Aerodynamic Flow Field Measurements for Automotive Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hepner, Timothy E.
1999-01-01
The design of a modern automotive air handling system is a complex task. The system is required to bring the interior of the vehicle to a comfortable level in as short a time as possible. A goal of the automotive industry is to predict the interior climate of an automobile using advanced computational fluid dynamic (CFD) methods. The development of these advanced prediction tools will enable better selection of engine and accessory components. The goal of this investigation was to predict methods used by the automotive industry. To accomplish this task three separate experiments were performed. The first was a laboratory setup where laser velocimeter (LV) flow field measurements were made in the heating and air conditioning unit of a Ford Windstar. The second involved flow field measurements in the engine compartment of a Ford Explorer, with the engine running idle. The third mapped the flow field exiting the center dashboard panel vent inside the Explorer, while the circulating fan operated at 14 volts. All three experiments utilized full-coincidence three-component LV systems. This enabled the mean and fluctuating velocities to be measured along with the Reynolds stress terms.
Xiao, Haosu; Zuo, Baojun; Tian, Yi; Zhang, Wang; Hao, Chenglong; Liu, Chaofeng; Li, Qi; Li, Fan; Zhang, Li; Fan, Zhigang
2012-12-20
We investigated the joint influences exerted by the nonuniform aerodynamic flow field surrounding the optical dome and the aerodynamic heating of the dome on imaging quality degradation of an airborne optical system. The Spalart-Allmaras model provided by FLUENT was used for flow computations. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm based ray tracing program was used to simulate optical transmission through the aerodynamic flow field and the dome. Four kinds of imaging quality evaluation parameters were presented: wave aberration of the exit pupil, point spread function, encircled energy, and modulation transfer function. The results show that the aero-optical disturbance of the aerodynamic flow field and the aerodynamic heating of the dome significantly affect the imaging quality of an airborne optical system.
Effects of a Rotating Aerodynamic Probe on the Flow Field of a Compressor Rotor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lepicovsky, Jan
2008-01-01
An investigation of distortions of the rotor exit flow field caused by an aerodynamic probe mounted in the rotor is described in this paper. A rotor total pressure Kiel probe, mounted on the rotor hub and extending up to the mid-span radius of a rotor blade channel, generates a wake that forms additional flow blockage. Three types of high-response aerodynamic probes were used to investigate the distorted flow field behind the rotor. These probes were: a split-fiber thermo-anemometric probe to measure velocity and flow direction, a total pressure probe, and a disk probe for in-flow static pressure measurement. The signals acquired from these high-response probes were reduced using an ensemble averaging method based on a once per rotor revolution signal. The rotor ensemble averages were combined to construct contour plots for each rotor channel of the rotor tested. In order to quantify the rotor probe effects, the contour plots for each individual rotor blade passage were averaged into a single value. The distribution of these average values along the rotor circumference is a measure of changes in the rotor exit flow field due to the presence of a probe in the rotor. These distributions were generated for axial flow velocity and for static pressure.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Potter, J. Leith
1992-01-01
Means for relatively simple and quick procedures are examined for estimating aerodynamic coefficients of lifting reentry vehicles. The methods developed allow aerospace designers not only to evaluate the aerodynamics of specific shapes but also to optimize shapes under given constraints. The analysis was also studied of the effect of thermomolecular flow on pressures measured by an orifice near the nose of a Space Shuttle Orbiter at altitudes above 75 km. It was shown that pressures corrected for thermomolecular flow effect are in good agreement with values predicted by independent theoretical methods. An incidental product was the insight gained about the free molecular thermal accommodation coefficient applicable under 'real' conditions of high speed flow in the Earth's atmosphere. The results are presented as abstracts of referenced papers. One reference paper is presented in its entirety.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ericsson, L. E.; Reding, J. P.
1976-01-01
An analysis of the unsteady aerodynamics of bodies with concave nose geometries was performed. The results show that the experimentally observed pulsating flow on spiked bodies and in forward facing cavities can be described by the developed simple mathematical model of the phenomenon. Static experimental data is used as a basis for determination of the oscillatory frequency of spike-induced flow pulsations. The agreement between predicted and measured reduced frequencies is generally very good. The spiked-body mathematical model is extended to describe the pulsations observed in forward facing cavities and it is shown that not only the frequency but also the pressure time history can be described with the accuracy needed to predict the experimentally observed time average effects. This implies that it should be possible to determine analytically the impact of the flow pulsation on the structural integrity of the nozzles for the jettisoned empty SRM-shells.
Rotorcraft Downwash Flow Field Study to Understand the Aerodynamics of Helicopter Brownout
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wadcock, Alan J.; Ewing, Lindsay A.; Solis, Eduardo; Potsdam, Mark; Rajagopalan, Ganesh
2008-01-01
Rotorcraft brownout is caused by the entrainment of dust and sand particles in helicopter downwash, resulting in reduced pilot visibility during low, slow flight and landing. Recently, brownout has become a high-priority problem for military operations because of the risk to both pilot and equipment. Mitigation of this problem has focused on flight controls and landing maneuvers, but current knowledge and experimental data describing the aerodynamic contribution to brownout are limited. This paper focuses on downwash characteristics of a UH-60 Blackhawk as they pertain to particle entrainment and brownout. Results of a full-scale tuft test are presented and used to validate a high-fidelity Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculation. CFD analysis for an EH-101 Merlin helicopter is also presented, and its flow field characteristics are compared with those of the UH-60.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, J. H. B.; Campbell, J. F.; Young, A. D. (Editor)
1992-01-01
The principal emphasis of the meeting was to be on the understanding and prediction of separation-induced vortex flows and their effects on vehicle performance, stability, control, and structural design loads. This report shows that a substantial amount of the papers covering this area were received from a wide range of countries, together with an attendance that was even more diverse. In itself, this testifies to the current interest in the subject and to the appropriateness of the Panel's choice of topic and approach. An attempt is made to summarize each paper delivered, and to relate the contributions made in the papers and in the discussions to some of the important aspects of vortex flow aerodynamics. This reveals significant progress and important clarifications, but also brings out remaining weaknesses in predictive capability and gaps in understanding. Where possible, conclusions are drawn and areas of continuing concern are identified.
RCS jet-flow field interaction effects on the aerodynamics of the space shuttle orbiter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rausch, J. R.; Roberge, A. M.
1973-01-01
A study was conducted to determine the external effects caused by operation of the reaction control system during entry of the space shuttle orbiter. The effects of jet plume-external flow interactions were emphasized. Force data were obtained for the basic airframe characteristics plus induced effects when the reaction control system is operating. Resulting control amplification and/or coupling were derived and their effects on the aerodynamic stability and control of the orbiter and the reaction control system thrust were determined.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reding, J. P.; Ericsson, L. E.
1976-01-01
An exploratory analysis has been made of the aeroelastic stability of the Space Shuttle Launch Configuration, with the objective of defining critical flow phenomena with adverse aeroelastic effects and developing simple analytic means of describing the time-dependent flow-interference effects so that they can be incorporated into a computer program to predict the aeroelastic stability of all free-free modes of the shuttle launch configuration. Three critical flow phenomana have been identified: (1) discontinuous jump of orbiter wing shock, (2) inlet flow between orbiter and booster, and (3) H.O. tank base flow. All involve highly nonlinear and often discontinuous aerodynamics which cause limit cycle oscillations of certain critical modes. Given the appropriate static data, the dynamic effects of the wing shock jump and the HO tank bulbous base effect can be analyzed using the developed quasi-steady techniques. However, further analytic and experimental efforts are required before the dynamic effects of the inlet flow phenomenon can be predicted for the shuttle launch configuration.
Bumblebee program, aerodynamic data. Part 2: Flow fields at Mach number 2.0. [supersonic missiles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barnes, G. A.; Cronvich, L. L.
1979-01-01
Available flow field data which can be used in validating theoretical procedures for computing flow fields around supersonic missiles are presented. Tabulated test data are given which define the flow field around a conical-nosed cylindrical body in a crossflow plane corresponding to a likely tail location. The data were obtained at a Mach number of 2.0 for an angle of attack of 0 to 23 degrees. The data define the flow field for cases both with and without a forward wing present.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cockrell, Charles E., Jr.; Huebner, Lawrence D.; Finley, Dennis B.
1995-01-01
The component integration of a class of hypersonic high-lift configurations known as waveriders into hypersonic cruise vehicles was evaluated. A wind-tunnel model was developed which integrates realistic vehicle components with two waverider shapes, referred to as the straight-wing and cranked-wing shapes. Both shapes were conical-flow-derived waveriders for a design Mach number of 4.0. Experimental data and limited computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions were obtained over a Mach number range of 1.6 to 4.63 at a Reynolds number of 2.0 x 10(exp 6) per foot. The CFD predictions and flow visualization data confirmed the shock attachment characteristics of the baseline waverider shapes and illustrated the waverider flow-field properties. Experimental data showed that no significant performance degradations, in terms of maximum lift-to-drag ratios, occur at off-design Mach numbers for the waverider shapes and the integrated configurations. A comparison of the fully-integrated waverider vehicles to the baseline shapes showed that the performance was significantly degraded when all of the components were added to the waveriders, with the most significant degradation resulting from aftbody closure and the addition of control surfaces. Both fully-integrated configurations were longitudinally unstable over the Mach number range studied with the selected center of gravity location and for unpowered conditions. The cranked-wing configuration provided better lateral-directional stability characteristics than the straight-wing configuration.
Unsteady aerodynamics of an oscillating cascade in a compressible flow field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buffum, Daniel H.; Boldman, Donald R.; Fleeter, Sanford
1987-01-01
Fundamental experiments were performed in the NASA Lewis Transonic Oscillating Cascade Facility to investigate and quantify the unsteady aerodynamics of a cascade of biconvex airfoils executing torsion-mode oscillations at realistic reduced frequencies. Flush-mounted, high-response miniature pressure transducers were used to measure the unsteady airfoil surface pressures. The pressures were measured for three interblade phase angles at two inlet Mach numbers, 0.65 and 0.80, and two incidence angles, 0 and 7 deg. The time-variant pressures were analyzed by means of discrete Fourier transform techniques, and these unique data were then compared with predictions from a linearized unsteady cascade model. The experimental results indicate that the interblade phase angle had a major effect on the chordwise distributions of the airfoil surface unsteady pressure, and that reduced frequency, incidence angle, and Mach number had a somewhat less significant effect.
Aerodynamic Design of Axial Flow Compressors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bullock, R. O. (Editor); Johnsen, I. A.
1965-01-01
An overview of 'Aerodynamic systems design of axial flow compressors' is presented. Numerous chapters cover topics such as compressor design, ptotential and viscous flow in two dimensional cascades, compressor stall and blade vibration, and compressor flow theory. Theoretical aspects of flow are also covered.
Passive flow control by membrane wings for aerodynamic benefit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Timpe, Amory; Zhang, Zheng; Hubner, James; Ukeiley, Lawrence
2013-03-01
The coupling of passive structural response of flexible membranes with the flow over them can significantly alter the aerodynamic characteristic of simple flat-plate wings. The use of flexible wings is common throughout biological flying systems inspiring many engineers to incorporate them into small engineering flying systems. In many of these systems, the motion of the membrane serves to passively alter the flow over the wing potentially resulting in an aerodynamic benefit. In this study, the aerodynamic loads and the flow field for a rigid flat-plate wing are compared to free trailing-edge membrane wings with two different pre-tensions at a chord-based Reynolds number of approximately 50,000. The membrane was silicon rubber with a scalloped free trailing edge. The analysis presented includes load measurements from a sting balance along with velocity fields and membrane deflections from synchronized, time-resolved particle image velocimetry and digital image correlation. The load measurements demonstrate increased aerodynamic efficiency and lift, while the synchronized flow and membrane measurements show how the membrane motion serves to force the flow. This passive flow control introduced by the membranes motion alters the flows development over the wing and into the wake region demonstrating how, at least for lower angles of attack, the membranes motion drives the flow as opposed to the flow driving the membrane motion.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stallings, R. L., Jr.
1984-01-01
Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a Sparrow 3 wing control missile model were measured through a range of separation distances relative to a flat plate surface that represented the parent-body configuration. Measurements were obtained with and without two dimensional circular arc protuberances attached to the flat plate surface. The tests were conducted at a Mach number of 2.86 and a Reynolds number per meter of 6.56 million. The behavior of these longitudinal characteristics with varying separation distance in the flow field created by the flat plate and protuberance was generally as would be expected on the basis of flow field boundaries determined from the second order approximation of Friedrich. In general, varying roll angle from 0 deg to 45 deg caused no significant effect on the store separation characteristics.
Aerodynamic Flow Control of a Maneuvering Airfoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brzozowski, Daniel P.; Culp, John; Glezer, Ari
2010-11-01
The unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments on a maneuvering, free-moving airfoil are varied in wind tunnel experiments by controlling vorticity generation/accumulation near the surface using hybrid synthetic jet actuators. The dynamic characteristics of the airfoil that is mounted on a 2-DOF traverse are controlled using position and attitude feedback loops that are actuated by servo motors. Bi-directional changes in the pitching moment are induced using controllable trapped vorticity concentrations on the suction and pressure surfaces near the trailing edge. The dynamic coupling between the actuation and the time-dependent flow field is characterized using simultaneous force and velocity measurements that are taken phase-locked to the commanded actuation waveform. The time scales associated with the actuation process is determined from PIV measurements of vorticity flux downstream of the trailing edge. Circulation time history shows that the entire flow over the airfoil readjusts within about 1.5 TCONV, which is about two orders of magnitude shorter than the characteristic time associated with the controlled maneuver of the wind tunnel model. This illustrates that flow-control actuation can be typically effected on time scales commensurate with the flow's convective time scale, and that the maneuver response is only limited by the inertia of the platform. Supported by AFSOR.
Aerodynamic properties of turbulent combustion fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsiao, C. C.; Oppenheim, A. K.
1985-01-01
Flow fields involving turbulent flames in premixed gases under a variety of conditions are modeled by the use of a numerical technique based on the random vortex method to solve the Navier-Stokes equations and a flame propagation algorithm to trace the motion of the front and implement the Huygens principle, both due to Chorin. A successive over-relaxation hybrid method is applied to solve the Euler equation for flows in an arbitrarily shaped domain. The method of images, conformal transformation, and the integral-equation technique are also used to treat flows in special cases, according to their particular requirements. Salient features of turbulent flame propagation in premixed gases are interpreted by relating them to the aerodynamic properties of the flow field. Included among them is the well-known cellular structure of flames stabilized by bluff bodies, as well as the formation of the characteristic tulip shape of flames propagating in ducts. In its rudimentary form, the mechanism of propagation of a turbulent flame is shown to consist of: (1) rotary motion of eddies at the flame front, (2) self-advancement of the front at an appropriate normal burning speed, and (3) dynamic effects of expansion due to exothermicity of the combustion reaction. An idealized model is used to illustrate these fundamental mechanisms and to investigate basic aerodynamic features of flames in premixed gases. The case of a confined flame stabilized behind a rearward-facing step is given particular care and attention. Solutions are shown to be in satisfactory agreement with experimental results, especially with respect to global properties such as the average velocity profiles and reattachment length.
Preliminary aerodynamic design considerations for advanced laminar flow aircraft configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Joseph L., Jr.; Yip, Long P.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.
1986-01-01
Modern composite manufacturing methods have provided the opportunity for smooth surfaces that can sustain large regions of natural laminar flow (NLF) boundary layer behavior and have stimulated interest in developing advanced NLF airfoils and improved aircraft designs. Some of the preliminary results obtained in exploratory research investigations on advanced aircraft configurations at the NASA Langley Research Center are discussed. Results of the initial studies have shown that the aerodynamic effects of configuration variables such as canard/wing arrangements, airfoils, and pusher-type and tractor-type propeller installations can be particularly significant at high angles of attack. Flow field interactions between aircraft components were shown to produce undesirable aerodynamic effects on a wing behind a heavily loaded canard, and the use of properly designed wing leading-edge modifications, such as a leading-edge droop, offset the undesirable aerodynamic effects by delaying wing stall and providing increased stall/spin resistance with minimum degradation of laminar flow behavior.
Numerical calculations of flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, D.; Vogel, J. M.
1973-01-01
Numerical calculations were made of flow fields generated by various aerodynamic configurations. Data cover flow fields generated by a finitely thick lifting three dimensional wing with subsonic tips moving at supersonic speeds, cross flow instability associated with lifting delta wing configurations such as space shuttles, and flow fields produced by a lifting elliptic cone. Finite difference techniques were used to determine elliptic cone flow.
AERODYNAMIC AND BLADING DESIGN OF MULTISTAGE AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crouse, J. E.
1994-01-01
The axial-flow compressor is used for aircraft engines because it has distinct configuration and performance advantages over other compressor types. However, good potential performance is not easily obtained. The designer must be able to model the actual flows well enough to adequately predict aerodynamic performance. This computer program has been developed for computing the aerodynamic design of a multistage axial-flow compressor and, if desired, the associated blading geometry input for internal flow analysis. The aerodynamic solution gives velocity diagrams on selected streamlines of revolution at the blade row edges. The program yields aerodynamic and blading design results that can be directly used by flow and mechanical analysis codes. Two such codes are TSONIC, a blade-to-blade channel flow analysis code (COSMIC program LEW-10977), and MERIDL, a more detailed hub-to-shroud flow analysis code (COSMIC program LEW-12966). The aerodynamic and blading design program can reduce the time and effort required to obtain acceptable multistage axial-flow compressor configurations by generating good initial solutions and by being compatible with available analysis codes. The aerodynamic solution assumes steady, axisymmetric flow so that the problem is reduced to solving the two-dimensional flow field in the meridional plane. The streamline curvature method is used for the iterative aerodynamic solution at stations outside of the blade rows. If a blade design is desired, the blade elements are defined and stacked within the aerodynamic solution iteration. The blade element inlet and outlet angles are established by empirical incidence and deviation angles to the relative flow angles of the velocity diagrams. The blade element centerline is composed of two segments tangentially joined at a transition point. The local blade angle variation of each element can be specified as a fourth-degree polynomial function of path distance. Blade element thickness can also be specified
Rarefield-Flow Shuttle Aerodynamics Flight Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blanchard, Robert C.; Larman, Kevin T.; Moats, Christina D.
1994-01-01
A model of the Shuttle Orbiter rarefied-flow aerodynamic force coefficients has been derived from the ratio of flight acceleration measurements. The in-situ, low-frequency (less than 1Hz), low-level (approximately 1 x 10(exp -6) g) acceleration measurements are made during atmospheric re-entry. The experiment equipment designed and used for this task is the High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP), one of the sensor packages in the Orbiter Experiments Program. To date, 12 HiRAP re-entry mission data sets spanning a period of about 10 years have been processed. The HiRAP-derived aerodynamics model is described in detail. The model includes normal and axial hypersonic continuum coefficient equations as function of angle of attack, body-flap deflection, and elevon deflection. Normal and axial free molecule flow coefficient equations as a function of angle of attack are also presented, along with flight-derived rarefied-flow transition bridging formulae. Comparisons are made between the aerodynamics model, data from the latest Orbiter Operational Aerodynamic Design Data Book, applicable computer simulations, and wind-tunnel data.
Aerodynamic heating in hypersonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, C. Subba
1993-01-01
Aerodynamic heating in hypersonic space vehicles is an important factor to be considered in their design. Therefore the designers of such vehicles need reliable heat transfer data in this respect for a successful design. Such data is usually produced by testing the models of hypersonic surfaces in wind tunnels. Most of the hypersonic test facilities at present are conventional blow-down tunnels whose run times are of the order of several seconds. The surface temperatures on such models are obtained using standard techniques such as thin-film resistance gages, thin-skin transient calorimeter gages and coaxial thermocouple or video acquisition systems such as phosphor thermography and infrared thermography. The data are usually reduced assuming that the model behaves like a semi-infinite solid (SIS) with constant properties and that heat transfer is by one-dimensional conduction only. This simplifying assumption may be valid in cases where models are thick, run-times short, and thermal diffusivities small. In many instances, however, when these conditions are not met, the assumption may lead to significant errors in the heat transfer results. The purpose of the present paper is to investigate this aspect. Specifically, the objectives are as follows: (1) to determine the limiting conditions under which a model can be considered a semi-infinite body; (2) to estimate the extent of errors involved in the reduction of the data if the models violate the assumption; and (3) to come up with correlation factors which when multiplied by the results obtained under the SIS assumption will provide the results under the actual conditions.
Vortex Flow Aerodynamics, volume 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, J. F. (Editor); Osborn, R. F. (Editor); Foughner, J. T., Jr. (Editor)
1986-01-01
Vortex modeling techniques and experimental studies of research configurations utilizing vortex flows are discussed. Also discussed are vortex flap investigations using generic and airplane research models and vortex flap theoretical analysis and design studies.
Transient platoon aerodynamics and bluff body flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsuei, Lun
There are two components of this experimental work: transient vehicle platoon aerodynamics and bluff-body flows. The transient aerodynamic effects in a four-vehicle platoon during passing maneuvers and in-line oscillations are investigated. A vehicle model is moved longitudinally parallel to a four-car platoon to simulate passing maneuvers. The drag and side forces experienced by each platoon member are measured using strain gauge balances. The resulting data are presented as dimensionless coefficients. It is shown that each car in the platoon experiences a repulsive side force when the passing vehicle is in the neighborhood of its rear half. The side force reverses its direction and becomes an attractive force when the passing vehicle moves to the neighborhood of its front half. The drag force experienced by each platoon member is increased when the passing vehicle is in its proximity. The effects of the lateral spacing and relative velocity between the platoon and the passing vehicle, as well as the shape of the passing vehicle, are also investigated. Similar trends are observed in simulations of both a vehicle passing a platoon and a platoon overtaking a vehicle. During the in-line oscillation experiments, one of the four platoon members is forced to undergo longitudinal periodic motions. The drag force experienced by each platoon member is determined simultaneously during the oscillations. The effects of the location of the oscillating vehicle, the shape of the vehicles and the displacement and velocity amplitudes of the oscillation are examined. The results from the transient conditions are compared to those from the steady tests in the same setup. In the case of a four-car platoon, the drag variations experienced by the vehicles adjacent to the oscillating vehicle are discussed using a cavity model. It is found that when the oscillating car moves forward and approaches its upstream neighbor, itself and its downstream neighbor experiences an increased drag
Influence of Flow Rotation Within a Cooling Tower on the Aerodynamic Interaction with Crosswind Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kashani, M. M. Hemmasian; Dobrego, K. V.
2014-03-01
Environmental crosswind changes the aerodynamic pattern inside a cooling tower, destroys uniform and axisymmetric distribution of flow at its inlet and outlet, and may degrade fill zone performance. In this paper, the effect of flow rotation in the over-shower zone of a natural draft cooling tower (NDCT) on the aerodynamic interaction with crosswind is studied numerically. The 3D geometry of an actual NDCT and three models of induced rotation velocity fields are utilized for simulation. It is demonstrated that flow rotation results in homogenization of the aerodynamic field in the over-shower zone. The inhomogeneity of the velocity field in the outlet cross section decreases linearly with rotation intensification. The effect of main stream switching under strong wind conditions is found. It is shown that even moderate flow rotation eliminates this effect.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramachandra, Sridhar M.; Bober, Lawrence J.; Khandelwal, Suresh
1987-01-01
Using the lifting surface theory and the acceleration potential method for the flow field of an axial turbocompressor stage, a recursive and a direct method are presented that make use of the eigenfunction solutions of the isolated rotor and stator to solve for the rotor-stator interaction problem. The net pressure distribution on the rotor and stator blades is represented by modified Birnbaum series, whose coefficients are determined using a matrix procedure and satisfying the boundary conditions on the surface of the blades. The relation between the matrix operators of the recursive and the direct methods is also shown. Expressions have been given for the blade circulation, the axial and tangential forces on the blade, the rotor power required, and the induced upwash velocity of the stage.
Unsteady aerodynamics of vortical flows: Early and recent developments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atassi, H. M.
1994-01-01
The development of aerodynamic theories of streaming motions around bodies with unsteady vortical and entropic disturbances is reviewed. The basic concepts associated with such motions, their interaction with solid boundaries and their noise generating mechanisms are described. The theory was first developed in the approximation wherein the unsteady flow is linearized about a uniform mean lfow. This approach has been extensively developed and used in aeroelastic and aeroacoustic calculations. The theory was recently extended to account for the effect of distortion of the incident disturbances by the nonuniform mean flow around the body. This effect is found to have a significant influence on the unsteady aerodynamic force along the body surface and the sound radiated in the far field. Finally, the nonlinear characteristics of unsteady transonic flows are reviewed and recent results of linear and nonlinear computations are presented.
Unsteady aerodynamics and flow control for flapping wing flyers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ho, Steven; Nassef, Hany; Pornsinsirirak, Nick; Tai, Yu-Chong; Ho, Chih-Ming
2003-11-01
The creation of micro air vehicles (MAVs) of the same general sizes and weight as natural fliers has spawned renewed interest in flapping wing flight. With a wingspan of approximately 15 cm and a flight speed of a few meters per second, MAVs experience the same low Reynolds number (10 4-10 5) flight conditions as their biological counterparts. In this flow regime, rigid fixed wings drop dramatically in aerodynamic performance while flexible flapping wings gain efficacy and are the preferred propulsion method for small natural fliers. Researchers have long realized that steady-state aerodynamics does not properly capture the physical phenomena or forces present in flapping flight at this scale. Hence, unsteady flow mechanisms must dominate this regime. Furthermore, due to the low flight speeds, any disturbance such as gusts or wind will dramatically change the aerodynamic conditions around the MAV. In response, a suitable feedback control system and actuation technology must be developed so that the wing can maintain its aerodynamic efficiency in this extremely dynamic situation; one where the unsteady separated flow field and wing structure are tightly coupled and interact nonlinearly. For instance, birds and bats control their flexible wings with muscle tissue to successfully deal with rapid changes in the flow environment. Drawing from their example, perhaps MAVs can use lightweight actuators in conjunction with adaptive feedback control to shape the wing and achieve active flow control. This article first reviews the scaling laws and unsteady flow regime constraining both biological and man-made fliers. Then a summary of vortex dominated unsteady aerodynamics follows. Next, aeroelastic coupling and its effect on lift and thrust are discussed. Afterwards, flow control strategies found in nature and devised by man to deal with separated flows are examined. Recent work is also presented in using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) actuators and angular speed
Aerodynamics of advanced axial-flow turbomachinery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Serovy, G. K.; Kavanagh, P.; Kiishi, T. H.
1980-01-01
A multi-task research program on aerodynamic problems in advanced axial-flow turbomachine configurations was carried out at Iowa State University. The elements of this program were intended to contribute directly to the improvement of compressor, fan, and turbine design methods. Experimental efforts in intra-passage flow pattern measurements, unsteady blade row interaction, and control of secondary flow are included, along with computational work on inviscid-viscous interaction blade passage flow techniques. This final report summarizes the results of this program and indicates directions which might be taken in following up these results in future work. In a separate task a study was made of existing turbomachinery research programs and facilities in universities located in the United States. Some potentially significant research topics are discussed which might be successfully attacked in the university atmosphere.
A collection of flow visualization techniques used in the Aerodynamic Research Branch
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1984-01-01
Theoretical and experimental research on unsteady aerodynamic flows is discussed. Complex flow fields that involve separations, vortex interactions, and transonic flow effects were investigated. Flow visualization techniques are used to obtain a global picture of the flow phenomena before detailed quantitative studies are undertaken. A wide variety of methods are used to visualize fluid flow and a sampling of these methods is presented. It is emphasized that the visualization technique is a thorough quantitative analysis and subsequent physical understanding of these flow fields.
Air flow testing on aerodynamic truck
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1981-01-01
This photograph illustrates a standard passenger van modified at the Dryden Flight Research Center to investigate the aerodynamics of trucks. The resulting vehicle--re-fashioned with sheet metal--resembled a motor home, with rounded vertical corners on the vehicle's front and rear sections. For subsequent tests, researchers installed a 'boat tail' structure, shown in the photograph. During a decade spanning the 1970s and 1980s, Dryden researchers conducted tests to determine the extent to which adjustments in the shape of trucks reduced aerodynamic drag and improved efficiency. During the tests, the vehicle's sides were fitted with tufts, or strings, that showed air flow. The investigators concluded that rounding the vertical corners front and rear reduced drag by 40 percent, yet decreased the vehicle's internal volume by only 1.3 percent. Rounding both the vertical and horizontal corners cut drag by 54 percent, resulting in a three percent loss of internal volume. A second group of tests added a faired underbody and a boat tail, the latter feature resulting in drag reduction of about 15 percent.
Computers vs. wind tunnels for aerodynamic flow simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chapman, D. R.; Mark, H.; Pirtle, M. W.
1975-01-01
It is pointed out that in other fields of computational physics, such as ballistics, celestial mechanics, and neutronics, computations have already displaced experiments as the principal means of obtaining dynamic simulations. In the case of aerodynamic investigations, the complexity of the computational work involved in solving the Navier-Stokes equations is the reason that such investigations rely currently mainly on wind-tunnel testing. However, because of inherent limitations of the wind-tunnel approach and economic considerations, it appears that at some time in the future aerodynamic studies will chiefly rely on computational flow data provided by the computer. Taking into account projected development trends, it is estimated that computers with the required capabilities for a solution of the complete viscous, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations will be available in the mid-1980s.
Closed-Loop Aerodynamic Flow Control of a Maneuvering Airfoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brzozowski, Daniel P.; Culp, John R.; Glezer, Ari
2011-11-01
The unsteady interaction between trailing edge aerodynamic flow control and airfoil motion in pitch and plunge is investigated in wind tunnel experiments using a 2-DOF traverse which enables application of time-dependent external torque and forces by servo motors. The global aerodynamic forces and moments are regulated by controlling vorticity generation and accumulation near the surface using hybrid synthetic jet actuators. The dynamic coupling between the actuation and the time-dependent flow field is characterized using simultaneous force and velocity measurements that are taken phase-locked to the commanded actuation waveform. The effect of the unsteady motion on the model-embedded flow control is assessed in unsteady several maneuvers. Circulation time history that is estimated from a PIV wake survey shows that the entire flow over the airfoil readjusts within about 1.5 TCONV, which is about two orders of magnitude shorter than the characteristic time associated with the controlled maneuver of the wind tunnel model. This illustrates that flow-control actuation can be typically effected on time scales that are commensurate with the flow's convective time scale, and that the maneuver response is primarily limited by the inertia of the platform.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daileda, J. J.; Marroquin, J.
1974-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted to obtain detailed effects on supersonic vehicle hypersonic aerodynamic and stability and control characteristics of reaction control system jet flow field interactions with the local vehicle flow field. A 0.010-scale model was used. Six-component force data and wing, elevon, and body flap surface pressure data were obtained through an angle-of-attack range of -10 to +35 degrees with 0 deg angle of sideslip. The test was conducted with yaw, pitch and roll jet simulation at a free-stream Mach number of 10.3 and reaction control system plume simulation of flight dynamic pressures of 5, 10 and 20 PSF.
Aerodynamic Analysis of Multistage Turbomachinery Flows in Support of Aerodynamic Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adamczyk, John J.
1999-01-01
This paper summarizes the state of 3D CFD based models of the time average flow field within axial flow multistage turbomachines. Emphasis is placed on models which are compatible with the industrial design environment and those models which offer the potential of providing credible results at both design and off-design operating conditions. The need to develop models which are free of aerodynamic input from semi-empirical design systems is stressed. The accuracy of such models is shown to be dependent upon their ability to account for the unsteady flow environment in multistage turbomachinery. The relevant flow physics associated with some of the unsteady flow processes present in axial flow multistage machinery are presented along with procedures which can be used to account for them in 3D CFD simulations. Sample results are presented for both axial flow compressors and axial flow turbines which help to illustrate the enhanced predictive capabilities afforded by including these procedures in 3D CFD simulations. Finally, suggestions are given for future work on the development of time average flow models.
A flight experiment to measure rarefied-flow aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blanchard, Robert C.
1990-01-01
A flight experiment to measure rarefied-flow aerodynamics of a blunt lifting body is being developed by NASA. This experiment, called the Rarefied-Flow Aerodynamic Measurement Experiment (RAME), is part of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) mission, which is a Pathfinder design tool for aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles. The RAME will use flight measurements from accelerometers, rate gyros, and pressure transducers, combined with knowledge of AFE in-flight mass properties and trajectory, to infer aerodynamic forces and moments in the rarefied-flow environment, including transition into the hypersonic continuum regime. Preflight estimates of the aerodynamic measurements are based upon environment models, existing computer simulations, and ground test results. Planned maneuvers at several altitudes will provide a first-time opportunity to examine gas-surface accommondation effects on aerodynamic coefficients in an environment of changing atmospheric composition. A description is given of the RAME equipment design.
Control of flow separation and mixing by aerodynamic excitation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rice, Edward J.; Abbott, John M.
1990-01-01
The recent research in the control of shear flows using unsteady aerodynamic excitation conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center is reviewed. The program is of a fundamental nature, concentrating on the physics of the unsteady aerodynamic processes. This field of research is a fairly new development with great promise in the areas of enhanced mixing and flow separation control. Enhanced mixing research includes influence of core turbulence, forced pairing of coherent structures, and saturation of mixing enhancement. Separation flow control studies included are for a two-dimensional diffuser, conical diffusers, and single airfoils. Ultimate applications include aircraft engine inlet flow control at high angle of attack, wide angle diffusers, highly loaded airfoils as in turbomachinery, and ejector/suppressor nozzles for the supersonic transport. An argument involving the Coanda Effect is made that all of the above mentioned application areas really only involve forms of shear layer mixing enhancement. The program also includes the development of practical excitation devices which might be used in aircraft applications.
Control of flow separation and mixing by aerodynamic excitation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rice, Edward J.; Abbott, John M.
1990-01-01
The recent research progress in the control of shear flows using unsteady aerodynamic excitation conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center is reviewed. The program is of fundamental nature concentrating on the physics of the unsteady aerodynamic processes. This field of research is a fairly new development with great promise in the areas of enhanced mixing and flow separation control. Enhanced mixing research reported in this paper include influence of core turbulence, forced pairing of coherent structures, and saturation of mixing enhancement. Separation flow control studies included are for a two-dimensional diffuser, conical diffusers, and single airfoils. Ultimate applications of this research include aircraft engine inlet flow control at high angle of attack, wide angle diffusers, highly loaded airfoils as in turbomachinery, and ejector/suppressor nozzles for the supersonic transport. An argument involving the Coanda Effect is made here that all of the above mentioned application areas really only involve forms of shear layer mixing enhancement. The program also includes the development of practical excitation devices which might be used in aircraft applications.
Air flow testing on aerodynamic truck
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1975-01-01
After leasing a cab-over tractor-trailer from a Southern California firm, Dryden researchers added sheet metal modifications like those shown here. They rounded the front corners and edges, and placed a smooth fairing on the cab's roofs and sides extending back to the trailer. During the investigation of truck aerodynamics, the techniques honed in flight research proved highly applicable. By closing the gap between the cab and the trailer, for example, researchers discovered a significant reduction in aerodynamic drag, one resulting in 20 to 25 percent less fuel consumption than the standard design. Many truck manufacturers subsequently incorporated similar modifications on their products.
The Effects of Surfaces on the Aerodynamics and Acoustics of Jet Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Matthew J.; Miller, Steven A. E.
2013-01-01
Aircraft noise mitigation is an ongoing challenge for the aeronautics research community. In response to this challenge, low-noise aircraft concepts have been developed that exhibit situations where the jet exhaust interacts with an airframe surface. Jet flows interacting with nearby surfaces manifest a complex behavior in which acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics are altered. In this paper, the variation of the aerodynamics, acoustic source, and far-field acoustic intensity are examined as a large at plate is positioned relative to the nozzle exit. Steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solutions are examined to study the aerodynamic changes in the field-variables and turbulence statistics. The mixing noise model of Tam and Auriault is used to predict the noise produced by the jet. To validate both the aerodynamic and the noise prediction models, results are compared with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and free-field acoustic data respectively. The variation of the aerodynamic quantities and noise source are examined by comparing predictions from various jet and at plate configurations with an isolated jet. To quantify the propulsion airframe aeroacoustic installation effects on the aerodynamic noise source, a non-dimensional number is formed that contains the flow-conditions and airframe installation parameters.
Cross Flow Parameter Calculation for Aerodynamic Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norman, David, Jr. (Inventor)
2014-01-01
A system and method for determining a cross flow angle for a feature on a structure. A processor unit receives location information identifying a location of the feature on the structure, determines an angle of the feature, identifies flow information for the location, determines a flow angle using the flow information, and determines the cross flow angle for the feature using the flow angle and the angle of the feature. The flow information describes a flow of fluid across the structure. The flow angle comprises an angle of the flow of fluid across the structure for the location of the feature.
An experimental study of plasma aerodynamic actuation on a round jet in cross flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Sheng-ji; Xiao, Yang; He, Li-ming; Jin, Tao; Zhang, Qian; Hou, Peng-hui; Zhao, Zi-chen
2015-03-01
The present paper is performed on the effect of plasma aerodynamic actuation on a round jet in cross flow field with a low Reynolds number by using smoke visualization. The actuator is constituted by an electrode pair separated by a dielectric Al2O3 sheet. Several AC supply conditions are utilized. The experimental result shows a closing-in tendency of the jet flow toward the wall after being induced by plasma aerodynamic actuation, and such tendency is increasingly intensified as the actuation voltage increases. Numerical simulation is also performed. The simulation results show that an induced vortex pair is generated by plasma aerodynamic actuation near the wall flow field. The rotation direction of the induced vortex pair reverses against the counter-rotating vortex pair generated by a round jet in a cross flow without plasma aerodynamic actuation. Then the strength and structural size of the counter-rotating vortex pair are significantly reduced, resulting in the intensified near-wall effect of the jet flow. Three electrode-typed actuators (straight, 150°-elliptic arc and 180°-elliptic arc with the same streamwise extent) are placed at the exit of round jet to research the influence of electrode structure on jet in cross flow. The result shows that the longer the arc electrode surrounding the hole, the stronger the induced jet that flow near the wall is.
Development of an aerodynamic measurement system for hypersonic rarefied flows.
Ozawa, T; Fujita, K; Suzuki, T
2015-01-01
A hypersonic rarefied wind tunnel (HRWT) has lately been developed at Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency in order to improve the prediction of rarefied aerodynamics. Flow characteristics of hypersonic rarefied flows have been investigated experimentally and numerically. By conducting dynamic pressure measurements with pendulous models and pitot pressure measurements, we have probed flow characteristics in the test section. We have also improved understandings of hypersonic rarefied flows by integrating a numerical approach with the HRWT measurement. The development of the integration scheme between HRWT and numerical approach enables us to estimate the hypersonic rarefied flow characteristics as well as the direct measurement of rarefied aerodynamics. Consequently, this wind tunnel is capable of generating 25 mm-core flows with the free stream Mach number greater than 10 and Knudsen number greater than 0.1.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Monta, W. J.; Rausch, J. R.
1973-01-01
The effects of the reaction control system (RCS) jet-flow field interactions on the space shuttle orbiter system during entry are discussed. The primary objective of the test program was to obtain data for the shuttle orbiter configuration to determine control amplification factors resulting from jet interaction between the RCS plumes and the external flow over the vehicle. A secondary objective was to provide data for comparison and improvement of analytic jet interaction prediction techniques. The test program was divided into two phases; (1) force and moment measurements were made with and without RCS blowing, investigating environment parameters (R sub e, Alpha, Beta), RCS plume parameters (Jet pressure ratio, momentum ratio and thrust level), and geometry parameters (RCS pod locations) on the orbiter model, (2) oil flow visualization tests were conducted on a dummy balance at the end of the test.
Dynamic control of aerodynamic forces on a moving platform using active flow control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brzozowski, Daniel P.
The unsteady interaction between trailing edge aerodynamic flow control and airfoil motion in pitch and plunge is investigated in wind tunnel experiments using a two degree-of-freedom traverse which enables application of time-dependent external torque and forces by servo motors. The global aerodynamic forces and moments are regulated by controlling vorticity generation and accumulation near the trailing edge of the airfoil using hybrid synthetic jet actuators. The dynamic coupling between the actuation and the time-dependent flow field is characterized using simultaneous force and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements that are taken phase-locked to the commanded actuation waveform. The effect of the unsteady motion on the model-embedded flow control is assessed in both trajectory tracking and disturbance rejection maneuvers. The time-varying aerodynamic lift and pitching moment are estimated from a PIV wake survey using a reduced order model based on classical unsteady aerodynamic theory. These measurements suggest that the entire flow over the airfoil readjusts within 2--3 convective time scales, which is about two orders of magnitude shorter than the characteristic time associated with the controlled maneuver of the wind tunnel model. This illustrates that flow-control actuation can be typically effected on time scales that are commensurate with the flow's convective time scale, and that the maneuver response is primarily limited by the inertia of the platform.
Use of advanced computers for aerodynamic flow simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bailey, F. R.; Ballhaus, W. F.
1980-01-01
The current and projected use of advanced computers for large-scale aerodynamic flow simulation applied to engineering design and research is discussed. The design use of mature codes run on conventional, serial computers is compared with the fluid research use of new codes run on parallel and vector computers. The role of flow simulations in design is illustrated by the application of a three dimensional, inviscid, transonic code to the Sabreliner 60 wing redesign. Research computations that include a more complete description of the fluid physics by use of Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes and large-eddy simulation formulations are also presented. Results of studies for a numerical aerodynamic simulation facility are used to project the feasibility of design applications employing these more advanced three dimensional viscous flow simulations.
Multi-colored layers for visualizing aerodynamic flow effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jensen, Ronald N. (Inventor)
1991-01-01
A method is provided for visualizing aerodynamic flow effects on a test surface. First, discrete quantities of a sublimating chemical such as naphthalene are distinctively colored via appropriate dyes or paints. Next, a uniform layer of the sublimating chemical having a particular color is applied to the test surface. This layer is covered with a second uniform layer of a different colored sublimating chemical, and so on until a composite of multi-colored layers is formed having a discrete thickness. Friction caused by an airflow results in the distinctly colored layers being removed in proportion to such aerodynamic flow characteristics as velocity and temperature, resulting in a multi-colored portrait which approximates the air flow on the underlying test surface.
Unsteady Aerodynamic Flow Control of a Suspended Axisymmetric Moving Platform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lambert, Thomas; Vukasinovic, Bojan; Glezer, Ari
2011-11-01
The aerodynamic forces on an axisymmetric wind tunnel model are altered by fluidic interaction of an azimuthal array of integrated synthetic jet actuators with the cross flow. Four-quadrant actuators are integrated into a Coanda surface on the aft section of the body, and the jets emanate from narrow, azimuthally segmented slots equally distributed around the model's perimeter. The model is suspended in the tunnel using eight wires each comprising miniature in-line force sensors and shape-memory-alloy (SMA) strands that are used to control the instantaneous forces and moments on the model and its orientation. The interaction of the actuation jets with the flow over the moving model is investigated using PIV and time-resolved force measurements to assess the transitory aerodynamic loading effected by coupling between the induced motion of the aerodynamic surface and the fluid dynamics that is driven by the actuation. It is shown that these interactions can lead to effective control of the aerodynamic forces and moments, and thereby of the model's motion. Supported by ARO.
Effects of Leading Edge Defect on the Aerodynamic and Flow Characteristics of an S809 Airfoil
Wang, Yan; Zheng, Xiaojing; Hu, Ruifeng; Wang, Ping
2016-01-01
Background Unexpected performance degradation occurs in wind turbine blades due to leading edge defect when suffering from continuous impacts with rain drops, hails, insects, or solid particles during its operation life. To assess this issue, this paper numerically investigates the steady and dynamic stall characteristics of an S809 airfoil with various leading edge defects. More leading edge defect sizes and much closer to practical parameters are investigated in the paper. Methodology Numerical computation is conducted using the SST k-ω turbulence model, and the method has been validated by comparison with existed published data. In order to ensure the calculation convergence, the residuals for the continuity equation are set to be less than 10−7 and 10−6 in steady state and dynamic stall cases. The simulations are conducted with the software ANSYS Fluent 13.0. Results It is found that the characteristics of aerodynamic coefficients and flow fields are sensitive to leading edge defect both in steady and dynamic conditions. For airfoils with the defect thickness of 6%tc, leading edge defect has a relative small influence on the aerodynamics of S809 airfoil. For other investigated defect thicknesses, leading edge defect has much greater influence on the flow field structures, pressure coefficients and aerodynamic characteristics of airfoil at relative small defect lengths. For example, the lift coefficients decrease and drag coefficients increase sharply after the appearance of leading edge defect. However, the aerodynamic characteristics could reach a constant value when the defect length is large enough. The flow field, pressure coefficient distribution and aerodynamic coefficients do not change a lot when the defect lengths reach to 0.5%c,1%c, 2%c and 3%c with defect thicknesses of 6%tc, 12%tc,18%tc and 25%tc, respectively. In addition, the results also show that the critical defect length/thickness ratio is 0.5, beyond which the aerodynamic characteristics
Modeling of turbulent separated flows for aerodynamic applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marvin, J. G.
1983-01-01
Steady, high speed, compressible separated flows modeled through numerical simulations resulting from solutions of the mass-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on benchmark flows that represent simplified (but realistic) aerodynamic phenomena. These include impinging shock waves, compression corners, glancing shock waves, trailing edge regions, and supersonic high angle of attack flows. A critical assessment of modeling capabilities is provided by comparing the numerical simulations with experiment. The importance of combining experiment, numerical algorithm, grid, and turbulence model to effectively develop this potentially powerful simulation technique is stressed.
Measurement and analysis of aircraft far-field aerodynamic noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Healy, G. J.
1974-01-01
A systematic investigation of aircraft far-field radiated, aerodynamically generated noise was conducted. The test phase of the original program involved the measurement of the noise produced by five gliding aircraft in an aerodynamically clean configuration during low altitude flyovers. These aircraft had gross weights that ranged from 5785 to 173 925N (1300 to 39,000 pounds), fly-by velocities from 30 to 98.5m/sec (58 to 191.5 knots or 98 to 323 ft/sec) and wing aspect ratios from 6.59 to 18.25. The results of these measurements were used to develop an equation relating aerodynamic noise to readily evaluated physical and operational parameters of the aircraft. A non-dimensional frequency spectrum, based on the mean wing thickness, was also developed.
Blunt Body Aerodynamics for Hypersonic Low Density Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moss, James N.; Glass, Christopher E.; Greene, Francis A.
2006-01-01
Numerical simulations are performed for the Apollo capsule from the hypersonic rarefied to the continuum regimes. The focus is on flow conditions similar to those experienced by the Apollo 6 Command Module during the high altitude portion of its reentry. The present focus is to highlight some of the current activities that serve as a precursor for computational tool assessments that will be used to support the development of aerodynamic data bases for future capsule flight environments, particularly those for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Results for aerodynamic forces and moments are presented that demonstrate their sensitivity to rarefaction; that is, free molecular to continuum conditions. Also, aerodynamic data are presented that shows their sensitivity to a range of reentry velocities, encompassing conditions that include reentry from low Earth orbit, lunar return, and Mars return velocities (7.7 to 15 km/s). The rarefied results obtained with direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) codes are anchored in the continuum regime with data from Navier-Stokes simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hentschel, Werner
Laser light sheet flow visualization is applied in the automobile industry with a view to the reduction of air resistance. Using high power lasers a plane is cut out of the 3-D flow field and the course of flow in the plane is analyzed. In vehicle aerodynamics the flow phenomena are mainly visualized with smoke in the tail region of automobiles and in the wake, in planes parallel as well as perpendicular to the flow direction. For the investigation of flow phenomena in the combustion chamber of Otto and Diesel engines, the laser light sheet method is used on a series motor with optical access, the so-called flow motor. Typical results and requirements for future automated evaluation methods are discussed.
Knowledge-based flow field zoning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Andrews, Alison E.
1988-01-01
Automation flow field zoning in two dimensions is an important step towards easing the three-dimensional grid generation bottleneck in computational fluid dynamics. A knowledge based approach works well, but certain aspects of flow field zoning make the use of such an approach challenging. A knowledge based flow field zoner, called EZGrid, was implemented and tested on representative two-dimensional aerodynamic configurations. Results are shown which illustrate the way in which EZGrid incorporates the effects of physics, shape description, position, and user bias in a flow field zoning.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yixiong; Yang, Ce; Yang, Dengfeng; Zhang, Rui
2016-04-01
The aerodynamic performance, detailed unsteady flow and time-based excitations acting on blade surfaces of a radial flow turbine have been investigated with pulsation flow condition. The results show that the turbine instantaneous performance under pulsation flow condition deviates from the quasi-steady value significantly and forms obvious hysteretic loops around the quasi-steady conditions. The detailed analysis of unsteady flow shows that the characteristic of pulsation flow field in radial turbine is highly influenced by the pulsation inlet condition. The blade torque, power and loading fluctuate with the inlet pulsation wave in a pulse period. For the blade excitations, the maximum and the minimum blade excitations conform to the wave crest and wave trough of the inlet pulsation, respectively, in time-based scale. And toward blade chord direction, the maximum loading distributes along the blade leading edge until 20% chord position and decreases from the leading to trailing edge.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tadakuma, Kenji; Morita, Wataru; Aso, Shigeru; Tani, Yasuhiro
An experimental study on aerodynamic effect of RLVs (Reusable Launch Vehicles) due to fuselage cross sections has been conducted in subsonic flow. Three fuselage models and two wing-body models have been considered. Fuselage models have a circular, a square and a triangular cross section. Wing-body models have a square and a triangular cross section with wings. Experiments have been conducted under test conditions of free-stream Mach number M∞=0.3 and Reynolds number Re=3.2×106. Aerodynamic forces are measured and flow fields are visualized by smoke-wire technique and oil-flow technique. Results show that fuselage cross sections have much effect on whole aerodynamic characteristics, the fuselage model with a triangular cross section has higher lift coefficient in high angle of attack region than that of the other fuselage models and the wing-body model with a triangular fuselage cross section does not stall till high angle of attack region compared with the “Square” fuselage wing-body model.
Estimating unsteady aerodynamic forces on a cascade in a three-dimensional turbulence field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norman, T.; Johnson, W.
1985-01-01
An analytical method has been developed to estimate the unsteady aerodynamic forces caused by flow field turbulence on a wind tunnel turning vane cascade system (vane set). This method approximates dynamic lift and drag by linearly perturbing the appropriate steady state force equations, assuming that the dynamic loads are due only to free stream turbulence and that this turbulence is homogeneous, isotropic, and Gaussian. Correlation and unsteady aerodynamic effects are also incorporated into the analytical model. Using these assumptions, equations relating dynamic lift and drag to flow turbulence, mean velocity, and vane set geometry are derived. From these equations, estimates for the power spectra and rms (root mean squared value, delta) loading of both lift and drag can be determined.
Estimating unsteady aerodynamic forces on a cascade in a three-dimensional turbulence field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norman, T. R.; Johnson, W.
1986-01-01
An analytical method has been developed to estimate tne unsteady aerodynamic forces caused by flow field turbulence on a wind tunnel turning vane cascade system (vane set). This method approximates dynamic lift and drag by linearly perturbing the appropriate steady state force equations, assuming that the dynamic loads are due only to free stream turbulence and that this turbulence is homogeneous, isotropic, and Gaussian. Correlation and unsteady aerodynamic effects are also incorporated into the analytical model. Using these assumptions, equations relating dynamic lift and drag to flow turbulence, mean velocity, and vane set geometry are derived. From these equations, estimates for the power spectra and rms (root mean squared value, delta) loading of both lift and drag can be determined.
Vacuum chamber with a supersonic-flow aerodynamic window
Hanson, C.L.
1980-10-14
A supersonic flow aerodynamic window is disclosed whereby a steam ejector situated in a primary chamber at vacuum exhausts superheated steam toward an orifice to a region of higher pressure, creating a barrier to the gas in the region of higher pressure which attempts to enter through the orifice. In a mixing chamber outside and in fluid communication with the primary chamber, superheated steam and gas are combined into a mixture which then enters the primary chamber through the orifice. At the point of impact of the ejector/superheated steam and the incoming gas/superheated steam mixture, a barrier is created to the gas attempting to enter the ejector chamber. This barrier, coupled with suitable vacuum pumping means and cooling means, serves to keep the steam ejector and primary chamber at a negative pressure, even though the primary chamber has an orifice to a region of higher pressure.
Vacuum chamber with a supersonic flow aerodynamic window
Hanson, Clark L.
1982-01-01
A supersonic flow aerodynamic window, whereby a steam ejector situated in a primary chamber at vacuum exhausts superheated steam toward an orifice to a region of higher pressure, creating a barrier to the gas in the region of higher pressure which attempts to enter through the orifice. In a mixing chamber outside and in fluid communication with the primary chamber, superheated steam and gas are combined into a mixture which then enters the primary chamber through the orifice. At the point of impact of the ejector/superheated steam and the incoming gas/superheated steam mixture, a barrier is created to the gas attempting to enter the ejector chamber. This barrier, coupled with suitable vacuum pumping means and cooling means, serves to keep the steam ejector and primary chamber at a negative pressure, even though the primary chamber has an orifice to a region of higher pressure.
Analysis of the Hessian for Aerodynamic Optimization: Inviscid Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arian, Eyal; Ta'asan, Shlomo
1996-01-01
In this paper we analyze inviscid aerodynamic shape optimization problems governed by the full potential and the Euler equations in two and three dimensions. The analysis indicates that minimization of pressure dependent cost functions results in Hessians whose eigenvalue distributions are identical for the full potential and the Euler equations. However the optimization problems in two and three dimensions are inherently different. While the two dimensional optimization problems are well-posed the three dimensional ones are ill-posed. Oscillations in the shape up to the smallest scale allowed by the design space can develop in the direction perpendicular to the flow, implying that a regularization is required. A natural choice of such a regularization is derived. The analysis also gives an estimate of the Hessian's condition number which implies that the problems at hand are ill-conditioned. Infinite dimensional approximations for the Hessians are constructed and preconditioners for gradient based methods are derived from these approximate Hessians.
Aerodynamic study on supersonic flows in high-velocity oxy-fuel thermal spray process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katanoda, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Kuroda, Seiji; Kawakita, Jin; Fukanuma, Hirotaka; Matsuo, Kazuyasu
2005-06-01
To clarify the characteristics of gas flow in high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray gun, aerodynamic research is performed using a special gun. The gun has rectangular cross-sectional area and sidewalls of optical glass to visualize the internal flow. The gun consists of a supersonic nozzle with the design Mach number of 2.0 followed by a straight passage called barrel. Compressed dry air up to 0.78 MPa is used as a process gas instead of combustion gas which is used in a commercial HVOF gun. The high-speed gas flows with shock waves in the gun and jets are visualized by schlieren technique. Complicated internal and external flow-fields containing various types of shock wave as well as expansion wave are visualized.
Effect of Trailing Edge Shape on the Unsteady Aerodynamics of Reverse Flow Dynamic Stall
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lind, Andrew; Jones, Anya
2015-11-01
This work considers dynamic stall in reverse flow, where flow travels over an oscillating airfoil from the geometric trailing edge towards the leading edge. An airfoil with a sharp geometric trailing edge causes early formation of a primary dynamic stall vortex since the sharp edge acts as the aerodynamic leading edge in reverse flow. The present work experimentally examines the potential merits of using an airfoil with a blunt geometric trailing edge to delay flow separation and dynamic stall vortex formation while undergoing oscillations in reverse flow. Time-resolved and phase-averaged flow fields and pressure distributions are compared for airfoils with different trailing edge shapes. Specifically, the evolution of unsteady flow features such as primary, secondary, and trailing edge vortices is examined. The influence of these flow features on the unsteady pressure distributions and integrated unsteady airloads provide insight on the torsional loading of rotor blades as they oscillate in reverse flow. The airfoil with a blunt trailing edge delays reverse flow dynamic stall, but this leads to greater downward-acting lift and pitching moment. These results are fundamental to alleviating vibrations of high-speed helicopters, where much of the rotor operates in reverse flow.
Modeling and Simulation of Radiative Compressible Flows in Aerodynamic Heating Arc-Jet Facility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bensassi, Khalil; Laguna, Alejandro A.; Lani, Andrea; Mansour, Nagi N.
2016-01-01
Numerical simulations of an arc heated flow inside NASA's 20 [MW] Aerodynamics heating facility (AHF) are performed in order to investigate the three-dimensional swirling flow and the current distribution inside the wind tunnel. The plasma is considered in Local Thermodynamics Equilibrium(LTE) and is composed of Air-Argon gas mixture. The governing equations are the Navier-Stokes equations that include source terms corresponding to Joule heating and radiative cooling. The former is obtained by solving an electric potential equation, while the latter is calculated using an innovative massively parallel ray-tracing algorithm. The fully coupled system is closed by the thermodynamics relations and transport properties which are obtained from Chapman-Enskog method. A novel strategy was developed in order to enable the flow solver and the radiation calculation to be preformed independently and simultaneously using a different number of processors. Drastic reduction in the computational cost was achieved using this strategy. Details on the numerical methods used for space discretization, time integration and ray-tracing algorithm will be presented. The effect of the radiative cooling on the dynamics of the flow will be investigated. The complete set of equations were implemented within the COOLFluiD Framework. Fig. 1 shows the geometry of the Anode and part of the constrictor of the Aerodynamics heating facility (AHF). Fig. 2 shows the velocity field distribution along (x-y) plane and the streamline in (z-y) plane.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beheshti Amiri, H.; Salmaniyeh, F.; Izadi, A.
