramer type, while the other one was a closed-cell neoprene foam. The drag of the 2.032-m (80-in.) long and 0.737-m (29-in.) wide compliant coatings was compared to the drag of a smooth, solid reference plate.

  2. SRB ascent aerodynamic heating design criteria reduction study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crain, W. K.; Frost, C. L.; Engel, C. D.

    1989-01-01

    An independent set of solid rocket booster (SRB) convective ascent design environments were produced which would serve as a check on the Rockwell IVBC-3 environments used to design the ascent phase of flight. In addition, support was provided for lowering the design environments such that Thermal Protection System (TPS), based on conservative estimates, could be removed leading to a reduction in SRB refurbishment time and cost. Ascent convective heating rates and loads were generated at locations in the SRB where lowering the thermal environment would impact the TPS design. The ascent thermal environments are documented along with the wind tunnel/flight test data base used as well as the trajectory and environment generation methodology. Methodology, as well as, environment summaries compared to the 1980 Design and Rockwell IVBC-3 Design Environment are presented in this volume, 1.

  3. Aeronautical fuel conservation possibilities for advanced subsonic transports. [application of aeronautical technology for drag and weight reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braslow, A. L.; Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The anticipated growth of air transportation is in danger of being constrained by increased prices and insecure sources of petroleum-based fuel. Fuel-conservation possibilities attainable through the application of advances in aeronautical technology to aircraft design are identified with the intent of stimulating NASA R and T and systems-study activities in the various disciplinary areas. The material includes drag reduction; weight reduction; increased efficiency of main and auxiliary power systems; unconventional air transport of cargo; and operational changes.

  4. Bio-inspired dewetted surfaces based on SiC/Si interlocked structures for enhanced-underwater stability and regenerative-drag reduction capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, By Junghan; Zhang, Zhuo; Baek, Seunghyun; Kim, Sangkuk; Kim, Donghyung; Yong, Kijung

    2016-04-01

    Drag reduction has become a serious issue in recent years in terms of energy conservation and environmental protection. Among diverse approaches for drag reduction, superhydrophobic surfaces have been mainly researched due to their high drag reducing efficiency. However, due to limited lifetime of plastron (i.e., air pockets) on superhydrophobic surfaces in underwater, the instability of dewetted surfaces has been a sticking point for practical applications. This work presents a breakthrough in improving the underwater stability of superhydrophobic surfaces by optimizing nanoscale surface structures using SiC/Si interlocked structures. These structures have an unequaled stability of underwater superhydrophobicity and enhance drag reduction capabilities,with a lifetime of plastron over 18 days and maximum velocity reduction ratio of 56%. Furthermore, through photoelectrochemical water splitting on a hierarchical SiC/Si nanostructure surface, the limited lifetime problem of air pockets was overcome by refilling the escaping gas layer, which also provides continuous drag reduction effects.

  5. Bio-inspired dewetted surfaces based on SiC/Si interlocked structures for enhanced-underwater stability and regenerative-drag reduction capability

    PubMed Central

    Lee, By Junghan; Zhang, Zhuo; Baek, Seunghyun; Kim, Sangkuk; Kim, Donghyung; Yong, Kijung

    2016-01-01

    Drag reduction has become a serious issue in recent years in terms of energy conservation and environmental protection. Among diverse approaches for drag reduction, superhydrophobic surfaces have been mainly researched due to their high drag reducing efficiency. However, due to limited lifetime of plastron (i.e., air pockets) on superhydrophobic surfaces in underwater, the instability of dewetted surfaces has been a sticking point for practical applications. This work presents a breakthrough in improving the underwater stability of superhydrophobic surfaces by optimizing nanoscale surface structures using SiC/Si interlocked structures. These structures have an unequaled stability of underwater superhydrophobicity and enhance drag reduction capabilities,with a lifetime of plastron over 18 days and maximum velocity reduction ratio of 56%. Furthermore, through photoelectrochemical water splitting on a hierarchical SiC/Si nanostructure surface, the limited lifetime problem of air pockets was overcome by refilling the escaping gas layer, which also provides continuous drag reduction effects. PMID:27095674

  6. Improvement of water-repellent and hydrodynamic drag reduction properties on bio-inspired surface and exploring sharkskin effect mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yuehao; Liu, Yufei; Anderson, James; Li, Xiang; Li, Yuanyue

    2015-07-01

    Bio-inspired/biomimetic surface technologies focusing on sharkskin, lotus leaf, gecko feet, and others have attracted so lots of attentions from all over the world; meanwhile, they have also brought great advantages and profits for mankind. Sharkskin drag-reducing/low-resistance surface is the imperative consequence of nature selection and self-evolution in the long history, which can enable itself accommodate the living environments perfectly. Generally speaking, sharkskin effect can become transparent only in some certain velocity scope. How to expand its application range and enhance the drag reduction function further has developed into the urgent issue. In this article, the water-repellent and hydrodynamic drag-reducing effects are improved by adjusting sharkskin texture. The experimental results show that contact angle of more than 150° is achieved, and drag-reducing property is improved to some extent. In addition, the drag-reducing mechanism is explored and generalized from different aspects adopting the numerical simulation, which has important significance to comprehend sharkskin effect.

  7. Relevance of aerodynamic modelling for load reduction control strategies of two-bladed wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, B.; Cheng, P. W.

    2014-06-01

    A new load reduction concept is being developed for the two-bladed prototype of the Skywind 3.5MW wind turbine. Due to transport and installation advantages both offshore and in complex terrain two-bladed turbine designs are potentially more cost-effective than comparable three-bladed configurations. A disadvantage of two-bladed wind turbines is the increased fatigue loading, which is a result of asymmetrically distributed rotor forces. The innovative load reduction concept of the Skywind prototype consists of a combination of cyclic pitch control and tumbling rotor kinematics to mitigate periodic structural loading. Aerodynamic design tools must be able to model correctly the advanced dynamics of the rotor. In this paper the impact of the aerodynamic modelling approach is investigated for critical operational modes of a two-bladed wind turbine. Using a lifting line free wake vortex code (FVM) the physical limitations of the classical blade element momentum theory (BEM) can be evaluated. During regular operation vertical shear and yawed inflow are the main contributors to periodic blade load asymmetry. It is shown that the near wake interaction of the blades under such conditions is not fully captured by the correction models of BEM approach. The differing prediction of local induction causes a high fatigue load uncertainty especially for two-bladed turbines. The implementation of both cyclic pitch control and a tumbling rotor can mitigate the fatigue loading by increasing the aerodynamic and structural damping. The influence of the time and space variant vorticity distribution in the near wake is evaluated in detail for different cyclic pitch control functions and tumble dynamics respectively. It is demonstrated that dynamic inflow as well as wake blade interaction have a significant impact on the calculated blade forces and need to be accounted for by the aerodynamic modelling approach. Aeroelastic simulations are carried out using the high fidelity multi body

  8. Experimental study of skin friction drag reduction on superhydrophobic flat plates in high Reynolds number boundary layer flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljallis, Elias; Sarshar, Mohammad Amin; Datla, Raju; Sikka, Vinod; Jones, Andrew; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we report the measurement of skin friction drag on superhydrophobic-coated flat plates in high Reynolds (Re) number boundary layer flows, using a high-speed towing tank system. Aluminum flat plates with a large area (4 feet × 2 feet, 3/8 in. thick) and sharpened leading/trailing edges (1 in. long) were prepared as a boundary layer flow model. Spray coating of hydrophobic nanoparticles was applied to make two different types of superhydrophobic coatings: one with low contact angle and high contact angle hysteresis, and the other with high contact angle and low contact angle hysteresis. Skin friction drag of the superhydrophobic plates was measured in the flow speed up to 30 ft/s to cover transition and turbulent flow regimes (105 < ReL < 107), and was compared to that of an uncoated bare aluminum plate. A significant drag reduction was observed on the superhydrophobic plate with high contact angle and low contact angle hysteresis up to ˜30% in transition regime (105 < ReL < 106), which is attributed to the shear-reducing air layer entrapped on the superhydrophobic surface. However, in fully turbulence regime (106 < ReL < 107), an increase of drag was observed, which is ascribed to the morphology of the surface air layer and its depletion by high shear flow. The texture of superhydrophobic coatings led to form a rugged morphology of the entrapped air layer, which would behave like microscale roughness to the liquid flow and offset the drag-reducing effects in the turbulent flow. Moreover, when the superhydrophobic coating became wet due to the removal of air by high shear at the boundary, it would amplify the surface roughness of solid wall and increase the drag in the turbulent flow. The results illustrate that drag reduction is not solely dependent on the superhydrophobicity of a surface (e.g., contact angle and air fraction), but the morphology and stability of the surface air layer are also critical for the effective drag reduction using

  9. Stability of two-layer Couette flow with application to drag reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Alireza; Smits, Alexander J.

    2016-11-01

    We consider the linear stability of flows composed of two superposed fluids in Couette flow in order to improve our understanding of the longevity and performance of superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS) or liquid-infused surfaces (LIS) which are important for drag reduction. Here, we assume that the fluids are immiscible, incompressible, and Newtonian with constant properties. Single-fluid Couette flow is known to be linearly stable for any Reynolds number. However, inclusion of the second layer of fluid enriches the problem and introduces five new parameters: viscosity ratio, density ratio, thickness ratio, Froude number and Weber number. Two kinds of instability can appear: an unstable interfacial mode, and a Tollmein-Schlichting mode. In this work we parametrically study the flow stability with specific emphasis on the effects of viscosity ratio, interfacial tension, and thickness ratio. Supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) and the Office of Naval Research (ONR) through MURI Grants N00014-12-1-0875 and N00014-12-1-0962 (Program Manager Dr. Ki-Han Kim).

  10. Phoretic drag reduction of chemically active homogeneous spheres under force fields and shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yariv, Ehud; Kaynan, Uri

    2017-01-01

    Surrounded by a spherically symmetric solute cloud, chemically active homogeneous spheres do not undergo conventional autophoresis when suspended in an unbounded liquid domain. When exposed to external flows, solute advection deforms that cloud, resulting in a generally asymmetric distribution of diffusio-osmotic slip which, in turn, modifies particle motion. Inspired by classical forced-convection analyses [Acrivos and Taylor, Phys. Fluids 5, 387 (1962), 10.1063/1.1706630; Frankel and Acrivos, Phys. Fluids 11, 1913 (1968), 10.1063/1.1692218] we illustrate this phoretic phenomenon using two prototypic configurations, one where the particle sediments under a uniform force field and one where it is subject to a simple shear flow. In addition to the Péclet number Pe associated with the imposed flow, the governing nonlinear problem also depends upon α , the intrinsic Péclet number associated with the chemical activity of the particle. As in the forced-convection problems, the small-Péclet-number limit is nonuniform, breaking down at large distances away from the particle. Calculation of the leading-order autophoretic effects thus requires use of matched asymptotic expansions, the outer region being at distances that scale inversely with Pe and Pe1 /2 in the respective sedimentation and shear problems. In the sedimentation problem we find an effective drag reduction of fractional amount α /8 ; in the shear problem we find that the magnitude of the stresslet is decreased by a fractional amount α /4 . For a dilute particle suspension the latter result is manifested by a reduction of the effective viscosity.

  11. The streamwise drag-reduction response of a boundary layer subjected to a sudden imposition of transverse oscillatory wall motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lardeau, Sylvain; Leschziner, Michael A.

    2013-07-01

    A direct numerical simulation study is presented, which examines the response of a spatially developing boundary layer to oscillatory spanwise wall motion imposed over a limited streamwise stretch. At the heart of the study is the dependence of the streamwise variations in skin friction and turbulence properties on the period of the oscillatory motion, with particular emphasis placed on the behaviour downstream of the start of the actuation. The friction Reynolds number just upstream of the actuation is Reτ = 520, and the wall-scaled actuation period, T+ = Tuτ2/ν, covers the range 80-200. In contrast to channel flow, the present configuration allows the processes during the transition stretch from the unactuated state to the low-drag state and the recovery from the low-drag state to be studied. Attention focuses primarily on the former. Results are included for the time-averaged turbulent stresses, their budgets and probability-density functions, as well as a range of phase-averaged properties. The study brings out, for low-drag conditions, a number of features and processes that are common with those in actuated channel flow, but suggests that the maximum drag-reduction margins are lower than those in equivalent channel flow, and that the optimum actuation period is significantly shorter. The transition to the low-drag state occurs over about 5 boundary-layer thicknesses, and is characterised by substantial oscillations in all phase-averaged properties. These oscillations, provoked at the start of the spanwise motion, propagate convectively as waves and decay as the low-drag state is approached. The interactions contributing to the oscillations are discussed as part of the analysis of phase-averaged quantities.

  12. Drag reduction by surface treatment in turbulent Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greidanus, A. J.; Delfos, R.; Westerweel, J.

    2011-12-01

    We use a Taylor-Couette facility to study the drag reducing effects of commercial surface products at high shear Reynolds numbers (Res) under perfect couter-rotating conditions (riwi = -rowo). The correlation between torque contribution of the von Kármán flow and shear Reynolds number is investigated. At this moment no significant drag changes are found for the commercial products. However, further research is needed to exclude uncertainties and errors from the torque measurements.

  13. On the theory of compliant wall drag reduction in turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    A theoretical model has been developed which can explain how the motion of a compliant wall reduces turbulent skin friction drag. Available experimental evidence at low speeds has been used to infer that a compliant surface selectively removes energy from the upper frequency range of the energy containing eddies and through resulting surface motions can produce locally negative Reynolds stresses at the wall. The theory establishes a preliminary amplitude and frequency criterion as the basis for designing effective drag reducing compliant surfaces.

  14. Turbulence and turbulent drag reduction in swirling flow: Inertial versus viscous forcing.

    PubMed

    Burnishev, Yuri; Steinberg, Victor

    2015-08-01

    We report unexpected results of a drastic difference in the transition to fully developed turbulent and turbulent drag reduction (TDR) regimes and in their properties in a von Karman swirling flow with counter-rotating disks of water-based polymer solutions for viscous (by smooth disks) as well as inertial (by bladed disks) forcing and by tracking just torque Γ(t) and pressure p(t) . For the viscous forcing, just a single TDR regime is found with the transition values of the Reynolds number (Re) Re turb c =Re TDR c ≃(4.8±0.2)×10(5) independent of ϕ , whereas for the inertial forcing two turbulent regimes are revealed. The first transition is to fully developed turbulence, and the second one is to the TDR regime with both Re turb c and Re TDR c depending on polymer concentration ϕ . Both regimes differ by the values of C f and C p , by the scaling exponents of the fundamental turbulent characteristics, by the nonmonotonic dependencies of skewness and flatness of the pressure PDFs on Re, and by the different frequency power spectra of p with the different dependencies of the main vortex peak frequency in the p power spectra on ϕ and Re. Thus our experimental results show the transition to the TDR regime in a von Karman swirling flow for the viscous and inertial forcings in a sharp contrast to the recent experiments [Phys. Fluids 10, 426 (1998); Phys. Rev. E 47, R28(R) (1993); and J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, S1195 (2005)] where the transition to TDR is observed in the same swirling flow with counter-rotating disks only for the viscous forcing. The latter result has led its authors to the wrong conclusion that TDR is a solely boundary effect contrary to the inertial forcing associated with the bulk effect, and this conception is currently rather widely accepted in literature.

