Science.gov

Sample records for aerodynamic interference effects

  1. Research status on aerodynamic interference effects of wind-resistant performance of pylon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, Shengli; Lu, Yu; Wang, Dongwei; Chen, Huai

    2011-04-01

    The aerodynamic interference effects of wind-resistant performance for pylon is one of very important problems in numerical simulation studies of wind resistant of bridges. On the basis of looking through a great deal of related literatures at home and abroad, research history, contents, method and achievements of the aerodynamic interference effects are summarized, and the existing problem for galloping, buffeting and vortex-induced vibration of pylon and directions for the next research are pointed out.

  2. Unsteady aerodynamic analysis of space shuttle vehicles. Part 3: Booster interference effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reding, J. P.; Ericsson, L. E.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation of the interference flow field on the space-shuttle boost configuration has been made. The results show that the interference effects can dominate the shuttle aerodynamics. Vortices shed from shock-induced flow separations on the forward portion of the vehicle affect the aerodynamic loads on the aft portion of the booster. Thus, the forebody and aft-body flow fields are coupled. This coupling and the associated time lag due to the finite convection speed of the vortices furnish a mechanism whereby the unsteady aerodynamics can cause undamping of certain low frequency elastic modes of the booster. A preliminary order-of-magnitude analysis of the aeroelastic stability of the shuttle booster indicates that negative aerodynamic damping could occur for at least one bending mode and be of sufficient magnitude to dominate the structural damping. The implication of these results, (with the possibility of undamped oscillations leading to structural failure), is serious enough to warrant further, more detailed analysis.

  3. Performance and Design Investigation of Heavy Lift Tiltrotor with Aerodynamic Interference Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeo, Yyeonsoo; Johnson, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    The aerodynamic interference effects on tiltrotor performance in cruise are investigated using comprehensive calculations, to better understand the physics and to quantify the effects on the aircraft design. Performance calculations were conducted for 146,600-lb conventional and quad tiltrotors, which are to cruise at 300 knots at 4000 ft/95 deg F condition. A parametric study was conducted to understand the effects of design parameters on the performance of the aircraft. Aerodynamic interference improves the aircraft lift-to-drag ratio of the baseline conventional tiltrotor. However, interference degrades the aircraft performance of the baseline quad tiltrotor, due mostly to the unfavorable effects from the front wing to the rear wing. A reduction of rotor tip speed increased the aircraft lift-to-drag ratio the most among the design parameters investigated.

  4. Effect of Ground Interference on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a 42 Degrees Sweptback Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furlong, G Chester; Bollech, Thomas V

    1951-01-01

    The effects of ground interference on the aerodynamic characteristics of a 42 degrees sweptback wing have been determined at distances above the ground 0.68 and 0.92 of the mean aerodynamic chord (measured from the 0.25 mean aerodynamic chord). The wing was tested without flaps and with inboard trailing-edge split and outboard leading-edge flaps deflected. The wing had an aspect ratio of 4, a taper ratio of 0.625, and NACA 641-112 airfoil sections perpendicular to the 0.273 chord line. The results are, in general, comparable to those reported for unswept wings. The longitudinal stability at the stall was not materially affected at the ground heights of the present tests.

  5. Aerodynamic interference effects on tilting proprotor aircraft. [using the Green function method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soohoo, P.; Morino, L.; Noll, R. B.; Ham, N. D.

    1977-01-01

    The Green's function method was used to study tilting proprotor aircraft aerodynamics with particular application to the problem of the mutual interference of the wing-fuselage-tail-rotor wake configuration. While the formulation is valid for fully unsteady rotor aerodynamics, attention was directed to steady state aerodynamics, which was achieved by replacing the rotor with the actuator disk approximation. The use of an actuator disk analysis introduced a mathematical singularity into the formulation; this problem was studied and resolved. The pressure distribution, lift, and pitching moment were obtained for an XV-15 wing-fuselage-tail rotor configuration at various flight conditions. For the flight configurations explored, the effects of the rotor wake interference on the XV-15 tilt rotor aircraft yielded a reduction in the total lift and an increase in the nose-down pitching moment. This method provides an analytical capability that is simple to apply and can be used to investigate fuselage-tail rotor wake interference as well as to explore other rotor design problem areas.

  6. Jet exhaust and support interference effects on the transonic aerodynamic characteristics of a fighter model with two widely spaced engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, W. B., III

    1976-01-01

    Jet exhaust, nozzle installation, and model support interference effects on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a twin-engine fighter model were determined. Realistic jet exhaust nozzle configurations and a reference configuration with a simulated vertical-tail support were tested. Free-stream Mach number was varied from 0.6 to 1.2, and model angle of attack from 0 deg to 9 deg. The jet exhaust affected drag more than it affected lift and pitching moment. The largest effects occurred at a Mach number of 0.9 and for the afterburning mode of exhaust nozzle operation. The combined differences between the aerodynamic characteristics of the realistic and reference configurations (which were due to afterbody and nozzle contours, jet operation, and simulated reference support interference) were considerably different from those for the jet interference alone.

  7. Aerodynamic interference between two Darrieus wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Schatzle, P.R.; Klimas, P.C.; Spahr, H.R.

    1981-04-01

    The effect of aerodynamic interference on the performance of two curved bladed Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbines has been calculated using a vortex/lifting line aerodynamic model. The turbines have a tower-to-tower separation distance of 1.5 turbine diameters, with the line of turbine centers varying with respect to the ambient wind direction. The effects of freestream turbulence were neglected. For the cases examined, the calculations showed that the downwind turbine power decrement (1) was significant only when the line of turbine centers was coincident with the ambient wind direction, (2) increased with increasing tipspeed ratio, and (3) is due more to induced flow angularities downstream than to speed deficits near the downstream turbine.

  8. Effect of Ground Interference on the Aerodynamic and Flow Characteristics of a 42 Degree Sweptback Wing at Reynolds Numbers up to 6.8 x 10(6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furlong, G Chester; Bollech, Thomas V

    1955-01-01

    Report presents the results of an investigation of the effects of ground interference on the aerodynamic characteristics of a 42 degree sweptback wing at distances 0.68 and 0.92 of the mean aerodynamic chord from the simulated ground to the 0.25-chord point of the mean aerodynamic chord. Survey data behind the wing, both with and without the simulated ground, are presented in the form of contour charts of downwash, sidewash, and dynamic-pressure ratio at longitudinal stations of 2.0 and 2.8 mean aerodynamic chords behind the wing.

  9. Effect of Length-Beam Ratio on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Flying-Boat Hulls without Wing Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, John G.; Riebe, John M.

    1948-01-01

    Contains experimental results of an investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of a family of flying boat hulls of length beam ratios 6, 9, 12, and 15 without wing interference. The results are compared with those taken on the same family of hulls in the presence of a wing.

  10. An experimental and analytical study of the aerodynamic interference effects between two Sears-Haack bodies at Mach 2.7. M.S. Thesis - George Washington Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bantle, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Aerodynamic interference effects were studied for two slender, streamlined bodies of revolution at Mach 2.7. A wind tunnel investigation produced force and moment data and measurements of pressure distributions on the bodies. As these bodies remained parallel with each other and with the freestream flow, their relative lateral and longitudinal spacing were varied. Results of theoretical methods were used in the analysis of results. The interference effects between the two bodies yielded less total drag than a single body of equal total volume and the same length.

  11. The interference aerodynamics caused by the wing elasticity during store separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yang; Zheng-yin, Ye

    2016-04-01

    Air-launch-to-orbit is the technology that has stores carried aloft and launched the store from the plane to the orbit. The separation between the aircraft and store is one of the most important and difficult phases in air-launch-to-orbit technology. There exists strong aerodynamic interference between the aircraft and the store in store separation. When the aspect ratio of the aircraft is large, the elastic deformations of the wing must be considered. The main purpose of this article is to study the influence of the interference aerodynamics caused by the elastic deformations of the wing to the unsteady aerodynamics of the store. By solving the coupled functions of unsteady Navier-Stokes equations, six degrees of freedom dynamic equations and structural dynamic equations simultaneously, the store separation with the elastic deformation of the aircraft considered is simulated numerically. And the interactive aerodynamic forces are analyzed. The study shows that the interference aerodynamics is obvious at earlier time during the separation, and the dominant frequency of the elastic wing determines the aerodynamic forces frequencies of the store. Because of the effect of the interference aerodynamics, the roll angle response and pitch angle response increase. When the store is mounted under the wingtip, the additional aerodynamics caused by the wingtip vortex is obvious, which accelerate the divergence of the lateral force and the lateral-directional attitude angle of the store. This study supports some beneficial conclusions to the engineering application of the air-launch-to-orbit.

  12. Computational and experimental studies of light twin aerodynamic interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, W. G.; Wentz, W. H., Jr.; Ostowari, C.

    1982-01-01

    The results of an analytical and experimental study of aerodynamic interference effects for a light twin aircraft are presented. Both the influence of a body (either fuselage or nacelle) on a wing and the influence of a wing on a body are studied. The wing studied uses a new natural laminar flow airfoil with variable camber movable trailing edge. A three-dimensional panel method program utilizing surface source and surface doublet singularities was used to design wing-nacelle and wing-fuselage fairings. Experiments were conducted using a 1/6 scale reflection plane model. Forces, pressures, and surface flow visualization results are presented. Results indicate that potential flow analysis is useful to guide the design of intersection fairings, but experimental tuning is still required. While the study specifically addressed a light twin aircraft, the methods are applicable to a wide variety of aircraft.

  13. The effect of wall interference upon the aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil spanning a closed-throat circular wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincenti, Walter G; Graham, Donald J

    1946-01-01

    The results of a theoretical and experimental investigation of wall interference for an airfoil spanning a closed-throat circular wind tunnel are presented. Analytical equations are derived which relate the characteristics of an airfoil in the tunnel at subsonic speeds with the characteristics in free air. The analysis takes into consideration the effect of fluid compressibility and is based upon the assumption that the chord of the airfoil is small as compared with the diameter of the tunnel. The development is restricted to an untwisted, constant-chord airfoil spanning the middle of the tunnel. Brief theoretical consideration is also given to the problem of choking at high speeds. Results are then presented of tests to determine the low-speed characteristics of an NACA 4412 airfoil for two chord-diameter ratios. While, on the basis of these experiments, no appraisal is possible of the accuracy of the corrections at high speeds, the data indicate that at low Mach numbers the analytical results are valid, even for relatively large values of the chord-diameter ratio.

  14. Effect of canard location and size on canard-wing interference and aerodynamic center shift related to maneuvering aircraft at transonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloss, B. B.

    1974-01-01

    A generalized wind-tunnel model, typical of highly maneuverable aircraft, was tested in the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.70 to 1.20 to determine the effects of canard location and size on canard-wing interference effects and aerodynamic center shift at transonic speeds. The canards had exposed areas of 16.0 and 28.0 percent of the wing reference area and were located in the chord plane of the wing or in a position 18.5 percent of the wing mean geometric chord above or below the wing chord plane. Two different wing planforms were tested, one with leading-edge sweep of 60 deg and the other 44 deg; both wings had the same reference area and span. The results indicated that the largest benefits in lift and drag were obtained with the canard above the wing chord plane for both wings tested. The low canard configuration for the 60 deg swept wing proved to be more stable and produced a more linear pitching-moment curve than the high and coplanar canard configurations for the subsonic test Mach numbers.

  15. Aerodynamic results of a support system interference effects test conducted at NASA/LaRC UPWT using an 0.015-scale model of the configuration 140A/B SSV orbiter (0A20B)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. H., II; Embury, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental aerodynamic investigation was conducted to determine the interference effects of a wind tunnel support system. The test article was a 0.015 scale model of the space shuttle orbiter. The primary objective of the test was to determine the extent that aerodynamic simulation of the space shuttle orbiter is affected by base mounting the model, without nozzles, on a straight sting. Two support systems were tested. The characteristics of the support systems are described. Data from the tests are presented in the form of graphs and tables.

  16. Two dimensional aerodynamic interference effects on oscillating airfoils with flaps in ventilated subsonic wind tunnels. [computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fromme, J.; Golberg, M.; Werth, J.

    1979-01-01

    The numerical computation of unsteady airloads acting upon thin airfoils with multiple leading and trailing-edge controls in two-dimensional ventilated subsonic wind tunnels is studied. The foundation of the computational method is strengthened with a new and more powerful mathematical existence and convergence theory for solving Cauchy singular integral equations of the first kind, and the method of convergence acceleration by extrapolation to the limit is introduced to analyze airfoils with flaps. New results are presented for steady and unsteady flow, including the effect of acoustic resonance between ventilated wind-tunnel walls and airfoils with oscillating flaps. The computer program TWODI is available for general use and a complete set of instructions is provided.

  17. Aerodynamic Interference Due to MSL Reaction Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyakonov, Artem A.; Schoenenberger, Mark; Scallion, William I.; VanNorman, John W.; Novak, Luke A.; Tang, Chun Y.

    2009-01-01

    An investigation of effectiveness of the reaction control system (RCS) of Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry capsule during atmospheric flight has been conducted. The reason for the investigation is that MSL is designed to fly a lifting actively guided entry with hypersonic bank maneuvers, therefore an understanding of RCS effectiveness is required. In the course of the study several jet configurations were evaluated using Langley Aerothermal Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA) code, Data Parallel Line Relaxation (DPLR) code, Fully Unstructured 3D (FUN3D) code and an Overset Grid Flowsolver (OVERFLOW) code. Computations indicated that some of the proposed configurations might induce aero-RCS interactions, sufficient to impede and even overwhelm the intended control torques. It was found that the maximum potential for aero-RCS interference exists around peak dynamic pressure along the trajectory. Present analysis largely relies on computational methods. Ground testing, flight data and computational analyses are required to fully understand the problem. At the time of this writing some experimental work spanning range of Mach number 2.5 through 4.5 has been completed and used to establish preliminary levels of confidence for computations. As a result of the present work a final RCS configuration has been designed such as to minimize aero-interference effects and it is a design baseline for MSL entry capsule.

  18. Interference effects of aft reaction-control yaw jets on the aerodynamic characteristics of a space shuttle orbiter model at supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covell, P. F.

    1983-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation of the interference effects of aft reaction control system yaw jet plumes on a 0.0125 scale Space Shuttle orbiter model was conducted at Mach numbers from 2.50 to 4.50. Test variables included model angle of attack, model angle of sideslip, jet to free stream mass flow ratio, and number and position of operating jets. The aft reaction control jet plume creates a blockage above and behind the wing on the side in which the jet exhausts and results in flow separation on the wing upper surface and fuselage side. Positive pitching moment and side force increments and negative yawing moment and rolling moment increments due to the flow separations are incurred for left side firing jets, primarily at angles of attack above 10 deg. The yawing moment interference increments are favorable and result in a small jet thrust amplification. As a result of this investigation, the aft reaction control system was certified for operation at supersonic Mach numbers prior to the first flight of the space transportation system (STS-1).

  19. Data base for the prediction of airframe/propulsion system interference effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillan, O. J.; Perkins, E. W.; Kuhn, G. D.; Perkins, S. C., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Supersonic tactical aircraft with highly integrated jet propulsion systems were investigated. Primary attention was given to those interference effects which impact the external aerodynamics of the aircraft.

  20. Rarefaction Effects in Hypersonic Aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riabov, Vladimir V.

    2011-05-01

    The Direct Simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) technique is used for numerical analysis of rarefied-gas hypersonic flows near a blunt plate, wedge, two side-by-side plates, disk, torus, and rotating cylinder. The role of various similarity parameters (Knudsen and Mach numbers, geometrical and temperature factors, specific heat ratios, and others) in aerodynamics of the probes is studied. Important kinetic effects that are specific for the transition flow regime have been found: non-monotonic lift and drag of plates, strong repulsive force between side-by-side plates and cylinders, dependence of drag on torus radii ratio, and the reverse Magnus effect on the lift of a rotating cylinder. The numerical results are in a good agreement with experimental data, which were obtained in a vacuum chamber at low and moderate Knudsen numbers from 0.01 to 10.

  1. The interference of the model support mast with measurements of the longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandekreeke, C.; Verriere, J.; Quemard, G.

    1987-01-01

    The effects the single-bottom support masts used in the ONERA S1 and S4 wind tunnels have on aerodynamic data collected with scale model aircraft were examined experimentally and analytically. Systematic studies were performed on the flow characteristics around different diameters for the mounts. Scaling methods used to make data from one wind tunnel correspond to data from the other are described. Airbus 320 models were introduced into the tests and mast-body flow interactions were observed. A summary is presented of restrictions on the mast diameters, relative to cylindrical model diameters, which will minimize the effects the masts have on longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic stability data.

  2. Interference-free measurements of the subsonic aerodynamics of slanted-base ogive cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, Colin P.; Alcorn, Charles W.

    1991-01-01

    Drag, lift, pitching moment, and base-pressure measurements have been made, free of support interference, on a range of slanted-base ogive cylinders, using the NASA Langley Research Center 13-in magnetic suspension and balance system. Test Mach numbers were in the range 0.04-0.2. Two types of wake flow were observed, a quasi-symmetric turbulent closure or a longitudinal vortex flow. Aerodynamic characteristics differ dramatically between the two wake types. Drag measurements are shown to be in agreement with previous tests. A hysteretic behavior of the wake with varying Reynold's number has been discovered for the 45-deg base. An interaction between forebody boundary-layer state and wake flow and base pressures has been detected for higher slant angles.

  3. Transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doig, G.

    2014-08-01

    A review of recent and historical work in the field of transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics has been conducted, focussing on applied research on wings and aircraft, present and future ground transportation, projectiles, rocket sleds and other related bodies which travel in close ground proximity in the compressible regime. Methods for ground testing are described and evaluated, noting that wind tunnel testing is best performed with a symmetry model in the absence of a moving ground; sled or rail testing is ultimately preferable, though considerably more expensive. Findings are reported on shock-related ground influence on aerodynamic forces and moments in and accelerating through the transonic regime - where force reversals and the early onset of local supersonic flow is prevalent - as well as more predictable behaviours in fully supersonic to hypersonic ground effect flows.

  4. Effects of ice accretions on aircraft aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Frank T.; Khodadoust, Abdollah

    2001-11-01

    This article is a systematic and comprehensive review, correlation, and assessment of test results available in the public domain which address the aerodynamic performance and control degradations caused by various types of ice accretions on the lifting surfaces of fixed wing aircraft. To help put the various test results in perspective, overviews are provided first of the important factors and limitations involved in computational and experimental icing simulation techniques, as well as key aerodynamic testing simulation variables and governing flow physics issues. Following these are the actual reviews, assessments, and correlations of a large number of experimental measurements of various forms of mostly simulated in-flight and ground ice accretions, augmented where appropriate by similar measurements for other analogous forms of surface contamination and/or disruptions. In-flight icing categories reviewed include the initial and inter-cycle ice accretions inherent in the use of de-icing systems which are of particular concern because of widespread misconceptions about the thickness of such accretions which can be allowed before any serious consequences occur, and the runback/ridge ice accretions typically associated with larger-than-normal water droplet encounters which are of major concern because of the possible potential for catastrophic reductions in aerodynamic effectiveness. The other in-flight ice accretion category considered includes the more familiar large rime and glaze ice accretions, including ice shapes with rather grotesque features, where the concern is that, in spite of all the research conducted to date, the upper limit of penalties possible has probably not been defined. Lastly, the effects of various possible ground frost/ice accretions are considered. The concern with some of these is that for some types of configurations, all of the normally available operating margins to stall at takeoff may be erased if these accretions are not

  5. Aerodynamic effects of flexibility in flapping wings

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liang; Huang, Qingfeng; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P.

    2010-01-01

    Recent work on the aerodynamics of flapping flight reveals fundamental differences in the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation between fixed and flapping wings. When fixed wings translate at high angles of attack, they periodically generate and shed leading and trailing edge vortices as reflected in their fluctuating aerodynamic force traces and associated flow visualization. In contrast, wings flapping at high angles of attack generate stable leading edge vorticity, which persists throughout the duration of the stroke and enhances mean aerodynamic forces. Here, we show that aerodynamic forces can be controlled by altering the trailing edge flexibility of a flapping wing. We used a dynamically scaled mechanical model of flapping flight (Re ≈ 2000) to measure the aerodynamic forces on flapping wings of variable flexural stiffness (EI). For low to medium angles of attack, as flexibility of the wing increases, its ability to generate aerodynamic forces decreases monotonically but its lift-to-drag ratios remain approximately constant. The instantaneous force traces reveal no major differences in the underlying modes of force generation for flexible and rigid wings, but the magnitude of force, the angle of net force vector and centre of pressure all vary systematically with wing flexibility. Even a rudimentary framework of wing veins is sufficient to restore the ability of flexible wings to generate forces at near-rigid values. Thus, the magnitude of force generation can be controlled by modulating the trailing edge flexibility and thereby controlling the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity. To characterize this, we have generated a detailed database of aerodynamic forces as a function of several variables including material properties, kinematics, aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure, which can also be used to help validate computational models of aeroelastic flapping wings. These experiments will also be useful for wing design for small robotic

  6. Missile aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, Jack N.

    1988-01-01

    The fundamental aerodynamics of slender bodies is examined in the reprint edition of an introductory textbook originally published in 1960. Chapters are devoted to the formulas commonly used in missile aerodynamics; slender-body theory at supersonic and subsonic speeds; vortices in viscid and inviscid flow; wing-body interference; downwash, sidewash, and the wake; wing-tail interference; aerodynamic controls; pressure foredrag, base drag, and skin friction; and stability derivatives. Diagrams, graphs, tables of terms and formulas are provided.

  7. Aerodynamic and Gasdynamic Effects in Cosmogony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidenschilling, Stuart J.

    2005-01-01

    Senior Scientist Stuart J. Weidenschilling presents his final administrative report for the research program entitled "Aerodynamic and Gasdynamic Effects in Cosmogony" on which he was the Principal Investigator. The research program produced the following publications: 1) Particle-gas dynamics and primary accretion. J . N. Cuzzi and S. J. Weidenschilling. In Meteorites and the Early Solar System II (D. Lauretta and H. Y . McSween, Eds.). Univ. Arizona Press. in press, 2005; 2) Timescales of the solar protoplanetary disk. S. Russell, L. Hartmann. J. N. Cuzzi. A. Krot. M. Gounelle and S . J Weidenschilling. In Meteorites and the Early Solar System II (D. Lauretta and H. Y. McSween, Eds.). Univ. Arizona Press, in press, 2005; 3) From icy grains to comets. In Comets II (M. Festou et al., Eds.). Univ. Arizona Press, pp. 97-104. 2004; 4) Gravitational instability and clustering in a disk of planetesimals. P. Tanga, S. J. N'eidenschilling, P. Michel and D. C. Richardson. Astron. Astrophys. 327, 1 105- 1 1 15, 2004.

  8. Space Shuttle Plume Simulation Effect on Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hair, L. M.

    1978-01-01

    Technology for simulating plumes in wind tunnel tests was not adequate to provide the required confidence in test data where plume induced aerodynamic effects might be significant. A broad research program was undertaken to correct the deficiency. Four tasks within the program are reported. Three of these tasks involve conducting experiments, related to three different aspects of the plume simulation problem: (1) base pressures; (2) lateral jet pressures; and (3) plume parameters. The fourth task involves collecting all of the base pressure test data generated during the program. Base pressures were measured on a classic cone ogive cylinder body as affected by the coaxial, high temperature exhaust plumes of a variety of solid propellant rockets. Valid data were obtained at supersonic freestream conditions but not at transonic. Pressure data related to lateral (separation) jets at M infinity = 4.5, for multiple clustered nozzles canted to the freestream and operating at high dynamic pressure ratios. All program goals were met although the model hardware was found to be large relative to the wind tunnel size so that operation was limited for some nozzle configurations.

  9. Aerodynamic Interaction Effects of a Helicopter Rotor and Fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, David D., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    A three year Cooperative Research Agreements made in each of the three years between the Subsonic Aerodynamics Branch of the NASA Langley Research Center and the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Va. Tech) has been completed. This document presents results from this three year endeavor. The goal of creating an efficient method to compute unsteady interactional effects between a helicopter rotor and fuselage has been accomplished. This paper also includes appendices to support these findings. The topics are: 1) Rotor-Fuselage Interactions Aerodynamics: An Unsteady Rotor Model; and 2) Rotor/Fuselage Unsteady Interactional Aerodynamics: A New Computational Model.

  10. Aerodynamic Effects and Modeling of Damage to Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Gautam H.

    2008-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted to measure the aerodynamic effects of damage to lifting and stability/control surfaces of a commercial transport aircraft configuration. The modeling of such effects is necessary for the development of flight control systems to recover aircraft from adverse, damage-related loss-of-control events, as well as for the estimation of aerodynamic characteristics from flight data under such conditions. Damage in the form of partial or total loss of area was applied to the wing, horizontal tail, and vertical tail. Aerodynamic stability and control implications of damage to each surface are presented, to aid in the identification of potential boundaries in recoverable stability or control degradation. The aerodynamic modeling issues raised by the wind tunnel results are discussed, particularly the additional modeling requirements necessitated by asymmetries due to damage, and the potential benefits of such expanded modeling.

  11. The Contextual Interference Effect in Applied Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreiros, Joao; Figueiredo, Teresa; Godinho, Mario

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the research literature that approaches the contextual interference effect in applied settings. In contrast to the laboratory settings, in which high interference conditions depress acquisition and promote learning evaluated in retention and transfer tests, in applied settings most of the studies (60%) fail to observe positive…

  12. Long-Term and Transitory Interference Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Howard I.; Weiss, Jay M.

    1976-01-01

    If animals receive inescapable electric shocks, their subsequent avoidance-escape learning is poor. This phenomenon, which can be called "the interference effect", was studied in four experiments. (Editor)

  13. Numerical Analysis of Aerodynamic Interference between Two Circular Cylinders Using the Overset Grid Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimatsu, Takuto; Morishita, Etsuo; Okunuki, Takeo; Koyama, Hisao

    Flows over two circular cylinders in tandem, side-by-side, and staggered arrangements were analyzed using the overset grid method, which is capable of handling a variety of sizes and arrangements. The Reynolds number was 100 based on the cylinder diameter. The present computation code was validated by comparison with benchmark solutions for flow around a single cylinder. Wind-tunnel experiments were conducted for the side-by-side cylinder flow for comparison with numerical simulations. Calculation showed two critical spacings in the tandem arrangement where the aerodynamic forces and Strouhal number change discontinuously. Three critical spacings and four distinct flow patterns were found numerically in the side-by-side arrangement. Similar critical spacings were found in the staggered arrangement calculation and formed critical lines. Furthermore, a pocket region was found for a staggered arrangement surrounded by the critical line.

  14. Aerodynamic Effects in Weakly Ionized Gas: Phenomenology and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Popovic, S.; Vuskovic, L.

    2006-12-01

    Aerodynamic effects in ionized gases, often neglected phenomena, have been subject of a renewed interest in recent years. After a brief historical account, we discuss a selected number of effects and unresolved problems that appear to be relevant in both aeronautic and propulsion applications in subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic flow. Interaction between acoustic shock waves and weakly ionized gas is manifested either as plasma-induced shock wave dispersion and acceleration or as shock-wave induced double electric layer in the plasma, followed by the localized increase of the average electron energy and density, as well as enhancement of optical emission. We describe the phenomenology of these effects and discuss several experiments that still do not have an adequate interpretation. Critical for application of aerodynamic effects is the energy deposition into the flow. We classify and discuss some proposed wall-free generation schemes with respect to the efficiency of energy deposition and overall generation of the aerodynamic body force.

  15. Theoretical study of hull-rotor aerodynamic interference on semibuoyant vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, S. B.; Smith, C. A.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical methods are developed to predict the pressure distribution and overall loads on the hulls of airships which have close coupled, relatively large and/or high disk loading propulsors for attitude control, station keeping, and partial support of total weight as well as provision of thrust in cruise. The methods comprise a surface-singularity, potential-flow model for the hull and lifting surfaces (such as tails) and a rotor model which calculates the velocity induced by the rotor and its wake at points adjacent to the wake. Use of these two models provides an inviscid pressure distribution on the hull with rotor interference. A boundary layer separation prediction method is used to locate separation on the hull, and a wake pressure is imposed on the separated region for purposes of calculating hull loads. Results of calculations are shown to illustrate various cases of rotor-hull interference and comparisons with small scale data are made to evaluate the method.

  16. Effects of upper-surface nacelles on longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of high-wing transport configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, L. E.

    1986-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the effects of installing and streamline contouring upper-surface nacelles on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a high-wing transport configuration. Also investigated were the effects of adding a fairing under the nacelle. The investigation was conducted at free-stream Mach numbers from 0.60 to 0.83 at angles fo attack from -2 deg to 4 deg. Flow-through nacelles were used. Streamline contouring the nacelles substantially reduced the interference drag due to installing the nacelles.

  17. Space shuttle: Determination of the aerodynamic interference between the space shuttle orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket booster on a 0.004 scale ascent configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, P. E.; Buchholz, R.; Allen, E. C. JR.; Dehart, J.

    1973-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to determine the aerodynamic interference between the space shuttle orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket booster on a 0.004 scale ascent configuration. Six component aerodynamic force and moment data were recorded over an angle of attack range from minus 10 to plus 10 degrees at zero degree sideslip. A sideslip range of minus 10 to plus 10 degrees at zero degree angle of attack was also tested. The Mach number range was varied from 0.6 to 4.96 with Reynolds number varying between 4.9 and 6.8 times one million per foot.

  18. Theoretical study of hull-rotor aerodynamic interference on semibuoyant vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, S. B.; Smith, C. A.; Mendenhall, M. R.

    1977-01-01

    Theoretical methods are being developed to predict the mutual interference between rotor wakes and the hull for semibuoyant vehicles. The objective of the investigation is to predict the pressure distribution and overall loads on the hull in the presence of rotors whose locations, tilt angles, and disk loading are arbitrarily specified. The methods involve development of potential flow models for the hull alone in a nonuniform onset flow, a rotor wake which has the proper features to predict induced flow outside the wake, and a wake centerline specification technique which accounts for the reactions of the wake to a nonuniform crossflow. The flow models are used in sequence to solve for the mutual influence of the hull and rotor(s) on each other and the resulting loads. A flow separation model is included to estimate the influence of separation on hull loads at high sideslip angles. Only limited results have been obtained to date. These were obtained on a configuration which was tested in the Ames Research Center 7- by 10-Foot Low Speed Tunnel under Goodyear Aircraft Corporation sponsorship and indicate the nature of the interference pressure distribution on a configuration in hover.

  19. Nozzle and wing geometry effects on OTW aerodynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonglahn, U.; Groesbeck, D.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of nozzle geometry and wing size on the aerodynamic performance of several 5:1 aspect ratio slot nozzles are presented for over-the-wing (OTW) configurations. Nozzle geometry variables include roof angle, sidewall cutback, and nozzle chordwise location. Wing variables include chord size, and flap deflection. Several external deflectors also were included for comparison. The data indicate that good flow turning may not necessarily provide the best aerodynamic performance. The results suggest that a variable exhaust nozzle geometry offers the best solution for a viable OTW configuration.

  20. AERODYNAMIC SIZE MEASUREMENT OF AIRBORNE FIBERS AND HEALTH EFFECTS IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The constituent particles of many ambient and workplace aerosols of health effects concerns are of fibrous and aggregate geometric shapes. lthough the deposition sites of particles in the human respiratory system are primarily related to their aerodynamic diameters, for rod-like ...

  1. Interference effects in potential wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullin, W. J.; Laloë, F.

    2015-05-01

    We propose using an array of potential wells as an interferometer in which the beam splitters are provided by tunneling during an appropriate time through the barrier between wells. This arrangement allows demonstration of generalized Hong-Ou-Mandel effects with multiple particles traversing one or several beam splitters. Other interferometer effects can occur, including a violation of the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt form of the Bell inequality. With interactions, one sees various effects, including so-called fermionization, collective tunneling, and self-trapping.

  2. Mechanisms in wing-in-ground effect aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Marvin Alan

    An aircraft in low-level flight experiences a large increase in lift and a marked reduction in drag, compared with flight at altitude. This phenomenon is termed the 'wing-in-ground' effect. In these circumstances a region of high pressure is created beneath the aerofoil, and a pressure difference is set up between its upper and lower surfaces. A pressure difference is not permitted at the trailing edge and therefore a mechanism must exist which allows the pressures above and below to adjust themselves to produce a continuous pressure field in the wake. It is the study of this mechanism and its role in the aerodynamics of low-level flight that forms the basis of our investigation. We begin in Chapter 2 by considering the flow past a thin aero-foil moving at moderate distances from the ground, the typical ground clearance a being of order unity. The aforementioned mechanism is introduced and described in detail in the context of this inviscid problem. Chapter 3 considers the same flow for large and small ground clearances and in the later case shows that the flow solution beneath the aerofoil takes on a particularly simple form. In this case the lift is shown to increase as a-1. In Chapter 4 we focus on the flow past the trailing edge of an aerofoil moving even nearer the ground, with the ground just outside the boundary layer. We show that in this case our asymptotic theory for small a is consistent with a 'triple-deck' approach to the problem which incorporates ground effects via a new pressure-displacement law. The triple-deck ground-interference problem is stated and solved. In Chapter 5 we investigate the case where the aerofoil is so near the ground that the ground is inside the boundary layer. Here the moving ground interacts with the aerofoil in a fully viscous way and the non-linear boundary layer equations hold along the entire length of the aerofoil. Again a pressure difference at the trailing edge is not permitted and this produces upstream adjustment

  3. Time and interference: Effects on working memory.

    PubMed

    Botto, Marta; Palladino, Paola

    2016-05-01

    This study tested predictions from the time-based resource-sharing (TBRS) model with a classical verbal working memory (WM) task, where target and non-target information interfere strongly with each other. Different predictions can be formulated according to the dominant perspectives (TBRS and interference hypothesis) on the role of inhibitory control in WM task performance. Here, we aimed to trace the activation of irrelevant information, examining priming effects in a lexical decision task immediately following WM recall. Results indicate the roles of both time and interference constraints in determining task performance. In particular, the role of time available seemed crucial at the highest WM loads (i.e., 3 and 4 memoranda). These were also associated with a higher activation of no-longer-relevant information but, in this case, independently from time available for processing. PMID:26085338

  4. Interference effects of categorization on decision making.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Busemeyer, Jerome R

    2016-05-01

    Many decision making tasks in life involve a categorization process, but the effects of categorization on subsequent decision making has rarely been studied. This issue was explored in three experiments (N=721), in which participants were shown a face stimulus on each trial and performed variations of categorization-decision tasks. On C-D trials, they categorized the stimulus and then made an action decision; on X-D trials, they were told the category and then made an action decision; on D-alone trials, they only made an action decision. An interference effect emerged in some of the conditions, such that the probability of an action on the D-alone trials (i.e., when there was no explicit categorization before the decision) differed from the total probability of the same action on the C-D or X-D trials (i.e., when there was explicit categorization before the decision). Interference effects are important because they indicate a violation of the classical law of total probability, which is assumed by many cognitive models. Across all three experiments, a complex pattern of interference effects systematically occurred for different types of stimuli and for different types of categorization-decision tasks. These interference effects present a challenge for traditional cognitive models, such as Markov and signal detection models, but a quantum cognition model, called the belief-action entanglement (BAE) model, predicted that these results could occur. The BAE model employs the quantum principles of superposition and entanglement to explain the psychological mechanisms underlying the puzzling interference effects. The model can be applied to many important and practical categorization-decision situations in life. PMID:26896726

  5. The aerodynamic effect of heavy rain on airplane performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D.

    1990-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has been conducting a series of tests to determine the effect of heavy rain on airfoil aerodynamics. The results of these tests have shown that heavy rain can significantly increase drag as well as decrease lift and stall angle of attack. This paper describes a recent effort to use the heavy rain airfoil data to determine the aerodynamic effect on a conventional twin-jet transport. The paper reports on the method used to model the heavy rain aerodynamic effect and the resulting performance degradation. The heavy rain performance effect is presented in terms of the diminished climb performance associated with increasing rain rates. The effect of heavy rain on the airplane's ability to escape a performance-limiting wind shear is illustrated through a numerical simulation of a wet microburst encounter. The results of this paper accentuate the need for further testing to determine scaling relationships and flow mechanics, and the full configuration three-dimensional effects of heavy rain.

  6. Transonic wall interference effects on bodies of revolution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couch, L. M.

    1972-01-01

    Efforts to develop a near sonic transport have placed renewed emphasis on obtaining accurate aerodynamic force and pressure data in the near sonic speed range. Comparison of wind-tunnel and flight data obtained for a blunt-nose body of revolution showed significant discrepancies in drag levels near Mach 1 - apparently due to wind-tunnel wall interference. Subsequent tests of geometrically similar bodies of revolution showed that increasing the model-to-test-section blockage ratio from 0.00017 to 0.0043 resulted in altered drag curve shapes, delayed drag divergence, and 'transonic creep' from subsonic drag levels due to increased wall interference.

  7. Effects of Ice Accretion on Aircraft Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Michael B.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to support the development of a new ice accretion model by improving our physical understanding of the ice accretion process through experimental measurements. The focus was on the effect of the initial ice roughness (smooth/rough boundary) on the accretion process. This includes understanding the boundary-layer development over the roughness and especially its effect on the heat transfer which is fundamental to the ice accretion process. The research focused on acquiring the experimental data needed to formulate a new ice accretion physical model. Research was conducted to analyze boundary-layer data taken on a NACA 0012 airfoil with roughness to simulate the smooth/rough boundary. The effect of isolated roughness on boundary-layer transition was studied experimentally to determine if the classical critical roughness Reynolds number criteria could be applied to transition in the airfoil leading-edge area. The effect of simulated smooth/rough boundary roughness on convective heat transfer was studied to complete the study. During the course of this research the effect of free-stream wind tunnel turbulence on the boundary layer was measured. Since this quantity was not well known, research to accurately measure the wind tunnel turbulence in an icing cloud was undertaken. Preliminary results were attained and the final data were acquired, reduced and presented under a subsequent grant.

  8. Aerodynamic Ground Effect in Fruitfly Sized Insect Takeoff.

    PubMed

    Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Maeda, Masateru; Engels, Thomas; Liu, Hao; Schneider, Kai; Nave, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Aerodynamic ground effect in flapping-wing insect flight is of importance to comparative morphologies and of interest to the micro-air-vehicle (MAV) community. Recent studies, however, show apparently contradictory results of either some significant extra lift or power savings, or zero ground effect. Here we present a numerical study of fruitfly sized insect takeoff with a specific focus on the significance of leg thrust and wing kinematics. Flapping-wing takeoff is studied using numerical modelling and high performance computing. The aerodynamic forces are calculated using a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver based on a pseudo-spectral method with volume penalization. It is coupled with a flight dynamics solver that accounts for the body weight, inertia and the leg thrust, while only having two degrees of freedom: the vertical and the longitudinal horizontal displacement. The natural voluntary takeoff of a fruitfly is considered as reference. The parameters of the model are then varied to explore possible effects of interaction between the flapping-wing model and the ground plane. These modified takeoffs include cases with decreased leg thrust parameter, and/or with periodic wing kinematics, constant body pitch angle. The results show that the ground effect during natural voluntary takeoff is negligible. In the modified takeoffs, when the rate of climb is slow, the difference in the aerodynamic forces due to the interaction with the ground is up to 6%. Surprisingly, depending on the kinematics, the difference is either positive or negative, in contrast to the intuition based on the helicopter theory, which suggests positive excess lift. This effect is attributed to unsteady wing-wake interactions. A similar effect is found during hovering. PMID:27019208

  9. Aerodynamic Ground Effect in Fruitfly Sized Insect Takeoff

    PubMed Central

    Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Maeda, Masateru; Engels, Thomas; Liu, Hao; Schneider, Kai; Nave, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Aerodynamic ground effect in flapping-wing insect flight is of importance to comparative morphologies and of interest to the micro-air-vehicle (MAV) community. Recent studies, however, show apparently contradictory results of either some significant extra lift or power savings, or zero ground effect. Here we present a numerical study of fruitfly sized insect takeoff with a specific focus on the significance of leg thrust and wing kinematics. Flapping-wing takeoff is studied using numerical modelling and high performance computing. The aerodynamic forces are calculated using a three-dimensional Navier–Stokes solver based on a pseudo-spectral method with volume penalization. It is coupled with a flight dynamics solver that accounts for the body weight, inertia and the leg thrust, while only having two degrees of freedom: the vertical and the longitudinal horizontal displacement. The natural voluntary takeoff of a fruitfly is considered as reference. The parameters of the model are then varied to explore possible effects of interaction between the flapping-wing model and the ground plane. These modified takeoffs include cases with decreased leg thrust parameter, and/or with periodic wing kinematics, constant body pitch angle. The results show that the ground effect during natural voluntary takeoff is negligible. In the modified takeoffs, when the rate of climb is slow, the difference in the aerodynamic forces due to the interaction with the ground is up to 6%. Surprisingly, depending on the kinematics, the difference is either positive or negative, in contrast to the intuition based on the helicopter theory, which suggests positive excess lift. This effect is attributed to unsteady wing-wake interactions. A similar effect is found during hovering. PMID:27019208

  10. Effect of Moving Surface on NACA 63218 Aerodynamic Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahiaoui, Tayeb; Belhenniche, Mohamed; Imine, Bachir

    2015-05-01

    The main subject of this work is the numerical study control of flow separation on a NACA 63218 airfoil by using moving surface. Different numerical cases are considered: the first one is the numerical simulation of non-modified airfoil NACA 63218 according at different angle of attack and the second one a set of moving cylinder is placed on leading edge of the airfoil. The rotational velocity of the cylinder is varied to establish the effect of momentum injection on modified airfoil aerodynamic performances. The turbulence is modeled by two equations k-epsilon model.

  11. Effect of symmetrical vortex shedding on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of wing-body-tail combinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, M. R.; Nielsen, J. N.

    1975-01-01

    An engineering prediction method for determining the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of wing-body-tail combinations is developed. The method includes the effects of nonlinear aerodynamics of components and the interference between components. Nonlinearities associated with symmetrical vortex shedding from the nose of the body are considered as well as the nonlinearities associated with the separation vortices from the leading edges and side edges of the lifting surfaces. The wing and tail characteristics are calculated using lifting surface theories which include effects of incidence, camber, twist, and induced velocities from external sources of disturbance such as bodies and vortices. The lifting surface theories calculate the distribution of leading edge and side edge suction which is converted to vortex lift using the Polhamus suction analogy. Correlation curves are developed to determine the fraction of the theoretical suction force which is converted into vortex lift. The prediction method is compared with experimental data on a variety of aircraft configurations to assess the accuracy and limitations of the method.

  12. Planform effects on the supersonic aerodynamics of multibody configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillin, Naomi; Wood, Richard M.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of the effect of planform on the supersonic aerodynamics of low-fineness-ratio multibody configurations was conducted. Longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic and flow visualization data were obtained on three multibody configurations. The data indicated that planform has a small effect on the zero lift drag of a multibody configuration. The longitudinal data obtained at lifting conditions showed a sensitivity to planform shape. Lateral-directional data obtained for all configurations did not uncover any unusual stability traits for this class of configuration. A comparison study was also made between the planform effects observed on single-body and multibody configurations. Results from this study indicate that the multibody concept appears to offer a mechanism for employing a low-sweep wing with no significant increase in zero-lift drag but still retaining high-performance characteristics at high-lift conditions. Evaluation of the linear-theory prediction methods revealed a general inability of the methods to predict the characteristics of low-fineness-ratio geometries.

  13. Reynolds number effects on the transonic aerodynamics of a slender wing-body configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckring, James M.; Fox, Charles H., Jr.; Cundiff, Jeffrey S.

    1989-01-01

    Aerodynamic forces and moments for a slender wing-body configuration are summarized from an investigation in the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF). The results include both longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic properties as well as slideslip derivatives. Results were selected to emphasize Reynolds number effects at a transonic speed although some lower speed results are also presented for context. The data indicate nominal Reynolds number effects on the longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients and more pronounced effects for the lateral-directional aerodynamic coefficients. The Reynolds number sensitivities for the lateral-directional coefficients were limited to high angles of attack.

  14. Dynamic Stall in Pitching Airfoils: Aerodynamic Damping and Compressibility Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corke, Thomas C.; Thomas, Flint O.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic stall is an incredibly rich fluid dynamics problem that manifests itself on an airfoil during rapid, transient motion in which the angle of incidence surpasses the static stall limit. It is an important element of many manmade and natural flyers, including helicopters and supermaneuverable aircraft, and low-Reynolds number flapping-wing birds and insects. The fluid dynamic attributes that accompany dynamic stall include an eruption of vorticity that organizes into a well-defined dynamic stall vortex and massive excursions in aerodynamic loads that can couple with the airfoil structural dynamics. The dynamic stall process is highly sensitive to surface roughness that can influence turbulent transition and to local compressibility effects that occur at free-stream Mach numbers that are otherwise incompressible. Under some conditions, dynamic stall can result in negative aerodynamic damping that leads to limit-cycle growth of structural vibrations and rapid mechanical failure. The mechanisms leading to negative damping have been a principal interest of recent experiments and analysis. Computational fluid dynamic simulations and low-order models have not been good predictors so far. Large-eddy simulation could be a viable approach although it remains computationally intensive. The topic is technologically important owing to the desire to develop next-generation rotorcraft that employ adaptive rotor dynamic stall control.

  15. Electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of monolayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seul Ki; Kim, Ki Yeong; Kim, Taek Yong; Kim, Jong Hoon; Park, Seong Wook; Kim, Joung Ho; Cho, Byung Jin

    2012-11-16

    We report the first experimental results on the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) of monolayer graphene. The monolayer CVD graphene has an average SE value of 2.27 dB, corresponding to ~40% shielding of incident waves. CVD graphene shows more than seven times (in terms of dB) greater SE than gold film. The dominant mechanism is absorption rather than reflection, and the portion of absorption decreases with an increase in the number of graphene layers. Our modeling work shows that plane-wave theory for metal shielding is also applicable to graphene. The model predicts that ideal monolayer graphene can shield as much as 97.8% of EMI. This suggests the feasibility of manufacturing an ultrathin, transparent, and flexible EMI shield by single or few-layer graphene. PMID:23085718

  16. Discussion for possibility of some aerodynamic ground effect craft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Yoshikazu

    1990-05-01

    Some type of pleasant, convenient, safe, and economical transportation method to supplement airplane transportation is currently required. This paper proposes an Aerodynamic Ground Effect Craft (AGEC) as this new transportation method, and studies its qualitative feasibility in comparison with present typical transportation methods such as transporter airplanes, flying boats, and linear motor cars which also have common characteristics of ultra low altitude cruising. Noteworthy points of AGEC are the effective energy consumption against transportation capacity (exergie) and the ultra low altitude cruising, which is relatively safer at the emergency landing than the subsonic airplane's body landing. Through AGEC has shorter cruising range and smaller transportation capacity, its transportation efficiency is superior to that of airplanes and linear motor cars. There is no critical difficulty in large sizing of AGEC, and AGEC is thought to be the very probable candidate which can supplement airplane transportation in the near future.

  17. Aerodynamic effects of trees on pollutant concentration in street canyons.

    PubMed

    Buccolieri, Riccardo; Gromke, Christof; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Ruck, Bodo

    2009-09-15

    This paper deals with aerodynamic effects of avenue-like tree planting on flow and traffic-originated pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons by means of wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulations. Several parameters affecting pedestrian level concentration are investigated, namely plant morphology, positioning and arrangement. We extend our previous work in this novel aspect of research to new configurations which comprise tree planting of different crown porosity and stand density, planted in two rows within a canyon of street width to building height ratio W/H=2 with perpendicular approaching wind. Sulfur hexafluoride was used as tracer gas to model the traffic emissions. Complementary to wind tunnel experiments, 3D numerical simulations were performed with the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT using a Reynolds Stress turbulence closure for flow and the advection-diffusion method for concentration calculations. In the presence of trees, both measurements and simulations showed considerable larger pollutant concentrations near the leeward wall and slightly lower concentrations near the windward wall in comparison with the tree-less case. Tree stand density and crown porosity were found to be of minor importance in affecting pollutant concentration. On the other hand, the analysis indicated that W/H is a more crucial parameter. The larger the value of W/H the smaller is the effect of trees on pedestrian level concentration regardless of tree morphology and arrangement. A preliminary analysis of approaching flow velocities showed that at low wind speed the effect of trees on concentrations is worst than at higher speed. The investigations carried out in this work allowed us to set up an appropriate CFD modelling methodology for the study of the aerodynamic effects of tree planting in street canyons. The results obtained can be used by city planners for the design of tree planting in the urban environment with regard to air quality issues

  18. Subsonic sting interference on the aerodynamic characteristics of a family of slanted-base ogive-cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, Colin P.; Alcorn, Charles W.; Kilgore, W. Allen

    1990-01-01

    Support interference free drag, lift, and pitching moment measurements on a range of slanted base ogive cylinders were made using the NASA Langley 13 inch magnetic suspension and balance system. Typical test Mach numbers were in the range 0.04 to 0.2. Drag results are shown to be in broad agreement with previous tests with this configuration. Measurements were repeated with a dummy sting support installed in the wind tunnel. Significant support interferences were found at all test conditions and are quantified. Further comparison is made between interference free base pressures, obtained using remote telemetry, and sting cavity pressures.

  19. Effects of vortex generator on cylindrical protrusion aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignesh Ram, P. S.; Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Kim, Heuy Dong

    2016-02-01

    Experimental and numerical studies were carried out to evaluate the effect of vortex generator on a small cylindrical protrusion at Mach number 2.0. The experiments were performed using the supersonic blow down wind tunnel on different heights of cylindrical protrusion with vortex generator placed ahead of them. The upstream and downstream flow around the cylindrical protrusion is influenced by vortex generator as is observed using both visualization and pressure measurement techniques. Numerical studies using three dimensional steady implicit formulations with standard k-ω turbulence model was performed. Results obtained through the present computation are compared with the experimental results at Mach 2.0. Good agreements between computation and experimental results have been achieved. The results indicate that the aerodynamic drag acting on cylindrical protrusion can be reduced by adopting vortex generator.

  20. Effect of Transition Aerodynamics on Aeroassist Flight Experiment Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minier, Elizabeth A.; Suit, William T.

    1988-01-01

    Various transition methods are used here to study the viscous effects encountered in low density, hypersonic flight, through the transition from free molecular to continuum flow. Methods utilizing Viking data, Shuttle Orbiter data, a Potter number parameter, and a Shock Reynolds number were implemented in the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST). Simulations of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) using open loop guidance were used to assess the aerodynamic performance of the vehicle. A bank angle was found for each transition method that would result in a 200 nautical-mile apogee. Once this was done, the open loop guidance was replaced by the proposed guidance algorithm for the AFE. Simulations were again conducted using that guidance and the different transitions for comparison. For the gains used, the guidance system showed some sensitivity in apogee altitude to the transition method assumed, but the guidance was able to successfully complete the mission.

  1. Effects of wing deformation on aerodynamic performance of a revolving insect wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Ryusuke; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Liu, Hao

    2014-12-01

    Flexible wings of insects and bio-inspired micro air vehicles generally deform remarkably during flapping flight owing to aerodynamic and inertial forces, which is of highly nonlinear fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems. To elucidate the novel mechanisms associated with flexible wing aerodynamics in the low Reynolds number regime, we have built up a FSI model of a hawkmoth wing undergoing revolving and made an investigation on the effects of flexible wing deformation on aerodynamic performance of the revolving wing model. To take into account the characteristics of flapping wing kinematics we designed a kinematic model for the revolving wing in two-fold: acceleration and steady rotation, which are based on hovering wing kinematics of hawkmoth, Manduca sexta. Our results show that both aerodynamic and inertial forces demonstrate a pronounced increase during acceleration phase, which results in a significant wing deformation. While the aerodynamic force turns to reduce after the wing acceleration terminates due to the burst and detachment of leading-edge vortices (LEVs), the dynamic wing deformation seem to delay the burst of LEVs and hence to augment the aerodynamic force during and even after the acceleration. During the phase of steady rotation, the flexible wing model generates more vertical force at higher angles of attack (40°-60°) but less horizontal force than those of a rigid wing model. This is because the wing twist in spanwise owing to aerodynamic forces results in a reduction in the effective angle of attack at wing tip, which leads to enhancing the aerodynamics performance by increasing the vertical force while reducing the horizontal force. Moreover, our results point out the importance of the fluid-structure interaction in evaluating flexible wing aerodynamics: the wing deformation does play a significant role in enhancing the aerodynamic performances but works differently during acceleration and steady rotation, which is mainly induced by

  2. Quantifying the Effect of Pressure Sensitive Paint On Aerodynamic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, T. R.; Obara, C. J.; Liu, T.