2016-01-01
In this paper, the influence of incidence angle on the aerodynamics of the steam flow field around a rotor tip section is investigated. An Eulerian-Eulerian method, based on a non-equilibrium thermodynamics model for simulating the wet flow is employed. In this study, the effects of incidence angle on different design parameters such as: outflow Mach number, outflow gas phase mass fraction, loss coefficient and deviation angle are studied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beheshti Amiri, H.; Salmaniyeh, F.; Izadi, A.
2016-11-01
In this paper, the influence of incidence angle on the aerodynamics of the steam flow field around a rotor tip section is investigated. An Eulerian-Eulerian method, based on a non-equilibrium thermodynamics model for simulating the wet flow is employed. In this study, the effects of incidence angle on different design parameters such as: outflow Mach number, outflow gas phase mass fraction, loss coefficient and deviation angle are studied.
Time Series Vegetation Aerodynamic Roughness Fields Estimated from MODIS Observations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Borak, Jordan S.; Jasinski, Michael F.; Crago, Richard D.
2005-01-01
Most land surface models used today require estimates of aerodynamic roughness length in order to characterize momentum transfer between the surface and atmosphere. The most common method of prescribing roughness is through the use of empirical look-up tables based solely on land cover class. Theoretical approaches that employ satellite-based estimates of canopy density present an attractive alternative to current look-up table approaches based on vegetation cover type that do not account for within-class variability and are oftentimes simplistic with respect to temporal variability. The current research applies Raupach s formulation of momentum aerodynamic roughness to MODIS data on a regional scale in order to estimate seasonally variable roughness and zero-plane displacement height fields using bulk land cover parameters estimated by [Jasinski, M.F., Borak, J., Crago, R., 2005. Bulk surface momentum parameters for satellite-derived vegetation fields. Agric. For. Meteorol. 133, 55-68]. Results indicate promising advances over look-up approaches with respect to characterization of vegetation roughness variability in land surface and atmospheric circulation models.
Effect of Trailing Edge Flow Injection on Fan Noise and Aerodynamic Performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fite, E. Brian; Woodward, Richard P.; Podboy, Gary G.
2006-01-01
An experimental investigation using trailing edge blowing for reducing fan rotor/guide vane wake interaction noise was completed in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel. Data were acquired to measure noise, aerodynamic performance, and flow features for a 22" tip diameter fan representative of modern turbofan technology. The fan was designed to use trailing edge blowing to reduce the fan blade wake momentum deficit. The test objective was to quantify noise reductions, measure impacts on fan aerodynamic performance, and document the flow field using hot-film anemometry. Measurements concentrated on approach, cutback, and takeoff rotational speeds as those are the primary conditions of acoustic interest. Data are presented for a 2% (relative to overall fan flow) trailing edge injection rate and show a 2 dB reduction in Overall Sound Power Level (OAPWL) at all fan test speeds. The reduction in broadband noise is nearly constant and is approximately 1.5 dB up to 20 kHz at all fan speeds. Measurements of tone noise show significant variation, as evidenced by reductions of up to 6 dB in the 2 BPF tone at 6700 rpm.: and increases of nearly 2 dB for the 4 BPF tone at approach speed. Aerodynamic performance measurements show the fan with 2 % injection has an overall efficiency that is comparable to the baseline fan and operates, as intended, with nearly the same pressure ratio and mass flow parameters. Hot-film measurements obtained at the approach operating condition indicate that mean blade wake filling in the tip region was not as significant as expected. This suggests that additional acoustic benefits could be realized if the trailing edge blowing could be modified to provide better filling of the wake momentum deficit. Nevertheless, the hot-film measurements indicate that the trailing edge blowing provided significant reductions in blade wake turbulence. Overall, these results indicate that further work may be required to fully understand the proper
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menicovich, David
respond to fluctuating environmental conditions such as changes in wind direction or velocity over the height of building which could be of consequence if the conditions for which the building was designed for change due to, for example, changes in the built environment surrounding it. Fluidic-based Aerodynamic Modification (FAM) is a fundamentally different approach; instead of adjusting the solid material to improve the aerodynamic 'shape' of the structure, fluid-based flow control is used to manipulate the boundary layer characteristics. The local flow field is modified to 'view' the solid as a different shape, and thus, that solid will experience reduced loads.
Correlation-based Transition Modeling for External Aerodynamic Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medida, Shivaji
Conventional turbulence models calibrated for fully turbulent boundary layers often over-predict drag and heat transfer on aerodynamic surfaces with partially laminar boundary layers. A robust correlation-based model is developed for use in Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations to predict laminar-to-turbulent transition onset of boundary layers on external aerodynamic surfaces. The new model is derived from an existing transition model for the two-equation k-omega Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model, and is coupled with the one-equation Spalart-Allmaras (SA) turbulence model. The transition model solves two transport equations for intermittency and transition momentum thickness Reynolds number. Experimental correlations and local mean flow quantities are used in the model to account for effects of freestream turbulence level and pressure gradients on transition onset location. Transition onset is triggered by activating intermittency production using a vorticity Reynolds number criterion. In the new model, production and destruction terms of the intermittency equation are modified to improve consistency in the fully turbulent boundary layer post-transition onset, as well as ensure insensitivity to freestream eddy viscosity value specified in the SA model. In the original model, intermittency was used to control production and destruction of turbulent kinetic energy. Whereas, in the new model, only the production of eddy viscosity in SA model is controlled, and the destruction term is not altered. Unlike the original model, the new model does not use an additional correction to intermittency for separation-induced transition. Accuracy of drag predictions are improved significantly with the use of the transition model for several two-dimensional single- and multi-element airfoil cases over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. The new model is able to predict the formation of stable and long laminar separation bubbles on low-Reynolds number airfoils that
Analysis of Low-Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar-Flow Glove
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bui, Trong
2013-01-01
This is the presentation related to the paper of the same name describing Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of low speed stall aerodynamics of a swept wing with a laminar flow wing glove.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmidt, James F.
1995-01-01
An off-design axial-flow compressor code is presented and is available from COSMIC for predicting the aerodynamic performance maps of fans and compressors. Steady axisymmetric flow is assumed and the aerodynamic solution reduces to solving the two-dimensional flow field in the meridional plane. A streamline curvature method is used for calculating this flow-field outside the blade rows. This code allows for bleed flows and the first five stators can be reset for each rotational speed, capabilities which are necessary for large multistage compressors. The accuracy of the off-design performance predictions depend upon the validity of the flow loss and deviation correlation models. These empirical correlations for the flow loss and deviation are used to model the real flow effects and the off-design code will compute through small reverse flow regions. The input to this off-design code is fully described and a user's example case for a two-stage fan is included with complete input and output data sets. Also, a comparison of the off-design code predictions with experimental data is included which generally shows good agreement.
Real-Time Aerodynamic Parameter Estimation without Air Flow Angle Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morelli, Eugene A.
2010-01-01
A technique for estimating aerodynamic parameters in real time from flight data without air flow angle measurements is described and demonstrated. The method is applied to simulated F-16 data, and to flight data from a subscale jet transport aircraft. Modeling results obtained with the new approach using flight data without air flow angle measurements were compared to modeling results computed conventionally using flight data that included air flow angle measurements. Comparisons demonstrated that the new technique can provide accurate aerodynamic modeling results without air flow angle measurements, which are often difficult and expensive to obtain. Implications for efficient flight testing and flight safety are discussed.
Grid sensitivity for aerodynamic optimization and flow analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sadrehaghighi, I.; Tiwari, S. N.
1993-01-01
After reviewing relevant literature, it is apparent that one aspect of aerodynamic sensitivity analysis, namely grid sensitivity, has not been investigated extensively. The grid sensitivity algorithms in most of these studies are based on structural design models. Such models, although sufficient for preliminary or conceptional design, are not acceptable for detailed design analysis. Careless grid sensitivity evaluations, would introduce gradient errors within the sensitivity module, therefore, infecting the overall optimization process. Development of an efficient and reliable grid sensitivity module with special emphasis on aerodynamic applications appear essential. The organization of this study is as follows. The physical and geometric representations of a typical model are derived in chapter 2. The grid generation algorithm and boundary grid distribution are developed in chapter 3. Chapter 4 discusses the theoretical formulation and aerodynamic sensitivity equation. The method of solution is provided in chapter 5. The results are presented and discussed in chapter 6. Finally, some concluding remarks are provided in chapter 7.
Computer program for aerodynamic and blading design of multistage axial-flow compressors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crouse, J. E.; Gorrell, W. T.
1981-01-01
A code for computing the aerodynamic design of a multistage axial-flow compressor and, if desired, the associated blading geometry input for internal flow analysis codes is presented. Compressible flow, which is assumed to be steady and axisymmetric, is the basis for a two-dimensional solution in the meridional plane with viscous effects modeled by pressure loss coefficients and boundary layer blockage. The radial equation of motion and the continuity equation are solved with the streamline curvature method on calculation stations outside the blade rows. The annulus profile, mass flow, pressure ratio, and rotative speed are input. A number of other input parameters specify and control the blade row aerodynamics and geometry. In particular, blade element centerlines and thicknesses can be specified with fourth degree polynomials for two segments. The output includes a detailed aerodynamic solution and, if desired, blading coordinates that can be used for internal flow analysis codes.
[The influence of nasal flow aerodynamics on the nasal physiology].
Betlejewski, Stanisław; Betlejewski, Andrzej
2008-01-01
The ability of the human nose to warm and humidify the respiratory air is important to maintaining the internal environment of the lungs, since ambient air is conditioned to nearly alveolar conditions (body temperature and fully saturated with water vapour) upon reaching the nasopharynx. Because of very short time of the inspiratory phase duration, as well as expiratory phase, only the rich vascularization of the nasal mucosa and specific organization of the submucosal vessels are not able to assure such effective physiological activity. Therefore the type of airflow during the respiration is essential to understanding the functional possibilities of the nasal mucosa. Most studies have investigated the airflow only in steady-flow conditions, where the laminar flow was observed. Anatomically accurate physical models of real nasal cavities and particle image velocimetry allow evaluation of the entire flow field in the nasal cavity. In these investigations a partially turbulent flow was observed even at low air velocities in most part of the nasal cavity. From a physiological perspective, a turbulent flow would seem sensible, since it enhances contact between air and the mucosal layer. By doing so, the nasal physiological functions - humidification, cleaning and warming are optimized.
Near- and far-field aerodynamics in insect hovering flight: an integrated computational study.
Aono, Hikaru; Liang, Fuyou; Liu, Hao
2008-01-01
We present the first integrative computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study of near- and far-field aerodynamics in insect hovering flight using a biology-inspired, dynamic flight simulator. This simulator, which has been built to encompass multiple mechanisms and principles related to insect flight, is capable of 'flying' an insect on the basis of realistic wing-body morphologies and kinematics. Our CFD study integrates near- and far-field wake dynamics and shows the detailed three-dimensional (3D) near- and far-field vortex flows: a horseshoe-shaped vortex is generated and wraps around the wing in the early down- and upstroke; subsequently, the horseshoe-shaped vortex grows into a doughnut-shaped vortex ring, with an intense jet-stream present in its core, forming the downwash; and eventually, the doughnut-shaped vortex rings of the wing pair break up into two circular vortex rings in the wake. The computed aerodynamic forces show reasonable agreement with experimental results in terms of both the mean force (vertical, horizontal and sideslip forces) and the time course over one stroke cycle (lift and drag forces). A large amount of lift force (approximately 62% of total lift force generated over a full wingbeat cycle) is generated during the upstroke, most likely due to the presence of intensive and stable, leading-edge vortices (LEVs) and wing tip vortices (TVs); and correspondingly, a much stronger downwash is observed compared to the downstroke. We also estimated hovering energetics based on the computed aerodynamic and inertial torques, and powers. PMID:18165252
Near- and far-field aerodynamics in insect hovering flight: an integrated computational study.
Aono, Hikaru; Liang, Fuyou; Liu, Hao
2008-01-01
We present the first integrative computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study of near- and far-field aerodynamics in insect hovering flight using a biology-inspired, dynamic flight simulator. This simulator, which has been built to encompass multiple mechanisms and principles related to insect flight, is capable of 'flying' an insect on the basis of realistic wing-body morphologies and kinematics. Our CFD study integrates near- and far-field wake dynamics and shows the detailed three-dimensional (3D) near- and far-field vortex flows: a horseshoe-shaped vortex is generated and wraps around the wing in the early down- and upstroke; subsequently, the horseshoe-shaped vortex grows into a doughnut-shaped vortex ring, with an intense jet-stream present in its core, forming the downwash; and eventually, the doughnut-shaped vortex rings of the wing pair break up into two circular vortex rings in the wake. The computed aerodynamic forces show reasonable agreement with experimental results in terms of both the mean force (vertical, horizontal and sideslip forces) and the time course over one stroke cycle (lift and drag forces). A large amount of lift force (approximately 62% of total lift force generated over a full wingbeat cycle) is generated during the upstroke, most likely due to the presence of intensive and stable, leading-edge vortices (LEVs) and wing tip vortices (TVs); and correspondingly, a much stronger downwash is observed compared to the downstroke. We also estimated hovering energetics based on the computed aerodynamic and inertial torques, and powers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Caldwell, Karin D.
1988-01-01
Describes a technique for separating samples that range over 15 orders of magnitude in molecular weight. Discusses theory, apparatus, and sample preparation techniques. Lists several types of field-flow fractionation (FFF) and their uses: sedimentation FFF, thermal FFF, flow FFF, electrical FFF, and steric FFF. (ML)
Aerodynamic Design of Axial-flow Compressors. Volume III
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Irving A; Bullock, Robert O; Graham, Robert W; Costilow, Eleanor L; Huppert, Merle C; Benser, William A; Herzig, Howard Z; Hansen, Arthur G; Jackson, Robert J; Yohner, Peggy L; Dugan, Ames F , Jr
1956-01-01
Chapters XI to XIII concern the unsteady compressor operation arising when compressor blade elements stall. The fields of compressor stall and surge are reviewed in Chapters XI and XII, respectively. The part-speed operating problem in high-pressure-ratio multistage axial-flow compressors is analyzed in Chapter XIII. Chapter XIV summarizes design methods and theories that extend beyond the simplified two-dimensional approach used previously in the report. Chapter XV extends this three-dimensional treatment by summarizing the literature on secondary flows and boundary layer effects. Charts for determining the effects of errors in design parameters and experimental measurements on compressor performance are given in Chapters XVI. Chapter XVII reviews existing literature on compressor and turbine matching techniques.
Wind turbine blade aerodynamics: The analysis of field test data
Luttges, M.W.; Miller, M.S.; Robinson, M.C.; Shipley, D.E.; Young, T.S.
1994-08-01
Data obtained from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory site test of a wind turbine (The Combined Experiment) was analyzed specifically to capture information regarding the aerodynamic loading experienced by the machine rotor blades. The inflow conditions were shown to be extremely variable. These inflows yielded three different operational regimes about the blades. Each regime produced very different aerodynamic loading conditions. Two of these regimes could not have been readily predicted from wind tunnel data. These conditions are being subjected to further analyses to provide new guidelines for both designers and operators. The roles of unsteady aerodynamics effects are highlighted since periods of dynamic stall were shown to be associated with brief episodes of high aerodynamic forces.
Characteristics of aerodynamic sound sources generated by coiled wires in a uniform air-flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, H.; Nishida, K.; Saitoh, K.
2003-11-01
This study deals experimentally with aerodynamic sounds generated by coiled wires in a uniform air-flow. The coiled wire is a model of the hair dryer's heater. In the experiment, the effects of the coil diameter D, wire diameter d and coil spacing s of the coiled wire on the aerodynamic sound have been clarified. The results of frequency analyses of the aerodynamic sounds show that an Aeolian sound is generated by the coiled wire, when s/d is larger than 1. Also the peak frequencies of Aeolian sounds generated by the coiled wires are higher than the ones generated by a straight cylinder having the same diameter d. To clarify the characteristics of the aerodynamic sound sources, the directivity of the aerodynamic sound generated by the coiled wire has been examined, and the coherent function between the velocity fluctuation around the coiled wire and the aerodynamic sound has been calculated. Moreover, the band overall value of coherent output power between the sound and the velocity fluctuations has been calculated. This method has clarified the sound source region of the Aeolian sound generated by the coiled wire. These results show that the Aeolian sound is generated by the arc part of the coiled wire, which is located in the upstream side of the air-flow.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Romere, P. O.
1982-01-01
A proposed configuration for a Space Operations Center is presented in its eight stages of buildup. The on orbit aerodynamic force and moment characteristics were calculated for each stage based upon free molecular flow theory. Calculation of the aerodynamic characteristics was accomplished through the use of an orbital aerodynamic computer program, and the computation method is described with respect to the free molecular theory used. The aerodynamic characteristics are presented in tabulated form for each buildup stage at angles of attack from 0 to 360 degrees and roll angles from -60 to +60 degrees. The reference altitude is 490 kilometers, however, the data should be applicable for altitudes below 490 kilometers down to approximately 185 kilometers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Chen; Hua, Liang
2016-02-01
Plasma flow control (PFC) is a new kind of active flow control technology, which can improve the aerodynamic performances of aircrafts remarkably. The flow separation control of an unmanned air vehicle (UAV) by nanosecond discharge plasma aerodynamic actuation (NDPAA) is investigated experimentally in this paper. Experimental results show that the applied voltages for both the nanosecond discharge and the millisecond discharge are nearly the same, but the current for nanosecond discharge (30 A) is much bigger than that for millisecond discharge (0.1 A). The flow field induced by the NDPAA is similar to a shock wave upward, and has a maximal velocity of less than 0.5 m/s. Fast heating effect for nanosecond discharge induces shock waves in the quiescent air. The lasting time of the shock waves is about 80 μs and its spread velocity is nearly 380 m/s. By using the NDPAA, the flow separation on the suction side of the UAV can be totally suppressed and the critical stall angle of attack increases from 20° to 27° with a maximal lift coefficient increment of 11.24%. The flow separation can be suppressed when the discharge voltage is larger than the threshold value, and the optimum operation frequency for the NDPAA is the one which makes the Strouhal number equal one. The NDPAA is more effective than the millisecond discharge plasma aerodynamic actuation (MDPAA) in boundary layer flow control. The main mechanism for nanosecond discharge is shock effect. Shock effect is more effective in flow control than momentum effect in high speed flow control. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61503302, 51207169, and 51276197), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M562446), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2015JM1001).
Reduction of aerodynamic load fluctuation on wind turbine blades through active flow control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Velarde, John-Michael; Coleman, Thomas; Magstadt, Andrew; Aggarwal, Somil; Glauser, Mark
2015-11-01
The current set of experiments deals with implementing active flow control on a Bergey Excel 1, 1kW turbine. The previous work in our group demonstrated successfully that implementation of a simple closed-loop controller could reduce unsteady aerodynamic load fluctuation by 18% on a vertically mounted wing. Here we describe a similar flow control method adapted to work in the rotating frame of a 2.5m diameter wind turbine. Strain gages at the base of each blade measure the unsteady fluctuation in the blades and pressure taps distributed along the span of the blades feed information to the closed-loop control scheme. A realistic, unsteady flow field has been generated by placing a cylinder upstream of the turbine to induce shedding vortices at frequencies in the bandwidth of the first structural bending mode of the turbine blades. The goal of these experiments is to demonstrate closed-loop flow control as a means to reduce the unsteady fluctuation in the blades and increase the overall lifespan of the wind turbine.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McLean, Christopher Elliot
Modern gas turbine engines operate with mainstream gas temperatures exceeding 1450°C in the high-pressure turbine stage. Unlike turbine blades, rotor disks and other internal components are not designed to withstand the extreme temperatures found in mainstream flow. In modern gas turbines, cooling air is pumped into the wheelspace cavities to prevent mainstream gas ingestion and then exits through a seal between the rotor and the nozzle guide vane (NGV) thereby mixing with the mainstream flow. The primary purpose for the wheelspace cooling air is the cooling of the turbine wheelspace. However, secondary effects arise from the mixing of the spent cooling air with the mainstream flow. The exiting cooling air is mixed with the hot mainstream flow effecting the aerodynamic and performance characteristics of the turbine stage. The physics underlying this mixing process and its effects on stage performance are not yet fully understood. The relative aerodynamic and performance effects associated with rotor - NGV gap coolant injections were investigated in the Axial Flow Turbine Research Facility (AFTRF) of the Center for Gas Turbines and Power of The Pennsylvania State University. This study quantifies the secondary effects of the coolant injection on the aerodynamic and performance character of the turbines main stream flow for root injection, radial cooling, and impingement cooling. Measurement and analysis of the cooling effects were performed in both stationary and rotational frames of reference. The AFTRF is unique in its ability to perform long duration cooling measurements in the stationary and rotating frames. The effects of wheelspace coolant mixing with the mainstream flow on total-to-total efficiency, energy transport, three dimensional velocity field, and loading coefficient were investigated. Overall, it was found that a small quantity (1%) of cooling air can have significant effects on the performance character and exit conditions of the high pressure stage
Effects of Shrouded Stator Cavity Flows on Multistage Axial Compressor Aerodynamic Performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wellborn, Steven R.; Okiishi, Theodore H.
1996-01-01
Experiments were performed on a low-speed multistage axial-flow compressor to assess the effects of shrouded stator cavity flows on aerodynamic performance. Five configurations, which involved changes in seal-tooth leakage rates and/or elimination of the shrouded stator cavities, were tested. Data collected enabled differences in overall individual stage and the third stage blade element performance parameters to be compared. The results show conclusively that seal-tooth leakage ran have a large impact on compressor aerodynamic performance while the presence of the shrouded stator cavities alone seemed to have little influence. Overall performance data revealed that for every 1% increase in the seal-tooth clearance to blade-height ratio the pressure rise dropped up to 3% while efficiency was reduced by 1 to 1.5 points. These observed efficiency penalty slopes are comparable to those commonly reported for rotor and cantilevered stator tip clearance variations. Therefore, it appears that in order to correctly predict overall performance it is equally important to account for the effects of seal-tooth leakage as it is to include the influence of tip clearance flows. Third stage blade element performance data suggested that the performance degradation observed when leakage was increased was brought about in two distinct ways. First, increasing seal-tooth leakage directly spoiled the near hub performance of the stator row in which leakage occurred. Second, the altered stator exit now conditions caused by increased leakage impaired the performance of the next downstream stage by decreasing the work input of the downstream rotor and increasing total pressure loss of the downstream stator. These trends caused downstream stages to progressively perform worse. Other measurements were acquired to determine spatial and temporal flow field variations within the up-and-downstream shrouded stator cavities. Flow within the cavities involved low momentum fluid traveling primarily
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rizk, Magdi H.
1988-01-01
This user's manual is presented for an aerodynamic optimization program that updates flow variables and design parameters simultaneously. The program was developed for solving constrained optimization problems in which the objective function and the constraint function are dependent on the solution of the nonlinear flow equations. The program was tested by applying it to the problem of optimizing propeller designs. Some reference to this particular application is therefore made in the manual. However, the optimization scheme is suitable for application to general aerodynamic design problems. A description of the approach used in the optimization scheme is first presented, followed by a description of the use of the program.
Simulation of vortex-dominated aerodynamic flows by a point-vortex method
Jia, Z.
1988-01-01
A numerical study was made to simulate vortex-dominated aerodynamic flows by the point-vortex method. Attention was divided into three different aspects: a nascent vortex-shedding algorithm, numerical demonstration of the point-vortex method, and the calculation of some example of aerodynamic interesting flows, which include two major categories: unsteady flow about a flat plate at a fixed angle of attack with and without a leading edge flap, and the transient, vortical cross flow produced by a slender delta wing. Evolution of the vortex traces, streamlines, surface pressure, and forces are studied. Flow features based on data obtained by different point-vortex shedding rates and different integration time steps and schemes are found to be consistent with each other on length and time scales comparable to as well as considerably smaller than those of the global flow.
Aerodynamic forces induced by controlled transitory flow on a body of revolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rinehart, Christopher S.
The aerodynamic forces and moments on an axisymmetric body of revolution are controlled in a low-speed wind tunnel by induced local flow attachment. Control is effected by an array of aft-facing synthetic jets emanating from narrow, azimuthally segmented slots embedded within an axisymmetric backward facing step. The actuation results in a localized, segmented vectoring of the separated base flow along a rear Coanda surface and induced asymmetric aerodynamic forces and moments. The observed effects are investigated in both quasi-steady and transient states, with emphasis on parametric dependence. It is shown that the magnitude of the effected forces can be substantially increased by slight variations of the Coanda surface geometry. Force and velocity measurements are used to elucidate the mechanisms by which the synthetic jets produce asymmetric aerodynamic forces and moments, demonstrating a novel method to steer axisymmetric bodies during flight.
Unsteady aerodynamics of reverse flow dynamic stall on an oscillating blade section
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lind, Andrew H.; Jones, Anya R.
2016-07-01
Wind tunnel experiments were performed on a sinusoidally oscillating NACA 0012 blade section in reverse flow. Time-resolved particle image velocimetry and unsteady surface pressure measurements were used to characterize the evolution of reverse flow dynamic stall and its sensitivity to pitch and flow parameters. The effects of a sharp aerodynamic leading edge on the fundamental flow physics of reverse flow dynamic stall are explored in depth. Reynolds number was varied up to Re = 5 × 105, reduced frequency was varied up to k = 0.511, mean pitch angle was varied up to 15∘, and two pitch amplitudes of 5∘ and 10∘ were studied. It was found that reverse flow dynamic stall of the NACA 0012 airfoil is weakly sensitive to the Reynolds numbers tested due to flow separation at the sharp aerodynamic leading edge. Reduced frequency strongly affects the onset and persistence of dynamic stall vortices. The type of dynamic stall observed (i.e., number of vortex structures) increases with a decrease in reduced frequency and increase in maximum pitch angle. The characterization and parameter sensitivity of reverse flow dynamic stall given in the present work will enable the development of a physics-based analytical model of this unsteady aerodynamic phenomenon.
Flow-Visualization Techniques Used at High Speed by Configuration Aerodynamics Wind-Tunnel-Test Team
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lamar, John E. (Editor)
2001-01-01
This paper summarizes a variety of optically based flow-visualization techniques used for high-speed research by the Configuration Aerodynamics Wind-Tunnel Test Team of the High-Speed Research Program during its tenure. The work of other national experts is included for completeness. Details of each technique with applications and status in various national wind tunnels are given.
Vortical flow management for improved configuration aerodynamics: Recent experiences
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rao, D. M.
1983-01-01
Recent progress in vortex-control applications for alleviating the adverse consequences of three dimensional separation and vortical interactions on slender body/swept wing configurations is reported. Examples include helical separation trip to alleviate the side force due to forebody vortex asymmetry; hinged strakes to avoid vortex breakdown effects; compartmentation of swept leading edge separation to delay the pitch-up instability; under wing vortex trip and vortex trip and vortex flaps for drag reduction at high lift; and an apex-flap trimmer to fully utilize the lift capability of trailing-edge flaps for take off and landing of delta wings. Experimental results on generic wind-tunnel models are presented to illustrate the vortex-management concepts involved and to indicate their potential for enhancing the subsonic aerodynamics of supersonic-cruise type vehicles.
Encyclopedia of fluid mechanics. Volume 8 - Aerodynamics and compressible flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheremisinoff, Nicholas P.
Advanced analytical methods for compressible flows and their application to specific engineering problems are discussed in chapters by leading experts. Topics addressed include fluid viscosity, laminar flow past semiinfinite bodies, the structure of turbulent boundary layers, homogeneous turbulence, turbulent shear flows and jets, vortex patterns on slender bodies, wake interference and vortex shedding, turbulent rough-wall skin friction and heat transfer, FEM iterative solutions of compressible flows, transient natural-convection flows, and direct-contact transfer processes with moving liquid droplets. Consideration is given to artificially thickening turbulent boundary layers, subsonic transitory stalled flows in diffusers, impeller-blade design for centrifugal and axial blowers, transonic cascade flows, high-speed turboprop noise, turbine-blade vibrations, compressible flow in valves, the performance of cryogenic pumps, the structure of turbulent dense-spray jets, and the dynamics of wind machines.
Experimental static aerodynamics of a regular hexagonal prism in a low density hypervelocity flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guy, R. W.; Mueller, J. N.; Lee, L. P.
1972-01-01
A regular hexagonal prism, having a fineness ratio of 1.67, has been tested in a wind tunnel to determine its static aerodynamic characteristics in a low-density hypervelocity flow. The prism tested was a 1/4-scale model of the graphite heat shield which houses the radioactive fuel for the Viking spacecraft auxiliary power supply. The basic hexagonal prism was also modified to simulate a prism on which ablation of one of the six side flats had occurred. This modified hexagonal prism was tested to determine the effects on the aerodynamic characteristics of a shape change caused by ablation during a possible side-on stable reentry.
Aerodynamic Modeling of Oscillating Wing in Hypersonic Flow: a Numerical Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Jian; Hou, Ying-Yu; Ji, Chen; Liu, Zi-Qiang
2016-06-01
Various approximations to unsteady aerodynamics are examined for the unsteady aerodynamic force of a pitching thin double wedge airfoil in hypersonic flow. Results of piston theory, Van Dyke’s second-order theory, Newtonian impact theory, and CFD method are compared in the same motion and Mach number effects. The results indicate that, for this thin double wedge airfoil, Newtonian impact theory is not suitable for these Mach number, while piston theory and Van Dyke’s second-order theory are in good agreement with CFD method for Ma<7.
Current Trends in Modeling Research for Turbulent Aerodynamic Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gatski, Thomas B.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Manceau, Remi
2007-01-01
The engineering tools of choice for the computation of practical engineering flows have begun to migrate from those based on the traditional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach to methodologies capable, in theory if not in practice, of accurately predicting some instantaneous scales of motion in the flow. The migration has largely been driven by both the success of Reynolds-averaged methods over a wide variety of flows as well as the inherent limitations of the method itself. Practitioners, emboldened by their ability to predict a wide-variety of statistically steady, equilibrium turbulent flows, have now turned their attention to flow control and non-equilibrium flows, that is, separation control. This review gives some current priorities in traditional Reynolds-averaged modeling research as well as some methodologies being applied to a new class of turbulent flow control problems.
Effects of flow curvature on the aerodynamics of Darrieus wind turbines
Migliore, P. G.; Wolfe, W. P.
1980-07-01
A theoretical and experimental investigation was conducted which clearly showed the effects of flow curvature to be significant determinants of Darrieus turbine blade aerodynamics; qualitatively, these results apply equally to straight or curved bladed machines. Unusually large boundary layer radial pressure gradients and virtually altered camber and incidence are the phenomena of primary importance. Conformal mapping techniques were developed which transform the geometric turbine airfoils in curved flow to their virtual equivalents in rectilinear flow, thereby permitting the more accurate selection of airfoil aerodynamic coefficients from published sectional data. It is demonstrated that once the flow idiosyncracies are fully understood, they may be used to advantage to improve the wind energy extraction efficiency of these machines.
Measurement of Unsteady Aerodynamics Load on the Blade of Field Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamada, Yasunari; Maeda, Takao; Naito, Keita; Ouchi, Yuu; Kozawa, Masayoshi
This paper describes an experimental field study of the rotor aerodynamics of wind turbines. The test wind turbine is a horizontal axis wind turbine, or: HAWT with a diameter of 10m. The pressure distributions on the rotating blade are measured with multi point pressure transducers. Sectional aerodynamic forces are analyzed from pressure distribution. Blade root moments are measured simultaneously by a pair of strain gauges. The inflow wind is measured by a three component sonic anemometer, the local inflow of the blade section are measured by a pair of 7 hole Pitot tubes. The relation between the aerodynamic moments on the blade root from pressure distribution and the mechanical moment from strain gauges is discussed. The aerodynamic moments are estimated from the sectional aerodynamic forces and show oscillation caused by local wind speed and direction change. The mechanical moment shows similar oscillation to the aerodynamic excepting the short period oscillation of the blade first mode frequency. The fluctuation of the sectional aerodynamic force triggers resonant blade oscillations. Where stall is present along the blade section, the blade's first mode frequency is dominant. Without stall, the rotating frequency is dominant in the blade root moment.
The Fifth Symposium on Numerical and Physical Aspects of Aerodynamic Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1992-01-01
This volume contains the papers presented at the Fifth Symposium on Numerical and Physical Aspects of Aerodynamic Flows, held at the California State University, Long Beach, from 13 to 15 January 1992. The symposium, like its immediate predecessors, considers the calculation of flows of relevance to aircraft, ships, and missiles with emphasis on the solution of two-dimensional unsteady and three-dimensional equations.
Aircraft aerodynamic prediction method for V/STOL transition including flow separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gilmer, B. R.; Miner, G. A.; Bristow, D. R.
1983-01-01
A numerical procedure was developed for the aerodynamic force and moment analysis of V/STOL aircraft operating in the transition regime between hover and conventional forward flight. The trajectories, cross sectional area variations, and mass entrainment rates of the jets are calculated by the Adler-Baron Jet-in-Crossflow Program. The inviscid effects of the interaction between the jets and airframe on the aerodynamic properties are determined by use of the MCAIR 3-D Subsonic properties are determined by use of the MCAIR 3-D Subsonic Potential Flow Program, a surface panel method. In addition, the MCAIR 3-D Geometry influence Coefficient Program is used to calculate a matrix of partial derivatives that represent the rate of change of the inviscid aerodynamic properties with respect to arbitrary changes in the effective wing shape.
Aerodynamic analysis of the aerospaceplane HyPlane in supersonic rarefied flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zuppardi, Gennaro; Savino, Raffaele; Russo, Gennaro; Spano'Cuomo, Luca; Petrosino, Eliano
2016-06-01
HyPlane is the Italian aerospaceplane proposal targeting, at the same time, both the space tourism and point-to-point intercontinental hypersonic flights. Unlike other aerospaceplane projects, relying on boosters or mother airplanes that bring the vehicle to high altitude, HyPlane will take off and land horizontally from common runways. According to the current project, HyPlane will fly sub-orbital trajectories under high-supersonic/low-hypersonic continuum flow regimes. It can go beyond the von Karman line at 100 km altitude for a short time, then starting the descending leg of the trajectory. Its aerodynamic behavior up to 70 km have already been studied and the results published in previous works. In the present paper some aspects of the aerodynamic behavior of HyPlane have been analyzed at 80, 90 and 100 km. Computer tests, calculating the aerodynamic parameters, have been carried out by a Direct Simulation Monte Carlo code. The effects of the Knudsen, Mach and Reynolds numbers have been evaluated in clean configuration. The effects of the aerodynamic surfaces on the rolling, pitching and yawing moments, and therefore on the capability to control attitude, have been analyzed at 100 km altitude. The aerodynamic behavior has been compared also with that of another aerospaceplane at 100 km both in clean and flapped configuration.
Flow Physics and Control for Internal and External Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wygnanski, I.
2010-01-01
Exploiting instabilities rather than forcing the flow is advantageous. Simple 2D concepts may not always work. Nonlinear effects may result in first order effect. Interaction between spanwise and streamwise vortices may have a paramount effect on the mean flow, but this interaction may not always be beneficial.
Vortical flow aerodynamics - Physical aspects and numerical simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newsome, Richard W.; Kandil, Osama A.
1987-01-01
Progress in the numerical simulation of vortical flow due to three-dimensional flow separation about flight vehicles at high angles of attack and quasi-steady flight conditions is surveyed. Primary emphasis is placed on Euler and Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes methods where the vortices are 'captured' as a solution to the governing equations. A discussion of the relevant flow physics provides a perspective from which to assess numerical solutions. Current numerical prediction capabilities and their evolutionary development are surveyed. Future trends and challenges are identified and discussed.
The Transient Aerodynamic Forces Effected by Trailing Edge Active Flow Control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brzozowski, Dan; Culp, John; Glezer, Ari
2012-11-01
The transient aerodynamic forces effected by trailing edge flow control are investigated in wind tunnel experiments using a 2-DOF traverse which enables application of time-dependent external torque and forces by servo motors. The global aerodynamic forces and moments are regulated by controlling vorticity generation and accumulation near the surface using hybrid synthetic jet actuators. The time-histories of surface pressure and aerodynamic lift and pitching moment immediately following the application of flow control are measured using simultaneous pressure, force and velocity measurements that are taken phase-locked to the commanded actuation waveform. Circulation time history that is estimated from a PIV wake survey shows that the entire flow over the airfoil readjusts within about 1 . 5TCONV , which is about two orders of magnitude shorter than the characteristic time associated with the controlled maneuver of the wind tunnel model. This illustrates that flow-control actuation can be typically effected on time scales that are commensurate with the flow's convective time scale, and that the maneuver response is primarily limited by the inertia of the platform.
Role of jet asymmetry in glottal flow aerodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peltier, Joel; Krane, Michael; Medvitz, Richard
2008-11-01
Finite element computations of flow through a constriction are used to illuminate the role of the Coanda effect in glottal flow and voice production. Steady-state computations were performed for a series of constriction openings. One set of simulations enforced transverse flow symmetry, while the other allowed the flow to develop naturally. Comparisons of measures relevant to vocal fold vibration and sound production are presented. These comparisons show that the Coanda effect primarily affects the differential transverse force on the vocal fold walls, while the axial force differs little from the symmetric case. These results suggest strongly that the primary role of the Coanda effect in speech is to drive asymmetric vocal fold vibration patterns, and that glottal jet instability contributes to voice perturbations and fluctuations.
A novel potential/viscous flow coupling technique for computing helicopter flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Summa, J. Michael; Strash, Daniel J.; Yoo, Sungyul
1990-01-01
Because of the complexity of helicopter flow field, a zonal method of analysis of computational aerodynamics is required. Here, a new procedure for coupling potential and viscous flow is proposed. An overlapping, velocity coupling technique is to be developed with the unique feature that the potential flow surface singularity strengths are obtained directly from the Navier-Stokes at a smoother inner fluid boundary. The closed-loop iteration method proceeds until the velocity field is converged. This coupling should provide the means of more accurate viscous computations of the near-body and rotor flow fields with resultant improved analysis of such important performance parameters as helicopter fuselage drag and rotor airloads.
Workshop on Aircraft Surface Representation for Aerodynamic Computation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gregory, T. J. (Editor); Ashbaugh, J. (Editor)
1980-01-01
Papers and discussions on surface representation and its integration with aerodynamics, computers, graphics, wind tunnel model fabrication, and flow field grid generation are presented. Surface definition is emphasized.
Aerodynamic performance of a 1.35-pressure-ratio axial-flow fan stage
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Osborn, W. M.; Moore, R. D.; Steinke, R. J.
1978-01-01
The overall blade element performances and the aerodynamic design parameters are presented for a 1.35-pressure-ratio fan stage. The fan stage was designed for a weight flow of 32.7 kilograms per second and a tip speed of 302.8 meters per second. At design speed the stage peak efficiency of 0.879 occurred at a pressure ratio of 1.329 and design flow. Stage stall margin was approximately 14 percent. At design flow rotor efficiency was 0.94 and the pressure ratio was 1.360.
Interferometric reconstruction of three-dimensional high-speed aerodynamic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cha, Soyoung Stephen
1992-01-01
Holographic interferometry can be a very useful diagnostic tool in high-speed aerodynamic testing. During this summer research period, various possible approaches for accurately reconstructing three-dimensional flows from limited data were examined. The approach based on the combination of the following three techniques appears to be promising: (1) Continuous Local Basis Function Method - this computational tomographic method has a power to accurately reconstruct continuous regions and is appropriate from well-conditioned to moderately limited data; (2) Variable Basis Method - this computational tomographic method provides accuracy near discontinuities, i.e., shock regions, and is appropriate from moderately-limited to severely-limited data; and (3) Complementary Field Method - this is a general iterative reconstructor that can be coupled with any computational tomographic techniques. Mathematically, it can be shown that this method can provide better accuracy than the direct reconstruction as in a conventional approach. Our numerical simulation of experiments demonstrated improved reconstruction results even when these techniques were individually tested.
Aerodynamic forces acting on a rough rotating cylinder in a cross-flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bychkov, N. M.; Kovalenko, V. M.
1981-06-01
The forces are investigated experimentally for two values of the degree of turbulence. The experiments are carried out in a low-turbulence, subsonic wind tunnel; the Reynolds number varies between 100,000 and 600,000, and the rotation parameter, between 0 and 1 radian. The apparatus permits the registration of instantaneous forces with relatively high precision. The desired roughness is produced by covering the surface of the cylinder with emery paper. The magnitude and type of changes in the aerodynamic forces for the case of a rough cylinder are found to differ in a fundamental way from that of a smooth cylinder, a difference related to features of the flow near the wall and to the position of the separation points of the boundary layer. Increasing the degree of turbulence of the flow does not noticeably affect the aerodynamic forces of a rough cylinder in the supercritical region of Reynolds numbers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, R. E.
1981-01-01
Aerodynamic developments for vertical axis and horizontal axis wind turbines are given that relate to the performance and aerodynamic loading of these machines. Included are: (1) a fixed wake aerodynamic model of the Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine; (2) experimental results that suggest the existence of a laminar flow Darrieus vertical axis turbine; (3) a simple aerodynamic model for the turbulent windmill/vortex ring state of horizontal axis rotors; and (4) a yawing moment of a rigid hub horizontal axis wind turbine that is related to blade coning.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, R. E.
1981-05-01
Aerodynamic developments for vertical axis and horizontal axis wind turbines are given that relate to the performance and aerodynamic loading of these machines. Included are: (1) a fixed wake aerodynamic model of the Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine; (2) experimental results that suggest the existence of a laminar flow Darrieus vertical axis turbine; (3) a simple aerodynamic model for the turbulent windmill/vortex ring state of horizontal axis rotors; and (4) a yawing moment of a rigid hub horizontal axis wind turbine that is related to blade coning.
Aerodynamic sound generation induced by flow over small, cylindrical cavities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parthasarathy, S. P.; Cho, Y. I.; Back, L. H.
1984-01-01
An experimental investigation has been conducted on the production of high intensity tones by small cylindrical cavities in a flat surface. The application of such a mechanism is to the acoustic coding of moving objects containing drilled holes. The sound intensity and frequency have been determined as functions of flow velocity, diameter and depth of the cavities. As a practical matter, it is possible to produce a whistle producing 106 dB at 30.5 cm distance from a cylindrical hole of 0.5 cm diameter and 1.2 cm deep with an airflow of 60 m/s past the hole.
Application of the laser Doppler velocimeter in aerodynamic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yanta, W. J.; Ausherman, D. W.
1982-01-01
Applications of the laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) are discussed. Measurements were made of the flowfield around a tangent-ogive model in a low turbulent, incompressible flow at an incidence of 45 deg. The free-stream velocity was 80 ft per second. The flowfield velocities in several cross-flow planes were measured with a 2-D, two-color LDC operated in a backscatter mode. Measurements were concentrated in the secondary separation region. A typical survey is given. The survey was taken at a model location where the maximum side force occurs. The overall character of the leeward flowfield with the influence of the two body vorticles are shown. Measurements of the velocity and density flowfields in the shock-layer region of a reentry-vehicle indented nose configuration were carried out at Mach 5. The velocity flowfield was measured with a 2-color, 2-D, forward-scatter LDV system. Because of the need to minimize particle lag in the shock-layer region, polystyrene particles with a mean diameter of 0.312 microns were used for the scattering particles. The model diameter was 6 inches.
Unsteady Analysis of Separated Aerodynamic Flows Using an Unstructured Multigrid Algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pelaez, Juan; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Kandil, Osama
2001-01-01
An implicit method for the computation of unsteady flows on unstructured grids is presented. The resulting nonlinear system of equations is solved at each time step using an agglomeration multigrid procedure. The method allows for arbitrarily large time steps and is efficient in terms of computational effort and storage. Validation of the code using a one-equation turbulence model is performed for the well-known case of flow over a cylinder. A Detached Eddy Simulation model is also implemented and its performance compared to the one equation Spalart-Allmaras Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence model. Validation cases using DES and RANS include flow over a sphere and flow over a NACA 0012 wing including massive stall regimes. The project was driven by the ultimate goal of computing separated flows of aerodynamic interest, such as massive stall or flows over complex non-streamlined geometries.
Flow field of flexible flapping wings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sallstrom, Erik
The agility and maneuverability of natural fliers would be desirable to incorporate into engineered micro air vehicles (MAVs). However, there is still much for engineers to learn about flapping flight in order to understand how such vehicles can be built for efficient flying. The goal of this study is to develop a methodology for capturing high quality flow field data around flexible flapping wings in a hover environment and to interpret it to gain a better understanding of how aerodynamic forces are generated. The flow field data was captured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and required that measurements be taken around a repeatable flapping motion to obtain phase-averaged data that could be studied throughout the flapping cycle. Therefore, the study includes the development of flapping devices with a simple repeatable single degree of freedom flapping motion. The acquired flow field data has been examined qualitatively and quantitatively to investigate the mechanisms behind force production in hovering flight and to relate it to observations in previous research. Specifically, the flow fields have been investigated around a rigid wing and several carbon fiber reinforced flexible membrane wings. Throughout the whole study the wings were actuated with either a sinusoidal or a semi-linear flapping motion. The semi-linear flapping motion holds the commanded angular velocity nearly constant through half of each half-stroke while the sinusoidal motion is always either accelerating or decelerating. The flow fields were investigated by examining vorticity and vortex structures, using the Q criterion as the definition for the latter, in two and three dimensions. The measurements were combined with wing deflection measurements to demonstrate some of the key links in how the fluid-structure interactions generated aerodynamic forces. The flow fields were also used to calculate the forces generated by the flapping wings using momentum balance methods which yielded
An Engineering Aerodynamic Heating Method for Hypersonic Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Riley, Christopher J.; DeJarnette, Fred R.
1992-01-01
A capability to calculate surface heating rates has been incorporated in an approximate three-dimensional inviscid technique. Surface streamlines are calculated from the inviscid solution, and the axisymmetric analog is then used along with a set of approximate convective-heating equations to compute the surface heat transfer. The method is applied to blunted axisymmetric and three-dimensional ellipsoidal cones at angle of attack for the laminar flow of a perfect gas. The method is also applicable to turbulent and equilibrium-air conditions. The present technique predicts surface heating rates that compare favorably with experimental (ground-test and flight) data and numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes (NS) and viscous shock-layer (VSL) equations. The new technique represents a significant improvement over current engineering aerothermal methods with only a modest increase in computational effort.
An engineering aerodynamic heating method for hypersonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Riley, Christopher J.; Dejarnette, Fred R.
1992-01-01
A capability to calculate surface heating rates has been incorporated in an approximate three-dimensional inviscid technique. Surface streamlines are calculated from the inviscid solution, and the axisymmetric analog is then used along with a set of approximate convective-heating equations to compute the surface heat transfer. The method is applied to blunted axisymmetric and three-dimensional ellipsoidal cones at angle of attack for the laminar flow of a perfect gas. The method is also applicable to turbulent and equilibrium-air conditions. The present technique predicts surface heating rates that compare favorably with experimental (ground-test and flight) data and numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes (NS) and viscous shock-layer (VSL) equations. The new technique represents a significant improvement over current engineering aerothermal methods with only a modest increase in computational effort.
Mathematical model and numerical algorithm for aerodynamical flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaydurov, V.; Shchepanovskaya, G.; Yakubovich, M.
2016-10-01
In the paper, a mathematical model and a numerical algorithm are proposed for modeling an air flow. The proposed model is based on the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations for viscous heat-conducting gas. The energy equation and the state equations are modified to account for two kinds of `internal' energy. The first one is the usual translational and rotational energy of molecules which defines the thermodynamical temperature and the pressure. The second one is the subgrid energy of small turbulent eddies. A numerical algorithm is proposed for solving the formulated initial-boundary value problem as a combination of the semi-Lagrangian approximation for Lagrange transport derivatives and the conforming finite element method for other terms. A numerical example illustrates these approaches.
Flow Quality Measurements in an Aerodynamic Model of NASA Lewis' Icing Research Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Canacci, Victor A.; Gonsalez, Jose C.
1999-01-01
As part of an ongoing effort to improve the aerodynamic flow characteristics of the Icing Research Tunnel (IRT), a modular scale model of the facility was fabricated. This 1/10th-scale model was used to gain further understanding of the flow characteristics in the IRT. The model was outfitted with instrumentation and data acquisition systems to determine pressures, velocities, and flow angles in the settling chamber and test section. Parametric flow quality studies involving the insertion and removal of a model of the IRT's distinctive heat exchanger (cooler) and/or of a honeycomb in the settling chamber were performed. These experiments illustrate the resulting improvement or degradation in flow quality.
Design and aerodynamic performance evaluation of a high-work mixed flow turbine stage
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Neri, Remo N.; Elliott, Thomas J.; Marsh, David N.; Civinskas, Kestutis C.
1994-01-01
As axial and radial turbine designs have been pushed to their aerothermodynamic and mechanical limits, the mixed-flow turbine (MFT) concept has been projected to offer performance and durability improvements, especially when ceramic materials are considered. The objective of this NASA/U.S. Army sponsored mixed-flow turbine (AMFT) program was to determine the level of performance attainable with MFT technology within the mechanical constraints of 1997 projected ceramic material properties. The MFT geometry is similar to a radial turbine, exhibiting a large radius change from inlet to exit, but differing in that the inlet flowpath is not purely radial, nor axial, but mixed; it is the inlet geometry that gives rise to the name 'mixed-flow'. The 'mixed' orientation of the turbine inlet offers several advantages over radial designs by allowing a nonzero inlet blade angle yet maintaining radial-element blades. The oblique inlet not only improves the particle-impact survivability of the design, but improves the aerodynamic performance by reducing the incidence at the blade inlet. The difficulty, however, of using mixed-flow geometry lies in the scarcity of detailed data and documented design experience. This paper reports the design of a MFT stage designed with the intent to maximize aerodynamic performance by optimizing design parameters such as stage reaction, rotor incidence, flowpath shape, blade shape, vane geometry, and airfoil counts using 2-D, 3-D inviscid, and 3-D viscous computational fluid dynamics code. The aerodynamic optimization was accomplished while maintaining mechanical integrity with respect to vibration and stress levels in the rotor. A full-scale cold-flow rig test was performed with metallic hardware fabricated to the specifications of the hot ceramic geometry to evaluate the stage performance.
Aerodynamic pressure and flow-visualization measurement from a rotating wind turbine blade
Butterfield, C P
1988-11-01
Aerodynamic, load, flow-visualization, and inflow measurements have been made on a 10-m, three-bladed, downwind, horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT). A video camera mounted on the rotor was used to record nighttime and daytime video images of tufts attached to the low-pressure side of a constant-chord, zero-twist blade. Load measurements were made using strain gages mounted at every 10% of the blade's span. Pressure measurements were made at 80% of the blade's span. Pressure taps were located at 32 chordwise positions, revealing pressure distributions comparable with wind tunnel data. Inflow was measured using a vertical-plane array of eight propvane and five triaxial (U-V-W) prop-type anemometers located 10 m upwind in the predominant wind direction. One objective of this comprehensive research program was to study the effects of blade rotation on aerodynamic behavior below, near, and beyond stall. To this end, flow patterns are presented here that reveal the dynamic and steady behavior of flow conditions on the blade. Pressure distributions are compared to flow patterns and two-dimensional wind tunnel data. Separation boundary locations are shown that change as a function of spanwise location, pitch angle, and wind speed. 6 refs., 23 figs., 1 tab.
Orbiter Aerodynamic Acceleration Flight Measurements in the Rarefied-Flow Transition Regime
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blanchard, Robert C.; Wilmoth, Richard G.; LeBeau, Gerald J.
1996-01-01
Acceleration data taken from the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) during reentry on STS-62 have been analyzed using calibration factors taken on orbit. This is the first Orbiter mission which collected OARE data during the Orbiter reentry phase. The data examined include the flight regime from orbital altitudes down to about 90 km which covers the free-molecule-flow regime and the upper altitude fringes of the rarefied-flow transition into the hypersonic continuum. Ancillary flight data on Orbiter position, orientation, velocity, and rotation rates have been used in models to transform the measured accelerations to the Orbiter center-of-gravity, from which aerodynamic accelerations along the Orbiter body axes have been calculated. Residual offsets introduced in the measurements by unmodeled Orbiter forces are identified and discussed. Direct comparisons are made between the OARE flight data and an independent micro-gravity accelerometer experiment, the High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP), which also obtained flight data on reentry during the mission down to about 95 km. The resulting OARE aerodynamic acceleration measurements along the Orbiter's body axis, aid the normal to axial acceleration ratio in the free-molecule-flow and transition-flow regimes are presented and compared with numerical simulations from three direct simulation Monte Carlo codes.
Que, Ruiyi; Zhu, Rong
2012-01-01
Air speed, angle of sideslip and angle of attack are fundamental aerodynamic parameters for controlling most aircraft. For small aircraft for which conventional detecting devices are too bulky and heavy to be utilized, a novel and practical methodology by which the aerodynamic parameters are inferred using a micro hot-film flow sensor array mounted on the surface of the wing is proposed. A back-propagation neural network is used to model the coupling relationship between readings of the sensor array and aerodynamic parameters. Two different sensor arrangements are tested in wind tunnel experiments and dependence of the system performance on the sensor arrangement is analyzed. PMID:23112638
Evaluation of aerodynamic and rolling resistances in mountain-bike field conditions.
Bertucci, William M; Rogier, Simon; Reiser, Raoul F
2013-01-01
Aerodynamic and rolling resistances are the two major resistances that affect road cyclists on level ground. Because of reduced speeds and markedly different tyre-ground interactions, rolling resistance could be more influential in mountain biking than road cycling. The aims of this study were to quantify 1) aerodynamic resistance of mountain-bike cyclists in the seated position and 2) rolling resistances of two types of mountain-bike tyre (smooth and knobby) in three field surfaces (road, sand and grass) with two pressure inflations (200 and 400 kPa). Mountain-bike cyclists have an effective frontal area (product of projected frontal area and drag coefficient) of 0.357 ± 0.023 m², with the mean aerodynamic resistance representing 8-35% of the total resistance to cyclists' motion depending on the magnitude of the rolling resistance. The smooth tyre had 21 ± 15% less rolling resistance than the knobby tyre. Field surface and inflation pressure also affected rolling resistance. These results indicate that aerodynamic resistance influences mountain-biking performance, even with lower speeds than road cycling. Rolling resistance is increased in mountain biking by factors such as tyre type, surface condition and inflation pressure that may also alter performance.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Truscott, Starr; Parkinson, J B; Ebert, John W , Jr; Valentine, E Floyd
1938-01-01
The present tests illustrate how the aerodynamic drag of a flying boat hull may be reduced by following closely the form of a low drag aerodynamic body and the manner in which the extent of the aerodynamic refinement is limited by poorer hydrodynamic performance. This limit is not sharply defined but is first evidenced by an abnormal flow of water over certain parts of the form accompanied by a sharp increase in resistance. In the case of models 74-A and 75, the resistance (sticking) occurs only at certain combinations of speed, load, and trim and can be avoided by proper control of the trim at high water speeds. Model 75 has higher water resistance at very high speeds than does model 74-A. With constant speed propellers and high takeoff speeds, it appears that the form of model 75 would give slightly better takeoff performance. Model 74-A, however, has lower aerodynamic drag than does model 75 for the same volume of hull.
Minnowbrook VI: 2009 Workshop on Flow Physics and Control for Internal and External Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
LaGraff, John E.; Povinelli, Louis A.; Gostelow, J. Paul; Glauser, Mark
2010-01-01
Topics covered include: Flow Physics and control for Internal and External Aerodynamics (not in TOC...starts on pg13); Breaking CFD Bottlenecks in Gas-Turbine Flow-Path Design; Streamwise Vortices on the Convex Surfaces of Circular Cylinders and Turbomachinery Blading; DNS and Embedded DNS as Tools for Investigating Unsteady Heat Transfer Phenomena in Turbines; Cavitation, Flow Structure and Turbulence in the Tip Region of a Rotor Blade; Development and Application of Plasma Actuators for Active Control of High-Speed and High Reynolds Number Flows; Active Flow Control of Lifting Surface With Flap-Current Activities and Future Directions; Closed-Loop Control of Vortex Formation in Separated Flows; Global Instability on Laminar Separation Bubbles-Revisited; Very Large-Scale Motions in Smooth and Rough Wall Boundary Layers; Instability of a Supersonic Boundary-Layer With Localized Roughness; Active Control of Open Cavities; Amplitude Scaling of Active Separation Control; U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory's Need for Flow Physics and Control With Applications Involving Aero-Optics and Weapon Bay Cavities; Some Issues Related to Integrating Active Flow Control With Flight Control; Active Flow Control Strategies Using Surface Pressure Measurements; Reduction of Unsteady Forcing in a Vaned, Contra-Rotating Transonic Turbine Configuration; Active Flow Control Stator With Coanda Surface; Controlling Separation in Turbomachines; Flow Control on Low-Pressure Turbine Airfoils Using Vortex Generator Jets; Reduced Order Modeling Incompressible Flows; Study and Control of Flow Past Disk, and Circular and Rectangular Cylinders Aligned in the Flow; Periodic Forcing of a Turbulent Axisymmetric Wake; Control of Vortex Breakdown in Critical Swirl Regime Using Azimuthal Forcing; External and Turbomachinery Flow Control Working Group; Boundary Layers, Transitions and Separation; Efficiency Considerations in Low Pressure Turbines; Summary of Conference; and Final Plenary Session
Recent advances in applying Free Vortex Sheet theory to the estimation of vortex flow aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luckring, J. M.; Schoonover, W. E., Jr.; Frink, N. T.