  15. Optimally amplified large-scale streaks and drag reduction in turbulent pipe flow.

    PubMed

    Willis, Ashley P; Hwang, Yongyun; Cossu, Carlo

    2010-09-01

    The optimal amplifications of small coherent perturbations within turbulent pipe flow are computed for Reynolds numbers up to one million. Three standard frameworks are considered: the optimal growth of an initial condition, the response to harmonic forcing and the Karhunen-Loève (proper orthogonal decomposition) analysis of the response to stochastic forcing. Similar to analyses of the turbulent plane channel flow and boundary layer, it is found that streaks elongated in the streamwise direction can be greatly amplified from quasistreamwise vortices, despite linear stability of the mean flow profile. The most responsive perturbations are streamwise uniform and, for sufficiently large Reynolds number, the most responsive azimuthal mode is of wave number m=1 . The response of this mode increases with the Reynolds number. A secondary peak, where m corresponds to azimuthal wavelengths λ_{θ}^{+}≈70-90 in wall units, also exists in the amplification of initial conditions and in premultiplied response curves for the forced problems. Direct numerical simulations at Re=5300 confirm that the forcing of m=1,2 and m=4 optimal structures results in the large response of coherent large-scale streaks. For moderate amplitudes of the forcing, low-speed streaks become narrower and more energetic, whereas high-speed streaks become more spread. It is further shown that drag reduction can be achieved by forcing steady large-scale structures, as anticipated from earlier investigations. Here the energy balance is calculated. At Re=5300 it is shown that, due to the small power required by the forcing of optimal structures, a net power saving of the order of 10% can be achieved following this approach, which could be relevant for practical applications.

  16. Razor clam to RoboClam: burrowing drag reduction mechanisms and their robotic adaptation.

    PubMed

    Winter, A G; V; Deits, R L H; Dorsch, D S; Slocum, A H; Hosoi, A E

    2014-09-01

    Estimates based on the strength, size, and shape of the Atlantic razor clam (Ensis directus) indicate that the animal's burrow depth should be physically limited to a few centimeters; yet razor clams can dig as deep as 70 cm. By measuring soil deformations around burrowing E. directus, we have found the animal reduces drag by contracting its valves to initially fail, and then fluidize, the surrounding substrate. The characteristic contraction time to achieve fluidization can be calculated directly from soil properties. The geometry of the fluidized zone is dictated by two commonly-measured geotechnical parameters: coefficient of lateral earth pressure and friction angle. Calculations using full ranges for both parameters indicate that the fluidized zone is a local effect, occurring between 1-5 body radii away from the animal. The energy associated with motion through fluidized substrate-characterized by a depth-independent density and viscosity-scales linearly with depth. In contrast, moving through static soil requires energy that scales with depth squared. For E. directus, this translates to a 10X reduction in the energy required to reach observed burrow depths. For engineers, localized fluidization offers a mechanically simple and purely kinematic method to dramatically reduce energy costs associated with digging. This concept is demonstrated with RoboClam, an E. directus-inspired robot. Using a genetic algorithm to find optimal digging kinematics, RoboClam has achieved localized fluidization burrowing performance comparable to that of the animal, with a linear energy-depth relationship, in both idealized granular glass beads and E. directus' native cohesive mudflat habitat.

  17. Surface drag reduction and flow separation control in pelagic vertebrates, with implications for interpreting scale morphologies in fossil taxa

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Colin; Young, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Living in water imposes severe constraints on the evolution of the vertebrate body. As a result of these constraints, numerous extant and extinct aquatic vertebrate groups evolved convergent osteological and soft-tissue adaptations. However, one important suite of adaptations is still poorly understood: dermal cover morphologies and how they influence surface fluid dynamics. This is especially true for fossil aquatic vertebrates where the soft tissue of the dermis is rarely preserved. Recent studies have suggested that the keeled scales of mosasaurids (pelagic lizards that lived during the Late Cretaceous) aided in surface frictional drag reduction in a manner analogous to the riblets on shark placoid scales. However, here we demonstrate that mosasaurid scales were over an order of magnitude too large to have this effect. More likely they increased the frictional drag of the body and may have played a role in controlling flow separation by acting as surface roughness that turbulated the boundary layer. Such a role could have reduced pressure drag and enhanced manoeuvrability. We caution those studying fossil aquatic vertebrates from positing the presence of surface drag reducing morphologies, because as we show herein, to be effective such features need to have a spacing of approximately 0.1 mm or less. PMID:26064576

  18. Shape Optimization for Drag Reduction in Linked Bodies using Evolution Strategies and the Hybrid Wavelet Collocation - Brinkman Penalization Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyev, Oleg V.; Gazzola, Mattia; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2010-11-01

    In this talk we discuss preliminary results for the use of hybrid wavelet collocation - Brinkman penalization approach for shape optimization for drag reduction in flows past linked bodies. This optimization relies on Adaptive Wavelet Collocation Method along with the Brinkman penalization technique and the Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES). Adaptive wavelet collocation method tackles the problem of efficiently resolving a fluid flow on a dynamically adaptive computational grid, while a level set approach is used to describe the body shape and the Brinkman volume penalization allows for an easy variation of flow geometry without requiring body-fitted meshes. We perform 2D simulations of linked bodies in order to investigate whether flat geometries are optimal for drag reduction. In order to accelerate the costly cost function evaluations we exploit the inherent parallelism of ES and we extend the CMA-ES implementation to a multi-host framework. This framework allows for an easy distribution of the cost function evaluations across several parallel architectures and it is not limited to only one computing facility. The resulting optimal shapes are geometrically consistent with the shapes that have been obtained in the pioneering wind tunnel experiments for drag reduction using Evolution Strategies by Ingo Rechenberg.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of high molecular weight water-soluble polymers to study the role of extensional viscosity in polymeric drag reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Martin E.

    Several high molecular weight water-soluble acrylamide copolymers identified as efficient drag reducers have been synthesized, characterized, and examined for drag reduction effectiveness. Commercially supplied poly(ethylene oxide) polymers of varying molecular weight were also characterized and studied for comparison. The resistance to polymer extension was measured using a screen extensional rheometer allowing for the local extensional viscosity of each polymer to be quantified. Copolymer composition was determined using 13C NMR. Dilute solution properties and molecular weights were determined from zero shear intrinsic viscosity measurements and multi-angle laser light scattering experiments respectively. Molecular weights ranged from 0.55 to 4.3 million grams per mole. Drag reduction measurements were performed using a rotating disk instrument. Drag reduction data were analyzed by several theoretical models. The best correlation was found using the energy model of Walsh. Empirically, drag reduction was found to be directly related to the local extensional viscosity of each polymer sample. A model is presented explaining drag reduction in terms of increased local viscosity leading to decreased turbulence characterized with a decreased local Reynolds number. Molecular weight was found to be the most important molecular parameter of the polymers studied with polymers of greater molecular weight showing superior drag reduction properties.

  20. Drag increase and drag reduction found in phytoplankton and bacterial cultures in laminar flow: Are cell surfaces and EPS producing rheological thickening and a Lotus-leaf Effect?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkinson, Ian R.; Sun, Jun

    2014-03-01

    The laminar-flow viscosity of ocean and other natural waters consists of a Newtonian aqueous component contributed by water and salts, and a non-Newtonian one contributed mainly by exopolymeric polymers (EPS) derived largely from planktonic algae and bacteria. Phytoplankton and EPS form thin layers in stratified waters, often associated with density discontinuities. A recent model (Jenkinson and Sun, 2011. J. Plankton Res., 33, 373-383) investigated possible thalassorheological control of pycnocline thickness (PT) by EPS secreted by the harmful dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi. The model, based on published measurements of viscosity increase by this species, found that whether it can influence PT depends on the relationship between increased viscosity, deformation rates/stresses and length scale, which the present work has investigated. To do this, flow rate vs. hydrostatic pressure (and hence wall stress) was measured in cultures (relative to that in reference water) in capillaries of 5 radii 0.35-1.5 mm, close to oceanic-turbulence Kolmogorov length. We compared cultures of the potentially harmful algae, K. mikimotoi, Alexandrium catenella, Prorocentrum donghaiense, Skeletonema costatum, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and the bacterium Escherichia coli. Drag increase, ascribed to rheological thickening by EPS, occurred in the smallest capillaries, but drag reduction (DR) occurred in the largest ones. Since this occurred at Reynolds numbers Re too small for turbulence (or turbulent DR) to occur, this was laminar-flow DR. It may have been superhydrophobic DR (SDR), associated with the surfaces of the plankton and bacteria. SDR is associated with the self-cleaning Lotus-leaf Effect, in which water and dirt are repelled from surfaces bearing nm- to μm-sized irregularities coated with hydrophobic polymers. Because DR decreased measured viscosity and EPS thickening increased it, we could not validate the model. DR, however, represents hitherto unknown phenomenon in the

  1. Evaluation of Drag Reduction via Superhydrophobic Surfaces and Active Gas Replenishment in a Fully-developed Turbulent Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gose, James W.; Golovin, Kevin; Ceccio, Steven L.; Perlin, Marc; Tuteja, Anish

    2014-11-01

    The development of superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS) for skin-friction drag reduction in the laminar regime has shown great promise. A team led by the University of Michigan is examining the potential of similar SHS in high-speed naval applications. Specifically, we have developed a recirculating facility to investigate the reduction of drag along robustly engineered SHS in a fully-developed turbulent boundary layer flow. The facility can accommodate both small and large SHS samples in a test section 7 mm (depth) × 100 mm (span) × 1200 mm (length). Coupled with an 11.2 kilowatt pump and a 30:1 contraction, the facility is capable of producing an average flow velocity of 20 m/s, yielding a height based (7 mm) Reynolds number of 140,000. The SHS tested were designed for large-scale application. The present investigation shows skin-friction drag reduction for various sprayable and chemically developed SHS that were applied over a 100 mm (span) × 1100 mm (length) area. The drag measurement methods include pressure drop across the test specimen and PIV measured boundary layers. Additional SHS investigations include the implementation of active gas replenishment, providing an opportunity to replace gas-pockets that would otherwise be disrupted in traditional passive SHS due to high shear stress and turbulent pressure fluctuations. Gas is evenly distributed through a 90 mm (span) × 600 mm (length) sintered porous media with pore sizes of 10 to 100 microns. The impact of the active gas replenishment is being evaluated with and without SHS.

  2. Experiments examining drag in linear droplet packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Q. V.; Dunn-Rankin, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of vertically traveling droplet packets, where the droplets in each packet are aligned linearly, one behind another. The paper describes in detail, an experimental apparatus that produces repeatable, linearly aligned, and isolated droplet packets containing 1 6 droplets per packet. The apparatus is suitable for examining aerodynamic interactions between droplets within each packet. This paper demonstrates the performance of the apparatus by examining the drag reduction and collision of droplets traveling in the wake of a lead droplet. Comparison of a calculated single droplet trajectory with the detailed droplet position versus time data for a droplet packet provides the average drag reduction experienced by the trailing droplets due to the aerodynamic wake of the lead droplet. For the conditions of our experiment (4 droplet packet, 145 μm methanol droplets, 10 m/s initial velocity, initial droplet spacing of 5.2 droplet diameters, Reynolds number approx. 80) the average drag on the first trailing droplet was found to be 75% of the drag on the lead droplet.

  3. Numerical study on reduction of aerodynamic noise around an airfoil with biomimetic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chengchun; Wu, Zhengyang; Wharton, James; Ren, Luquan

    2017-04-01

    A biomimetic airfoil featuring leading edge waves, trailing edge serrations and surface ridges is proposed in this study, based on flow control with each section meeting the NACA 0012 airfoil profile. Numerical simulations have been conducted to compare aerodynamic and acoustic performances between the NACA 0012 and biomimetic airfoils. These simulations utilize the large eddy simulation (LES) method and aeroacoustic analogy at an angle of attack of 0° and a Reynolds number of 1.0×105, based on using the airfoil chord as the characteristic length. The simulation results reveal the overall sound pressure levels (OASPLs) for all frequencies and at the seven observer points around the biomimetic airfoil, and a decrease of 13.1-13.9 dB is observed, whereas the drag coefficient is almost unchanged. The biomimetic structures can transform the shedding vortices in laminar mode for the NACA 0012 airfoil to regular horseshoe-type vortices in the wake, and reduce the spanwise correlation of the large-scale vortices, thereby restrain the vortex shedding noise around the biomimetic airfoil.

  4. Drag-Free Performance of the ST7 Disturbance Reduction System Flight Experiment on the LISA Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, Peiman G.; O'Donnell, James R.; Hsu, Oscar H.; Ziemer, John K.; Dunn, Charles E.

    2017-01-01

    The Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) is an experiment package aboard the European Space Agency (ESA) LISA Pathfinder spacecraft. LISA Pathfinder launched from Kourou, French Guiana on December 3, 2015. The DRS is tasked to validate two specific technologies: colloidal micro-Newton thrusters (CMNT) to provide low-noise control capability of the spacecraft, and drag-free controlflight. This validation is performed using highly sensitive drag-free sensors, which are provided by the LISA Technology Package of the European Space Agency. The Disturbance Reduction System is required to maintain the spacecrafts position with respect to a free-floating test mass to better than 10nm/(square root of Hz), along its sensitive axis (axis in optical metrology). It also has a goal of limiting the residual accelerations of any of the two test masses to below 30 x 10(exp -14) (1 + ([f/3 mHz](exp 2))) m/sq s/(square root of Hz), over the frequency range of 1 to 30 mHz.This paper briefly describes the design and the expected on-orbit performance of the control system for the two modes wherein the drag-free performance requirements are verified. The on-orbit performance of these modes are then compared to the requirements, as well as to the expected performance, and discussed.

  5. Drag-Free Performance of the ST7 Disturbance Reduction System Flight Experiment on the LISA Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, Peiman; O'Donnell, James, Jr.; Hsu, Oscar; Ziemer, John; Dunn, Charles

    2017-01-01

    The Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) is an experiment package aboard the European Space Agency (ESA) LISA Pathfinder spacecraft. LISA Pathfinder launched from Kourou, French Guiana on December 3, 2015. The DRS is tasked to validate two specific technologies: colloidal micro-Newton thrusters (CMNT) to provide low-noise control capability of the spacecraft, and drag-free control flight. This validation is performed using highly sensitive drag-free sensors, which are provided by the LISA Technology Package of the European Space Agency. The Disturbance Reduction System is required to maintain the spacecrafts position with respect to a free-floating test mass to better than 10nmHz, along its sensitive axis (axis in optical metrology). It also has a goal of limiting the residual accelerations of any of the two test masses to below 30 (1 + [f3 mHz]) fmsHz, over the frequency range of 1 to 30 mHz.This paper briefly describes the design and the expected on-orbit performance of the control system for the two modes wherein the drag-free performance requirements are verified. The on-orbit performance of these modes are then compared to the requirements, as well as to the expected performance, and discussed.