    2003-01-01

    A thin pressure sensitive paint (PSP) coating can slightly modify the overall shape of a wind-tunnel model and produce surface roughness or smoothness that does not exist on the unpainted model. These undesirable changes in model geometry may alter flow over the model, and affect the pressure distribution and aerodynamic forces and moments on the model. This study quantifies the effects of PSP on three models in low-speed, transonic and supersonic flow regimes. At a 95% confidence level, the PSP effects on the integrated forces are insignificant for a slender arrow-wing-fuselage model and delta wing model with two different paints at Mach 0.2, 1.8, and 2.16 relative to the total balance accuracy limit. The data displayed a repeatability of 2.5 drag counts, while the balance accuracy limit was about 5.5 drag counts. At transonic speeds, the paint has a localized effect at high angles of attack and has a resolvable effect on the normal force, which is significant relative to the balance accuracy limit. For low speeds, the PSP coating has a localized effect on the pressure tap measurements, which leads to an appreciable decrease in the pressure tap reading. Moreover, the force and moment measurements had a poor precision, which precluded the ability to measure the PSP effect for this particular test.

  3. Characteristics of Pressure Sensitive Paint Intrusiveness Effects on Aerodynamic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, Tahani R.; Liu, Tianshu; Oglesby, Donald M.

    2001-01-01

    One effect of using pressure sensitive paint (PSP) is the potential intrusiveness to the aerodynamic characteristics of the model. The paint thickness and roughness may affect the pressure distribution, and therefore, the forces and moments on the wind tunnel model. A study of these potential intrusive effects was carried out at NASA Langley Research Center where a series of wind tunnel tests were conducted using the Modem Design of Experiments (MDOE) test approach. The PSP effects on the integrated forces were measured on two different models at different test conditions in both the Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT) and the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) at Langley. The paint effect was found to be very small over a range of Reynolds numbers, Mach numbers and angles of attack. This is due to the very low surface roughness of the painted surface. The surface roughness, after applying the NASA Langley developed PSP, was lower than that of the clean wing. However, the PSP coating had a localized effects on the pressure taps, which leads to an appreciable decrease in the pressure tap reading.

  4. Characterization of Pressure Sensitive Paint Intrusiveness Effects on Aerodynamic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, Tahani R.; Liu, Tianshu; Oglesby, Donald M.

    2001-01-01

    One effect of using pressure sensitive paint (PSP) is the potential intrusiveness to the aerodynamic characteristics of the model. The paint thickness and roughness may affect the pressure distribution. and therefore, the forces and moments on the wind tunnel model. A study of these potential intrusive effects was carried out at NASA Langley Research Center where a series of wind tunnel tests were conducted using the Modem Design of Experiments (MDOE) test approach. The PSP effects on the integrated forces were measured on two different models at different test conditions in both the Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT) and the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) at Langley. The paint effect was found to be very small over a range of Reynolds numbers, Mach numbers and angles of attack. This is due to the very low surface roughness of the painted surface. The surface roughness, after applying the NASA Langley developed PSP, was lower than that of the clean wing. However, the PSP coating had a localized effects on the pressure taps, which leads to an appreciable decrease in the pressure tap reading.

  5. Technical evaluation report, AGARD Fluid Dynamics Panel Symposium on Effects of Adverse Weather on Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting on Effects of Adverse Weather on Aerodynamics was to provide an update of the stae-of-the-art with respect to the prediction, simulation, and measurement of the effects of icing, anti-icing fluids, and various precipitation on the aerodynamic characteristics of flight vehicles. Sessions were devoted to introductory and survey papers and icing certification issues, to analytical and experimental simulation of ice frost contamination and its effects of aerodynamics, and to the effects of heavy rain and deicing/anti-icing fluids.

  6. Inertial and interference effects in optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karstens, W.; Y Smith, D.

    2015-04-01

    Interference between free-space and material components of the displacement current plays a key role in determining optical properties. This is illustrated by an analogy between the Lorentz optical model and a-c circuits. Phase shifts in material-polarization currents, which are inertial, relative to the non-inertial vacuum-polarization current cause interference in the total displacement current and, hence, variation in E-M wave propagation. If the displacement-current is reversed, forward propagation is inhibited yielding the semimetallic reflectivity exhibited by intrinsic silicon. Complete cancellation involves material currents offsetting free-space currents to form current-loops that correspond to plasmons.

  7. Phonon interference effects in molecular junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Markussen, Troels

    2013-12-28

    We study coherent phonon transport through organic, π-conjugated molecules. Using first principles calculations and Green's function methods, we find that the phonon transmission function in cross-conjugated molecules, like meta-connected benzene, exhibits destructive quantum interference features very analogous to those observed theoretically and experimentally for electron transport in similar molecules. The destructive interference features observed in four different cross-conjugated molecules significantly reduce the thermal conductance with respect to linear conjugated analogues. Such control of the thermal conductance by chemical modifications could be important for thermoelectric applications of molecular junctions.

  8. [The influences of laterality on global precedence: interference effects].

    PubMed

    Kimura, Jun

    2008-02-01

    This study aimed to clarify the influence of laterality on interference effects for global precedence, and to examine the mechanism of these effects. In most previous studies, the neutral condition was excluded from the consistency factor and the difference of latencies between the consistent and inconsistent conditions was regarded as the interference score, which may not be accurate. In this study, the difference of latencies between the neutral and the inconsistent condition was regarded as the interference score. The results of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) for latencies showed that interference effects influenced only right visual field-left hemisphere (RVF-LH), and facilitation effects influenced only left visual field-right hemisphere (LVF-RH) in the local condition. These findings indicate that it does not matter how optimal processing influenced interference effects on suboptimal processing in each hemisphere, for example how global processing influenced local processing in the right hemisphere, but rather how each hemisphere controlled optimal processing. PMID:18402064

  9. Interference Mitigation Effects on Synthetic Aperture Radar Coherent Data Products

    SciTech Connect

    Musgrove, Cameron

    2015-07-01

    For synthetic aperture radars radio frequency interference from sources external to the radar system and techniques to mitigate the interference can degrade the quality of the image products. Usually the radar system designer will try to balance the amount of mitigation for an acceptable amount of interference to optimize the image quality. This dissertation examines the effect of interference mitigation upon coherent data products of fine resolution, high frequency synthetic aperture radars using stretch processing. Novel interference mitigation techniques are introduced that operate on single or multiple apertures of data that increase average coherence compared to existing techniques. New metrics are applied to evaluate multiple mitigation techniques for image quality and average coherence. The underlying mechanism for interference mitigation techniques that affect coherence is revealed.

  10. Effect of Auditory Interference on Memory of Haptic Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anater, Paul F.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of auditory interference on the processing of haptic information by 61 visually impaired students (8 to 20 years old) was the focus of the research described in this article. It was assumed that as the auditory interference approximated the verbalized activity of the haptic task, accuracy of recall would decline. (Author)

  11. Stroop-interference effect in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hong; Chen, Guoliang; Liu, Xiaohui; Shan, Moshui; Jia, Yanyan

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the conflict processing in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients, we conducted the classical Stroop task by recording event-related potentials. Although the reaction time was overall slower for PTSD patients than healthy age-matched control group, the Stroop-interference effect of reaction time did not differ between the two groups. Compared with normal controls, the interference effects of N 2 and N 450 components were larger and the interference effect of slow potential component disappeared in PTSD. These data indicated the dysfunction of conflict processing in individuals with PTSD. PMID:25182347

  12. Brain mechanism of Stroop interference effect in Chinese characters.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jiang; Luo, Yuejia; Wang, Quanhong; Zhang, Fenghua; Zhang, Qinglin

    2006-02-01

    Event-related brain potentials were measured when 11 healthy Chinese subjects finished Chinese Characters Stroop tasks. The behavioral data showed that the Stroop task yielded a robust Stroop interference effect as indexed by longer RT for incongruent than congruent color words. Scalp ERP analysis revealed the neurophysiological substrate of the interference effect: a greater negativity in the incongruent as compared to the congruent was found between 350 and 550 ms poststimulus over midline fronto-central scalp regions. Dipole source analysis (BESA software) of the difference wave (incongruent-congruent) indicated that a generator localized in prefrontal cortex (PFC) contributed to this effect, possibly related to conflict processing and response selection. The results provided electrophysiologic evidences of the brain and cognitive mechanism of Stroop interference effect in Chinese characters and suggested that the difference between Chinese characters and English words had influence on temporal patterns of the Stroop interference effect. PMID:16443198

  13. Interference effects in Reticon photodiode array detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mount, George H.; Sanders, Ryan W.; Brault, James W.

    1992-03-01

    A detector system incorporating the Reticon RL1024S photodiode array has been constructed as part of a double spectrograph to be used to study the earth's atmosphere from ground-based and aircraft-based platforms. To determine accurately the abundances of atmospheric trace gases, this new system must be able to measure spectral absorptions as small as 0.02 percent. The detector exhibits superior signal-to-noise characteristics at the light levels characteristic of scattered skylights, but interference in the passivating layer causes problems in achieving the required precision. The mechanism of the problems and the solution implemented are described in detail.

  14. Effects of empennage surface location on aerodynamic characteristics of a twin-engine afterbody model with nonaxisymmetric nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, Francis J.; Carson, George T., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the effects of empennage surface location and vertical tail cant angle on the aft-end aerodynamic characteristics of a twin-engine fighter-type configuration. The configuration featured two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles and twin-vertical tails. The investigation was conducted with different empennage locations that included two horizontal and three vertical tail positions. Vertical tail cant angle was varied from -10 deg to 20 deg for one selected configuration. Tests were conducted at Mach number 0.60 to 1.20 and at angles of attack -3 to 9 deg. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from jet off to approximately 9, depending upon Mach number. Tail interference effects were present throughout the range of Mach numbers tested and found to be either favorable or adverse, depending upon test condition and model configuration. At a Mach number of 0.90, adverse interference effects accounted for a significant percentage of total aft-end drag. Interference effects on the nozzle were generally favorable but became adverse as the horizontal tails were moved from a mid to an aft position. The configuration with nonaxisymmetric nozzles had lower total aft-end drag with tails-off than a similar configuration with axisymmetric nozzles at Mach numbers of 0.60 and 0.90.

  15. Aerodynamic Drag Reduction Apparatus For Wheeled Vehicles In Ground Effect

    DOEpatents

    Ortega, Jason M.; Salari, Kambiz

    2005-12-13

    An apparatus for reducing the aerodynamic drag of a wheeled vehicle in a flowstream, the vehicle having a vehicle body and a wheel assembly supporting the vehicle body. The apparatus includes a baffle assembly adapted to be positioned upstream of the wheel assembly for deflecting airflow away from the wheel assembly so as to reduce the incident pressure on the wheel assembly.

  16. Interference effects eliminated in random oriented space station antenna system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilly, R. R.

    1967-01-01

    System eliminates destructive interference effects among multiple omnidirectional or semi-omnidirctional antennas on a large space vehicle that is either spin-stabilized or randomly oriented relative to the ground station with which communication is necessary.

  17. The critical role of aerodynamic heating effects in the design of hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieting, Allan R.

    1989-01-01

    Hypersonic vehicles operate in a hostile aerothermal environment, which has a significant impact on their aerothermostructural performance. Significant coupling occurs between the aerodynamic flow field, structural heat transfer, and structural response, creating a multidisciplinary interaction. The critical role of aerodynamic heating effects in the design of hypersonic vehicles is identified with an example of high localized heating on an engine-cowl leading edge. Recent advances is integrated fluid-thermal-structural finite-element analyses are presented.

  18. Drift in interference filters. 2: radiation effects.

    PubMed

    Title, A M

    1974-11-01

    Studies of peak transmission drift in narrow-band interference filters have shown that there exist two mechanisms that cause drift toward shorter wavelengths. One is dependent on the thermal history of the filter and is discussed in Part 1 of this paper. The other is dependent on the exposure of the filter to radiation. For ZnS-cryolite filters of the design [(HL)(4)H(8)(LH)(4)L](3)L(-1), it is experimentally demonstrated that the filters are most sensitive to radiation in a 100-A band centered at approximately 3900 A. The drift rate in the focal plane of an f/20 solar image is approximately 3 A/100 h of exposure. Further, it is also shown by model calculations that the observed radiation-induced drift is consistent with the hypothesis that the optical thickness of ZnS decreases in proportion to the radiant energy absorbed. PMID:20134754

  19. Nonlinear effects in interference of bose-einstein condensates

    PubMed

    Liu; Wu; Niu

    2000-03-13

    Nonlinear effects in the interference of Bose-Einstein condensates are studied using exact solutions of the one-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation, which is applicable when the lateral motion is confined or negligible. With the inverse scattering method, the interference pattern is studied as a scattering problem with the linear Schrodinger equation, whose potential is profiled by the initial density distribution of the condensates. Our theory not only provides an analytical framework for quantitative predictions for the one-dimensional case, it also gives an intuitive understanding of some mysterious features of the interference patterns observed in experiments and numerical simulations. PMID:11018868

  20. Nonclassical and nonlocal effects in the interference of light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, L.

    1992-01-01

    Although we tend to think of optical interference as a classical wave phenomenon, recent experiments have revealed a number of effects that are not describable in classical terms. This is particularly true of interference effects involving the detection of a photon pair. We shall refer to them as fourth order interference, on the grounds that the joint probability density for the detection of one photon at r sub 1 at time t and another r sub 2 at time t is proportional to the fourth order correlation function of the field. This probability is readily measured when two photodetectors are positioned at r sub 1 and r sub 2 and the signals from the two detectors are fed to a coincidence counter that registers 'simultaneous' detections by the two detectors in coincidence. The topics covered include: fourth order interference measurements; the Franson experiment; and experimental test of the de Broglie guided wave theory.

  1. Training reveals the sources of Stroop and Flanker interference effects.

    PubMed

    Chen, Antao; Tang, Dandan; Chen, Xuefei

    2013-01-01

    In the field of cognitive control, dimensional overlap and pathway automaticity are generally believed to be critical for the generation of congruency effects. However, their specific roles in the generation of congruency effects are unclear. In two experiments, with the 4:2 mapping design, we investigated this issue by examining the training-related effects on congruency effects (the Stroop interference effect and the Flanker interference effect in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively) normally expressed as incongruent minus congruent difference and on their subcomponents (the stimulus interference and response interference). Experiment 1 revealed that the stimulus interference in the Stroop task, wherein the task-relevant (printed color of word) and the task-irrelevant (semantics of word) dimensions of the stimuli were processed in different pathways, was present during early training but was virtually eliminated at the late stage of training. This indicates that the two dimensions overlap at the early stage but separate at the late stage. In contrast, Experiment 2 showed that the response interference in a variant of the Flanker task, wherein the task-relevant (central color word printed in black font) and the task-irrelevant (flanking color words printed in black font) dimensions of the stimuli were processed in the same pathway, was enhanced after training. This indicates that the enhanced automaticity of irrelevant-dimension processing induces stronger response competition, which therefore results in the larger response interference. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that (1) dimensional overlap is necessary for the generation of congruency effects, (2) pathway automaticity can affect the size of congruency effects, and (3) training enhances the degree of automatic processing in a given pathway. PMID:24146892

  2. Interference effects between manual and oral motor skills.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Marie-Hélène; Cohen, Henri

    2016-03-01

    Consolidation of a motor skill is characterized by spontaneous improvement in performance between practice sessions. These offline gains can be eliminated if another skill is introduced soon afterward-a phenomenon called retroactive interference. Interference effects have been found in studies using two similar tasks involving the same motor effectors in a manual mode. The present study aimed to determine the extent to which differences in motor production mode modulate interference in skill learning. Healthy participants were assigned to one of three conditions and trained on a finger opposition sequence (FOS) learning task. All subjects were tested 24 h later on the original FOS learning task. Control subjects who were not exposed to a secondary learning task exhibited the expected offline gains after 24 h. Subjects who immediately learned a secondary task after the FOS training, either in the same manual mode (French Sign Language) or in an oral mode (CVC syllables), did not show any offline gains. Interestingly, the amount of interference was equivalent in the manual and oral learning conditions. The results reveal that interference effects in motor skill learning can occur when different effectors are involved in the primary and secondary tasks. The sequence processing abilities of the basal ganglia appear to play a major role in these interference effects. PMID:26661336

  3. The Effects of Surfaces on the Aerodynamics and Acoustics of Jet Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Matthew J.; Miller, Steven A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Aircraft noise mitigation is an ongoing challenge for the aeronautics research community. In response to this challenge, low-noise aircraft concepts have been developed that exhibit situations where the jet exhaust interacts with an airframe surface. Jet flows interacting with nearby surfaces manifest a complex behavior in which acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics are altered. In this paper, the variation of the aerodynamics, acoustic source, and far-field acoustic intensity are examined as a large at plate is positioned relative to the nozzle exit. Steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solutions are examined to study the aerodynamic changes in the field-variables and turbulence statistics. The mixing noise model of Tam and Auriault is used to predict the noise produced by the jet. To validate both the aerodynamic and the noise prediction models, results are compared with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and free-field acoustic data respectively. The variation of the aerodynamic quantities and noise source are examined by comparing predictions from various jet and at plate configurations with an isolated jet. To quantify the propulsion airframe aeroacoustic installation effects on the aerodynamic noise source, a non-dimensional number is formed that contains the flow-conditions and airframe installation parameters.

  4. Interference effects from observed movement in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Neil B.; Peiris, Yasmin; Cohen, Georgia; Miall, R. Chris; Praamstra, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that Parkinson’s disease patients have an increased susceptibility to response conflict. Here, we investigate whether Parkinson patients have a similar sensitivity to interference from observed movements. Ten patients and ten controls performed horizontal and vertical arm movements, while watching a video of a person performing similar movements or a moving dot. Movements were performed in the same plane (congruent) and orthogonal to the observed movement (incongruent). The off-axis variance of movements was our index of interference. While patients tended to exhibit more off-axis variability than controls, both groups demonstrated similar congruence effects, with greater variance in incongruent conditions. These results indicate that increased susceptibility to interference in Parkinson’s disease does not extend to interference from observed movements. PMID:20207605

  5. Effects of conversation interference on annoyance due to aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, K. F.; Powell, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    The annoyance and interference effects of aircraft flyover noise on face to face conversation were investigated. Twenty 5 minute sessions, each composed of three flyovers, were presented to each of 20 pairs of female subjects in a simulated living room. Flyovers varied in peak noise level (55-79 dB, A-weighted) and spectrum (low or high frequency components). Subjects engaged in conversation for 10 sessions and in reverie for the other 10 sessions, and completed subjective ratings following every session. Annoyance was affected by noise level, but was not significantly different for the two activities of reverie and conversation. A noise level of 77 db was found unacceptable for conversation by 50 percent of the subjects. Conversation interference was assessed by incidence of increased vocal effort and/or interruption of conversation during flyovers. Although conversation interference increased with noise level, the conversation interference measures did not improve prediction of individual annoyance judgments.

  6. Development and application of an analysis of axisymmetric body effects on helicopter rotor aerodynamics using modified slender body theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, G.; Johnson, W.

    1984-01-01

    A computationally efficient body analysis designed to couple with a comprehensive helicopter analysis is developed in order to calculate the body-induced aerodynamic effects on rotor performance and loads. A modified slender body theory is used as the body model. With the objective of demonstrating the accuracy, efficiency, and application of the method, the analysis at this stage is restricted to axisymmetric bodies at zero angle of attack. By comparing with results from an exact analysis for simple body shapes, it is found that the modified slender body theory provides an accurate potential flow solution for moderately thick bodies, with only a 10%-20% increase in computational effort over that of an isolated rotor analysis. The computational ease of this method provides a means for routine assessment of body-induced effects on a rotor. Results are given for several configurations that typify those being used in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel and in the rotor-body aerodynamic interference tests being conducted at Ames. A rotor-hybrid airship configuration is also analyzed.

  7. Investigation on cooling effectiveness and aerodynamic loss of a turbine cascade with film cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianjun; Lin, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xiaodong; An, Baitao

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes the numerical study on film cooling effectiveness and aerodynamic loss due to coolant and main stream mixing for a turbine guide vane. The effects of blowing ratio, mainstream Mach number, surface curvature on the cooling effectiveness and mixing loss were studied and discussed. The numerical results show that the distributions of film cooling effectiveness on the suction surface and pressure surface at the same blowing ratio (BR) are different due to local surface curvature and pressure gradient. The aerodynamic loss features for film holes on the pressure surface are also different from film holes on the suction surface.

  8. Interference effect on a Josephson junction with magnetic interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Chi-Hoon

    2013-05-01

    We study the proximity effect in a superconductor-normal-superconductor (SNS) layer with spin-active interfaces, paying particular attention to the effect of interference on the transition between 0 and π states of a Josephson junction. We compute the supercurrent density in the ballistic limit by using the Green's function formalism without making the quasiclassical approximation to study the interference effect due to coherent scattering of quasiparticles from the interfaces. The supercurrent is strongly influenced by various factors such as the thickness of the normal layer, the strength of the interface potential, and the orientation of the interface spin. We also discuss the symmetry of the induced superconducting pair amplitude for the 0 and the π states. The detailed features of the effect of interference on the Josephson junction can be important for applications of quantum devices.

  9. Wind Tunnel Interference Effects on Tilt Rotor Testing Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koning, Witold J. F.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental techniques to measure rotorcraft aerodynamic performance are widely used. However, most of them are either unable to capture interference effects from bodies, or require an extremely large computational budget. The objective of the present research is to develop an XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft rotor model for investigation of wind tunnel wall interference using a novel Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solver for rotorcraft, RotCFD. In RotCFD, a mid-fidelity URANS solver is used with an incompressible flow model and a realizable k-e turbulence model. The rotor is, however, not modeled using a computationally expensive, unsteady viscous body-fitted grid, but is instead modeled using a blade element model with a momentum source approach. Various flight modes of the XV-15 isolated rotor, including hover, tilt and airplane mode, have been simulated and correlated to existing experimental and theoretical data. The rotor model is subsequently used for wind tunnel wall interference simulations in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) at NASA Ames Research Center in California. The results from the validation of the isolated rotor performance showed good correlation with experimental and theoretical data. The results were on par with known theoretical analyses. In RotCFD the setup, grid generation and running of cases is faster than many CFD codes, which makes it a useful engineering tool. Performance predictions need not be as accurate as high-fidelity CFD codes, as long as wall effects can be properly simulated. For both test sections of the NFAC wall interference was examined by simulating the XV-15 rotor in the test section of the wind tunnel and with an identical grid but extended boundaries in free field. Both cases were also examined with an isolated rotor or with the rotor mounted on the modeled geometry of the Tiltrotor Test Rig (TTR). A 'quasi linear trim' was used to trim the thrust for the rotor to compare the power as a unique

  10. The predicted effect of aerodynamic detuning on coupled bending-torsion unstalled supersonic flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyniak, D.; Fleeter, S.

    1986-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to predict the enhanced coupled bending-torsion unstalled supersonic flutter stability due to alternate circumferential spacing aerodynamic detuning of a turbomachine rotor. The translational and torsional unsteady aerodynamic coefficients are developed in terms of influence coefficients, with the coupled bending-torsion stability analysis developed by considering the coupled equations of motion together with the unsteady aerodynamic loading. The effect of this aerodynamic detuning on coupled bending-torsion unstalled supersonic flutter as well as the verification of the modeling are then demonstrated by considering an unstable 12 bladed rotor, with Verdon's uniformly spaced Cascade B flow geometry as a baseline. However, with the elastic axis and center of gravity at 60 percent of the chord, this type of aerodynamic detuning has a minimal effect on stability. For both uniform and nonuniform circumferentially space rotors, a single degree of freedom torsion mode analysis was shown to be appropriate for values of the bending-torsion natural frequency ratio lower than 0.6 and higher 1.2. When the elastic axis and center of gravity are not coincident, the effect of detuning on cascade stability was found to be very sensitive to the location of the center of gravity with respect to the elastic axis. In addition, it was determined that when the center of gravity was forward of an elastic axis located at midchord, a single degree of freedom torsion model did not accurately predict cascade stability.

  11. Spatial compatibility interference effects: a double dissociation between two measures

    PubMed Central

    Kirkham, Alexander J.; Tipper, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In spatial compatibility tasks, when the spatial location of a stimulus is irrelevant it nevertheless interferes when a response is required in a different spatial location. For example, response with a left key-press is slowed when the stimulus is presented to the right as compared to the left side of a computer screen. However, in some conditions this interference effect is not detected in reaction time (RT) measures. It is typically assumed that the lack of effect means the irrelevant spatial code was not analysed or that the information rapidly decayed before response. However, we show that even in conditions where there appears to be no spatial interference when measuring RTs, effects can nevertheless be detected after response when recording facial electromyography responses. This dissociation between two measures highlights the importance of diverging methods to investigate visuomotor processes as conclusions based on only one measure can be misleading. PMID:26924937

  12. Interference Effects from Grammatically Unavailable Constituents during Sentence Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dyke, Julie A.

    2007-01-01

    Evidence from 3 experiments reveals interference effects from structural relationships that are inconsistent with any grammatical parse of the perceived input. Processing disruption was observed when items occurring between a head and a dependent overlapped with either (or both) syntactic or semantic features of the dependent. Effects of syntactic…

  13. Unsteady aerodynamic analysis of space shuttle vehicles. Part 4: Effect of control deflections on orbiter unsteady aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reding, J. P.; Ericsson, L. E.

    1973-01-01

    The unsteady aerodynamics of the 040A orbiter have been explored experimentally. The results substantiate earlier predictions of the unsteady flow boundaries for a 60 deg swept delta wing at zero yaw and with no controls deflected. The test revealed a previously unknown region of discontinuous yaw characteristics at transonic speeds. Oilflow results indicate that this is the result of a coupling between wing and fuselage flows via the separated region forward of the deflected elevon. In fact, the large leeward elevon deflections are shown to produce a multitude of nonlinear stability effects which sometimes involve hysteresis. Predictions of the unsteady flow boundaries are made for the current orbiter. They should carry a good degree of confidence due to the present substantiation of previous predictions for the 040A. It is proposed that the present experiments be extended to the current configuration to define control-induced effects. Every effort should be made to account for Reynolds number, roughness, and possible hot-wall effects on any future experiments.

  14. Interference effect of critical ultra-cold atomic Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Xuguang; Liu, Shujuan; Xiong, Hongwei

    2016-02-01

    For ultra-cold atomic gases close to the critical temperature, there is a divergent correlation behavior within the critical regime. This divergent correlation behavior is the cornerstone of the universal behavior within the critical regime, e.g. the universal critical exponent for the same class with very different physical systems. It is still quite challenging to observe this divergent correlation behavior in experiments with ultra-cold atomic gases. Here we consider theoretically the interference effect of the critical atomic Bose gas by a Kapitza-Dirac scattering. We find that the Kapitza-Dirac scattering has the merit of enhancing the interference effect in the observation of the correlation behavior. This provides a potential method to study the critical behavior of ultra-cold Bose gases. A simple rule is found by numerical simulations to get the critical exponent and correlation amplitude ratio from the interference fringes after the Kapitza-Dirac scattering.

  15. The effect of steady aerodynamic loading on the flutter stability of turbomachinery blading

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.E. ); Kadambi, J.R. )

    1993-01-01

    An aeroelastic analysis is presented that accounts for the effect of steady aerodynamic loading on the aeroelastic stability of a cascade of compressor blades. The aeroelastic model is a two-degree-of-freedom model having bending and torsional displacements. A linearized unsteady potential flow theory is used to determine the unsteady aerodynamic response coefficients for the aeroelastic analysis. The steady aerodynamic loading was caused by the addition of (1) airfoil thickness and camber and (2) steady flow incidence. The importance of steady loading on the airfoil unsteady pressure distribution is demonstrated. Additionally, the effect of the steady loading on the tuned flutter behavior and flutter boundaries indicates that neglecting either airfoil thickness, camber, or incidence could result in nonconservative estimates of flutter behavior.

  16. The effect of steady aerodynamic loading on the flutter stability of turbomachinery blading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Todd E.; Kadambi, Jaikrishnan R.

    1990-01-01

    An aeroelastic analysis is presented which accounts for the effect of steady aerodynamic loading on the aeroelastic stability of a cascade of compressor blades. The aeroelastic model is a two degree of freedom model having bending and torsional displacements. A linearized unsteady potential flow theory is used to determine the unsteady aerodynamic response coefficients for the aeroelastic analysis. The steady aerodynamic loading was caused by the addition of airfoil thickness and camber and steady flow incidence. The importance of steady loading on the airfoil unsteady pressure distribution is demonstrated. Additionally, the effect of steady loading on the tuned flutter behavior and flutter boundaries indicates that neglecting either airfoil thickness, camber or incidence could result in nonconservative estimates of flutter behavior.

  17. The effect of steady aerodynamic loading on the flutter stability of turbomachinery blading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Todd E.; Kadambi, Jaikrishnan R.

    1991-01-01

    An aeroelastic analysis is presented which accounts for the effect of steady aerodynamic loading on the aeroelastic stability of a cascade of compressor blades. The aeroelastic model is a two degree of freedom model having bending and torsional displacements. A linearized unsteady potential flow theory is used to determine the unsteady aerodynamic response coefficients for the aeroelastic analysis. The steady aerodynamic loading was caused by the addition of airfoil thickness and camber and steady flow incidence. The importance of steady loading on the airfoil unsteady pressure distribution is demonstrated. Additionally, the effect of steady loading on the tuned flutter behavior and flutter boundaries indicates that neglecting either airfoil thickness, camber or incidence could result in nonconservative estimates of flutter behavior.

  18. Stray currents -- Generation, interference effects and control

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolakakos, S.

    1998-12-31

    Stray currents, mostly known for their detrimental corrosion affects on the underground structures, can be effectively controlled by the implementation of specific measures at both the source of generation and at the affected structure(s). This paper discusses the most serious sources of stray current generation, the resulting problems and the numerous control methods that can be utilized to minimize corrosion and safety problems. Safety concerns associated with dc power systems are also discussed.

  19. Interference Effects From Grammatically Unavailable Constituents During Sentence Processing

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, Julie A.

    2007-01-01

    Evidence from 3 experiments reveals interference effects from structural relationships that are inconsistent with any grammatical parse of the perceived input. Processing disruption was observed when items occurring between a head and a dependent overlapped with either (or both) syntactic or semantic features of the dependent. Effects of syntactic interference occur in the earliest online measures in the region where the retrieval of a long-distance dependent occurs. Semantic interference effects occur in later online measures at the end of the sentence. Both effects endure in offline comprehension measures, suggesting that interfering items participate in incorrect interpretations that resist reanalysis. The data are discussed in terms of a cue-based retrieval account of parsing, which reconciles the fact that the parser must violate the grammar in order for these interference effects to occur. Broader implications of this research indicate a need for a precise specification of the interface between the parsing mechanism and the memory system that supports language comprehension. PMID:17352621

  20. General relativistic effects in quantum interference of “clocks”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zych, M.; Pikovski, I.; Costa, F.; Brukner, Č.

    2016-06-01

    Quantum mechanics and general relativity have been each successfully tested in numerous experiments. However, the regime where both theories are jointly required to explain physical phenomena remains untested by laboratory experiments, and is also not fully understood by theory. This contribution reviews recent ideas for a new type of experiments: quantum interference of “clocks”, which aim to test novel quantum effects that arise from time dilation. “Clock” interference experiments could be realised with atoms or photons in near future laboratory experiments.

  1. Diffraction Interference Induced Superfocusing in Nonlinear Talbot Effect

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dongmei; Zhang, Yong; Wen, Jianming; Chen, Zhenhua; Wei, Dunzhao; Hu, Xiaopeng; Zhao, Gang; Zhu, S. N.; Xiao, Min

    2014-01-01

    We report a simple, novel subdiffraction method, i.e. diffraction interference induced superfocusing in second-harmonic (SH) Talbot effect, to achieve focusing size of less than λSH/4 (or λpump/8) without involving evanescent waves or subwavelength apertures. By tailoring point spread functions with Fresnel diffraction interference, we observe periodic SH subdiffracted spots over a hundred of micrometers away from the sample. Our demonstration is the first experimental realization of the Toraldo di Francia's proposal pioneered 62 years ago for superresolution imaging. PMID:25138077

  2. Geometry effects on aerodynamics performance of a low aspect ratio turbine nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Naixing; Zhang, Hongwu; Xu, Yanji; Huang, Weiguang

    2004-11-01

    This paper describes the influence of some geometric parameters on aerodynamics performance of a low-aspect-ratio turbine blading designed by a novel method developed at the Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This is a part of the study on aerodynamics optimization of turbomachinery. It follows the development of the basic ideas in the turbomachinery aerodynamics research project at the institute. The present paper concentrates mainly on the effects of geometry, such as stagger angle, leading and trailing edge thickness, maximum thickness and its location on adiabatic efficiency, total pressure ratio and mass flow rate. The study was performed and assessed for a low-aspect ratio turbine nozzle using 3D steady Reynolds-averaged N.S. solver. Using the knowledge of the flow physics analysis an optimized turbine nozzle was obtained.

  3. Effect of wind tunnel acoustic modes on linear oscillating cascade aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffum, Daniel H.; Fleeter, Sanford

    1993-01-01

    The aerodynamics of a biconvex airfoil cascade oscillating in torsion is investigated using the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. For subsonic flow and reduced frequencies as large as 0.9, airfoil surface unsteady pressures resulting from oscillation of one of the airfoils are measured using flush-mounted high-frequency-response pressure transducers. The influence coefficient data are examined in detail and then used to predict the unsteady aerodynamics of a cascade oscillating at various interblade phase angles. These results are correlated with experimental data obtained in the traveling-wave mode of oscillation and linearized analysis predictions. It is found that the unsteady pressure disturbances created by an oscillating airfoil excite wind tunnel acoustic modes which have detrimental effects on the experimental data. Acoustic treatment is proposed to rectify this problem.

  4. Effect of wind tunnel acoustic modes on linear oscillating cascade aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffum, D. H.; Fleeter, S.

    1994-01-01

    The aerodynamics of a biconvex airfoil cascade oscillating in torsion is investigated using the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. For subsonic flow and reduced frequencies as large as 0.9, airfoil surface unsteady pressures resulting from oscillation of one of the airfoils are measured using flush-mounted high-frequency-response pressure transducers. The influence coefficient data are examined in detail and then used to predict the unsteady aerodynamics of a cascade oscillating at various interblade phase angles. These results are correlated with experimental data obtained in the traveling-wave mode of oscillation and linearized analysis predictions. It is found that the unsteady pressure disturbances created by an oscillating airfoil excite wind tunnel acoustic modes, which have detrimental effects on the experimental results. Acoustic treatment is proposed to rectify this problem.

  5. Memory consolidation and contextual interference effects with computer games.

    PubMed

    Shewokis, Patricia A

    2003-10-01

    Some investigators of the contextual interference effect contend that there is a direct relation between the amount of practice and the contextual interference effect based on the prediction that the improvement in learning tasks in a random practice schedule, compared to a blocked practice schedule, increases in magnitude as the amount of practice during acquisition on the tasks increases. Research using computer games in contextual interference studies has yielded a large effect (f = .50) with a random practice schedule advantage during transfer. These investigations had a total of 36 and 72 acquisition trials, respectively. The present study tested this prediction by having 72 college students, who were randomly assigned to a blocked or random practice schedule, practice 102 trials of three computer-game tasks across three days. After a 24-hr. interval, 6 retention and 5 transfer trials were performed. Dependent variables were time to complete an event in seconds and number of errors. No significant differences were found for retention and transfer. These results are discussed in terms of how the amount of practice, task-related factors, and memory consolidation mediate the contextual interference effect. PMID:14620247

  6. Long-Term Interference Effect: An Alternative to "Learned Helplessness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Howard I.; Weiss, Jay M.

    1976-01-01

    Presents three experiments that explore whether inescapable shock of long duration and moderate intensity (LoShk) produces an avoidance-escape deficit (called an interference effect) by causing animals to learn to respond less actively or by causing them to learn to be "helpless". (Editor)

  7. Adult Writers: Some Factors That Interfere with Effective Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldrich, Pearl G.

    In an effort to identify some factors that interfere with effective writing in adult writers, a three-page questionnaire was administered to 165 adults, most with technical degrees, who worked in the Washington, D. C., area. Respondents were top to middle management personnel who spent a significant portion of their time on the job writing and who…

  8. Aerodynamic and Acoustic Effects of Abrupt Frequency Changes in Excised Larynges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alipour, Fariborz; Finnegan, Eileen M.; Scherer, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the aerodynamic and acoustic effects due to a sudden change from chest to falsetto register or vice versa. It was hypothesized that the continuous change in subglottal pressure and flow rate alone (pressure-flow sweep [PFS]) can trigger a mode change in the canine larynx. Method: Ten canine larynges were each mounted over a…

  9. An interference account of the missing-VP effect

    PubMed Central

    Häussler, Jana; Bader, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Sentences with doubly center-embedded relative clauses in which a verb phrase (VP) is missing are sometimes perceived as grammatical, thus giving rise to an illusion of grammaticality. In this paper, we provide a new account of why missing-VP sentences, which are both complex and ungrammatical, lead to an illusion of grammaticality, the so-called missing-VP effect. We propose that the missing-VP effect in particular, and processing difficulties with multiply center-embedded clauses more generally, are best understood as resulting from interference during cue-based retrieval. When processing a sentence with double center-embedding, a retrieval error due to interference can cause the verb of an embedded clause to be erroneously attached into a higher clause. This can lead to an illusion of grammaticality in the case of missing-VP sentences and to processing complexity in the case of complete sentences with double center-embedding. Evidence for an interference account of the missing-VP effect comes from experiments that have investigated the missing-VP effect in German using a speeded grammaticality judgments procedure. We review this evidence and then present two new experiments that show that the missing-VP effect can be found in German also with less restricting procedures. One experiment was a questionnaire study which required grammaticality judgments from participants without imposing any time constraints. The second experiment used a self-paced reading procedure and did not require any judgments. Both experiments confirm the prior findings of missing-VP effects in German and also show that the missing-VP effect is subject to a primacy effect as known from the memory literature. Based on this evidence, we argue that an account of missing-VP effects in terms of interference during cue-based retrieval is superior to accounts in terms of limited memory resources or in terms of experience with embedded structures. PMID:26136698

  10. RCS jet-flow field interaction effects on the aerodynamics of the space shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rausch, J. R.; Roberge, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the external effects caused by operation of the reaction control system during entry of the space shuttle orbiter. The effects of jet plume-external flow interactions were emphasized. Force data were obtained for the basic airframe characteristics plus induced effects when the reaction control system is operating. Resulting control amplification and/or coupling were derived and their effects on the aerodynamic stability and control of the orbiter and the reaction control system thrust were determined.

  11. The cumulative semantic interference effect in normal and pathological ageing.

    PubMed

    Mulatti, Claudio; Calia, Clara; De Caro, Maria Fara; Della Sala, Sergio

    2014-12-01

    People affected by mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a precursor of Alzheimer's Disease, present with impairments in picture naming, a lexical/semantic task which rests on the activation of perceptual, semantic, and phonological representations. The poor performance of MCI individuals in picture naming has been accounted for in terms of deficits of either the perceptual, semantic, or phonological stages. To disentangle the source of this deficit we compared the cumulative semantic interference effect (Howard et al., 2006. Cognition. 100, 464-482.) and the repetition priming effect of a group of people with MCI to that of a group of healthy elderly participants and with a group of healthy young participants. The cumulative semantic interference effect defines a linear increase in the picture naming reaction times which is function of the already named pictures belonging to the same semantic category to which the named picture belongs. The repetition priming effect refers to an increase in performance for repeated items compared to unrepeated items. Results showed that whereas the cumulative semantic interference effect was present in the healthy elderly and young samples, it was absent in the MCI sample; instead, all groups showed comparable repetition priming effects. This pattern of results suggests that the impairment in picture naming exhibited by MCI individuals is due to an inefficient semantic access. PMID:25447069

  12. Delaying Interference Training Has Equivalent Effects in Various Pavlovian Interference Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Elizabeth J.; Escobar, Martha; Kimble, Whitney

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous recovery in extinction appears to be inversely related to the acquisition-to-extinction interval, but it remains unclear why this is the case. Rat subjects trained with one of three interference paradigms exhibited less spontaneous recovery of the original response after delayed than immediate interference, regardless of whether…

  13. Effects of kinematics on aerodynamic periodicity for a periodically plunging airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianghao; Wang, Dou; Zhang, Yanlai

    2015-12-01

    In conventional Micro-Air-Vehicle design inspired by insects, the periodical motion of flapping airfoil usually leads to generation of a periodical aerodynamic force. However, recent studies indicate that time courses of aerodynamic force and flow structure of a flapping airfoil may be non-periodical even though the airfoil undergoes a periodical motion. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics analysis is employed to investigate the effects of some dimensionless variables, such as Reynolds number, plunging amplitude, advance ratio, and angle of attack, on the periodicity of the flow around a flapping airfoil. The governing equations in an inertial frame of reference are solved to obtain unsteady flow structure and aerodynamic behaviors of the airfoil. It is found in the results that the periodicity of the flow and aerodynamics is greatly dependent on Reynolds number and plunging amplitude. Under given conditions, the product of these two variables may be utilized as a criterion parameter to judge whether the time course of the flow is periodical or not. In addition, a new mechanism that accounts for the non-periodical flow is revealed to explain the flow of airfoil with pre-stall angle of attack.

  14. Structural effects of unsteady aerodynamic forces on horizontal-axis wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.S.; Shipley, D.E.

    1994-08-01

    Due to its renewable nature and abundant resources, wind energy has the potential to fulfill a large portion of this nation`s energy needs. The simplest means of utilizing wind energy is through the use of downwind, horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) with fixed-pitch rotors. This configuration regulates the peak power by allowing the rotor blade to aerodynamically stall. The stall point, the point of maximum coefficient of lift, is currently predicted using data obtained from wind tunnel tests. Unfortunately, these tests do not accurately simulate conditions encountered in the field. Flow around the tower and nacelle coupled with inflow turbulence and rotation of the turbine blades create unpredicted aerodynamic forces. Dynamic stall is hypothesized to occur. Such aerodynamic loads are transmitted into the rotor and tower causing structural resonance that drastically reduces the design lifetime of the wind turbine. The current method of alleviating this problem is to structurally reinforce the tower and blades. However, this adds unneeded mass and, therefore, cost to the turbines. A better understanding of the aerodynamic forces and the manner in which they affect the structure would allow for the design of more cost effective and durable wind turbines. Data compiled by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for a downwind HAWT with constant chord, untwisted, fixed-pitch rotors is analyzed. From these data, the actual aerodynamic characteristics of the rotor are being portrayed and the potential effects upon the structure can for the first time be fully analyzed. Based upon their understanding, solutions to the problem of structural resonance are emerging.

  15. Structural effects of unsteady aerodynamic forces on horizontal-axis wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. S.; Shipley, D. E.

    1994-08-01

    Due to its renewable nature and abundant resources, wind energy has the potential to fulfill a large portion of this nation's energy needs. The simplest means of utilizing wind energy is through the use of downwind, horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) with fixed-pitch rotors. This configuration regulates the peak power by allowing the rotor blade to aerodynamically stall. The stall point, the point of maximum coefficient of lift, is currently predicted using data obtained from wind tunnel tests. Unfortunately, these tests do not accurately simulate conditions encountered in the field. Flow around the tower and nacelle coupled with inflow turbulence and rotation of the turbine blades create unpredicted aerodynamic forces. Dynamic stall is hypothesized to occur. Such aerodynamic loads are transmitted into the rotor and tower causing structural resonance that drastically reduces the design lifetime of the wind turbine. The current method of alleviating this problem is to structurally reinforce the tower and blades. However, this adds unneeded mass and, therefore, cost to the turbines. A better understanding of the aerodynamic forces and the manner in which they affect the structure would allow for the design of more cost effective and durable wind turbines. Data compiled by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for a downwind HAWT with constant chord, untwisted, fixed-pitch rotors is analyzed. From these data, the actual aerodynamic characteristics of the rotor are being portrayed and the potential effects upon the structure can for the first time be fully analyzed. Based upon their understanding, solutions to the problem of structural resonance are emerging.

  16. Interference effect in elastic parton energy loss in a finitemedium

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin-Nian

    2005-04-18

    Similar to the radiative parton energy loss due to gluonbremsstrahlung, elastic energy loss of a parton undergoing multiplescattering in a finite medium is demonstrated to be sensitive tointerference effect. The interference between amplitudes of elasticscattering via a gluon exchange and that of gluon radiation reduces theeffective elastic energy loss in a finite medium and gives rise to anon-trivial length dependence. The reduction is most significant for apropagation length L<4/\\pi T in a medium with a temperature T. Thoughthe finite size effect is not significant for the average partonpropagation in the most central heavy-ion collisions, it will affect thecentrality dependence of its effect on jet quenching.

  17. Is the contextual interference effect generalizable to computer games?

    PubMed

    Shewokis, P A

    1997-02-01

    The benefits of learning multiple tasks under an unstructured practice schedule have been extensively demonstrated in the laboratory. The purpose of the present study was to test contextual interference effects in a nonlaboratory setting using computer games as tasks. Undergraduate kinesiology and sport management majors (N = 19) played a computer game simulating the events of the winter Olympics. Participants were randomly assigned to either a Blocked or Random practice schedule, practicing 36 trials of three events. Delayed retention and transfer tests were performed after a 48-hr. retention interval. The dependent variable was time to complete an event. During transfer, participants in the Random schedule (M = 248 sec.) were significantly faster than Blocked (M = 263 sec.) participants. Results support and extend previous contextual interference findings. Transfer was facilitated for participants who learned the events in a Random practice order. Results are discussed in terms of the influence of task characteristics on learning. PMID:9132724

  18. High fidelity quasi steady-state aerodynamic model effects on race vehicle performance predictions using multi-body simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohrfeld-Halterman, J. A.; Uddin, M.

    2016-07-01

    We described in this paper the development of a high fidelity vehicle aerodynamic model to fit wind tunnel test data over a wide range of vehicle orientations. We also present a comparison between the effects of this proposed model and a conventional quasi steady-state aerodynamic model on race vehicle simulation results. This is done by implementing both of these models independently in multi-body quasi steady-state simulations to determine the effects of the high fidelity aerodynamic model on race vehicle performance metrics. The quasi steady state vehicle simulation is developed with a multi-body NASCAR Truck vehicle model, and simulations are conducted for three different types of NASCAR race tracks, a short track, a one and a half mile intermediate track, and a higher speed, two mile intermediate race track. For each track simulation, the effects of the aerodynamic model on handling, maximum corner speed, and drive force metrics are analysed. The accuracy of the high-fidelity model is shown to reduce the aerodynamic model error relative to the conventional aerodynamic model, and the increased accuracy of the high fidelity aerodynamic model is found to have realisable effects on the performance metric predictions on the intermediate tracks resulting from the quasi steady-state simulation.

  19. Aerodynamic effects of simulated ice shapes on two-dimensional airfoils and a swept finite tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alansatan, Sait

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of simulated glaze ice shapes on the aerodynamic performance characteristics of two-dimensional airfoils and a swept finite tail. The two dimensional tests involved two NACA 0011 airfoils with chords of 24 and 12 inches. Glaze ice shapes computed with the LEWICE code that were representative of 22.5-min and 45-min ice accretions were simulated with spoilers, which were sized to approximate the horn heights of the LEWICE ice shapes. Lift, drag, pitching moment, and surface pressure coefficients were obtained for a range of test conditions. Test variables included Reynolds number, geometric scaling, control deflection and the key glaze ice features, which were horn height, horn angle, and horn location. For the three-dimensional tests, a 25%-scale business jet empennage (BJE) with a T-tail configuration was used to study the effect of ice shapes on the aerodynamic performance of a swept horizontal tail. Simulated glaze ice shapes included the LEWICE and spoiler ice shapes to represent 9-min and 22.5-min ice accretions. Additional test variables included Reynolds number and elevator deflection. Lift, drag, hinge moment coefficients as well as boundary layer velocity profiles were obtained. The experimental results showed substantial degradation in aerodynamic performance of the airfoils and the swept horizontal tail due to the simulated ice shapes. For the two-dimensional airfoils, the largest aerodynamic penalties were obtained when the 3-in spoiler-ice, which was representative of 45-min glaze ice accretions, was set normal to the chord. Scale and Reynolds effects were not significant for lift and drag. However, pitching moments and pressure distributions showed great sensitivity to Reynolds number and geometric scaling. For the threedimensional study with the swept finite tail, the 22.5-min ice shapes resulted in greater aerodynamic performance degradation than the 9-min ice shapes. The addition of 24

  20. Effects of wing modification on an aircraft's aerodynamic parameters as determined from flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    A study of the effects of four wing-leading-edge modifications on a general aviation aircraft's stability and control parameters is presented. Flight data from the basic aircraft configuration and configurations with wing modifications are analyzed to determine each wing geometry's stability and control parameters. The parameter estimates and aerodynamic model forms are obtained using the stepwise regression and maximum likelihood techniques. The resulting parameter estimates and aerodynamic models are verified using vortex-lattice theory and by analysis of each model's ability to predict aircraft behavior. Comparisons of the stability and control derivative estimates from the basic wing and the four leading-edge modifications are accomplished so that the effects of each modification on aircraft stability and control derivatives can be determined.

  1. Effects of vortex flaps on the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of an arrow wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yip, L. P.; Murri, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the Langley 12-foot low-speed wind-tunnel to determine the longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic effects of plain and tabbed vortex flaps on a flat-plate, highly swept arrow-wing model. Flow-visualization studies were made using a helium-bubble technique. Static forces and moments were measured over an angle-of-attack range from 0 deg to 50deg for sideslip angles of 0 deg and + or - 4 deg.

  2. A lifting surface computer code with jet-in-crossflow interference effects. Volume 1: Theoretical description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furlong, K. L.; Fearn, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    A method is proposed to combine a numerical description of a jet in a crossflow with a lifting surface panel code to calculate the jet/aerodynamic-surface interference effects on a V/STOL aircraft. An iterative technique is suggested that starts with a model for the properties of a jet/flat plate configuration and modifies these properties based on the flow field calculated for the configuration of interest. The method would estimate the pressures, forces, and moments on an aircraft out of ground effect. A first-order approximation to the method suggested is developed and applied to two simple configurations. The first-order approximation is a noniterative precedure which does not allow for interactions between multiple jets in a crossflow and also does not account for the influence of lifting surfaces on the jet properties. The jet/flat plate model utilized in the examples presented is restricted to a uniform round jet injected perpendicularly into a uniform crossflow for a range of jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios from three to ten.

  3. Simulation-based aerodynamic design of high-lift devices in ground effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melvin, Arron Hector

    2007-12-01

    A simulation-based aerodynamic design tool is developed for multi-element high-lift airfoils operating in ground effect. A control theory approach is adopted, using the compressible Navier-Stokes equations as the basis for viscous design of airfoil element shapes and relative positioning. Particular considerations of aerodynamic design, high-lift systems, and the ground effect are described, and the suitability of aerodynamic shape optimization of such systems is discussed. The model of fluid flow and its discretization for solution on digital computers is investigated. A cell-centered finite-volume explicit multigrid method is used to solve both the flow and adjoint systems utilizing structured multiblock meshes. The adjoint equations for shape optimization are developed using a continuous adjoint formulation, and implemented with a moving ground boundary condition for the first time. A suite of test cases verified and validated the numerical algorithms and implementation. Realistic case studies were performed, demonstrating significant performance improvements over the baseline configurations. These included two free-air multi-element airfoil drag minimizations, and in addition two inverted two-element airfoil drag minimizations in ground effect.

  4. Effects of Elevator Nose Shape, Gap, Balance, and Tabs on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Horizontal Tail Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goett, Harry J; Reeder, J P

    1939-01-01

    Results are presented showing the effects of gap, elevator, nose shape, balance, cut-out, and tabs on the aerodynamic characteristics of a horizontal tail surface tested in the NACA full-scale tunnel.

  5. Aerodynamic loading distribution effects on the overall performance of ultra-high-lift LP turbine cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrino, M.; Satta, F.; Simoni, D.; Ubaldi, M.; Zunino, P.; Bertini, F.

    2014-02-01

    The present paper reports the results of an experimental investigation aimed at comparing aerodynamic performance of three low-pressure turbine cascades for several Reynolds numbers under steady and unsteady inflows. This study is focused on finding design criteria useful to reduce both profile and secondary losses in the aero-engine LP turbine for the different flight conditions. The baseline blade cascade, characterized by a standard aerodynamic loading (Zw=1.03), has been compared with two Ultra-High-Lift profiles with the same Zweifel number (Zw=1.3 for both cascades), but different velocity peak positions, leading to front and mid-loaded blade cascade configurations. The aerodynamic flow fields downstream of the cascades have been experimentally investigated for Reynolds numbers in the range 70000effects induced by the incoming wakes at the reduced frequency f +=0.62 on both profile and secondary flow losses for the three different cascade designs have been studied. Total pressure and velocity distributions have been measured by means of a miniaturized 5-hole probe in a tangential plane downstream of the cascade for both inflow conditions. The analysis of the results allows the evaluation of the aerodynamic performance of the blade cascades in terms of profile and secondary losses and the understanding of the effects of loading distribution and Zweifel number on secondary flows. When operating under unsteady inflow, contrarily to the steady case, the mid-loaded cascade has been found to be characterized by the lowest profile and secondary losses, making it the most attractive solution for the design of blades working in real conditions where unsteady inflow effects are present.