1982-01-01
Free Vortex Sheet theory has been applied to a variety of configurations for the estimation of three-dimensional pressure distributions for wings developing separation-induced leading-edge vortex flows. Correlations with experiment show reasonable estimates for the effects of compressibility, side-slip, side edges, swept-wing blast-induced loads, and leading-edge vortex flaps. Theoretical studies expand upon these correlations to show general aerodynamic trends. Consideration is also given to simple, yet effective techniques which expedite convergence and therefore reduce computational expense.
A fast and accurate method to predict 2D and 3D aerodynamic boundary layer flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bijleveld, H. A.; Veldman, A. E. P.
2014-12-01
A quasi-simultaneous interaction method is applied to predict 2D and 3D aerodynamic flows. This method is suitable for offshore wind turbine design software as it is a very accurate and computationally reasonably cheap method. This study shows the results for a NACA 0012 airfoil. The two applied solvers converge to the experimental values when the grid is refined. We also show that in separation the eigenvalues remain positive thus avoiding the Goldstein singularity at separation. In 3D we show a flow over a dent in which separation occurs. A rotating flat plat is used to show the applicability of the method for rotating flows. The shown capabilities of the method indicate that the quasi-simultaneous interaction method is suitable for design methods for offshore wind turbine blades.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1999-01-01
This document describes the aerodynamic design of an experimental hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) wing panel intended for use on a Boeing 757 airplane to provide a facility for flight research on high Reynolds number HLFC and to demonstrate practical HLFC operation on a full-scale commercial transport airplane. The design consists of revised wing leading edge contour designed to produce a pressure distribution favorable to laminar flow, definition of suction flow requirements to laminarize the boundary layer, provisions at the inboard end of the test panel to prevent attachment-line boundary layer transition, and a Krueger leading edge flap that serves both as a high lift device and as a shield to prevent insect accretion on the leading edge when the airplane is taking off or landing.
Integrated flow field (IFF) structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pien, Shyhing M. (Inventor); Warshay, Marvin (Inventor)
2012-01-01
The present disclosure relates in part to a flow field structure comprising a hydrophilic part and a hydrophobic part communicably attached to each other via a connecting interface. The present disclosure further relates to electrochemical cells comprising the aforementioned flow fields.
Hau, Jan-Niklas Oberlack, Martin; Chagelishvili, George; Khujadze, George; Tevzadze, Alexander
2015-12-15
Aerodynamic sound generation in shear flows is investigated in the light of the breakthrough in hydrodynamics stability theory in the 1990s, where generic phenomena of non-normal shear flow systems were understood. By applying the thereby emerged short-time/non-modal approach, the sole linear mechanism of wave generation by vortices in shear flows was captured [G. D. Chagelishvili, A. Tevzadze, G. Bodo, and S. S. Moiseev, “Linear mechanism of wave emergence from vortices in smooth shear flows,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3178-3181 (1997); B. F. Farrell and P. J. Ioannou, “Transient and asymptotic growth of two-dimensional perturbations in viscous compressible shear flow,” Phys. Fluids 12, 3021-3028 (2000); N. A. Bakas, “Mechanism underlying transient growth of planar perturbations in unbounded compressible shear flow,” J. Fluid Mech. 639, 479-507 (2009); and G. Favraud and V. Pagneux, “Superadiabatic evolution of acoustic and vorticity perturbations in Couette flow,” Phys. Rev. E 89, 033012 (2014)]. Its source is the non-normality induced linear mode-coupling, which becomes efficient at moderate Mach numbers that is defined for each perturbation harmonic as the ratio of the shear rate to its characteristic frequency. Based on the results by the non-modal approach, we investigate a two-dimensional homentropic constant shear flow and focus on the dynamical characteristics in the wavenumber plane. This allows to separate from each other the participants of the dynamical processes — vortex and wave modes — and to estimate the efficacy of the process of linear wave-generation. This process is analyzed and visualized on the example of a packet of vortex modes, localized in both, spectral and physical, planes. Further, by employing direct numerical simulations, the wave generation by chaotically distributed vortex modes is analyzed and the involved linear and nonlinear processes are identified. The generated acoustic field is anisotropic in the wavenumber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hau, Jan-Niklas; Chagelishvili, George; Khujadze, George; Oberlack, Martin; Tevzadze, Alexander
2015-12-01
Aerodynamic sound generation in shear flows is investigated in the light of the breakthrough in hydrodynamics stability theory in the 1990s, where generic phenomena of non-normal shear flow systems were understood. By applying the thereby emerged short-time/non-modal approach, the sole linear mechanism of wave generation by vortices in shear flows was captured [G. D. Chagelishvili, A. Tevzadze, G. Bodo, and S. S. Moiseev, "Linear mechanism of wave emergence from vortices in smooth shear flows," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3178-3181 (1997); B. F. Farrell and P. J. Ioannou, "Transient and asymptotic growth of two-dimensional perturbations in viscous compressible shear flow," Phys. Fluids 12, 3021-3028 (2000); N. A. Bakas, "Mechanism underlying transient growth of planar perturbations in unbounded compressible shear flow," J. Fluid Mech. 639, 479-507 (2009); and G. Favraud and V. Pagneux, "Superadiabatic evolution of acoustic and vorticity perturbations in Couette flow," Phys. Rev. E 89, 033012 (2014)]. Its source is the non-normality induced linear mode-coupling, which becomes efficient at moderate Mach numbers that is defined for each perturbation harmonic as the ratio of the shear rate to its characteristic frequency. Based on the results by the non-modal approach, we investigate a two-dimensional homentropic constant shear flow and focus on the dynamical characteristics in the wavenumber plane. This allows to separate from each other the participants of the dynamical processes — vortex and wave modes — and to estimate the efficacy of the process of linear wave-generation. This process is analyzed and visualized on the example of a packet of vortex modes, localized in both, spectral and physical, planes. Further, by employing direct numerical simulations, the wave generation by chaotically distributed vortex modes is analyzed and the involved linear and nonlinear processes are identified. The generated acoustic field is anisotropic in the wavenumber plane, which
Analysis of Low-Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar-Flow Glove
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bui, Trong
2013-01-01
Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a GIII aircraft s swept wing modified with a laminar-flow wing glove. The stall aerodynamics of the gloved wing were analyzed and compared with the unmodified wing for the flight speed of 120 knots and altitude of 2300 ft above mean sea level (MSL). The Star-CCM+ polyhedral unstructured CFD code was first validated for wing stall predictions using the wing-body geometry from the First AIAA CFD High-Lift Prediction Workshop. It was found that the Star-CCM+ CFD code can produce results that are within the scattering of other CFD codes considered at the workshop. In particular, the Star-CCM+ CFD code was able to predict wing stall for the AIAA wing-body geometry to within 1 degree of angle of attack as compared to benchmark wind-tunnel test data. Current results show that the addition of the laminar-flow wing glove causes the gloved wing to stall much earlier than the unmodified wing. Furthermore, the gloved wing has a different stall characteristic than the clean wing, with no sharp lift drop-off at stall for the gloved wing.
Analysis of Low Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar Flow Glove
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bui, Trong T.
2014-01-01
Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a GIII aircraft's swept wing modified with a laminar-flow wing glove. The stall aerodynamics of the gloved wing were analyzed and compared with the unmodified wing for the flight speed of 120 knots and altitude of 2300 ft above mean sea level (MSL). The Star-CCM+ polyhedral unstructured CFD code was first validated for wing stall predictions using the wing-body geometry from the First American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) CFD High-Lift Prediction Workshop. It was found that the Star-CCM+ CFD code can produce results that are within the scattering of other CFD codes considered at the workshop. In particular, the Star-CCM+ CFD code was able to predict wing stall for the AIAA wing-body geometry to within 1 degree of angle of attack as compared to benchmark wind-tunnel test data. Current results show that the addition of the laminar-flow wing glove causes the gloved wing to stall much earlier than the unmodified wing. Furthermore, the gloved wing has a different stall characteristic than the clean wing, with no sharp lift drop-off at stall for the gloved wing.
The use of linearized-aerodynamics and vortex-flow methods in aircraft design /invited paper/
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lamar, J. E.
1982-01-01
This paper deals with selected linearized-aerodynamic and vortex-flow methods as applied to aircraft design problems at high subsonic speeds. In particular, the NASA Vortex Lattice and Modified Multhopp methods are the linearized techniques employed, and the suction analogy is used to provide estimates associated with vortex-flow aerodynamics. Many examples are given as to how researchers at Langley have used these methods to design the high subsonic, wing-mean-camber shapes for various configurations such as a supersonic transport, high-aspect-ratio transport, trapezoidal fighter wing, strake wing, tandem wing, joined wing, delta wing, and slender cranked wing. Many of these have been built, tested, and have had their data compared with theory. In addition, a technique for defining efficiently performing strake planforms for use in strake-wing combinations is discussed, and further improvements in wing design are outlined. The latter may be obtained by using higher-ordered linear panel methods as well as nonlinear-transonic methods.
Analysis of Low-Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar-Flow Glove
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bui, Trong T.
2014-01-01
Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a GIII aircraft's swept wing modified with a laminar-flow wing glove. The stall aerodynamics of the gloved wing were analyzed and compared with the unmodified wing for the flight speed of 120 knots and altitude of 2300 ft above mean sea level (MSL). The Star-CCM+ polyhedral unstructured CFD code was first validated for wing stall predictions using the wing-body geometry from the First American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) CFD High-Lift Prediction Workshop. It was found that the Star-CCM+ CFD code can produce results that are within the scattering of other CFD codes considered at the workshop. In particular, the Star-CCM+ CFD code was able to predict wing stall for the AIAA wing-body geometry to within 1 degree of angle of attack as compared to benchmark wind-tunnel test data. Current results show that the addition of the laminar-flow wing glove causes the gloved wing to stall much earlier than the unmodified wing. Furthermore, the gloved wing has a different stall characteristic than the clean wing, with no sharp lift drop-off at stall for the gloved wing.
Numerical simulations of aerodynamic contribution of flows about a space-plane-type configuration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Matsushima, Kisa; Takanashi, Susume; Fujii, Kozo; Obayashi, Shigeru
1987-01-01
The slightly supersonic viscous flow about the space-plane under development at the National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL) in Japan was simulated numerically using the LU-ADI algorithm. The wind-tunnel testing for the same plane also was conducted with the computations in parallel. The main purpose of the simulation is to capture the phenomena which have a great deal of influence to the aerodynamic force and efficiency but is difficult to capture by experiments. It includes more accurate representation of vortical flows with high angles of attack of an aircraft. The space-plane shape geometry simulated is the simplified model of the real space-plane, which is a combination of a flat and slender body and a double-delta type wing. The comparison between experimental results and numerical ones will be done in the near future. It could be said that numerical results show the qualitatively reliable phenomena.
Aerodynamic and thermal analysis of an engine cylinder head using numerical flow simulation
Taghavi, R.; Dupont, A.; Dupont, J.F. )
1990-07-01
This paper reports on a computational fluid dynamics code used as a guide during the development stage of a passenger car spark ignition engine. The focus is on the flow proiperties of the inlet port as well as the heat transfer characteristics of the proposed cylinder head design. In the first part of this study, the aerodynamic characteristics of two slightly different inlet ports are considered and their effect on the development of in-cylinder flow is examined. The collected information is used to estimate geometric sensitivity and assess the effects of drifts between design and actual production specifications of inlet ports. In the second part, the same computational code is used to simulate in-cylinder combustion and determine the resulting temperature and heat flux distribution on the cylinder head walls. A comparison is thn carried out between numerical results and experimental measurements and good agreement is obtained.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, R. T. (Compiler)
1979-01-01
A collection of papers on modern theoretical aerodynamics is presented. Included are theories of incompressible potential flow and research on the aerodynamic forces on wing and wing sections of aircraft and on airship hulls.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kanipe, D. B.
1976-01-01
A wind tunnel test was conducted in the Langley Research Center 31-inch Continuous Flow Hypersonic Wind Tunnel from May 6, 1975 through June 3, 1975. The primary objectives of this test were the following: (1) to study the ability of the wind tunnel to repeat, on a run-to-run basis, data taken for identical configurations to determine if errors in repeatability could have a significant effect on jet interaction data, (2) to determine the effect of aerodynamic heating of the scale model on jet interaction, (3) to investigate the effects of elevon and body flap deflections on jet interaction, (4) to determine if the effects from jets fired separately along different axes can be added to equal the effects of the jets fired simultaneously (super position effects), (5) to study multiple jet effects, and (6) to investigate area ratio effects, i.e., the effect on jet interaction measurements of using wind tunnel nozzles with different area ratios in the same location. The model used in the test was a .010-scale model of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Configuration 3. The test was conducted at Mach 10.3 and a dynamic pressure of 150 psf. RCS chamber pressure was varied to simulate free flight dynamic pressures of 5, 7.5, 10, and 20 psf.
Unsteady transonic aerodynamics
Nixon, D.
1989-01-01
Various papers on unsteady transonic aerodynamics are presented. The topics addressed include: physical phenomena associated with unsteady transonic flows, basic equations for unsteady transonic flow, practical problems concerning aircraft, basic numerical methods, computational methods for unsteady transonic flows, application of transonic flow analysis to helicopter rotor problems, unsteady aerodynamics for turbomachinery aeroelastic applications, alternative methods for modeling unsteady transonic flows.
Ultra high bypass Nacelle aerodynamics inlet flow-through high angle of attack distortion test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Larkin, Michael J.; Schweiger, Paul S.
1992-01-01
A flow-through inlet test program was conducted to evaluate inlet test methods and determine the impact of the fan on inlet separation when operating at large angles of attack. A total of 16 model configurations of approximately 1/6 scale were tested. A comparison of these flow-through results with powered data indicates the presence of the fan increased separation operation 3 degrees to 4 degrees over the flow through inlet. Rods and screens located at the fan face station, that redistribute the flow, achieved simulation of the powered-fan results for separation angle of attack. Concepts to reduce inlet distortion and increase angle of attack capability were also evaluated. Vortex generators located on the inlet surface increased inlet angle of attack capability up to 2 degrees and reduced inlet distortion in the separated region. Finally, a method of simulating the fan/inlet aerodynamic interaction using blockage sizing method has been defined. With this method, a static blockage device used with a flow-through model will approximate the same inlet onset of separation angle of attack and distortion pattern that would be obtained with an inlet model containing a powered fan.
Kaushik, D. K.; Keyes, D. E.; Smith, B. F.
1999-02-24
We review and extend to the compressible regime an earlier parallelization of an implicit incompressible unstructured Euler code [9], and solve for flow over an M6 wing in subsonic, transonic, and supersonic regimes. While the parallelization philosophy of the compressible case is identical to the incompressible, we focus here on the nonlinear and linear convergence rates, which vary in different physical regimes, and on comparing the performance of currently important computational platforms. Multiple-scale problems should be marched out at desired accuracy limits, and not held hostage to often more stringent explicit stability limits. In the context of inviscid aerodynamics, this means evolving transient computations on the scale of the convective transit time, rather than the acoustic transit time, or solving steady-state problems with local CFL numbers approaching infinity. Whether time-accurate or steady, we employ Newton's method on each (pseudo-) timestep. The coupling of analysis with design in aerodynamic practice is another motivation for implicitness. Design processes that make use of sensitivity derivatives and the Hessian matrix require operations with the Jacobian matrix of the state constraints (i.e., of the governing PDE system); if the Jacobian is available for design, it may be employed with advantage in a nonlinearly implicit analysis, as well.
Numerical simulation of the flow field around a complete aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shang, J. S.; Scherr, S. J.
1986-01-01
The present effort represents a first attempt of numerical simulation of the flow field around a complete aircraft-like, lifting configuration utilizing the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical solution generated for the experimental aircraft concept X24C-10D at a Mach number of 5.95 not only exhibited accurate prediction of detailed flow properties but also of the integrated aerodynamic coefficients. In addition, the present analysis demonstrated that a page structure of data collected into cyclic blocks is an efficient and viable means for processing the Navier-Stokes equations on the CRAY XMP-22 computer with external memory device.
New directions in fluid dynamics: non-equilibrium aerodynamic and microsystem flows.
Reese, Jason M; Gallis, Michael A; Lockerby, Duncan A
2003-12-15
Fluid flows that do not have local equilibrium are characteristic of some of the new frontiers in engineering and technology, for example, high-speed high-altitude aerodynamics and the development of micrometre-sized fluid pumps, turbines and other devices. However, this area of fluid dynamics is poorly understood from both the experimental and simulation perspectives, which hampers the progress of these technologies. This paper reviews some of the recent developments in experimental techniques and modelling methods for non-equilibrium gas flows, examining their advantages and drawbacks. We also present new results from our computational investigations into both hypersonic and microsystem flows using two distinct numerical methodologies: the direct simulation Monte Carlo method and extended hydrodynamics. While the direct simulation approach produces excellent results and is used widely, extended hydrodynamics is not as well developed but is a promising candidate for future more complex simulations. Finally, we discuss some of the other situations where these simulation methods could be usefully applied, and look to the future of numerical tools for non-equilibrium flows.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hartill, W. R.
1977-01-01
A hypersonic wind tunnel test method for obtaining credible aerodynamic data on a complete hypersonic vehicle (generic X-24c) with scramjet exhaust flow simulation is described. The general problems of simulating the scramjet exhaust as well as accounting for scramjet inlet flow and vehicle forces are analyzed, and candidate test methods are described and compared. The method selected as most useful makes use of a thrust-minus-drag flow-through balance with a completely metric model. Inlet flow is diverted by a fairing. The incremental effect of the fairing is determined in the testing of two reference models. The net thrust of the scramjet module is an input to be determined in large-scale module tests with scramjet combustion. Force accounting is described, and examples of force component levels are predicted. Compatibility of the test method with candidate wind tunnel facilities is described, and a preliminary model mechanical arrangement drawing is presented. The balance design and performance requirements are described in a detailed specification. Calibration procedures, model instrumentation, and a test plan for the model are outlined.
Shock Structure Analysis and Aerodynamics in a Weakly Ionized Gas Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saeks, R.; Popovic, S.; Chow, A. S.
2006-01-01
The structure of a shock wave propagating through a weakly ionized gas is analyzed using an electrofluid dynamics model composed of classical conservation laws and Gauss Law. A viscosity model is included to correctly model the spatial scale of the shock structure, and quasi-neutrality is not assumed. A detailed analysis of the structure of a shock wave propagating in a weakly ionized gas is presented, together with a discussion of the physics underlying the key features of the shock structure. A model for the flow behind a shock wave propagating through a weakly ionized gas is developed and used to analyze the effect of the ionization on the aerodynamics and performance of a two-dimensional hypersonic lifting body.
Aerodynamic analysis of natural flapping flight using a lift model based on spanwise flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alford, Lionel D., Jr.
This study successfully described the mechanics of flapping hovering flight within the framework of conventional aerodynamics. Additionally, the theory proposed and supported by this research provides an entirely new way of looking at animal flapping flight. The mechanisms of biological flight are not well understood, and researchers have not been able to describe them using conventional aerodynamic forces. This study proposed that natural flapping flight can be broken down into a simplest model, that this model can then be used to develop a mathematical representation of flapping hovering flight, and finally, that the model can be successfully refined and compared to biological flapping data. This paper proposed a unique theory that the lift of a flapping animal is primarily the result of velocity across the cambered span of the wing. A force analysis was developed using centripetal acceleration to define an acceleration profile that would lead to a spanwise velocity profile. The force produced by the spanwise velocity profile was determined using a computational fluid dynamics analysis of flow on the simplified wing model. The overall forces on the model were found to produce more than twice the lift required for hovering flight. In addition, spanwise lift was shown to generate induced drag on the wing. Induced drag increased both the model wing's lift and drag. The model allowed the development of a mathematical representation that could be refined to account for insect hovering characteristics and that could predict expected physical attributes of the fluid flow. This computational representation resulted in a profile of lift and drag production that corresponds to known force profiles for insect flight. The model of flapping flight was shown to produce results similar to biological observation and experiment, and these results can potentially be applied to the study of other flapping animals. This work provides a foundation on which to base further exploration
The Effect of Break Edge Configuration on the Aerodynamics of Anti-Ice Jet Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tatar, V.; Yildizay, H.; Aras, H.
2015-05-01
One of the components of a turboprop gas turbine engine is the Front Bearing Structure (FBS) which leads air into the compressor. FBS directly encounters with ambient air, as a consequence ice accretion may occur on its static vanes. There are several aerodynamic parameters which should be considered in the design of anti-icing system of FBS, such as diameter, position, exit angle of discharge holes, etc. This research focuses on the effects of break edge configuration over anti-ice jet flow. Break edge operation is a process which is applied to the hole in order to avoid sharp edges which cause high stress concentration. Numerical analyses and flow visualization test have been conducted. Four different break edge configurations were used for this investigation; without break edge, 0.35xD, 74xD, 0.87xD. Three mainstream flow conditions at the inlet of the channel are defined; 10m/s, 20 m/s and 40 m/s. Shear stresses are extracted from numerical analyses near the trailing edge of pressure surface where ice may occur under icing conditions. A specific flow visualization method was used for the experimental study. Vane surface near the trailing edge was dyed and thinner was injected into anti-ice jet flow in order to remove dye from the vane surface. Hence, film effect on the surface could be computed for each testing condition. Thickness of the dye removal area of each case was examined. The results show noticeable effects of break edge operation on jet flow, and the air film effectiveness decreases when mainstream inlet velocity decreases.
Elasto-Aerodynamics-Driven Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Scavenging Air-Flow Energy.
Wang, Shuhua; Mu, Xiaojing; Wang, Xue; Gu, Alex Yuandong; Wang, Zhong Lin; Yang, Ya
2015-10-27
Efficient scavenging the kinetic energy from air-flow represents a promising approach for obtaining clean, sustainable electricity. Here, we report an elasto-aerodynamics-driven triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) based on contact electrification. The reported TENG consists of a Kapton film with two Cu electrodes at each side, fixed on two ends in an acrylic fluid channel. The relationship between the TENG output power density and its fluid channel dimensions is systematically studied. TENG with a fluid channel size of 125 × 10 × 1.6 mm(3) delivers the maximum output power density of about 9 kW/m(3) under a loading resistance of 2.3 MΩ. Aero-elastic flutter effect explains the air-flow induced vibration of Kapton film well. The output power scales nearly linearly with parallel wiring of multiple TENGs. Connecting 10 TENGs in parallel gives an output power of 25 mW, which allows direct powering of a globe light. The TENG is also utilized to scavenge human breath induced air-flow energy to sustainably power a human body temperature sensor. PMID:26343789
Flow Visualization and Unsteady Aerodynamics in the Flight of the Hawkmoth, Manduca sexta
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Willmott, Alexander P.; Ellington, Charles P.; Thomas, Adrian L. R.
1997-03-01
The aerodynamic mechanisms employed during the flight of the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, have been investigated through smoke visualization studies with tethered moths. Details of the flow around the wings and of the overall wake structure were recorded as stereophotographs and high-speed video sequences. The changes in flow which accompanied increases in flight speed from 0.4 to 5.7 m s-1 were analysed. The wake consists of an alternating series of horizontal and vertical vortex rings which are generated by successive down- and upstrokes, respectively. The downstroke produces significantly more lift than the upstroke due to a leading-edge vortex which is stabilized by a radial flow moving out towards the wingtip. The leading-edge vortex grew in size with increasing forward flight velocity. Such a phenomenon is proposed as a likely mechanism for lift enhancement in many insect groups. During supination, vorticity is shed from the leading edge as postulated in the 'flex' mechanism. This vorticity would enhance upstroke lift if it was recaptured during subsequent translation, but it is not. Instead the vorticity is left behind and the upstroke circulation builds up slowly. A small jet provides additional thrust as the trailing edges approach at the end of the upstroke. The stereophotographs also suggest that the bound circulation may not be reversed between half strokes at the fastest flight speeds.
Comparative study on aerodynamic heating under perfect and nonequilibrium hypersonic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Qiu; Li, JinPing; Zhao, Wei; Jiang, ZongLin
2016-02-01
In this study, comparative heat flux measurements for a sharp cone model were conducted by utilizing a high enthalpy shock tunnel JF-10 and a large-scale shock tunnel JF-12, responsible for providing nonequilibrium and perfect gas flows, respectively. Experiments were performed at the Key Laboratory of High Temperature Gas Dynamics (LHD), Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Corresponding numerical simulations were also conducted in effort to better understand the phenomena accompanying in these experiments. By assessing the consistency and accuracy of all the data gathered during this study, a detailed comparison of sharp cone heat transfer under a totally different kind of freestream conditions was build and analyzed. One specific parameter, defined as the product of the Stanton number and the square root of the Reynold number, was found to be more characteristic for the aerodynamic heating phenomena encountered in hypersonic flight. Adequate use of said parameter practically eliminates the variability caused by the deferent flow conditions, regardless of whether the flow is in dissociation or the boundary condition is catalytic. Essentially, the parameter identified in this study reduces the amount of ground experimental data necessary and eases data extrapolation to flight.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, C. S.; Goglia, G. L.
1981-01-01
The aerodynamic characteristics of highly sweptback wings having separation-induced vortex flow were investigated by employing different numerical codes with a view to determining some of the capabilities and limitations of these codes. Flat wings of various configurations-strake wing models, cropped, diamond, arrow and double delta wings, were studied. Cambered and cranked planforms have also been tested. The theoretical results predicted by the codes were compared with the experimental data, wherever possible, and found to agree favorably for most of the configurations investigated. However, large cambered wings could not be successfully modeled by the codes. It appears that the final solution in the free vortex sheet method is affected by the selection of the initial solution. Accumulated span loadings estimated for delta and diamond wings were found to be unusual in comparison with attached flow results in that the slopes of these load curves near the leading edge do not tend to infinity as they do in the case of attached flow.
Flow visualization and unsteady aerodynamics in the flight of the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta
Willmott, A. P.; Ellington, C. P.; Thomas, A. L. R.
1997-01-01
The aerodynamic mechanisms employed durng the flight of the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, have been investigated through smoke visualization studies with tethered moths. Details of the flow around the wings and of the overall wake structure were recorded as stereophotographs and high-speed video sequences. The changes in flow which accompanied increases in flight speed from 0.4 to 5.7 m s-1 were analysed. The wake consists of an alternating series of horizontal and vertical vortex rings which are generated by successive down- and upstrokes, respectively. The downstroke produces significantly more lift than the upstroke due to a leading-edge vortex which is stabilized by a radia flow moving out towards the wingtip. The leading-edge vortex grew in size with increasing forward flight velocity. Such a phenomenon is proposed as a likely mechanism for lift enhancement in many insect groups. During supination, vorticity is shed from the leading edge as postulated in the 'flex' mechanism. This vorticity would enhance upstroke lift if it was recaptured diring subsequent translation, but it is not. Instead, the vorticity is left behind and the upstroke circulation builds up slowly. A small jet provides additional thrust as the trailing edges approach at the end of the upstroke. The stereophotographs also suggest that the bound circulation may not be reversed between half strokes at the fastest flight speeds.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, Bryan A.; Applin, Zachary T.; Kemmerly, Guy T.
1999-01-01
An experimental investigation of the effects of leading-edge vortex management devices on the subsonic performance of a high-speed civil transport (HSCT) configuration was conducted in the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. Data were obtained over a Mach number range of 0.14 to 0.27, with corresponding chord Reynolds numbers of 3.08 x 10 (sup 6) to 5.47 x 10 (sup 6). The test model was designed for a cruise Mach number of 2.7. During the subsonic high-lift phase of flight, vortical flow dominates the upper surface flow structure, and during vortex breakdown, this flow causes adverse pitch-up and a reduction of usable lift. The experimental results showed that the beneficial effects of small leading-edge vortex management devices located near the model reference center were insufficient to substantially affect the resulting aerodynamic forces and moments. However, devices located at or near the wiring apex region demonstrated potential for pitch control with little effect on overall lift.
Elasto-Aerodynamics-Driven Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Scavenging Air-Flow Energy.
Wang, Shuhua; Mu, Xiaojing; Wang, Xue; Gu, Alex Yuandong; Wang, Zhong Lin; Yang, Ya
2015-10-27
Efficient scavenging the kinetic energy from air-flow represents a promising approach for obtaining clean, sustainable electricity. Here, we report an elasto-aerodynamics-driven triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) based on contact electrification. The reported TENG consists of a Kapton film with two Cu electrodes at each side, fixed on two ends in an acrylic fluid channel. The relationship between the TENG output power density and its fluid channel dimensions is systematically studied. TENG with a fluid channel size of 125 × 10 × 1.6 mm(3) delivers the maximum output power density of about 9 kW/m(3) under a loading resistance of 2.3 MΩ. Aero-elastic flutter effect explains the air-flow induced vibration of Kapton film well. The output power scales nearly linearly with parallel wiring of multiple TENGs. Connecting 10 TENGs in parallel gives an output power of 25 mW, which allows direct powering of a globe light. The TENG is also utilized to scavenge human breath induced air-flow energy to sustainably power a human body temperature sensor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pollock, Michael; Colli, Matteo; Stagnaro, Mattia; Lanza, Luca; Quinn, Paul; Dutton, Mark; O'Donnell, Greg; Wilkinson, Mark; Black, Andrew; O'Connell, Enda
2016-04-01
observed in the vicinity of the collector, compared to the standard gauge shapes. Both the air velocity and the turbulent kinetic energy fields present structures that may improve the interception of particles by the aerodynamic gauge collector. To provide empirical validation, a field-based experimental campaign was undertaken at four UK research stations to compare the results of aerodynamic and conventional gauges, mounted in juxtaposition. The reference measurement is recorded using a rain gauge pit, as specified by the WMO. The results appear to demonstrate how the effect of the wind on rainfall measurements is influenced by the gauge shape and the mounting height. Significant undercatch is observed compared to the reference measurement. Aerodynamic gauges mounted on the ground catch more rainfall than juxtaposed straight-sided gauges, in most instances. This appears to provide some preliminary validation of the CFD model. The indication that an aerodynamic profile improves the gauge catching capability could be confirmed by tracking the hydrometeor trajectories with a Lagrangian method, based on the available set of airflows; and investigating time-dependent aerodynamic features by means of dedicated CFD simulations. Furthermore, wind-tunnel tests could be carried out to provide more robust physical validation of the CFD model.
Evaluation of the Lattice-Boltzmann Equation Solver PowerFLOW for Aerodynamic Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lockard, David P.; Luo, Li-Shi; Singer, Bart A.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
A careful comparison of the performance of a commercially available Lattice-Boltzmann Equation solver (Power-FLOW) was made with a conventional, block-structured computational fluid-dynamics code (CFL3D) for the flow over a two-dimensional NACA-0012 airfoil. The results suggest that the version of PowerFLOW used in the investigation produced solutions with large errors in the computed flow field; these errors are attributed to inadequate resolution of the boundary layer for reasons related to grid resolution and primitive turbulence modeling. The requirement of square grid cells in the PowerFLOW calculations limited the number of points that could be used to span the boundary layer on the wing and still keep the computation size small enough to fit on the available computers. Although not discussed in detail, disappointing results were also obtained with PowerFLOW for a cavity flow and for the flow around a generic helicopter configuration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katz, Joseph
2006-01-01
Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.
A knowledge-based approach to automated flow-field zoning for computational fluid dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vogel, Alison Andrews
1989-01-01
An automated three-dimensional zonal grid generation capability for computational fluid dynamics is shown through the development of a demonstration computer program capable of automatically zoning the flow field of representative two-dimensional (2-D) aerodynamic configurations. The applicability of a knowledge-based programming approach to the domain of flow-field zoning is examined. Several aspects of flow-field zoning make the application of knowledge-based techniques challenging: the need for perceptual information, the role of individual bias in the design and evaluation of zonings, and the fact that the zoning process is modeled as a constructive, design-type task (for which there are relatively few examples of successful knowledge-based systems in any domain). Engineering solutions to the problems arising from these aspects are developed, and a demonstration system is implemented which can design, generate, and output flow-field zonings for representative 2-D aerodynamic configurations.
Cyclical magnetic field flow fractionation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tasci, T. O.; Johnson, W. P.; Gale, B. K.
2012-04-01
In this study, a new magnetic field flow fractionation (FFF) system was designed and modeled by using finite element simulations. Other than current magnetic FFF systems, which use static magnetic fields, our system uses cyclical magnetic fields. Results of the simulations show that our cyclical magnetic FFF system can be used effectively for the separation of magnetic nanoparticles. Cyclical magnetic FFF system is composed of a microfluidic channel (length = 5 cm, height = 30 μm) and 2 coils. Square wave currents of 1 Hz (with 90 deg of phase difference) were applied to the coils. By using Comsol Multiphysics 3.5a, magnetic field profile and corresponding magnetic force exerted on the magnetite nanoparticles were calculated. The magnetic force data were exported from Comsol to Matlab. In Matlab, a parabolic flow profile with maximum flow speed of 0.4 mL/h was defined. Particle trajectories were obtained by the calculation of the particle speeds resulted from both magnetic and hydrodynamic forces. Particle trajectories of the particles with sizes ranging from 10 to 50 nm were simulated and elution times of the particles were calculated. Results show that there is a significant difference between the elution times of the particles so that baseline separation of the particles can be obtained. In this work, it is shown that by the application of cyclical magnetic fields, the separation of magnetic nanoparticles can be done efficiently.
Comparison of aerodynamic characteristics of pentagonal and hexagonal shaped bridge decks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haque, Md. Naimul; Katsuchi, Hiroshi; Yamada, Hitoshi; Nishio, Mayuko
2016-07-01
Aerodynamics of the long-span bridge deck should be well understood for an efficient design of the bridge system. For practical bridges various deck shapes are being recommended and adopted, yet not all of their aerodynamic behaviors are well interpreted. In the present study, a numerical investigation was carried out to explore the aerodynamic characteristics of pentagonal and hexagonal shaped bridge decks. A relative comparison of steady state aerodynamic responses was made and the flow field was critically analyzed for better understanding the aerodynamic responses. It was found that the hexagonal shaped bridge deck has better aerodynamic characteristics as compared to the pentagonal shaped bridge deck.
Nonstationary flow about a wing-aileron-tab combination including aerodynamic balance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Theodorsen, Theodore; Garrick, I E
1942-01-01
This paper presents a continuation of the work published in Technical Report no. 496. The results of that paper have been extended to include the effect of aerodynamic balance and the effect of a tab added to the aileron. The aerodynamic coefficients are presented in a form convenient for application to the flutter problem.
Advanced Small Perturbation Potential Flow Theory for Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Analyses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batina, John T.
2005-01-01
An advanced small perturbation (ASP) potential flow theory has been developed to improve upon the classical transonic small perturbation (TSP) theories that have been used in various computer codes. These computer codes are typically used for unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analyses in the nonlinear transonic flight regime. The codes exploit the simplicity of stationary Cartesian meshes with the movement or deformation of the configuration under consideration incorporated into the solution algorithm through a planar surface boundary condition. The new ASP theory was developed methodically by first determining the essential elements required to produce full-potential-like solutions with a small perturbation approach on the requisite Cartesian grid. This level of accuracy required a higher-order streamwise mass flux and a mass conserving surface boundary condition. The ASP theory was further developed by determining the essential elements required to produce results that agreed well with Euler solutions. This level of accuracy required mass conserving entropy and vorticity effects, and second-order terms in the trailing wake boundary condition. Finally, an integral boundary layer procedure, applicable to both attached and shock-induced separated flows, was incorporated for viscous effects. The resulting ASP potential flow theory, including entropy, vorticity, and viscous effects, is shown to be mathematically more appropriate and computationally more accurate than the classical TSP theories. The formulaic details of the ASP theory are described fully and the improvements are demonstrated through careful comparisons with accepted alternative results and experimental data. The new theory has been used as the basis for a new computer code called ASP3D (Advanced Small Perturbation - 3D), which also is briefly described with representative results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Craig, Ken
1991-01-01
Some of the work is described which was done in a study of the flow field produced by tangential leading edge blowing on a 60 deg. delta wing. The flow is studied computationally by solving the Thin Layer Navier-Stokes equations. Steady state flow fields are calculated for various angles of attack and yaw, with and without the presence of tangential leading edge blowing. The effectiveness of blowing as a rolling moment control mechanism to extend the envelope of controllability is illustrated at pre- and post-stall angles of attack. The numerical grid is generated using algebraic grid generation and various interpolation and blending techniques. The jet emanates from a slot with linearly varying thickness and is introduced into the flow field using the concept of an actuator plane, thereby not requiring resolution of the jet slot geometry. The Baldwin-Lomax algebraic turbulence model is used to provide turbulent closure. The computational results are compared with those of experiments.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parasarathy, R.; Karamcheti, K.
1972-01-01
The Lighthill method was the basic procedure used to analyze the sound field associated with a vortex of modified strength interacting with an airfoil. A free vortex interacting with an airfoil in uniform motion was modeled in order to determine the sound field due to all the acoustic sources, not only on the airfoil surfaces (dipoles), but also the ones distributed on the perturbed flow field (quadrupoles) due to the vortex-airfoil interaction. Because inviscid flow is assumed in the study of the interaction, the quadrupoles considered in the perturbed flow field are entirely due to an unsteady flow field. The effects of airfoil thickness on the second radiation are examined by using a symmetric Joukowski airfoil for the vortex-airfoil interaction. Sound radiation in a plane, far field simplification, and computation of the sound field are discussed.
The aerodynamic performance of several flow control devices for internal flow systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eckert, W. T.; Wettlaufer, B. M.; Mort, K. W.
1982-01-01
An experimental reseach and development program was undertaken to develop and document new flow-control devices for use in the major modifications to the 40 by 80 Foot wind tunnel at Ames Research Center. These devices, which are applicable to other facilities as well, included grid-type and quasi-two-dimensional flow straighteners, louver panels for valving, and turning-vane cascades with net turning angles from 0 deg to 90 deg. The tests were conducted at model scale over a Reynolds number range from 2 x 100,000 to 17 x 100,000, based on chord. The results showed quantitatively the performance benefits of faired, low-blockage, smooth-surface straightener systems, and the advantages of curved turning-vanes with hinge-line gaps sealed and a preferred chord-to-gap ratio between 2.5 and 3.0 for 45 deg or 90 deg turns.
Supersonic reacting internal flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Drummond, J. Philip
1989-01-01
The national program to develop a trans-atmospheric vehicle has kindled a renewed interest in the modeling of supersonic reacting flows. A supersonic combustion ramjet, or scramjet, has been proposed to provide the propulsion system for this vehicle. The development of computational techniques for modeling supersonic reacting flow fields, and the application of these techniques to an increasingly difficult set of combustion problems are studied. Since the scramjet problem has been largely responsible for motivating this computational work, a brief history is given of hypersonic vehicles and their propulsion systems. A discussion is also given of some early modeling efforts applied to high speed reacting flows. Current activities to develop accurate and efficient algorithms and improved physical models for modeling supersonic combustion is then discussed. Some new problems where computer codes based on these algorithms and models are being applied are described.
FLOW FIELDS IN SUPERSONIC INLETS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sorenson, R. L.
1994-01-01
This computer program is designed to calculate the flow fields in two-dimensional and three-dimensional axisymmetric supersonic inlets. The method of characteristics is used to compute arrays of points in the flow field. At each point the total pressure, local Mach number, local flow angle, and static pressure are calculated. This program can be used to design and analyze supersonic inlets by determining the surface compression rates and throat flow properties. The program employs the method of characteristics for a perfect gas. The basic equation used in the program is the compatibility equation which relates the change in stream angle to the change in entropy and the change in velocity. In order to facilitate the computation, the flow field behind the bow shock wave is broken into regions bounded by shock waves. In each region successive rays are computed from a surface to a shock wave until the shock wave intersects a surface or falls outside the cowl lip. As soon as the intersection occurs a new region is started and the previous region continued only in the area in which it is needed, thus eliminating unnecessary calculations. The maximum number of regions possible in the program is ten, which allows for the simultaneous calculations of up to nine shock waves. Input to this program consists of surface contours, free-stream Mach number, and various calculation control parameters. Output consists of printed and/or plotted results. For plotted results an SC-4020 or similar plotting device is required. This program is written in FORTRAN IV to be executed in the batch mode and has been implemented on a CDC 7600 with a central memory requirement of approximately 27k (octal) of 60 bit words.
Local and overall aerodynamic coefficients for bodies in hypersonic, rarefied flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Potter, J. Leith; Peterson, Steven W.
1991-01-01
A computational method is given for the prediction of local pressure and viscous shear stress on windward surfaces of bluff, convex, axisymmetric or quasi-axisymmetric, hypersonic bodies in the transitional, rarefied flow regime. Overall aerodynamic forces and moments are computed by integration of the local quantities. The method is based upon a correlation of local pressure and shear stress computed by the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) numerical technique for cold wall, real gas conditions and some supplemental data from low-density, hypersonic wind tunnels. The relative simplicity of the method makes it feasible to do the necessary calculations with a personal computer. Two-dimensional shapes and leeward surfaces are not included in the scope of the method as it is presented here. Results are compared with DSMC computations for both local and overall coefficients. The latter includes sphere and blunt cone drag as well as lift and pitching moment coefficients for the NASA AFE vehicle at various angles of attack. Very satisfactory agreement is shown.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erickson, Gary E.; Inenaga, Andrew S.
1994-01-01
Laser vapor screen (LVS) flow visualization systems that are fiber-optic based were developed and installed for aerodynamic research in the Langley 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel and the Langley 7- by 10-Foot High Speed Tunnel. Fiber optics are used to deliver the laser beam through the plenum shell that surrounds the test section of each facility and to the light-sheet-generating optics positioned in the ceiling window of the test section. Water is injected into the wind tunnel diffuser section to increase the relative humidity and promote condensation of the water vapor in the flow field about the model. The condensed water vapor is then illuminated with an intense sheet of laser light to reveal features of the flow field. The plenum shells are optically sealed; therefore, video-based systems are used to observe and document the flow field. Operational experience shows that the fiber-optic-based systems provide safe, reliable, and high-quality off-surface flow visualization in smaller and larger scale subsonic and transonic wind tunnels. The design, the installation, and the application of the Langley Research Center (LaRC) LVS flow visualization systems in larger scale wind tunnels are highlighted. The efficiency of the fiber optic LVS systems and their insensitivity to wind tunnel vibration, the tunnel operating temperature and pressure variations, and the airborne contaminants are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tsinganos, K. C.
1979-01-01
The aerodynamic lift exerted on a long circular cylinder immersed in a convective flow pattern in an ideal fluid is calculated to establish the equilibrium position of the cylinder. The calculations establish the surprising result that the cylinder is pushed out the upwellings and the downdrafts of the convective cell, into a location midway between them. The implications for the intense magnetic flux tubes in the convection beneath the surface of the sun are considered.
Parallel CFD Algorithms for Aerodynamical Flow Solvers on Unstructured Meshes. Parts 1 and 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barth, Timothy J.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
The Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD) has requested my participation in the lecture series entitled Parallel Computing in Computational Fluid Dynamics to be held at the von Karman Institute in Brussels, Belgium on May 15-19, 1995. In addition, a request has been made from the US Coordinator for AGARD at the Pentagon for NASA Ames to hold a repetition of the lecture series on October 16-20, 1995. I have been asked to be a local coordinator for the Ames event. All AGARD lecture series events have attendance limited to NATO allied countries. A brief of the lecture series is provided in the attached enclosure. Specifically, I have been asked to give two lectures of approximately 75 minutes each on the subject of parallel solution techniques for the fluid flow equations on unstructured meshes. The title of my lectures is "Parallel CFD Algorithms for Aerodynamical Flow Solvers on Unstructured Meshes" (Parts I-II). The contents of these lectures will be largely review in nature and will draw upon previously published work in this area. Topics of my lectures will include: (1) Mesh partitioning algorithms. Recursive techniques based on coordinate bisection, Cuthill-McKee level structures, and spectral bisection. (2) Newton's method for large scale CFD problems. Size and complexity estimates for Newton's method, modifications for insuring global convergence. (3) Techniques for constructing the Jacobian matrix. Analytic and numerical techniques for Jacobian matrix-vector products, constructing the transposed matrix, extensions to optimization and homotopy theories. (4) Iterative solution algorithms. Practical experience with GIVIRES and BICG-STAB matrix solvers. (5) Parallel matrix preconditioning. Incomplete Lower-Upper (ILU) factorization, domain-decomposed ILU, approximate Schur complement strategies.
MISDRAG- AERODYNAMIC DRAG ON WING-BODY COMBINATIONS AT SMALL ANGLES OF ATTACK IN SUPERSONIC FLOW
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sawyer, W. C.
1994-01-01
A computer program has been written to obtain the wave and friction drag of configurations with bodies of revolution and fins. These inviscid flow fields are superimposed and the wave drag of the configuration is obtained by integration of the surface pressures. The friction drag is obtained from the viscous flow field of the body and a flat-plate friction analysis of the fins. The numerical solution of these flow fields, superposition, and integration to obtain total drag have been programmed for high-speed digital computation. A large portion of the input required by the program is involved with the description of the configuration geometry and the specific surface positions where pressures are to be evaluated. In addition to drag forces, an output is available whereby the pressure distributions on the body and fins can be obtained.
Van Truong, Tien; Byun, Doyoung; Kim, Min Jun; Yoon, Kwang Joon; Park, Hoon Cheol
2013-09-01
The aim of this work is to provide an insight into the aerodynamic performance of the beetle during takeoff, which has been estimated in previous investigations. We employed a scaled-up electromechanical model flapping wing to measure the aerodynamic forces and the three-dimensional flow structures on the flapping wing. The ground effect on the unsteady forces and flow structures were also characterized. The dynamically scaled wing model could replicate the general stroke pattern of the beetle's hind wing kinematics during takeoff flight. Two wing kinematic models have been studied to examine the influences of wing kinematics on unsteady aerodynamic forces. In the first model, the angle of attack is asymmetric and varies during the translational motion, which is the flapping motion of the beetle's hind wing. In the second model, the angle of attack is constant during the translational motion. The instantaneous aerodynamic forces were measured for four strokes during the beetle's takeoff by the force sensor attached at the wing base. Flow visualization provided a general picture of the evolution of the three-dimensional leading edge vortex (LEV) on the beetle hind wing model. The LEV is stable during each stroke, and increases radically from the root to the tip, forming a leading-edge spiral vortex. The force measurement results show that the vertical force generated by the hind wing is large enough to lift the beetle. For the beetle hind wing kinematics, the total vertical force production increases 18.4% and 8.6% for the first and second strokes, respectively, due to the ground effect. However, for the model with a constant angle of attack during translation, the vertical force is reduced during the first stroke. During the third and fourth strokes, the ground effect is negligible for both wing kinematic patterns. This finding suggests that the beetle's flapping mechanism induces a ground effect that can efficiently lift its body from the ground during takeoff
Van Truong, Tien; Byun, Doyoung; Kim, Min Jun; Yoon, Kwang Joon; Park, Hoon Cheol
2013-09-01
The aim of this work is to provide an insight into the aerodynamic performance of the beetle during takeoff, which has been estimated in previous investigations. We employed a scaled-up electromechanical model flapping wing to measure the aerodynamic forces and the three-dimensional flow structures on the flapping wing. The ground effect on the unsteady forces and flow structures were also characterized. The dynamically scaled wing model could replicate the general stroke pattern of the beetle's hind wing kinematics during takeoff flight. Two wing kinematic models have been studied to examine the influences of wing kinematics on unsteady aerodynamic forces. In the first model, the angle of attack is asymmetric and varies during the translational motion, which is the flapping motion of the beetle's hind wing. In the second model, the angle of attack is constant during the translational motion. The instantaneous aerodynamic forces were measured for four strokes during the beetle's takeoff by the force sensor attached at the wing base. Flow visualization provided a general picture of the evolution of the three-dimensional leading edge vortex (LEV) on the beetle hind wing model. The LEV is stable during each stroke, and increases radically from the root to the tip, forming a leading-edge spiral vortex. The force measurement results show that the vertical force generated by the hind wing is large enough to lift the beetle. For the beetle hind wing kinematics, the total vertical force production increases 18.4% and 8.6% for the first and second strokes, respectively, due to the ground effect. However, for the model with a constant angle of attack during translation, the vertical force is reduced during the first stroke. During the third and fourth strokes, the ground effect is negligible for both wing kinematic patterns. This finding suggests that the beetle's flapping mechanism induces a ground effect that can efficiently lift its body from the ground during takeoff.
Aerodynamic measurements of methyl bromide volatilization from tarped and nontarped fields
Majewski, M.S.; McChesney, M.M.; Woodrow, J.E.; Seiber, J.N.
1995-07-01
Methyl bromide (MeBr) is used extensively in agriculture as a soil fumigant and there is growing concern over the role it may play in the depletion of stratospheric ozone. Methyl bromide is applied using various techniques and very little is known about how much of the applied fumigant volatilizes into the atmosphere after the application. This field study was designed to estimate the post-application methyl bromide volatilization loss rates from two different application practices. The fields were approximately 6 km apart in Monterey County, California, and were treated in conformity with local practices as of 1992. The MeBr was injected at a depth of 25 to 30 cm. One field was covered simultaneously with a high-barrier plastic film tarp during the application, and the other was left uncovered, but the furrows made by the injection shanks were bedded over. Volatilization fluxes were estimated using an aerodynamic-gradient technique immediately following the completion of the application process and continued for 9 d for the tarped field and 6 d for the nontarped field. The cumulative volatilization losses from the tarped field were 22% of the nominal application within the first 5 d of the experiment and about 32% of the nominal application within 9 d including the one day after the tarp was removed on Day 8 after application. In contrast, the nontarped field lost 89% of the nominal application by volatilization in 5 d. The volatilization rate from the tarped field was shown to be significantly lower than the nontarped field at a 95% confidence level. 43 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carpenter, P. W.; Smith, C.
1997-12-01
The paper describes two studies of the effects of flow control devices on the aerodynamics and aeroacoustics of a high-speed Coanda flow that is formed when a supersonic jet issues from a radial nozzle and adheres to a tulip-shaped body of revolution. Shadowgraphy and other flow-visualization techniques are used to reveal the various features of the complex flow fields. The acoustic characteristics are obtained from far- and near-field measurements with an array of microphones in an anechoic chamber. First the effects of incorporating a step between the annular exit slot and the Coanda surface are investigated. The step is incorporated to ensure that the breakaway pressure is raised to a level well above the maximum operating pressure. It substantially increases the complexity of the flow field and acoustic characteristics. In particular, it promotes the generation of two groups of discrete tones. A theoretical model based on a self-generated feedback loop is proposed to explain how these tones are generated. The second study investigates the effects of replacing the annular exit slot with a saw-toothed one with the aim of eliminating the discrete tones and thereby substantially reducing the level of noise generated.
Abdelrahim, M E; Assi, K H; Chrystyn, H
2013-01-01
Previously, dose emission below 30 L min(-1) through DPI has not been routinely determined. However, during routine use some patients do not achieve 30 L min(-1) inhalation flows. Hence, the aim of the present study was to determine dose emission characteristics for low inhalation flows from terbutaline sulphate Turbuhaler. Total emitted dose (TED), fine particle dose (FPD) and mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of terbutaline sulphate Turbuhaler were determined using inhalation flows of 10-60 L min(-1) and inhaled volume of 4 L. TED and FPD increase significantly with the increase of inhalation flows (p <0.05). Flows had more pronounced effect on FPD than TED, thus, faster inhalation increases respirable amount more than it increases emitted dose. MMAD increases with decrease of inhalation flow until flow of 20L min(-1) then it decreases. In vitro flow dependent dose emission has been demonstrated previously for Turbuhaler for flow rates above 30 L min(-1) but is more pronounced below this flow. Minimal FPD below 30 L min(-1) suggests that during routine use at this flow rate most of emitted dose will impact in mouth. Flow dependent dose emission results suggest that Pharmacopoeias should consider the use variety of inhalation flows rather than one that is equivalent to pressure drop of 4 KPa. PMID:21981637
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bryan, William B.; Fleeter, Sanford
1987-01-01
The internal three-dimensional steady and time-varying flow through the diffusing elements of a centrifugal impeller were investigated using a moderate scale, subsonic, mixed flow research compressor facility. The characteristics of the test facility which permit the measurement of internal flow conditions throughout the entire research compressor and radial diffuser for various operating conditions are described. Results are presented in the form of graphs and charts to cover a range of mass flow rates with inlet guide vane settings varying from minus 15 degrees to plus 45 degrees. The static pressure distributions in the compressor inlet section and on the impeller and exit diffuser vanes, as well as the overall pressure and temperature rise and mass flow rate, were measured and analyzed at each operating point to determine the overall performance as well as the detailed aerodynamics throughout the compressor.
Transonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of Two Wedge Airfoil Sections Including Unsteady Flow Studies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnston, Patrick J.
1959-01-01
A two-dimensional wind-tunnel investigation has been conducted on a 20-percent-thick single-wedge airfoil section. Steady-state forces and moments were determined from pressure measurements at Mach numbers from 0.70 to about 1.25. Additional information on the flows about the single wedge is provided by means of instantaneous pressure measurements at Mach numbers up to unity. Pressure distributions were also obtained on a symmetrical double-wedge or diamond-shaped profile which had the same leading-edge included angle as the single-wedge airfoil. A comparison of the data on the two profiles to provide information on the effects of the afterbody showed that with the exception of drag, the single-wedge profile proved to be aerodynamically superior to the diamond profile in all respects. The lift effectiveness of the single-wedge airfoil section far exceeded that of conventional thin airfoil sections over the speed range of the investigation. Pitching-moment irregularities, caused by negative loadings near the trailing edge, generally associated with conventional airfoils of equivalent thicknesses were not exhibited by the single-wedge profile. Moderately high pulsating pressures existing over the base of the single-wedge airfoil section were significantly reduced as the Mach number was increased beyond 0.92 and the boundaries of the dead airspace at the base of the model converged to eliminate the vortex street in the wake. Increasing the leading-edge radius from 0 to 1 percent of the chord had a minor effect on the steady-state forces and generally raised the level of pressure pulsations over the forward part of the single-wedge profile.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dwoyer, D. L.; Newman, P. A.; Thames, F. C.; Melson, N. D.
1981-01-01
The problem of predicting aerodynamic loads on the insulating tiles of the space shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) is discussed and seen to require a method for predicting pressure and mass flux in the gaps between tiles. A mathematical model of the tile-gap flow is developed, based upon a slow viscous (Stokes) flow analysis, and is verified against experimental data. The tile-gap pressure field is derived from a solution of the two-dimensional Laplace equation; the mass-flux vector is then calculated from the pressure gradient. The means for incorporating this model into a lumped-parameter network analogy for porous-media flow is given. The means for incorporating this model into a lumped-parameter network analogy for porous-media flow is given. The flow model shows tile-gap mass flux to be very sensitive to the gap width indicating a need for coupling the TPS flow and tile displacement calculation. Analytical and experimental work to improve TPS flow predictions and a possible shuttle TPS hardware modification are recommended.
Flow aerodynamics modeling of an MHD swirl combustor - Calculations and experimental verification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gupta, A. K.; Beer, J. M.; Louis, J. F.; Busnaina, A. A.; Lilley, D. G.
1981-01-01
The paper describes a computer code for calculating the flow dynamics of a constant-density flow in the second-stage trumpet shaped nozzle section of a two-stage MHD swirl combustor for application to a disk generator. The primitive pressure-velocity variable, finite-difference computer code has been developed for the computation of inert nonreacting turbulent swirling flows in an axisymmetric MHD model swirl combustor. The method and program involve a staggered grid system for axial and radial velocities, and a line relaxation technique for the efficient solution of the equations. The code produces as output the flow field map of the nondimensional stream function, axial and swirl velocity. It was found that the best location for seed injection to obtain a uniform distribution at the combustor exit is in the central location for seed injected at the entrance to the second stage combustor.
Aerodynamic measurements of methyl bromide volatilization from tarped and nontarped fields
Majewski, M.S.; McChesney, M.M.; Woodrow, J.E.; Prueger, J.H.; Seiber, J.N.
1995-01-01
Methyl bromide (MeBr) is used extensively in agriculture as a soil fumigant and there is growing concern over the role it may play in the depletion of stratospheric ozone. Methyl bromide is applied using various techniques and very little is known about how much of the applied fumigant volatilizes into the atmosphere after the application. This held study was designed to estimate the post-application methyl bromide volatilization loss rates from two different application practices. The fields were approximately 6 km apart in Monterey County, California, and were treated in conformity with local practices as of 1992. The MeBr was injected at a depth of 25 to 30 cm. One field was covered simultaneously with a high-barrier plastic film tarp during the application, and the other was left uncovered, but the furrows made by the injection shanks were bedded over. Volatilization fluxes were estimated using an aerodynamic-gradient technique immediately following the completion of the application process and continued for 9 d for the tarped held and 6 d for the nontarped field. The cumulative volatilization losses from the tarped field were 22% of the nominal application within the first 5 d of the experiment and about 32% of the nominal application within 9 d including the one day after the tarp was removed on Day 8 after application. In contrast, the nontarped field lost 89% of the nominal application by volatilization in 5 d. The volatilization rate from the tarped field was shown to he significantly lower than the nontarped field at a 95% confidence level.
Numerical and experimental study of unsteady flow field and vibration in radial inflow turbines
Kreuz-Ihli, T.; Filsinger, D.; Schulz, A.; Wittig, S.