  6. Aerodynamic Design Opportunities for Future Supersonic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Flamm, Jeffrey D.

    2002-01-01

    A discussion of a diverse set of aerodynamic opportunities to improve the aerodynamic performance of future supersonic aircraft has been presented and discussed. These ideas are offered to the community in a hope that future supersonic vehicle development activities will not be hindered by past efforts. A number of nonlinear flow based drag reduction technologies are presented and discussed. The subject technologies are related to the areas of interference flows, vehicle concepts, vortex flows, wing design, advanced control effectors, and planform design. The authors also discussed the importance of improving the aerodynamic design environment to allow creativity and knowledge greater influence. A review of all of the data presented show that pressure drag reductions on the order of 50 to 60 counts are achievable, compared to a conventional supersonic cruise vehicle, with the application of several of the discussed technologies. These drag reductions would correlate to a 30 to 40% increase in cruise L/D (lift-to-drag ratio) for a commercial supersonic transport.

  7. Water repellent/wetting characteristics of various bio-inspired morphologies and fluid drag reduction testing research.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuehao; Song, Wen; Wang, Xudong

    2016-03-01

    It is well-known that the bio-inspired sharkskin covering the original pattern has the apparent drag reduction function in the turbulent flowing stations, which can be regarded as "sharkskin effect", and it has progressively been put application into the fluid engineering with obtaining great profits. In this paper, the anisotropic wetting phenomena on sharkskin are discovered, the contact angles and rolling angles on different orientations are not the same. In addition, the hydrodynamic experiments on different sharkskin surfaces are conducted, and the experimental results illustrate that the super-hydrophobic and drag-reducing properties on deformed biological surfaces are improved to some extent compared to the original morphology, which has important significance to expand its practical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Turbulence and turbulent drag reduction in swirling flow: Inertial versus viscous forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnishev, Yuri; Steinberg, Victor

    2015-08-01

    We report unexpected results of a drastic difference in the transition to fully developed turbulent and turbulent drag reduction (TDR) regimes and in their properties in a von Karman swirling flow with counter-rotating disks of water-based polymer solutions for viscous (by smooth disks) as well as inertial (by bladed disks) forcing and by tracking just torque Γ (t ) and pressure p (t ) . For the viscous forcing, just a single TDR regime is found with the transition values of the Reynolds number (Re) Recturb=RecTDR≃(4.8 ±0.2 ) ×105 independent of ϕ , whereas for the inertial forcing two turbulent regimes are revealed. The first transition is to fully developed turbulence, and the second one is to the TDR regime with both Recturb and RecTDR depending on polymer concentration ϕ . Both regimes differ by the values of Cf and Cp, by the scaling exponents of the fundamental turbulent characteristics, by the nonmonotonic dependencies of skewness and flatness of the pressure PDFs on Re, and by the different frequency power spectra of p with the different dependencies of the main vortex peak frequency in the p power spectra on ϕ and Re. Thus our experimental results show the transition to the TDR regime in a von Karman swirling flow for the viscous and inertial forcings in a sharp contrast to the recent experiments [Phys. Fluids 10, 426 (1998), 10.1063/1.869532; Phys. Rev. E 47, R28(R) (1993), 10.1103/PhysRevE.47.R28; and J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, S1195 (2005), 10.1088/0953-8984/17/14/008] where the transition to TDR is observed in the same swirling flow with counter-rotating disks only for the viscous forcing. The latter result has led its authors to the wrong conclusion that TDR is a solely boundary effect contrary to the inertial forcing associated with the bulk effect, and this conception is currently rather widely accepted in literature.

  9. Fabrication Development and Flow Testing of Underwater Superhydrophobic Films for Drag Reduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-21

    SHPo samples each in meters is unreasonable • We hope to sense the drag of a surface sample ~5 cm in size (made from 4” wafer ) placed on a desired...of passive SHPo surfaces observed up to Re > 1.59 x 107 • At high speeds, the floating plate was found vibrating excessively and bumping into the

  10. Phenomena of drag reduction on saltating sediment in shallow, supercritical flows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ABSTRACT: When a group of objects move through a fluid, it often exhibits coordinated behavior in which bodies in the wake of a leader generally experience reduced drag. Locomotion provides well known examples including the maneuvering and clustering of racing automobiles and bicyclists and queuing...

  11. Aircraft surface coatings study: Energy efficient transport program. [sprayed and adhesive bonded coatings for drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Surface coating materials for application on transport type aircraft to reduce drag, were investigated. The investigation included two basic types of materials: spray on coatings and adhesively bonded films. A cost/benefits analysis was performed, and recommendations were made for future work toward the application of this technology.

  12. Possible applications of soaring technology to drag reduction in powered general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmasters, J. H.; Palmer, G. M.

    1975-01-01

    A brief examination of the performance figures achieved by modern soaring machines and a little reflection on the often huge disparity in L/D values between sailplanes and GA aircraft indicates that careful attention to lessons learned in sailplane design and manufacture hold realistic promise for substantial gains in the aerodynamic efficiency of several GA types.

  13. Drag and heat reduction mechanism induced by a combinational novel cavity and counterflowing jet concept in hypersonic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xi-wan; Guo, Zhen-yun; Huang, Wei; Li, Shi-bin; Yan, Li

    2016-09-01

    The drag and heat reduction problem of hypersonic reentry vehicles has always attracted the attention worldwide, and many novel schemes have been proposed recently. In the current study, the research progress of the combinational configuration of the forward-facing cavity and the counterflowing jet has been reviewed, and the conventional cavity configuration has been substituted by an approximate maximum thrust nozzle contour for better heat and surface pressure reduction efficiency. The Reynolds-average of Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations coupled with the SST k-ω turbulence model have been employed to calculate its surrounding flow fields. A validation metric and the grid convergence index (GCI) have been employed to conduct the turbulence model assessment and the grid independence analysis respectively. The axisymmetric assumption has been verified by three-dimensional computational results as well. The obtained results show that the SST k-ω model is more suitable for the novel drag and heat flux reduction scheme proposed in this article, and the axisymmetric assumption is approximately reasonable. After investigating the influence of jet pressure ratio, the novel combinational configuration has been verified to be more effective in heat and surface pressure reduction, and this is because the approximate maximum thrust nozzle contour contributes to better expansion and avoids total pressure loss of the jet.

  14. A Numerical Study of Novel Drag Reduction Techniques for Blunt Bodies in Hypersonic Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Injection System and Operation. a) Sketch of Injector Nozzle and Reservoir. b-d) Distinct Modes of Injection. 9 Experimental investigations of...Paull, A., “ Numerical Investigation of a Spiked Blunt Nose Cone at Hypersonic Speeds,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets , Vol. 45, No. 3, 2008, pp. 449...both experimental and numerical ) have also shown that forward facing mass injection has the ability to significantly reduce drag on blunt bodies by

  15. Novel mussel-inspired Ti-6Al-4V surfaces with biocompatibility, blood ultra-drag reduction and superior durability.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Tang, Fei; Wang, Chunze; Wang, Xiaohao

    2017-07-01

    In order to develop new Ti-based biomaterials with biocompatibility, blood ultra-drag reduction and superior durability, a novel fabrication combining simple electrochemical and chemical processes was proposed. After being modified by C14H19F13O3Si (FAS), a biocompatible TiO2-SiO2-polydopamine composite surface on Ti-6Al-4V substrate was obtained. The biocompatibility was evaluated using a series of in vitro test, revealing that compared with Ti-6Al-4V alloys, the surfaces exhibited a number of bio-advantages such as anti-platelet aggregation, anti-bovine serum albumin protein adsorption, a lower hemolysis rate (~0.7%) and non-cytotoxicity (the cell viability >88%). The test of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC) cultured on the specimens for 48h showed better cell proliferation of the surface. Moreover, we explored the blood dynamic characteristics of titanium alloy substrate biomaterial for the first time, with a focus on the effects of dopamine-reactant concentration on blood flow resistance. The results showed that, compared to titanium alloy material, the TiO2-SiO2 surface modified by 4mg·mL(-1) dopamine solution displayed the optimal blood drag reduction characteristics, reaching a 76% drag reduction. After a 2m (800 meshes, 3500Pa) sandpaper abrasion test, the surface still maintained a superior repellency of blood (contact angles>150°, sliding angles<10°). This practical method may expand the applications of biomedical implantation materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Modeling the effect of head drag reduction for a cylinder with a protruding disk at high mach numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, S. A.; Baranov, P. A.; Mikhalev, A. N.; Sudakov, A. G.

    2014-11-01

    Various approaches to modeling super- and hypersonic turbulent airflow past cylindrical bodies with a nontraditional nose in the form of a protruding rod-supported disk have been compared. Aeroballistic experiments on a light-gas propulsion setup were combined with wind tunnel tests and numerical simulations using VP2/3 program package based on multiblock computational techniques and a model of shear stress transport with flow-line curvature corrections. The phenomenon of the head and wave drag reduction for the stepped body is analyzed at high Mach numbers (up to 10) and variation of the supporting rod length under conditions of existence of the frontal flow separation zone.

  17. Effect of Catalyst Film Thickness on Growth Morphology, Surface Wettability and Drag Reduction Property of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Weiwei; Zhou, Zhiping; Li, Gang; Li, Ping

    2016-10-01

    Nickel films were deposited on silicon substrates using magnetron sputtering method. The pretreatment process of nickel films under high temperature and ammonia atmosphere was investigated. The thickness of nickel film has a great influence on growth morphology of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Too large or too small thickness would do harm to the orientated growth of CNTs. The inner structure, elements composition and growth mechanism have been confirmed by TEM and EDX characterization. The surface wettability and drag reduction property of CNTs were investigated. This paper can provide a new, effective method to further develop the practical application in micro/nano devices field.

  18. Large eddy simulation of the flow around bluff body with drag reduction device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Anazi, Khalid Qaied

    This thesis focuses on the use of LES to simulate the flow around elliptical bluff body with blunt trailing edge fitted with open base cavity. The main objective of this study is to determine the effects of the cavity on the drag of the body. A secondary but important objective is to demonstrate that LES can provide accurate representation of the flow around this bluff body. Moreover, LES results can complement the available experimental results in order to provide a much better understanding of the flow. The simulations were carried out at a Reynolds number of 2.6×104 based on the height of the body using Spalart-Allmaras RANS model while the LES were performed using Smagorinsky dynamic model. A grid-independence test was conducted using three grids which contain 0.85M, 1.3M and 1.7M cells, respectively. This test shows that the results are grid-independent. The LES results predicted the mean flow field in the near wake with good accuracy as compared to the experimental mean flow field obtained. The base pressure results show that the base pressure coefficient for the base model was around -0.56, which agrees well with the experimental results .By attaching the cavity, the base pressure has increased. The increase in base pressure coefficient was around 44% using 1/3 h cavity and this agrees well with the experimental measurements. The RANS predicted drag coefficient of 0.56 for the base model and 0.471 for the cavity model. This represents a difference of 8% for the base model and 34% for the cavity model when compared with experiment drag coefficients (0.61 for the base model and 0.35 for the cavity model). For the LES, the drag coefficient of the base model was around 0.65 (6.5% difference) and using the cavity, the drag coefficient was reduced to around 0.37 (5.74% difference). Details of the mean velocity components have been compared with experimental data at various locations in the wake region of the flow. Observation on the comparison between LES and

  19. Flow through an Array of Superhydrophopic Pillars: The Role of the Air-Water Interface Shape on Drag Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Rothstein, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    In this study, measurements of the pressure drop and the velocity fields associated with the flow of water through a regular array of superhydrophobic pillars were systematically performed to investigate the role of the air-water interface shape on drag reduction. A microfluidic channel was created with circular and superhydrophobic apple-core-shaped pillars bridging across the entire channel. The apple-core-shaped pillars were designed to trap an air pocket along the side of the pillars. The shape of the interface was systematically modified from concave to convex by changing the static pressure within the microchannel. For superhydrophobic pillars having a circular cross section, D /D0 = 1.0, a drag reduction of 7% and a slip velocity of 20% the average channel velocity along the air-water interface were measured. At large static pressures, the interface was driven into the pillars resulting in a decrease in the effective size of the pillars, an increase in the effective spacing between pillars and a pressure drop reduction of as much as 18% when the interface was compressed to D /D0 = 0.8. At low static pressures, the pressure drop increased significantly even as the slip velocity increased as the expanding air-water interface constricted flow through the array of pillars. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant CBET-1334962.

  20. Wind tunnel experiments to assess the effect of back-mounted radio transmitters on bird body drag

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Obrecht, H.H.; Pennycuick, C.J.; Fuller, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The aerodynamic drag of bird bodies was measured in a wind tunnel, with and without back-mounted dummy radio transmitters. Flight performance estimates indicate that the drag of a large transmitter can cause a substantial reduction of a migrant's range, that is, the distance it can cover in non-stop flight. The drag of the transmitter can be reduced by arranging the components in an elongated shape, so minimizing the frontal area. The addition of a rounded fairing to the front end, and a pointed fairing behind, was found to reduce the drag of the transmitter by about onethird, as compared with an unfaired rectangular box.

  1. Aerodynamic Design of a Locomotive Fairing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stucki, Chad; Maynes, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Rising fuel cost has motivated increased fuel efficiency of freight trains. At cruising speed, the largest contributing factor to the fuel consumption is the aerodynamic drag. As a result of air stagnation at the front of the train and substantial flow separation behind, the leading locomotive and trailing railcar experience greater drag than intermediate cars. This work introduces the design of streamlined nose fairings to be attached to freight locomotives as a means of reducing the leading locomotive drag. The aerodynamic performance of each fairing design is modeled using a commercial CFD software package. The K-epsilon turbulence model is used, and fluid properties are equivalent to atmospheric air at standard conditions. A selection of isolated screening studies are performed, and a multidimensional regression is used to predict optimal-performing fairing designs. Between screening studies, careful examination of the flow field is performed to inspire subsequent fairing designs. Results are presented for 250 different nose fairings. The best performing fairing geometry predicts a nominal drag reduction of 17% on the lead locomotive in a train set. This drag reduction is expected to result in nearly 1% fuel savings for the entire train.