  6. Effects of Nose Radius and Aerodynamic Loading on Leading Edge Receptivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammerton, P. W.; Kerschen, E. J.

    1998-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the effects of airfoil thickness and mean aerodynamic loading on boundary-layer receptivity in the leading-edge region. The case of acoustic free-stream disturbances, incident on a thin cambered airfoil with a parabolic leading edge in a low Mach number flow, is considered. An asymptotic analysis based on large Reynolds number is developed, supplemented by numerical results. The airfoil thickness distribution enters the theory through a Strouhal number based on the nose radius of the airfoil, S = (omega)tau(sub n)/U, where omega is the frequency of the acoustic wave and U is the mean flow speed. The influence of mean aerodynamic loading enters through an effective angle-of-attack parameter ti, related to flow around the leading edge from the lower surface to the upper. The variation of the receptivity level is analyzed as a function of S, mu, and characteristics of the free-stream acoustic wave. For an unloaded leading edge, a finite nose radius dramatically reduces the receptivity level compared to that for a flat plate, the amplitude of the instability waves in the boundary layer being decreased by an order of magnitude when S = 0.3. Modest levels of aerodynamic loading are found to further decrease the receptivity level for the upper surface of the airfoil, while an increase in receptivity level occurs for the lower surface. For larger angles of attack close to the critical angle for boundary layer separation, a local rise in the receptivity level occurs for the upper surface, while for the lower surface the receptivity decreases. The effects of aerodynamic loading are more pronounced at larger values of S. Oblique acoustic waves produce much higher receptivity levels than acoustic waves propagating downstream parallel to the airfoil chord.

  7. Development of a droplet breakup model considering aerodynamic and droplet collision effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wert, K. L.; Jacobs, H. R.

    1993-01-01

    A model is currently under development to predict the occurrence and outcome of spray droplet breakup induced by aerodynamic forces and droplet collisions. It is speculated that these phenomena may be significant in determining the droplet size distribution in a spray subjected to acoustic velocity fluctuations. The goal is to integrate this breakup model into a larger spray model in order to examine the effects of combustion instabilities on liquid rocket motor fuel sprays. The model is composed of three fundamental components: a dynamic equation governing the deformation of the droplet, a criterion for breakage based on the amount of deformation energy stored in the droplet and an energy balance based equation to predict the Sauter mean diameter of the fragments resulting from breakup. Comparison with published data for aerodynamic breakup indicates good agreement in terms of predicting the occurrence of breakup. However, the model significantly over predicts the size of the resulting fragments. This portion of the model is still under development.

  8. Aerodynamic static stability and control effectiveness of a parametric shuttle launch configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, P. E.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted in the NASA/MSFC 14-inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel on a 0.004-scale model of the NR ATP baseline Shuttle launch configuration. The test model consisted of the NR ATP baseline orbiter, external tank, and SRB's with nozzles. Six component aerodynamic force and moment data were recorded over an angle of attack range from minus 10 deg to 10 deg at zero degrees sideslip and angle of sideslip range of minus 10 deg to 10 deg at zero angle of attack for a Mach range of 0.6 to 4.96. Rudder flare was constant at 10 deg during the entire test. The purpose of the test was to define the performance, stability, and control characteristics of the launch configuration as well as to investigate the buildup effect of two geometrical parameters.

  9. Development of a droplet breakup model considering aerodynamic and droplet collision effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wert, K. L.; Jacobs, H. R.

    1993-11-01

    A model is currently under development to predict the occurrence and outcome of spray droplet breakup induced by aerodynamic forces and droplet collisions. It is speculated that these phenomena may be significant in determining the droplet size distribution in a spray subjected to acoustic velocity fluctuations. The goal is to integrate this breakup model into a larger spray model in order to examine the effects of combustion instabilities on liquid rocket motor fuel sprays. The model is composed of three fundamental components: a dynamic equation governing the deformation of the droplet, a criterion for breakage based on the amount of deformation energy stored in the droplet and an energy balance based equation to predict the Sauter mean diameter of the fragments resulting from breakup. Comparison with published data for aerodynamic breakup indicates good agreement in terms of predicting the occurrence of breakup. However, the model significantly over predicts the size of the resulting fragments. This portion of the model is still under development.

  10. Effects of flow curvature on the aerodynamics of Darrieus wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Migliore, P. G.; Wolfe, W. P.

    1980-07-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation was conducted which clearly showed the effects of flow curvature to be significant determinants of Darrieus turbine blade aerodynamics; qualitatively, these results apply equally to straight or curved bladed machines. Unusually large boundary layer radial pressure gradients and virtually altered camber and incidence are the phenomena of primary importance. Conformal mapping techniques were developed which transform the geometric turbine airfoils in curved flow to their virtual equivalents in rectilinear flow, thereby permitting the more accurate selection of airfoil aerodynamic coefficients from published sectional data. It is demonstrated that once the flow idiosyncracies are fully understood, they may be used to advantage to improve the wind energy extraction efficiency of these machines.

  11. Ground effects on the low-speed aerodynamics of a powered, generic hypersonic configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatlin, Gregory M.

    1990-01-01

    A study was undertaken in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-foot subsonic tunnel to determine the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a powered, generic, hypersonic configuration in ground effect. The model was a simplified configuration consisting of a triangular wedge forebody, a rectangular mid-section which housed the flow through, an ejector type propulsion simulation system, and a rectangular wedge afterbody. Additional model components included a delta wing, a rectangular wedge forebody, inlet fences, exhaust flow deflectors, and afterbody fences. Aerodynamic force and moment data were obtaind over an angle of attack range from -4 to 18 degrees while model height above the tunnel floor was varied from 1/4 inch to 6 feet. Variations in freestream dynamic pressure, from 10 psf to 80 psf, and engine ejector pressure yielded a range of thrust coefficients from 0 to 0.8.

  12. Effects of Exposure to Sulfur Mustard on Speech Aerodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heydari, Fatemeh; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2011-01-01

    Sulfur mustard is an alkylating agent with highly cytotoxic properties even at low exposure. It was used widely against both military and civilian population by Iraqi forces in the Iraq-Iran war (1983-1988). Although various aspects of mustard gas effects on patients with chemical injury have been relatively well characterized, its effects on…

  13. Uncovering changes in spider orb-web topology owing to aerodynamic effects

    PubMed Central

    Zaera, Ramón; Soler, Alejandro; Teus, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    An orb-weaving spider's likelihood of survival is influenced by its ability to retain prey with minimum damage to its web and at the lowest manufacturing cost. This set of requirements has forced the spider silk to evolve towards extreme strength and ductility to a degree that is rare among materials. Previous studies reveal that the performance of the web upon impact may not be based on the mechanical properties of silk alone, aerodynamic drag could play a role in the dissipation of the prey's energy. Here, we present a thorough analysis of the effect of the aerodynamic drag on wind load and prey impact. The hypothesis considered by previous authors for the evaluation of the drag force per unit length of thread has been revisited according to well-established principles of fluid mechanics, highlighting the functional dependence on thread diameter that was formerly ignored. Theoretical analysis and finite-element simulations permitted us to identify air drag as a relevant factor in reducing deterioration of the orb web, and to reveal how the spider can take greater—and not negligible—advantage of drag dissipation. The study shows the beneficial air drag effects of building smaller and less dense webs under wind load, and larger and denser webs under prey impact loads. In essence, it points out why the aerodynamics need to be considered as an additional driving force in the evolution of silk threads and orb webs. PMID:24966235

  14. Effects of Wing Platform on the Aerodynamic Performance of Finite-Span Flapping Wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Meilin; Wang, Z. J.; Hu, Hui

    2010-11-01

    A numerical study is conducted to investigate the effects of wing platform on the aerodynamics performance of finite-span flapping wings. A three-dimensional high-order Navier-Stokes compressible flow solver was developed using the spectral difference method and dynamic grids. An AUSM^+-up Riemann solver was implemented to simulate the unsteady low Mach number flows over finite-span flapping wings with explicit third order Runge-Kutta time integration. The studied finite-span flapping wings, which include a rectangular flapping wing, an elliptic flapping wing and a bio-inspired flapping wing, have the same wing span, aspect ratio of the platform and the characteristics of the flapping motion (i.e., sinusoidal trajectory of the flapping wing tip, Strouhal number and reduced frequency). In the present study, the Strouhul number (Str) of the finite-span flapping wings was selected to be well within the optimal range usually used by flying insects and birds and swimming fishes (i.e., 0.2 < Str < 0.4). The effects of the wing platform on the aerodynamics performance of the finite-span flapping wings were elucidated in the terms of the evolutions and dynamic interaction between the leading edge vortices (LEV) and the wing tip vortices as well as the resultant aerodynamic forces (both lift and thrust) generated by the flapping wings.

  15. CFD Simulations on Interference Effects between Offshore Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihing, P.; Meister, K.; Schulz, C.; Lutz, Th; Krämer, E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents results of detailed 3D CFD simulations of two 5MW wind turbines sited in the German wind farm Alpha Ventus which are located behind each other at half-wake conditions. The focus of interest in this study is put on wake - turbine interaction, in order to derive the main shadow effects and their influence on blade loads and power response of the downstream turbine. For this purpose, Detached Eddy Simulations (DES) were performed using the flow solver FLOWer from DLR (German Aerospace Center). To consider all relevant aerodynamic effects, the main turbine components are represented as direct model with resolved boundary layers. Measurement-based turbulent inflow conditions are prescribed to realistically account for the atmospheric boundary layer. In order to analyze the flow conditions in front of the downstream turbine, wake propagation and velocity spectra are evaluated and compared with the undisturbed atmospheric boundary layer. Their impact on loads and power production and their corresponding fluctuations is discussed by comparing these with the upstream turbine. It was found, that fatigue loads occurring at half-wake conditions are significantly higher for the downstream turbine, since blade load fluctuations are highly amplified by the unsteady wake of the upstream turbine.

  16. Interference Mitigation Effects on Synthetic Aperture Radar Coherent Data Products

    SciTech Connect

    Musgrove, Cameron

    2014-05-01

    For synthetic aperture radar image products interference can degrade the quality of the images while techniques to mitigate the interference also reduce the image quality. Usually the radar system designer will try to balance the amount of mitigation for the amount of interference to optimize the image quality. This may work well for many situations, but coherent data products derived from the image products are more sensitive than the human eye to distortions caused by interference and mitigation of interference. This dissertation examines the e ect that interference and mitigation of interference has upon coherent data products. An improvement to the standard notch mitigation is introduced, called the equalization notch. Other methods are suggested to mitigation interference while improving the quality of coherent data products over existing methods.

  17. Purcell effect and Lamb shift as interference phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybin, Mikhail V.; Mingaleev, Sergei F.; Limonov, Mikhail F.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2016-02-01

    The Purcell effect and Lamb shift are two well-known physical phenomena which are usually discussed in the context of quantum electrodynamics, with the zero-point vibrations as a driving force of those effects in the quantum approach. Here we discuss the classical counterparts of these quantum effects in photonics, and explain their physics trough interference wave phenomena. As an example, we consider a waveguide in a planar photonic crystal with a side-coupled defect, and demonstrate a perfect agreement between the results obtained on the basis of quantum and classic approaches and reveal their link to the Fano resonance. We find that in such a waveguide-cavity geometry the Purcell effect can modify the lifetime by at least 25 times, and the Lamb shift can exceed 3 half-widths of the cavity spectral line.

  18. Purcell effect and Lamb shift as interference phenomena.

    PubMed

    Rybin, Mikhail V; Mingaleev, Sergei F; Limonov, Mikhail F; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2016-01-01

    The Purcell effect and Lamb shift are two well-known physical phenomena which are usually discussed in the context of quantum electrodynamics, with the zero-point vibrations as a driving force of those effects in the quantum approach. Here we discuss the classical counterparts of these quantum effects in photonics, and explain their physics trough interference wave phenomena. As an example, we consider a waveguide in a planar photonic crystal with a side-coupled defect, and demonstrate a perfect agreement between the results obtained on the basis of quantum and classic approaches and reveal their link to the Fano resonance. We find that in such a waveguide-cavity geometry the Purcell effect can modify the lifetime by at least 25 times, and the Lamb shift can exceed 3 half-widths of the cavity spectral line. PMID:26860195

  19. Purcell effect and Lamb shift as interference phenomena

    PubMed Central

    Rybin, Mikhail V.; Mingaleev, Sergei F.; Limonov, Mikhail F.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2016-01-01

    The Purcell effect and Lamb shift are two well-known physical phenomena which are usually discussed in the context of quantum electrodynamics, with the zero-point vibrations as a driving force of those effects in the quantum approach. Here we discuss the classical counterparts of these quantum effects in photonics, and explain their physics trough interference wave phenomena. As an example, we consider a waveguide in a planar photonic crystal with a side-coupled defect, and demonstrate a perfect agreement between the results obtained on the basis of quantum and classic approaches and reveal their link to the Fano resonance. We find that in such a waveguide-cavity geometry the Purcell effect can modify the lifetime by at least 25 times, and the Lamb shift can exceed 3 half-widths of the cavity spectral line. PMID:26860195

  20. Some effects of aerodynamic spoilers on wing flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, Robert V., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of deployment angle and size of symmetrically mounted upper-surface and lower-surface spoilers on the flutter characteristics of a simple, paddle-like, low-aspect-ratio, rectangular wing model that was tested at Mach number 0.80 in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel are presented. The results show that the flutter dynamic pressure is increased by increasing either spoiler deployment angle or spoiler size. For the configurations studied spoiler size was more effective than deployment angle in increasing the flutter dynamic pressure.

  1. Contextual Interference Effects on the Acquisition, Retention, and Transfer of a Motor Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, John B.; Morgan, Robyn L.

    1979-01-01

    Retention and transfer of motor tasks was greater for high interference (random) acquisition groups than for low interference (blocked) acquisition groups. This effect was most notable when transfer was measured for the transfer task of greatest complexity. Results support Battig's conceptualization of contextual interference effects on retention…

  2. Effects of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Plumes on Aerodynamics and Controllability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicker, Darby; Childs, Robert; Rogers,Stuart E.; McMullen, Matthew; Garcia, Joseph; Greathouse, James

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of the launch abort system of the Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) for control design and accurate simulation has provided a significant challenge to aerodynamicists and design engineers. The design space of the launch abort vehicle (LAV) includes operational altitudes from ground level to approximately 300,000 feet, Mach numbers from 0-9, and peak dynamic pressure near 1300psf during transonic flight. Further complicating the characterization of the aerodynamics and the resultant vehicle controllability is the interaction of the vehicle flowfield with the plumes of the two solid propellant motors that provide attitude control and the main propulsive impulse for the LAV. These interactions are a function of flight parameters such as Mach number, altitude, dynamic pressure, vehicle attitude, as well as parameters relating to the operation of the motors themselves - either as a function of time for the AM, or as a result of the flight control system requests for control torque from the ACM. This paper discusses the computational aerodynamic modeling of the aerodynamic interaction caused by main abort motor and the attitude control motor of the MPCV LAV, showing the effects of these interactions on vehicle controllability.

  3. The effect of time trial cycling position on physiological and aerodynamic variables.

    PubMed

    Fintelman, D M; Sterling, M; Hemida, H; Li, F-X

    2015-01-01

    To reduce aerodynamic resistance cyclists lower their torso angle, concurrently reducing Peak Power Output (PPO). However, realistic torso angle changes in the range used by time trial cyclists have not yet been examined. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of torso angle on physiological parameters and frontal area in different commonly used time trial positions. Nineteen well-trained male cyclists performed incremental tests on a cycle ergometer at five different torso angles: their preferred torso angle and at 0, 8, 16 and 24°. Oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide expiration, minute ventilation, gross efficiency, PPO, heart rate, cadence and frontal area were recorded. The frontal area provides an estimate of the aerodynamic drag. Overall, results showed that lower torso angles attenuated performance. Maximal values of all variables, attained in the incremental test, decreased with lower torso angles (P < 0.001). The 0° torso angle position significantly affected the metabolic and physiological variables compared to all other investigated positions. At constant submaximal intensities of 60, 70 and 80% PPO, all variables significantly increased with increasing intensity (P < 0.0001) and decreasing torso angle (P < 0.005). This study shows that for trained cyclists there should be a trade-off between the aerodynamic drag and physiological functioning. PMID:25658151

  4. Symmetry-induced quantum interference effects in metalloporphyrin wires.

    PubMed

    Ferradás, R; García-Suárez, V M; Ferrer, J

    2013-08-14

    We calculate the electronic and transport properties of a series of metalloporphyrin molecules sandwiched between gold electrodes using a combination of density functional theory and scattering theory. The impact of strong correlations at the central metallic atom is gauged by comparing our results obtained using conventional DFT and DFT + U approaches. The zero- and finite-bias transport properties may or may not show spin-filtering behavior, depending on the nature of the d state closest to the Fermi energy. The type of d state depends on the metallic atom and gives rise to interference effects that produce different Fano features. The inclusion of the U term opens a gap between the d states and changes the conductance and spin-filtering behavior qualitatively in some of the molecules. We explain the origin of the quantum interference effects found as due to the symmetry-dependent coupling between the d states and other molecular orbitals and propose the use of these systems as nanoscale chemical sensors. We also demonstrate that an adequate treatment of strong correlations is really necessary to correctly describe the transport properties of metalloporphyrins and similar molecular magnets. PMID:23838608

  5. Space Launch System Ascent Static Aerodynamic Database Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinier, Jeremy T.; Bennett, David W.; Blevins, John A.; Erickson, Gary E.; Favaregh, Noah M.; Houlden, Heather P.; Tomek, William G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the wind tunnel testing work and data analysis required to characterize the static aerodynamic environment of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) ascent portion of flight. Scaled models of the SLS have been tested in transonic and supersonic wind tunnels to gather the high fidelity data that is used to build aerodynamic databases. A detailed description of the wind tunnel test that was conducted to produce the latest version of the database is presented, and a representative set of aerodynamic data is shown. The wind tunnel data quality remains very high, however some concerns with wall interference effects through transonic Mach numbers are also discussed. Post-processing and analysis of the wind tunnel dataset are crucial for the development of a formal ascent aerodynamics database.

  6. Computation of dragonfly aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafson, Karl; Leben, Robert

    1991-04-01

    Dragonflies are seen to hover and dart, seemingly at will and in remarkably nimble fashion, with great bursts of speed and effectively discontinuous changes of direction. In their short lives, their gossamer flight provides us with glimpses of an aerodynamics of almost extraterrestrial quality. Here we present the first computer simulations of such aerodynamics.

  7. PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akishita, Sadao

    2010-02-01

    The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the

  8. Physical Insights, Steady Aerodynamic Effects, and a Design Tool for Low-Pressure Turbine Flutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, Joshua Joseph

    The successful, efficient, and safe turbine design requires a thorough understanding of the underlying physical phenomena. This research investigates the physical understanding and parameters highly correlated to flutter, an aeroelastic instability prevalent among low pressure turbine (LPT) blades in both aircraft engines and power turbines. The modern way of determining whether a certain cascade of LPT blades is susceptible to flutter is through time-expensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. These codes converge to solution satisfying the Eulerian conservation equations subject to the boundary conditions of a nodal domain consisting fluid and solid wall particles. Most detailed CFD codes are accompanied by cryptic turbulence models, meticulous grid constructions, and elegant boundary condition enforcements all with one goal in mind: determine the sign (and therefore stability) of the aerodynamic damping. The main question being asked by the aeroelastician, "is it positive or negative?'' This type of thought-process eventually gives rise to a black-box effect, leaving physical understanding behind. Therefore, the first part of this research aims to understand and reveal the physics behind LPT flutter in addition to several related topics including acoustic resonance effects. A percentage of this initial numerical investigation is completed using an influence coefficient approach to study the variation the work-per-cycle contributions of neighboring cascade blades to a reference airfoil. The second part of this research introduces new discoveries regarding the relationship between steady aerodynamic loading and negative aerodynamic damping. Using validated CFD codes as computational wind tunnels, a multitude of low-pressure turbine flutter parameters, such as reduced frequency, mode shape, and interblade phase angle, will be scrutinized across various airfoil geometries and steady operating conditions to reach new design guidelines regarding the influence

  9. A computational study of golfball aerodynamics: effects of rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beratlis, Nikolaos; Squires, Kyle; Balaras, Elias

    2010-11-01

    An efficient finite-difference Navier-Stokes solver is used to carry out a series of simulations of a spinning golfball at three distinct flow regimes: subcritical, critical and super-critical. The golfball is treated using an embedded boundary formulation, where the velocity near the surface is locally reconstructed to satisfy the proper boundary conditions. All scales down to the dimples are resolved by means of direct numerical simulations. Results exhibit all the qualitative flow features that are unique in each regime, namely the drag crisis and the alternation of the Magnus effect. In particular, the key features in each regime are captured and the correct trends are reproduced in all cases, namely a significant drop in the drag coefficient from the sub-critical to the critical regime and a subsequent drop as the Reynolds number gets into the super- critical regime. In addition, the lift exhibits a change in sign from positive to negative values when the Reynolds number increases from sub-critical to critical values. These phenomena are explained in terms of the distinct boundary layer dynamics present in each regime and are further illuminated by flow visualizations.

  10. Analytical model of rotor wake aerodynamics in ground effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saberi, H. A.

    1983-01-01

    The model and the computer program developed provides the velocity, location, and circulation of the tip vortices of a two-blade helicopter in and out of the ground effect. Comparison of the theoretical results with some experimental measurements for the location of the wake indicate that there is excellent accuracy in the vicinity of the rotor and fair amount of accuracy far from it. Having the location of the wake at all times enables us to compute the history of the velocity and the location of any point in the flow. The main goal of out study, induced velocity at the rotor, can also be calculated in addition to stream lines and streak lines. Since the wake location close to the rotor is known more accurately than at other places, the calculated induced velocity over the disc should be a good estimate of the real induced velocity, with the exception of the blade location, because each blade was replaced only by a vortex line. Because no experimental measurements of the wake close to the ground were available to us, quantitative evaluation of the theoretical wake was not possible. But qualitatively we have been able to show excellent agreement. Comparison of flow visualization with out results has indicated the location of the ground vortex is estimated excellently. Also the flow field in hover is well represented.

  11. Reynolds Number, Compressibility, and Leading-Edge Bluntness Effects on Delta-Wing Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckring, James M.

    2004-01-01

    An overview of Reynolds number, compressibility, and leading edge bluntness effects is presented for a 65 degree delta wing. The results of this study address both attached and vortex-flow aerodynamics and are based upon a unique data set obtained in the NASA-Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF) for i) Reynolds numbers ranging from conventional wind-tunnel to flight values, ii) Mach numbers ranging from subsonic to transonic speeds, and iii) leading-edge bluntness values that span practical slender wing applications. The data were obtained so as to isolate the subject effects and they present many challenges for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) studies.

  12. Effects of leading and trailing edge flaps on the aerodynamics of airfoil/vortex interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, Ahmed A.; Sankar, L. N.; Tadghighi, H.

    1991-01-01

    A numerical procedure based on the unsteady 2D full potential equation is presently used to simulate the effects of leading-edge and trailing-edge flaps on the aerodynamics of airfoil-vortex interactions. Attention is given to unsteady flap-motion effects, which alleviate those interactions at sub- and supercritical onset flows. For subcritical interactions, the results obtained indicate that trailing-edge flaps can be used to alleviate the impulsive loads experienced by the airfoil; for supercritical interactions, a leading- rather than trailing-edge flap must be used to alleviate the interaction.

  13. Effect of relative humidity on the aerodynamic diameter and respiratory deposition of fungal spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reponen, Tiina; Willeke, Klaus; Ulevicius, Vidmantas; Reponen, Auvo; Grinshpun, Sergey A.

    Exposure to airborne fungal spores may cause respiratory symptoms. The hygroscopicity of airborne spores may significantly affect their aerodynamic diameter, and thus change their deposition pattern in the human respiratory tract. We have investigated the change in aerodynamic diameter of five different fungal species as a function of relative humidity. Liquid and dry dispersion methods were explored for the aerosolization of the fungal spores. A new system that produces non-aggregated spore aerosol directly from a moldy surface was designed and found suitable for this study. The spores were aerosolized from a mold growth on agar by ducting dry air over the surface, and spore chains in the flow were broken up by passing the entire flow through a critical orifice. Size-spectrometric measurements with an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer showed that the aerodynamic diameter of the tested fungal spores does not change significantly when the relative humidity increases from 30% to 90%. A more distinct spore size increase was found at a relative humidity of ˜ 100%. The highest change of the aerodynamic diameter was found with Cladosporium cladosporioides: it increased from 1.8 μm to 2.3 μm when the relative humidity increased from 30% to ˜ 100%. The size increase corresponds to an approximate doubling of the particle volume. In order to estimate the effect of hygroscopic growth on the respiratory deposition of spores, the mean depositions in the human respiratory tract were calculated for fungal spores with various size changes due to hygroscopic growth. A recently developed model of the International Commission of Radiological Protection was used for the respiratory deposition calculations. We found that the 27% increase in Cladosporium size results in a 20-30% increase in the respiratory deposition of these spores. We conclude that most fungal spores are only slightly hygroscopic and the hygroscopic increase does not significantly affect their respiratory deposition. Our

  14. Aerodynamic Effects of Simulated Ice Accretion on a Generic Transport Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Lee, Sam; Shah, Gautam H.; Murphy, Patrick C.

    2012-01-01

    An experimental research effort was begun to develop a database of airplane aerodynamic characteristics with simulated ice accretion over a large range of incidence and sideslip angles. Wind-tunnel testing was performed at the NASA Langley 12-ft Low-Speed Wind Tunnel using a 3.5 percent scale model of the NASA Langley Generic Transport Model. Aerodynamic data were acquired from a six-component force and moment balance in static-model sweeps from alpha = -5deg to 85deg and beta = -45 deg to 45 deg at a Reynolds number of 0.24 x10(exp 6) and Mach number of 0.06. The 3.5 percent scale GTM was tested in both the clean configuration and with full-span artificial ice shapes attached to the leading edges of the wing, horizontal and vertical tail. Aerodynamic results for the clean airplane configuration compared favorably with similar experiments carried out on a 5.5 percent scale GTM. The addition of the large, glaze-horn type ice shapes did result in an increase in airplane drag coefficient but had little effect on the lift and pitching moment. The lateral-directional characteristics showed mixed results with a small effect of the ice shapes observed in some cases. The flow visualization images revealed the presence and evolution of a spanwise-running vortex on the wing that was the dominant feature of the flowfield for both clean and iced configurations. The lack of ice-induced performance and flowfield effects observed in this effort was likely due to Reynolds number effects for the clean configuration. Estimates of full-scale baseline performance were included in this analysis to illustrate the potential icing effects.

  15. Motion of a ballistic missile angularly misaligned with the flight path upon entering the atmosphere and its effect upon aerodynamic heating, aerodynamic loads, and miss distance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Julian H

    1957-01-01

    An analysis is given of the oscillating motion of a ballistic missile which upon entering the atmosphere is angularly misaligned with respect to the flight path. The history of the motion for some example missiles is discussed from the point of view of the effect of the motion on the aerodynamic heating and loading. The miss distance at the target due to misalignment and to small accidental trim angles is treated. The stability problem is also discussed for the case where the missile is tumbling prior to atmospheric entry.

  16. Introductory remarks. [fluid mechanics research for the National Transonic Facility: theoretical aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gessow, A.

    1977-01-01

    Suggested fluid mechanics research to be conducted in the National Transonic Facility include: wind tunnel calibration; flat plate skin friction, flow visualization and measurement techniques; leading edge separation; high angle of attack separation; shock-boundary layer interaction; submarine shapes; low speed studies of cylinder normal to flow; and wall interference effects. These theoretical aerodynamic investigations will provide empirical inputs or validation data for computational aerodynamics, and increase the usefulness of existing wind tunnels.

  17. The characteristics of the ground vortex and its effect on the aerodynamics of the STOL configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Vearle R.

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of the free stream velocity on the wall jet formed by the impingement of deflected engine thrust results in a rolled up vortex which exerts sizable forces on a short takeoff (STOL) airplane configuration. Some data suggest that the boundary layer under the free stream ahead of the configuration may be important in determining the extent of the travel of the wall jet into the oncoming stream. Here, early studies of the ground vortex are examined, and those results are compared to some later data obtained with moving a model over a fixed ground board. The effect of the ground vortex on the aerodynamic characteristics are discussed.

  18. Aerodynamic characteristics, including effect of body shape, of a Mach 6 aircraft concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riebe, G. D.

    1983-01-01

    Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics for a hydrogen-fueled hypersonic transport concept at Mach 6 are presented. The model components consist of four bodies with identical longitudinal area distributions but different cross-sectional shapes and widths, a wing, horizontal and vertical tails, and a set of wing-mounted nacelles simulated by slid bodies on the wing upper surface. Lift-drag ratios were found to be only sightly affected by fuselage planform width or cross sectional shape. Relative distribution of fuselage volume above and below the wing was found to have an effect on the lift-drag ratio, with a higher lift drag ratio produced by the higher wing position.

  19. Interference Effects in Bimanual Coordination Are Independent of Movement Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvin, Sarah; Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor K.

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneously executed limb movements interfere with each other. Whereas the interference between discrete movements is examined mostly from a cognitive perspective, that between rhythmic movements is studied mainly from a dynamical systems perspective. As the tools and concepts developed by both communities are limited in their applicability to…

  20. Inter- and Intra-Lingual Interference Effects in Third Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahukanna, Joshua G. W.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes a study undertaken to assess interference from two languages for learners of French. Suggests that susceptibility to interference is related to a number of factors, such as level of proficiency in the target language, and the degree and type of similarity between the target and the base language. (MES)

  1. Lewis icing research tunnel test of the aerodynamic effects of aircraft ground deicing/anti-icing fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runyan, L. James; Zierten, Thomas A.; Hill, Eugene G.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation of the effect of aircraft ground deicing/anti-icing fluids on the aerodynamic characteristics of a Boeing 737-200ADV airplane was conducted. The test was carried out in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. Fluids tested include a Newtonian deicing fluid, three non-Newtonian anti-icing fluids commercially available during or before 1988, and eight new experimental non-Newtonian fluids developed by four fluid manufacturers. The results show that fluids remain on the wind after liftoff and cause a measurable lift loss and drag increase. These effects are dependent on the high-lift configuration and on the temperature. For a configuration with a high-lift leading-edge device, the fluid effect is largest at the maximum lift condition. The fluid aerodynamic effects are related to the magnitude of the fluid surface roughness, particularly in the first 30 percent chord. The experimental fluids show a significant reduction in aerodynamic effects.

  2. A parametric study of planform and aeroelastic effects on aerodynamic center, alpha- and q- stability derivatives. Appendix C: Method for computing the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix of nonplanar wing-body-tail configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.

    1972-01-01

    Expressions are derived for computing the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix for nonplanar wing-body-tail configurations. An aerodynamic influence coefficient is defined as the load in lbs. induced on a panel as a result of a unit angle of attack on another panel. Fuselage, wing and tail thickness are assumed to be small with the result that the thickness effect on the flow-field is negligible. The method for determining the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix is based on the lifting solution to the small perturbation, steady potential flow equation.

  3. Effect of Geometric Uncertainties on the Aerodynamic Characteristic of Offshore Wind Turbine Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, Benedikt; Schmitt, Henning; Seume, Jörg R.

    2014-12-01

    Offshore wind turbines operate in a complex unsteady flow environment which causes unsteady aerodynamic loads. The unsteady flow environment is characterized by a high degree of uncertainty. In addition, geometry variations and material imperfections also cause uncertainties in the design process. Probabilistic design methods consider these uncertainties in order to reach acceptable reliability and safety levels for offshore wind turbines. Variations of the rotor blade geometry influence the aerodynamic loads which also affect the reliability of other wind turbine components. Therefore, the present paper is dealing with geometric uncertainties of the rotor blades. These can arise from manufacturing tolerances and operational wear of the blades. First, the effect of geometry variations of wind turbine airfoils on the lift and drag coefficients are investigated using a Latin hypercube sampling. Then, the resulting effects on the performance and the blade loads of an offshore wind turbine are analyzed. The variations of the airfoil geometry lead to a significant scatter of the lift and drag coefficients which also affects the damage-equivalent flapwise bending moments. In contrast to that, the effects on the power and the annual energy production are almost negligible with regard to the assumptions made.

  4. Aerodynamic Investigation of Incidence Angle Effects in a Large Scale Transonic Turbine Cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McVetta, Ashlie B.; Giel, Paul W.; Welch, Gerard E.

    2013-01-01

    Aerodynamic measurements showing the effects of large incidence angle variations on an HPT turbine blade set are presented. Measurements were made in NASA's Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility which has been used in previous studies to acquire detailed aerodynamic and heat transfer measurements for CFD code validation. The current study supports the development of variable-speed power turbine (VSPT) speed-change technology for the NASA Large Civil Tilt Rotor (LCTR) vehicle. In order to maintain acceptable main rotor propulsive efficiency, the VSPT operates over a nearly 50 percent speed range from takeoff to altitude cruise. This results in 50deg or more variations in VSPT blade incidence angles. The cascade facility has the ability to operate over a wide range of Reynolds numbers and Mach numbers, but had to be modified in order to accommodate the negative incidence angle variation required by the LCTR VSPT operation. Using existing blade geometry with previously acquired aerodynamic data, the tunnel was re-baselined and the new incidence angle range was exercised. Midspan exit total pressure and flow angle measurements were obtained at seven inlet flow angles. For each inlet angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with inlet Reynolds numbers varying from 6.83×10(exp 5) to 0.85×10(exp 5) and two isentropic exit Mach numbers of 0.74 and 0.34. The midspan flowfield measurements were acquired using a three-hole pneumatic probe located in a survey plane 8.6 percent axial chord downstream of the blade trailing edge plane and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressure distributions were also acquired for each flow condition.

  5. Aerodynamic Investigation of Incidence Angle Effects in a Large Scale Transonic Turbine Cascade. Revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McVetta, Ashlie B.; Giel, Paul W.; Welch, Gerard E.

    2014-01-01

    Aerodynamic measurements showing the effects of large incidence angle variations on an HPT turbine blade set are presented. Measurements were made in NASA's Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility which has been used in previous studies to acquire detailed aerodynamic and heat transfer measurements for CFD code validation. The current study supports the development of variable-speed power turbine (VSPT) speed-change technology for the NASA Large Civil Tilt Rotor (LCTR) vehicle. In order to maintain acceptable main rotor propulsive efficiency, the VSPT operates over a nearly 50 percent speed range from takeoff to altitude cruise. This results in 50 deg or more variations in VSPT blade incidence angles. The cascade facility has the ability to operate over a wide range of Reynolds numbers and Mach numbers, but had to be modified in order to accommodate the negative incidence angle variation required by the LCTR VSPT operation. Using existing blade geometry with previously acquired aerodynamic data, the tunnel was re-baselined and the new incidence angle range was exercised. Midspan exit total pressure and flow angle measurements were obtained at seven inlet flow angles. For each inlet angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with inlet Reynolds numbers varying from 6.83×10 (exp 5) to 0.85×10(exp 5) and two isentropic exit Mach numbers of 0.74 and 0.34. The midspan flowfield measurements were acquired using a three-hole pneumatic probe located in a survey plane 8.6 percent axial chord downstream of the blade trailing edge plane and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressure distributions were also acquired for each flow condition.

  6. Aerodynamic Investigation of Incidence Angle Effects in a Large Scale Transonic Turbine Cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McVetta, Ashlie B.; Giel, Paul W.; Welch, Gerard E.

    2012-01-01

    Aerodynamic measurements showing the effects of large incidence angle variations on an HPT turbine blade set are presented. Measurements were made in NASA's Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility which has been used in previous studies to acquire detailed aerodynamic and heat transfer measurements for CFD code validation. The current study supports the development of variable-speed power turbine (VSPT) speed-change technology for the NASA Large Civil Tilt Rotor (LCTR) vehicle. In order to maintain acceptable main rotor propulsive efficiency, the VSPT operates over a nearly 50% speed range from takeoff to altitude cruise. This results in 50 degrees or more variations in VSPT blade incidence angles. The cascade facility has the ability to operate over a wide range of Reynolds numbers and Mach numbers, but had to be modified in order to accommodate the negative incidence angle variation required by the LCTR VSPT operation. Using existing blade geometry with previously acquired aerodynamic data, the tunnel was re-baselined and the new incidence angle range was exercised. Midspan exit total pressure and flow angle measurements were obtained at seven inlet flow angles. For each inlet angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with inlet Reynolds numbers varying from 6.83 × 10(exp 5) to 0.85 ×10(exp 5) and two isentropic exit Mach numbers of 0.74 and 0.34. The midspan flowfield measurements were acquired using a three-hole pneumatic probe located in a survey plane 8.6% axial chord downstream of the blade trailing edge plane and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressure distributions were also acquired for each flow condition

  7. Aerodynamics of flapping insect wing in inclined stroke plane hovering with ground effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowda v, Krishne; Vengadesan, S.

    2014-11-01

    This work presents the time-varying aerodynamic forces and the unsteady flow structures of flapping insect wing in inclined stroke plane hovering with ground effect. Two-dimensional dragonfly model wing is chosen and the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically by using immersed boundary method. The main objective of the present work is to analyze the ground effect on the unsteady forces and vortical structures for the inclined stroke plane motions. We also investigate the influences of kinematics parameters such as Reynolds number (Re), stroke amplitude, wing rotational timing, for various distances between the airfoil and the ground. The effects of aforementioned parameters together with ground effect, on the stroke averaged force coefficients and regimes of force behavior are similar in both normal (horizontal) and inclined stroke plane motions. However, the evolution of the vortex structures which produces the effects are entirely different.

  8. Lau Effect: AN Interference Phenomenon in Partially Coherent Light.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudol, Ronald J.

    This dissertation is concerned with the theoretical and experimental investigation of an interference phenomenon observed with double gratings. Known as the Lau effect, it involves the observation of high contrast fringes in the far-field of a transilluminated pair of gratings for particular grating separations. Using the concepts of second order optical coherence theory it is shown that the observation of high contrast fringes, for an incoherently illuminated grating pair, corresponds to a matching between the characteristic spacing in the coherence function of the field propagating in the system and the fundamental grating period. Six different cases of fringes are defined based on this matching principle and experiments are performed which confirm their existence. It is demonstrated that the condition for the observation of distinct Fresnel images in the case of a coherently illuminated periodic structure is identical to the condition necessary for the observation of high contrast fringes in the incoherent Lau experiment. The reciprocal nature of these two experiments is examined and an "equivalent" coherent experiment is developed. The original incoherent Lau experiment is then extended to fields of any degree of spatial coherence. To accomplish this the propagation of partially coherent fields is examined with the special case of a gaussian Schell -model source considered in detail. In the process an equivalence theorem between the intensity distributions produced in the near-field of two partially coherent sources is developed. This involves representing the intensity distribution as a convolution between a Fresnel diffraction pattern and an equivalent source intensity distribution. Far-field expressions for the coherence and the intensity distribution of a partially coherently illuminated grating are developed and used to analyze the partially coherent Lau experiment. Field correlations in the near-field of the first grating are examined and provide a basis

  9. Fluidic Control of Aerodynamic Forces on an Axisymmetric Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramson, Philip; Vukasinovic, Bojan; Glezer, Ari

    2007-11-01

    The aerodynamic forces and moments on a wind tunnel model of an axisymmetric bluff body are modified by induced local vectoring of the separated base flow. Control is effected by an array of four integrated aft-facing synthetic jets that emanate from narrow, azimuthally-segmented slots, equally distributed around the perimeter of the circular tail end within a small backward facing step that extends into a Coanda surface. The model is suspended in the wind tunnel by eight thin wires for minimal support interference with the wake. Fluidic actuation results in a localized, segmented vectoring of the separated base flow along the rear Coanda surface and induces asymmetric aerodynamic forces and moments to effect maneuvering during flight. The aerodynamic effects associated with quasi-steady and transitory differential, asymmetric activation of the Coanda effect are characterized using direct force and PIV measurements.

  10. Effect of design changes on aerodynamic and acoustic performance of translating-centerbody sonic inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, B. A.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of design changes on the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of translating centerbody sonic inlets. Scale model inlets were tested in the Lewis Research Center's V/STOL wind tunnel. The effects of centerbody position, entry lip contraction ratio, diffuser length, and diffuser area ratio on inlet total pressure recovery, distortion, and noise suppression were investigated at static conditions and at forward velocity and angle of attack. With the centerbody in the takeoff position (retracted), good aerodynamic and acoustic performance was attained at static conditions and at forward velocity. At 0 deg incidence angle with a sound pressure level reduction of 20 dB, the total pressure recovery was 0.986. Pressure recovery at 50 deg was 0.981. With the centerbody in the approach position (extended), diffuser flow separation occurred at an incidence angle of approximately 20 deg. However, good performance was attained at lower angles. With the centerbody in the takeoff position the ability of the inlet to tolerate high incidence angles was improved by increasing the lip contraction ratio. However, at static conditions with the centerbody in the approach position, an optimum lip contraction ratio appears to exist, with both thinner and thicker lips yielding reduced performance.

  11. Effect of Trailing Edge Flow Injection on Fan Noise and Aerodynamic Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fite, E. Brian; Woodward, Richard P.; Podboy, Gary G.

    2006-01-01

    implementation of injecting flow at/near the trailing edge as a wake filling strategy. However, data do support the notion that noise reductions can be realized not only for tones but perhaps more importantly, also for broadband. Furthermore, the technique can be implemented without adversely effecting overall fan aerodynamic performance.

  12. Aerodynamics of the Viggen 37 aircraft. Part 1: General characteristics at low speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karling, K.

    1986-01-01

    A description of the aerodynamics of the Viggen 37 and its performances, especially at low speeds is presented. The aerodynamic requirements for the design of the Viggen 37 aircraft are given, including the basic design, performance requirement, and aerodynamic characteristics, static and dynamic load test results and flight test results. The Viggen 37 aircraft is designed to be used for air attack, surveillance, pursuit, and training applications. It is shown that this aircraft is suitable for short runways, and has good maneuvering, acceleration, and climbing characteristics. The design objectives for this aircraft were met by utilizing the effect produced by the interference between two triangular wings, positioned in tandem.

  13. Electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of polypropylene/conducting fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Pyoung-Chan; Kim, Bo-Ram; Jeoung, Sun Kyoung; Kim, Yeung Keun

    2016-03-01

    Electromagnetic released from the automotive electronic parts is harmful to human body. Electromagnetic interference (EMT) shielding refers to the reflection and/or adsorption of electromagnetic radiation by a material, which thereby acts as a shield against the penetration of the radiation through the shield. Polypropylene (PP)/conductive micro fiber composites containing various fiber contents and fiber length were injection-molded. The effect of fiber content and length on electrical properties of the composites was studied by electrical resistivity and EMT shielding measurements. The through-plane electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity were obtained by measuring dielectric properties. The EMT shielding effectiveness (SE) was investigated by using S-parameter in the range of 100 ~ 1500 MHz. Reflection, absorption and multiple-reflection are the EMT attenuation mechanisms. From the measurement of S-Parameters, the absorption coefficient, reflection coefficient, and the shielding efficiency of the materials were calculated. The EMT SE of PP/conducing fiber composites is 40 dB over a wide frequency range up to 1.5 GHz, which is higher than that of PP/talc composite used automotive parts, viz. 0 dB.

  14. Effects of aerodynamic interaction between main and tail rotors on helicopter hover performance and noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menger, R. P.; Wood, T. L.; Brieger, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    A model test was conducted to determine the effects of aerodynamic interaction between main rotor, tail rotor, and vertical fin on helicopter performance and noise in hover out of ground effect. The experimental data were obtained from hover tests performed with a .151 scale Model 222 main rotor, tail rotor and vertical fin. Of primary interest was the effect of location of the tail rotor with respect to the main rotor. Penalties on main rotor power due to interaction with the tail rotor ranged up to 3% depending upon tail rotor location and orientation. Penalties on tail rotor power due to fin blockage alone ranged up to 10% for pusher tail rotors and up to 50% for tractor tail rotors. The main rotor wake had only a second order effect on these tail rotor/fin interactions. Design charts are presented showing the penalties on main rotor power as a function of the relative location of the tail rotor.

  15. Effects of a Rotating Aerodynamic Probe on the Flow Field of a Compressor Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, Jan

    2008-01-01

    An investigation of distortions of the rotor exit flow field caused by an aerodynamic probe mounted in the rotor is described in this paper. A rotor total pressure Kiel probe, mounted on the rotor hub and extending up to the mid-span radius of a rotor blade channel, generates a wake that forms additional flow blockage. Three types of high-response aerodynamic probes were used to investigate the distorted flow field behind the rotor. These probes were: a split-fiber thermo-anemometric probe to measure velocity and flow direction, a total pressure probe, and a disk probe for in-flow static pressure measurement. The signals acquired from these high-response probes were reduced using an ensemble averaging method based on a once per rotor revolution signal. The rotor ensemble averages were combined to construct contour plots for each rotor channel of the rotor tested. In order to quantify the rotor probe effects, the contour plots for each individual rotor blade passage were averaged into a single value. The distribution of these average values along the rotor circumference is a measure of changes in the rotor exit flow field due to the presence of a probe in the rotor. These distributions were generated for axial flow velocity and for static pressure.

  16. Effects of fluid behavior around low aspect ratio, low Reynolds number wings on aerodynamic stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Matthew; Mohseni, Kamran

    2011-11-01

    The innovation of micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) has brought to attention the unique flow regime associated with low aspect ratio (LAR), low Reynolds number fliers. The dominant effects of developing tip vortices and leading edge vortices create a fundamentally different flow regime than that of conventional aircraft. An improved knowledge of low aspect ratio, low Reynolds number aerodynamics can be greatly beneficial for future MAV design. A little investigated but vital aspect of LAR aerodynamics is the behavior of the fluid as the wing yaws. Flow visualization experiments undertaken in the group for the canonical case of varying AR flat plates indicate that the propagation of the tip vortex keeps the flow attached over the upstream portion of the wing, while the downstream vortex is convected away from the wing. This induces asymmetric, destabilizing loading on the wing which has been observed to adversely affect MAV flight. In addition, experimental load measurements indicate significant nonlinearities in forces and moments which can be attributed to the development and propagation of these vortical structures. A non-dimensional analysis of the rigid body equations of motion indicates that these nonlinearities create dependencies which dramatically change the conventional linearization process. These flow phenomena are investigated with intent to apply to future MAV design.

  17. Effect of underwing aft-mounted nacelles on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a high-wing transport airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeyounis, W. K.; Patterson, J. C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    As part of a propulsion/airframe integration program, tests were conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the longitudinal aerodynamic effects of installing flow through engine nacelles in the aft underwing position of a high wing transonic transfer airplane. Mixed flow nacelles with circular and D-shaped inlets were tested at free stream Mach numbers from 0.70 to 0.85 and angles of attack from -2.5 deg to 4.0 deg. The aerodynamic effects of installing antishock bodies on the wing and nacelle upper surfaces as a means of attaching and supporting nacelles in an extreme aft position were investigated.

  18. Software Reduces Radio-Interference Effects in Radar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Charles T-C; Hensley, Scott; Chapin, Elaine

    2004-01-01

    A computer program suppresses the effects of narrow-band radio-frequency interference (RFI) on the data collected by a wide-band radar system. The need for this program arises because some advanced wide-band synthetic-aperture radar systems utilize frequency bands that include frequencies used by other radio services. In this program, the RFI environment is represented by an auto-regressive process, the frequency band of which is narrow relative to that of the radar. Most of the RFI signals, both narrow- and wide-band, are estimated in one pass of a least-mean-square (LMS) adaptive filter. The program implements three popular LMS algorithms: the time-domain LMS, the frequency-domain LMS, and the filter-bank LMS adaptive-filter algorithms. The program can be run in a manual or automatic mode. In the manual mode, the user selects the filter parameters prior to execution. In the automatic mode, the program utilizes median-filter and spectral-estimation techniques plus the variable-step-size LMS algorithm for automatic determination of filter parameters, and the parameters are adaptively changed as functions of the inputs, resulting in better overall performance.

  19. PPARs: Interference with Warburg' Effect and Clinical Anticancer Trials

    PubMed Central

    Vamecq, Joseph; Colet, Jean-Marie; Vanden Eynde, Jean Jacques; Briand, Gilbert; Porchet, Nicole; Rocchi, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic/cell signaling basis of Warburg's effect (“aerobic glycolysis”) and the general metabolic phenotype adopted by cancer cells are first reviewed. Several bypasses are adopted to provide a panoramic integrated view of tumoral metabolism, by attributing a central signaling role to hypoxia-induced factor (HIF-1) in the expression of aerobic glycolysis. The cancer metabolic phenotype also results from alterations of other routes involving ras, myc, p53, and Akt signaling and the propensity of cancer cells to develop signaling aberrances (notably aberrant surface receptor expression) which, when present, offer unique opportunities for therapeutic interventions. The rationale for various emerging strategies for cancer treatment is presented along with mechanisms by which PPAR ligands might interfere directly with tumoral metabolism and promote anticancer activity. Clinical trials using PPAR ligands are reviewed and followed by concluding remarks and perspectives for future studies. A therapeutic need to associate PPAR ligands with other anticancer agents is perhaps an important lesson to be learned from the results of the clinical trials conducted to date. PMID:22654896

  20. Aerodynamic simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    In this article two integral computational fluid dynamics methods for steady-state and transient vehicle aerodynamic simulations are described using a Chevrolet Corvette ZR-1 surface panel model. In the last decade, road-vehicle aerodynamics have become an important design consideration. Originally, the design of low-drag shapes was given high priority due to worldwide fuel shortages that occurred in the mid-seventies. More recently, there has been increased interest in the role aerodynamics play in vehicle stability and passenger safety. Consequently, transient aerodynamics and the aerodynamics of vehicle in yaw have become important issues at the design stage. While there has been tremendous progress in Navier-Stokes methodology in the last few years, the physics of bluff-body aerodynamics are still very difficult to model correctly. Moreover, the computational effort to perform Navier-Stokes simulations from the geometric stage to complete flow solutions requires much computer time and impacts the design cycle time. In the short run, therefore, simpler methods must be used for such complicated problems. Here, two methods are described for the simulation of steady-state and transient vehicle aerodynamics.

  1. Numerical simulation on the aerodynamic effects of blade icing on small scale Straight-bladed VAWT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Fang; Li, Shengmao; Li, Yan; Tian, Wenqiang

    To invest the effects of blade surface icing on the aerodynamics performance of the straight-bladed vertical-axis wind turbine (SB-VAWT), wind tunnel tests were carried out on a static straight blade using a simple icing wind tunnel. Firstly, the icing situations on blade surface at some kinds of typical attack angle were observed and recorded under different cold water flow fluxes. Then the iced blade airfoils were combined into a SB-VAWT model with two blades. Numerical simulations were carried out on this model, and the static and dynamic torque coefficients of the model with and without icing were computed. Both the static and dynamic torque coefficients were decreased for the icing effects.

  2. Computational Analysis of an effect of aerodynamic pressure on the side view mirror geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murukesavan, P.; Mu'tasim, M. A. N.; Sahat, I. M.

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of aerodynamic flow effects on side mirror geometry for a passenger car using ANSYS Fluent CFD simulation software. Results from analysis of pressure coefficient on side view mirror designs is evaluated to analyse the unsteady forces that cause fluctuations to mirror surface and image blurring. The fluctuation also causes drag forces that increase the overall drag coefficient, with an assumption resulting in higher fuel consumption and emission. Three features of side view mirror design were investigated with two input velocity parameters of 17 m/s and 33 m/s. Results indicate that the half-sphere design shows the most effective design with less pressure coefficient fluctuation and drag coefficient.

  3. Moving-model technique used in automobile aerodynamics for measurement of ground effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papenfuss, H. D.; Kronast, M.

    1991-05-01

    Efforts are currently underway in many laboratories to simulate correctly the ground effects which occur in windtunnels used for studies in automobile aerodynamics. An experimental approach which is sometimes used, the moving belt technique, is both complicated and expensive. On the other hand, if the model is rapidly accelerated along a stationary rail by a pneumatic launch system, the relative motion between the car and the road is simulated in an optimum manner with less effort and lower costs. The practical advantages and disadvantages of the moving-model technique in comparison with the moving belt in a windtunnel are discussed. Using a two-dimensional model car, the effect of the ground on the body pressure distribution was investigated. In addition, the distribution of the pressure on the surface of the ground board and the velocity profiles underneath the model were measured.