2000-04-01
The blades of turbocharger impellers are exposed to unsteady aerodynamic forces, which cause blade vibrations and may lead to failures. An indispensable requirement for a safe design of radial inflow turbines is a detailed knowledge of the exciting forces. Up to now, only a few investigations relating to unsteady aerodynamic forces in radial turbines have been presented. To give a detailed insight into the complex phenomena, a comprehensive research project was initiated at the Institut fuer Thermische Stroemungsmaschinen, at the University of Karlsruhe. A turbocharger test rig was installed in the high-pressure, high-temperature laboratory of the institute. The present paper gives a description of the test rig design and the measuring techniques. The flow field in a vaneless radial inflow turbine was analyzed using laser-Doppler anemometry. First results of unsteady flow field investigations in the turbine scroll and unsteady phase-resolved measurements of the flow field in the turbine rotor will be discussed. Moreover, results from finite element calculations analyzing frequencies and mode shapes are presented. As vibrations in turbines of turbochargers are assumed to be predominantly excited by unsteady aerodynamic forces, a method to predict the actual transient flow in a radial turbine utilizing the commercial Navier-Stokes solver TASCflow3d was developed. Results of the unsteady calculations are presented and comparisons with the measured unsteady flow field are made. As a major result, the excitation effect of the tongue region in a vaneless radial inflow turbine can be demonstrated.
Visualizing vector field topology in fluid flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Helman, James L.; Hesselink, Lambertus
1991-01-01
Methods of automating the analysis and display of vector field topology in general and flow topology in particular are discussed. Two-dimensional vector field topology is reviewed as the basis for the examination of topology in three-dimensional separated flows. The use of tangent surfaces and clipping in visualizing vector field topology in fluid flows is addressed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiménez-Varona, J.; Ponsin Roca, J.
2015-06-01
Under a contract with AIRBUS MILITARY (AI-M), an exercise to analyze the potential of optimization techniques to improve the wing performances at cruise conditions has been carried out by using an in-house design code. The original wing was provided by AI-M and several constraints were posed for the redesign. To maximize the aerodynamic efficiency at cruise, optimizations were performed using the design techniques developed internally at INTA under a research program (Programa de Termofluidodinámica). The code is a gradient-based optimizaa tion code, which uses classical finite differences approach for gradient computations. Several techniques for search direction computation are implemented for unconstrained and constrained problems. Techniques for geometry modifications are based on different approaches which include perturbation functions for the thickness and/or mean line distributions and others by Bézier curves fitting of certain degree. It is very e important to afford a real design which involves several constraints that reduce significantly the feasible design space. And the assessment of the code is needed in order to check the capabilities and the possible drawbacks. Lessons learnt will help in the development of future enhancements. In addition, the validation of the results was done using also the well-known TAU flow solver and a far-field drag method in order to determine accurately the improvement in terms of drag counts.
Comparison of Orbiter PRCS Plume Flow Fields Using CFD and Modified Source Flow Codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rochelle, Wm. C.; Kinsey, Robin E.; Reid, Ethan A.; Stuart, Phillip C.; Lumpkin, Forrest E.
1997-01-01
The Space Shuttle Orbiter will use Reaction Control System (RCS) jets for docking with the planned International Space Station (ISS). During approach and backout maneuvers, plumes from these jets could cause high pressure, heating, and thermal loads on ISS components. The object of this paper is to present comparisons of RCS plume flow fields used to calculate these ISS environments. Because of the complexities of 3-D plumes with variable scarf-angle and multi-jet combinations, NASA/JSC developed a plume flow-field methodology for all of these Orbiter jets. The RCS Plume Model (RPM), which includes effects of scarfed nozzles and dual jets, was developed as a modified source-flow engineering tool to rapidly generate plume properties and impingement environments on ISS components. This paper presents flow-field properties from four PRCS jets: F3U low scarf-angle single jet, F3F high scarf-angle single jet, DTU zero scarf-angle dual jet, and F1F/F2F high scarf-angle dual jet. The RPM results compared well with plume flow fields using four CFD programs: General Aerodynamic Simulation Program (GASP), Cartesian (CART), Unified Solution Algorithm (USA), and Reacting and Multi-phase Program (RAMP). Good comparisons of predicted pressures are shown with STS 64 Shuttle Plume Impingement Flight Experiment (SPIFEX) data.
Calculation of Compressible Flows past Aerodynamic Shapes by Use of the Streamline Curvature
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Perl, W
1947-01-01
A simple approximate method is given for the calculation of isentropic irrotational flows past symmetrical airfoils, including mixed subsonic-supersonic flows. The method is based on the choice of suitable values for the streamline curvature in the flow field and the subsequent integration of the equations of motion. The method yields limiting solutions for potential flow. The effect of circulation is considered. A comparison of derived velocity distributions with existing results that are based on calculation to the third order in the thickness ratio indicated satisfactory agreement. The results are also presented in the form of a set of compressibility correction rules that lie between the Prandtl-Glauert rule and the von Karman-Tsien rule (approximately). The different rules correspond to different values of the local shape parameter square root sign YC sub a, in which Y is the ordinate and C sub a is the curvature at a point on an airfoil. Bodies of revolution, completely supersonic flows, and the significance of the limiting solutions for potential flow are also briefly discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sidnyaev, N. I.
2007-03-01
Results of experimental investigations of aerodynamic characteristics of models of high-velocity flying vehicles consisting of a combination of a blunt cone, a cylinder, and a conical tail fin are presented. The model forebody is cooled by porous blowing. The choice of such a configuration is determined by the necessity of optimizing the arrangement of high-velocity flying vehicles on the launcher and their aerodynamic characteristics under conditions of intense surface mass transfer (decrease in drag and heat transfer and increase in static and dynamic stability).
Aerodynamic study of a small wind turbine with emphasis on laminar and transition flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niculescu, M. L.; Cojocaru, M. G.; Crunteanu, D. E.
2016-06-01
The wind energy is huge but unfortunately, wind turbines capture only a little part of this enormous green energy. Furthermore, it is impossible to put multi megawatt wind turbines in the cities because they generate a lot of noise and discomfort. Instead, it is possible to install small Darrieus and horizontal-axis wind turbines with low tip speed ratios in order to mitigate the noise as much as possible. Unfortunately, the flow around this wind turbine is quite complex because the run at low Reynolds numbers. Therefore, this flow is usually a mixture of laminar, transition and laminar regimes with bubble laminar separation that is very difficult to simulate from the numerical point of view. Usually, transition and laminar regimes with bubble laminar separation are ignored. For this reason, this paper deals with laminar and transition flows in order to provide some brightness in this field.
Aerodynamics of knuckle ball: Flow-structure interaction problem on a pitched baseball without spin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Higuchi, Hiroshi; Kiura, Toshiro
2012-07-01
In the game of baseball, the knuckleball—so-called because the baseball is gripped with the knuckles in a certain position—is pitched in a way that introduces nearly no rotation, resulting in erratic flight paths which confuse batters. The “knuckleball” effect is believed to be caused by asymmetric flow separation over the baseball, but little is known about its flow physics. In the experiment described in this paper, the flow near the seams of the baseball is visualized thoroughly and the velocity vector fields near the surface and in the wake are obtained with Digital Particle Image Velocimetry. Depending on its position, the seam is found to trigger the boundary layer transition thus delaying the separation, or to cause separation itself. Three-dimensional wake patterns associated with specific ball orientations are identified and related to the force variations on the ball.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitehead, Allen H., Jr.
1989-01-01
This paper discusses the critical aerodynamic technologies needed to support the development of a class of aircraft represented by the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). The air-breathing, single-stage-to-orbit mission presents a severe challenge to all of the aeronautical disciplines and demands an extension of the state-of-the-art in each technology area. While the largest risk areas are probably advanced materials and the development of the scramjet engine, there remains a host of design issues and technology problems in aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, and propulsion integration. The paper presents an overview of the most significant propulsion integration problems, and defines the most critical fluid flow phenomena that must be evaluated, defined, and predicted for the class of aircraft represented by the Aero-Space Plane.
Graphics and Flow Visualization of Computer Generated Flow Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kathong, M.; Tiwari, S. N.
1987-01-01
Flow field variables are visualized using color representations described on surfaces that are interpolated from computational grids and transformed to digital images. Techniques for displaying two and three dimensional flow field solutions are addressed. The transformations and the use of an interactive graphics program for CFD flow field solutions, called PLOT3D, which runs on the color graphics IRIS workstation are described. An overview of the IRIS workstation is also described.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
DeSpirito, James; Vaughn, Milton E., Jr.; Washington, W. D.
2002-09-01
Viscous computational fluid dynamic simulations were used to predict the aerodynamic coefficients and flowfield around a generic canard-controlled missile configuration in supersonic flow. Computations were performed for Mach 1.5 and 3.0, at six angles of attack between 0 and 10, with 0 and 10 canard deflection, and with planar and grid tail fins, for a total of 48 cases. Validation of the computed results was demonstrated by the very good agreement between the computed aerodynamic coefficients and those obtained from wind tunnel measurements. Visualizations of the flowfield showed that the canard trailing vortices and downwash produced a low-pressure region on the starboard side of the missile that in turn produced an adverse side force. The pressure differential on the leeward fin produced by the interaction with the canard trailing vortices is primarily responsible for the adverse roll effect observed when planar fins are used. Grid tail fins improved the roll effectiveness of the canards at low supersonic speed. No adverse rolling moment was observed with no canard deflection, or at the higher supersonic speed for either tail fin type due to the lower intensity of the canard trailing vortices in these cases. Flow visualizations from the simulations performed in this study help in the understanding of the flow physics and can lead to improved canard and tail fin designs for missiles and rockets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Houjoh, Haruo
1992-12-01
One specific feature of the aerodynamic sound produced at the face end region is that the radiation becomes equally weak by filling root spaces as by shortening the center distance. However, one can easily expect that such actions make the air flow faster, and consequently make the sound louder. This paper attempts to reveal the reason for such a feature. First, air flow induced by the pumping action of the gear pair was analyzed regarding a series of root spaces as volume varying cavities which have channels to adjacent cavities as well as the exit/inlet at the face ends. The numerical analysis was verified by the hot wire anemometer measurement. Next, from the obtained flow response, the sound source was estimated to be a combination of symmetrically distributed simple sources. Taking the effect of either the center distance or root filling into consideration, it is shown that the simplified model can explain such a feature rationally.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reinath, M. S.; Ross, J. C.
1990-01-01
A flow visualization technique for the large wind tunnels of the National Full Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) is described. The technique uses a laser sheet generated by the NFAC Long Range Laser Velocimeter (LRLV) to illuminate a smoke-like tracer in the flow. The LRLV optical system is modified slightly, and a scanned mirror is added to generate the sheet. These modifications are described, in addition to the results of an initial performance test conducted in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel. During this test, flow visualization was performed in the wake region behind a truck as part of a vehicle drag reduction study. The problems encountered during the test are discussed, in addition to the recommended improvements needed to enhance the performance of the technique for future applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reinath, M. S.; Ross, J. C.
1990-09-01
A flow visualization technique for the large wind tunnels of the National Full Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) is described. The technique uses a laser sheet generated by the NFAC Long Range Laser Velocimeter (LRLV) to illuminate a smoke-like tracer in the flow. The LRLV optical system is modified slightly, and a scanned mirror is added to generate the sheet. These modifications are described, in addition to the results of an initial performance test conducted in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel. During this test, flow visualization was performed in the wake region behind a truck as part of a vehicle drag reduction study. The problems encountered during the test are discussed, in addition to the recommended improvements needed to enhance the performance of the technique for future applications.
Detection of airborne viruses using electro-aerodynamic deposition and a field-effect transistor
Park, Kyu-Tae; Cho, Dong-Guk; Park, Ji-Woon; Hong, Seunghun; Hwang, Jungho
2015-01-01
We report a technique for the detection of aerosolized viruses. Conventional field-effect-transistor (FET)-based techniques use solution-based processes, thus require antibody binding to the detection region of the FET prior to the supply of the analyte. With the method described here, virus–antibody-bound particles are delivered to the FET during detection; therefore, neither a pre-treatment antibody binding step on the FET channel nor washing process for virus–antibody-binding are necessary. Our method is based on the concept that virus–antibody-bound particles are larger than the virus or antibody alone, and thus have larger charge numbers following aerosol charging. When these particles are charged by negative ions and electro-aerodynamically deposited on a substrate, there exists a location on the substrate where neither lone virus nor antibody particles land, and where only virus–antibody-bound particles are deposited. If this location coincides with the channel of the FET, the resulting variation in the current can be used to indicate the existence of a virus. By aerosolizing a mixed solution of the virus and the antibody, only the virus–antibody-bound particles were transported to the swCNT-FET, and the electric current in the swCNT-FET decreased to 30% of that measured with no deposited particles. PMID:26642822
Analysis of aerodynamic field and noise of a small wind turbine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niculescu, Mihai Leonida; Cojocaru, Marius Gabriel; Pricop, Mihai Victor
2012-11-01
The wind energy is deemed as one of the most durable energetic variants of the future because the wind resources are immense. Furthermore, one predicts that the small wind turbine will play a vital role in the urban environment. Unfortunately, nowadays, the noise emissions from wind turbines represent one of the main obstacles to widespread the use in populated zones. Moreover, the energetic efficiency of these wind turbines has to be high even at low and medium wind velocities because, usually the cities are not windy places. The numerical results clearly show that the wakes after the trailing edge are the main noise sources. In order to decrease the power of these noise sources, we should try to decrease the intensity of wakes after the trailing edge, i.e. the aerodynamic fields from pressure and suction sides would have to be almost the same near trailing edge. Furthermore, one observes a strong link between transport (circumferential) velocity and acoustic power level, i.e. if the transport velocity increases, the acoustic power level also augments.
Detection of airborne viruses using electro-aerodynamic deposition and a field-effect transistor.
Park, Kyu-Tae; Cho, Dong-Guk; Park, Ji-Woon; Hong, Seunghun; Hwang, Jungho
2015-01-01
We report a technique for the detection of aerosolized viruses. Conventional field-effect-transistor (FET)-based techniques use solution-based processes, thus require antibody binding to the detection region of the FET prior to the supply of the analyte. With the method described here, virus-antibody-bound particles are delivered to the FET during detection; therefore, neither a pre-treatment antibody binding step on the FET channel nor washing process for virus-antibody-binding are necessary. Our method is based on the concept that virus-antibody-bound particles are larger than the virus or antibody alone, and thus have larger charge numbers following aerosol charging. When these particles are charged by negative ions and electro-aerodynamically deposited on a substrate, there exists a location on the substrate where neither lone virus nor antibody particles land, and where only virus-antibody-bound particles are deposited. If this location coincides with the channel of the FET, the resulting variation in the current can be used to indicate the existence of a virus. By aerosolizing a mixed solution of the virus and the antibody, only the virus-antibody-bound particles were transported to the swCNT-FET, and the electric current in the swCNT-FET decreased to 30% of that measured with no deposited particles.
Detection of airborne viruses using electro-aerodynamic deposition and a field-effect transistor.
Park, Kyu-Tae; Cho, Dong-Guk; Park, Ji-Woon; Hong, Seunghun; Hwang, Jungho
2015-01-01
We report a technique for the detection of aerosolized viruses. Conventional field-effect-transistor (FET)-based techniques use solution-based processes, thus require antibody binding to the detection region of the FET prior to the supply of the analyte. With the method described here, virus-antibody-bound particles are delivered to the FET during detection; therefore, neither a pre-treatment antibody binding step on the FET channel nor washing process for virus-antibody-binding are necessary. Our method is based on the concept that virus-antibody-bound particles are larger than the virus or antibody alone, and thus have larger charge numbers following aerosol charging. When these particles are charged by negative ions and electro-aerodynamically deposited on a substrate, there exists a location on the substrate where neither lone virus nor antibody particles land, and where only virus-antibody-bound particles are deposited. If this location coincides with the channel of the FET, the resulting variation in the current can be used to indicate the existence of a virus. By aerosolizing a mixed solution of the virus and the antibody, only the virus-antibody-bound particles were transported to the swCNT-FET, and the electric current in the swCNT-FET decreased to 30% of that measured with no deposited particles. PMID:26642822
Detection of airborne viruses using electro-aerodynamic deposition and a field-effect transistor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Kyu-Tae; Cho, Dong-Guk; Park, Ji-Woon; Hong, Seunghun; Hwang, Jungho
2015-12-01
We report a technique for the detection of aerosolized viruses. Conventional field-effect-transistor (FET)-based techniques use solution-based processes, thus require antibody binding to the detection region of the FET prior to the supply of the analyte. With the method described here, virus-antibody-bound particles are delivered to the FET during detection; therefore, neither a pre-treatment antibody binding step on the FET channel nor washing process for virus-antibody-binding are necessary. Our method is based on the concept that virus-antibody-bound particles are larger than the virus or antibody alone, and thus have larger charge numbers following aerosol charging. When these particles are charged by negative ions and electro-aerodynamically deposited on a substrate, there exists a location on the substrate where neither lone virus nor antibody particles land, and where only virus-antibody-bound particles are deposited. If this location coincides with the channel of the FET, the resulting variation in the current can be used to indicate the existence of a virus. By aerosolizing a mixed solution of the virus and the antibody, only the virus-antibody-bound particles were transported to the swCNT-FET, and the electric current in the swCNT-FET decreased to 30% of that measured with no deposited particles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krasinsky, D. V.; Salomatov, V. V.; Anufriev, I. S.; Sharypov, O. V.; Shadrin, E. Yu.; Anikin, Yu. A.
2015-02-01
Some results of the complex experimental and numerical study of aerodynamics and transfer processes in a vortex furnace, whose design was improved via the distributed tangential injection of fuel-air flows through the upper and lower burners, were presented. The experimental study of the aerodynamic characteristics of a spatial turbulent flow was performed on the isothermal laboratory model (at a scale of 1 : 20) of an improved vortex furnace using a laser Doppler measurement system. The comparison of experimental data with the results of the numerical modeling of an isothermal flow for the same laboratory furnace model demonstrated their agreement to be acceptable for engineering practice.
Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Haecheon; Lee, Jungil; Park, Hyungmin
2014-01-01
We present an overview of the aerodynamics of heavy vehicles, such as tractor-trailers, high-speed trains, and buses. We introduce three-dimensional flow structures around simplified model vehicles and heavy vehicles and discuss the flow-control devices used for drag reduction. Finally, we suggest important unsteady flow structures to investigate for the enhancement of aerodynamic performance and future directions for experimental and numerical approaches.
Real-Time Aerodynamic Flow and Data Visualization in an Interactive Virtual Environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwartz, Richard J.; Fleming, Gary A.
2005-01-01
Significant advances have been made to non-intrusive flow field diagnostics in the past decade. Camera based techniques are now capable of determining physical qualities such as surface deformation, surface pressure and temperature, flow velocities, and molecular species concentration. In each case, extracting the pertinent information from the large volume of acquired data requires powerful and efficient data visualization tools. The additional requirement for real time visualization is fueled by an increased emphasis on minimizing test time in expensive facilities. This paper will address a capability titled LiveView3D, which is the first step in the development phase of an in depth, real time data visualization and analysis tool for use in aerospace testing facilities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujimatsu, Nobuyoshi; Suzuki, Kojiro
The base flow field of a vertical landing rocket in ground effect is numerically studied to clarify the mechanism of downward force acting on the body. Two characteristic patterns in the pressure distribution on the base surface are successfully captured as observed in the experiments. When the distance between the base and the ground surface is small, vorticies generated in the shear layer of the jet boundary interact with both the ground and base surfaces. The base pressure near the axis of the base is significantly reduced and large downward force appears due to vortical structure in the base region. When the distance is large, the vorticies are convected along the ground surface and the base pressure near the edge of the vehicle base is reduced due to suction of the ambient air. The numerical results indicate that unsteady motion of such vortices plays an important role in formation of the flow patterns described above.
Aerodynamic heating on AFE due to nonequilibrium flow with variable entropy at boundary layer edge
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ting, P. C.; Rochelle, W. C.; Bouslog, S. A.; Tam, L. T.; Scott, C. D.; Curry, D. M.
1991-01-01
A method of predicting the aerobrake aerothermodynamic environment on the NASA Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle is described. Results of a three dimensional inviscid nonequilibrium solution are used as input to an axisymmetric nonequilibrium boundary layer program to predict AFE convective heating rates. Inviscid flow field properties are obtained from the Euler option of the Viscous Reacting Flow (VRFLO) code at the boundary layer edge. Heating rates on the AFE surface are generated with the Boundary Layer Integral Matrix Procedure (BLIMP) code for a partially catalytic surface composed of Reusable Surface Insulation (RSI) times. The 1864 kg AFE will fly an aerobraking trajectory, simulating return from geosynchronous Earth orbit, with a 75 km perigee and a 10 km/sec entry velocity. Results of this analysis will provide principal investigators and thermal analysts with aeroheating environments to perform experiment and thermal protection system design.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hass, J. E.; Kofskey, M. G.
1977-01-01
The aerodynamic performance of a 0.5 aspect ratio turbine vane configuration with coolant flow ejection was experimentally determined in a full annular cascade. The vanes were tested at a nominal mean section ideal critical velocity ratio of 0.890 over a range of primary to coolant total temperature ratio from 1.0 to 2.08 and a range of coolant to primary total pressure ratio from 1.0 to 1.4 which corresponded to coolant flows from 3.0 to 10.7 percent of the primary flow. The variations in primary and thermodynamic efficiency and exit flow conditions with circumferential and radial position were obtained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hattori, Yuji
2015-11-01
The aerodynamic sound generated in a two-dimensional flow past an oscillating and a fixed circular cylinder in tandem is studied. This flow can be regarded as a simplified model of the sound generation due to the interaction of rotating wings and a strut. The sound pressure is captured by direct numerical simulation of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations using the volume penalization method modified by the author. It is shown that synchronization plays a crucial role in sound reduction. When the frequency of the oscillating cylinder is smaller than that of vortex shedding of the fixed cylinder, the sound is significantly reduced due to synchronization as the frequency of vortex shedding is decreased. Sound reduction also depends on the distance between the cylinders. There are distances at which the forces exerted on the cylinders are in anti-phase so that the total force and thereby the resulting sound are significantly reduced.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abbott, J. M.; Miller, B. A.; Golladay, R. L.
1974-01-01
The aerodynamic and acoustic performance of a translating grid choked-flow inlet was determined in a low-speed wind tunnel at free-stream velocities of 24, 32, and 45 m/sec and incidence angles of 0, 10, 20, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 deg. The inlet was sized to fit a 13.97- centimeter-diameter fan with a design weight flow of 2.49 kg/sec. Measurements were made to determine inlet total pressure recovery, flow distortion, and sound pressure level for both choked and unchoked geometries over a range of inlet weight flows. For the unchoked geometry, inlet total pressure recovery ranged from 0.983 to 0.989 at incidence angles less than 40 deg. At 40 deg incidence angle, inlet cowl separation was encountered which resulted in lower values of pressure recovery and higher levels of fan broadband noise. For the choked geometry, increasing total pressure losses occurred with increasing inlet weight flow that prevented the inlet from reaching full choked conditions with the particular fan used. These losses were attributed to the high Mach number drag rise characteristics of airfoil grid. At maximum attainable inlet weight flow, the total pressure recovery at static conditions was 0.935. The fan blade passing frequency and other fan generated pure tones were eliminated from the noise spectrum, but the broadband level was increased.
Examination of forced unsteady separated flow fields on a rotating wind turbine blade
Huyer, S. )
1993-04-01
The wind turbine industry faces many problems regarding the construction of efficient and predictable wind turbine machines. Steady state, two-dimensional wind tunnel data are generally used to predict aerodynamic loads on wind turbine blades. Preliminary experimental evidence indicates that some of the underlying fluid dynamic phenomena could be attributed to dynamic stall, or more specifically to generation of forced unsteady separated flow fields. A collaborative research effort between the University of Colorado and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory was conducted to systematically categorize the local and global effects of three- dimensional forced unsteady flow fields.
Couette flow in ferrofluids with magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Jitender; Bajaj, Renu
2005-06-01
Instability of a viscous, incompressible ferrofluid flow in an annular space between two coaxially rotating cylinders in the presence of axial magnetic field has been investigated numerically. The magnetic field perturbations in fluid in the gap between the cylinders have been taken into consideration and these have been observed to stabilize the Couette flow.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horstman, Raymond H.
1992-01-01
Aerodynamic flow achieved by adding fixed fairings to butterfly valve. When valve fully open, fairings align with butterfly and reduce wake. Butterfly free to turn, so valve can be closed, while fairings remain fixed. Design reduces turbulence in flow of air in internal suction system. Valve aids in development of improved porous-surface boundary-layer control system to reduce aerodynamic drag. Applications primarily aerospace. System adapted to boundary-layer control on high-speed land vehicles.
Influence of flow field scaling on flashback of swirl flames
Blesinger, G.; Koch, R.; Bauer, H.-J.
2010-04-15
In this paper, the effect of geometrical scaling on the onset of flashback into a cylindrical premixing zone of a swirl flame is investigated. We discriminate two types of flashback. In the first type of flashback the flame propagates upstream inside an already present axial recirculation zone. This flashback is caused by turbulent burning along the vortex axis (TBVA) and is controlled by flame extinction inside the recirculation zone. The second type of flashback is caused by combustion induced vortex breakdown (CIVB). This type of flashback is characterised by the aerodynamic influence of the combustion heat release that leads to propagation of the axial recirculation zone and the flame in upstream direction. To study the effects of geometrical scaling on the flow fields and the two types of flashback, the operation of two geometrically scaled burners are compared at equal Reynolds number. By this method it is possible to observe the flashback phenomena in similar swirl flow fields but with different turbulent scales affecting the combustion process. To check flow field similarity and to indentify the flashback type, the non-reacting and reacting flow fields have been examined by planar particle imaging velocimetry and simultaneous recording of the flame luminescence. It is shown that geometrical scaling of the burner shifts the equivalence ratio at which flashback occurs and that this shift is different for the two types of flashback. Consistency and inconsistency with known scaling and stability criterions is discussed. Analysing the fluid dynamics and turbulent combustion gives a first explanation of why CIVB and TBVA are affected differently by geometrical scaling at constant Reynolds number which is in good agreement with the experimental observations. (author)
Reciprocity relations in aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heaslet, Max A; Spreiter, John R
1953-01-01
Reverse flow theorems in aerodynamics are shown to be based on the same general concepts involved in many reciprocity theorems in the physical sciences. Reciprocal theorems for both steady and unsteady motion are found as a logical consequence of this approach. No restrictions on wing plan form or flight Mach number are made beyond those required in linearized compressible-flow analysis. A number of examples are listed, including general integral theorems for lifting, rolling, and pitching wings and for wings in nonuniform downwash fields. Correspondence is also established between the buildup of circulation with time of a wing starting impulsively from rest and the buildup of lift of the same wing moving in the reverse direction into a sharp-edged gust.
Lattice-based flow field modeling.
Wei, Xiaoming; Zhao, Ye; Fan, Zhe; Li, Wei; Qiu, Feng; Yoakum-Stover, Suzanne; Kaufman, Arie E
2004-01-01
We present an approach for simulating the natural dynamics that emerge from the interaction between a flow field and immersed objects. We model the flow field using the Lattice Boltzmann Model (LBM) with boundary conditions appropriate for moving objects and accelerate the computation on commodity graphics hardware (GPU) to achieve real-time performance. The boundary conditions mediate the exchange of momentum between the flow field and the moving objects resulting in forces exerted by the flow on the objects as well as the back-coupling on the flow. We demonstrate our approach using soap bubbles and a feather. The soap bubbles illustrate Fresnel reflection, reveal the dynamics of the unseen flow field in which they travel, and display spherical harmonics in their undulations. Our simulation allows the user to directly interact with the flow field to influence the dynamics in real time. The free feather flutters and gyrates in response to lift and drag forces created by its motion relative to the flow. Vortices are created as the free feather falls in an otherwise quiescent flow. PMID:15527053
SRMAFTE facility checkout model flow field analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dill, Richard A.; Whitesides, Harold R.
1992-01-01
The Solid Rocket Motor Air Flow Equipment (SRMAFTE) facility was constructed for the purpose of evaluating the internal propellant, insulation, and nozzle configurations of solid propellant rocket motor designs. This makes the characterization of the facility internal flow field very important in assuring that no facility induced flow field features exist which would corrupt the model related measurements. In order to verify the design and operation of the facility, a three-dimensional computational flow field analysis was performed on the facility checkout model setup. The checkout model measurement data, one-dimensional and three-dimensional estimates were compared, and the design and proper operation of the facility was verified. The proper operation of the metering nozzles, adapter chamber transition, model nozzle, and diffuser were verified. The one-dimensional and three-dimensional flow field estimates along with the available measurement data are compared.
Improved visualization of flow field measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miles, Jeffrey Hilton
1991-01-01
A capability is proposed that makes it feasible to apply to measured flow field data the visualization tools developed to display numerical solutions for computational fluid dynamic problems. The measurement monitor surface (MMS) methodology was used for the analysis of flow field measurements within a low-aspect-ratio transonic axial-flow fan rotor acquired with two-dimensional laser anemometry. It is shown that the MMS method may be utilized to generate input for the multidimensional processing and analytical tools developed for numerical flow field simulation data. Thus an experimenter utilizing an interactive graphics program could illustrate scalar quantities such as Mach number by profiles, contour lines, carpet plots, and surfaces employing various color intensities. Also, flow directionality can be shown by the display of vector fields and particle traces.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maskew, B.
1983-01-01
A general low-order surface-singularity panel method is used to predict the aerodynamic characteristics of a problem where a wing-tip vortex from one wing closely interacts with an aft mounted wing in a low Reynolds Number flow; i.e., 125,000. Nonlinear effects due to wake roll-up and the influence of the wings on the vortex path are included in the calculation by using a coupled iterative wake relaxation scheme. The interaction also affects the wing pressures and boundary layer characteristics: these effects are also considered using coupled integral boundary layer codes and preliminary calculations using free vortex sheet separation modelling are included. Calculated results are compared with water tunnel experimental data with generally remarkably good agreement.
Flow field studies on a micro-air-vehicle-scale cycloidal rotor in forward flight
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lind, Andrew H.; Jarugumilli, Tejaswi; Benedict, Moble; Lakshminarayan, Vinod K.; Jones, Anya R.; Chopra, Inderjit
2014-12-01
This paper examines the flow physics and principles of force production on a cycloidal rotor (cyclorotor) in forward flight. The cyclorotor considered here consists of two blades rotating about a horizontal axis, with cyclic pitch angle variation about the blade quarter-chord. The flow field at the rotor mid-span is analyzed using smoke flow visualization and particle image velocimeV are compared with flow fields predicted using 2D CFD and time-averaged force measurements acquired in an open-jet wind tunnel at three advance ratios. It is shown that the experimental flow field is nearly two dimensional at μ = 0.73 allowing for qualitative comparisons to be made with CFD. The incoming flow velocity decreases in magnitude as the flow passes through the retreating (upper) half of the rotor and is attributed to power extraction by the blades. A significant increase in flow velocity is observed across the advancing (lower) half of the rotor. The aerodynamic analysis demonstrates that the blades accelerate the flow through the lower aft region of the rotor, where they operate in a high dynamic pressure environment. This is consistent with CFD-predicted values of instantaneous aerodynamic forces which reveal that the aft section of the rotor is the primary region of force production. Phase-averaged flow field measurements showed two blade wakes in the flow, formed by each of the two blades. Analysis of the blades at several azimuthal positions revealed two significant blade-wake interactions. The locations of these blade-wake interactions are correlated with force peaks in the CFD-predicted instantaneous blade forces and highlight their importance to the generation of lift and propulsive force of the cyclorotor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Bing; Wu, Dafang; Xia, Yong
2010-09-01
To determine the full-field high-temperature thermal deformation of the structural materials used in high-speed aerospace flight vehicles, a novel non-contact high-temperature deformation measurement system is established by combining transient aerodynamic heating simulation device with the reliability-guided digital image correlation (RG-DIC). The test planar sample with size varying from several mm 2 to several hundreds mm 2 can be heated from room temperature to 1100 °C rapidly and accurately using the infrared radiator of the transient aerodynamic heating simulation system. The digital images of the test sample surface at various temperatures are recorded using an ordinary optical imaging system. To cope with the possible local decorrelated regions caused by black-body radiation within the deformed images at the temperatures over 450 °C, the RG-DIC technique is used to extract full-field in-plane thermal deformation from the recorded images. In validation test, the thermal deformation fields and the values of coefficient of thermal expansion (CTEs) of a chromiumnickel austenite stainless steel sample from room temperature to 550 °C is measured and compared with the well-established handbook value, confirming the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed technique. The experimental results reveal that the present system using an ordinary optical imaging system, is able to accurately measure full-field thermal deformation of metals and alloys at temperatures not exceeding 600 °C.
Cahn, Robert N.; de Putter, Roland; Linder, Eric V.
2008-07-08
Scalar field dark energy evolving from a long radiation- or matter-dominated epoch has characteristic dynamics. While slow-roll approximations are invalid, a well defined field expansion captures the key aspects of the dark energy evolution during much of the matter-dominated epoch. Since this behavior is determined, it is not faithfully represented if priors for dynamical quantities are chosen at random. We demonstrate these features for both thawing and freezing fields, and for some modified gravity models, and unify several special cases in the literature.
Numerical calculations of flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, D. M.; Vogel, J. M.
1972-01-01
The solutions to the equations of motion for inviscid fluid flow around a pointed elliptic cone at incidence are presented. The numerical method used, MacCormack's second order preferential predictor-corrector finite difference approximation, is applied to the fluid flow equations derived in conservation-law form. The entropy boundary condition, hitherto unused for elliptic cone problems, is investigated and compared to reflection boundary condition solutions. The stagnation streamline movement of the inclined elliptic cone is noted and surface pressure coefficients are plotted. Also presented are solutions for an elliptic cone and a circular cone at zero incidence and a circular cone at a small angle of attack. Comparisons are made between these present solutions and previously published theory.
New technology in turbine aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glassman, A. J.; Moffitt, T. P.
1972-01-01
A cursory review is presented of some of the recent work that has been done in turbine aerodynamic research at NASA-Lewis Research Center. Topics discussed include the aerodynamic effect of turbine coolant, high work-factor (ratio of stage work to square of blade speed) turbines, and computer methods for turbine design and performance prediction. An extensive bibliography is included. Experimental cooled-turbine aerodynamics programs using two-dimensional cascades, full annular cascades, and cold rotating turbine stage tests are discussed with some typical results presented. Analytically predicted results for cooled blade performance are compared to experimental results. The problems and some of the current programs associated with the use of very high work factors for fan-drive turbines of high-bypass-ratio engines are discussed. Turbines currently being investigated make use of advanced blading concepts designed to maintain high efficiency under conditions of high aerodynamic loading. Computer programs have been developed for turbine design-point performance, off-design performance, supersonic blade profile design, and the calculation of channel velocities for subsonic and transonic flow fields. The use of these programs for the design and analysis of axial and radial turbines is discussed.
Launch vehicle aerodynamic data base development comparison with flight data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamilton, J. T.; Wallace, R. O.; Dill, C. C.
1983-01-01
The aerodynamic development plan for the Space Shuttle integrated vehicle had three major objectives. The first objective was to support the evolution of the basic configuration by establishing aerodynamic impacts to various candidate configurations. The second objective was to provide continuing evaluation of the basic aerodynamic characteristics in order to bring about a mature data base. The third task was development of the element and component aerodynamic characteristics and distributed air loads data to support structural loads analyses. The complexity of the configurations rendered conventional analytic methods of little use and therefore required extensive wind tunnel testing of detailed complex models. However, the ground testing and analyses did not predict the aerodynamic characteristics that were extracted from the Space Shuttle flight test program. Future programs that involve the use of vehicles similar to the Space Shuttle should be concerned with the complex flow fields characteristics of these types of complex configurations.
Decorrelation Times of Photospheric Fields and Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Welsch, B. T.; Kusano, K.; Yamamoto, T. T.; Muglach, K.
2012-01-01
We use autocorrelation to investigate evolution in flow fields inferred by applying Fourier Local Correlation Tracking (FLCT) to a sequence of high-resolution (0.3 "), high-cadence (approx = 2 min) line-of-sight magnetograms of NOAA active region (AR) 10930 recorded by the Narrowband Filter Imager (NFI) of the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) aboard the Hinode satellite over 12 - 13 December 2006. To baseline the timescales of flow evolution, we also autocorrelated the magnetograms, at several spatial binnings, to characterize the lifetimes of active region magnetic structures versus spatial scale. Autocorrelation of flow maps can be used to optimize tracking parameters, to understand tracking algorithms f susceptibility to noise, and to estimate flow lifetimes. Tracking parameters varied include: time interval Delta t between magnetogram pairs tracked, spatial binning applied to the magnetograms, and windowing parameter sigma used in FLCT. Flow structures vary over a range of spatial and temporal scales (including unresolved scales), so tracked flows represent a local average of the flow over a particular range of space and time. We define flow lifetime to be the flow decorrelation time, tau . For Delta t > tau, tracking results represent the average velocity over one or more flow lifetimes. We analyze lifetimes of flow components, divergences, and curls as functions of magnetic field strength and spatial scale. We find a significant trend of increasing lifetimes of flow components, divergences, and curls with field strength, consistent with Lorentz forces partially governing flows in the active photosphere, as well as strong trends of increasing flow lifetime and decreasing magnitudes with increases in both spatial scale and Delta t.
General theory of conical flows and its application to supersonic aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Germain, Paul
1955-01-01
Points treated in this report are: homogeneous flows, the general study of conical flows with infinitesimal cone angles, the numerical or analogous methods for the study of flows flattened in one direction, and a certain number of results. A thorough consideration of the applications on conical flows and demonstration of how one may solve within the scope of linear theory, by combinations of conical flows, the general problems of the supersonic wing, taking into account dihedral and sweepback, and also fuselage and control surface effects.
Aeroacoustics. [analysis of properties of sound generated by aerodynamic forces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldstein, M., E.
1974-01-01
An analysis was conducted to determine the properties of sound generated by aerodynamic forces or motions originating in a flow, such as the unsteady aerodynamic forces on propellers or by turbulent flows around an aircraft. The acoustics of moving media are reviewed and mathematical models are developed. Lighthill's acoustic analogy and the application to turbulent flows are analyzed. The effects of solid boundaries are calculated. Theories based on the solution of linearized vorticity and acoustic field equations are explained. The effects of nonuniform mean flow on the generation of sound are reported.
Not Available
1991-01-01
The present conference on aplied aerodynamics encompasses computational fluid dynamics, drag prediction/analysis, experimental aerodynamics, high angles of attack, rotor/propeller aerodynamics, super/hypersonic aerodynamics, unsteady aerodynamics, vortex physics, high-speed civil-transport aeroacoustics, and airfoil/wing aerodynamics. Specific issues addressed include high-speed civil-transport air-breathing propulsion, generic hypersonic inlet-module analysis, an investigation on spoiler effects, high-alpha vehicle dynamics, space-station resource node flow-field analysis, a numerical simulation of sabot discard aerodynamics, and vortex control using pneumatic blowing. Also addressed are Navier-Stokes solutions for the F/A-18 Wing-LEX fuselage, tail venting for enhanced yaw damping at spinning conditions, an investigation of rotor wake interactions with a body in low-speed forward flight, and multigrid calculations of 3D viscous cascade flows.
Flow volumes for interactive vector field visualization
Max, N.; Becker, B.; Crawfis, R.
1993-04-06
Flow volumes are the volumetric equivalent of stream lines. They provide more information about the vector field being visualized than do stream lines or ribbons. Presented is an efficient method for producing flow volumes, composed of transparently rendered tetrahedra, for use in an interactive system. The problems of rendering, subdivision, sorting, rendering artifacts, and user interaction are dealt with.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rizk, Magdi H.
1988-01-01
A scheme is developed for solving constrained optimization problems in which the objective function and the constraint function are dependent on the solution of the nonlinear flow equations. The scheme updates the design parameter iterative solutions and the flow variable iterative solutions simultaneously. It is applied to an advanced propeller design problem with the Euler equations used as the flow governing equations. The scheme's accuracy, efficiency and sensitivity to the computational parameters are tested.
The Current Status of Unsteady CFD Approaches for Aerodynamic Flow Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carpenter, Mark H.; Singer, Bart A.; Yamaleev, Nail; Vatsa, Veer N.; Viken, Sally A.; Atkins, Harold L.
2002-01-01
An overview of the current status of time dependent algorithms is presented. Special attention is given to algorithms used to predict fluid actuator flows, as well as other active and passive flow control devices. Capabilities for the next decade are predicted, and principal impediments to the progress of time-dependent algorithms are identified.
Flow field visualization about external axial corners
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Talcott, N. A., Jr.
1978-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted to visualize the flow field about external axial corners. The investigation was initiated to provide answers to questions about the inviscid flow pattern for continuing numerical investigations. Symmetrical and asymmetrical corner models were tested at a Reynolds number per meter of 60,700,000. Oil-flow and vapor-screen photographs were taken for both models at angle of attack and yaw. The paper presents the results of the investigation in the form of oil-flow photographs and the surrounding shock wave location obtained from the vapor screens.
Flow Fields at Tooting Crater, Mars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Garbeil, H.
2007-12-01
HiRISE images of the impact crater Tooting (~29 km dia., located at 23.4°N, 207.5°E) on Mars have revealed a remarkable series of lobate flows on the southern rim, wall and floor of the crater. The origin of these flows has not yet been determined, but their spatial distribution and morphology could indicate that they are flows of impact melt, mudflows, or lava flows. Tooting crater shows numerous signs of being very young (very few superposed impact craters, very high depth/diameter ratio, high thermal inertia ejecta, and a well preserved set of secondary craters), and so allows detailed analysis of these unusual flows, which appear to be almost pristine. We have developed a 2-meter digital elevation model of Tooting using stereo HiRISE images to characterize the flows, which in general are <10 m thick. Four distinct flow fields have been identified: (1) an extensive flow field on the S rim that appears to be solidified melt sheet ~2.5 km x 1.7 km in size that has four 200 to 600 m long flows with festoon ridges on their surface. (2) A single lobate flow on the SW rim that originates from a smooth "catchment area" of low relief close to the crater rim crest. Five discrete segments of this flow exist, including a 1.3 km segment with a discrete 15 m wide central channel and three lobate distal margins. (3) A set of 7 lobes ~700 m long on the inner S wall. These lobes have very well defined central channels ~25 m wide and levees <4 m wide. (4) A lobe complex on S floor that includes lobes >30 m thick and 300 m wide. These flows no doubt formed in an unusual environment, probably including extensive amounts of impact melt, volatiles released from the substrate, and highly unstable slopes on the crater rim. Tooting crater therefore displays a novel planetary flow field; the correct identification of the origin of these flows holds significance for understanding the role of volatiles in the impact cratering process, the potential of thermal anomalies existing within
Improved modeling techniques for turbomachinery flow fields
Lakshminarayana, B.; Fagan, J.R. Jr.
1995-12-31
This program has the objective of developing an improved methodology for modeling turbomachinery flow fields, including the prediction of losses and efficiency. Specifically, the program addresses the treatment of the mixing stress tensor terms attributed to deterministic flow field mechanisms required in steady-state Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) models for turbomachinery flow fields. These mixing stress tensors arise due to spatial and temporal fluctuations (in an absolute frame of reference) caused by rotor-stator interaction due to various blade rows and by blade-to-blade variation of flow properties. This will be accomplished in a cooperative program by Penn State University and the Allison Engine Company. These tasks include the acquisition of previously unavailable experimental data in a high-speed turbomachinery environment, the use of advanced techniques to analyze the data, and the development of a methodology to treat the deterministic component of the mixing stress tenor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Xiaohui; Cao, Yuanwei; Zhao, Yong
2016-06-01
In this paper, an unstructured mesh Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) incompressible flow solver is developed to investigate the aerodynamics of insect hovering flight. The proposed finite-volume ALE Navier-Stokes solver is based on the artificial compressibility method (ACM) with a high-resolution method of characteristics-based scheme on unstructured grids. The present ALE model is validated and assessed through flow passing over an oscillating cylinder. Good agreements with experimental results and other numerical solutions are obtained, which demonstrates the accuracy and the capability of the present model. The lift generation mechanisms of 2D wing in hovering motion, including wake capture, delayed stall, rapid pitch, as well as clap and fling are then studied and illustrated using the current ALE model. Moreover, the optimized angular amplitude in symmetry model, 45°, is firstly reported in details using averaged lift and the energy power method. Besides, the lift generation of complete cyclic clap and fling motion, which is simulated by few researchers using the ALE method due to large deformation, is studied and clarified for the first time. The present ALE model is found to be a useful tool to investigate lift force generation mechanism for insect wing flight.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abaimov, N. A.; Ryzhkov, A. F.
2015-11-01
Problems requiring solution in development of modern highly efficient gasification reactor of a promising high power integrated gasification combined-cycle plant are formulated. The task of creating and testing a numerical model of an entrained-flow reactor for thermochemical conversion of pulverized coal is solved. The basic method of investigation is computational fluid dynamics. The submodel of thermochemical processes, including a single-stage scheme of volatile substances outlet and three heterogeneous reactions of carbon residue conversion (complete carbon oxidation, Boudouard reaction and hydrogasification), is given. The mass loss rate is determined according to the basic assumptions of the diffusion-kinetic theory. The equations applied for calculation of the process of outlet of volatile substances and three stages of fuel gasifi-cation (diffusion of reagent gas toward the surface of the coal particle, heterogeneous reactions of gas with carbon on its surface, and homogeneous reactions beyond the particle surface) are presented. The universal combined submodel Eddy Dissipation/Finite Rate Chemistry with standard (built-in) constants is used for numerical estimates. Aerodynamic mechanisms of action on thermochemical processes of solid fuel gasification are studied, as exemplified by the design upgrade of a cyclone reactor of preliminary thermal fuel preparation. Volume concentrations of combustible gases and products of complete combustion in the syngas before and after primary air and pulverized coal flows' redistribution are given. Volume concentrations of CO in syngas at different positions of tangential secondary air inlet nozzle are compared.
Complex conservative difference schemes for computing supersonic flows past simple aerodynamic forms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azarova, O. A.
2015-12-01
Complex conservative modifications of two-dimensional difference schemes on a minimum stencil are presented for the Euler equations. The schemes are conservative with respect to the basic divergent variables and the divergent variables for spatial derivatives. Approximations of boundary conditions for computing flows around variously shaped bodies (plates, cylinders, wedges, cones, bodies with cavities, and compound bodies) are constructed without violating the conservation properties in the computational domain. Test problems for computing flows with shock waves and contact discontinuities and supersonic flows with external energy sources are described.
Hypervelocity atmospheric flight: Real gas flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howe, John T.
1990-01-01
Flight in the atmosphere is examined from the viewpoint of including real gas phenomena in the flow field about a vehicle flying at hypervelocity. That is to say, the flow field is subject not only to compressible phenomena, but is dominated by energetic phenomena. There are several significant features of such a flow field. Spatially, its composition can vary by both chemical and elemental species. The equations which describe the flow field include equations of state and mass, species, elemental, and electric charge continuity; momentum; and energy equations. These are nonlinear, coupled, partial differential equations that were reduced to a relatively compact set of equations of a self-consistent manner (which allows mass addition at the surface at a rate comparable to the free-stream mass flux). The equations and their inputs allow for transport of these quantities relative to the mass-averaged behavior of the flow field. Thus transport of mass by chemical, thermal, pressure, and forced diffusion; transport of momentum by viscosity; and transport of energy by conduction, chemical considerations, viscosity, and radiative transfer are included. The last of these complicate the set of equations by making the energy equation a partial integrodifferential equation. Each phenomenon is considered and represented mathematically by one or more developments. The coefficients which pertain are both thermodynamically and chemically dependent. Solutions of the equations are presented and discussed in considerable detail, with emphasis on severe energetic flow fields. For hypervelocity flight in low-density environments where gaseous reactions proceed at finite rates, chemical nonequilibrium is considered and some illustrations are presented. Finally, flight where the flow field may be out of equilibrium, both chemically and thermodynamically, is presented briefly.
Hypervelocity atmospheric flight: Real gas flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howe, John T.
1989-01-01
Flight in the atmosphere is examined from the viewpoint of including real gas phenomena in the flow field about a vehicle flying at hypervelocity. That is to say, the flow field is subject not only to compressible phenomena, but is dominated by energetic phenomena. There are several significant features of such a flow field. Spatially, its composition can vary by both chemical and elemental species. The equations which describe the flow field include equations of state and mass, species, elemental, and electric charge continuity; momentum; and energy equations. These are nonlinear, coupled, partial differential equations that have been reduced to a relatively compact set of equations in a self-consistent manner (which allows mass addition at the surface at a rate comparable to the free-stream mass flux). The equations and their inputs allow for transport of these quantities relative to the mass-average behavior of the flow field. Thus transport of mass by chemical, thermal, pressure, and forced diffusion; transport of momentum by viscosity; and transport of energy by conduction, chemical considerations, viscosity, and radiative transfer are included. The last of these complicate the set of equations by making the energy equations a partial integrodifferential equation. Each phenomenon is considered and represented mathematically by one or more developments. The coefficients which pertain are both thermodynamically and chemically dependent. Solutions of the equations are presented and discussed in considerable detail, with emphasis on severe energetic flow fields. Hypervelocity flight in low-density environments where gaseous reactions proceed at finite rates chemical nonequilibrium is considered, and some illustrations are presented. Finally, flight where the flow field may be out of equilibrium, both chemically and thermodynamically, is presented briefly.
Flow Fields Over Unsteady Three Dimensional Dunes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hardy, R. J.; Reesink, A.; Parsons, D. R.; Ashworth, P. J.; Best, J.
2013-12-01
The flow field over dunes has been extensively measured in laboratory conditions and there is general understanding on the nature of the flow over dunes formed under equilibrium flow conditions. However, fluvial systems typically experience unsteady flow and therefore the sediment-water interface is constantly responding and reorganizing to these unsteady flows, over a range of both spatial and temporal scales. This is primarily through adjustment of bed forms (including ripples, dunes and bar forms) which then subsequently alter the flow field. This paper investigates, through the application of a numerical model, the influence of these roughness elements on the overall flow and the increase in flow resistance. A series of experiments were undertaken in a flume, 16m long and 2m wide, where a fine sand (D50 of 239μm) mobile bed was water worked under a range of unsteady hydraulic conditions to generate a series of quasi-equilibrium three dimensional bed forms. During the experiments flow was measured with acoustic Doppler velocimeters, (aDv's). On four occasions the flume was drained and the bed topography measured with terrestrial LiDAR to create digital elevation models. This data provide the necessary boundary conditions and validation data for a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model, which provided a three dimensional time dependent prediction of flow over the four static beds. The numerical predicted flow is analyzed through a series of approaches, and included: i) standard Reynolds decomposition to the flow fields; ii) Eulerian coherent structure detection methods based on the invariants of the velocity gradient tensor; iii) Lagrangian coherent structure identification methods based upon direct Lyapunov exponents (DLE). The results show that superimposed bed forms can cause changes in the nature of the classical separated flow region in particularly the number of locations where vortices are shed and the point of flow reattachment, which may be important for
A stochastic aerodynamic model for stationary blades in unsteady 3D wind fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fluck, Manuel; Crawford, Curran
2016-09-01
Dynamic loads play an important roll in the design of wind turbines, but establishing the life-time aerodynamic loads (e.g. extreme and fatigue loads) is a computationally expensive task. Conventional (deterministic) methods to analyze long term loads, which rely on the repeated analysis of multiple different wind samples, are usually too expensive to be included in optimization routines. We present a new stochastic approach, which solves the aerodynamic system equations (Lagrangian vortex model) in the stochastic space, and thus arrive directly at a stochastic description of the coupled loads along a turbine blade. This new approach removes the requirement of analyzing multiple different realizations. Instead, long term loads can be extracted from a single stochastic solution, a procedure that is obviously significantly faster. Despite the reduced analysis time, results obtained from the stochastic approach match deterministic result well for a simple test-case (a stationary blade). In future work, the stochastic method will be extended to rotating blades, thus opening up new avenues to include long term loads into turbine optimization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andreev, O.; Kobzev, A.; Kolesnikov, Yu.; Thess, A.
Flows around obstacles are among the most common problems encountered in the fluid mechanics literature, and cylindrical obstacles definitely received the most extensive attention. The reason for this is that this relatively simple geometry already encompasses most of the important physical effects likely to play a role in flow around more complicated obstacles. This means that understanding the cylinder problem provides relevant insight on a wide variety of problem ranging from aerodynamics, with the flow around a wing or a vehicle, to pollutant dispersion around building, flows in turbines … When the working fluid conducts electricity additional effects are involved. In particular, the presence of a magnetic field tends to homogenise the flow in the direction of the magnetic field lines which leads to strong alterations of the flow patterns known from the classical nonconducting case. This configuration is also a very generic one as Magnetohydrodynamic flows around obstacle also occur in a wide variety of applications: for instance, the space vehicle re-entry problem features the flow of a conducting plasma around an obstacle: [1] and [2] have shown that it could be influenced by a strong magnetic field in order to reduce heat transfer. The cooling blanket of the future nuclear fusion reactor ITER soon to be built in France, features a complex flow of liquid metal in a very high magnetic field (typically 10 T), in which the occurrence of obstacles cannot be avoided.
Aerodynamics of high frequency flapping wings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Zheng; Roll, Jesse; Cheng, Bo; Deng, Xinyan
2010-11-01
We investigated the aerodynamic performance of high frequency flapping wings using a 2.5 gram robotic insect mechanism developed in our lab. The mechanism flaps up to 65Hz with a pair of man-made wing mounted with 10cm wingtip-to-wingtip span. The mean aerodynamic lift force was measured by a lever platform, and the flow velocity and vorticity were measured using a stereo DPIV system in the frontal, parasagittal, and horizontal planes. Both near field (leading edge vortex) and far field flow (induced flow) were measured with instantaneous and phase-averaged results. Systematic experiments were performed on the man-made wings, cicada and hawk moth wings due to their similar size, frequency and Reynolds number. For insect wings, we used both dry and freshly-cut wings. The aerodynamic force increase with flapping frequency and the man-made wing generates more than 4 grams of lift at 35Hz with 3 volt input. Here we present the experimental results and the major differences in their aerodynamic performances.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holland, Scott Douglas
1991-01-01
A combined computational and experimental parametric study of the internal aerodynamics of a generic three dimensional sidewall compression scramjet inlet configuration was performed. The study was designed to demonstrate the utility of computational fluid dynamics as a design tool in hypersonic inlet flow fields, to provide a detailed account of the nature and structure of the internal flow interactions, and to provide a comprehensive surface property and flow field database to determine the effects of contraction ratio, cowl position, and Reynolds number on the performance of a hypersonic scramjet inlet configuration.
Images constructed from computed flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yates, Leslie A.
1992-01-01
A method for constructing interferograms, schlieren, and shadowgraphs from ideal- and real-gas, two- and three-dimensional computed flow fields is described. The computational grids can be structured or unstructured, and multiple grids are an option. The constructed images are compared to experimental images for several types of flow, including a ramp, a blunt-body, a nozzle, and a reacting flow. The constructed images simulate the features observed in the experimental images. They are sensitive to errors in the flow-field solutions and can be used to identify solution errors. In addition, techniques for obtaining phase shifts from experimental finite-fringe interferograms and for removing experimentally induced phase-shift errors are discussed. Both the constructed images and calculated phase shifts can be used for validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes.
Sensitivity of aerodynamic forces in laminar and turbulent flow past a square cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meliga, Philippe; Boujo, Edouard; Pujals, Gregory; Gallaire, François
2014-10-01
We use adjoint-based gradients to analyze the sensitivity of the drag force on a square cylinder. At Re = 40, the flow settles down to a steady state. The quantity of interest in the adjoint formulation is the steady asymptotic value of drag reached after the initial transient, whose sensitivity is computed solving a steady adjoint problem from knowledge of the stable base solution. At Re = 100, the flow develops to the time-periodic, vortex-shedding state. The quantity of interest is rather the time-averaged mean drag, whose sensitivity is computed integrating backwards in time an unsteady adjoint problem from knowledge of the entire history of the vortex-shedding solution. Such theoretical frameworks allow us to identify the sensitive regions without computing the actually controlled states, and provide a relevant and systematic guideline on where in the flow to insert a secondary control cylinder in the attempt to reduce drag, as established from comparisons with dedicated numerical simulations of the two-cylinder system. For the unsteady case at Re = 100, we also compute an approximation to the mean drag sensitivity solving a steady adjoint problem from knowledge of only the mean flow solution, and show the approach to carry valuable information in view of guiding relevant control strategy, besides reducing tremendously the related numerical effort. An extension of this simplified framework to turbulent flow regime is examined revisiting the widely benchmarked flow at Reynolds number Re = 22 000, the theoretical predictions obtained in the frame of unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes modeling being consistent with experimental data from the literature. Application of the various sensitivity frameworks to alternative control objectives such as increasing the lift and reducing the fluctuating drag and lift is also discussed and illustrated with a few selected examples.
The impact of unilateral vibrations on aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils in transonic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zamuraev, V.; Kalinina, A.