  2. Wake analysis of drag components in gliding flight of a jackdaw (Corvus monedula) during moult.

    PubMed

    KleinHeerenbrink, Marco; Hedenström, Anders

    2017-02-06

    To maintain the quality of the feathers, birds regularly undergo moult. It is widely accepted that moult affects flight performance, but the specific aerodynamic consequences have received relatively little attention. Here we measured the components of aerodynamic drag from the wake behind a gliding jackdaw (Corvus monedula) at different stages of its natural wing moult. We found that span efficiency was reduced (lift induced drag increased) and the wing profile drag coefficient was increased. Both effects best correlated with the corresponding reduction in spanwise camber. The negative effects are partially mitigated by adjustments of wing posture to minimize gaps in the wing, and by weight loss to reduce wing loading. By studying the aerodynamic consequences of moult, we can refine our understanding of the emergence of various moulting strategies found among birds.

  3. Transition delay and its implications for drag reduction in particle-laden channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardina, G.; Brandt, L.

    2015-12-01

    Direct numerical simulations of a two-way coupled particle-laden channel flow are performed in the transitional and turbulent regime. Our aim is to investigate whether particles, assumed solid, spherical and heavy delay transition and diminish drag in wall bounded flows. We consider that the only interaction between the carrier and dispersed phase is due to the Stokes drag. The simulations have been performed with a pseudo-spectral solver for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations while the particle equations are solved in a Lagrangian formulation. In the transitional regime, we study the evolution of disturbances added to a plane Poiseuille base flow with Reynolds number 2000, based on the channel half-height and centerline velocity. By fixing the Reynolds number, the only two free parameters are the particle Stokes number St and the particle mass fraction f. Two different scenarios are considered depending on the initial condition of the velocity field. The first scenario consists of counter-rotating streamwise vortices and one three-dimensional mode while the second is a nonlinear interaction of two symmetric oblique waves. The effects of the particles on the flow transition depend on the particle mass fraction. In particular, at lower concentrations, the transition is facilitated by the presence of the particles, conversely at higher mass fractions the particles tend to stabilize the flow. The results indicate that the particle can play an important role by influencing secondary instabilities and streaks breakdown. These effects can be linked to the reduced drag observed in turbulent channel flow laden with heavy particles and specific simulations in the turbulent regime have been performed.

  4. Experiment Evaluation of Skin Friction Drag by Surface Tailoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manigandan, S.; Gopal krishna, K.; Gagan Kumar, K.; Gunasekar, P.; Nithya, S.

    2017-08-01

    Reduction of drag is an important role of aerodynamic specialist in real time world. The performance of forward moving object improved when the drag is reduced. Skin friction drag caused when the fluid tending to shear along the surface of the body and it is dependent on energy expenditure. Initial research concluded that nearly 20 to 40% of total drag is skin friction drag, based on flight forward velocity. This means a lot of fuel burned. In this paper we investigate a methodology to reduce the skin friction drag by implementing different kinds of exterior treatments. The ideology inspired from the world fastest moving oceanic creature. Structures are fabricated based on the replica of scales of the oceanic creature. The outer skin of the aerofoil NACA0012 is modified like shark scales. Then it is tested using open type sub sonic wind tunnel. In addition to that, the leading edge thickness effect also studied. The turbulent flow phenomenon is validated at different velocities and compared with numerical results using STAR CCM+. From the plots and graphical results, it is found that the skin friction drag is generated less due to reduction of transverse shear stress present in turbulent flow and skin friction drag depends on boundary layer thickness and on the percentage of chord of flow separation. In addition to this, the result delivers that the ordinary polished surface produces more drag than the modified scales. The outlook of this technology is excrescence for different applications. This open section wind tunnel testing produces 10-15% reduction in drag and can be turn to high values when the experiment is conducted in closed section wind tunnel with real time atmospheric conditions, which can be done as a future work.

  5. Air flow testing on aerodynamic truck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    After leasing a cab-over tractor-trailer from a Southern California firm, Dryden researchers added sheet metal modifications like those shown here. They rounded the front corners and edges, and placed a smooth fairing on the cab's roofs and sides extending back to the trailer. During the investigation of truck aerodynamics, the techniques honed in flight research proved highly applicable. By closing the gap between the cab and the trailer, for example, researchers discovered a significant reduction in aerodynamic drag, one resulting in 20 to 25 percent less fuel consumption than the standard design. Many truck manufacturers subsequently incorporated similar modifications on their products.

  6. Unique fur and skin structure in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina)—thermal insulation, drag reduction, or both?

    PubMed Central

    Erdsack, Nicola; Dehnhardt, Guido; Witt, Martin; Wree, Andreas; Siebert, Ursula; Hanke, Wolf

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrate surface structures, including mammalian skin and hair structures, have undergone various modifications during evolution in accordance with functional specializations. Harbour seals rely on their vibrissal system for orientation and foraging. To maintain tactile sensitivity even at low temperatures, the vibrissal follicles are heated up intensely, which could cause severe heat loss to the environment. We analysed skin samples of different body parts of harbour seals, and expected to see higher hair densities at the vibrissal pads as a way to reduce heat loss. In addition to significantly higher hair densities around the vibrissae than on the rest of the body, we show a unique fur structure of hair bundles consisting of broad guard hairs along with hairs of a new type, smaller than guard hairs but broader than underhairs, which we defined as ‘intermediate hairs’. This fur composition has not been reported for any mammal so far and may serve for thermal insulation as well as drag reduction. Furthermore, we describe a scale-like skin structure that also presumably plays a role in drag reduction. PMID:25652462

  7. Unique fur and skin structure in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina)--thermal insulation, drag reduction, or both?

    PubMed

    Erdsack, Nicola; Dehnhardt, Guido; Witt, Martin; Wree, Andreas; Siebert, Ursula; Hanke, Wolf

    2015-03-06

    Vertebrate surface structures, including mammalian skin and hair structures, have undergone various modifications during evolution in accordance with functional specializations. Harbour seals rely on their vibrissal system for orientation and foraging. To maintain tactile sensitivity even at low temperatures, the vibrissal follicles are heated up intensely, which could cause severe heat loss to the environment. We analysed skin samples of different body parts of harbour seals, and expected to see higher hair densities at the vibrissal pads as a way to reduce heat loss. In addition to significantly higher hair densities around the vibrissae than on the rest of the body, we show a unique fur structure of hair bundles consisting of broad guard hairs along with hairs of a new type, smaller than guard hairs but broader than underhairs, which we defined as 'intermediate hairs'. This fur composition has not been reported for any mammal so far and may serve for thermal insulation as well as drag reduction. Furthermore, we describe a scale-like skin structure that also presumably plays a role in drag reduction. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Theoretical and numerical study of air layer drag reduction in two-phase Couette-Poiseuille flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dokyun; Moin, Parviz

    2008-11-01

    The objective of the present study is to predict and understand the air layer drag reduction (ALDR) phenomenon. Recent experiments (Elbing et al. 2008) have shown net drag reductions if air is injected beyond a critical rate next to the wall. The analysis is performed on a two-phase Couette-Poiseuille flow configuration, which mimics the far downstream region of boundary layer flow on a flat plate. Both theoretical and numerical approaches are employed to investigate the stability and mechanisms of ALDR. The linear stability of air-liquid interface is investigated by solving the Orr-Sommerfeld equations. From the stability analysis, the stability of the interface is reduced as the liquid free-stream velocity, Froude number and velocity gradients at the interface are increased, while the stability is enhanced as the gas flow rate and surface tension are increased. The Critical gas flow rates from stability theory are compared with experimental results, showing good agreement. Direct numerical simulations with a Refiend Level Set Grid technique has been performed to investigate the evolution of the interface, the turbulence interaction and nonlinear mechanisms of ALDR. It is observed that the Weber number has significant impact on the characteristics of the interface development.

  9. Drag reduction over dolphin skin via the pondermotive forcing of vortex filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisi, Antony Garrett

    1999-11-01

    The skin of Tursiops Truncatus is corrugated with small, quasi-periodic ridges running circumferentially about the torso. These ridges extend into the turbulent boundary layer and affect the evolution of coherent structures. The development and evolution of coherent structures over a surface is described by the formation and dynamics of vortex filaments. The dynamics of these filaments over a flat, non-ridged surface is determined analytically, as well as through numerical simulation, and found to agree with the observations of coherent structures in the turbulent boundary layer. The calculation of the linearized dynamics of the vortex filament, successful for the dynamics of a filament over a flat surface, is extended and applied to a vortex filament propagating over a periodically ridged surface. The surface ridges induce a rapid parametric forcing of the vortex filament, and alter the filament dynamics significantly. A consideration of the contribution of vortex filament induced flow to energy transport indicates that the behavior of the filament induced by the ridges can directly reduce surface drag by up to 8%. The size, shape, and distribution of cutaneous ridges for Tursiops Truncatus is found to be optimally configured to affect the filament dynamics and reduce surface drag for swimming velocities consistent with observation.

  10. Aerodynamic design of electric and hybrid vehicles: A guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    A typical present-day subcompact electric hybrid vehicle (EHV), operating on an SAE J227a D driving cycle, consumes up to 35% of its road energy requirement overcoming aerodynamic resistance. The application of an integrated system design approach, where drag reduction is an important design parameter, can increase the cycle range by more than 15%. This guidebook highlights a logic strategy for including aerodynamic drag reduction in the design of electric and hybrid vehicles to the degree appropriate to the mission requirements. Backup information and procedures are included in order to implement the strategy. Elements of the procedure are based on extensive wind tunnel tests involving generic subscale models and full-scale prototype EHVs. The user need not have any previous aerodynamic background. By necessity, the procedure utilizes many generic approximations and assumptions resulting in various levels of uncertainty. Dealing with these uncertainties, however, is a key feature of the strategy.

  11. Computation of H2/air reacting flowfields in drag-reduction external combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, H. T.

    1992-01-01

    Numerical simulation and analysis of the solution are presented for a laminar reacting flowfield of air and hydrogen in the case of external combustion employed to reduce base drag in hypersonic vehicles operating at transonic speeds. The flowfield consists of a transonic air stream at a Mach number of 1.26 and a sonic transverse hydrogen injection along a row of 26 orifices. Self-sustained combustion is computed over an expansion ramp downstream of the injection and a flameholder, using the recently developed RPLUS code. Measured data is available only for surface pressure distributions and is used for validation of the code in practical 3D reacting flowfields. Pressure comparison shows generally good agreements, and the main effects of combustion are also qualitatively consistent with experiment.

  12. Attitude Dependent De-Orbit Lifetime Analysis of an Aerodynamic Drag Sail Demonstration Spacecraft and Detailed Thermal Subsystem Design for a Polar Orbiting Communications Nanosatellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarantini, Vincent Claudio Franco

    Contributions to two missions are presented. The first is a demonstration mission called CanX-7 that uses a 4 square metre drag sail to de-orbit a 3.5 kg satellite. In order to estimate the effectiveness of the drag sail, a novel method is developed that takes into account the time-varying nature of the projected drag area. The Space Flight Laboratory designed drag sail is shown lo be sufficient to de-orbit the CanX-7 spacecraft within the 25 year requirement. The Antarctic Broadband demonstrator spacecraft is a 20 cm cubical nanosatellite that will demonstrate the feasibility of a Ka-band link between the research community in Antarctica and stakeholders in Australia. In support of this mission, a passive thermal control subsystem is designed that will keep all the components within their operational temperature limits at all times throughout the mission.

  13. Cyclist drag in team pursuit: influence of cyclist sequence, stature, and arm spacing.

    PubMed

    Defraeye, Thijs; Blocken, Bert; Koninckx, Erwin; Hespel, Peter; Verboven, Pieter; Nicolai, Bart; Carmeliet, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In team pursuit, the drag of a group of cyclists riding in a pace line is dependent on several factors, such as anthropometric characteristics (stature) and position of each cyclist as well as the sequence in which they ride. To increase insight in drag reduction mechanisms, the aerodynamic drag of four cyclists riding in a pace line was investigated, using four different cyclists, and for four different sequences. In addition, each sequence was evaluated for two arm spacings. Instead of conventional field or wind tunnel experiments, a validated numerical approach (computational fluid dynamics) was used to evaluate cyclist drag, where the bicycles were not included in the model. The cyclist drag was clearly dependent on his position in the pace line, where second and subsequent positions experienced a drag reduction up to 40%, compared to an individual cyclist. Individual differences in stature and position on the bicycle led to an intercyclist variation of this drag reduction at a specific position in the sequence, but also to a variation of the total drag of the group for different sequences. A larger drag area for the group was found when riding with wider arm spacing. Such numerical studies on cyclists in a pace line are useful for determining the optimal cyclist sequence for team pursuit.

  14. The Common Mechanism of Turbulent Skin-Friction Drag Reduction with Super-Hydrophobic Micro-Grooves and Riblets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegari, Amirreza; Akhavan, Rayhaneh

    2016-11-01

    Drag Reduction (DR) with Super-Hydrophobic (SH) longitudinal Micro-Grooves (MGs) and riblets was investigated by DNS using lattice Boltzmann methods. The liquid/gas interfaces on the SH MGs were modeled as curved, stationary, shear-free boundaries, with the meniscus shape determined from the Young-Laplace equation. For comparison, the same geometries were also studied as riblets. DRs of 35% to 63% with SH MGs, and 10% to -17% with riblets, were realized in DNS in turbulent channel flow at Reb = 7200 , with MGs of size 14 <=g+0 <= 56 g+0 /w+0 = 7 , and protrusion angles of 0° to 90°, where g+0 and w+0 denote the widths and spacings of the MGs in base flow wall units. It was found that 100% of the DR with riblets, and 95% to 100% of the DR with SH MGs, arises from the effective slip on the walls and the resultant drop in the friction Reynolds number of the flow due to this effective slip. Modifications to the turbulence dynamics were always drag enhancing (DE) with riblets and generally DE with SH MGs. Increasing the riblet wall curvature significantly increased the wall slip velocity at the riblet tips. But this translated to an increase in DR only for g+0 14 , due to significant enhancement of turbulence production at larger MG widths.

  15. Configuration Aerodynamics: Past - Present - Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Agrawal, Shreekant; Bencze, Daniel P.; Kulfan, Robert M.; Wilson, Douglas L.

    1999-01-01

    The Configuration Aerodynamics (CA) element of the High Speed Research (HSR) program is managed by a joint NASA and Industry team, referred to as the Technology Integration Development (ITD) team. This team is responsible for the development of a broad range of technologies for improved aerodynamic performance and stability and control characteristics at subsonic to supersonic flight conditions. These objectives are pursued through the aggressive use of advanced experimental test techniques and state of the art computational methods. As the HSR program matures and transitions into the next phase the objectives of the Configuration Aerodynamics ITD are being refined to address the drag reduction needs and stability and control requirements of High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft. In addition, the experimental and computational tools are being refined and improved to meet these challenges. The presentation will review the work performed within the Configuration Aerodynamics element in 1994 and 1995 and then discuss the plans for the 1996-1998 time period. The final portion of the presentation will review several observations of the HSR program and the design activity within Configuration Aerodynamics.