  4. CW Interference Effects on High Data Rate Transmission Through the ACTS Wideband Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Ngo, Duc H.; Tran, Quang K.; Tran, Diepchi T.; Yu, John; Kachmar, Brian A.; Svoboda, James S.

    1996-01-01

    Satellite communications channels are susceptible to various sources of interference. Wideband channels have a proportionally greater probability of receiving interference than narrowband channels. NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) includes a 900 MHz bandwidth hardlimiting transponder which has provided an opportunity for the study of interference effects of wideband channels. A series of interference tests using two independent ACTS ground terminals measured the effects of continuous-wave (CW) uplink interference on the bit-error rate of a 220 Mbps digitally modulated carrier. These results indicate the susceptibility of high data rate transmissions to CW interference and are compared to results obtained with a laboratory hardware-based system simulation and a computer simulation.

  5. The aerodynamics of propellers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wald, Quentin R.

    2006-02-01

    The theory and the design of propellers of minimum induced loss is treated. The pioneer analysis of this problem was presented more than half a century ago by Theodorsen, but obscurities in his treatment and inaccuracies and limited coverage in his tables of the Goldstein circulation function for helicoidal vortex sheets have not been remedied until the present work which clarifies and extends his work. The inverse problem, the prediction of the performance of a given propeller of arbitrary form, is also treated. The theory of propellers of minimum energy loss is dependent on considerations of a regular helicoidal trailing vortex sheet; consequently, a more detailed discussion of the dynamics of vortex sheets and the consequences of their instability and roll up is presented than is usually found in treatments of propeller aerodynamics. Complete and accurate tables of the circulation function are presented. Interference effects between a fuselage or a nacelle and the propeller are considered. The regimes of propeller, vortex ring, and windmill operation are characterized.

  6. Retrieval Practice Can Insulate Items against Intralist Interference: Evidence from the List-Length Effect, Output Interference, and Retrieval-Induced Forgetting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliegl, Oliver; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T.

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether nonselective retrieval practice after study can reduce memories' susceptibility to intralist interference, as it is observed in the list-length effect, output interference, and retrieval-induced forgetting. Across 3 experiments, we compared the effects of nonselective retrieval practice and restudy on…

  7. Wind tunnel wall interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Perry A.; Mineck, Raymond E.; Barnwell, Richard W.; Kemp, William B., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    About a decade ago, interest in alleviating wind tunnel wall interference was renewed by advances in computational aerodynamics, concepts of adaptive test section walls, and plans for high Reynolds number transonic test facilities. Selection of NASA Langley cryogenic concept for the National Transonic Facility (NTF) tended to focus the renewed wall interference efforts. A brief overview and current status of some Langley sponsored transonic wind tunnel wall interference research are presented. Included are continuing efforts in basic wall flow studies, wall interference assessment/correction procedures, and adaptive wall technology.

  8. Corrections for 17O interference, effects on Δ47 determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olack, G.; He, B.; Colman, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    The measurements of 13C on CO2 samples are routinely corrected for 17O contribution to the m/z 45 signal (Craig, 1957; Santrock, et al., 1985). The 17O abundance affects the Δ47 calculation, and the amount of 17O present is routinely determined using the relationship between 18O and 17O presented in IAEA TECDOC 825 (Dennis, et al., 2011; Huntington, et al., 2009; Gonfiantini, et al., 1995). In 2010, the IAEA released new recommendations for 17O determinations to be used for 13C corrections (Brand, et al., 2010). We compare the effect of using different ways to determine 17O interference, as well as using the currently accepted N(13C)/N(12C) value for VPDB (Brand, et al., 2010), on heated gas lines, model data, and on CO2 gases made to have similar δ47 and Δ47, but with highly contrasting δ18O and δ13C values. The 2010 IAEA recommendations give a better fit for heated gas data than the TECDOC 825 recommendations. Comparing differences in the data points relative to their respective fitted lines, we see differences on the order of 5 to 10 ppm in Δ47. That corresponds to a systematic error of 2 °C in the temperature estimate (room temperature range), and one that varies with δ13C and δ18O, but not necessarily with δ47. The preliminary work on equilibrated CO2 gases having similar δ47, but very different δ13C and δ18O, showed large (ca. 70 ppm) differences in Δ47 when using the (standard) TECDOC 825 recommendations. The Δ47 values were much closer when the 2010 IUPAC recommendations were used. This also serves as a test of the updated factors for 17O determination, as well as the overall robustness of the Δ47 measurement.

  9. Antireflection effects at nanostructured material interfaces and the suppression of thin-film interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qiaoyin; Zhang, Xu A.; Bagal, Abhijeet; Guo, Wei; Chang, Chih-Hao

    2013-06-01

    Thin-film interference is a well-known effect, and it is commonly observed in the colored appearance of many natural phenomena. Caused by the interference of light reflected from the interfaces of thin material layers, such interference effects can lead to wavelength and angle-selective behavior in thin-film devices. In this work, we describe the use of interfacial nanostructures to eliminate interference effects in thin films. Using the same principle inspired by moth-eye structures, this approach creates an effective medium where the index is gradually varying between the neighboring materials. We present the fabrication process for such nanostructures at a polymer-silicon interface, and experimentally demonstrate its effectiveness in suppressing thin-film interference. The principle demonstrated in this work can lead to enhanced efficiency and reduce wavelength/angle sensitivity in multilayer optoelectronic devices.

  10. Effects of icing on the aerodynamic performance of high lift airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankar, L. N.; Phaengsook, N.; Bangalore, A.

    1993-01-01

    A 2D compressible Navier-Stokes solver capable of analyzing multi-element airfoils is described. The flow field is divided into multiple zones. In each zone, the governing equations are solved using an implicit finite difference scheme. The flow solver is validated through a study of the aerodynamic characteristics of a GA(W)-1 configuration, for which good quality measured surface pressure data and load data are available. The solver is next applied to a study of the effects of icing on an iced 5-element airfoil configuration, experimentally studied at NASA Lewis Research Center. It is demonstrated that the formation of ice over the leading edge slat and the main airfoil can lead to significant flow separation, and a significant loss in lift, compared to clean configurations.

  11. Effect of the Surface Condition of a Wing on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defrance, S J

    1934-01-01

    In order to determine the effect of the surface conditions of a wing on the aerodynamic characteristics of an airplane, tests were conducted in the N.A.C.A. full-scale wind tunnel on the Fairchild F-22 airplane first with normal commercial finish of wing surface and later with the same wing polished. Comparison of the characteristics of the airplane with the two surface conditions shows that the polish caused a negligible change in the lift curve, but reduced the minimum drag coefficient by 0.001. This reduction in drag if applied to an airplane with a given speed of 200 miles per hour and a minimum drag coefficient of 0.025 would increase the speed only 2.9 miles per hour, but if the speed remained the same, the power would be reduced 4 percent.

  12. Nonlinear panel flutter in a rarefied atmosphere - Aerodynamic shear stress effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resende, Hugo B.

    1991-01-01

    The panel flutter phenomenon is studied assuming free-molecule flow. This kind of analysis is relevant in the case of hypersonic flight vehicles traveling at high altitudes, especially in the leeward portion of the vehicle. In these conditions the aerodynamic shear can be expected to be considerably larger than the pressure at a given point, so that the effects of such a loading are incorporated into the structural model. This is accomplished by introducing distributed longitudinal and bending moment loads. The former can lead to buckling of the panel, with the second mode in the case of a simply-supported panel playing a important role, and becoming the dominant mode in the solution. The presence of equivalent springs in the longitudinal direction at the panel's ends also becomes of relative importance, even for the evaluation of the linear flutter parameter. Finally, the behavior of the system is studied in the presence of applied compressive forces, that is, classical buckling.

  13. Effect of canard deflection on close-coupled canard-wing-body aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tu, Eugene L.

    1992-01-01

    The thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations are solved for the flow about a canard-wing-body configuration at transonic Mach numbers of 0.85 and 0.90, angles of attack from -4 to 10 degrees and canard deflection angles from -10 to +10 degrees. Effects of canard deflection on aerodynamic performance, including canard-wing vortex interaction, are investigated. Comparisons with experimental measurements of surface pressures, lift, drag and pitching moments are made to verify the accuracy of the computations. The results of the study show that the deflected canard downwash not only influences the formation of the wing leading-edge vortex, but can cause the formation of an unfavorable vortex on the wing lower surface as well.

  14. Experimental research of surface roughness effects on highly-loaded compressor cascade aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shao-wen; Xu, Hao; Wang, Song-tao; Wang, Zhong-qi

    2014-08-01

    Aircraft engines deteriorate during continuous operation under the action of external factors including fouling, corrosion, and abrasion. The increased surface roughness of compressor passage walls limits airflow and leads to flow loss. However, the partial increase of roughness may also restrain flow separation and reduce flow loss. It is necessary to explore methods that will lower compressor deterioration, thereby improving the overall performance. The experimental research on the effects of surface roughness on highly loaded compressor cascade aerodynamics has been conducted in a low-speed linear cascade wind tunnel. The different levels of roughness are arranged on the suction surface and pressure surface, respectively. Ink-trace flow visualization has been used to measure the flow field on the walls of cascades, and a five-hole probe has been traversed across one pitch at the outlet. By comparing the total pressure loss coefficient, the distributions of the secondary-flow speed vector, and flow fields of various cases, the effects of surface roughness on the aerodynamics of a highly loaded compressor cascade are analyzed and discussed. The results show that adding surface roughness on the suction surface and pressure surface make the loss decrease in most cases. Increasing the surface roughness on the suction surface causes reduced flow speed near the blade, which helps to decrease mixing loss at the cascades outlet. Meanwhile, adding surface roughness on the suction surface restrains flow separation, leading to less flow loss. Various levels of surface roughness mostly weaken the flow turning capacity to various degrees, except in specific cases.

  15. Combined experimental and numerical investigations on the roughness effects on the aerodynamic performances of LPT blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrino, Marco; Bigoni, Fabio; Simoni, Daniele; Giovannini, Matteo; Marconcini, Michele; Pacciani, Roberto; Bertini, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    The aerodynamic performance of a high-load low-pressure turbine blade cascade has been analyzed for three different distributed surface roughness levels (Ra) for steady and unsteady inflows. Results from CFD simulations and experiments are presented for two different Reynolds numbers (300000 and 70000 representative of take-off and cruise conditions, respectively) in order to evaluate the roughness effects for two typical operating conditions. Computational fluid dynamics has been used to support and interpret experimental results, analyzing in detail the flow field on the blade surface and evaluating the non-dimensional local roughness parameters, further contributing to understand how and where roughness have some influence on the aerodynamic performance of the blade. The total pressure distributions in the wake region have been measured by means of a five-hole miniaturized pressure probe for the different flow conditions, allowing the evaluation of profile losses and of their dependence on the surface finish, as well as a direct comparison with the simulations. Results reported in the paper clearly highlight that only at the highest Reynolds number tested (Re=300000) surface roughness have some influence on the blade performance, both for steady and unsteady incoming flows. In this flow condition profile losses grow as the surface roughness increases, while no appreciable variations have been found at the lowest Reynolds number. The boundary layer evolution and the wake structure have shown that this trend is due to a thickening of the suction side boundary layer associated to an anticipation of transition process. On the other side, no effects have been observed on the pressure side boundary layer.

  16. Effects of blade bending on aerodynamic control of fluctuating loads on teetered HAWT rotors

    SciTech Connect

    Eggers, A.J. Jr.; Ashley, H.; Rock, S.M.; Chaney, K.; Digumarthi, R.

    1996-11-01

    Active aerodynamic control, in the form of closed-loop actuation of blade-tip ailerons or all-movable blades, is investigated as a means of increasing the structural fatigue life of HAWT rotors. The rotor considered is upwind and teetered, with two blades of diameter 29.2 m., fiberglass construction and other properties representative of modern light-weight construction. The paper begins with a review of prior work which studied the problem for an essentially rigid structure. For that and the present research, two loading conditions were invoked: exposure to a Rayleigh distribution of operating winds with vertical shear and a 15 percent superimposed spectrum of turbulence; and occasional exposure to 62 m/s hurricanes. Accounted for herein is the effect of flatwise bending flexibility on the loads spectra of root flatwise bending moment, thrust, and torque (both open loop and closed loop). Using Miner`s rule, the moments are converted to fatigue lives. With aerodynamic control, RMS flatwise moments for the flexible blade in turbulence are found to be less than {1/2} of those without control. At a fixed blade weight of 540 kg when hurricane loads are added, the aileron-controlled blade is designed by that limit-load condition. In contrast, the all-movable blade can be feather controlled in the high wind so that its life is dominated by turbulent loads. Simplified fatigue analysis permits weight reductions to be estimated which yield controlled blades capable of 30 years` operation with a safety factor of 11. The resulting weights are about 400 kg for the aileron-controlled blade, and 230 kg for the all-movable blade. However, such light-weight rotors require attention to other design considerations, such as start-stop cycles. Apart from limit loads, the methods of analysis are linearized (locally for aerodynamic loads). It follows that the results are likely to be meaningful in terms of comparative, rather than absolute, values of fatigue life and weight.

  17. Contextual Interference Effects in Learning Three Badminton Serves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goode, Sinah; Magill, Richard A.

    1986-01-01

    This study was made to validate results obtained in laboratory research. Thirty female students learned three badminton serves in either a low, mixed, or high interference practice schedule and were given a retention and transfer test. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  18. Aerodynamic characteristics of a wing with Fowler flaps including flap loads, downwash, and calculated effect on take-off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Robert C

    1936-01-01

    This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests of a wing in combination with each of three sizes of Fowler flap. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the aerodynamic characteristics as affected by flap chord and position, the air loads on the flaps, and the effect of flaps on the downwash.

  19. Semantic gradients in picture-word interference tasks: is the size of interference effects affected by the degree of semantic overlap?

    PubMed Central

    Hutson, James; Damian, Markus F.

    2014-01-01

    We report two experiments attempting to identify the role of semantic relatedness in picture-word interference studies. Previously published data sets have rendered results which directly contradict each other, with one study suggesting that the stronger the relation between picture and distractor, the more semantic interference is obtained, and another study suggesting the opposite pattern. We replicated the two key experiments with only minor procedural modifications, and found semantic interference effects in both. Critically, these were largely independent of the strength of semantic overlap. Additionally, we attempted to predict individual interference effects per target picture, via various measures of semantic overlap, which also failed to account for the effects. From our results it appears that semantic interference effects in picture-word tasks are similarly present for weakly and strongly overlapping combinations. Implications are discussed in the light of the recent debate on the role of competition in lexical selection. PMID:25161636

  20. CFD modelling of the aerodynamic effect of trees on urban air pollution dispersion.

    PubMed

    Amorim, J H; Rodrigues, V; Tavares, R; Valente, J; Borrego, C

    2013-09-01

    The current work evaluates the impact of urban trees over the dispersion of carbon monoxide (CO) emitted by road traffic, due to the induced modification of the wind flow characteristics. With this purpose, the standard flow equations with a kε closure for turbulence were extended with the capability to account for the aerodynamic effect of trees over the wind field. Two CFD models were used for testing this numerical approach. Air quality simulations were conducted for two periods of 31h in selected areas of Lisbon and Aveiro, in Portugal, for distinct relative wind directions: approximately 45° and nearly parallel to the main avenue, respectively. The statistical evaluation of modelling performance and uncertainty revealed a significant improvement of results with trees, as shown by the reduction of the NMSE from 0.14 to 0.10 in Lisbon, and from 0.14 to 0.04 in Aveiro, which is independent from the CFD model applied. The consideration of the plant canopy allowed to fulfil the data quality objectives for ambient air quality modelling established by the Directive 2008/50/EC, with an important decrease of the maximum deviation between site measurements and CFD results. In the non-aligned wind situation an average 12% increase of the CO concentrations in the domain was observed as a response to the aerodynamic action of trees over the vertical exchange rates of polluted air with the above roof-level atmosphere; while for the aligned configuration an average 16% decrease was registered due to the enhanced ventilation of the street canyon. These results show that urban air quality can be optimised based on knowledge-based planning of green spaces. PMID:23751336

  1. Implications of scale effect for the prediction of high angle of attack aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro, C. D.; Krus, P.; Jouannet, C.

    2005-04-01

    Scale effect is of significance in all experimental aerodynamics testing. At high angles of attack such issues as Reynolds and Mach number scaling are further complicated by the presence of complex, unsteady separated flow structures. The understanding and quantification of such flow effects remains a substantial challenge to the combat aircraft designer. The challenge, especially during conceptual and preliminary design stages, is to obtain sufficiently accurate information to make relevant design decisions, addressing potential weaknesses before proceeding to detail design. The focus in the present review is on the application of the water tunnel in such cases. The combination of qualitative and quantitative data obtainable from the water tunnel provides a useful complement to other tools during the early design stages. The effect of Reynolds number in particular is however critical; and appreciation of its effects are critical to the effective use of such a tool. It is shown however that for certain configurations such effects can be small in comparison to other experimental effects.

  2. An analytical approach to wake interference effects on circular cylindrical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Rupert G.; Suaris, Wimal

    2006-08-01

    When a body is immersed in the wake of another body the additional buffeting force due to the vortices shed from the upstream structure magnifies the amplitude of vibration of the downstream structure. The proposed semi-empirical model is of the coupled Rayleigh wake-oscillator type with the equation of motion including an additional buffeting force. For two structures consisting of different structural parameters and placed in tandem with a wind flow, the buffeting force experienced by the downstream structure can be extrapolated from the lift force of the upstream structure, by using the ratios of the Scruton number, for the two structures. The paper highlights the aerodynamic response of tandem structures in the three primary interference regions: the proximity interference region, where the separation of the structures lies between 1.0 D and 1.1 D; the proximity induced galloping region where the separation lies between 1.1 D and 3.8 D; and the wake interference region where the separation is greater than 3.8 D.

  3. Interference effect on resonance studies in searches of heavy particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Ligong; Liu, Da; Shu, Jing; Zhang, Yongchao

    2016-05-01

    The interference between resonance signal and continuum background can be either constructive or destructive, depending on the relative sign of couplings between the signal and background amplitudes. Different interference schemes lead to asymmetric distortions of the resonance line shape, which could be distinguished in experiments, when the internal resonance width is larger than the detector resolution. Interpreting the ATLAS diboson excesses by means of a toy W‧ model as an illustrative example (though it is disfavored by the 13 TeV data), we find that the signs of resonance couplings can only be revealed in the line shape measurements up to a high confidence level at a high luminosity, which could bring us further information on the underlying theory beyond resonance searches at future lepton and hadron colliders.

  4. Perfect function transfer and interference effects in interacting boson lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Lianao; Miranowicz, Adam; Wang Xiangbin; Liu Yuxi; Nori, Franco

    2009-07-15

    We show how to perfectly transfer, without state initialization and remote collaboration, arbitrary functions in interacting boson lattices. We describe a possible implementation of state transfer through bosonic atoms trapped in optical lattices or polaritons in on-chip coupled cavities. Significantly, a family of Hamiltonians, both linear and nonlinear, is found which are related to the Bose-Hubbard model and that enable the perfect transfer of arbitrary functions. It is shown that the state transfer between two sites in two-dimensional lattices can result in quantum interference due to the different numbers of intermediate sites in different paths. The signature factor in nuclear physics can be useful to characterize this quantum interference.

  5. The contribution of elaborative processing to the contextual interference effect.

    PubMed

    Wright, D L; Li, Y; Whitacre, C

    1992-03-01

    This study examined the influence of supplemental intertask and intratask processing on the retention of three motor sequences practiced in conditions of high and low contextual interference. Subjects practiced in either a blocked or random practice format and experienced additional intratask processing, intertask processing, or no additional processing. Each of three movement sequences were practiced for 18 trials. The subjects were required to perform the sequences as fast and as accurately as possible. Retention performance and recall of the movement sequences were assessed after a 21-day retention interval. The results replicated those of Wright (1991), indicating a benefit for individuals engaging intertask processing during a low contextual interference practice condition. Furthermore, supplementing random practice with additional intertask processing not only slowed the rate of task acquisition, but also resulted in retention performance that was significantly poorer than that exhibited by individuals exposed to random practice with no additional processing. This suggests there may be a limit to the extent of interference that can be established during practice that will lead to a facilitation in retention performance. PMID:1574659

  6. Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Feathered Dinosaur Measured Using Physical Models. Effects of Form on Static Stability and Control Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Dennis; Cardona, Griselda; Guenther-Gleason, Eric; Huynh, Tony; Kwong, Austin; Marks, Dylan; Ray, Neil; Tisbe, Adrian; Tse, Kyle; Koehl, Mimi

    2014-01-01

    We report the effects of posture and morphology on the static aerodynamic stability and control effectiveness of physical models based on the feathered dinosaur, Microraptor gui, from the Cretaceous of China. Postures had similar lift and drag coefficients and were broadly similar when simplified metrics of gliding were considered, but they exhibited different stability characteristics depending on the position of the legs and the presence of feathers on the legs and the tail. Both stability and the function of appendages in generating maneuvering forces and torques changed as the glide angle or angle of attack were changed. These are significant because they represent an aerial environment that may have shifted during the evolution of directed aerial descent and other aerial behaviors. Certain movements were particularly effective (symmetric movements of the wings and tail in pitch, asymmetric wing movements, some tail movements). Other appendages altered their function from creating yaws at high angle of attack to rolls at low angle of attack, or reversed their function entirely. While M. gui lived after Archaeopteryx and likely represents a side experiment with feathered morphology, the general patterns of stability and control effectiveness suggested from the manipulations of forelimb, hindlimb and tail morphology here may help understand the evolution of flight control aerodynamics in vertebrates. Though these results rest on a single specimen, as further fossils with different morphologies are tested, the findings here could be applied in a phylogenetic context to reveal biomechanical constraints on extinct flyers arising from the need to maneuver. PMID:24454820

  7. Aerodynamic load distributions at transonic speeds for a close-coupled wing-canard configuration: Tabulated pressure data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, K. E.; Gloss, B. B.

    1978-01-01

    Wind tunnel studies are reported on both the canard and wing surfaces of a model that is geometrically identical to one used in several force and moment tests to provide insight into the various aerodynamic interference effects. In addition to detailed pressures measurements, the pressures were integrated to illustrate the effects of Mach number, canard location, and canard-wing interference on various aerodynamic parameters. Transonic pressure tunnel Mach numbers ranged from 0.70 to 1.20 for data taken from 0 deg to approximately 16 deg angle-of-attack at 0 deg sideslip.

  8. Effect of process variables on morphology and aerodynamic properties of voriconazole formulations produced by thin film freezing.

    PubMed

    Beinborn, Nicole A; Lirola, Hélène L; Williams, Robert O

    2012-06-15

    The particle engineering process, thin film freezing (TFF), was used to produce particulate voriconazole (VRC) formulations with enhanced properties. The effect of various processing parameters on the solid state properties and aerodynamic performance of the TFF-processed powders was investigated in order to evaluate the suitability of these formulations for dry powder inhalation and to optimize the aerodynamic properties. Thin film freezing of VRC solution without stabilizing excipients resulted in microstructured, crystalline low density aggregate particles with specific surface areas of approximately 10m(2)/g. Thin film freezing of VRC-PVP solutions produced nanostructured, amorphous low density aggregate particles with specific surface areas ranging from 15 to 180m(2)/g, depending on the solvent system composition, polymer grade, and drug to polymer ratio utilized. VRC formulations manufactured with 1,4-dioxane, with and without PVP K12, resulted in the lowest specific surface areas but displayed the best aerodynamic properties. Using a Handihaler(®) dry powder inhaler (DPI), microstructured crystalline TFF-VRC and nanostructured amorphous TFF-VRC-PVP K12 (1:2) displayed total emitted fractions of 80.6% and 96.5%, fine particle fractions of 43.1% and 42.4%, and mass median aerodynamic diameters of 3.5 and 4.5μm, respectively. PMID:22433472

  9. Evidence that aerodynamic effects, including dynamic stall, dictate HAWT structural loads and power generation in highly transient time frames

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, D.E.; Miller, M.S.; Robinson, M.C.; Luttges, M.W.; Simms, D.A.

    1994-08-01

    Aerodynamic data collected from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s Combined Experiment have shown three distinct performance regimes when the turbine is operated under relatively steady flow conditions. Operating at blade angles of attack below static stall, excellent agreement is achieved with two-dimensional wind tunnel data. Around the static stall angle, the cycle average normal force produced is greater than the static test data. Span locations near the hub produce extremely large values of normal force coefficient, well in excess of the two-dimensional data results. These performance regimes have been shown to be a function of the three-dimensional flow structure and cycle averaged dynamic stall effects. Power generation and root bending moments have also been shown to be directly dependent on the inflow wind velocity. Aerodynamic data, including episodes of dynamic stall, have been correlated on a cycle by cycle basis with the structural and power generation characteristics of a horizontal axis wind turbine. Instantaneous unsteady forces and resultant power generation indicate that peak transient levels can significantly exceed cycle averaged values. Strong coupling between transient aerodynamic and resonant response of the turbine was also observed. These results provide some initial insight into the contribution of unsteady aerodynamics on undesirable turbine structural response and fatigue life.

  10. Evidence that aerodynamic effects, including dynamic stall, dictate HAWT structural loads and power generation in highly transient time frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, D. E.; Miller, M. S.; Robinson, M. C.; Luttges, M. W.; Simms, D. A.

    1994-08-01

    Aerodynamic data collected from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Combined Experiment have shown three distinct performance regimes when the turbine is operated under relatively steady flow conditions. Operating at blade angles of attack below static stall, excellent agreement is achieved with two-dimensional wind tunnel data. Around the static stall angle, the cycle average normal force produced is greater than the static test data. Span locations near the hub produce extremely large values of normal force coefficient, well in excess of the two-dimensional data results. These performance regimes have been shown to be a function of the three-dimensional flow structure and cycle averaged dynamic stall effects. Power generation and root bending moments have also been shown to be directly dependent on the inflow wind velocity. Aerodynamic data, including episodes of dynamic stall, have been correlated on a cycle by cycle basis with the structural and power generation characteristics of a horizontal axis wind turbine. Instantaneous unsteady forces and resultant power generation indicate that peak transient levels can significantly exceed cycle averaged values. Strong coupling between transient aerodynamic and resonant response of the turbine was also observed. These results provide some initial insight into the contribution of unsteady aerodynamics on undesirable turbine structural response and fatigue life.

  11. Development of an efficient procedure for calculating the aerodynamic effects of planform variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, J. E.; Geller, E. W.

    1981-01-01

    Numerical procedures to compute gradients in aerodynamic loading due to planform shape changes using panel method codes were studied. Two procedures were investigated: one computed the aerodynamic perturbation directly; the other computed the aerodynamic loading on the perturbed planform and on the base planform and then differenced these values to obtain the perturbation in loading. It is indicated that computing the perturbed values directly can not be done satisfactorily without proper aerodynamic representation of the pressure singularity at the leading edge of a thin wing. For the alternative procedure, a technique was developed which saves most of the time-consuming computations from a panel method calculation for the base planform. Using this procedure the perturbed loading can be calculated in about one-tenth the time of that for the base solution.

  12. Interpretation of interference effects in three production wells in the Kawerau geothermal field, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Lynell; Koorey, Kevin J.

    1996-01-24

    Downhole temperature and pressure, mass flow, and enthalpy measurements on three production wells at Kawerau geothermal field are interpretted to illustrate interference effects between these wells. Feed zone locations within the wells, together with geology and chemistry are discussed. Downhole measurements are made in one well while production flow changes are made on another well to monitor pressure transient effects. The interference effects have implications for planning future production drilling.

  13. Ground effect on the aerodynamics of a two-dimensional oscillating airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, H.; Lua, K. B.; Lim, T. T.; Yeo, K. S.

    2014-07-01

    This paper reports results of an experimental investigation into ground effect on the aerodynamics of a two-dimensional elliptic airfoil undergoing simple harmonic translation and rotational motion. Ground clearance ( D) ranging from 1 c to 5 c (where c is the airfoil chord length) was investigated for three rotational amplitudes ( α m) of 30°, 45° and 60° (which respectively translate to mid-stroke angle of attack of 60°, 45° and 30°). For the lowest rotational amplitude of 30°, results show that an airfoil approaching a ground plane experiences a gradual decrease in cycle-averaged lift and drag coefficients until it reaches D ≈ 2.0 c, below which they increase rapidly. Corresponding DPIV measurement indicates that the initial force reduction is associated with the formation of a weaker leading edge vortex and the subsequent force increase below D ≈ 2.0 c may be attributed to stronger wake capture effect. Furthermore, an airfoil oscillating at higher amplitude lessens the initial force reduction when approaching the ground and this subsequently leads to lift distribution that bears striking resemblance to the ground effect on a conventional fixed wing in steady translation.

  14. Gap and stagger effects on the aerodynamic performance and the wake behind a biplane with endplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hantae

    Modern flow diagnostics applied to a very old aerodynamic problem has produced a number of intriguing new results and new insight into previous results. The aerodynamic performance and associated flow physics of the biplane with endplates as a function of variation in gap and stagger were analytically and experimentally investigated. A combination of vortex lattice method, integrated force measurement, streamwise PIV, and Trefftz plane Stereo PIV were used to better understand the flowfield around the biplane with endplates. This study was performed to determine the configuration with the optimal aerodynamic performance and to understand the fluid mechanics behind optimal and suboptimal performance of the configuration. The Vortex Lattice code (AVL) shows that the gap and stagger have the most dramatic effects out of the six parameters studied: gap, stagger, dihedral, decalage, sweep and overhang. The force balance measurements with fourteen biplane configurations of different gaps and staggers show that as gap and stagger increase, the lift efficiency also increases at all angles of attack tested at both Re 60,000 and 120,000. Using the force balance data, a generalized empirical method for the prediction of lift coefficient as a function of gap, stagger and angle of attack has been determined and validated when combined with existing relations for CL--α adjustments for AR and taper effects. The resulting empirical approach allows for a rapid determination of CL for a biplane having different gap, stagger, AR and taper without the need for a complete flowfield analysis. Two Dimensional PIV results show a distinctive pattern in the downwash angle for the different gap and stagger configurations tested. The downwash angle increases with increasing gap and stagger. It is also evident that the change in downwash angle is directly proportional to the change in lift coefficient as would be expected. Increasing gap spacing increases the downwash angle as well. Based on

  15. A parametric study of planform and aeroelastic effects on aerodynamic center, alpha- and q-stability derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.; Lan, C.

    1973-01-01

    Summarized are the aerodynamic center, alpha and q- aeroelastic effects on fighter-type aircraft in the 18,700 N gross range. The results indicate that with proper tailoring of planform (fixed or variable sweep), stiffner and elastic axis location it is possible to minimize trim requirements between selected extreme conditions. The inertial effects were found to be small for this class of aircraft.

  16. Effects of Shrouded Stator Cavity Flows on Multistage Axial Compressor Aerodynamic Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellborn, Steven R.; Okiishi, Theodore H.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments were performed on a low-speed multistage axial-flow compressor to assess the effects of shrouded stator cavity flows on aerodynamic performance. Five configurations, which involved changes in seal-tooth leakage rates and/or elimination of the shrouded stator cavities, were tested. Data collected enabled differences in overall individual stage and the third stage blade element performance parameters to be compared. The results show conclusively that seal-tooth leakage ran have a large impact on compressor aerodynamic performance while the presence of the shrouded stator cavities alone seemed to have little influence. Overall performance data revealed that for every 1% increase in the seal-tooth clearance to blade-height ratio the pressure rise dropped up to 3% while efficiency was reduced by 1 to 1.5 points. These observed efficiency penalty slopes are comparable to those commonly reported for rotor and cantilevered stator tip clearance variations. Therefore, it appears that in order to correctly predict overall performance it is equally important to account for the effects of seal-tooth leakage as it is to include the influence of tip clearance flows. Third stage blade element performance data suggested that the performance degradation observed when leakage was increased was brought about in two distinct ways. First, increasing seal-tooth leakage directly spoiled the near hub performance of the stator row in which leakage occurred. Second, the altered stator exit now conditions caused by increased leakage impaired the performance of the next downstream stage by decreasing the work input of the downstream rotor and increasing total pressure loss of the downstream stator. These trends caused downstream stages to progressively perform worse. Other measurements were acquired to determine spatial and temporal flow field variations within the up-and-downstream shrouded stator cavities. Flow within the cavities involved low momentum fluid traveling primarily

  17. Interference effects of vocalization on dual task performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, J. M.; Goodman, L. S.; Pianka, M. J.

    1984-09-01

    Voice command and control systems have been proposed as a potential means of off-loading the typically overburdened visual information processing system. However, prior to introducing novel human-machine interfacing technologies in high workload environments, consideration must be given to the integration of the new technologists within existing task structures to ensure that no new sources of workload or interference are systematically introduced. This study examined the use of voice interactive systems technology in the joint performance of two cognitive information processing tasks requiring continuous memory and choice reaction wherein a basis for intertask interference might be expected. Stimuli for the continuous memory task were presented aurally and either voice or keyboard responding was required in the choice reaction task. Performance was significantly degraded in each task when voice responding was required in the choice reaction time task. Performance degradation was evident in higher error scores for both the choice reaction and continuous memory tasks. Performance decrements observed under conditions of high intertask stimulus similarity were not statistically significant. The results signal the need to consider further the task requirements for verbal short-term memory when applying speech technology in multitask environments.

  18. Effects of measuring positions on the measured aerodynamic performance of a centrifugal compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hongwei; Zhang, Jun

    2010-04-01

    This paper performs a numerical simulation of three-dimensional flow field in a centrifugal compressor with long inlet and outlet pipes using CFX software. By arranging virtual probes at different positions in both inlet and outlet planes, the aerodynamic performance of the centrifugal compressor is measured and compared with each other. Then effects of measuring positions on measurement results are discussed. The results show that it will generate notable measuring errors of the pressure ratio and efficiency if the inlet total pressure is measured using a single-point probe. The inlet total pressure data can be accurate when they are measured using a 3-point rake. The outlet total pressure and total temperature data can not be accurate if they are respectively measured at one circumferential position even using a multi-point rake. Increasing tangential measuring positions at the outlet is effective to improve the test accuracy. When the outlet total pressure and total temperature are respectively measured at 3 tangential positions, the data can be almost accurate.

  19. Aerodynamic characteristics of several current helicopter tail boom cross sections including the effect of spoilers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. C.; Kelley, H. L.

    1986-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics were determined of three cylindrical shapes representative of tail boom cross sections of the U.S. Army AH-64, UH-60, and UH-1H helicopters. Forces and pressures were measured in a wind-tunnel investigation at the Langley Research Center. Data were obtained for a flow incidence range from -45 to 90 deg and a dynamic pressure range from 1.5 to 50 psf. These ranges provided data representative of full-scale Reynolds numbers and the full range of flow incidence to which these helicopter tail boom shapes would be subjected at low flight speeds. The effects of protuberances such as tail rotor drive-shaft covers and spoilers were evaluated. The data indicate that significant side loads on tail booms of helicopters can be generated and that the addition of spoilers can beneficially alter the side loads. Although an increase in vertical drag occurs, the net effect through reduction of tail rotor thrust required can be an improvement in helicopter performance.

  20. Interactive effects of working memory and trial history on Stroop interference in cognitively healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, Andrew J; Balota, David A

    2015-03-01

    Past studies have suggested that Stroop interference increases with age; however the robustness of this effect after controlling for processing speed has been questioned. Both working memory (WM) and the congruency of the immediately preceding trial have also been shown to moderate the magnitude of Stroop interference. Specifically, interference is smaller both for individuals with higher working memory capacity and following an incongruent trial. At present, it is unclear whether and how these 3 variables (age, WM and previous congruency) interact to predict interference effects in the standard Stroop color-naming task. We present analyses of Stroop interference in a large database of Stroop color-naming trials from a lifespan sample of well-screened, cognitively healthy, older adults. Our results indicated age-related increases in interference (after controlling for processing speed) that were exaggerated for individuals with low WM. This relationship between age and WM occurred primarily when the immediately preceding trial was congruent. Following an incongruent trial, interference increased consistently with age, regardless of WM. Taken together, these results support previous accounts of multiple mechanisms underlying control in the Stroop task and provide insight into how each component is jointly affected by age, WM, and trial history. PMID:25602489

  1. Interference effects in angular streaking with a rotating terahertz field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazansky, A. K.; Bozhevolnov, A. V.; Sazhina, I. P.; Kabachnik, N. M.

    2016-01-01

    A method of angular streaking with a rotating terahertz electric field for photoelectrons produced by femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses is suggested and theoretically analyzed. The method can be used for free electron laser (FEL) pulse characterization on a shot-to-shot basis. It is shown that in related measurements an interesting phenomenon appears: formation of very bright and sharp features in the angular resolved electron spectra measured in the plane perpendicular to the collinear beam direction. These features are similar to the conventional caustics in the wave propagation. The caustics are accompanied by a well-developed interference structure. The intensity distribution along the caustic is determined by the envelope of the FEL pulse.

  2. Radio frequency interference effect on PN code sequence lock detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Hyuck M.; Tu, Kwei; Loh, Y. C.

    1991-01-01

    The authors find the probabilities of detection and false alarm of the pseudonoise (PN) sequence code lock detector when strong radio frequency interference (RFI) hits the communications link. Both a linear model and a soft-limiter nonlinear model for a transponder receiver are considered. In addition, both continuous wave (CW) RFI and pulse RFI are analyzed, and a discussion is included of how strong CW RFI can knock out the PN code lock detector in a linear or a soft-limiter transponder. As an example, the Space Station Freedom forward S-band PN system is evaluated. It is shown that a soft-limiter transponder can protect the PN code lock detector against a typical pulse RFI, but it can degrade the PN code lock detector performance more than a linear transponder if CW RFI hits the link.

  3. Drift in interference filters. II - Radiation effects. [for solar instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Title, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    Studies of peak transmission drift in narrow-band interference filters have shown that there exist two mechanisms that cause drift toward shorter wavelengths. One is dependent on the thermal history of the filter and is discussed in Part 1 of this paper. The other is dependent on the exposure of the filter to radiation. For ZnS-cryolite filters of particular design, it is experimentally demonstrated that the filters are most sensitive to radiation in a 100-A band centered at approximately 3900 A. The drift rate in the focal plane of an f/20 solar image is approximately 3 A/100 hr of exposure. Further, it is also shown by model calculations that the observed radiation-induced drift is consistent with the hypothesis that the optical thickness of ZnS decreases in proportion to the radiant energy absorbed.

  4. Effect of longitudinal ridges on the aerodynamic performance of a leatherback turtle model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, Kyeongtae; Kim, Jooha; Kim, Heesu; Lee, Sang-Im; Choi, Haecheon

    2012-11-01

    Leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are known as the fastest swimmer and the deepest diver in the open ocean among marine turtles. Unlike other marine turtles, leatherback sea turtles have five longitudinal ridges on their carapace. To investigate the effect of these longitudinal ridges on the aerodynamic performance of a leatherback turtle model, the experiment is conducted in a wind tunnel at Re = 1.0 × 105 - 1.4 × 106 (including that of real leatherback turtle in cruising condition) based on the model length. We measure the drag and lift forces on the leatherback turtle model with and without longitudinal ridges. The presence of longitudinal ridges increases both the lift and drag forces on the model, but increases the lift-to-drag ratio by 15 - 40%. We also measure the velocity field around the model with and without the ridges using particle image velocimetry. More details will be shown in the presentation. Supported by the NRF program (2011-0028032).

  5. Effect of helicopter blade dynamics on blade aerodynamic and structural loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffernan, Ruth M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of rotor blade dynamics on aerodynamic and structural loads is examined for a conventional, main-rotor helicopter using a comprehensive rotorcraft analysis (CAMRAD) and flight-test data. The impact of blade dynamics on blade section lift-coefficient time histories is studied by comparing predictions from a rigid-blade analysis and an elastic-blade analysis with helicopter flight test data. The elastic blade analysis better predicts high-frequency behavior of section lift. In addition, components of the blade angle of attack such as elastic blade twist, blade flap rate, blade slope velocity, and inflow are examined as a function of blade mode. Elastic blade motion changed blade angle of attack by a few tenths of a degree, and up to the sixth rotor harmonic. A similar study of the influence of blade dynamics on bending and torsion moments was also conducted. A correlation study comparing predictions from several elastic-blade analyses with flight-test data revealed that an elastic-blade model consisting of only three elastic bending modes (first and second flap and first lag), and two elastic torsion modes was sufficient for good correlation.

  6. Effect of Helicopter Blade Dynamics on Blade Aerodynamic and Structural Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffernan, Ruth M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of rotor blade dynamics on aerodynamic and structural loads is examined for a conventional, main- rotor helicopter using both a comprehensive rotorcraft analysis (CAMRAD) and night test data. The impact of blade dynamics on blade section lift-coefficient time histories is studied by comparing predictions from both a rigid blade analysis and an elastic blade analysis with helicopter flight test data. The elastic blade analysis better predicts high-frequency behavior of section lift. In addition, components of the blade angle of attack, such as elastic blade twist, blade nap rate, blade slope velocity, and inflow, are examined as a function of blade mode. Elastic blade motion affects the blade angle of attack by a few tenths of a degree, and up to the sixth rotor harmonic. A similar study of the influence of blade dynamics on bending and torsion moments was also conducted. The modal analysis of the predicted blade structural loads suggested that five elastic bending deg of freedom (four flap and one lag) and three elastic torsion deg of freedom contributed to calculations of the blade structural loads. However, when structural bending load predictions from several elastic blade analyses were compared with flight test data, an elastic blade model consisting of only three elastic bending modes (first and second flap, and first lag), and two elastic torsion modes was found to be sufficient for maximum correlation.

  7. Computational Investigations on the Effects of Gurney Flap on Airfoil Aerodynamics.

    PubMed

    Jain, Shubham; Sitaram, Nekkanti; Krishnaswamy, Sriram

    2015-01-01

    The present study comprises steady state, two-dimensional computational investigations performed on NACA 0012 airfoil to analyze the effect of Gurney flap (GF) on airfoil aerodynamics using k-ε RNG turbulence model of FLUENT. Airfoil with GF is analyzed for six different heights from 0.5% to 4% of the chord length, seven positions from 0% to 20% of the chord length from the trailing edge, and seven mounting angles from 30° to 120° with the chord. Computed values of lift and drag coefficients with angle of attack are compared with experimental values and good agreement is found at low angles of attack. In addition static pressure distribution on the airfoil surface and pathlines and turbulence intensities near the trailing edge are present. From the computational investigation, it is recommended that Gurney flaps with a height of 1.5% chord be installed perpendicular to chord and as close to the trailing edge as possible to obtain maximum lift enhancement with minimum drag penalty. PMID:27347517

  8. Detection of airborne viruses using electro-aerodynamic deposition and a field-effect transistor

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyu-Tae; Cho, Dong-Guk; Park, Ji-Woon; Hong, Seunghun; Hwang, Jungho

    2015-01-01

    We report a technique for the detection of aerosolized viruses. Conventional field-effect-transistor (FET)-based techniques use solution-based processes, thus require antibody binding to the detection region of the FET prior to the supply of the analyte. With the method described here, virus–antibody-bound particles are delivered to the FET during detection; therefore, neither a pre-treatment antibody binding step on the FET channel nor washing process for virus–antibody-binding are necessary. Our method is based on the concept that virus–antibody-bound particles are larger than the virus or antibody alone, and thus have larger charge numbers following aerosol charging. When these particles are charged by negative ions and electro-aerodynamically deposited on a substrate, there exists a location on the substrate where neither lone virus nor antibody particles land, and where only virus–antibody-bound particles are deposited. If this location coincides with the channel of the FET, the resulting variation in the current can be used to indicate the existence of a virus. By aerosolizing a mixed solution of the virus and the antibody, only the virus–antibody-bound particles were transported to the swCNT-FET, and the electric current in the swCNT-FET decreased to 30% of that measured with no deposited particles. PMID:26642822

  9. Computational Investigations on the Effects of Gurney Flap on Airfoil Aerodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Shubham; Sitaram, Nekkanti; Krishnaswamy, Sriram

    2015-01-01

    The present study comprises steady state, two-dimensional computational investigations performed on NACA 0012 airfoil to analyze the effect of Gurney flap (GF) on airfoil aerodynamics using k-ε RNG turbulence model of FLUENT. Airfoil with GF is analyzed for six different heights from 0.5% to 4% of the chord length, seven positions from 0% to 20% of the chord length from the trailing edge, and seven mounting angles from 30° to 120° with the chord. Computed values of lift and drag coefficients with angle of attack are compared with experimental values and good agreement is found at low angles of attack. In addition static pressure distribution on the airfoil surface and pathlines and turbulence intensities near the trailing edge are present. From the computational investigation, it is recommended that Gurney flaps with a height of 1.5% chord be installed perpendicular to chord and as close to the trailing edge as possible to obtain maximum lift enhancement with minimum drag penalty. PMID:27347517

  10. Detection of airborne viruses using electro-aerodynamic deposition and a field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyu-Tae; Cho, Dong-Guk; Park, Ji-Woon; Hong, Seunghun; Hwang, Jungho

    2015-12-01

    We report a technique for the detection of aerosolized viruses. Conventional field-effect-transistor (FET)-based techniques use solution-based processes, thus require antibody binding to the detection region of the FET prior to the supply of the analyte. With the method described here, virus-antibody-bound particles are delivered to the FET during detection; therefore, neither a pre-treatment antibody binding step on the FET channel nor washing process for virus-antibody-binding are necessary. Our method is based on the concept that virus-antibody-bound particles are larger than the virus or antibody alone, and thus have larger charge numbers following aerosol charging. When these particles are charged by negative ions and electro-aerodynamically deposited on a substrate, there exists a location on the substrate where neither lone virus nor antibody particles land, and where only virus-antibody-bound particles are deposited. If this location coincides with the channel of the FET, the resulting variation in the current can be used to indicate the existence of a virus. By aerosolizing a mixed solution of the virus and the antibody, only the virus-antibody-bound particles were transported to the swCNT-FET, and the electric current in the swCNT-FET decreased to 30% of that measured with no deposited particles.

  11. Effects of incoming wind condition and wind turbine aerodynamics on the hub vortex instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashton, R.; Viola, F.; Gallaire, F.; Iungo, G. V.

    2015-06-01

    Dynamics and instabilities occurring in the near-wake of wind turbines have a crucial role for the wake downstream evolution, and for the onset of far-wake instabilities. Furthermore, wake dynamics significantly affect the intra-wind farm wake flow, wake interactions and potential power losses. Therefore, the physical understanding and predictability of wind turbine wake instabilities become a nodal point for prediction of wind power harvesting and optimization of wind farm layout. This study is focused on the prediction of the hub vortex instability encountered within wind turbine wakes under different operational conditions of the wind turbine. Linear stability analysis of the wake flow is performed by means of a novel approach that enables to take effects of turbulence on wake instabilities into account. Stability analysis is performed by using as base flow the time-averaged wake velocity field at a specific downstream location. The latter is modeled through Carton-McWilliams velocity profiles by mimicking the presence of the hub vortex and helicoidal tip vortices, and matching the wind turbine thrust coefficient predicted through the actuator disc model. The results show that hub vortex instability is promoted by increasing the turbine thrust coefficient. Indeed, a larger aerodynamic load produces an enhanced wake velocity deficit and axial shear, which are considered the main sources for the wake instability. Nonetheless, wake swirl also promotes hub vortex instability, and it can also affect the azimuthal wavenumber of the most unstable mode.

  12. Changing Room Cues Reduces the Effects of Proactive Interference in Clark’s Nutcrackers, Nucifraga columbiana

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jody L.; Kamil, Alan C.; Webbink, Kate E.

    2016-01-01

    To determine what factors are important for minimizing interference effects in spatial memory, Clark’s Nutcrackers, Nucifraga columbiana were tested for their spatial memory for two serial lists of locations per day. In this experiment two unique landmark sets were either different between List 1 and List 2 or the same. We found that Nutcrackers were most susceptible to interference when the landmark sets were the same. This study suggests that repeatedly testing animal memory in the same room, with the same cues, can hamper recall due to interference. PMID:23586539

  13. Site determination of radioactive atoms from the interference effect of electron-capture x rays

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Y.C.; Suzuki, Y.; Tomioka, Y.; Ishibashi, T. ); Satoh, I.; Hirokawa, K. )

    1994-12-01

    We observed the interference effect of electron-capture x rays emitted by nuclear transformations in radioactive atoms. The interference fringes are generated between the direct monochromatic emissions from the radioactive atoms and the emissions totally reflected by the substrate surface. The site of a radioactive atom can be determined by analyzing the measured interference fringes because the period of these fringes depends on the position of the radioactive atoms relative to the substrate surface. A monolayer of [sup 51]Cr above a Pt substrate was used as a model sample.

  14. Intensity-dependent interference effect in high-order harmonic generation from aligned H2+ molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yan; Zhang, Jingtao; Ye, Huiliang; Xu, Zhizhan

    2011-02-01

    Based on the nonperturbative quantum scattering theory of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) and using the linear combination of atomic orbitals theory of molecular orbitals, we derive the HHG rate formula for molecules. Employing the formula, we study the intensity dependence of the interference effect induced by the molecular structure. We find that the molecular HHG was modulated by the interference not only in the recombination process but also in the ionization process. The location of the interference minimum in HHG shifts to higher energy by a quantity of the ponderomotive energy as the laser intensity increases.

  15. The spatial Stroop effect: a comparison of color-word and position-word interference.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Sven; Nakagawa, Tristan Toyo; Bindl, Manuela; Bühner, Markus

    2014-12-01

    The Stroop effect is one of the most famous examples of interference in human perception. The present study demonstrates that a position Stroop paradigm, comparable to the classical color-word interference paradigm, resulted in the same pattern of interference for the spatial dimension; however, the interference was significantly weaker. By exchanging the original oral response for a manual response in the spatial paradigm, we showed that the verbal component is crucial for the Stroop effect: Manual responses lead to a disappearance of the interference effect. Moreover, with manual responses word position was recognized at the same speed for the baseline condition and for words that were incongruent as well as congruent with the spatial position. The results indicate (1) that the Stoop effect depends heavily on verbal components and (2) that differing processing speeds between reading and position recognition do not serve as a proper explanation for the effect. In addition, the provided paradigm plausibly transfers the classical color-word interference to the spatial dimension. PMID:24706050

  16. Observation of two-center interference effects for electron impact ionization of N2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaluvadi, Hari; Nur Ozer, Zehra; Dogan, Mevlut; Ning, Chuangang; Colgan, James; Madison, Don

    2015-08-01

    In 1966, Cohen and Fano (1966 Phys. Rev. 150 30) suggested that one should be able to observe the equivalent of Young’s double slit interference if the double slits were replaced by a diatomic molecule. This suggestion inspired many experimental and theoretical studies searching for double slit interference effects both for photon and particle ionization of diatomic molecules. These effects turned out to be so small for particle ionization that this work proceeded slowly and evidence for interference effects were only found by looking at cross section ratios. Most of the early particle work concentrated on double differential cross sections for heavy particle scattering and the first evidence for two-center interference for electron-impact triple differential cross section (TDCS) did not appear until 2006 for ionization of H2. Subsequent work has now firmly established that two-center interference effects can be seen in the TDCS for electron-impact ionization of H2. However, in spite of several experimental and theoretical studies, similar effects have not been found for electron-impact ionization of N2. Here we report the first evidence for two-center interference for electron-impact ionization of N2.

  17. Space shuttle: Aerodynamic characteristics of various MDAC space shuttle ascent configurations with parallel burn pressure-fed and SRM boosters. Volume 1: Tanks T1 and T2 ascent configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrett, T. W.

    1972-01-01

    Various space shuttle ascent configurations were tested in a trisonic wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics. The ascent configuration consisted of a NASA/MSC 040 orbiter in combination with various HO centerline tank and booster geometries. The aerodynamic interference between components of the space shuttle and the effect on the orbiter aerodynamics was determined. The various aerodynamic configurations tested were: (1) centerline HO tanks T1 and T2, (2) centerline HO tank T3, and (3) centerline HO tank H4.