2016-06-01
The work is devoted to the mathematical modeling of the influence of forced vibrations of a surface element on one side of the airfoil on the shock-wave structure of transonic flow around. The influence of parameters of oscillations on the airfoil wave drag and the lift force were qualitatively and quantitatively investigated for constant maximum velocity amplitude, which is close in magnitude to the sound velocity in the incoming flow, and for a wide range of frequencies. The arising of additional lift force is shown.
Influence of unilateral oscillation on the aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils at transonic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zamuraev, V. P.; Kalinina, A. P.
2016-10-01
The work is devoted to the mathematical modelling of the influence of forced vibrations of a surface element on one side of the airfoil on the shock-wave structure of transonic flow around. The influence of parameters of oscillations on the airfoil wave drag and the lift force were qualitatively and quantitatively investigated for constant maximum velocity amplitude, which is close in magnitude to the sound velocity in the oncoming flow, and for a wide range of frequencies. The additional lift force arising is shown.
Near field flow structure of isothermal swirling flows and reacting non-premixed swirling flames
Olivani, Andrea; Solero, Giulio; Cozzi, Fabio; Coghe, Aldo
2007-04-15
Two confined lean non-premixed swirl-stabilized flame typologies were investigated in order to achieve detailed information on the thermal and aerodynamic field in the close vicinity of the burner throat and provide correlation with the exhaust emissions. Previous finding indicated the generation of a partially premixed flame with radial fuel injection and a purely diffusive flame with co-axial injection in a swirling co-flow. In the present work, the experimental study is reported which has been conducted on a straight exit laboratory burner with no quarl cone, fuelled by natural gas and air, and fired vertically upwards with the flame stabilized at the end of two concentric pipes with the annulus supplying swirled air and the central pipe delivering the fuel. Two fuel injection typologies, co-axial and radial (i.e., transverse), leading to different mixing mechanisms, have been characterized through different techniques: particle image velocimetry (PIV) and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) for a comprehensive analysis of the velocity field, still photography for the detection of flame front and main visible features, and thermocouples for the temperature distribution. Isothermal flow conditions have been included in the experimental investigation to provide a basic picture of the flow field and to comprehend the modifications induced by the combustion process. The results indicated that, although the global mixing process and the main flame structure are governed by the swirl motion imparted to the air stream, the two different fuel injection methodologies play an important role on mixture formation and flame stabilization in the primary mixing zone. Particularly, it has been found that, in case of axial injection, the turbulent interaction between the central fuel jet and the backflow generated by the swirl can induce an intermittent fuel penetration in the recirculated hot products and the formation of a central sooting luminous plume, a phenomenon totally
Aerodynamic analysis of a tumbling American football
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hare, Daniel Edmundson
In this study, the aerodynamic effects on an American football are characterized, especially in a tumbling, or end-over-end, motion as seen in a typical kickoff or field goal attempt. The objective of this study is to establish aerodynamic coefficients for the dynamic motion of a tumbling American football. A subsonic wind tunnel was used to recreate a range of air velocities that, when coupled with rotation rates and differing laces orientations, would provide a test bed for aerodynamic drag, side, and lift coefficient analysis. Test results quantify effect of back-spin and top-spin on lift force. Results show that the presence of laces imposes a side force in the opposite direction of the laces orientation. A secondary system was installed to visualize air flow around the tumbling ball and record high-speed video of wake patterns, as a qualitative check of measured force directions.
Computational interferometric description of nested flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Havener, A. George; Obergefell, L. A.
1987-01-01
Computer graphics and theoretical descriptions of density are used to obtain computer generated flow visualizations called computational interferograms. Computational interferograms are pictorially analogous to optical interferograms, and examples showing the fringe pattern for the flow about a sharp tip cone in a supersonic air stream are presented. To ascertain the effect of unsteady behavior, local density disturbances are added to the steady state flow field. This introduces irregularities to the computational interferogram like those seen in the optical interferograms. These theoretical disturbances can be varied in geometry, density description, translated with time, and strengthened or dissipated. The accuracy of computational interferometry relies on the accuracy of the theoretical density descriptions and therefore, it provides a way of verifying existing models of flow fields, especially those containing unsteady or turbulent behavior. In addition to being a unique method of flow visualization, computational interferometry can be used to develop and modify theories or numerical solutions to both simple and complex flow fields. The presented research is a general description of this process.
Investigation of Active Flow Control to Improve Aerodynamic Performance of Oscillating Wings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Narducci, Robert P.; Bowersox, Rodney; Bussom, Richard; McVeigh, Michael; Raghu, Surya; White, Edward
2014-01-01
The objective of this effort is to design a promising active flow control concept on an oscillating airfoil for on-blade alleviation of dynamic stall. The concept must be designed for a range of representative Mach numbers (0.2 to 0.5) and representative reduced frequency characteristics of a full-scale rotorcraft. Specifications for a sweeping-jet actuator to mitigate the detrimental effects of retreating blade stall experienced by edgewise rotors in forward flight has been performed. Wind tunnel modifications have been designed to accommodate a 5x6 test section in the Oran W. Nicks Low Speed Wind Tunnel at Texas A&M University that will allow the tunnel to achieve Mach 0.5. The flow control design is for a two-dimensional oscillating VR-7 blade section with a 15- inch chord at rotor-relevant flow conditions covering the range of reduced frequencies from 0.0 to 0.15 and Mach numbers from 0.2 to 0.5. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis has been performed to influence the placement of the flow control devices for optimal effectiveness.
Improved visualization of flow field measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miles, Jeffrey Hilton
1991-01-01
A capability was developed that makes it possible to apply to measured flow field data the visualization tools developed to display numerical solutions for computational fluid dynamic problems. The measurement monitor surface (MMS) procedure was applied to the analysis of flow field measurements within a low aspect ratio transonic axial flow fan rotor obtained with 2-D laser anemometry. The procedure generates input for the visualization tools developed to display numerical solutions for computational fluid dynamics problems. The relative Mach number contour plots obtained by this method resemble the conventional contour plots obtained by more traditional methods. The results show that the MMS procedure can be used to generate input for the multidimensional processing and analysis tools developed for data from numerical flow field simulations. They show that an experimenter can apply the MMS procedure to his data and then use an interactive graphics program to display scalar quantities like the Mach number by profiles, carpet plots, contour lines, and surfaces using various colors. Also, flow directionality can be shown by display of vector fields and particle traces.
Flow Transitions in a Rotating Magnetic Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.
1996-01-01
Critical Rayleigh numbers have been measured in a liquid metal cylinder of finite height in the presence of a rotating magnetic field. Several different stability regimes were observed, which were determined by the values of the Rayleigh and Hartmann numbers. For weak rotating magnetic fields and small Rayleigh numbers, the experimental observations can be explained by the existence of a single non-axisymmetric meridional roll rotating around the cylinder, driven by the azimuthal component of the magnetic field. The measured dependence of rotational velocity on magnetic field strength is consistent with the existence of laminar flow in this regime.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuratani, Naoshi; Ozaki, Shuichi; Obayashi, Shigeru; Ogawa, Toshihiro; Matsuno, Takashi; Kawazoe, Hiromitsu
One of the most critical technical issues with regard to supersonic commercial transportation is the sonic boom that occurs during supersonic cruising flight, which causes impulsive noise on the ground. The “supersonic biplane theory” has been proposed to reduce the sonic boom. Shock wave interaction and cancellation between the wings of a supersonic biplane can be realized at a specific design Mach number, but does not work at off-design values. Here, the low-speed aerodynamic performance, as off-design performance, of a baseline supersonic biplane was investigated and discussed using experimental and computational fluid dynamics approaches. The thin airfoil stall characteristics of a supersonic biplane were shown to be caused by the stall of both upper and lower wings at an angle of attack of 20°. Although there was leading flow separation of the upper wing at lower angles of attack, the stall of the lower wing was suppressed by interference with the upper wing. The lift of the lower wing was almost dominant to produce the lift of the supersonic biplane in the low-speed range. However, the lower wing caused greater drag than the upper wing at higher angles of attack.
Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Prüfer, Nadine; Oesterheld, Nina; Seeger, Werner; Schmehl, Thomas
2014-08-01
Nebulization of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) solutions is a well-established means to achieve pulmonary drug deposition. The current study identified the impact of formulation variables on the aerosolization performance of the eFlow(®) rapid with special respect to optimized lung application. API formulations (including excipient-supplemented samples) were investigated for physicochemical properties, then nebulized using vibrating-mesh technology. The generated aerosol clouds were analyzed by laser diffraction. Aerosol deposition characteristics in the human respiratory tract were estimated using an algebraic model. Remarkable effects on aerosolization performance [i.e., mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD)] of API solutions were obtained when the sample conductivity (by API concentration and type, sodium chloride addition) and dynamic viscosity (by application of sucrose and poly(ethylene glycol) 200) were elevated. A similar influence was observed for a decline in surface tension (by ethanol addition). Thus, a defined adjustment of formulation parameters allowed for a decrease of the MMAD from ∼ 8.0 μm to values as small as ∼ 3.5 μm. Consequently, the pattern and efficiency of aerosol deposition in the human respiratory tract were improved. In conclusion, identification of physicochemical variables and their way of influencing vibrating-mesh nebulization has been provided to deliver a platform for tailoring aerosol characteristics and thus, advancing pulmonary therapy.
Aerodynamics of the Large-Volume, Flow-Through Detector System. Final report
Reed, H.; Saric, W.; Laananen, D.; Martinez, C.; Carrillo, R.; Myers, J.; Clevenger, D.
1996-03-01
The Large-Volume Flow-Through Detector System (LVFTDS) was designed to monitor alpha radiation from Pu, U, and Am in mixed-waste incinerator offgases; however, it can be adapted to other important monitoring uses that span a number of potential markets, including site remediation, indoor air quality, radon testing, and mine shaft monitoring. Goal of this effort was to provide mechanical design information for installation of LVFTDS in an incinerator, with emphasis on ability to withstand the high temperatures and high flow rates expected. The work was successfully carried out in three stages: calculation of pressure drop through the system, materials testing to determine surrogate materials for wind-tunnel testing, and wind-tunnel testing of an actual configuration.
Flow visualization of mast-mounted-sight/main rotor aerodynamic interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghee, Terence A.; Kelley, Henry L.
1993-01-01
Flow visualization tests were conducted on a 27 percent-scale AH-64 attack helicopter model fitted with various mast-mounted-sight configurations in an attempt to identify the cause of adverse vibration encountered during full-scale flight tests of an Apache/Longbow configuration. The tests were conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center in the 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. A symmetric and an asymmetric mast-mounted-sight oriented at several skew angles were tested at forward and rearward flight speeds of 30 and 45 knots. A laser light sheet seeded with vaporized propylene glycol was used to visualize the wake of the sight in planes parallel and perpendicular to the freestream flow. Analysis of the flow visualization data identified the frequency of the wake shed from the sight, the angle-of-attack at the sight, and the location where the sight wake crossed the rotor plane. Differences in wake structure were observed between the various sight configurations and slew angles. Postulations into the cause of the adverse vibration found in flight test are given along with considerations for future tests.
Inflow/Outflow Conditions for Unsteady Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics in Nonuniform Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atassi, Oliver V.; Grady, Joseph E. (Technical Monitor)
2003-01-01
The effect of a nonuniform mean flow on the normal modes; the inflow/outflow nonreflecting boundary conditions; and the sound power are studied. The normal modes in an annular duct are computed using a spectral method in combination with a shooting method. The swirl causes force imbalance which couples the acoustic and vortical modes. The acoustic modes are distinguished from the vortical modes by their large pressure and small vorticity content. The mean swirl also produces a Doppler shift in frequency. This results in more counter-spinning modes cut-on at a given frequency than modes spinning with the swirl. Nonreflecting boundary conditions are formulated using the normal mode solutions. The inflow/outflow boundary conditions are implemented in a linearized Euler scheme and validated by computing the propagation of acoustic and vortical waves in a duct for a variety of swirling mean flows. Numerical results show that the evolution of the vortical disturbances is sensitive to the inflow conditions and the details of the wake excitations. All three components of the wake velocity must be considered to correctly compute the wake evolution and the blade upwash. For high frequencies, the acoustic-vortical mode coupling is weak and a conservation equation for the acoustic energy can be derived. Sound power calculations show significant mean flow swirl effects, but mode interference effects are small.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, Y. L.; Tan, C. S.; Hawthorne, W. R.
1992-01-01
A computational method, based on a theory for turbomachinery blading design in three-dimensional inviscid flow, is applied to a parametric design study of a radial inflow turbine wheel. As the method requires the specification of swirl distribution, a technique for its smooth generation within the blade region is proposed. Excellent agreements have been obtained between the computed results from this design method and those from direct Euler computations, demonstrating the correspondence and consistency between the two. The computed results indicate the sensitivity of the pressure distribution to a lean in the stacking axis and a minor alteration in the hub/shroud profiles. Analysis based on Navier-Stokes solver shows no breakdown of flow within the designed blade passage and agreement with that from design calculation; thus the flow in the designed turbine rotor closely approximates that of an inviscid one. These calculations illustrate the use of a design method coupled to an analysis tool for establishing guidelines and criteria for designing turbomachinery blading.
Improved modeling techniques for turbomachinery flow fields
Lakshminarayana, B.; Fagan, J.R. Jr.
1995-10-01
This program has the objective of developing an improved methodology for modeling turbomachinery flow fields, including the prediction of losses and efficiency. Specifically, the program addresses the treatment of the mixing stress tensor terms attributed to deterministic flow field mechanisms required in steady-state Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) models for turbo-machinery flow fields. These mixing stress tensors arise due to spatial and temporal fluctuations (in an absolute frame of reference) caused by rotor-stator interaction due to various blade rows and by blade-to-blade variation of flow properties. These tasks include the acquisition of previously unavailable experimental data in a high-speed turbomachinery environment, the use of advanced techniques to analyze the data, and the development of a methodology to treat the deterministic component of the mixing stress tensor. Penn State will lead the effort to make direct measurements of the momentum and thermal mixing stress tensors in high-speed multistage compressor flow field in the turbomachinery laboratory at Penn State. They will also process the data by both conventional and conditional spectrum analysis to derive momentum and thermal mixing stress tensors due to blade-to-blade periodic and aperiodic components, revolution periodic and aperiodic components arising from various blade rows and non-deterministic (which includes random components) correlations. The modeling results from this program will be publicly available and generally applicable to steady-state Navier-Stokes solvers used for turbomachinery component (compressor or turbine) flow field predictions. These models will lead to improved methodology, including loss and efficiency prediction, for the design of high-efficiency turbomachinery and drastically reduce the time required for the design and development cycle of turbomachinery.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prokhorov, V. B.; Grigorev, I. V.; Fomenko, M. V.; Kaverin, A. A.
2015-12-01
Power generating unit no. 4 of Troitskaya State District Power Plant (SDPP) is incapable of operating with a nominal load of 278 MW because of high aerodynamic drag of the gas path. At present, the maximum load of the two-boiler single-turbine unit is 210 MW practically without a possibility of adjustment. The results of numerical simulation of the gas flow for the existing gas path from the electrostatic precipitator (EP) to the smoke exhausts (SEs) and two flue designs proposed for renovation of this section are presented. The results of simulation show that the existing flue section has high aerodynamic drag, which is explained by poor, as regards aerodynamics, design. The local loss coefficient, in terms of the dynamic pressure in the sucker pocket of the smoke exhaust is equal to 4.57. The local aerodynamic loss coefficient after renovation at the considered section according to the first version would make 1.48, and according to the second version 1.325, which would reduce losses at this section by more than a factor of three, and ensure the power unit operation with the rated load.
Background-oriented schlieren for the study of large flow fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trolinger, James D.; Buckner, Ben; L'Esperance, Drew
2015-09-01
Modern digital recording and processing techniques combined with new lighting methods and relatively old schlieren visualization methods move flow visualization to a new level, enabling a wide range of new applications and a possible revolution in the visualization of very large flow fields. This paper traces the evolution of schlieren imaging from Robert Hooke, who, in 1665, employed candles and lenses, to modern digital background oriented schlieren (BOS) systems, wherein image processing by computer replaces pure optical image processing. New possibilities and potential applications that could benefit from such a capability are examined. Example applications include viewing the flow field around full sized aircraft, large equipment and vehicles, monitoring explosions on bomb ranges, cooling systems, large structures and even buildings. Objectives of studies include aerodynamics, aero optics, heat transfer, and aero thermal measurements. Relevant digital cameras, light sources, and implementation methods are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DeChant, Lawrence J.
1997-01-01
In spite of the rapid advances in both scalar and parallel computational tools, the large number and breadth of variables involved in aerodynamic systems make the use of parabolized or even boundary layer fluid flow models impractical for both preliminary design and inverse design problems. Given this restriction, we have concluded that reduced or approximate models are an important family of tools for design purposes. This study of a combined perturbation/numerical modeling methodology with an application to ejector-mixer nozzles (shown schematically in the following figure) is nearing completion. The work is being funded by a grant from the NASA Lewis Research Center to Texas A&M University. These ejector-mixer nozzle models are designed to be of use to the High Speed Civil Transport Program and may be adopted by both NASA and industry. A computer code incorporating the ejector-mixer models is under development. This code, the Differential Reduced Ejector/Mixer Analysis (DREA), can be run fast enough to be used as a subroutine or to be called by a design optimization routine. Simplified conservation equations--x-momentum, energy, and mass conservation--are used to define the model. Unlike other preliminary design models, DREA requires minimal empirical input and includes vortical mixing and a fully compressible formulation among other features. DREA is being validated by comparing it with results obtained from open literature and proprietary industry data. Preliminary results for a subsonic ejector and a supersonic ejector are shown. In addition, dedicated experiments have been performed at Texas A&M. These experiments use a hydraulic/gas flow analog to provide information about the inviscid mixing interface structure. Final validation and documentation of this work is expected by May of 1997. However, preliminary versions of DREA can be expected in early 1997. In summary, DREA provides a sufficiently detailed and realistic ejector-mixer nozzle model at a
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, D. S.; Wood, R. M.; Covell, P. F.
1986-01-01
For the past 3 years, a research program pertaining to the study of wing leading edge vortices at supersonic speeds has been conducted in the Fundamental Aerodynamics Branch of the High-Speed Aerodynamics Division at the Langley Research Center. The purpose of the research is to provide an understanding of the factors governing the formation and the control of wing leading-edge vortices and to evaluate the use of these vortices for improving supersonic aerodynamic performance. The studies include both experimental and theoretical investigations and focus primarily on planform, thickness and camber effects for delta wings. An overview of this research activity is presented.
Identification of aerodynamic models for maneuvering aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chin, Suei; Lan, C. Edward
1990-01-01
Due to the requirement of increased performance and maneuverability, the flight envelope of a modern fighter is frequently extended to the high angle-of-attack regime. Vehicles maneuvering in this regime are subjected to nonlinear aerodynamic loads. The nonlinearities are due mainly to three-dimensional separated flow and concentrated vortex flow that occur at large angles of attack. Accurate prediction of these nonlinear airloads is of great importance in the analysis of a vehicle's flight motion and in the design of its flight control system. A satisfactory evaluation of the performance envelope of the aircraft may require a large number of coupled computations, one for each change in initial conditions. To avoid the disadvantage of solving the coupled flow-field equations and aircraft's motion equations, an alternate approach is to use a mathematical modeling to describe the steady and unsteady aerodynamics for the aircraft equations of motion. Aerodynamic forces and moments acting on a rapidly maneuvering aircraft are, in general, nonlinear functions of motion variables, their time rate of change, and the history of maneuvering. A numerical method was developed to analyze the nonlinear and time-dependent aerodynamic response to establish the generalized indicial function in terms of motion variables and their time rates of change.
Aerodynamic flow control of a high lift system with dual synthetic jet arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alstrom, Robert Bruce
Implementing flow control systems will mitigate the vibration and aeroacoustic issues associated with weapons bays; enhance the performance of the latest generation aircraft by reducing their fuel consumption and improving their high angle-of-attack handling qualities; facilitate steep climb out profiles for military transport aircraft. Experimental research is performed on a NACA 0015 airfoil with a simple flap at angle of attack of 16o in both clean and high lift configurations. The results of the active control phase of the project will be discussed. Three different experiments were conducted; they are Amplitude Modulated Dual Location Open Loop Control, Adaptive Control with Amplitude Modulation using Direct Sensor Feedback and Adaptive Control with Amplitude Modulation using Extremum Seeking Control. All the closed loop experiments are dual location. The analysis presented uses the spatial variation of the root mean square pressure fluctuations, power spectral density estimates, Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs), and time frequency analysis which consists of the application of the Morlet and Mexican Hat wavelets. Additionally, during the course of high speed testing in the wind tunnel, some aeroacoustic phenomena were uncovered; those results will also be presented. A cross section of the results shows that the shape of the RMS pressure distributions is sensitive to forcing frequency. The application of broadband excitation in the case adaptive control causes the flow to select a frequency to lock in to. Additionally, open loop control results in global synchronization via switching between two stable states and closed loop control inhibits the switching phenomena, but rather synchronizes the flow about multiple stable shedding frequencies.
Flow fields of low pressure vent exhausts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scialdone, John J.
1989-01-01
The flow field produced by low pressure gas vents are described based on experimental data obtained from tests in a large vacuum chamber. The gas density, pressure, and flux at any location in the flow field are calculated based on the vent plume description and the knowledge of the flow rate and velocity of the venting gas. The same parameters and the column densities along a specified line of sight traversing the plume are also obtained and shown by a computer-generated graphical representation. The fields obtained with a radially scanning Pitot probe within the exhausting gas are described by a power of the cosine function, the mass rate and the distance from the exit port. The field measurements were made for gas at pressures ranging from 2 to 50 torr venting from pipe fittings with diameters of 3/16 inch to 1-1/2 inches I.D. (4.76 mm to 38.1 mm). The N(2) mass flow rates ranged from 2E-4 to 3.7E-1 g/s.
Digital enhancement of flow field images
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kudlinski, Robert A.; Park, Stephen K.
1988-01-01
Most photographs of experimentally generated fluid flow fields have inherently poor photographic quality, specifically low contrast. Thus, there is a need to establish a process for quickly and accurately enhancing these photographs to provide improved versions for physical interpretation, analysis, and publication. A sequence of digital image processing techniques which have been demonstrated to effectively enhance such photographs is described.
Flow Induced Vibration and Glottal Aerodynamics in a Three-Dimensional Laryngeal Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Xudong; Xue, Qian; Mittal, Rajat; Bielamowicz, Steven
2009-11-01
Three-dimensional effects associated with phonation remain unclear due to the lack of capability of simulating 3D fluid-tissue interaction in the past. To advance the state-of-the-art in this arena, an immersed-boundary method based flow solver coupled with a finite-element solid dynamics solver is employed to conduct high-fidelity direct-numerical simulations of phonation in a 3D model of the human larynx. Three-dimensional vibration patterns are captured along with turbulence effects and three-dimensional vortex structures in the glottal jet. Results from these simulations are presented.
Field performance of the Gallagher flow conditioner
Gallagher, J.E.; LaNasa, P.J.
1995-12-31
This paper contains a summary of the current {open_quotes}state of the art{close_quotes} for flow conditioners, the basis for the Gallagher Flow Conditioner (GFC), and experimental results from several evaluations. Experimental results for the GFC indicate a maximum metering uncertainty of approximately plus or minus one-tenth of one percent ({+-} 0.10%) due to upstream flow disturbances for orifice meters and virtually zero for other inferential flowmeters. Experiments have been conducted at five commercial laboratories, seven field laboratories, line sizes form 25 to 460 mm (1 to 18 inch), over a Reynolds number range of 2,000 to 3,000,000, for three inferential flowmeters -orifice, turbine and vortex. The GFC has been tested in a multitude of fluid applications --- natural gas, dry air, nine different crude oils, polymer-grade ethylene, etcetera. In these applications the flowing stream has ranged from clean to very dirty. Based on independently conducted research results, it is the authors` opinions that the GFC {open_quotes}isolates{close_quotes} flowmeters from piping-induced disturbances and, thereby, allows more accurate metering of fluids flowing in pipelines. The device achieves the optimal flow conditioner objectives and maintains pseudofully developed flow in a pipe with respect to the axial position.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaul, U. K.; Ross, J. C.; Jacocks, J. L.
1985-01-01
The flow into an open return wind tunnel inlet was simulated using Euler equations. An explicit predictor-corrector method was employed to solve the system. The calculation is time-accurate and was performed to achieve a steady-state solution. The predictions are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data. Wall pressures are accurately predicted except in a region of recirculating flow. Flow-field surveys agree qualitatively with laser velocimeter measurements. The method can be used in the design process for open return wind tunnels.
Resuspension of uniform latex micro spheres deposited on a single seed pod of field rye grass stalk and head was investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel. The experiment was designed to distinguish aerodynamic (viscous and turbulent) mechanisms from mechanical resuspension re...
Progress on a Taylor weak statement finite element algorithm for high-speed aerodynamic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, A. J.; Freels, J. D.
1989-01-01
A new finite element numerical Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) algorithm has matured to the point of efficiently solving two-dimensional high speed real-gas compressible flow problems in generalized coordinates on modern vector computer systems. The algorithm employs a Taylor Weak Statement classical Galerkin formulation, a variably implicit Newton iteration, and a tensor matrix product factorization of the linear algebra Jacobian under a generalized coordinate transformation. Allowing for a general two-dimensional conservation law system, the algorithm has been exercised on the Euler and laminar forms of the Navier-Stokes equations. Real-gas fluid properties are admitted, and numerical results verify solution accuracy, efficiency, and stability over a range of test problem parameters.
Photographing flow fields and heat-transfer patterns in color simultaneously.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Creel, T. R., Jr.; Hunt, J. L.
1972-01-01
A color-schlieren technique is described that combines the flow-field shock shapes and the phase-change coating to give a very descriptive account of aerodynamic heating. This technique employs, in addition to the conventional schlieren system, a temperature-sensitive material as a thin surface coating that undergoes a visible phase change from opaque solid to clear liquid at a known temperature. The resulting pictures can lead to a better understanding of shock/boundary layer interactions, as shown with the aid of a specific example.
Numerical analysis and simulation of an assured crew return vehicle flow field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weilmuenster, K. James; Smith, Robert E., Jr.; Greene, Francis A.
1991-01-01
A lifting body was proposed as a candidate for the Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) which will serve as a crew rescue vehicle for the Space Station Freedom. The focus is on body surface definition, both surface and volume grid definition, and the computation of inviscid flow fields about the vehicle at wind tunnel conditions. Very good agreement is shown between the computed aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle at M(sub infinity) = 10 and those measured in wind tunnel tests at high Reynolds numbers.
Granular temperature field of monodisperse granular flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gollin, Devis; Bowman, Elisabeth; Shepley, Paul
2015-04-01
For dry granular flows as well as solid-fluid mixtures such as debris avalanches, the momentum transfer is carried by frictional and collisional stresses. The latter may be described by the granular temperature, which provides a measure of the energy contained within the fluctuating nature of the granular motion. Thus, granular temperature can be used as a valuable means to infer the ability of a granular system to flow. Granular materials are known for the difficulties they pose in obtaining accurate microscale laboratory measurements. This is why many theories, such as the kinetic theory of granular gases, are primarily compared to numerical simulations. However, thanks to recent advancements in optical techniques along with high-speed recording systems, experimentalists are now able to obtain robust measurements of granular temperature. At present, the role of granular temperature in granular flows still entails conjecture. As a consequence, it is extremely important to provide experimental data against which theories and simulations can be judged. This investigation focuses on dry granular flows of sand and spherical beads performed on a simple inclined chute geometry. Fluctuation velocity, granular temperature and velocity patterns are obtained by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV). Flow behaviour is probed for different spatial (interrogation sizes) and temporal (frame rates) resolutions. Through the variation of these parameters an attempt to demonstrate the consistency of the degree of unsteadiness within the flow is made. In many studies a uniform stationary flow state is usually sought or preferably assumed for the simplicity it provides in the calculations. If one tries to measure microscale fields such as granular temperature, this assumption may be inappropriate. Thus, a proper definition of the flow regime should be made in order to estimate the correct flow properties. In addition, PIV analysis is compared against particle tracking velocimetry
Field emission microplasma actuation for microchannel flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sashank Tholeti, Siva; Shivkumar, Gayathri; Alexeenko, Alina A.
2016-06-01
Microplasmas offer attractive flow control methodology for gas transport in microsystems where large viscous losses make conventional pumping methods highly inefficient. We study microscale flow actuation by dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) with field emission (FE) of electrons, which allows lowering the operational voltage from kV to a few hundred volts and below. A feasibility study of FE-DBD for flow actuation is performed using 2D particle-in-cell method with Monte Carlo collisions (PIC/MCC) at 10 MHz in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. The free diffusion dominated, high velocity field emission electrons create a large positive space charge and a body force on the order of 106 N m-3. The body force and Joule heat decrease with increase in dielectric thickness and electrode thickness. The body force also decreases at lower pressures. The plasma body force distribution along with the Joule heating is then used in the Navier-Stokes simulations to quantify the flow actuation in a microchannel. Theoretical analysis and simulations for plasma actuated planar Poiseuille flow show that the gain in flow rate is inversely proportional to Reynolds number. This theoretical analysis is in good agreement with the simulations for a microchannel with closely placed actuators under incompressible conditions. Flow rate of FE-DBD driven 2D microchannel is around 100 ml min-1 mm-1 for an input power of 64 μW mm-1. The gas temperature rises by 1500 K due to the Joule heating, indicating FE-DBD’s potential for microcombustion, micropropulsion and chemical sensing in addition to microscale pumping and mixing applications.
System Identification and POD Method Applied to Unsteady Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tang, Deman; Kholodar, Denis; Juang, Jer-Nan; Dowell, Earl H.
2001-01-01
The representation of unsteady aerodynamic flow fields in terms of global aerodynamic modes has proven to be a useful method for reducing the size of the aerodynamic model over those representations that use local variables at discrete grid points in the flow field. Eigenmodes and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) modes have been used for this purpose with good effect. This suggests that system identification models may also be used to represent the aerodynamic flow field. Implicit in the use of a systems identification technique is the notion that a relative small state space model can be useful in describing a dynamical system. The POD model is first used to show that indeed a reduced order model can be obtained from a much larger numerical aerodynamical model (the vortex lattice method is used for illustrative purposes) and the results from the POD and the system identification methods are then compared. For the example considered, the two methods are shown to give comparable results in terms of accuracy and reduced model size. The advantages and limitations of each approach are briefly discussed. Both appear promising and complementary in their characteristics.
Zonal Two Equation Kappa-Omega Turbulence Models for Aerodynamic Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Menter, Florian R.
1993-01-01
Two new versions of the kappa-omega two-equation turbulence model will be presented. The new Baseline (BSL) model is designed to give results similar to those of the original kappa-omega model of Wilcox, but without its strong dependency on arbitrary freestream values. The BSL model is identical to the Wilcox model in the inner 50% of the boundary-layer but changes gradually to the standard kappa-epsilon model (in a kappa- omega formulation) towards the boundary-layer edge. The free shear layers. The second version of the model is called Shear-Stress Transport (SST) model. It is a variation of the BSL model with the additional ability to account for the transport of the principal turbulent shear stress in adverse pressure gradient boundary-layers. The model is based on Bradshaw's assumption that the principal shear-stress is proportional to the turbulent kinetic energy, which is introduced into the definition of the eddy-viscosity. Both models are tested for a large number of different flowfields. The results of the BSL model are similar to those of the original kappa-omega model, but without the undesirable freestream dependency. The predictions of the SST model are also independent of the freestream values but show better agreement with experimental data for adverse pressure gradient boundary-layer flows.
Improved two-equation k-omega turbulence models for aerodynamic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Menter, Florian R.
1992-01-01
Two new versions of the k-omega two-equation turbulence model will be presented. The new Baseline (BSL) model is designed to give results similar to those of the original k-omega model of Wilcox, but without its strong dependency on arbitrary freestream values. The BSL model is identical to the Wilcox model in the inner 50 percent of the boundary-layer but changes gradually to the high Reynolds number Jones-Launder k-epsilon model (in a k-omega formulation) towards the boundary-layer edge. The new model is also virtually identical to the Jones-Lauder model for free shear layers. The second version of the model is called Shear-Stress Transport (SST) model. It is based on the BSL model, but has the additional ability to account for the transport of the principal shear stress in adverse pressure gradient boundary-layers. The model is based on Bradshaw's assumption that the principal shear stress is proportional to the turbulent kinetic energy, which is introduced into the definition of the eddy-viscosity. Both models are tested for a large number of different flowfields. The results of the BSL model are similar to those of the original k-omega model, but without the undesirable freestream dependency. The predictions of the SST model are also independent of the freestream values and show excellent agreement with experimental data for adverse pressure gradient boundary-layer flows.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, R. L.
1982-01-01
Tests were conducted in the Langley High-Speed 7- by 10-Foot Tunnel using a 1/10-scale model of an executive jet to examine the effects of the nacelles on the wing pressures and model longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics. For the present investigation, each wing panel was modified with a simulated, partial-chord, laminar-flow-control glove. Horizontal-tail effects were also briefly examined. The tests covered a range of Mach numbers from 0.40 to 0.82 and lift coefficients from 0.20 to 0.55. Oil-flow photographs of the wing at selected conditions are included.
The Flow Field Inside Ventricle Assist Device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Einav, Shmuel; Rosenfeld, Moshe; Avrahami, Idit
2000-11-01
The evaluation of innovative ventricle assist devices (VAD), is of major importance. A New Left Heart Assist Device, with an improved energy converter unit, has been investigated both numerically and experimentally. For this purpose, an experimental Continuous Digital Particle Imagining Velocimetry (CDPIV) is combined with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. These tools complement each other to result into a comprehensive description of the complex 3D, viscous and time-dependent flow field inside the artificial ventricle. A 3D numerical model was constructed to simulate the VAD pump and a time-depended CFD analysis with moving walls was performed to predict the flow behaviour in the VAD during the cardiac cycle. A commercial finite element package was used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations (FIDAP, Fluent Inc., Evanston). In the experimental analysis, an optically clear elastic model of the VAD was placed inside a 2D CDPIV system. The CDPIV system is capable of sampling 15 velocity vector fields per second based on image-pairs intervals lower than 0.5 millisecond. Continuous sequences of experimental images, followed by their calculated velocity transient fields, are given as animated presentation of the distensible VAD. These results are used for validating the CFD simulations. Once validated, the CFD results provide a detailed 3D and time dependent description of the flow field, allowing the identification of stagnation or high shear stress regions.
Langley Symposium on Aerodynamics, volume 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stack, Sharon H. (Compiler)
1986-01-01
The purpose of this work was to present current work and results of the Langley Aeronautics Directorate covering the areas of computational fluid dynamics, viscous flows, airfoil aerodynamics, propulsion integration, test techniques, and low-speed, high-speed, and transonic aerodynamics. The following sessions are included in this volume: theoretical aerodynamics, test techniques, fluid physics, and viscous drag reduction.
A Synthesis of Hybrid RANS/LES CFD Results for F-16XL Aircraft Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luckring, James M.; Park, Michael A.; Hitzel, Stephan M.; Jirasek, Adam; Lofthouse, Andrew J.; Morton, Scott A.; McDaniel, David R.; Rizzi, Arthur M.
2015-01-01
A synthesis is presented of recent numerical predictions for the F-16XL aircraft flow fields and aerodynamics. The computational results were all performed with hybrid RANS/LES formulations, with an emphasis on unsteady flows and subsequent aerodynamics, and results from five computational methods are included. The work was focused on one particular low-speed, high angle-of-attack flight test condition, and comparisons against flight-test data are included. This work represents the third coordinated effort using the F-16XL aircraft, and a unique flight-test data set, to advance our knowledge of slender airframe aerodynamics as well as our capability for predicting these aerodynamics with advanced CFD formulations. The prior efforts were identified as Cranked Arrow Wing Aerodynamics Project International, with the acronyms CAWAPI and CAWAPI-2. All information in this paper is in the public domain.
Incremental Aerodynamic Coefficient Database for the USA2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Richardson, Annie Catherine
2016-01-01
In March through May of 2016, a wind tunnel test was conducted by the Aerosciences Branch (EV33) to visually study the unsteady aerodynamic behavior over multiple transition geometries for the Universal Stage Adapter 2 (USA2) in the MSFC Aerodynamic Research Facility's Trisonic Wind Tunnel (TWT). The purpose of the test was to make a qualitative comparison of the transonic flow field in order to provide a recommended minimum transition radius for manufacturing. Additionally, 6 Degree of Freedom force and moment data for each configuration tested was acquired in order to determine the geometric effects on the longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients (Normal Force, Axial Force, and Pitching Moment). In order to make a quantitative comparison of the aerodynamic effects of the USA2 transition geometry, the aerodynamic coefficient data collected during the test was parsed and incorporated into a database for each USA2 configuration tested. An incremental aerodynamic coefficient database was then developed using the generated databases for each USA2 geometry as a function of Mach number and angle of attack. The final USA2 coefficient increments will be applied to the aerodynamic coefficients of the baseline geometry to adjust the Space Launch System (SLS) integrated launch vehicle force and moment database based on the transition geometry of the USA2.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bihrle, W., Jr.; Bowman, J. S., Jr.
1980-01-01
The NASA Langley Research Center has initiated a broad general aviation stall/spin research program. A rotary balance system was developed to support this effort. Located in the Langley spin tunnel, this system makes it possible to identify an airplane's aerodynamic characteristics in a rotational flow environment, and thereby permits prediction of spins. This paper presents a brief description of the experimental set-up, testing technique, five model programs conducted to date, and an overview of the rotary balance results and their correlation with spin tunnel free-spinning model results. It is shown, for example, that there is a large, nonlinear dependency of the aerodynamic moments on rotational rate and that these moments are pronouncedly configuration-dependent. Fuselage shape, horizontal tail and, in some instances, wing location are shown to appreciably influence the yawing moment characteristics above an angle of attack of 45 deg.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hertzberg, Jean
2005-11-01
Cough generated infectious aerosols are of interest while developing strategies for the mitigation of disease risks ranging from the common cold to SARS. In this work, the velocity field of human cough was measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The project subjects (total 29) coughed into an enclosure seeded with stage fog for most measurements. Cough flow speed profiles, average widths of the cough jet, waveform, and maximum cough speeds were measured. Maximum cough speeds ranged from 1.5 m/s to 28.8 m/s. No correlation was found for maximum cough flow speeds to height or gender. The slow growth of the width of the cough flow suggests that a cough may penetrate farther into a room than a steady jet of similar volume. The velocity profile was found to scale with the square root of downstream distance.
Flow-Field Surveys for Rectangular Nozzles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zaman, K. B. M. Q.
2012-01-01
Flow field survey results for three rectangular nozzles are presented for a low subsonic condition obtained primarily by hot-wire anemometry. The three nozzles have aspect ratios of 2:1, 4:1 and 8:1. A fourth case included has 2:1 aspect ratio with chevrons added to the long edges. Data on mean velocity, turbulent normal and shear stresses as well as streamwise vorticity are presented covering a streamwise distance up to sixteen equivalent diameters from the nozzle exit. These detailed flow properties, including initial boundary layer characteristics, are usually difficult to measure in high speed flows and the primary objective of the study is to aid ongoing and future computational and noise modeling efforts.
A theoretical note on aerodynamic lifting in dust devils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhen-Ting
2016-02-01
The stress distribution of a known rotating flow near the ground in fluid mechanics indicates that the horizontal aerodynamic entrainment of particles within dust devils is attributed to friction force rather than pressure force. The expression of dust emission rate on Earth was theoretically discussed based on simulated flow field and our current understanding of the physics of aeolian dust. It seems that transition flow is vital to dust devils on Mars.
Field Emission Microplasma Actuated Microchannel Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tholeti, Siva Sashank; Shivkumar, Gayathri; Alexeenko, Alina
2015-11-01
Flow actuation by dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) involve no moving parts and provide high power density for flow enhancement, heating and mixing applications in microthrusters, micropumps and microcombustors. Conventional micro-DBDs require voltages ~ kV for flow enhancement of a few m/s for 500 μm high channel. However for gaps <10 microns, field emission lowers the breakdown voltage following modified Paschen curve. We consider a micropump concept that takes advantage of the field emission from a micro-DBD with dielectric thickness of 3 μm and a peak voltage of -325 V at 10 MHz. At 760 Torr, for electrode thickness of 1 μm, Knudsen number with respect to the e-nitrogen collisions is 0.1. So, kinetic approach of particle-in-cell method with Monte Carlo collisions is applied in nitrogen at 300 K to resolve electron (ne) and ion (ni) number densities. Body force, fb = eE(ni-ne) , where, e is electron charge and E is electric field. The major source of heating from plasma is Joule heating, J.E, where J is current density. At 760 Torr, for fb,avg = 1 mN/cubic mm and J.E = 8 W/cubic mm, micro-DBD induced a flow with a velocity of 4.1 m/s for a 64 mW/m power input for a channel height of 500 μm. The PIC/MCC plasma simulations are coupled to a CFD solver for analysis of the resulting flow actuation in microchannels at various Reynolds numbers. This work was supported by NSF ECCS Grant No. 1202095.
Feasibility study for a numerical aerodynamic simulation facility. Volume 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lincoln, N. R.; Bergman, R. O.; Bonstrom, D. B.; Brinkman, T. W.; Chiu, S. H. J.; Green, S. S.; Hansen, S. D.; Klein, D. L.; Krohn, H. E.; Prow, R. P.
1979-01-01
A Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility (NASF) was designed for the simulation of fluid flow around three-dimensional bodies, both in wind tunnel environments and in free space. The application of numerical simulation to this field of endeavor promised to yield economies in aerodynamic and aircraft body designs. A model for a NASF/FMP (Flow Model Processor) ensemble using a possible approach to meeting NASF goals is presented. The computer hardware and software are presented, along with the entire design and performance analysis and evaluation.
On the no-field method for void time determination in flow field-flow fractionation.
Martin, Michel; Hoyos, Mauricio
2011-07-01
Elution time measurements of colloidal particles injected in a symmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (flow FFF) system when the inlet and outlet cross-flow connections are closed have been performed. This no-field method has been proposed earlier for void time (and void volume) determination in flow FFF Giddings et al. (1977). The elution times observed were much larger than expected on the basis of the channel geometrical volume and the flow rate. In order to explain these discrepancies, a flow model allowing the carrier liquid to flow through the porous walls toward the reservoirs located behind the porous elements and along these reservoirs was developed. The ratio between the observed elution time and expected one is found to depend only on a parameter which is a function of the effective permeability and thickness of the porous elements and of the channel thickness and length. The permeabilities of the frits used in the system were measured. Their values lead to predicted elution times in reasonable agreement with experimental ones, taking into account likely membrane protrusion inside the channel on system assembly. They comfort the basic feature of the flow model, in the no-field case. The carrier liquid mostly bypasses the channel to flow along the system mainly in the reservoir. It flows through the porous walls toward the reservoirs near channel inlet and again through the porous walls from the reservoirs to the channel near channel outlet before exiting the system. In order to estimate the extent of this bypassing process, it is desirable that the hydrodynamic characteristics of the permeable elements (permeability and thickness) are provided by flow FFF manufacturers. The model applies to symmetrical as well as asymmetrical flow FFF systems. PMID:21256498
Sultan - forced flow, high field test facility
Horvath, I.; Vecsey, G.; Weymuth, P.; Zellweger, J.
1981-09-01
Three European laboratories: CNEN (Frascati, I) ECN (Petten, NL) and SIN (Villigen, CH) decided to coordinate their development efforts and to install a common high field forced flow test facility at Villigen Switzerland. The test facility SULTAN (Supraleiter Testanlage) is presently under construction. As a first step, an 8T/1m bore solenoid with cryogenic periphery will be ready in 1981. The cryogenic system, data acquisition system and power supplies which are contributed by SIN are described. Experimental feasibilities, including cooling, and instrumentation are reviewed. Progress of components and facility construction is described. Planned extension of the background field up to 12T by insert coils is outlined. 5 refs.
Unsteady aerodynamics of blade rows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verdon, Joseph M.
1989-01-01
The requirements placed on an unsteady aerodynamic theory intended for turbomachinery aeroelastic or aeroacoustic applications are discussed along with a brief description of the various theoretical models that are available to address these requirements. The major emphasis is placed on the description of a linearized inviscid theory which fully accounts for the affects of a nonuniform mean or steady flow on unsteady aerodynamic response. Although this linearization was developed primarily for blade flutter prediction, more general equations are presented which account for unsteady excitations due to incident external aerodynamic disturbances as well as those due to prescribed blade motions. The motivation for this linearized unsteady aerodynamic theory is focused on, its physical and mathematical formulation is outlined and examples are presented to illustrate the status of numerical solution procedures and several effects of mean flow nonuniformity on unsteady aerodynamic response.
Field-flow fractionation of chromosomes
Giddings, J.C.
1990-09-01
Research continued on field flow fractionation of chromosomes. Progress in the past year can be organized into three main categories: (1) chromosome sample preparation; (2) preliminary chromosome fractionation; (3) fractionation of a polystyrene aggregate model which approximates the chromosome shape. We have been successful in isolating metaphase chromosomes from the Chinese hamster. We also received a human chromosome sample from Dr. Carolyn Bell-Prince of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Results are discussed. 2 figs.
Unsteady Flow Field in a Multistage Axial Flow Compressor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Suryavamshi, N.; Lakshminarayana, B.; Prato, J.
1997-01-01
The flow field in a multistage compressor is three-dimensional, unsteady, and turbulent with substantial viscous effects. Some of the specific phenomena that has eluded designers include the effects of rotor-stator and rotor-rotor interactions and the physics of mixing of velocity, pressure, temperature and velocity fields. An attempt was made, to resolve experimentally, the unsteady pressure and temperature fields downstream of the second stator of a multistage axial flow compressor which will provide information on rotor-stator interaction effects and the nature of the unsteadiness in an embedded stator of a three stage axial flow compressor. Detailed area traverse measurements using pneumatic five hole probe, thermocouple probe, semi-conductor total pressure probe (Kulite) and an aspirating probe downstream of the second stator were conducted at the peak efficiency operating condition. The unsteady data was then reduced through an ensemble averaging technique which splits the signal into deterministic and unresolved components. Auto and cross correlation techniques were used to correlate the deterministic total temperature and velocity components (acquired using a slanted hot-film probe at the same measurement locations) and the gradients, distributions and relative weights of each of the terms of the average passage equation were then determined. Based on these measurements it was observed that the stator wakes, hub leakage flow region, casing endwall suction surface corner region, and the casing endwall region away from the blade surfaces were the regions of highest losses in total pressure, lowest efficiency and highest levels of unresolved unsteadiness. The deterministic unsteadiness was found to be high in the hub and casing endwall regions as well as on the pressure side of the stator wake. The spectral distribution of hot-wire and kulite voltages shows that at least eight harmonics of all three rotor blade passing frequencies are present at this
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, W. W.; Chamecki, M.; Kocurek, G.; Mohrig, D. C.
2013-12-01
The structure and dynamics of fully-developed turbulent flows responding to aeolian dune fields are studied using large-eddy simulation with an immersed boundary method. An aspect of particular importance in these flows is the downwind migration of coherent motions associated with Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities which originate at the dune crests. These instabilities are responsible for enhanced downward transport of high momentum fluid via the so-called turbulent sweep mechanism. However, the presence of such structures and their role in determining the bulk characteristics of fully developed dune field sublayer aerodynamics has received relatively limited attention. Moreover, many existing studies address mostly symmetric or mildly asymmetric dune forms. The White Sands National Monument is a field of aeolian gypsum sand dunes located in the Tularosa Basin in southern New Mexico. Aeolian processes at the site result in a complex, anisotropic dune field. In the dune field sublayer, the flow statistics resemble a mixing layer: at approximately the dune crest height, vertical profiles of streamwise velocity exhibit an inflection and turbulent Reynolds stresses are maximum; below this, the streamwise and vertical velocity fluctuations are positively and negatively skewed, respectively. We evaluate the spatial structure of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities present in the dune field sublayer -- shear length, Ls, and vortex spacing, Lambda_x -- and show that Ls = m Lambda_x, where m is approximately 8 in the different sections considered (for turbulent mixing layers, 7 < m < 10, Rogers and Moser, 1994: Phys. Fluids A, 6, 903-922). These results guide discussion on the statistics of aerodynamic drag across the dunes; probability density functions of time-series of aerodynamic drag for the dunes are shown to exhibit skewness and variance much greater than values reported for turbulent boundary layer flow over an homogeneous roughness distribution. Thus, we propose that
Not Available
1985-01-01
Among the topics discussed are hydrodynamic stability and turbulent transition, separated flow simulations employing finite difference methods, a quasi-simultaneous finite difference approach for strongly interacting flow, the Newton solution of coupled Euler and boundary layer equations, multielement airfoil aerodynamics, vorticity dynamics, the significance of the thin layer Navier-Stokes approximation, a comparison of interactive and Navier-Stokes calculations of separating boundary layer flows, and a Navier-Stokes analysis for the mechanism of shock wave/boundary layer interactions. Also discussed are transonic interactions of unsteady vortical flows, boundary layers on oscillating airfoils, a laser-interferometer skin friction meter, flow over surface-mounted semibluff bodies, computations for spinning and spin-stabilized supersonic projectiles, transition calculations in three-dimensional flows, the effect of projectile boattailing in transonic flow, flow characteristics of a body of revolution at incidence, the influence of the boundary layer on the leading edge flow of a swept wing, and an interactive scheme for three-dimensional transonic flows.
Transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doig, G.
2014-08-01
A review of recent and historical work in the field of transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics has been conducted, focussing on applied research on wings and aircraft, present and future ground transportation, projectiles, rocket sleds and other related bodies which travel in close ground proximity in the compressible regime. Methods for ground testing are described and evaluated, noting that wind tunnel testing is best performed with a symmetry model in the absence of a moving ground; sled or rail testing is ultimately preferable, though considerably more expensive. Findings are reported on shock-related ground influence on aerodynamic forces and moments in and accelerating through the transonic regime - where force reversals and the early onset of local supersonic flow is prevalent - as well as more predictable behaviours in fully supersonic to hypersonic ground effect flows.
Directed Plasma Flow across Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Presura, R.; Stepanenko, Y.; Neff, S.; Sotnikov, V. I.
2008-04-01
The Hall effect plays a significant role in the penetration of plasma flows across magnetic field. For example, its effect may become dominant in the solar wind penetration into the magnetosphere, in the magnetic field advection in wire array z-pinch precursors, or in the arcing of magnetically insulated transmission lines. An experiment performed at the Nevada Terawatt Facility explored the penetration of plasma with large Hall parameter (˜10) across ambient magnetic field. The plasma was produced by ablation with the short pulse high intensity laser Leopard (0.35 ps, 10^17W/cm^2) and the magnetic field with the pulsed power generator Zebra (50 T). The expanding plasma assumed a jet configuration and propagated beyond a distance consistent with a diamagnetic bubble model. Without magnetic field, the plasma expansion was close to hemispherical. The ability to produce the plasma and the magnetic field with distinct generators allows a controlled, quasi-continuous variation of the Hall parameter and other plasma parameters making the experiments useful for benchmarking numerical simulations.
Flow field simulation for a corncob incinerator
Wu, C.H.
1999-02-01
This article utilizes the standard k-{epsilon} turbulent model to simulate a corncob incinerator using the PISO algorithm with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The flow patterns of the incinerator equipped with secondary air inlets are predicted and compared for the various geometrical layouts. It is demonstrated that a wider recirculation zone can be found while the inclined angles of inlets increased, so a longer residence time and higher combustion efficiency will be expected. The longer distance between primary and secondary inlets will facilitate the formation of recirculation zone in this bigger space. The more the number of the secondary air inlets, the less the resident air in the top recirculation zone near the exit of the furnace. By using the CFD technique, the flow field of the incinerator can be understood more precisely, and it can serve as an excellent design tool. Furthermore, the computational program can be composed with FORTRAN and set up on a PC, and can easily be analyzed to get the flow field of the corncob incinerator.
Applied computational aerodynamics
Henne, P.A.
1990-01-01
The present volume discusses the original development of the panel method, the mapping solutions and singularity distributions of linear potential schemes, the capabilities of full-potential, Euler, and Navier-Stokes schemes, the use of the grid-generation methodology in applied aerodynamics, subsonic airfoil design, inverse airfoil design for transonic applications, the divergent trailing-edge airfoil innovation in CFD, Euler and potential computational results for selected aerodynamic configurations, and the application of CFD to wing high-lift systems. Also discussed are high-lift wing modifications for an advanced-capability EA-6B aircraft, Navier-Stokes methods for internal and integrated propulsion system flow predictions, the use of zonal techniques for analysis of rotor-stator interaction, CFD applications to complex configurations, CFD applications in component aerodynamic design of the V-22, Navier-Stokes computations of a complete F-16, CFD at supersonic/hypersonic speeds, and future CFD developments.
Aerodynamic Analyses Requiring Advanced Computers, Part 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1975-01-01
Papers are presented which deal with results of theoretical research on aerodynamic flow problems requiring the use of advanced computers. Topics discussed include: viscous flows, boundary layer equations, turbulence modeling and Navier-Stokes equations, and internal flows.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zell, Peter T.
1993-01-01
Results from the performance and test section flow calibration of the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel are presented. Measurements indicating the 80- by 120-ft test section flow quality were obtained throughout the tunnel operational envelope and for atmospheric wind speeds up to approximately 20 knots. Tunnel performance characteristics and a dynamic pressure system calibration were also documented during the process of mapping the test section flow field. Experimental results indicate that the test section flow quality is relatively insensitive to dynamic pressure and the level of atmospheric winds experienced during the calibration. The dynamic pressure variation in the test section is within +/-75 percent of the average. The axial turbulence intensity is less than 0.5 percent up to the maximum test section speed of 100 knots, and the vertical and lateral flow angle variations are within +/-5 deg and +/-7 deg, respectively. Atmospheric winds were found to affect the pressure distribution in the test section only at high ratios of wind speed to test section speed.
Majewski, M.; Desjardina, R.; Rochette, P.; Pattey, E.; Selber, J.; Glotfelty, D.
1993-01-01
The field experiment reported here applied the relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) technique to the measurement of triallate (TA) and trifluralin (TF) volatilization from fallow soil. A critical analysis of the REA system used in this experiment is done, and the fluxes are compared to those obtained by the aerodynamic-gradient (AG) technique. The measured cumulative volatilization losses, corrected for the effective upwind source area (footprint), for the AG system were higher than with the REA system. The differences between the methods over the first 5 days of the experiment were 27 and 13% for TA and TF, respectively. A mass balance based on the amount of parent compounds volatilized from soil during the first 5 days of the experiment showed a 110 and 70% and a 79 and 61% accountability for triallate and trifluralin by the AG and REA methods, respectively. These results also show that the non-footprint-corrected AG flux values underestimated the volatilization flux by approximately 16%. The footprint correction model used in this experiment does not presently have the capability of accounting for changes in atmospheric stability. However, these values still provide an indication of the most likely upwind area affecting the evaporative flux estimations. The soil half-lives for triallate and trifluralin were 9.8 and 7.0 days, respectively. ?? 1992 American Chemical Society.
Vibrational relaxation in hypersonic flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meador, Willard E.; Miner, Gilda A.; Heinbockel, John H.
1993-01-01
Mathematical formulations of vibrational relaxation are derived from first principles for application to fluid dynamic computations of hypersonic flow fields. Relaxation within and immediately behind shock waves is shown to be substantially faster than that described in current numerical codes. The result should be a significant reduction in nonequilibrium radiation overshoot in shock layers and in radiative heating of hypersonic vehicles; these results are precisely the trends needed to bring theoretical predictions more in line with flight data. Errors in existing formulations are identified and qualitative comparisons are made.
Rectangular subsonic jet flow field measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morrison, Gerald L.; Swan, David H.
1990-01-01
Flow field measurements of three subsonic rectangular cold air jets are presented. The three cases had aspect ratios of 1x2, 1x4 at a Mach number of 0.09 and an aspect ratio of 1x2 at a Mach number of 0.9. All measurements were made using a 3-D laser Doppler anemometer system. The data includes the mean velocity vector, all Reynolds stress tensor components, turbulent kinetic energy and velocity correlation coefficients. The data are presented in tabular and graphical form. No analysis of the measured data or comparison to other published data is made.
Field-flow fractionation of chromosomes
Giddings, J.C.
1993-04-01
The first topic of this project involved the preparation, fractionation by sedimentation/steric Field Flow Fractionation (FFF), and modeling of metaphase chromosomes. After numerous unsuccessful attempts to prepare chromosomes, we have implemented a procedure (in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory) to prepare metaphase chromosomes from Chinese hamster cells. Extensive experimentation was necessary to identify a suitable FFF channel surface to minimize chromosome adsorption and a carrier liquid to stabilize and disperse the chromosomes. Under suitable operating conditions, the Chinese hamster chromosomes were purified from cell debris and partially fractionated. The purified, preenriched chromosomes that can be prepared by sedimentation/steric FFF or produced continuously by continuous SPLITT fractionation provide an enriched feed material for subsequent flow cytometry. In the second project component, flow FFF permitted successful separations of single- from double-stranded circular DNA, double-stranded circular DNAs of various sizes, and linear double-stranded DNA fragments of various lengths. Diffusion coefficients extracted from retention data agreed well with literature data as well as predictions of major polymer theories. The capacity of FFF separations was evaluated to examine potential applications to long DNA chains.
Some recent advances in computational aerodynamics for helicopter applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccroskey, W. J.; Baeder, J. D.
