#### Sample records for aerodynamic forces finally

1. Aerodynamic Lifting Force.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Weltner, Klaus

1990-01-01

Describes some experiments showing both qualitatively and quantitatively that aerodynamic lift is a reaction force. Demonstrates reaction forces caused by the acceleration of an airstream and the deflection of an airstream. Provides pictures of demonstration apparatus and mathematical expressions. (YP)

2. Unsteady Aerodynamic Force Sensing from Measured Strain

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pak, Chan-Gi

2016-01-01

A simple approach for computing unsteady aerodynamic forces from simulated measured strain data is proposed in this study. First, the deflection and slope of the structure are computed from the unsteady strain using the two-step approach. Velocities and accelerations of the structure are computed using the autoregressive moving average model, on-line parameter estimator, low-pass filter, and a least-squares curve fitting method together with analytical derivatives with respect to time. Finally, aerodynamic forces over the wing are computed using modal aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices, a rational function approximation, and a time-marching algorithm. A cantilevered rectangular wing built and tested at the NASA Langley Research Center (Hampton, Virginia, USA) in 1959 is used to validate the simple approach. Unsteady aerodynamic forces as well as wing deflections, velocities, accelerations, and strains are computed using the CFL3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code and an MSC/NASTRAN code (MSC Software Corporation, Newport Beach, California, USA), and these CFL3D-based results are assumed as measured quantities. Based on the measured strains, wing deflections, velocities, accelerations, and aerodynamic forces are computed using the proposed approach. These computed deflections, velocities, accelerations, and unsteady aerodynamic forces are compared with the CFL3D/NASTRAN-based results. In general, computed aerodynamic forces based on the lifting surface theory in subsonic speeds are in good agreement with the target aerodynamic forces generated using CFL3D code with the Euler equation. Excellent aeroelastic responses are obtained even with unsteady strain data under the signal to noise ratio of -9.8dB. The deflections, velocities, and accelerations at each sensor location are independent of structural and aerodynamic models. Therefore, the distributed strain data together with the current proposed approaches can be used as distributed deflection

3. In vivo recording of aerodynamic force with an aerodynamic force platform: from drones to birds.

PubMed

Lentink, David; Haselsteiner, Andreas F; Ingersoll, Rivers

2015-03-06

Flapping wings enable flying animals and biomimetic robots to generate elevated aerodynamic forces. Measurements that demonstrate this capability are based on experiments with tethered robots and animals, and indirect force calculations based on measured kinematics or airflow during free flight. Remarkably, there exists no method to measure these forces directly during free flight. Such in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of their flapping wings, in particular during the downstroke versus upstroke. Here, we demonstrate a new aerodynamic force platform (AFP) for non-intrusive aerodynamic force measurement in freely flying animals and robots. The platform encloses the animal or object that generates fluid force with a physical control surface, which mechanically integrates the net aerodynamic force that is transferred to the earth. Using a straightforward analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation, we verified that the method is accurate. We subsequently validated the method with a quadcopter that is suspended in the AFP and generates unsteady thrust profiles. These independent measurements confirm that the AFP is indeed accurate. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the AFP by studying aerodynamic weight support of a freely flying bird in vivo. These measurements confirm earlier findings based on kinematics and flow measurements, which suggest that the avian downstroke, not the upstroke, is primarily responsible for body weight support during take-off and landing.

4. In vivo recording of aerodynamic force with an aerodynamic force platform: from drones to birds

PubMed Central

Lentink, David; Haselsteiner, Andreas F.; Ingersoll, Rivers

2015-01-01

Flapping wings enable flying animals and biomimetic robots to generate elevated aerodynamic forces. Measurements that demonstrate this capability are based on experiments with tethered robots and animals, and indirect force calculations based on measured kinematics or airflow during free flight. Remarkably, there exists no method to measure these forces directly during free flight. Such in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of their flapping wings, in particular during the downstroke versus upstroke. Here, we demonstrate a new aerodynamic force platform (AFP) for non-intrusive aerodynamic force measurement in freely flying animals and robots. The platform encloses the animal or object that generates fluid force with a physical control surface, which mechanically integrates the net aerodynamic force that is transferred to the earth. Using a straightforward analytical solution of the Navier–Stokes equation, we verified that the method is accurate. We subsequently validated the method with a quadcopter that is suspended in the AFP and generates unsteady thrust profiles. These independent measurements confirm that the AFP is indeed accurate. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the AFP by studying aerodynamic weight support of a freely flying bird in vivo. These measurements confirm earlier findings based on kinematics and flow measurements, which suggest that the avian downstroke, not the upstroke, is primarily responsible for body weight support during take-off and landing. PMID:25589565

5. Calculation of subsonic and supersonic steady and unsteady aerodynamic forces using velocity potential aerodynamic elements

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Haviland, J. K.; Yoo, Y. S.

1976-01-01

Expressions for calculation of subsonic and supersonic, steady and unsteady aerodynamic forces are derived, using the concept of aerodynamic elements applied to the downwash velocity potential method. Aerodynamic elements can be of arbitrary out of plane polygon shape, although numerical calculations are restricted to rectangular elements, and to the steady state case in the supersonic examples. It is suggested that the use of conforming, in place of rectangular elements, would give better results. Agreement with results for subsonic oscillating T tails is fair, but results do not converge as the number of collocation points is increased. This appears to be due to the form of expression used in the calculations. The methods derived are expected to facilitate automated flutter analysis on the computer. In particular, the aerodynamic element concept is consistent with finite element methods already used for structural analysis. The method is universal for the complete Mach number range, and, finally, the calculations can be arranged so that they do not have to be repeated completely for every reduced frequency.

6. Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics Final Technical Report

SciTech Connect

Sean Graham

2007-10-31

Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by a DOE category two Inventions and Innovations grant to commercialize and improve upon aerodynamic technology for semi-tuck trailers, capable of decreasing heavy vehicle fuel consumption, related environmental damage, and U.S. consumption of foreign oil. Major project goals included the demonstration of aerodynamic trailer technology in trucking fleet operations, and the development and testing of second generation products. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck’s fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Freight Wing utilized a 2003 category one Inventions and Innovations grant to develop practical solutions to trailer aerodynamics. Fairings developed for the front, rear, and bottom of standard semi-trailers together demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy in scientific tests conducted by the Transportation Research Center (TRC). Operational tests with major trucking fleets proved the functionality of the products, which were subsequently brought to market. This category two grant enabled Freight Wing to further develop, test and commercialize its products, resulting in greatly increased understanding and acceptance of aerodynamic trailer technology. Commercialization was stimulated by offering trucking fleets 50% cost sharing on trial implementations of Freight Wing products for testing and evaluation purposes. Over 230 fairings were implemented through the program with 35 trucking fleets including industry leaders such as Wal-Mart, Frito Lay and Whole Foods. The feedback from these testing partnerships was quite positive with product performance exceeding fleet expectations in many cases. Fleet feedback also was also valuable from a product development standpoint and assisted the design of several second generation products

7. Forced response analysis of an aerodynamically detuned supersonic turbomachine rotor

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hoyniak, D.; Fleeter, S.

1985-01-01

8. Aerodynamic considerations in open shelters. Final report

SciTech Connect

Hickman, R.G.

1984-11-01

Aerodynamic factors are addressed bearing on the suitability of open structures as blast shelters. Blast closures and attenuator designs are discussed. The research on shelter filling is reviewed; this includes both experimental and theoretical work on scale models and full-scale structures of large dimensions. Shock-dominated and pressure-gradient-dominated shelter-filling mechanisms are described and their potential effects on people are discussed.

9. Fluidic Control of Aerodynamic Forces on an Axisymmetric Body

Abramson, Philip; Vukasinovic, Bojan; Glezer, Ari

2007-11-01

The aerodynamic forces and moments on a wind tunnel model of an axisymmetric bluff body are modified by induced local vectoring of the separated base flow. Control is effected by an array of four integrated aft-facing synthetic jets that emanate from narrow, azimuthally-segmented slots, equally distributed around the perimeter of the circular tail end within a small backward facing step that extends into a Coanda surface. The model is suspended in the wind tunnel by eight thin wires for minimal support interference with the wake. Fluidic actuation results in a localized, segmented vectoring of the separated base flow along the rear Coanda surface and induces asymmetric aerodynamic forces and moments to effect maneuvering during flight. The aerodynamic effects associated with quasi-steady and transitory differential, asymmetric activation of the Coanda effect are characterized using direct force and PIV measurements.

10. Aeroacoustics. [analysis of properties of sound generated by aerodynamic forces

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Goldstein, M., E.

1974-01-01

An analysis was conducted to determine the properties of sound generated by aerodynamic forces or motions originating in a flow, such as the unsteady aerodynamic forces on propellers or by turbulent flows around an aircraft. The acoustics of moving media are reviewed and mathematical models are developed. Lighthill's acoustic analogy and the application to turbulent flows are analyzed. The effects of solid boundaries are calculated. Theories based on the solution of linearized vorticity and acoustic field equations are explained. The effects of nonuniform mean flow on the generation of sound are reported.

11. How wing kinematics affect power requirements and aerodynamic force production in a robotic bat wing.

PubMed

Bahlman, Joseph W; Swartz, Sharon M; Breuer, Kenneth S

2014-06-01

Bats display a wide variety of behaviors that require different amounts of aerodynamic force. To control and modulate aerodynamic force, bats change wing kinematics, which, in turn, may change the power required for wing motion. There are many kinematic mechanisms that bats, and other flapping animals, can use to increase aerodynamic force, e.g. increasing wingbeat frequency or amplitude. However, we do not know if there is a difference in energetic cost between these different kinematic mechanisms. To assess the relationship between mechanical power input and aerodynamic force output across different isolated kinematic parameters, we programmed a robotic bat wing to flap over a range of kinematic parameters and measured aerodynamic force and mechanical power. We systematically varied five kinematic parameters: wingbeat frequency, wingbeat amplitude, stroke plane angle, downstroke ratio, and wing folding. Kinematic values were based on observed values from free flying Cynopterus brachyotis, the species on which the robot was based. We describe how lift, thrust, and power change with increases in each kinematic variable. We compare the power costs associated with generating additional force through the four kinematic mechanisms controlled at the shoulder, and show that all four mechanisms require approximately the same power to generate a given force. This result suggests that no single parameter offers an energetic advantage over the others. Finally, we show that retracting the wing during upstroke reduces power requirements for flapping and increases net lift production, but decreases net thrust production. These results compare well with studies performed on C. brachyotis, offering insight into natural flight kinematics.

12. The Aerodynamic Forces on Airship Hulls

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Munk, M. M.

1979-01-01

The new method for making computations in connection with the study of rigid airships, which was used in the investigation of Navy's ZR-1 by the special subcommittee of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics appointed for this purpose is presented. The general theory of the air forces on airship hulls of the type mentioned is described and an attempt was made to develop the results from the very fundamentals of mechanics.

13. Notes on aerodynamic forces 1 : rectilinear motion

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Munk, Max M

1922-01-01

The study of the motion of perfect fluids is of paramount importance for the understanding of the chief phenomena occurring in the air surrounding an aircraft, and for the numerical determination of their effects. The author recently successfully employed some simple methods for the investigation of the flow of a perfect fluid that have never been mentioned in connection with aeronautical problems. These methods appeal particularly to the engineer who is untrained in performing laborious mathematical computations, as they do away with these and allow one to obtain many interesting results by the mere application of some general and well-known principles of mechanics. Discussed here are the kinetic energy of moving fluids, the momentum of a body in a perfect fluid, two dimensional flow, three dimensional flow, and the distribution of the transverse forces of very elongated surfaces of revolution.

14. Experimental Investigation of the Aerodynamic Forces on a Curveball

Jemmott, Colin; Utvich, Alexis; Logan, Sheldon; Rossmann, Jenn

2003-11-01

The physics of baseball has fascinated researchers nearly as long as the game has existed, yet research into aerodynamic forces on curveballs has often been conflicting and incomplete. A team of undergraduates used the newly completed Harvey Mudd College wind tunnel with a specially designed apparatus to quantify these forces. The coefficient of lift was found to be a non-linear function of both the dimensionless spin number and the Reynolds number, suggesting a stronger Reynolds number dependence than previously reported. The coefficient of drag was found to be primarily a function of spin number over the range of Reynolds numbers investigated and is significantly higher than that for a static baseball over the same Reynolds number range. While these findings help to quantify and interpret what pitchers know intuitively, they also motivate further investigations of both forces and the resulting flow field over a wider parameter range.

Nagasaki, Taketo; Yamasaki, Nobuhiko

2003-05-01

The paper presents the formulation to compute numerically the unsteady aerodynamic forces on the vibrating annular cascade blades. The formulation is based on the finite volume method. By applying the TVD scheme to the linear unsteady calculations, the precise calculation of the peak of unsteady aerodynamic forces at the shock wave location like the delta function singularity becomes possible without empirical constants. As a further feature of the present paper, results of the present numerical calculation are compared with those of the double linearization theory (DLT), which assumes small unsteady and steady disturbances but the unsteady disturbances are much smaller than the steady disturbances. Since DLT requires far less computational resources than the present numerical calculation, the validation of DLT is quite important from the engineering point of view. Under the conditions of small steady disturbances, a good agreement between these two results is observed, so that the two codes are cross-validated. The comparison also reveals the limitation on the applicability of DLT.

16. Decomposing the aerodynamic forces of low-Reynolds flapping airfoils

Moriche, Manuel; Garcia-Villalba, Manuel; Flores, Oscar

2016-11-01

We present direct numerical simulations of flow around flapping NACA0012 airfoils at relatively small Reynolds numbers, Re = 1000 . The simulations are carried out with TUCAN, an in-house code that solves the Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible flow with an immersed boundary method to model the presence of the airfoil. The motion of the airfoil is composed of a vertical translation, heaving, and a rotation about the quarter of the chord, pitching. Both motions are prescribed by sinusoidal laws, with a reduced frequency of k = 1 . 41 , a pitching amplitude of 30deg and a heaving amplitude of one chord. Both, the mean pitch angle and the phase shift between pitching and heaving motions are varied, to build a database with 18 configurations. Four of these cases are analysed in detail using the force decomposition algorithm of Chang (1992) and Martín Alcántara et al. (2015). This method decomposes the total aerodynamic force into added-mass (translation and rotation of the airfoil), a volumetric contribution from the vorticity (circulatory effects) and a surface contribution proportional to viscosity. In particular we will focus on the second, analysing the contribution of the leading and trailing edge vortices that typically appear in these flows. This work has been supported by the Spanish MINECO under Grant TRA2013-41103-P. The authors thankfully acknowledge the computer resources provided by the Red Española de Supercomputacion.

17. Modulation of leading edge vorticity and aerodynamic forces in flexible flapping wings.

PubMed

Zhao, Liang; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P

2011-09-01

In diverse biological flight systems, the leading edge vortex has been implicated as a flow feature of key importance in the generation of flight forces. Unlike fixed wings, flapping wings can translate at higher angles of attack without stalling because their leading edge vorticity is more stable than the corresponding fixed wing case. Hence, the leading edge vorticity has often been suggested as the primary determinant of the high forces generated by flapping wings. To test this hypothesis, it is necessary to modulate the size and strength of the leading edge vorticity independently of the gross kinematics while simultaneously monitoring the forces generated by the wing. In a recent study, we observed that forces generated by wings with flexible trailing margins showed a direct dependence on the flexural stiffness of the wing. Based on that study, we hypothesized that trailing edge flexion directly influences leading edge vorticity, and thereby the magnitude of aerodynamic forces on the flexible flapping wings. To test this hypothesis, we visualized the flows on wings of varying flexural stiffness using a custom 2D digital particle image velocimetry system, while simultaneously monitoring the magnitude of the aerodynamic forces. Our data show that as flexion decreases, the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity increases and enhances aerodynamic forces, thus confirming that the leading edge vortex is indeed a key feature for aerodynamic force generation in flapping flight. The data shown here thus support the hypothesis that camber influences instantaneous aerodynamic forces through modulation of the leading edge vorticity.

18. Forcing function effects on unsteady aerodynamic gust response. I - Forcing functions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Henderson, Gregory H.; Fleeter, Sanford

1992-01-01

The paper investigates the fundamental gust modeling assumption on the basis of a series of experiments performed in the Purdue Annular Cascade Research Facility. The measured unsteady flow fields are compared to linear-theory gust requirements. The perforated plate forcing functions closely resemble linear-theory forcing functions, with the static pressure fluctuations small and the periodic velocity vectors parallel to the downstream mean-relative flow angle over the entire periodic cycle. The airfoil forcing functions exhibit characteristics far from linear-theory gusts, with the alignment of the velocity vectors and the static pressure fluctuation amplitudes dependent on the rotor-loading condition, rotor solidity, and the inlet mean-relative flow angle. It is shown that airfoil wakes, both compressor and turbine, cannot be modeled with the boundary conditions of current state-of-the-art linear unsteady aerodynamic theory.

19. Flutter and forced response of turbomachinery with frequency mistuning and aerodynamic asymmetry

Miyakozawa, Tomokazu

20. Aerodynamic forces induced by controlled transitory flow on a body of revolution

Rinehart, Christopher S.

The aerodynamic forces and moments on an axisymmetric body of revolution are controlled in a low-speed wind tunnel by induced local flow attachment. Control is effected by an array of aft-facing synthetic jets emanating from narrow, azimuthally segmented slots embedded within an axisymmetric backward facing step. The actuation results in a localized, segmented vectoring of the separated base flow along a rear Coanda surface and induced asymmetric aerodynamic forces and moments. The observed effects are investigated in both quasi-steady and transient states, with emphasis on parametric dependence. It is shown that the magnitude of the effected forces can be substantially increased by slight variations of the Coanda surface geometry. Force and velocity measurements are used to elucidate the mechanisms by which the synthetic jets produce asymmetric aerodynamic forces and moments, demonstrating a novel method to steer axisymmetric bodies during flight.

1. Wing and body motion and aerodynamic and leg forces during take-off in droneflies

PubMed Central

Chen, Mao Wei; Zhang, Yan Lai; Sun, Mao

2013-01-01

Here, we present a detailed analysis of the take-off mechanics in droneflies performing voluntary take-offs. Wing and body kinematics of the insects during take-off were measured using high-speed video techniques. Based on the measured data, the inertia force acting on the insect was computed and the aerodynamic force of the wings was calculated by the method of computational fluid dynamics. Subtracting the aerodynamic force and the weight from the inertia force gave the leg force. In take-off, a dronefly increases its stroke amplitude gradually in the first 10–14 wingbeats and becomes airborne at about the 12th wingbeat. The aerodynamic force increases monotonously from zero to a value a little larger than its weight, and the leg force decreases monotonously from a value equal to its weight to zero, showing that the droneflies do not jump and only use aerodynamic force of flapping wings to lift themselves into the air. Compared with take-offs in insects in previous studies, in which a very large force (5–10 times of the weight) generated either by jumping legs (locusts, milkweed bugs and fruit flies) or by the ‘fling’ mechanism of the wing pair (butterflies) is used in a short time, the take-off in the droneflies is relatively slow but smoother. PMID:24132205

2. Wing and body motion and aerodynamic and leg forces during take-off in droneflies.

PubMed

Chen, Mao Wei; Zhang, Yan Lai; Sun, Mao

2013-12-06

Here, we present a detailed analysis of the take-off mechanics in droneflies performing voluntary take-offs. Wing and body kinematics of the insects during take-off were measured using high-speed video techniques. Based on the measured data, the inertia force acting on the insect was computed and the aerodynamic force of the wings was calculated by the method of computational fluid dynamics. Subtracting the aerodynamic force and the weight from the inertia force gave the leg force. In take-off, a dronefly increases its stroke amplitude gradually in the first 10-14 wingbeats and becomes airborne at about the 12th wingbeat. The aerodynamic force increases monotonously from zero to a value a little larger than its weight, and the leg force decreases monotonously from a value equal to its weight to zero, showing that the droneflies do not jump and only use aerodynamic force of flapping wings to lift themselves into the air. Compared with take-offs in insects in previous studies, in which a very large force (5-10 times of the weight) generated either by jumping legs (locusts, milkweed bugs and fruit flies) or by the 'fling' mechanism of the wing pair (butterflies) is used in a short time, the take-off in the droneflies is relatively slow but smoother.

3. The roles of aerodynamic and inertial forces on maneuverability in flapping flight

Vejdani, Hamid; Boerma, David; Swartz, Sharon; Breuer, Kenneth

2015-11-01

We investigate the relative contributions of aerodynamic and the whole-body dynamics in generating extreme maneuvers. We developed a 3D dynamical model of a body (trunk) and two rectangular wings using a Lagrangian formulation. The trunk has 6 degrees of freedom and each wing has 4 degrees of actuation (flapping, sweeping, wing pronation/supination and wing extension/flexion) and can be massless (like insect wings) or relatively massive (like bats). To estimate aerodynamic forces, we use a blade element method; drag and lift are calculated using a quasi-steady model. We validated our model using several benchmark tests, including gliding and hovering motion. To understand the roles of aerodynamic and inertial forces, we start the investigation by constraining the wing motion to flapping and wing length extension/flexion motion. This decouples the trunk degrees of freedom and affects only roll motion. For bats' dynamics (massive wings), the model is much more maneuverable than the insect dynamics case, and the effect of inertial forces dominates the behavior of the system. The role of the aerodynamic forces increases when the wings have sweeping and flapping motion, which affects the pitching motion of the body. We also analyzed the effect of all wing motions together on the behavior of the model in the presence and in the absence of aerodynamic forces.

4. Unsteady aerodynamic forces and torques on falling parallelograms in coupled tumbling-helical motions

Varshney, Kapil; Chang, Song; Wang, Z. Jane

2013-05-01

Falling parallelograms exhibit coupled motion of autogyration and tumbling, similar to the motion of falling tulip seeds, unlike maple seeds which autogyrate but do not tumble, or rectangular cards which tumble but do not gyrate. This coupled tumbling and autogyrating motion are robust, when card parameters, such as aspect ratio, internal angle, and mass density, are varied. We measure the three-dimensional (3D) falling kinematics of the parallelograms and quantify their descending speed, azimuthal rotation, tumbling rotation, and cone angle in each falling. The cone angle is insensitive to the variation of the card parameters, and the card tumbling axis does not overlap with but is close to the diagonal axis. In addition to this connection to the dynamics of falling seeds, these trajectories provide an ideal set of data to analyze 3D aerodynamic force and torque at an intermediate range of Reynolds numbers, and the results will be useful for constructing 3D aerodynamic force and torque models. Tracking these free falling trajectories gives us a nonintrusive method for deducing instantaneous aerodynamic forces. We determine the 3D aerodynamic forces and torques based on Newton-Euler equations. The dynamical analysis reveals that, although the angle of attack changes dramatically during tumbling, the aerodynamic forces have a weak dependence on the angle of attack. The aerodynamic lift is dominated by the coupling of translational and rotational velocities. The aerodynamic torque has an unexpectedly large component perpendicular to the card. The analysis of the Euler equation suggests that this large torque is related to the deviation of the tumbling axis from the principle axis of the card.

5. Modal forced vibration analysis of aerodynamically excited turbosystems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Elchuri, V.

1985-01-01

Theoretical aspects of a new capability to determine the vibratory response of turbosystems subjected to aerodynamic excitation are presented. Turbosystems such as advanced turbopropellers with highly swept blades, and axial-flow compressors and turbines can be analyzed using this capability. The capability has been developed and implemented in the April 1984 release of the general purpose finite element program NASTRAN. The dynamic response problem is addressed in terms of the normal modal coordinates of these tuned rotating cyclic structures. Both rigid and flexible hubs/disks are considered. Coriolis and centripetal accelerations, as well as differential stiffness effects are included. Generally non-uniform steady inflow fields and uniform flow fields arbitrarily inclined at small angles with respect to the axis of rotation of the turbosystem are considered sources of aerodynamic excitation. The spatial non-uniformities are considered to be small deviations from a principally uniform inflow. Subsonic and supersonic relative inflows are addressed, with provision for linearly interpolating transonic airloads.

6. Transitory Aerodynamic Forces on a Body of Revolution using Synthetic Jet Actuation

Rinehart, Christopher; McMichael, James; Glezer, Ari

2002-11-01

The aerodynamic forces and moments on axisymmetric bodies at subsonic speeds are controlled by exploiting local flow attachment using fluidic (synthetic jet) actuation and thereby altering the apparent aerodynamic shape of the surface. Control is effected upstream of the base of the body by an azimuthal array of individually-controlled, aft-facing synthetic jets emanating along an azimuthal Coanda surface. Actuation produces asymmetric aerodynamic forces and moments, with ratios of lift to average jet momentum approaching values typical of conventional jet-based circulation control on two-dimensional airfoils. Momentary forces are achieved using transient (pulsed) actuation and are accompanied by the formation and shedding of vorticity concentrations as a precursor to the turning of the outer flow into the wake region.

7. Forcing function effects on unsteady aerodynamic gust response: Part 1--Forcing functions

SciTech Connect

Henderson, G.H.; Fleeter, S. . School of Mechanical Engineering)

1993-10-01

The fundamental gust modeling assumption is investigated by means of a series of experiments performed in the Purdue Annular Cascade Research Facility. The unsteady periodic flow field is generated by rotating rows of perforated plates and airfoil cascades. In this paper, the measured unsteady flow fields are compared to linear-theory vortical gust requirements, with the resulting unsteady gust response of a downstream stator cascade correlated with linear theory predictions in an accompanying paper. The perforated-plate forcing functions closely resemble linear-theory forcing functions, with the static pressure fluctuations small and the periodic velocity vectors parallel to the downstream mean-relative flow angle over the entire periodic cycle. In contrast, the airfoil forcing functions exhibit characteristics far from linear-theory vortical gusts, with the alignment of the velocity vectors and the static pressure fluctuation amplitudes dependent on the rotor-loading conditions, rotor solidity, and the inlet mean-relative flow angle. Thus, these unique data clearly show that airfoil wakes, both compressor and turbine, are not able to be modeled with the boundary conditions of current state-of-the-art linear unsteady aerodynamic theory.

8. Extracting micro air vehicles aerodynamic forces and coefficients in free flight using visual motion tracking techniques

Mettler, B. F.

2010-09-01

This paper describes a methodology to extract aerial vehicles’ aerodynamic characteristics from visually tracked trajectory data. The technique is being developed to study the aerodynamics of centimeter-scale aircraft and develop flight simulation models. Centimeter-scale aircraft remains a largely unstudied domain of aerodynamics, for which traditional techniques like wind tunnels and computational fluid dynamics have not yet been fully adapted and validated. The methodology takes advantage of recent progress in commercial, vision-based, motion-tracking systems. This system dispenses from on-board navigation sensors and enables indoor flight testing under controlled atmospheric conditions. Given the configuration of retro-reflective markers affixed onto the aerial vehicle, the vehicle’s six degrees-of-freedom motion can be determined in real time. Under disturbance-free conditions, the aerodynamic forces and moments can be determined from the vehicle’s inertial acceleration, and furthermore, for a fixed-wing vehicle, the aerodynamic angles can be plotted from the vehicle’s kinematics. By combining this information, we can determine the temporal evolution of the aerodynamic coefficients, as they change throughout a trajectory. An attractive feature of this technique is that trajectories are not limited to equilibrium conditions but can include non-equilibrium, maneuvering flight. Whereas in traditional wind-tunnel experiments, the operating conditions are set by the experimenter, here, the aerodynamic conditions are driven by the vehicle’s own dynamics. As a result, this methodology could be useful for characterizing the unsteady aerodynamics effects and their coupling with the aircraft flight dynamics, providing insight into aerodynamic phenomena taking place at centimeter scale flight.

9. Direct measurements of controlled aerodynamic forces on a wire-suspended axisymmetric body

Abramson, Philip; Vukasinovic, Bojan; Glezer, Ari

2011-06-01

A novel in-line miniature force transducer is developed for direct measurements of the net aerodynamic forces and moments on a bluff body. The force transducers are integrated into each of the eight mounting wires that are utilized for suspension of an axisymmetric model in a wind tunnel having minimal wake interference. The aerodynamic forces and moments on the model are altered by induced active local attachment of the separated base flow. Fluidic control is effected by an array of four integrated aft-facing synthetic jet actuators that emanate from narrow, azimuthally segmented slots, equally distributed around the perimeter of the circular tail end. The jet orifices are embedded within a small backward-facing step that extends into a Coanda surface. The altered flow dynamics associated with both quasi-steady and transitory asymmetric activation of the flow control effect is characterized by direct force and PIV measurements.

10. Physically weighted approximations of unsteady aerodynamic forces using the minimum-state method

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1991-01-01

The Minimum-State Method for rational approximation of unsteady aerodynamic force coefficient matrices, modified to allow physical weighting of the tabulated aerodynamic data, is presented. The approximation formula and the associated time-domain, state-space, open-loop equations of motion are given, and the numerical procedure for calculating the approximation matrices, with weighted data and with various equality constraints are described. Two data weighting options are presented. The first weighting is for normalizing the aerodynamic data to maximum unit value of each aerodynamic coefficient. The second weighting is one in which each tabulated coefficient, at each reduced frequency value, is weighted according to the effect of an incremental error of this coefficient on aeroelastic characteristics of the system. This weighting yields a better fit of the more important terms, at the expense of less important ones. The resulting approximate yields a relatively low number of aerodynamic lag states in the subsequent state-space model. The formulation forms the basis of the MIST computer program which is written in FORTRAN for use on the MicroVAX computer and interfaces with NASA's Interaction of Structures, Aerodynamics and Controls (ISAC) computer program. The program structure, capabilities and interfaces are outlined in the appendices, and a numerical example which utilizes Rockwell's Active Flexible Wing (AFW) model is given and discussed.

11. Semiempirical method for prediction of aerodynamic forces and moments on a steadily spinning light airplane

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pamadi, Bandu N.; Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr.

1987-01-01

A semi-empirical method is presented for the estimation of aerodynamic forces and moments acting on a steadily spinning (rotating) light airplane. The airplane is divided into wing, body, and tail surfaces. The effect of power is ignored. The strip theory is employed for each component of the spinning airplane to determine its contribution to the total aerodynamic coefficients. Then, increments to some of the coefficients which account for centrifugal effect are estimated. The results are compared to spin tunnel rotary balance test data.

12. Dynamic control of aerodynamic forces on a moving platform using active flow control

Brzozowski, Daniel P.

The unsteady interaction between trailing edge aerodynamic flow control and airfoil motion in pitch and plunge is investigated in wind tunnel experiments using a two degree-of-freedom traverse which enables application of time-dependent external torque and forces by servo motors. The global aerodynamic forces and moments are regulated by controlling vorticity generation and accumulation near the trailing edge of the airfoil using hybrid synthetic jet actuators. The dynamic coupling between the actuation and the time-dependent flow field is characterized using simultaneous force and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements that are taken phase-locked to the commanded actuation waveform. The effect of the unsteady motion on the model-embedded flow control is assessed in both trajectory tracking and disturbance rejection maneuvers. The time-varying aerodynamic lift and pitching moment are estimated from a PIV wake survey using a reduced order model based on classical unsteady aerodynamic theory. These measurements suggest that the entire flow over the airfoil readjusts within 2--3 convective time scales, which is about two orders of magnitude shorter than the characteristic time associated with the controlled maneuver of the wind tunnel model. This illustrates that flow-control actuation can be typically effected on time scales that are commensurate with the flow's convective time scale, and that the maneuver response is primarily limited by the inertia of the platform.

13. Kinematic control of aerodynamic forces on an inclined flapping wing with asymmetric strokes.

PubMed

Park, Hyungmin; Choi, Haecheon

2012-03-01

In the present study, we conduct an experiment using a one-paired dynamically scaled model of an insect wing, to investigate how asymmetric strokes with different wing kinematic parameters are used to control the aerodynamics of a dragonfly-like inclined flapping wing in still fluid. The kinematic parameters considered are the angles of attack during the mid-downstroke (α(md)) and mid-upstroke (α(mu)), and the duration (Δτ) and time of initiation (τ(p)) of the pitching rotation. The present dragonfly-like inclined flapping wing has the aerodynamic mechanism of unsteady force generation similar to those of other insect wings in a horizontal stroke plane, but the detailed effect of the wing kinematics on the force control is different due to the asymmetric use of the angle of attack during the up- and downstrokes. For example, high α(md) and low α(mu) produces larger vertical force with less aerodynamic power, and low α(md) and high α(mu) is recommended for horizontal force (thrust) production. The pitching rotation also affects the aerodynamics of a flapping wing, but its dynamic rotational effect is much weaker than the effect from the kinematic change in the angle of attack caused by the pitching rotation. Thus, the influences of the duration and timing of pitching rotation for the present inclined flapping wing are found to be very different from those for a horizontal flapping wing. That is, for the inclined flapping motion, the advanced and delayed rotations produce smaller vertical forces than the symmetric one and the effect of pitching duration is very small. On the other hand, for a specific range of pitching rotation timing, delayed rotation requires less aerodynamic power than the symmetric rotation. As for the horizontal force, delayed rotation with low α(md) and high α(mu) is recommended for long-duration flight owing to its high efficiency, and advanced rotation should be employed for hovering flight for nearly zero horizontal force. The

14. Experimental Study on Aerodynamic Force Acting on Baseof Vertical Landing Rocket

An experimental study of the aerodynamic characteristics of a vertical landing rocket during the landing phase is conducted with emphasis on the interaction between the supersonic nozzle jet and the ground surface. Because of the large base area, variations in the base pressure distribution have a significant effect on the aerodynamic forces acting on the body. When the distance between the base and the ground surface is small, the base pressure decreases and downward force acts on the body. The generation of such downward force is quite unfavorable from a viewpoint of the safety of the vehicle. This effect can be reduced to some extent by modifying the outer edge of the vehicle base and roughening the ground surface. Moreover, it is observed that the static stability in pitch motion vanishes near the ground. Consequently, careful control during the landing phase is necessary to ensure vehicle safety.

15. An experimental investigation of potential-disturbance aerodynamic forcing in the F109 turbofan engine compressor

Falk, Eric Andrew

Aerodynamic forcing experiments were performed within the single-stage axial compressor of an AlliedSignal F109 turbofan engine. Unsteady velocity was measured both forward and aft of the F109 fan at several locations, with unsteady surface pressure also measured along sixteen, transducer-instrumented stator vanes. Three fan RPM were considered, with time-resolution of the unsteady data obtained through a photoelectric sensor coupled to the fan rotation. The velocity data collected forward of the fan exhibited evidence of upstream-propagating disturbances in the engine inlet flow, where these disturbances were potential in nature, emanating from the fan, and traveling acoustically in a helical pattern. The disturbance peak-to-peak unsteady amplitudes, in the swirl direction, reached nearly 50% of the mean-axial velocity at the fan face, dropping to 2--5% at one blade chord upstream. Such large velocity fluctuations may be important in terms of component high-cycle-fatigue, particularly in closely spaced, axial compressor stages. Aft of the fan, the average unsteady velocity waveforms measured across five azimuthal locations demonstrated characteristics indicative of a strong vortical and potential disturbance interaction, where the interacting disturbances had the same forcing frequency, but different amplitudes and propagation speeds. Further reduction of the fan-aft velocity data also produced evidence of upstream-propagating disturbances. These disturbances were found to be potential in nature and emanating from the F109 stator vanes; thus creating a cumulative, unsteady aerodynamic field upstream of the stators comprised of multiple interacting disturbances. The amplitudes of the stator-induced disturbances were on the order of 20--40% of the measured, downstream-propagating vortical wake amplitudes. Finally, results from stator-vane surface-pressure measurements compared favorably in both magnitude and phase to similar results collected in previous cascade

16. Aerodynamic damping during body translation in animal flight: modeling and experimental results of flapping counter force (FCF)

Cheng, Bo; Hu, Zheng; Deng, Xinyan

2010-11-01

Body movements of flying animals change their effective wing kinematics and influence aerodynamic forces. Our previous studies found that substantial aerodynamic damping was produced by flapping wings during body rotation through a passive mechanism we termed flapping counter-torque (FCT). Here we present the aerodynamic damping produced by flapping wings during body translations, which we termed flapping counter-forces (FCFs). Analytical models were derived and the aerodynamic effect of spanwise flow and wing-wake interaction were also explored. The FCFs are dependent on body velocities, wing beat amplitude and frequency. Aerodynamic force and PIV measurements were compared with the analytical models. The experiments were conducted on a pair of dynamically scaled robotic model wings in an oil tank. Experiments in air using a pair of high frequency flapping wing further validate the models. Complete 6-DOF flight dynamic model was derived.

17. Increased ephemeris accuracy using attitude-dependent aerodynamic force coefficients for inertially stabilized spacecraft

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Folta, David C.; Baker, David F.

1991-01-01

The FREEMAC program used to generate the aerodynamic coefficients, as well as associated routines that allow the results to be used in other software is described. These capabilities are applied in two numerical examples to the short-term orbit prediction of the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spacecraft. Predictions using attitude-dependent aerodynamic coefficients were made on a modified version of the PC-based Ephemeris Generation Program (EPHGEN) and were compared to definitive orbit solutions obtained from actual tracking data. The numerical results show improvement in the predicted semi-major axis and along-track positions that would seem to be worth the added computational effort. Finally, other orbit and attitude analysis applications are noted that could profit from using FREEMAC-calculated aerodynamic coefficients, including orbital lifetime studies, orbit determination methods, attitude dynamics simulators, and spacecraft control system component sizing.

18. Successive smoothing algorithm for constructing the semiempirical model developed at ONERA to predict unsteady aerodynamic forces. [aeroelasticity in helicopters

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Petot, D.; Loiseau, H.

1982-01-01

Unsteady aerodynamic methods adopted for the study of aeroelasticity in helicopters are considered with focus on the development of a semiempirical model of unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on an oscillating profile at high incidence. The successive smoothing algorithm described leads to the model's coefficients in a very satisfactory manner.

19. Characterization of aerodynamic drag force on single particles: Final report

SciTech Connect

Kale, S.R.

1987-10-01

An electrodynamic balance was used to measure the drag coefficient and also to record the size and shape of spheres, and coal and oil shale particles (100 ..mu..m to 200 ..mu..m in size). The electrodynamic balance consisted of a central, and two end electrodes. The resulting electric field stably suspended a charged particle. A suspended particle, back illuminated by a light emitting diode, was viewed by a video camera. The image was analyzed for particle position control and was calibrated to give the diameter of spheres, or the area equivalent diameter of nonspherical particles. The drag coefficient was calculated from the air velocity and the dc voltage required to keep the particle at the balance center. The particle Reynolds number varied from 0.2 to 13. Three particles each of coal and oil shale were captured and photographed by a scanning electron microscope and the motion of all the particles was recorded on video tape. Drag coefficient vs Reynolds number data for spheres agreed well with correlations. Data for thirteen particles each of coal and oil shale indicated a power law relationship between drag coefficient and Reynolds number. All these particles exhibited higher drag than spheres and were also observed to rotate. The rotation, however, did not affect the drag coefficient. The choice of characteristic dimension affects the drag characteristics of oil shale more strongly than for coal, owing to the flake-like shape of oil shale. 38 figs., 5 tabs.

20. Structural effects of unsteady aerodynamic forces on horizontal-axis wind turbines

SciTech Connect

Miller, M.S.; Shipley, D.E.

1994-08-01

Due to its renewable nature and abundant resources, wind energy has the potential to fulfill a large portion of this nation`s energy needs. The simplest means of utilizing wind energy is through the use of downwind, horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) with fixed-pitch rotors. This configuration regulates the peak power by allowing the rotor blade to aerodynamically stall. The stall point, the point of maximum coefficient of lift, is currently predicted using data obtained from wind tunnel tests. Unfortunately, these tests do not accurately simulate conditions encountered in the field. Flow around the tower and nacelle coupled with inflow turbulence and rotation of the turbine blades create unpredicted aerodynamic forces. Dynamic stall is hypothesized to occur. Such aerodynamic loads are transmitted into the rotor and tower causing structural resonance that drastically reduces the design lifetime of the wind turbine. The current method of alleviating this problem is to structurally reinforce the tower and blades. However, this adds unneeded mass and, therefore, cost to the turbines. A better understanding of the aerodynamic forces and the manner in which they affect the structure would allow for the design of more cost effective and durable wind turbines. Data compiled by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for a downwind HAWT with constant chord, untwisted, fixed-pitch rotors is analyzed. From these data, the actual aerodynamic characteristics of the rotor are being portrayed and the potential effects upon the structure can for the first time be fully analyzed. Based upon their understanding, solutions to the problem of structural resonance are emerging.

1. Estimation of aerodynamic noise generated by forced compressible round jets

Maidi, Mohamed

2006-05-01

An acoustic numerical code based on Ligthill's analogy is combined with large-eddy simulations techniques in order to evaluate the noise emitted by subsonic (M=0.7) and supersonic (M=1.4) round jets. We show first that, for centerline Mach number M=0.9 and Reynolds number Re=3.6×10, acoustic intensities compare satisfactorily with experimental data of the literature in terms of levels and directivity. Afterwards, high Reynolds number (Re=3.6×10) free and forced jets at Mach 0.7 and 1.4 are studied. Numerical results show that the jet noise intensity depends on the nature of the upstream mixing layer. Indeed, the subsonic jet is 4 dB quieter than the free jet when acting on this shear layer by superposing inlet varicose and flapping perturbations at preferred and first subharmonic frequency, respectively. The maximal acoustic level of the supersonic jet is, on the other hand, 3 dB lower than the free one with a flapping upstream perturbation at the second subharmonic. The results reported in this paper confirm previous works presented in the literature demonstrating that jet noise may be modified according to the inlet conditions. To cite this article: M. Maidi, C. R. Mecanique 334 (2006).

2. The aerodynamic forces and pressure distribution of a revolving pigeon wing.

PubMed

Usherwood, James R

2009-05-01

The aerodynamic forces acting on a revolving dried pigeon wing and a flat card replica were measured with a propeller rig, effectively simulating a wing in continual downstroke. Two methods were adopted: direct measurement of the reaction vertical force and torque via a forceplate, and a map of the pressures along and across the wing measured with differential pressure sensors. Wings were tested at Reynolds numbers up to 108,000, typical for slow-flying pigeons, and considerably above previous similar measurements applied to insect and hummingbird wing and wing models. The pigeon wing out-performed the flat card replica, reaching lift coefficients of 1.64 compared with 1.44. Both real and model wings achieved much higher maximum lift coefficients, and at much higher geometric angles of attack (43°), than would be expected from wings tested in a windtunnel simulating translating flight. It therefore appears that some high-lift mechanisms, possibly analogous to those of slow-flying insects, may be available for birds flapping with wings at high angles of attack. The net magnitude and orientation of aerodynamic forces acting on a revolving pigeon wing can be determined from the differential pressure maps with a moderate degree of precision. With increasing angle of attack, variability in the pressure signals suddenly increases at an angle of attack between 33° and 38°, close to the angle of highest vertical force coefficient or lift coefficient; stall appears to be delayed compared with measurements from wings in windtunnels.

3. The aerodynamic forces and pressure distribution of a revolving pigeon wing

Usherwood, James R.

The aerodynamic forces acting on a revolving dried pigeon wing and a flat card replica were measured with a propeller rig, effectively simulating a wing in continual downstroke. Two methods were adopted: direct measurement of the reaction vertical force and torque via a forceplate, and a map of the pressures along and across the wing measured with differential pressure sensors. Wings were tested at Reynolds numbers up to 108,000, typical for slow-flying pigeons, and considerably above previous similar measurements applied to insect and hummingbird wing and wing models. The pigeon wing out-performed the flat card replica, reaching lift coefficients of 1.64 compared with 1.44. Both real and model wings achieved much higher maximum lift coefficients, and at much higher geometric angles of attack (43°), than would be expected from wings tested in a windtunnel simulating translating flight. It therefore appears that some high-lift mechanisms, possibly analogous to those of slow-flying insects, may be available for birds flapping with wings at high angles of attack. The net magnitude and orientation of aerodynamic forces acting on a revolving pigeon wing can be determined from the differential pressure maps with a moderate degree of precision. With increasing angle of attack, variability in the pressure signals suddenly increases at an angle of attack between 33° and 38°, close to the angle of highest vertical force coefficient or lift coefficient; stall appears to be delayed compared with measurements from wings in windtunnels.

4. The aerodynamic forces and pressure distribution of a revolving pigeon wing

Usherwood, James R.

2009-05-01

The aerodynamic forces acting on a revolving dried pigeon wing and a flat card replica were measured with a propeller rig, effectively simulating a wing in continual downstroke. Two methods were adopted: direct measurement of the reaction vertical force and torque via a forceplate, and a map of the pressures along and across the wing measured with differential pressure sensors. Wings were tested at Reynolds numbers up to 108,000, typical for slow-flying pigeons, and considerably above previous similar measurements applied to insect and hummingbird wing and wing models. The pigeon wing out-performed the flat card replica, reaching lift coefficients of 1.64 compared with 1.44. Both real and model wings achieved much higher maximum lift coefficients, and at much higher geometric angles of attack (43°), than would be expected from wings tested in a windtunnel simulating translating flight. It therefore appears that some high-lift mechanisms, possibly analogous to those of slow-flying insects, may be available for birds flapping with wings at high angles of attack. The net magnitude and orientation of aerodynamic forces acting on a revolving pigeon wing can be determined from the differential pressure maps with a moderate degree of precision. With increasing angle of attack, variability in the pressure signals suddenly increases at an angle of attack between 33° and 38°, close to the angle of highest vertical force coefficient or lift coefficient; stall appears to be delayed compared with measurements from wings in windtunnels.

5. The aerodynamic forces and pressure distribution of a revolving pigeon wing

PubMed Central

Usherwood, James R.

2012-01-01

The aerodynamic forces acting on a revolving dried pigeon wing and a flat card replica were measured with a propeller rig, effectively simulating a wing in continual downstroke. Two methods were adopted: direct measurement of the reaction vertical force and torque via a forceplate, and a map of the pressures along and across the wing measured with differential pressure sensors. Wings were tested at Reynolds numbers up to 108,000, typical for slow-flying pigeons, and considerably above previous similar measurements applied to insect and hummingbird wing and wing models. The pigeon wing out-performed the flat card replica, reaching lift coefficients of 1.64 compared with 1.44. Both real and model wings achieved much higher maximum lift coefficients, and at much higher geometric angles of attack (43°), than would be expected from wings tested in a windtunnel simulating translating flight. It therefore appears that some high-lift mechanisms, possibly analogous to those of slow-flying insects, may be available for birds flapping with wings at high angles of attack. The net magnitude and orientation of aerodynamic forces acting on a revolving pigeon wing can be determined from the differential pressure maps with a moderate degree of precision. With increasing angle of attack, variability in the pressure signals suddenly increases at an angle of attack between 33° and 38°, close to the angle of highest vertical force coefficient or lift coefficient; stall appears to be delayed compared with measurements from wings in windtunnels. PMID:22736891

6. Unsteady aerodynamic force generation by a model fruit fly wing in flapping motion.

PubMed

Sun, Mao; Tang, Jian

2002-01-01

A computational fluid-dynamic analysis was conducted to study the unsteady aerodynamics of a model fruit fly wing. The wing performs an idealized flapping motion that emulates the wing motion of a fruit fly in normal hovering flight. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically. The solution provides the flow and pressure fields, from which the aerodynamic forces and vorticity wake structure are obtained. Insights into the unsteady aerodynamic force generation process are gained from the force and flow-structure information. Considerable lift can be produced when the majority of the wing rotation is conducted near the end of a stroke or wing rotation precedes stroke reversal (rotation advanced), and the mean lift coefficient can be more than twice the quasi-steady value. Three mechanisms are responsible for the large lift: the rapid acceleration of the wing at the beginning of a stroke, the absence of stall during the stroke and the fast pitching-up rotation of the wing near the end of the stroke. When half the wing rotation is conducted near the end of a stroke and half at the beginning of the next stroke (symmetrical rotation), the lift at the beginning and near the end of a stroke becomes smaller because the effects of the first and third mechanisms above are reduced. The mean lift coefficient is smaller than that of the rotation-advanced case, but is still 80 % larger than the quasi-steady value. When the majority of the rotation is delayed until the beginning of the next stroke (rotation delayed), the lift at the beginning and near the end of a stroke becomes very small or even negative because the effect of the first mechanism above is cancelled and the third mechanism does not apply in this case. The mean lift coefficient is much smaller than in the other two cases.

7. Investigation on the forced response of a radial turbine under aerodynamic excitations

Ma, Chaochen; Huang, Zhi; Qi, Mingxu

2016-04-01

Rotor blades in a radial turbine with nozzle guide vanes typically experience harmonic aerodynamic excitations due to the rotor stator interaction. Dynamic stresses induced by the harmonic excitations can result in high cycle fatigue (HCF) of the blades. A reliable prediction method for forced response issue is essential to avoid the HCF problem. In this work, the forced response mechanisms were investigated based on a fluid structure interaction (FSI) method. Aerodynamic excitations were obtained by three-dimensional unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation with phase shifted periodic boundary conditions. The first two harmonic pressures were determined as the primary components of the excitation and applied to finite element (FE) model to conduct the computational structural dynamics (CSD) simulation. The computed results from the harmonic forced response analysis show good agreement with the predictions of Singh's advanced frequency evaluation (SAFE) diagram. Moreover, the mode superposition method used in FE simulation offers an efficient way to provide quantitative assessments of mode response levels and resonant strength.

8. Aerodynamic design of a Coanda induced force and thruster anti-torque system

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Velkoff, Henry R.; Tung, Chee

1991-01-01

A general method of analysis of the external and internal aerodynamics of a generic Coanda induced circulation anti-torque system is presented. The technique gives moment about the yaw axis and download induced on the boom as well as the force developed by an aft jet. The external flows including downwash, wake swirl and the boom circulation are considered. The internal flow and losses through the duct, fan, blown slots, cascades and nozzle are considered on a step-by-step basis. Limited comparison is made with open data where available.

9. Analysis of preflutter and postflutter characteristics with motion-matched aerodynamic forces

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cunningham, H. J.

1978-01-01

The development of the equations of dynamic equilibrium for a lifting surface from Lagrange's equation is reviewed and restated for general exponential growing and decaying oscillatory motion. Aerodynamic forces for this motion are obtained from the three-dimensional supersonic kernel function that is newly generalized to complex reduced frequencies. Illustrative calculations were made for two flutter models at supersonic Mach numbers. Preflutter and postflutter motion isodecrement curves were obtained. This type of analysis can be used to predict preflutter behavior during flutter testing and to predict postflutter behavior for use in the design of flutter suppression systems.