  18. Aerodynamic forces and flow structures of the leading edge vortex on a flapping wing considering ground effect.

    PubMed

    Van Truong, Tien; Byun, Doyoung; Kim, Min Jun; Yoon, Kwang Joon; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this work is to provide an insight into the aerodynamic performance of the beetle during takeoff, which has been estimated in previous investigations. We employed a scaled-up electromechanical model flapping wing to measure the aerodynamic forces and the three-dimensional flow structures on the flapping wing. The ground effect on the unsteady forces and flow structures were also characterized. The dynamically scaled wing model could replicate the general stroke pattern of the beetle's hind wing kinematics during takeoff flight. Two wing kinematic models have been studied to examine the influences of wing kinematics on unsteady aerodynamic forces. In the first model, the angle of attack is asymmetric and varies during the translational motion, which is the flapping motion of the beetle's hind wing. In the second model, the angle of attack is constant during the translational motion. The instantaneous aerodynamic forces were measured for four strokes during the beetle's takeoff by the force sensor attached at the wing base. Flow visualization provided a general picture of the evolution of the three-dimensional leading edge vortex (LEV) on the beetle hind wing model. The LEV is stable during each stroke, and increases radically from the root to the tip, forming a leading-edge spiral vortex. The force measurement results show that the vertical force generated by the hind wing is large enough to lift the beetle. For the beetle hind wing kinematics, the total vertical force production increases 18.4% and 8.6% for the first and second strokes, respectively, due to the ground effect. However, for the model with a constant angle of attack during translation, the vertical force is reduced during the first stroke. During the third and fourth strokes, the ground effect is negligible for both wing kinematic patterns. This finding suggests that the beetle's flapping mechanism induces a ground effect that can efficiently lift its body from the ground during takeoff

  19. The effect of inlet stagnation supercooling degree on the aerodynamics of the steam flow field around a rotor tip section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beheshti Amiri, H.; Kermani, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of inlet stagnation supercooling degree on the aerodynamics of the flow field around the rotor tip section of a steam turbine are investigated. To do so, non-equilibrium thermodynamics model for simulating the condensing flow is employed. The results show that formation of liquid droplets and their further growth can remarkably change the design parameters like deviation angle, pressure loss coefficient, mass flow rate and shock wave pattern.

  20. Effects of thickness on the aerodynamic characteristics of an initial low-speed family of airfoils for general aviation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcghee, R. J.; Beasley, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to determine the effects of airfoil thickness-ratio on the low speed aerodynamic characteristics of an initial family of airfoils. The results were compared with theoretical predictions obtained from a subsonic viscous method. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.10 to 0.28. Chord Reynolds numbers varied from about 2.0 x 1 million to 9.0 x 1 million.

  1. Tactical missile aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemsch, Michael J. (Editor); Nielsen, Jack N. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The present conference on tactical missile aerodynamics discusses autopilot-related aerodynamic design considerations, flow visualization methods' role in the study of high angle-of-attack aerodynamics, low aspect ratio wing behavior at high angle-of-attack, supersonic airbreathing propulsion system inlet design, missile bodies with noncircular cross section and bank-to-turn maneuvering capabilities, 'waverider' supersonic cruise missile concepts and design methods, asymmetric vortex sheding phenomena from bodies-of-revolution, and swept shock wave/boundary layer interaction phenomena. Also discussed are the assessment of aerodynamic drag in tactical missiles, the analysis of supersonic missile aerodynamic heating, the 'equivalent angle-of-attack' concept for engineering analysis, the vortex cloud model for body vortex shedding and tracking, paneling methods with vorticity effects and corrections for nonlinear compressibility, the application of supersonic full potential method to missile bodies, Euler space marching methods for missiles, three-dimensional missile boundary layers, and an analysis of exhaust plumes and their interaction with missile airframes.

  2. The Effect of Break Edge Configuration on the Aerodynamics of Anti-Ice Jet Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatar, V.; Yildizay, H.; Aras, H.

    2015-05-01

    One of the components of a turboprop gas turbine engine is the Front Bearing Structure (FBS) which leads air into the compressor. FBS directly encounters with ambient air, as a consequence ice accretion may occur on its static vanes. There are several aerodynamic parameters which should be considered in the design of anti-icing system of FBS, such as diameter, position, exit angle of discharge holes, etc. This research focuses on the effects of break edge configuration over anti-ice jet flow. Break edge operation is a process which is applied to the hole in order to avoid sharp edges which cause high stress concentration. Numerical analyses and flow visualization test have been conducted. Four different break edge configurations were used for this investigation; without break edge, 0.35xD, 74xD, 0.87xD. Three mainstream flow conditions at the inlet of the channel are defined; 10m/s, 20 m/s and 40 m/s. Shear stresses are extracted from numerical analyses near the trailing edge of pressure surface where ice may occur under icing conditions. A specific flow visualization method was used for the experimental study. Vane surface near the trailing edge was dyed and thinner was injected into anti-ice jet flow in order to remove dye from the vane surface. Hence, film effect on the surface could be computed for each testing condition. Thickness of the dye removal area of each case was examined. The results show noticeable effects of break edge operation on jet flow, and the air film effectiveness decreases when mainstream inlet velocity decreases.

  3. The relevance of fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation to interference effect.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yuqin; Wang, Yan; Ding, Xiaoqian; Tang, Yi-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence has indicated a potential connection between resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) signal and cognitive performance. However, the relationship between intrinsic neural activity and behavioral interference effect on cognitive control has been poorly understood. In the present study, seventy-eight healthy subjects underwent RS-fMRI and performed Multi-Source Interference Task (MSIT). The fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) was measured as an indicator of intrinsic brain activity. The difference in reaction times between interference and control conditions in MSIT was evaluated as interference effect. Then we examined the associations between fALFF and interference effect using partial correlation analysis controlling for age, gender and mean framewise displacement. The results demonstrated that fALFF values in orbital prefrontal cortex (OPFC) and right inferior frontal cortex (IFC) were negatively correlated with the interference effect in MSIT. The findings manifest that OPFC and right IFC may influence the processing efficiency of cognitive conflict and play a crucial role in cognitive control. PMID:26300450

  4. Interference phenomena in the dynamical Casimir effect for a single mirror with Robin conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Jeferson D. Lima; Braga, Alessandra N.; Rego, Andreson L. C.; Alves, Danilo T.

    2015-07-01

    In the literature, the interference phenomenon in the particle creation via the dynamical Casimir effect is investigated for cavities with two moving mirrors. Here, considering the Robin boundary condition (BC), we investigate the interference phenomenon produced by just a single moving mirror. Specifically, we consider a real massless scalar field in 1 +1 dimensions submitted to a Robin BC with a time-dependent Robin parameter at the instantaneous position of a moving mirror, and compute the expressions for the spectral distribution and the rate of created particles. These expressions, which include interference terms, generalize those found in the literature related to the isolated effects of a Robin BC with a time-dependent Robin parameter for a fixed mirror, or a Robin BC with a time-independent Robin parameter for a moving mirror. Differently from models where the problem of interference in the dynamical Casimir effect is considered for cavities with two Dirichlet moving mirrors, in the present model the spectrum is a continuum, and the interference pattern exhibits new features, in the sense that different regions of the spectrum can be affected in different manners by constructive or destructive effects. Furthermore, we also investigate interference in the context of superconducting circuits.

  5. The interference effect in arithmetic fact solving: An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    De Visscher, Alice; Berens, Sam C; Keidel, James L; Noël, Marie-Pascale; Bird, Chris M

    2015-08-01

    Some multiplication facts share common digits with other, previously learned facts, and as a result, different problems are associated with different levels of interference. The detrimental effect of interference in arithmetic facts knowledge has been recently highlighted in behavioral studies, in children as well as in adults, both in typical and atypical development. The present study investigated the brain regions involved in the interference effect when solving multiplication problems. Twenty healthy adults carried out a multiplication task in an MRI scanner. The event-related design comprised problems whose interference level and problem size were manipulated in a 2×2 factorial design. After each trial, individuals were requested to indicate whether they solved the trial by retrieving the answer from long-term memory. This allowed us to examine which brain areas were sensitive to the interference effect and problem size effect as well as the retrieval strategy. The results highlighted two specific regions: the left angular gyrus was more activated for low interfering than for high interfering problems, and the right intraparietal sulcus was more activated for large problems than for small problems. In both regions, brain activity was not modulated by the other effect. These results suggest that the left angular gyrus is sensitive to the level of interference of the multiplication problems, whereas previously this region was thought to be more activated by small problems or by retrieval strategy. Here, in a design manipulating interference and problem size, while controlling for retrieval strategy, we showed that it rather reflects an automatic mapping between the problem and the answer stored in long-term memory. The right intraparietal sulcus was modulated by the problem size effect, which supports the idea that the problem size effect comes from the higher overlap between magnitude of the answers of large problems compared to small ones. Importantly

  6. Effect of vane opening on aerodynamic performance of the ram-rotor test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ji-ang; Guan, Jian; Zhong, Jingjun; Yuan, Chenguang

    2016-06-01

    In order to research the influence of adjustable vane on the aerodynamic performance of the ram-rotor test system, FLUENT software has been adopted to simulate the flow passage of the ram-rotor test system numerically. The vane opening is controlled by changing the stagger angle of the vane blades. Results show that flow uniformity of vane outlet is influenced by the vane openings, which has an impact on the aerodynamic loss to some extent. Total pressure ratio, adiabatic efficiency and mass flow rate can be regulated by different openings of the vane. Compared with -8° vane opening, top efficiency of the ram-rotor increases by about 13.8% at +6° opening. And total pressure ratio drops by 5.87%. The rising opening increases the relative Mach number at inlet of the ram-rotor and weakens the intensity of the tip clearance leakage, which comes to a decreasing aerodynamic loss.

  7. Analytical and experimental study of the effects of wing-body aerodynamic interaction on space shuttle subsonic flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipman, R. R.; Rauch, F. J.

    1975-01-01

    The effects on flutter of the aerodynamic interaction between the space shuttle bodies and wing, 1/80th-scale semispan models of the orbiter wing, the complete shuttle and intermediate component combinations were tested in the NASA Langley Research Center 26-inch Transonic Blowdown Wind Tunnel. Using the double lattice method combined with slender body theory to calculate unsteady aerodynamic forces, subsonic flutter speeds were computed for comparison. Using calculated complete vehicle modes, flutter speed trends were computed for the full scale vehicle at an altitude of 15,200 meters and a Mach number of 0.6. Consistent with findings of the model studies, analysis shows the shuttle to have the same flutter speed as an isolated cantilevered wing.

  8. Effect of Forewing and Hindwing Interactions on Aerodynamic Forces and Power in Hovering Dragonfly Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. Jane; Russell, David

    2007-10-01

    Dragonflies are four-winged insects that have the ability to control aerodynamic performance by modulating the phase lag (ϕ) between forewings and hindwings. We film the wing motion of a tethered dragonfly and compute the aerodynamic force and power as a function of the phase. We find that the out-of-phase motion as seen in steady hovering uses nearly minimal power to generate the required force to balance the weight, and the in-phase motion seen in takeoffs provides an additional force to accelerate. We explain the main hydrodynamic interaction that causes this phase dependence.

  9. Effects of laser fluence on silicon modification by four-beam laser interference

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Le; Li, Dayou; Wang, Zuobin Yue, Yong; Zhang, Jinjin; Yu, Miao; Li, Siwei

    2015-12-21

    This paper discusses the effects of laser fluence on silicon modification by four-beam laser interference. In this work, four-beam laser interference was used to pattern single crystal silicon wafers for the fabrication of surface structures, and the number of laser pulses was applied to the process in air. By controlling the parameters of laser irradiation, different shapes of silicon structures were fabricated. The results were obtained with the single laser fluence of 354 mJ/cm{sup 2}, 495 mJ/cm{sup 2}, and 637 mJ/cm{sup 2}, the pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz, the laser exposure pulses of 30, 100, and 300, the laser wavelength of 1064 nm, and the pulse duration of 7–9 ns. The effects of the heat transfer and the radiation of laser interference plasma on silicon wafer surfaces were investigated. The equations of heat flow and radiation effects of laser plasma of interfering patterns in a four-beam laser interference distribution were proposed to describe their impacts on silicon wafer surfaces. The experimental results have shown that the laser fluence has to be properly selected for the fabrication of well-defined surface structures in a four-beam laser interference process. Laser interference patterns can directly fabricate different shape structures for their corresponding applications.

  10. Aerodynamic characteristics of a feathered dinosaur measured using physical models. Effects of form on static stability and control effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Dennis; Cardona, Griselda; Guenther-Gleason, Eric; Huynh, Tony; Kwong, Austin; Marks, Dylan; Ray, Neil; Tisbe, Adrian; Tse, Kyle; Koehl, Mimi

    2014-01-01

    We report the effects of posture and morphology on the static aerodynamic stability and control effectiveness of physical models based on the feathered dinosaur, [Formula: see text]Microraptor gui, from the Cretaceous of China. Postures had similar lift and drag coefficients and were broadly similar when simplified metrics of gliding were considered, but they exhibited different stability characteristics depending on the position of the legs and the presence of feathers on the legs and the tail. Both stability and the function of appendages in generating maneuvering forces and torques changed as the glide angle or angle of attack were changed. These are significant because they represent an aerial environment that may have shifted during the evolution of directed aerial descent and other aerial behaviors. Certain movements were particularly effective (symmetric movements of the wings and tail in pitch, asymmetric wing movements, some tail movements). Other appendages altered their function from creating yaws at high angle of attack to rolls at low angle of attack, or reversed their function entirely. While [Formula: see text]M. gui lived after [Formula: see text]Archaeopteryx and likely represents a side experiment with feathered morphology, the general patterns of stability and control effectiveness suggested from the manipulations of forelimb, hindlimb and tail morphology here may help understand the evolution of flight control aerodynamics in vertebrates. Though these results rest on a single specimen, as further fossils with different morphologies are tested, the findings here could be applied in a phylogenetic context to reveal biomechanical constraints on extinct flyers arising from the need to maneuver. PMID:24454820

  11. An Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Propellers Used as Aerodynamic Brakes on Stability and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Frederick H

    1945-01-01

    Tests were made of a model representative of a single-engine tractor-type airplane for the purpose of determining the stability and control effects of a propeller used as an aerodynamic brake. The tests were made with single-and dual-rotation propellers to show the effect of type of propeller rotation, and with positive thrust to provide basic data with which to compare the effects of negative thrust. Four configurations of the model were used to give the effects of tilting the propeller thrust axis down 5 deg., raising the horizontal tail, and combining both tilt and raised tail. Results of the tests are reported herein. The effects of negative thrust were found to be significant. The longitudinal stability was increased because of the loss of wing lift and increase of the angle of attack of the tail. Directional stability and both longitudinal and directional control were decreased because of the reduced velocity at the tail. These effects are moderate for moderate braking but become pronounced with full-power braking, particularly at high values of lift coefficient. The effects of model configuration changes were small when compared with the over-all effects of negative-thrust operation; however, improved stability and control characteristics were exhibited by the model with the tilted thrust axis. Raising the horizontal tail improved the longitudinal characteristics, but was detrimental to directional characteristics. The use of dual-rotation propeller reduced the directional trim charges resulting from the braking operation. A prototype airplane was assumed and handling qualities were computed and analyzed for normal (positive thrust) and braking operation with full and partial power. The results of these analyses are presented for the longitudinal characteristics in steady and accelerated flight, and for the directional characteristics in high- and low-speed flight. It was found that by limiting the power output of the engine (assuming the constant

  12. Subjective evaluation of the effect of noise and interference on frequency modulated NTSC television signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, M.; Chouinard, G.; Trenholm, R.

    1984-12-01

    The future environment of broadcasting satellites may well be governed by the limiting factor of interference between television signals from neighboring satellites. A program of tests was performed to evaluate subjectively the effect of aggregate interference and/or noise on the impairment of television pictures. Up to four interfering channels were added in an environment resembling that of future broadcasting satellite systems including up to two co-frequency channels and up to two adjacent channels. Also results of just-perceptible interference tests due to adjacent channel interferer at various intercarrier spacings and for different receive filter characteristics on the wanted signal path are presented. The results of these tests are considered valuable in the study of the quality standard for the RARC-83 for the planning of the broadcasting-satellite service.

  13. Computational design of donor-bridge-acceptor systems exhibiting pronounced quantum interference effects.

    PubMed

    Gorczak, Natalie; Renaud, Nicolas; Galan, Elena; Eelkema, Rienk; Siebbeles, Laurens D A; Grozema, Ferdinand C

    2016-03-01

    Quantum interference is a well-known phenomenon that dictates charge transport properties of single molecule junctions. However, reports on quantum interference in donor-bridge-acceptor molecules are scarce. This might be due to the difficulties in meeting the conditions for the presence of quantum interference in a donor-bridge-acceptor system. The electronic coupling between the donor, bridge, and acceptor moieties must be weak in order to ensure localised initial and final states for charge transfer. Yet, it must be strong enough to allow all bridge orbitals to mediate charge transfer. We present the computational route to the design of a donor-bridge-acceptor molecule that features the right balance between these contradicting requirements and exhibits pronounced interference effects. PMID:26878200

  14. Unsteady aerodynamics modeling for flight dynamics application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; He, Kai-Feng; Qian, Wei-Qi; Zhang, Tian-Jiao; Cheng, Yan-Qing; Wu, Kai-Yuan

    2012-02-01

    In view of engineering application, it is practicable to decompose the aerodynamics into three components: the static aerodynamics, the aerodynamic increment due to steady rotations, and the aerodynamic increment due to unsteady separated and vortical flow. The first and the second components can be presented in conventional forms, while the third is described using a one-order differential equation and a radial-basis-function (RBF) network. For an aircraft configuration, the mathematical models of 6-component aerodynamic coefficients are set up from the wind tunnel test data of pitch, yaw, roll, and coupled yawroll large-amplitude oscillations. The flight dynamics of an aircraft is studied by the bifurcation analysis technique in the case of quasi-steady aerodynamics and unsteady aerodynamics, respectively. The results show that: (1) unsteady aerodynamics has no effect upon the existence of trim points, but affects their stability; (2) unsteady aerodynamics has great effects upon the existence, stability, and amplitudes of periodic solutions; and (3) unsteady aerodynamics changes the stable regions of trim points obviously. Furthermore, the dynamic responses of the aircraft to elevator deflections are inspected. It is shown that the unsteady aerodynamics is beneficial to dynamic stability for the present aircraft. Finally, the effects of unsteady aerodynamics on the post-stall maneuverability are analyzed by numerical simulation.

  15. Effects of atmospheric models on space shuttle trajectories and aerodynamic heating.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, O. E.; Redus, J. R.; Forney, J. A.; Dash, M. J.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the respective contributions from the atmospheric physicist, trajectory analyst, and aerothermodynamist to the design problem underlying the selection of the space-shuttle booster mode to be developed, i.e., either expendable booster, recoverable booster, or flyback booster, and the configuration and composite configuration. The interrelationships between atmospheric variables, trajectory parameters, and aerodynamic heating loads are discussed.

  16. Unsteady Aerodynamic Effects on the Flight Characteristics of an F-16XL Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhongjun; Lan, C. Edward; Brandon, Jay M.

    2000-01-01

    Unsteady aerodynamic models based on windtunnel forced oscillation test data and analyzed with a fuzzy logic algorithm arc incorporated into an F-16XL flight simulation code. The reduced frequency needed in the unsteady models is numerically calculated by using a limited prior time history of state variables in a least-square sense. Numerical examples arc presented to show the accuracy of the calculated reduced frequency. Oscillatory control inputs are employed to demonstrate the differences in the flight characteristics based on unsteady and quasi-steady aerodynamic models. Application of the unsteady aerodynamic models is also presented and the results are compared with one set of F16XIL longitudinal maneuver flight data. It is shown that the main differences in dynamic response are in the lateral-directional characteristics, with the quasi-steady model being more stable than the flight vehicle, while the unsteady model being more unstable. Similar conclusions can also be made in a simulated rapid sideslipping roll. To improve unsteady aerodynamic modeling, it is recommended to acquire test data with coupled motions in pitch, roll and yaw.

  17. Effect of gravitational and aerodynamic torques on a rigid Skylab-type satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sperling, H. J.

    1974-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of the influence of the aerodynamic torque on a Skylab-type satellite is presented. Only the case of free flow of uniform velocity and completely diffuse reflection is considered. It is found by linear stability analysis that the satellite has no stable equilibrium.

  18. Concurrent working memory task decreases the Stroop interference effect as indexed by the decreased theta oscillations.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Tang, D; Hu, L; Zhang, L; Hitchman, G; Wang, L; Chen, A

    2014-03-14

    Working memory (WM) tasks may increase or decrease the interference effect of concurrently performed cognitive control tasks. However, the neural oscillatory correlates of this modulation effect of WM on the Stroop task are still largely unknown. In the present study, behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) data were recorded from 32 healthy participants during their performance of the single Stroop task and the same task with a concurrent WM task. We observed that the Stroop interference effect represented in both response times (RTs) and theta-band event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP) magnitude reduced under the dual-task condition compared with the single-task condition. The reduction of interference in theta-band ERSP was further positively correlated with interference reduction in RTs, and was mainly explained by the source in the left middle frontal gyrus. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the effect of concurrent WM tasks on the reduction of the Stroop interference effect can be indexed by EEG oscillations in theta-band rhythm in the centro-frontal regions and this modulation was mediated by the reduced cognitive control under the concurrent WM task. PMID:24406438

  19. The aerodynamic effects of wheelspace coolant injection into the mainstream flow of a high pressure gas turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, Christopher Elliot

    Modern gas turbine engines operate with mainstream gas temperatures exceeding 1450°C in the high-pressure turbine stage. Unlike turbine blades, rotor disks and other internal components are not designed to withstand the extreme temperatures found in mainstream flow. In modern gas turbines, cooling air is pumped into the wheelspace cavities to prevent mainstream gas ingestion and then exits through a seal between the rotor and the nozzle guide vane (NGV) thereby mixing with the mainstream flow. The primary purpose for the wheelspace cooling air is the cooling of the turbine wheelspace. However, secondary effects arise from the mixing of the spent cooling air with the mainstream flow. The exiting cooling air is mixed with the hot mainstream flow effecting the aerodynamic and performance characteristics of the turbine stage. The physics underlying this mixing process and its effects on stage performance are not yet fully understood. The relative aerodynamic and performance effects associated with rotor - NGV gap coolant injections were investigated in the Axial Flow Turbine Research Facility (AFTRF) of the Center for Gas Turbines and Power of The Pennsylvania State University. This study quantifies the secondary effects of the coolant injection on the aerodynamic and performance character of the turbines main stream flow for root injection, radial cooling, and impingement cooling. Measurement and analysis of the cooling effects were performed in both stationary and rotational frames of reference. The AFTRF is unique in its ability to perform long duration cooling measurements in the stationary and rotating frames. The effects of wheelspace coolant mixing with the mainstream flow on total-to-total efficiency, energy transport, three dimensional velocity field, and loading coefficient were investigated. Overall, it was found that a small quantity (1%) of cooling air can have significant effects on the performance character and exit conditions of the high pressure stage

  20. Incompressible lifting-surface aerodynamics for a rotor-stator combination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandra, S. M.

    1984-01-01

    Current literature on the three dimensional flow through compressor cascades deals with a row of rotor blades in isolation. Since the distance between the rotor and stator is usually 10 to 20 percent of the blade chord, the aerodynamic interference between them has to be considered for a proper evaluation of the aerothermodynamic performance of the stage. A unified approach to the aerodynamics of the incompressible flow through a stage is presented that uses the lifting surface theory for a compressor cascade of arbitrary camber and thickness distribution. The effects of rotor stator interference are represented as a linear function of the rotor and stator flows separately. The loading distribution on the rotor and stator flows separately. The loading distribution on the rotor and stator blades and the interference factor are determined concurrently through a matrix iteration process.

  1. The effect of interference on temporal order memory in individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    DeFord, Nicole E; Landy, Kelly M; Pirogovsky-Turk, Eva; Van Etten, Emily J; Graves, Lisa V; Salmon, David P; Filoteo, J Vincent; Gilbert, Paul E

    2016-08-01

    Memory for the temporal order of items or events in a sequence has been shown to be impaired in older adults and individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). The present study examined the effects of high and low interference on temporal order memory in individuals diagnosed with PD (n=20) and demographically similar healthy older adults (n=20) utilizing a computerized task used in previously published studies. During the sample phase of each trial, a series of eight circles were randomly presented one at a time in eight different spatial locations. Participants were instructed to remember the sequence in which the circles appeared in the locations. During the choice phase, participants were presented with two circles in two different locations and were asked to indicate which circle appeared earliest in the sample phase sequence. The two circles were separated by one of four possible temporal separation lags (0, 2, 4, and 6), defined as the number of circles occurring in the sample phase sequence between the two choice phase circles. Shorter temporal lags (e.g., 0 and 2 lags) were hypothesized to result in higher interference compared to longer temporal lags (e.g., 4 and 6 lags). The results demonstrated that on trials involving high interference, no differences were found between the two groups. However, healthy older adults significantly outperformed individuals with PD (p<0.05) on trials involving low interference. Although differences were found between the PD and healthy older adult groups, both groups significantly improved on low interference trials compared to high interference trials (p<0.001). The findings indicate that temporal order memory improves in healthy older adults and individuals with PD when interference is reduced. However, individuals with PD demonstrated poorer temporal order memory even with less interference. Therefore, temporal order memory is differentially affected by interference in healthy older adults and individuals with PD. Given

  2. Experimental determination of flow-interference effects of wing-mounted, two-dimensional, full-capture propulsion nacelles in close proximity to a vehicle body at a Mach number of 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vahl, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental tests have been conducted to determine possible aerodynamic interference effects due to the lateral positioning of two dimensional propulsion nacelles mounted on a wing surface in close proximity to a vehicle body. The tests were conducted at a Mach number of 6 and a Reynolds number 7 million per foot. The angle of attack range for force tests was -9 deg to 9 deg. The model configurations consisted of combinations of rectangular and trapezoidal cross section bodies with a wing swept 65 and a rectangular planform wing. A pair of two dimensional, flow through propulsion nacelles simulated full capture inlet operation.

  3. How personal earthquake experience impacts on the Stroop interference effect: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jiang; Su, Yanhua; Li, Hong; Wei, Dongtao; Tu, Shen; Zhang, Qinglin

    2010-11-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured when 24 Chinese subjects performed the classical Stroop task. All of subjects had experienced the great Sichuan earthquake (5/12), with 12 people in each of the Far (Chengdu city) and the Close (Deyang city) earthquake experience groups. The behavioral data showed that the Stroop task yielded a robust Stroop interference effect as indexed by longer RT for incongruent than congruent color words in both the Chengdu and Deyang groups. Scalp ERP data showed that incongruent stimuli elicited a more negative ERP deflection (N400-600; Stroop interference effect) than did congruent stimuli between 400-600 ms in the Chengdu group, while the Stroop interference ERP effect was not found in the Deyang group. Dipole source analysis localized the generator of the N400-600 in the right prefrontal cortex (PFC) and was possibly related to conflict monitoring and cognitive control. PMID:20409010

  4. Effects of contextual interference on acquisition and retention of three volleyball skills.

    PubMed

    Jones, Laura L; French, Karen E

    2007-12-01

    Manipulating the organization of practice conditions, through contextual interference, was identified as a method to promote motor skill acquisition by Brady in 1998. The generalizability of this learning effect is questionable and the amount of repetition versus the amount of change in task presentation requires investigation. The purpose of this study was to explore explanations for the performance of learners practicing the AAHPERD volleyball skills test when the change in task presentation varied. High school students were randomly assigned to blocked, random, and random-blocked practice groups. While all groups significantly improved all skills during acquisition, there was no support for the contextual interference effect. Potential explanations might be dependent upon the learners' skill and the complexity of the task to be learned. Further research is warranted examining contextual interference effect on practice organization at levels of difficulty appropriate to facilitate cognitive processing of task-related information. PMID:18229542

  5. Shuttle Orbiter Contingency Abort Aerodynamics: Real-Gas Effects and High Angles of Attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Papadopoulos, Periklis E.; Davies, Carol B.; Wright, Michael J.; McDaniel, Ryan D.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Wercinski, Paul F.

    2005-01-01

    An important element of the Space Shuttle Orbiter safety improvement plan is the improved understanding of its aerodynamic performance so as to minimize the "black zones" in the contingency abort trajectories [1]. These zones are regions in the launch trajectory where it is predicted that, due to vehicle limitations, the Orbiter will be unable to return to the launch site in a two or three engine-out scenario. Reduction of these zones requires accurate knowledge of the aerodynamic forces and moments to better assess the structural capability of the vehicle. An interesting aspect of the contingency abort trajectories is that the Orbiter would need to achieve angles of attack as high as 60deg. Such steep attitudes are much higher than those for a nominal flight trajectory. The Orbiter is currently flight certified only up to an angle of attack of 44deg at high Mach numbers and has never flown at angles of attack larger than this limit. Contingency abort trajectories are generated using the data in the Space Shuttle Operational Aerodynamic Data Book (OADB) [2]. The OADB, a detailed document of the aerodynamic environment of the current Orbiter, is primarily based on wind-tunnel measurements (over a wide Mach number and angle-of-attack range) extrapolated to flight conditions using available theories and correlations, and updated with flight data where available. For nominal flight conditions, i.e., angles of attack of less than 45deg, the fidelity of the OADB is excellent due to the availability of flight data. However, at the off-nominal conditions, such as would be encountered on contingency abort trajectories, the fidelity of the OADB is less certain. The primary aims of a recent collaborative effort (completed in the year 2001) between NASA and Boeing were to determine: 1) accurate distributions of pressure and shear loads on the Orbiter at select points in the contingency abort trajectory space; and 2) integrated aerodynamic forces and moments for the entire

  6. Interference effects for Higgs boson mediated Z-pair plus jet production

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Campbell, John M.; Ellis, R. Keith; Furlan, Elisabetta; Rontsch, Raoul

    2014-11-25

    Here, we study interference effects in the production channel ZZ + jet, in particular focusing on the role of the Higgs boson. This production channel receives contributions both from Higgs boson mediated diagrams via the decay H → ZZ (signal diagrams), as well as from diagrams where the Z bosons couple directly to a quark loop (background diagrams). We consider the partonic processes gggZZ and gqmore » $$\\bar{q}$$ZZ in which interference between signal and background diagrams first occurs. Since interference is primarily an off-resonant effect for the Higgs boson, we treat the Z bosons as on shell. Thus our analysis is limited to the region above threshold, where the invariant mass of the Z-pair mZZ satisfies the condition mZZ>2mZ. In the region mZZ > 300 GeV we find that the interference in the ZZ + jet channel is qualitatively similar to interference in the inclusive ZZ channel. Moreover, the rates are sufficient to study these effects at the LHC once jet-binned data become available.« less

  7. Observations of dust acoustic waves driven at high frequencies: Finite dust temperature effects and wave interference

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Edward Jr.; Fisher, Ross; Merlino, Robert L.

    2007-12-15

    An experiment has been performed to study the behavior of dust acoustic waves driven at high frequencies (f>100 Hz), extending the range of previous work. In this study, two previously unreported phenomena are observed--interference effects between naturally excited dust acoustic waves and driven dust acoustic waves, and the observation of finite dust temperature effects on the dispersion relation.

  8. The Relationship between Stroop Interference and Facilitation Effects: Statistical Artifacts, Baselines, and a Reassessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tracy L.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between interference and facilitation effects in the Stroop task is poorly understood yet central to its implications. At question is the modal view that they arise from a single mechanism--the congruency of color and word. Two developments have challenged that view: (a) the belief that facilitation effects are fractionally small…

  9. Unsteady aerodynamic analysis of space shuttle vehicles. Part 1: Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ericsson, L. E.; Reding, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of the unsteady aerodynamics of space shuttle vehicles was performed. The results show that slender wing theory can be modified to give the potential flow static and dynamic characteristics over a large Mach number range from M = 0 to M 1. A semi-empirical analytic approximation is derived for the loads induced by the leading edge vortex; and it is shown that the developed analytic technique gives good prediction of experimentally determined steady and unsteady delta wing aerodynamics, including the effects of leading edge roundness. At supersonic speeds, attached leading edge flow is established and shock-induced flow separation effects become of concern. Analysis of experimental results for a variety of boost configurations led to a definition of the main features of the flow interference effects between orbiter (delta wing) and booster. The effects of control deflection on the unsteady aerodynamics of the delta-wing orbiter were also evaluated.

  10. The site of interference in the saccadic Stroop effect.

    PubMed

    Hermens, Frouke; Walker, Robin

    2012-11-15

    In two experiments, the source of competition in the saccadic Stroop effect was investigated. Colored strings of letters were presented at fixation with colored patches in the surround. The task of the participants was to make an eye movement to the patch in the same color as the central string of letters. Three types of cues were compared: Either the string of letters composed a word indicating a direction (the saccadic Stroop condition), or it was a set of arrow signs, or a peripheral stimulus appeared. Whereas response times and saccade errors were similarly influenced by the different types of cues, saccade trajectory deviations away from the cue were found only for peripheral onsets. A second experiment demonstrated that the absence of the curvature effects for direction words was not due to insufficient time to process the words. The results raise doubts on whether the saccadic Stroop effect is effectively an oculomotor effect and could pose a challenge to models of saccade target selection. PMID:23026013

  11. Aerodynamics of Race Cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.

  12. Effect on interference fits on roller bearing fatigue life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, H. H.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis was performed to determine the effects of inner-ring speed and press fits on roller bearing fatigue life. The effects of the resultant hoop and radial stresses on the principal stresses were considered. The maximum shear stresses below the Hertzian contact were determined for different conditions of inner-ring speed and load, and were applied to a conventional roller bearing life analysis. The effect of mean stress was determined using Goodman diagram approach. Hoop stresses caused by press fits and centrifugal force can reduce bearing life by as much as 90 percent. Use of a Goodman diagram predicts life reductions of 20 to 30 percent. The depth of the maximum shear stress remains virtually unchanged.

  13. Effect of interference fits on roller bearing fatigue life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, Harold H.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis was performed to determine the effects of inner-ring speed and press fits on roller bearing fatigue life. The effects of the resultant hoop and radial stresses on the principal stresses were considered. The maximum shear stresses below the Hertzian contact were determined for different conditions of inner-ring speed and load, and were applied to a conventional roller bearing life analysis. The effect of mean stress was determined using Goodman diagram approach. Hoop stresses caused by press fits and centrifugal force can reduce bearing life by as much as 90 percent. Use of a Goodman diagram predicts life reduction of 20 to 30 percent. The depth of the maximum shear stress remains virtually unchanged.

  14. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy with Concurrent Exercise Training: Contrary Evidence for an Interference Effect.

    PubMed

    Murach, Kevin A; Bagley, James R

    2016-08-01

    Over the last 30+ years, it has become axiomatic that performing aerobic exercise within the same training program as resistance exercise (termed concurrent exercise training) interferes with the hypertrophic adaptations associated with resistance exercise training. However, a close examination of the literature reveals that the interference effect of concurrent exercise training on muscle growth in humans is not as compelling as previously thought. Moreover, recent studies show that, under certain conditions, concurrent exercise may augment resistance exercise-induced hypertrophy in healthy human skeletal muscle. The purpose of this article is to outline the contrary evidence for an acute and chronic interference effect of concurrent exercise on skeletal muscle growth in humans and provide practical literature-based recommendations for maximizing hypertrophy when training concurrently. PMID:26932769

  15. Effects of aging on interference control in selective attention and working memory.

    PubMed

    Cansino, Selene; Guzzon, Daniela; Martinelli, Massimiliano; Barollo, Michele; Casco, Clara

    2011-11-01

    Working memory decay in advanced age has been attributed to a concurrent decrease in the ability to control interference. The present study contrasted a form of interference control in selective attention that acts upon the perception of external stimuli (access) with another form that operates on internal representations in working memory (deletion), in order to determine both of their effects on working memory efficiency in younger and older adults. Additionally, we compared memory performance under these access and deletion functions to performance in their respective control conditions. The results indicated that memory accuracy improved in both age groups from the access functions, but that only young adults benefited from the deletion functions. In addition, intrusion effects in the deletion condition were larger in older than in younger adults. The ability to control the irrelevant perception- and memory-elicited interference did not decline in general with advancing age; rather, the control mechanisms that operate on internal memory representations declined specifically. PMID:21557003

  16. Mechanisms of Active Aerodynamic Load Reduction on a Rotorcraft Fuselage With Rotor Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaeffler, Norman W.; Allan, Brian G.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Bartram, Scott M.; Mace, W. Derry; Wong, Oliver D.; Tanner, Philip E.

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of the aerodynamic load that acts on a generic rotorcraft fuselage by the application of active flow control was investigated in a wind tunnel test conducted on an approximately 1/3-scale powered rotorcraft model simulating forward flight. The aerodynamic mechanisms that make these reductions, in both the drag and the download, possible were examined in detail through the use of the measured surface pressure distribution on the fuselage, velocity field measurements made in the wake directly behind the ramp of the fuselage and computational simulations. The fuselage tested was the ROBIN-mod7, which was equipped with a series of eight slots located on the ramp section through which flow control excitation was introduced. These slots were arranged in a U-shaped pattern located slightly downstream of the baseline separation line and parallel to it. The flow control excitation took the form of either synthetic jets, also known as zero-net-mass-flux blowing, and steady blowing. The same set of slots were used for both types of excitation. The differences between the two excitation types and between flow control excitation from different combinations of slots were examined. The flow control is shown to alter the size of the wake and its trajectory relative to the ramp and the tailboom and it is these changes to the wake that result in a reduction in the aerodynamic load.

  17. Experimental and Theoretical Study of Propeller Spinner/Shank Interference. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornell, C. C.

    1986-01-01

    A fundamental experimental and theoretical investigation into the aerodynamic interference associated with propeller spinner and shank regions was conducted. The research program involved a theoretical assessment of solutions previously proposed, followed by a systematic experimental study to supplement the existing data base. As a result, a refined computational procedure was established for prediction of interference effects in terms of interference drag and resolved into propeller thrust and torque components. These quantities were examined with attention to engineering parameters such as two spinner finess ratios, three blade shank forms, and two/three/four/six/eight blades. Consideration of the physics of the phenomena aided in the logical deduction of two individual interference quantities (cascade effects and spinner/shank juncture interference). These interference effects were semi-empirically modeled using existing theories and placed into a compatible form with an existing propeller performance scheme which provided the basis for examples of application.

  18. Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Sean; Bigatel, Patrick

    2004-10-17

    Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by this DOE category one Inventions and Innovations grant to successfully research, develop, test, patent, market, and sell innovative fuel and emissions saving aerodynamic attachments for the trucking industry. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck's fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Market research early in this project revealed the demands of truck fleet operators regarding aerodynamic attachments. Products must not only save fuel, but cannot interfere with the operation of the truck, require significant maintenance, add significant weight, and must be extremely durable. Furthermore, SAE/TMC J1321 tests performed by a respected independent laboratory are necessary for large fleets to even consider purchase. Freight Wing used this information to create a system of three practical aerodynamic attachments for the front, rear and undercarriage of standard semi trailers. SAE/TMC J1321 Type II tests preformed by the Transportation Research Center (TRC) demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy with all three products. If Freight Wing is successful in its continued efforts to gain market penetration, the energy and environmental savings would be considerable. Each truck outfitted saves approximately 1,100 gallons of fuel every 100,000 miles, which prevents over 12 tons of CO2 from entering the atmosphere. If all applicable trailers used the technology, the country could save approximately 1.8 billion gallons of diesel fuel, 18 million tons of emissions and 3.6 billion dollars annually.

  19. Effect of location of aft-mounted nacelles on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a high-wing transport airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeyounis, William K.; Patterson, James C., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    As part of a propulsion/airframe integration program at Langley Research Center, tests were conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the effects of locating flow-through mixed flow engine nacelles in several aft underwing positions on the longitudinal aerodynamics of a high wing transport airplane. D-shaped inlet nacelles were used in the test. Some configurations with antishock bodies and with nacelle toe-in were also tested. Data were obtained for a free stream Mach number range of 0.70 to 0.85 and a model angle-of-attack range from -2.5 to 4.0 degrees.

  20. Effect of wing aspect ratio and flap span on aerodynamic characteristics of an externally blown jet-flap STOL model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. C., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted to determine the effects of flap span and wing aspect ratio on the static longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics and chordwise and spanwise pressure distributions on the wing and trailing-edge flap of a straight-wing STOL model having an externally blown jet flap without vertical and horizontal tail surfaces. The force tests were made over an angle-of-attack range for several thrust coefficients and two flap deflections. The pressure data are presented as tabulated and plotted chordwise pressure-distribution coefficients for angles of attack of 1 and 16. Pressure-distribution measurements were made at several spanwise stations.

  1. A method of estimating the aerodynamic effects of ordinary and split flaps of airfoils similar to the Clark Y

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, H A

    1936-01-01

    An empirical method is given for estimating the aerodynamic effect of ordinary and split flaps on airfoils similar to the Clark Y. The method is based on a series of charts that have been derived from an analysis of existing wind-tunnel data. Factors are included by which such variables as flap location, flap span, wing aspect ratio, and wing taper may be taken into account. A series of comparisons indicate that the method would be suitable for use in making preliminary performance calculations and in structural design.

  2. RNA Interference

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIGMS Home > Science Education > RNA Interference Fact Sheet RNA Interference Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is RNA interference? RNA interference (RNAi) is a natural process ...

  3. Interference effects on Space Station Freedom and space shuttle orbiter Ku-band downlinks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Hyuck M.; Loh, Yin-Chung; Tu, Kwei

    1993-01-01

    The space shuttle orbiter (SSO) and Ku-band single access return (KSAR) link and the Space Station Freedom (SSF) KSAR link via the tracking and data relay satellite system (TDRSS) use the same carrier frequency. The interference between spacecraft is minimized by opposite antenna polarizations and by TDRSS antenna beam pointing, but if the SSF and SSO are in close proximity, it is expected that mutual interference will be significant. Recently, Tsang and Su (1988, 1989) simulated the mutual interference effects, using a practical nonlinear bandlimited channel. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that a simplified (i.e., linear band-limited channel) analytical approach will yield adequate accuracy for the expected range of operating conditions. Relative degradation in bit energy-to-thermal noise power spectral density ratio to achieve a 10 exp -5 coded bit-error-probability is determined to be 4 dB for the Ku-band SSO-to-TDRS I-channel return link with a 4.5 dB effective signal-to-interference total power ratio (S/I) when the Ku-band SSF-to-TDRS return link interferes, whereas Su's simulation yields approximately 5 dB degradation. For the Ku-band SSF-to-TDRS return link, both analysis and simulation results yield a relative signal degradation of 0.4 dB at the effective S/I = 21.6 dB. In conclusion, interference on the Ku-band SSO-to-TDRS I-channel return link is significant, but on the Ku-band SSF-to-TDRS return link it is negligible.

  4. Effective Treatment of Respiratory Alphaherpesvirus Infection Using RNA Interference

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Amy; Peters, Sarah T.; Perkins, Gillian A.; Jarosinski, Keith W.; Damiani, Armando; Brosnahan, Margaret; Buckles, Elizabeth L.; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1), a member of the Alphaherpesvirinae, is spread via nasal secretions and causes respiratory disease, neurological disorders and abortions. The virus is a significant equine pathogen, but current EHV-1 vaccines are only partially protective and effective metaphylactic and therapeutic agents are not available. Small interfering RNAs (siRNA's), delivered intranasally, could prove a valuable alternative for infection control. siRNA's against two essential EHV-1 genes, encoding the viral helicase (Ori) and glycoprotein B, were evaluated for their potential to decrease EHV-1 infection in a mouse model. Methodology/Principal Fndings siRNA therapy in vitro significantly reduced virus production and plaque size. Viral titers were reduced 80-fold with 37.5 pmol of a single siRNA or with as little as 6.25 pmol of each siRNA when used in combination. siRNA therapy in vivo significantly reduced viral replication and clinical signs. Intranasal treatment did not require a transport vehicle and proved effective when given up to 12 h before or after infection. Conclusions/Significance siRNA treatment has potential for both prevention and early treatment of EHV-1 infections. PMID:19122813

  5. Underground-noise interference effects of the personal respirable coal-mine-dust sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Giardino, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to determine the potential interference effects of the noise emitted by the MSA Model G and Bendix Model 3900 personal respirable coal mine dust samplers in relation to underground warning and communication signals. The first part of the investigation involves the acoustical characterization of noise radiated by the dust samplers in terms of noise level and spectral content. In the second part of the study, these data are compared to the noise levels and octave band spectra of warning signals (roof talk and emergency alarms) and voice communication signals. Finally, the health hazard potential for hearing loss due to dust sampler noise is examined. It can be concluded that the noise emissions from either the MSA Model G or the Bendix Model 3900 dust samplers: will not, for all practical purposes, significantly interfere with face to face verbal communications between individuals at the face of an underground coal mine; will not significantly interfere with telephone communications as conducted in an underground coal mine; will not significantly interfere with the miner's ability to hear roof talk acoustic signals; will not significantly interfere with the miner's ability to hear warning signals such as emergency alarams as used in an underground coal mine; and will not be a health hazard to miners-that is, prolonged or extended exposure will not cause hearing loss.

  6. Effects of activity interference on annoyance due to aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, K. F.; Powell, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of aircraft flyover noise on annoyance were compared for face to face conversation, reverie, and television viewing. Eighteen 5 minute sessions, each composed of three flyovers, were presented on each of 2 days to subjects in a simulated living room. Twelve pairs of females and 12 pairs of males were tested, once before and once after work. Flyovers varied in peak noise level from 53 to 83 dB, A weighted. On each day, subjects engaged in 18 sessions, six of conversation, six of television viewing, and six of reverie. The subjects completed subjective ratings of annoyance and acceptability following every session. Annoyance and unacceptability rating scores were significantly higher for the activity of television viewing compared to conversation or reverie. There was no difference between judgments during the latter two activities. No differences were found in the judgments when compared on the basis of "fatigue" (before/after work) or sex of the subject.

  7. Quantum interference in timed Dicke basis and its effect on bipartite entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Sete, Eyob A.; Das, Sumanta

    2011-04-15

    We analyze the effect of the position-dependent excitation phase on the properties of entanglement between two qubits formed in atomic systems. We show that the excitation phase induces a vacuum-mediated quantum interference in the system that affects the dynamical behavior of entanglement between the qubits. It is also found that the quantum interference leads to a coherent population transfer between the symmetric and antisymmetric states that can considerably modify the dynamics of two-qubit entanglement and can even prevent finite-time disentanglement (sudden death) under certain conditions.

  8. Direct observation of large quantum interference effect in anthraquinone solid-state junctions.

    PubMed

    Rabache, Vincent; Chaste, Julien; Petit, Philippe; Della Rocca, Maria Luisa; Martin, Pascal; Lacroix, Jean-Christophe; McCreery, Richard L; Lafarge, Philippe

    2013-07-17

    Quantum interference in cross-conjugated molecules embedded in solid-state devices was investigated by direct current-voltage and differential conductance transport measurements of anthraquinone (AQ)-based large area planar junctions. A thin film of AQ was grafted covalently on the junction base electrode by diazonium electroreduction, while the counter electrode was directly evaporated on top of the molecular layer. Our technique provides direct evidence of a large quantum interference effect in multiple CMOS compatible planar junctions. The quantum interference is manifested by a pronounced dip in the differential conductance close to zero voltage bias. The experimental signature is well developed at low temperature (4 K), showing a large amplitude dip with a minimum >2 orders of magnitude lower than the conductance at higher bias and is still clearly evident at room temperature. A temperature analysis of the conductance curves revealed that electron-phonon coupling is the principal decoherence mechanism causing large conductance oscillations at low temperature. PMID:23805821

  9. Effects of quantum coherence and interference in atoms near nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhayal, Suman; Rostovtsev, Yuri V.

    2016-04-01

    Optical properties of ensembles of realistic quantum emitters coupled to plasmonic systems are studied by using adequate models that can take into account full atomic geometry. In particular, the coherent effects such as forming "dark states," optical pumping, coherent Raman scattering, and the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) are revisited in the presence of metallic nanoparticles. It is shown that the dark states are still formed but they have more complicated structure, and the optical pumping and the STIRAP cannot be employed in the vicinity of plasmonic nanostructures. Also, there is a huge difference in the behavior of the local atomic polarization and the atomic polarization averaged over an ensemble of atoms homogeneously spread near nanoparticles. The average polarization is strictly related to the polarization induced by the external field, while the local polarization can be very different from the one induced by the external field. This is important for the excitation of single molecules, e.g., different components of scattering from single molecules can be used for their efficient detection.

  10. The effect of interference on delta modulation encoded video signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilling, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a study on the use of the delta modulator as a digital encoder of television signals are presented. The computer simulation was studied of different delta modulators in order to find a satisfactory delta modulator. After finding a suitable delta modulator algorithm via computer simulation, the results are analyzed and then implemented in hardware to study the ability to encode real time motion pictures from an NTSC format television camera. The effects were investigated of channel errors on the delta modulated video signal and several error correction algorithms were tested via computer simulation. A very high speed delta modulator was built (out of ECL logic), incorporating the most promising of the correction schemes, so that it could be tested on real time motion pictures. The final area of investigation concerned itself with finding delta modulators which could achieve significant bandwidth reduction without regard to complexity or speed. The first such scheme to be investigated was a real time frame to frame encoding scheme which required the assembly of fourteen, 131,000 bit long shift registers as well as a high speed delta modulator. The other schemes involved two dimensional delta modulator algorithms.

  11. A Novel Effect of Scattered-Light Interference in Misted Mirrors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, N. James

    2005-01-01

    Interference rings can be observed in mirrors clouded by condensation, even in diffuse lighting. The effect depends on individual droplets acting as point sources by refracting light into the mirror, so producing coherent wave-trains which are reflected and then scattered again by diffraction round the same source droplet. The secondary wave-train…

  12. The Development of Stroop-Like Interference Effects in Children's Component Selection and Incidental Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, John N.

    In this test for age-related effects of perceptual interference under different task conditions, 240 subjects, 60 each in kindergarten and grades 1 through 3, learned the positions of 5 cards upon each of which 3 stimulus attributes--a word, a color, and a shape--were presented in different descending orders. Two stimulus conditions were employed,…

  13. The influence of proficiency level, transfer distality, and gender on the contextual interference effect.

    PubMed

    Smith, P J; Rudisill, M E

    1993-06-01

    This study examined the impact of high and low proficiency level, transfer distality, and gender on the contextual interference effect with an open skill. Subjects were separated into two levels of proficiency based on performance on a pretest similar to the experimental task. Analysis of error scores during acquisition indicated that the partitioning of subjects according to ability level had been successful. Transfer distality was varied by presenting subjects with two tasks varying in similarity to the acquisition task. Analysis of absolute constant, constant, variable, and total error scores in transfer strongly suggested that subjects' consistency rather than response bias was affected by the experimental variables. The findings suggested that, for the task used in this study, proficiency level does not account for gender differences in the contextual interference effect, as the effect was only reliably found for females. For coincident timing skills, it appears that there may be two distinct conclusions drawn from the results of this study: contextual interference only benefits female subjects' consistency and the effect of contextual interference increases with the distality of transfer, regardless of the subjects' proficiency level. PMID:8341838

  14. Emotional Facilitation Effect in the Picture-Word Interference Task: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Baolin; Xin, Shuai; Jin, Zhixing; Hu, Yu; Li, Yang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we aimed to verify the emotional facilitation effect in the picture-word interference task using event-related potentials. Twenty-one healthy subjects were asked to categorize the emotional valences of pictures accompanied by emotionally congruent, either centrally or laterally positioned Chinese words. For both the foveal and…

  15. The Distractor Frequency Effect in Picture-Word Interference: Evidence for Response Exclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhooge, Elisah; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    In 3 experiments, subjects named pictures with low- or high-frequency superimposed distractor words. In a 1st experiment, we replicated the finding that low-frequency words induce more interference in picture naming than high-frequency words (i.e., distractor frequency effect; Miozzo & Caramazza, 2003). According to the response exclusion…

  16. About the unidirectionality of interference: insight from the musical Stroop effect.

    PubMed

    Grégoire, Laurent; Perruchet, Pierre; Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    The asymmetry of interference in a Stroop task usually refers to the well-documented result that incongruent colour words slow colour naming (Stroop effect) but incongruent colours do not slow colour word reading (no reverse Stroop effect). A few other studies have suggested that, more generally, a reverse Stroop effect can be occasionally observed but at the expense of the Stroop effect itself, as if interference was inherently unidirectional, from the stronger to the weaker of the two competing processes. We describe here a situation conducive to a pervasive mutual interference effect. Musicians were exposed to congruent and incongruent note name/note position patterns, and they were asked either to read the word while ignoring the location of the note within the staff, or to name the note while ignoring the note name written inside the note picture. Most of the participants exhibited interference in the two tasks. Overall, this result pattern runs against the still prevalent model of the Stroop phenomenon [Cohen, J. D., Dunbar, K., & McClelland, J. L. (1990). On the control of automatic processes: A parallel distributed processing account of the Stroop effect. Psychological Review, 97(3), 332-361]. However, further analyses lend support to one of the key tenets of the model, namely that the pattern of interference depends on the relative strength of the two competing pathways. The reasons for the impressive differences between the results collected in the present study and in the standard colour-word (or picture-word) paradigms are also examined. We suggest that these differences reveal the importance of stimulus-response contingency in the formation of automatisms. PMID:24697690

  17. Subsonic and supersonic static aerodynamic characteristics of a family of bulbous base cones measured with a magnetic suspension and balance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlajinac, M.; Stephens, T.; Gilliam, G.; Pertsas, N.