1985-01-01
The growing application of computational aerodynamics to nonlinear helicopter problems is outlined, with particular emphasis on several recent quasi-two-dimensional examples that used the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations and an eddy-viscosity model to approximate turbulence. Rotor blade section characteristics can now be calculated accurately over a wide range of transonic flow conditions. However, a finite-difference simulation of the complete flow field about a helicopter in forward flight is not currently feasible, despite the impressive progress that is being made in both two and three dimensions. The principal limitations are today's computer speeds and memories, algorithm and solution methods, grid generation, vortex modeling, structural and aerodynamic coupling, and a shortage of engineers who are skilled in both computational fluid dynamics and helicopter aerodynamics and dynamics.
Joint computational and experimental aerodynamics research on a hypersonic vehicle
Oberkampf, W.L.; Aeschliman, D.P.; Walker, M.M.
1992-01-01
A closely coupled computational and experimental aerodynamics research program was conducted on a hypersonic vehicle configuration at Mach 8. Aerodynamic force and moment measurements and flow visualization results were obtained in the Sandia National Laboratories hypersonic wind tunnel for laminar boundary layer conditions. Parabolized and iterative Navier-Stokes simulations were used to predict flow fields and forces and moments on the hypersonic configuration. The basic vehicle configuration is a spherically blunted 10{degrees} cone with a slice parallel with the axis of the vehicle. On the slice portion of the vehicle, a flap can be attached so that deflection angles of 10{degrees}, 20{degrees}, and 30{degrees} can be obtained. Comparisons are made between experimental and computational results to evaluate quality of each and to identify areas where improvements are needed. This extensive set of high-quality experimental force and moment measurements is recommended for use in the calibration and validation of computational aerodynamics codes. 22 refs.
Aerodynamics of a promising vortex furnace design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anufriev, I. S.; Strizhak, P. A.; Chernetskii, M. Yu.; Shadrin, E. Yu.; Sharypov, O. V.
2015-08-01
The aerodynamics of a promising vortex furnace design with secondary top blasting has been studied. Flow velocity fields have been measured in an isothermal laboratory model of the furnace using a digital tracer imaging (particle image velocimetry) technique. Three-dimensional diagnostics of flow structure in the combustion chamber has been carried out by the method of laser Doppler anemometry. Processing of the obtained data using the criterion of "minimum total pressure" has been used to visualize the spatial structure of the vortex core.
Theoretical and experimental engine-inlet flow fields for fighter forebodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yaros, S. F.
1984-01-01
The capability of two numerical methods, one for transonic and one for supersonic flows, to predict the flow fields about representative fighter aircraft forebodies in the vicinity of the engine inlets was examined. The Mach number range covered was 0.9 to 2.5 and the angle-of-attack range was 0 deg to 25 deg. The computer progams that implement each of the numerical methods are described as to their features and usage, and results are compared with comprehensive wind tunnel data. Although both prediction methods were inviscid, results show that the aerodynamic effects of the forebody, with and without a wing, can be simulated fairly well. Futher work is needed to include the effects of viscosity, including vortex shedding.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bradney, D. R.; Evans, S. P.; Salles Pereira Da Costa, M.; Clausen, P. D.
2016-09-01
Small horizontal-axis wind turbines are likely to operate in a broad range of operating flow conditions, often in highly turbulent flow, due, in part, to their varied site placements. This paper compares the computational simulations of the performance of a 5 kW horizontal-axis wind turbine to detailed field measurements, with a particular focus on the impact of unsteady operating conditions on the drivetrain performance and generator output. Results indicate that the current Blade Element Momentum Theory based aerodynamic models under-predict the effect of high turbine yaw on the rotor torque, leading to a difference between predicted and measured shaft speed and power production. Furthermore, the results show discrepancies between the predicted instantaneous turbine yaw performance and measurements.
Aerodynamic research on tipvane windturbines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanbussel, G. J. W.; Vanholten, T.; Vankuik, G. A. M.
1982-09-01
Tipvanes are small auxiliary wings mounted at the tips of windturbine blades in such a way that a diffuser effect is generated, resulting in a mass flow augmentation through the turbine disc. For predicting aerodynamic loads on the tipvane wind turbine, the acceleration potential is used and an expansion method is applied. In its simplest form, this method can essentially be classified as a lifting line approach, however, with a proper choice of the basis load distributions of the lifting line, the numerical integration of the pressurefield becomes one dimensional. the integration of the other variable can be performed analytically. The complete analytical expression for the pressure field consists of two series of basic pressure fields. One series is related to the basic load distributions over the turbineblade, and the other series to the basic load distribution over the tipvane.
Not Available
1992-01-01
Consideration is given to vortex physics and aerodynamics; supersonic/hypersonic aerodynamics; STOL/VSTOL/rotors; missile and reentry vehicle aerodynamics; CFD as applied to aircraft; unsteady aerodynamics; supersonic/hypersonic aerodynamics; low-speed/high-lift aerodynamics; airfoil/wing aerodynamics; measurement techniques; CFD-solvers/unstructured grid; airfoil/drag prediction; high angle-of-attack aerodynamics; and CFD grid methods. Particular attention is given to transonic-numerical investigation into high-angle-of-attack leading-edge vortex flow, prediction of rotor unsteady airloads using vortex filament theory, rapid synthesis for evaluating the missile maneuverability parameters, transonic calculations of wing/bodies with deflected control surfaces; the static and dynamic flow field development about a porous suction surface wing; the aircraft spoiler effects under wind shear; multipoint inverse design of an infinite cascade of airfoils, turbulence modeling for impinging jet flows; numerical investigation of tail buffet on the F-18 aircraft; the surface grid generation in a parameter space; and the flip flop nozzle extended to supersonic flows.
Phase-locked flow field analysis in a synthetic human larynx model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lodermeyer, Alexander; Becker, Stefan; Döllinger, Michael; Kniesburges, Stefan
2015-04-01
The fluid flow within a human larynx plays an essential role in the fluid-structure-acoustic interaction during voice production. This study addresses the flow field downstream of aerodynamically driven, synthetic vocal folds. In order to quantitatively investigate the supraglottal formation of the flow field within one oscillation cycle of the vocal folds, a phase-locked PIV technique is introduced. The pseudo-time-resolved measurement results were averaged for each phase angle. When including a supraglottal channel, the jet was deflected from the centerline of the supraglottal channel and changed the direction of deflection in different cycles. The result is a bistable flow field. Therefore, a sorting method based on the mean cyclic supraglottal pressure difference was introduced. For both states of the flow field, a recirculation area was detected, interacting with the arising glottal jet in every oscillation cycle. This interaction could be identified as the major cause for supraglottal jet deflection, and the sense of rotation of the recirculation area defined the direction of deflection. The asymmetric structure of the flow field was caused by the geometric boundary condition, i.e., due to the present supraglottal channel. An additional key factor was found to be the contact between the two vocal folds in each oscillation cycle which interrupted the jet flow periodically. Removing the supraglottal channel resulted in a symmetric jet location. When avoiding vocal fold contact, the bistable behavior vanished and the jet was steadily deflected to one lateral side. In the present study, it cannot be confirmed that the Coanda effect is responsible for the deflection.
Future Challenges and Opportunities in Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kumar, Ajay; Hefner, Jerry N.
2000-01-01
Investments in aeronautics research and technology have declined substantially over the last decade, in part due to the perception that technologies required in aircraft design are fairly mature and readily available. This perception is being driven by the fact that aircraft configurations, particularly the transport aircraft, have evolved only incrementally, over last several decades. If however, one considers that the growth in air travel is expected to triple in the next 20 years, it becomes quickly obvious that the evolutionary development of technologies is not going to meet the increased demands for safety, environmental compatibility, capacity, and economic viability. Instead, breakthrough technologies will he required both in traditional disciplines of aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, materials, controls, and avionics as well as in the multidisciplinary integration of these technologies into the design of future aerospace vehicles concepts. The paper discusses challenges and opportunities in the field of aerodynamics over the next decade. Future technology advancements in aerodynamics will hinge on our ability, to understand, model, and control complex, three-dimensional, unsteady viscous flow across the speed range. This understanding is critical for developing innovative flow and noise control technologies and advanced design tools that will revolutionize future aerospace vehicle systems and concepts. Specifically, the paper focuses on advanced vehicle concepts, flow and noise control technologies, and advanced design and analysis tools.
Computational Aerodynamic Simulations of a Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation Fan Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tweedt, Daniel L.
2010-01-01
Quieter working environments for astronauts are needed if future long-duration space exploration missions are to be safe and productive. Ventilation and payload cooling fans are known to be dominant sources of noise, with the International Space Station being a good case in point. To address this issue cost effectively, early attention to fan design, selection, and installation has been recommended, leading to an effort by NASA to examine the potential for small-fan noise reduction by improving fan aerodynamic design. As a preliminary part of that effort, the aerodynamics of a cabin ventilation fan designed by Hamilton Sundstrand has been simulated using computational fluid dynamics codes, and the computed solutions analyzed to quantify various aspects of the fan aerodynamics and performance. Four simulations were performed at the design rotational speed: two at the design flow rate and two at off-design flow rates. Following a brief discussion of the computational codes, various aerodynamic- and performance-related quantities derived from the computed flow fields are presented along with relevant flow field details. The results show that the computed fan performance is in generally good agreement with stated design goals.
The critical role of aerodynamic heating effects in the design of hypersonic vehicles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wieting, Allan R.
1989-01-01
Hypersonic vehicles operate in a hostile aerothermal environment, which has a significant impact on their aerothermostructural performance. Significant coupling occurs between the aerodynamic flow field, structural heat transfer, and structural response, creating a multidisciplinary interaction. The critical role of aerodynamic heating effects in the design of hypersonic vehicles is identified with an example of high localized heating on an engine-cowl leading edge. Recent advances is integrated fluid-thermal-structural finite-element analyses are presented.
Fluctuating pressures in flow fields of jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schroeder, J. C.; Haviland, J. K.
1976-01-01
The powered lift configurations under present development for STOL aircraft are the externally blown flap (EBF), involving direct jet impingement on the aircraft flaps, and the upper surface blown (USB), where the jet flow is attached on the upper surface of the wing and directed downwards. Towards the goal of developing scaling laws to predict unsteady loads imposed on the structural components of these STOL aircraft from small model tests, the near field fluctuating pressure behavior for the simplified cases of a round free cold jet and the same jet impinging on a flat plate was investigated. Examples are given of coherences, phase lags (giving convection velocities), and overall fluctuating pressure levels measured. The fluctuating pressure levels measured on the flat plate are compared to surface fluctuating pressure levels measured on full-scale powered-lift configuration models.
Space Station resource node flow field analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kania, Lee; Kumar, Ganesh; Mcconnaughey, Paul
1991-01-01
An analysis of the flow field within the Space Station Freedom resource node with operational intermodule ventilation and temperature/humidity control ventilation systems has been conducted. The INS3D code, an incompressible, steady-state Navier-Stokes solver has been used to assess the design of the ventilation system via quantification of the level of fluid mixing and identification of 'dead air' regions and short-circuit ventilation. Numerical results indicate significant short-circuit ventilation in the forward and midsections of the node and insufficient fluid mixing is found to exist in the aft node section. These results as well as results from a solution grid dependence study are presented.
Rectangular subsonic jet flow field measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morrison, Gerald L.; Swan, David H.
1989-01-01
Flow field measurements are presented of 3 subsonic rectangular cold air jets. The 3 cases presented had aspect ratios of 1 x 2, 1 x 4 at a Mach number of 0.09 and an aspect ratio of 1 x 2 at a Mach number of 0.9. All measurements were made using a 3-D laser Doppler anemoneter system. The presented data includes the mean velocity vector, all Reynolds stress tensor components, turbulent kinetic energy and velocity correlation coefficients. The data is presented in tabular and graphical form. No analysis of the measured data or comparison to other published data is made. All tabular data are available in ASCII format on MS-DOS compatible disks.
Microgravity Geyser and Flow Field Prediction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hochstein, J. I.; Marchetta, J. G.; Thornton, R. J.
2006-01-01
Modeling and prediction of flow fields and geyser formation in microgravity cryogenic propellant tanks was investigated. A computational simulation was used to reproduce the test matrix of experimental results performed by other investigators, as well as to model the flows in a larger tank. An underprediction of geyser height by the model led to a sensitivity study to determine if variations in surface tension coefficient, contact angle, or jet pipe turbulence significantly influence the simulations. It was determined that computational geyser height is not sensitive to slight variations in any of these items. An existing empirical correlation based on dimensionless parameters was re-examined in an effort to improve the accuracy of geyser prediction. This resulted in the proposal for a re-formulation of two dimensionless parameters used in the correlation; the non-dimensional geyser height and the Bond number. It was concluded that the new non-dimensional geyser height shows little promise. Although further data will be required to make a definite judgement, the reformulation of the Bond number provided correlations that are more accurate and appear to be more general than the previously established correlation.
Unsteady aerodynamics modeling for flight dynamics application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Qing; He, Kai-Feng; Qian, Wei-Qi; Zhang, Tian-Jiao; Cheng, Yan-Qing; Wu, Kai-Yuan
2012-02-01
In view of engineering application, it is practicable to decompose the aerodynamics into three components: the static aerodynamics, the aerodynamic increment due to steady rotations, and the aerodynamic increment due to unsteady separated and vortical flow. The first and the second components can be presented in conventional forms, while the third is described using a one-order differential equation and a radial-basis-function (RBF) network. For an aircraft configuration, the mathematical models of 6-component aerodynamic coefficients are set up from the wind tunnel test data of pitch, yaw, roll, and coupled yawroll large-amplitude oscillations. The flight dynamics of an aircraft is studied by the bifurcation analysis technique in the case of quasi-steady aerodynamics and unsteady aerodynamics, respectively. The results show that: (1) unsteady aerodynamics has no effect upon the existence of trim points, but affects their stability; (2) unsteady aerodynamics has great effects upon the existence, stability, and amplitudes of periodic solutions; and (3) unsteady aerodynamics changes the stable regions of trim points obviously. Furthermore, the dynamic responses of the aircraft to elevator deflections are inspected. It is shown that the unsteady aerodynamics is beneficial to dynamic stability for the present aircraft. Finally, the effects of unsteady aerodynamics on the post-stall maneuverability are analyzed by numerical simulation.
A comparison of baseline aerodynamic performance of optimally-twisted versus non-twisted HAWT blades
Simms, D A; Robinson, M C; Hand, M M; Fingersh, L J
1995-01-01
NREL has completed the initial twisted blade field tests of the ``Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment.`` This test series continues systematic measurements of unsteady aerodynamic phenomena prevalent in stall-controlled horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs). The blade twist distribution optimizes power production at a single angle of attack along the span. Abrupt transitions into and out of stall are created due to rapid changes in inflow. Data from earlier experiments have been analyzed extensively to characterize the steady and unsteady response of untwisted blades. In this report, a characterization and comparison of the baseline aerodynamic performance of the twisted versus non-twisted blade sets will be presented for steady flow conditions.
Computation of External Aerodynamics for a Canard Rotor/Wing Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pandya, S.; Aftosmis, M. J.
2000-01-01
The aerodynamic loads on a Canard Rotor/Wing vehicle are investigated using inviscid numerical simulations to understand the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle during conversion from rotorcraft to fixed wing flight. Steady numerical simulations at five azimuthal rotor indices are presented over a quarter turn of the rotor, producing 19 points during a single rotation due to symmetry. A Cartesian mesh approach is used to compute the steady flow field. All computations are done with a faired over engine inlet and exit to be consistent with the wind tunnel model geometry. Modification to the geometry is suggested and the aerodynamic effect of the modification is discussed.
Aerodynamics of Laminar Flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Law, Chung K.
2000-11-01
The presentation will review recent advances in the understanding of the structure, dynamics, and geometry of stretched, nonequidiffusive, laminar premixed flames, as exemplified by the unsteady propagation of wrinkled flames in nonuniform flow fields. It is first shown that by considering the effects of aerodynamic stretch on the flame structure, and by allowing for mixture nonequidiffusion, the flame responses, especially the flame propagation speed, can be quantitatively as well as qualitatively modified from the idealized planar limit. Subsequently, by treating the flame as a level surface propagating with the stretch-affected flame speed, problems of increasing complexity are presented to illustrate various features of flame propagation. The illustration first treats the flame as a structureless surface propagating into a constant-density combustible with a constant velocity * the laminar flame speed, and demonstrates the phenomena of cusp formation and volumetric burning rate augmentation through flame wrinkling. By using the stretch-affected flame speed, we then describe the phenomena of cusp broadening as well as tip opening of the Bunsen flame. Finally, by allowing for the density jump across the flame surface, a unified dispersion relation is derived for the intrinsic hydrodynamic, body-force, and nonequidiffusive modes of flame
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roskam, J.
1972-01-01
Expressions are derived for computing the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix for nonplanar wing-body-tail configurations. An aerodynamic influence coefficient is defined as the load in lbs. induced on a panel as a result of a unit angle of attack on another panel. Fuselage, wing and tail thickness are assumed to be small with the result that the thickness effect on the flow-field is negligible. The method for determining the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix is based on the lifting solution to the small perturbation, steady potential flow equation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Israel, R.; Rosner, D. E.
1983-01-01
The aerodynamic capture efficiency of small but nondiffusing particles suspended in a high-speed stream flowing past a target is known to be influenced by parameters governing small particle inertia, departures from the Stokes drag law, and carrier fluid compressibility. By defining an effective Stokes number in terms of the actual (prevailing) particle stopping distance, local fluid viscosity, and inviscid fluid velocity gradient at the target nose, it is shown that these effects are well correlated in terms of a 'standard' (cylindrical collector, Stokes drag, incompressible flow, sq rt Re much greater than 1) capture efficiency curve. Thus, a correlation follows that simplifies aerosol capture calculations in the parameter range already included in previous numerical solutions, allows rational engineering predictions of deposition in situations not previously specifically calculated, and should facilitate the presentation of performance data for gas cleaning equipment and aerosol instruments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munin, A. G.; Kuznetsov, V. M.; Leontev, E. A.
A general theory is developed for aerodynamic sound generation and its propagation in an inhomogeneous medium. Results of theoretical and experimental studies of the acoustic characteristics of jets are discussed, and a solution is presented to the problem concerning the noise from a section, free rotor, and a rotor located inside a channel. Sound propagation in a channel with flow and selection of soundproofing liners for the channel walls are also discussed.
Development of the 1990 Kalapana Flow Field, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii
Mattox, T.N.; Heliker, C.; Kauahikaua, J.; Hon, K.
1993-01-01
The 1990 Kalapana flow field is a complex patchwork of tube-fed pahoehoe flows erupted from the Kupaianaha vent at a low effusion rate (approximately 3.5 m3/s). These flows accumulated over an 11-month period on the coastal plain of Kilauea Volcano, where the pre-eruption slope angle was less than 2??. the composite field thickened by the addition of new flows to its surface, as well as by inflation of these flows and flows emplaced earlier. Two major flow types were identified during the development of the flow field: large primary flows and smaller breakouts that extruded from inflated primary flows. Primary flows advanced more quickly and covered new land at a much higher rate than breakouts. The cumulative area covered by breakouts exceeded that of primary flows, although breakouts frequently covered areas already buried by recent flows. Lava tubes established within primary flows were longer-lived than those formed within breakouts and were often reoccupied by lava after a brief hiatus in supply; tubes within breakouts were never reoccupied once the supply was interrupted. During intervals of steady supply from the vent, the daily areal coverage by lava in Kalapana was constant, whereas the forward advance of the flows was sporadic. This implies that planimetric area, rather than flow length, provides the best indicator of effusion rate for pahoehoe flow fields that form on lowangle slopes. ?? 1993 Springer-Verlag.
Vortical sources of aerodynamic force and moment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, J. Z.; Wu, J. M.
1989-01-01
It is shown that the aerodynamic force and moment can be expressed in terms of vorticity distribution (and entropy variation for compressible flow) on near wake plane, or in terms of boundary vorticity flux on the body surface. Thus the vortical sources of lift and drag are clearly identified, which is the real physical basis of optimal aerodynamic design. Moreover, these sources are highly compact, hence allowing one to concentrate on key local regions of the configuration, which have dominating effect to the lift and drag. A detail knowledge of the vortical low requires measuring or calculating the vorticity and dilatation field, which is however still a challenging task. Nevertheless, this type of formulation has some unique advantages; and how to set up a well-posed problem, in particular how to establish vorticity-dilatation boundary conditions, is addressed.
Field-flow orientation effects in magnetorheological fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baltimore, Craig Victor
Magnetorheological (MR) materials are suspensions of micron-sized magnetically polarized particles in a liquid medium. When subject to magnetic fields, these particles form a micro-structure which endow the MR material with solid-like properties. Devices constructed with MR materials can achieve controllable force levels that have use in vibration mitigation. The orientation of the magnetic field is a key design parameter. To date research and device development has been concerned with MR material flow perpendicular the applied magnetic field. This relationship of material flow to applied magnetic field is known as perpendicular field/flow. This emphasis on perpendicular field/flow application describes only a limited view of MR material behavior. This work makes original contributions to the magnetorheological research literature through experimentation in MR material flow parallel to the applied magnetic field. This relationship of MR material flowing parallel to an applied magnetic field is known as parallel field/flow. These experiments show the high magnitudes of flux density associated with perpendicular field/flow are difficult to achieve in parallel field/flow. These low flux densities do not create a strong reordering of MR material micro-structure. The net effect is, in parallel field/flow application, that a visco-elastic behavior describes the response as opposed to Bingham behavior. This work also analyzes the experimental data to demonstrate the decrease in device response time, for parallel field/flow orientations, due to the elimination of the iron magnetic circuit (typical in perpendicular field/flow applications). MR fluid material properties are determined through Poiseuille flow.
Lava flow superposition: the reactivation of flow units in compound flow fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Applegarth, Jane; Pinkerton, Harry; James, Mike; Calvari, Sonia
2010-05-01
Long-lived basaltic eruptions often produce compound `a`ā lava flow fields that are constructed of many juxtaposed and superposed flow units. We have examined the processes that result from superposition when the underlying flows are sufficiently young to have immature crusts and deformable cores. It has previously been recognised that the time elapsed between the emplacement of two units determines the fate of the underlying flow[1], because it controls the rheological contrast between the units. If the time interval is long, the underlying flow is able to cool, degas and develop a rigid crust, so that it shows no significant response to loading, and the two units are easily discernable stratigraphically. If the interval is short, the underlying flow has little time to cool, so the two units may merge and cool as a single unit, forming a ‘multiple' flow[1]. In this case, the individual units are more difficult to distinguish post-eruption. The effects of superposition in intermediate cases, when underlying flows have immature roofs, are less well understood, and have received relatively little attention in the literature, possibly due to the scarcity of observations. However, the lateral and vertical coalescence of lava tubes has been described on Mt. Etna, Sicily[2], suggesting that earlier tubes can be reactivated and lengthened as a result of superposition. Through our recent analysis of images taken by INGV Catania during the 2001 eruption of Mt. Etna (Sicily), we have observed that the emplacement of new surface flows can reactivate underlying units by squeezing the still-hot flow core away from the site of loading. We have identified three different styles of reactivation that took place during that eruption, which depend on the time interval separating the emplacement of the two flows, and hence the rheological contrast between them. For relatively long time intervals (> 2 days), hence high rheological contrasts, superposition can cause an overpressure
Aerodynamic Forces on a Vibrating Unstaggered Cascade
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Soehngen, H.
1957-01-01
The unsteady aerodynamic forces, [based on two-dimensional incompressible flow considerations], are determined for an unstaggered cascade, the blades of which are vibrating in phase in an approach flow parallel to the blades.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, B. A.; Abbott, J. M.
1973-01-01
Low-speed wind-tunnel tests were conducted to determine the effects of free-stream velocity and incidence angle on the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of a translating centerbody choked-flow inlet. The inlet was sized to fit a 13.97 cm diameter fan with a design weight flow of 2.49 kg/sec. Performance was determined at free-stream velocities to 45 meters per second and incidence angles of 0 deg to 50 deg. The inlet was operated in both the choked and unchoked modes over a range of weight flows. Measurements were made of inlet total pressure recovery, flow distortion, surface static pressure distribution, and fan noise suppression. In the choked mode, increasing incidence angle tended to reduce the amount of inlet noise suppression for a given amount of inlet suction. This tendency was overcome by applying sufficient inlet suction to increase the flow Mach number. At 45 meters per second free-stream velocity, at least 22 decibels of suppression were measured at 35 deg incidence angle with a total pressure recovery of 0.985.
Aerodynamic Characteristic of the Active Compliant Trailing Edge Concept
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nie, Rui; Qiu, Jinhao; Ji, Hongli; Li, Dawei
2016-06-01
This paper introduces a novel Morphing Wing structure known as the Active Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE). ACTE structures are designed using the concept of “distributed compliance” and wing skins of ACTE are fabricated from high-strength fiberglass composites laminates. Through the relative sliding between upper and lower wing skins which are connected by a linear guide pairs, the wing is able to achieve a large continuous deformation. In order to present an investigation about aerodynamics and noise characteristics of ACTE, a series of 2D airfoil analyses are established. The aerodynamic characteristics between ACTE and conventional deflection airfoil are analyzed and compared, and the impacts of different ACTE structure design parameters on aerodynamic characteristics are discussed. The airfoils mentioned above include two types (NACA0012 and NACA64A005.92). The computing results demonstrate that: compared with the conventional plane flap airfoil, the morphing wing using ACTE structures has the capability to improve aerodynamic characteristic and flow separation characteristic. In order to study the noise level of ACTE, flow field analysis using LES model is done to provide noise source data, and then the FW-H method is used to get the far field noise levels. The simulation results show that: compared with the conventional flap/aileron airfoil, the ACTE configuration is better to suppress the flow separation and lower the overall sound pressure level.
Predicting aerodynamic characteristic of typical wind turbine airfoils using CFD
Wolfe, W.P.; Ochs, S.S.
1997-09-01
An investigation was conducted into the capabilities and accuracy of a representative computational fluid dynamics code to predict the flow field and aerodynamic characteristics of typical wind-turbine airfoils. Comparisons of the computed pressure and aerodynamic coefficients were made with wind tunnel data. This work highlights two areas in CFD that require further investigation and development in order to enable accurate numerical simulations of flow about current generation wind-turbine airfoils: transition prediction and turbulence modeling. The results show that the laminar-to turbulent transition point must be modeled correctly to get accurate simulations for attached flow. Calculations also show that the standard turbulence model used in most commercial CFD codes, the k-e model, is not appropriate at angles of attack with flow separation. 14 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.
An investigation of swirl flow field in pneumatic conveying duct
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Xijun; Dong, Jinzhong
1992-10-01
The swirl flow field of a pneumatic conveying system is investigated experimentally. The swirl is imparted to the flow by the use of swirl vanes. A five-hole probe is used for measuring the tangential angle of flow, axial velocity, static pressure of flow, and swirl number in the flow sections of a conveying system. It is shown that the existence of a central screw conveyer produces the contrary swirl flow under some of the swirl vane angle conditions. The larger axial velocity is produced in the outer annular layer of flow. The maximum value of the swirl number in the flow sections agrees with a simplified theoretical relation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DeChant, Lawrence Justin
1998-01-01
In spite of rapid advances in both scalar and parallel computational tools, the large number of variables involved in both design and inverse problems make the use of sophisticated fluid flow models impractical, With this restriction, it is concluded that an important family of methods for mathematical/computational development are reduced or approximate fluid flow models. In this study a combined perturbation/numerical modeling methodology is developed which provides a rigorously derived family of solutions. The mathematical model is computationally more efficient than classical boundary layer but provides important two-dimensional information not available using quasi-1-d approaches. An additional strength of the current methodology is its ability to locally predict static pressure fields in a manner analogous to more sophisticated parabolized Navier Stokes (PNS) formulations. To resolve singular behavior, the model utilizes classical analytical solution techniques. Hence, analytical methods have been combined with efficient numerical methods to yield an efficient hybrid fluid flow model. In particular, the main objective of this research has been to develop a system of analytical and numerical ejector/mixer nozzle models, which require minimal empirical input. A computer code, DREA Differential Reduced Ejector/mixer Analysis has been developed with the ability to run sufficiently fast so that it may be used either as a subroutine or called by an design optimization routine. Models are of direct use to the High Speed Civil Transport Program (a joint government/industry project seeking to develop an economically.viable U.S. commercial supersonic transport vehicle) and are currently being adopted by both NASA and industry. Experimental validation of these models is provided by comparison to results obtained from open literature and Limited Exclusive Right Distribution (LERD) sources, as well as dedicated experiments performed at Texas A&M. These experiments have
Nonlinear problems in flight dynamics involving aerodynamic bifurcations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tobak, M.; Chapman, G. T.
1985-01-01
Aerodynamic bifurcation is defined as the replacement of an unstable equilibrium flow by a new stable equilibrium flow at a critical value of a parameter. A mathematical model of the aerodynamic contribution to the aircraft's equations of motion is amended to accommodate aerodynamic bifurcations. Important bifurcations such as, the onset of large-scale vortex-shedding are defined. The amended mathematical model is capable of incorporating various forms of aerodynamic responses, including those associated with dynamic stall of airfoils.
Magnetohydrodynamic channel flows with weak transverse magnetic fields.
Rothmayer, A P
2014-07-28
Magnetohydrodynamic flow of an incompressible fluid through a plane channel with slowly varying walls and a magnetic field applied transverse to the channel is investigated in the high Reynolds number limit. It is found that the magnetic field can first influence the hydrodynamic flow when the Hartmann number reaches a sufficiently large value. The magnetic field is found to suppress the steady and unsteady viscous flow near the channel walls unless the wall shapes become large.
Buttini, Francesca; Brambilla, Gaetano; Copelli, Diego; Sisti, Viviana; Balducci, Anna Giulia; Bettini, Ruggero; Pasquali, Irene
2016-01-01
Abstract Background: European and United States Pharmacopoeia compendial procedures for assessing the in vitro emitted dose and aerodynamic size distribution of a dry powder inhaler require that 4.0 L of air at a pressure drop of 4 kPa be drawn through the inhaler. However, the product performance should be investigated using conditions more representative of what is achievable by the patient population. This work compares the delivered dose and the drug deposition profile at different flow rates (30, 40, 60, and 90 L/min) of Foster NEXThaler® (beclomethasone dipropionate/formoterol fumarate), Seretide® Diskus® (fluticasone propionate/salmeterol xinafoate), and Symbicort® Turbohaler® (budesonide/formoterol fumarate). Methods: The delivered dose uniformity was tested using a dose unit sampling apparatus (DUSA) at inhalation volumes either 2.0 or 4.0 L and flow rates 30, 40, 60, or 90 L/min. The aerodynamic assessment was carried out using a Next Generation Impactor by discharging each inhaler at 30, 40, 60, or 90 L/min for a time sufficient to obtain an air volume of 4 L. Results: Foster® NEXThaler® and Seretide® Diskus® showed a consistent dose delivery for both the drugs included in the formulation, independently of the applied flow rate. Contrary, Symbicort® Turbohaler® showed a high decrease of the emitted dose for both budesonide and formoterol fumarate when the device was operated at airflow rate lower that 60 L/min. The aerosolizing performance of NEXThaler® and Diskus® was unaffected by the flow rate applied. Turbohaler® proved to be the inhaler most sensitive to changes in flow rate in terms of fine particle fraction (FPF) for both components. Among the combinations tested, Foster NEXThaler® was the only one capable to deliver around 50% of extra-fine particles relative to delivered dose. Conclusions: NEXThaler® and Diskus® were substantially unaffected by flow rate through the inhaler in terms of both delivered dose and
Jeong, Soo-Jin; Kim, Woo-Seung; Sung, Sang-Jin
2007-07-01
Developing a mathematical model to predict the abnormal flow characteristics that are produced by obstructive sleep apnea is an important step in learning the pathophysiology of the obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) disease. The present study provides detailed calculations of flow in the pharyngeal airway of a patient with obstructive sleep apnea. To achieve this goal, a computational fluid dynamics model was constructed using raw data from three-dimensional computed tomogram (CT) images of an OSA patient. To reproduce the important transition from laminar to turbulent flow in the pharyngeal airway, the low Reynolds number k-epsilon model was adopted and successfully validated using previous open literature. The results show that the flow in the pharyngeal airway of patients with OSA comprises a turbulent jet formed by area restriction at the velopharynx. This turbulent jet causes higher shear and pressure forces in the vicinity of the velopharynx. From the results, It may be deduced that the most collapsible area in the pharyngeal airway of OSA patients is the velopharynx where minimum intraluminal pressure and maximum aerodynamic force lie.
Advanced Aerodynamic Control Effectors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.
1999-01-01
A 1990 research program that focused on the development of advanced aerodynamic control effectors (AACE) for military aircraft has been reviewed and summarized. Data are presented for advanced planform, flow control, and surface contouring technologies. The data show significant increases in lift, reductions in drag, and increased control power, compared to typical aerodynamic designs. The results presented also highlighted the importance of planform selection in the design of a control effector suite. Planform data showed that dramatic increases in lift (greater than 25%) can be achieved with multiple wings and a sawtooth forebody. Passive porosity and micro drag generator control effector data showed control power levels exceeding that available from typical effectors (moving surfaces). Application of an advanced planform to a tailless concept showed benefits of similar magnitude as those observed in the generic studies.
Compound Lava Flow Fields on Planetary Surfaces: Hawaiian Analogue Studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crown, D. A.; Byrnes, J. M.; Ramsey, M. S.
2002-12-01
Quantitative, process-oriented analyses of planetary volcanism have primarily been based on analogue studies of single-lobed lava flows emplaced as discrete units. Comparative analyses of compound lava flow fields on the Earth and terrestrial planets are being conducted in order to include volcanic styles characterized by complex distributary systems, stratigraphic relationships, and emplacement histories. Field observations, differential Global Positioning Systems (dGPS) measurements, and visible, thermal, and radar remote sensing are being used to characterize Hawaiian lava flow fields and develop techniques for analyses of planetary flow fields using datasets with high spatial and/or spectral resolution, such as MOC and THEMIS. These terrestrial studies allow flow field surface morphology, topography, and lava textures as well as detailed maps of distributary networks to be used to examine flow field growth and development. Information on flow field evolution is provided by delineating relationships between remote sensing signatures, surface morphology, and lava transport processes and by identifying input parameters for flowfield emplacement models. Investigations of the Mauna Ulu (1969-1974) and Puu Oo (1983-present) flow fields (Kilauea Volcano, HI) have focused on understanding the nature of distributary networks at various scales in order to determine spatial and temporal variations in lava transport. Initial work at Mauna Ulu has included analyses of 1) the distribution, network morphometry, and volumetric significance of lava channels in the medial zone of the flow field, and 2) the distribution, lava texture, and volumetric significance of breakouts from surface conduits and subsurface storage. Analyses of the temporal evolution of individual conduit systems provide the basis for interpretation of complex patterns of overlapping surface units that characterize local flow stratigraphy. Reconstruction of lava transport networks and relationships to surface
Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation in the field of nanomedicine.
Wagner, Michael; Holzschuh, Stephan; Traeger, Anja; Fahr, Alfred; Schubert, Ulrich S
2014-06-01
Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) is a widely used and versatile technique in the family of field-flow fractionations, indicated by a rapidly increasing number of publications. It represents a gentle separation and characterization method, where nonspecific interactions are reduced to a minimum, allows a broad separation range from several nano- up to micrometers and enables a superior characterization of homo- and heterogenic systems. In particular, coupling to multiangle light scattering provides detailed access to sample properties. Information about molar mass, polydispersity, size, shape/conformation, or density can be obtained nearly independent of the used material. In this Perspective, the application and progress of AF4 for (bio)macromolecules and colloids, relevant for "nano" medical and pharmaceutical issues, will be presented. The characterization of different nanosized drug or gene delivery systems, e.g., polymers, nanoparticles, micelles, dendrimers, liposomes, polyplexes, and virus-like-particles (VLP), as well as therapeutic relevant proteins, antibodies, and nanoparticles for diagnostic usage will be discussed. Thereby, the variety of obtained information, the advantages and pitfalls of this emerging technique will be highlighted. Additionally, the influence of different fractionation parameters in the separation process is discussed in detail. Moreover, a comprehensive overview is given, concerning the investigated samples, fractionation parameters as membrane types and buffers used as well as the chosen detectors and the corresponding references. The perspective ends up with an outlook to the future.
Numerical Investigation of Two-Phase Flows With Charged Droplets in Electrostatic Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Sang-Wook
1996-01-01
A numerical method to solve two-phase turbulent flows with charged droplets in an electrostatic field is presented. The ensemble-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and the electrostatic potential equation are solved using a finite volume method. The transitional turbulence field is described using multiple-time-scale turbulence equations. The equations of motion of droplets are solved using a Lagrangian particle tracking scheme, and the inter-phase momentum exchange is described by the Particle-In-Cell scheme. The electrostatic force caused by an applied electrical potential is calculated using the electrostatic field obtained by solving a Laplacian equation and the force exerted by charged droplets is calculated using the Coulombic force equation. The method is applied to solve electro-hydrodynamic sprays. The calculated droplet velocity distributions for droplet dispersions occurring in a stagnant surrounding are in good agreement with the measured data. For droplet dispersions occurring in a two-phase flow, the droplet trajectories are influenced by aerodynamic forces, the Coulombic force, and the applied electrostatic potential field.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simon, George W.; Title, A. M.; Topka, K. P.; Tarbell, T. D.; Shine, R. A.
1988-01-01
Using the technique of local correlation tracking on a 28 minute time sequence of white-light images of solar granulation, the horizontal flow field on the solar surface is measured. The time series was obtained by the Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) on Spacelab 2 (Space Shuttle flight 51-F) and is free from atmospheric blurring and distortion. The SOUP flow fields have been compared with carefully aligned magnetograms taken over a nine hour period at the Big Bear Solar Observatory before, during, and after the SOUP images. The flow field and the magnetic field agree in considerable detail: vectors which define the flow of the white-light intensity pattern (granulation) point toward magnetic field regions, magnetic fields surround flow cells, and magnetic features move along the flow arrows. The projected locations of free particles ('corks') in the measured flow field congregate at the same locations where the magnetic field is observed.
Comparison of theoretical and flight-measured local flow aerodynamics for a low-aspect-ratio fin
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, J. Blair; Sandlin, Doral R.
1986-01-01
Flight test and theoretical aerodynamic data were obtained for a flight test fixture mounted on the underside of an F-104G aircraft. The theoretical data were generated using two codes: a two-dimensional transonic code called code H, and a three-dimensional subsonic and supersonic code called wing-body. Pressure distributions generated by the codes for the flight test fixture, as well as compared with the flight-measured data. The two-dimensional code pressure distributions compared well except at the minimum pressure point and the trailing edge. Shock locations compared well except at high transonic speeds. However, the two-dimensional code did not adequately predict the displacement thickness of the flight test fixture. The three-dimensional code pressure distributions compared well except at the trailing edge of the flight test fixture.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcfarland, E. R.
1981-01-01
A solution method was developed for calculating compressible inviscid flow through a linear cascade of arbitrary blade shapes. The method uses advanced surface singularity formulations which were adapted from those in current external flow analyses. The resulting solution technique provides a fast flexible calculation for flows through turbomachinery blade rows. The solution method and some examples of the method's capabilities are presented.
Salcedo, E; Treviño, C; Vargas, R O; Martínez-Suástegui, L
2013-06-01
An experimental investigation of near field aerodynamics of wind dispersed rotary seeds has been performed using stereoscopic digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). The detailed three-dimensional flow structure of the leading-edge vortex (LEV) of autorotating mahogany seeds (Swietenia macrophylla) in a low-speed vertical wind tunnel is revealed for the first time. The results confirm that the presence of strong spanwise flow and strain produced by centrifugal forces through a spiral vortex are responsible for the attachment and stability of the LEV, with its core forming a cone pattern with a gradual increase in vortex size. The LEV appears at 25% of the wingspan, increases in size and strength outboard along the wing, and reaches its maximum stability and spanwise velocity at 75% of the wingspan. At a region between 90 and 100% of the wingspan, the strength and stability of the vortex core decreases and the LEV re-orientation/inflection with the tip vortex takes place. In this study, the instantaneous flow structure and the instantaneous velocity and vorticity fields measured in planes parallel to the free stream direction are presented as contour plots using an inertial and a non-inertial frame of reference. Results for the mean aerodynamic thrust coefficients as a function of the Reynolds number are presented to supplement the DPIV data.
Salcedo, E; Treviño, C; Vargas, R O; Martínez-Suástegui, L
2013-06-01
An experimental investigation of near field aerodynamics of wind dispersed rotary seeds has been performed using stereoscopic digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). The detailed three-dimensional flow structure of the leading-edge vortex (LEV) of autorotating mahogany seeds (Swietenia macrophylla) in a low-speed vertical wind tunnel is revealed for the first time. The results confirm that the presence of strong spanwise flow and strain produced by centrifugal forces through a spiral vortex are responsible for the attachment and stability of the LEV, with its core forming a cone pattern with a gradual increase in vortex size. The LEV appears at 25% of the wingspan, increases in size and strength outboard along the wing, and reaches its maximum stability and spanwise velocity at 75% of the wingspan. At a region between 90 and 100% of the wingspan, the strength and stability of the vortex core decreases and the LEV re-orientation/inflection with the tip vortex takes place. In this study, the instantaneous flow structure and the instantaneous velocity and vorticity fields measured in planes parallel to the free stream direction are presented as contour plots using an inertial and a non-inertial frame of reference. Results for the mean aerodynamic thrust coefficients as a function of the Reynolds number are presented to supplement the DPIV data. PMID:23430990
Reconstruction of velocity fields in electromagnetic flow tomography.
Lehtikangas, Ossi; Karhunen, Kimmo; Vauhkonen, Marko
2016-06-28
Electromagnetic flow meters (EMFMs) are the gold standard in measuring flow velocity in process industry. The flow meters can measure the mean flow velocity of conductive liquids and slurries. A drawback of this approach is that the velocity field cannot be determined. Asymmetric axial flows, often encountered in multiphase flows, pipe elbows and T-junctions, are problematic and can lead to serious systematic errors. Recently, electromagnetic flow tomography (EMFT) has been proposed for measuring velocity fields using several coils and a set of electrodes attached to the surface of the pipe. In this work, a velocity field reconstruction method for EMFT is proposed. The method uses a previously developed finite-element-based computational forward model for computing boundary voltages and a Bayesian framework for inverse problems. In the approach, the vz-component of the velocity field along the longitudinal axis of the pipe is estimated on the pipe cross section. Different asymmetric velocity fields encountered near pipe elbows, solids-in-water flows in inclined pipes and in stratified or multiphase flows are tested. The results suggest that the proposed reconstruction method could be used to estimate velocity fields in complicated pipe flows in which the conventional EMFMs have limited accuracy. This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'. PMID:27185961
Reconstruction of velocity fields in electromagnetic flow tomography.
Lehtikangas, Ossi; Karhunen, Kimmo; Vauhkonen, Marko
2016-06-28
Electromagnetic flow meters (EMFMs) are the gold standard in measuring flow velocity in process industry. The flow meters can measure the mean flow velocity of conductive liquids and slurries. A drawback of this approach is that the velocity field cannot be determined. Asymmetric axial flows, often encountered in multiphase flows, pipe elbows and T-junctions, are problematic and can lead to serious systematic errors. Recently, electromagnetic flow tomography (EMFT) has been proposed for measuring velocity fields using several coils and a set of electrodes attached to the surface of the pipe. In this work, a velocity field reconstruction method for EMFT is proposed. The method uses a previously developed finite-element-based computational forward model for computing boundary voltages and a Bayesian framework for inverse problems. In the approach, the vz-component of the velocity field along the longitudinal axis of the pipe is estimated on the pipe cross section. Different asymmetric velocity fields encountered near pipe elbows, solids-in-water flows in inclined pipes and in stratified or multiphase flows are tested. The results suggest that the proposed reconstruction method could be used to estimate velocity fields in complicated pipe flows in which the conventional EMFMs have limited accuracy. This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'.
Transonic Flow Field Analysis for Wing-Fuselage Configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boppe, C. W.
1980-01-01
A computational method for simulating the aerodynamics of wing-fuselage configurations at transonic speeds is developed. The finite difference scheme is characterized by a multiple embedded mesh system coupled with a modified or extended small disturbance flow equation. This approach permits a high degree of computational resolution in addition to coordinate system flexibility for treating complex realistic aircraft shapes. To augment the analysis method and permit applications to a wide range of practical engineering design problems, an arbitrary fuselage geometry modeling system is incorporated as well as methodology for computing wing viscous effects. Configuration drag is broken down into its friction, wave, and lift induced components. Typical computed results for isolated bodies, isolated wings, and wing-body combinations are presented. The results are correlated with experimental data. A computer code which employs this methodology is described.
Computational aerodynamics and supercomputers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ballhaus, W. F., Jr.
1984-01-01
Some of the progress in computational aerodynamics over the last decade is reviewed. The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Program objectives, computational goals, and implementation plans are described.
Modeling of flow field in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karvonen, Suvi; Hottinen, Tero; Saarinen, Jaakko; Himanen, Olli
Isothermal two- and three-dimensional polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell cathode flow field models were implemented to study the behavior of reactant and reaction product gas flow in a parallel channel flow field. The focus was on the flow distribution across the channels and the total pressure drop across the flow field. The effect of the density and viscosity variation in the gas resulting from the composition change due to cell reactions was studied and the models were solved with governing equations based on three different approximations. The focus was on showing how a uniform flow profile can be achieved by improving an existing channel design. The modeling results were verified experimentally. A close to uniform flow distribution was achieved in a parallel channel system.
Experimental results for a hypersonic nozzle/afterbody flow field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spaid, Frank W.; Keener, Earl R.; Hui, Frank C. L.
1995-01-01
This study was conducted to experimentally characterize the flow field created by the interaction of a single-expansion ramp-nozzle (SERN) flow with a hypersonic external stream. Data were obtained from a generic nozzle/afterbody model in the 3.5 Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel at the NASA Ames Research Center, in a cooperative experimental program involving Ames and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace. The model design and test planning were performed in close cooperation with members of the Ames computational fluid dynamics (CFD) team for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) program. This paper presents experimental results consisting of oil-flow and shadow graph flow-visualization photographs, afterbody surface-pressure distributions, rake boundary-layer measurements, Preston-tube skin-friction measurements, and flow field surveys with five-hole and thermocouple probes. The probe data consist of impact pressure, flow direction, and total temperature profiles in the interaction flow field.
A novel potential/viscous flow coupling technique for computing helicopter flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Summa, J. Michael; Strash, Daniel J.; Yoo, Sungyul
1993-01-01
The primary objective of this work was to demonstrate the feasibility of a new potential/viscous flow coupling procedure for reducing computational effort while maintaining solution accuracy. This closed-loop, overlapped velocity-coupling concept has been developed in a new two-dimensional code, ZAP2D (Zonal Aerodynamics Program - 2D), a three-dimensional code for wing analysis, ZAP3D (Zonal Aerodynamics Program - 3D), and a three-dimensional code for isolated helicopter rotors in hover, ZAPR3D (Zonal Aerodynamics Program for Rotors - 3D). Comparisons with large domain ARC3D solutions and with experimental data for a NACA 0012 airfoil have shown that the required domain size can be reduced to a few tenths of a percent chord for the low Mach and low angle of attack cases and to less than 2-5 chords for the high Mach and high angle of attack cases while maintaining solution accuracies to within a few percent. This represents CPU time reductions by a factor of 2-4 compared with ARC2D. The current ZAP3D calculation for a rectangular plan-form wing of aspect ratio 5 with an outer domain radius of about 1.2 chords represents a speed-up in CPU time over the ARC3D large domain calculation by about a factor of 2.5 while maintaining solution accuracies to within a few percent. A ZAPR3D simulation for a two-bladed rotor in hover with a reduced grid domain of about two chord lengths was able to capture the wake effects and compared accurately with the experimental pressure data. Further development is required in order to substantiate the promise of computational improvements due to the ZAPR3D coupling concept.
Controlling flow direction in nanochannels by electric field strength
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Xiang; Zhao, Tianshou; Li, Zhigang
2015-08-01
Molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to study the flow behavior of CsF solutions in nanochannels under external electric fields E . It is found that the channel surface energy greatly affects the flow behavior. In channels of high surface energy, water molecules, on average, move in the same direction as that of the electric field regardless of the strength of E . In low surface energy channels, however, water transports in the opposite direction to the electric field at weak E and the flow direction is changed when E becomes sufficiently large. The direction change of water flow is attributed to the coupled effects of different water-ion interactions, inhomogeneous water viscosity, and ion distribution changes caused by the electric field. The flow direction change observed in this work may be employed for flow control in complex micro- or nanofluidic systems.
A Field Course Based on the Community Energy Flow Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Townsend, Colin; Phillipson, John
1977-01-01
The concept of community energy flow provides a basis for a field course. This paper describes the methodology used in a field course for estimating parameters and for monitoring physical environmental variables. The paper culminates in the construction of a model of energy flow through the community. (Author/MA)
A new technique for aerodynamic noise calculation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hardin, J. C.; Pope, D. S.
1992-01-01
A novel method for the numerical analysis of aerodynamic noise generation is presented. The method involves first solving for the time-dependent incompressible flow for the given geometry. This fully nonlinear method that is tailored to extract the relevant acoustic fluctuations seems to be an efficient approach to the numerical analysis of aerodynamic noise generation.
Field methods for measuring concentrated flow erosion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castillo, C.; Pérez, R.; James, M. R.; Quinton, J. N.; Taguas, E. V.; Gómez, J. A.
2012-04-01
techniques (3D) for measuring erosion from concentrated flow (pole, laser profilemeter, photo-reconstruction and terrestrial LiDAR) The comparison between two- and three-dimensional methods has showed the superiority of the 3D techniques for obtaining accurate cross sectional data. The results from commonly-used 2D methods can be subject to systematic errors in areal cross section that exceed magnitudes of 10 % on average. In particular, the pole simplified method has showed a clear tendency to understimate areas. Laser profilemeter results show that further research on calibrating optical devices for a variety of soil conditions must be carried out to improve its performance. For volume estimations, photo-reconstruction results provided an excellent approximation to terrestrial laser data and demonstrate that this new remote sensing technique has a promising application field in soil erosion studies. 2D approaches involved important errors even over short measurement distances. However, as well as accuracy, the cost and time requirements of a technique must be considered.
Modal forced vibration analysis of aerodynamically excited turbosystems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elchuri, V.
1985-01-01
Theoretical aspects of a new capability to determine the vibratory response of turbosystems subjected to aerodynamic excitation are presented. Turbosystems such as advanced turbopropellers with highly swept blades, and axial-flow compressors and turbines can be analyzed using this capability. The capability has been developed and implemented in the April 1984 release of the general purpose finite element program NASTRAN. The dynamic response problem is addressed in terms of the normal modal coordinates of these tuned rotating cyclic structures. Both rigid and flexible hubs/disks are considered. Coriolis and centripetal accelerations, as well as differential stiffness effects are included. Generally non-uniform steady inflow fields and uniform flow fields arbitrarily inclined at small angles with respect to the axis of rotation of the turbosystem are considered sources of aerodynamic excitation. The spatial non-uniformities are considered to be small deviations from a principally uniform inflow. Subsonic and supersonic relative inflows are addressed, with provision for linearly interpolating transonic airloads.
Numerical Analysis of the Acoustic Field of Tip-Clearance Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alavi Moghadam, S. M.; M. Meinke Team; W. Schröder Team
2015-11-01
Numerical simulations of the acoustic field generated by a shrouded axial fan are studied by a hybrid fluid-dynamics-acoustics method. In a first step, large-eddy simulations are performed to investigate the dynamics of tip clearance flow for various tip gap sizes and to determine the acoustic sources. The simulations are performed for a single blade out of five blades with periodic boundary conditions in the circumferential direction on a multi-block structured mesh with 1.4 ×108 grid points. The turbulent flow is simulated at a Reynolds number of 9.36 ×105 at undisturbed inflow condition and the results are compared with experimental data. The diameter and strength of the tip vortex increase with the tip gap size, while simultaneously the efficiency of the fan decreases. In a second step, the acoustic field on the near field is determined by solving the acoustic perturbation equations (APE) on a mesh for a single blade consisting of approx. 9.8 ×108 grid points. The overall agreement of the pressure spectrum and its directivity with measurements confirm the correct identification of the sound sources and accurate prediction of the acoustic duct propagation. The results show that the longer the tip gap size the higher the broadband noise level. Senior Scientist, Institute of Aerodynamics, RWTH Aachen University.
Field theoretical approach for bio-membrane coupled with flow field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oya, Y.; Kawakatsu, T.
2013-02-01
Shape deformation of bio-membranes in flow field is well known phenomenon in biological systems, for example red blood cell in blood vessel. To simulate such deformation with use of field theoretical approach, we derived the dynamical equation of phase field for shape of membrane and coupled the equation with Navier-Stokes equation for flow field. In 2-dimensional simulations, we found that a bio-membrane in a Poiseuille flow takes a parachute shape similar to the red blood cells.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Tong; Sun, Shaozeng; Wu, Shaohua; Qin, Yukun
1999-12-01
The present paper has compared a group of furnace aerodynamic fields at different velocities of side secondary air (SSA) in a test model of 420t/h utility boiler, applying Horizontal Bias Combustion Pulverized Coal Burner with Side Secondary Air (HBC-SSA Burner). Experimental results show that, when the ram pressure ratio of side secondary air (SSA) to primary air (PA) (ρ2sv
Recent advances in computational aerodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agarwal, Ramesh K.; Desse, Jerry E.
1991-04-01
The current state of the art in computational aerodynamics is described. Recent advances in the discretization of surface geometry, grid generation, and flow simulation algorithms have led to flowfield predictions for increasingly complex and realistic configurations. As a result, computational aerodynamics is emerging as a crucial enabling technology for the development and design of flight vehicles. Examples illustrating the current capability for the prediction of aircraft, launch vehicle and helicopter flowfields are presented. Unfortunately, accurate modeling of turbulence remains a major difficulty in the analysis of viscosity-dominated flows. In the future inverse design methods, multidisciplinary design optimization methods, artificial intelligence technology and massively parallel computer technology will be incorporated into computational aerodynamics, opening up greater opportunities for improved product design at substantially reduced costs.
Geology of the Tyrrhenus Mons Lava Flow Field, Mars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crown, David A.; Mest, Scott C.
2014-11-01
The ancient, eroded Martian volcano Tyrrhenus Mons exhibits a central caldera complex, layered flank deposits dissected by radial valleys, and a 1000+ km-long flow field extending to the southwest toward Hellas Planitia. Past studies suggested an early phase of volcanism dominated by large explosive eruptions followed by subsequent effusive activity at the summit and to the southwest. As part of a new geologic mapping study of northeast Hellas, we are examining the volcanic landforms and geologic evolution of the Tyrrhenus Mons flow field, including the timing and nature of fluvial activity and effects on volcanic units. New digital geologic mapping incorporates THEMIS IR (100 m/pixel) and CTX (5 m/pixel) images as well as constraints from MOLA topography.Mapping results to-date include delineation of the boundaries of the flow field, identification and mapping of volcanic and erosional channels within the flow field, and mapping and analysis of lava flow lobes. THEMIS IR and CTX images allow improved discrimination of the numerous flow lobes that are observed in the flow field, including refinement of the margins of previously known flows and identification of additional and smaller lobes. A prominent sinuous rille extending from Tyrrhenus Mons’ summit caldera is a major feature that supplied lava to the flow field. Smaller volcanic channels are common throughout the flow field; some occur in segments along crests of local topographic highs and may delineate lava tubes. In addition to volcanic channels, the flow field surface is characterized by several types of erosional channels, including wide troughs with scour marks, elongate sinuous channels, and discontinuous chains of elongate pits and troughs. High-resolution images reveal the widespread and significant effects of fluvial activity in the region, and further mapping studies will examine spatial and temporal interactions between volcanism and fluvial processes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Gao-Lian
1991-01-01
Advances in inverse design and optimization theory in engineering fields in China are presented. Two original approaches, the image-space approach and the variational approach, are discussed in terms of turbomachine aerodynamic inverse design. Other areas of research in turbomachine aerodynamic inverse design include the improved mean-streamline (stream surface) method and optimization theory based on optimal control. Among the additional engineering fields discussed are the following: the inverse problem of heat conduction, free-surface flow, variational cogeneration of optimal grid and flow field, and optimal meshing theory of gears.
Smith, B E; Weinberg, B
1982-07-01
Results of a small number of studies (Warren and DuBois, 1964; Lubker, 1969; Smith and Weinberg, 1980; Horii and Lang, 1981) have led to expression of divergent views concerning the accuracy of modeled velopharyngeal orifice area estimates obtained on the basis of hydrokinetic principles. In this work, the hydrokinetic equation (Warren and DuBois, 1964) was subjected to experimentation: (1) in which flow rates through a vocal tract model were not varied and (2) in which flow rates were varied to simulate pressure/flow events found during voiceless, stop consonant production. With consideration given to instrumental and procedural factors, results indicated that accurate estimates of modeled velopharyngeal orifice areas can be obtained during steady flow conditions and during alternating flow conditions when measurements are made at airflow peaks. Results were interpreted to provide strong support for clinical and research use of the hydrokinetic equation to predict velopharyngeal orifice areas during stop consonant production.