10. The influence of wing-wake interactions on the production of aerodynamic forces in flapping flight.

PubMed

Birch, James M; Dickinson, Michael H

2003-07-01

We used two-dimensional digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) to visualize flow patterns around the flapping wing of a dynamically scaled robot for a series of reciprocating strokes starting from rest. The base of the wing was equipped with strain gauges so that the pattern of fluid motion could be directly compared with the time history of force production. The results show that the development and shedding of vortices throughout each stroke are highly stereotyped and influence force generation in subsequent strokes. When a wing starts from rest, it generates a transient force as the leading edge vortex (LEV) grows. This early peak, previously attributed to added-mass acceleration, is not amenable to quasi-steady models but corresponds well to calculations based on the time derivative of the first moment of vorticity within a sectional slice of fluid. Forces decay to a stable level as the LEV reaches a constant size and remains attached throughout most of the stroke. The LEV grows as the wing supinates prior to stroke reversal, accompanied by an increase in total force. At stroke reversal, both the LEV and a rotational starting vortex (RSV) are shed into the wake, forming a counter-rotating pair that directs a jet of fluid towards the underside of the wing at the start of the next stroke. We isolated the aerodynamic influence of the wake by subtracting forces and flow fields generated in the first stroke, when the wake is just developing, from those produced during the fourth stroke, when the pattern of both the forces and wake dynamics has reached a limit cycle. This technique identified two effects of the wake on force production by the wing: an early augmentation followed by a small attenuation. The later decrease in force is consistent with the influence of a decreased aerodynamic angle of attack on translational forces caused by downwash within the wake and is well explained by a quasi-steady model. The early effect of the wake is not well approximated by

11. Simultaneous measurement of aerodynamic forces and kinematics in flapping wings of tethered locust.

PubMed

Shkarayev, Sergey; Kumar, Rajeev

2015-10-23

Aerodynamic and inertial forces and corresponding kinematics of flapping wings of locusts, Schistocerca americana, were investigated in a low-speed wind tunnel. The experimental setup included live locusts mounted on microbalance synchronized with a high-speed video system. Simultaneous measurements of wing kinematics and forces were carried out on three locusts at 7° angle of attack and velocities of 0 m s(-1) and 4 m s(-1). Time variations of flapping and pitching angles exhibit similar patterns in fore- and hindwings and among the animals. Significant tip to root variations in pitching angle are found in both wings. The locusts have much larger flapping and pitching amplitudes in still air causing larger oscillations in inertial forces. Inertial forces are added to the lift and thrust on one part of the stroke, resulting in higher reaction forces and subtracted on the other part. Plots of the lift demonstrate similar trends with and without the wind. The global maxima and peak-to-peak amplitudes in lift are about the same in both tests. However, local minima are significantly lower in still air, resulting in much smaller stroke-averaged lift. Amplitudes of thrust force oscillations are much higher in still air; consequently, the stroke-averaged thrust is higher compared to the non-zero freestream velocity case.

12. Fast and accurate prediction for aerodynamic forces and moments acting on satellites flying in Low-Earth Orbit

Jin, Xuhon; Huang, Fei; Hu, Pengju; Cheng, Xiaoli

2016-11-01

A fundamental prerequisite for satellites operating in a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is the availability of fast and accurate prediction of non-gravitational aerodynamic forces, which is characterised by the free molecular flow regime. However, conventional computational methods like the analytical integral method and direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique are found failing to deal with flow shadowing and multiple reflections or computationally expensive. This work develops a general computer program for the accurate calculation of aerodynamic forces in the free molecular flow regime using the test particle Monte Carlo (TPMC) method, and non-gravitational aerodynamic forces actiong on the Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite is calculated for different freestream conditions and gas-surface interaction models by the computer program.

13. Nonlinear programming extensions to rational function approximation methods for unsteady aerodynamic forces

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tiffany, Sherwood H.; Adams, William M., Jr.

1988-01-01

The approximation of unsteady generalized aerodynamic forces in the equations of motion of a flexible aircraft are discussed. Two methods of formulating these approximations are extended to include the same flexibility in constraining the approximations and the same methodology in optimizing nonlinear parameters as another currently used extended least-squares method. Optimal selection of nonlinear parameters is made in each of the three methods by use of the same nonlinear, nongradient optimizer. The objective of the nonlinear optimization is to obtain rational approximations to the unsteady aerodynamics whose state-space realization is lower order than that required when no optimization of the nonlinear terms is performed. The free linear parameters are determined using the least-squares matrix techniques of a Lagrange multiplier formulation of an objective function which incorporates selected linear equality constraints. State-space mathematical models resulting from different approaches are described and results are presented that show comparative evaluations from application of each of the extended methods to a numerical example.

14. Forcing function effects on unsteady aerodynamic gust response. II - Low solidity airfoil row response

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Henderson, Gregory H.; Fleeter, Sanford

1992-01-01

The paper investigates the fundamental gust modeling assumption on the basis of a series of experiments performed in the Purdue Annular Cascade Research Facility. The unsteady period flow field is generated by rotating flows of perforated plates and airfoil cascades, with the resulting unsteady periodic chordwise pressure response of a downstream low solidity stator row determined by miniature pressure transducers embedded within selected airfoils. When the forcing function exhibited the characteristics of a linear-theory gust, the resulting response on the downstream stator airfoils was in excellent agreement with the linear-theory models. When the forcing function did not exhibit linear-theory gust characteristics, the resulting unsteady aerodynamic response of the downstream stators was much more complex and correlated poorly with the linear-theory gust predictions. It is shown that the forcing function generator significantly affects the resulting gust response, with the complexity of the response characteristics increasing from the perforated-plate to the airfoil-cascade forcing functions.

15. Forcing function effects on unsteady aerodynamic gust response: Part 2--Low solidity airfoil row response

SciTech Connect

Henderson, G.H.; Fleeter, S. . School of Mechanical Engineering)

1993-10-01

The fundamental gust modeling assumption is investigated by means of series of experiments performed in the Purdue Annular Cascade Research Facility. The unsteady periodic flow field is generated by rotating rows of perforated plates and airfoil cascades, with the resulting unsteady periodic chord wise pressure response of a downstream low-solidity stator row determined by miniature pressure transducers embedded within selected airfoils. When the forcing function exhibited the characteristic of a linear-theory vortical gust, as was the case for the perforated-plate wake generators, the resulting response on the downstream stator airfoils was in excellent agreement with the linear-theory models. In contrast, when the forcing function did not exhibit linear-theory vortical gust characteristics, i.e., for the airfoil wake generators, the resulting unsteady aerodynamic responses of the downstream stators were much more complex and correlated poorly with the linear-theory gust predictions. Thus, this investigation has quantitatively shown that the forcing function generator significantly affects the resulting gust response, with the complexity of the response characteristics increasing from the perforated-plate to the airfoil-cascade forcing functions.

16. Theoretical and Experimental studies of aerodynamic interference effects. [aerodynamic forces on winglets and on wing nacelle configurations for the YC-14 and KC-135 aircraft

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rettie, I. H.

1980-01-01

Theoretical studies of aerodynamic forces on winglets shed considerable light on the mechanism by which these devices can reduce drag at constant total lift and on the necessity for proper alignment and cambering to achieve optimum favorable interference. Results of engineering studies, wind tunnel tests and performance predictions are reviewed for installations proposed for the AMST YC-14 and the KC-135 airplanes. The other major area of aerodynamic interference discussed is that of engine nacelle installations. Slipper and overwing nacelles have received much attention because of their potential for noise reduction, propulsive lift and improved ground clearance. A major challenge is the integration of such nacelles with the supercritical flow on the upper surface of a swept wing in cruise at high subsonic speeds.

17. Force balance in the take-off of a pierid butterfly: relative importance and timing of leg impulsion and aerodynamic forces.

PubMed

Bimbard, Gaëlle; Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Bouteleux, Olivier; Casas, Jérôme; Godoy-Diana, Ramiro

2013-09-15

Up to now, the take-off stage has remained an elusive phase of insect flight that was relatively poorly explored compared with other maneuvers. An overall assessment of the different mechanisms involved in force production during take-off has never been explored. Focusing on the first downstroke, we have addressed this problem from a force balance perspective in butterflies taking off from the ground. In order to determine whether the sole aerodynamic wing force could explain the observed motion of the insect, we have firstly compared a simple analytical model of the wing force with the acceleration of the insect's center of mass estimated from video tracking of the wing and body motions. Secondly, wing kinematics were also used for numerical simulations of the aerodynamic flow field. Similar wing aerodynamic forces were obtained by the two methods. However, neither are sufficient, nor is the inclusion of the ground effect, to predict faithfully the body acceleration. We have to resort to the leg forces to obtain a model that best fits the data. We show that the median and hind legs display an active extension responsible for the initiation of the upward motion of the insect's body, occurring before the onset of the wing downstroke. We estimate that legs generate, at various times, an upward force that can be much larger than all other forces applied to the insect's body. The relative timing of leg and wing forces explains the large variability of trajectories observed during the maneuvers.

18. Aerodynamic forces and flow structures of the leading edge vortex on a flapping wing considering ground effect.

PubMed

Van Truong, Tien; Byun, Doyoung; Kim, Min Jun; Yoon, Kwang Joon; Park, Hoon Cheol

2013-09-01

The aim of this work is to provide an insight into the aerodynamic performance of the beetle during takeoff, which has been estimated in previous investigations. We employed a scaled-up electromechanical model flapping wing to measure the aerodynamic forces and the three-dimensional flow structures on the flapping wing. The ground effect on the unsteady forces and flow structures were also characterized. The dynamically scaled wing model could replicate the general stroke pattern of the beetle's hind wing kinematics during takeoff flight. Two wing kinematic models have been studied to examine the influences of wing kinematics on unsteady aerodynamic forces. In the first model, the angle of attack is asymmetric and varies during the translational motion, which is the flapping motion of the beetle's hind wing. In the second model, the angle of attack is constant during the translational motion. The instantaneous aerodynamic forces were measured for four strokes during the beetle's takeoff by the force sensor attached at the wing base. Flow visualization provided a general picture of the evolution of the three-dimensional leading edge vortex (LEV) on the beetle hind wing model. The LEV is stable during each stroke, and increases radically from the root to the tip, forming a leading-edge spiral vortex. The force measurement results show that the vertical force generated by the hind wing is large enough to lift the beetle. For the beetle hind wing kinematics, the total vertical force production increases 18.4% and 8.6% for the first and second strokes, respectively, due to the ground effect. However, for the model with a constant angle of attack during translation, the vertical force is reduced during the first stroke. During the third and fourth strokes, the ground effect is negligible for both wing kinematic patterns. This finding suggests that the beetle's flapping mechanism induces a ground effect that can efficiently lift its body from the ground during takeoff.

19. Classical Aerodynamic Theory

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jones, R. T. (Compiler)

1979-01-01

A collection of papers on modern theoretical aerodynamics is presented. Included are theories of incompressible potential flow and research on the aerodynamic forces on wing and wing sections of aircraft and on airship hulls.

20. Governor's Task Force on Immigration: Final Report.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

1984

Texas Governor Mark White established a 28-member Governor's Task Force on Immigration on March 24, 1983 to: (1) examine the impact on Texas and its citizens of the legislative issues in the proposed federal Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1983; (2) hold public hearings to gain input from citizens, business, industry, labor, ranching and…

1. User Education Task Force Final Report.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL. Univ. Libraries.

As part of a strategic planning process, Northwestern University Library appointed a User Education Task Force to address the challenges and opportunities facing its library user education program. The overriding goal was to create an action plan for positioning the library to be an active partner in the educational and research processes of the…

2. Toward an Engineering Model for the Aerodynamic Forces Acting on Wind Turbine Blades in Quasisteady Standstill and Blade Installation Situations

Gaunaa, Mac; Heinz, Joachim; Skrzypiński, Witold

2016-09-01

3. Effect of wing-wake interaction on aerodynamic force generation on a 2D flapping wing

Lua, K. B.; Lim, T. T.; Yeo, K. S.

2011-07-01

This paper is motivated by the works of Dickinson et al. (Science 284:1954-1960, 1999) and Sun and Tang (J Exp Biol 205:55-70, 2002) which provided two different perspectives on the influence of wing-wake interaction (or wake capture) on lift generation during flapping motion. Dickinson et al. (Science 284:1954-1960, 1999) hypothesize that wake capture is responsible for the additional lift generated at the early phase of each stroke, while Sun and Tang (J Exp Biol 205:55-70, 2002) believe otherwise. Here, we take a more fundamental approach to study the effect of wing-wake interaction on the aerodynamic force generation by carrying out simultaneous force and flow field measurements on a two-dimensional wing subjected to two different types of motion. In one of the motions, the wing at a fixed angle of attack was made to follow a motion profile described by "acceleration-constant velocity-deceleration". Here, the wing was first linearly accelerated from rest to a predetermined maximum velocity and remains at that speed for set duration before linearly decelerating to a stop. The acceleration and deceleration phase each accounted for only 10% of the stroke, and the stroke covered a total distance of three chord lengths. In another motion, the wing was subjected to the same above-mentioned movement, but in a back and forth manner over twenty strokes. Results show that there are two possible outcomes of wing-wake interaction. The first outcome occurs when the wing encounters a pair of counter-rotating wake vortices on the reverse stroke, and the induced velocity of these vortices impinges directly on the windward side of the wing, resulting in a higher oncoming flow to the wing, which translates into a higher lift. Another outcome is when the wing encounters one vortex on the reverse stroke, and the close proximity of this vortex to the windward surface of the wing, coupled with the vortex suction effect (caused by low pressure region at the center of the vortex

4. Development of the method of an electrohydrodynamic force effect on a boundary layer for active control of aerodynamic flows

Aleshin, B. S.; Khomich, V. Yu.; Chernyshev, S. L.

2016-12-01

The results of investigations on the possibility of an electrohydrodynamic force effect on a gas flow implemented with the help of a barrier discharge are presented. A new method of controlling the laminar flow around a base with suppression of instabilities of the incoming flow due to electrohydrodynamic force action on the boundary layer near the forward edge of a swept wing is proposed. An efficient multidischarge actuator system is developed and created for active control of aerodynamic flows with induced-air-flow characteristics exceeding the world analogues.

5. Computer subroutine for estimating aerodynamic blade loads on Darrieus vertical axis wind turbines. [FORCE code

SciTech Connect

Sullivan, W. N.; Leonard, T. M.

1980-11-01

An important aspect of structural design of the Darrieus rotor is the determination of aerodynamic blade loads. This report describes a load generator which has been used at Sandia for quasi-static and dynamic rotor analyses. The generator is based on the single streamtube aerodynamic flow model and is constructed as a FORTRAN IV subroutine to facilitate its use in finite element structural models. Input and output characteristics of the subroutine are described and a complete listing is attached as an appendix.

6. Final Technical Report Transport Task Force

SciTech Connect

P.W. Terry

2006-08-22

7. A study of the nonlinear aerodynamics of bodies in nonplanar motion. Ph.D. Thesis - Stanford Univ., Calif.; [numerical analysis of aerodynamic force and moment systems during large amplitude, arbitrary motions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Schiff, L. B.

1974-01-01

Concepts from the theory of functionals are used to develop nonlinear formulations of the aerodynamic force and moment systems acting on bodies in large-amplitude, arbitrary motions. The analysis, which proceeds formally once the functional dependence of the aerodynamic reactions upon the motion variables is established, ensures the inclusion, within the resulting formulation, of pertinent aerodynamic terms that normally are excluded in the classical treatment. Applied to the large-amplitude, slowly varying, nonplanar motion of a body, the formulation suggests that the aerodynamic moment can be compounded of the moments acting on the body in four basic motions: steady angle of attack, pitch oscillations, either roll or yaw oscillations, and coning motion. Coning, where the nose of the body describes a circle around the velocity vector, characterizes the nonplanar nature of the general motion.

8. Pressure loads and aerodynamic force information for the -89A space shuttle orbiter configuration, volume 2. [for structural strength analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mennell, R. C.

1973-01-01

Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted on an 0.0405 scale representation of the Rockwell -89A Light Weight Space Shuttle Orbiter. The test purpose was to obtain pressure loads data in the presence of the ground for orbiter structural strength analysis. Aerodynamic force data was also recorded to allow correlation with all pressure loads information. Angles of attack from minus 3 deg to 18 deg and angles of sideslip of 0 deg, plus or minus 50 deg, and plus or minus 10 deg were tested in the presence of the NAAL ground plane. Static pressure bugs were used to obtain a pressure loads survey of the basic configuration, elevon deflections of 5 deg, 10 deg, 15 deg, and minus 20 deg and a rudder deflection of minus 15 deg, at a tunnel dynamic pressure of 40 psi. The test procedure was to locate a maximum of 30 static pressure bugs on the model surface at various locations calculated to prevent aerodynamic and physical interference. Then by various combinations of location the pressure bugs output was to define a complete pressure survey for the fuselages, wing, vertical tail, and main landing gear door.

9. Flight Test Determined Aerodynamics Force and Moment Characteristics of the X-43A Research Vehicle at Mach 7.0

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Davis, Mark C.; White, J. Terry

2006-01-01

The second flight of the HYPER-X Program afforded a unique opportunity to determine the aerodynamic force and moment characteristics of an airframe integrated scramjet powered aircraft in hypersonic flight. These data were gathered via a repeated series of pitch, yaw, and roll doublets, frequency sweeps, and pull-up/push-over maneuvers performed throughout the X-43A cowl-closed descent phase. The subject flight research maneuvers were conducted in a Mach number range of 6.8 to 0.95 at altitudes from 92,000 ft to sea level. In this flight regime, the dynamic pressure varied from 1300 psf to 400 psf with angle-of-attack ranging from 0 deg to 14 deg. The flight-extracted aerodynamics were compared with pre-flight predictions based on wind tunnel test data. The X-43A flight-derived axial force was found to be 10 to 15 percent higher than prediction. Under-predictions of similar magnitude were observed for the normal force. For Mach numbers greater than 4, the X-43A flight-derived stability and control characteristics resulted in larger than predicted static margins, with the largest discrepancy approximately 5-inches forward along the X(CG) at Mach 6. This would result in less static margin in pitch. The X-43A predicted lateral-directional stability and control characteristics matched well with flight data when allowance was made for the high uncertainty in angle-of-sideslip.

10. Flight-Test-Determined Aerodynamic Force and Moment Characteristics of the X-43A at Mach 7.0

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Davis. Marl C.; White, J. Terry

2006-01-01

The second flight of the Hyper-X program afforded a unique opportunity to determine the aerodynamic force and moment characteristics of an airframe-integrated scramjet-powered aircraft in hypersonic flight. These data were gathered via a repeated series of pitch, yaw, and roll doublets; frequency sweeps; and pushover-pullup maneuvers performed throughout the X-43A cowl-closed descent. Maneuvers were conducted at Mach numbers of 6.80 to 0.95 and altitudes from 92,000 ft msl to sea level. The dynamic pressure varied from 1300 psf to 400 psf with the angle of attack ranging from 0 deg to 14 deg. The flight-extracted aerodynamics were compared with preflight predictions based on wind-tunnel-test data. The X-43A flight-derived axial force was found to be 10 percent to 15 percent higher than prediction. Under-predictions of similar magnitude were observed for the normal force. For Mach numbers above 4.0, the flight-derived stability and control characteristics resulted in larger-than-predicted static margins, with the largest discrepancy approximately 5 in. forward along the x-axis center of gravity at Mach 6.0. This condition would result in less static margin in pitch. The predicted lateral-directional stability and control characteristics matched well with flight data when allowance was made for the high uncertainty in angle of sideslip.

11. X-43A Flight-Test-Determined Aerodynamic Force and Moment Characteristics at Mach 7.0

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Davis, Mark C.; White, J. Terry

2008-01-01

The second flight of the Hyper-X program afforded a unique opportunity to determine the aerodynamic force and moment characteristics of an airframe-integrated scramjet-powered aircraft in hypersonic flight. These data were gathered via a repeated series of pitch, yaw, and roll doublets, frequency sweeps, and pushover-pullup maneuvers performed throughout the X-43A cowl-closed descent. Maneuvers were conducted at Mach numbers of 6.80-0.95 and at altitudes from 92,000 ft mean sea level to sea level. The dynamic pressure varied from 1300 to 400 psf with the angle of attack ranging from 0 to 14 deg. The flight-extracted aerodynamics were compared with preflight predictions based on wind-tunnel test data. The X-43A flight-derived axial force was found to be 10-15%higher than prediction. Underpredictions of similar magnitude were observed for the normal force. For Mach numbers above 4.0, the flight-derived stability and control characteristics resulted in larger-than-predicted static margins, with the largest discrepancy approximately 5 in. forward along the x-axis center of gravity at Mach 6.0. This condition would result in less static margin in pitch. The predicted lateral-directional stability and control characteristics matched well with flight data when allowance was made for the high uncertainty in angle of sideslip.

12. PROP3D: A Program for 3D Euler Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic (Flutter and Forced Response) Analysis of Propellers. Version 1.0

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Srivastava, R.; Reddy, T. S. R.

1996-01-01

This guide describes the input data required, for steady or unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis of propellers and the output files generated, in using PROP3D. The aerodynamic forces are obtained by solving three dimensional unsteady, compressible Euler equations. A normal mode structural analysis is used to obtain the aeroelastic equations, which are solved using either time domain or frequency domain solution method. Sample input and output files are included in this guide for steady aerodynamic analysis of single and counter-rotation propellers, and aeroelastic analysis of single-rotation propeller.

13. The effect of the nonlinear velocity and history dependencies of the aerodynamic force on the dynamic response of a rotating wind turbine blade

van der Male, Pim; van Dalen, Karel N.; Metrikine, Andrei V.

2016-11-01

14. Peterson Air Force Base Transportation Plan Final Environmental Assessment

DTIC Science & Technology

2013-03-01

Final Environmental Assessment Peterson Air Force Base Transportation Plan March 2013 FELSBURG H O L T & U L L E V I G Report Documentation Page Form...ABSTRACT unclassified c . THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 PETERSON AIR...4-1 4.2 Off-Base Activities

15. NASTRAN supplemental documentation for modal forced vibration analysis of aerodynamically excited turbosystems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Elchuri, V.; Pamidi, P. R.

1985-01-01

This report is a supplemental NASTRAN document for a new capability to determine the vibratory response of turbosystems subjected to aerodynamic excitation. Supplements of NASTRAN Theoretical, User's, Programmer's, and Demonstration Manuals are included. Turbosystems such as advanced turbopropellers with highly swept blades, and axial-flow compressors and turbines can be analyzed using this capability, which has been developed and implemented in the April 1984 release of the general purpose finite element program NASTRAN. The dynamic response problem is addressed in terms of the normal modal coordinates of these tuned rotating cyclic structures. Both rigid and flexible hubs/disks are considered. Coriolis and centripetal accelerations, as well as differential stiffness effects are included. Generally nonuniform steady inflow fields and uniform flow fields arbitrarily inclined at small angles with respect to the axis of rotation of the turbosystem are considered as the sources of aerodynamic excitation. The spatial nonuniformities are considered to be small deviations from a principally uniform inflow. Subsonic relative inflows are addressed, with provision for linearly interpolating transonic airloads.

16. A flow visualization and aerodynamic force data evaluation of spanwise blowing on full and half span delta wings

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Visser, K. D.; Nelson, R. C.; Ng, T. T.

1989-01-01

A wind-tunnel investigation has been performed to quantify the effects of a jet on the leading-edge vortices generated by a 70-deg-sweep sharp-edged delta wing at low Reynolds numbers. Efforts were made ot optimize the jet nozzle position with respect to maximum lift increments. Both half-span force-balance testing and half- and full-span flow visualization tests were conducted. Two angles of attack were investigated, 30 and 35 deg, at Reynolds numbers of 150,000 and 200,000. Aerodynamic enhancement, including lift and drag gains of about 20 and 17 percent respectively, were measured. Results indicate an optimum jet nozzle location to be close to the leading edge, tangent to the upper wing surface, and in a direction aligned parallel to the leading edge. Nozzle interference effects, especially near the apex, were not negligible.

17. Fourier functional analysis for unsteady aerodynamic modeling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lan, C. Edward; Chin, Suei

1991-01-01

A method based on Fourier analysis is developed to analyze the force and moment data obtained in large amplitude forced oscillation tests at high angles of attack. The aerodynamic models for normal force, lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients are built up from a set of aerodynamic responses to harmonic motions at different frequencies. Based on the aerodynamic models of harmonic data, the indicial responses are formed. The final expressions for the models involve time integrals of the indicial type advocated by Tobak and Schiff. Results from linear two- and three-dimensional unsteady aerodynamic theories as well as test data for a 70-degree delta wing are used to verify the models. It is shown that the present modeling method is accurate in producing the aerodynamic responses to harmonic motions and the ramp type motions. The model also produces correct trend for a 70-degree delta wing in harmonic motion with different mean angles-of-attack. However, the current model cannot be used to extrapolate data to higher angles-of-attack than that of the harmonic motions which form the aerodynamic model. For linear ramp motions, a special method is used to calculate the corresponding frequency and phase angle at a given time. The calculated results from modeling show a higher lift peak for linear ramp motion than for harmonic ramp motion. The current model also shows reasonably good results for the lift responses at different angles of attack.

18. Incremental Aerodynamic Coefficient Database for the USA2

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Richardson, Annie Catherine

2016-01-01

In March through May of 2016, a wind tunnel test was conducted by the Aerosciences Branch (EV33) to visually study the unsteady aerodynamic behavior over multiple transition geometries for the Universal Stage Adapter 2 (USA2) in the MSFC Aerodynamic Research Facility's Trisonic Wind Tunnel (TWT). The purpose of the test was to make a qualitative comparison of the transonic flow field in order to provide a recommended minimum transition radius for manufacturing. Additionally, 6 Degree of Freedom force and moment data for each configuration tested was acquired in order to determine the geometric effects on the longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients (Normal Force, Axial Force, and Pitching Moment). In order to make a quantitative comparison of the aerodynamic effects of the USA2 transition geometry, the aerodynamic coefficient data collected during the test was parsed and incorporated into a database for each USA2 configuration tested. An incremental aerodynamic coefficient database was then developed using the generated databases for each USA2 geometry as a function of Mach number and angle of attack. The final USA2 coefficient increments will be applied to the aerodynamic coefficients of the baseline geometry to adjust the Space Launch System (SLS) integrated launch vehicle force and moment database based on the transition geometry of the USA2.

19. User's Guide for MSAP2D: A Program for Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic (Flutter and Forced Response) Analysis of Multistage Compressors and Turbines. 1.0

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reddy, T. S. R.; Srivastava, R.

1996-01-01

20. The Aerodynamic Forces on Slender Plane- and Cruciform-Wing and Body Combinations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spreiter, John R

1950-01-01

The load distribution, forces, and moments are calculated theoretically for inclined slender wing-body combinations consisting of a slender body of revolution and either a plane or cruciform arrangement of low-aspect-ratio pointed wings. The results are applicable at subsonic and transonic speeds, and at supersonic speeds, provided the entire wing-body combination lies near the center of the Mach cone.

1. Aerodynamically induced radial forces in a centrifugal gas compressor. Part 1: Experimental measurement

SciTech Connect

Moore, J.J.; Flathers, M.B.

1998-04-01

2. The effect of solar forcing induced atmospheric perturbations on LEO satellites' nominal aerodynamic drag

Nwankwo, Victor U. J.; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Weigel, Robert

2016-07-01

Atmospheric drag is the strongest force perturbing the motion of satellites in low Earth orbits LEO, and could cause re-entry of satellites, difficulty in identifying and tracking of the satellites and other space objects, manuvering and prediction of lifetime and re-entry. Solar activities influence the temperature, density and composition of the upper atmosphere. These effects thus strongly depend on the phase of a solar cycle. The frequency of intense flares and storms increase during solar maximum. Heating up of the atmosphere causes its expansion eventually leading to accelerated drag of orbiting satellites, especially those in LEO. In this paper, we present the model of the atmospheric drag effect on the trajectory of hypothetical LEO satellites of different ballistic coefficients. We investigate long-term trend of atmospheric drag on LEO satellites due to solar forcing induced atmospheric perturbations and heating at different phases of the solar cycle, and during interval of strong geomagnetic disturbances or storms. We show the dependence of orbital decay on severity of both the solar cycle and phase, and the extent of geomagnetic perturbations. The result of the model compares well with the observed decay profile of existing LEO satellites and provides a better understanding of the issue of the orbital decay. Our result may also be useful for selection of launch window of satellites for an extended lifetime in the orbit.

3. Aerodynamic Characteristics of a 14-Percent-Thick NASA Supercritical Airfoil Designed for a Normal-Force Coefficient of 0.7

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Harris, C. D.

1975-01-01

This report documents the experimental aerodynamic characteristics of a 14 percent thick supercritical airfoil based on an off design sonic pressure plateau criterion. The design normal force coefficient was 0.7. The results are compared with those of the family related 10 percent thick supercritical airfoil 33. Comparisons are also made between experimental and theoretical characteristics and composite drag rise characteristics derived for a full scale Reynolds number of 40 million.

4. Aerodynamic forces and flows of the full and partial clap-fling motions in insects

PubMed Central

Sun, Mao

2017-01-01

Most of the previous studies on Weis-Fogh clap-fling mechanism have focused on the vortex structures and velocity fields. Detailed pressure distribution results are provided for the first time in this study to reveal the differences between the full and the partial clap-fling motions. The two motions are studied by numerically solving the Navier–Stokes equations in moving overset grids. The Reynolds number is set to 20, relevant to the tiny flying insects. The following has been shown: (1) During the clap phase, the wings clap together and create a high pressure region in the closing gap between wings, greatly increasing the positive pressure on the lower surface of wing, while pressure on the upper surface is almost unchanged by the interaction; during the fling phase, the wings fling apart and create a low pressure region in the opening gap between wings, greatly increasing the suction pressure on the upper surface of wing, while pressure on the lower surface is almost unchanged by the interaction; (2) The interference effect between wings is most severe at the end of clap phase and the start of the fling phase: two sharp force peaks (8–9 times larger than that of the one-winged case) are generated. But the total force peaks are manifested mostly as drag and barely as lift of the wing, owing to the vertical orientation of the wing section; (3) The wing–wing interaction effect in the partial clap-fling case is much weaker than that in the full clap-fling case, avoiding the generation of huge drag. Compared with a single wing flapping with the same motion, mean lift in the partial case is enhanced by 12% without suffering any efficiency degradation, indicating that partial clap-fling is a more practical choice for tiny insects to employ. PMID:28289562

5. Sensitivity of aerodynamic forces in laminar and turbulent flow past a square cylinder

Meliga, Philippe; Boujo, Edouard; Pujals, Gregory; Gallaire, François

2014-10-01

6. Propulsion and airframe aerodynamic interactions of supersonic V/STOL configurations. Volume 2: Wind tunnel test force and moment data report

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zilz, D. E.

1985-01-01

A wind tunnel model of a supersonic V/STOL fighter configuration has been tested to measure the aerodynamic interaction effects which can result from geometrically close-coupled propulsion system/airframe components. The approach was to configure the model to represent two different test techniques. One was a conventional test technique composed of two test modes. In the Flow-Through mode, absolute configuration aerodynamics are measured, including inlet/airframe interactions. In the Jet-Effects mode, incremental nozzle/airframe interactions are measured. The other test technique is a propulsion simulator approach, where a sub-scale, externally powered engine is mounted in the model. This allows proper measurement of inlet/airframe and nozzle/airframe interactions simultaneously. This is Volume 2 of 2: Wind Tunnel Test Force and Moment Data Report.

7. The aerodynamics of hovering flight in Drosophila.

PubMed

Fry, Steven N; Sayaman, Rosalyn; Dickinson, Michael H

2005-06-01

Using 3D infrared high-speed video, we captured the continuous wing and body kinematics of free-flying fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, during hovering and slow forward flight. We then 'replayed' the wing kinematics on a dynamically scaled robotic model to measure the aerodynamic forces produced by the wings. Hovering animals generate a U-shaped wing trajectory, in which large drag forces during a downward plunge at the start of each stroke create peak vertical forces. Quasi-steady mechanisms could account for nearly all of the mean measured force required to hover, although temporal discrepancies between instantaneous measured forces and model predictions indicate that unsteady mechanisms also play a significant role. We analyzed the requirements for hovering from an analysis of the time history of forces and moments in all six degrees of freedom. The wing kinematics necessary to generate sufficient lift are highly constrained by the requirement to balance thrust and pitch torque over the stroke cycle. We also compare the wing motion and aerodynamic forces of free and tethered flies. Tethering causes a strong distortion of the stroke pattern that results in a reduction of translational forces and a prominent nose-down pitch moment. The stereotyped distortion under tethered conditions is most likely due to a disruption of sensory feedback. Finally, we calculated flight power based directly on the measurements of wing motion and aerodynamic forces, which yielded a higher estimate of muscle power during free hovering flight than prior estimates based on time-averaged parameters. This discrepancy is mostly due to a two- to threefold underestimate of the mean profile drag coefficient in prior studies. We also compared our values with the predictions of the same time-averaged models using more accurate kinematic and aerodynamic input parameters based on our high-speed videography measurements. In this case, the time-averaged models tended to overestimate flight

8. Iced-airfoil aerodynamics

Bragg, M. B.; Broeren, A. P.; Blumenthal, L. A.

2005-07-01

Past research on airfoil aerodynamics in icing are reviewed. This review emphasizes the time period after the 1978 NASA Lewis workshop that initiated the modern icing research program at NASA and the current period after the 1994 ATR accident where aerodynamics research has been more aircraft safety focused. Research pre-1978 is also briefly reviewed. Following this review, our current knowledge of iced airfoil aerodynamics is presented from a flowfield-physics perspective. This article identifies four classes of ice accretions: roughness, horn ice, streamwise ice, and spanwise-ridge ice. For each class, the key flowfield features such as flowfield separation and reattachment are discussed and how these contribute to the known aerodynamic effects of these ice shapes. Finally Reynolds number and Mach number effects on iced-airfoil aerodynamics are summarized.

9. Projectiles and Aerodynamic Forces.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Armstrong, H. L.

1984-01-01

Discusses the air resistance on projectiles, examining (in separate sections) air resistance less than gravity and air resistance greater than gravity. Also considers an approximation in which a trajectory is divided into two parts, the first part neglecting gravity and the second part neglecting the air resistance. (JN)

10. The effects on propulsion-induced aerodynamic forces of vectoring a partial-span rectangular jet at Mach numbers from 0.40 to 1.20

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Capone, F. J.

1975-01-01

An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel to determine the induced lift characteristics of a vectored thrust concept in which a rectangular jet exhaust nozzle was located in the fuselage at the wing trailing edge. The effects of nozzle deflection angles of 0 deg to 45 deg were studied at Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.2, at angles of attack up to 14 deg, and with thrust coefficients up to 0.35. Separate force balances were used to determine total aerodynamic and thrust forces as well as thrust forces which allowed a direct measurement of jet turning angle at forward speeds. Wing pressure loading and flow characteristics using oil flow techniques were also studied.

11. Task Force on Aboriginal Peoples in Federal Corrections. Final Report.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ministry of the Solicitor General, Ottawa (Ontario).

This report presents the findings and recommendations of the Canadian Task Force on the Reintegration of Aboriginal Offenders as Law-Abiding Citizens. This task force was established in March 1987 by the Canadian federal government to examine and recommend changes for improving services to help incarcerated Aboriginals achieve successful social…

12. A comprehensive estimate of the static aerodynamic forces and moments of the 8 x 8 x 20 ft. cargo container

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cicolani, Luigi; Kanning, Gerd

1987-01-01

A comprehensive static aerodynamic simulation model of the 8 by 8 by 20 ft MILVAN cargo container is determined by combining the wind tunnel data from a 1972 NASA Ames Research Center study taken over the restricted domain (0 is less than or equal to phi is less than or equal to 90 degrees; 0 is less than or equal to alpha is less than or equal to 45 degrees) with extrapolation relations derived from the geometric symmetry of rectangular boxes. It is found that the aerodynamics of any attitude can be defined from the aerodynamics at an equivalent attitude in the restricted domain (0 is less than phi is less than 45 degrees; 0 is less than alpha is less than 90 degrees). However, a similar comprehensive equivalence with the domain spanned by the data is not available; in particular, about two-thirds of the domain with the absolute value of alpha is greater than 45 degrees is unrelated to the data. Nevertheless, as estimate can be defined for this region consistent with the measured or theoretical values along its boundaries and the theoretical equivalence of points within the region. These descrepancies are assumed to be due to measurement errors. Data from independent wind tunnel studies are reviewed; these are less comprehensive than the NASA Ames Research Center but show good to fair agreement with both the theory and the estimate given here.

13. 75 FR 24930 - Fort Bliss (Texas) Army Growth and Force Structure Realignment Final Environmental Impact...

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

2010-05-06

... Department of the Army Fort Bliss (Texas) Army Growth and Force Structure Realignment Final Environmental... Department of the Army announces the availability of the Fort Bliss Army Growth and Force Structure... improvements at Fort Bliss to support Army growth and force structure realignment. The FEIS tiers from...

14. Aerodynamics of a Party Balloon

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cross, Rod

2007-01-01

It is well-known that a party balloon can be made to fly erratically across a room, but it can also be used for quantitative measurements of other aspects of aerodynamics. Since a balloon is light and has a large surface area, even relatively weak aerodynamic forces can be readily demonstrated or measured in the classroom. Accurate measurements…

15. Final A Street Pond Expansion Environmental Assessment at Beale Air Force Base, California

DTIC Science & Technology

2008-09-01

FINAL A STREET POND EXPANSION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT AT BEALE AIR FORCE BASE, CALIFORNIA Beale Air Force Base...00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Final A Street Pond Expansion Environmental Assessment at Beale Air Force Base, California 5a...authorized to do so by the California Regional Water Quality Control Board (CRWQCB). The proposed project is to increase the capacity of A Street Pond in

16. Governor Janklow's Citizen Task Force on Education. Final Report.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

South Dakota State Dept. of Education and Cultural Affairs, Pierre.

This document contains the South Dakota Department of Education and Cultural Affairs (DECA) mission statement, developed by the Governor's Task Force on Education. The DECA's mission is to advocate for education, facilitate the delivery of statewide educational and cultural services and promote efficient, appropriate, and quality educational…

17. Governor's Task Force on Migrant Labor. Final Report.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Governor's Task Force on Migrant Labor, Detroit, MI.

Michigan's 9-member Task Force on Migrant Labor, established in 1969, was charged by the governor (1) to develop and provide for carrying out more effective ways to coordinate the functions of state government, to better utilize available resources, and to enforce existing laws; (2) to determine whether existing law in this field is adequate or…

18. Urban Consortium Energy Task Force - Year 21 Final Report

SciTech Connect

2003-04-01

The Urban Consortium Energy Task Force (UCETF), comprised of representatives of large cities and counties in the United States, is a subgroup of the Urban Consortium, an organization of the nation's largest cities and counties joined together to identify, develop and deploy innovative approaches and technological solutions to pressing urban issues.

19. Final Creech Air Force Base Capital Improvements Program Environmental Assessment

DTIC Science & Technology

2013-11-01

maintain operational mission such as emergency power, check valves, heating and air conditioning units, force protection, under-wing foam system ...Repair Fire Alarm System , Building 2 Airfield LKTC141030 Construct Drainage Culverts Along Road Utility LKTC141031 Replace Heat Pump, Building 234...Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) — a synthetic, organic chemical once widely used in electrical equipment, specialized hydraulic systems , heat transfer

20. Evaluating the Environmental Health Work Force. Final Report.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Levine Associates, Inc., Rockville, MD.

This report contains all materials pertinent to an intensive evaluation of the environmental health work force conducted in 1986 and 1987. The materials relate to a workshop that was one of the key tools used in conducting the study to estimate environmental health personnel supply, demand, and need. The report begins with an overview and…

1. Aerodynamic effects of flexibility in flapping wings.

PubMed

Zhao, Liang; Huang, Qingfeng; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P

2010-03-06

Recent work on the aerodynamics of flapping flight reveals fundamental differences in the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation between fixed and flapping wings. When fixed wings translate at high angles of attack, they periodically generate and shed leading and trailing edge vortices as reflected in their fluctuating aerodynamic force traces and associated flow visualization. In contrast, wings flapping at high angles of attack generate stable leading edge vorticity, which persists throughout the duration of the stroke and enhances mean aerodynamic forces. Here, we show that aerodynamic forces can be controlled by altering the trailing edge flexibility of a flapping wing. We used a dynamically scaled mechanical model of flapping flight (Re approximately 2000) to measure the aerodynamic forces on flapping wings of variable flexural stiffness (EI). For low to medium angles of attack, as flexibility of the wing increases, its ability to generate aerodynamic forces decreases monotonically but its lift-to-drag ratios remain approximately constant. The instantaneous force traces reveal no major differences in the underlying modes of force generation for flexible and rigid wings, but the magnitude of force, the angle of net force vector and centre of pressure all vary systematically with wing flexibility. Even a rudimentary framework of wing veins is sufficient to restore the ability of flexible wings to generate forces at near-rigid values. Thus, the magnitude of force generation can be controlled by modulating the trailing edge flexibility and thereby controlling the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity. To characterize this, we have generated a detailed database of aerodynamic forces as a function of several variables including material properties, kinematics, aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure, which can also be used to help validate computational models of aeroelastic flapping wings. These experiments will also be useful for wing design for small

2. Final Environmental Assessment for Force Structure Changes at Langley Air Force Base, VA

DTIC Science & Technology

2011-10-01

Shepard Blvd, Hampton, VA, 23665, DEQ PC No. 20095002, PC Case Status - Release Confirmed, Case Closed. Langley Air Force Base- Building 333, 90 Oak...NOISEXPO ‘77, Chicago , IL. March. White, R. 1972. Effects of Repetitive Sonic Booms on Glass Breakage. FAA Report FAA-RD-72- 43. April. 6

3. Computational aerodynamics and design

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ballhaus, W. F., Jr.

1982-01-01

The role of computational aerodynamics in design is reviewed with attention given to the design process; the proper role of computations; the importance of calibration, interpretation, and verification; the usefulness of a given computational capability; and the marketing of new codes. Examples of computational aerodynamics in design are given with particular emphasis on the Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology. Finally, future prospects are noted, with consideration given to the role of advanced computers, advances in numerical solution techniques, turbulence models, complex geometries, and computational design procedures. Previously announced in STAR as N82-33348

4. Global Nonlinear Parametric Modeling with Application to F-16 Aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Morelli, Eugene A.

1998-01-01

A global nonlinear parametric modeling technique is described and demonstrated. The technique uses multivariate orthogonal modeling functions generated from the data to determine nonlinear model structure, then expands each retained modeling function into an ordinary multivariate polynomial. The final model form is a finite multivariate power series expansion for the dependent variable in terms of the independent variables. Partial derivatives of the identified models can be used to assemble globally valid linear parameter varying models. The technique is demonstrated by identifying global nonlinear parametric models for nondimensional aerodynamic force and moment coefficients from a subsonic wind tunnel database for the F-16 fighter aircraft. Results show less than 10% difference between wind tunnel aerodynamic data and the nonlinear parameterized model for a simulated doublet maneuver at moderate angle of attack. Analysis indicated that the global nonlinear parametric models adequately captured the multivariate nonlinear aerodynamic functional dependence.

5. Evaluation of the Hinge Moment and Normal Force Aerodynamic Loads from a Seamless Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Flap in Flight

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Miller, Eric J.; Cruz, Josue; Lung, Shun-Fat; Kota, Sridhar; Ervin, Gregory; Lu, Kerr-Jia; Flick, Pete

2016-01-01

6. Final Environmental Assessment Nellis Air Force Base School Initiative, Nellis Air Force Base, Clark County, Nevada

DTIC Science & Technology

2015-04-01

communication, electrical, gas, water, and sewer lines. No asbestos -containing or lead-containing materials would be used In construction of the new school...AFB School Initiative EA ix Final ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ACHP Advisory Council on Historic Preservation ACM asbestos -containing materials ACS...approximately 3- to 10-acre site. The new school would be connected to existing communication, electrical, gas, water, and sewer lines. No asbestos

7. Aerodynamic Leidenfrost effect

Gauthier, Anaïs; Bird, James C.; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David

2016-12-01

When deposited on a plate moving quickly enough, any liquid can levitate as it does when it is volatile on a very hot solid (Leidenfrost effect). In the aerodynamic Leidenfrost situation, air gets inserted between the liquid and the moving solid, a situation that we analyze. We observe two types of entrainment. (i) The thickness of the air gap is found to increase with the plate speed, which is interpreted in the Landau-Levich-Derjaguin frame: Air is dynamically dragged along the surface and its thickness results from a balance between capillary and viscous effects. (ii) Air set in motion by the plate exerts a force on the levitating liquid. We discuss the magnitude of this aerodynamic force and show that it can be exploited to control the liquid and even to drive it against gravity.

8. Aerodynamics: The Wright Way

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cole, Jennifer Hansen

2010-01-01

This slide presentation reviews some of the basic principles of aerodynamics. Included in the presentation are: a few demonstrations of the principles, an explanation of the concepts of lift, drag, thrust and weight, a description of Bernoulli's principle, the concept of the airfoil (i.e., the shape of the wing) and how that effects lift, and the method of controlling an aircraft by manipulating the four forces using control surfaces.

DTIC Science & Technology

1977-02-01

predictable even with knowledge of the motion and the quasi- steady aerodynamic coefficients . It sems likely that the unsteady boundary-layer...build up, which are explainable 41 terams of the stability coefficients . More research is needed on the former type of undemanded manoeuvre. In some...drag 81, 82... B5 body sections I. kg lift St strdke 1M kg m pitching moment N kg normal force T kg axial force a 0 angle of attack Coefficie its: CD, cD

10. Governor's Task Force on Juvenile Corrections Alternatives. Recommendations for Oregon's Juvenile Justice System. Final Report.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oregon Governor's Office, Salem.

This document presents the final report and recommendations of a task force created to study the feasibility of further reducing juvenile training school populations in Oregon. The first section contains an executive summary which briefly reviews the history of Oregon's juvenile justice system and lists findings and recommendations of the task…

11. Aerodynamic Simulation of the MARINTEK Braceless Semisubmersible Wave Tank Tests

Stewart, Gordon; Muskulus, Michael

2016-09-01

Model scale experiments of floating offshore wind turbines are important for both platform design for the industry as well as numerical model validation for the research community. An important consideration in the wave tank testing of offshore wind turbines are scaling effects, especially the tension between accurate scaling of both hydrodynamic and aerodynamic forces. The recent MARINTEK braceless semisubmersible wave tank experiment utilizes a novel aerodynamic force actuator to decouple the scaling of the aerodynamic forces. This actuator consists of an array of motors that pull on cables to provide aerodynamic forces that are calculated by a blade-element momentum code in real time as the experiment is conducted. This type of system has the advantage of supplying realistically scaled aerodynamic forces that include dynamic forces from platform motion, but does not provide the insights into the accuracy of the aerodynamic models that an actual model-scale rotor could provide. The modeling of this system presents an interesting challenge, as there are two ways to simulate the aerodynamics; either by using the turbulent wind fields as inputs to the aerodynamic model of the design code, or by surpassing the aerodynamic model and using the forces applied to the experimental turbine as direct inputs to the simulation. This paper investigates the best practices of modeling this type of novel aerodynamic actuator using a modified wind turbine simulation tool, and demonstrates that bypassing the dynamic aerodynamics solver of design codes can lead to erroneous results.

12. A note on the stochastic nature of particle cohesive force and implications to threshold friction velocity for aerodynamic dust entrainment

Shao, Yaping; Klose, Martina

2016-09-01

There is considerable interest to determine the threshold for aeolian dust emission on Earth and Mars. Existing schemes for threshold friction velocity are all deterministic in nature, but observations show that in the dust particle size range the threshold friction velocity scatters strongly due to stochastic inter-particle cohesion. In the real world, there always exists a certain amount of free dust which can be easily lifted from the surface by weak winds or even turbulence, as exemplified by dust devils. It has been proposed in the dust-devil research community, that the pressure drop at dust-devil center may be a major mechanism for dust-devil dust emission, known as the Δp effect. It is questioned here whether the Δp effect is substantial or whether the elevated dust concentration in dust devils is due to free dust emission. A simple analysis indicates that the Δp effect appears to be small and the dust in dust devils is probably due to free dust emission and dust convergence. To estimate free dust emission, it is useful to define a lower limit of dust-particle threshold friction velocity. A simple expression for this velocity is proposed by making assumptions to the median and variance of inter-particle cohesive force. The simple expression is fitted to the data of the Arizona State University Vortex Generator. While considerable uncertainty remains in the scheme, this note highlights the need for additional research on the stochastic nature of dust emission.

13. Surgical force detection probe

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tcheng, Ping; Roberts, Paul; Scott, Charles; Prass, Richard

1991-01-01

The development progress of a precision electro-mechanical instrument which allows the detection and documentation of the forces and moment applied to human tissue during surgery (under actual operation room conditions), is reported. The pen-shaped prototype probe which measures 1/2 inch in diameter and 7 inches in length was fabricated using an aerodynamic balance. The aerodynamic balance, a standard wind tunnel force and moment sensing transducer, measures the forces and the moments transmitted through the surgeon's hand to the human tissue during surgery. The prototype probe which was fabricated as a development tool was tested successfully. The final version of the surgical force detection probe will be designed based on additional laboratory tests in order to establish the full scale loads. It is expected that the final product will require a simplified aerodynamic balance with two or three force components and one moment component with lighter full scale loads. A signal conditioner was fabricated to process and display the outputs from the prototype probe. This unit will be interfaced with a PC-based data system to provide automatic data acquisition, data processing, and graphics display. The expected overall accuracy of the probe is better than one percent full scale.

14. Chaff Aerodynamics

DTIC Science & Technology

1975-11-01

further improve the contrast all of the interior surfaces of the test chamber are painted flat black and the bac!-,ground walls in view of the cameras...to be adequate to eliminate wall effects on the chaff aerodynamics. Secondly, the chamber air mass had to be sufficiently small that it would damp out...independently- supported special rotating-shutter system to "strobe" the dipole images. The integral shutter in each lens assembly is also retained for

15. Aerodynamics of sports balls

Mehta, R. D.

Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.

16. Aerodynamics of sports balls

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mehta, R. D.

1985-01-01

Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.

17. Aerodynamic lift effect on satellite orbits

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Karr, G. R.; Cleland, J. G.; Devries, L. L.

1975-01-01

Numerical quadrature is employed to obtain orbit perturbation results from the general perturbation equations. Both aerodynamic lift and drag forces are included in the analysis of the satellite orbit. An exponential atmosphere with and without atmospheric rotation is used. A comparison is made of the perturbations which are caused by atmospheric rotation with those caused by satellite aerodynamic effects. Results indicate that aerodynamic lift effects on the semi-major axis and orbit inclination can be of the same order as the effects of atmosphere rotation depending upon the orientation of the lift vector. The results reveal the importance of including aerodynamic lift effects in orbit perturbation analysis.

18. Experimental static aerodynamic forces and moments at high subsonic speeds on a missile model during simulated launching from the midsemispan location of a 45 degree sweptback wing-fuselage-pylon combination

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alford, William J; King, Thomas, Jr

1957-01-01

An investigation was made at high subsonic speeds in the Langley high-speed 7- by 10-foot tunnel to determine the static aerodynamic forces and moments on a missile model during simulated launching from the midsemispan location of a 45 degree sweptback wing-fuselage-pylon combination. The results indicated significant variations in all the aerodynamic components with changes in chordwise location of the missile. Increasing the angle of attack caused increases in the induced effects on the missile model because of the wing-fuselage-pylon combination. Increasing the Mach number had little effect on the variations of the missile aerodynamic characteristics with angle of attack except that nonlinearities were incurred at smaller angles of attack for the higher Mach numbers. The effects of finite wing thickness on the missile characteristics, at zero angle of attack, increase with increasing Mach number. The effects of the pylon on the missile characteristics were to causeincreases in the rolling-moment variation with angle of attack and a negative displacement of the pitching-moment curves at zero angle of attack. The effects of skewing the missile in the lateral direction relative to and sideslipping the missile with the wing-fuselage-pylon combination were to cause additional increments in side force at zero angle of attack. For the missile yawing moments the effects of changes in skew or sideslip angles were qualitatively as would be expected from consideration of the isolated missile characteristics, although there existed differences in theyawing-moment magnitudes.