    1972-01-01

    Results of subsonic and supersonic wind-tunnel tests with a magnetic balance and suspension system on a family of bulbous based cone configurations are presented. At subsonic speeds the base flow and separation characteristics of these configurations is shown to have a pronounced effect on the static data. Results obtained with the presence of a dummy sting are compared with support interference free data. Support interference is shown to have a substantial effect on the measured aerodynamic coefficient.

  18. Effect of milling machine roughness and wing dihedral on the supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of a highly swept wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darden, Christine M.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to assess the effect of surface finish on the longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics of a highly-swept wing at supersonic speeds. A study of the effects of wing dihedral was also made. Included in the tests were four wing models: three models having 22.5 degrees of outboard dihedral, identical except for surface finish, and a zero-dihedral, smooth model of the same planform for reference. Of the three dihedral models, two were taken directly from the milling machine without smoothing: one having a maximum scallop height of 0.002 inches and the other a maximum scallop height of 0.005 inches. The third dihedral model was handfinished to a smooth surface. Tests were conducted in Test Section 1 of the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at NASA-Langley over a range of Mach numbers from 1.8 to 2.8, a range of angle of attack from -5 to 8 degrees, and at a Reynolds numbers per foot of 2 x 10(6). Selected data were also taken at a Reynolds number per foot of 6 x 10(6). Drag coefficient increases, with corresponding lift-drag ratio decreases were the primary aerodynamic effects attributed to increased surface roughness due to milling machine grooves. These drag and lift-drag ratio increments due to roughness increased as Reynolds number increased.

  19. Aerodynamics of a linear oscillating cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffum, Daniel H.; Fleeter, Sanford

    1990-01-01

    The steady and unsteady aerodynamics of a linear oscillating cascade are investigated using experimental and computational methods. Experiments are performed to quantify the torsion mode oscillating cascade aerodynamics of the NASA Lewis Transonic Oscillating Cascade for subsonic inlet flowfields using two methods: simultaneous oscillation of all the cascaded airfoils at various values of interblade phase angle, and the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. Analysis of these data and correlation with classical linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis predictions indicate that the wind tunnel walls enclosing the cascade have, in some cases, a detrimental effect on the cascade unsteady aerodynamics. An Euler code for oscillating cascade aerodynamics is modified to incorporate improved upstream and downstream boundary conditions and also the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. The new boundary conditions are shown to improve the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. The new boundary conditions are shown to improve the unsteady aerodynamic predictions of the code, and the computational unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique is shown to be a viable alternative for calculation of oscillating cascade aerodynamics.

  20. Investigation of the transient aerodynamic phenomena associated with passing manoeuvres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noger, C.; Regardin, C.; Széchényi, E.

    2005-11-01

    Passing manoeuvres and crosswind can have significant effects on the stability of road vehicles. The transient aerodynamics, which interacts with suspension, steering geometry and driver reaction is not well understood. When two vehicles overtake or cross, they mutually influence the flow field around each other, and under certain conditions, can generate severe gust loads that act as additional forces on both vehicles. The transient forces acting on them are a function of the longitudinal and transverse spacings and of the relative velocity between the two vehicles. Wind tunnel experiments have been conducted in one of the automotive wind tunnels of the Institut Aérotechnique of Saint-Cyr l’École to simulate the transient overtaking process between two models of a simple generic automobile shape. The tests were designed to study the effects of various parameters such as the longitudinal and transverse spacing, the relative velocity and the crosswind on the aerodynamic forces and moments generated on the overtaken and overtaking vehicles. Test results characterize the transient aerodynamic side force as well as the yawing moment coefficients in terms of these parameters. Measurements of the drag force coefficient as well as the static pressure distribution around the overtaken vehicle complete the understanding. The main results indicate the aerodynamic coefficients of the overtaken vehicle to be velocity independent within the limit of the test parameters, while unsteady aerodynamic effects appear in the case of an overtaking vehicle. The mutual interference effects between the vehicles vary as a linear function of the transverse spacing and the crosswind does not really generate any new unsteady behaviour.

  1. Impaired cognitive inhibition in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of the Stroop interference effect.

    PubMed

    Westerhausen, René; Kompus, Kristiina; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2011-12-01

    Schizophrenia has been consistently shown to be associated with impairment in executive functioning. However, although frequently treated as such, the term executive functioning does not refer to a unitary cognitive function; it rather represents a set of basic, lower-level cognitive sub-components, e.g. updating, shifting, and cognitive inhibition. This specification into sub-components allows for a further differentiation of the executive deficits found in schizophrenia. Focusing on the sub-component of cognitive inhibition, we here present a meta-analysis of interference effect as assessed with the Stroop Color-Word Interference paradigm. Including the results of 36 studies with 1081 schizophrenia patients and 1026 healthy control subjects, it was shown that schizophrenia patients exhibit an increased Stroop interference effect both in response time (mean effect size: M(g) = 0.43; 95% confidence interval, CI95%: 0.35-0.52) and accuracy (M(g) = 0.62; CI95%: 0.47-0.77) measures of interference. However, a meta-regression analysis revealed that the size of the effect varies depending on the version of the Stroop paradigm used. Regarding the response time measures of interference, studies using the classical card version of the paradigm showed a significantly larger effect size than studies using a single-trial computerized version of the paradigm (M(g) = 0.60 vs. M(g) = 0.19). Despite of the dissociation between the two versions of the paradigm, the results of the present meta-analysis indicate that the reported global deficits in executive functioning found to be associated with schizophrenia are at least partly due to a reduced ability of cognitive inhibition. PMID:21937199

  2. Inclusion of nonlinear aerodynamics in the FLAP code

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, T. )

    1989-11-01

    Horizontal axis wind turbines usually operate with significant portions of the blade in deep stall. This contradicts the assumption in the FLAP code that a linear relation exists between the angle of attack and the lift coefficient. The objective of this paper is to determine the importance of nonlinear aerodynamics in the prediction of loads. The FLAP code has been modified to include the nonlinear relationships between the lift and drag coefficients with the angle of attack. The modification affects the calculation of the induced velocities and the aerodynamic loads. This requires an iterative procedure to determine the induced velocities instead of a closed form solution. A more advanced tower interference model has also been added that accounts for both upwind and downwind tower effects. 7 refs., 14 figs.

  3. Semantic interference in a randomized naming task: Effects of age, order, and category

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Jean K.; Cheimariou, Spyridoula

    2014-01-01

    Lexical retrieval in production is a competitive process, requiring activation of a target word from semantic input, and its selection from amongst co-activated items. Competitors are automatically primed through spreading activation within the lexicon, but competition may be increased by the prior presentation of related items, the semantic interference effect. This has been demonstrated in tasks in which pictures grouped by semantic category are compared to unrelated pictures (blocked naming) and in tasks involving successive naming of items from the same semantic category (continuous naming). Such highly structured tasks may not be representative of the processes at work under more natural word retrieval conditions. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective examination of naming latencies from a randomized picture naming task containing a wide variety of items and categories. Our large sample of adults, ranging in age from 22 to 89 years, also allowed us to test the hypothesis that older adults, who are particularly susceptible to word-retrieval problems, experience increased difficulty resolving competition among lexical items. Semantic interference effects were evident in the interaction between semantic category and order of presentation within a block—miscellaneous items were named more quickly, whereas related items were named more slowly. This interference effect did not vary with participant age, contrary to the hypothesis that older adults are more susceptible to semantic interference. PMID:24499271

  4. Detrimental effects of highly efficient interference competition: invasive Argentine ants outcompete native ants at toxic baits.

    PubMed

    Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Bennett, Gary W

    2008-06-01

    The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) is an invasive species that disrupts the balance of natural ecosystems by displacing indigenous ant species throughout its introduced range. Previous studies that examined the mechanisms by which Argentine ants attain ecological dominance showed that superior interference and exploitation competition are key to the successful displacement of native ant species. The objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that effective interference competition by Argentine ants may also be detrimental to the survival of Argentine ant colonies where Argentine ants and native ants compete at toxic baits used to slow the spread of Argentine ants. To study this hypothesis, we examined the competitive interactions between Argentine ants and native odorous house ants, Tapinoma sessile, in the presence and absence of toxic baits. Results showed that Argentine ants aggressively outcompete T. sessile from toxic baits through efficient interference competition and monopolize bait resources. This has severe negative consequences for the survival of Argentine ants as colonies succumb to the toxic effects of the bait. In turn, T. sessile avoid areas occupied by Argentine ants, give up baits, and consequently suffer minimal mortality. Our results provide experimental evidence that highly efficient interference competition may have negative consequences for Argentine ants in areas where toxic baits are used and may provide a basis for designing innovative management programs for Argentine ants. Such programs would have the double benefit of selectively eliminating the invasive species while simultaneously protecting native ants from the toxic effects of baits. PMID:18559180

  5. Derivation of aerodynamic kernel functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowell, E. H.; Ventres, C. S.

    1973-01-01

    The method of Fourier transforms is used to determine the kernel function which relates the pressure on a lifting surface to the prescribed downwash within the framework of Dowell's (1971) shear flow model. This model is intended to improve upon the potential flow aerodynamic model by allowing for the aerodynamic boundary layer effects neglected in the potential flow model. For simplicity, incompressible, steady flow is considered. The proposed method is illustrated by deriving known results from potential flow theory.

  6. Lifetime-vibrational interference effects in resonantly excited x-ray emission spectra of CO

    SciTech Connect

    Skytt, P.; Glans, P.; Gunnelin, K.

    1997-04-01

    The parity selection rule for resonant X-ray emission as demonstrated for O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} can be seen as an effect of interference between coherently excited degenerate localized core states. One system where the core state degeneracy is not exact but somewhat lifted was previously studied at ALS, namely the resonant X-ray emission of amino-substituted benzene (aniline). It was shown that the X-ray fluorescence spectrum resulting from excitation of the C1s at the site of the {open_quotes}aminocarbon{close_quotes} could be described in a picture separating the excitation and the emission processes, whereas the spectrum corresponding to the quasi-degenerate carbons could not. Thus, in this case it was necessary to take interference effects between the quasi-degenerate intermediate core excited states into account in order to obtain agreement between calculations and experiment. The different vibrational levels of core excited states in molecules have energy splittings which are of the same order of magnitude as the natural lifetime broadening of core excitations in the soft X-ray range. Therefore, lifetime-vibrational interference effects are likely to appear and influence the band shapes in resonant X-ray emission spectra. Lifetime-vibrational interference has been studied in non-resonant X-ray emission, and in Auger spectra. In this report the authors discuss results of selectively excited soft X-ray fluorescence spectra of molecules, where they focus on lifetime-interference effects appearing in the band shapes.

  7. Quantum versus stochastic or hidden-variable fluctuations in two-photon interference effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, C.; Wódkiewicz, K.

    1991-11-01

    In a series of experiments performed by Mandel and co-workers, nonclassical effects have been demonstrated in the interference of two photons generated in a process of parametric down-conversion. The nonclassical effects in the two-photon interference effects can be discussed in the framework of two different descriptions. In the first description, a stochastic theory of electromagnetic field fluctuations can be used in order to calculate the interference pattern. In the second description, a theory of hidden-variable fluctuations can be applied in order to calculate correlations of the interference pattern. A stochastic theory leads to statistical inequalities for the light intensities, while a local hidden-variable theory leads to Bell's inequalities. Using the Schwinger-boson representation of the angular momentum, we show that the two-photon interference effects can be described in terms of spin-correlated states. In particular, we show that the action of a beam splitter on the photons in a parametric down-conversion is equivalent to the production of an entangled state that is very similar to the well-known Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen spin-singlet state. We show that the stochastic theory of two-photon fluctuations is not equivalent to a hidden-variable theory of photon correlations. We establish a range for which the stochastic theory fails but the hidden-variable theory is still possible. We compare our theoretical predictions with the experimental results and conclude that a violation of the stochastic theory has been clearly observed, while the violation of the hidden-variable theory is less pronounced.

  8. Aerodynamics: The Wright Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Jennifer Hansen

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the basic principles of aerodynamics. Included in the presentation are: a few demonstrations of the principles, an explanation of the concepts of lift, drag, thrust and weight, a description of Bernoulli's principle, the concept of the airfoil (i.e., the shape of the wing) and how that effects lift, and the method of controlling an aircraft by manipulating the four forces using control surfaces.

  9. Long-lasting semantic interference effects in object naming are not necessarily conceptually mediated

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Emma; McMahon, Katie L.; de Zubicaray, Greig

    2015-01-01

    Long-lasting interference effects in picture naming are induced when objects are presented in categorically related contexts in both continuous and blocked cyclic paradigms. Less consistent context effects have been reported when the task is changed to semantic classification. Experiment 1 confirmed the recent finding of cumulative facilitation in the continuous paradigm with living/non-living superordinate categorization. To avoid a potential confound involving participants responding with the identical superordinate category in related contexts in the blocked cyclic paradigm, we devised a novel set of categorically related objects that also varied in terms of relative age – a core semantic type associated with the adjective word class across languages. Experiment 2 demonstrated the typical interference effect with these stimuli in basic level naming. In Experiment 3, using the identical blocked cyclic paradigm, we failed to observe semantic context effects when the same pictures were classified as younger–older. Overall, the results indicate the semantic context effects in the two paradigms do not share a common origin, with the effect in the continuous paradigm arising at the level of conceptual representations or in conceptual-to-lexical connections while the effect in the blocked cyclic paradigm most likely originates at a lexical level of representation. The implications of these findings for current accounts of long-lasting interference effects in spoken word production are discussed. PMID:25999892

  10. Retroactive interference in short-term memory and the word-length effect.

    PubMed

    Campoy, Guillermo

    2011-09-01

    Two experiments investigated the possibility that the word-length effect in short-term memory (STM) is a consequence of long words generating a greater level of retroactive interference than shorter words. In Experiment 1, six-word lists were auditorily presented under articulatory suppression for immediate serial reconstruction of only the first three words. These three words were always drawn from a single set of middle-length words, whereas the last three positions were occupied by either short or long interfering words. The results showed worse memory performance when the to-be-remembered words were followed by long words. In Experiment 2, a recent-probes task was used, in which recent negative probes matched a target word in trial n-2. The results showed lower levels of proactive interference when trial n-1 involved long words instead of short words, suggesting that long words displaced previous STM content to a greater extent. By two different experimental approaches, therefore, this study shows that long words produce more retroactive interference than short words, supporting an interference-based account for the word-length effect. PMID:21703589

  11. Contextual interference effects on the acquisition of skill and strength of the bench press.

    PubMed

    Naimo, Marshall A; Zourdos, Michael C; Wilson, Jacob M; Kim, Jeong-Su; Ward, Emery G; Eccles, David W; Panton, Lynn B

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate contextual interference effects on skill acquisition and strength gains during the learning of the bench press movement. Twenty-four healthy, college-aged males and females were stratified to control, high contextual interference (HCI), and low contextual interference (LCI) groups. Treatment groups were provided with written and visual instruction on proper bench press form and practiced the bench press and dart throwing for four weeks. Within each session, LCI performed all bench press sets before undertaking dart-throws. HCI undertook dart-throws immediately following each set of bench press. Control only did testing. Measurements, including one repetition maximum (1RM), checklist scores based on video recordings of participants' 1RM's, and dart-throw test scores were taken at pre-test, 1 week, 2 week, post-test, and retention test. Results were consistent with the basic premise of the contextual interference effect. LCI had significant improvements in percent 1RM and checklist scores during training, but were mostly absent after training (post-test and retention test). HCI had significant improvements in percent 1RM and checklist scores both during and after training. Thus, HCI may augment strength and movement skill on the bench press since proper technique is an important component of resistance exercise movements. PMID:23726036

  12. Predator interference effects on biological control: The "paradox" of the generalist predator revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parshad, Rana D.; Bhowmick, Suman; Quansah, Emmanuel; Basheer, Aladeen; Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar

    2016-10-01

    An interesting conundrum in biological control questions the efficiency of generalist predators as biological control agents. Theory suggests, generalist predators are poor agents for biological control, primarily due to mutual interference. However field evidence shows they are actually quite effective in regulating pest densities. In this work we provide a plausible answer to this paradox. We analyze a three species model, where a generalist top predator is introduced into an ecosystem as a biological control, to check the population of a middle predator, that in turn is depredating on a prey species. We show that the inclusion of predator interference alone, can cause the solution of the top predator equation to blow-up in finite time, while there is global existence in the no interference case. This result shows that interference could actually cause a population explosion of the top predator, enabling it to control the target species, thus corroborating recent field evidence. Our results might also partially explain the population explosion of certain species, introduced originally for biological control purposes, such as the cane toad (Bufo marinus) in Australia, which now functions as a generalist top predator. We also show both Turing instability and spatio-temporal chaos in the model. Lastly we investigate time delay effects.

  13. Interference effect on a heavy Higgs resonance signal in the γγ and ZZ channels

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Song, Jeonghyeon; Yoon, Yeo Woong; Jung, Sunghoon

    2016-03-24

    The resonance-continuum interference is usually neglected when the width of a resonance is small compared to the resonance mass. We reexamine this standard by studying the interference effects in high-resolution decay channels, γγ and ZZ, of the heavy Higgs boson H in nearly aligned two-Higgs-doublet models. For the H with a sub-percent width-to-mass ratio, we find that, in the parameter space where the LHC 14 TeV ZZ resonance search can be sensitive, the interference effects can modify the ZZ signal rate by O(10)% and the exclusion reach by O(10) GeV. In other parameter space where the ZZ or γγ signalmore » rate is smaller, the LHC 14 TeV reach is absent, but a resonance shape can be much more dramatically changed. In particular, the γγ signal rate can change by O(100)%. Relevant to such parameter space, we suggest variables that can characterize a general resonance shape. Furthermore, we also illustrate the relevance of the width on the interference by adding nonstandard decay modes of the heavy Higgs boson.« less

  14. Interference effect on a heavy Higgs resonance signal in the γ γ and Z Z channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jeonghyeon; Yoon, Yeo Woong; Jung, Sunghoon

    2016-03-01

    The resonance-continuum interference is usually neglected when the width of a resonance is small compared to the resonance mass. We reexamine this standard by studying the interference effects in high-resolution decay channels, γ γ and Z Z , of the heavy Higgs boson H in nearly aligned two-Higgs-doublet models. For the H with a sub-percent width-to-mass ratio, we find that, in the parameter space where the LHC 14 TeV Z Z resonance search can be sensitive, the interference effects can modify the Z Z signal rate by O (10 )% and the exclusion reach by O (10 ) GeV . In other parameter space where the Z Z or γ γ signal rate is smaller, the LHC 14 TeV reach is absent, but a resonance shape can be much more dramatically changed. In particular, the γ γ signal rate can change by O (100 )%. Relevant to such parameter space, we suggest variables that can characterize a general resonance shape. We also illustrate the relevance of the width on the interference by adding nonstandard decay modes of the heavy Higgs boson.

  15. The Effect of Aerodynamic Heating on Air Penetration by Shaped Charge Jets and Their Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backofen, Joseph

    2009-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to present recent work modeling thermal coupling between shaped charge jets and their particles with air while it is being penetrated to form a crater that subsequently collapses back onto the jet. This work complements research published at International Symposia on Ballistics: 1) 1987 - Shaped Charge Jet Aerodynamics, Particulation and Blast Field Modeling; and 2) 2007 - Air Cratering by Eroding Shaped Charge Jets. The current work shows how and when a shaped charge jet's tip and jet particles are softened enough that they can erode in a hydrodynamic manner as modeled in these papers. This paper and its presentation includes models for heat transfer from shocked air as a function of jet velocity as well as heat flow within the jet or particle. The work is supported by an extensive bibliographic search including publications on meteors and ballistic missile re-entry vehicles. The modeling shows that a jet loses its strength to the depth required to justify hydrodynamic erosion when its velocity is above a specific velocity related to the shock properties of air and the jet material's properties. As a result, the portion of a jet's kinetic energy converted at the aerodynamic shock into heating transferred back onto the jet affects the energy deposited into the air through drag and ablation which in turn affect air crater expansion and subsequent collapse back onto the jet and its particles as shown in high-speed photography.

  16. Effects of forebody strakes and Mach number on overall aerodynamic characteristics of configuration with 55 deg cropped delta wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Gary E.; Rogers, Lawrence W.

    1992-01-01

    A wind tunnel data base was established for the effects of chine-like forebody strakes and Mach number on the longitudinal and lateral-directional characteristics of a generalized 55 degree cropped delta wing-fuselage-centerline vertical tail configuration. The testing was conducted in the 7- by 10-Foot Transonic Tunnel at the David Taylor Research Center at free-stream Mach numbers of 0.40 to 1.10 and Reynolds numbers based on the wing mean aerodynamic chord of 1.60 x 10(exp 6) to 2.59 x 10(exp 6). The best matrix included angles of attack from 0 degree to a maximum of 28 degree, angles of sidesip of 0, +5, and -5 degrees, and wing leading-edge flat deflection angles of 0 and 30 degrees. Key flow phenomena at subsonic and transonic conditions were identified by measuring off-body flow visualization with a laser screen technique. These phenomena included coexisting and interacting vortex flows and shock waves, vortex breakdown, vortex flow interactions with the vertical tail, and vortices induced by flow separation from the hinge line of the deflected wing flap. The flow mechanisms were correlated with the longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic data trends.

  17. A computational platform for considering the effects of aerodynamic and seismic load combination for utility scale horizontal axis wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asareh, Mohammad-Amin; Prowell, Ian; Volz, Jeffery; Schonberg, William

    2016-03-01

    The wide deployment of wind turbines in locations with high seismic hazard has led engineers to take into account a more comprehensive seismic design of such structures. Turbine specific guidelines usually use simplified methods and consider many assumptions to combine seismic demand with the other operational loads effecting the design of these structures. As the turbines increase in size and capacity, the interaction between seismic loads and aerodynamic loads becomes even more important. In response to the need for a computational tool that can perform coupled simulations of wind and seismic loads, a seismic module is developed for the FAST code and described in this research. This platform allows engineers working in this industry to directly consider interaction between seismic and other environmental loads for turbines. This paper details the practical application and theory of this platform and provides examples for the use of different capabilities. The platform is then used to show the suitable earthquake and operational load combination with the implicit consideration of aerodynamic damping by estimating appropriate load factors.

  18. Flutter of pairs of aerodynamically interfering delta wings.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipman, R. R.; Rauch, F. J.; Hess, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    To examine the effect on flutter of the aerodynamic interference between pairs of closely spaced delta wings, several structurally uncoupled 1/80th-scale models were studied by experiment and analysis. Flutter test boundaries obtained in NASA Langley's 26-in. transonic blowdown wind tunnel were compared with subsonic analytical results generated using the doublet lattice method. Trends for several combinations of vertical and longitudinal wing separation were determined, showing flutter speed significantly affected in the closely spaced configurations. A new flutter mechanism coupling one wing's first bending mode with the other wing's first torsion mode was predicted and observed.

  19. The word class effect in the picture–word interference paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Niels; Melinger, Alissa; Mahon, Bradford Z.; Finkbeiner, Matthew; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    The word class effect in the picture–word interference paradigm is a highly influential finding that has provided some of the most compelling support for word class constraints on lexical selection. However, methodological concerns called for a replication of the most convincing of those effects. Experiment 1 was a direct replication of Pechmann and Zerbst (2002; Experiment 4). Participants named pictures of objects in the context of noun and adverb distractors. Naming took place in bare noun and sentence frame contexts. A word class effect emerged in both bare noun and sentence frame naming conditions, suggesting a semantic origin of the effect. In Experiment 2, participants named objects in the context of noun and verb distractors whose word class relationship to the target and imageability were orthogonally manipulated. As before, naming took place in bare noun and sentence frame naming contexts. In both naming contexts, distractor imageability but not word class affected picture naming latencies. These findings confirm the sensitivity of the picture–word interference paradigm to distractor imageability and suggest the paradigm is not sensitive to distractor word class. The results undermine the use of the word class effect in the picture–word interference paradigm as supportive of word class constraints during lexical selection. PMID:19998070

  20. Aerodynamic investigations into various low speed L/D improvement devices on the 140A/B space shuttle orbiter configuration in the Rockwell International low speed wind tunnel (OA86)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mennell, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted to investigate various base drag reduction techniques in an attempt to improve Orbiter lift-to-drag ratios and to calculate sting interference effects on the Orbiter aerodynamic characteristics. Test conditions and facilites, and model dimensional data are presented along with the data reduction guidelines and data set/run number collation used for the studies. Aerodynamic force and moment data and the results of stability and control tests are also given.

  1. Effect of moment of inertia to H type vertical axis wind turbine aerodynamic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. X.; Li, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    The main aerodynamic performances (out power out power coefficient torque torque coefficient and so on) of H type Vertical Axis wind Turbine (H-VAWT) which is rotating machinery will be impacted by moment of inertia. This article will use NACA0018 airfoil profile to analyze that moment of inertia through impact performance of H type VAWT by utilizing program of Matlab and theory of Double-Multiple Streamtube. The results showed that the max out power coefficient was barely impacted when moment of inertia is changed in a small area,but the lesser moment of inertia's VAWT needs a stronger wind velocity to obtain the max out power. The lesser moment of inertia's VAWT has a big out power coefficient, torque coefficient and out power before it gets to the point of max out power coefficient. Out power coefficient, torque and torque coefficient will obviously change with wind velocity increased for VAWT of the lesser moment of inertia.

  2. Aerodynamic effect of coolant ejection in the rear part of transonic rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kost, F. H.; Holmes, A. T.

    1985-09-01

    An investigation of transonic turbine blades designed by Rolls-Royce/Bristol concerning the aerodynamic penalties of coolant flow for two alternative cooling configurations is discussed. Rolls-Royce designed a blade with a thick trailing edge where the coolant is ejected through slots in the trailing edge and a second blade with a thin trailing edge where coolant is ejected through a row of holes on the pressure side and a row of holes on the suction side. Tests were performed in a plane cascade wind tunnel. The results indicate the sensitivity of the blade performance to cooling configuration and coolant flow rate. By combining measured data from blade surface and wake traverses it was possible to separate the various loss mechanisms. Therefore, the separate losses due to the momentum of the coolant, change of base pressure, and change of blade friction could be determined quantitatively as a function of coolant flow rate.

  3. Forcing function effects on unsteady aerodynamic gust response. I - Forcing functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Gregory H.; Fleeter, Sanford

    1992-01-01

    The paper investigates the fundamental gust modeling assumption on the basis of a series of experiments performed in the Purdue Annular Cascade Research Facility. The measured unsteady flow fields are compared to linear-theory gust requirements. The perforated plate forcing functions closely resemble linear-theory forcing functions, with the static pressure fluctuations small and the periodic velocity vectors parallel to the downstream mean-relative flow angle over the entire periodic cycle. The airfoil forcing functions exhibit characteristics far from linear-theory gusts, with the alignment of the velocity vectors and the static pressure fluctuation amplitudes dependent on the rotor-loading condition, rotor solidity, and the inlet mean-relative flow angle. It is shown that airfoil wakes, both compressor and turbine, cannot be modeled with the boundary conditions of current state-of-the-art linear unsteady aerodynamic theory.

  4. Effects of aerodynamic heating and TPS thermal performance uncertainties on the Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, W. D.; Derry, S. M.; Maraia, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    A procedure for estimating uncertainties in the aerodynamic-heating and thermal protection system (TPS) thermal-performance methodologies developed for the Shuttle Orbiter is presented. This procedure is used in predicting uncertainty bands around expected or nominal TPS thermal responses for the Orbiter during entry. Individual flowfield and TPS parameters that make major contributions to these uncertainty bands are identified and, by statistical considerations, combined in a manner suitable for making engineering estimates of the TPS thermal confidence intervals and temperature margins relative to design limits. Thus, for a fixed TPS design, entry trajectories for future Orbiter missions can be shaped subject to both the thermal-margin and confidence-interval requirements. This procedure is illustrated by assessing the thermal margins offered by selected areas of the existing Orbiter TPS design for an entry trajectory typifying early flight test missions.

  5. The effects of unsteady aerodynamics on single and clustered parachute systems

    SciTech Connect

    Waye, D.E.; Johnson, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    A study was performed to evaluate the performance of equivalent drag area single parachute systems and cluster parachute systems during the early inflation and initial deceleration phase. Analytical work showed that the cluster system could exhibit better performance during this unsteady aerodynamic phase due to a significant decrease in the apparent mass of air influenced by the parachutes. Two test programs have been performed in support of these assumptions. The first compared systems with parachute drag areas of approximately 750 ft/sup 2/ and a payload of 2400 lbs. The cluster system exhibited increased performance and less susceptibility to parachute collapse due to wake recontact. The second series compared systems with parachute drag areas of approximately 260 ft/sup 2/ with a payload of 800 lbs. The advantages of the cluster system were less apparent but performance was moderately improved. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Experimental study of the effects of Reynolds number on high angle of attack aerodynamic characteristics of forebodies during rotary motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pauley, H.; Ralston, J.; Dickes, E.

    1995-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Defense Research Agency (United Kingdom) have ongoing experimental research programs in rotary-flow aerodynamics. A cooperative effort between the two agencies is currently underway to collect an extensive database for the development of high angle of attack computational methods to predict the effects of Reynolds number on the forebody flowfield at dynamic conditions, as well as to study the use of low Reynolds number data for the evaluation of high Reynolds number characteristics. Rotary balance experiments, including force and moment and surface pressure measurements, were conducted on circular and rectangular aftbodies with hemispherical and ogive noses at the Bedford and Farnborough wind tunnel facilities in the United Kingdom. The bodies were tested at 60 and 90 deg angle of attack for a wide range of Reynolds numbers in order to observe the effects of laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow separation on the forebody characteristics when rolling about the velocity vector.

  7. Large sample randomization inference of causal effects in the presence of interference

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lan; Hudgens, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, increasing attention has focused on making causal inference when interference is possible. In the presence of interference, treatment may have several types of effects. In this paper, we consider inference about such effects when the population consists of groups of individuals where interference is possible within groups but not between groups. A two stage randomization design is assumed where in the first stage groups are randomized to different treatment allocation strategies and in the second stage individuals are randomized to treatment or control conditional on the strategy assigned to their group in the first stage. For this design, the asymptotic distributions of estimators of the causal effects are derived when either the number of individuals per group or the number of groups grows large. Under certain homogeneity assumptions, the asymptotic distributions provide justification for Wald-type confidence intervals (CIs) and tests. Empirical results demonstrate the Wald CIs have good coverage in finite samples and are narrower than CIs based on either the Chebyshev or Hoeffding inequalities provided the number of groups is not too small. The methods are illustrated by two examples which consider the effects of cholera vaccination and an intervention to encourage voting. PMID:24659836

  8. Analysis of the effects of wing interference on the tail contributions to the rolling derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, William H , Jr

    1952-01-01

    An analysis of the effects of wing interference on the tail contributions to the rolling stability derivatives of complete airplane configurations is made by calculating the angularity of the air stream at the vertical tail due to rolling and determining the resulting forces and moments. Some of the important factors which affect the resultant angularity on the vertical tail are wing aspect ratio and sweepback, vertical-tail span, and considerations associated with angle of attack and airplane geometry. Some calculated sidewash results for a limited range of plan forms and vertical-tail sizes are presented. Equations taking into account the sidewash results are given for determining the tail contributions to the rolling derivatives. Comparisons of estimated and experimental results indicate that a consideration of wing interference effects improves the estimated values of the tail contributions to the rolling derivatives and that fair agreement with available experimental data is obtained.

  9. Interference and multiparticle effects in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with single-particle sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosselló, Guillem; Battista, Francesca; Moskalets, Michael; Splettstoesser, Janine

    2015-03-01

    We investigate a Mach-Zehnder interferometer fed by two time-dependently driven single-particle sources, one of them placed in front of the interferometer, the other in the center of one of the arms. As long as the two sources are operated independently, the signal at the output of the interferometer shows an interference pattern, which we analyze in the spectral current, in the charge and energy currents, as well as in the charge current noise. The synchronization of the two sources in this specifically designed setup allows for collisions and absorptions of particles at different points of the interferometer, which have a strong impact on the detected signals. It introduces further relevant time scales and can even lead to a full suppression of the interference in some of the discussed quantities. The complementary interpretations of this phenomenon in terms of spectral properties and tunable two-particle effects (absorptions and quantum exchange effects) are put forward in this paper.

  10. Pointing and the interference effect in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Winand H; Johansen, Thomas; Trotter, Kayleigh; Dawes, Helen; Kischka, Udo

    2013-06-01

    The interference effect in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was investigated in order to analyze cognitive aspects of motor stereotypy in OCD-related compulsions. So far, the domain of cognitive control in compulsive behavior has been under-investigated. Twelve participants (OCD patients and healthy controls) completed a newly created computer-based pointing task as well as standard clinical and psychological background measures. Findings showed that the patients displayed a larger visual interference effect compared to the controls and pointing paths were longer in time as well as distance when a distractor stimulus was present. It is concluded that, for compensation, patients would need to generate excessive amounts of attentional resources not available to overcome motor rigidity on the one side and visual distraction on the other side. PMID:23480391

  11. Computational aerodynamics applications to transport aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henne, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    Examples are cited in assessing the effect that computational aerodynamics has had on the design of transport aircraft. The application of computational potential flow methods to wing design and to high-lift system design is discussed. The benefits offered by computational aerodynamics in reducing design cost, time, and risk are shown to be substantial.These aerodynamic methods have proved to be particularly effective in exposing inferior or poor aerodynamic designs. Particular attention is given to wing design, where the results have been dramatic.

  12. Possible role of interference, protein noise, and sink effects in nonphotochemical quenching in photosynthetic complexes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Berman, Gennady P.; Nesterov, Alexander I.; Gurvitz, Shmuel; Sayre, Richard T.

    2016-04-30

    Here, we analyze theoretically a simple and consistent quantum mechanical model that reveals the possible role of quantum interference, protein noise, and sink effects in the nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) in light-harvesting complexes (LHCs). The model consists of a network of five interconnected sites (excitonic states of light-sensitive molecules) responsible for the NPQ mechanism. The model also includes the “damaging” and the dissipative channels. The damaging channel is responsible for production of singlet oxygen and other destructive outcomes. In this model, both damaging and “dissipative” charge transfer channels are described by discrete electron energy levels attached to their sinks, that mimicmore » the continuum part of electron energy spectrum. All five excitonic sites interact with the protein environment that is modeled using a stochastic process. Our approach allowed us to derive the exact and closed system of linear ordinary differential equations for the reduced density matrix and its first momentums. Moreover, these equations are solved numerically including for strong interactions between the light-sensitive molecules and protein environment. As an example, we apply our model to demonstrate possible contributions of quantum interference, protein noise, and sink effects in the NPQ mechanism in the CP29 minor LHC. The numerical simulations show that using proper combination of quantum interference effects, properties of noise, and sinks, one can significantly suppress the damaging channel. Finally, our findings demonstrate the possible role of interference, protein noise, and sink effects for modeling, engineering, and optimizing the performance of the NPQ processes in both natural and artificial light-harvesting complexes.« less

  13. Magnetoconductance of CdSe in the hopping regime: The effect of quantum interference

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Dai, P.; Sarachik, M.P. )

    1992-04-15

    A magnetoconductance is observed for weakly insulating {ital n}-type CdSe, which, depending on the temperature of the measurement, is quadratic or approximately linear with field in small magnetic fields, and exhibits saturation as the field is increased. The crossovers from quadratic to linear behavior and to saturation occur at magnetic fields which are consistent with theoretical expectations for the effect of quantum interference in the hopping regime.

  14. Drift in interference filters. I. [thermal effects for H alpha telescope in Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Title, A. M.; Pope, T. P.; Andelin, J. P., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Studies of narrow-band interference filters have shown that two mechanisms exist that cause drift to shorter wavelengths. One is dependent on the thermal history of the filter, and the other depends on the radiation history. The present paper presents experimental results on thermal effects; and it is shown that by a proper bake cycle, ZnS-cryolite filters are stable for years if stored at less than 38 C.

  15. Classical two-split interference effects in double photoionization of molecular hydrogen at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, Daniel A; Miyabe, S; Rescigno, T N; Mccurdy, C W; Morales, F; Martin, F

    2009-01-01

    The authors report a thorough theoretical study of one photon double ionization of H{sub 2}. They suggest that interference effects reported in one photon ionization will be reproducible in the case of double ionization when one of the photons carriers most of the available energy and the other electron is not observed. These calculations reproduce recent double photoionization experiments of H{sub 2}.

  16. The Effect of Interference on Temporal Order Memory for Random and Fixed Sequences in Nondemented Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolentino, Jerlyn C.; Pirogovsky, Eva; Luu, Trinh; Toner, Chelsea K.; Gilbert, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments tested the effect of temporal interference on order memory for fixed and random sequences in young adults and nondemented older adults. The results demonstrate that temporal order memory for fixed and random sequences is impaired in nondemented older adults, particularly when temporal interference is high. However, temporal order…

  17. Effect of tail size reductions on longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a three surface F-15 model with nonaxisymmetric nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frassinelli, Mark C.; Carson, George T., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the effects of horizontal and vertical tail size reductions on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a modified F-15 model with canards and 2-D convergent-divergent nozzles. Quantifying the drag decrease at low angles of attack produced by tail size reductions was the primary focus. The model was tested at Mach numbers of 0.40, 0.90, and 1.20 over an angle of attack of -2 degree to 10 degree. The nozzle exhaust flow was simulated using high pressure air at nozzle pressure ratios varying from 1.0 (jet off) to 7.5. Data were obtained on the baseline configuration with and without tails as well as with reduced horizontal and/or vertical tail sizes that were 75, 50, and 25 percent of the baseline tail areas.

  18. The aerodynamic effect of fillet radius in a low speed compressor cascade. Thesis - Von Karman Inst. for Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curlett, Brian P.

    1991-01-01

    The aerodynamic effects of fillet size in a low speed compressor cascade were experimentally studied. Two blade profiles were used during the experiment, namely a controlled diffusion blade and a double circular arc blade. Cascades were tested with three fillet radii and two boundary layer thicknesses over a large range of incidence angles. The cascade performance was determined by extensive downstream flow measurements using a two head, 5 hole pressure probe. Results differ significantly between the two types of blades tested. As fillet radius increases secondary flows and total pressure losses were found to increase for the controlled diffusion blades; whereas, for the double circular arc blades the losses decrease, particularly at high incidence angles.

  19. An Investigation of the Impact of Aerodynamic Model Fidelity on Close-In Combat Effectiveness Prediction in Piloted Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Persing, T. Ray; Bellish, Christine A.; Brandon, Jay; Kenney, P. Sean; Carzoo, Susan; Buttrill, Catherine; Guenther, Arlene

    2005-01-01

    Several aircraft airframe modeling approaches are currently being used in the DoD community for acquisition, threat evaluation, training, and other purposes. To date there has been no clear empirical study of the impact of airframe simulation fidelity on piloted real-time aircraft simulation study results, or when use of a particular level of fidelity is indicated. This paper documents a series of piloted simulation studies using three different levels of airframe model fidelity. This study was conducted using the NASA Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator. Evaluations were conducted with three pilots for scenarios requiring extensive maneuvering of the airplanes during air combat. In many cases, a low-fidelity modified point-mass model may be sufficient to evaluate the combat effectiveness of the aircraft. However, in cases where high angle-of-attack flying qualities and aerodynamic performance are a factor or when precision tracking ability of the aircraft must be represented, use of high-fidelity models is indicated.

  20. Effect of interferences on indoor visible light car-to-car communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Young; Park, Bong-Seok; Choi, Hyun-Sik; Kim, So Eun; Moon, Inkyu; Lee, Chung Ghiu

    2016-04-01

    We report the effect of interferences on visible light car-to-car communication system. The interferences from floor reflections and fluorescent lamps are taken into account for indoor car-to-car visible light communication (VLC) systems. The system is composed of a white LED lamp as a VLC transmitter and a photo-receiver with an appropriate optical filter as a VLC receiver. The signal power distribution patterns are measured and analyzed at a transmission distance, considering the positions of the transmitter and receiver. Generally, the light from fluorescent lamps in indoor environment affects the DC level of the received signal power, which is more significant at higher receiver positions. The measurements show that the indoor VLC communication performance can be varied depending on floor reflections. Also, the fluorescent ceiling illuminations affect the DC level change of the received VLC signal waveforms.

  1. Thermodynamics and kinetics of apoazurin folding under macromolecular crowding effect and chemical interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegarra, Fabio; Cheung, Margaret

    2013-03-01

    Proteins fold in a cellular milieu crowded by different kinds of macromolecules. They exert volume exclusion impacting protein folding processes in vivo. Folding processes, however, has been studied by chemical denaturation under in vitro conditions. The impact of the two factors as an attempt to advance the understanding of folding mechanism in vivo is not understood. Here, we investigate the folding mechanisms of apoazurin affected by the macromolecular crowding and chemical interference by using coarse-grained molecular simulations. Crowding agents are modeled as hard-spheres and the chemical denaturation effects are implemented into an energy function of the side chain and backbone interactions. Protein folding stability, mechanism, and kinetics rates of apoazurin under chemical interference and macromolecular crowding conditions are being investigated. Supported by NSF, Molecular & Cellular Biosciences (MCB0919974).

  2. Contact effects and quantum interference in engineered dangling bond loops on silicon surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kleshchonok, Andrii; Gutierrez, Rafael; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2015-09-01

    Dangling bond structures created on H-passivated silicon surfaces offer a novel platform for engineering planar nanoscale circuits, compatible with conventional semiconductor technologies. In this investigation we focus on the electronic structure and quantum transport signatures of dangling bond loops built on H-passivated Si(100) surfaces contacted by carbon nanoribbons, thus leading to a two-terminal planar, nanoscale setup. The computational studies were carried out to rationalize the influence of the local atomic-scale contacts of the dangling bond system to the mesoscopic electrodes as well as the possibility of revealing quantum interference effects in the dangling bond loops. Our results reveal a strong sensitivity of the low-energy quantum transmission to the loop topology and to the atomistic details of the electrode-loop contact. Varying the length of the loop or the spatial position of at least one of the electrodes has a drastic impact on the quantum interference pattern; depending on whether constructive or destructive interference within the loop takes place, the conductance of the system can be tuned over several orders of magnitude, thus suggesting the possibility of exploiting such quantum mechanical effects in the design of two-dimensional, atomic-scale electronic devices such as logic gates. PMID:26228007

  3. Classical Aerodynamic Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T. (Compiler)

    1979-01-01

    A collection of papers on modern theoretical aerodynamics is presented. Included are theories of incompressible potential flow and research on the aerodynamic forces on wing and wing sections of aircraft and on airship hulls.

  4. Efficient Creation of Overset Grid Hole Boundaries and Effects of Their Locations on Aerodynamic Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, William Machado; Pandya, Shishir Ashok; Rogers, Stuart E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments on the automation of the X-rays approach to hole-cutting in over- set grids is further improved. A fast method to compute an auxiliary wall-distance function used in providing a rst estimate of the hole boundary location is introduced. Subsequent iterations lead to automatically-created hole boundaries with a spatially-variable o set from the minimum hole. For each hole boundary location, an averaged cell attribute measure over all fringe points is used to quantify the compatibility between the fringe points and their respective donor cells. The sensitivity of aerodynamic loads to di erent hole boundary locations and cell attribute compatibilities is investigated using four test cases: an isolated re-entry capsule, a two-rocket con guration, the AIAA 4th Drag Prediction Workshop Common Research Model (CRM), and the D8 \\Double Bubble" subsonic aircraft. When best practices in hole boundary treatment are followed, only small variations in integrated loads and convergence rates are observed for different hole boundary locations.

  5. Forcing function effects on unsteady aerodynamic gust response. II - Low solidity airfoil row response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Gregory H.; Fleeter, Sanford

    1992-01-01

    The paper investigates the fundamental gust modeling assumption on the basis of a series of experiments performed in the Purdue Annular Cascade Research Facility. The unsteady period flow field is generated by rotating flows of perforated plates and airfoil cascades, with the resulting unsteady periodic chordwise pressure response of a downstream low solidity stator row determined by miniature pressure transducers embedded within selected airfoils. When the forcing function exhibited the characteristics of a linear-theory gust, the resulting response on the downstream stator airfoils was in excellent agreement with the linear-theory models. When the forcing function did not exhibit linear-theory gust characteristics, the resulting unsteady aerodynamic response of the downstream stators was much more complex and correlated poorly with the linear-theory gust predictions. It is shown that the forcing function generator significantly affects the resulting gust response, with the complexity of the response characteristics increasing from the perforated-plate to the airfoil-cascade forcing functions.

  6. Active Aerodynamic Load Reduction on a Rotorcraft Fuselage With Rotor Effects: A CFD Validation Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, Brian G.; Schaeffler, Norman W.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Wong, Oliver D.; Tanner, Philip E.

    2015-01-01

    A rotorcraft fuselage is typically designed with an emphasis on operational functionality with aerodynamic efficiency being of secondary importance. This results in a significant amount of drag during high-speed forward flight that can be a limiting factor for future high-speed rotorcraft designs. To enable higher speed flight, while maintaining a functional fuselage design (i.e., a large rear cargo ramp door), the NASA Rotary Wing Project has conducted both experimental and computational investigations to assess active flow control as an enabling technology for fuselage drag reduction. This paper will evaluate numerical simulations of a flow control system on a generic rotorcraft fuselage with a rotor in forward flight using OVERFLOW, a structured mesh Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver developed at NASA. The results are compared to fuselage forces, surface pressures, and PN flow field data obtained in a wind tunnel experiment conducted at the NASA Langley 14-by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel where significant drag and download reductions were demonstrated using flow control. This comparison showed that the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver was unable to predict the fuselage forces and pressure measurements on the ramp for the baseline and flow control cases. While the CFD was able to capture the flow features, it was unable to accurately predict the performance of the flow control.

  7. The effect of plasma actuator on the depreciation of the aerodynamic drag on box model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harinaldi, Budiarso, Julian, James; Rabbani M., N.

    2016-06-01

    Recent active control research advances have provided many benefits some of which in the field of transportation by land, sea as well as by air. Flow engineering by using active control has proven advantages in energy saving significantly. One of the active control equipment that is being developed, especially in the 21st century, is a plasma actuator, with the ability to modify the flow of fluid by the approach of ion particles makes these actuators a very powerful and promising tool. This actuator can be said to be better to the previously active control such as suction, blowing and synthetic jets because it is easier to control, more flexible because it has no moving parts, easy to be manufactured and installed, and consumes a small amount of energy with maximum capability. Plasma actuator itself is the composition of a material composed of copper and a dielectric sheet, where the copper sheets act as an electricity conductor and the dielectric sheet as electricity insulator. Products from the plasma actuators are ion wind which is the result of the suction of free air around the actuator to the plasma zone. This study investigates the ability of plasma actuators in lowering aerodynamic drag which is commonly formed in the models of vehicles by varying the shape of geometry models and the flow speed.

  8. Aerodynamic Effects of a 24-foot Multisegmented Telescoping Nose Boom on an F-15B Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cumming, Stephen B.; Smith, Mark S.; Frederick, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental multisegmented telescoping nose boom has been installed on an F-15B airplane to be tested in a flight environment. The experimental nose boom is representative of one that could be used to tailor the sonic boom signature of an airplane such as a supersonic business jet. The nose boom consists of multiple sections and could be extended during flight to a length of 24 ft. The preliminary analyses indicate that the addition of the experimental nose boom could adversely affect vehicle flight characteristics and air data systems. Before the boom was added, a series of flights was conducted to update the aerodynamic model and characterize the air data systems of the baseline airplane. The baseline results have been used in conjunction with estimates of the nose boom's influence to prepare for a series of research flights conducted with the nose boom installed. Data from these flights indicate that the presence of the experimental boom reduced the static pitch and yaw stability of the airplane. The boom also adversely affected the static-position error of the airplane but did not significantly affect angle-of-attack or angle-of-sideslip measurements. The research flight series has been successfully completed.

  9. Aerodynamic Effects of a 24-Foot, Multisegmented Telescoping Nose Boom on an F-15B Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cumming, Stephen B.; Smith, Mark S.; Frederick, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    An experimental multisegmented telescoping nose boom has been installed on an F-15B airplane to be tested in a flight environment. The experimental nose boom is representative of one that could be used to tailor the sonic boom signature of an airplane such as a supersonic business jet. The nose boom consists of multiple sections and could be extended during flight to a length of 24 ft. The preliminary analyses indicated that the addition of the experimental nose boom could adversely affect vehicle flight characteristics and air data systems. Before the boom was added, a series of flights was flown to update the aerodynamic model and characterize the air data systems of the baseline airplane. The baseline results have been used in conjunction with estimates of the nose boom s influence to prepare for a series of research flights conducted with the nose boom installed. Data from these flights indicate that the presence of the experimental boom reduced the static pitch and yaw stability of the airplane. The boom also adversely affected the static-position error of the airplane but did not significantly affect angle-of-attack or angle-of-sideslip measurements. The research flight series has been successfully completed.

  10. Effects of inlet circumferential fluctuation on the sweep aerodynamic performance of axial fans/compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Xingmin; Zhu, Fang; Wan, Ke; Jin, Donghai

    2013-10-01

    Swept blades have been widely used in the transonic fan/compressor of aircraft engines with the aids of 3D CFD simulation since the design concept of controlling the shock structure was firstly proposed and successfully tested by Dr. Wennerstrom in the 1980s. However, some disadvantage phenomenon has also been induced by excessively 3D blade geometries on the structure stress insufficiency, vibration and reliability. Much confusion in the procedure of design practice leading us to recognize a new view on the flow mechanism of sweep aerodynamical induction: the new radial equilibrium established by the influence of inlet circumferential fluctuation (CF) changes the inlet flows of blading and induces the performance modification of axial fans/compressors blade. The view is verified by simplified models through numerical simulation and circumferentially averaged analysis in the present paper. The results show that the CF source items which originate from design parameters, such as the spanwise distributions of the loading and blading geometries, contribute to the changing of averaged incidence spanwise distribution, and further more affect the performance of axial fans/compressors with swept blades.

  11. Effect of Trailing Edge Shape on the Unsteady Aerodynamics of Reverse Flow Dynamic Stall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Andrew; Jones, Anya

    2015-11-01

    This work considers dynamic stall in reverse flow, where flow travels over an oscillating airfoil from the geometric trailing edge towards the leading edge. An airfoil with a sharp geometric trailing edge causes early formation of a primary dynamic stall vortex since the sharp edge acts as the aerodynamic leading edge in reverse flow. The present work experimentally examines the potential merits of using an airfoil with a blunt geometric trailing edge to delay flow separation and dynamic stall vortex formation while undergoing oscillations in reverse flow. Time-resolved and phase-averaged flow fields and pressure distributions are compared for airfoils with different trailing edge shapes. Specifically, the evolution of unsteady flow features such as primary, secondary, and trailing edge vortices is examined. The influence of these flow features on the unsteady pressure distributions and integrated unsteady airloads provide insight on the torsional loading of rotor blades as they oscillate in reverse flow. The airfoil with a blunt trailing edge delays reverse flow dynamic stall, but this leads to greater downward-acting lift and pitching moment. These results are fundamental to alleviating vibrations of high-speed helicopters, where much of the rotor operates in reverse flow.

  12. The Effect of Bypass Nozzle Exit Area on Fan Aerodynamic Performance and Noise in a Model Turbofan Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; Podboy, Gary, G.; Woodward, Richard P.; Jeracki, Robert, J.

    2013-01-01

    The design of effective new technologies to reduce aircraft propulsion noise is dependent on identifying and understanding the noise sources and noise generation mechanisms in the modern turbofan engine, as well as determining their contribution to the overall aircraft noise signature. Therefore, a comprehensive aeroacoustic wind tunnel test program was conducted called the Fan Broadband Source Diagnostic Test as part of the NASA Quiet Aircraft Technology program. The test was performed in the anechoic NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel using a 1/5 scale model turbofan simulator which represented a current generation, medium pressure ratio, high bypass turbofan aircraft engine. The investigation focused on simulating in model scale only the bypass section of the turbofan engine. The test objectives were to: identify the noise sources within the model and determine their noise level; investigate several component design technologies by determining their impact on the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of the fan stage; and conduct detailed flow diagnostics within the fan flow field to characterize the physics of the noise generation mechanisms in a turbofan model. This report discusses results obtained for one aspect of the Source Diagnostic Test that investigated the effect of the bypass or fan nozzle exit area on the bypass stage aerodynamic performance, specifically the fan and outlet guide vanes or stators, as well as the farfield acoustic noise level. The aerodynamic performance, farfield acoustics, and Laser Doppler Velocimeter flow diagnostic results are presented for the fan and four different fixed-area bypass nozzle configurations. The nozzles simulated fixed engine operating lines and encompassed the fan stage operating envelope from near stall to cruise. One nozzle was selected as a baseline reference, representing the nozzle area which would achieve the design point operating conditions and fan stage performance. The total area change from

  13. NASA aerodynamics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Louis J.; Hessenius, Kristin A.; Corsiglia, Victor R.; Hicks, Gary; Richardson, Pamela F.; Unger, George; Neumann, Benjamin; Moss, Jim

    1992-01-01

    The annual accomplishments is reviewed for the Aerodynamics Division during FY 1991. The program includes both fundamental and applied research directed at the full spectrum of aerospace vehicles, from rotorcraft to planetary entry probes. A comprehensive review is presented of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications; CFD validation; transition and turbulence physics; numerical aerodynamic simulation; test techniques and instrumentation; configuration aerodynamics; aeroacoustics; aerothermodynamics; hypersonics; subsonics; fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.