  16. AN ANALYSIS OF LOW ORBITAL DRAG CONSTRAINTS OF ORBIT- AND SUN-ORIENTED SOLAR-CELL ARRAYS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    show that aerodynamic drag penalties as large as 9100 pounds/kilowatt for a one-year mission may be encountered. The contribution of a drag makeup ...included only the effects of aerodynamic drag. The drag makeup system consists of propulsive devices and storage tanks. For each concept the total system includes drag makeup , batteries, and solar-cell array. (Author)

  17. Shortfin Mako Skin: A Possible Passive Flow Control Mechanism for Drag Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheelus, Jennifer; Lang, Amy; Bradshaw, Michael; Motta, Phillip; Habegger, Maria

    2013-11-01

    The shortfin mako is one of the fastest and most agile ocean predators creating the need to minimize its pressure drag by controlling flow separation. One proposed method for flow control is the activation of small teeth-like denticles, on the order of 0.2 mm, that cover the skin of the shark. Biological studies of the shortfin mako skin have shown the passive bristling angle of their denticles to exceed 50 degrees in areas on the flank corresponding to the locations likely to experience separation first. It is proposed that reversing flow, as occurs at the onset of separation in a turbulent boundary layer, would activate denticle bristling and hinder local separation from leading to global separation over the shark. It has been shown on a biomimetic model that bristled denticles create cavities that support the formation of vortices that interact with the boundary layer. This interaction is thought to support momentum exchange and allow the flow to stay attached longer. This experiment focuses on the mechanism that triggers bristling of the real shark skin denticles and further explores the interaction those denticles foster with the boundary layer on a 3D biomimetic model using Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV). Support for this research by the NSF GRFP is gratefully acknowledged.

  18. New strategies for optimization of compliant tensegrity surfaces for drag reduction in turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, H.; Bewley, T. R.

    2002-11-01

    The present project is inspired by two observations from nature: 1) the incredible strength of spider fibers (derived essentially from a tensegrity-based configuration of proteins), and 2) the efficient swimming motion of dolphins (perhaps derived in part from the compliant nature of their skin). Motivated by such observations, we are exploring a new design for a tensegrity-based ``fabric'' consisting of a weave of both members in tension and members designed to support compressive loads. In particular, we are attempting to optimize the surface compliance of such a fabric, that is, the response of the surface of the fabric to externally-applied friction and pressure forces, in order to reduce the drag induced by an overlying turbulent flow at the flow/structure interface. As the first stage of the research, we developed the software simulating the interaction of the two-part system. Direct numerical simulations are used to model the dynamics of the flow part. To account for the moving walls, we use an immersed-boundary technique which simulates the presence of a moving boundary. In collaboration with another research group, we developed object-oriented software for computation of the dynamics of the tensegrity fabric part. The two codes written in two different languages run in parallel and communicate data at each time step. In this presentation, we will outline the numerical method used, present recent simulation results demonstrating the flow/surface interaction, and outline our ongoing efforts to optimize the compliance properties of the tensegrity fabric.

  19. Longitudinal aerodynamic performance of a series of power-law and minimum wave drag bodies at Mach 6 and several Reynolds numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, G. C., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental data have been obtained for two series of bodies at Mach 6 and Reynolds numbers, based on model length, from 1.4 million to 9.5 million. One series consisted of axisymmetric power-law bodies geometrically constrained for constant length and base diameter with values of the exponent n of 0.25, 0.5, 0.6, 0.667, 0.75, and 1.0. The other series consisted of positively and negatively cambered bodies of polygonal cross section, each having a constant longitudinal area distribution conforming to that required for minimizing zero-lift wave drag at hypersonic speeds under the geometric constraints of given length and volume. At the highest Reynolds number, the power-law body for minimum drag is blunter (exponent n lower) than predicted by inviscid theory (n approximately 0.6 instead of n = 0.667); however, the peak value of lift-drag ratio occurs at n = 0.667. Viscous effects were present on the bodies of polygonal cross section but were less pronounced than those on the power-law bodies. The trapezoidal bodies with maximum width at the bottom were found to have the highest maximum lift-drag ratio and the lowest mimimum drag.

  20. Preliminary flight-determined subsonic lift and drag characteristics of the X-29A forward-swept-wing airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, John W.; Huckabine, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    The X-29A subsonic lift and drag characteristics determined, met, or exceeded predictions, particularly with respect to the drag polar shapes. Induced drag levels were as great as 20 percent less than wind tunnel estimates, particularly at coefficients of lift above 0.8. Drag polar shape comparisons with other modern fighter aircraft showed the X-29A to have a better overall aircraft aerodynamic Oswald efficiency factor for the same aspect ratio. Two significant problems arose in the data reduction and analysis process. These included uncertainties in angle of attack upwash calibration and effects of maneuver dynamics on drag levels. The latter problem resulted from significantly improper control surface automatic camber control scheduling. Supersonic drag polar results were not obtained during this phase because of a lack of engine instrumentation to measure afterburner fuel flow.

  1. Atmospheric testing of wind turbine trailing edge aerodynamic brakes

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.S.; Migliore, P.G.; Quandt, G.A.

    1997-12-31

    An experimental investigation was conducted using an instrumented horizontal-axis wind turbine that incorporated variable span trailing-edge aerodynamic brakes. A primary goal was to directly compare study results with (infinite-span) wind tunnel data and to provide information on how to account for device span effects during turbine design or analysis. Comprehensive measurements were utilized to define effective changes in the aerodynamic coefficients, as a function of angle of attack and control deflection, for three device spans and configurations. Differences in the lift and drag behavior are most pronounced near stall and for device spans of less than 15%. Drag performance is affected only minimally (<70%) for 15% or larger span devices. Interestingly, aerodynamic controls with characteristic vents or openings appear most affected by span reductions and three-dimensional flow.

  2. Reduction of Aircraft Cruise Drag By Using Boundary Layer Heating To Minimize Fuselage Skin Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Brian R.

    1997-01-01

    The data reduction and results of the F-15B Flight Test Fixture experiment conducted at NASA Dryden are discussed. In addition, the feasibility of using the Orbital Sciences L-1011 was studied and a cost estimate prepared. Initial discussions have begun with Edwards Flight Research to explore the possibility of using their T-39 aircraft for the second flight experiment.

  3. High Reynolds Number Micro-Bubble and Polymer Drag Reduction Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    to non-normal optical transmission at the vertical LCC sidewall windows. The resulting optical distortion and reduction in coincident bursts limited...remained relatively constant with respect to the distance from the plate for each free stream velocity. The coincident burst rates varied from 100 Hz...at 6.65 m/s to 170 Hz at 19.9 mis. The coincidence window varied from 0.02 ms at 6.65 m/s to 0.01 ms at 19.9 m/s, roughly translating to the ratio of

  4. A study of performance parameters on drag and heat flux reduction efficiency of combinational novel cavity and opposing jet concept in hypersonic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xi-wan; Guo, Zhen-yun; Huang, Wei; Li, Shi-bin; Yan, Li

    2017-02-01

    The drag reduction and thermal protection system applied to hypersonic re-entry vehicles have attracted an increasing attention, and several novel concepts have been proposed by researchers. In the current study, the influences of performance parameters on drag and heat reduction efficiency of combinational novel cavity and opposing jet concept has been investigated numerically. The Reynolds-average Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations coupled with the SST k-ω turbulence model have been employed to calculate its surrounding flowfields, and the first-order spatially accurate upwind scheme appears to be more suitable for three-dimensional flowfields after grid independent analysis. Different cases of performance parameters, namely jet operating conditions, freestream angle of attack and physical dimensions, are simulated based on the verification of numerical method, and the effects on shock stand-off distance, drag force coefficient, surface pressure and heat flux distributions have been analyzed. This is the basic study for drag reduction and thermal protection by multi-objective optimization of the combinational novel cavity and opposing jet concept in hypersonic flows in the future.

  5. A unified view of energetic efficiency in active drag reduction, thrust generation and self-propulsion through a loss coefficient with some applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakeri, Jaywant H.; Shukla, Ratnesh K.

    2013-08-01

    An analysis of the energy budget for the general case of a body translating in a stationary fluid under the action of an external force is used to define a power loss coefficient. This universal definition of power loss coefficient gives a measure of the energy lost in the wake of the translating body and, in general, is applicable to a variety of flow configurations including active drag reduction, self-propulsion and thrust generation. The utility of the power loss coefficient is demonstrated on a model bluff body flow problem concerning a two-dimensional elliptical cylinder in a uniform cross-flow. The upper and lower boundaries of the elliptic cylinder undergo continuous motion due to a prescribed reflectionally symmetric constant tangential surface velocity. It is shown that a decrease in drag resulting from an increase in the strength of tangential surface velocity leads to an initial reduction and eventual rise in the power loss coefficient. A maximum in energetic efficiency is attained for a drag reducing tangential surface velocity which minimizes the power loss coefficient. The effect of the tangential surface velocity on drag reduction and self-propulsion of both bluff and streamlined bodies is explored through a variation in the thickness ratio (ratio of the minor and major axes) of the elliptical cylinders.

  6. An investigation of drag reduction fairings on the space shuttle vehicle 5 configuration (model 74-OTS) in the MSFC 14 inch trisonic wind tunnel (FA14)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, P. E.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in the MSFC 14-inch TWT (FA14, TWT 600) to determine the static stability and drag on a 0.004 scale model of the shuttle ascent configuration. The primary objective was to study the possibility of reducing the launch vehicle drag by using Orbiter/ET/SRB fairings, streamlined orbiter fore and aft attach structures, SRB and ET alternative nose configurations, and devices for modifying the flow between the orbiter and ET. The secondary objective was to determine the longitudinal and directional characteristics of the ascent configuration with the most promising of the drag reduction devices installed. Data were obtained for a Mach number range of 0.6 through 4.96 and angles of attack from -5 through 5 degrees at zero degrees side slip angle.

  7. Proceedings of Workshop on Atmospheric Density and Aerodynamic Drag Models for Air Force Operations Held at Air Force Geophysics Laboratory on 20-22 October 1987. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-13

    Measurement of Upper Atmospheric Density 4.7 Determination of Atomic Oxygen Density and Temperature of the Thermosphere By Remote Sensing 4.8 Atmospheric...SENSING 1. Density 80-120 Km P. Hays (Univ. Mich) 2. Determination of Atomic Oxygen R. Sharna (AFGL/LSI) Density and Temperature of the Thermosphere by...Sydney) Effects of Surface Reflection Uncertainties 2. Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Drag J. Moss (NASA/LaRC) Predictions 3. In-Orbit Measurements of Atom

  8. A computational study of drag reduction and vortex shedding suppression of flow past a square cylinder in presence of small control cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Shams-Ul.; Manzoor, Raheela; Islam, Zia-Ul.; Kalsoom, Shazia; Ying, Zhou Chao

    2017-04-01

    This article presents a two-dimensional numerical study of the unsteady laminar flow from a square cylinder in presence of multiple small control cylinders. The cylinders are placed in an unconfined medium at low Reynolds numbers (Re = 100 and 160). Different flow phenomena are captured for the gap spacings (g = s/D, where s is the surface-to-surface distance between the main cylinder and small control cylinders and D is the size of the main cylinder) between 0.25 - 3 and angle of attack (θ) ranging from 300 to 1800. Numerical calculations are performed by using a lattice Boltzmann method. In this paper, the important flow physics of different observed flow patterns in terms of instantaneous vorticity contours visualization, time-trace analysis of drag and lift coefficients and power spectra analysis of lift coefficient are presented and discussed. Drag reduction and suppression of vortex shedding is also discussed in detail and compared with the available experimental and numerical results qualitatively as well as quantitatively. In addition, the mean drag coefficient, Strouhal number, root-mean-square values of the drag and lift coefficients are determined and compared with a single square cylinder without small control cylinders. We found that the drag is reduced 99.8% and 97.6% for (θ, g) = (300, 3) at Re = 100 and 160, respectively.

  9. Molecular drag model based on differential reduction of the Kruger-Shapiro equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmer, J. C.; Levi, G.

    2002-07-01

    The history of the method of differential probability in molecular flow is reviewed, beginning with the little known derivation by D. Santeler (5th Annual Symposium on Space Environmental Simulation, Arnold Air Force Station, TN, May, 1964), based on the equation of C. W. Oatley [Br. J. Appl. Phys. 8, 15 (1957)]. This method contains the aperture correction within the theory, without phenomenological assumptions. A new equation of this type, for molecular pumping, is derived by differential reduction of the Kruger-Shapiro equations. A simple solution of the differential equations yields results of good accuracy for engineering use. The physical characteristics of molecular pumping are clarified by describing the pressure distribution within the pumping tube as if it were a conductance. By this method the calculated performance of a model pump is shown to be in satisfactory agreement with a Clausing-type solution from a previous publication. copyright 2002 American Vacuum Society.

  10. Aerodynamic stability and drag characteristics of a parallel burn/SRM ascent configuration (M equals 0.6 to 4.96)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, F.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted in the NASA/MSFC 14-inch trisonic wind tunnel during April 1972 on a 0.004-scale model of a solid rocket motor version of the space shuttle ascent configuration. The configuration consisted of a parallel burn solid rocket motor booster on an external HO centerline tank orbiter. Six component aerodynamic force and moment data were recorded over an angle of attack range from -10 deg to +10 deg at zero degrees sideslip and over a sideslip range from -10 deg to +10 deg at zero degrees angle of attack. Mach numbers ranged from 0.6 to 4.96. The purpose of the test was to determine the performance and stability characteristics of the complete ascent configuration and buildup, and to determine the effects of variations in HO tank and SRM nose shaping, orbiter incidence and position, and position of the solid rocket motors.

  11. Aerodynamic stability and drag characteristics of a parallel burn/SRM ascent configuration at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 4.96

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, J. F.; Hamilton, T.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted in the NASA/MSFC 14-inch trisonic wind tunnel during March 1972 on a .003366 scale model of a solid rocket motor version of the space shuttle ascent configuration. The configuration consisted of a parallel burn solid rocket motor booster on an external H-O centerline tank orbiter. Six component aerodynamic force and moment date were recorded over an angle of attack range from -10 to 10 deg at zero degrees sideslip and over a sideslip range from -10 to 10 deg at 0, +6, and -6 deg angle of attack. Mach number ranged from 0.6 to 4.96. The performance and stability characteristics of the complete ascent configuration and build-up, and the effects of variations in tank diameter, orbiter incidence, fairings and positioning of the solid rocket motors and tank fins were determined.