19. Final Results from Mexnext-I: Analysis of detailed aerodynamic measurements on a 4.5 m diameter rotor placed in the large German Dutch Wind Tunnel DNW

Schepers, J. G.; Boorsma, K.; Munduate, X.

2014-12-01

20. Missile Aerodynamics for Ascent and Re-entry

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Watts, Gaines L.; McCarter, James W.

2012-01-01

Aerodynamic force and moment equations are developed for 6-DOF missile simulations of both the ascent phase of flight and a tumbling re-entry. The missile coordinate frame (M frame) and a frame parallel to the M frame were used for formulating the aerodynamic equations. The missile configuration chosen as an example is a cylinder with fixed fins and a nose cone. The equations include both the static aerodynamic coefficients and the aerodynamic damping derivatives. The inclusion of aerodynamic damping is essential for simulating a tumbling re-entry. Appended information provides insight into aerodynamic damping.

1. PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound

2010-02-01

The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the

2. Application Program Interface for the Orion Aerodynamics Database

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Robinson, Philip E.; Thompson, James

2013-01-01

The Application Programming Interface (API) for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Aerodynamic Database has been developed to provide the developers of software an easily implemented, fully self-contained method of accessing the CEV Aerodynamic Database for use in their analysis and simulation tools. The API is programmed in C and provides a series of functions to interact with the database, such as initialization, selecting various options, and calculating the aerodynamic data. No special functions (file read/write, table lookup) are required on the host system other than those included with a standard ANSI C installation. It reads one or more files of aero data tables. Previous releases of aerodynamic databases for space vehicles have only included data tables and a document of the algorithm and equations to combine them for the total aerodynamic forces and moments. This process required each software tool to have a unique implementation of the database code. Errors or omissions in the documentation, or errors in the implementation, led to a lengthy and burdensome process of having to debug each instance of the code. Additionally, input file formats differ for each space vehicle simulation tool, requiring the aero database tables to be reformatted to meet the tool s input file structure requirements. Finally, the capabilities for built-in table lookup routines vary for each simulation tool. Implementation of a new database may require an update to and verification of the table lookup routines. This may be required if the number of dimensions of a data table exceeds the capability of the simulation tools built-in lookup routines. A single software solution was created to provide an aerodynamics software model that could be integrated into other simulation and analysis tools. The highly complex Orion aerodynamics model can then be quickly included in a wide variety of tools. The API code is written in ANSI C for ease of portability to a wide variety of systems. The

3. Aerodynamic Forces Experienced during Ejection.

DTIC Science & Technology

1981-03-01

BIOMECHANICAL DATA The blomechanical properties of long bones vary significantly with geometry, material properties , loading method, pathology, etc...side if neceseesary and Identify by block number) Ejection F -4 Aircraft Acceleration (abrupt Windblast Injury Biomechanical data Long bones 20...Ligaments-medial collateral tear-dislocation Menisci-medlal meniscus tear e Frequency: 44% e Mechanism: The function of the ligament Is to prevent abnormal

4. Aerodynamics of two-dimensional flapping wings in tandem configuration

Lua, K. B.; Lu, H.; Zhang, X. H.; Lim, T. T.; Yeo, K. S.

2016-12-01

This paper reports a fundamental investigation on the aerodynamics of two-dimensional flapping wings in tandem configuration in forward flight. Of particular interest are the effects of phase angle (φ) and center-to-center distance (L) between the front wing and the rear wing on the aerodynamic force generation at a Reynolds number of 5000. Both experimental and numerical methods were employed. A force sensor was used to measure the time-history aerodynamic forces experienced by the two wings and digital particle image velocimetry was utilized to obtain the corresponding flow structures. Both the front wing and the rear wing executed the same simple harmonic motions with φ ranging from -180° to 180° and four values of L, i.e., 1.5c, 2c, 3c, and 4c (c is the wing chord length). Results show that at fixed L = 2c, tandem wings perform better than the sum of two single wings that flap independently in terms of thrust for phase angle approximately from -90° to 90°. The maximum thrust on the rear wing occurs during in-phase flapping (φ = 0°). Correlation of transient thrust and flow structure indicates that there are generally two types of wing-wake interactions, depending on whether the rear wing crosses the shear layer shed from the front wing. Finally, increasing wing spacing has similar effect as reducing the phase angle, and an approximate mathematical model is derived to describe the relationship between these two parameters.

5. Reentry aerodynamics forces and moments on the engine nozzle of the 146-inch solid rocket booster model 473 tested in MSFC 14 by 14 inch trisonic wind tunnel (SA30F)

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Johnson, J. D.; Braddock, W. F.

1975-01-01

A test of a model of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) was performed in a 14 x 14 inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel to determine the aerodynamic forces and moments imposed on the nozzle of the SRB during reentry. The model, with scale dimensions equal to 0.5479 of the actual SRB dimensions, was instrumented with a six-component force balance attached to the model nozzle so that only forces and moments acting on the nozzle were measured. A total of 137 runs (20 deg pitch polars) were performed during this test. The angle of attack ranged from 60 to 185 deg, the Reynolds number from 5.2 million to 7.6 million. The Mach numbers investigated were 1.96, 2.74, and 3.48. Five external protuberances were simulated. The effective roll angle simulated was 180 deg. The effects of three different heat shield configurations were investigated.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Barrowman, J.

1994-01-01

This theoretical aerodynamics program, TAD, was developed to predict the aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles with sounding rocket configurations. These slender, axisymmetric finned vehicle configurations have a wide range of aeronautical applications from rockets to high speed armament. Over a given range of Mach numbers, TAD will compute the normal force coefficient derivative, the center-of-pressure, the roll forcing moment coefficient derivative, the roll damping moment coefficient derivative, and the pitch damping moment coefficient derivative of a sounding rocket configured vehicle. The vehicle may consist of a sharp pointed nose of cone or tangent ogive shape, up to nine other body divisions of conical shoulder, conical boattail, or circular cylinder shape, and fins of trapezoid planform shape with constant cross section and either three or four fins per fin set. The characteristics computed by TAD have been shown to be accurate to within ten percent of experimental data in the supersonic region. The TAD program calculates the characteristics of separate portions of the vehicle, calculates the interference between separate portions of the vehicle, and then combines the results to form a total vehicle solution. Also, TAD can be used to calculate the characteristics of the body or fins separately as an aid in the design process. Input to the TAD program consists of simple descriptions of the body and fin geometries and the Mach range of interest. Output includes the aerodynamic characteristics of the total vehicle, or user-selected portions, at specified points over the mach range. The TAD program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 360 computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 123K of 8 bit bytes. The TAD program was originally developed in 1967 and last updated in 1972.

7. 75 FR 45606 - Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force-Final Recommendations of the Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

2010-08-03

... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL... Force AGENCY: Council on Environmental Quality. ACTION: Notice of Availability, Interagency Ocean Policy... Council on Environmental Quality. The Task Force was charged with developing, with appropriate...

8. Aerodynamic detuning analysis of an unstalled supersonic turbofan cascade

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hoyniak, D.; Fleeter, S.

1985-01-01

An approach to passive flutter control is aerodynamic detuning, defined as designed passage-to-passage differences in the unsteady aerodynamic flow field of a rotor blade row. Thus, aerodynamic detuning directly affects the fundamental driving mechanism for flutter. A model to demonstrate the enhanced supersonic aeroelastic stability associated with aerodynamic detuning is developed. The stability of an aerodynamically detuned cascade operating in a supersonic inlet flow field with a subsonic leading edge locus is analyzed, with the aerodynamic detuning accomplished by means of nonuniform circumferential spacing of adjacent rotor blades. The unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments on the blading are defined in terms of influence coefficients in a manner that permits the stability of both a conventional uniformally spaced rotor configuration as well as the detuned nonuniform circumferentially spaced rotor to be determined. With Verdon's uniformly spaced Cascade B as a baseline, this analysis is then utilized to demonstrate the potential enhanced aeroelastic stability associated with this particular type of aerodynamic detuning.

9. Rhode Island Higher Education Library Integrated Network (HELIN). Final Report. Task Force on Bibliographic and Authority Control.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocino, Michael; And Others

The final report from the Higher Education Library Integrated Network (HELIN)'s Task Force on Bibliographic and Authority Control begins with a statement of the charge to the task force. It then summarizes its activities in each of five areas: (1) documentation of local authority control (cataloging) practices; (2) consultation with vendors of…

10. Prediction of forces and moments for flight vehicle control effectors. Part 2: An analysis of delta wing aerodynamic control effectiveness in ground effect

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maughmer, Mark D.; Ozoroski, L.; Ozoroski, T.; Straussfogel, D.

1990-01-01

Many types of hypersonic aircraft configurations are currently being studied for feasibility of future development. Since the control of the hypersonic configurations throughout the speed range has a major impact on acceptable designs, it must be considered in the conceptual design stage. Here, an investigation of the aerodynamic control effectiveness of highly swept delta planforms operating in ground effect is presented. A vortex-lattice computer program incorporating a free wake is developed as a tool to calculate aerodynamic stability and control derivatives. Data generated using this program are compared to experimental data and to data from other vortex-lattice programs. Results show that an elevon deflection produces greater increments in C sub L and C sub M in ground effect than the same deflection produces out of ground effect and that the free wake is indeed necessary for good predictions near the ground.

11. Configuration Aerodynamics: Past - Present - Future

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wood, Richard M.; Agrawal, Shreekant; Bencze, Daniel P.; Kulfan, Robert M.; Wilson, Douglas L.

1999-01-01

The Configuration Aerodynamics (CA) element of the High Speed Research (HSR) program is managed by a joint NASA and Industry team, referred to as the Technology Integration Development (ITD) team. This team is responsible for the development of a broad range of technologies for improved aerodynamic performance and stability and control characteristics at subsonic to supersonic flight conditions. These objectives are pursued through the aggressive use of advanced experimental test techniques and state of the art computational methods. As the HSR program matures and transitions into the next phase the objectives of the Configuration Aerodynamics ITD are being refined to address the drag reduction needs and stability and control requirements of High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft. In addition, the experimental and computational tools are being refined and improved to meet these challenges. The presentation will review the work performed within the Configuration Aerodynamics element in 1994 and 1995 and then discuss the plans for the 1996-1998 time period. The final portion of the presentation will review several observations of the HSR program and the design activity within Configuration Aerodynamics.

12. Vertical Landing Aerodynamics of Reusable Rocket Vehicle

Nonaka, Satoshi; Nishida, Hiroyuki; Kato, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Inatani, Yoshifumi

The aerodynamic characteristics of a vertical landing rocket are affected by its engine plume in the landing phase. The influences of interaction of the engine plume with the freestream around the vehicle on the aerodynamic characteristics are studied experimentally aiming to realize safe landing of the vertical landing rocket. The aerodynamic forces and surface pressure distributions are measured using a scaled model of a reusable rocket vehicle in low-speed wind tunnels. The flow field around the vehicle model is visualized using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) method. Results show that the aerodynamic characteristics, such as the drag force and pitching moment, are strongly affected by the change in the base pressure distributions and reattachment of a separation flow around the vehicle.

13. Aerodynamic challenges of ALT

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hooks, I.; Homan, D.; Romere, P. O.

1985-01-01

The approach and landing test (ALT) of the Space Shuttle Orbiter presented a number of unique challenges in the area of aerodynamics. The purpose of the ALT program was both to confirm the use of the Boeing 747 as a transport vehicle for ferrying the Orbiter across the country and to demonstrate the flight characteristics of the Orbiter in its approach and landing phase. Concerns for structural fatigue and performance dictated a tailcone be attached to the Orbiter for ferry and for the initial landing tests. The Orbiter with a tailcone attached presented additional challenges to the normal aft sting concept of wind tunnel testing. The landing tests required that the Orbiter be separated from the 747 at approximately 20,000 feet using aerodynamic forces to fly the vehicles apart. The concept required a complex test program to determine the relative effects of the two vehicles on each other. Also of concern, and tested, was the vortex wake created by the 747 and the means for the Orbiter to avoid it following separation.

14. A program to compute three-dimensional subsonic unsteady aerodynamic characteristics using the doublet lattic method, L216 (DUBFLX). Volume 1: Engineering and usage

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Richard, M.; Harrison, B. A.

1979-01-01

The program input presented consists of configuration geometry, aerodynamic parameters, and modal data; output includes element geometry, pressure difference distributions, integrated aerodynamic coefficients, stability derivatives, generalized aerodynamic forces, and aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices. Optionally, modal data may be input on magnetic file (tape or disk), and certain geometric and aerodynamic output may be saved for subsequent use.

15. Experimental Facilities and Modelling for Rarefied Aerodynamics

DTIC Science & Technology

2011-01-01

aerodynamic forces and moments that act on an object moving in the gas . The aerodynamics of rarefied gases also investigates the flow of gases in...Originally, theoretical models for rarefied gas flows were developed in the frame of the molecular kinetic theory. Thus the first self-consistent descriptions...method [7-11]. 3.0 EXPERIMENTAL FACILITIES FOR RAREFIED FLOWS 3.1 Overview Rarefied - gas (vacuum) wind tunnel is a wind tunnel operating at low pressures

16. Simulating Magneto-Aerodynamic Actuator

DTIC Science & Technology

2007-12-20

2005. 19. Boeuf, J.P., Lagmich, Y., Callegari, Th., and Pitchford , L.C., Electro- hydrodynamic Force and Acceleration in Surface Discharge, AIAA 2006...Plasmadynamics and Laser Award, 2004 AFRL Point of Contact Dr. Donald B. Paul , AFRL/VA WPAFB, OH 937-255-7329, met weekly. Dr. Alan Garscadden, AFRL/PR...validating database for numerical simulation of magneto-aerodynamic actuator for hypersonic flow control. Points of contact at the AFRL/VA are Dr. D. Paul

17. Unsteady Aerodynamic Phenomena in Turbomachines

DTIC Science & Technology

1990-02-01

The first part of a systematic variation of important parameters shows their influence on the aerodynamic forces and moments coefficients . 2-2...real physical phenomena. Besides, for reasons of stability it in necessary to introduce an additional damping coefficient , which depends on the... coefficients for the "Fourth Standard Configu- ration No. 4" /10/, using a mesh with 51 x 17 points (Fig. I). This grid represents a typical section of

18. Aerodynamics at NASA JSC

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vicker, Darby

2006-01-01

A viewgraph presentation describing aerodynamics at NASA Johnson Space Center is shown. The topics include: 1) Personal Background; 2) Aerodynamic Tools; 3) The Overset Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Process; and 4) Recent Applicatoins.

19. NASA aerodynamics program

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Williams, Louis J.; Hessenius, Kristin A.; Corsiglia, Victor R.; Hicks, Gary; Richardson, Pamela F.; Unger, George; Neumann, Benjamin; Moss, Jim

1992-01-01

The annual accomplishments is reviewed for the Aerodynamics Division during FY 1991. The program includes both fundamental and applied research directed at the full spectrum of aerospace vehicles, from rotorcraft to planetary entry probes. A comprehensive review is presented of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications; CFD validation; transition and turbulence physics; numerical aerodynamic simulation; test techniques and instrumentation; configuration aerodynamics; aeroacoustics; aerothermodynamics; hypersonics; subsonics; fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.

20. NASA aerodynamics program

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Holmes, Bruce J.; Schairer, Edward; Hicks, Gary; Wander, Stephen; Blankson, Isiaiah; Rose, Raymond; Olson, Lawrence; Unger, George

1990-01-01

Presented here is a comprehensive review of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation, transition and turbulence physics, numerical aerodynamic simulation, drag reduction, test techniques and instrumentation, configuration aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, aerothermodynamics, hypersonics, subsonic transport/commuter aviation, fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.

1. Force.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gamble, Reed

1989-01-01

Discusses pupil misconceptions concerning forces. Summarizes some of Assessment of Performance Unit's findings on meaning of (1) force, (2) force and motion in one dimension and two dimensions, and (3) Newton's second law. (YP)

2. Disposal and reuse of Myrtle Beach Air Force Base, South Carolina final environmental impact statement. Final report

SciTech Connect

1993-02-01

Pursuant to the Defense Base Closure and Realignment Act of 1990, Myrtle Beach AFB closed in March 1993. This EIS was prepared in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act to analyze the potential environmental consequences of the disposal of the base. Although disposal will create few direct impacts, reuse by others will create indirect impacts. The EIS analyzes the effects a range of reasonable foreseeable alternative reuses may have on the local community; including land use and aesthetics, transportation, utilities, hazardous materials/wastes, geology and soils, water resources, air quality, noise, biological resources, and cultural resources. Preservation covenants within the disposal document could eliminate or reduce any negative environmental effects to a non-adverse level. Because the Air Force is disposing of the property, some of the mitigation measures are beyond Air Force control. Remediation of Installation Restoration Program sites will continue to be the responsibility of the Air Force.

3. Final Environmental Assessment for the Disposal of the Former Lynn Haven Fuel Depot, Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida

DTIC Science & Technology

2015-12-01

Lynn Haven Fuel Depot Final Environmental Assessment December 2015 viii ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ACM Asbestos Containing Material AFB...at the site. Other environmental considerations for the property include the presence of lead-based paint and asbestos containing materials in some...Pirnie, 2009). 3.3.7.1.1 Asbestos Asbestos management at Air Force installations is established in Air Force Instruction (AFI) 32-1052, Facility

4. Computational Aerodynamics of Shuttle Orbiter Damage Scenarios in Support of the Columbia Accident Investigation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bibb, Karen L.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

2004-01-01

In support of the Columbia Accident Investigation, inviscid computations of the aerodynamic characteristics for various Shuttle Orbiter damage scenarios were performed using the FELISA unstructured CFD solver. Computed delta aerodynamics were compared with the reconstructed delta aerodynamics in order to postulate a progression of damage through the flight trajectory. By performing computations at hypervelocity flight and CF4 tunnel conditions, a bridge was provided between wind tunnel testing in Langley's 20-Inch CF4 facility and the flight environment experienced by Columbia during re-entry. The rapid modeling capability of the unstructured methodology allowed the computational effort to keep pace with the wind tunnel and, at times, guide the wind tunnel efforts. These computations provided a detailed view of the flowfield characteristics and the contribution of orbiter components (such as the vertical tail and wing) to aerodynamic forces and moments that were unavailable from wind tunnel testing. The damage scenarios are grouped into three categories. Initially, single and multiple missing full RCC panels were analyzed to determine the effect of damage location and magnitude on the aerodynamics. Next is a series of cases with progressive damage, increasing in severity, in the region of RCC panel 9. The final group is a set of wing leading edge and windward surface deformations that model possible structural deformation of the wing skin due to internal heating of the wing structure. By matching the aerodynamics from selected damage scenarios to the reconstructed flight aerodynamics, a progression of damage that is consistent with the flight data, debris forensics, and wind tunnel data is postulated.

5. Steady and Oscillatory, Subsonic and Supersonic, Aerodynamic Pressure and Generalized Forces for Complex Aircraft Configurations and Applications to Flutter. M.S. Thesis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chen, L. T.

1975-01-01

A general method for analyzing aerodynamic flows around complex configurations is presented. By applying the Green function method, a linear integral equation relating the unknown, small perturbation potential on the surface of the body, to the known downwash is obtained. The surfaces of the aircraft, wake and diaphragm (if necessary) are divided into small quadrilateral elements which are approximated with hyperboloidal surfaces. The potential and its normal derivative are assumed to be constant within each element. This yields a set of linear algebraic equations and the coefficients are evaluated analytically. By using Gaussian elimination method, equations are solved for the potentials at the centroids of elements. The pressure coefficient is evaluated by the finite different method; the lift and moment coefficients are evaluated by numerical integration. Numerical results are presented, and applications to flutter are also included.

6. Do experienced physiotherapists and final year physiotherapy trainees apply similar force during posterior-to-anterior lumbar mobilization techniques?

PubMed

Gagnon, Dany H; Longtin, Christian; Berbiche, Djamal; Gaudreault, Nathaly

2016-02-01

7. Aerodynamics of a rolling airframe missile

Tisserand, L. E.

1981-05-01

For guidance-related reasons, there is considerable interest in rolling missiles having single-plane steering capability. To aid the aerodynamic design of these airframes, a unique investigation into the aerodynamics of a rolling, steering missile has been carried out. It represents the first known attempt to measure in a wind tunnel the aerodynamic forces and moments that act on a spinning body-canard-tail configuration that exercises canard steering in phase with body roll position. Measurements were made with the model spinning at steady-state roll rates ranging from 15 to 40 Hz over an angle-of-attack range up to about 16 deg. This short, exploratory investigation has demonstrated that a better understanding and a more complete definition of the aerodynamics of rolling, steering vehicles can be developed by way of simulative wind-tunnel testing.

8. Control of helicopter rotorblade aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fabunmi, James A.

1991-01-01

The results of a feasibility study of a method for controlling the aerodynamics of helicopter rotorblades using stacks of piezoelectric ceramic plates are presented. A resonant mechanism is proposed for the amplification of the displacements produced by the stack. This motion is then converted into linear displacement for the actuation of the servoflap of the blades. A design which emulates the actuation of the servoflap on the Kaman SH-2F is used to demonstrate the fact that such a system can be designed to produce the necessary forces and velocities needed to control the aerodynamics of the rotorblades of such a helicopter. Estimates of the electrical power requirements are also presented. A Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 2 Program is suggested, whereby a bench-top prototype of the device can be built and tested. A collaborative effort between AEDAR Corporation and Kaman Aerospace Corporation is anticipated for future effort on this project.

9. Fourier analysis of the aerodynamic behavior of cup anemometers

2013-06-01

The calibration results (the transfer function) of an anemometer equipped with several cup rotors were analyzed and correlated with the aerodynamic forces measured on the isolated cups in a wind tunnel. The correlation was based on a Fourier analysis of the normal-to-the-cup aerodynamic force. Three different cup shapes were studied: typical conical cups, elliptical cups and porous cups (conical-truncated shape). Results indicated a good correlation between the anemometer factor, K, and the ratio between the first two coefficients in the Fourier series decomposition of the normal-to-the-cup aerodynamic force.

10. Final Report of the National Black Health Providers Task Force on High Blood Pressure Education and Control.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

This is the final report of National Black Health Providers Task Force (NBHPTF) on High Blood Pressure Education and Control. The first chapter of the report recounts the history of the NBHPTF and its objectives. In the second chapter epidemiological evidence is presented to demonstrate the need for a suggested 20 year plan aimed at controlling…

11. Final Environmental Assessment to Modernize Storage Facilities in the Munitions Complex and Throughout Edwards Air Force Base, California

DTIC Science & Technology

2006-06-01

EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE, CALIFORNIA June 2006 95th Air Base Wing Civil Engineer Directorate...documentation. For: 95th Air Base Wing Civil Engineer Directorate Environmental Management Division Edwards AFB CA FINAL iii Munitions...be renovated as part of this project. Under Alternative A, the Preferred Alternative, the 95th Air Base Wing, Civil Engineer Directorate

12. Transfer and Use of Training Technology in Air Force Technical Training: A Model to Guide Training Development. Final Report.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Haverland, Edgar M.

This guide describes the final stage in a project to develop an Air Force technical training development model and presents the model. Chapter 1 summarizes the total project and its objective to facilitate the effective use of training technology through the development of a model for matching training approaches or innovations with specific…

13. Exploring the Aerodynamic Drag of a Moving Cyclist

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theilmann, Florian; Reinhard, Christopher

2016-01-01

Although the physics of cycling itself is a complex mixture of aerodynamics, physiology, mechanics, and heuristics, using cycling as a context for teaching physics has a tradition of certainly more than 30 years. Here, a possible feature is the discussion of the noticeable resistant forces such as aerodynamic drag and the associated power…

14. U.S. Transport Task Force Meeting - April 2014 Final Report

SciTech Connect

Tynan, George R.

2014-09-19

The ultimate goal of the U.S. Transport Task Force is to develop a physics-based understanding of confinement and particle, momentum and heat transport in magnetic fusion devices. This understanding should be of sufficient depth that it allows the development of predictive models of plasma transport that can be validated against experiment, and then used to anticipate the future performance of burning plasmas in ITER, as well as to provide guidance to the design of next-step fusion nuclear science facilities. To achieve success in transport science, it is essential to characterize local fluctuations and transport in toroidal plasmas, to understand the basic mechanisms responsible for transport, and ultimately to control these transport processes. These goals must be pursued in multiple areas, including ion and electron thermal transport, particle and momentum transport, the physics of H-modes and the edge pedestal, Internal Transport Barriers, energetic particle transport and 3D effects on all the underlying transport processes. Demonstrating our understanding requires multiple, successful, quantitative tests of theory, simulation and modeling using experimental results in fusion-relevant and basic plasmas (i.e., verification and validation). The 2014 U.S. TTF meeting was held in April 2014 in San Antonio TX to provide a forum for leading scientists focused on the study of transport of particles, momentum and heat in fusion plasmas. Approximately 110 scientists from the US and several from the EU and from China attended and heard oral talks on recent transport results. Several poster sessions were also held. One day of plenary talks were followed by Breakout sessions and poster sessions that were held on focused topics, including L-H transition physics, energetic particles, transport in high performance plasmas, divertor particle and heat flux management and innovative divertor designs, fundamental turbulence studies, end edge transport shortfall. Most of the

15. Final Environmental Assessment Addressing Construction, Operation, and Maintenance of a Security Forces Complex at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

DTIC Science & Technology

2010-07-01

currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE JUL 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE...Regulations. Date cc: Attachment ROBERT L. MANESS, Colonel, USAF Commander FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT ADDRESSING CONSTRUCTION...effective date of the designation of that area for the 8-hour O3 NAAQS. The effective designation date for most areas was June 15, 2004. The USEPA

16. Final Environmental Assessment for Advanced Littoral Reconnaissance Technologies (ALRT) Project at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

DTIC Science & Technology

2008-05-28

404 of the CWA established a program to regulate the discharge of dredged and fill material into waters of the United States , including wetlands...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) United States Air Force ,Eglin Air Force Base...Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1500-1508 and the United States Air Force Environmental Impact Analysis Process as effectuated by 32 CFR Part 989

17. Management of Social Incentives in Air Force Technical Training: A Field Experiment. Final Report.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hakel, Milton D.; And Others

The report is a study of the utility of social reinforcement for improving Air Force training. It was conducted through a field evaluation of social incentive instructional systems which would serve to improve student motivation, classroom performance, and attitudes. The participants included a total of 300 trainees from two Air Force bases; 25…

18. Peer Ratings: Scoring Strategy Development and Reliability Demonstration on Air Force Basic Trainees. Final Report.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Borman, Walter C.; Rosse, Rodney L.

As an alternative for or adjunct to paper-and-pencil tests for predicting personnel performance, the United States Air Force studied the use of peer ratings as an evaluative tool. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of peer ratings among Air Force basic trainees. Peer ratings were obtained from more than 27,000…

19. Identification of Occupational Areas for Indiana's Future. Final Report of the Technology Forecasting Task Force.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indiana State Commission on Vocational and Technical Education, Indianapolis.

A task force representing the Indiana private sector was convened for two purposes: to (1) identify the impact of technology on required worker skills, the labor market, and the vocational education, training, and employment system; and (2) identify occupational areas that should be future growth areas for the state. Task force members reviewed…

20. Multi-Disciplinary Computational Aerodynamics

DTIC Science & Technology

2016-01-01

However, as the DSV is shed and propagates along the wing it induces sudden and difficult to predict variations in aerodynamic forces and pitching ...circulation build- up around the airfoil. The pitching moment is also shifted to a lower value due to rotation- induced camber effects. Beyond a critical...on vortex breakdown,” AIAA J., Vol. 12, No. 5, 1974, pp. 602–607. 66Visbal, M. R., “Onset of vortex breakdown about a pitching delta wing ,” AIAA J

SciTech Connect

Nixon, D.

1989-01-01

Various papers on unsteady transonic aerodynamics are presented. The topics addressed include: physical phenomena associated with unsteady transonic flows, basic equations for unsteady transonic flow, practical problems concerning aircraft, basic numerical methods, computational methods for unsteady transonic flows, application of transonic flow analysis to helicopter rotor problems, unsteady aerodynamics for turbomachinery aeroelastic applications, alternative methods for modeling unsteady transonic flows.

2. Uncertainty in Computational Aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Luckring, J. M.; Hemsch, M. J.; Morrison, J. H.

2003-01-01

An approach is presented to treat computational aerodynamics as a process, subject to the fundamental quality assurance principles of process control and process improvement. We consider several aspects affecting uncertainty for the computational aerodynamic process and present a set of stages to determine the level of management required to meet risk assumptions desired by the customer of the predictions.

3. Discrete-time linear and nonlinear aerodynamic impulse responses for efficient CFD analyses

Silva, Walter Arturo

This dissertation discusses the mathematical existence and the numerical identification of linear and nonlinear aerodynamic impulse response functions. Differences between continuous-time and discrete-time system theories, which permit the identification and efficient use of these functions, will be detailed. Important input/output definitions and the concept of linear and nonlinear systems with memory will also be discussed. It will be shown that indicial (step or steady) responses (such as Wagner's function), forced harmonic responses (such as Theodorsen's function or those from doublet lattice theory), and responses to random inputs (such as gusts) can all be obtained from an aerodynamic impulse response function. This will establish the aerodynamic discrete-time impulse response function as the most fundamental and computationally efficient aerodynamic function that can be extracted from any given discrete-time, aerodynamic system. The results presented in this dissertation help to unify the understanding of classical two-dimensional continuous-time theories with modern three-dimensional, discrete-time theories. Nonlinear aerodynamic impulse responses are identified using the Volterra theory of nonlinear systems. The theory is described and a discrete-time kernel identification technique is presented. The kernel identification technique is applied to a simple nonlinear circuit for illustrative purposes. The method is then applied to the nonlinear viscous Burger's equation as an example of an application to a simple CFD model. Finally, the method is applied to a three-dimensional aeroelastic model using the CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code and then to a two-dimensional model using the CFL3D Navier-Stokes code. Comparisons of accuracy and computational cost savings are presented. Because of its mathematical generality, an important attribute of this methodology is that it is applicable to a wide range of nonlinear

4. A climatology of formation conditions for aerodynamic contrails

Gierens, K.; Dilger, F.

2013-06-01

Aerodynamic contrails are defined in this paper as line shaped ice clouds caused by aerodynamically triggered cooling over the wings of an aircraft in cruise which become visible immediately at the trailing edge of the wing or close to it. Effects at low altitudes like condensation to liquid droplets and their potential heterogeneous freezing are excluded from our definition. We study atmospheric conditions that allow formation of aerodynamic contrails. These conditions are stated and then applied to atmospheric data, first to a special case where an aerodynamic contrail was actually observed and then to a full year of global reanalysis data. We show where, when (seasonal variation), and how frequently (probability) aerodynamic contrails can form, and how this relates to actual patterns of air traffic. We study the formation of persistent aerodynamic contrails as well. Finally we check whether aerodynamic and exhaust contrails can coexist in the atmosphere. We show that visible aerodynamic contrails are possible only in an altitude range between roughly 540 and 250 hPa, and that the ambient temperature is the most important parameter, not the relative humidity. Finally we give an argument for our believe that currently aerodynamic contrails have a much smaller climate effect than exhaust contrails, which may however change in future with more air traffic in the tropics.

5. CAM/LIFTER forces and friction. Final report, September 15, 1988--November 30, 1991

SciTech Connect

Gabbey, D.J.; Lee, J.; Patterson, D.J.

1992-02-01

This report details the procedures used to measure the cam/lifter forces and friction. The present effort employed a Cummins LTA-10, and focuses on measurements and dynamic modeling of the injector train. The program was sponsored by the US Department of Energy in support of advanced diesel engine technology. The injector train was instrumented to record the instantaneous roller speed, roller pin friction torque, pushrod force, injector link force and cam speed. These measurements, together with lift profiles for pushrod and injector link displacement, enabled the friction work loss in the injector train to be determined. Other significant design criteria such as camshaft roller follower slippage and maximum loads on components were also determined. Future efforts will concentrate on the dynamic model, with tests run as required for correlation.

6. Aerodynamic characteristics of flying fish in gliding flight.

PubMed

Park, Hyungmin; Choi, Haecheon

2010-10-01

, we find that the gliding performance of flying fish is comparable to those of bird wings such as the hawk, petrel and wood duck. However, the induced drag by strong wing-tip vortices is one of the dominant drag components. Finally, we examine ground effect on the aerodynamic forces of the gliding flying fish and find that the flying fish achieves the reduction of drag and increase of lift-to-drag ratio by flying close to the sea surface.

7. Aerodynamic control of bridge cables through shape modification: A preliminary study

Kleissl, K.; Georgakis, C. T.

2011-10-01

This paper examines the viability of modifying bridge cable shape and surface for the purpose of controlling wind-induced vibrations. To this end, an extensive wind-tunnel test campaign was carried out on various cable shapes about the critical Reynolds number region. Cable shapes were chosen to passively modify the flow in a particular manner. Tested shapes included those which have some form of waviness, faceting and shrouding. Section models were tested using a static inclined rig, allowing them to be installed at yawed cable-wind angles for both smooth and turbulent flow conditions. The aerodynamic damping of the tested cylinders is evaluated by applying both 1- and 2-dof quasi-steady aerodynamic instability models. This allows for the prediction of regions of aerodynamic instability, as a function of flow angle and Reynolds number. Whilst the plain, wavy and faceted cylinders are predicted to suffer from either dry inclined galloping, “drag crisis” or Den Hartog galloping, the shrouded cylinder is found to be stable for all angles of attack, albeit with an increase in drag at typical design wind velocities. Finally, turbulent flow is found to introduce an increased amount of aerodynamic damping mainly by providing a more constant lift force over tested Reynolds numbers.

8. Core 24 Implementation Task Force Final Report to the Washington State Board of Education

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Washington State Board of Education, 2010

2010-01-01

The State Board of Education (SBE) created the Core 24 Implementation Task Force (ITF) to examine the implementation issues associated with the Core 24 high school graduation requirements framework, passed by the State Board of Education (SBE) in July 2008. The SBE chartered the ITF to advise the SBE on strategies needed to implement the…

9. Administrative Task Force on the Four Day Work Week. Final Report.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

California State Univ., Los Angeles.

The Administrative Task Force on a 4-day work week at California State University in Los Angeles was charged with the following responsibilities: (1) To make an indepth study of the "literature" of experience of other universities, a survey of staff, faculty, and students if required, and other activities that will result in setting up a…

10. Women in the Work Force: Development and Field Testing of Curriculum Materials. Final Report.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vetter, Louise; Sethney, Barbara J.

To aid girls in considering future alternatives and making plans for labor force participation and adult female roles, curriculum materials and associated measures of knowledge, attitudes, and plans were developed and pilot tested with 100 girls in Grades 7, 9, and 11. Materials and measures were revised on the basis of pilot test data, including…

11. Final Environmental Assessment for Long-Term Vegetation Control for Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

DTIC Science & Technology

2008-07-14

1.5.2 Issues Studied in Detail ................................................................................................................1-8 1.6...Air Force Base, FL 1.5.2 Issues Studied in Detail Preliminary analysis based on the scope of the Proposed Action identified the following potential...chronic effects.” During the acute toxicity studies , several dose levels are given and lethality and other effects are monitored. In contrast

12. Unaccounted-for gas project. Measurement Task Force (orifice meter studies). Volume 2B. Final report

SciTech Connect

Godkin, B.J.; Robertson, J.D.; Wlasenko, R.G.; Cowgill, R.M.; Grinstead, J.R.

1990-06-01

The study was aimed at determining unaccounted-for (UAF) gas volumes resulting from operating Pacific Gas and Electric Co.'s transmission and distribution systems during 1987. Activities and methods are described and results are presented for research conducted on orifice meter accuracy. The Measurement Task Force determined that orifice metering inaccuracies were the largest single contributor to 1987 UAF.

13. Unaccounted-for gas project. Leak Task Force. Volume 4. Final report

SciTech Connect

Cowgill, R.M.; Robertson, J.L.; Grinstead, J.R.; Luttrell, D.J.; Walden, E.R.

1990-06-07

The study was aimed at determining unaccounted-for (UAF) gas volumes resulting from operating Pacific Gas and Electric Co.'s transmission and distribution systems during 1987. The Leak Task Force quantified unintentional gas losses (leakage and dig-ins). Results show that 1987 gas leakage accounted for less than 5% of the operating UAF.

SciTech Connect

Callen, J.D.

1991-07-01

The Transport Task Force (TTF) was initiated as a broad-based US magnetic fusion community activity during the fall of 1988 to focus attention on and encourage development of an increased understanding of anomalous transport in tokamaks. The overall TTF goal is to make progress on Characterizing, Understanding and Identifying how to Reduce plasma transport in tokamaks -- to CUIR transport.

15. Stop Faking It! Finally Understanding Science So You Can Teach It. Force and Motion.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Robertson, William C.

This book aims to develop an understanding of basic physics concepts among school teachers in grades 3-8. The concepts covered in this book include force, motion, gravity, and circular motion without intimidating detailed units and formulas. Chapters include: (1) "Newton's First One"; (2) "In Which We Describe Motion and Then Change…

16. Aerodynamic performance of a hovering hawkmoth with flexible wings: a computational approach.

PubMed

Nakata, Toshiyuki; Liu, Hao

2012-02-22

Insect wings are deformable structures that change shape passively and dynamically owing to inertial and aerodynamic forces during flight. It is still unclear how the three-dimensional and passive change of wing kinematics owing to inherent wing flexibility contributes to unsteady aerodynamics and energetics in insect flapping flight. Here, we perform a systematic fluid-structure interaction based analysis on the aerodynamic performance of a hovering hawkmoth, Manduca, with an integrated computational model of a hovering insect with rigid and flexible wings. Aerodynamic performance of flapping wings with passive deformation or prescribed deformation is evaluated in terms of aerodynamic force, power and efficiency. Our results reveal that wing flexibility can increase downwash in wake and hence aerodynamic force: first, a dynamic wing bending is observed, which delays the breakdown of leading edge vortex near the wing tip, responsible for augmenting the aerodynamic force-production; second, a combination of the dynamic change of wing bending and twist favourably modifies the wing kinematics in the distal area, which leads to the aerodynamic force enhancement immediately before stroke reversal. Moreover, an increase in hovering efficiency of the flexible wing is achieved as a result of the wing twist. An extensive study of wing stiffness effect on aerodynamic performance is further conducted through a tuning of Young's modulus and thickness, indicating that insect wing structures may be optimized not only in terms of aerodynamic performance but also dependent on many factors, such as the wing strength, the circulation capability of wing veins and the control of wing movements.

17. Bat flight generates complex aerodynamic tracks.

PubMed

Hedenström, A; Johansson, L C; Wolf, M; von Busse, R; Winter, Y; Spedding, G R

2007-05-11

The flapping flight of animals generates an aerodynamic footprint as a time-varying vortex wake in which the rate of momentum change represents the aerodynamic force. We showed that the wakes of a small bat species differ from those of birds in some important respects. In our bats, each wing generated its own vortex loop. Also, at moderate and high flight speeds, the circulation on the outer (hand) wing and the arm wing differed in sign during the upstroke, resulting in negative lift on the hand wing and positive lift on the arm wing. Our interpretations of the unsteady aerodynamic performance and function of membranous-winged, flapping flight should change modeling strategies for the study of equivalent natural and engineered flying devices.

18. Identification of aerodynamic models for maneuvering aircraft

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lan, C. Edward; Hu, C. C.

1992-01-01

A Fourier analysis method was developed to analyze harmonic forced-oscillation data at high angles of attack as functions of the angle of attack and its time rate of change. The resulting aerodynamic responses at different frequencies are used to build up the aerodynamic models involving time integrals of the indicial type. An efficient numerical method was also developed to evaluate these time integrals for arbitrary motions based on a concept of equivalent harmonic motion. The method was verified by first using results from two-dimensional and three-dimensional linear theories. The developed models for C sub L, C sub D, and C sub M based on high-alpha data for a 70 deg delta wing in harmonic motions showed accurate results in reproducing hysteresis. The aerodynamic models are further verified by comparing with test data using ramp-type motions.

19. Aerodynamics of magnetic levitation (MAGLEV) trains

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Schetz, Joseph A.; Marchman, James F., III

1996-01-01

High-speed (500 kph) trains using magnetic forces for levitation, propulsion and control offer many advantages for the nation and a good opportunity for the aerospace community to apply 'high tech' methods to the domestic sector. One area of many that will need advanced research is the aerodynamics of such MAGLEV (Magnetic Levitation) vehicles. There are important issues with regard to wind tunnel testing and the application of CFD to these devices. This talk will deal with the aerodynamic design of MAGLEV vehicles with emphasis on wind tunnel testing. The moving track facility designed and constructed in the 6 ft. Stability Wind Tunnel at Virginia Tech will be described. Test results for a variety of MAGLEV vehicle configurations will be presented. The last topic to be discussed is a Multi-disciplinary Design approach that is being applied to MAGLEV vehicle configuration design including aerodynamics, structures, manufacturability and life-cycle cost.

20. Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology.

PubMed

Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

2015-03-01

Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace.

1. Test Area C-62 Final Range Environmental Assessment at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

DTIC Science & Technology

2015-06-05

requirements to submit with EPCRA reports. Federal agencies must comply. Air Armament Center Plan 32-3; January 2004; Asbestos Management Plan; This...plan establishes procedures for the Eglin Air Force Base (AFB) facility asbestos management program. It contains the policies and procedures used in...controlling the health hazards created by asbestos containing materials (ACM), and the procedures used in ACM removal required to protect the health

2. Final Environmental Assessment: Mental Health Clinic Hanscom Air Force Base Massachusetts

DTIC Science & Technology

2010-08-19

at the MIT Lincoln Laboratory and the Air Force Research Library (AFRL). Hazardous wastes, including adhesives , sealants, greases, waste paint and...pumps, and a number of small gas, propane , waste oil, or fuel oil-fired unit heaters in mechanical rooms and garages. Building 1900 is not connected...4.13.2 Long-Term Impacts While routine office operations may occasionally require the use of toxic solvents or paints , and operation of HVAC

3. Final Environmental Assessment for the Target Enhancement Railway At Avon Park Air Force Range, Florida

DTIC Science & Technology

2008-02-01

dominated by various herbaceous wetland plants (Panicum tenerum, Xyris elliottii, Rhychospora tracyi, etc.) and St . Johns wort (Hypericum fasciculatum...Florida 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Combat Command,Environmental Flight,Avon Park Air Force Range,FL,33825 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

4. Final Environmental Assessment Demolition of Alpha Ramp, Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota

DTIC Science & Technology

2007-01-01

carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), lead (Pb), and particulate matter. Particulate matter has been further defined...mechanical pressure. When asbestos poses a health danger from the release of airborne fibers , which can occur when it is in a friable state, Air Force...consisting of the calcium carbonate or calcium sulfate type; these aquifers produce the best quality of water at their highest elevations. The

5. Final Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Environmental Assessment for Realignment of Nellis Air Force Base

DTIC Science & Technology

2007-03-01

components only support the technological realism of these exercises. True combat realism can be achieved only by flying against “enemy” forces...interdiction strikes B-2 T Long range, high and low altitude bomber performing deep interdiction strikes with stealth technology B-52H T Long range...enemy air defenses F-117A T Light bomber with stealth technology F-22A B Air-to-air combat and intercept missions and air-to-ground missions with

6. Shemya Air Force Base, Alaska No Further Action Decision document for Hg-1. Final report

SciTech Connect

Not Available

1993-03-05

This document is being prepared to document that a No Further Action Decision (NFAD) document is appropriate for the Hg-1 site at Shemya Air Force Base (AFB), Alaska, under the Air Force Installation Restoration Program (IRP). The IRP is a Department of Defense (DOD) program established to identify and remediate hazardous waste problems on DOD property that result from past practices. The Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation (ADEC) draft document {open_quotes}No Further Action Criteria for DOD Military/FUD Sites{close_quotes} has been used as a guide in preparing this document. Air Force personnel have stated that the Hg-1 site may have been used to store mercury and PCB-contaminated material. The site was added to the IRP in 1987, and later that year a field investigation was conducted at the site. Soil samples were collected and analyzed for mercury, EP toxicity, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dioxin. All concentrations of contaminants found in Area Hg-1 are below regulatory action levels for PCBs (40 CFR 761) and mercury (55 FR 30798) or below detection levels for dioxin/furans. Therefore, leaving these soils in place is acceptable.

7. Aerodynamic Shutoff Valve

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Horstman, Raymond H.

1992-01-01

Aerodynamic flow achieved by adding fixed fairings to butterfly valve. When valve fully open, fairings align with butterfly and reduce wake. Butterfly free to turn, so valve can be closed, while fairings remain fixed. Design reduces turbulence in flow of air in internal suction system. Valve aids in development of improved porous-surface boundary-layer control system to reduce aerodynamic drag. Applications primarily aerospace. System adapted to boundary-layer control on high-speed land vehicles.

8. A flight experiment to measure rarefied-flow aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blanchard, Robert C.

1990-01-01

A flight experiment to measure rarefied-flow aerodynamics of a blunt lifting body is being developed by NASA. This experiment, called the Rarefied-Flow Aerodynamic Measurement Experiment (RAME), is part of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) mission, which is a Pathfinder design tool for aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles. The RAME will use flight measurements from accelerometers, rate gyros, and pressure transducers, combined with knowledge of AFE in-flight mass properties and trajectory, to infer aerodynamic forces and moments in the rarefied-flow environment, including transition into the hypersonic continuum regime. Preflight estimates of the aerodynamic measurements are based upon environment models, existing computer simulations, and ground test results. Planned maneuvers at several altitudes will provide a first-time opportunity to examine gas-surface accommondation effects on aerodynamic coefficients in an environment of changing atmospheric composition. A description is given of the RAME equipment design.

9. Modeling of aircraft unsteady aerodynamic characteristics. Part 1: Postulated models

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1994-01-01

A short theoretical study of aircraft aerodynamic model equations with unsteady effects is presented. The aerodynamic forces and moments are expressed in terms of indicial functions or internal state variables. The first representation leads to aircraft integro-differential equations of motion; the second preserves the state-space form of the model equations. The formulations of unsteady aerodynamics is applied in two examples. The first example deals with a one-degree-of-freedom harmonic motion about one of the aircraft body axes. In the second example, the equations for longitudinal short-period motion are developed. In these examples, only linear aerodynamic terms are considered. The indicial functions are postulated as simple exponentials and the internal state variables are governed by linear, time-invariant, first-order differential equations. It is shown that both approaches to the modeling of unsteady aerodynamics lead to identical models.

10. Southern Growth Policies Board Task Force on Southern Cities. Final Report.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Southern Growth Policies Board, Research Triangle Park, NC.

This final report on southern American cities cites as its major recommendation the need for each southern State to have articulated urban policy. Findings are summarized in the areas of State urban policies, intergovernmental relationships, economic development policy, planning and growth policy, annexation policy, and energy policy. Background…

11. The influence of the elastic vibration of the carrier to the aerodynamics of the external store in air-launch-to-orbit process

Yang, Lei; Ye, Zheng-Yin; Wu, Jie

2016-11-01

The separation between the carrier and store is one of the most important and difficult phases in Air-launch-to-orbit technology. Based on the previous researches, the interference aerodynamic forces of the store caused by the carrier are obvious in the earlier time during the separation. And the interference aerodynamics will be more complex when considering the elastic deformation of the carrier. Focusing on the conditions that in the earlier time during the separation, the steady and unsteady interference aerodynamic forces of the store are calculated at different angle of attacks and relative distances between the carrier and store. During the calculation, the elastic vibrations of the carrier are considered. According to the cause of formations of the interference aerodynamics, the interference aerodynamic forces of the store are divided into several components. The relative magnitude, change rule, sphere of influence and mechanism of interference aerodynamic forces components of the store are analyzed quantitatively. When the relative distance between the carrier and store is small, the interference aerodynamic forces caused by the elastic vibration of the carrier is about half of the total aerodynamic forces of the store. And as the relative distance increases, the value of interference aerodynamic forces decrease. When the relative distance is larger than twice the mean aerodynamic chord of the carrier, the values of interference aerodynamic forces of the store can be ignored. Besides, under the influence of the steady interference aerodynamic forces, the lift characteristics of the store are worse and the static stability margin is poorer.

12. A Digital Map From External Forcing to the Final Surface Warming Pattern and its Seasonal Cycle

Cai, M.

2015-12-01

Historically, only the thermodynamic processes (e.g., water vapor, cloud, surface albedo, and atmospheric lapse rate) that directly influence the top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative energy flux balance are considered in climate feedback analysis. One of my recent research areas is to develop a new framework for climate feedback analysis that explicitly takes into consideration not only the thermodynamic processes that the directly influence the TOA radiative energy flux balance but also the local dynamical (e.g., evaporation, surface sensible heat flux, vertical convections etc) and non-local dynamical (large-scale horizontal energy transport) processes in aiming to explain the warming asymmetry between high and low latitudes, between ocean and land, and between the surface and atmosphere. In the last 5-6 years, we have developed a coupled atmosphere-surface climate feedback-response analysis method (CFRAM) as a new framework for estimating climate feedback and sensitivity in coupled general circulation models with a full physical parameterization package. In the CFRAM, the isolation of partial temperature changes due to an external forcing alone or an individual feedback is achieved by solving the linearized infrared radiation transfer model subject to individual energy flux perturbations (external or due to feedbacks). The partial temperature changes are addable and their sum is equal to the (total) temperature change (in the linear sense). The CFRAM is used to isolate the partial temperature changes due to the external forcing, due to water vapor feedback, clouds, surface albedo, local vertical convection, and non-local atmospheric dynamical feedbacks, as well as oceanic heat storage. It has been shown that seasonal variations in the cloud feedback, surface albedo feedback, and ocean heat storage/dynamics feedback, directly caused by the strong annual cycle of insolation, contribute primarily to the large seasonal variation of polar warming. Furthermore, the

13. Unaccounted-for gas project. Theft Task Force. Volume 3. Final report

SciTech Connect

Cima, K.M.; Cottengim, T.L.; Wong, R.M.; Cowgill, R.M.; Grinstead, J.R.

1990-06-01

The study was aimed at determining unaccounted-for (UAF) gas volumes resulting from operating Pacific Gas and Electric Co.'s transmission and distribution systems during 1987. The Theft Task Force analyzed the percentage of customers involved in gas theft, the average annual volume of gas stolen by a single customer, and the total number of customers and their total gas usage. Results were used in conjunction with documented customer theft to arrive at a calculation that more accurately reflected the theft contribution to UAF for 1987.

14. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Disposal and Reuse of Portions of Grissom Air Force Base, Indiana

DTIC Science & Technology

1994-09-01

Mus musculus Long-tailed weasel Mustela frenata White-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus Muskrat Ondatra zibethica White-footed mouse Peromyscus... phase ) 36 208 366 64 34 68 Direct Employment 633 3,098 6,991 454 1,622 3,709 Secondary Employment 300 2,244 5,541 234 622 1,397 Population Increase 908...uses. In February 1993, the GRA submitted to the Air Force a Concept Development Draft Phase Il-B Report (RKG Associates, Inc., 1993). This plan

15. History of the numerical aerodynamic simulation program

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Peterson, Victor L.; Ballhaus, William F., Jr.