  14. Effect of Two Advanced Noise Reduction Technologies on the Aerodynamic Performance of an Ultra High Bypass Ratio Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christoper E.; Gazzaniga, John A.

    2013-01-01

    A wind tunnel experiment was conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center anechoic 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel to investigate two new advanced noise reduction technologies in support of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project. The goal of the experiment was to demonstrate the noise reduction potential and effect on fan model performance of the two noise reduction technologies in a scale model Ultra-High Bypass turbofan at simulated takeoff and approach aircraft flight speeds. The two novel noise reduction technologies are called Over-the-Rotor acoustic treatment and Soft Vanes. Both technologies were aimed at modifying the local noise source mechanisms of the fan tip vortex/fan case interaction and the rotor wake-stator interaction. For the Over-the-Rotor acoustic treatment, two noise reduction configurations were investigated. The results showed that the two noise reduction technologies, Over-the-Rotor and Soft Vanes, were able to reduce the noise level of the fan model, but the Over-the-Rotor configurations had a significant negative impact on the fan aerodynamic performance; the loss in fan aerodynamic efficiency was between 2.75 to 8.75 percent, depending on configuration, compared to the conventional solid baseline fan case rubstrip also tested. Performance results with the Soft Vanes showed that there was no measurable change in the corrected fan thrust and a 1.8 percent loss in corrected stator vane thrust, which resulted in a total net thrust loss of approximately 0.5 percent compared with the baseline reference stator vane set.

  15. Differential Effects of Single-Dose Escitalopram on Cognitive and Affective Interference during Stroop Task

    PubMed Central

    Rahm, Christoffer; Liberg, Benny; Kristoffersen-Wiberg, Maria; Aspelin, Peter; Msghina, Mussie

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: Our aim was to study the regulatory role of serotonin [(5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] on two key nodes in the cognitive control networks – the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). We hypothesized that increasing the levels of 5-HT would preferentially modulate the activity in ACC during cognitive control during interference by negative affects compared to cognitive control during interference by a superimposed cognitive task. Methods: We performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation on 11 healthy individuals, comparing the effects of the selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor escitalopram on brain oxygenation level dependent signals in the ACC and the DLPFC using affective and cognitive counting Stroop paradigms (aStroop and cStroop). Results: Escitalopram significantly decreased the activity in rostral ACC during aStroop compared to cStroop (p < 0.05). In the absence of escitalopram, both aStroop and cStroop significantly activated ACC and DLPFC (Z ≥ 2.3, p < 0.05). Conclusion: We conclude that escitalopram in a region and task specific manner modified the cognitive control networks and preferentially decreased activity induced by affective interference in the ACC. PMID:24616708

  16. Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kats, Mikhail A.; Blanchard, Romain; Genevet, Patrice; Capasso, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Optical coatings, which consist of one or more films of dielectric or metallic materials, are widely used in applications ranging from mirrors to eyeglasses and photography lenses. Many conventional dielectric coatings rely on Fabry-Perot-type interference, involving multiple optical passes through transparent layers with thicknesses of the order of the wavelength to achieve functionalities such as anti-reflection, high-reflection and dichroism. Highly absorbing dielectrics are typically not used because it is generally accepted that light propagation through such media destroys interference effects. We show that under appropriate conditions interference can instead persist in ultrathin, highly absorbing films of a few to tens of nanometres in thickness, and demonstrate a new type of optical coating comprising such a film on a metallic substrate, which selectively absorbs various frequency ranges of the incident light. These coatings have a low sensitivity to the angle of incidence and require minimal amounts of absorbing material that can be as thin as 5-20 nm for visible light. This technology has the potential for a variety of applications from ultrathin photodetectors and solar cells to optical filters, to labelling, and even the visual arts and jewellery.

  17. Effects of potential environmental interferents on kinesin-powered molecular shuttles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachand, Marlene; Bachand, George D.

    2012-05-01

    Biomolecular motor-powered active transport represents an alternate means for analyte processing in nanoscale biosensors and bioanalytical devices. For example, a prototype ``smart dust'' biosensor has recently been reported in which the motor protein kinesin processes antibody-functionalized microtubules (MTs) to capture and separate optically tagged protein analytes. A potential limitation of this technology, however, involves the inhibition of transport function by interfering compounds that may be present in raw samples. Here we characterized the response of kinesin-MT transport to a range of potential interferents including solvents, acids, oxidizers, and environmental contaminants. The results of kinesin motility assays suggest that, among the tested interferents, only acetic acid and sodium hypochlorite adversely affected MT transport, primarily due to depolymerization of MT filaments. While negative effects were not observed for the remaining compounds tested, enhancement in motility was observed in the presence of acetone, antifreeze, and organic matter. Overall, the data suggest that kinesin-MT transport is resilient against a variety of common interferents, but primarily susceptible to failure due to significant changes in pH or the presence of an oxidizer.

  18. Temperature Effect on Exploitation and Interference Competition among Microcystis aeruginosa, Planktothrix agardhii and, Cyclotella meneghiniana

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Andreia Maria da Anunciação; Azevedo, Sandra Maria Feliciano de Oliveira e; Lürling, Miquel

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of temperature (18 and 30°C) on growth and on the exploitation and interference competition of three species: Microcystis aeruginosa (MIJAC), Planktothrix agardhii (PAT), and Cyclotella meneghiniana (CCAP). Coculturing the organisms in batch systems allowed for the examination of both competitive interactions, while the interference competition was studied in cross-cultures. The experiments were done during 10–12 days, and samples were taken for chlorophyll-a analysis, using PHYTO-PAM. The temperature did not influence exploitation competition between MIJAC and other competitors and it was the best competitor in both temperatures. PAT presented higher growth rates than CCAP in competition at 18 and 30°C. The temperature influenced the interference competition. The growth of MIJAC was favored in strains exudates at 30°C, while CCAP was favored at 18°C, revealing that the optimum growth temperature was important to establish the competitive superiority. Therefore, we can propose two hypotheses: (i) different temperatures may results in production of distinct compounds that influence the competition among phytoplankton species and (ii) the target species may have different vulnerability to these compounds depending on the temperature. At last, we suggest that both the sensitivity and the physiological status of competing species can determine their lasting coexistence. PMID:26380369

  19. An investigation of the effect of in vivo interferences on Raman glucose measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Bongchu; Oh, Hyunho; Oh, Jeankun; Yang, Yongju; Ku, Yunhee; Kim, Moosub; Kim, Dami; Eum, Hyejin; Cho, Seongmoon; Miller, David R.

    2011-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a promising technology for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring because of its good selectivity for the glucose molecule. The low sensitivity of the Raman signal however, makes it difficult to quantify the concentration of glucose directly from the Raman spectra. To solve this, statistical methods such as PCA (principle component analysis) and PLS (partial least square) are traditionally used. These statistical methods general work very well and give highly accurate results, provided there is no interference. In the in-vivo case however, there are many interferences such as the inhomogeneity of tissue, physiological changes, and denaturation of the tissue by the light source. This study investigates the affect of in-vivo interferences on Raman glucose measurements. In this study, a high throughput dispersive Raman system was constructed with an 830nm multimode laser, a multiple conductor optical fiber bundle, and a back-illuminated CCD spectrometer. A simply phantom was devised, which was comprised of a plastic cuvette fitted with a human fingernail window and glucose doped human serum used as the sample. To test the inhomogeneity of tissue samples, different sites of the phantom were exposed to the laser. In the case of denaturation, tests were conducted under two laser power densities: low (3.7mW/mm2) and high density (110mW/mm2). To simulate the physiological change, gelatin phantoms of varied concentration were investigated. The results of the study indicate that the dominant interferers for Raman in-vivo glucose measurements are the inhomogeneity of the tissue and the denaturation by the laser power density. The next phase for this study will be the design of a high SNR Raman system which affords a low power density laser sample illumination as well as larger volumetric illumination to mitigate the effects of tissue inhomogeneity.

  20. NASA aerodynamics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Schairer, Edward; Hicks, Gary; Wander, Stephen; Blankson, Isiaiah; Rose, Raymond; Olson, Lawrence; Unger, George

    1990-01-01

    Presented here is a comprehensive review of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation, transition and turbulence physics, numerical aerodynamic simulation, drag reduction, test techniques and instrumentation, configuration aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, aerothermodynamics, hypersonics, subsonic transport/commuter aviation, fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.

  1. Flight effects on the aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics of inverted profile coannular nozzles, volume 1. [supersonic cruise aircraft research wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlowski, H.; Packman, A. B.

    1978-01-01

    Jet noise spectra obtained at static conditions from an acoustic wind tunnel and an outdoor facility are compared. Data curves are presented for (1) the effect of relative velocity on OASPL directivity (all configurations); (2) the effect of relative velocity on noise spectra (all configurations); (3) the effect of velocity on PNL directivity (coannular nozzle configurations); (4) nozzle exhaust plume velocity profiles; and (5) the effect of relative velocity on aerodynamic performance.

  2. Reversibility Of Superconducting Nb Weak Links Driven By The Proximity Effect In A Quantum Interference Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Nikhil; Fournier, T.; Courtois, H.; Winkelmann, C. B.; Gupta, Anjan K.

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate the role of the proximity effect in the thermal hysteresis of superconducting constrictions. From the analysis of successive thermal instabilities in the transport characteristics of micron-size superconducting quantum interference devices with a well-controlled geometry, we obtain a complete picture of the different thermal regimes. These determine whether or not the junctions are hysteretic. Below the superconductor critical temperature, the critical current switches from a classical weak-link behavior to one driven by the proximity effect. The associated small amplitude of the critical current makes it robust with respect to the heat generation by phase slips, leading to a nonhysteretic behavior.

  3. Effect of interferents on the performance of direct-reading organic vapor monitors

    PubMed Central

    LeBouf, Ryan F.; Coffey, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Direct-reading organic vapor monitors are often used to measure volatile organic compound concentrations in complex chemical gas mixtures. However, there is a paucity of data on the impact of multiple gases on monitor performance, even though it is known that monitor sensitivity may vary by chemical. This study investigated the effects of interferents on the performance of the MIRAN SapphIRe Portable Ambient Air Analyzer (SAP) and Century Portable Toxic Vapor Analyzer (TVA-1000) when sampling a specific agent of interest (cyclohexane). The TVA-1000 contained a dual detector: a photoionization detector (PID) and a flame ionization detector (FID). Three devices of each monitor were challenged with different combinations of cyclohexane and potential interferent vapors (hexane, methyl ethyl ketone, trichloroethylene, and toluene) at 21°C and 90% relative humidity (RH), an extreme environmental condition. Five replicates at four target concentrations were tested: 30, 150, 300, and 475 ppm. Multiple proportions of cyclohexane to interferent enabled the determination of the interferent effect on monitor performance. The monitor concentrations were compared to reference concentrations measured using NIOSH Method 1500. Three scenarios were investigated: no response factor, cyclohexane response factor, and weighted-mixed response factor applied. False negatives occurred more frequently for PID (21.1%), followed by FID (4.8%) and SAP (0.2%). Measurements from all monitors generally had a positive bias compared to the reference measurements. Some monitor measurements exceeded twice the reference concentrations: PID (36.8%), SAP (19.8%), and FID (6.3%). Evaluation of the 95% confidence intervals indicated that performance of all monitors varied by concentration. In addition, the performance of the PID and SAP varied by presence of an interfering compound, especially toluene and hexane for the PID and trichloroethylene for the SAP. Variability and bias associated with all these

  4. Piloted Simulation Study of the Effects of High-Lift Aerodynamics on the Takeoff Noise of a Representative High-Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaab, Louis J.; Riley, Donald R.; Brandon, Jay M.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Glaab, Patricia C.

    1999-01-01

    As part of an effort between NASA and private industry to reduce airport-community noise for high-speed civil transport (HSCT) concepts, a piloted simulation study was initiated for the purpose of predicting the noise reduction benefits that could result from improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance for a typical HSCT configuration during takeoff and initial climb. Flight profile and engine information from the piloted simulation were coupled with the NASA Langley Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) to estimate jet engine noise and to propagate the resulting source noise to ground observer stations. A baseline aircraft configuration, which also incorporated different levels of projected improvements in low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance, was simulated to investigate effects of increased lift and lift-to-drag ratio on takeoff noise levels. Simulated takeoff flights were performed with the pilots following a specified procedure in which either a single thrust cutback was performed at selected altitudes ranging from 400 to 2000 ft, or a multiple-cutback procedure was performed where thrust was reduced by a two-step process. Results show that improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance provides at least a 4 to 6 dB reduction in effective perceived noise level at the FAA downrange flyover measurement station for either cutback procedure. However, improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance reduced maximum sideline noise levels only when using the multiple-cutback procedures.

  5. Interference of Tail Surfaces and Wing and Fuselage from Tests of 17 Combinations in the N.A.C.A. Variable-Density Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, Albert

    1939-01-01

    An investigation of the interference associated with tail surfaces added to wing-fuselage combinations was included in the interference program in progress in the NACA variable-density tunnel. The results indicate that, in aerodynamically clean combinations, the increment to the high-speed drag can be estimated from section characteristics within useful limits of accuracy. The interference appears mainly as effects on the downwash angel and as losses in the tail. An interference burble, which markedly increases the glide-path angle and the stability in pitch before the actual stall, may be considered a means of obtaining satisfactory stalling characteristics for a complete combination.

  6. Test section configuration for aerodynamic testing in shock tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, W. J.; Presley, L. L.; Chapman, G. T.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents results of a study of the test section configuration required to minimize or alleviate interference effects on model flow produced by the presence of test section walls in the aerodynamic testing of two dimensional transonic airfoils in a shock tube. Tests at a nominal Mach number of 0.85 and a chord Reynolds number of 2,000,000 were carried out by means of schlieren photography and pressure measurements for several symmetric airfoil profiles using shock tube test sections with unmodified straight walls, contoured walls, and slotted walls with adjacent chambers. Results were compared with corresponding results from conventional wind tunnel tests of the airfoils. Results for the straight wall tests show major airfoil flow distortions. Results from contoured wall tests and those performed using a slotted wall test section developed in this study exhibit essential agreement with wind tunnel results. The collective results show that test sections for aerodynamic testing can be designed for shock tubes that will alleviate wall interference effects.

  7. Improvements to the missile aerodynamic prediction code DEMON3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillenius, Marnix F. E.; Johnson, David L.; Lesieutre, Daniel J.

    1992-01-01

    The computer program DEMON3 was developed for the aerodynamic analysis of nonconventional supersonic configurations comprising a body with noncircular cross section and up to two wing or fin sections. Within a wing or fin section, the lifting surfaces may be cruciform, triform, planar, or low profile layouts; the planforms of the lifting surfaces allow for breaks in sweep. The body and fin sections are modeled by triplet and constant u-velocity panels, respectively, accounting for mutual body-fin interference. Fin thickness effects are included for the use of supersonic planar source panels. One of the unique features of DEMON3 is the modeling of high angle of attack vortical effects associated with the lifting surfaces and the body. In addition, shock expansion and Newtonian pressure calculation methods can be optionally engaged. These two dimensional nonlinear methods are augmented by aerodynamic interference determined from the linear panel methods. Depending on the geometric details of the body, the DEMON3 program can be used to analyze nonconventional configurations at angles of attack up to 25 degrees for Mach numbers from 1.1 to 6. Calculative results and comparisons with experimental data demonstrate the capabilities of DEMON3. Limitations and deficiencies are listed.

  8. Quantum interference in a four-level system of a {sup 87}Rb atom: Effects of spontaneously generated coherence

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Dongsheng; Zheng Yujun

    2011-01-15

    In this work, the effects of quantum interference and spontaneously generated coherence (SGC) are theoretically analyzed in a four-level system of a {sup 87}Rb atom. For the effects of SGC, we find that a new kind of electromagnetically induced transparency channel can be induced due to destructive interference, and the nonlinear Kerr absorption can be coherently narrowed or eliminated under different strengths of the coupling and switching fields.

  9. The quantum interference effects in the SC II 4247 Å line of the second solar spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Smitha, H. N.; Nagendra, K. N.; Stenflo, J. O.; Bianda, M.; Ramelli, R. E-mail: knn@iiap.res.in E-mail: mbianda@irsol.ch

    2014-10-10

    The Sc II 4247 Å line formed in the chromosphere is one of the lines well known, like the Na I D{sub 2} and Ba II D{sub 2}, for its prominent triple-peak structure in Q/I and the underlying quantum interference effects governing it. In this paper, we try to study the nature of this triple-peak structure using the theory of F-state interference including the effects of partial frequency redistribution (PRD) and radiative transfer (RT). We compare our results with the observations taken in a quiet region near the solar limb. In spite of accounting for PRD and RT effects, it has not been possible to reproduce the observed triple-peak structure in Q/I. While the two wing PRD peaks (on either side of central peak) and the near wing continuum can be reproduced, the central peak is completely suppressed by the enhanced depolarization resulting from the hyperfine structure splitting. This suppression remains for all the tested widely different one-dimensional model atmospheres or for any multi-component combinations of them. While multidimensional RT effects may improve the fit to the intensity profiles, they do not appear capable of explaining the enigmatic central Q/I peak. This leads us to suspect that some aspect of quantum physics is missing.

  10. Aerodynamic drag on intermodal railcars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinghorn, Philip; Maynes, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    The aerodynamic drag associated with transport of commodities by rail is becoming increasingly important as the cost of diesel fuel increases. This study aims to increase the efficiency of intermodal cargo trains by reducing the aerodynamic drag on the load carrying cars. For intermodal railcars a significant amount of aerodynamic drag is a result of the large distance between loads that often occurs and the resulting pressure drag resulting from the separated flow. In the present study aerodynamic drag data have been obtained through wind tunnel testing on 1/29 scale models to understand the savings that may be realized by judicious modification to the size of the intermodal containers. The experiments were performed in the BYU low speed wind tunnel and the test track utilizes two leading locomotives followed by a set of five articulated well cars with double stacked containers. The drag on a representative mid-train car is measured using an isolated load cell balance and the wind tunnel speed is varied from 20 to 100 mph. We characterize the effect that the gap distance between the containers and the container size has on the aerodynamic drag of this representative rail car and investigate methods to reduce the gap distance.

  11. Aerodynamic Characteristics and Control Effectiveness of the HL-20 Lifting Body Configuration at Mach 10 in Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scallion, William I.

    1999-01-01

    A 0.0196-scale model of the HL-20 lifting-body, one of several configurations proposed for future crewed spacecraft, was tested in the Langley 31-Inch Mach 10 Tunnel. The purpose of the tests was to determine the effectiveness of fin-mounted elevons, a lower surface flush-mounted body flap, and a flush-mounted yaw controller at hypersonic speeds. The nominal angle-of-attack range, representative of hypersonic entry, was 2 deg to 41 deg, the sideslip angles were 0 deg, 2 deg, and -2 deg, and the test Reynolds number was 1.06 x 10 E6 based on model reference length. The aerodynamic, longitudinal, and lateral control effectiveness along with surface oil flow visualizations are presented and discussed. The configuration was longitudinally and laterally stable at the nominal center of gravity. The primary longitudinal control, the fin-mounted elevons, could not trim the model to the desired entry angle of attack of 30 deg. The lower surface body flaps were effective for roll control and the associated adverse yawing moment was eliminated by skewing the body flap hinge lines. A yaw controller, flush-mounted on the lower surface, was also effective, and the associated small rolling moment was favorable.

  12. Thrust-induced effects on subsonic longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a vectored-engine-over-wing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinto, P. F.; Paulson, J. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 4 by 7 Meter Tunnel of the thrust induced effects on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a vectored-engine-over-wing fighter aircraft. The investigation was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.14 to 0.17 over an angle-of-attack range from -2 deg to 26 deg. The major model variables were the spanwise blowing nozzle sweep angle and main nozzle vector angle along with trailing edge, flap deflections. The overall thrust coefficient (main and spanwise nozzles) was varied from 0 (jet off) to 2.0. The results indicate that the thrust-induced effects from the main nozzle alone were small and mainly due to boundary-layer control affecting a small area behind the nozzle. When the spanwise blowing nozzles were included, the induced effects were larger than the main nozzle alone and were due to both boundary layer control and induced circulation lift. No leading edge vortex effects were evident.

  13. Optical wave-front transformer using the multiple-reflection interference effect inside a resonator.

    PubMed

    Dingel, B B; Izutsu, M; Murakawa, K

    1997-10-01

    We propose a new class of optical wave-front transformer based on a different mechanism that uses the multiple-reflection interference effect in a Gires-Tournois resonator (GTR) as the physical mechanism for phase modification. By coating the front surface of a GTR with a predefined graded reflectivity profile, one can synthesize various optical elements. We present the basic concept of our proposal by synthesizing a lenslike element as a proof-of-principle example. One unique feature of this element is that it can function as a reflecting mirror, a converging lens, or a diverging lens, depending on the resonator length. Other applications are briefly discussed. PMID:18188264

  14. Classical two-slit interference effects in double photoionization of molecular hydrogen at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, Daniel A.; Miyabe, Shungo; Rescigno, Thomas N; McCurdy, C. William; Morales, Felipe; Martin, Fernando

    2008-07-06

    Recent experiments on double photoionization of H$_2$ with photon energies between 160 and 240 eV have revealed body-frame angular distributions that suggest classical two-slit interference effects may be present when one electron carries most of the available energy and the second electron is not observed. We report precise quantum mechanical calculations that reproduce the experimental findings. They reveal that the interpretation in terms of classical diffraction is only appropriate atsubstantially higher photon energies. At the energies considered in the experiment we offer an alternative explanation based on the mixing of two non-diffractive contributions by circularly polarized light.

  15. Contact effects and quantum interference in engineered dangling bond loops on silicon surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleshchonok, Andrii; Gutierrez, Rafael; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2015-08-01

    Dangling bond structures created on H-passivated silicon surfaces offer a novel platform for engineering planar nanoscale circuits, compatible with conventional semiconductor technologies. In this investigation we focus on the electronic structure and quantum transport signatures of dangling bond loops built on H-passivated Si(100) surfaces contacted by carbon nanoribbons, thus leading to a two-terminal planar, nanoscale setup. The computational studies were carried out to rationalize the influence of the local atomic-scale contacts of the dangling bond system to the mesoscopic electrodes as well as the possibility of revealing quantum interference effects in the dangling bond loops. Our results reveal a strong sensitivity of the low-energy quantum transmission to the loop topology and to the atomistic details of the electrode-loop contact. Varying the length of the loop or the spatial position of at least one of the electrodes has a drastic impact on the quantum interference pattern; depending on whether constructive or destructive interference within the loop takes place, the conductance of the system can be tuned over several orders of magnitude, thus suggesting the possibility of exploiting such quantum mechanical effects in the design of two-dimensional, atomic-scale electronic devices such as logic gates.Dangling bond structures created on H-passivated silicon surfaces offer a novel platform for engineering planar nanoscale circuits, compatible with conventional semiconductor technologies. In this investigation we focus on the electronic structure and quantum transport signatures of dangling bond loops built on H-passivated Si(100) surfaces contacted by carbon nanoribbons, thus leading to a two-terminal planar, nanoscale setup. The computational studies were carried out to rationalize the influence of the local atomic-scale contacts of the dangling bond system to the mesoscopic electrodes as well as the possibility of revealing quantum interference effects in

  16. Effect of fast-acting compression on modulation detection interference for normal hearing and hearing impaired listeners.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi; Lentz, Jennifer J

    2010-06-01

    To determine the effects of hearing loss and fast-acting compression on auditory grouping based on across-frequency modulation, modulation detection interference (MDI) was measured in listeners with normal hearing and hearing loss. MDI, the increase in the amplitude-modulation detection threshold of a target presented with an interferer distant in frequency, was measured using a 500-Hz target and a 2140-Hz interferer, both modulated with narrow-band noises of the same bandwidth. The two modulated tones were presented at equal loudness levels to listeners with normal hearing and hearing loss in the absence (Exp. 1) and in the presence (Exp. 2) of fast-acting compression applied to the interferer. Modulation detection thresholds increased with increasing modulation depth of the interferer by similar amounts for the two groups of listeners, suggesting that across-frequency grouping based on amplitude modulation is not altered by hearing impairment. Compression provided an additional increase in thresholds for both groups, indicating that compression algorithms might alter across-frequency grouping cues. Partial support for an idea that compression's effect of sharpening the onsets after each envelope valley is provided by a third experiment which found somewhat greater interference produced by square-wave modulation than sine-wave modulation at larger interferer modulation depths. PMID:20550264

  17. Effects of orbital and spin current interference in E1 and M2 nuclear excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharova, N. G.

    2015-12-15

    The interference of contributions from the orbital and spin currents to the E1 and M2 resonances is investigated. The results of the current interference analysis within the shell model are compared with the experimental data.

  18. Excitation dependent Fano-like interference effects in plasmonic silver nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Sean M.; Nicoletti, Olivia; Rossouw, David; Ostasevicius, Tomas; Midgley, Paul A.

    2014-10-01

    Surface plasmon resonances in metal nanoparticles are an emerging technology platform for nano-optics applications from sensing to solar energy conversion. The electromagnetic near field associated with these resonances arises from modes determined by the shape, size, and composition of the metal nanoparticle. When coupled in the near field, multiple resonant modes can interact to give rise to interference effects offering fine control of both the spectral response and spatial distribution of fields near the particle. Here, we present an examination of experimental electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) of silver nanorod monomer surface plasmon modes and present an explanation of observed spatial amplitude modulation of the Fabry-Pérot resonance modes of these silver nanorods using electrodynamics simulations. For these simulations, we identify differences in spectral peak symmetry in light scattering and electron spectroscopies (EELS and cathodoluminescence) and analyze the distinct near-field responses of silver nanorods to plane-wave light and electron beam excitation in terms of a coupled oscillator model. Effects of properties of the material and the incident field are evaluated, and the spatially resolved EELS signals are shown to provide a signature for assessing Fano-like interference effects in silver nanorods. These findings outline key considerations and challenges for interpreting electron microscopy data on plasmonic nanoparticles for understanding nanoscale optics and for characterization and design of photonic devices.

  19. Non-spectral interference effects in platform-equipped graphite atomisers*1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frech, Wolfgang

    1997-07-01

    A large number of physical and chemical phenomena can give rise to non-spectral interference effects in electrothermal atomisers (ETAs). In this paper the processes leading to disturbances in the analytical response by the presence of a matrix are discussed and categorised depending on the stage at which they appear in the furnace procedure. During sample pre-treatment the element of interest can be lost by the formation of volatile analyte and matrix molecules or by analyte expulsion as a result of violent reactions. The difficulties arising from establishing the mechanism of these losses during the pyrolysis are dealt with. Processes during atomisation, giving rise to a reduction of the apparent atomisation efficiency, such as analyte molecule formation or analyte trapping on condensed matrix particles, are described. The discussion is extended to cover related matrix-induced processes which might give rise to a change in the rate of free analyte removal and hence the analytical response. In this connection the discussion will focus on analyte expulsion, alterations in the rate of diffusion of free atoms and reduced mean atom residence times by incidental convective flows. Attention is also given to matrix-induced changes in the spatial distribution of analyte atoms. Several types of the described interference effects have so far not been studied in detail but it can be assumed that they will have minor effects on the analytical response.

  20. New technology in turbine aerodynamics.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, A. J.; Moffitt, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    Cursory review of some recent work that has been done in turbine aerodynamic research. Topics discussed include the aerodynamic effect of turbine coolant, high work-factor (ratio of stage work to square of blade speed) turbines, and computer methods for turbine design and performance prediction. Experimental cooled-turbine aerodynamics programs using two-dimensional cascades, full annular cascades, and cold rotating turbine stage tests are discussed with some typical results presented. Analytically predicted results for cooled blade performance are compared to experimental results. The problems and some of the current programs associated with the use of very high work factors for fan-drive turbines of high-bypass-ratio engines are discussed. Computer programs have been developed for turbine design-point performance, off-design performance, supersonic blade profile design, and the calculation of channel velocities for subsonic and transonic flowfields. The use of these programs for the design and analysis of axial and radial turbines is discussed.

  1. Effect of Horizontal-Tail Span and Vertical Location on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Unswept Tail Assembly in Sideslip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Donald R

    1954-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the Langley stability tunnel on a vertical-tail model with a stub fuselage in combination with various horizontal tails to determine the effect of horizontal-tail span and vertical location of the horizontal tail relative to the vertical tail on the aerodynamic characteristics of an unswept tail assembly in sideslip. The results of the investigation indicated that the induced loading carried by the horizontal tail produced a rolling moment about the point of attachment to the vertical tail which was strongly influenced by horizontal-tail span and vertical locations. The greatest effect of horizontal-tail span on the rolling-moment derivative of the complete tail assembly was obtained for horizontal-tail locations near the top of the vertical tail. Span loadings which were reduced to the static-stability derivatives were calculated for each configuration tested by applying the well-known finite-step method used for wings to the intersecting surfaces of the vertical and horizontal tails. The finite-step method provides a simple and effective means of investigating the span loadings of intersecting surfaces.

  2. A 0.15-scale study of configuration effects on the aerodynamic interaction between main rotor and fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trept, Ted

    1984-01-01

    Hover and forward flight tests were conducted to investigate the mutual aerodynamic interaction between the main motor and fuselage of a conventional helicopter configuration. A 0.15-scale Model 222 two-bladed teetering rotor was combined with a 0.15-scale model of the NASA Ames 40x80-foot wind tunnel 1500 horsepower test stand fairing. Configuration effects were studied by modifying the fairing to simulate a typical helicopter forebody. Separation distance between rotor and body were also investigated. Rotor and fuselage force and moment as well as pressure data are presented in graphical and tabular format. Data was taken over a range of thrust coefficients from 0.002 to 0.007. In forward flight speed ratio was varied from 0.1 to 0.3 with shaft angle varying from +4 to -12 deg. The data show that the rotors effect on the fuselage may be considerably more important to total aircraft performance than the effect of the fuselage on the rotor.

  3. Aerodynamics of sports balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, R. D.

    Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.

  4. Aerodynamics of sports balls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.

  5. Interference Effect between ϕ and Λ(1520) Production Channels in the γp→K^{+}K^{-}p Reaction near Threshold.

    PubMed

    Ryu, S Y; Ahn, J K; Nakano, T; Ahn, D S; Ajimura, S; Akimune, H; Asano, Y; Chang, W C; Chen, J Y; Daté, S; Ejiri, H; Fujimura, H; Fujiwara, M; Fukui, S; Hasegawa, S; Hicks, K; Horie, K; Hotta, T; Hwang, S H; Imai, K; Ishikawa, T; Iwata, T; Kato, Y; Kawai, H; Kino, K; Kohri, H; Kon, Y; Kumagai, N; Lin, P J; Maeda, Y; Makino, S; Matsuda, T; Matsuoka, N; Mibe, T; Miyabe, M; Miyachi, M; Morino, Y; Muramatsu, N; Murayama, R; Nakatsugawa, Y; Nam, S I; Niiyama, M; Nomachi, M; Ohashi, Y; Ohkuma, H; Ohta, T; Ooba, T; Oshuev, D S; Parker, J D; Rangacharyulu, C; Sakaguchi, A; Sawada, T; Shagin, P M; Shiino, Y; Shimizu, H; Strokovsky, E A; Sugaya, Y; Sumihama, M; Tokiyasu, A O; Toi, Y; Toyokawa, H; Tsunemi, T; Uchida, M; Ungaro, M; Wakai, A; Wang, C W; Wang, S C; Yonehara, K; Yorita, T; Yoshimura, M; Yosoi, M; Zegers, R G T

    2016-06-10

    The ϕ-Λ(1520) interference effect in the γp→K^{+}K^{-}p reaction has been measured for the first time in the energy range from 1.673 to 2.173 GeV. The relative phases between ϕ and Λ(1520) production amplitudes were obtained in the kinematic region where the two resonances overlap. The measurement results support strong constructive interference when K^{+}K^{-} pairs are observed at forward angles but destructive interference for proton emission at forward angles. Furthermore, the observed interference effect does not account for the sqrt[s]=2.1  GeV bump structure in forward differential cross sections for ϕ photoproduction. This fact suggests possible exotic structures such as a hidden-strangeness pentaquark state, a new Pomeron exchange, or rescattering processes via other hyperon states. PMID:27341225

  6. The contextual interference effect in acquisition of dart-throwing skill tested on a transfer test with extended trials.

    PubMed

    Meira, C M; Tani, G

    2001-06-01

    Previous studies of contextual interference have shown that practicing several motor skills randomly (high contextual interference) facilitates retention and transfer in comparison to practicing the same tasks in a blocked order (low contextual interference). However, many studies have not supported this phenomenon in motor learning, and some researchers have questioned whether the effect can be tested by using only a few trials on the transfer test. The present study used a different methodological approach in which the number of test trials was increased to assess whether the contextual interference effect is sustained over an extended number of trials in the transfer phase. Undergraduate students (N=32) were randomly allocated to either a blocked or random group. The participants practiced 80 acquisition trials in the dart-throwing task from distances of 300 cm and 420 cm, using two different grips. The transfer test after a 10-min. interval consisted of 40 trials with a new grip at a distance of 360 cm. The results did not support the contextual interference effect since there were no significant differences between groups on transfer. These findings suggest that the contextual interference effect may not be a global learning phenomenon which can be generalized to all learning situations. PMID:11453223

  7. Interference effects of choice on confidence: Quantum characteristics of evidence accumulation.

    PubMed

    Kvam, Peter D; Pleskac, Timothy J; Yu, Shuli; Busemeyer, Jerome R

    2015-08-25

    Decision-making relies on a process of evidence accumulation which generates support for possible hypotheses. Models of this process derived from classical stochastic theories assume that information accumulates by moving across definite levels of evidence, carving out a single trajectory across these levels over time. In contrast, quantum decision models assume that evidence develops over time in a superposition state analogous to a wavelike pattern and that judgments and decisions are constructed by a measurement process by which a definite state of evidence is created from this indefinite state. This constructive process implies that interference effects should arise when multiple responses (measurements) are elicited over time. We report such an interference effect during a motion direction discrimination task. Decisions during the task interfered with subsequent confidence judgments, resulting in less extreme and more accurate judgments than when no decision was elicited. These results provide qualitative and quantitative support for a quantum random walk model of evidence accumulation over the popular Markov random walk model. We discuss the cognitive and neural implications of modeling evidence accumulation as a quantum dynamic system. PMID:26261322

  8. Interference effects in the H($\\to \\gamma\\gamma$)+2 jets channel at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Coradeschi, F.; de Florian, D.; Dixon, L. J.; Fidanza, N.; Hoeche, S.; Ita, H.; Li, Y.; Mazzitelli, J.

    2015-07-08

    We compute the interference between the resonant process pp → H(→γγ)+2 jets and the corresponding continuum background at leading order in QCD. For the Higgs signal, we include gluon fusion (GF) and vector boson fusion (VBF) production channels, while for the background we consider all tree-level contributions, including pure EW effects (O(α4QED)) and QCD contributions (O(α2QEDα2s)), plus the loop-induced gluon-initiated process. After convolution with the experimental mass resolution, the main effect of the interference is to shift the position of the mass peak, as in the inclusive GF case studied previously. The apparent mass shift is small in magnitude but strongly dependent on the Higgs width, potentially allowing for a measurement of, or bound on, the width itself. In the H(→γγ)+2 jets channel, the VBF and GF contributions generate shifts of opposite signs which largely cancel, depending on the sets of cuts used, to as little as 5 MeV (toward a lower Higgs mass). As a result, the small magnitude of the shift makes this channel a good reference mass for measuring the inclusive mass shift of around 60 MeV in the Standard Model.

  9. The PRP Effect Following Callosotomy: Residual Interference Despite Uncoupling of Lateralized Response Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivry, Richard B.; Franz, Elizabeth A.; Kingstone, Alan; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A callosotomy patient was tested in two dual-task experiments requiring successive speeded responses to lateralized stimuli. In accord with the recent findings of Pashler, O'Brien, Luck, Hillyard, Mangun, and Gazzaniga (in press), the patient showed a robust psychological refractory period effect (PRP) responses on Task 2 were inversely related to the stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA). However, three aspects of our data indicated that the processing limitations for the patient were different than those observed with control subjects. First, the split-brain patient did not show an increase in reaction time when the two tasks required responses from a common output system (i.e., both manual responses) in comparison to when different output systems were used (i.e., manual-vocal). Second, inconsistent stimulus-response mappings for the two tasks greatly inflated response latencies for the control subjects, but had minimal effect on the performance of the split-brain patient. Third, the consistency manipulation was underadditive with SOA for only the patient, suggesting a later bottleneck in processing following callosotomy than was observed for the control subjects. It is proposed that sectioning the corpus callosum eliminates interference resulting from competing stimulus response codes. Nonetheless, dual-task interference persists for the split-brain subject because a subcortical gate constrains when selected responses can be implemented.

  10. Fluorometric quantification of polyphosphate in environmental plankton samples: extraction protocols, matrix effects, and nucleic acid interference.

    PubMed

    Martin, Patrick; Van Mooy, Benjamin A S

    2013-01-01

    Polyphosphate (polyP) is a ubiquitous biochemical with many cellular functions and comprises an important environmental phosphorus pool. However, methodological challenges have hampered routine quantification of polyP in environmental samples. We tested 15 protocols to extract inorganic polyphosphate from natural marine samples and cultured cyanobacteria for fluorometric quantification with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) without prior purification. A combination of brief boiling and digestion with proteinase K was superior to all other protocols, including other enzymatic digestions and neutral or alkaline leaches. However, three successive extractions were required to extract all polyP. Standard addition revealed matrix effects that differed between sample types, causing polyP to be over- or underestimated by up to 50% in the samples tested here. Although previous studies judged that the presence of DNA would not complicate fluorometric quantification of polyP with DAPI, we show that RNA can cause significant interference at the wavelengths used to measure polyP. Importantly, treating samples with DNase and RNase before proteinase K digestion reduced fluorescence by up to 57%. We measured particulate polyP along a North Pacific coastal-to-open ocean transect and show that particulate polyP concentrations increased toward the open ocean. While our final method is optimized for marine particulate matter, different environmental sample types may need to be assessed for matrix effects, extraction efficiency, and nucleic acid interference. PMID:23104409

  11. Standing wave contributions to the linear interference effect in stratosphere-troposphere coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt-Meyer, Oliver; Kushner, Paul

    2014-05-01

    A body of literature by Hayashi and others [Hayashi 1973, 1977, 1979; Pratt, 1976] developed a decomposition of the wavenumber-frequency spectrum into standing and travelling waves. These techniques directly decompose the power spectrum—that is, the amplitudes squared—into standing and travelling parts. This, incorrectly, does not allow for a term representing the covariance between these waves. We propose a simple decomposition based on the 2D Fourier transform which allows one to directly compute the variance of the standing and travelling waves, as well as the covariance between them. Applying this decomposition to geopotential height anomalies in the Northern Hemisphere winter, we show the dominance of standing waves for planetary wavenumbers 1 through 3, especially in the stratosphere, and that wave-1 anomalies have a significant westward travelling component in the high-latitude (60N to 80N) troposphere. Variations in the relative zonal phasing between a wave anomaly and the background climatological wave pattern—the "linear interference" effect—are known to explain a large part of the planetary wave driving of the polar stratosphere in both hemispheres. While the linear interference effect is robust across observations, models of varying degrees of complexity, and in response to various types of perturbations, it is not well understood dynamically. We use the above-described decomposition into standing and travelling waves to investigate the drivers of linear interference. We find that the linear part of the wave activity flux is primarily driven by the standing waves, at all vertical levels. This can be understood by noting that the longitudinal positions of the antinodes of the standing waves are typically close to being aligned with the maximum and minimum of the background climatology. We discuss implications for predictability of wave activity flux, and hence polar vortex strength variability.

  12. Effect of configuration modification on the hypersonic aerodynamic characteristics of a blended delta wing-body entry vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrington, J. P.; Ashby, G. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The longitudinal, lateral, and directional aerodynamic characteristics of a delta-wing configuration were obtained experimentally at Mach 20 in helium with Reynolds numbers, based on model length, of 1.5 million and 2.9 million and at a Mach number of 6 in air with a Reynolds number, based on model length, of 4.8 million. The angles of attack varied from 0 deg to 55 deg for two sideslip angles. The effects of the addition of dorsal fins, the removal of wing tip fins, an increase in elevon span, and changes in elevon hinge-line sweep angle are discussed. The unmodified vehicle had a maximum lift-drag ratio of 2.1 at Mach 19 and of 2.4 at Mach 6 with about the same lateral and directional stability level at both Mach numbers. As the Mach number increased from 6 to 20, the longitudinal center of pressure moved forward and more positive elevon deflection was therefore required to maintain a given trim angle. The removal of wing tip fins increased the maximum lift-drag ratio and had a negligible effect on longitudinal stability, but caused directional instability that was not corrected by the dorsal fins examined. The shape of the wing and elevon hinge-line sweep had a large influence on the induced yawing moment due to roll control.

  13. Prediction of the hub vortex instability within wind turbine wakes and effects of the incoming wind and turbine aerodynamic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iungo, Giacomo Valerio; Viola, Francesco; Camarri, Simone; Porté-Agel, Fernando; Gallaire, Francois

    2014-11-01

    Instability of the hub vortex, which is a vorticity structure present in wind turbine near-wake and mainly oriented along the streamwise direction, is predicted from wake velocity measurements. In this work, stability analysis is performed on wind tunnel velocity measurements acquired in the wake produced from a wind turbine model immersed in a uniform flow. Turbulence effects on wake dynamics are taken into account by modeling the Reynolds stresses through eddy-viscosity models, which are calibrated on the wind tunnel data. This formulation leads to the identification of one dominant mode associated with the hub vortex instability, which is characterized by a counter-winding single-helix mode. Moreover, this analysis also predicts accurately the frequency of the hub vortex instability observed experimentally. The hub vortex instability is also investigated by considering incoming wind fields with different turbulence characteristics, different turbine aerodynamic designs and operational regimes, which affect the morphology of the wake vorticity structures and their dynamics. The ultimate goal of this work consists in providing useful information for predicting wind turbine wake dynamics and their effects on downstream wake recovery, thus to maximize wind power harvesting.

  14. Shuttle reentry aerodynamic heating test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pond, J. E.; Mccormick, P. O.; Smith, S. D.

    1971-01-01

    The research for determining the space shuttle aerothermal environment is reported. Brief summaries of the low Reynolds number windward side heating test, and the base and leeward heating and high Reynolds number heating test are included. Also discussed are streamline divergence and the resulting effect on aerodynamic heating, and a thermal analyzer program that is used in the Thermal Environment Optimization Program.

  15. Modulating the interference effect on spatial working memory by applying transcranial direct current stimulation over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Jen; Tseng, Philip; Chang, Chi-Fu; Pai, Ming-Chyi; Hsu, Kuei-Sen; Lin, Chou-Ching; Juan, Chi-Hung

    2014-11-01

    Spatial working memory (SWM) is the ability to temporarily store and manipulate spatial information. It has a limited capacity and is quite vulnerable to interference. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been shown to be a part of the SWM network but its specific functional role still remains unknown. Here we applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that provides polarity-specific stimulation over the targeted region, to investigate the specific role of the right DLPFC in resolving interference in SWM. A forward- and backward-recall computerized Corsi Block Tapping task (CBT), both with and without a concurrent motor interference task (the modified Luria manual sequencing task) was used to measure SWM capacity and reaction time. The results showed that motor interference impeded accuracy and prolonged reaction time in forward and backward recall for SWM. Anodal tDCS over right DLPFC yielded the tendency to shorten participants' reaction time in the conditions with interference (forward with interference, and backward with interference). Most importantly, anodal tDCS significantly improved participants' SWM span when cognitive demand was the highest (the "backward-recall with motor interference" condition). These results suggest that (1) the right DLPFC plays a crucial role in dealing with the cross-domain motor interference for spatial working memory and (2) the anodal tDCS over right DLPFC improved SWM capacity particularly when task difficulty demands more complex mental manipulations that could be due to the facilitatory effect of anodal tDCS which enhanced the DLPFC function within central executive system at the top-down attentional level. PMID:25265321

  16. Aerodynamic challenges of ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooks, I.; Homan, D.; Romere, P. O.

    1985-01-01

    The approach and landing test (ALT) of the Space Shuttle Orbiter presented a number of unique challenges in the area of aerodynamics. The purpose of the ALT program was both to confirm the use of the Boeing 747 as a transport vehicle for ferrying the Orbiter across the country and to demonstrate the flight characteristics of the Orbiter in its approach and landing phase. Concerns for structural fatigue and performance dictated a tailcone be attached to the Orbiter for ferry and for the initial landing tests. The Orbiter with a tailcone attached presented additional challenges to the normal aft sting concept of wind tunnel testing. The landing tests required that the Orbiter be separated from the 747 at approximately 20,000 feet using aerodynamic forces to fly the vehicles apart. The concept required a complex test program to determine the relative effects of the two vehicles on each other. Also of concern, and tested, was the vortex wake created by the 747 and the means for the Orbiter to avoid it following separation.

  17. Aerodynamic design on high-speed trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, San-San; Li, Qiang; Tian, Ai-Qin; Du, Jian; Liu, Jia-Li

    2016-01-01

    Compared with the traditional train, the operational speed of the high-speed train has largely improved, and the dynamic environment of the train has changed from one of mechanical domination to one of aerodynamic domination. The aerodynamic problem has become the key technological challenge of high-speed trains and significantly affects the economy, environment, safety, and comfort. In this paper, the relationships among the aerodynamic design principle, aerodynamic performance indexes, and design variables are first studied, and the research methods of train aerodynamics are proposed, including numerical simulation, a reduced-scale test, and a full-scale test. Technological schemes of train aerodynamics involve the optimization design of the streamlined head and the smooth design of the body surface. Optimization design of the streamlined head includes conception design, project design, numerical simulation, and a reduced-scale test. Smooth design of the body surface is mainly used for the key parts, such as electric-current collecting system, wheel truck compartment, and windshield. The aerodynamic design method established in this paper has been successfully applied to various high-speed trains (CRH380A, CRH380AM, CRH6, CRH2G, and the Standard electric multiple unit (EMU)) that have met expected design objectives. The research results can provide an effective guideline for the aerodynamic design of high-speed trains.

  18. Aerodynamic design on high-speed trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, San-San; Li, Qiang; Tian, Ai-Qin; Du, Jian; Liu, Jia-Li

    2016-04-01

    Compared with the traditional train, the operational speed of the high-speed train has largely improved, and the dynamic environment of the train has changed from one of mechanical domination to one of aerodynamic domination. The aerodynamic problem has become the key technological challenge of high-speed trains and significantly affects the economy, environment, safety, and comfort. In this paper, the relationships among the aerodynamic design principle, aerodynamic performance indexes, and design variables are first studied, and the research methods of train aerodynamics are proposed, including numerical simulation, a reduced-scale test, and a full-scale test. Technological schemes of train aerodynamics involve the optimization design of the streamlined head and the smooth design of the body surface. Optimization design of the streamlined head includes conception design, project design, numerical simulation, and a reduced-scale test. Smooth design of the body surface is mainly used for the key parts, such as electric-current collecting system, wheel truck compartment, and windshield. The aerodynamic design method established in this paper has been successfully applied to various high-speed trains (CRH380A, CRH380AM, CRH6, CRH2G, and the Standard electric multiple unit (EMU)) that have met expected design objectives. The research results can provide an effective guideline for the aerodynamic design of high-speed trains.

  19. Aerodynamic Characteristics and Development of the Aerodynamic Database of the X-34 Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamadi , Bandu N.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the aerodynamic characteristics and the process of developing the preflight aerodynamic database of the NASA/ Orbital X-34 reusable launch vehicle is presented in this paper. Wind tunnel tests from subsonic to hypersonic Mach numbers including ground effect tests at low subsonic speeds were conducted in various facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center. The APAS (Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System) code was used for engineering level analysis and to fill the gaps in the wind tunnel test data. This aerodynamic database covers the range of Mach numbers, angles of attack, sideslip and control surface deflections anticipated in the complete flight envelope.

  20. A quantum circuit rule for interference effects in single-molecule electrical junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique, David Zsolt; Huang, Cancan; Baghernejad, Masoud; Zhao, Xiaotao; Al-Owaedi, Oday A.; Sadeghi, Hatef; Kaliginedi, Veerabhadrarao; Hong, Wenjing; Gulcur, Murat; Wandlowski, Thomas; Bryce, Martin R.; Lambert, Colin J.

    2015-03-01

    A quantum circuit rule for combining quantum interference effects in the conductive properties of oligo(phenyleneethynylene) (OPE)-type molecules possessing three aromatic rings was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Molecules were of the type X-Y-X, where X represents pyridyl anchors with para (p), meta (m) or ortho (o) connectivities and Y represents a phenyl ring with p and m connectivities. The conductances GXmX (GXpX) of molecules of the form X-m-X (X-p-X), with meta (para) connections in the central ring, were predominantly lower (higher), irrespective of the meta, para or ortho nature of the anchor groups X, demonstrating that conductance is dominated by the nature of quantum interference in the central ring Y. The single-molecule conductances were found to satisfy the quantum circuit rule Gppp/Gpmp=Gmpm/Gmmm. This demonstrates that the contribution to the conductance from the central ring is independent of the para versus meta nature of the anchor groups.

  1. Excitons in one-phonon resonant Raman scattering: Fröhlich and interference effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantarero, A.; Trallero-Giner, C.; Cardona, M.

    1989-12-01

    A theoretical model of resonant Raman scattering including excitons as intermediate states in the process is compared with recent experimental results in some III-V compound semiconductors where the Raman polarizability was obtained in absolute value for several scattering configurations. In particular, Fröhlich (F) interaction and its interference with the deformation potential (DP) one is analyzed in the E0+Δ0 critical point (CP) of GaAs at three different temperatures. Also the E0 and E0+Δ0 CP of GaP and E0+Δ0 of GaSb are analyzed. We show that the inclusion of impurity-induced forbidden LO-phonon Raman scattering is not necessary when excitonic effects are considered. The experimental data of GaAs corresponding to F interaction can be fitted by assuming a Fröhlich constant cF=0.14 eV Aṥ/2. Lifetime broadenings of 12 meV (10 K), 14 meV (100 K), and 28 meV (300 K) are deduced. The lifetime broadening of GaAs and GaSb at 100 K are taken from two-phonon Raman scattering spectra where the incoming and outgoing resonances are well defined. The general features in the comparison with the experiment is that the measured spectra corresponding to F interaction are well fitted; however, the theoretical interference is stronger than the measured one.