  12. Aerodynamic stability and drag characteristics of the MSFC pressure fed booster configurations at Mach numbers from 0.9 to5.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, J.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted in the NASA/MSFC 14 x 14 Inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel during January 1972 on 0.003366 and 0.00419 scale models of the MSFC space shuttle pressure fed booster configurations. The configurations tested were a 40 deg cone/cylinder/13 deg flare with and without fins, a 40 deg cone/cylinder/13 deg flare/9 deg flare with and without fins, a 35 deg cone/cylinder with and without fins, a 35 deg cone/cylinder/7 deg flare and a 35 deg cone/cylinder with straight extension. Six component aerodynamic force and moment data were recorded over a Mach number range of 0.9 to 5.0. Model angle of attack range was -10 to +10 deg and +20 to 80 at 0 deg sideslip. Model sideslip range was -10 to +10 deg at nominal angles of attack of 0, 30 and 51 deg

  13. AFRODITE - passive flow control for skin-friction drag reduction using the method of spanwise mean velocity gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallenius, Bengt; Sattarzadeh, Sohrab; Downs, Robert; Shahinfar, Shahab; Fransson, Jens

    2015-11-01

    Over the last decade wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulations have shown that steady spanwise mean velocity gradients are able to attenuate the growth of different types of boundary layer disturbances. Within the AFRODITE research program different techniques to setup the spanwise mean velocity variations have been studied and their stabilizing effect leading to transition delay quantified. A successful boundary-layer modulator for transition delay has turned out to be the miniature-vortex generator and has been well documented during the past years. More recent ideas of setting up spanwise mean velocity gradients will be presented here. We show that, the non-linear interaction between a pair of oblique disturbance waves creating a streaky base flow, as well as the direct surface modulation by means of applying wavy surfaces in the spanwise direction, can both successfully be utilized for transition delay and hence skin-friction drag reduction. The European Research Council is gratefully acknowledged (ERC-StG-2010- 258339).

  14. Drag Reduction in a Natural High-Frequency Swinging Micro-Articulation: Mouthparts of the Honey Bee.

    PubMed

    Shi, Guanya; Wu, Jianing; Yan, Shaoze

    2017-01-01

    Worker-bee mouthparts consist of the glossa, the galeae and the vestigial labial palp, and it is these structures that enable bees to feed themselves. The articulation joints, 60∼70 µm in diameter, are present on the tip of the labial palp and are covered with olfactory sensilla, allowing movements between the segments. Using a specially designed high-speed camera system, we discovered that the articulation joint could swing in the nectar at a frequency of ∼50 Hz, considerably higher than the usual motion frequency of mammalian joints. To understand the potential drag reduction in this tiny organ, we examined its microstructure and also its surface wettability. We found that chitinous semispherical protuberances (4∼6 µm in diameter) are uniformly scattered on the surface of the joint and, moreover, that the surface is hydrophobic. We proposed a hydrodynamic model and revealed that the specialized surface can effectively reduce the mean equivalent friction (Ff) by ∼10%, through the use of protuberances immersed in the liquid feed. Theoretical results indicated that the dimensions of such protuberances are the predominant factor in minimizing Ff, and that the natural dimensions of the protuberances are close to the theoretical optimum at which friction is at a minimum. These discoveries may inspire the design of high-frequency micro-joints for engineering applications, such as in micro-stirrers. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  15. Multi-scale study on process of contravariant and covariant polymer elongation and drag reduction in viscoelastic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuti, Kiyosi; Suzuki, Shu

    2014-11-01

    We study the elongation process of polymers released in the Newtonian homogeneous isotropic turbulence by connecting a mesoscopic description of ensemble of elastic dumbbells using Brownian dynamics (BDS) to the macroscopic description for the fluid using DNS. The dumbbells are allowed to be advected non-affinely with the macroscopically-imposed deformation. More drastic drag reduction is achieved when non-affinity is maximum than in the complete affine case. In the former case, the dumbbell is convected as a covariant vector, and in the latter as a contravariant vector. We derive the exact solution for the governing equation of the motion of dumbbells. The maximum stretching of dumbbell is achieved when the dumbbell aligns in the direction of vorticity in the contravariant case, and when the dumbbell directs outward perpendicularly on the vortex sheet in the covariant case. Alignment in the BDS-DNS data agrees with the theoretical results. In the mixture of contravariant and covariant dumbbells, the covariant dumbbells are transversely aligned with the contravariant dumbbells. Compared with the cases without mixture, stretching of covariant dumbbell is enhanced, while that of contravariant dumbbell is reduced. Application of this phenomenon is discussed.

  16. Drag Reduction in a Natural High-Frequency Swinging Micro-Articulation: Mouthparts of the Honey Bee

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Guanya; Wu, Jianing

    2017-01-01

    Worker-bee mouthparts consist of the glossa, the galeae and the vestigial labial palp, and it is these structures that enable bees to feed themselves. The articulation joints, 60∼70 µm in diameter, are present on the tip of the labial palp and are covered with olfactory sensilla, allowing movements between the segments. Using a specially designed high-speed camera system, we discovered that the articulation joint could swing in the nectar at a frequency of ∼50 Hz, considerably higher than the usual motion frequency of mammalian joints. To understand the potential drag reduction in this tiny organ, we examined its microstructure and also its surface wettability. We found that chitinous semispherical protuberances (4∼6 µm in diameter) are uniformly scattered on the surface of the joint and, moreover, that the surface is hydrophobic. We proposed a hydrodynamic model and revealed that the specialized surface can effectively reduce the mean equivalent friction (Ff) by ∼10%, through the use of protuberances immersed in the liquid feed. Theoretical results indicated that the dimensions of such protuberances are the predominant factor in minimizing Ff, and that the natural dimensions of the protuberances are close to the theoretical optimum at which friction is at a minimum. These discoveries may inspire the design of high-frequency micro-joints for engineering applications, such as in micro-stirrers. PMID:28355472

  17. Effect of Interface Curvature on Turbulent Skin-Friction Drag Reduction with Super-Hydrophobic Micro-Grooves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhavan, Rayhaneh; Rastegari, Amirreza

    2016-11-01

    Effect of interface curvature on Drag Reduction (DR) with Super-Hydrophobic (SH) Micro-Grooves (MGs) was investigated by DNS with lattice Boltzmann methods. The liquid/gas interfaces in the SH MGs were modeled as curved, stationary, shear-free boundaries, with the interface shape determined from the Young-Laplace equation. The full range of interface protrusion angles, ranging from 0° to -90o , were investigated. DRs of 35% to 63% were realized in DNS, in turbulent channel flows at a Rebulk = 7200 (Reτ0 222) with longitudinal MGs of size 14 <=g+0 <= 56 & g+0 /w+0 = 7 on both walls, where g+0 and w+0 denote the widths and spacings of the MGs, in wall units of the base flow, respectively. The presence of interface curvature led to increases of 2.3% to 4.5% in the magnitude of DR, and drops of -3.5% to -13.5% in the slip velocity, at low protrusion angles, and drops of -2.2% to -12.5% in the magnitude of DR, and either drops of up to -16.5% or increases of up to 6% in the slip velocity, at high protrusion angles, compared to flat interfaces. In addition, the instantaneous pressure fluctuations on curved SH interfaces at low protrusion angles were significantly lower (by a factor of 2) than those on flat interfaces.

  18. The rigid bi-functional sail, new concept concerning the reduction of the drag of ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Țicu, I.; Popa, I.; Ristea, M.

    2015-11-01

    The policy of the European Union in the energy field, for the period to follow until 2020, is based on three fundamental objectives: sustainability, competitiveness and safety in energy supply. The “Energy - Climate Changes” program sets out a number of objectives for the EU for the year 2020, known as the “20-20-20 objectives”, namely: the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by at least 20% from the level of those of 1990, a 20% increase in the share of renewable energy sources out of the total energy consumption as well as a target of 10% biofuels in the transports energy consumption. In this context, in order to produce or save a part of the propulsive power produced by the main propulsion machinery, by burning fossil fuels, we suggest the equipping of vessels designed for maritime transport with a bi-functional rigid sail. We consider that this device may have both the role of trapping wind energy and the role of acting as a deflector for reducing the resistance of the vessel's proceeding through the water by conveniently using the bow air current, as a result of the vessel's heading through the water with significant advantage in reducing the energy consumption for propulsion insurance.

  19. Experimental study of using wastewater sludge as a new drag reduction agent.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Hadj Djelloul; Mansour, Belhadri; Nasr-Eddine, Boudjenane

    2017-07-01

    Siltation is considering as a huge risk to the life and security of dams. Forced to preserve their useful volumes, managers use sediment dredging operations through different techniques. The aim of our work is to investigate the wastewater sludge derived from wastewater treatment as a new natural lubricating instrument during transport of sediment in the pipes and to reduce head losses. From an economic and environmental point of view, this technique is more effective than the use of industrial polymers. The rheological study is done using an RS600 rheometer. Head losses and friction reducing are measured on three horizontal pipes (30, 50 and 80 mm). The mud from the dam and sludge are added at different volumes concentrations. The results revealed that the mud follows the Herschel-Bulkley model at 10-20% volume concentration, even after adding wastewater sludge proportions from 0.1- 0.4%. The mud flow head losses in pipes increase with increasing solids concentration. A maximum reduction in yield stress and frictional head loss are observed at 0.25 to 0.35% of sludge concentration, which can be the most effective choice.

  20. Drag Reduction by Suction of the Boundary Layer Separated Behind Shock Wave Formation at High Mach Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regenscheit, B.

    1947-01-01

    With an approach of the velocity of flight of a ship to the velocity of sound, there occurs a considerable increase of the drag. The reason for this must be found in the boundary layer separation caused by formation of shock waves. It will be endeavored to reduce the drag increase by suction of the boundary layer. Experimental results showed that drag increase may be considerably reduced by this method. It was, also, observed that, by suction, the position of shock waves can be altered to a considerable extent.

  1. Aerodynamic Shutoff Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horstman, Raymond H.

    1992-01-01

    Aerodynamic flow achieved by adding fixed fairings to butterfly valve. When valve fully open, fairings align with butterfly and reduce wake. Butterfly free to turn, so valve can be closed, while fairings remain fixed. Design reduces turbulence in flow of air in internal suction system. Valve aids in development of improved porous-surface boundary-layer control system to reduce aerodynamic drag. Applications primarily aerospace. System adapted to boundary-layer control on high-speed land vehicles.

  2. Aerodynamic Shutoff Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horstman, Raymond H.

    1992-01-01

    Aerodynamic flow achieved by adding fixed fairings to butterfly valve. When valve fully open, fairings align with butterfly and reduce wake. Butterfly free to turn, so valve can be closed, while fairings remain fixed. Design reduces turbulence in flow of air in internal suction system. Valve aids in development of improved porous-surface boundary-layer control system to reduce aerodynamic drag. Applications primarily aerospace. System adapted to boundary-layer control on high-speed land vehicles.

  3. Aerodynamics of heat exchangers for high-altitude aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drela, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Reduction of convective beat transfer with altitude dictates unusually large beat exchangers for piston- engined high-altitude aircraft The relatively large aircraft drag fraction associated with cooling at high altitudes makes the efficient design of the entire heat exchanger installation an essential part of the aircraft's aerodynamic design. The parameters that directly influence cooling drag are developed in the context of high-altitude flight Candidate wing airfoils that incorporate heat exchangers are examined. Such integrated wing-airfoil/heat-exchanger installations appear to be attractive alternatives to isolated heat.exchanger installations. Examples are drawn from integrated installations on existing or planned high-altitude aircraft.

  4. Drag Control through Wrinkling on Curved Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terwagne, Denis; Reis, Pedro

    2012-11-01

    We present the results of an experimental investigation on the wrinkling of positively curved surfaces and explore their use towards drag reduction applications. In our precision desktop-scale experiments we make use of rapid prototyping techniques to cast samples with custom geometry and material properties out of silicone-based rubbers. Our structures consist of a thin stiff shell that is chemically bonded to a thicker soft substrate. The substrate contains a spherical cavity that can be depressurized, under controlled volume conditions, to compress the ensemble structure. Under this compressive loading, the initially smooth outer-shell develops complex wrinkling patterns. We systematically characterize and quantify the morphology of the various patterns and study the phase diagram of the system. We consider both geometric and material quantities in the parameter space. Moreover, since the wrinkling patterns can be actuated dynamically using a pressure signal, we systematically characterize the aerodynamic behavior of our structures in the context of fluid drag reduction. An added advantage of the novel mechanism we introduce is that it allows for both dynamic switching and tuning of the surface morphology, thereby opening paths for drag control. D.T. thanks the B.A.E.F., the Fulbright Program and the WBI.World grants program for financial support.

  5. Drag Control through Wrinkling on Curved Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terwagne, Denis; Reis, Pedro

    2013-03-01

    We present the results of an experimental investigation on the wrinkling of positively curved surfaces and explore their use towards drag reduction applications. In our precision model experiments we make use of rapid prototyping techniques to cast samples with custom geometry and material properties out of silicone-based rubbers. Our structures consist of a thin stiff shell that is chemically bonded to a thicker soft substrate. The substrate contains a spherical cavity that can be depressurized, under controlled volume conditions, to compress the ensemble structure. Under this compressive loading, the initially smooth outer-shell develops complex wrinkling patterns. We systematically characterize and quantify the morphology of the various patterns and study the phase diagram of the system. We consider both geometric and material quantities in the parameter space. Moreover, since the wrinkling patterns can be actuated dynamically using a pressure signal, we systematically characterize the aerodynamic behavior of our structures in the context of fluid drag reduction. An added advantage of our novel mechanism is that it allows for both dynamic switching and tuning of the surface morphology, thereby opening paths for drag control. D.T. thanks the B.A.E.F., the Fulbright Program and the WBI.World grants program for financial support.

  6. Investigation of new radar-data-reduction techniques used to determine drag characteristics of a free-flight vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodbury, G. E.; Wallace, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted of new techniques used to determine the complete transonic drag characteristics of a series of free-flight drop-test models using principally radar tracking data. The full capabilities of the radar tracking and meteorological measurement systems were utilized. In addition, preflight trajectory design, exact kinematic equations, and visual-analytical filtering procedures were employed. The results of this study were compared with the results obtained from analysis of the onboard, accelerometer and pressure sensor data of the only drop-test model that was instrumented. The accelerometer-pressure drag curve was approximated by the radar-data drag curve. However, a small amplitude oscillation on the latter curve precluded a precise definition of its drag rise.

  7. Supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of hypersonic low-wave-drag elliptical body-tail combinations as affected by changes in stabilizer configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, B., Jr.; Fournier, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation has been made at Mach numbers from 1.50 to 4.63 to determine systematically the effects of the addition and position of outboard stabilizers and vertical- and vee-tail configurations on the performance and stability characteristics of a low-wave-drag elliptical body. The basic body shape was a zero-lift hypersonic minimum-wave-drag body as determined for the geometric constraints of length and volume. The elliptical cross section had an axis ratio of 2 (major axis horizontal) and an equivalent fineness ratio of 6.14. Base-mounted outboard stabilizers were at various dihedral angles from 90 deg to minus 90 deg with and without a single center-line vertical tail or a vee-tail. The angle of attack was varied from about minus 6 to 27 deg at sideslip angles of 0 and 5 deg and a constant Reynolds number of 4.58 x one million (based on body length).