Smith, B E; Weinberg, B
1982-07-01
Results of a small number of studies (Warren and DuBois, 1964; Lubker, 1969; Smith and Weinberg, 1980; Horii and Lang, 1981) have led to expression of divergent views concerning the accuracy of modeled velopharyngeal orifice area estimates obtained on the basis of hydrokinetic principles. In this work, the hydrokinetic equation (Warren and DuBois, 1964) was subjected to experimentation: (1) in which flow rates through a vocal tract model were not varied and (2) in which flow rates were varied to simulate pressure/flow events found during voiceless, stop consonant production. With consideration given to instrumental and procedural factors, results indicated that accurate estimates of modeled velopharyngeal orifice areas can be obtained during steady flow conditions and during alternating flow conditions when measurements are made at airflow peaks. Results were interpreted to provide strong support for clinical and research use of the hydrokinetic equation to predict velopharyngeal orifice areas during stop consonant production. PMID:6956460
Flow Field Measurement of Mixing Driven by Buoyancy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batur, C.; Zhong, H.
2003-01-01
Mixing driven by buoyancy-induced flows inside a cavity consists of stretching and folding of an interface. Measurement of the flow field using particle imaging velocimetry shows that during stretching the flow field has a single elliptic point, thus dominated by a single vortex. However, global bifurcation that results in folding introduces a hyperbolic point whereby the flow field degenerates to multiple vortex interactions. The short-lived coherent structure observed during mixing which results in the Rayleigh- Taylor morphology is attributed to vortex interactions. The mixing characteristics of non-homogeneous fluids driven by buoyancy are important towards understanding transport phenomenon in a microgravity environment. Mixing consists of stretching and folding of an interface due to a flow field whose intensity depends on the body force. For miscible liquids, the characteristic of the flow field determines whether mass transport is governed by diffusion or bulk stirring which induces mixing. For technologically important processes, transport of mass is governed by the coupling of the body force to scalar gradients such as concentration and or temperature' 2 3 . In order to lend insight into these classes of problems we consider a model experimental system to study mixing driven by buoyancy-induced flows. The characteristics of mixing is addressed from detail measurements of the flow field using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV), and its corresponding interface dynamics using image processing techniques.
Flow damping due to stochastization of the magnetic field
Ida, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Tsuchiya, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Suzuki, C.; Yokoyama, M.; Shimizu, A.; Nagaoka, K.; Inagaki, S.; Itoh, K.; Akiyama, T.; Emoto, M.; Evans, T.; Dinklage, A.; Du, X.; Fujii, K.; Goto, M.; Goto, T.; Hasuo, M.; Hidalgo, C.; Ichiguchi, K.; Ishizawa, A.; Jakubowski, M.; Kamiya, K.; Kasahara, H.; Kawamura, G.; Kato, D.; Kobayashi, M.; Morita, S.; Mukai, K.; Murakami, I.; Murakami, S.; Narushima, Y.; Nunami, M.; Ohdach, S.; Ohno, N.; Osakabe, M.; Pablant, N.; Sakakibara, S.; Seki, T.; Shimozuma, T.; Shoji, M.; Sudo, S.; Tanaka, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Todo, Y.; Wang, H.; Yamada, H.; Takeiri, Y.; Mutoh, T.; Imagawa, S.; Mito, T.; Nagayama, Y.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Ashikawa, N.; Chikaraishi, H.; Ejiri, A.; Furukawa, M.; Fujita, T.; Hamaguchi, S.; Igami, H.; Isobe, M.; Masuzaki, S.; Morisaki, T.; Motojima, G.; Nagasaki, K.; Nakano, H.; Oya, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Sakamoto, R.; Sakamoto, M.; Sanpei, A.; Takahashi, H.; Tokitani, M.; Ueda, Y.; Yoshimura, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Nishimura, K.; Sugama, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Idei, H.; Isayama, A.; Kitajima, S.; Masamune, S.; Shinohara, K.; Bawankar, P. S.; Bernard, E.; von Berkel, M.; Funaba, H.; Huang, X. L.; Ii, T.; Ido, T.; Ikeda, K.; Kamio, S.; Kumazawa, R.; Moon, C.; Muto, S.; Miyazawa, J.; Ming, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Nishimura, S.; Ogawa, K.; Ozaki, T.; Oishi, T.; Ohno, M.; Pandya, S.; Seki, R.; Sano, R.; Saito, K.; Sakaue, H.; Takemura, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Tamura, N.; Tanaka, H.; Toi, K.; Wieland, B.; Yamada, I.; Yasuhara, R.; Zhang, H.; Kaneko, O.; Komori, A.
2015-01-01
The driving and damping mechanism of plasma flow is an important issue because flow shear has a significant impact on turbulence in a plasma, which determines the transport in the magnetized plasma. Here we report clear evidence of the flow damping due to stochastization of the magnetic field. Abrupt damping of the toroidal flow associated with a transition from a nested magnetic flux surface to a stochastic magnetic field is observed when the magnetic shear at the rational surface decreases to 0.5 in the large helical device. This flow damping and resulting profile flattening are much stronger than expected from the Rechester–Rosenbluth model. The toroidal flow shear shows a linear decay, while the ion temperature gradient shows an exponential decay. This observation suggests that the flow damping is due to the change in the non-diffusive term of momentum transport. PMID:25569268
Subgrid resolution of flow and force fields.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buneman, O.
1973-01-01
By means of spline fitting, both while converting a Lagrangian distribution of field sources onto an Eulerian grid, and while interpolating the field from its Eulerian grid to the Lagrangian positions of the responding elements, one achieves effective resolution down to about one-eight of a grid mesh unit. One also avoids discontinuities and noise due to cell boundary crossings.
Aerodynamic Simulation of Runback Ice Accretion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Broeren, Andy P.; Whalen, Edward A.; Busch, Greg T.; Bragg, Michael B.
2010-01-01
This report presents the results of recent investigations into the aerodynamics of simulated runback ice accretion on airfoils. Aerodynamic tests were performed on a full-scale model using a high-fidelity, ice-casting simulation at near-flight Reynolds (Re) number. The ice-casting simulation was attached to the leading edge of a 72-in. (1828.8-mm ) chord NACA 23012 airfoil model. Aerodynamic performance tests were conducted at the ONERA F1 pressurized wind tunnel over a Reynolds number range of 4.7?10(exp 6) to 16.0?10(exp 6) and a Mach (M) number ran ge of 0.10 to 0.28. For Re = 16.0?10(exp 6) and M = 0.20, the simulated runback ice accretion on the airfoil decreased the maximum lift coe fficient from 1.82 to 1.51 and decreased the stalling angle of attack from 18.1deg to 15.0deg. The pitching-moment slope was also increased and the drag coefficient was increased by more than a factor of two. In general, the performance effects were insensitive to Reynolds numb er and Mach number changes over the range tested. Follow-on, subscale aerodynamic tests were conducted on a quarter-scale NACA 23012 model (18-in. (457.2-mm) chord) at Re = 1.8?10(exp 6) and M = 0.18, using low-fidelity, geometrically scaled simulations of the full-scale castin g. It was found that simple, two-dimensional simulations of the upper- and lower-surface runback ridges provided the best representation of the full-scale, high Reynolds number iced-airfoil aerodynamics, whereas higher-fidelity simulations resulted in larger performance degrada tions. The experimental results were used to define a new subclassification of spanwise ridge ice that distinguishes between short and tall ridges. This subclassification is based upon the flow field and resulting aerodynamic characteristics, regardless of the physical size of the ridge and the ice-accretion mechanism.
Low-perigee aerodynamic heating during orbital flight of an atmosphere Explorer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Caruso, P. S., Jr.; Naegeli, C. R.
1976-01-01
An extensive, low-perigee orbital aerodynamic heating study was undertaken in support of the Atmosphere Explorer-C Temperature Alarm. State of the art of low-density, high-speed flows, some models of the earth's atmosphere, external flow-field definition, thermodynamic and transport properties of atmospheric gases, the accommodation coefficient orbital thermal environment, and correlation of theory and measurements are discussed. Aerodynamic heating rates are determined for eight selected orbits by means of a reduced, analytical model verified by both ground test and flight data. These heating rates are compared with classical free-molecule and first-order collision regime values.
A color video display technique for flow field surveys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Winkelmann, A. E.; Tsao, C. P.
1982-01-01
Color video display techniques for flow field surveys are presented. The following techniques were examined: traverse device, used for flow field surveys above and behind finite wing models; flow chart of data reduction for color video display technique; location of spanwise survey stations above and behind wing; hot wire data at first three survey stations on fully stalled wing; hot wire data at last three stations behind fully stalled wing; hot wire and pitch probe data; magnitude of velocity, yaw angle, pitch angle, and cross flow direction from 5 tube survey at X/C = 2.70 behind fully stalled wing.
Experimental analysis of the flow field over a novel owl based airfoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klän, Stephan; Bachmann, Thomas; Klaas, Michael; Wagner, Hermann; Schröder, Wolfgang
2009-05-01
The aerodynamics of a newly constructed wing model the geometry of which is related to the wing of a barn owl is experimentally investigated. Several barn owl wings are scanned to obtain three-dimensional surface models of natural wings. A rectangular wing model with the general geometry of the barn owl but without any owl-specific structure being the reference case for all subsequent measurements is investigated using pressure tabs, oil flow pattern technique, and particle-image velocimetry. The main flow feature of the clean wing is a transitional separation bubble on the suction side. The size of the bubble depends on the Reynolds number and the angle of attack, whereas the location is mainly influenced by the angle of attack. Next, a second model with a modified surface is considered and its influence on the flow field is analyzed. Applying a velvet onto the suction side drastically reduces the size of this separation at moderate angles of attack and higher Reynolds numbers.
Experimental analysis of the flow field over a novel owl based airfoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klän, Stephan; Bachmann, Thomas; Klaas, Michael; Wagner, Hermann; Schröder, Wolfgang
The aerodynamics of a newly constructed wing model the geometry of which is related to the wing of a barn owl is experimentally investigated. Several barn owl wings are scanned to obtain three-dimensional surface models of natural wings. A rectangular wing model with the general geometry of the barn owl but without any owlspecific structure being the reference case for all subsequent measurements is investigated using pressure tabs, oil flow pattern technique, and particle-image velocimetry. The main flow feature of the clean wing is a transitional separation bubble on the suction side. The size of the bubble depends on the Reynolds number and the angle of attack, whereas the location is mainly influenced by the angle of attack. Next, a second model with a modified surface is considered and its influence on the flow field is analyzed. Applying a velvet onto the suction side drastically reduces the size of this separation at moderate angles of attack and higher Reynolds numbers.
Mach 10 computational study of a three-dimensional scramjet inlet flow field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holland, Scott D.
1995-01-01
The present work documents the computational results for a combined computational and experimental parametric study of the internal aerodynamics of a generic three-dimensional sidewall-compression scramjet inlet configuration at Mach 10. The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code SCRAMIN was chosen for the computational portion of the study because it uses a well-known and well-proven numerical scheme and has shown favorable comparison with experiment at Mach numbers between 2 and 6. One advantage of CFD was that it provided flow field data for a detailed examination of the internal flow characteristics in addition to the surface properties. The experimental test matrix at Mach 10 included three geometric contraction ratios (3, 5, and 9), three Reynolds numbers (0.55 x 10(exp 6) per foot, 1.14 x 10(exp 6) per foot, and 2.15 x 10(exp 6) per foot), and three cowl positions (at the throat and two forward positions). Computational data for two of these configurations (the contraction ratio of 3, Re = 2.15 x 10(exp 6) per foot, at two cowl positions) are presented along with a detailed analysis of the flow interactions in successive computational planes.
Mach 10 computational study of a three-dimensional scramjet inlet flow field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holland, Scott D.
1995-01-01
The present work documents the computational results for a combined computational and experimental parametric study of the internal aerodynamics of a generic three-dimensional sidewall-compression scramjet inlet configuration at Mach 10. The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code SCRAMIN was chosen for the computational portion of the study because it uses a well-known and well-proven numerical scheme and has shown favorable comparison with experiment at Mach numbers between 2 and 6. One advantage of CFD was that it provided flow field data for a detailed examination of the internal flow characteristics in addition to the surface properties. The experimental test matrix at mach 10 included three geometric contraction ratios (3, 5, and 9), three Reynolds numbers (0.55 x 10(exp 6) per foot, 1.14 x 10(exp 6) per foot, and 2.15 x 10(exp 6) per foot), and three cowl positions (at the throat and two forward positions). Computational data for two of these configurations (the contraction ratio of 3, Re = 2.15 x 10 (exp 6) per foot, at two cowl positions) are presented along with a detailed analysis of the flow interactions in successive computational planes.
Ex-situ experimental studies on serpentine flow field design for redox flow battery systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jyothi Latha, T.; Jayanti, S.
2014-02-01
Electrolyte distribution using parallel flow field for redox flow battery (RFB) applications shows severe non-uniformity, while the conventional design of using the carbon felt itself as the flow distributor gives too high pressure drop. An optimized flow field design for uniform flow distribution at a minimal parasitic power loss is therefore needed for RFB systems. Since the materials and geometrical dimensions in RFBs are very different from those used in fuel cells, the hydrodynamics of the flow fields in RFBs is likely to be very different. In the present paper, we report on a fundamental study of the hydrodynamics of a serpentine flow field relevant to RFB applications. The permeability of the porous medium has been measured under different compression ratios and this is found to be in the range of 5-8 × 10-11 m2. The pressure drop in two serpentine flow fields of different geometric characteristics has been measured over a range of Reynolds numbers. Further analysis using computational fluid dynamics simulations brings out the importance of the compression of the porous medium as an additional parameter in determining the flow distribution and pressure drop in these flow fields.
Gradient isolator for flow field of fuel cell assembly
Ernst, William D.
1999-01-01
Isolator(s) include isolating material and optionally gasketing material strategically positioned within a fuel cell assembly. The isolating material is disposed between a solid electrolyte and a metal flow field plate. Reactant fluid carried by flow field plate channel(s) forms a generally transverse electrochemical gradient. The isolator(s) serve to isolate electrochemically a portion of the flow field plate, for example, transversely outward from the channel(s), from the electrochemical gradient. Further, the isolator(s) serve to protect a portion of the solid electrolyte from metallic ions.
Gradient isolator for flow field of fuel cell assembly
Ernst, W.D.
1999-06-15
Isolator(s) include isolating material and optionally gasketing material strategically positioned within a fuel cell assembly. The isolating material is disposed between a solid electrolyte and a metal flow field plate. Reactant fluid carried by flow field plate channel(s) forms a generally transverse electrochemical gradient. The isolator(s) serve to isolate electrochemically a portion of the flow field plate, for example, transversely outward from the channel(s), from the electrochemical gradient. Further, the isolator(s) serve to protect a portion of the solid electrolyte from metallic ions. 4 figs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whiting, Ellis E.
1990-01-01
Future space vehicles returning from distant missions or high earth orbits may enter the upper regions of the atmosphere and use aerodynamic drag to reduce their velocity before they skip out of the atmosphere and enter low earth orbit. The Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) is designed to explore the special problems encountered in such entries. A computer code was developed to calculate the radiative transport along line-or-sight in the general 3-D flow field about an arbitrary entry vehicle, if the temperatures and species concentrations along the line-of-sight are known. The radiative heating calculation at the stagnation point of the AFE vehicle along the entry trajectory was performed, including a detailed line-by-line accounting of the radiative transport in the vacuum ultraviolet (below 200 nm) by the atomic N and O lines. A method was developed for making measurements of the haze particles in the Titan atmosphere above 200 km altitude. Several other tasks of a continuing nature, to improve the technical ability to calculate the nonequilibrium gas dynamic flow field and radiative heating of entry vehicles, were completed or advanced.
Cai, Fu; Ming, Hui-qing; Li, Rong-ping; Zhou, Guang-sheng
2013-08-01
Based on the continuous observations on the land-atmosphere flux exchange and the meteorological and biological elements in a maize field at the Jinzhou Agricultural Ecosystem Research Station in Liaoning Province of Northeast China from 2006 to 2008, and by using the dynamic roughness (z0) and zero-displacement (d) parameterization scheme considering the effects of leaf area index, canopy height and wind speed at different developmental stages of maize, the BATS1e model was modified, and applied to investigate the effects of dynamic aerodynamic parameters on the flux exchange between maize agroecosystem and atmosphere. Compared with the original model, the drag coefficient (C(D)) simulated by the modified model increased, and its diurnal variation was more obvious with increasing vegetation coverage, which was more accordant with practical circumstances. The simulation accuracies of sensible heat (H), latent heat (lambdaE) and soil heat flux were improved in varying degree, and the Nash-Sutcliffes (NSs) were increased by 0.0569, 0.0194 and 0. 0384, with the improvement quantities in the growth season being 0.9%, 1.1% and 1.2% of global radiation, respectively. The dynamic parameterizations of z0 and d played a more remarkable role to increase the simulation accuracies of H and lambdaE with the actual observation of soil water content introduced into the improved model. This research proved that more reasonable dynamic aerodynamic parameterizations could fulfill an obvious function to improve the land surface processes simulation.
PIV Measurements of Bioreactor Flow Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neitzel, G. P.; Brown, J. B.
1999-11-01
Spinner-flask bioreactors are operated with several stationary tissue constructs mounted on long needles; the culture medium is stirred by a magnetic stir bar at the vessel bottom. Flow-visualization and PIV measurements have been performed in a scaled-up model system in which the curved, outer vessel wall has been eliminated and the vessel body, culture-medium simulant and tissue-construct models are all index-of-refraction matched. Measurements in the vicinity of the tissue constructs indicate high instantaneous shear stresses at some locations, which may be detrimental to tissue growth. Since the flow is driven by a periodic source, turbulence properties are determined using phase-locked ensemble averaging.
Aeroassist flight experiment aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brewer, Edwin B.
1989-01-01
The problem is to determine the transitional flow aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, including the base flow characteristics, of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE). The justification for the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) Application stems from MSFC's system integration responsibility for the AFE. To insure that the AFE objectives are met, MSFC must understand the limitations and uncertainties of the design data. Perhaps the only method capable of handling the complex physics of the rarefied high energy AFE trajectory is Bird's Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique. The 3-D code used in this analysis is applicable only to the AFE geometry. It uses the Variable Hard Sphere (VHS) collision model and five specie chemistry model available from Langley Research Center. The code is benchmarked against the AFE flight data and used as an Aeroassisted Space Transfer Vehicle (ASTV) design tool. The code is being used to understand the AFE flow field and verify or modify existing design data. Continued application to lower altitudes is testing the capability of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility (NASF) to handle 3-D DSMC and its practicality as an ASTV/AFE design tool.
Flow field analysis of slush fixing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dreher, Anthony; Bell, Robert; Flaska, Todd; Lozano, Martin
1990-10-01
This paper describes an approach to the selection, design, and analysis of a mixing and transfer system for a hypersonic vehicle that uses slush hydrogen as a main propellant. The goal of the analysis was to assure the 'off-bottom' suspension of the slush and, thus, to ensure proper flow of fuel to the engines. As a results of the analysis, system requirements were established, several candidate systems were evaluated, and a mixing-and-transfer system was selected.
Aerodynamic Analyses Requiring Advanced Computers, part 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1975-01-01
Papers given at the conference present the results of theoretical research on aerodynamic flow problems requiring the use of advanced computers. Topics discussed include two-dimensional configurations, three-dimensional configurations, transonic aircraft, and the space shuttle.
USE OF THE AERODYNAMIC PARTICLE SIZER TO MEASURE PM-COARSE
The aerodynamic particle sizer (APS 3321, TSI, Inc.) measures particle size distributions from 0.5 µm to 20 µm by determining the time-of-flight of individual particles in an accelerating flow field. A complete particle size distribution may be determined in a matter of ...
USE OF THE AERODYNAMIC PARTICLE SIZER TO MEASURE PM-COARSE
The aerodynamic particle sizer (APS 3321, TSI, Inc.) measures particle size distributions from 0.5 µm to 20 µm by determining the time-of-flight of individual particles in an accelerating flow field. A complete particle size distribution may be determined in a matter of s...
Ferrofluid pipe flow in an oscillating magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krekhov, Alexei P.; Shliomis, Mark I.; Kamiyama, Shinichi
2005-03-01
Ferrofluid pipe flow in an oscillating magnetic field along the pipe axis is studied theoretically in a wide range of the flow rate. The field-dependent part of viscosity (it can be positive or negative) reveals significant dependence on the flow vorticity, i.e., ferrofluids exhibit non-Newtonian behavior. This is manifested in an alteration of the velocity profile—it ceases to be parabolic—and deviation of the flow rate from the value prescribed by Poiseuille's formula. The presented model based on the conventional ferrohydrodynamic equations and an assumption of the ferrofluid structure fits well experimental data recently obtained by Schumacher, Sellien, Konke, Cader, and Finlayson ["Experiment and simulation of laminar and turbulent ferrofluid pipe flow in an oscillating magnetic field," Phys. Rev. E 67, 026308 (2003)].
Aerodynamics Research Revolutionizes Truck Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2008-01-01
During the 1970s and 1980s, researchers at Dryden Flight Research Center conducted numerous tests to refine the shape of trucks to reduce aerodynamic drag and improved efficiency. During the 1980s and 1990s, a team based at Langley Research Center explored controlling drag and the flow of air around a moving body. Aeroserve Technologies Ltd., of Ottawa, Canada, with its subsidiary, Airtab LLC, in Loveland, Colorado, applied the research from Dryden and Langley to the development of the Airtab vortex generator. Airtabs create two counter-rotating vortices to reduce wind resistance and aerodynamic drag of trucks, trailers, recreational vehicles, and many other vehicles.
Flow field studies on yawed, stranded cables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batill, S. M.; Nelson, R. C.; Nebres, J. V.
A study of the flowfield near yawed, stranded cables was conducted in order to investigate the mechanisms associated with the generation of both steady and unsteady fluid forces on the cables. Rigid cable models and a circular cylinder were tested in a wind tunnel at four different cable angles over a Reynolds number range from 6000 to 14,600 based on the nominal cable diameter. The smoke-wire and the kerosene smoke flow visualization techniques were used to qualitatively evaluate the flowfields associated with each cable geometry.
Effect of flow field on the performance of an all-vanadium redox flow battery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, S.; Jayanti, S.
2016-03-01
A comparative study of the electrochemical energy conversion performance of a single-cell all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) fitted with three flow fields has been carried out experimentally. The charge-discharge, polarization curve, Coulombic, voltage and round-trip efficiencies of a 100 cm2 active area VRFB fitted with serpentine, interdigitated and conventional flow fields have been obtained under nearly identical experimental conditions. The effect of electrolyte circulation rate has also been investigated for each flow field. Stable performance has been obtained for each flow field for at least 40 charge/discharge cycles. Ex-situ measurements of pressure drop have been carried out using water over a range of Reynolds numbers. Together, the results show that the cell fitted with the serpentine flow field gives the highest energy efficiency, primarily due to high voltaic efficiency and also the lowest pressure drop. The electrolyte flow rate is seen to have considerable effect on the performance; a high round-trip energy efficiency of about 80% has been obtained at the highest flow rate with the serpentine flow field. The data offer interesting insights into the effect of electrolyte circulation on the performance of VRFB.
Computer Simulation of Aircraft Aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Inouye, Mamoru
1989-01-01
The role of Ames Research Center in conducting basic aerodynamics research through computer simulations is described. The computer facilities, including supercomputers and peripheral equipment that represent the state of the art, are described. The methodology of computational fluid dynamics is explained briefly. Fundamental studies of turbulence and transition are being pursued to understand these phenomena and to develop models that can be used in the solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Four applications of computer simulations for aerodynamics problems are described: subsonic flow around a fuselage at high angle of attack, subsonic flow through a turbine stator-rotor stage, transonic flow around a flexible swept wing, and transonic flow around a wing-body configuration that includes an inlet and a tail.
Investigation of Spherical-Wave-Initiated Flow Fields Around Bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McFarland, Donald R.
1959-01-01
Measurements of the velocity flow fields and vortex movements have been made about various simple blunt models undergoing spherical blast waves with a positive overpressure of 4 pounds per square inch. A bullet-optical method was used to determine flow velocities and is applied to velocity fields in which the gradients are largely normal to the free-stream direction. The velocity flow fields are shown at various flow times following passage of the blast front for different models. Vortex movements with time are compared for square-bar models of various aspect ratios. Corner sharpness had no discernible effect on the overall disturbed velocity fields or vortex movements for the square-box models used.
Unsteady fluid dynamic model for propeller induced flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, Joseph; Ashby, Dale L.; Yon, Steven
1991-01-01
A potential flow based three-dimensional panel method was modified to treat time dependent flow conditions in which the body's geometry may vary with time. The main objective of this effort was the study of a flow field due to a propeller rotating relative to a nonrotating body which is otherwise moving at a constant forward speed. Calculated surface pressure, thrust and torque coefficient data for a four-bladed marine propeller/body compared favorably with previously published experimental results.
The vortex interaction in a propeller/stator flow field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnston, R. T.; Sullivan, J. P.
1991-01-01
The vortex interaction encounered in the flow field of a propeller and a stator has been investigated using smoke flow visualization. A stator at angle of attack was used to generate a line vortex which interacted with the helical vortex filaments generated by a propeller. Changes in the relative vortex strengths and vortex rotational directions yielded several distinct vortex structures. Axial flow in the vortex cores is determined to influence the development of the vortex interaction.
Biofilm responses to smooth flow fields and chemical gradients in novel microfluidic flow cells
Song, Jisun L.; Au, Kelly H.; Huynh, Kimberly T.
2013-01-01
We present two novel microfluidic flow cells developed to provide reliable control of flow distributions and chemical gradients in biofilm studies. We developed a single-inlet microfluidic flow cell to support biofilm growth under a uniform velocity field, and a double-inlet flow cell to provide a very smooth transverse concentration gradient. Both flow cells consist of a layer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) bonded to glass cover slips and were fabricated using the replica molding technique. We demonstrate the capabilities of the flow cells by quantifying flow patterns before and after growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms through particle imaging velocimetry, and by evaluating concentration gradients within the double-inlet microfluidic flow cell. Biofilm growth substantially increased flow complexity by diverting flow around biomass, creating high- and low-velocity regions and surface friction. Under a glucose gradient in the double-inlet flow cell, P. aeruginosa biofilms grew in proportion to the local glucose concentration, producing distinct spatial patterns in biofilm biomass relative to the imposed glucose gradient. When biofilms were subjected to a ciprofloxacin gradient, spatial patterns of fractions of dead cells were also in proportion to the local antibiotic concentration. These results demonstrate that the microfluidic flow cells are suitable for quantifying flow complexities resulting from flow-biofilm interactions and investigating spatial patterns of biofilm growth under chemical gradients. These novel microfluidic flow cells will facilitate biofilm research that requires flow control and in situ imaging, particularly investigations of biofilm-environment interactions. PMID:24038055
Biofilm responses to smooth flow fields and chemical gradients in novel microfluidic flow cells.
Song, Jisun L; Au, Kelly H; Huynh, Kimberly T; Packman, Aaron I
2014-03-01
We present two novel microfluidic flow cells developed to provide reliable control of flow distributions and chemical gradients in biofilm studies. We developed a single-inlet microfluidic flow cell to support biofilm growth under a uniform velocity field, and a double-inlet flow cell to provide a very smooth transverse concentration gradient. Both flow cells consist of a layer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) bonded to glass cover slips and were fabricated using the replica molding technique. We demonstrate the capabilities of the flow cells by quantifying flow patterns before and after growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms through particle imaging velocimetry, and by evaluating concentration gradients within the double-inlet microfluidic flow cell. Biofilm growth substantially increased flow complexity by diverting flow around biomass, creating high- and low-velocity regions and surface friction. Under a glucose gradient in the double-inlet flow cell, P. aeruginosa biofilms grew in proportion to the local glucose concentration, producing distinct spatial patterns in biofilm biomass relative to the imposed glucose gradient. When biofilms were subjected to a ciprofloxacin gradient, spatial patterns of fractions of dead cells were also in proportion to the local antibiotic concentration. These results demonstrate that the microfluidic flow cells are suitable for quantifying flow complexities resulting from flow-biofilm interactions and investigating spatial patterns of biofilm growth under chemical gradients. These novel microfluidic flow cells will facilitate biofilm research that requires flow control and in situ imaging, particularly investigations of biofilm-environment interactions. PMID:24038055
Aerodynamic characteristics and design guidelines of push-pull ventilation systems.
Huang, R F; Lin, S Y; Jan, S-Y; Hsieh, R H; Chen, Y-K; Chen, C-W; Yeh, W-Y; Chang, C-P; Shih, T-S; Chen, C-C
2005-01-01
Aerodynamic characteristics such as the flow patterns, velocity field, streamline evolutions, characteristic flow modes and characteristic flow regimes of the push-pull ventilation system are cross-examined by using the laser-light sheet smoked-flow visualization method and laser Doppler velocimetry. Four characteristic flow modes, which are denoted as dispersion, transition, encapsulation and strong suction, are identified in the domain of the push-jet and pull-flow velocities at various open-surface tank widths and rising gas velocities. It is argued phenomenologically, from the aerodynamic point of view, that operating the system in the strong suction regime would be a better strategy than operating it in other characteristic regimes for the consideration of capture efficiency. Design guidelines are developed and summarized based on the results obtained from this study. The regression formulas for calculating the critical values of the push-jet and the pull-flow velocities are provided for easy access. The sulfur hexafluoride tracer gas validation technique is performed to measure the capture efficiency. The results of tracer gas validations are consistent with those obtained from the aerodynamic visualization and measurements. The operation points obtained by employing the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists design criteria are compared with the results obtained in this study for both the aerodynamics and the capture efficiency. Methods for improving the capture efficiency and energy consumptions are suggested.
Distributed Aerodynamic Sensing and Processing Toolbox
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brenner, Martin; Jutte, Christine; Mangalam, Arun
2011-01-01
A Distributed Aerodynamic Sensing and Processing (DASP) toolbox was designed and fabricated for flight test applications with an Aerostructures Test Wing (ATW) mounted under the fuselage of an F-15B on the Flight Test Fixture (FTF). DASP monitors and processes the aerodynamics with the structural dynamics using nonintrusive, surface-mounted, hot-film sensing. This aerodynamic measurement tool benefits programs devoted to static/dynamic load alleviation, body freedom flutter suppression, buffet control, improvement of aerodynamic efficiency through cruise control, supersonic wave drag reduction through shock control, etc. This DASP toolbox measures local and global unsteady aerodynamic load distribution with distributed sensing. It determines correlation between aerodynamic observables (aero forces) and structural dynamics, and allows control authority increase through aeroelastic shaping and active flow control. It offers improvements in flutter suppression and, in particular, body freedom flutter suppression, as well as aerodynamic performance of wings for increased range/endurance of manned/ unmanned flight vehicles. Other improvements include inlet performance with closed-loop active flow control, and development and validation of advanced analytical and computational tools for unsteady aerodynamics.
On Hammershock Propagation in a Supersonic Flow Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Porro, A. Robert
2002-01-01
A wind tunnel test program was conducted to acquire flow-field data during a supersonic propulsion system compressor stall and inlet unstart sequence. The propulsion system consisted of a mixed-compression, two-dimensional bifurcated inlet coupled to a General Electric J85-13 turbojet engine. The propulsion system was mounted beneath a large flat plate that simulated an underwing propulsion pod installation. Transient flow-field pitot pressure and wing simulator surface static pressure data were acquired during multiple compressor stall and inlet unstart events at a free-stream Mach number of 2.20. The experimental results obtained in this investigation indicate that a supersonic propulsion system compressor stall-inlet unstart transient event adversely affects the surrounding local flow field. The data show that the stall-unstart event affects the surrounding flow field on a millisecond time scale and causes a three-dimensional expanding wave front called a hammershock to propagate outward from the inlet. The flow nearest the wing simulator separates from the surface during the transient event. At the end of the transient event, a distinct process occurs wherein the affected flow field recovers to free-stream conditions and the wing simulator boundary layer reattaches to the flow surface.
Particle and flow field holography: A critical survey
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trolinger, James D.
1987-01-01
A brief background is provided for the fields of particle and flow visualization holography. A summary of methods currently in use is given, followed by a discussion of more recent and unique applications. The problem of data reduction is discussed. A state of the art summary is then provided with a prognosis of the future of the field. Particle and flow visualization holography are characterized as powerful tools currently in wide use and with significant untapped potential.
An experimental study of airfoil-spoiler aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mclachlan, B. G.; Karamcheti, K.
1985-01-01
The steady/unsteady flow field generated by a typical two dimensional airfoil with a statically deflected flap type spoiler was investigated. Subsonic wind tunnel tests were made over a range of parameters: spoiler deflection, angle of attack, and two Reynolds numbers; and comprehensive measurements of the mean and fluctuating surface pressures, velocities in the boundary layer, and velocities in the wake. Schlieren flow visualization of the near wake structure was performed. The mean lift, moment, and surface pressure characteristics are in agreement with previous investigations of spoiler aerodynamics. At large spoiler deflections, boundary layer character affects the static pressure distribution in the spoiler hingeline region; and, the wake mean velocity fields reveals a closed region of reversed flow aft of the spoiler. It is shown that the unsteady flow field characteristics are as follows: (1) the unsteady nature of the wake is characterized by vortex shedding; (2) the character of the vortex shedding changes with spoiler deflection; (3) the vortex shedding characteristics are in agreement with other bluff body investigations; and (4) the vortex shedding frequency component of the fluctuating surface pressure field is of appreciable magnitude at large spoiler deflections. The flow past an airfoil with deflected spoiler is a particular problem in bluff body aerodynamics is considered.
Flow field characteristics of an ornithopter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Juarez, Alfredo; Allen, James
2007-11-01
This paper details phase locked PIV measurements from a model Ornithopther flying in a wind tunnel at representative flight conditions. Testing over a range of Strouhal numbers, 0.1-0.3, shows that the unsteady wake is composed of coherent vortical structures that resemble vortex rings. A single ring is formed in the wake of each wing during one wing beat. Momentum balance from velocity field measurements are used to estimate the lift and drag of the ornithopter.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
El-Kaddah, N.; Szekely, J.
1982-01-01
A mathematical representation was developed for the electromagnetic force field, the flow field, the temperature field (and for transport controlled kinetics), in a levitation melted metal droplet. The technique of mutual inductances was employed for the calculation of the electromagnetic force field, while the turbulent Navier - Stokes equations and the turbulent convective transport equations were used to represent the fluid flow field, the temperature field and the concentration field. The governing differential equations, written in spherical coordinates, were solved numerically. The computed results were in good agreement with measurements, regarding the lifting force, and the average temperature of the specimen and carburization rates, which were transport controlled.
Numerical simulation of the tip aerodynamics and acoustics test
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tejero E, F.; Doerffer, P.; Szulc, O.; Cross, J. L.
2016-04-01
The application of an efficient flow control system on helicopter rotor blades may lead to improved aerodynamic performance. Recently, our invention of Rod Vortex Generators (RVGs) has been analyzed for helicopter rotor blades in hover with success. As a step forward, the study has been extended to forward flight conditions. For this reason, a validation of the numerical modelling for a reference helicopter rotor (without flow control) is needed. The article presents a study of the flow-field of the AH-1G helicopter rotor in low-, medium- and high-speed forward flight. The CFD code FLOWer from DLR has proven to be a suitable tool for the aerodynamic analysis of the two-bladed rotor without any artificial wake modelling. It solves the URANS equations with LEA (Linear Explicit Algebraic stress) k-ω model using the chimera overlapping grids technique. Validation of the numerical model uses comparison with the detailed flight test data gathered by Cross J. L. and Watts M. E. during the Tip Aerodynamics and Acoustics Test (TAAT) conducted at NASA in 1981. Satisfactory agreements for all speed regimes and a presence of significant flow separation in high-speed forward flight suggest a possible benefit from the future implementation of RVGs. The numerical results based on the URANS approach are presented not only for a popular, low-speed case commonly used in rotorcraft community for CFD codes validation but preferably for medium- and high-speed test conditions that have not been published to date.
Effect of elongational flow on ferrofuids under a magnetic field.
Altmeyer, S; Do, Younghae; Lopez, J M
2013-07-01
To set up a mathematical model for the flow of complex magnetic fluids, noninteracting magnetic particles with a small volume or an even point size are typically assumed. Real ferrofluids, however, consist of a suspension of particles with a finite size in an almost ellipsoid shape as well as with particle-particle interactions that tend to form chains of various lengths. To come close to the realistic situation for ferrofluids, we investigate the effect of elongational flow incorporated by the symmetric part of the velocity gradient field tensor, which could be scaled by a so-called transport coefficient λ(2). Based on the hybrid finite-difference and Galerkin scheme, we study the flow of a ferrofluid in the gap between two concentric rotating cylinders subjected to either a transverse or an axial magnetic field with the transport coefficient. Under the influence of a transverse magnetic field with λ(2)=0, we show that basic state and centrifugal unstable flows are modified and are inherently three-dimensional helical flows that are either left-winding or right-winding in the sense of the azimuthal mode-2, which is in contrast to the generic cases. That is, classical modulated rotating waves rotate, but these flows do not. We find that under elongational flow (λ(2)≠0), the flow structure from basic state and centrifugal instability flows is modified and their azimuthal vorticity is linearly changed. In addition, we also show that the bifurcation threshold of the supercritical centrifugal unstable flows under a magnetic field depends linearly on the transport coefficient, but it does not affect the general stabilization effect of any magnetic field. PMID:23944545
Aerodynamic drag on intermodal railcars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kinghorn, Philip; Maynes, Daniel
2014-11-01
The aerodynamic drag associated with transport of commodities by rail is becoming increasingly important as the cost of diesel fuel increases. This study aims to increase the efficiency of intermodal cargo trains by reducing the aerodynamic drag on the load carrying cars. For intermodal railcars a significant amount of aerodynamic drag is a result of the large distance between loads that often occurs and the resulting pressure drag resulting from the separated flow. In the present study aerodynamic drag data have been obtained through wind tunnel testing on 1/29 scale models to understand the savings that may be realized by judicious modification to the size of the intermodal containers. The experiments were performed in the BYU low speed wind tunnel and the test track utilizes two leading locomotives followed by a set of five articulated well cars with double stacked containers. The drag on a representative mid-train car is measured using an isolated load cell balance and the wind tunnel speed is varied from 20 to 100 mph. We characterize the effect that the gap distance between the containers and the container size has on the aerodynamic drag of this representative rail car and investigate methods to reduce the gap distance.
Advanced multistage turbine blade aerodynamics, performance, cooling, and heat transfer
Fleeter, S.; Lawless, P.B.
1995-12-31
The gas turbine has the potential for power production at the highest possible efficiency. The challenge is to ensure that gas turbines operate at the optimum efficiency so as to use the least fuel and produce minimum emissions. A key component to meeting this challenge is the turbine. Turbine performance, both aerodynamics and heat transfer, is one of the barrier advanced gas turbine development technologies. This is a result of the complex, highly three-dimensional and unsteady flow phenomena in the turbine. Improved turbine aerodynamic performance has been achieved with three-dimensional highly-loaded airfoil designs, accomplished utilizing Euler or Navier-Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. These design codes consider steady flow through isolated blade rows. Thus they do not account for unsteady flow effects. However, unsteady flow effects have a significant impact on performance. Also, CFD codes predict the complete flow field. The experimental verification of these codes has traditionally been accomplished with point data - not corresponding plane field measurements. Thus, although advanced CFD predictions of the highly complex and three-dimensional turbine flow fields are available, corresponding data are not. To improve the design capability for high temperature turbines, a detailed understanding of the highly unsteady and three-dimensional flow through multi-stage turbines is necessary. Thus, unique data are required which quantify the unsteady three-dimensional flow through multi-stage turbine blade rows, including the effect of the film coolant flow. Also, as design CFD codes do not account for unsteady flow effects, the next logical challenge and the current thrust in CFD code development is multiple-stage analyses that account for the interactions between neighboring blade rows. Again, to verify and or direct the development of these advanced codes, complete three-dimensional unsteady flow field data are needed.
Advanced multistage turbine blade aerodynamics, performance, cooling, and heat transfer
Fleeter, S.; Lawless, P.B.
1995-10-01
The gas turbine has the potential for power production at the highest possible efficiency. The challenge is to ensure that gas turbines operate at the optimum efficiency so as to use the least fuel and produce minimum emissions. A key component to meeting this challenge is the turbine. Turbine performance, both aerodynamics and heat transfer, is one of the barrier advanced gas turbine development technologies. This is a result of the complex, highly three-dimensional and unsteady flow phenomena in the turbine. Improved turbine aerodynamic performance has been achieved with three-dimensional highly-loaded airfoil designs, accomplished utilizing Euler or Navier-Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. These design codes consider steady flow through isolated blade rows. Thus they do not account for unsteady flow effects. However, unsteady flow effects have a significant impact on performance. Also, CFD codes predict the complete flow field. The experimental verification of these codes has traditionally been accomplished with point data - not corresponding plane field measurements. Thus, although advanced CFD predictions of the highly complex and three-dimensional turbine flow fields are available, corresponding data are not. To improve the design capability for high temperature turbines, a detailed understanding of the highly unsteady and three-dimensional flow through multi-stage turbines is necessary. Thus, unique data are required which quantify the unsteady three-dimensional flow through multi-stage turbine blade rows, including the effect of the film coolant flow. This requires experiments in appropriate research facilities in which complete flow field data, not only point measurements, are obtained and analyzed. Also, as design CFD codes do not account for unsteady flow effects, the next logical challenge and the current thrust in CFD code development is multiple-stage analyses that account for the interactions between neighboring blade rows.
Aerodynamics of Small Vehicles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mueller, Thomas J.
In this review we describe the aerodynamic problems that must be addressed in order to design a successful small aerial vehicle. The effects of Reynolds number and aspect ratio (AR) on the design and performance of fixed-wing vehicles are described. The boundary-layer behavior on airfoils is especially important in the design of vehicles in this flight regime. The results of a number of experimental boundary-layer studies, including the influence of laminar separation bubbles, are discussed. Several examples of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in this regime are described. Also, a brief survey of analytical models for oscillating and flapping-wing propulsion is presented. These range from the earliest examples where quasi-steady, attached flow is assumed, to those that account for the unsteady shed vortex wake as well as flow separation and aeroelastic behavior of a flapping wing. Experiments that complemented the analysis and led to the design of a successful ornithopter are also described.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hathaway, Michael D.; Chriss, Randall M.; Strazisar, Anthony J.; Wood, Jerry R.
1995-01-01
A laser anemometer system was used to provide detailed surveys of the three-dimensional velocity field within the NASA low-speed centrifugal impeller operating with a vaneless diffuser. Both laser anemometer and aerodynamic performance data were acquired at the design flow rate and at a lower flow rate. Floor path coordinates, detailed blade geometry, and pneumatic probe survey results are presented in tabular form. The laser anemometer data are presented in the form of pitchwise distributions of axial, radial, and relative tangential velocity on blade-to-blade stream surfaces at 5-percent-of-span increments, starting at 95-percent-of-span from the hub. The laser anemometer data are also presented as contour and wire-frame plots of throughflow velocity and vector plots of secondary velocities at all measurement stations through the impeller.
Numerical Simulations of Canted Nozzle and Scarfed Nozzle Flow Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Javed, Afroz; Chakraborty, Debasis
2016-06-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques are used for the analysis of issues concerning non-conventional (canted and scarfed) nozzle flow fields. Numerical simulations are carried out for the quality of flow in terms of axisymmetric nature at the inlet of canted nozzles of a rocket motor. Two different nozzle geometries are examined. The analysis of these simulation results shows that the flow field at the entry of the nozzles is non axisymmetric at the start of the motor. With time this asymmetry diminishes, also the flow becomes symmetric before the nozzle throat, indicating no misalignment of thrust vector with the nozzle axis. The qualitative flow fields at the inlet of the nozzles are used in selecting the geometry with lesser flow asymmetry. Further CFD methodology is used to analyse flow field of a scarfed nozzle for the evaluation of thrust developed and its direction. This work demonstrates the capability of the CFD based methods for the nozzle analysis problems which were earlier solved only approximately by making simplifying assumptions and semi empirical methods.
Computation of flow pressure fields from magnetic resonance velocity mapping.
Yang, G Z; Kilner, P J; Wood, N B; Underwood, S R; Firmin, D N
1996-10-01
Magnetic resonance phase velocity mapping has unrivalled capacities for acquiring in vivo multi-directional blood flow information. In this study, the authors set out to derive both spatial and temporal components of acceleration, and hence differences of pressure in a flow field using cine magnetic resonance velocity data. An efficient numerical algorithm based on the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible Newtonian fluid was used. The computational approach was validated with in vitro flow phantoms. This work aims to contribute to a better understanding of cardiovascular dynamics and to serve as a basis for investigating pulsatile pressure/flow relationships associated with normal and impaired cardiovascular function. PMID:8892202
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)
1999-01-01
The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop on February 25-28, 1997. The workshop was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, Flight Controls, Supersonic Laminar Flow Control, and Sonic Boom Prediction. The workshop objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT Motion Simulator results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas.
Numerical study of a ramjet dump combustor flow field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Drummond, J. P.
1983-01-01
Increased interest in ramjet propulsion systems with higher performance requirements and tighter constraints on system size and weight has lead to the need for improved techniques for analyzing and designing such systems. A computer program has been developed to analyze the turbulent reacting flow field in a ramjet dump combustor configuration. The program solves the axisymmetric Navier-Stokes and species equations throughout the engine diffuser and combustor providing a unified analysis of the complete engine flow field, including flow separation, fuel-air mixing, and preliminary results with chemical reaction. Details of the program development are given, along with a comparison of program results with data from a dump combustor simulation experiment, to allow assessment of the flow field modeling that is employed.
Stability Analysis of Flow Induced by the Traveling Magnetic Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mazuruk, Konstantin
2003-01-01
Re-circulating flow in molten metal columns can be conveniently induced by the axisymmetric traveling magnetic field. A number of applications can benefit from this technique, such as mixing under microgravity environment, or.crysta1 growth from metallic melts. For small magnetic field excitations, the flow is laminar and stationary. As the imposed field increases, a more complex flow will set up in the cylindrical column. Conditions for stable laminar flow are of importance for practical applications. In this work, a linear stability analysis is performed in order to determine the onset of the bifurcation in the system. Here the analysis is restricted to the axisymmetric modes and the low-frequency regime.
Stability Analysis of Flow Induced by the Traveling Magnetic Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mazuruk, Konstantin
2003-01-01
Re-circulating flow in molten metal columns can be conveniently induced by the axisymmetric traveling magnetic field. A number of applications can benefit from this technique, such as mixing under microgravity environment, or crysta1 growth from metallic melts. For small magnetic field excitations, the flow is laminar and stationary. As the imposed field increases, a more complex flow will set up in the cylindrical column. Conditions for stable laminar flow are of importance for practical applications. In this work, a linear stability analysis is performed in order to determine the onset of the bifurcation in the system. Here the analysis is restricted to the axisymmetric modes and the low-frequency regime.
Faller, W E; Schreck, S J
1995-01-01
The capability to control unsteady separated flow fields could dramatically enhance aircraft agility. To enable control, however, real-time prediction of these flow fields over a broad parameter range must be realized. The present work describes real-time predictions of three-dimensional unsteady separated flow fields and aerodynamic coefficients using neural networks. Unsteady surface-pressure readings were obtained from an airfoil pitched at a constant rate through the static stall angle. All data sets were comprised of 15 simultaneously acquired pressure records and one pitch angle record. Five such records and the associated pitch angle histories were used to train the neural network using a time-series algorithm. Post-training, the input to the network was the pitch angle (alpha), the angular velocity (dalpha/dt), and the initial 15 recorded surface pressures at time (t (0)). Subsequently, the time (t+Deltat) network predictions, for each of the surface pressures, were fed back as the input to the network throughout the pitch history. The results indicated that the neural network accurately predicted the unsteady separated flow fields as well as the aerodynamic coefficients to within 5% of the experimental data. Consistent results were obtained both for the training set as well as for generalization to both other constant pitch rates and to sinusoidal pitch motions. The results clearly indicated that the neural-network model could predict the unsteady surface-pressure distributions and aerodynamic coefficients based solely on angle of attack information. The capability for real-time prediction of both unsteady separated flow fields and aerodynamic coefficients across a wide range of parameters in turn provides a critical step towards the development of control systems targeted at exploiting unsteady aerodynamics for aircraft manoeuvrability enhancement.
Aircraft Noise Prediction Program theoretical manual: Propeller aerodynamics and noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zorumski, W. E. (Editor); Weir, D. S. (Editor)
1986-01-01
The prediction sequence used in the aircraft noise prediction program (ANOPP) is described. The elements of the sequence are called program modules. The first group of modules analyzes the propeller geometry, the aerodynamics, including both potential and boundary-layer flow, the propeller performance, and the surface loading distribution. This group of modules is based entirely on aerodynamic strip theory. The next group of modules deals with the first group. Predictions of periodic thickness and loading noise are determined with time-domain methods. Broadband noise is predicted by a semiempirical method. Near-field predictions of fuselage surface pressrues include the effects of boundary layer refraction and scattering. Far-field predictions include atmospheric and ground effects.
Vera, N; Steinman, D A; Ethier, C R; Johnston, K W; Cobbold, R S
1992-01-01
The interpretation of colour flow Doppler images in regions of complex flow can be difficult. To aid in such interpretations, we have developed software which accepts as input the results of a fluid flow simulation program and produces simulated colour flow Doppler images on a workstation. This allows direct comparison between well-described flow fields and colour flow Doppler images. Application of this approach is demonstrated for flow in a two-dimensional model of a distal graft-to-vessel anastomosis, and the interpretation of the results for three-dimensional flows is briefly discussed. In addition, a method for presenting two-dimensional (vectorial) velocity data via colour coding is presented.
Xu, Wei-Hua; Shen, Hua-Hao
2010-02-25
When using pressure-type plethysmography to test lung function of rodents, calculation of lung volume is always based on Boyle's law. The precondition of Boyle's law is that perfect air is static. However, air in the chamber is flowing continuously when a rodent breathes inside the chamber. Therefore, Boyle's law, a principle of air statics, may not be appropriate for measuring pressure changes of flowing air. In this study, we deduced equations for pressure changes inside pressure-type plethysmograph and then designed three experiments to testify the theoretic deduction. The results of theoretic deduction indicated that increased pressure was generated from two sources: one was based on Boyle's law, and the other was based on the law of conservation of momentum. In the first experiment, after injecting 0.1 mL, 0.2 mL, 0.4 mL of air into the plethysmograph, the pressure inside the chamber increased sharply to a peak value, then promptly decreased to horizontal pressure. Peak values were significantly higher than the horizontal values (P<0.001). This observation revealed that flowing air made an extra effect on air pressure in the plethysmograph. In the second experiment, the same volume of air was injected into the plethysmograph at different frequencies (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 Hz) and pressure changes inside were measured. The results showed that, with increasing frequencies, the pressure changes in the chamber became significantly higher (P<0.001). In the third experiment, small animal ventilator and pipette were used to make two types of airflow with different functions of time. The pressure changes produced by the ventilator were significantly greater than those produced by the pipette (P<0.001). Based on the data obtained, we draw the conclusion that, the flow of air plays a role in pressure changes inside the plethysmograph, and the faster the airflow is, the higher the pressure changes reach. Furthermore, the type of airflow also influences the pressure changes
Xu, Wei-Hua; Shen, Hua-Hao
2010-02-25
When using pressure-type plethysmography to test lung function of rodents, calculation of lung volume is always based on Boyle's law. The precondition of Boyle's law is that perfect air is static. However, air in the chamber is flowing continuously when a rodent breathes inside the chamber. Therefore, Boyle's law, a principle of air statics, may not be appropriate for measuring pressure changes of flowing air. In this study, we deduced equations for pressure changes inside pressure-type plethysmograph and then designed three experiments to testify the theoretic deduction. The results of theoretic deduction indicated that increased pressure was generated from two sources: one was based on Boyle's law, and the other was based on the law of conservation of momentum. In the first experiment, after injecting 0.1 mL, 0.2 mL, 0.4 mL of air into the plethysmograph, the pressure inside the chamber increased sharply to a peak value, then promptly decreased to horizontal pressure. Peak values were significantly higher than the horizontal values (P<0.001). This observation revealed that flowing air made an extra effect on air pressure in the plethysmograph. In the second experiment, the same volume of air was injected into the plethysmograph at different frequencies (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 Hz) and pressure changes inside were measured. The results showed that, with increasing frequencies, the pressure changes in the chamber became significantly higher (P<0.001). In the third experiment, small animal ventilator and pipette were used to make two types of airflow with different functions of time. The pressure changes produced by the ventilator were significantly greater than those produced by the pipette (P<0.001). Based on the data obtained, we draw the conclusion that, the flow of air plays a role in pressure changes inside the plethysmograph, and the faster the airflow is, the higher the pressure changes reach. Furthermore, the type of airflow also influences the pressure changes.
The turbulent flow field around a circular cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dargahi, B.
1989-10-01
The flow field around a circular cylinder mounted vertically on a flat bottom has been investigated experimentally. This type of flow occurs in several technical applications, e.g. local scouring around bridge piers. Hydrogen bubble flow visualization was carried out for Reynolds numbers ranging from 6,600 to 65,000. The main flow characteristic upstream of the cylinder is a system of horse-shoe vortices which are shed quasi-periodically. The number of vortices depends on Reynolds number. The vortex system was found to be independent of the vortices that are shed in the wake of the cylinder. The topology of the separated flow contains several separation and attachment lines which are Reynolds number dependent. In the wake region different flow patterns exist for each constant Reynolds number.
Turbulence modelling of flow fields in thrust chambers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, C. P.; Kim, Y. M.; Shang, H. M.
1993-01-01
Following the consensus of a workshop in Turbulence Modelling for Liquid Rocket Thrust Chambers, the current effort was undertaken to study the effects of second-order closure on the predictions of thermochemical flow fields. To reduce the instability and computational intensity of the full second-order Reynolds Stress Model, an Algebraic Stress Model (ASM) coupled with a two-layer near wall treatment was developed. Various test problems, including the compressible boundary layer with adiabatic and cooled walls, recirculating flows, swirling flows, and the entire SSME nozzle flow were studied to assess the performance of the current model. Detailed calculations for the SSME exit wall flow around the nozzle manifold were executed. As to the overall flow predictions, the ASM removes another assumption for appropriate comparison with experimental data to account for the non-isotropic turbulence effects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Bo; Wang, Xiaodong; Etay, Jacqueline; Na, Xianzhao; Zhang, Xinde; Fautrelle, Yves
2016-04-01
In this study, an Archimedean helical permanent magnetic field was constructed and its driving effects on liquid metal were examined. A magnetic stirrer was constructed using a series of arc-like magnets. The helical distribution of its magnetic field, which was confirmed via Gauss probe measurements and numerical simulations, can be considered a combination of rotating and traveling magnetic fields. The characteristics of the flow patterns, particularly the transitions between the meridian secondary flow (two vortices) and the global axial flow (one vortex), driven by this magnetic field were quantitatively measured using ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry. The transient and modulated flow behaviors will be presented in a companion article. The D/ H dimension ratio was used to characterize the transitions of these two flow patterns. The results demonstrated that the flow patterns depend on not only the intrinsic structure of the magnetic field, e.g., the helix lead angle, but also the performance parameters, e.g., the dimensional ratio of the liquid bulk. The notable opposing roles of these two flow patterns in the improvement of macrosegregations when imposing such magnetic fields near the solidifying front were qualitatively addressed.
Magnetic field-aligned electric potentials in nonideal plasma flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schindler, K.; Hesse, M.; Birn, J.
1991-01-01
The electric field component parallel to the magnetic field arising from plasma flows which violate the frozen-in field condition of ideal magnetohydrodynamics is discussed. The quantity of interest is the potential U = integral E parallel ds where the integral is extended along field lines. It is shown that U can be directly related to magnetic field properties, expressed by Euler potentials, even when time-dependence is included. These results are applicable to earth's magnetosphere, to solar flares, to aligned-rotator models of compact objects, and to galactic rotation. On the basis of order-of-magnitude estimates, these results support the view that parallel electric fields associated with nonideal plasma flows might play an important role in cosmic particle acceleration.
Analysis of a solar collector field water flow network
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rohde, J. E.; Knoll, R. H.
1976-01-01
A number of methods are presented for minimizing the water flow variation in the solar collector field for the Solar Building Test Facility at the Langley Research Center. The solar collector field investigated consisted of collector panels connected in parallel between inlet and exit collector manifolds to form 12 rows. The rows were in turn connected in parallel between the main inlet and exit field manifolds to complete the field. The various solutions considered included various size manifolds, manifold area change, different locations for the inlets and exits to the manifolds, and orifices or flow control valves. Calculations showed that flow variations of less than 5 percent were obtainable both inside a row between solar collector panels and between various rows.
Field observations of a debris flow event in the Dolomites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berti, Matteo; Genevois, Rinaldo; Simoni, Alessandro; Tecca, Pia Rosella
1999-09-01
A debris flow event occurred in June 1997 in the Dolomites (Eastern Alps, Italy). The phenomenon was directly observed in the field and recorded by a video camera near its initiation area. The debris flow originated shortly after an intense rainstorm (25 mm in 30 min) whose runoff mobilised the loose coarse debris that filled the bottom of the channel in its upper part. The analysis of the steep headwater basin indicates a very short concentration time (9-14 min) that fits the quick hydrological response observed in the field. The debris flow mobilisation was not contemporaneous with the arrival of the peak water discharge in the initiation area probably due to the time required for the saturation of the highly conductive channel-bed material. Channel cross-section measurements taken along the flow channel indicate debris flow peak velocity and discharge ranging from 3.1 to 9.0 m/s and from 23 to 71 m 3/s, respectively. Samples collected immediately after deposition were used to determine the water content and bulk density of the material. Channel scouring, fines enrichment and transported volume increase testify erosion and entrainment of material along the flow channel. Field estimates of the rheological properties based on open channel flow of Bingham fluid indicate a yield strength of 5000±400 Pa and relatively low viscosity (60-326 Pa s), probably due to a high percentage of fines (approx. 30%).