1987-01-01

The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) program has reached a milestone with the completion of the initial operating configuration of the NAS Processing System Network. This achievement is the first major milestone in the continuing effort to provide a state-of-the-art supercomputer facility for the national aerospace community and to serve as a pathfinder for the development and use of future supercomputer systems. The underlying factors that motivated the initiation of the program are first identified and then discussed. These include the emergence and evolution of computational aerodynamics as a powerful new capability in aerodynamics research and development, the computer power required for advances in the discipline, the complementary nature of computation and wind tunnel testing, and the need for the government to play a pathfinding role in the development and use of large-scale scientific computing systems. Finally, the history of the NAS program is traced from its inception in 1975 to the present time.

16. Aerodynamics of high frequency flapping wings

Hu, Zheng; Roll, Jesse; Cheng, Bo; Deng, Xinyan

2010-11-01

We investigated the aerodynamic performance of high frequency flapping wings using a 2.5 gram robotic insect mechanism developed in our lab. The mechanism flaps up to 65Hz with a pair of man-made wing mounted with 10cm wingtip-to-wingtip span. The mean aerodynamic lift force was measured by a lever platform, and the flow velocity and vorticity were measured using a stereo DPIV system in the frontal, parasagittal, and horizontal planes. Both near field (leading edge vortex) and far field flow (induced flow) were measured with instantaneous and phase-averaged results. Systematic experiments were performed on the man-made wings, cicada and hawk moth wings due to their similar size, frequency and Reynolds number. For insect wings, we used both dry and freshly-cut wings. The aerodynamic force increase with flapping frequency and the man-made wing generates more than 4 grams of lift at 35Hz with 3 volt input. Here we present the experimental results and the major differences in their aerodynamic performances.

17. Final Environmental Assessment for the Integrated Cultural Resources Management Plan for Edwards Air Force Base, California

DTIC Science & Technology

2005-07-01

Ocean by the Coastal Range to the west and the San Gabriel Mountains to the south. The MDAB has an arid continental desert climate. The climate of...River Indian Tribes Beverly Folks Pauline Gallegos FINAL July 2005 70 ICRMP EA Ernie Garcia , Tejon Indian Tribe Christine Hernandez Lucille Hicks...Band of Mission Indians Deron Marquez , San Manuel Band of Mission Indians Kathy Morgan, Tejon Indian Tribe George Murillo, San Manuel Band of

18. Final Environmental Assessment Addressing Building Demolition at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

DTIC Science & Technology

2010-04-01

DATE APR 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Final Environmental Assessment Addressing Building...prepared. This analysis fulfills the requirements ofNEPA and the CEQ Regulations. Date Signature on f ile, Signed 12 April 2010 MICHAELS. DUVALL...after the effective date of the designation of that area for the 8-hour ozone NAAQS. The effective designation date for most areas was June 15, 2004

19. Final Environmental Assessment: Construction of New Arnold Village Sewage Treatment Plant Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

DTIC Science & Technology

2004-05-01

Vulpes vulpes ATL/P:\\ARNOLDAFB\\315331DO34\\SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT EA\\CD\\FINAL STP EA 05_05.DOC 3-11 TABLE 3-2 Common Wildlife Species Occurring in Arnold...frog is disjunct, separated from the nearest other population by several hundred miles and may represent a distinct, as yet undescribed, subspecies ...The three subspecies of the gopher frog recognized in the scientific literature are considered species of concern by the USFWS. Many of the rare

20. Final Environmental Assessment: Military Family Housing Privatization at Charleston Air Force Base, South Carolina

DTIC Science & Technology

2009-12-01

Parsons Engineering Science survey identified one prehistoric archaeological site (Site 38CH1705 – ceramic CHARLESTON AFB FINAL EA_DEC09.DOC 3-10...Engineering Science conducted a cultural resources survey of Hunley Park (included Parcel D) in 1998. The NPS survey concluded that no archaeological ...architectural structures that are listed, or are eligible for listing, in the NRHP. One prehistoric archaeological site was discovered in Parcel D in

1. Unsteady Aerodynamic Validation Experiences From the Aeroelastic Prediction Workshop

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heeg, Jennifer; Chawlowski, Pawel

2014-01-01

The AIAA Aeroelastic Prediction Workshop (AePW) was held in April 2012, bringing together communities of aeroelasticians, computational fluid dynamicists and experimentalists. The extended objective was to assess the state of the art in computational aeroelastic methods as practical tools for the prediction of static and dynamic aeroelastic phenomena. As a step in this process, workshop participants analyzed unsteady aerodynamic and weakly-coupled aeroelastic cases. Forced oscillation and unforced system experiments and computations have been compared for three configurations. This paper emphasizes interpretation of the experimental data, computational results and their comparisons from the perspective of validation of unsteady system predictions. The issues examined in detail are variability introduced by input choices for the computations, post-processing, and static aeroelastic modeling. The final issue addressed is interpreting unsteady information that is present in experimental data that is assumed to be steady, and the resulting consequences on the comparison data sets.

2. Rarefied-flow Shuttle aerodynamics model

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blanchard, Robert C.; Larman, Kevin T.; Moats, Christina D.

1993-01-01

A rarefied-flow shuttle aerodynamic model spanning the hypersonic continuum to the free molecule-flow regime was formulated. The model development has evolved from the High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP) experiment conducted on the Orbiter since 1983. The complete model is described in detail. The model includes normal and axial hypersonic continuum coefficient equations as functions of angle-of-attack, body flap deflection, and elevon deflection. Normal and axial free molecule flow coefficient equations as a function of angle-of-attack are presented, along with flight derived rarefied-flow transition bridging formulae. Comparisons are made with data from the Operational Aerodynamic Design Data Book (OADDB), applicable wind-tunnel data, and recent flight data from STS-35 and STS-40. The flight-derived model aerodynamic force coefficient ratio is in good agreement with the wind-tunnel data and predicts the flight measured force coefficient ratios on STS-35 and STS-40. The model is not, however, in good agreement with the OADDB. But, the current OADDB does not predict the flight data force coefficient ratios of either STS-35 or STS-40 as accurately as the flight-derived model. Also, the OADDB differs with the wind-tunnel force coefficient ratio data.

3. Low Speed Aerodynamics of the X-38 CRV

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Komerath, N. M.; Funk, R.; Ames, R. G.; Mahalingam, R.; Matos, C.

1998-01-01

This project was performed in support of the engineering development of the NASA X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV)system. Wind tunnel experiments were used to visualize various aerodynamic phenomena encountered by the CRV during the final stages of descent and landing. Scale models of the CRV were used to visualize vortex structures above and below the vehicle, and in its wake, and to quantify their trajectories. The effect of flaperon deflection on these structures was studied. The structure and dynamics of the CRV's wake during the drag parachute deployment stage were measured. Regions of high vorticity were identified using surveys conducted in several planes using a vortex meter. Periodic shedding of the vortex sheets from the sides of the CRV was observed using laser sheet videography as the CRV reached high angles of attack during the quasi-steady pitch-up prior to parafoil deployment. Using spectral analysis of hot-film anemometer data, the Strouhal number of these wake fluctuations was found to be 0.14 based on the model span. Phenomena encountered in flight test during parafoil operation were captured in scale-model tests, and a video photogrammetry technique was implemented to obtain parafoil surface shapes during flight in the tunnel. Forces on the parafoil were resolved using tension gages on individual lines. The temporal evolution of the phenomenon of leading edge collapse was captured. Laser velocimetry was used to demonstrate measurement of the porosity of the parafoil surface. From these measurements, several physical explanations have been developed for phenomena observed at various stages of the X-38 development program. Quantitative measurement capabilities have also been demonstrated for continued refinement of the aerodynamic technologies employed in the X-38 project. Detailed results from these studies are given in an AIAA Paper, two slide presentations, and other material which are given on a Web-based archival resource. This is the Digital

4. Aerodynamic preliminary analysis system 2. Part 1: Theory

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bonner, E.; Clever, W.; Dunn, K.

1981-01-01

A subsonic/supersonic/hypersonic aerodynamic analysis was developed by integrating the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System (APAS), and the inviscid force calculation modules of the Hypersonic Arbitrary Body Program. APAS analysis was extended for nonlinear vortex forces using a generalization of the Polhamus analogy. The interactive system provides appropriate aerodynamic models for a single input geometry data base and has a run/output format similar to a wind tunnel test program. The user's manual was organized to cover the principle system activities of a typical application, geometric input/editing, aerodynamic evaluation, and post analysis review/display. Sample sessions are included to illustrate the specific task involved and are followed by a comprehensive command/subcommand dictionary used to operate the system.

5. Aerodynamics of the hovering hummingbird.

PubMed

Warrick, Douglas R; Tobalske, Bret W; Powers, Donald R

2005-06-23

Despite profound musculoskeletal differences, hummingbirds (Trochilidae) are widely thought to employ aerodynamic mechanisms similar to those used by insects. The kinematic symmetry of the hummingbird upstroke and downstroke has led to the assumption that these halves of the wingbeat cycle contribute equally to weight support during hovering, as exhibited by insects of similar size. This assumption has been applied, either explicitly or implicitly, in widely used aerodynamic models and in a variety of empirical tests. Here we provide measurements of the wake of hovering rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus) obtained with digital particle image velocimetry that show force asymmetry: hummingbirds produce 75% of their weight support during the downstroke and only 25% during the upstroke. Some of this asymmetry is probably due to inversion of their cambered wings during upstroke. The wake of hummingbird wings also reveals evidence of leading-edge vortices created during the downstroke, indicating that they may operate at Reynolds numbers sufficiently low to exploit a key mechanism typical of insect hovering. Hummingbird hovering approaches that of insects, yet remains distinct because of effects resulting from an inherently dissimilar-avian-body plan.

6. Powered-Lift Aerodynamics and Acoustics. [conferences

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1976-01-01

Powered lift technology is reviewed. Topics covered include: (1) high lift aerodynamics; (2) high speed and cruise aerodynamics; (3) acoustics; (4) propulsion aerodynamics and acoustics; (5) aerodynamic and acoustic loads; and (6) full-scale and flight research.

7. A climatology of formation conditions for aerodynamic contrails

Gierens, K.; Dilger, F.

2013-11-01

Aircraft at cruise levels can cause two kinds of contrails, the well known exhaust contrails and the less well-known aerodynamic contrails. While the possible climate impact of exhaust contrails has been studied for many years, research on aerodynamic contrails began only a few years ago and nothing is known about a possible contribution of these ice clouds to climate impact. In order to make progress in this respect, we first need a climatology of their formation conditions and this is given in the present paper. Aerodynamic contrails are defined here as line shaped ice clouds caused by aerodynamically triggered cooling over the wings of an aircraft in cruise which become visible immediately at the trailing edge of the wing or close to it. Effects at low altitudes like condensation to liquid droplets and their potential heterogeneous freezing are excluded from our definition. We study atmospheric conditions that allow formation of aerodynamic contrails. These conditions are stated and then applied to atmospheric data: first to a special case where an aerodynamic contrail was actually observed and then to a full year of global reanalysis data. We show where, when (seasonal variation), and how frequently (probability) aerodynamic contrails can form, and how this relates to actual patterns of air traffic. We study the formation of persistent aerodynamic contrails as well. Furthermore, we check whether aerodynamic and exhaust contrails can coexist in the atmosphere. We show that visible aerodynamic contrails are possible only in an altitude range between roughly 540 and 250 hPa, and that the ambient temperature is the most important parameter, not the relative humidity. Finally, we argue that currently aerodynamic contrails have a much smaller climate effect than exhaust contrails, which may however change in future with more air traffic in the tropics.

8. Transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics

Doig, G.

2014-08-01

A review of recent and historical work in the field of transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics has been conducted, focussing on applied research on wings and aircraft, present and future ground transportation, projectiles, rocket sleds and other related bodies which travel in close ground proximity in the compressible regime. Methods for ground testing are described and evaluated, noting that wind tunnel testing is best performed with a symmetry model in the absence of a moving ground; sled or rail testing is ultimately preferable, though considerably more expensive. Findings are reported on shock-related ground influence on aerodynamic forces and moments in and accelerating through the transonic regime - where force reversals and the early onset of local supersonic flow is prevalent - as well as more predictable behaviours in fully supersonic to hypersonic ground effect flows.

9. Toward a State of Esteem. The Final Report of the California Task Force to Promote Self-esteem and Personal and Social Responsibility.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

This document contains the final report of a California Task Force created to promote self-esteem and personal responsibility. It begins with an executive summary listing key principles of the task force and providing recommendations and discussions in each of six major areas upon which the report focuses. The next section presents the task…

10. Applied computational aerodynamics

SciTech Connect

Henne, P.A.

1990-01-01

The present volume discusses the original development of the panel method, the mapping solutions and singularity distributions of linear potential schemes, the capabilities of full-potential, Euler, and Navier-Stokes schemes, the use of the grid-generation methodology in applied aerodynamics, subsonic airfoil design, inverse airfoil design for transonic applications, the divergent trailing-edge airfoil innovation in CFD, Euler and potential computational results for selected aerodynamic configurations, and the application of CFD to wing high-lift systems. Also discussed are high-lift wing modifications for an advanced-capability EA-6B aircraft, Navier-Stokes methods for internal and integrated propulsion system flow predictions, the use of zonal techniques for analysis of rotor-stator interaction, CFD applications to complex configurations, CFD applications in component aerodynamic design of the V-22, Navier-Stokes computations of a complete F-16, CFD at supersonic/hypersonic speeds, and future CFD developments.

11. Rarefaction Effects in Hypersonic Aerodynamics

2011-05-01

The Direct Simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) technique is used for numerical analysis of rarefied-gas hypersonic flows near a blunt plate, wedge, two side-by-side plates, disk, torus, and rotating cylinder. The role of various similarity parameters (Knudsen and Mach numbers, geometrical and temperature factors, specific heat ratios, and others) in aerodynamics of the probes is studied. Important kinetic effects that are specific for the transition flow regime have been found: non-monotonic lift and drag of plates, strong repulsive force between side-by-side plates and cylinders, dependence of drag on torus radii ratio, and the reverse Magnus effect on the lift of a rotating cylinder. The numerical results are in a good agreement with experimental data, which were obtained in a vacuum chamber at low and moderate Knudsen numbers from 0.01 to 10.

12. Nonlinear aerodynamic wing design

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bonner, Ellwood

1985-01-01

The applicability of new nonlinear theoretical techniques is demonstrated for supersonic wing design. The new technology was utilized to define outboard panels for an existing advanced tactical fighter model. Mach 1.6 maneuver point design and multi-operating point compromise surfaces were developed and tested. High aerodynamic efficiency was achieved at the design conditions. A corollary result was that only modest supersonic penalties were incurred to meet multiple aerodynamic requirements. The nonlinear potential analysis of a practical configuration arrangement correlated well with experimental data.

13. Post-Flight Aerodynamic and Aerothermal Model Validation of a Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tang, Chun; Muppidi, Suman; Bose, Deepak; Van Norman, John W.; Tanimoto, Rebekah; Clark, Ian

2015-01-01

NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator Program is developing new technologies that will enable the landing of heavier payloads in low density environments, such as Mars. A recent flight experiment conducted high above the Hawaiian Islands has demonstrated the performance of several decelerator technologies. In particular, the deployment of the Robotic class Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD-R) was highly successful, and valuable data were collected during the test flight. This paper outlines the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis used to estimate the aerodynamic and aerothermal characteristics of the SIAD-R. Pre-flight and post-flight predictions are compared with the flight data, and a very good agreement in aerodynamic force and moment coefficients is observed between the CFD solutions and the reconstructed flight data.

14. Airfoil Ice-Accretion Aerodynamics Simulation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bragg, Michael B.; Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Guffond, Didier; Montreuil, E.

2007-01-01

NASA Glenn Research Center, ONERA, and the University of Illinois are conducting a major research program whose goal is to improve our understanding of the aerodynamic scaling of ice accretions on airfoils. The program when it is completed will result in validated scaled simulation methods that produce the essential aerodynamic features of the full-scale iced-airfoil. This research will provide some of the first, high-fidelity, full-scale, iced-airfoil aerodynamic data. An initial study classified ice accretions based on their aerodynamics into four types: roughness, streamwise ice, horn ice, and spanwise-ridge ice. Subscale testing using a NACA 23012 airfoil was performed in the NASA IRT and University of Illinois wind tunnel to better understand the aerodynamics of these ice types and to test various levels of ice simulation fidelity. These studies are briefly reviewed here and have been presented in more detail in other papers. Based on these results, full-scale testing at the ONERA F1 tunnel using cast ice shapes obtained from molds taken in the IRT will provide full-scale iced airfoil data from full-scale ice accretions. Using these data as a baseline, the final step is to validate the simulation methods in scale in the Illinois wind tunnel. Computational ice accretion methods including LEWICE and ONICE have been used to guide the experiments and are briefly described and results shown. When full-scale and simulation aerodynamic results are available, these data will be used to further develop computational tools. Thus the purpose of the paper is to present an overview of the program and key results to date.

15. Computer graphics in aerodynamic analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cozzolongo, J. V.

1984-01-01

The use of computer graphics and its application to aerodynamic analyses on a routine basis is outlined. The mathematical modelling of the aircraft geometries and the shading technique implemented are discussed. Examples of computer graphics used to display aerodynamic flow field data and aircraft geometries are shown. A future need in computer graphics for aerodynamic analyses is addressed.

16. Space Launch System Liftoff and Transition Aerodynamic Characterization in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pinier, Jeremy T.; Erickson, Gary E.; Paulson, John W.; Tomek, William G.; Bennett, David W.; Blevins, John A.

2015-01-01

A 1.75% scale force and moment model of the Space Launch System was tested in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel to quantify the aerodynamic forces that will be experienced by the launch vehicle during its liftoff and transition to ascent flight. The test consisted of two parts: the first was dedicated to measuring forces and moments for the entire range of angles of attack (0deg to 90deg) and roll angles (0 deg. to 360 deg.). The second was designed to measure the aerodynamic effects of the liftoff tower on the launch vehicle for ground winds from all azimuthal directions (0 deg. to 360 deg.), and vehicle liftoff height ratios from 0 to 0.94. This wind tunnel model also included a set of 154 surface static pressure ports. Details on the experimental setup, and results from both parts of testing are presented, along with a description of how the wind tunnel data was analyzed and post-processed in order to develop an aerodynamic database. Finally, lessons learned from experiencing significant dynamics in the mid-range angles of attack due to steady asymmetric vortex shedding are presented.

17. Efficient Global Aerodynamic Modeling from Flight Data

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Morelli, Eugene A.

2012-01-01

A method for identifying global aerodynamic models from flight data in an efficient manner is explained and demonstrated. A novel experiment design technique was used to obtain dynamic flight data over a range of flight conditions with a single flight maneuver. Multivariate polynomials and polynomial splines were used with orthogonalization techniques and statistical modeling metrics to synthesize global nonlinear aerodynamic models directly and completely from flight data alone. Simulation data and flight data from a subscale twin-engine jet transport aircraft were used to demonstrate the techniques. Results showed that global multivariate nonlinear aerodynamic dependencies could be accurately identified using flight data from a single maneuver. Flight-derived global aerodynamic model structures, model parameter estimates, and associated uncertainties were provided for all six nondimensional force and moment coefficients for the test aircraft. These models were combined with a propulsion model identified from engine ground test data to produce a high-fidelity nonlinear flight simulation very efficiently. Prediction testing using a multi-axis maneuver showed that the identified global model accurately predicted aircraft responses.

18. Rarefield-Flow Shuttle Aerodynamics Flight Model

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blanchard, Robert C.; Larman, Kevin T.; Moats, Christina D.

1994-01-01

A model of the Shuttle Orbiter rarefied-flow aerodynamic force coefficients has been derived from the ratio of flight acceleration measurements. The in-situ, low-frequency (less than 1Hz), low-level (approximately 1 x 10(exp -6) g) acceleration measurements are made during atmospheric re-entry. The experiment equipment designed and used for this task is the High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP), one of the sensor packages in the Orbiter Experiments Program. To date, 12 HiRAP re-entry mission data sets spanning a period of about 10 years have been processed. The HiRAP-derived aerodynamics model is described in detail. The model includes normal and axial hypersonic continuum coefficient equations as function of angle of attack, body-flap deflection, and elevon deflection. Normal and axial free molecule flow coefficient equations as a function of angle of attack are also presented, along with flight-derived rarefied-flow transition bridging formulae. Comparisons are made between the aerodynamics model, data from the latest Orbiter Operational Aerodynamic Design Data Book, applicable computer simulations, and wind-tunnel data.

19. Identification of aerodynamic models for maneuvering aircraft

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chin, Suei; Lan, C. Edward

1990-01-01

Due to the requirement of increased performance and maneuverability, the flight envelope of a modern fighter is frequently extended to the high angle-of-attack regime. Vehicles maneuvering in this regime are subjected to nonlinear aerodynamic loads. The nonlinearities are due mainly to three-dimensional separated flow and concentrated vortex flow that occur at large angles of attack. Accurate prediction of these nonlinear airloads is of great importance in the analysis of a vehicle's flight motion and in the design of its flight control system. A satisfactory evaluation of the performance envelope of the aircraft may require a large number of coupled computations, one for each change in initial conditions. To avoid the disadvantage of solving the coupled flow-field equations and aircraft's motion equations, an alternate approach is to use a mathematical modeling to describe the steady and unsteady aerodynamics for the aircraft equations of motion. Aerodynamic forces and moments acting on a rapidly maneuvering aircraft are, in general, nonlinear functions of motion variables, their time rate of change, and the history of maneuvering. A numerical method was developed to analyze the nonlinear and time-dependent aerodynamic response to establish the generalized indicial function in terms of motion variables and their time rates of change.

20. Parachute Aerodynamics From Video Data

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Schoenenberger, Mark; Queen, Eric M.; Cruz, Juan R.

2005-01-01

A new data analysis technique for the identification of static and dynamic aerodynamic stability coefficients from wind tunnel test video data is presented. This new technique was applied to video data obtained during a parachute wind tunnel test program conducted in support of the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. Total angle-of-attack data obtained from video images were used to determine the static pitching moment curve of the parachute. During the original wind tunnel test program the static pitching moment curve had been determined by forcing the parachute to a specific total angle-of -attack and measuring the forces generated. It is shown with the new technique that this parachute, when free to rotate, trims at an angle-of-attack two degrees lower than was measured during the forced-angle tests. An attempt was also made to extract pitch damping information from the video data. Results suggest that the parachute is dynamically unstable at the static trim point and tends to become dynamically stable away from the trim point. These trends are in agreement with limit-cycle-like behavior observed in the video. However, the chaotic motion of the parachute produced results with large uncertainty bands.

1. Torso Experienced Aerodynamic Forces Experienced during Ejection.

DTIC Science & Technology

1981-02-01

investi- ted geometric shapes (i.e., spheres, cylinders, etc.). .(continued) DD FON,, 1473 EDITION OF INOV 6, IS OBSOLETE % ’" SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...crewmember evidences a disturbed, turbulent flow pattern except very near the fuselage where more predictable flow is observed. The energy lost to turbulence

2. Force and moment tests to determine the interaction effects of the reaction control system jet plumes on the space shuttle Orbiter aerodynamics at Mach Number 6 (Test OA352)

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cayse, Robert W.

1987-01-01

The purpose of this test was to expand the existing Space Shuttle aerodynamics and Reaction Control System (RCS) data base to support the Glide Return to Launch Site (GRTLS) abort trajectory and the new Digital Autopilot. An existing model of the orbiter was used to investigate the aerodynamic effects of several combinations of RCS thrusters and thruster momentum ratios at Mach number 6. Two separate model installations were used to achieve an angle-of-attack range of -11 to 46 deg. The test was conducted at a unit Reynolds number of 0.8 x 10 to the 6th per foot.

3. Ares I Aerodynamic Testing at the Boeing Polysonic Wind Tunnel

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pinier, Jeremy T.; Niskey, Charles J.; Hanke, Jeremy L.; Tomek, William G.

2011-01-01

Throughout three full design analysis cycles, the Ares I project within the Constellation program has consistently relied on the Boeing Polysonic Wind Tunnel (PSWT) for aerodynamic testing of the subsonic, transonic and supersonic portions of the atmospheric flight envelope (Mach=0.5 to 4.5). Each design cycle required the development of aerodynamic databases for the 6 degree-of-freedom (DOF) forces and moments, as well as distributed line-loads databases covering the full range of Mach number, total angle-of-attack, and aerodynamic roll angle. The high fidelity data collected in this facility has been consistent with the data collected in NASA Langley s Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) at the overlapping condition ofMach=1.6. Much insight into the aerodynamic behavior of the launch vehicle during all phases of flight was gained through wind tunnel testing. Important knowledge pertaining to slender launch vehicle aerodynamics in particular was accumulated. In conducting these wind tunnel tests and developing experimental aerodynamic databases, some challenges were encountered and are reported as lessons learned in this paper for the benefit of future crew launch vehicle aerodynamic developments.

4. Measurements of Aerodynamic Damping in the MIT Transonic Rotor

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crawley, E. F.

1981-01-01

A method was developed and demonstrated for the direct measurement of aerodynamic forcing and aerodynamic damping of a transonic compressor. The method is based on the inverse solution of the structural dynamic equations of motion of the blade disk system in order to determine the forces acting on the system. The disturbing and damping forces acting on a given blade are determined if the equations of motion are expressed in individual blade coordinates. If the structural dynamic equations are transformed to multiblade coordinates, the damping can be measured for blade disk modes, and related to a reduced frequency and interblade phase angle. In order to measure the aerodynamic damping in this way, the free response to a known excitation is studied.

5. Final report on force key comparison CCM.F-K2.a and CCM.F-K2.b (50 kN and 100 kN)

Vincke, William; Zhimin, Zhang; Pusa, Aimo; Averlant, Philippe; Kumme, Rolf; Germak, Alessandro; Ueda, Kazunaga; Park, Yon-Kyu; Torres, Jorge; Burke, Ben; Langmead, Fredrik; Fank, Sinan; Knott, Andy; Bartel, Tom

2012-01-01

This report describes CIPM key comparison CCM.F-K2, a comparison between the deadweight force standard machines of fourteen National Measurement Institutes, at generated forces of 50 kN and 100 kN, in the period from 2004 to 2007. Two different measurement schemes were employed, one for machines capable of generating both 50 kN and 100 kN and the other using the single force of 50 kN, for machines of a lower maximum capacity than 100 kN. Multiple transducers were used and the force-time profile was strictly controlled, to minimize effects of creep. Analysis of the results took careful account of the drift of the transducers' sensitivities throughout the comparison period, as this was one of the major uncertainty contributions. The final results suggest that the nominal 50 kN forces generated at four of the fourteen laboratories (and the 100 kN forces at two of them) may be statistically significantly different from the same nominal forces generated at the other laboratories. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

6. Mars Pathfider Rarefied Aerodynamics: Computations and Measurements

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Moss, James N.; Blanchard, Robert C.; Wilmoth, Richard G.; Braun, Robert D.

1998-01-01

On July 4, 1997, after traveling close to 500 million km, the Pathfinder spacecraft successfully completed entry, descent, and landing at Mars. In the present paper, the focus is on the hypersonic rarefied portion of Pathfinder's atmospheric entry where the synergy of flight measurements, aerodynamic calculations, and atmospheric modeling tools are used to extract Pathfinder's attitude and the freestream density. Accuracy of the capsule aerodynamics directly impacts the inferred atmospheric properties extracted from deceleration measurements made by on-board accelerometers. The range of rarefaction considered in this study extends from the free molecular to continuum conditions and angles of attack from O to 30 deg. The aerodynamic computations are made with free-molecular and direct simulation Monte Carlo codes. The calculations show that Pathfinder is statically unstable for much of the transitional rarefied regime. Due to the relatively modest forces and the gyroscopic motion of the spacecraft, the angle of attack excursions were less than 5 deg as inferred from force measurements for the rarefied portion of entry and approached a nominal zero degree trim angle near hypersonic continuum conditions.

7. The aerodynamics of insect flight.

PubMed

Sane, Sanjay P

2003-12-01

The flight of insects has fascinated physicists and biologists for more than a century. Yet, until recently, researchers were unable to rigorously quantify the complex wing motions of flapping insects or measure the forces and flows around their wings. However, recent developments in high-speed videography and tools for computational and mechanical modeling have allowed researchers to make rapid progress in advancing our understanding of insect flight. These mechanical and computational fluid dynamic models, combined with modern flow visualization techniques, have revealed that the fluid dynamic phenomena underlying flapping flight are different from those of non-flapping, 2-D wings on which most previous models were based. In particular, even at high angles of attack, a prominent leading edge vortex remains stably attached on the insect wing and does not shed into an unsteady wake, as would be expected from non-flapping 2-D wings. Its presence greatly enhances the forces generated by the wing, thus enabling insects to hover or maneuver. In addition, flight forces are further enhanced by other mechanisms acting during changes in angle of attack, especially at stroke reversal, the mutual interaction of the two wings at dorsal stroke reversal or wing-wake interactions following stroke reversal. This progress has enabled the development of simple analytical and empirical models that allow us to calculate the instantaneous forces on flapping insect wings more accurately than was previously possible. It also promises to foster new and exciting multi-disciplinary collaborations between physicists who seek to explain the phenomenology, biologists who seek to understand its relevance to insect physiology and evolution, and engineers who are inspired to build micro-robotic insects using these principles. This review covers the basic physical principles underlying flapping flight in insects, results of recent experiments concerning the aerodynamics of insect flight, as well

8. Aerodynamic control with passively pitching wings

Gravish, Nick; Wood, Robert

Flapping wings may pitch passively under aerodynamic and inertial loads. Such passive pitching is observed in flapping wing insect and robot flight. The effect of passive wing pitch on the control dynamics of flapping wing flight are unexplored. Here we demonstrate in simulation and experiment the critical role wing pitching plays in yaw control of a flapping wing robot. We study yaw torque generation by a flapping wing allowed to passively rotate in the pitch axis through a rotational spring. Yaw torque is generated through alternating fast and slow upstroke and and downstroke. Yaw torque sensitively depends on both the rotational spring force law and spring stiffness, and at a critical spring stiffness a bifurcation in the yaw torque control relationship occurs. Simulation and experiment reveal the dynamics of this bifurcation and demonstrate that anomalous yaw torque from passively pitching wings is the result of aerodynamic and inertial coupling between the pitching and stroke-plane dynamics.

9. CFD research, parallel computation and aerodynamic optimization

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ryan, James S.

1995-01-01

Over five years of research in Computational Fluid Dynamics and its applications are covered in this report. Using CFD as an established tool, aerodynamic optimization on parallel architectures is explored. The objective of this work is to provide better tools to vehicle designers. Submarine design requires accurate force and moment calculations in flow with thick boundary layers and large separated vortices. Low noise production is critical, so flow into the propulsor region must be predicted accurately. The High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) has been the subject of recent work. This vehicle is to be a passenger vehicle with the capability of cutting overseas flight times by more than half. A successful design must surpass the performance of comparable planes. Fuel economy, other operational costs, environmental impact, and range must all be improved substantially. For all these reasons, improved design tools are required, and these tools must eventually integrate optimization, external aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, heat transfer and other disciplines.

10. Rarefied-flow aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potter, J. Leith

1992-01-01

Means for relatively simple and quick procedures are examined for estimating aerodynamic coefficients of lifting reentry vehicles. The methods developed allow aerospace designers not only to evaluate the aerodynamics of specific shapes but also to optimize shapes under given constraints. The analysis was also studied of the effect of thermomolecular flow on pressures measured by an orifice near the nose of a Space Shuttle Orbiter at altitudes above 75 km. It was shown that pressures corrected for thermomolecular flow effect are in good agreement with values predicted by independent theoretical methods. An incidental product was the insight gained about the free molecular thermal accommodation coefficient applicable under 'real' conditions of high speed flow in the Earth's atmosphere. The results are presented as abstracts of referenced papers. One reference paper is presented in its entirety.

11. HYSHOT-2 Aerodynamics

Cain, T.; Owen, R.; Walton, C.

2005-02-01

The scramjet flight test Hyshot-2, flew on the 30 July 2002. The programme, led by the University of Queensland, had the primary objective of obtaining supersonic combustion data in flight for comparison with measurements made in shock tunnels. QinetiQ was one of the sponsors, and also provided aerodynamic data and trajectory predictions for the ballistic re-entry of the spinning sounding rocket. The unconventional missile geometry created by the nose-mounted asymmetric-scramjet in conjunction with the high angle of attack during re-entry makes the problem interesting. This paper presents the wind tunnel measurements and aerodynamic calculations used as input for the trajectory prediction. Indirect comparison is made with data obtained in the Hyshot-2 flight using a 6 degree-of-freedom trajectory simulation.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

1999-01-01

A 1990 research program that focused on the development of advanced aerodynamic control effectors (AACE) for military aircraft has been reviewed and summarized. Data are presented for advanced planform, flow control, and surface contouring technologies. The data show significant increases in lift, reductions in drag, and increased control power, compared to typical aerodynamic designs. The results presented also highlighted the importance of planform selection in the design of a control effector suite. Planform data showed that dramatic increases in lift (greater than 25%) can be achieved with multiple wings and a sawtooth forebody. Passive porosity and micro drag generator control effector data showed control power levels exceeding that available from typical effectors (moving surfaces). Application of an advanced planform to a tailless concept showed benefits of similar magnitude as those observed in the generic studies.

13. Aerodynamics of Unsteady Sailing Kinetics

Keil, Colin; Schutt, Riley; Borshoff, Jennifer; Alley, Philip; de Zegher, Maximilien; Williamson, Chk

2015-11-01

In small sailboats, the bodyweight of the sailor is proportionately large enough to induce significant unsteady motion of the boat and sail. Sailors use a variety of kinetic techniques to create sail dynamics which can provide an increment in thrust, thereby increasing the boatspeed. In this study, we experimentally investigate the unsteady aerodynamics associated with two techniques, ``upwind leech flicking'' and ``downwind S-turns''. We explore the dynamics of an Olympic class Laser sailboat equipped with a GPS, IMU, wind sensor, and camera array, sailed expertly by a member of the US Olympic team. The velocity heading of a sailing boat is oriented at an apparent wind angle to the flow. In contrast to classic flapping propulsion, the heaving of the sail section is not perpendicular to the sail's motion through the air. This leads to heave with components parallel and perpendicular to the incident flow. The characteristic motion is recreated in a towing tank where the vortex structures generated by a representative 2-D sail section are observed using Particle Image Velocimetry and the measurement of thrust and lift forces. Amongst other results, we show that the increase in driving force, generated due to heave, is larger for greater apparent wind angles.

14. Aerodynamic Analysis of Morphing Blades

Harris, Caleb; Macphee, David; Carlisle, Madeline

2016-11-01

Interest in morphing blades has grown with applications for wind turbines and other aerodynamic blades. This passive control method has advantages over active control methods such as lower manufacturing and upkeep costs. This study has investigated the lift and drag forces on individual blades with experimental and computational analysis. The goal has been to show that these blades delay stall and provide larger lift-to-drag ratios at various angles of attack. Rigid and flexible airfoils were cast from polyurethane and silicone respectively, then lift and drag forces were collected from a load cell during 2-D testing in a wind tunnel. Experimental data was used to validate computational models in OpenFOAM. A finite volume fluid-structure-interaction solver was used to model the flexible blade in fluid flow. Preliminary results indicate delay in stall and larger lift-to-drag ratios by maintaining more optimal angles of attack when flexing. Funding from NSF REU site Grant EEC 1358991 is greatly appreciated.

15. Application of CAD/CAE class systems to aerodynamic analysis of electric race cars

Grabowski, L.; Baier, A.; Buchacz, A.; Majzner, M.; Sobek, M.

2015-11-01

Aerodynamics is one of the most important factors which influence on every aspect of a design of a car and car driving parameters. The biggest influence aerodynamics has on design of a shape of a race car body, especially when the main objective of the race is the longest distance driven in period of time, which can not be achieved without low energy consumption and low drag of a car. Designing shape of the vehicle body that must generate the lowest possible drag force, without compromising the other parameters of the drive. In the article entitled „Application of CAD/CAE class systems to aerodynamic analysis of electric race cars” are being presented problems solved by computer analysis of cars aerodynamics and free form modelling. Analysis have been subjected to existing race car of a Silesian Greenpower Race Team. On a basis of results of analysis of existence of Kammback aerodynamic effect innovative car body were modeled. Afterwards aerodynamic analysis were performed to verify existence of aerodynamic effect for innovative shape and to recognize aerodynamics parameters of the shape. Analysis results in the values of coefficients and aerodynamic drag forces. The resulting drag forces Fx, drag coefficients Cx(Cd) and aerodynamic factors Cx*A allowed to compare all of the shapes to each other. Pressure distribution, air velocities and streams courses were useful in determining aerodynamic features of analyzed shape. For aerodynamic tests was used Ansys Fluent CFD software. In a paper the ways of surface modeling with usage of Realize Shape module and classic surface modeling were presented. For shapes modeling Siemens NX 9.0 software was used. Obtained results were used to estimation of existing shapes and to make appropriate conclusions.

16. Unsteady aerodynamic models for agile flight at low Reynolds numbers

Brunton, Steven L.

computational tools are developed throughout this work. Highly unsteady maneuvers are visualized using finite-time Lyapunov exponent fields, which highlight separated flows and wake structures. A new fast method of computing these fields is presented. In addition, we generalize the immersed boundary projection method computations to use a moving base flow, which allows for the simulation of complex geometries undergoing large motions with up to an order of magnitude speed-up. The methods developed in this thesis provide a systematic approach to identify unsteady aerodynamic models from analytical, numerical, or experimental data. The resulting models are shown to be reduced-order models of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations that are expressed in state-space form, and they are, therefore, both efficient and accurate. The specific form of the model, which separates added-mass forces, quasi-steady lift, and transient forces, guarantees that the resulting models are accurate over the entire range of frequencies. Finally, the models are low-dimensional linear systems of ordinary differential equations, so that they are compatible with existing flight dynamic models as well as a wealth of modern control techniques.

17. Development and validation of the V/STOL aerodynamics and stability and control manual

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Henderson, C.; Walters, M. M.

1981-01-01

A V/STOL Aerodynamics and Stability and Control Manual was developed to provide prediction methods which are applicable to a wide range of V/STOL configurations in hover and transition flight, in and out of ground effect. Propulsion-induced effects have been combined with unpowered aerodynamics in a buildup of total forces and moments for the jet-lift concept, so that total aerodynamics can be used to predict aircraft stability, control, and flying qualities characteristics. Results of longitudinal aerodynamic predictions have been compared with test data, and indicate that the methods are fast, inexpensive, and within the desired accuracy for the objective preliminary design stage.

18. Unsteady Aerodynamic Flow Control of a Suspended Axisymmetric Moving Platform

Lambert, Thomas; Vukasinovic, Bojan; Glezer, Ari

2011-11-01

The aerodynamic forces on an axisymmetric wind tunnel model are altered by fluidic interaction of an azimuthal array of integrated synthetic jet actuators with the cross flow. Four-quadrant actuators are integrated into a Coanda surface on the aft section of the body, and the jets emanate from narrow, azimuthally segmented slots equally distributed around the model's perimeter. The model is suspended in the tunnel using eight wires each comprising miniature in-line force sensors and shape-memory-alloy (SMA) strands that are used to control the instantaneous forces and moments on the model and its orientation. The interaction of the actuation jets with the flow over the moving model is investigated using PIV and time-resolved force measurements to assess the transitory aerodynamic loading effected by coupling between the induced motion of the aerodynamic surface and the fluid dynamics that is driven by the actuation. It is shown that these interactions can lead to effective control of the aerodynamic forces and moments, and thereby of the model's motion. Supported by ARO.

19. Assessment of CFD-based Response Surface Model for Ares I Supersonic Ascent Aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hanke, Jeremy L.

2011-01-01

The Ascent Force and Moment Aerodynamic (AFMA) Databases (DBs) for the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) were typically based on wind tunnel (WT) data, with increments provided by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for aspects of the vehicle that could not be tested in the WT tests. During the Design Analysis Cycle 3 analysis for the outer mold line (OML) geometry designated A106, a major tunnel mishap delayed the WT test for supersonic Mach numbers (M) greater than 1.6 in the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center, and the test delay pushed the final delivery of the A106 AFMA DB back by several months. The aero team developed an interim database based entirely on the already completed CFD simulations to mitigate the impact of the delay. This CFD-based database used a response surface methodology based on radial basis functions to predict the aerodynamic coefficients for M > 1.6 based on only the CFD data from both WT and flight Reynolds number conditions. The aero team used extensive knowledge of the previous AFMA DB for the A103 OML to guide the development of the CFD-based A106 AFMA DB. This report details the development of the CFD-based A106 Supersonic AFMA DB, constructs a prediction of the database uncertainty using data available at the time of development, and assesses the overall quality of the CFD-based DB both qualitatively and quantitatively. This assessment confirms that a reasonable aerodynamic database can be constructed for launch vehicles at supersonic conditions using only CFD data if sufficient knowledge of the physics and expected behavior is available. This report also demonstrates the applicability of non-parametric response surface modeling using radial basis functions for development of aerodynamic databases that exhibit both linear and non-linear behavior throughout a large data space.

20. A program to compute three-dimensional subsonic unsteady aerodynamic characteristics using the doublet lattice method, L216 (DUBFLEX). Volume 2: Supplemental system design and maintenance document

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Harrison, B. A.; Richard, M.

1979-01-01

The information necessary for execution of the digital computer program L216 on the CDC 6600 is described. L216 characteristics are based on the doublet lattice method. Arbitrary aerodynamic configurations may be represented with combinations of nonplanar lifting surfaces composed of finite constant pressure panel elements, and axially summetric slender bodies composed of constant pressure line elements. Program input consists of configuration geometry, aerodynamic parameters, and modal data; output includes element geometry, pressure difference distributions, integrated aerodynamic coefficients, stability derivatives, generalized aerodynamic forces, and aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices. Optionally, modal data may be input on magnetic field (tape or disk), and certain geometric and aerodynamic output may be saved for subsequent use.

1. Aerodynamics of the Mars Microprobe Entry Vehicles

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mitcheltree, R. A.; Moss, J. N.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Greene, F. A.; Braun, R. D.

1997-01-01

The selection of the unique aeroshell shape for the Mars Microprobes is discussed. A description of its aerodynamics in hypersonic rarefied, hypersonic continuum, supersonic and transonic flow regimes is then presented. This description is based on Direct Simulation Monte Carlo analyses in the rarefied-flow regime, thermochemical nonequilibrium Computational Fluid Dynamics in the hypersonic regime, existing wind tunnel data in the supersonic and transonic regime, additional computational work in the transonic regime, and finally, ballistic range data. The aeroshell is shown to possess the correct combination of aerodynamic stability and drag to convert the probe's initial tumbling attitude and high velocity at atmospheric-interface into the desired surface-impact orientation and velocity.

2. Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Using Hybridized Differential Evolution

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

2003-01-01

An aerodynamic shape optimization method that uses an evolutionary algorithm known at Differential Evolution (DE) in conjunction with various hybridization strategies is described. DE is a simple and robust evolutionary strategy that has been proven effective in determining the global optimum for several difficult optimization problems. Various hybridization strategies for DE are explored, including the use of neural networks as well as traditional local search methods. A Navier-Stokes solver is used to evaluate the various intermediate designs and provide inputs to the hybrid DE optimizer. The method is implemented on distributed parallel computers so that new designs can be obtained within reasonable turnaround times. Results are presented for the inverse design of a turbine airfoil from a modern jet engine. (The final paper will include at least one other aerodynamic design application). The capability of the method to search large design spaces and obtain the optimal airfoils in an automatic fashion is demonstrated.

3. Supersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of Blunt Body Trim Tab Configurations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Korzun, Ashley M.; Murphy, Kelly J.; Edquist, Karl T.

2013-01-01

Trim tabs are aerodynamic control surfaces that can allow an entry vehicle to meet aerodynamic performance requirements while reducing or eliminating the use of ballast mass and providing a capability to modulate the lift-to-drag ratio during entry. Force and moment data were obtained on 38 unique, blunt body trim tab configurations in the NASA Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The data were used to parametrically assess the supersonic aerodynamic performance of trim tabs and to understand the influence of tab area, cant angle, and aspect ratio. Across the range of conditions tested (Mach numbers of 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5; angles of attack from -4deg to +20deg; angles of sideslip from 0deg to +8deg), the effects of varying tab area and tab cant angle were found to be much more significant than effects from varying tab aspect ratio. Aerodynamic characteristics exhibited variation with Mach number and forebody geometry over the range of conditions tested. Overall, the results demonstrate that trim tabs are a viable approach to satisfy aerodynamic performance requirements of blunt body entry vehicles with minimal ballast mass. For a 70deg sphere-cone, a tab with 3% area of the forebody and canted approximately 35deg with no ballast mass was found to give the same trim aerodynamics as a baseline model with ballast mass that was 5% of the total entry mass.

4. Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test: Trajectory, Atmosphere, and Aerodynamics Reconstruction

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kutty, Prasad; Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Blood, Eric M.; O'Farrell, Clara; Ginn, Jason M.; Shoenenberger, Mark; Dutta, Soumyo

2015-01-01

The Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test is a full-scale flight test of a Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator, which is part of the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator technology development project. The purpose of the project is to develop and mature aerodynamic decelerator technologies for landing large mass payloads on the surface of Mars. The technologies include a Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator and Supersonic Parachutes. The first Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test occurred on June 28th, 2014 at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. This test was used to validate the test architecture for future missions. The flight was a success and, in addition, was able to acquire data on the aerodynamic performance of the supersonic inflatable decelerator. This paper describes the instrumentation, analysis techniques, and acquired flight test data utilized to reconstruct the vehicle trajectory, atmosphere, and aerodynamics. The results of the reconstruction show significantly higher lofting of the trajectory, which can partially be explained by off-nominal booster motor performance. The reconstructed vehicle force and moment coefficients fall well within pre-flight predictions. A parameter identification analysis indicates that the vehicle displayed greater aerodynamic static stability than seen in pre-flight computational predictions and ballistic range tests.

SciTech Connect

Not Available

1994-10-01

6. Final report on force key comparison EUROMET.M.F-K2: 50 kN and 100 kN (EURAMET Project No 518)

Reis Machado, Renato; Kašpar, Petr; Weiglhofer, Erich; Kumme, Rolf; Navrozidis, George; Vámossy, Csilla; Verbeek, Jos; Wozniak, Mikolaj; Spohr, Isabel; Sandu, Ion; Wüthrich, Christian; Knott, Andy

2014-01-01

This report describes EURAMET Key Comparison EUROMET.M.F-K2, a comparison between the force standard machines of twelve national measurement institutes, at generated forces of 50 kN and 100 kN, in the period from 2007 to 2009. Two different measurement schemes were employed, one for machines capable of generating both 50 kN and 100 kN and the other using the single force of 50 kN, for machines of a lower maximum capacity than 100 kN. Multiple transducers were used and the force-time profile was strictly controlled, to minimise effects of creep. Analysis of the results took careful account of the drift of the transducers' sensitivities throughout the comparison period, as this was one of the major uncertainty contributions. The final results are linked to the KCRV determined in CIPM Key Comparison CCM.F-K2 through the use of two common deadweight force standard machines in the two comparison exercises. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

7. Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics

SciTech Connect

Graham, Sean; Bigatel, Patrick

2004-10-17

Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by this DOE category one Inventions and Innovations grant to successfully research, develop, test, patent, market, and sell innovative fuel and emissions saving aerodynamic attachments for the trucking industry. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck's fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Market research early in this project revealed the demands of truck fleet operators regarding aerodynamic attachments. Products must not only save fuel, but cannot interfere with the operation of the truck, require significant maintenance, add significant weight, and must be extremely durable. Furthermore, SAE/TMC J1321 tests performed by a respected independent laboratory are necessary for large fleets to even consider purchase. Freight Wing used this information to create a system of three practical aerodynamic attachments for the front, rear and undercarriage of standard semi trailers. SAE/TMC J1321 Type II tests preformed by the Transportation Research Center (TRC) demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy with all three products. If Freight Wing is successful in its continued efforts to gain market penetration, the energy and environmental savings would be considerable. Each truck outfitted saves approximately 1,100 gallons of fuel every 100,000 miles, which prevents over 12 tons of CO2 from entering the atmosphere. If all applicable trailers used the technology, the country could save approximately 1.8 billion gallons of diesel fuel, 18 million tons of emissions and 3.6 billion dollars annually.

8. The interference aerodynamics caused by the wing elasticity during store separation

Lei, Yang; Zheng-yin, Ye

2016-04-01

Air-launch-to-orbit is the technology that has stores carried aloft and launched the store from the plane to the orbit. The separation between the aircraft and store is one of the most important and difficult phases in air-launch-to-orbit technology. There exists strong aerodynamic interference between the aircraft and the store in store separation. When the aspect ratio of the aircraft is large, the elastic deformations of the wing must be considered. The main purpose of this article is to study the influence of the interference aerodynamics caused by the elastic deformations of the wing to the unsteady aerodynamics of the store. By solving the coupled functions of unsteady Navier-Stokes equations, six degrees of freedom dynamic equations and structural dynamic equations simultaneously, the store separation with the elastic deformation of the aircraft considered is simulated numerically. And the interactive aerodynamic forces are analyzed. The study shows that the interference aerodynamics is obvious at earlier time during the separation, and the dominant frequency of the elastic wing determines the aerodynamic forces frequencies of the store. Because of the effect of the interference aerodynamics, the roll angle response and pitch angle response increase. When the store is mounted under the wingtip, the additional aerodynamics caused by the wingtip vortex is obvious, which accelerate the divergence of the lateral force and the lateral-directional attitude angle of the store. This study supports some beneficial conclusions to the engineering application of the air-launch-to-orbit.