  8. Space shuttle: Aerodynamic stability, control effectiveness and drag characteristics of a shuttle orbiter configuration at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 4.96

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, P. E.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted in the NASA/MSFC 14-inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel from Sept. 27 to Oct. 7, 1972 on a 0.004 scale model of the NR ATP baseline shuttle orbiter configuration. Six component aerodynamic force and moment data were recorded at 0 deg sideslip angle over an angle of attack range from 0 to 20 deg for Mach numbers of 0.6 to 4.96, 20 to 40 deg for Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.9, 2.99, and 4.96, and 40 to 60 deg for Mach numbers of 2.99 and 4.96. Data were obtained over a sideslip range of -10 to 10 deg at 0, 10, and 20 deg angles of attack over the Mach range and 30 and 50 deg at Mach numbers of 2.99 and 4.96. The purpose of the test was to define the buildup, performance, stability, and control characteristics of the orbiter configuration. The model parameters, were: body alone; body-wing; body-wing-tail; elevon deflections of 0, 10, -20, and -40 deg both full and split); aileron deflections of plus or minus 10 deg (full and split); rudder flares of 10 and 40 deg, and a rudder deflection of 15 deg about the 10 and 40 deg flare positions.

  9. Influence of satellite aerodynamics on atmospheric density determination.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, G. R.; Smith, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of aerodynamic factors which influence the interpretation of satellite dynamic response. These factors include: (1) the influence of satellite orientation and shape on the drag coefficient; (2) the effect of changes in the gas flow properties with altitude; and (3) the influence of upper atmospheric winds on the interpretation of data. These factors represent the greatest source of error in current data reduction. For this reason, an estimate is made of a possible correction to present density models.

  10. Using High Resolution Design Spaces for Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Under Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu; Padula, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    This paper explains why high resolution design spaces encourage traditional airfoil optimization algorithms to generate noisy shape modifications, which lead to inaccurate linear predictions of aerodynamic coefficients and potential failure of descent methods. By using auxiliary drag constraints for a simultaneous drag reduction at all design points and the least shape distortion to achieve the targeted drag reduction, an improved algorithm generates relatively smooth optimal airfoils with no severe off-design performance degradation over a range of flight conditions, in high resolution design spaces parameterized by cubic B-spline functions. Simulation results using FUN2D in Euler flows are included to show the capability of the robust aerodynamic shape optimization method over a range of flight conditions.

  11. Flight and wind-tunnel measurements showing base drag reduction provided by a trailing disk for high Reynolds number turbulent flow for subsonic and transonic Mach numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, Sheryll Goecke; Huffman, Jarrett K.; Fox, Charles H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The effectiveness of a trailing disk, or trapped vortex concept, in reducing the base drag of a large body of revolution was studied from measurements made both in flight and in a wind tunnel. Pressure data obtained for the flight experiment, and both pressure and force balance data were obtained for the wind tunnel experiment. The flight test also included data obtained from a hemispherical base. The experiment demonstrated the significant base drag reduction capability of the trailing disk to Mach 0.93 and to Reynolds numbers up to 80 times greater than for earlier studies. For the trailing disk data from the flight experiment, the maximum decrease in base drag ranged form 0.08 to 0.07 as Mach number increased from 0.70 to 0.93. Aircraft angles of attack ranged from 3.9 to 6.6 deg for the flight data. For the trailing disk data from the wind tunnel experiment, the maximum decrease in base and total drag ranged from 0.08 to 0.05 for the approximately 0 deg angle of attack data as Mach number increased from 0.30 to 0.82.

  12. Hydrodynamic Drag Reduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    different bow shapes could be "bolted on" at the shoulders of a physical model for towing- tank tests.) This implied that the box-like shape of nearly the...above. (Towing- tank test data for Baseline ACV model were used to validate the computational procedure.) (b) The next step was to determine the...34 at the shoulders of a physical model for towing- tank tests.) This implied that the box-like shape of nearly the entire hull (responsible for the

  13. Reduction of computer usage costs in predicting unsteady aerodynamic loadings caused by control surface motions: Analysis and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, W. S.; Sebastian, J. D.; Petrarca, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Results of theoretical and numerical investigations conducted to develop economical computing procedures were applied to an existing computer program that predicts unsteady aerodynamic loadings caused by leading and trailing edge control surface motions in subsonic compressible flow. Large reductions in computing costs were achieved by removing the spanwise singularity of the downwash integrand and evaluating its effect separately in closed form. Additional reductions were obtained by modifying the incremental pressure term that account for downwash singularities at control surface edges. Accuracy of theoretical predictions of unsteady loading at high reduced frequencies was increased by applying new pressure expressions that exactly satisified the high frequency boundary conditions of an oscillating control surface. Comparative computer result indicated that the revised procedures provide more accurate predictions of unsteady loadings as well as providing reduction of 50 to 80 percent in computer usage costs.

  14. Effect of Two Advanced Noise Reduction Technologies on the Aerodynamic Performance of an Ultra High Bypass Ratio Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christoper E.; Gazzaniga, John A.

    2013-01-01

    A wind tunnel experiment was conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center anechoic 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel to investigate two new advanced noise reduction technologies in support of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project. The goal of the experiment was to demonstrate the noise reduction potential and effect on fan model performance of the two noise reduction technologies in a scale model Ultra-High Bypass turbofan at simulated takeoff and approach aircraft flight speeds. The two novel noise reduction technologies are called Over-the-Rotor acoustic treatment and Soft Vanes. Both technologies were aimed at modifying the local noise source mechanisms of the fan tip vortex/fan case interaction and the rotor wake-stator interaction. For the Over-the-Rotor acoustic treatment, two noise reduction configurations were investigated. The results showed that the two noise reduction technologies, Over-the-Rotor and Soft Vanes, were able to reduce the noise level of the fan model, but the Over-the-Rotor configurations had a significant negative impact on the fan aerodynamic performance; the loss in fan aerodynamic efficiency was between 2.75 to 8.75 percent, depending on configuration, compared to the conventional solid baseline fan case rubstrip also tested. Performance results with the Soft Vanes showed that there was no measurable change in the corrected fan thrust and a 1.8 percent loss in corrected stator vane thrust, which resulted in a total net thrust loss of approximately 0.5 percent compared with the baseline reference stator vane set.

  15. Aerodynamics Research Revolutionizes Truck Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s, researchers at Dryden Flight Research Center conducted numerous tests to refine the shape of trucks to reduce aerodynamic drag and improved efficiency. During the 1980s and 1990s, a team based at Langley Research Center explored controlling drag and the flow of air around a moving body. Aeroserve Technologies Ltd., of Ottawa, Canada, with its subsidiary, Airtab LLC, in Loveland, Colorado, applied the research from Dryden and Langley to the development of the Airtab vortex generator. Airtabs create two counter-rotating vortices to reduce wind resistance and aerodynamic drag of trucks, trailers, recreational vehicles, and many other vehicles.

  16. Initial Assessment of a Variable-Camber Continuous Trailing-Edge Flap System on a Rigid Wing for Drag Reduction in Subsonic Cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ippolito, Corey; Nguyen, Nhan; Totah, Joe; Trinh, Khanh; Ting, Eric

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an initial optimization study of a Variable-Camber Continuous Trailing-Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system. The VCCTEF provides a light-weight control system for aircraft with long flexible wings, providing efficient high-lift capability for takeoff and landing, and greater efficiency with reduced drag at cruising flight by considering the effects of aeroelastic wing deformations in the control law. The VCCTEF system is comprised of a large number of distributed and individually-actuatable control surfaces that are constrained in movement relative to neighboring surfaces, and are non-trivially coupled through structural aeroelastic dynamics. Minimzation of drag results in a constrained, coupled, non-linear optimization over a high-dimension search space. In this paper, we describe the modeling, analysis, and optimization of the VCCTEF system control inputs for minimum drag in cruise. The purpose of this initial study is to quantify the expected benefits of the system concept. The scope of this analysis is limited to consideration of a rigid wing without structural flexibility in a steady-state cruise condition at various fuel weights. For analysis, we developed an optimization engine that couples geometric synthesis with vortex-lattice analysis to automate the optimization procedure. In this paper, we present and describe the VCCTEF system concept, optimization approach and tools, run-time performance, and results of the optimization at 20%, 50%, and 80% fuel load. This initial limited-scope study finds the VCCTEF system can potentially gain nearly 10% reduction in cruise drag, provides greater drag savings at lower operating weight, and efficiency is negatively impacted by the severity of relative constraints between control surfaces.

  17. High Reynolds Number Assessment of Boundary Layer Transition Trip Drag at Mach 2.48 on HSCT Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahls, Richard; Rivers, Melissa; Magee, Todd; Novean, Michael

    1999-01-01

    The NASA High Speed Research (HSR) Program is intended to establish a technology base enabling industry development of an economically viable and environmentally acceptable second generation high speed civil transport (HSCT). The HSR program consists of work directed towards several broad technology areas, one of which is aerodynamic performance. The objective of the Configuration Aerodynamics task of the Aerodynamic Performance technology area is the development of aerodynamic drag reduction, stability and control, and propulsion airframe integration technologies required to support the HSCT development process. Towards this goal, computational and empirical based aerodynamic design tools are being developed, evaluated, and validated through ground based experimental testing. In addition, methods for ground to flight scaling are being developed and refined. Successful development of validated design and scaling methodologies will result in improved economy of operation for an HSCT and reduce uncertainty in full-scale flight predictions throughout the development process.

  18. Characterization of the mechanism of drag reduction using a Karhunen-Loeve analysis on a direct numerical simulation of turbulent pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggleby, Andrew T.

    The objective of this study is to characterize the mechanism of drag reduction by comparing the dynamical eigenfunctions of a turbulent pipe flow against those of two known cases of drag reduced flows. The first is forced drag reduction by spanwise wall oscillation, and the second is natural drag reduction found in relaminarizing flow. The dynamics are examined through a Karhunen-Loeve (KL) expansion of the direct numerical simulation flow field results. The direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed using NEK5000, a spectral element Navier-Stokes solver, the first exponentially convergent investigation of DNS of turbulence in a pipe. The base flow is performed at a Reynolds number of Retau = 150, resulting in a KL dimension of deltaKL = 2130. As in turbulent channel flow, propagating modes are found, characterized with constant phase speed, and contribute of 80.58% of the total fluctuating energy. Based upon wavenumber characteristics and coherent vorticity visualization, four subclasses of propagating modes and two subclasses of non-propagating modes are discovered, qualitatively similar to the horseshoe (hairpin) vortex structure reported in literature. The drag reduced case is performed at the same Reynolds number with a spanwise velocity A+ = 20, a period of T+ = 50, and is driven by a constant pressure gradient. This results in a increase of flow rate by 27 %, and the KL dimension is reduced to deltaKL = 102, a 96% reduction. The propagating modes, in particular the wall modes, are pushed away from the wall, resulting in a 34% increase in their advection speed, and a shift away from the wall of the root-mean-square and Reynolds stress peaks. The relaminarizing case observes the chugging motion of the mean flow rate when the Reynolds number is barely turbulent, at Retau = 95. This chugging motion is the relaminarization of the flow, resulting in an increased flow rate, and then before complete relaminarization, the flow regains its turbulent state. This

  19. Aerodynamics/ACEE: Aircraft energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An overview is presented of a 10 year program managed by NASA which seeks to make possible the most efficient use of energy for aircraft propulsion and lift as well as provide a technology that can be used by U.S. manufacturers of air transports and engines. Supercritical wings, winglets, vortex drag reduction, high lift, active control, laminar flow control, and aerodynamics by computer are among the topics discussed. Wind tunnel models in flight verification of advanced technology, and the design, construction and testing of various aircraft structures are also described.

  20. Aerodynamics/ACEE: aircraft energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    An overview is presented of a 10 year program managed by NASA which seeks to make possible the most efficient use of energy for aircraft propulsion and lift as well as provide a technology that can be used by U.S. manufacturers of air transports and engines. Supercritical wings, winglets, vortex drag reduction, high lift, active control, laminar flow control, and aerodynamics by computer are among the topics discussed. Wind tunnel models in flight verification of advanced technology, and the design, construction and testing of various aircraft structures are also described.

  1. Charged aerodynamics of a Low Earth Orbit cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capon, C. J.; Brown, M.; Boyce, R. R.

    2016-11-01

    This work investigates the charged aerodynamic interaction of a Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) cylinder with the ionosphere. The ratio of charge to neutral drag force on a 2D LEO cylinder with diffusely reflecting cool walls is derived analytically and compared against self-consistent electrostatic Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations. Analytical calculations predict that neglecting charged drag in an O+ dominated LEO plasma with a neutral to ion number density ratio of 102 will cause a 10% over-prediction of O density based on body accelerations when body potential (ɸB) is ≤ -390 V. Above 900 km altitude in LEO, where H+ becomes the dominant ion species, analytical predictions suggest charge drag becomes equivalent to neutral drag for ɸB ≤ -0.75 V. Comparing analytical predictions against PIC simulations in the range of 0 < - ɸB < 50 V found that analytical charged drag was under-estimated for all body potentials; the degree of under-estimation increasing with ɸB. Based on the -50 V PIC simulations, our in-house 6 degree of freedom orbital propagator saw a reduction in the semi-major axis of a 10 kg satellite at 700 km of 6.9 m/day and 0.98 m/day at 900 km compared that caused purely by neutral drag - 0.67 m/day and 0.056 m/day respectively. Hence, this work provides initial evidence that charged aerodynamics may become significant compared to neutral aerodynamics for high voltage LEO bodies.

  2. Advanced Aerodynamic Technologies for Ground Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement and Emission Reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Ricahrd Wood

    2007-01-15

    SOLUS-Solutions and Technologies LLC utilized the opportunity presented by the Department of Energy (DOE) Inventions and Innovations grant to successfully develop, market, and license two of the original three fuel and emissions saving aerodynamic trailer attachments for the trucking industry. Working independent of the grant and with SOLUS funding SOLUS also developed, marketed and licensed three additional fuel and emissions saving aerodynamic trailer attachments for the trucking industry. The five inventions include four inventions that are applicable to all heavy truck trailers and one invention specifically designed for van trailers with swing doors. The SOLUS inventions have been developed for use on all trailer types as well as light and medium trucks. SOLUS-Solutions and Technologies LLC has licensed the five inventions to Silver Eagle Manufacturing Company of Portland Oregon. Each trailer outfitted with the SOLUS inventions saves approximately 2,000 gallons of fuel every 100,000 miles, which prevents over 20 tons of CO2 from entering the atmosphere. If all applicable trailers used the technology, the country could save more than 4.0 billion gallons of diesel fuel, reduce emissions by 40 million tons and save 10.0 billion dollars annually.