Numerical Simulation of Flow Field Within Parallel Plate Plastometer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Antar, Basil N.
2002-01-01
Parallel Plate Plastometer (PPP) is a device commonly used for measuring the viscosity of high polymers at low rates of shear in the range 10(exp 4) to 10(exp 9) poises. This device is being validated for use in measuring the viscosity of liquid glasses at high temperatures having similar ranges for the viscosity values. PPP instrument consists of two similar parallel plates, both in the range of 1 inch in diameter with the upper plate being movable while the lower one is kept stationary. Load is applied to the upper plate by means of a beam connected to shaft attached to the upper plate. The viscosity of the fluid is deduced from measuring the variation of the plate separation, h, as a function of time when a specified fixed load is applied on the beam. Operating plate speeds measured with the PPP is usually in the range of 10.3 cm/s or lower. The flow field within the PPP can be simulated using the equations of motion of fluid flow for this configuration. With flow speeds in the range quoted above the flow field between the two plates is certainly incompressible and laminar. Such flows can be easily simulated using numerical modeling with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. We present below the mathematical model used to simulate this flow field and also the solutions obtained for the flow using a commercially available finite element CFD code.
Laboratory observation of magnetic field growth driven by shear flow
Intrator, T. P. Feng, Y.; Sears, J.; Weber, T.; Dorf, L.; Sun, X.
2014-04-15
Two magnetic flux ropes that collide and bounce have been characterized in the laboratory. We find screw pinch profiles that include ion flow v{sub i}, magnetic field B, current density J, and plasma pressure. The electron flow v{sub e} can be inferred, allowing the evaluation of the Hall J×B term in a two fluid magnetohydrodynamic Ohm's Law. Flux ropes that are initially cylindrical are mutually attracted and compress each other, which distorts the cylindrical symmetry. Magnetic field is created via the ∇×v{sub e}×B induction term in Ohm's Law where in-plane (perpendicular) shear of parallel flow (along the flux rope) is the dominant feature, along with some dissipation and magnetic reconnection. We predict and measure the growth of a quadrupole out-of-plane magnetic field δB{sub z}. This is a simple and coherent example of a shear flow driven dynamo. There is some similarity with two dimensional reconnection scenarios, which induce a current sheet and thus out-of-plane flow in the third dimension, despite the customary picture that considers flows only in the reconnection plane. These data illustrate a general and deterministic mechanism for large scale sheared flows to acquire smaller scale magnetic features, disordered structure, and possibly turbulence.
Fuel cell with metal screen flow-field
Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, C.
1998-08-25
A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is provided with electrodes supplied with a reactant on each side of a catalyzed membrane assembly (CMA). The fuel cell includes a metal mesh defining a rectangular flow-field pattern having an inlet at a first corner and an outlet at a second corner located on a diagonal from the first corner, wherein all flow paths from the inlet to the outlet through the square flow field pattern are equivalent to uniformly distribute the reactant over the CMA. In a preferred form of metal mesh, a square weave screen forms the flow-field pattern. In a particular characterization of the present invention, a bipolar plate electrically connects adjacent fuel cells, where the bipolar plate includes a thin metal foil having an anode side and a cathode side; a first metal mesh on the anode side of the thin metal foil; and a second metal mesh on the cathode side of the thin metal foil. In another characterization of the present invention, a cooling plate assembly cools adjacent fuel cells, where the cooling plate assembly includes an anode electrode and a cathode electrode formed of thin conducting foils; and a metal mesh flow field there between for distributing cooling water flow over the electrodes to remove heat generated by the fuel cells. 11 figs.
Fuel cell with metal screen flow-field
Wilson, Mahlon S.; Zawodzinski, Christine
2001-01-01
A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is provided with electrodes supplied with a reactant on each side of a catalyzed membrane assembly (CMA). The fuel cell includes a metal mesh defining a rectangular flow-field pattern having an inlet at a first corner and an outlet at a second corner located on a diagonal from the first corner, wherein all flow paths from the inlet to the outlet through the square flow field pattern are equivalent to uniformly distribute the reactant over the CMA. In a preferred form of metal mesh, a square weave screen forms the flow-field pattern. In a particular characterization of the present invention, a bipolar plate electrically connects adjacent fuel cells, where the bipolar plate includes a thin metal foil having an anode side and a cathode side; a first metal mesh on the anode side of the thin metal foil; and a second metal mesh on the cathode side of the thin metal foil. In another characterization of the present invention, a cooling plate assembly cools adjacent fuel cells, where the cooling plate assembly includes an anode electrode and a cathode electrode formed of thin conducting foils; and a metal mesh flow field therebetween for distributing cooling water flow over the electrodes to remove heat generated by the fuel cells.
Fuel cell with metal screen flow-field
Wilson, Mahlon S.; Zawodzinski, Christine
1998-01-01
A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is provided with electrodes supplied with a reactant on each side of a catalyzed membrane assembly (CMA). The fuel cell includes a metal mesh defining a rectangular flow-field pattern having an inlet at a first corner and an outlet at a second corner located on a diagonal from the first corner, wherein all flow paths from the inlet to the outlet through the square flow field pattern are equivalent to uniformly distribute the reactant over the CMA. In a preferred form of metal mesh, a square weave screen forms the flow-field pattern. In a particular characterization of the present invention, a bipolar plate electrically connects adjacent fuel cells, where the bipolar plate includes a thin metal foil having an anode side and a cathode side; a first metal mesh on the anode side of the thin metal foil; and a second metal mesh on the cathode side of the thin metal foil. In another characterization of the present invention, a cooling plate assembly cools adjacent fuel cells, where the cooling plate assembly includes an anode electrode and a cathode electrode formed of thin conducting foils; and a metal mesh flow field therebetween for distributing cooling water flow over the electrodes to remove heat generated by the fuel cells.
Introduction. Computational aerodynamics.
Tucker, Paul G
2007-10-15
The wide range of uses of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for aircraft design is discussed along with its role in dealing with the environmental impact of flight. Enabling technologies, such as grid generation and turbulence models, are also considered along with flow/turbulence control. The large eddy simulation, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes and hybrid turbulence modelling approaches are contrasted. The CFD prediction of numerous jet configurations occurring in aerospace are discussed along with aeroelasticity for aeroengine and external aerodynamics, design optimization, unsteady flow modelling and aeroengine internal and external flows. It is concluded that there is a lack of detailed measurements (for both canonical and complex geometry flows) to provide validation and even, in some cases, basic understanding of flow physics. Not surprisingly, turbulence modelling is still the weak link along with, as ever, a pressing need for improved (in terms of robustness, speed and accuracy) solver technology, grid generation and geometry handling. Hence, CFD, as a truly predictive and creative design tool, seems a long way off. Meanwhile, extreme practitioner expertise is still required and the triad of computation, measurement and analytic solution must be judiciously used.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mehta, R. D.
1985-01-01
Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehta, R. D.
Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.
Combined Experimental and Numerical Diagnostics for Near-field Flow around a Supersonic Flight Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuda, Atsushi; Shimizu, Katsuya; Suzuki, Kakuei; Sasoh, Akihiro; Murakami, Keiichi; Aoyama, Takashi
A system for evaluating the near-field pressure distribution around a supersonic flight model by combining experimental and numerical diagnostics has been developed. Experimental measurement is conducted using a ballistic range with four kinds of axi-symmetric flight models. Schlieren flow visualization is recorded using a high-speed framing camera and near-field pressure histories are measured using piezoelectric pressure transducers flush-mounted on the surface of flat plates in the test section. The numerical diagnostics is done using FaSTAR, a numerical simulation tool developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The experimental and numerical data are compared to each other, and the numerical results well validated. Based on the numerical results, it becomes possible to estimate the accuracy of experimental conditions including the flight path and angle of attack, which cannot readily be determined only from experimental data, and to discuss the relationship between peak overpressure and aerodynamic performance. Satisfactory agreement between the experimental and numerical results at a flight Mach number of 1.66±0.02 and important insights related to rear boom strength are obtained.
Aerodynamic characteristics of the Fiat UNO car
Costelli, A.F.
1984-01-01
The purpose of this article is to describe the work conducted in the aerodynamic field throughout the 4-year development and engineering time span required by the project of the UNO car. A description is given of all the parametric studies carried out. Through these studies two types of cars at present in production were defined and the characteristics of a possible future sports version laid down. A movable device, to be fitted in the back window, was also set up and patented. When actuated it reduces soiling of back window. A description is also provided of the measurements made in the car flow field and some considerations are outlined about the method applied. This method is still in development phase but it already permits some considerations and in-depth investigations to be made on the vehicle wake.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Louis J.; Hessenius, Kristin A.; Corsiglia, Victor R.; Hicks, Gary; Richardson, Pamela F.; Unger, George; Neumann, Benjamin; Moss, Jim
1992-01-01
The annual accomplishments is reviewed for the Aerodynamics Division during FY 1991. The program includes both fundamental and applied research directed at the full spectrum of aerospace vehicles, from rotorcraft to planetary entry probes. A comprehensive review is presented of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications; CFD validation; transition and turbulence physics; numerical aerodynamic simulation; test techniques and instrumentation; configuration aerodynamics; aeroacoustics; aerothermodynamics; hypersonics; subsonics; fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.
Variability modes in core flows inverted from geomagnetic field models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pais, M. A.; Morozova, A. L.; Schaeffer, N.
2014-01-01
The flow of liquid metal inside the Earth's core produces the geomagnetic field and its time variations. Understanding the variability of those deep currents is crucial to improve the forecast of geomagnetic field variations and may provide relevant information on the core dynamics. The main goal of this study is to extract and characterize the leading variability modes of core flows over centennial periods, and to assess their statistical robustness. To this end, we use flows that we invert from two geomagnetic field models (`gufm1' and `COV-OBS'), and apply principal component analysis and singular value decomposition of coupled fields. The quasi-geostrophic (QG) flows inverted from both geomagnetic field models show similar features. However, `COV-OBS' flows have a less energetic mean and larger time variability. The statistical significance of flow components is tested from analyses performed on subareas of the whole domain. Bootstrapping methods are also used to extract significant flow features required by both `gufm1' and `COV-OBS'. Three main empirical circulation modes emerge, simultaneously constrained by both geomagnetic field models and expected to be robust against the particular a priori used to build them (large-scale QG dynamics). Mode 1 exhibits three large vortices at medium/high latitudes, with opposite circulation under the Atlantic and the Pacific hemispheres. Mode 2 interestingly accounts for most of the variations of the Earth's core angular momentum. In this mode, the regions close to the tangent cylinder and to the equator are correlated, and oscillate with a period between 80 and 90 yr. Each of these two modes is energetic enough to alter the mean flow, sometimes reinforcing the eccentric gyre, and other times breaking it up into smaller circulations. The three main circulation modes added to the mean flow account for about 70 per cent of the flows variability, 90 per cent of the rms total velocities, and 95 per cent of the secular
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Bo; Wang, Xiaodong; Fautrelle, Yves; Etay, Jacqueline; Na, Xianzhao; Baltaretu, Florin
2016-08-01
The present study considers the transient and modulated flow behaviors of liquid metal driven by a helical permanent magnetic field. The transient process, in which the fluid at rest experiences an increase in the angular velocity, is observed both in secondary and global axial flow with duration time less than 1 second. The flow fields are measured quantitatively to reveal the evolution of the transient flow, and the transient process is due to the variation of the electromagnetic force. Besides, the modulated flow behaviors of global axial flow, which is significantly different from that of secondary flow, is expected to avoid flow-induced macrosegregation in solidification process if the modulated time is suitable because its direction reversed periodically with the modulated helical stirrer. In addition, an optimal modulation frequency, under which the magnetic field could efficiently stir the solute at the solidification front, exists both in secondary and global axial flow (0.1 Hz and 0.625 Hz, respectively). Future investigations will focus on additional metallic alloy solidification experiments.
Unstructured mesh algorithms for aerodynamic calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, D. J.
1992-01-01
The use of unstructured mesh techniques for solving complex aerodynamic flows is discussed. The principle advantages of unstructured mesh strategies, as they relate to complex geometries, adaptive meshing capabilities, and parallel processing are emphasized. The various aspects required for the efficient and accurate solution of aerodynamic flows are addressed. These include mesh generation, mesh adaptivity, solution algorithms, convergence acceleration, and turbulence modeling. Computations of viscous turbulent two-dimensional flows and inviscid three-dimensional flows about complex configurations are demonstrated. Remaining obstacles and directions for future research are also outlined.
Whole field velocity measurements in three-dimensional periodic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reddy, Urmila Chennuru
To quantify flows around rotorcraft, rapid measurements of scalar and vector fields are needed over large volumes. The techniques used must be suitable for large test facilities. This thesis studies methods for acquiring and reconstructing four-dimensional, spatio-temporal measurements of flow properties in periodic flows. It involves both the theoretical studies needed for algorithm development and the solution of practical problems required to enable multi-dimensional velocity field measurement in flows typical of full-scale rotorcraft. Resolving the four-dimensional flowfield is viewed as a problem in the tomographic reconstruction of scalar and vector fields. Theoretical formulations reconstructing n-dimensional scalar fields from (n-1)-dimensional projections are studied. This work was a precursor to the extraction of three-component, three-dimensional velocity fields from planar Spatial Cross-Correlation Velocimetry (SCV). SCV measures a planar displacement field by cross-correlating two time-separated images of the flow. A scalable system that uses inexpensive pulsed white light sources and enables large-area imaging has been integrated for use in full-scale test facilities. The flowfield around a V22 half-model was studied using this technique. SCV discovered the existence of a transient upflow above the rotor plane, unique to compressible rotor flows, and verified other flow features. Measurements in a turbofan engine test cell validated system performance in the highly turbulent and vibrating test environment, under time limitations typical of industry testing. Studies of a two-bladed rotor in axial flight revealed basic vortex pairing and merger phenomena. These tests provided the first proof that full-scale rotor wakes at high Reynolds number and Mach number are cleanly periodic when facility interference effects are eliminated. A method was developed to compute the 3D, three-component, periodic velocity field by integrating 2D, phase-resolved, SCV data
Numerical study of scramjet and ramjet flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kumar, A.; Drummond, J. P.
1983-01-01
Two computer programs have been developed to numerically calculate complex, two-dimensional flow fields in scramjets. The first program is written for inlet analysis whereas the second program is written primarily for combustor analysis. Both programs solve the full two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations by a well-known explicit, predictor-corrector technique. Turbulence is modeled by an algebraic eddy-viscosity model. The combustor program also includes one or more species conservation equations to calculate mixing and reacting flows. The hydrogen/air chemistry in this program is modeled by a complete reaction model. The combustor program has been recently modified to analyze axisymmetric ramjet dump combustor flow field. Results from these computer programs are presented that predict the flow in several scramjet inlet configurations, two model scramjet engine configurations, and in a dump combustor simulator. Computed results are also compared with available experimental data to allow assessment of the programs.
Patterns in the sky: Natural visualization of aircraft flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, James F.; Chambers, Joseph R.
1994-01-01
The objective of the current publication is to present the collection of flight photographs to illustrate the types of flow patterns that were visualized and to present qualitative correlations with computational and wind tunnel results. Initially in section 2, the condensation process is discussed, including a review of relative humidity, vapor pressure, and factors which determine the presence of visible condensate. Next, outputs from computer code calculations are postprocessed by using water-vapor relationships to determine if computed values of relative humidity in the local flow field correlate with the qualitative features of the in-flight condensation patterns. The photographs are then presented in section 3 by flow type and subsequently in section 4 by aircraft type to demonstrate the variety of condensed flow fields that was visualized for a wide range of aircraft and flight maneuvers.
Field-effect Flow Control in Polymer Microchannel Networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sniadecki, Nathan; Lee, Cheng S.; Beamesderfer, Mike; DeVoe, Don L.
2003-01-01
A new Bio-MEMS electroosmotic flow (EOF) modulator for plastic microchannel networks has been developed. The EOF modulator uses field-effect flow control (FEFC) to adjust the zeta potential at the Parylene C microchannel wall. By setting a differential EOF pumping rate in two of the three microchannels at a T-intersection with EOF modulators, the induced pressure at the intersection generated pumping in the third, field-free microchannel. The EOF modulators are able to change the magnitude and direction of the pressure pumping by inducing either a negative or positive pressure at the intersection. The flow velocity is tracked by neutralized fluorescent microbeads in the microchannels. The proof-of-concept of the EOF modulator described here may be applied to complex plastic ,microchannel networks where individual microchannel flow rates are addressable by localized induced-pressure pumping.
The mantle flow field beneath western North America.
Silver, P G; Holt, W E
2002-02-01
Although motions at the surface of tectonic plates are well determined, the accompanying horizontal mantle flow is not. We have combined observations of surface deformation and upper mantle seismic anisotropy to estimate this flow field for western North America. We find that the mantle velocity is 5.5 +/- 1.5 centimeters per year due east in a hot spot reference frame, nearly opposite to the direction of North American plate motion (west-southwest). The flow is only weakly coupled to the motion of the surface plate, producing a small drag force. This flow field is probably due to heterogeneity in mantle density associated with the former Farallon oceanic plate beneath North America. PMID:11834831
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holmes, Bruce J.; Schairer, Edward; Hicks, Gary; Wander, Stephen; Blankson, Isiaiah; Rose, Raymond; Olson, Lawrence; Unger, George
1990-01-01
Presented here is a comprehensive review of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation, transition and turbulence physics, numerical aerodynamic simulation, drag reduction, test techniques and instrumentation, configuration aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, aerothermodynamics, hypersonics, subsonic transport/commuter aviation, fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.
Aeroacoustic and aerodynamic applications of the theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horne, W. Clifton; Smith, Charles A.; Karamcheti, Krishnamurty
1991-01-01
Recent developments in the field of nonequilibrium thermodynamics associated with viscous flows are examined and related to developments to the understanding of specific phenomena in aerodynamics and aeroacoustics. A key element of the nonequilibrium theory is the principle of minimum entropy production rate for steady dissipative processes near equilibrium, and variational calculus is used to apply this principle to several examples of viscous flow. A review of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and its role in fluid motion are presented. Several formulations are presented of the local entropy production rate and the local energy dissipation rate, two quantities that are of central importance to the theory. These expressions and the principle of minimum entropy production rate for steady viscous flows are used to identify parallel-wall channel flow and irrotational flow as having minimally dissipative velocity distributions. Features of irrotational, steady, viscous flow near an airfoil, such as the effect of trailing-edge radius on circulation, are also found to be compatible with the minimum principle. Finally, the minimum principle is used to interpret the stability of infinitesimal and finite amplitude disturbances in an initially laminar, parallel shear flow, with results that are consistent with experiment and linearized hydrodynamic stability theory. These results suggest that a thermodynamic approach may be useful in unifying the understanding of many diverse phenomena in aerodynamics and aeroacoustics.
Gyral parcellation of cortical surfaces via coupled flow field tracking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Gang; Guo, Lei; Li, Kaiming; Nie, Jingxin; Liu, Tianming
2010-03-01
This paper presents a novel method for parcellation of the cortical surface of human brain into gyral based regions via coupled flow field tracking. The proposed method consists of two major steps. First, the cortical surface is automatically parcellated into sulcal based regions using several procedures: estimating principal curvatures and principal directions; applying the hidden Markov random field and the Expectation-Maximization (HMRF-EM) framework for sulcal region segmentation based on the maximum principal curvature; diffusing the maximum principal direction field in order to propagate reliable and informative principal directions at gyral crests and sulcal bottoms to other flat cortical regions with noisy principal directions by minimization of an energy function; tracking the flow field towards sulcal bottoms to parcellate the cortical surfaces into sulcal basins. The sulcal parcellation provides a very good initialization for the following steps of gyral parcellation on cortical surfaces. Second, based on the sulcal parcellation results, the cortical surface is further parcellated into gyral based regions using the following procedures: extracting gyral crest segments; dilating gyral crest segments; inverting the principal direction flow field and tracking the flow field towards gyral crests in order to partition the cortical surface into a collection of gyral patches; merging gyral patches to obtain gyral parcellation of the cortical surface. The proposed algorithm pipeline is applied to nine randomly selected cortical surfaces of normal brains and promising results are obtained. The accuracy of the semi-automatic gyral parcellation is comparable to that labeled manually by experts.
Flow-Field Investigation of Gear-Flap Interaction on a Gulfstream Aircraft Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yao, Chung-Sheng; Jenkins, Luther N.; Bartram, Scott M.; Harris, Jerome; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Mace, W. Derry
2014-01-01
Off-surface flow measurements of a high-fidelity 18% scale Gulfstream aircraft model in landing configuration with the main landing gear deployed are presented. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Velocimetry (LV) were used to measure instantaneous velocities in the immediate vicinity of the main landing gear and its wake and near the inboard tip of the flap. These measurements were made during the third entry of a series of tests conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel (14 x 22) to obtain a comprehensive set of aeroacoustic measurements consisting of both aerodynamic and acoustic data. The majority of the off-body measurements were obtained at a freestream Mach number of 0.2, angle of attack of 3 degrees, and flap deflection angle of 39 degrees with the landing gear on. A limited amount of data was acquired with the landing gear off. LV was used to measure the velocity field in two planes upstream of the landing gear and to measure two velocity profiles in the landing gear wake. Stereo and 2-D PIV were used to measure the velocity field over a region extending from upstream of the landing gear to downstream of the flap trailing edge. Using a special traverse system installed under the tunnel floor, the velocity field was measured at 92 locations to obtain a comprehensive picture of the pertinent flow features and characteristics. The results clearly show distinct structures in the wake that can be associated with specific components on the landing gear and give insight into how the wake is entrained by the vortex at the inboard tip of the flap.
The Optic Flow Field: The Foundation of Vision
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, D. N.
1980-07-01
As a basis for understanding the visual system, we need to consider the functions that vision has to perform, which are pre-eminently in the service of activity, and the circumstances in which it normally operates, namely when the head is moving. The fundamental ecological stimulus for vision is not a camera-like time-frozen image but a constantly changing optic array or flow field, the description of which must be in spatio-temporal terms. A mathematical analysis of the optic flow field is presented, revealing the information that it affords for controlling activity - information both about the topography of the environment and about the movement of the organism relative to the environment. Results of human behavioural experiments are also reported. It is suggested that the optic flow field should be the starting point in attempting to discover the physiological workings of the visual system.
Heat-flow mapping at the Geysers Geothermal Field
Thomas, R.P.
1986-10-31
Pertinent data were compiled for 187 temperature-gradient holes in the vicinity of The Geysers Geothermal field. Terrain-correction techniques were applied to most of the temperature-gradient data, and a temperature-gradient map was constructed. Cutting samples from 16, deep, production wells were analyzed for thermal conductivity. From these samples, the mean thermal conductivities were determined for serpentinized ultramafic rock, greenstone, and graywacke. Then, a heat flow map was made. The temperature-gradient and heat-flow maps show that The Geysers Geothermal field is part of a very large, northwesterly-trending, thermal anomaly; the commercially productive portion of the field may be 100 km/sup 2/ in area. The rate that heat energy flows through the surface by thermal conduction is estimated at 1.79 x 10/sup 9/MJ per year. The net heat energy loss from commercial production for 1983 is estimated at 180.14 x 10/sup 9/MJ.
Topological analysis of computed three-dimensional viscous flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deiwert, G. S.
1982-01-01
Computed solutions of the time-dependent, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for three dimensional flows having thin shear layers are analyzed using topological concepts. Specific examples include the transonic flow over a body of revolution with conical afterbody at moderate angles of incidence to the free stream. Experimental flow-visualization techniques are simulated graphically to visualize the computed flow. Scalar and vector fluid dynamics properties such as pressure, shear stress, and vorticity on the body surface are presented as topological maps, and their relationship to one another in terms of orientation and singular points is discussed. The extrapolation from these surface topologies toward the understanding of external flow-field behavior is and demonstrated.
Flow field analysis for a class of waverider configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moitra, Anutosh
1990-01-01
A package of computer codes for analysis of flow fields for waverider configurations is described. The package consists of a surface/volume grid generator and a finite-volume flow solver. The grid generator defines body geometries and computational grids by an algebraic homotopy procedure. The algebraic procedure is versatile in its application and can readily generate configurations in the class of blended wing-body geometries. This code has the ability to produce a wide variety of geometries in the given class with varying geometrical attributes. The flow solver employs a finite-volume formation and solves the explicit, Runge-Kutta integration technique. The method or flow simulation incorporates several techniques for acceleration of the convergence of the interaction process and an entropy corrected enthalpy damping procedure for efficient computation of high Mach number flows.
Flow field measurements in the cell culture unit
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walker, Stephen; Wilder, Mike; Dimanlig, Arsenio; Jagger, Justin; Searby, Nancy
2002-01-01
The cell culture unit (CCU) is being designed to support cell growth for long-duration life science experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). The CCU is a perfused loop system that provides a fluid environment for controlled cell growth experiments within cell specimen chambers (CSCs), and is intended to accommodate diverse cell specimen types. Many of the functional requirements depend on the fluid flow field within the CSC (e.g., feeding and gas management). A design goal of the CCU is to match, within experimental limits, all environmental conditions, other than the effects of gravity on the cells, whether the hardware is in microgravity ( micro g), normal Earth gravity, or up to 2g on the ISS centrifuge. In order to achieve this goal, two steps are being taken. The first step is to characterize the environmental conditions of current 1g cell biology experiments being performed in laboratories using ground-based hardware. The second step is to ensure that the design of the CCU allows the fluid flow conditions found in 1g to be replicated from microgravity up to 2g. The techniques that are being used to take these steps include flow visualization, particle image velocimetry (PIV), and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Flow visualization using the injection of dye has been used to gain a global perspective of the characteristics of the CSC flow field. To characterize laboratory cell culture conditions, PIV is being used to determine the flow field parameters of cell suspension cultures grown in Erlenmeyer flasks on orbital shakers. These measured parameters will be compared to PIV measurements in the CSCs to ensure that the flow field that cells encounter in CSCs is within the bounds determined for typical laboratory experiments. Using CFD, a detailed simulation is being developed to predict the flow field within the CSC for a wide variety of flow conditions, including microgravity environments. Results from all these measurements and analyses of the
Effective contaminant detection networks in uncertain groundwater flow fields.
Hudak, P F
2001-01-01
A mass transport simulation model tested seven contaminant detection-monitoring networks under a 40 degrees range of groundwater flow directions. Each monitoring network contained five wells located 40 m from a rectangular landfill. The 40-m distance (lag) was measured in different directions, depending upon the strategy used to design a particular monitoring network. Lagging the wells parallel to the central flow path was more effective than alternative design strategies. Other strategies allowed higher percentages of leaks to migrate between monitoring wells. Results of this study suggest that centrally lagged groundwater monitoring networks perform most effectively in uncertain groundwater-flow fields.
Turbulence, flow and transport: hints from reversed field pinch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vianello, N.; Antoni, V.; Spada, E.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Cavazzana, R.; Bergsåker, H.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.
2006-04-01
The interplay between sheared E × B flows and turbulence has been experimentally investigated in the edge region of the Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch experiment. Electrostatic fluctuations are found to rule the momentum balance equation representing the main driving term for sheared flows which counterbalances anomalous viscous damping. The driving role of electrostatic fluctuations is proved by the spatial structure of the Reynolds stress and by the time behaviour of the mean energy production term which supports the existence of an energy exchange from the small scales of turbulence to the larger scales of the mean flow.
Turbulence in Flowing Soap Films: Velocity, Vorticity, and Thickness Fields
Rivera, M.; Vorobieff, P.; Ecke, R.E.
1998-08-01
We report experimental measurements of the velocity, vorticity, and thickness fields of turbulent flowing soap films using a modified particle-image velocimetry technique. These data yield the turbulent energy and enstrophy of the two-dimensional flows with microscale Reynolds numbers of about 100 and demonstrate the effects of compressibility arising from variations in film thickness. Despite the compressibility of the flow, real-space correlations of velocity, vorticity, and enstrophy flux are consistent with theoretical predictions for two-dimensional turbulence. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society }
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katamine, Eiji; Kanai, Ryoma
2015-11-01
This paper presents a numerical solution to shape identification problem of steady-state viscous flow fields. In this study, a shape identification problem is formulated for flow velocity distribution prescribed problem, while the total dissipated energy is constrained to less than a desired value, in the viscous flow field. The square error integral between the actual flow velocity distributions and the prescribed flow velocity distributions in the prescribed sub-domains is used as the objective functional. Shape gradient of the shape identification problem is derived theoretically using the Lagrange multiplier method, adjoint variable method, and the formulae of the material derivative. Reshaping is carried out by the traction method proposed as an approach to solving shape optimization problems. The validity of proposed method is confirmed by results of 2D numerical analysis.
Bifurcations in unsteady aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tobak, M.; Unal, A.
1986-01-01
Nonlinear algebraic functional expansions are used to create a form for the unsteady aerodynamic response that is consistent with solutions of the time dependent Navier-Stokes equations. An enumeration of means of invalidating Frechet differentiability of the aerodynamic response, one of which is aerodynamic bifurcation, is proposed as a way of classifying steady and unsteady aerodynamic phenomena that are important in flight dynamics applications. Accomodating bifurcation phenomena involving time dependent equilibrium states within a mathematical model of the aerodynamic response raises an issue of memory effects that becomes more important with each successive bifurcation.
Aerodynamics of compliant membrane wings as related to bat and other mammalian flight
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Arnold; Breuer, Kenneth
2007-11-01
The wings of mammalian flyers and gliders, such as bats or flying squirrels, are characterized by a compliant skin membrane stretched over a thin skeletal support structure. These unique wing structures lead to aeroelastic behavior that is quite distinct from that observed in birds or insects. We present experimental results on the aerodynamic and fluid mechanical behavior of model compliant wings fabricated using both isotropic and anisotropic membrane materials. Unsteady aerodynamic forces are measured simultaneously with time-resolved PIV of the surrounding flow field, illustrating the relationship between the two and the role of vortex shedding on the overall behavior.
Application of CFD techniques toward the validation of nonlinear aerodynamic models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schiff, L. B.; Katz, J.
1985-01-01
Applications of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to determine the regimes of applicability of nonlinear models describing the unsteady aerodynamic responses to aircraft flight motions are described. The potential advantages of computational methods over experimental methods are discussed and the concepts underlying mathematical modeling are reviewed. The economic and conceptual advantages of the modeling procedure over coupled, simultaneous solutions of the gas dynamic equations and the vehicle's kinematic equations of motion are discussed. The modeling approach, when valid, eliminates the need for costly repetitive computation of flow field solutions. For the test cases considered, the aerodynamic modeling approach is shown to be valid.
Application of CFD techniques toward the validation of nonlinear aerodynamic models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schiff, L. B.; Katz, J.
1985-01-01
Applications of Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to determine the regimes of applicability of nonlinear models describing the unsteady aerodynamic responses to aircraft flight motions are described. The potential advantages of computational methods over experimental methods are discussed and the concepts underlying mathematical modeling are reviewed. The economic and conceptual advantages of the modeling procedure over coupled, simultaneous solutions of the gasdynamic equations and the vehicle's kinematic equations of motion are discussed. The modeling approach, when valid, eliminates the need for costly repetitive computation of flow field solutions. For the test cases considered, the aerodynamic modeling approach is shown to be valid.
Electric field evidence for tailward flow at substorm onset
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishida, A.; Tulunay, Y. K.; Mozer, F. S.; Cattell, C. A.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Birn, J.
1983-01-01
Electric field observations made near the neutral sheet of the magnetotail provide additional support for the view that reconnection occurs in the near-earth region of the tail. Southward turnings of the magnetic field that start at, or shortly after, substorm onsets are accompanied by enhancements in the dawn-to-dusk electric field, resulting in a tailward E x B drift velocity. Both the magnetic and the electric fields in the tailward-flowing plasma are nonuniform and vary with inferred spatial scales of several earth radii in the events examined in this paper. These nonuniformities may be the consequence of the tearing-mode process. The E x B flow was also towards the neutral sheet and away from midnight in the events studied.
Aerodynamic effects of flexibility in flapping wings.
Zhao, Liang; Huang, Qingfeng; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P
2010-03-01
Recent work on the aerodynamics of flapping flight reveals fundamental differences in the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation between fixed and flapping wings. When fixed wings translate at high angles of attack, they periodically generate and shed leading and trailing edge vortices as reflected in their fluctuating aerodynamic force traces and associated flow visualization. In contrast, wings flapping at high angles of attack generate stable leading edge vorticity, which persists throughout the duration of the stroke and enhances mean aerodynamic forces. Here, we show that aerodynamic forces can be controlled by altering the trailing edge flexibility of a flapping wing. We used a dynamically scaled mechanical model of flapping flight (Re approximately 2000) to measure the aerodynamic forces on flapping wings of variable flexural stiffness (EI). For low to medium angles of attack, as flexibility of the wing increases, its ability to generate aerodynamic forces decreases monotonically but its lift-to-drag ratios remain approximately constant. The instantaneous force traces reveal no major differences in the underlying modes of force generation for flexible and rigid wings, but the magnitude of force, the angle of net force vector and centre of pressure all vary systematically with wing flexibility. Even a rudimentary framework of wing veins is sufficient to restore the ability of flexible wings to generate forces at near-rigid values. Thus, the magnitude of force generation can be controlled by modulating the trailing edge flexibility and thereby controlling the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity. To characterize this, we have generated a detailed database of aerodynamic forces as a function of several variables including material properties, kinematics, aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure, which can also be used to help validate computational models of aeroelastic flapping wings. These experiments will also be useful for wing design for small
Aerodynamic effects of flexibility in flapping wings
Zhao, Liang; Huang, Qingfeng; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P.
2010-01-01
Recent work on the aerodynamics of flapping flight reveals fundamental differences in the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation between fixed and flapping wings. When fixed wings translate at high angles of attack, they periodically generate and shed leading and trailing edge vortices as reflected in their fluctuating aerodynamic force traces and associated flow visualization. In contrast, wings flapping at high angles of attack generate stable leading edge vorticity, which persists throughout the duration of the stroke and enhances mean aerodynamic forces. Here, we show that aerodynamic forces can be controlled by altering the trailing edge flexibility of a flapping wing. We used a dynamically scaled mechanical model of flapping flight (Re ≈ 2000) to measure the aerodynamic forces on flapping wings of variable flexural stiffness (EI). For low to medium angles of attack, as flexibility of the wing increases, its ability to generate aerodynamic forces decreases monotonically but its lift-to-drag ratios remain approximately constant. The instantaneous force traces reveal no major differences in the underlying modes of force generation for flexible and rigid wings, but the magnitude of force, the angle of net force vector and centre of pressure all vary systematically with wing flexibility. Even a rudimentary framework of wing veins is sufficient to restore the ability of flexible wings to generate forces at near-rigid values. Thus, the magnitude of force generation can be controlled by modulating the trailing edge flexibility and thereby controlling the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity. To characterize this, we have generated a detailed database of aerodynamic forces as a function of several variables including material properties, kinematics, aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure, which can also be used to help validate computational models of aeroelastic flapping wings. These experiments will also be useful for wing design for small robotic
Computational Analysis of Flow Field Inside Coral Colony
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hossain, Md Monir; Staples, Anne
2015-11-01
Development of the flow field inside coral colonies is a key issue for understanding coral natural uptake, photosynthesis and wave dissipation capabilities. But most of the computations and experiments conducted earlier, measured the flow outside the coral reef canopies. Experimental studies are also constrained due to the limitation of measurement techniques and limited environmental conditions. Numerical simulations can be an answer to overcome these shortcomings. In this work, a detailed, three-dimensional simulation of flow around a single coral colony was developed to examine the interaction between coral geometry and hydrodynamics. To simplify grid generation and minimize computational cost, Immersed Boundary method (IBM) was implemented. The computation of IBM involves identification of the interface between the solid body and the fluid, establishment of the grid/interface relation and identification of the forcing points on the grid and distribution of the forcing function on the corresponding points. LES was chosen as the framework to capture the turbulent flow field without requiring extensive modeling. The results presented will give insight into internal coral colony flow fields and the interaction between coral and surrounding ocean hydrodynamics.
Flowfield characteristics of an aerodynamic acoustic levitator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yarin, A. L.; Brenn, G.; Keller, J.; Pfaffenlehner, M.; Ryssel, E.; Tropea, C.
1997-11-01
A droplet held in a single-axis ultrasonic levitator will principally sustain a certain external blowing along the levitation axis, which introduces the possibility of investigating heat and/or mass transfer from the droplet under conditions which are not too remote from those in spray systems. The focus of the present work is on the influence of the acoustic field on the external flow. More specifically, an axisymmetric submerged gas jet in an axial standing acoustic wave is examined, both in the absence and presence of a liquid droplet. Flow visualization is first presented to illustrate the global flow effects and the operating windows of jet velocities and acoustic powers which are suitable for further study. An analytic and numeric solution, based on the parabolic boundary layer equations are then given for the case of no levitated droplet, providing quantitative estimates of the acoustic field/flow interaction. Detailed velocity measurements using a laser Doppler anemometer verify the analytic results and extend these to the case of a levitated droplet. Some unresolved discrepancy remains in predicting the maximum velocity attainable before the droplet is blown out of the levitator. Two methods are developed to estimate the sound pressure level in the levitator by comparing flowfield patterns with analytic results. These results and observations are used to estimate to what extent acoustic aerodynamic levitators can be used in the future for investigating transport properties of individual droplets.
Aerodynamic research on tipvane wind turbines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanbussel, G. J. W.; Vanholten, T.; Vankuik, G. A. M.
1982-04-01
Aerodynamic loads on small auxiliary wings that are mounted at the tips of wind turbine blades in such a way that a diffuser effect is generated, resulting in a mass flow augmentation through the turbine disk, were analyzed. For load prediction, an expansion method, or lifting line approach, was used. The complete analytical expression for the pressure field consists of two series of basic pressure fields. One series is related to the basic load distributions over the turbine blade, and the other series to the basic load distribution over the tipvane. In addition, another basic pressure field, related to a triangular load distribution over the turbine blade and the tipvane, is needed in order to take care of the lift transfer from turbine blade to tipvane. The coefficients in these pressure field expressions are a priori unknown and are determined by a boundary condition, requiring the flow to be tangential on both turbine blade and tipvane. A numerical procedure then yields the coefficients of the basic pressure fields.
Aerodynamics of slender finned bodies at large angles of attack
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Agnone, A. M.; Zakkay, V.; Tory, E.; Stallings, R.
1977-01-01
In certain missions finned missiles perform slewing maneuvers. Here, large angles of attack are attained. Experimental data needed to understand the aerodynamics of such vehicles are presented. The purpose of this investigation was to study the interaction of the body flow field with that produced by the fins and the resulting effects on the aerodynamic forces and moments. The experiments were conducted at a nominal Mach number of 2.7 and angles of attack from 0 to 50 deg, with two different models. The tests were performed in a range of Reynolds number from 1.5 x 10 to the 6th to 4 x 10 to the 7th per foot (to cover both the laminar and fully turbulent regimes.) Several fin roll angles were investigated. Static pressures on both body and fin surfaces are reported.
Aerodynamic-structural analysis of dual bladed helicopter systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Selberg, B. P.; Cronin, D. L.; Rokhsaz, K.; Dykman, J. R.; Yager, C. J.
1980-01-01
The aerodynamic and structural feasibility of the birotor blade concept is assessed. The inviscid flow field about the dual bladed rotor was investigated to determine the aerodynamic characteristics for various dual rotor blade placement combinations with respect to blade stagger, gap, and angle of attack between the two blades. The boundary layer separation on the rotors was studied and three dimensional induced drag calculations for the dual rotor system are presented. The thrust and power requirements of the rotor system were predicted. NASTRAN, employed as the primary modeling tool, was used to obtain a model for predicting in plane bending, out of plane bending, and the torsional behavior of the birotors. Local hub loads, blade loads, and the natural frequencies for the birotor configuration are discussed.
Rapid Numerical Simulation of Viscous Axisymmetric Flow Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tweedt, Daniel L.; Chima, Rodrick V.
1995-01-01
A two-dimensional Navier-Stokes code has been developed for rapid numerical simulation of axisymmetric flow fields, including flow fields with an azimuthal velocity component. The azimuthal-invariant Navier-Stokes equations in a cylindrical coordinate system are mapped to a general body-fitted coordinate system, with the streamwise viscous terms then neglected by applying the thin-layer approximation. Turbulence effects are modeled using an algebraic model, typically the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model, although a modified Cebeci-Smith model can also be used. The equations are discretized using central finite differences and solved using a multistage Runge-Kutta algorithm with a spatially varying time step and implicit residual smoothing. Results are presented for calculations of supersonic flow over a waisted body-of-revolution, transonic flow through a normal shock wave in a straight circular duct of constant cross sectional area, swirling supersonic (inviscid) flow through a strong shock in a straight radial duct, and swirling subsonic flow in an annular-to-circular diffuser duct. Comparisons between computed and experimental results are in fair to good agreement, demonstrating that the viscous code can be a useful tool for practical engineering design and analysis work.
Solar-Cycle Evolution of Subsurface Flows and Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kosovichev, Alexander G.; Zhao, Junwei
2016-05-01
Local helioseismology and magnetic field measurements from the HMI instrument on SDO provide unique high-resolution data that allow us to investigate detailed dynamics of the upper convection zone and its relation to the magnetic field evolution during the first five years of the current solar cycle. This study is focused on the understanding the role of the near-surface shear layer (NSSL) in the dynamo process, generation, emergence and transport of the solar magnetic flux. The helioseismology data represent 3D flow maps in the depth range of 0-20 Mm, obtained uninterruptedly every 8 hours for almost the whole solar disk with the spatial sampling of two arcsec. We calculate the flow characteristics (such as divergence, vorticity and kinetic helicity) on different spatio-temporal scales from supergranulation to global-scale zonal and meridional flows. We investigate the multi-scale organization of the subsurface flows, including the inflows into active regions, the hemispheric `flip-flop’ asymmetry of variations of the meridional flows, the structure and dynamics of torsional oscillations, and compare the flow behavior with the evolution of the observed magnetic activity of the current cycle.
A Volume Rendering Framework for Visualizing 3D Flow Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsieh, Hsien-Hsi; Li, Liya; Shen, Han-Wei; Tai, Wen-Kai
In this paper, we present a volume rendering framework for visualizing 3D flow fields. We introduce the concept of coherence field which evaluates the representativeness of a given streamline set for the underlying 3D vector field. Visualization of the coherence field can provide effective visual feedback to the user for incremental insertion of more streamline seeds. Given an initial set of streamlines, a coherence volume is constructed from a distance field to measure the similarity between the existing streamlines and those in their nearby regions based on the difference between the approximate and the actual vector directions. With the visual feedback obtained from rendering the coherence volume, new streamline seeds can be selected by the user or by a heuristic seed selection algorithm to adaptively improve the coherence volume. An improved volume rendering technique that can render user-defined appearance textures is proposed to facilitate macro-visualization of 3D vector fields.
Analytical solutions for flow fields near continuous wall reactive barriers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klammler, Harald; Hatfield, Kirk
2008-05-01
Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) are widely applied for in-situ remediation of contaminant plumes transported by groundwater. Besides the goal of a sufficient contaminant remediation inside the reactive cell (residence time) the width of plume intercepted by a PRB is of critical concern. A 2-dimensional analytical approach is applied to determine the flow fields towards rectangular PRBs of the continuous wall (CW) configuration with and without impermeable side walls (but yet no funnel). The approach is based on the conformal mapping technique and assumes a homogeneous aquifer with a uniform ambient flow field. The hydraulic conductivity of the reactive material is furthermore assumed to exceed the conductivity of the aquifer by at least one order of magnitude as to neglect the hydraulic gradient across the reactor. The flow fields are analyzed regarding the widths and shapes of the respective capture zones as functions of the dimensions (aspect ratio) of the reactive cell and the ambient groundwater flow direction. Presented are an improved characterization of the advantages of impermeable side walls, a convenient approach to improved hydraulic design (including basic cost-optimization) and new concepts for monitoring CW PRBs. Water level data from a CW PRB at the Seneca Army Depot site, NY, are used for field demonstration.
Analytical solutions for flow fields near continuous wall reactive barriers.
Klammler, Harald; Hatfield, Kirk
2008-05-26
Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) are widely applied for in-situ remediation of contaminant plumes transported by groundwater. Besides the goal of a sufficient contaminant remediation inside the reactive cell (residence time) the width of plume intercepted by a PRB is of critical concern. A 2-dimensional analytical approach is applied to determine the flow fields towards rectangular PRBs of the continuous wall (CW) configuration with and without impermeable side walls (but yet no funnel). The approach is based on the conformal mapping technique and assumes a homogeneous aquifer with a uniform ambient flow field. The hydraulic conductivity of the reactive material is furthermore assumed to exceed the conductivity of the aquifer by at least one order of magnitude as to neglect the hydraulic gradient across the reactor. The flow fields are analyzed regarding the widths and shapes of the respective capture zones as functions of the dimensions (aspect ratio) of the reactive cell and the ambient groundwater flow direction. Presented are an improved characterization of the advantages of impermeable side walls, a convenient approach to improved hydraulic design (including basic cost-optimization) and new concepts for monitoring CW PRBs. Water level data from a CW PRB at the Seneca Army Depot site, NY, are used for field demonstration.
Aerodynamics and combustion of axial swirlers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Yongqiang
A multipoint lean direct injection (LDI) concept was introduced recently in non-premixed combustion to obtain both low NOx emissions and good combustion stability. In this concept, a key feature is the injection of finely atomized fuel into the high-swirling airflow at the combustor dome that provides a homogenous, lean fuel-air mixture. In order to achieve the fine atomization and mixing of the fuel and air quickly and uniformly, a good swirler design should be studied. The focus of this dissertation is to investigate the aerodynamics and combustion of the swirling flow field in a multipoint Lean Direct Injector combustor. A helical axial-vaned swirler with a short internal convergent-divergent venturi was used. Swirlers with various vane angles and fuel nozzle insertion lengths have been designed. Three non-dimensional parameter effects on non-reacting, swirling flow field were studied: swirler number, confinement ratio and Reynolds number. Spray and combustion characteristics on the single swirler were studied to understand the mechanism of fuel-air mixing in this special configuration. Multi-swirler interactions were studied by measuring the confined flow field of a multipoint swirler array with different configurations. Two different swirler arrangements were investigated experimentally, which include a co-swirling array and a counter-swirling array. In order to increase the range of stability of multipoint LDI combustors, an improved design were also conducted. The results show that the degree of swirl and the level of confinement have a clear impact on the mean and turbulent flow fields. The swirling flow fields may also change significantly with the addition of a variety of simulated fuel nozzle insertion lengths. The swirler with short insertion has the stronger swirling flow as compared with the long insertion swirler. Reynolds numbers, with range of current study, will not alter mean and turbulent properties of generated flows. The reaction of the spray
Dynamics of intrinsic axial flows in unsheared, uniform magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, J. C.; Diamond, P. H.; Xu, X. Q.; Tynan, G. R.
2016-05-01
A simple model for the generation and amplification of intrinsic axial flow in a linear device, controlled shear decorrelation experiment, is proposed. This model proposes and builds upon a novel dynamical symmetry breaking mechanism, using a simple theory of drift wave turbulence in the presence of axial flow shear. This mechanism does not require complex magnetic field structure, such as shear, and thus is also applicable to intrinsic rotation generation in tokamaks at weak or zero magnetic shear, as well as to linear devices. This mechanism is essentially the self-amplification of the mean axial flow profile, i.e., a modulational instability. Hence, the flow development is a form of negative viscosity phenomenon. Unlike conventional mechanisms where the residual stress produces an intrinsic torque, in this dynamical symmetry breaking scheme, the residual stress induces a negative increment to the ambient turbulent viscosity. The axial flow shear is then amplified by this negative viscosity increment. The resulting mean axial flow profile is calculated and discussed by analogy with the problem of turbulent pipe flow. For tokamaks, the negative viscosity is not needed to generate intrinsic rotation. However, toroidal rotation profile gradient is enhanced by the negative increment in turbulent viscosity.
Ion flow in a strongly sheared electric field
Tao, Y.; Conn, R.W.; Schmitz, L.; Tynan, G. )
1993-02-01
Ion orbits and equilibrium ion flow in crossed electric and magnetic fields are examined for the case of a strongly nonuniform electric field such as found in edge plasmas of tokamak fusion experiments and in space plasmas. It is shown that the [bold E][times][bold B] drift approximation no longer applies, either to the motion of a single ion or to the collective response of the ion species when the absolute value of the shear parameter, [vert bar][zeta][vert bar], defined as the absolute value of the ratio of the gradient of [bold E][times][bold B] speed to ion gyrofrequency, is order one. It is also found that the ion velocity is strongly dependent on the electric field geometry. The results suggest that the existence of a strongly sheared electric field does not necessarily indicate the existence of strongly sheared plasma flow, and that the spatial shape of the electric field, when [vert bar][zeta][vert bar] is order one, may be a dominant factor in determining the resulting plasma flow speed.
Investigation of the transient aerodynamic phenomena associated with passing manoeuvres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noger, C.; Regardin, C.; Széchényi, E.
2005-11-01
Passing manoeuvres and crosswind can have significant effects on the stability of road vehicles. The transient aerodynamics, which interacts with suspension, steering geometry and driver reaction is not well understood. When two vehicles overtake or cross, they mutually influence the flow field around each other, and under certain conditions, can generate severe gust loads that act as additional forces on both vehicles. The transient forces acting on them are a function of the longitudinal and transverse spacings and of the relative velocity between the two vehicles. Wind tunnel experiments have been conducted in one of the automotive wind tunnels of the Institut Aérotechnique of Saint-Cyr l’École to simulate the transient overtaking process between two models of a simple generic automobile shape. The tests were designed to study the effects of various parameters such as the longitudinal and transverse spacing, the relative velocity and the crosswind on the aerodynamic forces and moments generated on the overtaken and overtaking vehicles. Test results characterize the transient aerodynamic side force as well as the yawing moment coefficients in terms of these parameters. Measurements of the drag force coefficient as well as the static pressure distribution around the overtaken vehicle complete the understanding. The main results indicate the aerodynamic coefficients of the overtaken vehicle to be velocity independent within the limit of the test parameters, while unsteady aerodynamic effects appear in the case of an overtaking vehicle. The mutual interference effects between the vehicles vary as a linear function of the transverse spacing and the crosswind does not really generate any new unsteady behaviour.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norton, J. M.; Tari, U.; Weber, R. M.
1979-01-01
A quasi three dimensional design system and multiple-circular-arc airfoil sections were used to design a fan rotor. An axisymmetric intrablade flow field calculation modeled the shroud of an isolated splitter and radial distribution. The structural analysis indicates that the design is satisfactory for evaluation of aerodynamic performance of the fan stage in a test facility.
Field GPR Monitoring of Flow Channeling in Fractured Rock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsoflias, G. P.; Baker, M.; Becker, M. W.
2012-12-01
Fractures control the flow of fluids in rocks with important implications for groundwater resources, contaminant transport, geothermal resources, sequestration of carbon dioxide, and the development of unconventional hydrocarbon resources. However, fractured rocks exhibit heterogeneous hydraulic properties that are difficult to characterize using conventional hydraulic testing methods. Flow channeling caused by fracture aperture variability is known to result in preferential pathways of rapid contaminant transport in aquifers and poor sweep efficiency in geothermal reservoirs. Time-lapse ground-penetrating radar (GPR) experiments were conducted at the Altona Flat Rock fractured sandstone field site using surface reflection to monitor saline tracer flow through a water-saturated subhorizontal bedrock fracture at a depth of 7.6 m below surface. Three-dimensional (3-D) GPR grids were acquired, each covering approximately a 100 m2 area at a 0.25 m x 0.5 m trace spacing. Radar data were acquired at 50 MHz and 100 MHz frequencies using broadside and cross-polarized dipole antenna pairs oriented parallel and orthogonal to the survey grid lines. Dipole flow hydraulic tests established by re-circulation of saline traced formation water between injection and pumping boreholes were used to set-up controlled flow of variable salinity tracers and variable direction hydraulic gradients. Natural gradient saline tracer tests were also monitored using GPR. Comparison of GPR reflection amplitudes between background clean water (9.3 mS/m) and traced water of 200 mS/m, 400 mS/m and 700 mS/m fluid electrical conductivity under East-West oriented dipole flow showed overall reflection strength increase with increasing fluid electrical conductivity. Amplitude differencing between each of the saline tracer tests and background reveals 1 m to 1.5 m wide flow channels trending across the survey area and the flow dipole field. North-South oriented dipole tests result in channeled flow
Drop Breakup in Fixed Bed Flows as Model Stochastic Flow Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.; Mosler, Alisa B.; Patel, Prateek
1999-01-01
We examine drop breakup in a class of stochastic flow fields as a model for the flow through fixed fiber beds and to elucidate the general mechanisms whereby drops breakup in disordered, Lagrangian unsteady flows. Our study consists of two parallel streams of investigation. First, large scale numerical simulations of drop breakup in a class of anisotropic Gaussian fields will be presented. These fields are generated spectrally and have been shown in a previous publication to be exact representations of the flow in a dilute disordered bed of fibers if close interactions between the fibers and the drops are dynamically unimportant. In these simulations the drop shape is represented by second and third order small deformation theories which have been shown to be excellent for the prediction of drop breakup in steady strong flows. We show via these simulations that the mechanisms of drop breakup in these flows are quite different than in steady flows. The predominant mechanism of breakup appears to be very short lived twist breakups. Moreover, the occurrence of breakup events is poorly predicted by either the strength of the local flow in which the drop finds itself at breakup, or the degree of deformation that the drop achieves prior to breakup. It is suggested that a correlation function of both is necessary to be predictive of breakup events. In the second part of our research experiments are presented where the drop deformation and breakup in PDMS/polyisobutylene emulsions is considered. We consider very dilute emulsions such that coalescence is unimportant. The flows considered are simple shear and the flow through fixed fiber beds. Turbidity, small angle light scattering, dichroism and microscopy are used to interrogate the drop deformation process in both flows. It is demonstrated that breakup at very low capillary numbers occurs in both flows but larger drop deformation occurs in the fixed bed flow. Moreover, it is witnessed that breakup in the bed occurs
Range of valid arguments for data reduction method in the steam flow fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Šafařík, Pavel; Nový, Adam; Hajšman, Miroslav; Jícha, David
2014-08-01
The data reduction method is based on conservation laws and has been developed for an ideal gas. The method is widely adopted in the aerodynamic experimental research. The presented paper shows an attempt to extend this method for steam flows. Range of valid arguments in the data reduction method is determined by means of numerical calculations using the IAPWS-IF97 equations of state of steam.
Laboratory and field trials of Coriolis mass flow metering for three-phase flow measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Feibiao; Henry, Manus; Tombs, Michael
2014-04-01
A new three-phase flow metering technology is discussed in this paper, which combines Coriolis mass flow and water cut readings and without applying any phase separation [1]. The system has undergone formal laboratory trials at TUV NEL (National Engineering Laboratory), UK and at VNIIR (National Flow Laboratory), Kazan, Russia; a number of field trials have taken place in Russia. Laboratory trial results from the TUV NEL will be described in detail. For the 50mm (2") metering system, the total liquid flow rate ranged from 2.4 kg/s up to 11 kg/s, the water cut ranged from 0% to 100%, and the gas volume fraction (GVF) from 0 to 50%. In a formally observed trial, 75 test points were taken at a temperature of approximately 40 °C and with a skid inlet pressure of approximately 350 kPa. Over 95% of the test results fell within the desired specification, defined as follows: the total (oil + water) liquid mass flow error should fall within ± 2.5%, and the gas mass flow error within ± 5.0%. The oil mass flow error limit is ± 6.0% for water cuts less than 70%, while for water cuts between 70% and 95% the oil mass flow error limit is ± 15.0%. These results demonstrate the potential for using Coriolis mass flow metering combined with water cut metering for three-phase (oil/water/gas) measurement.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)
1999-01-01
The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop on February 25-28, 1997. The workshop was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in area of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, Flight Controls, Supersonic Laminar Flow Control, and Sonic Boom Prediction. The workshop objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodyamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT Motion Simulator results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas.
Faster Aerodynamic Simulation With Cart3D
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2003-01-01
A NASA-developed aerodynamic simulation tool is ensuring the safety of future space operations while providing designers and engineers with an automated, highly accurate computer simulation suite. Cart3D, co-winner of NASA's 2002 Software of the Year award, is the result of over 10 years of research and software development conducted by Michael Aftosmis and Dr. John Melton of Ames Research Center and Professor Marsha Berger of the Courant Institute at New York University. Cart3D offers a revolutionary approach to computational fluid dynamics (CFD), the computer simulation of how fluids and gases flow around an object of a particular design. By fusing technological advancements in diverse fields such as mineralogy, computer graphics, computational geometry, and fluid dynamics, the software provides a new industrial geometry processing and fluid analysis capability with unsurpassed automation and efficiency.