9. Review and Response to the Final Report of the National Black Health Providers Task Force on High Blood Pressure Education and Control.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

This report presents the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's (NHLBI) review of and response to the final report of the National Black Health Providers Task Force on High Blood Pressure Education and Control. The response includes a statement of NHLBI's involvement in health research, and descriptions of what steps can be taken to solve the…

10. 27. VIEW OF EXHAUST AND DEFLECTOR FOR SUBSONIC AERODYNAMICS RESEARCH ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. VIEW OF EXHAUST AND DEFLECTOR FOR SUBSONIC AERODYNAMICS RESEARCH LABORATORY, BUILDING 25C, WHICH REPLACED THE 10-FOOT WIND TUNNEL (1991). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Buildings 25 & 24,10-foot & 20-foot Wind Tunnel Complex, Northeast side of block bounded by K, G, Third, & Fifth Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

11. 28. VIEW OF EXHAUST AND DEFLECTOR FOR SUBSONIC AERODYNAMICS RESEARCH ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. VIEW OF EXHAUST AND DEFLECTOR FOR SUBSONIC AERODYNAMICS RESEARCH LABORATORY, BUILDING 25C, WHICH REPLACED THE 10-FOOT WIND TUNNEL (1991). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Buildings 25 & 24,10-foot & 20-foot Wind Tunnel Complex, Northeast side of block bounded by K, G, Third, & Fifth Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

12. 26. VIEW OF EXHAUST AND DEFLECTOR FOR SUBSONIC AERODYNAMICS RESEARCH ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. VIEW OF EXHAUST AND DEFLECTOR FOR SUBSONIC AERODYNAMICS RESEARCH LABORATORY, BUILDING 25C, WHICH REPLACED THE 10-FOOT WIND TUNNEL (1991). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Buildings 25 & 24,10-foot & 20-foot Wind Tunnel Complex, Northeast side of block bounded by K, G, Third, & Fifth Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

13. Aerodynamics and Hovering Control of LTA Vehicles

DTIC Science & Technology

1977-05-01

Cylinders (From Reference 7). 28 ~~0 0 - iI- ~43 0 C*4 JoJ o Di 29rtf IrI ALLEN ( NACA REPT 1048) f ( k a ~~ 01 WHER IS MAX.NEGATIVEdx2 FUR2...size, the propulsive power will decrease as che propeller remote inlet velocity V, decreases. Hence, a wake-immersed propeller can produce the same...M.: "The Aerodynamic Forces on Airship Hulls", NACA Report 184, 1924. 2. Milne-Thompson: THEORETICAL HYDRODYNAMICS, MacMillan, 1955. 3. Koebn, N. E

14. Sensor Systems Collect Critical Aerodynamics Data

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

2010-01-01

With the support of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Dryden Flight Research Center, Tao of Systems Integration Inc. developed sensors and other components that will ultimately form a first-of-its-kind, closed-loop system for detecting, measuring, and controlling aerodynamic forces and moments in flight. The Hampton, Virginia-based company commercialized three of the four planned components, which provide sensing solutions for customers such as Boeing, General Electric, and BMW and are used for applications such as improving wind turbine operation and optimizing air flow from air conditioning systems. The completed system may one day enable flexible-wing aircraft with flight capabilities like those of birds.

15. On Wings: Aerodynamics of Eagles.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Millson, David

2000-01-01

The Aerodynamics Wing Curriculum is a high school program that combines basic physics, aerodynamics, pre-engineering, 3D visualization, computer-assisted drafting, computer-assisted manufacturing, production, reengineering, and success in a 15-hour, 3-week classroom module. (JOW)

16. The Aerodynamic Plane Table

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zahm, A F

1924-01-01

This report gives the description and the use of a specially designed aerodynamic plane table. For the accurate and expeditious geometrical measurement of models in an aerodynamic laboratory, and for miscellaneous truing operations, there is frequent need for a specially equipped plan table. For example, one may have to measure truly to 0.001 inch the offsets of an airfoil at many parts of its surface. Or the offsets of a strut, airship hull, or other carefully formed figure may require exact calipering. Again, a complete airplane model may have to be adjusted for correct incidence at all parts of its surfaces or verified in those parts for conformance to specifications. Such work, if but occasional, may be done on a planing or milling machine; but if frequent, justifies the provision of a special table. For this reason it was found desirable in 1918 to make the table described in this report and to equip it with such gauges and measures as the work should require.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Verdon, Joseph M.

1989-01-01

The requirements placed on an unsteady aerodynamic theory intended for turbomachinery aeroelastic or aeroacoustic applications are discussed along with a brief description of the various theoretical models that are available to address these requirements. The major emphasis is placed on the description of a linearized inviscid theory which fully accounts for the affects of a nonuniform mean or steady flow on unsteady aerodynamic response. Although this linearization was developed primarily for blade flutter prediction, more general equations are presented which account for unsteady excitations due to incident external aerodynamic disturbances as well as those due to prescribed blade motions. The motivation for this linearized unsteady aerodynamic theory is focused on, its physical and mathematical formulation is outlined and examples are presented to illustrate the status of numerical solution procedures and several effects of mean flow nonuniformity on unsteady aerodynamic response.

18. Application of a one-strip integral method to the unsteady supersonic aerodynamics of an inclined flat surface

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bennett, R. M.

1972-01-01

The method of integral relations is applied in a one-strip approximation to the perturbation equations governing small motions of an inclined, sharp-edged, flat surface about the mean supersonic steady flow. Algebraic expressions for low reduced-frequency aerodynamics are obtained and a set of ordinary differential equations are obtained for general oscillatory motion. Results are presented for low reduced-frequency aerodynamics and for the variation of the unsteady forces with frequency. The method gives accurate results for the aerodynamic forces at low reduced frequency which are in good agreement with available experimental data. However, for cases in which the aerodynamic forces vary rapidly with frequency, the results are qualitatively correct, but of limited accuracy. Calculations indicate that for a range of inclination angles near shock detachment such that the flow in the shock layer is low supersonic, the aerodynamic forces vary rapidly both with inclination angle and with reduced frequency.

19. Determining Aerodynamic Loads Based on Optical Deformation Measurements

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liu, Tianshu; Barrows, D. A.; Burner, A. W.; Rhew, R. D.

2001-01-01

This paper describes a videogrammetric technique for determining aerodynamic loads based on optical elastic deformation measurements. The data reduction methods are developed to extract the normal force and pitching moment from beam deformation data. The axial force is obtained by measuring the axial translational motion of a movable shaft in a spring/bearing device. Proof-of-concept calibration experiments are conducted to assess the accuracy of this optical technique.

20. Determining Aerodynamic Loads Based on Optical Deformation Measurements

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liu, Tianshu; Barrows, D. A.; Burner, A. W.; Rhew, R. D.

2001-01-01

This paper describes a videogram metric technique for determining aerodynamic loads based on optical elastic deformation measurements. The data reduction methods are developed to extract the normal force and pitching moment from beam deformation data. The axial force is obtained by measuring the axial translational motion of a movable shaft in a spring/bearing device. Proof-of-concept calibration experiments are conducted to assess the accuracy of this optical technique.

1. A theoretical note on aerodynamic lifting in dust devils

Wang, Zhen-Ting

2016-02-01

The stress distribution of a known rotating flow near the ground in fluid mechanics indicates that the horizontal aerodynamic entrainment of particles within dust devils is attributed to friction force rather than pressure force. The expression of dust emission rate on Earth was theoretically discussed based on simulated flow field and our current understanding of the physics of aeolian dust. It seems that transition flow is vital to dust devils on Mars.

2. Methodology for matching experimental and computational aerodynamic data

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wieseman, Carol D.

1988-01-01

Correction factor methodologies have been developed which use steady experimental or analytical pressure or force data to correct steady and unsteady aerodynamic calculations. Three methods of calculating correction factors have been developed to match steady surface pressure distributions, to match airfoil section forces and moments. Data for a rectangular supercritical wing that was previously tested in the NASA Langley Research Center Transonic Dynamics Tunnel have been used to determine correction factors to match surface pressure distributions for a range of Mach numbers.

3. Aerodynamics for the Mars Phoenix Entry Capsule

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Edquist, Karl T.; Desai, Prasun N.; Schoenenberger, Mark

2008-01-01

Pre-flight aerodynamics data for the Mars Phoenix entry capsule are presented. The aerodynamic coefficients were generated as a function of total angle-of-attack and either Knudsen number, velocity, or Mach number, depending on the flight regime. The database was constructed using continuum flowfield computations and data from the Mars Exploration Rover and Viking programs. Hypersonic and supersonic static coefficients were derived from Navier-Stokes solutions on a pre-flight design trajectory. High-altitude data (free-molecular and transitional regimes) and dynamic pitch damping characteristics were taken from Mars Exploration Rover analysis and testing. Transonic static coefficients from Viking wind tunnel tests were used for capsule aerodynamics under the parachute. Static instabilities were predicted at two points along the reference trajectory and were verified by reconstructed flight data. During the hypersonic instability, the capsule was predicted to trim at angles as high as 2.5 deg with an on-axis center-of-gravity. Trim angles were predicted for off-nominal pitching moment (4.2 deg peak) and a 5 mm off-axis center-ofgravity (4.8 deg peak). Finally, hypersonic static coefficient sensitivities to atmospheric density were predicted to be within uncertainty bounds.

4. Governor's Task Force on Substance Abuse and Sexual Assault on College Campuses, 1991-1992. [Final Report.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virginia State Governor's Office, Richmond.

This document presents the findings of a legislatively mandated task force on substance abuse and sexual assault on Virginia's college, university, and community college campuses. Following a series of public hearings on the issues, the Task Force divided into three focus area Committees: Education, Treatment, and Enforcement. Each committee…

5. Incentive Motivation Techniques Evaluation in Air Force Technical Training. Final Report for Period June 1971-April 1974.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pritchard, Robert D.; And Others

The report describes an 18-month research project at Chanute Air Force Base, Illinois, designed to evaluate the effectiveness of inceptive motivation techniques in Air Force technical training. The first phase of the research identified incentives. The findings were used in the second phase of the research which made these incentives contingent on…

6. Task Force for Expanding Credit and Noncredit Courses for Students with Intellectual and Development Disabilities. Final Report

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maryland Higher Education Commission, 2016

2016-01-01

The Task Force to Study the Impact of Expanding Credit and Noncredit Courses for Students with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities was formed in July 2013. Chapter 392, Acts of 2013, (House Bill 813) established the Task Force to Study the Impact of Expanding Credit and Noncredit Courses for Students with Intellectual and Developmental…

7. Task Force on the Role of General Education in Associate Science Degree Programs. Final Report and Recommendations.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Weyers, Lori; Langerman, Philip

In 1989-90, the General Education Task Force of the Wisconsin Technical College System (WTCS) was convened to determine the role of the general education curriculum in the attainment of skills that enhance the likelihood of success among technical college graduates in their careers, homes and communities. The Task Force consisted of at least one…

8. An Improved Theoretical Aerodynamic Derivatives Computer Program for Sounding Rockets

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Barrowman, J. S.; Fan, D. N.; Obosu, C. B.; Vira, N. R.; Yang, R. J.

1979-01-01

The paper outlines a Theoretical Aerodynamic Derivatives (TAD) computer program for computing the aerodynamics of sounding rockets. TAD outputs include normal force, pitching moment and rolling moment coefficient derivatives as well as center-of-pressure locations as a function of the flight Mach number. TAD is applicable to slender finned axisymmetric vehicles at small angles of attack in subsonic and supersonic flows. TAD improvement efforts include extending Mach number regions of applicability, improving accuracy, and replacement of some numerical integration algorithms with closed-form integrations. Key equations used in TAD are summarized and typical TAD outputs are illustrated for a second-stage Tomahawk configuration.

9. Extreme shockwave systems in problems of external supersonic aerodynamics

Uskov, V. N.; Chernyshov, M. V.

2014-01-01

The stationary shockwave systems (the sequences of shocks, isentropic expansion and compression waves), which arise at a planar supersonic flow of perfect inviscid gas around the bodies are investigated theoretically. The domains of the existence of shockwave systems under consideration are found analytically and numerically for the model problems of supersonic aerodynamics (the flow around a single plate, the plate with the frontal shield, polygonal profiles), the parameters of systems are determined, which provide the extrema of the force and thermal loadings as well as of the aerodynamic coefficients of streamlined bodies.

10. Cruise aerodynamics of USB nacelle/wing geometric variations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Braden, J. A.; Hancock, J. P.; Burdges, K. P.

1976-01-01

Experimental results are presented on aerodynamic effects of geometric variations in upper surface blown nacelle configurations at high speed cruise conditions. Test data include both force and pressure measurements on two and three dimensional models powered by upper surface blowing nacelles of varying geometries. Experimental results are provided on variations in nozzle aspect ratio, nozzle boattail angle, and multiple nacelle installations. The nacelles are ranked according to aerodynamic drag penalties as well as overall installed drag penalties. Sample effects and correlations are shown for data obtained with the pressure model.

11. Computational techniques for aerodynamic simulations of multiple objects emphasizing paratrooper-aircraft separation

Udoewa, Victor

Our target is to develop computational techniques for studying aerodynamic interactions between multiple objects with emphasis on studying the fluid mechanics and dynamics of an object exiting and separating from an aircraft. The object could be a paratrooper jumping out of a transport aircraft or a package of emergency aid dropped from a cargo plane. These are applications with major practical significance, and what I learn and what I develop can make a major impact on this technology area. In all these cases, the computational challenge is to predict the dynamic behavior and path of the object, so that the separation process is safe and effective. This is a very complex problem because it has an unsteady, three-dimensional nature and requires the solution of complex equations that govern the fluid dynamics of the object and the aircraft together, with their relative positions changing in time. The gravitational and aerodynamic forces acting on the object determine its dynamics and path. Sometimes those aerodynamic forces are not properly computed due to excessively thick numerical boundary layers (numerical meaning unphysical and unreal). Methods for reducing this thickness are presented here. The aerodynamic forces heavily depend on the unsteady flow field around the aircraft. The computational tools I am developing are based on the simultaneous solution of the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations governing the airflow around the aircraft and the separating object, as well as the equations governing the motion of that object. These computational methods include suitable mesh update techniques that are essential for simulations with my core computational technique---the Deforming-Spatial-Domain/Stabilized Space-Time (DSD/SST) formulation. In the research I present here, I focus on developing mesh update methods that help me perform my computations with more numerical accuracy and better computational efficiency. These methods range from remeshing tactics with

12. Vortex flow aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Smith, J. H. B.; Campbell, J. F.; Young, A. D. (Editor)

1992-01-01

The principal emphasis of the meeting was to be on the understanding and prediction of separation-induced vortex flows and their effects on vehicle performance, stability, control, and structural design loads. This report shows that a substantial amount of the papers covering this area were received from a wide range of countries, together with an attendance that was even more diverse. In itself, this testifies to the current interest in the subject and to the appropriateness of the Panel's choice of topic and approach. An attempt is made to summarize each paper delivered, and to relate the contributions made in the papers and in the discussions to some of the important aspects of vortex flow aerodynamics. This reveals significant progress and important clarifications, but also brings out remaining weaknesses in predictive capability and gaps in understanding. Where possible, conclusions are drawn and areas of continuing concern are identified.

13. Effect of body aerodynamics on the dynamic flight stability of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta.

PubMed

Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Han, Jong-Seob; Han, Jae-Hung

2016-12-14

This study explores the effects of the body aerodynamics on the dynamic flight stability of an insect at various different forward flight speeds. The insect model, whose morphological parameters are based on measurement data from the hawkmoth Manduca sexta, is treated as an open-loop six-degree-of-freedom dynamic system. The aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the insect are computed by an aerodynamic model that combines the unsteady panel method and the extended unsteady vortex-lattice method. The aerodynamic model is then coupled to a multi-body dynamic code to solve the system of motion equations. First, the trimmed flight conditions of insect models with and without consideration of the body aerodynamics are obtained using a trim search algorithm. Subsequently, the effects of the body aerodynamics on the dynamic flight stability are analysed through modal structures, i.e., eigenvalues and eigenvectors in this case, which are based on linearized equations of motion. The solutions from the nonlinear and linearized equations of motion due to gust disturbances are obtained, and the effects of the body aerodynamics are also investigated through these solutions. The results showed the important effect of the body aerodynamics at high-speed forward flight (in this paper at 4.0 and 5.0 m s(-1)) and the movement trends of eigenvalues when the body aerodynamics is included.

14. Ontogeny of aerodynamics in mallards: comparative performance and developmental implications.

PubMed

Dial, Terry R; Heers, Ashley M; Tobalske, Bret W

2012-11-01

Wing morphology correlates with flight performance and ecology among adult birds, yet the impact of wing development on aerodynamic capacity is not well understood. Recent work using chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar), a precocial flier, indicates that peak coefficients of lift and drag (C(L) and C(D)) and lift-to-drag ratio (C(L):C(D)) increase throughout ontogeny and that these patterns correspond with changes in feather microstructure. To begin to place these results in a comparative context that includes variation in life-history strategy, we used a propeller and force-plate model to study aerodynamic force production across a developmental series of the altricial-flying mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). We observed the same trend in mallards as reported for chukar in that coefficients of vertical (C(V)) and horizontal force (C(H)) and C(V):C(H) ratio increased with age, and that measures of gross-wing morphology (aspect ratio, camber and porosity) in mallards did not account for intraspecific trends in force production. Rather, feather microstructure (feather unfurling, rachis width, feather asymmetry and barbule overlap) all were positively correlated with peak C(V):C(H). Throughout ontogeny, mallard primary feathers became stiffer and less transmissive to air at both macroscale (between individual feathers) and microscale (between barbs/barbules/barbicels) levels. Differences between species were manifest primarily as heterochrony of aerodynamic force development. Chukar wings generated measurable aerodynamic forces early (<8 days), and improved gradually throughout a 100 day ontogenetic period. Mallard wings exhibited delayed aerodynamic force production until just prior to fledging (day 60), and showed dramatic improvement within a condensed 2-week period. These differences in timing may be related to mechanisms of escape used by juveniles, with mallards swimming to safety and chukar flap-running up slopes to take refuge. Future comparative work should test

15. Development of an Innovative Algorithm for Aerodynamics-Structure Interaction Using Lattice Boltzmann Method

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mei, Ren-Wei; Shyy, Wei; Yu, Da-Zhi; Luo, Li-Shi; Rudy, David (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

The lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) is a kinetic formulation which offers an alternative computational method capable of solving fluid dynamics for various systems. Major advantages of the method are owing to the fact that the solution for the particle distribution functions is explicit, easy to implement, and the algorithm is natural to parallelize. In this final report, we summarize the works accomplished in the past three years. Since most works have been published, the technical details can be found in the literature. Brief summary will be provided in this report. In this project, a second-order accurate treatment of boundary condition in the LBE method is developed for a curved boundary and tested successfully in various 2-D and 3-D configurations. To evaluate the aerodynamic force on a body in the context of LBE method, several force evaluation schemes have been investigated. A simple momentum exchange method is shown to give reliable and accurate values for the force on a body in both 2-D and 3-D cases. Various 3-D LBE models have been assessed in terms of efficiency, accuracy, and robustness. In general, accurate 3-D results can be obtained using LBE methods. The 3-D 19-bit model is found to be the best one among the 15-bit, 19-bit, and 27-bit LBE models. To achieve desired grid resolution and to accommodate the far field boundary conditions in aerodynamics computations, a multi-block LBE method is developed by dividing the flow field into various blocks each having constant lattice spacing. Substantial contribution to the LBE method is also made through the development of a new, generalized lattice Boltzmann equation constructed in the moment space in order to improve the computational stability, detailed theoretical analysis on the stability, dispersion, and dissipation characteristics of the LBE method, and computational studies of high Reynolds number flows with singular gradients. Finally, a finite difference-based lattice Boltzmann method is

16. Optimal impulsive manoeuvres and aerodynamic braking

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jezewski, D. J.

1985-01-01

A method developed for obtaining solutions to the aerodynamic braking problem, using impulses in the exoatmospheric phases is discussed. The solution combines primer vector theory and the results of a suboptimal atmospheric guidance program. For a specified initial and final orbit, the solution determines: (1) the minimum impulsive cost using a maximum of four impulses, (2) the optimal atmospheric entry and exit-state vectors subject to equality and inequality constraints, and (3) the optimal coast times. Numerical solutions which illustrate the characteristics of the solution are presented.

17. Payload vehicle aerodynamic reentry analysis

Tong, Donald

An approach for analyzing the dynamic behavior of a cone-cylinder payload vehicle during reentry to insure proper deployment of the parachute system and recovery of the payload is presented. This analysis includes the study of an aerodynamic device that is useful in extending vehicle axial rotation through the maximum dynamic pressure region. Attention is given to vehicle configuration and reentry trajectory, the derivation of pitch static aerodynamics, the derivation of the pitch damping coefficient, pitching moment modeling, aerodynamic roll device modeling, and payload vehicle reentry dynamics. It is shown that the vehicle dynamics at parachute deployment are well within the design limit of the recovery system, thus ensuring successful payload recovery.

18. Influences of aerodynamic loads on hunting stability of high-speed railway vehicles and parameter studies

Zeng, Xiao-Hui; Wu, Han; Lai, Jiang; Sheng, Hong-Zhi

2014-12-01

19. Final Environmental Assessment: Construction of SWMU 74 Groundwater Extraction and Convenience System Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

DTIC Science & Technology

2004-08-01

member of the task force, Dr. Franklin County Coffee County TULLAHOMA MANCHESTER DECHERD SEWANEE ESTILL SPRINGS WINCHESTER Figure 1-1 Arnold Air Force...migrated from multiple sources at Arnold AFB and is discharging to springs and wells located on private property approximately 3 miles from the Base...Samples from private water-supply wells and springs located along the Plume’s path have contained trichloroethene (TCE) at concentrations exceeding the

20. CFD based aerodynamic modeling to study flight dynamics of a flapping wing micro air vehicle

Rege, Alok Ashok

The demand for small unmanned air vehicles, commonly termed micro air vehicles or MAV's, is rapidly increasing. Driven by applications ranging from civil search-and-rescue missions to military surveillance missions, there is a rising level of interest and investment in better vehicle designs, and miniaturized components are enabling many rapid advances. The need to better understand fundamental aspects of flight for small vehicles has spawned a surge in high quality research in the area of micro air vehicles. These aircraft have a set of constraints which are, in many ways, considerably different from that of traditional aircraft and are often best addressed by a multidisciplinary approach. Fast-response non-linear controls, nano-structures, integrated propulsion and lift mechanisms, highly flexible structures, and low Reynolds aerodynamics are just a few of the important considerations which may be combined in the execution of MAV research. The main objective of this thesis is to derive a consistent nonlinear dynamic model to study the flight dynamics of micro air vehicles with a reasonably accurate representation of aerodynamic forces and moments. The research is divided into two sections. In the first section, derivation of the nonlinear dynamics of flapping wing micro air vehicles is presented. The flapping wing micro air vehicle (MAV) used in this research is modeled as a system of three rigid bodies: a body and two wings. The design is based on an insect called Drosophila Melanogaster, commonly known as fruit-fly. The mass and inertial effects of the wing on the body are neglected for the present work. The nonlinear dynamics is simulated with the aerodynamic data published in the open literature. The flapping frequency is used as the control input. Simulations are run for different cases of wing positions and the chosen parameters are studied for boundedness. Results show a qualitative inconsistency in boundedness for some cases, and demand a better

1. Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mehta, U. B.; Kutler, P.

1984-01-01

The general principles of artificial intelligence are reviewed and speculations are made concerning how knowledge based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use expert systems, and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. In addition, the anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics are examined. Three main conclusions are presented. First, there are two related aspects of computational aerodynamics: reasoning and calculating. Second, a substantial portion of reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence. It offers the opportunity of using computers as reasoning machines to set the stage for efficient calculating. Third, expert systems are likely to be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

2. Final Environmental Assessment for the Runway Extension and New Parking Apron at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida

DTIC Science & Technology

2004-01-01

SO 2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (03), and lead ( Pb ). Although the ozone standards are being reduced significantly with... lead ( Pb ). Response: Similar statement modification inserted. Final Environmental Assessment for the Runway Extension and New Parking Apron 29 Final Environmental Assessment for the Runway Extension and New Parking Apron 30

3. Dynamic soaring: aerodynamics for albatrosses

Denny, Mark

2009-01-01

Albatrosses have evolved to soar and glide efficiently. By maximizing their lift-to-drag ratio L/D, albatrosses can gain energy from the wind and can travel long distances with little effort. We simplify the difficult aerodynamic equations of motion by assuming that albatrosses maintain a constant L/D. Analytic solutions to the simplified equations provide an instructive and appealing example of fixed-wing aerodynamics suitable for undergraduate demonstration.

4. Supersonic aerodynamics of delta wings

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wood, Richard M.

1988-01-01

Through the empirical correlation of experimental data and theoretical analysis, a set of graphs has been developed which summarize the inviscid aerodynamics of delta wings at supersonic speeds. The various graphs which detail the aerodynamic performance of delta wings at both zero-lift and lifting conditions were then employed to define a preliminary wing design approach in which both the low-lift and high-lift design criteria were combined to define a feasible design space.

5. Ice Accretions and Full-Scale Iced Aerodynamic Performance Data for a Two-Dimensional NACA 23012 Airfoil

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Broeren, Andy P.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Lee, Sam; Guffond, Didier; Montreuil, Emmanuel; Moens, Frederic

2016-01-01

in the IRT. From these molds, castings were made that closely replicated the features of the accreted ice. The castings were then mounted on the full-scale model in the F1 tunnel, and aerodynamic performance measurements were made using model surface pressure taps, the facility force balance system, and a large wake rake designed specifically for these tests. Tests were run over a range of Reynolds and Mach numbers. For each run, the model was rotated over a range of angles-of-attack that included airfoil stall. The benchmark data collected during these campaigns were, and continue to be, used for various purposes. The full-scale data form a unique, ice-accretion and associated aerodynamic performance dataset that can be used as a reference when addressing concerns regarding the use of subscale ice-accretion data to assess full-scale icing effects. Further, the data may be used in the development or enhancement of both ice-accretion prediction codes and computational fluid dynamic codes when applied to study the effects of icing. Finally, as was done in the wider study, the data may be used to help determine the level of geometric fidelity needed for artificial ice used to assess aerodynamic degradation due to aircraft icing. The structured, multifaceted approach used in this research effort provides a unique perspective on the aerodynamic effects of aircraft icing. The data presented in this report are available in electronic form upon formal approval by proper NASA and ONERA authorities.

6. Comparative Analysis of Uninhibited and Constrained Avian Wing Aerodynamics

Cox, Jordan A.

The flight of birds has intrigued and motivated man for many years. Bird flight served as the primary inspiration of flying machines developed by Leonardo Da Vinci, Otto Lilienthal, and even the Wright brothers. Avian flight has once again drawn the attention of the scientific community as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are not only becoming more popular, but smaller. Birds are once again influencing the designs of aircraft. Small UAVs operating within flight conditions and low Reynolds numbers common to birds are not yet capable of the high levels of control and agility that birds display with ease. Many researchers believe the potential to improve small UAV performance can be obtained by applying features common to birds such as feathers and flapping flight to small UAVs. Although the effects of feathers on a wing have received some attention, the effects of localized transient feather motion and surface geometry on the flight performance of a wing have been largely overlooked. In this research, the effects of freely moving feathers on a preserved red tailed hawk wing were studied. A series of experiments were conducted to measure the aerodynamic forces on a hawk wing with varying levels of feather movement permitted. Angle of attack and air speed were varied within the natural flight envelope of the hawk. Subsequent identical tests were performed with the feather motion constrained through the use of externally-applied surface treatments. Additional tests involved the study of an absolutely fixed geometry mold-and-cast wing model of the original bird wing. Final tests were also performed after applying surface coatings to the cast wing. High speed videos taken during tests revealed the extent of the feather movement between wing models. Images of the microscopic surface structure of each wing model were analyzed to establish variations in surface geometry between models. Recorded aerodynamic forces were then compared to the known feather motion and surface

7. Aerodynamic characteristics of the Scout 133R vehicle determined from wind tunnel tests

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abramson, F. B.; Muir, T. G., Jr.; Simmons, H. L.

1972-01-01

Bending moments and other associated parameters were measured on a Scout vehicle during a launch through high velocity horizontal winds. Comparison of the measured data with predictions revealed some unexplained discrepancies. Possible sources of error in the experimental data and predictions were considered; one of which is the predicted aerodynamic characteristics. A wind tunnel investigation was initiated, including supersonic force and pressure tests, to better define the aerodynamics. In addition to basic aerodynamic coefficients from the force test, detailed pressure and load distributions along the body were established from the pressure test. Pressure coefficients were integrated to determine normal load distributions, total normal force, and total pitching moment of the body. Comparison of the normal forces from pressure and force tests resulted in agreement within 15%. Comparison of pitching moment data from the two tests resulted in larger differences.

8. LDRD Final Report 01-ERI-001 Probing the Properties of Cells and Cell Surfaces with the Atomic Force Microscope

SciTech Connect

McElfresh, M; Belak, J; Rudd, R; Balhorn, R

2004-02-17

We have developed new techniques based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) to image, and to quantify the strength of, specific receptor sites on the membrane of a living cell. AFM has developed rapidly during the past decade, providing nanometer scale resolution in the imaging of biological materials ranging in size from single molecules to intact cells. By monitoring the cantilever deflection during approach-retraction cycles (i.e. force-volume curves), the unbinding forces have been determined for various ligand-receptor pairs. It is now possible to use a single receptor molecule bound to the tip of an AFM cantilever to map the locations of ligands bound on solid surfaces, opening the door for new ''recognition mapping'' methods. The goal of our project was to develop recognition mapping for living cells and cell membranes, a major step forward.

9. Source evaluation report phase 2 investigation: Limited field investigation. Final report: United States Air Force Environmental Restoration Program, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

SciTech Connect

Not Available

1994-10-01

This report describes the limited field investigation work done to address issues and answer unresolved questions regarding a collection of potential contaminant sources at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), near Fairbanks, Alaska. These sources were listed in the Eielson AFB Federal Facility Agreement supporting the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) cleanup of the base. The limited field investigation began in 1993 to resolve all remaining technical issues and provide the data and analysis required to evaluate the environmental hazard associated with these sites. The objective of the limited field investigation was to allow the remedial project managers to sort each site into one of three categories: requiring remedial investigation/feasibility study, requiring interim removal action, or requiring no further remedial action.

10. Modeling the Launch Abort Vehicle's Subsonic Aerodynamics from Free Flight Testing

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hartman, Christopher L.

2010-01-01

An investigation into the aerodynamics of the Launch Abort Vehicle for NASA's Constellation Crew Launch Vehicle in the subsonic, incompressible flow regime was conducted in the NASA Langley 20-ft Vertical Spin Tunnel. Time histories of center of mass position and Euler Angles are captured using photogrammetry. Time histories of the wind tunnel's airspeed and dynamic pressure are recorded as well. The primary objective of the investigation is to determine models for the aerodynamic yaw and pitch moments that provide insight into the static and dynamic stability of the vehicle. System IDentification Programs for AirCraft (SIDPAC) is used to determine the aerodynamic model structure and estimate model parameters. Aerodynamic models for the aerodynamic body Y and Z force coefficients, and the pitching and yawing moment coefficients were identified.

11. Aerodynamic design optimization using sensitivity analysis and computational fluid dynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Baysal, Oktay; Eleshaky, Mohamed E.

1991-01-01

A new and efficient method is presented for aerodynamic design optimization, which is based on a computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-sensitivity analysis algorithm. The method is applied to design a scramjet-afterbody configuration for an optimized axial thrust. The Euler equations are solved for the inviscid analysis of the flow, which in turn provides the objective function and the constraints. The CFD analysis is then coupled with the optimization procedure that uses a constrained minimization method. The sensitivity coefficients, i.e. gradients of the objective function and the constraints, needed for the optimization are obtained using a quasi-analytical method rather than the traditional brute force method of finite difference approximations. During the one-dimensional search of the optimization procedure, an approximate flow analysis (predicted flow) based on a first-order Taylor series expansion is used to reduce the computational cost. Finally, the sensitivity of the optimum objective function to various design parameters, which are kept constant during the optimization, is computed to predict new optimum solutions. The flow analysis of the demonstrative example are compared with the experimental data. It is shown that the method is more efficient than the traditional methods.

12. Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Characteristics of a Tension Cone Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clark, Ian G.; Cruz, Juan R.; Hughes, Monica F.; Ware, Joanne S.; Madlangbayan, Albert; Braun, Robert D.

2009-01-01

The supersonic aerodynamic and aeroelastic characteristics of a tension cone inflatable aerodynamic decelerator were investigated by wind tunnel testing. Two sets of tests were conducted: one using rigid models and another using textile models. Tests using rigid models were conducted over a Mach number range from 1.65 to 4.5 at angles of attack from -12 to 20 degrees. The axial, normal, and pitching moment coefficients were found to be insensitive to Mach number over the tested range. The axial force coefficient was nearly constant (C(sub A) = 1.45 +/- 0.05) with respect to angle of attack. Both the normal and pitching moment coefficients were nearly linear with respect to angle of attack. The pitching moment coefficient showed the model to be statically stable about the reference point. Schlieren images and video showed a detached bow shock with no evidence of large regions of separated flow and/or embedded shocks at all Mach numbers investigated. Qualitatively similar static aerodynamic coefficient and flow visualization results were obtained using textile models at a Mach number of 2.5. Using inflatable textile models the torus pressure required to maintain the model in the fully-inflated configuration was determined. This pressure was found to be sensitive to details in the structural configuration of the inflatable models. Additional tests included surface pressure measurements on rigid models and deployment and inflation tests with inflatable models.

13. Introduction. Computational aerodynamics.

PubMed

Tucker, Paul G

2007-10-15

The wide range of uses of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for aircraft design is discussed along with its role in dealing with the environmental impact of flight. Enabling technologies, such as grid generation and turbulence models, are also considered along with flow/turbulence control. The large eddy simulation, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes and hybrid turbulence modelling approaches are contrasted. The CFD prediction of numerous jet configurations occurring in aerospace are discussed along with aeroelasticity for aeroengine and external aerodynamics, design optimization, unsteady flow modelling and aeroengine internal and external flows. It is concluded that there is a lack of detailed measurements (for both canonical and complex geometry flows) to provide validation and even, in some cases, basic understanding of flow physics. Not surprisingly, turbulence modelling is still the weak link along with, as ever, a pressing need for improved (in terms of robustness, speed and accuracy) solver technology, grid generation and geometry handling. Hence, CFD, as a truly predictive and creative design tool, seems a long way off. Meanwhile, extreme practitioner expertise is still required and the triad of computation, measurement and analytic solution must be judiciously used.

14. Aerodynamics of bird flight

Dvořák, Rudolf

2016-03-01

Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird). Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust - two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc.), and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

15. Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive Equipment Certificate of Eligibility for Veterans or Members of the Armed Forces With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Connected to Military Service. Final rule.

PubMed

2016-01-13

The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) published an Interim Final Rule on February 25, 2015, to amend its adjudication regulations to provide a certificate of eligibility for financial assistance in the purchase of an automobile or other conveyance and adaptive equipment for all veterans with service-connected amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and servicemembers serving on active duty with ALS. The amendment authorized automatic issuance of a certificate of eligibility for financial assistance in the purchase of an automobile or other conveyance and adaptive equipment to all veterans with service-connected ALS and members of the Armed Forces serving on active duty with ALS. The intent of this final rule is to confirm the amendment made by the interim final rule without change.

16. Grid sensitivity for aerodynamic optimization and flow analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1993-01-01

After reviewing relevant literature, it is apparent that one aspect of aerodynamic sensitivity analysis, namely grid sensitivity, has not been investigated extensively. The grid sensitivity algorithms in most of these studies are based on structural design models. Such models, although sufficient for preliminary or conceptional design, are not acceptable for detailed design analysis. Careless grid sensitivity evaluations, would introduce gradient errors within the sensitivity module, therefore, infecting the overall optimization process. Development of an efficient and reliable grid sensitivity module with special emphasis on aerodynamic applications appear essential. The organization of this study is as follows. The physical and geometric representations of a typical model are derived in chapter 2. The grid generation algorithm and boundary grid distribution are developed in chapter 3. Chapter 4 discusses the theoretical formulation and aerodynamic sensitivity equation. The method of solution is provided in chapter 5. The results are presented and discussed in chapter 6. Finally, some concluding remarks are provided in chapter 7.

17. Does an active adjustment of aerodynamic drag make sense?

Maciejewski, Marek

2016-09-01

The article concerns evaluation of the possible impact of the gap between the tractor and semitrailer on the aerodynamic drag coefficient. The aim here is not to adjust this distance depending on the geometrical shape of the tractor and trailer, but depending solely on the speed of articulated vehicle. All the tests have form of numerical simulations. The method of simulation is briefly explained in the article. It considers various issues such as the range and objects of tests as well as the test conditions. The initial (pre-adaptive) and final (after adaptation process) computational meshes have been presented as illustrations. Some of the results have been presented in the form of run chart showing the change of value of aerodynamic drag coefficients in time, for different geometric configurations defined by a clearance gap between the tractor and semitrailer. The basis for a detailed analysis and conclusions were the averaged (in time) aerodynamic drag coefficients as a function of the clearance gap.

18. Quasi-steady state aerodynamics of the cheetah tail.

PubMed

Patel, Amir; Boje, Edward; Fisher, Callen; Louis, Leeann; Lane, Emily

2016-08-15

During high-speed pursuit of prey, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been observed to swing its tail while manoeuvring (e.g. turning or braking) but the effect of these complex motions is not well understood. This study demonstrates the potential of the cheetah's long, furry tail to impart torques and forces on the body as a result of aerodynamic effects, in addition to the well-known inertial effects. The first-order aerodynamic forces on the tail are quantified through wind tunnel testing and it is observed that the fur nearly doubles the effective frontal area of the tail without much mass penalty. Simple dynamic models provide insight into manoeuvrability via simulation of pitch, roll and yaw tail motion primitives. The inertial and quasi-steady state aerodynamic effects of tail actuation are quantified and compared by calculating the angular impulse imparted onto the cheetah's body and its shown aerodynamic effects contribute to the tail's angular impulse, especially at the highest forward velocities.

19. Quasi-steady state aerodynamics of the cheetah tail

PubMed Central

Boje, Edward; Fisher, Callen; Louis, Leeann; Lane, Emily

2016-01-01

ABSTRACT During high-speed pursuit of prey, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been observed to swing its tail while manoeuvring (e.g. turning or braking) but the effect of these complex motions is not well understood. This study demonstrates the potential of the cheetah's long, furry tail to impart torques and forces on the body as a result of aerodynamic effects, in addition to the well-known inertial effects. The first-order aerodynamic forces on the tail are quantified through wind tunnel testing and it is observed that the fur nearly doubles the effective frontal area of the tail without much mass penalty. Simple dynamic models provide insight into manoeuvrability via simulation of pitch, roll and yaw tail motion primitives. The inertial and quasi-steady state aerodynamic effects of tail actuation are quantified and compared by calculating the angular impulse imparted onto the cheetah's body and its shown aerodynamic effects contribute to the tail's angular impulse, especially at the highest forward velocities. PMID:27412267

20. Final Environmental Assessment for Fireworks Display and Cleanup for the Luke Air Force Base, Arizona, Fourth of July Celebrations

DTIC Science & Technology

2015-04-21

environmental impacts from a Fireworks Display and Cleanup (Proposed Action). This display serves as a finale for the Fourth of July celebrations called ...environmental impacts from a Fireworks Display and Cleanup (Proposed Action). This display serves as a finale for the Fourth of July celebrations called ...Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection MBTA Migratory Bird Treaty Act MFU middle fine-grained unit MS4 Municipal Separate Storm Sewer

1. Final Report of the Task Force on Library Manpower and Education to the Council on Library Development.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Div. of Library Services.

In December 1973, the Council on Library Development set up a task force to carry out an integrated study of library manpower and education needs in Wisconsin, and of the resources available to meet those needs. The study was concerned with personnel at all levels, in all types of libraries, media centers, information centers, and similar…

2. Instructor's Index to U.S. Navy and Air Force Materials for Teaching Basic Electricity. Final Report, No. 29.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stoller, Alan

The purpose of this index is to identify U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force transparencies, films, and manuals which can be used by schools and colleges to teach basic electricity. Materials are classified according to 39 major categories including Electron Theory, Batteries and Battery Connections, D.C. Series Circuits, Network Theorems,…

3. Final Environmental Assessment for a Proposed Pararescue and Combat Rescue Officer Training Campus at Kirtland Air Force Base

DTIC Science & Technology

2006-09-01

beginning of 2005 within the ROI was 5.2 percent (New Mexico Department of Labor 2005). 3.3.2.3 Kirtland Air Force Base Kirtland AFB had...International Sunport, New Mexico. Accessed 5/2005 from http://www. wrcc.dri.edu/ CLIMA TEDA T A.html. AETC P J/CRO Campus at Kirtland AFB Preliminary

4. Air Force Officer Qualifying Test Form N: Development and Standardization. Final Report for Period March 1974 - March 1978.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gould, R. Bruce

The construction and norming of Form N of the Air Force Officer Qualifying Test (AFOQT) is described. The new form serves the same purpose as its predecessor and possesses basically the same characteristics. References are made to the research which provided the basis for most of the changes. Other changes were made because of the admission of…

5. Final Report to the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science from the Community Information and Referral Services Task Force.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, Washington, DC.

This report describes the work of the Community Information and Referral (CI&R) Services Task Force, which was appointed by the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science (NCLIS) to investigate the status of CI&R in libraries and social service agencies and to make recommendations regarding the appropriate role for libraries…

6. Final Environmental Assessment for Implementation of Proposed Actions in the Moody Air Force Base Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan (INRMP)

DTIC Science & Technology

2015-09-01

requirements. There are numerous projects that would have a beneficial impact on Bird /Wildlife Aircraft Strike Hazard including prescribed burning...Force Instruction BASH Bird /Wildlife Aircraft Strike Hazard BMP best management practice CEQ Council on Environmental Quality CFR Code of... Bird Treaty Act MFES Moody Fire Emergency Services MMRP Military Munitions Response Program mg/m3 milligrams per cubic meter NAAQS National

7. Occupational Analysis of Air Force Reserve and Air National Guard Nurses. Final Report for Period January 1974-July 1975.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bergmann, Joseph A.; Smith, Michael C.

An occupational survey comparing active duty and Reserve Forces nurses was conducted to support a Nursing Resources Study Group gathering information on current and future nurse requirements. Job inventory booklets were sent to chief nurses at Reserve and Air National Guard locations which were administered during unit training meetings. Returned…

8. Skills for All: Proposals for a National Skills Agenda. Final Report of the National Skills Task Force.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Department for Education and Employment, London (England).

In 1997, a skills task force began a 2-year process of gathering input from English employers and post-16 education and training practitioners and formulating a national skills agenda. The agenda's goals included instilling a culture of lifelong learning in the United Kingdom, better anticipating the evolving skill requirements of employment, and…

9. Fairing Well: Aerodynamic Truck Research at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. From Shoebox to Bat Truck and Beyond

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gelzer, Christian

2011-01-01

In 1973 engineers at Dryden began investigating ways to reduce aerodynamic drag on land vehicles. They began with a delivery van whose shape they changed dramatically, finally reducing its aerodynamic drag by more than 5 percent. They then turned their attention to tracator-trailers, modifying a cab-over and reducing its aerodynamic drag by nearly 25 percent. Further research identified additional areas worth attention, but in the intervening decades few of those changes have appeared.

10. Nonlinear panel flutter in a rarefied atmosphere - Aerodynamic shear stress effects

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Resende, Hugo B.

1991-01-01

The panel flutter phenomenon is studied assuming free-molecule flow. This kind of analysis is relevant in the case of hypersonic flight vehicles traveling at high altitudes, especially in the leeward portion of the vehicle. In these conditions the aerodynamic shear can be expected to be considerably larger than the pressure at a given point, so that the effects of such a loading are incorporated into the structural model. This is accomplished by introducing distributed longitudinal and bending moment loads. The former can lead to buckling of the panel, with the second mode in the case of a simply-supported panel playing a important role, and becoming the dominant mode in the solution. The presence of equivalent springs in the longitudinal direction at the panel's ends also becomes of relative importance, even for the evaluation of the linear flutter parameter. Finally, the behavior of the system is studied in the presence of applied compressive forces, that is, classical buckling.

11. Aerodynamics and vortical structures in hovering fruitflies

Meng, Xue Guang; Sun, Mao

2015-03-01

We measure the wing kinematics and morphological parameters of seven freely hovering fruitflies and numerically compute the flows of the flapping wings. The computed mean lift approximately equals to the measured weight and the mean horizontal force is approximately zero, validating the computational model. Because of the very small relative velocity of the wing, the mean lift coefficient required to support the weight is rather large, around 1.8, and the Reynolds number of the wing is low, around 100. How such a large lift is produced at such a low Reynolds number is explained by combining the wing motion data, the computed vortical structures, and the theory of vorticity dynamics. It has been shown that two unsteady mechanisms are responsible for the high lift. One is referred as to "fast pitching-up rotation": at the start of an up- or downstroke when the wing has very small speed, it fast pitches down to a small angle of attack, and then, when its speed is higher, it fast pitches up to the angle it normally uses. When the wing pitches up while moving forward, large vorticity is produced and sheds at the trailing edge, and vorticity of opposite sign is produced near the leading edge and on the upper surface, resulting in a large time rate of change of the first moment of vorticity (or fluid impulse), hence a large aerodynamic force. The other is the well known "delayed stall" mechanism: in the mid-portion of the up- or downstroke the wing moves at large angle of attack (about 45 deg) and the leading-edge-vortex (LEV) moves with the wing; thus, the vortex ring, formed by the LEV, the tip vortices, and the starting vortex, expands in size continuously, producing a large time rate of change of fluid impulse or a large aerodynamic force.

12. JT9D performance deterioration results from a simulated aerodynamic load test

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stakolich, E. G.; Stromberg, W. J.

1981-01-01

The results of testing to identify the effects of simulated aerodynamic flight loads on JT9D engine performance are presented. The test results were also used to refine previous analytical studies on the impact of aerodynamic flight loads on performance losses. To accomplish these objectives, a JT9D-7AH engine was assembled with average production clearances and new seals as well as extensive instrumentation to monitor engine performance, case temperatures, and blade tip clearance changes. A special loading device was designed and constructed to permit application of known moments and shear forces to the engine by the use of cables placed around the flight inlet. The test was conducted in the Pratt & Whitney Aircraft X-Ray Test Facility to permit the use of X-ray techniques in conjunction with laser blade tip proximity probes to monitor important engine clearance changes. Upon completion of the test program, the test engine was disassembled, and the condition of gas path parts and final clearances were documented. The test results indicate that the engine lost 1.1 percent in thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC), as measured under sea level static conditions, due to increased operating clearances caused by simulated flight loads. This compares with 0.9 percent predicted by the analytical model and previous study efforts.

13. Establishment of an Off-Highway Vehicle (OHV) Program at Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee Final Environmental Assessment

DTIC Science & Technology

2010-05-01

intensive recreational activities such as sports , campgrounds, picnic areas, paved walking/ jogging/ cycl ing trails, marinas, designated swimming...beaches, and other water sports areas. Class I Areas at Arnold AFB that are open to the general public include the Morris Ferry Recreation Area, the...Sources: U.S. Atr Force, 2006; TDEC Dtvts ton of Natural Areas (DNA), 2008; TDEC DNA, 2009 . T =Threatened; D = Deemed in Need of Management; DM

14. Final Environmental Assessment for Gate 5 (Central Avenue) Interchange Improvements on F. E. Warren Air Force Base, Wyoming

DTIC Science & Technology

2012-04-01

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), an Environmental Assessment (EA) has been developed to analyze potential environmental impacts associated with the...pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (Public Law 91-190, 42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq) and the Air Force Environmental Impact Process (32 CFR 898...at Gate 5 (Central Avenue) and add a visitor’s parking lot. 2. PURPOSE AND NEED FOR ACTION The purpose of this action is to provide safe access to

15. Final Environmental Assessment to Implement the Defense Base Closure and Realignment Commission Recommendations for Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina

DTIC Science & Technology

2007-07-01

MARK D.WRIGHT DATE Colonel, USAF Deputy Director of Installations for Civil Engineers (A7) This page is intentionally blank...South Carolina U.S. Air Force Air Combat Command 20th Fighter Wing May 2007 This page is intentionally blank. EA for the...Elimination System NPS Non -Point Source NRHP National Register of Historic Places O3 Ozone OEA Overseas Environmental Assessment ORW Outstanding

16. Final Environmental Assessment, Conversion of Forest Land to Road Right-of-Way, Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

DTIC Science & Technology

2005-04-01

DECHERD ESTILL SPRINGS WINCHESTER SEWANEE Figure 1-1 Legend Road Centerline County Boundaries Arnold AFB Boundary 0 2.51.25 Miles Arnold Air Force Base...to 890 feet above sea level in the valleys. In the areas north and northeast of Arnold AFB, there are many swamps and internally drained depressions...rivers, streams, and springs ) and groundwater. Arnold AFB lies within the Duck River and the Elk River basins. The drainage divide between these two

17. Final Environmental Assessment Construction of New Recreational Lodging at Bellows Air Force Station O’ahu, Hawai’i

DTIC Science & Technology

2009-10-01

groundwater resources occurring within the ROI. Surface water includes lakes , streams and drainage ways, and near-shore coastal waters. Groundwater...former runway at Bellows Air Force Station. Based on the distance from the Mr. Ronnie Lanier 2 project site (0.5 miles) to the Oxbow wetland and...Waimanalo Community is geographically isolated from the Enchanted Lakes , Kailua, Lanikai, Hawaii Kai and Manoa communities by mountains. This fact is not

18. Aerodynamics Via Acoustics: Application of Acoustic Formulas for Aerodynamic Calculations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Farassat, F.; Myers, M. K.

1986-01-01

Prediction of aerodynamic loads on bodies in arbitrary motion is considered from an acoustic point of view, i.e., in a frame of reference fixed in the undisturbed medium. An inhomogeneous wave equation which governs the disturbance pressure is constructed and solved formally using generalized function theory. When the observer is located on the moving body surface there results a singular linear integral equation for surface pressure. Two different methods for obtaining such equations are discussed. Both steady and unsteady aerodynamic calculations are considered. Two examples are presented, the more important being an application to propeller aerodynamics. Of particular interest for numerical applications is the analytical behavior of the kernel functions in the various integral equations.

19. Fast-Running Aeroelastic Code Based on Unsteady Linearized Aerodynamic Solver Developed

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reddy, T. S. R.; Bakhle, Milind A.; Keith, T., Jr.

2003-01-01

20. Estimation of Aerodynamic Stability Derivatives for Space Launch System and Impact on Stability Margins

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pei, Jing; Wall, John

2013-01-01

This paper describes the techniques involved in determining the aerodynamic stability derivatives for the frequency domain analysis of the Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle. Generally for launch vehicles, determination of the derivatives is fairly straightforward since the aerodynamic data is usually linear through a moderate range of angle of attack. However, if the wind tunnel data lacks proper corrections then nonlinearities and asymmetric behavior may appear in the aerodynamic database coefficients. In this case, computing the derivatives becomes a non-trivial task. Errors in computing the nominal derivatives could lead to improper interpretation regarding the natural stability of the system and tuning of the controller parameters, which would impact both stability and performance. The aerodynamic derivatives are also provided at off nominal operating conditions used for dispersed frequency domain Monte Carlo analysis. Finally, results are shown to illustrate that the effects of aerodynamic cross axis coupling can be neglected for the SLS configuration studied

1. Aerodynamic drag on intermodal railcars

Kinghorn, Philip; Maynes, Daniel

2014-11-01

The aerodynamic drag associated with transport of commodities by rail is becoming increasingly important as the cost of diesel fuel increases. This study aims to increase the efficiency of intermodal cargo trains by reducing the aerodynamic drag on the load carrying cars. For intermodal railcars a significant amount of aerodynamic drag is a result of the large distance between loads that often occurs and the resulting pressure drag resulting from the separated flow. In the present study aerodynamic drag data have been obtained through wind tunnel testing on 1/29 scale models to understand the savings that may be realized by judicious modification to the size of the intermodal containers. The experiments were performed in the BYU low speed wind tunnel and the test track utilizes two leading locomotives followed by a set of five articulated well cars with double stacked containers. The drag on a representative mid-train car is measured using an isolated load cell balance and the wind tunnel speed is varied from 20 to 100 mph. We characterize the effect that the gap distance between the containers and the container size has on the aerodynamic drag of this representative rail car and investigate methods to reduce the gap distance.