  3. Nash equilibrium and multi criterion aerodynamic optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhili; Zhang, Lianhe

    2016-06-01

    Game theory and its particular Nash Equilibrium (NE) are gaining importance in solving Multi Criterion Optimization (MCO) in engineering problems over the past decade. The solution of a MCO problem can be viewed as a NE under the concept of competitive games. This paper surveyed/proposed four efficient algorithms for calculating a NE of a MCO problem. Existence and equivalence of the solution are analyzed and proved in the paper based on fixed point theorem. Specific virtual symmetric Nash game is also presented to set up an optimization strategy for single objective optimization problems. Two numerical examples are presented to verify proposed algorithms. One is mathematical functions' optimization to illustrate detailed numerical procedures of algorithms, the other is aerodynamic drag reduction of civil transport wing fuselage configuration by using virtual game. The successful application validates efficiency of algorithms in solving complex aerodynamic optimization problem.

  4. Aerodynamic Improvements to Cargo Carrying Rail Cars due to Roof Modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condie, Robert; Maynes, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    The aerodynamic drag associated with the transport of commodities by rail is becoming increasingly important as the cost of diesel fuel increases. We provide an assessment of the influence of the roof structure on aerodynamic performance of two dissimilar rail cars, namely automobile carrying cars and coal carrying cars. Currently, the roof material for automobile carrying rail cars is corrugated steel, with the corrugation aligned perpendicular to the direction of travel. Coal cars are currently left uncovered for loading convenience and on the return leg from the power plant are empty. Aerodynamic drag data have been obtained through wind tunnel testing on 1/29 scale models to understand the savings that may be realized by judicious modification to the tops of both these car types. For the automobile-carrying cars, testing is performed for the corrugated and smooth roof configurations. This modification alone has the potential of reducing the car drag coefficient by nominally 25%. A broader study is performed for the coal cars, with data being acquired for coal filled models, empty models, and several cover prototype configurations. The results reveal that implementation of a cover may yield reductions in the aerodynamic drag for both coal filled (nominally 7%) and empty coal cars (nominally 30%).

  5. Aerodynamic analysis of a helicopter fuselage with rotating rotor head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reß, R.; Grawunder, M.; Breitsamter, Ch.

    2015-06-01

    The present paper describes results of wind tunnel experiments obtained during a research programme aimed at drag reduction of the fuselage of a twin engine light helicopter configuration. A 1 : 5 scale model of a helicopter fuselage including a rotating rotor head and landing gear was investigated in the low-speed wind tunnel A of Technische Universität a München (TUM). The modelled parts of the helicopter induce approxiu mately 80% of the total parasite drag thus forming a major potential for shape optimizations. The present paper compares results of force and moment measurements of a baseline configuration and modified variants with an emphasis on the aerodynamic drag, lift, and yawing moment coefficients.

  6. Modeling of Reduction in the Drag and of Cessation of the Action of an Alternating Transverse Force on a Circular Cylinder due to the Throttling Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, S. A.; Sudakov, A. G.; Zhukova, Yu. V.; Usachovd, A. E.

    2014-07-01

    An analysis of the physical processes in unsteady fl ow past a circular cylinder surrounded by a sheath with ports for bleeding of the medium has been made by a factorized fi nite-volume method on the basis of numerical solution of Navier-Stokes equations closed with the Menter sheer-stress-transfer model. It has been shown that such arrangement of a circular cylinder ensures stabilization of the wake of the cylinder, and also the reduction in its drag and cessation of the action of an alternating transverse force at Reynolds numbers higher than 105.

  7. Bluff body drag manipulation using pulsed jets and Coanda effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, Diogo; Borée, Jacques; Noack, Bernd R.; Spohn, Andreas; Ruiz, Tony

    2016-10-01

    The impact of fluidic actuation on the wake and drag of a 3D blunt body is experimentally investigated. The wake is forced by jets pulsed tangentially to the main flow with variable frequency and velocity. Depending on the forcing conditions, two flow regimes can be identified. First, for a broadband range of frequencies comprising the natural wake instabilities, the convection of the jet structures enhances wake entrainment, shortening the recirculating flow length with an augmentation of the bluff body drag. Further increase of the actuation frequency induces a wake fluidic boat-tailing by shear-layer deviation. It additionally lowers turbulent intensity and entrainment of high momentum fluid in the shear layer, leading to an overall reduction of the wake fluctuating kinetic energy. The association of both mechanisms is responsible for a raise of base pressure and decrease of the model's drag. The physical features of such regimes are discussed on the basis of drag, pressure and velocity measurements at several upstream conditions and control parameters. By adding curved surfaces at the jet outlets to take advantage of the so-called Coanda effect, periodic actuation can be further reinforced leading to drag reductions of about 20 % in unsteady regime. In general, the unsteady Coanda blowing not only intensifies the base pressure recovery but also preserves the effect of unsteady high frequency forcing on the turbulent field. The present results encourage the development of fluidic control in road vehicles' aerodynamics as well as provide a complement to our current understanding of bluff body drag and its manipulation.

  8. The role of drag in insect hovering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z Jane

    2004-11-01

    Studies of insect flight have focused on aerodynamic lift, both in quasi-steady and unsteady regimes. This is partly influenced by the choice of hovering motions along a horizontal stroke plane, where aerodynamic drag makes no contribution to the vertical force. In contrast, some of the best hoverers--dragonflies and hoverflies--employ inclined stroke planes, where the drag in the down- and upstrokes does not cancel each other. Here, computation of an idealized dragonfly wing motion shows that a dragonfly uses drag to support about three quarters of its weight. This can explain an anomalous factor of four in previous estimates of dragonfly lift coefficients, where drag was assumed to be small. To investigate force generation and energy cost of hovering flight using different combination of lift and drag, I study a family of wing motion parameterized by the inclined angle of the stroke plane. The lift-to-drag ratio is no longer a measure of efficiency, except in the case of horizontal stroke plane. In addition, because the flow is highly stalled, lift and drag are of comparable magnitude, and the aerodynamic efficiency is roughly the same up to an inclined angle about 60 degrees , which curiously agrees with the angle observed in dragonfly flight. Finally, the lessons from this special family of wing motion suggests a strategy for improving efficiency of normal hovering, and a unifying view of different wing motions employed by insects.

  9. Some methods for reducing wing drag and wing-Nacelle interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, T. C.

    1975-01-01

    Primary efforts directed toward drag reduction centered on the design of both supercritical and subcritical families of airfoils, the reduction of induced drag through the use of vortex diffusers, and the reduction of interference drag for executive-type aircraft.

  10. Reduction of aerodynamic load fluctuation on wind turbine blades through active flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velarde, John-Michael; Coleman, Thomas; Magstadt, Andrew; Aggarwal, Somil; Glauser, Mark

    2015-11-01

    The current set of experiments deals with implementing active flow control on a Bergey Excel 1, 1kW turbine. The previous work in our group demonstrated successfully that implementation of a simple closed-loop controller could reduce unsteady aerodynamic load fluctuation by 18% on a vertically mounted wing. Here we describe a similar flow control method adapted to work in the rotating frame of a 2.5m diameter wind turbine. Strain gages at the base of each blade measure the unsteady fluctuation in the blades and pressure taps distributed along the span of the blades feed information to the closed-loop control scheme. A realistic, unsteady flow field has been generated by placing a cylinder upstream of the turbine to induce shedding vortices at frequencies in the bandwidth of the first structural bending mode of the turbine blades. The goal of these experiments is to demonstrate closed-loop flow control as a means to reduce the unsteady fluctuation in the blades and increase the overall lifespan of the wind turbine.

  11. GASP- General Aviation Synthesis Program. Volume 3: Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hague, D.

    1978-01-01

    Aerodynamics calculations are treated in routines which concern moments as they vary with flight conditions and attitude. The subroutines discussed: (1) compute component equivalent flat plate and wetted areas and profile drag; (2) print and plot low and high speed drag polars; (3) determine life coefficient or angle of attack; (4) determine drag coefficient; (5) determine maximum lift coefficient and drag increment for various flap types and flap settings; and (6) determine required lift coefficient and drag coefficient in cruise flight.

  12. Void waves propagating in the bubbly two-phase turbulent boundary layer beneath a flat-bottom model ship during drag reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyun Jin; Oishi, Yoshihiko; Tasaka, Yuji; Murai, Yuichi

    2016-12-01

    The injection of bubbles into a turbulent boundary layer can reduce the skin friction of a wall. Conventionally, the drag reduction rate is evaluated using time-averaged quantities of the mean gas flow rate or mean void fraction. Actually, as bubbles are subject to strong shear stresses near the wall, void waves and local bubble clusters appear. For pipe and channel flows, such wave-like behavior of the dispersed phase has been investigated intensely as an internal two-phase flow problem. We investigate how this wavy structure forms within the boundary layer as an external spatially developing two-phase flow along a horizontal flat plate. We describe how our model ship is designed to meet that purpose and report bubble-traveling behavior that accompanies unexpectedly strong wavy oscillations in the streamwise direction. A theoretical explanation based on a simplified two-fluid model is given to support this experimental fact, which suggests that void waves naturally stand out when drag reduction is enhanced through the local spatial gradient of the void fraction.

  13. Aerodynamics of cyclist posture, bicycle and helmet characteristics in time trial stage.

    PubMed

    Chabroux, Vincent; Barelle, Caroline; Favier, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The present work is focused on the aerodynamic study of different parameters, including both the posture of a cyclist's upper limbs and the saddle position, in time trial (TT) stages. The aerodynamic influence of a TT helmet large visor is also quantified as a function of the helmet inclination. Experiments conducted in a wind tunnel on nine professional cyclists provided drag force and frontal area measurements to determine the drag force coefficient. Data statistical analysis clearly shows that the hands positioning on shifters and the elbows joined together are significantly reducing the cyclist drag force. Concerning the saddle position, the drag force is shown to be significantly increased (about 3%) when the saddle is raised. The usual helmet inclination appears to be the inclination value minimizing the drag force. Moreover, the addition of a large visor on the helmet is shown to provide a drag coefficient reduction as a function of the helmet inclination. Present results indicate that variations in the TT cyclist posture, the saddle position and the helmet visor can produce a significant gain in time (up to 2.2%) during stages.

  14. Aerodynamic properties of spherical balloon wind sensors.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtl, G. H.; Demandel, R. E.; Krivo, S. J.

    1972-01-01

    A first-order theory of the fluctuating lift and drag coefficients associated with the aerodynamically induced motions of rising and falling spherical wind sensors is developed. The equations of motion of a sensor are perturbed about an equilibrium state in which the buoyancy force balances the mean vertical drag force. It is shown that, to within first order in perturbation quantities, the aerodynamic lift force is confined to the horizontal, and the fluctuating drag force associated with fluctuations in the drag coefficient acts along the vertical. The perturbation equations are transformed with Fourier-Stieltjes integrals. The resulting equations lead to relationships between the power spectra of the aerodynamically induced velocity components and the spectra of the fluctuating lift and drag coefficients.

  15. Aerodynamic characteristics of wheelchairs. [Langley V/STOL wind tunnel tests for human factors engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, P. L., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The overall aerodynamic drag characteristics of a conventional wheelchair were defined and the individual drag contributions of its components were determined. The results show that a fiftieth percentile man sitting in the complete wheelchair would experience an aerodynamic drag coefficient on the order of 1.4.

  16. New drag laws for flapping flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agre, Natalie; Zhang, Jun; Ristroph, Leif

    2014-11-01

    Classical aerodynamic theory predicts that a steadily-moving wing experiences fluid forces proportional to the square of its speed. For bird and insect flight, however, there is currently no model for how drag is affected by flapping motions of the wings. By considering simple wings driven to oscillate while progressing through the air, we discover that flapping significantly changes the magnitude of drag and fundamentally alters its scaling with speed. These measurements motivate a new aerodynamic force law that could help to understand the free-flight dynamics, control, and stability of insects and flapping-wing robots.

  17. The Minimum Induced Drag of Aerofoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munk, M. M.

    1979-01-01

    Equations are derived to demonstrate which distribution of lifting elements result in a minimum amount of aerodynamic drag. The lifting elements were arranged (1) in one line, (2) parallel lying in a transverse plane, and (3) in any direction in a transverse plane. It was shown that the distribution of lift which causes the least drag is reduced to the solution of the problem for systems of airfoils which are situated in a plane perpendicular to the direction of flight.

  18. The aerodynamics of hovering flight in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Fry, Steven N; Sayaman, Rosalyn; Dickinson, Michael H

    2005-06-01

    Using 3D infrared high-speed video, we captured the continuous wing and body kinematics of free-flying fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, during hovering and slow forward flight. We then 'replayed' the wing kinematics on a dynamically scaled robotic model to measure the aerodynamic forces produced by the wings. Hovering animals generate a U-shaped wing trajectory, in which large drag forces during a downward plunge at the start of each stroke create peak vertical forces. Quasi-steady mechanisms could account for nearly all of the mean measured force required to hover, although temporal discrepancies between instantaneous measured forces and model predictions indicate that unsteady mechanisms also play a significant role. We analyzed the requirements for hovering from an analysis of the time history of forces and moments in all six degrees of freedom. The wing kinematics necessary to generate sufficient lift are highly constrained by the requirement to balance thrust and pitch torque over the stroke cycle. We also compare the wing motion and aerodynamic forces of free and tethered flies. Tethering causes a strong distortion of the stroke pattern that results in a reduction of translational forces and a prominent nose-down pitch moment. The stereotyped distortion under tethered conditions is most likely due to a disruption of sensory feedback. Finally, we calculated flight power based directly on the measurements of wing motion and aerodynamic forces, which yielded a higher estimate of muscle power during free hovering flight than prior estimates based on time-averaged parameters. This discrepancy is mostly due to a two- to threefold underestimate of the mean profile drag coefficient in prior studies. We also compared our values with the predictions of the same time-averaged models using more accurate kinematic and aerodynamic input parameters based on our high-speed videography measurements. In this case, the time-averaged models tended to overestimate flight

  19. Development of reduced drag concepts for acoustic liners using experimental methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasinski, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Commercial aircraft have used acoustic liners to reduce engine noise for many years, although their drag production has been largely unstudied. The next generation of aircraft may benefit from additional surface area covered by acoustic liner, thus understanding their drag production mechanism is crucial for future designs. An accurate direct aerodynamic drag measurement technique has been developed using a force balance with linear air bearings. Using 3D-printed and conventional liners, low-drag designs are being developed. This paper will investigate the underlying fluid mechanics governing the drag production in acoustic liners and describe new attempts to reduce aerodynamic drag.

  20. Development of a Kevlar/PMR-15 reduced drag DC-9 nacelle fairing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawai, R. T.; Hrach, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes an advanced composite fairing designed to reduce drag on DC-9 nacelles as a part of the NASA Engine Component Improvement Program. This fairing is the aft enclosure for the thrust reverser actuator system on JT8D engine nacelles and is subjected to a 500 F exhaust flow during the reverse thrust. A reduced-drag configuration was developed by using in-flight tuft surveys for flow visualization in order to identify areas with low-quality flow, and then modifying the aerodynamic lines to improve the flow. A fabrication method for molding the part in an autoclave was developed; this material system is suitable for 500 F. The resultant composite fairing reduces the overall aircraft drag 1% with a weight reduction of 40% when compared with a metal component.