2. Evaluation of Methodology for Estimating the Cost of Air Force On-The-Job Training. Final Report.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Samers, Bernard N.; And Others

Described is the final phase of a study directed at the development of an on-the-job training (OJT) costing methodology. Utilizing a modification of survey techniques tested and evaluated during the previous phase, estimates were obtained for the cost of OJT for airman training from the l-level (unskilled to the 3-level (semiskilled) in five…

3. Aerodynamic Characteristics of High Speed Trains under Cross Wind Conditions

Chen, W.; Wu, S. P.; Zhang, Y.

2011-09-01

Numerical simulation for the two models in cross-wind was carried out in this paper. The three-dimensional compressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations(RANS), combined with the standard k-ɛ turbulence model, were solved on multi-block hybrid grids by second order upwind finite volume technique. The impact of fairing on aerodynamic characteristics of the train models was analyzed. It is shown that, the flow separates on the fairing and a strong vortex is generated, the pressure on the upper middle car decreases dramatically, which leads to a large lift force. The fairing changes the basic patterns around the trains. In addition, formulas of the coefficient of aerodynamic force at small yaw angles up to 24° were expressed.

4. General Theory of Aerodynamic Instability and the Mechanism of Flutter

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theodorsen, Theodore

1979-01-01

The aerodynamic forces on an oscillating airfoil or airfoil-aileron combination of three independent degrees of freedom were determined. The problem resolves itself into the solution of certain definite integrals, which were identified as Bessel functions of the first and second kind, and of zero and first order. The theory, based on potential flow and the Kutta condition, is fundamentally equivalent to the conventional wing section theory relating to the steady case. The air forces being known, the mechanism of aerodynamic instability was analyzed. An exact solution, involving potential flow and the adoption of the Kutta condition, was derived. The solution is of a simple form and is expressed by means of an auxiliary parameter k. The flutter velocity, treated as the unknown quantity, was determined as a function of a certain ratio of the frequencies in the separate degrees of freedom for any magnitudes and combinations of the airfoil-aileron parameters.

5. General Theory of Aerodynamic Instability and the Mechanism of Flutter

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theodorsen, Theodore

1949-01-01

The aerodynamic forces on an oscillating airfoil or airfoil-aileron combination of three independent degrees of freedom have been determined. The problem resolves itself into the solution of certain definite integrals, which have been identified as Bessel functions of the first and second kind and of zero and first order. The theory, being based on potential flow and the Kutta condition, is fundamentally equivalent to the conventional wing-section theory relating to the steady case. The air forces being known, the mechanism of aerodynamic instability has been analyzed in detail. An exact solution, involving potential flow and the adoption of the Kutta condition, has been analyzed in detail. An exact solution, involving potential flow and the adoption of the Kutta condition, has been arrived at. The solution is of a simple form and is expressed by means of an auxiliary parameter K.

6. Final Supplemental Environmental Assessment of Proposed Actions by the 58th Special Operations Wing, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

DTIC Science & Technology

2008-06-01

Salazar T14N R03W 12 SE1/4 SE1/4 NE1/4 36 298719 3859680 Acoma Pueblo White Ridge T07N R03W 6 NW1/4 NW1/4 SW1/4 37 291279 3855666 Acoma Pueblo Cerro...Nuclear Security  Administration/Sandia Site Office  Lanz,  Carl  J USAF AFMC 377 MSG/CEANR  Chief, Environmental Restoration  Air Force Materiel Command

7. Final Environmental Assessment For Wing Infrastructure Development Outlook (WINDO) Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, Tucson, Arizona

DTIC Science & Technology

2005-06-01

processing tools (Davis-Monthan AFB 2004e). Eventually some groups adopted the cultivation of domesticated plants and became less mobile as they...regulations that govern transportation of hazardous materials (EPA530-F- 96-032 et seq.). All waste ACM will be transported to the Tangerine Landfill...which is located at 10220 West Tangerine Road and operated by Pima County. FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT 4-24 Wing Infrastructure Development

8. Final Environmental Assessment for Effluent Irrigation of the Golf Course Holloman Air Force Base Otero County, New Mexico

DTIC Science & Technology

2008-10-01

managers for several reasons. First, neotropical migratory birds play a major role in the health and functioning of ecosystems, as consumers of insects ...shallow standing \\Vater rnay ren1ain for several weeks after heavy rains. Playas may contain a higher 22 Final Environmental Assessment for Golf...bacterial growth that support a substantial insect community that in tum attracts considerable numbers of wetland birds to the area throughout the

9. Special opportunities in helicopter aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mccroskey, W. J.

1983-01-01

Aerodynamic research relating to modern helicopters includes the study of three dimensional, unsteady, nonlinear flow fields. A selective review is made of some of the phenomenon that hamper the development of satisfactory engineering prediction techniques, but which provides a rich source of research opportunities: flow separations, compressibility effects, complex vortical wakes, and aerodynamic interference between components. Several examples of work in progress are given, including dynamic stall alleviation, the development of computational methods for transonic flow, rotor-wake predictions, and blade-vortex interactions.

10. Aerodynamics Research Revolutionizes Truck Design

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

2008-01-01

During the 1970s and 1980s, researchers at Dryden Flight Research Center conducted numerous tests to refine the shape of trucks to reduce aerodynamic drag and improved efficiency. During the 1980s and 1990s, a team based at Langley Research Center explored controlling drag and the flow of air around a moving body. Aeroserve Technologies Ltd., of Ottawa, Canada, with its subsidiary, Airtab LLC, in Loveland, Colorado, applied the research from Dryden and Langley to the development of the Airtab vortex generator. Airtabs create two counter-rotating vortices to reduce wind resistance and aerodynamic drag of trucks, trailers, recreational vehicles, and many other vehicles.

11. Multidisciplinary Computational Aerodynamics

DTIC Science & Technology

2013-10-01

rectangular and elliptical wing planforms subjected to a rapid pitch - up maneuver. They found that despite differences in the initial separation process...flow visualizations and force measurements for low- aspect-ratio wings undergoing either pitch - up or pitch -hold-and-return high-rate motions and for...a quasi-steady condition. Subsequently, the wing is pitched up about its quarter-chord axis while simultaneously decelerating to rest (Fig. 4). The

12. Aerodynamic Characterizations of Asymmetric and Maneuvering 105-, 120-, and 155-mm Fin-Stabilized Projectiles Derived from Telemetry Experiments

DTIC Science & Technology

2011-04-01

in table 1. Figure 3. The 155-mm airframe. 5 Table 1. Physical properties of projectiles. Projectile (mm) Mass (kg) Axial Inertia...VAPP-8 Aerodynamic Coefficients The aerodynamic coefficients derived for the 10-5mm airframe are shown in figures 14 and 15. Zero-yaw axial force...coefficients ( 0xC ) for VAPP-8 and VAPP-7 agree well. The zero-yaw axial force coefficient increases slightly as Mach number increases. The pitching

13. Rotor/wing aerodynamic interactions in hover

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Felker, F. F.; Light, J. S.

1986-01-01

An experimental and theoretical investigation of rotor/wing aerodynamic interactions in hover is described. The experimental investigation consisted of both a large-scale and small-scale test. A 0.658-scale, V-22 rotor and wing was used in the large-scale test. Wind download, wing surface pressure, rotor performance, and rotor downwash data from the large-scale test are presented. A small-scale experiment was conducted to determine how changes in the rotor/wing geometry affected the aerodynamic interactions. These geometry variations included the distance between the rotor and wing, wing incidence angle, and configurations both with the rotor axis at the tip of the wing (tilt rotor configuration) and with the rotor axis at the center of the wing (compound helicopter configuration). A wing with boundary-layer control was also tested to evaluate the effect of leading and trailing edge upper surface blowing on the wing download. A computationally efficient, semi-empirical theory was developed to predict the download on the wing. Finally, correlations between the theoretical predictions and test data are presented.

14. Langley Symposium on Aerodynamics, volume 1

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stack, Sharon H. (Compiler)

1986-01-01

The purpose of this work was to present current work and results of the Langley Aeronautics Directorate covering the areas of computational fluid dynamics, viscous flows, airfoil aerodynamics, propulsion integration, test techniques, and low-speed, high-speed, and transonic aerodynamics. The following sessions are included in this volume: theoretical aerodynamics, test techniques, fluid physics, and viscous drag reduction.

15. The local environment resulting from a massive nuclear attack on Whiteman Air Force Base. Final technical report

SciTech Connect

Hulburt, C.W.; Yutko, C.A.; Sullivan, R.J.

1980-04-01

The study examines the potential blast and fallout damage that would be sustained by the 15 counties surrounding the Whiteman Air Force Base in Missouri following a nuclear attack against the associated Minuteman missile silos. The study also provides recommendations concerning the shelters that would be required to protect the population of these 15 counties from blast effects and heavy fallout. The study was performed in consonance with the new emphasis that FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) is giving to nuclear civil protection in counterforce areas. It is intended to be a prototype for analyses of areas containing other U.S. counterforce targets, notably the other five Minuteman wings, the Titan missiles, the Strategic Air Command bases, and the strategic submarine bases.

16. Investigation of forced and isothermal chemical vapor infiltrated SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites. Final report

SciTech Connect

Sankar, J.; Kelkar, A.D.; Vaidyanathan, R.

1993-09-01

Mechanical properties of two different layups for each of the forced CVI (41 specimens) and isothermal CVI (36 specimens) materials were investigated in air at room temperature (RT), 1000C, and at room temperature after thermal shock (RT/TS) and exposure to oxidation (RT/OX). The FCVI specimens had a nominal interfacial coating thickness of 0.3 {mu}m of pyrolytic carbon, while CVI specimens had a coating thickness of 0.1 {mu}m. Effect of reinforcement and interfacial bond on mechanical properties of composite were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to analyze the fiber-matrix interface and the toughening mechanisms in this ceramic composite system.

17. Atomic force microscopy for the study of specially prepared surfaces including transferred Langmuir-Blodgett layers. Final report

SciTech Connect

Dr. J. D. Miller

1999-06-02

During the past four years a major number of surface science research programs in the Department of Metallurgical Engineering at the University of Utah have involved the use of the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film balance procured with financial assistance from DOE under grant number DE-FG03-96ER76049. These instruments have been used for research in the areas of nonsulfide flotation chemistry, mineral processing, waste paper deinking, water treatment, treatment of contaminated soil, coal preparation, and plastics recycling. In addition, the AFM and LB film balance have been of great help to university researchers in other departments at the University of Utah and elsewhere, as well as researchers from industry.

18. Modeling and simulation of coaxial helicopter rotor aerodynamics

Gecgel, Murat

A framework is developed for the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses of a series of helicopter rotor flowfields in hover and in forward flight. The methodology is based on the unsteady solutions of the three-dimensional, compressible Navier-Stokes equations recast in a rotating frame of reference. The simulations are carried out by solving the developed mathematical model on hybrid meshes that aim to optimally exploit the benefits of both the structured and the unstructured grids around complex configurations. The computer code is prepared for parallel processing with distributed memory utilization in order to significantly reduce the computational time and the memory requirements. The developed model and the simulation methodology are validated for single-rotor-in-hover flowfields by comparing the present results with the published experimental data. The predictive merit of different turbulence models for complex helicopter aerodynamics are tested extensively. All but the kappa-o and LES results demonstrate acceptable agreement with the experimental data. It was deemed best to use the one-equation Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model for the subsequent rotor flowfield computations. First, the flowfield around a single rotor in forward flight is simulated. These time---accurate computations help to analyze an adverse effect of increasing the forward flight speed. A dissymmetry of the lift on the advancing and the retreating blades is observed for six different advance ratios. Since the coaxial rotor is proposed to mitigate the dissymmetry, it is selected as the next logical step of the present investigation. The time---accurate simulations are successfully obtained for the flowfields generated by first a hovering then a forward-flying coaxial rotor. The results for the coaxial rotor in forward flight verify the aerodynamic balance proposed by the previously published advancing blade concept. The final set of analyses aims to investigate if the gap between the

19. United States Air Force Summer Research Program -- 1993 Summer Research Program Final Reports. Volume 12. Armstrong Laboratory

DTIC Science & Technology

1993-01-01

0000 Decker, Michael Laboratory: RL/ZR 2601 Oneida--St. Vol-Page No: 14- 8 Sauquoit Valley Central School Sauquoit, TY 13456-0000 Deibler, Nancy...No: 15-18 A. Crawford Mosley Lynn Raven, FL 32444-5609 Panara, Michael Laboratory: RL/C3 500 Turin St. Vol-Page No: 14- 5 Rome Free AoadWY Rome, NY...School 6500 Ingram Rd. San Antonio, TX 78238 Dr. John Taboada Mentor Final Report for: AFOSR Summer Research Program Armstrong Laboratory Sponsored by

20. Final Environmental Assessment Addressing Construction, Operation, and Maintenance of a Hot Cargo Pad at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

DTIC Science & Technology

2011-01-01

currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE JAN 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Final...Environmental Impact Statement does not need to be prepared. This analysis fulfills the requirements of NEPA and the CEQ Regulations. Date Signature on f...longer apply to an area 1 year after the effective date of the designation of that area for the 8-hour O3 NAAQS. The effective designation date for

1. Passive flow control by membrane wings for aerodynamic benefit

Timpe, Amory; Zhang, Zheng; Hubner, James; Ukeiley, Lawrence

2013-03-01

The coupling of passive structural response of flexible membranes with the flow over them can significantly alter the aerodynamic characteristic of simple flat-plate wings. The use of flexible wings is common throughout biological flying systems inspiring many engineers to incorporate them into small engineering flying systems. In many of these systems, the motion of the membrane serves to passively alter the flow over the wing potentially resulting in an aerodynamic benefit. In this study, the aerodynamic loads and the flow field for a rigid flat-plate wing are compared to free trailing-edge membrane wings with two different pre-tensions at a chord-based Reynolds number of approximately 50,000. The membrane was silicon rubber with a scalloped free trailing edge. The analysis presented includes load measurements from a sting balance along with velocity fields and membrane deflections from synchronized, time-resolved particle image velocimetry and digital image correlation. The load measurements demonstrate increased aerodynamic efficiency and lift, while the synchronized flow and membrane measurements show how the membrane motion serves to force the flow. This passive flow control introduced by the membranes motion alters the flows development over the wing and into the wake region demonstrating how, at least for lower angles of attack, the membranes motion drives the flow as opposed to the flow driving the membrane motion.

2. Orion Aerodynamics for Hypersonic Free Molecular to Continuum Conditions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Moss, James N.; Greene, Francis A.; Boyles, Katie A.

2006-01-01

Numerical simulations are performed for the Orion Crew Module, previously known as the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Command Module, to characterize its aerodynamics during the high altitude portion of its reentry into the Earth's atmosphere, that is, from free molecular to continuum hypersonic conditions. The focus is on flow conditions similar to those that the Orion Crew Module would experience during a return from the International Space Station. The bulk of the calculations are performed with two direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) codes, and these data are anchored with results from both free molecular and Navier-Stokes calculations. Results for aerodynamic forces and moments are presented that demonstrate their sensitivity to rarefaction, that is, for free molecular to continuum conditions (Knudsen numbers of 111 to 0.0003). Also included are aerodynamic data as a function of angle of attack for different levels of rarefaction and results that demonstrate the aerodynamic sensitivity of the Orion CM to a range of reentry velocities (7.6 to 15 km/s).

3. Experimental Investigation on Airfoil Shock Control by Plasma Aerodynamic Actuation

Sun, Quan; Cheng, Bangqin; Li, Yinghong; Cui, Wei; Jin, Di; Li, Jun

2013-11-01

An experimental investigation on airfoil (NACA64—215) shock control is performed by plasma aerodynamic actuation in a supersonic tunnel (Ma = 2). The results of schlieren and pressure measurement show that when plasma aerodynamic actuation is applied, the position moves forward and the intensity of shock at the head of the airfoil weakens. With the increase in actuating voltage, the total pressure measured at the head of the airfoil increases, which means that the shock intensity decreases and the control effect increases. The best actuation effect is caused by upwind-direction actuation with a magnetic field, and then downwind-direction actuation with a magnetic field, while the control effect of aerodynamic actuation without a magnetic field is the most inconspicuous. The mean intensity of the normal shock at the head of the airfoil is relatively decreased by 16.33%, and the normal shock intensity is relatively reduced by 27.5% when 1000 V actuating voltage and upwind-direction actuation are applied with a magnetic field. This paper theoretically analyzes the Joule heating effect generated by DC discharge and the Lorentz force effect caused by the magnetic field. The discharge characteristics are compared for all kinds of actuation conditions to reveal the mechanism of shock control by plasma aerodynamic actuation.

4. Aerodynamics of puffball mushroom spore dispersal

Amador, Guillermo; Barberie, Alex; Hu, David

2012-11-01

Puffball mushrooms Lycoperdon are spherical fungi that release a cloud of spores in response to raindrop impacts. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we elucidate the aerodynamics of this unique impact-based spore-dispersal. We characterize live puffball ejections by high speed video, the geometry and elasticity of their shells by cantilever experiments, and the packing fraction and size of their spores by scanning electron microscope. We build a dynamically similar puffball mimic composed of a tied-off latex balloon filled with baby powder and topped with a 1-cm slit. A jet of powder is elicited by steady lateral compression of the mimic between two plates. The jet height is a bell-shaped function of force applied, with a peak of 18 cm at loads of 45 N. We rationalize the increase in jet height with force using Darcy's Law: the applied force generates an overpressure maintained by the air-tight elastic membrane. Pressure is relieved as the air travels through the spore interstitial spaces, entrains spores, and exits through the puffball orifice. This mechanism demonstrates how powder-filled elastic shells can generate high-speed jets using energy harvested from rain.

5. POEMS in Newton's Aerodynamic Frustum

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sampedro, Jaime Cruz; Tetlalmatzi-Montiel, Margarita

2010-01-01

The golden mean is often naively seen as a sign of optimal beauty but rarely does it arise as the solution of a true optimization problem. In this article we present such a problem, demonstrating a close relationship between the golden mean and a special case of Newton's aerodynamical problem for the frustum of a cone. Then, we exhibit a parallel…

6. Aerodynamic laboratory at Cuatro Vientos

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

JUBERA

1922-01-01

This report presents a listing of the many experiments in aerodynamics taking place at Cuatro Vientos. Some of the studies include: testing spheres, in order to determine coefficients; mechanical and chemical tests of materials; and various tests of propeller strength and flexibility.

7. Aerodynamic design via control theory

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jameson, Antony

1988-01-01

The question of how to modify aerodynamic design in order to improve performance is addressed. Representative examples are given to demonstrate the computational feasibility of using control theory for such a purpose. An introduction and historical survey of the subject is included.

8. Dynamic Soaring: Aerodynamics for Albatrosses

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Denny, Mark

2009-01-01

Albatrosses have evolved to soar and glide efficiently. By maximizing their lift-to-drag ratio "L/D", albatrosses can gain energy from the wind and can travel long distances with little effort. We simplify the difficult aerodynamic equations of motion by assuming that albatrosses maintain a constant "L/D". Analytic solutions to the simplified…

9. Feedback Control for Aerodynamics (Preprint)

DTIC Science & Technology

2006-09-01

AFRL-VA-WP-TP-2006-348 FEEDBACK CONTROL FOR AERODYNAMICS (PREPRINT) R. Chris Camphouse, Seddik M. Djouadi, and James H. Myatt...CONSTRUCTION FOR THE DESIGN OF BOUNDARY FEEDBACK CONTROLS FROM REDUCED ORDER MODELS (PREPRINT) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 0601102F 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...

10. In vivo measurement of aerodynamic weight support in freely flying birds

Lentink, David; Haselsteiner, Andreas; Ingersoll, Rivers

2014-11-01

Birds dynamically change the shape of their wing during the stroke to support their body weight aerodynamically. The wing is partially folded during the upstroke, which suggests that the upstroke of birds might not actively contribute to aerodynamic force production. This hypothesis is supported by the significant mass difference between the large pectoralis muscle that powers the down-stroke and the much smaller supracoracoideus that drives the upstroke. Previous works used indirect or incomplete techniques to measure the total force generated by bird wings ranging from muscle force, airflow, wing surface pressure, to detailed kinematics measurements coupled with bird mass-distribution models to derive net force through second derivatives. We have validated a new method that measures aerodynamic force in vivo time-resolved directly in freely flying birds which can resolve this question. The validation of the method, using independent force measurements on a quadcopter with pulsating thrust, show the aerodynamic force and impulse are measured within 2% accuracy and time-resolved. We demonstrate results for quad-copters and birds of similar weight and size. The method is scalable and can be applied to both engineered and natural flyers across taxa. The first author invented the method, the second and third authors validated the method and present results for quadcopters and birds.

11. Armed forces career exploration for high school students in the fields of engineering and science. Final report

SciTech Connect

Not Available

1993-08-01

Morgan State University`s School of Engineering conducted its third annual Armed Forces Career Exploration program for high school students in the fields of engineering and science. The four week program was jointly sponsored by the US Army Laboratory Command (Ballistics Research Laboratory and Human Engineering Laboratory) and US Department of Energy (Los Alamos National Laboratory). The environment in a predominantly urban school system is such that a significant number of very capable students reach the eleventh grade without plans for the future. These students as a result of teacher influence have taken lower level math and science courses and we feel by participating in this program will see reasons for pursuing higher level math and science courses their last two years in high school. Inasmuch as intervention programs have not yet significantly affected the profile of these schools this pool of students represents an opportunity to make an early impact on the number of students that enter college intending to major in math, science or engineering. This report presents the program that provided selected students with pre-engineering and science enrichment experiences designed to enhance their understanding of engineering, increase their awareness of career opportunities in science and engineering, advance their readiness to enter temporary job situation, and foster the development of self-confidence in their individual capabilities.

12. Improved Aerodynamic Influence Coefficients for Dynamic Aeroelastic Analyses

Gratton, Patrice

2011-12-01

Currently at Bombardier Aerospace, aeroelastic analyses are performed using the Doublet Lattice Method (DLM) incorporated in the NASTRAN solver. This method proves to be very reliable and fast in preliminary design stages where wind tunnel experimental results are often not available. Unfortunately, the geometric simplifications and limitations of the DLM, based on the lifting surfaces theory, reduce the ability of this method to give reliable results for all flow conditions, particularly in transonic flow. Therefore, a new method has been developed involving aerodynamic data from high-fidelity CFD codes which solve the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations. These new aerodynamic loads are transmitted to the NASTRAN aeroelastic module through improved aerodynamic influence coefficients (AIC). A cantilevered wing model is created from the Global Express structural model and a set of natural modes is calculated for a baseline configuration of the structure. The baseline mode shapes are then combined with an interpolation scheme to deform the 3-D CFD mesh necessary for Euler and Navier-Stokes analyses. An uncoupled approach is preferred to allow aerodynamic information from different CFD codes. Following the steady state CFD analyses, pressure differences ( DeltaCp), calculated between the deformed models and the original geometry, lead to aerodynamic loads which are transferred to the DLM model. A modal-based AIC method is applied to the aerodynamic matrices of NASTRAN based on a least-square approximation to evaluate aerodynamic loads of a different wing configuration which displays similar types of mode shapes. The methodology developed in this research creates weighting factors based on steady CFD analyses which have an equivalent reduced frequency of zero. These factors are applied to both the real and imaginary part of the aerodynamic matrices as well as all reduced frequencies used in the PK-Method which solves flutter problems. The modal-based AIC method

13. Kinematics and aerodynamics of avian upstrokes during slow flight.

PubMed

Crandell, Kristen E; Tobalske, Bret W

2015-08-01

Slow flight is extremely energetically costly per unit time, yet highly important for takeoff and survival. However, at slow speeds it is presently thought that most birds do not produce beneficial aerodynamic forces during the entire wingbeat: instead they fold or flex their wings during upstroke, prompting the long-standing prediction that the upstroke produces trivial forces. There is increasing evidence that the upstroke contributes to force production, but the aerodynamic and kinematic mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we examined the wingbeat cycle of two species: the diamond dove (Geopelia cuneata) and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), which exhibit different upstroke styles - a wingtip-reversal and flexed-wing upstroke, respectively. We used a combination of particle image velocimetry and near-wake streamline measures alongside detailed 3D kinematics. We show that during the middle of the wingtip-reversal upstroke, the hand-wing has a high angular velocity (15.3±0.8 deg ms(-1)) and translational speed (8.4±0.6 m s(-1)). The flexed-wing upstroke, in contrast, has low wingtip speed during mid-upstroke. Instead, later in the stroke cycle, during the transition from upstroke to downstroke, it exhibits higher angular velocities (45.5±13.8 deg ms(-1)) and translational speeds (11.0±1.9 m s(-1)). Aerodynamically, the wingtip-reversal upstroke imparts momentum to the wake, with entrained air shed backward (visible as circulation of 14.4±0.09 m(2) s(-1)). In contrast, the flexed-wing upstroke imparts minimal momentum. Clap and peel in the dove enhances the time course for circulation production on the wings, and provides new evidence of convergent evolution on time-varying aerodynamic mechanisms during flapping in insects and birds.

14. Aerodynamics of advanced axial-flow turbomachinery

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Serovy, G. K.; Kavanagh, P.; Kiishi, T. H.

1980-01-01

A multi-task research program on aerodynamic problems in advanced axial-flow turbomachine configurations was carried out at Iowa State University. The elements of this program were intended to contribute directly to the improvement of compressor, fan, and turbine design methods. Experimental efforts in intra-passage flow pattern measurements, unsteady blade row interaction, and control of secondary flow are included, along with computational work on inviscid-viscous interaction blade passage flow techniques. This final report summarizes the results of this program and indicates directions which might be taken in following up these results in future work. In a separate task a study was made of existing turbomachinery research programs and facilities in universities located in the United States. Some potentially significant research topics are discussed which might be successfully attacked in the university atmosphere.

15. The influence of flight style on the aerodynamic properties of avian wings as fixed lifting surfaces

PubMed Central

2016-01-01

The diversity of wing morphologies in birds reflects their variety of flight styles and the associated aerodynamic and inertial requirements. Although the aerodynamics underlying wing morphology can be informed by aeronautical research, important differences exist between planes and birds. In particular, birds operate at lower, transitional Reynolds numbers than do most aircraft. To date, few quantitative studies have investigated the aerodynamic performance of avian wings as fixed lifting surfaces and none have focused upon the differences between wings from different flight style groups. Dried wings from 10 bird species representing three distinct flight style groups were mounted on a force/torque sensor within a wind tunnel in order to test the hypothesis that wing morphologies associated with different flight styles exhibit different aerodynamic properties. Morphological differences manifested primarily as differences in drag rather than lift. Maximum lift coefficients did not differ between groups, whereas minimum drag coefficients were lowest in undulating flyers (Corvids). The lift to drag ratios were lower than in conventional aerofoils and data from free-flying soaring species; particularly in high frequency, flapping flyers (Anseriformes), which do not rely heavily on glide performance. The results illustrate important aerodynamic differences between the wings of different flight style groups that cannot be explained solely by simple wing-shape measures. Taken at face value, the results also suggest that wing-shape is linked principally to changes in aerodynamic drag, but, of course, it is aerodynamics during flapping and not gliding that is likely to be the primary driver. PMID:27781155

16. The influence of flight style on the aerodynamic properties of avian wings as fixed lifting surfaces.

PubMed

Lees, John J; Dimitriadis, Grigorios; Nudds, Robert L

2016-01-01

The diversity of wing morphologies in birds reflects their variety of flight styles and the associated aerodynamic and inertial requirements. Although the aerodynamics underlying wing morphology can be informed by aeronautical research, important differences exist between planes and birds. In particular, birds operate at lower, transitional Reynolds numbers than do most aircraft. To date, few quantitative studies have investigated the aerodynamic performance of avian wings as fixed lifting surfaces and none have focused upon the differences between wings from different flight style groups. Dried wings from 10 bird species representing three distinct flight style groups were mounted on a force/torque sensor within a wind tunnel in order to test the hypothesis that wing morphologies associated with different flight styles exhibit different aerodynamic properties. Morphological differences manifested primarily as differences in drag rather than lift. Maximum lift coefficients did not differ between groups, whereas minimum drag coefficients were lowest in undulating flyers (Corvids). The lift to drag ratios were lower than in conventional aerofoils and data from free-flying soaring species; particularly in high frequency, flapping flyers (Anseriformes), which do not rely heavily on glide performance. The results illustrate important aerodynamic differences between the wings of different flight style groups that cannot be explained solely by simple wing-shape measures. Taken at face value, the results also suggest that wing-shape is linked principally to changes in aerodynamic drag, but, of course, it is aerodynamics during flapping and not gliding that is likely to be the primary driver.

17. Results of an aerodynamic force and moment investigation of an 0.015-scale configuration 3 space shuttle orbiter in the NASA/ARC 3.5-foot hypersonic wind tunnel (OA58)

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dziubala, T. J.; Cleary, J. W.

1974-01-01

The primary objective of the test was to obtain stability and control data for the basic configuration and an alternate configuration for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Pitch runs were made with 0 deg of sideslip at Mach numbers of 5.3, 7.3 and 10.3. Six-component force data and fuselage base pressures were recorded for each run. Shadowgraph pictures were taken at selected points. Model 420 was used for the tests.

18. An analytical technique for approximating unsteady aerodynamics in the time domain

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dunn, H. J.

1980-01-01

An analytical technique is presented for approximating unsteady aerodynamic forces in the time domain. The order of elements of a matrix Pade approximation was postulated, and the resulting polynomial coefficients were determined through a combination of least squares estimates for the numerator coefficients and a constrained gradient search for the denominator coefficients which insures stable approximating functions. The number of differential equations required to represent the aerodynamic forces to a given accuracy tends to be smaller than that employed in certain existing techniques where the denominator coefficients are chosen a priori. Results are shown for an aeroelastic, cantilevered, semispan wing which indicate a good fit to the aerodynamic forces for oscillatory motion can be achieved with a matrix Pade approximation having fourth order numerator and second order denominator polynomials.

19. Waiting for 21-Lutetia "Rosetta" images as a final proof of structurizing force of inertia-gravity waves

2010-05-01

The 100 km long flattened asteroid 21-Lutetia will be imaged by the "Rosetta' spacecraft in July 2010. Knowing that heavenly bodies are effectively structurized by warping inertia-gravity waves one might expect that Lutetia will not be an exclusion out of a row of bodies subjected to an action of these waves [1-9]. The elliptical keplerian orbits with periodically changing bodies' accelerations imply inertia-gravity forces applied to any body notwithstanding its size, mass, density, chemical composition, and physical state. These forces produce inertia-gravity waves having in rotating bodied standing character and four directions of propagation (orthogonal and diagonal). Interfering these waves produce in bodies three (five) kinds of tectonic blocks: uprising strongly and moderately (++, +), subsiding deeply and moderately (--, -), and neutral (0) where + and - are compensated. Lengths and amplitudes of warping waves form the harmonic sequence. The fundamental wave1 (long 2πR) makes ubiquitous tectonic dichotomy (two antipodean segments or hemispheres: one risen, another fallen). In small bodies this structurization is expressed in their convexo-concave shape: one hemisphere is bulged, another one pressed in. Bulging hemisphere is extended, pressed in hemisphere contracted. This wave shaping tends to transform a globular body into a tetrahedron - the essentially dichotomous simplest Plato's figure. In this polyhedron always there is an opposition of extension (a face) to contraction (a vertex). The first overtone wave2 (long πR) makes tectonic sectors, also risen and fallen, and regularly disposed on (and in) a globe. This regularity is expressed in an octahedron form. The octahedron (diamond) or its parts are often observed in shapes of small bodies with small gravities. Larger bodies with rather strong gravity tend to smooth polyhedron vertices and edges but a polyhedron structurization is always present inside their globes and is shown in their tectonics

20. Plasma Aerodynamic Control Effectors for Improved Wind Turbine Performance

SciTech Connect

Mehul P. Patel; Srikanth Vasudevan; Robert C. Nelson; Thomas C. Corke

2008-08-01

1. Flutter and Forced Response Analyses of Cascades using a Two-Dimensional Linearized Euler Solver

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reddy, T. S. R.; Srivastava, R.; Mehmed, O.

1999-01-01

2. On-orbit free molecular flow aerodynamic characteristics of a proposal space operations center configuration

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Romere, P. O.

1982-01-01

A proposed configuration for a Space Operations Center is presented in its eight stages of buildup. The on orbit aerodynamic force and moment characteristics were calculated for each stage based upon free molecular flow theory. Calculation of the aerodynamic characteristics was accomplished through the use of an orbital aerodynamic computer program, and the computation method is described with respect to the free molecular theory used. The aerodynamic characteristics are presented in tabulated form for each buildup stage at angles of attack from 0 to 360 degrees and roll angles from -60 to +60 degrees. The reference altitude is 490 kilometers, however, the data should be applicable for altitudes below 490 kilometers down to approximately 185 kilometers.

3. Wind Tunnel Tests on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Advanced Solid Rocket

Kitamura, Keiichi; Fujimoto, Keiichiro; Nonaka, Satoshi; Irikado, Tomoko; Fukuzoe, Moriyasu; Shima, Eiji

The Advanced Solid Rocket is being developed by JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency). Since its configuration has been changed very recently, its aerodynamic characteristics are of great interest of the JAXA Advanced Solid Rocket Team. In this study, we carried out wind tunnel tests on the aerodynamic characteristics of the present configuration for Mach 1.5. Six test cases were conducted with different body configurations, attack angles, and roll angles. A six component balance, oilflow visualization, Schlieren images were used throughout the experiments. It was found that, at zero angle-of-attack, the flow around the body were perturbed and its drag (axial force) characteristics were significantly influenced by protruding body components such as flanges, cable ducts, and attitude control units of SMSJ (Solid Motor Side Jet), while the nozzle had a minor role. With angle-of-attack of five degree, normal force of CNα = 3.50±0.03 was measured along with complex flow features observed in the full-component model; whereas no crossflow separations were induced around the no-protuberance model with CNα = 2.58±0.10. These values were almost constant with respect to the angle-of-attack in both of the cases. Furthermore, presence of roll angle made the flow more complicated, involving interactions of separation vortices. These data provide us with fundamental and important aerodynamic insights of the Advanced Solid Rocket, and they will be utilized as reference data for the corresponding numerical analysis.

4. Nonlinear programming extensions to rational function approximations of unsteady aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tiffany, Sherwood H.; Adams, William M., Jr.

1987-01-01

This paper deals with approximating unsteady generalized aerodynamic forces in the equations of motion of a flexible aircraft. Two methods of formulating these approximations are extended to include both the same flexibility in constraining them and the same methodology in optimizing nonlinear parameters as another currently used 'extended least-squares' method. Optimal selection of 'nonlinear' parameters is made in each of the three methods by use of the same nonlinear (nongradient) optimizer. The objective of the nonlinear optimization is to obtain rational approximations to the unsteady aerodynamics whose state-space realization is of lower order than that required when no optimization of the nonlinear terms is performed. The free 'linear' parameters are determined using least-squares matrix techniques on a Lagrange multiplier formulation of an objective function which incorporates selected linear equality constraints. State-space mathematical models resulting from the different approaches are described, and results are presented which show comparative evaluations from application of each of the extended methods to a numerical example. The results obtained for the example problem show a significant (up to 63 percent) reduction in the number of differential equations used to represent the unsteady aerodynamic forces in linear time-invariant equations of motion as compared to a conventional method in which nonlinear terms are not optimized.

5. Transient platoon aerodynamics and bluff body flows

Tsuei, Lun

There are two components of this experimental work: transient vehicle platoon aerodynamics and bluff-body flows. The transient aerodynamic effects in a four-vehicle platoon during passing maneuvers and in-line oscillations are investigated. A vehicle model is moved longitudinally parallel to a four-car platoon to simulate passing maneuvers. The drag and side forces experienced by each platoon member are measured using strain gauge balances. The resulting data are presented as dimensionless coefficients. It is shown that each car in the platoon experiences a repulsive side force when the passing vehicle is in the neighborhood of its rear half. The side force reverses its direction and becomes an attractive force when the passing vehicle moves to the neighborhood of its front half. The drag force experienced by each platoon member is increased when the passing vehicle is in its proximity. The effects of the lateral spacing and relative velocity between the platoon and the passing vehicle, as well as the shape of the passing vehicle, are also investigated. Similar trends are observed in simulations of both a vehicle passing a platoon and a platoon overtaking a vehicle. During the in-line oscillation experiments, one of the four platoon members is forced to undergo longitudinal periodic motions. The drag force experienced by each platoon member is determined simultaneously during the oscillations. The effects of the location of the oscillating vehicle, the shape of the vehicles and the displacement and velocity amplitudes of the oscillation are examined. The results from the transient conditions are compared to those from the steady tests in the same setup. In the case of a four-car platoon, the drag variations experienced by the vehicles adjacent to the oscillating vehicle are discussed using a cavity model. It is found that when the oscillating car moves forward and approaches its upstream neighbor, itself and its downstream neighbor experiences an increased drag

6. Baseball Aerodynamics: What do we know and how do we know it?

Nathan, Alan

2009-11-01

Baseball aerodynamics is governed by three phenomenological quantities: the coefficients of drag, lift, and moment, the latter determining the spin decay time constant. In past years, these quantities were studied mainly in wind tunnel experiments, whereby the forces on the baseball are measured directly. More recently, new tools are being used that focus on measuring accurate baseball trajectories, from which the forces can be inferred. These tools include high-speed motion analysis, video tracking of pitched baseballs (the PITCHf/x system), and Doppler radar tracking. In this contribution, I will discuss what these new tools are teaching us about baseball aerodynamics.

7. Unsteady Aerodynamic Response of Oscillating Contra-Rotating Annular Cascades Part II: Numerical Study

Nishino, Ryohei; Namba, Masanobu

8. Techniques for estimating Space Station aerodynamic characteristics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thomas, Richard E.

1993-01-01

A method was devised and calculations were performed to determine the effects of reflected molecules on the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients for a body in free molecule flow. A procedure was developed for determining the velocity and temperature distributions of molecules reflected from a surface of arbitrary momentum and energy accommodation. A system of equations, based on momentum and energy balances for the surface, incident, and reflected molecules, was solved by a numerical optimization technique. The minimization of a 'cost' function, developed from the set of equations, resulted in the determination of the defining properties of the flow reflected from the arbitrary surface. The properties used to define both the incident and reflected flows were: average temperature of the molecules in the flow, angle of the flow with respect to a vector normal to the surface, and the molecular speed ratio. The properties of the reflected flow were used to calculate the contribution of multiply reflected molecules to the force and moments on a test body in the flow. The test configuration consisted of two flat plates joined along one edge at a right angle to each other. When force and moment coefficients of this 90 deg concave wedge were compared to results that did not include multiple reflections, it was found that multiple reflections could nearly double lift and drag coefficients, with nearly a 50 percent increase in pitching moment for cases with specular or nearly specular accommodation. The cases of diffuse or nearly diffuse accommodation often had minor reductions in axial and normal forces when multiple reflections were included. There were several cases of intermediate accommodation where the addition of multiple reflection effects more than tripled the lift coefficient over the convex technique.

9. XB-70 aerodynamic, geometric, mass, and symmetric structural mode data

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wykes, J. H.; Mori, A. S.

1970-01-01

XB-70-1 mass, structural, and aerodynamic data were updated to reflect as closely as possible the characteristics of the airplane at three specific flight conditions which were actually flown; a nominal Mach number of 0.90 at an altitude of 25,000 feet (two cases) and a nominal Mach number of 1.6 at an altitude of 40,000 feet (one case). In-flight response characteristics at a number of points on the vehicle were obtained by exciting a pair of shaker vanes on the nose of the airplane. Data were recorded with the basic stability augmentation system (SAS) operating both alone and together with the identical location of accelerometer and force (ILAF) structural mode control system. Detailed total vehicle weight, mass characteristics, structural frequencies, generalized masses, all aerodynamic data used in the present analyses, and a description of the actual mode shapes are tabulated and presented.

10. DSMC Simulations of Apollo Capsule Aerodynamics for Hypersonic Rarefied Conditions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Moss, James N.; Glass, Christopher E.; Greene, Francis A.

2006-01-01

Direct simulation Monte Carlo DSMC simulations are performed for the Apollo capsule in the hypersonic low density transitional flow regime. The focus is on ow conditions similar to that experienced by the Apollo Command Module during the high altitude portion of its reentry Results for aerodynamic forces and moments are presented that demonstrate their sensitivity to rarefaction that is for free molecular to continuum conditions. Also aerodynamic data are presented that shows their sensitivity to a range of reentry velocity encompasing conditions that include reentry from low Earth orbit lunar return and Mars return velocities to km/s. The rarefied results are anchored in the continuum regime with data from Navier Stokes simulations

11. Aerodynamics of ski jumping: experiments and CFD simulations

Meile, W.; Reisenberger, E.; Mayer, M.; Schmölzer, B.; Müller, W.; Brenn, G.

2006-12-01

The aerodynamic behaviour of a model ski jumper is investigated experimentally at full-scale Reynolds numbers and computationally applying a standard RANS code. In particular we focus on the influence of different postures on aerodynamic forces in a wide range of angles of attack. The experimental results proved to be in good agreement with full-scale measurements with athletes in much larger wind tunnels, and form a reliable basis for further predictions of the effects of position changes on the performance. The comparison of CFD results with the experiments shows poor agreement, but enables a clear outline of simulation potentials and limits when accurate predictions of effects from small variations are required.

12. Aerodynamic characteristics of NACA 4412 airfoil sction with flap

Ockfen, Alex E.; Matveev, Konstantin I.

2009-09-01

Wing-in-Ground vehicles and aerodynamically assisted boats take advantage of increased lift and reduced drag of wing sections in the ground proximity. At relatively low speeds or heavy payloads of these craft, a flap at the wing trailing-ground-effect flow id numerically investigated in this study. The computational method consists of a steady-state, incompressible, finite volume method utilizing the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Grid generation and solution of the Navier-Stokes equations are completed flow with a flap, as well as ground-effect motion without a flap. Aerodynamic forces are plain flap. Changes in the flow introduced with the flap addition are also discussed. Overall, the use of a flap on wings with small attack angles is found to be beneficial for small flap deflections up to 5% of the chord, where the contribution of lift augmentation exceeds the drag increase, yielding an augmented lift-to-drag ratio

13. Rudolf Hermann, wind tunnels and aerodynamics

Lundquist, Charles A.; Coleman, Anne M.

2008-04-01

Rudolf Hermann was born on December 15, 1904 in Leipzig, Germany. He studied at the University of Leipzig and at the Aachen Institute of Technology. His involvement with wind tunnels began in 1934 when Professor Carl Wieselsberger engaged him to work at Aachen on the development of a supersonic wind tunnel. On January 6, 1936, Dr. Wernher von Braun visited Dr. Hermann to arrange for use of the Aachen supersonic wind tunnel for Army problems. On April 1, 1937, Dr. Hermann became Director of the Supersonic Wind Tunnel at the Army installation at Peenemunde. Results from the Aachen and Peenemunde wind tunnels were crucial in achieving aerodynamic stability for the A-4 rocket, later designated as the V-2. Plans to build a Mach 10 'hypersonic' wind tunnel facility at Kochel were accelerated after the Allied air raid on Peenemunde on August 17, 1943. Dr. Hermann was director of the new facility. Ignoring destruction orders from Hitler as WWII approached an end in Europe, Dr. Hermann and his associates hid documents and preserved wind tunnel components that were acquired by the advancing American forces. Dr. Hermann became a consultant to the Air Force at its Wright Field in November 1945. In 1951, he was named professor of Aeronautical Engineering at the University of Minnesota. In 1962, Dr. Hermann became the first Director of the Research Institute at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), a position he held until he retired in 1970.

14. Nonaxisymmetric Body Supersonic, Aerodynamic Prediction

DTIC Science & Technology

1987-08-01

wing - tail configuration are compared in Figure 27. CN comparisons are good. C. is a sensitive computation for xcp close to x’. 7.2...Analytical and Experimental Supersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Forward Control Missile , AIAA Paper No. 81-0398, AIAA 19th Aerospace Sciences...body diameter. The next computational example is for a body- wing - tail configuration from Reference 32 A body-alone comparison has been made earlier in

15. Aerodynamics of Supersonic Lifting Bodies

DTIC Science & Technology

1981-02-01

verso of front cover. 19 Y WOROS (Continue on rt.’,;erso side i recessary and identily by block number) Theoretical Aerodynamics Lifting Bodies Wind ...waverider solution, developed from the supersonic wedge flow solution, is then i Fused to fashion vertLcal stabilizer-likh control surfaces. Wind ...served as Project Engineers ror thE wind tunnel work. Important contributions were also made bv: Mr. iis±ung Miin; Lee, -M. Beom-Soo Kim, Mtr. Martin Weeks

16. Aerodynamic Design Using Neural Networks

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rai, Man Mohan; Madavan, Nateri K.

2003-01-01

The design of aerodynamic components of aircraft, such as wings or engines, involves a process of obtaining the most optimal component shape that can deliver the desired level of component performance, subject to various constraints, e.g., total weight or cost, that the component must satisfy. Aerodynamic design can thus be formulated as an optimization problem that involves the minimization of an objective function subject to constraints. A new aerodynamic design optimization procedure based on neural networks and response surface methodology (RSM) incorporates the advantages of both traditional RSM and neural networks. The procedure uses a strategy, denoted parameter-based partitioning of the design space, to construct a sequence of response surfaces based on both neural networks and polynomial fits to traverse the design space in search of the optimal solution. Some desirable characteristics of the new design optimization procedure include the ability to handle a variety of design objectives, easily impose constraints, and incorporate design guidelines and rules of thumb. It provides an infrastructure for variable fidelity analysis and reduces the cost of computation by using less-expensive, lower fidelity simulations in the early stages of the design evolution. The initial or starting design can be far from optimal. The procedure is easy and economical to use in large-dimensional design space and can be used to perform design tradeoff studies rapidly. Designs involving multiple disciplines can also be optimized. Some practical applications of the design procedure that have demonstrated some of its capabilities include the inverse design of an optimal turbine airfoil starting from a generic shape and the redesign of transonic turbines to improve their unsteady aerodynamic characteristics.

17. X-34 Vehicle Aerodynamic Characteristics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brauckmann, Gregory J.

1998-01-01

The X-34, being designed and built by the Orbital Sciences Corporation, is an unmanned sub-orbital vehicle designed to be used as a flying test bed to demonstrate key vehicle and operational technologies applicable to future reusable launch vehicles. The X-34 will be air-launched from an L-1011 carrier aircraft at approximately Mach 0.7 and 38,000 feet altitude, where an onboard engine will accelerate the vehicle to speeds above Mach 7 and altitudes to 250,000 feet. An unpowered entry will follow, including an autonomous landing. The X-34 will demonstrate the ability to fly through inclement weather, land horizontally at a designated site, and have a rapid turn-around capability. A series of wind tunnel tests on scaled models was conducted in four facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the X-34. Analysis of these test results revealed that longitudinal trim could be achieved throughout the design trajectory. The maximum elevon deflection required to trim was only half of that available, leaving a margin for gust alleviation and aerodynamic coefficient uncertainty. Directional control can be achieved aerodynamically except at combined high Mach numbers and high angles of attack, where reaction control jets must be used. The X-34 landing speed, between 184 and 206 knots, is within the capabilities of the gear and tires, and the vehicle has sufficient rudder authority to control the required 30-knot crosswind.

18. Applied aerodynamics: Challenges and expectations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Peterson, Victor L.; Smith, Charles A.

1993-01-01

Aerospace is the leading positive contributor to this country's balance of trade, derived largely from the sale of U.S. commercial aircraft around the world. This powerfully favorable economic situation is being threatened in two ways: (1) the U.S. portion of the commercial transport market is decreasing, even though the worldwide market is projected to increase substantially; and (2) expenditures are decreasing for military aircraft, which often serve as proving grounds for advanced aircraft technology. To retain a major share of the world market for commercial aircraft and continue to provide military aircraft with unsurpassed performance, the U.S. aerospace industry faces many technological challenges. The field of applied aerodynamics is necessarily a major contributor to efforts aimed at meeting these technological challenges. A number of emerging research results that will provide new opportunities for applied aerodynamicists are discussed. Some of these have great potential for maintaining the high value of contributions from applied aerodynamics in the relatively near future. Over time, however, the value of these contributions will diminish greatly unless substantial investments continue to be made in basic and applied research efforts. The focus: to increase understanding of fluid dynamic phenomena, identify new aerodynamic concepts, and provide validated advanced technology for future aircraft.

19. Ground/Flight Correlation of Aerodynamic Loads with Structural Response

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mangalam, Arun S.; Davis, Mark C.

2009-01-01

Ground and flight tests provide a basis and methodology for in-flight characterization of the aerodynamic and structural performance through the monitoring of the fluid-structure interaction. The NF-15B flight tests of the Intelligent Flight Control System program provided a unique opportunity to test the correlation of aerodynamic loads with points of flow attaching and detaching from the surface, which are also known as flow bifurcation points, as observed in a previous wind tunnel test performed at the U.S. Air Force Academy (Colorado Springs, Colorado). Moreover, flight tests, along with the subsequent unsteady aerodynamic tests in the NASA Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT), provide a basis using surface flow sensors as means of assessing the aeroelastic performance of flight vehicles. For the flight tests, the NF-15B tail was instrumented with hot-film sensors and strain gages for measuring root-bending strains. This data were gathered via selected sideslip maneuvers performed at level flight and subsonic speeds. The aerodynamic loads generated by the sideslip maneuver resulted in a structural response, which were then compared with the hot-film sensor signals. The hot-film sensor signals near the stagnation region were found to be highly correlated with the root-bending strains. For the TDT tests, a flexible wing section developed under the U.S. Air Force Research Lab SensorCraft program was instrumented with strain gages, accelerometers, and hot-film sensors at two span stations. The TDT tests confirmed the correlation between flow bifurcation points and the wing structural response to tunnel-generated gusts. Furthermore, as the wings structural modes were excited by the gusts, a gradual phase change between the flow bifurcation point and the structural mode occurred during a resonant condition.

20. Aerodynamic Force Characteristics of a Series of Lifting Cone and Cone-Cylinder Configurations at a Mach Number of 6.83 and Angles of Attack up to 130 Deg

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Penland, Jim A.

1961-01-01

Force tests of a series of right circular cones having semivertex angles ranging from 5 deg to 45 deg and a series of right circular cone-cylinder configurations having semivertex angles ranging from 5 deg to 20 deg and an afterbody fineness ratio of 6 have been made in the Langley 11-inch hypersonic tunnel at a Mach number of 6.83, a Reynolds number of 0.24 x 10.6 per inch, and angles of attack up to 130 deg. An analysis of the results made use of the Newtonian and modified Newtonian theories and the exact theory. A comparison of the experimental data of both cone and cone-cylinder configurations with theoretical calculations shows that the Newtonian concept gives excellent predictions of trends of the force characteristics and the locations with respect to angle of attack of the points of maximum lift, maximum drag, and maximum lift-drag ratio. Both the Newtonian a.nd exact theories give excellent predictions of the sign and value of the initial lift-curve slope. The maximum lift coefficient for conical bodies is nearly constant at a value of 0.5 based on planform area for semivertex angles up to 30 deg. The maximum lift-drag ratio for conical bodies can be expected to be not greater than about 3.5, and this value might be expected only for slender cones having semivertex angles of less than 5 deg. The increments of angle of attack and lift coefficient between the maximum lift-drag ratio and the maximum lift coefficient for conical bodies decrease rapidly with increasing semivertex angles as predicted by the modified Newtonian theory.

1. Flight Dynamics of an Aeroshell Using an Attached Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cruz, Juan R.; Schoenenberger, Mark; Axdahl, Erik; Wilhite, Alan

2009-01-01

An aeroelastic analysis of the behavior of an entry vehicle utilizing an attached inflatable aerodynamic decelerator during supersonic flight is presented. The analysis consists of a planar, four degree of freedom simulation. The aeroshell and the IAD are assumed to be separate, rigid bodies connected with a spring-damper at an interface point constraining the relative motion of the two bodies. Aerodynamic forces and moments are modeled using modified Newtonian aerodynamics. The analysis includes the contribution of static aerodynamic forces and moments as well as pitch damping. Two cases are considered in the analysis: constant velocity flight and planar free flight. For the constant velocity and free flight cases with neutral pitch damping, configurations with highly-stiff interfaces exhibit statically stable but dynamically unstable aeroshell angle of attack. Moderately stiff interfaces exhibit static and dynamic stability of aeroshell angle of attack due to damping induced by the pitch angle rate lag between the aeroshell and IAD. For the free-flight case, low values of both the interface stiffness and damping cause divergence of the aeroshell angle of attack due to the offset of the IAD drag force with respect to the aeroshell center of mass. The presence of dynamic aerodynamic moments was found to influence the stability characteristics of the vehicle. The effect of gravity on the aeroshell angle of attack stability characteristics was determined to be negligible for the cases investigated.

2. A CFD-informed quasi-steady model of flapping wing aerodynamics

PubMed Central

Nakata, Toshiyuki; Liu, Hao; Bomphrey, Richard J.

2016-01-01

Aerodynamic performance and agility during flapping flight are determined by the combination of wing shape and kinematics. The degree of morphological and kinematic optimisation is unknown and depends upon a large parameter space. Aimed at providing an accurate and computationally inexpensive modelling tool for flapping-wing aerodynamics, we propose a novel CFD (computational fluid dynamics)-informed quasi-steady model (CIQSM), which assumes that the aerodynamic forces on a flapping wing can be decomposed into the quasi-steady forces and parameterised based on CFD results. Using least-squares fitting, we determine a set of proportional coefficients for the quasi-steady model relating wing kinematics to instantaneous aerodynamic force and torque; we calculate power with the product of quasi-steady torques and angular velocity. With the quasi-steady model fully and independently parameterised on the basis of high-fidelity CFD modelling, it is capable of predicting flapping-wing aerodynamic forces and power more accurately than the conventional blade element model (BEM) does. The improvement can be attributed to, for instance, taking into account the effects of the induced downwash and the wing tip vortex on the force generation and power consumption. Our model is validated by comparing the aerodynamics of a CFD model and the present quasi-steady model using the example case of a hovering hawkmoth. It demonstrates that the CIQSM outperforms the conventional BEM while remaining computationally cheap, and hence can be an effective tool for revealing the mechanisms of optimization and control of kinematics and morphology in flapping-wing flight for both bio-flyers and unmanned air systems. PMID:27346891

3. A CFD-informed quasi-steady model of flapping wing aerodynamics.

PubMed

Nakata, Toshiyuki; Liu, Hao; Bomphrey, Richard J

2015-11-01

Aerodynamic performance and agility during flapping flight are determined by the combination of wing shape and kinematics. The degree of morphological and kinematic optimisation is unknown and depends upon a large parameter space. Aimed at providing an accurate and computationally inexpensive modelling tool for flapping-wing aerodynamics, we propose a novel CFD (computational fluid dynamics)-informed quasi-steady model (CIQSM), which assumes that the aerodynamic forces on a flapping wing can be decomposed into the quasi-steady forces and parameterised based on CFD results. Using least-squares fitting, we determine a set of proportional coefficients for the quasi-steady model relating wing kinematics to instantaneous aerodynamic force and torque; we calculate power with the product of quasi-steady torques and angular velocity. With the quasi-steady model fully and independently parameterised on the basis of high-fidelity CFD modelling, it is capable of predicting flapping-wing aerodynamic forces and power more accurately than the conventional blade element model (BEM) does. The improvement can be attributed to, for instance, taking into account the effects of the induced downwash and the wing tip vortex on the force generation and power consumption. Our model is validated by comparing the aerodynamics of a CFD model and the present quasi-steady model using the example case of a hovering hawkmoth. It demonstrates that the CIQSM outperforms the conventional BEM while remaining computationally cheap, and hence can be an effective tool for revealing the mechanisms of optimization and control of kinematics and morphology in flapping-wing flight for both bio-flyers and unmanned air systems.

4. Micro air vehicle motion tracking and aerodynamic modeling

Uhlig, Daniel V.

Aerodynamic performance of small-scale fixed-wing flight is not well understood, and flight data are needed to gain a better understanding of the aerodynamics of micro air vehicles (MAVs) flying at Reynolds numbers between 10,000 and 30,000. Experimental studies have shown the aerodynamic effects of low Reynolds number flow on wings and airfoils, but the amount of work that has been conducted is not extensive and mostly limited to tests in wind and water tunnels. In addition to wind and water tunnel testing, flight characteristics of aircraft can be gathered through flight testing. The small size and low weight of MAVs prevent the use of conventional on-board instrumentation systems, but motion tracking systems that use off-board triangulation can capture flight trajectories (position and attitude) of MAVs with minimal onboard instrumentation. Because captured motion trajectories include minute noise that depends on the aircraft size, the trajectory results were verified in this work using repeatability tests. From the captured glide trajectories, the aerodynamic characteristics of five unpowered aircraft were determined. Test results for the five MAVs showed the forces and moments acting on the aircraft throughout the test flights. In addition, the airspeed, angle of attack, and sideslip angle were also determined from the trajectories. Results for low angles of attack (less than approximately 20 deg) showed the lift, drag, and moment coefficients during nominal gliding flight. For the lift curve, the results showed a linear curve until stall that was generally less than finite wing predictions. The drag curve was well described by a polar. The moment coefficients during the gliding flights were used to determine longitudinal and lateral stability derivatives. The neutral point, weather-vane stability and the dihedral effect showed some variation with different trim speeds (different angles of attack). In the gliding flights, the aerodynamic characteristics

5. Moisture-dependent frictional and aerodynamic properties of safflower seeds

Kara, M.; Bastaban, S.; Öztürk, I.; Kalkan, F.; Yildiz, C.

2012-04-01

The seeds of two safflower cultivars were investigated in order to determine their frictional and aerodynamic properties as a function of moisture content. The coefficients of dynamic friction of cultivars on aluminium, plywood, fibreglass and steel surfaces increased by 87, 56, 78, and 129% for cv. Remzibey-05 seed, and by 91, 31, 71, and 131% for cv. Dinçer seed, respectively, between the initial and final moisture content levels. The terminal velocities of the Remzibey-05 and Dinçer seeds increased by 15 and 11%, respectively, with increase in moisture content between the initial and final levels.

6. HIAD-2 (Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator)

NASA Video Gallery

The Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) project is a disruptive technology that will accommodate the atmospheric entry of heavy payloads to planetary bodies such as Mars. HIAD over...

7. Numerical aerodynamic simulation program long haul communications prototype

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cmaylo, Bohden K.; Foo, Lee

1987-01-01

This document is a report of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Long Haul Communications Prototype (LHCP). It describes the accomplishments of the LHCP group, presents the results from all LHCP experiments and testing activities, makes recommendations for present and future LHCP activities, and evaluates the remote workstation accesses from Langley Research Center, Lewis Research Center, and Colorado State University to Ames Research Center. The report is the final effort of the Long Haul (Wideband) Communications Prototype Plan (PT-1133-02-N00), 3 October 1985, which defined the requirements for the development, test, and operation of the LHCP network and was the plan used to evaluate the remote user bandwidth requirements for the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Processing System Network.

8. STEP and STEPSPL: Computer programs for aerodynamic model structure determination and parameter estimation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Batterson, J. G.

1986-01-01

The successful parametric modeling of the aerodynamics for an airplane operating at high angles of attack or sideslip is performed in two phases. First the aerodynamic model structure must be determined and second the associated aerodynamic parameters (stability and control derivatives) must be estimated for that model. The purpose of this paper is to document two versions of a stepwise regression computer program which were developed for the determination of airplane aerodynamic model structure and to provide two examples of their use on computer generated data. References are provided for the application of the programs to real flight data. The two computer programs that are the subject of this report, STEP and STEPSPL, are written in FORTRAN IV (ANSI l966) compatible with a CDC FTN4 compiler. Both programs are adaptations of a standard forward stepwise regression algorithm. The purpose of the adaptation is to facilitate the selection of a adequate mathematical model of the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients of an airplane from flight test data. The major difference between STEP and STEPSPL is in the basis for the model. The basis for the model in STEP is the standard polynomial Taylor's series expansion of the aerodynamic function about some steady-state trim condition. Program STEPSPL utilizes a set of spline basis functions.

9. Estimation of Aircraft Unsteady Aerodynamic Parameters from Dynamic Wind Tunnel Testing

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

2001-01-01

Improved aerodynamic mathematical models, for use in aircraft simulation or flight control design, are required when representing nonlinear unsteady aerodynamics. A key limitation of conventional aerodynamic models is the inability to map frequency and amplitude dependent data into the equations of motion directly. In an effort to obtain a more general formulation of the aerodynamic model, researchers have been led to a parallel requirement for more general testing methods. Testing for a more comprehensive model can lead to a very time consuming number of tests especially if traditional single frequency harmonic testing is attempted. This paper presents an alternative to traditional single frequency forced-oscillation testing by utilizing Schroeder sweeps to efficiently obtain the frequency response of the unsteady aerodynamic model. Schroeder inputs provide signals with a flat power spectrum over a specified frequency band. For comparison, experimental results using the traditional single-frequency inputs are also considered. A method for data analysis to determine an adequate unsteady aerodynamic model is presented. Discussion of associated issues that arise during this type of analysis and comparison of results using traditional single frequency analysis are provided.

10. Locally linearized longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic stability and control derivaties for the X-29A aircraft

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Budd, G. D.

1984-01-01

The locally linearized longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic stability and control derivatives for the X-29A aircraft were calculated for altitudes ranging from sea level to 50,000 ft, Mach numbers from 0.2 to 1.5, and angles of attack from -5 deg to 25 deg. Several other parameters were also calculated, including aerodynamic force and moment coefficients, control face position, normal acceleration, static margin, and reference angle of attack.

11. The NASA Ames Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamic Facility: Experimental Simulation of the Atmospheric Break-Up of Meteors

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wilder, M. C.; Bogdanoff, D. W.

2015-01-01

The Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamic Facility at NASA Ames Research Center provides a potential platform for the experimental simulation of meteor breakup at conditions that closely match full-scale entry condition for select parameters. The poster describes the entry environment simulation capabilities of the Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamic Facility (HFFAF) at NASA Ames Research Center and provides example images of the fragmentation of a hypersonic projectile for which break-up was initiated by mechanical forces (impact with a thin polymer diaphragm).

12. Aerodynamic performance of centrifugal compressors

SciTech Connect

Sayyed, S.

1981-12-01

Saving money with an efficient pipeline system design depends on accurately predicting compressor performance and ensuring that it meets the manufacturer's guaranteed levels. When shop testing with the actual gas is impractical, an aerodynamic test can ascertain compressor efficiency, but the accuracy and consistency of data acquisition in such tests is critical. Low test-pressure levels necessitate accounting for the effects of Reynolds number and heat transfer. Moreover, the compressor user and manufacturer must agree on the magnitude of the corrections to be applied to the test data.

13. Simulation of iced wing aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potapczuk, M. G.; Bragg, M. B.; Kwon, O. J.; Sankar, L. N.

1991-01-01

The sectional and total aerodynamic load characteristics of moderate aspect ratio wings with and without simulated glaze leading edge ice were studied both computationally, using a three dimensional, compressible Navier-Stokes solver, and experimentally. The wing has an untwisted, untapered planform shape with NACA 0012 airfoil section. The wing has an unswept and swept configuration with aspect ratios of 4.06 and 5.0. Comparisons of computed surface pressures and sectional loads with experimental data for identical configurations are given. The abrupt decrease in stall angle of attack for the wing, as a result of the leading edge ice formation, was demonstrated numerically and experimentally.

14. Blunt Body Aerodynamics for Hypersonic Low Density Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Moss, James N.; Glass, Christopher E.; Greene, Francis A.

2006-01-01

Numerical simulations are performed for the Apollo capsule from the hypersonic rarefied to the continuum regimes. The focus is on flow conditions similar to those experienced by the Apollo 6 Command Module during the high altitude portion of its reentry. The present focus is to highlight some of the current activities that serve as a precursor for computational tool assessments that will be used to support the development of aerodynamic data bases for future capsule flight environments, particularly those for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Results for aerodynamic forces and moments are presented that demonstrate their sensitivity to rarefaction; that is, free molecular to continuum conditions. Also, aerodynamic data are presented that shows their sensitivity to a range of reentry velocities, encompassing conditions that include reentry from low Earth orbit, lunar return, and Mars return velocities (7.7 to 15 km/s). The rarefied results obtained with direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) codes are anchored in the continuum regime with data from Navier-Stokes simulations.

15. Spacecraft Re-Entry Impact Point Targeting Using Aerodynamic Drag

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Omar, Sanny R.; Bevilacqua, Riccardo

2017-01-01

The ability to re-enter the atmosphere at a desired location is important for spacecraft containing components that may survive re-entry. While impact point targeting has traditionally been initiated through impulsive burns with chemical thrusters on large vehicles such as the Space Shuttle, and the Soyuz and Apollo capsules, many small spacecraft do not host thrusters and require an alternative means of impact point targeting to ensure that falling debris do not cause harm to persons or property. This paper discusses the use of solely aerodynamic drag force to perform this targeting. It is shown that by deploying and retracting a drag device to vary the ballistic coefficient of the spacecraft, any desired longitude and latitude on the ground can be targeted provided that the maneuvering begins early enough and the latitude is less than the inclination of the orbit. An analytical solution based on perturbations from a numerically propagated trajectory is developed to map the initial state and ballistic coefficient profile of a spacecraft to its impact point. This allows the ballistic coefficient profile necessary to reach a given target point to be rapidly calculated, making it feasible to generate the guidance for the decay trajectory onboard the spacecraft. The ability to target an impact point using aerodynamic drag will enhance the capabilities of small spacecraft and will enable larger space vehicles containing thrusters to save fuel by more effectively leveraging the available aerodynamic drag.

16. Size effects on insect hovering aerodynamics: an integrated computational study.

PubMed

Liu, H; Aono, H

2009-03-01

Hovering is a miracle of insects that is observed for all sizes of flying insects. Sizing effect in insect hovering on flapping-wing aerodynamics is of interest to both the micro-air-vehicle (MAV) community and also of importance to comparative morphologists. In this study, we present an integrated computational study of such size effects on insect hovering aerodynamics, which is performed using a biology-inspired dynamic flight simulator that integrates the modelling of realistic wing-body morphology, the modelling of flapping-wing and body kinematics and an in-house Navier-Stokes solver. Results of four typical insect hovering flights including a hawkmoth, a honeybee, a fruit fly and a thrips, over a wide range of Reynolds numbers from O(10(4)) to O(10(1)) are presented, which demonstrate the feasibility of the present integrated computational methods in quantitatively modelling and evaluating the unsteady aerodynamics in insect flapping flight. Our results based on realistically modelling of insect hovering therefore offer an integrated understanding of the near-field vortex dynamics, the far-field wake and downwash structures, and their correlation with the force production in terms of sizing and Reynolds number as well as wing kinematics. Our results not only give an integrated interpretation on the similarity and discrepancy of the near- and far-field vortex structures in insect hovering but also demonstrate that our methods can be an effective tool in the MAVs design.

17. Subsonic/supersonic aerodynamic characteristics for a tactical supercruiser

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Capone, F. J.; Bare, E. A.; Hollenback, D.; Hutchison, R.

1984-01-01

A series of cooperative NASA-Langley/Boeing experimental investigations have been conducted to determine the aeropropulsive characteristics of an advanced tactical fighter designed for supersonic cruise. These investigations were conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic and Lewis 10 x 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnels at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 2.47. This fighter is a Mach 2.0, 49,000 pound class vehicle that features a close-coupled canard and underwing propulsion units that utilize multifunction two-dimensional exhaust nozzles. Tests were conducted to determine the basic aerodynamic characteristics of the configuration with flow-through nacelles in which the spillage effects of representative inlets were measured. The effects of thrust-induced forces on overall aerodynamic performance were evaluated with a series of multifunction nozzles installed on air-powered nacelles. An axisymmetric nozzle configuration was also tested to obtain comparative aeropropulsive performance. Trim aerodynamic characteristics for the flow-through and powered configurations and the effect of thrust vectoring at subsonic speeds are presented.

18. Aerodynamics and interaction noise of streamlined bodies in nonuniform flows

Atassi, H. M.; Logue, M. M.

2011-08-01

19. Wing Flexion and Aerodynamics Performance of Insect Free Flights

Dong, Haibo; Liang, Zongxian; Ren, Yan

2010-11-01

Wing flexion in flapping flight is a hallmark of insect flight. It is widely thought that wing flexibility and wing deformation would potentially provide new aerodynamic mechanisms of aerodynamic force productions over completely rigid wings. However, there are lack of literatures on studying fluid dynamics of freely flying insects due to the presence of complex shaped moving boundaries in the flow domain. In this work, a computational study of freely flying insects is being conducted. High resolution, high speed videos of freely flying dragonflies and damselflies is obtained and used as a basis for developing high fidelity geometrical models of the dragonfly body and wings. 3D surface reconstruction technologies are used to obtain wing topologies and kinematics. The wing motions are highly complex and a number of different strategies including singular vector decomposition of the wing kinematics are used to examine the various kinematical features and their impact on the wing performance. Simulations are carried out to examine the aerodynamic performance of all four wings and understand the wake structures of such wings.

20. Aerodynamic characteristics of sixteen electric, hybrid, and subcompact vehicles

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kurtz, D. W.

1979-01-01

An elementary electric and hybrid vehicle aerodynamic data base was developed using data obtained on sixteen electric, hybrid, and sub-compact production vehicles tested in the Lockheed-Georgia low-speed wind tunnel. Zero-yaw drag coefficients ranged from a high of 0.58 for a boxey delivery van and an open roadster to a low of about 0.34 for a current four-passenger proto-type automobile which was designed with aerodynamics as an integrated parameter. Vehicles were tested at yaw angles up to 40 degrees and a wing weighting analysis is presented which yields a vehicle's effective drag coefficient as a function of wing velocity and driving cycle. Other parameters investigated included the effects of windows open and closed, radiators open and sealed, and pop-up headlights. Complete six-component force and moment data are presented in both tabular and graphical formats. Only limited commentary is offered since, by its very nature, a data base should consist of unrefined reference material. A justification for pursuing efficient aerodynamic design of EHVs is presented.

1. Minnowbrook VI: 2009 Workshop on Flow Physics and Control for Internal and External Aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LaGraff, John E.; Povinelli, Louis A.; Gostelow, J. Paul; Glauser, Mark

2010-01-01

Topics covered include: Flow Physics and control for Internal and External Aerodynamics (not in TOC...starts on pg13); Breaking CFD Bottlenecks in Gas-Turbine Flow-Path Design; Streamwise Vortices on the Convex Surfaces of Circular Cylinders and Turbomachinery Blading; DNS and Embedded DNS as Tools for Investigating Unsteady Heat Transfer Phenomena in Turbines; Cavitation, Flow Structure and Turbulence in the Tip Region of a Rotor Blade; Development and Application of Plasma Actuators for Active Control of High-Speed and High Reynolds Number Flows; Active Flow Control of Lifting Surface With Flap-Current Activities and Future Directions; Closed-Loop Control of Vortex Formation in Separated Flows; Global Instability on Laminar Separation Bubbles-Revisited; Very Large-Scale Motions in Smooth and Rough Wall Boundary Layers; Instability of a Supersonic Boundary-Layer With Localized Roughness; Active Control of Open Cavities; Amplitude Scaling of Active Separation Control; U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory's Need for Flow Physics and Control With Applications Involving Aero-Optics and Weapon Bay Cavities; Some Issues Related to Integrating Active Flow Control With Flight Control; Active Flow Control Strategies Using Surface Pressure Measurements; Reduction of Unsteady Forcing in a Vaned, Contra-Rotating Transonic Turbine Configuration; Active Flow Control Stator With Coanda Surface; Controlling Separation in Turbomachines; Flow Control on Low-Pressure Turbine Airfoils Using Vortex Generator Jets; Reduced Order Modeling Incompressible Flows; Study and Control of Flow Past Disk, and Circular and Rectangular Cylinders Aligned in the Flow; Periodic Forcing of a Turbulent Axisymmetric Wake; Control of Vortex Breakdown in Critical Swirl Regime Using Azimuthal Forcing; External and Turbomachinery Flow Control Working Group; Boundary Layers, Transitions and Separation; Efficiency Considerations in Low Pressure Turbines; Summary of Conference; and Final Plenary Session

2. 12. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BUILDING 25C (SUBSONIC AERODYNAMICS TEST FACILITY) ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BUILDING 25C (SUBSONIC AERODYNAMICS TEST FACILITY) (1992). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Buildings 25 & 24,10-foot & 20-foot Wind Tunnel Complex, Northeast side of block bounded by K, G, Third, & Fifth Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

3. A system for aerodynamic design and analysis of supersonic aircraft. Part 4: Test cases

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Middleton, W. D.; Lundry, J. L.

1980-01-01

An integrated system of computer programs was developed for the design and analysis of supersonic configurations. The system uses linearized theory methods for the calculation of surface pressures and supersonic area rule concepts in combination with linearized theory for calculation of aerodynamic force coefficients. Interactive graphics are optional at the user's request. Representative test cases and associated program output are presented.

4. Aerodynamics of a Cycling Team in a Time Trial: Does the Cyclist at the Front Benefit?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Iniguez-de-la Torre, A.; Iniguez, J.

2009-01-01

When seasonal journeys take place in nature, birds and fishes migrate in groups. This provides them not only with security but also a considerable saving of energy. The power they need to travel requires overcoming aerodynamic or hydrodynamic drag forces, which can be substantially reduced when the group travels in an optimal arrangement. Also in…

5. Glide performance and aerodynamics of non-equilibrium glides in northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus).

PubMed

Bahlman, Joseph W; Swartz, Sharon M; Riskin, Daniel K; Breuer, Kenneth S

2013-03-06

Gliding is an efficient form of travel found in every major group of terrestrial vertebrates. Gliding is often modelled in equilibrium, where aerodynamic forces exactly balance body weight resulting in constant velocity. Although the equilibrium model is relevant for long-distance gliding, such as soaring by birds, it may not be realistic for shorter distances between trees. To understand the aerodynamics of inter-tree gliding, we used direct observation and mathematical modelling. We used videography (60-125 fps) to track and reconstruct the three-dimensional trajectories of northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) in nature. From their trajectories, we calculated velocities, aerodynamic forces and force coefficients. We determined that flying squirrels do not glide at equilibrium, and instead demonstrate continuously changing velocities, forces and force coefficients, and generate more lift than needed to balance body weight. We compared observed glide performance with mathematical simulations that use constant force coefficients, a characteristic of equilibrium glides. Simulations with varying force coefficients, such as those of live squirrels, demonstrated better whole-glide performance compared with the theoretical equilibrium state. Using results from both the observed glides and the simulation, we describe the mechanics and execution of inter-tree glides, and then discuss how gliding behaviour may relate to the evolution of flapping flight.

6. Glide performance and aerodynamics of non-equilibrium glides in northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus)

PubMed Central

Bahlman, Joseph W.; Swartz, Sharon M.; Riskin, Daniel K.; Breuer, Kenneth S.

2013-01-01

Gliding is an efficient form of travel found in every major group of terrestrial vertebrates. Gliding is often modelled in equilibrium, where aerodynamic forces exactly balance body weight resulting in constant velocity. Although the equilibrium model is relevant for long-distance gliding, such as soaring by birds, it may not be realistic for shorter distances between trees. To understand the aerodynamics of inter-tree gliding, we used direct observation and mathematical modelling. We used videography (60–125 fps) to track and reconstruct the three-dimensional trajectories of northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) in nature. From their trajectories, we calculated velocities, aerodynamic forces and force coefficients. We determined that flying squirrels do not glide at equilibrium, and instead demonstrate continuously changing velocities, forces and force coefficients, and generate more lift than needed to balance body weight. We compared observed glide performance with mathematical simulations that use constant force coefficients, a characteristic of equilibrium glides. Simulations with varying force coefficients, such as those of live squirrels, demonstrated better whole-glide performance compared with the theoretical equilibrium state. Using results from both the observed glides and the simulation, we describe the mechanics and execution of inter-tree glides, and then discuss how gliding behaviour may relate to the evolution of flapping flight. PMID:23256188

7. Transition from wing to leg forces during landing in birds.

PubMed

Provini, Pauline; Tobalske, Bret W; Crandell, Kristen E; Abourachid, Anick

2014-08-01

Transitions to and from the air are critical for aerial locomotion and likely shaped the evolution of flying animals. Research on take-off demonstrates that legs generate greater body accelerations compared with wings, and thereby contribute more to initial flight velocity. Here, we explored coordination between wings and legs in two species with different wingbeat styles, and quantified force production of these modules during the final phase of landing. We used the same birds that we had previously studied during take-off: zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata, N=4) and diamond dove (Geopelia cuneata, N=3). We measured kinematics using high-speed video, aerodynamics using particle image velocimetry, and ground-reaction forces using a perch mounted on a force plate. In contrast with the first three wingbeats of take-off, the final four wingbeats during landing featured ~2 times greater force production. Thus, wings contribute proportionally more to changes in velocity during the last phase of landing compared with the initial phase of take-off. The two species touched down at the same velocity (~1 m s(-1)), but they exhibited significant differences in the timing of their final wingbeat relative to touchdown. The ratio of average wing force to peak leg force was greater in diamond doves than in zebra finches. Peak ground reaction forces during landing were ~50% of those during take-off, consistent with the birds being motivated to control landing. Likewise, estimations of mechanical energy flux for both species indicate that wings produce 3-10 times more mechanical work within the final wingbeats of flight compared with the kinetic energy of the body absorbed by legs during ground contact.

8. Wing kinematics measurement and aerodynamics of hovering droneflies.

PubMed

Liu, Yanpeng; Sun, Mao

2008-07-01

The time courses of wing and body kinematics of three freely hovering droneflies (Eristalis tenax) were measured using 3D high-speed video, and the morphological parameters of the wings and body of the insects were also measured. The measured wing kinematics was used in a Navier-Stokes solver to compute the aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the insects. The time courses of the geometrical angle of attack and the deviation angle of the wing are considerably different from that of fruit flies recently measured using the same approach. The angle of attack is approximately constant in the mid portions of a half-stroke (a downstroke or upstroke) and varies rapidly during the stroke reversal. The deviation angle is relatively small and is higher at the beginning and the end of a half-stroke and lower at the middle of the half-stroke, giving a shallow U-shaped wing-tip trajectory. For all three insects considered, the computed vertical force is approximately equal to the insect weight (the difference is less than 6% of the weight) and the computed horizontal force and pitching moment about the center of mass of the insect are approximately zero. The computed results satisfying the equilibrium flight conditions, especially the moment balance condition, validate the computation model. The lift principle is mainly used to produce the weight-supporting vertical force, unlike the fruit flies who use both lift and drag principles to generate the vertical force; the vertical force is mainly due to the delayed stall mechanism. The magnitude of the inertia power is larger than that of the aerodynamic power, and the largest possible effect of elastic storage amounts to a reduction of flight power by around 40%, much larger than in the case of the fruit fly.

9. Experimental study on the aerodynamic performance of a Savonius rotor

SciTech Connect

Fujisawa, Nobuyuki; Gotoh, Futoshi . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1994-08-01

The aerodynamic performance of a Savonius rotor has been studied by measuring the pressure distributions on the blade surfaces at various rotor angles and tip-speed ratios. It is found that the pressure distributions on the rotating rotor differ remarkably from those on the still rotor especially on the convex side of the advancing blade, where a low pressure region is formed by the moving wall effect of the blade. The torque and power performances, evaluated by integrating the pressure, are in close agreement with those by the direct torque measurement. The drag and side force performance is also studied.

10. The aerodynamics of small Reynolds numbers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Schmitz, F. W.

1980-01-01

Aerodynamic characteristics of wing model gliders and bird wings in particular are discussed. Wind tunnel measurements and aerodynamics of small Reynolds numbers are enumerated. Airfoil behavior in the critical transition from laminar to turbulent boundary layer, which is more important to bird wing models than to large airplanes, was observed. Experimental results are provided, and an artificial bird wing is described.

11. A new technique for aerodynamic noise calculation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hardin, J. C.; Pope, D. S.

1992-01-01

A novel method for the numerical analysis of aerodynamic noise generation is presented. The method involves first solving for the time-dependent incompressible flow for the given geometry. This fully nonlinear method that is tailored to extract the relevant acoustic fluctuations seems to be an efficient approach to the numerical analysis of aerodynamic noise generation.

12. Future Computer Requirements for Computational Aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1978-01-01

Recent advances in computational aerodynamics are discussed as well as motivations for and potential benefits of a National Aerodynamic Simulation Facility having the capability to solve fluid dynamic equations at speeds two to three orders of magnitude faster than presently possible with general computers. Two contracted efforts to define processor architectures for such a facility are summarized.

13. Aerodynamics of Sounding-Rocket Geometries

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Barrowman, J.

1982-01-01

Theoretical aerodynamics program TAD predicts aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles with sounding-rocket configurations. These slender, Axisymmetric finned vehicles have a wide range of aeronautical applications from rockets to high-speed armament. TAD calculates characteristics of separate portions of vehicle, calculates interference between portions, and combines results to form total vehicle solution.

14. Aerodynamic seal assemblies for turbo-machinery

DOEpatents

Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Wolfe, Christopher; Fang, Biao

2015-09-29

The present application provides an aerodynamic seal assembly for use with a turbo-machine. The aerodynamic seal assembly may include a number of springs, a shoe connected to the springs, and a secondary seal positioned about the springs and the shoe.

15. Finite wing aerodynamics with simulated glaze ice

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Khodadoust, A.; Bragg, M. B.; Kerho, M.; Wells, S.; Soltani, M. R.

1992-01-01

The effect of a simulated glaze ice accretion on the aerodynamic performance of a three-dimensional wing is studied experimentally. The model used for these tests was a semi-span wing of effective aspect ratio five, mounted from the sidewall of the UIUC subsonic wind tunnel. The model has an NACA 0012 airfoil section on a rectangular, untwisted planform with interchangeable leading edges to allow for testing both the baseline and the iced wing geometry. A three-component sidewall balance was used to measure lift, drag and pitching moment on the clean and iced model. A four-beam two-color fiberoptic laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) was used to map the flowfield along several spanwise cuts on the model. Preliminary results from LDV scans, which will be the bulk of this paper, are presented following the force balance measurement results. Initial comparison of LDV surveys compare favorably with inviscid theory results and 2D split hot-film measurements near the model surface.

16. X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

1999-01-01

Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will design, build, and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604BOO02G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate the aerodynamic flight database for the hypersonic regime. The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. Al these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

17. X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

1999-01-01

Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will build and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604B0002G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate an aerodynamic flight database i n the hypersonic regime. The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. At these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

18. Orion Crew Module Aerodynamic Testing

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Murphy, Kelly J.; Bibb, Karen L.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Rhode, Matthew N.; Owens, Bruce; Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Bell, James H.; Wilson, Thomas M.

2011-01-01

The Apollo-derived Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), part of NASA s now-cancelled Constellation Program, has become the reference design for the new Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The MPCV will serve as the exploration vehicle for all near-term human space missions. A strategic wind-tunnel test program has been executed at numerous facilities throughout the country to support several phases of aerodynamic database development for the Orion spacecraft. This paper presents a summary of the experimental static aerodynamic data collected to-date for the Orion Crew Module (CM) capsule. The test program described herein involved personnel and resources from NASA Langley Research Center, NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Johnson Space Flight Center, Arnold Engineering and Development Center, Lockheed Martin Space Sciences, and Orbital Sciences. Data has been compiled from eight different wind tunnel tests in the CEV Aerosciences Program. Comparisons are made as appropriate to highlight effects of angle of attack, Mach number, Reynolds number, and model support system effects.

19. Perching aerodynamics and trajectory optimization

2007-04-01

Advances in smart materials, actuators, and control architecture have enabled new flight capabilities for aircraft. Perching is one such capability, described as a vertical landing maneuver using in-flight shape reconfiguration in lieu of high thrust generation. A morphing, perching aircraft design is presented that is capable of post stall flight and very slow landing on a vertical platform. A comprehensive model of the aircraft's aerodynamics, with special regard to nonlinear affects such as flow separation and dynamic stall, is discussed. Trajectory optimization using nonlinear programming techniques is employed to show the effects that morphing and nonlinear aerodynamics have on the maneuver. These effects are shown to decrease the initial height and distance required to initiate the maneuver, reduce the bounds on the trajectory, and decrease the required thrust for the maneuver. Perching trajectories comparing morphing versus fixed-configuration and stalled versus un-stalled aircraft are presented. It is demonstrated that a vertical landing is possible in the absence of high thrust if post-stall flight capabilities and vehicle reconfiguration are utilized.

20. X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

1999-01-01

Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will build and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604B0002G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate an aerodynamic flight database in the hypersonic regime. The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. At these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

1. X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

1999-01-01

Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will build and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604B0002G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate an aerodynamic flight database in the hypersonic regime, The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. At these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

2. Unsteady aerodynamics of fluttering and tumbling plates

Andersen, A.; Pesavento, U.; Wang, Z. Jane

2005-10-01

We investigate the aerodynamics of freely falling plates in a quasi-two-dimensional flow at Reynolds number of 10(3) , which is typical for a leaf or business card falling in air. We quantify the trajectories experimentally using high-speed digital video at sufficient resolution to determine the instantaneous plate accelerations and thus to deduce the instantaneous fluid forces. We compare the measurements with direct numerical solutions of the two-dimensional Navier Stokes equation. Using inviscid theory as a guide, we decompose the fluid forces into contributions due to acceleration, translation, and rotation of the plate. For both fluttering and tumbling we find that the fluid circulation is dominated by a rotational term proportional to the angular velocity of the plate, as opposed to the translational velocity for a glider with fixed angle of attack. We find that the torque on a freely falling plate is small, i.e. the torque is one to two orders of magnitude smaller than the torque on a glider with fixed angle of attack. Based on these results we revise the existing ODE models of freely falling plates. We get access to different kinds of dynamics by exploring the phase diagram spanned by the Reynolds number, the dimensionless moment of inertia, and the thickness-to-width ratio. In agreement with previous experiments, we find fluttering, tumbling, and apparently chaotic motion. We further investigate the dependence on initial conditions and find brief transients followed by periodic fluttering described by simple harmonics and tumbling with a pronounced period-two structure. Near the cusp-like turning points, the plates elevate, a feature which would be absent if the lift depended on the translational velocity alone.

3. Characterization of Flapping Wing Aerodynamics and Flight Dynamics Analysis using Computational Methods

Rege, Alok Ashok

Insect flight comes with a lot of intricacies that cannot be explained by conventional aerodynamics. Even with their small-size, insects have the ability to generate the required aerodynamic forces using high frequency flapping motion of their wings to perform different maneuvers. The maneuverability obtained by these flyers using flapping motion belies the classical aerodynamics theory and calls for a new approach to study this highly unsteady aerodynamics. Research is on to find new ways to realize the flight capabilities of these insects and engineer a micro-flyer which would have various applications, ranging from autonomous pollination of crop fields and oil & gas exploration to area surveillance and detection & rescue missions. In this research, a parametric study of flapping trajectories is performed using a two-dimensional wing to identify the factors that affect the force production. These factors are then non-dimensionalized and used in a design of experiments set-up to conduct sensitivity analysis. A procedure to determine an aerodynamic model comprising cycle-averaged force coefficients is described. This aerodynamic model is then used in a nonlinear dynamics framework to perform flight dynamics analysis using a micro-flyer with model properties based on Drosophila. Stability analysis is conducted to determine different steady state flight conditions that could achieved by the micro-flyer with the given model properties. The effect of scaling the mass properties is discussed. An LQR design is used for closed-loop control. Open and closed-loop simulations are performed. The results show that nonlinear dynamics framework can be used to determine values for model properties of a micro-flyer that would enable it to perform different flight maneuvers.

4. Mechanics and aerodynamics of insect flight control.

PubMed

Taylor, G K

2001-11-01

Insects have evolved sophisticated fight control mechanisms permitting a remarkable range of manoeuvres. Here, I present a qualitative analysis of insect flight control from the perspective of flight mechanics, drawing upon both the neurophysiology and biomechanics literatures. The current literature does not permit a formal, quantitative analysis of flight control, because the aerodynamic force systems that biologists have measured have rarely been complete and the position of the centre of gravity has only been recorded in a few studies. Treating the two best-known insect orders (Diptera and Orthoptera) separately from other insects, I discuss the control mechanisms of different insects in detail. Recent experimental studies suggest that the helicopter model of flight control proposed for Drosophila spp. may be better thought of as a facultative strategy for flight control, rather than the fixed (albeit selected) constraint that it is usually interpreted to be. On the other hand, the so-called 'constant-lift reaction' of locusts appears not to be a reflex for maintaining constant lift at varying angles of attack, as is usually assumed, but rather a mechanism to restore the insect to pitch equilibrium following a disturbance. Differences in the kinematic control mechanisms used by the various insect orders are related to differences in the arrangement of the wings, the construction of the flight motor and the unsteady mechanisms of lift production that are used. Since the evolution of insect flight control is likely to have paralleled the evolutionary refinement of these unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms, taxonomic differences in the kinematics of control could provide an assay of the relative importance of different unsteady mechanisms. Although the control kinematics vary widely between orders, the number of degrees of freedom that different insects can control will always be limited by the number of independent control inputs that they use. Control of the moments

5. Wind Tunnel Measurements and Calculations of Aerodynamic Interactions Between Tiltrotor Aircraft

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Johnson, Wayne; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Derby, Michael R.; Wadcock, Alan J.

2002-01-01

Wind tunnel measurements and calculations of the aerodynamic interactions between two tiltrotor aircraft in helicopter mode are presented. The measured results include the roll moment and thrust change on the downwind aircraft, as a function of the upwind aircraft position (longitudinal, lateral, and vertical). Magnitudes and locations of the largest interactions are identified. The calculated interactions generally match the measurements, with discrepancies attributed to the unsteadiness of the wake and aerodynamic forces on the airframe. To interpret the interactions in terms of control and power changes on the aircraft, additional calculations are presented for trimmed aircraft with gimballed rotors.

6. An exploratory study of finite difference grids for transonic unsteady aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seidel, D. A.; Bennett, R. M.; Whitlow, W., Jr.

1983-01-01

A pulse-transfer function technique for calculating unsteady aerodynamic forces for a wide range of reduced frequencies is implemented in a finite difference program solving the complete unsteady transonic small perturbation equation. Forces are calculated for a two-dimensional linear flat plate case utilizing the default grids from several currently used finite difference programs. The forces are compared to exact theoretical values and grid generated boundary and internal reflections are demonstrated. Grids designed to alleviate the reflections are presented and forces for a 6% thick parabolic arc airfoil are calculated to investigate non-linear transonic effects.

7. Modeling Aerodynamically Generated Sound of Helicopter Rotors

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brentner, Kenneth S.; Farassat, F.

2002-01-01

8. Aerodynamic and Gasdynamic Effects in Cosmogony

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weidenschilling, Stuart J.

2005-01-01

Senior Scientist Stuart J. Weidenschilling presents his final administrative report for the research program entitled "Aerodynamic and Gasdynamic Effects in Cosmogony" on which he was the Principal Investigator. The research program produced the following publications: 1) Particle-gas dynamics and primary accretion. J . N. Cuzzi and S. J. Weidenschilling. In Meteorites and the Early Solar System II (D. Lauretta and H. Y . McSween, Eds.). Univ. Arizona Press. in press, 2005; 2) Timescales of the solar protoplanetary disk. S. Russell, L. Hartmann. J. N. Cuzzi. A. Krot. M. Gounelle and S . J Weidenschilling. In Meteorites and the Early Solar System II (D. Lauretta and H. Y. McSween, Eds.). Univ. Arizona Press, in press, 2005; 3) From icy grains to comets. In Comets II (M. Festou et al., Eds.). Univ. Arizona Press, pp. 97-104. 2004; 4) Gravitational instability and clustering in a disk of planetesimals. P. Tanga, S. J. N'eidenschilling, P. Michel and D. C. Richardson. Astron. Astrophys. 327, 1 105- 1 1 15, 2004.

9. Aerodynamic Ground Effect in Fruitfly Sized Insect Takeoff

PubMed Central

Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Maeda, Masateru; Engels, Thomas; Liu, Hao; Schneider, Kai; Nave, Jean-Christophe

2016-01-01

Aerodynamic ground effect in flapping-wing insect flight is of importance to comparative morphologies and of interest to the micro-air-vehicle (MAV) community. Recent studies, however, show apparently contradictory results of either some significant extra lift or power savings, or zero ground effect. Here we present a numerical study of fruitfly sized insect takeoff with a specific focus on the significance of leg thrust and wing kinematics. Flapping-wing takeoff is studied using numerical modelling and high performance computing. The aerodynamic forces are calculated using a three-dimensional Navier–Stokes solver based on a pseudo-spectral method with volume penalization. It is coupled with a flight dynamics solver that accounts for the body weight, inertia and the leg thrust, while only having two degrees of freedom: the vertical and the longitudinal horizontal displacement. The natural voluntary takeoff of a fruitfly is considered as reference. The parameters of the model are then varied to explore possible effects of interaction between the flapping-wing model and the ground plane. These modified takeoffs include cases with decreased leg thrust parameter, and/or with periodic wing kinematics, constant body pitch angle. The results show that the ground effect during natural voluntary takeoff is negligible. In the modified takeoffs, when the rate of climb is slow, the difference in the aerodynamic forces due to the interaction with the ground is up to 6%. Surprisingly, depending on the kinematics, the difference is either positive or negative, in contrast to the intuition based on the helicopter theory, which suggests positive excess lift. This effect is attributed to unsteady wing-wake interactions. A similar effect is found during hovering. PMID:27019208

10. Enhanced ground-based vibration testing for aerodynamic environments

Daborn, P. M.; Ind, P. R.; Ewins, D. J.

2014-12-01

Typical methods of replicating aerodynamic environments in the laboratory are generally poor. A structure which flies "freely" in its normal operating environment, excited over its entire external surface by aerodynamic forces and in all directions simultaneously, is then subjected to a vibration test in the laboratory whilst rigidly attached to a high impedance shaker and excited by forces applied through a few attachment points and in one direction only. The two environments could hardly be more different. The majority of vibration testing is carried out at commercial establishments and it is understandable that little has been published which demonstrates the limitations with the status quo. The primary objective of this research is to do just that with a view to identifying significant improvements in vibration testing in light of modern technology. In this paper, case studies are presented which highlight some of the limitations with typical vibration tests showing that they can lead to significant overtests, sometimes by many orders of magnitude, with the level of overtest varying considerably across a wide range of frequencies. This research shows that substantial benefits can be gained by "freely" suspending the structure in the laboratory and exciting it with a relatively small number of electrodynamic shakers using Multi-Input-Multi-Output (MIMO) control technology. The shaker configuration can be designed to excite the modes within the bandwidth utilising the inherent amplification of the resonances to achieve the desired response levels. This free-free MIMO vibration test approach is shown to result in substantial benefits that include extremely good replication of the aerodynamic environment and significant savings in time as all axes are excited simultaneously instead of the sequential X, Y and Z testing required with traditional vibration tests. In addition, substantial cost savings can be achieved by replacing some expensive large shaker systems

11. NASA Iced Aerodynamics and Controls Current Research

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

2009-01-01

This slide presentation reviews the state of current research in the area of aerodynamics and aircraft control with ice conditions by the Aviation Safety Program, part of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Controls Project (IRAC). Included in the presentation is a overview of the modeling efforts. The objective of the modeling is to develop experimental and computational methods to model and predict aircraft response during adverse flight conditions, including icing. The Aircraft icing modeling efforts includes the Ice-Contaminated Aerodynamics Modeling, which examines the effects of ice contamination on aircraft aerodynamics, and CFD modeling of ice-contaminated aircraft aerodynamics, and Advanced Ice Accretion Process Modeling which examines the physics of ice accretion, and works on computational modeling of ice accretions. The IRAC testbed, a Generic Transport Model (GTM) and its use in the investigation of the effects of icing on its aerodynamics is also reviewed. This has led to a more thorough understanding and models, both theoretical and empirical of icing physics and ice accretion for airframes, advanced 3D ice accretion prediction codes, CFD methods for iced aerodynamics and better understanding of aircraft iced aerodynamics and its effects on control surface effectiveness.

12. On Cup Anemometer Rotor Aerodynamics

PubMed Central

Pindado, Santiago; Pérez, Javier; Avila-Sanchez, Sergio

2012-01-01

The influence of anemometer rotor shape parameters, such as the cups' front area or their center rotation radius on the anemometer's performance was analyzed. This analysis was based on calibrations performed on two different anemometers (one based on magnet system output signal, and the other one based on an opto-electronic system output signal), tested with 21 different rotors. The results were compared to the ones resulting from classical analytical models. The results clearly showed a linear dependency of both calibration constants, the slope and the offset, on the cups' center rotation radius, the influence of the front area of the cups also being observed. The analytical model of Kondo et al. was proved to be accurate if it is based on precise data related to the aerodynamic behavior of a rotor's cup. PMID:22778638

13. On cup anemometer rotor aerodynamics.

PubMed

Pindado, Santiago; Pérez, Javier; Avila-Sanchez, Sergio

2012-01-01

The influence of anemometer rotor shape parameters, such as the cups' front area or their center rotation radius on the anemometer's performance was analyzed. This analysis was based on calibrations performed on two different anemometers (one based on magnet system output signal, and the other one based on an opto-electronic system output signal), tested with 21 different rotors. The results were compared to the ones resulting from classical analytical models. The results clearly showed a linear dependency of both calibration constants, the slope and the offset, on the cups' center rotation radius, the influence of the front area of the cups also being observed. The analytical model of Kondo et al. was proved to be accurate if it is based on precise data related to the aerodynamic behavior of a rotor's cup.

14. System for determining aerodynamic imbalance

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Churchill, Gary B. (Inventor); Cheung, Benny K. (Inventor)

1994-01-01

A system is provided for determining tracking error in a propeller or rotor driven aircraft by determining differences in the aerodynamic loading on the propeller or rotor blades of the aircraft. The system includes a microphone disposed relative to the blades during the rotation thereof so as to receive separate pressure pulses produced by each of the blades during the passage thereof by the microphone. A low pass filter filters the output signal produced by the microphone, the low pass filter having an upper cut-off frequency set below the frequency at which the blades pass by the microphone. A sensor produces an output signal after each complete revolution of the blades, and a recording display device displays the outputs of the low pass filter and sensor so as to enable evaluation of the relative magnitudes of the pressure pulses produced by passage of the blades by the microphone during each complete revolution of the blades.

15. Aerodynamic seals for rotary machine

DOEpatents

Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Cirri, Massimiliano; Thatte, Azam Mihir; Williams, John Robert

2016-02-09

An aerodynamic seal assembly for a rotary machine includes multiple sealing device segments disposed circumferentially intermediate to a stationary housing and a rotor. Each of the segments includes a shoe plate with a forward-shoe section and an aft-shoe section having multiple labyrinth teeth therebetween facing the rotor. The sealing device segment also includes multiple flexures connected to the shoe plate and to a top interface element, wherein the multiple flexures are configured to allow the high pressure fluid to occupy a forward cavity and the low pressure fluid to occupy an aft cavity. Further, the sealing device segments include a secondary seal attached to the top interface element at one first end and positioned about the flexures and the shoe plate at one second end.

16. Analysis of Asymmetric Aircraft Aerodynamics Due to an Experimental Wing Glove

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hartshorn, Fletcher

2011-01-01

Aerodynamic computational fluid dynamics analysis of a wing glove attached to one wing of a business jet is presented and discussed. A wing glove placed on only one wing will produce asymmetric aerodynamic effects that will result in overall changes in the forces and moments acting on the aircraft. These changes, referred to as deltas, need to be determined and quantified to ensure that the wing glove does not have a significant effect on the aircraft flight characteristics. TRANAIR (Calmar Research Corporation, Cato, New York), a nonlinear full potential solver, and Star-CCM+ (CD-adapco, Melville, New York), a finite volume full Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics solver, are used to analyze a full aircraft with and without the glove at a variety of flight conditions, aircraft configurations, and angles of attack and sideslip. Changes in the aircraft lift, drag, and side force along with roll, pitch, and yaw are presented. Span lift and moment distributions are also presented for a more detailed look at the effects of the glove on the aircraft. Aerodynamic flow phenomena due to the addition of the glove are discussed. Results show that the glove produces only small changes in the aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the aircraft, most of which are insignificant.

17. The Aerodynamic Cost of Head Morphology in Bats: Maybe Not as Bad as It Seems

PubMed Central

Vanderelst, Dieter; Peremans, Herbert; Razak, Norizham Abdul; Verstraelen, Edouard; Dimitriadis, Greg

2015-01-01

At first sight, echolocating bats face a difficult trade-off. As flying animals, they would benefit from a streamlined geometric shape to reduce aerodynamic drag and increase flight efficiency. However, as echolocating animals, their pinnae generate the acoustic cues necessary for navigation and foraging. Moreover, species emitting sound through their nostrils often feature elaborate noseleaves that help in focussing the emitted echolocation pulses. Both pinnae and noseleaves reduce the streamlined character of a bat’s morphology. It is generally assumed that by compromising the streamlined charactered of the geometry, the head morphology generates substantial drag, thereby reducing flight efficiency. In contrast, it has also been suggested that the pinnae of bats generate lift forces counteracting the detrimental effect of the increased drag. However, very little data exist on the aerodynamic properties of bat pinnae and noseleaves. In this work, the aerodynamic forces generated by the heads of seven species of bats, including noseleaved bats, are measured by testing detailed 3D models in a wind tunnel. Models of Myotis daubentonii, Macrophyllum macrophyllum, Micronycteris microtis, Eptesicus fuscus, Rhinolophus formosae, Rhinolophus rouxi and Phyllostomus discolor are tested. The results confirm that non-streamlined facial morphologies yield considerable drag forces but also generate substantial lift. The net effect is a slight increase in the lift-to-drag ratio. Therefore, there is no evidence of high aerodynamic costs associated with the morphology of bat heads. PMID:25739038

18. High fidelity quasi steady-state aerodynamic model effects on race vehicle performance predictions using multi-body simulation

Mohrfeld-Halterman, J. A.; Uddin, M.

2016-07-01

We described in this paper the development of a high fidelity vehicle aerodynamic model to fit wind tunnel test data over a wide range of vehicle orientations. We also present a comparison between the effects of this proposed model and a conventional quasi steady-state aerodynamic model on race vehicle simulation results. This is done by implementing both of these models independently in multi-body quasi steady-state simulations to determine the effects of the high fidelity aerodynamic model on race vehicle performance metrics. The quasi steady state vehicle simulation is developed with a multi-body NASCAR Truck vehicle model, and simulations are conducted for three different types of NASCAR race tracks, a short track, a one and a half mile intermediate track, and a higher speed, two mile intermediate race track. For each track simulation, the effects of the aerodynamic model on handling, maximum corner speed, and drive force metrics are analysed. The accuracy of the high-fidelity model is shown to reduce the aerodynamic model error relative to the conventional aerodynamic model, and the increased accuracy of the high fidelity aerodynamic model is found to have realisable effects on the performance metric predictions on the intermediate tracks resulting from the quasi steady-state simulation.

19. Maximum Aerodynamic Force on an Ascending Space Vehicle

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Backman, Philip

2012-01-01

The March 2010 issue of "The Physics Teacher" includes a great article by Metz and Stinner on the kinematics and dynamics of a space shuttle launch. Within those pages is a brief mention of an event known in the language of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as "maximum dynamic pressure" (called simply "Max.AirPressure" in…

20. Orbital evolution of space debris due to aerodynamic forces

Crowther, R.

1993-08-01

The concepts used in the AUDIT (Assessment Using Debris Impact Theory) debris modelling suite are introduced. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to determine the dominant parameters in the modelling process. A test case simulating the explosion of a satellite suggest that at the parent altitude there is a greater probability of collision with more massive fragments.

1. Analytic theory of optimal plane change by low aerodynamic forces

Ma, Der-Ming; Wu, Chi-Hang; Vinh, Nguyen X.

The properites of the optimal and sub-optimal solutions to multiple-pass aeroassisted plane change were previously studied in terms of the trajectory variables. The solutions show the strong orbital nature. Then, it is proposed to obtain the variational equations of the orbital elements. We shall use these equations and the approximate control derived in Vinh and Ma (1990) to calculate the trajectories. In this respect, the approximate control law and the transversality condition are transformed in terms of the orbital elements. Following the above results, we can reduce the computational task by further simplification. Within omega and Omega being small and returning to the value of zero after each revolution, we neglect the equations for omega, and Omega. Also, since omega approximately equal to 0, that is alpha approximately equal to f, we can neglect the equation for the alpha and have only three state equations for the integration. Still the computation over several revolutions is long since it is performed using the eccentric anomaly along the osculating orbit as the independent variable. Here, we shall use the method of averaging as applied to the problem of orbit contraction to solve the problem of optimal plane change. This will lead to the integration of a reduced set of two nonlinear equations.

2. Transpiration Control Of Aerodynamics Via Porous Surfaces

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Banks, Daniel W.; Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

1993-01-01

Quasi-active porous surface used to control pressure loading on aerodynamic surface of aircraft or other vehicle, according to proposal. In transpiration control, one makes small additions of pressure and/or mass to cavity beneath surface of porous skin on aerodynamic surface, thereby affecting rate of transpiration through porous surface. Porous skin located on forebody or any other suitable aerodynamic surface, with cavity just below surface. Device based on concept extremely lightweight, mechanically simple, occupies little volume in vehicle, and extremely adaptable.

3. Active Control of Aerodynamic Noise Sources

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reynolds, Gregory A.

2001-01-01

Aerodynamic noise sources become important when propulsion noise is relatively low, as during aircraft landing. Under these conditions, aerodynamic noise from high-lift systems can be significant. The research program and accomplishments described here are directed toward reduction of this aerodynamic noise. Progress toward this objective include correction of flow quality in the Low Turbulence Water Channel flow facility, development of a test model and traversing mechanism, and improvement of the data acquisition and flow visualization capabilities in the Aero. & Fluid Dynamics Laboratory. These developments are described in this report.

4. Aerodynamic Control of a Pitching Airfoil by Distributed Bleed Actuation

Kearney, John; Glezer, Ari

2013-11-01

The aerodynamic forces and moments on a dynamically pitching 2-D airfoil model are controlled in wind tunnel experiments using distributed active bleed. Bleed flow on the suction surface downstream of the leading edge is driven by pressure differences across the airfoil and is regulated by low-power louver actuators. The bleed interacts with cross flows to effect time-dependent variations of the vorticity flux and thereby alters the local flow attachment, resulting in significant changes in pre- and post-stall lift and pitching moment (over 50% increase in baseline post-stall lift). The flow field over the airfoil is measured using high-speed (2000 fps) PIV, resolving the dynamics and characteristic time-scales of production and advection of vorticity concentrations that are associated with transient variations in the aerodynamic forces and moments. In particular, it is shown that the actuation improves the lift hysteresis and pitch stability during the oscillatory pitching by altering the evolution of the dynamic stall vortex and the ensuing flow attachment during the downstroke. Supported by the Rotorcraft Center (VLRCOE) at Georgia Tech.

5. 1997 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)

1999-01-01

The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop on February 25-28, 1997. The workshop was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, Flight Controls, Supersonic Laminar Flow Control, and Sonic Boom Prediction. The workshop objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT Motion Simulator results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas.

6. Some aspects of the aerodynamics of separating strap-ons

Biswas, K. K.; Krishnan, C. G.

1994-11-01

An aerodynamics model for analyzing strap-on separation is proposed. This model comprises both interference aerodynamics and free-body aerodynamics. The interference aerodynamics is primarily due to the close proximity of core and strap-ons. The free-body aerodynamics is solely due to the body geometry of the strap-ons. Using this aerodynamic model, the dynamics of separating strap-ons has been simulated in a six-degree-of-freedom mode to determine if a collision occurs. This aerodynamic model is very handy for various off-design studies relating to separating strap-ons.

7. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Remedial investigation and feasibility study. Bullen Point Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report

SciTech Connect

Karmi, S.

1996-03-18

The United States Air Force (Air Force) has prepared this Remedial investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) report as part of the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) to present results of RI/FS activities at five sites at the Bullen Point radar installation. The IRP provides for investigating, quantifying, and remediating environmental contamination from past waste management activities at Air Force installations throughout the United States.

8. Aircraft aerodynamic prediction method for V/STOL transition including flow separation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gilmer, B. R.; Miner, G. A.; Bristow, D. R.

1983-01-01

A numerical procedure was developed for the aerodynamic force and moment analysis of V/STOL aircraft operating in the transition regime between hover and conventional forward flight. The trajectories, cross sectional area variations, and mass entrainment rates of the jets are calculated by the Adler-Baron Jet-in-Crossflow Program. The inviscid effects of the interaction between the jets and airframe on the aerodynamic properties are determined by use of the MCAIR 3-D Subsonic properties are determined by use of the MCAIR 3-D Subsonic Potential Flow Program, a surface panel method. In addition, the MCAIR 3-D Geometry influence Coefficient Program is used to calculate a matrix of partial derivatives that represent the rate of change of the inviscid aerodynamic properties with respect to arbitrary changes in the effective wing shape.

9. The complex aerodynamic footprint of desert locusts revealed by large-volume tomographic particle image velocimetry.

PubMed

Henningsson, Per; Michaelis, Dirk; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Schanz, Daniel; Geisler, Reinhard; Schröder, Andreas; Bomphrey, Richard J

2015-07-06

Particle image velocimetry has been the preferred experimental technique with which to study the aerodynamics of animal flight for over a decade. In that time, hardware has become more accessible and the software has progressed from the acquisition of planes through the flow field to the reconstruction of small volumetric measurements. Until now, it has not been possible to capture large volumes that incorporate the full wavelength of the aerodynamic track left behind during a complete wingbeat cycle. Here, we use a unique apparatus to acquire the first instantaneous wake volume of a flying animal's entire wingbeat. We confirm the presence of wake deformation behind desert locusts and quantify the effect of that deformation on estimates of aerodynamic force and the efficiency of lift generation. We present previously undescribed vortex wake phenomena, including entrainment around the wing-tip vortices of a set of secondary vortices borne of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the shear layer behind the flapping wings.

10. Aerodynamic interactions between a 1/6 scale helicopter rotor and a body of revolution

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Betzina, M. D.; Shinoda, P.

1982-01-01

A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted in which independent, steady state aerodynamic forces and moments were measured on a 2.24-m-diam, two bladed helicopter rotor and a body of revolution. The objective was to determine the interaction of the body on the rotor performance and the effect of the rotor on the body aerodynamics for variations in velocity, thrust, tip-path-plane angle of attack, body angle of attack, rotor/body position, and body nose geometry. Results show that a body of revolution near the rotor can produce significant favorable or unfavorable effects on rotor performance, depending on the operating condition. Body longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics are significantly modified by the presence of an operating rotor and hub.

11. The complex aerodynamic footprint of desert locusts revealed by large-volume tomographic particle image velocimetry

PubMed Central

Henningsson, Per; Michaelis, Dirk; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Schanz, Daniel; Geisler, Reinhard; Schröder, Andreas; Bomphrey, Richard J.

2015-01-01

Particle image velocimetry has been the preferred experimental technique with which to study the aerodynamics of animal flight for over a decade. In that time, hardware has become more accessible and the software has progressed from the acquisition of planes through the flow field to the reconstruction of small volumetric measurements. Until now, it has not been possible to capture large volumes that incorporate the full wavelength of the aerodynamic track left behind during a complete wingbeat cycle. Here, we use a unique apparatus to acquire the first instantaneous wake volume of a flying animal's entire wingbeat. We confirm the presence of wake deformation behind desert locusts and quantify the effect of that deformation on estimates of aerodynamic force and the efficiency of lift generation. We present previously undescribed vortex wake phenomena, including entrainment around the wing-tip vortices of a set of secondary vortices borne of Kelvin–Helmholtz instability in the shear layer behind the flapping wings. PMID:26040598

12. The aerodynamics of avian take-off from direct pressure measurements in Canada geese (Branta canadensis).

PubMed

Usherwood, James R; Hedrick, Tyson L; Biewener, Andrew A

2003-11-01

Direct pressure measurements using electronic differential pressure transducers along bird wings provide insight into the aerodynamics of these dynamically varying aerofoils. Acceleration-compensated pressures were measured at five sites distributed proximally to distally from the tertials to the primaries along the wings of Canada geese. During take-off flight, ventral-to-dorsal pressure is maintained at the proximal wing section throughout the wingstroke cycle, whereas pressure sense is reversed at the primaries during upstroke. The distal sites experience double pressure peaks during the downstroke. These observations suggest that tertials provide weight-support throughout the wingbeat, that the wingtip provides thrust during upstroke and that the kinetic energy of the rapidly flapping wings may be dissipated via retarding aerodynamic forces (resulting in aerodynamic work) at the end of downstroke.

13. Aerodynamics of a comb-like plate mimicking a fairyfly wing

Lee, Seunghun; Jung, Cheolgyun; Kim, Daegyoum

2016-11-01

There have been many studies on the aerodynamics of a wing with smooth surface in a wide range of the Reynolds number. Unlike smooth wings of common insects or birds, however, fairyfly has a distinctive wing geometry; a frame with several bristles. Motivated by the peculiar wing geometry of the fairyfly we experimentally investigated the fluid dynamics of a translating comb-like wing in a wide range of Reynolds number in O(1) - O(103). We conducted the same experiment in several fluids of different viscosities in order to investigate the effects of the Reynolds number on the aerodynamic performance. Aerodynamic force of various wing shapes was measured, and it was correlated with the flow structure generated by the wing. Corresponding author.

14. Aerodynamics of intermittent bounds in flying birds

Tobalske, Bret W.; Hearn, Jason W. D.; Warrick, Douglas R.

Flap-bounding is a common flight style in small birds in which flapping phases alternate with flexed-wing bounds. Body lift is predicted to be essential to making this flight style an aerodynamically attractive flight strategy. To elucidate the contributions of the body and tail to lift and drag during the flexed-wing bound phase, we used particle image velocimetry (PIV) and measured properties of the wake of zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata, N = 5), flying at 6-10 m s- 1 in a variable speed wind tunnel as well as flow around taxidermically prepared specimens (N = 4) mounted on a sting instrumented with force transducers. For the specimens, we varied air velocity from 2 to 12 m s- 1 and body angle from -15∘ to 50∘. The wake of bounding birds and mounted specimens consisted of a pair of counterrotating vortices shed into the wake from the tail, with induced downwash in the sagittal plane and upwash in parasagittal planes lateral to the bird. This wake structure was present even when the tail was entirely removed. We observed good agreement between force measures derived from PIV and force transducers over the range of body angles typically used by zebra finch during forward flight. Body lift:drag (L:D) ratios averaged 1.4 in live birds and varied between 1 and 1.5 in specimens at body angles from 10∘ to 30∘. Peak (L:D) ratio was the same in live birds and specimens (1.5) and was exhibited in specimens at body angles of 15∘ or 20∘, consistent with the lower end of body angles utilized during bounds. Increasing flight velocity in live birds caused a decrease in CL and CD from maximum values of 1.19 and 0.95 during flight at 6 m s- 1 to minimum values of 0.70 and 0.54 during flight at 10 m s- 1. Consistent with delta-wing theory as applied to birds with a graduated-tail shape, trimming the tail to 0 and 50% of normal length reduced L:D ratios and extending tail length to 150% of normal increased L:D ratio. As downward induced velocity is present in the

15. Aerodynamics of intermittent bounds in flying birds

Tobalske, Bret W.; Hearn, Jason W. D.; Warrick, Douglas R.

2009-05-01

Flap-bounding is a common flight style in small birds in which flapping phases alternate with flexed-wing bounds. Body lift is predicted to be essential to making this flight style an aerodynamically attractive flight strategy. To elucidate the contributions of the body and tail to lift and drag during the flexed-wing bound phase, we used particle image velocimetry (PIV) and measured properties of the wake of zebra finch ( Taeniopygia guttata, N = 5), flying at 6-10 m s-1 in a variable speed wind tunnel as well as flow around taxidermically prepared specimens ( N = 4) mounted on a sting instrumented with force transducers. For the specimens, we varied air velocity from 2 to 12 m s-1 and body angle from -15° to 50°. The wake of bounding birds and mounted specimens consisted of a pair of counter-rotating vortices shed into the wake from the tail, with induced downwash in the sagittal plane and upwash in parasagittal planes lateral to the bird. This wake structure was present even when the tail was entirely removed. We observed good agreement between force measures derived from PIV and force transducers over the range of body angles typically used by zebra finch during forward flight. Body lift:drag ( L: D) ratios averaged 1.4 in live birds and varied between 1 and 1.5 in specimens at body angles from 10° to 30°. Peak ( L: D) ratio was the same in live birds and specimens (1.5) and was exhibited in specimens at body angles of 15° or 20°, consistent with the lower end of body angles utilized during bounds. Increasing flight velocity in live birds caused a decrease in C L and C D from maximum values of 1.19 and 0.95 during flight at 6 m s-1 to minimum values of 0.70 and 0.54 during flight at 10 m s-1. Consistent with delta-wing theory as applied to birds with a graduated-tail shape, trimming the tail to 0 and 50% of normal length reduced L: D ratios and extending tail length to 150% of normal increased L: D ratio. As downward induced velocity is present in the

16. Aerodynamic experimentation with ducted models as applied to hypersonic air-breathing vehicles

Goon'ko, Yu. P.

A methodology of experimentation in high supersonic wind tunnels for studying aerodynamic characteristics of hypersonic flying vehicles powered by air-breathing engines is discussed. Investigations of such total aerodynamic forces as drag, lift and pitching moment at testing the models are implicit when the air flow through the model ducts is accomplished so that to provide the simulation of the external flow around the airplane and flow over the inlets, but the operating engines and, hence, the exhaust jets are not modeled. The methods used for testing such models are based on the measurement of duct stream parameters alongside with the balance measurement of aerodynamic forces acting on the models. In the tests, aerometric tools are used such as narrow metering nozzles (plugs), pitot and static pressure probes, stagnation temperature probes and pressure orifices in walls of the model duct. The aerometric data serve to determine the flow rate and momentum of the stream at the duct exit. The internal non-simulated forces of the model ducts are also determined using the conservation equations for energy, mass flow and momentum, and these forces are eliminated from the aerodynamic test results. The techniques of the said model testing have been well developed as applied to supersonic aircraft, however their application for hypersonic vehicles whose models are tested at high supersonic speeds, Mach number M∞>4, implies some specific features. In the present paper, the results of experimental and theoretical study of these features are discussed. Some experimental data on aerodynamics of hypersonic aircraft models received in methodological tests are also presented. The tunnel experiments have been carried out in the Mach number range M∞=2-6.

17. Using the HARV simulation aerodynamic model to determine forebody strake aerodynamic coefficients from flight data

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Messina, Michael D.

1995-01-01

The method described in this report is intended to present an overview of a process developed to extract the forebody aerodynamic increments from flight tests. The process to determine the aerodynamic increments (rolling pitching, and yawing moments, Cl, Cm, Cn, respectively) for the forebody strake controllers added to the F/A - 18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) aircraft was developed to validate the forebody strake aerodynamic model used in simulation.

18. Instability of water jet: Aerodynamically induced acoustic and capillary waves

Broman, Göran I.; Rudenko, Oleg V.

2012-09-01

High-speed water jet cutting has important industrial applications. To further improve the cutting performance it is critical to understand the theory behind the onset of instability of the jet. In this paper, instability of a water jet flowing out from a nozzle into ambient air is studied. Capillary forces and compressibility of the liquid caused by gas bubbles are taken into account, since these factors have shown to be important in previous experimental studies. A new dispersion equation, generalizing the analogous Rayleigh equation, is derived. It is shown how instability develops because of aerodynamic forces that appear at the streamlining of an initial irregularity of the equilibrium shape of the cross-section of the jet and how instability increases with increased concentration of gas bubbles. It is also shown how resonance phenomena are responsible for strong instability. On the basis of the theoretical explanations given, conditions for stable operation are indicated.

19. Investigation of the influence of wind shear on the aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft using a vortex-lattice method

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vicroy, Dan D.

1988-01-01

The objective was to investigate and characterize the aerodynamic effect of shear flow through a series of sensitivity studies of the wind velocity gradients and wing planform geometry parameters. The wind shear effect was computed using a modified vortex-lattice computer program and characterized through the formulation of wind shear aerodynamic coefficients. The magnitude of the aerodynamic effect was demonstrated by computing the resultant change in the aerodynamics of a conventional wing and tail combination on a fixed flight path through a simulated microburst. The results of the study indicate that a significant amount of the control authority of an airplane may be required to counteract the wind shear induced forces and moments in the microburst environment.

20. 1999 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hahne, David E. (Editor)

1999-01-01

NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1999 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 8-12, 1999 in Anaheim, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in the areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to: (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working on HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and midpoint optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented, along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program. This Volume 1/Part 1 publication covers configuration aerodynamics.

1. Uncovering the aerodynamics of the smallest insects using numerical and physical models

Miller, Laura

2011-11-01

A vast body of research has described the complexity of flight in insects ranging from the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to the hawk moth, Manduca sexta. The smallest flying insects have received far less attention, although previous work has shown that flight kinematics and aerodynamics can be significantly different. In this presentation, three-dimensional direct numerical simulations are used to compute the lift and drag forces generated by flexible wings to reveal the aerodynamics of these tiny fliers. Results are validated against dynamically scaled physical models. At the lowest Reynolds numbers relevant to insect flight, the relative forces required to rotate the wings and fling them apart become substantially greater. Wing flexibility can reduce these forces and improve efficiency in some situations.

2. Assessment of the Reconstructed Aerodynamics of the Mars Science Laboratory Entry Vehicle

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Schoenenberger, Mark; Van Norman, John W.; Dyakonov, Artem A.; Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Way, David W.; Kutty, Prasad

2013-01-01

On August 5, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory entry vehicle successfully entered Mars atmosphere, flying a guided entry until parachute deploy. The Curiosity rover landed safely in Gale crater upon completion of the Entry Descent and Landing sequence. This paper compares the aerodynamics of the entry capsule extracted from onboard flight data, including Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) accelerometer and rate gyro information, and heatshield surface pressure measurements. From the onboard data, static force and moment data has been extracted. This data is compared to preflight predictions. The information collected by MSL represents the most complete set of information collected during Mars entry to date. It allows the separation of aerodynamic performance from atmospheric conditions. The comparisons show the MSL aerodynamic characteristics have been identified and resolved to an accuracy better than the aerodynamic database uncertainties used in preflight simulations. A number of small anomalies have been identified and are discussed. This data will help revise aerodynamic databases for future missions and will guide computational fluid dynamics (CFD) development to improved prediction codes.

3. Estimation of unsteady aerodynamics in the wake of a freely flying European starling (Sturnus vulgaris).

PubMed

Ben-Gida, Hadar; Kirchhefer, Adam; Taylor, Zachary J; Bezner-Kerr, Wayne; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Kopp, Gregory A; Gurka, Roi

2013-01-01

Wing flapping is one of the most widespread propulsion methods found in nature; however, the current understanding of the aerodynamics in bird wakes is incomplete. The role of the unsteady motion in the flow and its contribution to the aerodynamics is still an open question. In the current study, the wake of a freely flying European starling has been investigated using long-duration high-speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in the near wake. Kinematic analysis of the wings and body of the bird has been performed using additional high-speed cameras that recorded the bird movement simultaneously with the PIV measurements. The wake evolution of four complete wingbeats has been characterized through reconstruction of the time-resolved data, and the aerodynamics in the wake have been analyzed in terms of the streamwise forces acting on the bird. The profile drag from classical aerodynamics was found to be positive during most of the wingbeat cycle, yet kinematic images show that the bird does not decelerate. It is shown that unsteady aerodynamics are necessary to satisfy the drag/thrust balance by approximating the unsteady drag term. These findings may shed light on the flight efficiency of birds by providing a partial answer to how they minimize drag during flapping flight.

4. Estimation of Unsteady Aerodynamics in the Wake of a Freely Flying European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris)

PubMed Central

Ben-Gida, Hadar; Kirchhefer, Adam; Taylor, Zachary J.; Bezner-Kerr, Wayne; Guglielmo, Christopher G.; Kopp, Gregory A.; Gurka, Roi

2013-01-01

Wing flapping is one of the most widespread propulsion methods found in nature; however, the current understanding of the aerodynamics in bird wakes is incomplete. The role of the unsteady motion in the flow and its contribution to the aerodynamics is still an open question. In the current study, the wake of a freely flying European starling has been investigated using long-duration high-speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in the near wake. Kinematic analysis of the wings and body of the bird has been performed using additional high-speed cameras that recorded the bird movement simultaneously with the PIV measurements. The wake evolution of four complete wingbeats has been characterized through reconstruction of the time-resolved data, and the aerodynamics in the wake have been analyzed in terms of the streamwise forces acting on the bird. The profile drag from classical aerodynamics was found to be positive during most of the wingbeat cycle, yet kinematic images show that the bird does not decelerate. It is shown that unsteady aerodynamics are necessary to satisfy the drag/thrust balance by approximating the unsteady drag term. These findings may shed light on the flight efficiency of birds by providing a partial answer to how they minimize drag during flapping flight. PMID:24278243

5. Aerodynamic Analyses Requiring Advanced Computers, part 2

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1975-01-01

Papers given at the conference present the results of theoretical research on aerodynamic flow problems requiring the use of advanced computers. Topics discussed include two-dimensional configurations, three-dimensional configurations, transonic aircraft, and the space shuttle.

6. Aerodynamic Analyses Requiring Advanced Computers, Part 1

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1975-01-01

Papers are presented which deal with results of theoretical research on aerodynamic flow problems requiring the use of advanced computers. Topics discussed include: viscous flows, boundary layer equations, turbulence modeling and Navier-Stokes equations, and internal flows.

7. HSR Aerodynamic Performance Status and Challenges

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gilbert, William P.; Antani, Tony; Ball, Doug; Calloway, Robert L.; Snyder, Phil

1999-01-01

This paper describes HSR (High Speed Research) Aerodynamic Performance Status and Challenges. The topics include: 1) Aero impact on HSR; 2) Goals and Targets; 3) Progress and Status; and 4) Remaining Challenges. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

8. Switchable and Tunable Aerodynamic Drag on Cylinders

Guttag, Mark; Lopéz Jiménez, Francisco; Upadhyaya, Priyank; Kumar, Shanmugam; Reis, Pedro

We report results on the performance of Smart Morphable Surfaces (Smporhs) that can be mounted onto cylindrical structures to actively reduce their aerodynamic drag. Our system comprises of an elastomeric thin shell with a series of carefully designed subsurface cavities that, once depressurized, lead to a dramatic deformation of the surface topography, on demand. Our design is inspired by the morphology of the giant cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) which possesses an array of axial grooves, thought to help reduce aerodynamic drag, thereby enhancing the structural robustness of the plant under wind loading. We perform systematic wind tunnel tests on cylinders covered with our Smorphs and characterize their aerodynamic performance. The switchable and tunable nature of our system offers substantial advantages for aerodynamic performance when compared to static topographies, due to their operation over a wider range of flow conditions.

9. Switchable and Tunable Aerodynamic Drag on Cylinders

Guttag, Mark; Lopez Jimenez, Francisco; Reis, Pedro

2015-11-01

We report results on the performance of Smart Morphable Surfaces (Smporhs) that can be mounted onto cylindrical structures to actively reduce their aerodynamic drag. Our system comprises of an elastomeric thin shell with a series of carefully designed subsurface cavities that, once depressurized, lead to a dramatic deformation of the surface topography, on demand. Our design is inspired by the morphology of the giant cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) which possesses an array of axial grooves, which are thought to help reduce aerodynamic drag, thereby enhancing the structural robustness of the plant under wind loading. We perform systematic wind tunnel tests on cylinders covered with our Smorphs and characterize their aerodynamic performance. The switchable and tunable nature of our system offers substantial advantages for aerodynamic performance when compared to static topographies, due to their operation over a wider range of flow conditions.

10. Hypervelocity Free-Flight Aerodynamic Facility (HFFAF)

NASA Video Gallery

The HFFAF is the only aeroballistic range the nation currently capable of testing in gases other than air and at sub-atmospheric pressures. It is used primarily to study the aerodynamics, Aerotherm...

11. Steady incompressible variable thickness shear layer aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chi, M. R.

1976-01-01

A shear flow aerodynamic theory for steady incompressible flows is presented for both the lifting and non lifting problems. The slow variation of the boundary layer thickness is considered. The slowly varying behavior is treated by using multitime scales. The analysis begins with the elementary wavy wall problem and, through Fourier superpositions over the wave number space, the shear flow equivalents to the aerodynamic transfer functions of classical potential flow are obtained. The aerodynamic transfer functions provide integral equations which relate the wall pressure and the upwash. Computational results are presented for the pressure distribution, the lift coefficient, and the center of pressure travel along a two dimensional flat plate in a shear flow. The aerodynamic load is decreased by the shear layer, compared to the potential flow. The variable thickness shear layer decreases it less than the uniform thickness shear layer based upon equal maximum shear layer thicknesses.

12. Uniaxial aerodynamic attitude control of artificial satellites

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sazonov, V. V.

1983-01-01

Within the context of a simple mechanical model the paper examines the movement of a satellite with respect to the center of masses under conditions of uniaxial aerodynamic attitude control. The equations of motion of the satellite take account of the gravitational and restorative aerodynamic moments. It is presumed that the aerodynamic moment is much larger than the gravitational, and the motion equations contain a large parameter. A two-parameter integrated surface of these equations is constructed in the form of formal series in terms of negative powers of the large parameter, describing the oscillations and rotations of the satellite about its lengthwise axis, approximately oriented along the orbital tangent. It is proposed to treat such movements as nominal undisturbed motions of the satellite under conditions of aerodynamic attitude control. A numerical investigation is made for the above integrated surface.

13. Aerodynamic Characterization of a Modern Launch Vehicle

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hall, Robert M.; Holland, Scott D.; Blevins, John A.

2011-01-01

A modern launch vehicle is by necessity an extremely integrated design. The accurate characterization of its aerodynamic characteristics is essential to determine design loads, to design flight control laws, and to establish performance. The NASA Ares Aerodynamics Panel has been responsible for technical planning, execution, and vetting of the aerodynamic characterization of the Ares I vehicle. An aerodynamics team supporting the Panel consists of wind tunnel engineers, computational engineers, database engineers, and other analysts that address topics such as uncertainty quantification. The team resides at three NASA centers: Langley Research Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Ames Research Center. The Panel has developed strategies to synergistically combine both the wind tunnel efforts and the computational efforts with the goal of validating the computations. Selected examples highlight key flow physics and, where possible, the fidelity of the comparisons between wind tunnel results and the computations. Lessons learned summarize what has been gleaned during the project and can be useful for other vehicle development projects.

14. A Study of the Effectiveness of Family Assistance Programs in the Air Force during Operation Desert Shield/Storm. Final Report.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Caliber Associates, Fairfax, VA.

This report examines both the impact of Operation Desert Shield/Storm on the families of active duty service members who were deployed to the Persian Gulf region, and the effectiveness of the Air Force's family support systems in meeting family and mission needs. The Air Force's Family Matters Office sponsored this study in order to identify the…

15. The Development of a Computer-Directed Training Subsystem and Computer Operator Training Material for the Air Force Phase II Base Level System. Final Report.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

System Development Corp., Santa Monica, CA.

The design, development, and evaluation of an integrated Computer-Directed Training Subsystem (CDTS) for the Air Force Phase II Base Level System is described in this report. The development and evaluation of a course to train computer operators of the Air Force Phase II Base Level System under CDTS control is also described. Detailed test results…

16. Aerodynamics as a subway design parameter

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kurtz, D. W.

1976-01-01

A parametric sensitivity study has been performed on the system operational energy requirement in order to guide subway design strategy. Aerodynamics can play a dominant or trivial role, depending upon the system characteristics. Optimization of the aerodynamic parameters may not minimize the total operational energy. Isolation of the station box from the tunnel and reduction of the inertial power requirements pay the largest dividends in terms of the operational energy requirement.

17. Means for controlling aerodynamically induced twist

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Elber, W. (Inventor)

1982-01-01

A control mechanism which provides active compensation for aerodynamically induced twist deformation of high aspect ratio wings consists of a torque tube, internal to each wing and rigidly attached near the tip of each wing, which is moved by an actuator located in the aircraft fuselage. As changes in the aerodynamic loads on the wings occur the torque tube is rotated to compensate for the induced wing twist.

18. The oscillating wing with aerodynamically balanced elevator

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kussner, H G; Schwartz, I

1941-01-01

The two-dimensional problem of the oscillating wing with aerodynamically balanced elevator is treated in the manner that the wing is replaced by a plate with bends and stages and the airfoil section by a mean line consisting of one or more straights. The computed formulas and tables permit, on these premises, the prediction of the pressure distribution and of the aerodynamic reactions of oscillating elevators and tabs with any position of elevator hinge in respect to elevator leading edge.

19. Aerodynamics of tip-reversal upstroke in a revolving pigeon wing.

PubMed

Crandell, Kristen E; Tobalske, Bret W

2011-06-01

During slow flight, bird species vary in their upstroke kinematics using either a 'flexed wing' or a distally supinated 'tip-reversal' upstroke. Two hypotheses have been presented concerning the function of the tip-reversal upstroke. The first is that this behavior is aerodynamically inactive and serves to minimize drag. The second is that the tip-reversal upstroke is capable of producing significant aerodynamic forces. Here, we explored the aerodynamic capabilities of the tip-reversal upstroke using a well-established propeller method. Rock dove (Columba livia, N=3) wings were spread and dried in postures characteristic of either mid-upstroke or mid-downstroke and spun at in vivo Reynolds numbers to simulate forces experienced during slow flight. We compared 3D wing shape for the propeller and in vivo kinematics, and found reasonable kinematic agreement between methods (mean differences 6.4% of wing length). We found that the wing in the upstroke posture is capable of producing substantial aerodynamic forces. At in vivo angles of attack (66 deg at mid-upstroke, 46 deg at mid-downstroke), the upstroke wings averaged for three birds produced a lift-to-drag ratio of 0.91, and the downstroke wings produced a lift-to-drag ratio of 3.33. Peak lift-to-drag ratio was 2.5 for upstroke and 6.3 for downstroke. Our estimates of total force production during each half-stroke suggest that downstroke produces a force that supports 115% of bodyweight, and during upstroke a forward-directed force (thrust) is produced at 36% of body weight.

20. Skylon Aerodynamics and SABRE Plumes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mehta, Unmeel; Afosmis, Michael; Bowles, Jeffrey; Pandya, Shishir

2015-01-01

An independent partial assessment is provided of the technical viability of the Skylon aerospace plane concept, developed by Reaction Engines Limited (REL). The objectives are to verify REL's engineering estimates of airframe aerodynamics during powered flight and to assess the impact of Synergetic Air-Breathing Rocket Engine (SABRE) plumes on the aft fuselage. Pressure lift and drag coefficients derived from simulations conducted with Euler equations for unpowered flight compare very well with those REL computed with engineering methods. The REL coefficients for powered flight are increasingly less acceptable as the freestream Mach number is increased beyond 8.5, because the engineering estimates did not account for the increasing favorable (in terms of drag and lift coefficients) effect of underexpanded rocket engine plumes on the aft fuselage. At Mach numbers greater than 8.5, the thermal environment around the aft fuselage is a known unknown-a potential design and/or performance risk issue. The adverse effects of shock waves on the aft fuselage and plumeinduced flow separation are other potential risks. The development of an operational reusable launcher from the Skylon concept necessitates the judicious use of a combination of engineering methods, advanced methods based on required physics or analytical fidelity, test data, and independent assessments.

1. Microelectromechanical Systems for Aerodynamics Applications

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mehregany, Mehran; DeAnna, Russell G.; Reshotko, Eli

1996-01-01

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) embody the integration of sensors, actuators, and electronics on a single substrate using integrated circuit fabrication techniques and compatible micromachining processes. Silicon and its derivatives form the material base for the MEMS technology. MEMS devices, including micro-sensors and micro-actuators, are attractive because they can be made small (characteristic dimension about microns), be produced in large numbers with uniform performance, include electronics for high performance and sophisticated functionality, and be inexpensive. MEMS pressure sensors, wall-shear-stress sensors, and micromachined hot-wires are nearing application in aeronautics. MEMS actuators face a tougher challenge since they have to be scaled (up) to the physical phenomena that are being controlled. MEMS actuators are proposed, for example, for controlling the small structures in a turbulent boundary layer, for aircraft control, for cooling, and for mixing enhancement. Data acquisition or control logistics require integration of electronics along with the transducer elements with appropriate consideration of analog-to-digital conversion, multiplexing, and telemetry. Altogether, MEMS technology offers exciting opportunities for aerodynamics applications both in wind tunnels and in flight

2. Aerodynamic characteristics of French consonants

Demolin, Didier; Hassid, Sergio; Soquet, Alain

2004-05-01

This paper reports some aerodynamic measurements made on French consonants with a group of ten speakers. Speakers were recorded while saying nonsense words in phrases such as papa, dis papa encore. The nonsense words in the study combined each of the French consonants with three vowels /i, a, u/ to from two syllables words with the first syllable being the same as the second. In addition to the audio signal, recordings were made of the oral airflow, the pressure of the air in the pharynx above the vocal folds and the pressure of the air in the trachea just below the vocal folds. The pharyngeal pressure was recorded via a catheter (i.d. 5 mm) passed through the nose so that its open end could be seen in the pharynx below the uvula. The subglottal pressure was recorded via a tracheal puncture between the first and the second rings of the trachea or between the cricoid cartilage and the first tracheal ring. Results compare subglottal presssure, pharyngeal pressure, and airflow values. Comparisons are made between values obtained with male and female subjects and various types of consonants (voiced versus voiceless at the same place of articulation, stops, fricatives, and nasals).

3. Structural Verification and Modeling of a Tension Cone Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tanner, Christopher L.; Cruz, Juan R.; Braun, Robert D.

2010-01-01

Verification analyses were conducted on membrane structures pertaining to a tension cone inflatable aerodynamic decelerator using the analysis code LS-DYNA. The responses of three structures - a cylinder, torus, and tension shell - were compared against linear theory for various loading cases. Stress distribution, buckling behavior, and wrinkling behavior were investigated. In general, agreement between theory and LS-DYNA was very good for all cases investigated. These verification cases exposed the important effects of using a linear elastic liner in membrane structures under compression. Finally, a tension cone wind tunnel test article is modeled in LS-DYNA for which preliminary results are presented. Unlike data from supersonic wind tunnel testing, the segmented tension shell and torus experienced oscillatory behavior when subjected to a steady aerodynamic pressure distribution. This work is presented as a work in progress towards development of a fluid-structures interaction mechanism to investigate aeroelastic behavior of inflatable aerodynamic decelerators.

4. Real-Time Onboard Global Nonlinear Aerodynamic Modeling from Flight Data

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brandon, Jay M.; Morelli, Eugene A.

2014-01-01

Flight test and modeling techniques were developed to accurately identify global nonlinear aerodynamic models onboard an aircraft. The techniques were developed and demonstrated during piloted flight testing of an Aermacchi MB-326M Impala jet aircraft. Advanced piloting techniques and nonlinear modeling techniques based on fuzzy logic and multivariate orthogonal function methods were implemented with efficient onboard calculations and flight operations to achieve real-time maneuver monitoring and analysis, and near-real-time global nonlinear aerodynamic modeling and prediction validation testing in flight. Results demonstrated that global nonlinear aerodynamic models for a large portion of the flight envelope were identified rapidly and accurately using piloted flight test maneuvers during a single flight, with the final identified and validated models available before the aircraft landed.

5. Charged aerodynamics of a Low Earth Orbit cylinder

Capon, C. J.; Brown, M.; Boyce, R. R.

2016-11-01

This work investigates the charged aerodynamic interaction of a Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) cylinder with the ionosphere. The ratio of charge to neutral drag force on a 2D LEO cylinder with diffusely reflecting cool walls is derived analytically and compared against self-consistent electrostatic Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations. Analytical calculations predict that neglecting charged drag in an O+ dominated LEO plasma with a neutral to ion number density ratio of 102 will cause a 10% over-prediction of O density based on body accelerations when body potential (ɸB) is ≤ -390 V. Above 900 km altitude in LEO, where H+ becomes the dominant ion species, analytical predictions suggest charge drag becomes equivalent to neutral drag for ɸB ≤ -0.75 V. Comparing analytical predictions against PIC simulations in the range of 0 < - ɸB < 50 V found that analytical charged drag was under-estimated for all body potentials; the degree of under-estimation increasing with ɸB. Based on the -50 V PIC simulations, our in-house 6 degree of freedom orbital propagator saw a reduction in the semi-major axis of a 10 kg satellite at 700 km of 6.9 m/day and 0.98 m/day at 900 km compared that caused purely by neutral drag - 0.67 m/day and 0.056 m/day respectively. Hence, this work provides initial evidence that charged aerodynamics may become significant compared to neutral aerodynamics for high voltage LEO bodies.

6. FLPP IXV Re-Entry Vehicle, Hypersonic Aerodynamics Characterisation

Tran, Ph.; Dormieux, M.; Fontaine, J.; Gülhan, A.; Tribot, J.-P.; Binetti, P.; Walloschek, T.

2009-01-01

The general objective of the IXV project (Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle), led by NGL Prime in the framework of the ESA FLPP programme (Future Launchers Preparatory Programme), is to improve European capabilities in the strategic field of atmospheric re-entry for space transportation, exploration, and scientific applications. One of the key objectives and challenges of the IXV project is the vehicle re-entry guidance and control demonstration which requires an accurate determination of the aerodynamic characteristics. This paper deals with all the aerodynamic characterization in the hypersonic flow regime. Wind tunnel tests (WTT) and CFD matrices have been defined in order to provide good coverage of the foreseen flight domain, account for uncertainties, and exploit the synergy between experimental and computational activity. WTT have been performed in DLR-H2K (M=6 and 8.7) and ONERA-S4Ma (M=10) facilities, gathering forces and moment data, as well as pressure in key areas. Consistency of the two campaigns results will be addressed. These results have highlighted some flow peculiarities in the deflected flap region. Comparisons with CFD show good agreement with ground experimental results. For flight conditions, real gas and viscous effects play a significant role in the trim conditions that only CFD can currently address; this identification was supported by different partners involved in the project (CFS engineering, DLR, CIRA, and the University of Rome) providing a valuable description of key flow phenomena affecting aerodynamic characteristics. Moreover, at high altitude, limited DSMC computations have been performed for bridging function correction.

7. 1998 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

McMillin, S. Naomi (Editor)

1999-01-01

NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1998 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 9-13, in Los Angeles, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program.

8. Modeling Powered Aerodynamics for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Aerodynamic Database

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Robinson, Philip E.; Wilson, Thomas M.

2011-01-01

Modeling the aerodynamics of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) has presented many technical challenges to the developers of the Orion aerodynamic database. During a launch abort event, the aerodynamic environment around the LAV is very complex as multiple solid rocket plumes interact with each other and the vehicle. It is further complicated by vehicle separation events such as between the LAV and the launch vehicle stack or between the launch abort tower and the crew module. The aerodynamic database for the LAV was developed mainly from wind tunnel tests involving powered jet simulations of the rocket exhaust plumes, supported by computational fluid dynamic simulations. However, limitations in both methods have made it difficult to properly capture the aerodynamics of the LAV in experimental and numerical simulations. These limitations have also influenced decisions regarding the modeling and structure of the aerodynamic database for the LAV and led to compromises and creative solutions. Two database modeling approaches are presented in this paper (incremental aerodynamics and total aerodynamics), with examples showing strengths and weaknesses of each approach. In addition, the unique problems presented to the database developers by the large data space required for modeling a launch abort event illustrate the complexities of working with multi-dimensional data.

9. 1998 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

McMillin, S. Naomi (Editor)

1999-01-01

NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1998 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 9-13, in Los Angeles, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry HighSpeed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of. Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to: (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program.

10. 1999 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hahne, David E. (Editor)

1999-01-01

NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1999 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 8-12, 1999 in Anaheim, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in the areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working on HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and midpoint optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented, along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program. This Volume 1/Part 2 publication covers the design optimization and testing sessions.

11. Computational fluid dynamics at NASA Ames and the numerical aerodynamic simulation program

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Peterson, V. L.

1985-01-01

Computers are playing an increasingly important role in the field of aerodynamics such as that they now serve as a major complement to wind tunnels in aerospace research and development. Factors pacing advances in computational aerodynamics are identified, including the amount of computational power required to take the next major step in the discipline. The four main areas of computational aerodynamics research at NASA Ames Research Center which are directed toward extending the state of the art are identified and discussed. Example results obtained from approximate forms of the governing equations are presented and discussed, both in the context of levels of computer power required and the degree to which they either further the frontiers of research or apply to programs of practical importance. Finally, the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Program--with its 1988 target of achieving a sustained computational rate of 1 billion floating-point operations per second--is discussed in terms of its goals, status, and its projected effect on the future of computational aerodynamics.

12. The aerodynamic challenges of the design and development of the space shuttle orbiter

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Young, J. C.; Underwood, J. M.; Hillje, E. R.; Whitnah, A. M.; Romere, P. O.; Gamble, J. D.; Roberts, B. B.; Ware, G. M.; Scallion, W. I.; Spencer, B., Jr.

1985-01-01

The major aerodynamic design challenge at the beginning of the United States Space Transportation System (STS) research and development phase was to design a vehicle that would fly as a spacecraft during early entry and as an aircraft during the final phase of entry. The design was further complicated because the envisioned vehicle was statically unstable during a portion of the aircraft mode of operation. The second challenge was the development of preflight aerodynamic predictions with an accuracy consistent with conducting a manned flight on the initial orbital flight. A brief history of the early contractual studies is presented highlighting the technical results and management decisions influencing the aerodynamic challenges. The configuration evolution and the development of preflight aerodynamic predictions will be reviewed. The results from the first four test flights shows excellent agreement with the preflight aerodynamic predictions over the majority of the flight regimes. The only regimes showing significant disagreement is confined primarily to early entry, where prediction of the basic vehicle trim and the influence of the reaction control system jets on the flow field were found to be deficient. Postflight results are analyzed to explain these prediction deficiencies.

13. Preliminary Final Environmental Assessment: Proposed Upgrades at the 6th Avenue, Mississippi, and Telluride Entry Control Facilities Buckley Air Force Base, Colorado

DTIC Science & Technology

2008-05-01

Parts 1500 -1580, and Air Force policy and procedures (32 CFR Part 989). Purpose and Need: The upgrades are being proposed to improve base security...Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of NEPA (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Parts 1500 -1508), and Air...and Telluride Gates WP/29-May-08//056-08 Buckley AFB, Colorado EXPLANATION 0 2 4 Miles AIR FORCE RESERVA T /ON Regional Map Figure 1-1 WP

14. 1997 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)

1999-01-01

The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop on February 25-28, 1997. The workshop was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in area of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, Flight Controls, Supersonic Laminar Flow Control, and Sonic Boom Prediction. The workshop objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodyamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT Motion Simulator results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas.

15. Short-amplitude high-frequency wing strokes determine the aerodynamics of honeybee flight.

PubMed

Altshuler, Douglas L; Dickson, William B; Vance, Jason T; Roberts, Stephen P; Dickinson, Michael H

2005-12-13

Most insects are thought to fly by creating a leading-edge vortex that remains attached to the wing as it translates through a stroke. In the species examined so far, stroke amplitude is large, and most of the aerodynamic force is produced halfway through a stroke when translation velocities are highest. Here we demonstrate that honeybees use an alternative strategy, hovering with relatively low stroke amplitude (approximately 90 degrees) and high wingbeat frequency (approximately 230 Hz). When measured on a dynamically scaled robot, the kinematics of honeybee wings generate prominent force peaks during the beginning, middle, and end of each stroke, indicating the importance of additional unsteady mechanisms at stroke reversal. When challenged to fly in low-density heliox, bees responded by maintaining nearly constant wingbeat frequency while increasing stroke amplitude by nearly 50%. We examined the aerodynamic consequences of this change in wing motion by using artificial kinematic patterns in which amplitude was systematically increased in 5 degrees increments. To separate the aerodynamic effects of stroke velocity from those due to amplitude, we performed this analysis under both constant frequency and constant velocity conditions. The results indicate that unsteady forces during stroke reversal make a large contribution to net upward force during hovering but play a diminished role as the animal increases stroke amplitude and flight power. We suggest that the peculiar kinematics of bees may reflect either a specialization for increasing load capacity or a physiological limitation of their flight muscles.

16. Recent NASA Research on Aerodynamic Modeling of Post-Stall and Spin Dynamics of Large Transport Airplanes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Murch, Austin M.; Foster, John V.

2007-01-01

A simulation study was conducted to investigate aerodynamic modeling methods for prediction of post-stall flight dynamics of large transport airplanes. The research approach involved integrating dynamic wind tunnel data from rotary balance and forced oscillation testing with static wind tunnel data to predict aerodynamic forces and moments during highly dynamic departure and spin motions. Several state-of-the-art aerodynamic modeling methods were evaluated and predicted flight dynamics using these various approaches were compared. Results showed the different modeling methods had varying effects on the predicted flight dynamics and the differences were most significant during uncoordinated maneuvers. Preliminary wind tunnel validation data indicated the potential of the various methods for predicting steady spin motions.

17. A method of predicting quasi-steady aerodynamics for flutter analysis of high speed vehicles using steady CFD calculations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scott, Robert C.; Pototzky, Anthony S.

1993-01-01

High speed linear aerodynamic theories like piston theory and Newtonian impact theory are relatively inexpensive to use for flutter analysis. These theories have limited areas of applicability depending on the configuration and the flow conditions. In addition, these theories lack the ability to capture viscous, shock, and real gas effects. CFD methods can model all of these effects accurately, but the unsteady calculations required for flutter are expensive and often impractical. This paper describes a method for using steady CFD calculations to approximate the generalized aerodynamic forces for a flutter analysis. Example two-and three-dimensional aerodynamic force calculations are provided. In addition, a flutter analysis of a NASP-type wing will be discussed.

18. Experimental techniques for three-axes load cells used at the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dudley, Michael R.

1985-01-01

The necessary information for an aerodynamic investigation requiring load cell force measurements at the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) is provided. Included are details of the Ames 40x80 three component load cells; typical model/load cell installation geometries; transducer signal conditioning; a description of the Ames Standard Computations Wind Tunnel Data Reduction Program for Load Cells Forces and Moments (SCELLS), and the inputs required for SCELLS. The Outdoor Aerodynamic Facilities Complex (OARF), a facility within the NFAC where three axes load cells serve as the primary balance system, is used as an example for many of the techniques, but the information applies equally well to other static and wind tunnel facilities that make use of load cell balances.

19. Experimental investigation of hypersonic aerodynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intrieri, Peter F.

1988-01-01

An extensive series of ballistic range tests were conducted at the Ames Research Center to determine precisely the aerodynamic characteristics of the Galileo entry probe vehicle. Figures and tables are presented which summarize the results of these ballistic range tests. Drag data were obtained for both a nonablated and a hypothesized ablated Galileo configuration at Mach numbers from about 0.7 to 14 and at Reynolds numbers from 1000 to 4 million. The tests were conducted in air and the experimental results were compared with available Pioneer Venus data since these two configurations are similar in geometry. The nonablated Galileo configuration was also tested with two different center-of-gravity positions to obtain values of pitching-moment-curve slope which could be used in determining values of lift and center-of-pressure location for this configuration. The results indicate that the drag characteristics of the Galileo probe are qualitatively similar to that of Pioneer Venus, however, the drag of the nonablated Galileo is about 3 percent lower at the higher Mach numbers and as much as 5 percent greater at transonic Mach numbers of about 1.0 to 1.5. Also, the drag of the hypothesized ablated configuration is about 3 percent lower than that of the nonablated configuration at the higher Mach numbers but about the same at the lower Mach numbers. Additional tests are required at Reynolds numbers of 1000, 500, and 250 to determine if the dramatic rise in drag coefficient measured for Pioneer Venus at these low Reynolds numbers also occurs for Galileo, as might be expected.

20. Aerodynamic heating in hypersonic flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reddy, C. Subba

1993-01-01

Aerodynamic heating in hypersonic space vehicles is an important factor to be considered in their design. Therefore the designers of such vehicles need reliable heat transfer data in this respect for a successful design. Such data is usually produced by testing the models of hypersonic surfaces in wind tunnels. Most of the hypersonic test facilities at present are conventional blow-down tunnels whose run times are of the order of several seconds. The surface temperatures on such models are obtained using standard techniques such as thin-film resistance gages, thin-skin transient calorimeter gages and coaxial thermocouple or video acquisition systems such as phosphor thermography and infrared thermography. The data are usually reduced assuming that the model behaves like a semi-infinite solid (SIS) with constant properties and that heat transfer is by one-dimensional conduction only. This simplifying assumption may be valid in cases where models are thick, run-times short, and thermal diffusivities small. In many instances, however, when these conditions are not met, the assumption may lead to significant errors in the heat transfer results. The purpose of the present paper is to investigate this aspect. Specifically, the objectives are as follows: (1) to determine the limiting conditions under which a model can be considered a semi-infinite body; (2) to estimate the extent of errors involved in the reduction of the data if the models violate the assumption; and (3) to come up with correlation factors which when multiplied by the results obtained under the SIS assumption will provide the results under the actual conditions.