  2. Differences between Chinese morphosyllabic and German alphabetic readers in the Stroop interference effect.

    PubMed

    Saalbach, Henrik; Stern, Elsbeth

    2004-08-01

    The goal of our study was to localize the source of the stronger Stroop interference effect found in morphosyllabic readers as compared with alphabetic readers. Twenty-three Chinese and 24 German undergraduate students were tested in a Stroop paradigm with the following stimuli: color patches, color-neutral words (e.g.,friend printed in yellow), incongruent color-associated words (e.g., blood printed in blue), and incongruent color words (e.g., yellow printed in blue). Results revealed no differences in German and Chinese students' response times to color patches. Chinese participants, however, showed longer color naming latencies for neutral words as well as for color words and color-related words. No differences between German and Chinese participants were found when print color latencies for neutral words were subtracted from print color latencies for color words and color-related words. This result does not support theories which suggest that for morphosyllabic readers there is a direct route from orthography to the semantics of a word. We rather argue, with reference to dual route models of reading, that access from print to phonology is faster for morphosyllabic than for alphabetic readers, and therefore interference caused by conflicting phonologies of color name and written word will be stronger in Chinese readers than in German readers. PMID:15581122

  3. Effect of plasmid-mediated RNA interference targeting telomerase reverse transcriptase on lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ge, Linhu; Deng, Zhansheng; Zhang, Yangde; Shao, Wenlong; Qiu, Yuan; Cui, Dong; Huang, Donghai

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, a plasmid-mediated siRNA interference vector targeting the hTERT gene was constructed and stably transfected into H1299 lung cancer cells. Using real-time quantitative fluorescent PCR technology, western blotting and flow cytometry-based cell cycle profiling, the silencing effect of this vector and its inhibitory effect on proliferation in lung cancer cells were explored. Based upon the results of our previous study, a pair of siRNA sequences was selected, and a DNA template primer was designed and synthesized. After cloning of the template primer into the promoter of the pGenesil-1.1 expression vector, the constructed interference vector was validated using enzyme digestion and gene sequencing. The recombinant interference vector and empty vector were separately transfected into H1299 lung cancer cells with cationic liposomes, and stable monoclonally transfected cells were obtained after selection with G418. After stable transfection, hTERT mRNA and protein expression levels were detected using real-time RT-PCR technology and western blotting. Using the MTT method and a colony formation assay, the growth and proliferation of the stably transfected lung cancer cells were determined. Changes in the cell cycle profile of the stably transfected lung cancer cells were detected using flow cytometry. An interference vector targeting the hTERT gene (pGenesil.1-hTERT) was successfully constructed. Enzyme digestion and gene sequencing confirmed that the sequence insertion met the criteria of the design. After transfection of H1299 cells with pGenesil.1-hTERT or an empty vector, the stably transfected monoclonal cell lines H1299-pGenesil.1-hTERT and H1299-pGenesil.1 were obtained. Compared to the control cells transfected with the empty vector, the H1299-pGenesil.1-hTERT cells had significantly lower mRNA expression of hTERT (93.97±0.83% inhibition, with P<0.001). The protein expression of hTERT in H1299-pGenesil.1-hTERT cells was significantly lower

  4. Wind-tunnel studies of the effects of stimulated damage on the aerodynamic characteristics of airplanes and missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    As an aid in assessing the aerodynamic effects of battle damage that might be sustained by military airplanes or missiles, several wind tunnel investigations were performed at the Langley Research Center in which damage was simulated with models by the removal of all or parts of the wing and tails. Results of the investigations indicate that the loss of a major part of the vertical tail will probably result in the loss of an airplane in any speed range. The loss of major parts of the horizontal tail generally results in catastrophic instability in the subsonic range but, at low supersonic speeds, and for some planform configurations at subsonic speeds, may allow stable flight to the extent that the airplane might return to friendly territory before the pilot must eject. The results further indicate that major damage to the wing, up to the point of the complete removal of one wing panel, and major damage to the horizontal tail may be sustained without necessarily causing the loss of the airplane or pilot.

  5. The effect of incidence angle on the overall three-dimensional aerodynamic performance of a classical annular airfoil cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergsten, D. E.; Fleeter, S.

    1983-01-01

    To be of quantitative value to the designer and analyst, it is necessary to experimentally verify the flow modeling and the numerics inherent in calculation codes being developed to predict the three dimensional flow through turbomachine blade rows. This experimental verification requires that predicted flow fields be correlated with three dimensional data obtained in experiments which model the fundamental phenomena existing in the flow passages of modern turbomachines. The Purdue Annular Cascade Facility was designed specifically to provide these required three dimensional data. The overall three dimensional aerodynamic performance of an instrumented classical airfoil cascade was determined over a range of incidence angle values. This was accomplished utilizing a fully automated exit flow data acquisition and analysis system. The mean wake data, acquired at two downstream axial locations, were analyzed to determine the effect of incidence angle, the three dimensionality of the cascade exit flow field, and the similarity of the wake profiles. The hub, mean, and tip chordwise airfoil surface static pressure distributions determined at each incidence angle are correlated with predictions from the MERIDL and TSONIC computer codes.

  6. Aerodynamic effects of five lift-fan pod arrangements on an unpowered V/STOL transport model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. L.; Hoad, D. R.; Croom, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel to determine the effect of longitudinally oriented wing-mounted pods on the longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics in the cruise flight condition of a high-wing V/STOL transport model. Five pod arrangements were tested - three configurations with in-line pods at 20, 40, or 60 percent semispan and two split pod configurations with rear pods at 20 percent semispan and front pods at 40 or 60 percent semispan. In general, addition of the pods to the model decreased the stability, increased the lift-curve slope, and alleviated the abrupt stall of the basic model. The configuration with pods at 20 percent semispan had an abrupt instability at 10 deg angle of attack, All the configurations had lateral stability at sideslip angles from 5 to -5 deg. Very little difference in results existed between the configurations with pods at 40 and 60 percent semispan. Of the split pod configurations, the configuration with front pods at 40 percent semispan offered the best trimmed lift and lift-induced drag characteristics at high angles of attack. The configuration with in-line pods at 40 or 60 percent semispan provided the best cruise characteristics of all the pod configurations.

  7. Parameter Estimation of Actuators for Benchmark Active Control Technology (BACT) Wind Tunnel Model with Analysis of Wear and Aerodynamic Loading Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R.; Fung, Jimmy

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the development of transfer function models for the trailing-edge and upper and lower spoiler actuators of the Benchmark Active Control Technology (BACT) wind tunnel model for application to control system analysis and design. A simple nonlinear least-squares parameter estimation approach is applied to determine transfer function parameters from frequency response data. Unconstrained quasi-Newton minimization of weighted frequency response error was employed to estimate the transfer function parameters. An analysis of the behavior of the actuators over time to assess the effects of wear and aerodynamic load by using the transfer function models is also presented. The frequency responses indicate consistent actuator behavior throughout the wind tunnel test and only slight degradation in effectiveness due to aerodynamic hinge loading. The resulting actuator models have been used in design, analysis, and simulation of controllers for the BACT to successfully suppress flutter over a wide range of conditions.

  8. Effect of cooling-hole geometry on aerodynamic performance of a film-cooled turbine vane tested with cold air in a two-dimensional cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline, J. F.; Stabe, R. G.; Moffitt, T. P.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of the orientation and cooling-hole size on turbine-vane aerodynamic losses was evaluated. The contribution of individual vane regions to the overall effect was also investigated. Test configurations were based upon a representative configuration having 45 spanwise rows of holes spaced about the entire vane profile. Nominal hole diameters of 0.0254 and 0.0356 cm and nominal hole orientations of 35 deg, 45 deg, and 55 deg from the local vane surface and 0 deg, 45 deg, and 90 deg from the main-stream flow direction were investigated. Flow conditions and aerodynamic losses were determined by vane-exit surveys of total pressure, static pressure, and flow angle.

  9. Sequence-non-specific effects of RNA interference triggers and microRNA regulators

    PubMed Central

    Olejniczak, Marta; Galka, Paulina; Krzyzosiak, Wlodzimierz J.

    2010-01-01

    RNA reagents of diverse lengths and structures, unmodified or containing various chemical modifications are powerful tools of RNA interference and microRNA technologies. These reagents which are either delivered to cells using appropriate carriers or are expressed in cells from suitable vectors often cause unintended sequence-non-specific immune responses besides triggering intended sequence-specific silencing effects. This article reviews the present state of knowledge regarding the cellular sensors of foreign RNA, the signaling pathways these sensors mobilize and shows which specific features of the RNA reagents set the responsive systems on alert. The representative examples of toxic effects caused in the investigated cell lines and tissues by the RNAs of specific types and structures are collected and may be instructive for further studies of sequence-non-specific responses to foreign RNA in human cells. PMID:19843612

  10. Contextual interference effects on the acquisition and retention of fundamental motor skills.

    PubMed

    Wegman, E

    1999-02-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of three practice models (repetitions, random, and combined) on the acquisition and retention of fundamental motor skills. 54 girls in Grade 4 were randomly assigned to the three different practice groups who practiced three skills of ball rolling, racket striking, and ball kicking. All subjects received pretests posttests, and a 3-wk, retention test. Performance was significantly improved during practice in the three groups for the three skills. The repetitions group performed better than the other two groups at the end of practice. The contextual interference effect in retention was only shown for the racket-striking skill, in which the random group was significantly better than the repetitions and the combined groups. An attempt was made to attribute that specific result to the special characteristics of the striking skill in this study as an open skill with which subjects had a previous experience. PMID:10214642

  11. Two-color interference effect involving three-photon atomic excitation and four-wave mixing in crossed laser beams

    SciTech Connect

    Peet, V.

    2007-09-15

    Through multiphoton ionization measurements, the polarization effects in destructive quantum interference under three-photon resonant excitation have been studied. Recent observations [V. Peet, Phys. Rev. A 74, 033406 (2006)] have indicated that contrary to the well-known pattern of a total suppression of resonance excitation, the destructive interference becomes incomplete if three-photon transition is driven by crossed beams with orthogonal polarization planes. These observations have been tested for a more general case of two-color excitation and very similar polarization-dependent anomalies in the interference character have been registered. It has been shown that the destructive interference is modified and the resonance excitation does occur if two crossed laser beams have opposite circular polarizations. The pressure-induced evolution of the uncanceled ionization peaks has the ratio of blue shift to width close to 0.5 exactly as it is known for resonance ionization peaks registered under excitation by counterpropagating laser beams.

  12. Effects of Reynolds number and body corner radius on aerodynamic characteristics of a space shuttle-type vehicle at subsonic Mach numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, L. H.; Brownson, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    Static aerodynamic forces and moments were measured to study the effects of Reynolds number and body corner radius on the aerodynamic characteristics of a straight wing space shuttle orbiter at subsonic speeds. A 0.02-scale model was tested at Mach numbers from 0.3 to 0.9 and Reynolds numbers from about 600,000 to 3 million, based on body width. The body alone and the body with its wing and horizontal tail attached were tested at angles of attack from 35 to 75 degrees. The effects of rounding the body corners at the junctures connecting the bottom and sides were investigated for corner radii from 0 to 8.5 percent of the body width. At low subsonic Mach numbers (free stream Mach number approximately equal 0.3) the aerodynamic characteristics are affected significantly by changes in Reynolds number and body corner radius. With increase in Mach number to free stream Mach number = 0.9 the effect of Reynolds number seems to vanish, but a significant effect of body corner radius remains.

  13. The Effect of Blade-Section Thickness Ratio on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Related Full-Scale Propellers at Mach Numbers up to 0.65

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Julian D; Steinberg, Seymour

    1953-01-01

    The results of an investigation of two 10-foot-diameter, two-blade NACA propellers are presented for a range of blade angles from 20 degrees to 55 degrees at airspeeds up to 500 miles per hour. These results are compared with those from previous investigations of five related NACA propellers in order to evaluate the effects of blade-section thickness ratios on propeller aerodynamic characteristics.

  14. Mcam Silencing With RNA Interference Using Magnetofection has Antitumor Effect in Murine Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Prosen, Lara; Markelc, Bostjan; Dolinsek, Tanja; Music, Branka; Cemazar, Maja; Sersa, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    The melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM) is involved in melanoma development and its progression, including invasiveness, metastatic potential and angiogenesis. Therefore, MCAM represents a potential target for gene therapy of melanoma, whose expression could be hindered with posttranscriptional specific gene silencing with RNA interference technology. In this study, we constructed a plasmid DNA encoding short hairpin RNA against MCAM (pMCAM) to explore the antitumor and antiangiogenic effects. The experiments were performed in vitro on murine melanoma and endothelial cells, as well as in vivo on melanoma tumors in mice. The antiproliferative, antimigratory, antiangiogenic and antitumor effects were examined after gene therapy with pMCAM. Gene delivery was performed by magnetofection, and its efficacy compared to gene electrotransfer. Gene therapy with pMCAM has proved to be an effective approach in reducing the proliferation and migration of melanoma cells, as well as having antiangiogenic effect in endothelial cells and antitumor effect on melanoma tumors. Magnetofection as a developing nonviral gene delivery system was effective in the transfection of melanoma cells and tumors with pMCAM, but less efficient than gene electrotransfer in in vivo tumor gene therapy due to the lack of antiangiogenic effect after silencing Mcam by magnetofection. PMID:25350580

  15. Effects of different contextual interference training programs on straight sprinting and agility performance of primary school students.

    PubMed

    Yanci, Javier; Reina, Raúl; Los Arcos, Asier; Camara, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a different degree of contextual interference (CI) training program on the change of direction ability (CODA) itself and on the straight sprinting (SSP) performance (5 m and 15 m) in students in the first year of primary school. It also evaluated which CI training program was more effective. Eighty eight students (6.42 ± 0.38 yr) volunteered as participants for the present study. Participants were randomized into 5 different CI training programs (LCI: low contextual interference, MCI: moderate contextual interference, HCI: high contextual interference, VCI: variable contextual interference, and CG: control group) during a 3 week period. Significant CODA improvements (p < 0.05) in pre-post-test were found in MCI (4.39%, ES 0.41) and VCI (9.37%, ES 1. 12) groups. Furthermore, LCI, MCI and HCI groups ameliorated their SSP performance, both in 5 m (5. 92%, ES 0.81; 6.67%, ES 0.90; 8.05%, ES 1.33 respectively) and 15 m SSP (5.86%, ES 0.76; 6.47%, ES 0.80; 2.47% ES 0.41 respectively). These results suggest that training through games of tag (VCI) was the most effective in improving the CODA and training with moderate contextual interference (MCI) was the only type which induced improvements in both capacities (SSP and CODA). Key PointsWe investigated the CODA and SSP performance of students in the first year of primary school and the influence of 5 different training programs on their CODA and SSP ability.Training through games of tag (VCI) was the most effective in improving the CODATraining with moderate contextual interference (MCI) was the only one which induced improvements in both capacities (SSP and CODA). PMID:24149171

  16. Clones and other interference effects in the evolution of angular-momentum coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozmej, P.; Arvieu, R.

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the interference effects that occur during the time evolution of simple angular wave packets (WP's) which can be associated with a diatomic rigid molecule (heteronuclear) or with a quantum rigid body with axial symmetry like a molecule or a nucleus. The time evolution is understood entirely within the framework of fractional revivals discovered by Averbukh and Perelman (Phys. Lett. A 39, 449 (1989); Usp. Fiz. Nauk 161, 41 (1991) [Sov. Phys. Usp. 37, 572 (1991)]), since the energy spectrum is exactly quadratic. Our objectives are to study how these interference effects differ when there is a change of the initial WP. For this purpose we introduce a two-parameter set of angular-momentum coherent states. On the one hand, this set emerges quite naturally from the three-dimensional coherent states of the harmonic oscillator; on the other hand, this set is shown to be built from intelligent spin states. By varying one parameter (η), a scenario of interferences occurs on the sphere at fractional parts of the revival time that strongly depend on η. For η=+/-1 the WP, which coincides with a WP found by Mostowski [Phys. Lett. A 56, 369 (1976)], is a superposition of Bloch [Phys. Rev. 70, 460 (1946)] or Radcliffe [J. Phys. A 4, 313 (1971)] states, and clone exactly in time according to a scenario found for the infinite square well in one dimension, and also for a two dimensional rotor. In the context of intelligent spin states it is also natural to study the evolution by changing η. For η=0 the WP is called linear, and in time produces a set of rings with axial symmetry over the sphere. The WP's for other values of η are called elliptic, and sets of fractional waves are generated which make a transition between two symmetries. We call these fractional waves ``mutants.'' For specific times a clone is produced that stands among the mutants. Therefore the change in η produces a change in the quantum spread on the sphere. We have also

  17. Pulsed radio frequency interference effects on data communications via satellite transponder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, A.; Hong, Y.

    1979-01-01

    Power-limited communication links may be susceptible to significant degradation if intentional or unintentional pulsed high level radio frequency interference (RFI) is present. Pulsed RFI is, in fact, of current interest to NASA in studies relating to its Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The present paper examines the impact of pulsed RFI on the error probability performance of a power-limited satellite communication link: the assumed modulation scheme is PN coded binary PSK. The composite effects of thermal noise, pulsed CW and pulsed Gaussian noise are analyzed, where RFI arrivals are assumed to follow Poisson statistics. Under the assumption that the satellite repeater is ideal and that integrate and dump filtering is employed at the ground receiver, an exact error probability expression and associated approximations are derived. Computed results are generated using an arbitrarily specified RFI model.

  18. Highly accurate spectral retardance characterization of a liquid crystal retarder including Fabry-Perot interference effects

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Asticio; Mar Sánchez-López, María del; García-Martínez, Pascuala; Arias, Julia; Moreno, Ignacio

    2014-01-21

    Multiple-beam Fabry-Perot (FP) interferences occur in liquid crystal retarders (LCR) devoid of an antireflective coating. In this work, a highly accurate method to obtain the spectral retardance of such devices is presented. On the basis of a simple model of the LCR that includes FP effects and by using a voltage transfer function, we show how the FP features in the transmission spectrum can be used to accurately retrieve the ordinary and extraordinary spectral phase delays, and the voltage dependence of the latter. As a consequence, the modulation characteristics of the device are fully determined with high accuracy by means of a few off-state physical parameters which are wavelength-dependent, and a single voltage transfer function that is valid within the spectral range of characterization.

  19. Quantum interference effect in electron tunneling through a quantum-dot-ring spin valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jing-Min; Zhao, Jia; Zhang, Kai-Cheng; Peng, Ya-Jing; Chi, Feng

    2011-12-01

    Spin-dependent transport through a quantum-dot (QD) ring coupled to ferromagnetic leads with noncollinear magnetizations is studied theoretically. Tunneling current, current spin polarization and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) as functions of the bias voltage and the direct coupling strength between the two leads are analyzed by the nonequilibrium Green's function technique. It is shown that the magnitudes of these quantities are sensitive to the relative angle between the leads' magnetic moments and the quantum interference effect originated from the inter-lead coupling. We pay particular attention on the Coulomb blockade regime and find the relative current magnitudes of different magnetization angles can be reversed by tuning the inter-lead coupling strength, resulting in sign change of the TMR. For large enough inter-lead coupling strength, the current spin polarizations for parallel and antiparallel magnetic configurations will approach to unit and zero, respectively. PACS numbers:

  20. Spatial interference between gaze direction and gaze location: a study on the eye contact effect.

    PubMed

    Cañadas, Elena; Lupiáñez, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Perceived gaze in faces is an important social cue that influences spatial orienting of attention. In three experiments, we examined whether the social relevance of gaze direction modulated spatial interference in response selection, using three different stimuli: faces, isolated eyes, and symbolic eyes (Experiments 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Each experiment employed a variant of the spatial Stroop paradigm in which face location and gaze direction were put into conflict. Results showed a reverse congruency effect between face location to the right or left of fixation and gaze direction only for stimuli with a social meaning to participants (Experiments 1 and 2). The opposite was observed for the nonsocial stimuli used in Experiment 3. Results are explained as facilitation in response to eye contact. PMID:22530703

  1. Interference effects on the hypersonic, rarefied flow about a flat plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilmoth, Richard G.

    1988-01-01

    The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method is used to study the hypersonic, rarified flow interference effects on a flat plate caused by nearby surfaces. Calculations focus on shock-boundary-layer and shock-lip interactions in hypersonic inlets. Results are presented for geometries consisting of a flat plate with different leading-edge shapes over a flat lower wall and a blunt-edge flat plate over a 5-degree wedge. The problems simulated correspond to a typical entry flight condition of 7.5 km/s at altitudes of 75 to 90 km. The results show increases in predicted local heating rates for shock-boundary-layer and shock-lip interactions that are quantitatively similar to those observed experimentally at much higher densities.

  2. Quantum Interference Effects in Molecular Y- and Rhomb-Type Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xia, Hui-Rong; Ye, Cen-Yun; Xu, Jian-We; Ding, Liang-En

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we report the first observation of molecular population trapping in four level systems. Constructive and destructive quantum interferences between two sum-frequncy two-photon transitions in Y- and rhomb-type four-level systems, respectively, im sodium molecules have been experimentally achieved by using only one laser source. Their energy level schemes are featured by the extremely near-resonant enhancement of the equal-frequency two-photon transitions, sharing both the initial and the intermediate levels for the Y-type, and sharing both the initial and the final levels for the rhomb-type systems. Their novel spectral effects are to show seriously restrained Doppler-free UV peak at the nominal location of the induced two-photon transition with visible fluorescence in rhomb-type schems, and to show a strong extra UV peak but null visible fluorescence in the middle between the two dipole allowed two-photon transitions.

  3. Effect of sweep and aspect ratio on the longitudinal aerodynamics of a spanloader wing in and out of ground effect. [wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kjelgaard, S. O.; Paulson, J. W., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted in the Langley 4 by 7 meter tunnel to determine the effects of leading edge sweep, aspect ratio, flap deflection, and elevon deflection on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a span distributed load advanced cargo aircraft (spanloader). Model configurations consisted of leading edge sweeps of 0, 15, 30 and 45 deg and aspect ratios of approximately 2, 4, 6, and 8. Data were obtained for angles of attack of -8 to 18 deg out of ground effect and at angles of attack of -2, 0, and 2 deg in ground effect at Mach number equal 0.14. Flap and elevon deflections ranged from -20 to 20 deg. The data are represented in tabulated form.

  4. Long-term effect of systemic RNA interference on circadian clock genes in hemimetabolous insects.

    PubMed

    Uryu, Outa; Kamae, Yuichi; Tomioka, Kenji; Yoshii, Taishi

    2013-04-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) strategy, which enables gene-specific knock-down of transcripts, has been spread across a wide area of insect studies for investigating gene function without regard to model and non-model insects. This technique is of particular benefit to promote molecular studies on non-model insects. However, the optimal conditions for RNAi are still not well understood because of its variable efficiency depending on the species, target genes, and experimental conditions. To apply RNAi technique to long-running experiments such as chronobiological studies, the effects of RNAi have to persist throughout the experiment. In this study, we attempted to determine the optimal concentration of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) for systemic RNAi and its effective period in two different insect species, the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus and the firebrat Thermobia domestica. In both species, higher concentrations of dsRNA principally yielded a more efficient knock-down of mRNA levels of tested clock genes, although the effect depended on the gene and the species. Surprisingly, the effect of the RNAi reached its maximum effect 1-2 weeks and 1 month after the injection of dsRNA in the crickets and the firebrats, respectively, suggesting a slow but long-term effect of RNAi. Our study provides fundamental information for utilizing RNAi technique in any long-running experiment. PMID:23458340

  5. [Compensation effects of regulated deficit irrigation and tillering interference to winter wheat].

    PubMed

    Yin, Min-hua; Li, Yuan-nong; Zhou, Chang-ming; Gu, Xiao-bo; Zhang, Tian-le; Yang, Dan; Wu, Guo-jun

    2015-10-01

    Pot experiments were carried out to explore the approach of optimizing crop group performance through restriction of individual growth redundancy and increasing crop yield potential. Two winter wheat varieties of 'Xiaoyan-22' (with moderate tillering ability) and 'Zhengmai-7698' (with strong tillering ability) were chosen to investigate the effects of two irrigation schedules (full irrigation and regulated deficit irrigation) and three kinds of tillering interference (only retaining the main stem and the biggest tiller at jointing stage; removing all nonbearing tillers at heading stage; and without any interference as the control treatment). Thus, we simulated the compensation effects of different water supplies and unpredictable disturbances on the physiology, growth, yield, and water use efficiency of winter wheat. The results showed that there existed growth redundancy for both varieties. Compared with 'Xiaoyan-22', 'Zhengmai-7698' had relatively higher tillering number but weak panicle traits. Regulated deficit irrigation and removing all nonbearing tillers at heading stage could reduce growth redundancy, weaken competitive ability, change source-sink relations, and optimize resources allocation. However, excessive elimination of redundancy (e.g. only retaining the main stem and the biggest tiller at jointing stage) could destroy the inherent root-shoot balance and functional structure of plant and lead to inadequate compensation. In contrast to the control treatment (full irrigation and without any disturbance), the combination of regulated deficit irrigation and removing all nonbearing tillers at heading stage could help crops sufficiently exploit and utilize their own regulation potentials at spatial and temporal scales and finally realize compensation growth. The combination above could increase the water use efficiency by 20.4% - 25.4% without remarkable impact on grain yield, and hence, could be suitable for wheat growth redundancy reduction. PMID

  6. New technology in turbine aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, A. J.; Moffitt, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    A cursory review is presented of some of the recent work that has been done in turbine aerodynamic research at NASA-Lewis Research Center. Topics discussed include the aerodynamic effect of turbine coolant, high work-factor (ratio of stage work to square of blade speed) turbines, and computer methods for turbine design and performance prediction. An extensive bibliography is included. Experimental cooled-turbine aerodynamics programs using two-dimensional cascades, full annular cascades, and cold rotating turbine stage tests are discussed with some typical results presented. Analytically predicted results for cooled blade performance are compared to experimental results. The problems and some of the current programs associated with the use of very high work factors for fan-drive turbines of high-bypass-ratio engines are discussed. Turbines currently being investigated make use of advanced blading concepts designed to maintain high efficiency under conditions of high aerodynamic loading. Computer programs have been developed for turbine design-point performance, off-design performance, supersonic blade profile design, and the calculation of channel velocities for subsonic and transonic flow fields. The use of these programs for the design and analysis of axial and radial turbines is discussed.

  7. Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    An overview of historical and current numerical aerodynamic simulation (NAS) is given. The capabilities and goals of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility are outlined. Emphasis is given to numerical flow visualization and its applications to structural analysis of aircraft and spacecraft bodies. The uses of NAS in computational chemistry, engine design, and galactic evolution are mentioned.

  8. Uncertainty in Computational Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckring, J. M.; Hemsch, M. J.; Morrison, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    An approach is presented to treat computational aerodynamics as a process, subject to the fundamental quality assurance principles of process control and process improvement. We consider several aspects affecting uncertainty for the computational aerodynamic process and present a set of stages to determine the level of management required to meet risk assumptions desired by the customer of the predictions.

  9. Studies of light-twin wing-body interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, W. G.; Wentz, W. H., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The results of an analytical study of aerodynamic interference effects for a light twin aircraft are presented. The data presented concentrates on the influence of a wing on a body (the fuselage). Wind tunnel comparisons of three fillets are included, with corresponding computational analysis. Results indicate that potential flow analysis is useful to guide the design of intersection fairings, but experimental tuning is still required. While the study specifically addresses a light twin aircraft, the methods are applicable to a wide variety of aircraft.

  10. Direct measurements of controlled aerodynamic forces on a wire-suspended axisymmetric body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramson, Philip; Vukasinovic, Bojan; Glezer, Ari

    2011-06-01

    A novel in-line miniature force transducer is developed for direct measurements of the net aerodynamic forces and moments on a bluff body. The force transducers are integrated into each of the eight mounting wires that are utilized for suspension of an axisymmetric model in a wind tunnel having minimal wake interference. The aerodynamic forces and moments on the model are altered by induced active local attachment of the separated base flow. Fluidic control is effected by an array of four integrated aft-facing synthetic jet actuators that emanate from narrow, azimuthally segmented slots, equally distributed around the perimeter of the circular tail end. The jet orifices are embedded within a small backward-facing step that extends into a Coanda surface. The altered flow dynamics associated with both quasi-steady and transitory asymmetric activation of the flow control effect is characterized by direct force and PIV measurements.

  11. Effects of RNA interference-mediated NRP-1 silencing on the proliferation and apoptosis of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhengxiang; Jiang, Guan; Zhang, Yingying; Xu, Jie; Chen, Chong; Zhang, Lansheng; Xu, Zhenyuan; Du, Xiuping

    2015-07-01

    Lentiviral expression vectors carrying human NRP-1 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) were constructed and selected to present highly efficient NRP-1/shRNA interference sequences, in order to investigate the effects of RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated NRP-1 silencing on the biological activities of breast cancer cells. Three pairs of human NRP-1 targeted specific interference sequences and one pair of non-specific control sequences were designed, synthesized and subcloned into pLB lentiviral vectors, which were further identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Recombinant and lentiviral packaging plasmids were co-transfected into 293FT cell lines in order to produce lentiviral particles and to infect breast cancer cells with high NRP-1 expression. Flow cytometry was used to sort green fluorescent protein-positive cells. Fluorescence quantitative-reverse transcription-PCR and western blot analysis were employed to identify the interference silencing sequence with the most efficient silencing profile. A cell counting kit-8 assay and an Annexin V-propidium iodide method in combination with flow cytometry were used to examine the effects of RNA interference-mediated NRP-1 gene silencing on cell proliferation, apoptosis and sensitivity to chemotherapy. The recombinant lentiviral plasmid pLB-NRP-1/shRNA was constructed successfully, as confirmed by PCR and sequencing. After the infection of recombinant lentiviral plasmids, the expression profiles of NRP-1 mRNA, and proteins of MCF-7 and SK-BR-3 cell-specific interference group (pLB-NRP-1/shRNA3) were significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the MCF-7 and SK-BR-3 cell-specific interference group (pLB-NRP-1/shRNA3) showed lower optical density values and higher apoptotic rates at 48, 72 and 96 h; these differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). EPI administration resulted in increased apoptosis in the MCF-7 and SK-BR-3 cell-specific interference

  12. Interference effects for Higgs boson mediated Z-pair plus jet production

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, John M.; Ellis, R. Keith; Furlan, Elisabetta; Rontsch, Raoul

    2014-11-25

    Here, we study interference effects in the production channel ZZ + jet, in particular focusing on the role of the Higgs boson. This production channel receives contributions both from Higgs boson mediated diagrams via the decay H → ZZ (signal diagrams), as well as from diagrams where the Z bosons couple directly to a quark loop (background diagrams). We consider the partonic processes gggZZ and gq$\\bar{q}$ZZ in which interference between signal and background diagrams first occurs. Since interference is primarily an off-resonant effect for the Higgs boson, we treat the Z bosons as on shell. Thus our analysis is limited to the region above threshold, where the invariant mass of the Z-pair mZZ satisfies the condition mZZ>2mZ. In the region mZZ > 300 GeV we find that the interference in the ZZ + jet channel is qualitatively similar to interference in the inclusive ZZ channel. Moreover, the rates are sufficient to study these effects at the LHC once jet-binned data become available.

  13. Investigating the Contextual Interference Effect Using Combination Sports Skills in Open and Closed Skill Environments

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Jadeera P.G.; Lay, Brendan; Razman, Rizal

    2016-01-01

    This study attempted to present conditions that were closer to the real-world setting of team sports. The primary purpose was to examine the effects of blocked, random and game-based training practice schedules on the learning of the field hockey trap, close dribble and push pass that were practiced in combination. The secondary purpose was to investigate the effects of predictability of the environment on the learning of field hockey sport skills according to different practice schedules. A game-based training protocol represented a form of random practice in an unstable environment and was compared against a blocked and a traditional random practice schedule. In general, all groups improved dribble and push accuracy performance during the acquisition phase when assessed in a closed environment. In the retention phase, there were no differences between the three groups. When assessed in an open skills environment, all groups improved their percentage of successful executions for trapping and passing execution, and improved total number of attempts and total number of successful executions for both dribbling and shooting execution. Between-group differences were detected for dribbling execution with the game-based group scoring a higher number of dribbling successes. The CI effect did not emerge when practicing and assessing multiple sport skills in a closed skill environment, even when the skills were practiced in combination. However, when skill assessment was conducted in a real-world situation, there appeared to be some support for the CI effect. Key points The contextual interference effect was not supported when practicing several skills in combination when the sports skills were assessed in a closed skill environment. There appeared to be some support for the contextual interference effect when sports skills were assessed in an open skill environment, which were similar to a real game situation. A game-based training schedule can be used as an alternative

  14. Investigating the Contextual Interference Effect Using Combination Sports Skills in Open and Closed Skill Environments.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Jadeera P G; Lay, Brendan; Razman, Rizal

    2016-03-01

    This study attempted to present conditions that were closer to the real-world setting of team sports. The primary purpose was to examine the effects of blocked, random and game-based training practice schedules on the learning of the field hockey trap, close dribble and push pass that were practiced in combination. The secondary purpose was to investigate the effects of predictability of the environment on the learning of field hockey sport skills according to different practice schedules. A game-based training protocol represented a form of random practice in an unstable environment and was compared against a blocked and a traditional random practice schedule. In general, all groups improved dribble and push accuracy performance during the acquisition phase when assessed in a closed environment. In the retention phase, there were no differences between the three groups. When assessed in an open skills environment, all groups improved their percentage of successful executions for trapping and passing execution, and improved total number of attempts and total number of successful executions for both dribbling and shooting execution. Between-group differences were detected for dribbling execution with the game-based group scoring a higher number of dribbling successes. The CI effect did not emerge when practicing and assessing multiple sport skills in a closed skill environment, even when the skills were practiced in combination. However, when skill assessment was conducted in a real-world situation, there appeared to be some support for the CI effect. Key pointsThe contextual interference effect was not supported when practicing several skills in combination when the sports skills were assessed in a closed skill environment.There appeared to be some support for the contextual interference effect when sports skills were assessed in an open skill environment, which were similar to a real game situation.A game-based training schedule can be used as an alternative

  15. The present status and the future of missile aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, Jack N.

    1988-01-01

    Some recent developments in the state of the art in missile aerodynamics are reviewed. Among the subjects covered are: (1) tri-service/NASA data base, (2) wing-body interference, (3) nonlinear controls, (4) hypersonic transition, (5) vortex interference, (6) airbreathers, supersonic inlets, (7) store separation problems, (8) correlation of missile data, (9) CFD codes for complete configurations, (10) engineering prediction methods, and (11) future configurations. Suggestions are made for future research and development to advance the state of the art of missile aerodynamics.

  16. The present status and the future of missile aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, Jack N.

    1989-01-01

    Recent developments in the state of the art in missile aerodynamics are reviewed. Among the subjects covered are: (1) Tri-service/NASA data base, (2) wing-body interference, (3) nonlinear controls, (4) hypersonic transition, (5) vortex interference, (6) airbreathers, supersonic inlets, (7) store separation problems, (8) correlation of missile data, (9) CFD codes for complete configurations, (10) engineering prediction methods, and (11) future configurations. Suggestions are made for future research and development to advance the state of the art of missile aerodynamics.

  17. The benefit of binaural hearing in a cocktail party: Effect of location and type of interferer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, Monica L.; Litovsky, Ruth Y.; Culling, John F.

    2004-02-01

    The ``cocktail party problem'' was studied using virtual stimuli whose spatial locations were generated using anechoic head-related impulse responses from the AUDIS database [Blauert et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 3082 (1998)]. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were measured for Harvard IEEE sentences presented from the front in the presence of one, two, or three interfering sources. Four types of interferer were used: (1) other sentences spoken by the same talker, (2) time-reversed sentences of the same talker, (3) speech-spectrum shaped noise, and (4) speech-spectrum shaped noise, modulated by the temporal envelope of the sentences. Each interferer was matched to the spectrum of the target talker. Interferers were placed in several spatial configurations, either coincident with or separated from the target. Binaural advantage was derived by subtracting SRTs from listening with the ``better monaural ear'' from those for binaural listening. For a single interferer, there was a binaural advantage of 2-4 dB for all interferer types. For two or three interferers, the advantage was 2-4 dB for noise and speech-modulated noise, and 6-7 dB for speech and time-reversed speech. These data suggest that the benefit of binaural hearing for speech intelligibility is especially pronounced when there are multiple voiced interferers at different locations from the target, regardless of spatial configuration; measurements with fewer or with other types of interferers can underestimate this benefit.

  18. The Effect of Colour-Word Interference on Children's Memory for Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malliet, Gineva M.

    The Stroop color-word test involves a conflict situation in which subjects are asked to say aloud the ink color used to print a color word on a card. Interference occurs when the ink color is in conflict with the color word, such as 'red' printed in green ink. On the other hand, little interference occurs when asked to name the color words…

  19. Interference Effects on the Recall of Pictures, Printed Words, and Spoken Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, John K.; Bruning, Roger H.

    1982-01-01

    Nouns were presented in triads as pictures, printed words, or spoken words and followed by various types of interference. Measures of short- and long-term memory were obtained. In short-term memory, pictorial superiority occurred with acoustic, and visual and acoustic, but not visual interference. Long-term memory showed superior recall for…

  20. Interference Effects as a Function of Semantic Similarity in the Translation Recognition Task in Bilinguals of Catalan and Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moldovan, Cornelia D.; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa; Demestre, Josep; Ferre, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Previous evidence has shown that word pairs that are either related in form (e.g., "ruc-berro"; donkey-watercress) or very closely semantically related (e.g., "ruc-caballo", donkey-horse) produce interference effects in a translation recognition task (Ferre et al., 2006; Guasch et al., 2008). However, these effects are not observed when the words…

  1. Effects of leading and trailing edge flaps on the aerodynamics of airfoil/vortex interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, Ahmed A.; Sankar, L. N.; Tadghighi, H.

    1994-01-01

    A numerical procedure has been developed for predicting the two-dimensional parallel interaction between a free convecting vortex and a NACA 0012 airfoil having leading and trailing edge integral-type flaps. Special emphasis is placed on the unsteady flap motion effects which result in alleviating the interaction at subcritical and supercritical onset flows. The numerical procedure described here is based on the implicit finite-difference solutions to the unsteady two-dimensional full potential equation. Vortex-induced effects are computed using the Biot-Savart Law with allowance for a finite core radius. The vortex-induced velocities at the surface of the airfoil are incorporated into the potential flow model via the use of the velocity transpiration approach. Flap motion effects are also modeled using the transpiration approach. For subcritical interactions, our results indicate that trailing edge flaps can be used to alleviate the impulsive loads experienced by the airfoil. For supercritical interactions, our results demonstrate the necessity of using a leading edge flap, rather than a trailing edge flap, to alleviate the interaction. Results for various time-dependent flap motions and their effect on the predicted temporal sectional loads, differential pressures, and the free vortex trajectories are presented

  2. Parasitic effects in superconducting quantum interference device-based radiation comb generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosisio, R.; Giazotto, F.; Solinas, P.

    2015-12-01

    We study several parasitic effects on the implementation of a Josephson radiation comb generator based on a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) driven by an external magnetic field. This system can be used as a radiation generator similarly to what is done in optics and metrology, and allows one to generate up to several hundreds of harmonics of the driving frequency. First we take into account how the assumption of a finite loop geometrical inductance and junction capacitance in each SQUID may alter the operation of the devices. Then, we estimate the effect of imperfections in the fabrication of an array of SQUIDs, which is an unavoidable source of errors in practical situations. We show that the role of the junction capacitance is, in general, negligible, whereas the geometrical inductance has a beneficial effect on the performance of the device. The errors on the areas and junction resistance asymmetries may deteriorate the performance, but their effect can be limited to a large extent by a suitable choice of fabrication parameters.

  3. The contextual interference effect for skill variations from the same and different generalized motor programs.

    PubMed

    Sekiya, H; Magill, R A; Sidaway, B; Anderson, D I

    1994-12-01

    Magill and Hall (1990) hypothesized that the contextual interference (CI) effect is found only when task variations to be learned are governed by different generalized motor programs (GMPs). The present experiments examined their hypothesis by requiring subjects to learn variations of a tapping task that had either different (Experiment 1) or the same (Experiment 2) relative timing structure. In each experiment, subjects (N = 36) performed 270 acquisition trials with knowledge of results (KR) in either a blocked or a serial order. One day later, subjects performed 30 retention trials without KR. In data analyses, errors due to parameter modifications were dissociated from errors due to GMP construction to examine which process was responsible for the CI effect. In both experiments, parameter learning created a CI effect while GMP learning failed to produce a CI effect. In the light of these findings, a modification is proposed to the Magill and Hall (1990) hypothesis that takes into account these distinct processes in motor learning. PMID:7886282

  4. Prior stress interferes with the anxiolytic effect of exercise in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Hare, Brendan D; D'Onfro, Katherine C; Hammack, Sayamwong E; Falls, William A

    2012-12-01

    Recent reports demonstrate that the beneficial effects of voluntary exercise may be sensitive to stress prior to and during the wheel access period. Here, a variate stress procedure is used with socially isolated mice for 7 days prior to the introduction of running wheels to assess the impact of prior and concurrent stress on the anxiolytic effect of exercise. Following stress exposure, functioning or nonfunctioning running wheels were introduced into stressed and unstressed group-housed control cages. Following 3 weeks of wheel access, the anxiolytic effect of exercise was assessed using acoustic startle, stress-induced hyperthermia, and a challenge with the anxiogenic drug metachlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP). Variate stress was demonstrated to interfere with normal weight gain. Further, exercise was not anxiolytic in stressed mice. Consistent with previous reports unstressed exercising mice demonstrated reduced acoustic startle, attenuated stress induced hyperthermia, and a blunted increase in startle following mCPP administration when compared with unstressed sedentary controls. Stressed exercising mice were indistinguishable from stressed sedentary and unstressed sedentary controls on each anxiety measure. Although running distance varied between individual mice, the distance run did not predict the level of anxiety on any measure. These findings suggest that prior and ongoing stress delays or prevents the anxiolytic effect of exercise without affecting exercise itself. PMID:23181384

  5. Parasitic effects in superconducting quantum interference device-based radiation comb generators

    SciTech Connect

    Bosisio, R.; Giazotto, F.; Solinas, P.

    2015-12-07

    We study several parasitic effects on the implementation of a Josephson radiation comb generator based on a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) driven by an external magnetic field. This system can be used as a radiation generator similarly to what is done in optics and metrology, and allows one to generate up to several hundreds of harmonics of the driving frequency. First we take into account how the assumption of a finite loop geometrical inductance and junction capacitance in each SQUID may alter the operation of the devices. Then, we estimate the effect of imperfections in the fabrication of an array of SQUIDs, which is an unavoidable source of errors in practical situations. We show that the role of the junction capacitance is, in general, negligible, whereas the geometrical inductance has a beneficial effect on the performance of the device. The errors on the areas and junction resistance asymmetries may deteriorate the performance, but their effect can be limited to a large extent by a suitable choice of fabrication parameters.

  6. Assessing the Effects of Momentary Priming on Memory Retention During an Interference Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, Paul C.

    2007-01-01

    A memory aid, that used brief (33ms) presentations of previously learned information (target words), was assessed on its ability to reinforce memory for target words while the subject was performing an interference task. The interference task required subjects to learn new words and thus interfered with their memory of the target words. The brief presentation (momentary memory priming) was hypothesized to refresh the subjects memory of the target words. 143 subjects, in a within subject design, were given a 33ms presentation of the target memory words during the interference task in a treatment condition and a blank 33ms presentation in the control condition. The primary dependent measure, memory loss over the interference trial, was not significantly different between the two conditions. The memory prime did not appear to hinder the subjects performance on the interference task. This paper describes the experiment and the results along with suggestions for future research.

  7. Numerical calculation of boundary-induced interference in slotted or perforated wind tunnels including viscous effects in slots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    A numerical method is presented for calculating the incompressible boundary-induced interference in wind tunnels of rectangular cross section with slotted or perforated walls. The method includes a wall representation which is capable of satisfying a generalized homogeneous boundary condition including the effects of viscosity within the slots. The effects of viscosity in the slots are found to be very significant. The method allows for a variation in the boundary conditions along the tunnel walls. The model can be any configuration and can be located anywhere in the test section. The interference can be computed at any point in the test section.

  8. Experimental investigation of the aerodynamic effects of distributed spanwise blowing on a fighter configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, J. K.; Hahne, D. E.; Johnson, T. D., Jr.

    1948-01-01

    The results of wind tunnel tests at NASA Langley targeted at the performance and configurational characteristics of 0.1 and 0.13 scale model spanwise blowing (SWB) jet wing concepts are reported. The concept involves redirection of engine compressor bleed air to provide SWB at the fuselage-wing juncture near the wing leading edge. The tests covered the orientation of the outer panel nozzles, the effects of SWB operation on the performance of leading and trailing edge flaps and the effects of SWB on lateral stability. The trials were run at low speeds and angles of attack from 24-45 deg (landing). Both lift and longitudinal stability improved with the SWB, stall and leading edge vortex breakdown were delayed and performance increased with the SWB rate. Lateral stability was degraded below 20 deg angle of attack while instabilities were delayed above 20 deg due to roll damping.

  9. The effects of cactus inspired spines on the aerodynamics of a cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Benjamin; Liu, Yingzheng

    2013-05-01

    The effect of cactus-like spines on the topology and the dynamics of the flow past a stationary or pivoted cylinder are experimentally studied. The experiments are performed either in a water channel or a wind tunnel at low to moderate Reynolds number (390-12 500). The instantaneous velocity field is recorded using TR-PIV and investigated for three different configurations: no spines, short spines (0.1D) and long spines (0.2D). The results show how the spines are able to slow the flow past the cylinder and then increase the recirculation area by up to 128% while the maximum fluctuating kinetic energy intensity is decreased by up to 35%. Moreover, the spines have a significant effect on the vortex shedding and the dynamic pressure at the surface of the cylinder, thus significantly reducing both the amplitude and the frequency at which a pivoted cylinder oscillates.

  10. Aerodynamic heating on 3-D bodies including the effects of entropy-layer swallowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejarnette, F. R.; Hamilton, H. H.

    1974-01-01

    A relatively simple method was developed previously (authors, 1973) for calculating laminar, transitional, and turbulent heating rates on three-dimensional bodies in hypersonic flows. This method was shown to yield reasonably accurate results for laminar heating on blunted circular and elliptical cones and an earlier version of the space shuttle vehicle. As the boundary layer along the surface grows, more and more of the inviscid-flow mass is entrained into the boundary layer, and the streamlines which passed through the nearly normal portion of the bow shock wave are 'swallowed' by the boundary layer. This phenomenon is often referred to as entropy-layer or streamline swallowing, and it can have a significant effect on the calculated heating rates. An approximate, yet simple, method for including the effects of entropy-layer swallowing in the heating-rate calculations is given.

  11. Effect of afterbody geometry on aerodynamic characteristics of isolated nonaxisymmetric afterbodies at transonic Mach numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangert, Linda S.; Carson, George T., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A parametric study was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel on an isolated nonaxisymmetic fuselage model that simulates a twin-engine fighter. The effects of aft-end closure distribution (top/bottom) nozzle-flap boattail angle versus nozzle-sidewall boattail angle) and afterbody and nozzle corner treatment (sharp or radius) were investigated. Four different closure distributions with three different corner radii were tested. Tests were conducted over a range of Mach numbers from 0.40 to 1.25 and over a range of angles of attack from -3 to 9 degrees. Solid plume simulators were used to simulate the jet exhaust. For a given closure distribution in the range of Mach numbers tested, the sharp-corner nozzles generally had the highest drag, and the 2-in. corner-radius nozzles generally had the lowest drag. The effect of closure distribution on afterbody drag was highly dependent on configuration and flight condition.

  12. Effects of stores on longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a fighter at supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollyhigh, S. M.; Sangiorgio, G.; Monta, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental investigations of single and twin stores representative of advanced, elliptical cross section missile concepts were made at Mach numbers from 1.60 to 2.16 to substantiate theoretically predicted results. The stores were mounted on the fuselage of a model representing a fighter configuration. Store base closure effects in the carriage condition were also obtained through tests with and without base closure fairings.

  13. High Reynolds number and turbulence effects on aerodynamics and heat transfer in a turbine cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Frederick C.; Hippensteele, Steven A.; Vanfossen, G. James; Poinsatte, Philip E.; Ameri, Ali

    1993-01-01

    Experimental data on pressure distribution and heat transfer on a turbine airfoil were obtained over a range of Reynolds numbers from 0.75 to 7.5 x 10 exp 6 and a range of turbulence intensities from 1.8 to about 15 percent. The purpose of this study was to obtain fundamental heat transfer and pressure distribution data over a wide range of high Reynolds numbers and to extend the heat transfer data base to include the range of Reynolds numbers encountered in the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) turbopump turbines. Specifically, the study aimed to determine (1) the effect of Reynolds number on heat transfer, (2) the effect of upstream turbulence on heat transfer and pressure distribution, and (3) the relationship between heat transfer at high Reynolds numbers and the current data base. The results of this study indicated that Reynolds number and turbulence intensity have a large effect on both the transition from laminar to turbulent flow and the resulting heat transfer. For a given turbulence intensity, heat transfer for all Reynolds numbers at the leading edge can be correlated with the Frossling number developed for lower Reynolds numbers. For a given turbulence intensity, heat transfer for the airfoil surfaces downstream of the leading edge can be approximately correlated with a dimensionless parameter. Comparison of the experimental results were also made with a numerical solution from a two-dimensional Navier-Stokes code.

  14. Flight effects on the aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics of inverted profile coannular nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlowski, H.; Packman, A. B.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of forward flight on the jet noise of coannular exhaust nozzles, suitable for Variable Stream Control Engines (VSCE), was investigated in a series of wind tunnel tests. The primary stream properties were maintained constant at 300 mps and 394 K. A total of 230 acoustic data points was obtained. Force measurement tests using an unheated air supply covered the same range of tunnel speeds and nozzle pressure ratios on each of the nozzle configurations. A total of 80 points was taken. The coannular nozzle OASPL and PNL noise reductions observed statically relative to synthesized values were basically retained under simulated flight conditions. The effect of fan to primary stream area ratio on flight effects was minor. At take-off speed, the peak jet noise for a VSCE was estimated to be over 6 PNdB lower than the static noise level. High static thrust coefficients were obtained for the basic coannular nozzles, with a decay of 0.75 percent at take-off speeds.

  15. The detrimental effect of interference in multiplication facts storing: typical development and individual differences.

    PubMed

    De Visscher, Alice; Noël, Marie-Pascale

    2014-12-01

    The difficulty in memorizing arithmetic facts is a general and persistent hallmark of math learning disabilities. It has recently been suggested that hypersensitivity to interference could prevent a person from storing arithmetic facts. The similarity between arithmetic facts would provoke interference, and learners who are hypersensitive to interference would therefore encounter difficulties in storing arithmetic facts in long-term memory. In this study, we created a measure of the interference weight for each multiplication by measuring the overlap of digits between multiplications. First, we tested whether the interference parameter could predict performance across multiplications by analyzing the data from undergraduates published by Campbell (1997). The interference parameter substantially predicted performance across multiplications. Similarly, the performance across multiplications was substantially determined by the interference parameter in 3rd-grade children, 5th-grade children, and undergraduates we tested. Second, we tested whether people with poor arithmetic facts abilities were particularly sensitive to the interference parameter. We tested this hypothesis in typical development by analyzing the data from the 3rd-grade children, 5th-grade children, and undergraduates. We analyzed data with regard to atypical development from a published case study of dyscalculia as well as from 4th-grade children, with either poor or good multiplication skills, tested twice 1 year apart. Results showed that the individual sensitivity to the interference parameter determined part of the individual differences in multiplication performance in all data sets. These findings show that the learning of multiplications is particularly interference prone because of feature overlap and that people who are sensitive to this parameter therefore encounter difficulties in memorizing arithmetic facts. PMID:25347536

  16. Effects of spanwise nozzle geometry and location on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a vectored-engine-over-wing configuration at subsonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leavitt, L. D.; Yip, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    A V/STOL tunnel study was performed to determine the effects of spanwise blowing on longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a model using a vectored-over-wing powered lift concept. The effects of spanwise nozzle throat area, internal and external nozzle geometry, and vertical and axial location were investigated. These effects were studied at a Mach number of 0.186 over an angle-of-attack range from 14 deg to 40 deg. A high pressure air system was used to provide jet-exhaust simulation. Engine nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 1.0 (jet off) to approximately 3.75.

  17. Two-center interference effects in (e, 2e) ionization of H2 and CO2 at large momentum transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Masakazu; Nakajima, Isao; Satoh, Hironori; Watanabe, Noboru; Jones, Darryl; Takahashi, Masahiko

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in understanding quantum mechanical interference effects in molecular ionization. Since this interference appears as a consequence of coherent electron emission from the different molecular centers, it should depend strongly on the nature of the ionized molecular orbital. Such molecular orbital patterns can be investigated by means of binary (e, 2e) spectroscopy, which is a kinematically-complete electron-impact ionization experiment performed under the high-energy Bethe ridge conditions. In this study, two-center interference effects in the (e, 2e) cross sections of H2 and CO2 at large momentum transfer are demonstrated with a high-statistics experiment, in order to elucidate the relationship between molecular orbital patterns and the interference structure. It is shown that the two-center interference is highly sensitive to the phase, spatial pattern, symmetry of constituent atomic orbital, and chemical bonding nature of the molecular orbital. This work was partially supported by Grant-in-Aids for Scientific Research (S) (No. 20225001) and for Young Scientists (B) (No. 21750005) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.

  18. Effects of surface roughness on the aerodynamic characteristics of the Space Shuttle Orbiter configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ware, G. M.; Spencer, B., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted to determine the effects of surface roughness on two Space Shuttle Orbiter models. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.2 to 6.0 in the Langley Low Turbulance Pressure Tunnel, 8-foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel, Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel, 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel, and the Vought High Speed Tunnel. Analytical estimates of the degradation of the subsonic performance resulting from the roughness were made and are presented. The investigation also included tests to explore the possibility of asymmetric flow separation or attachment over the wings during transition from high to low angles of attack that might cause roll divergence.

  19. The effect of solar forcing induced atmospheric perturbations on LEO satellites' nominal aerodynamic drag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwankwo, Victor U. J.; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Weigel, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric drag is the strongest force perturbing the motion of satellites in low Earth orbits LEO, and could cause re-entry of satellites, difficulty in identifying and tracking of the satellites and other space objects, manuvering and prediction of lifetime and re-entry. Solar activities influence the temperature, density and composition of the upper atmosphere. These effects thus strongly depend on the phase of a solar cycle. The frequency of intense flares and storms increase during solar maximum. Heating up of the atmosphere causes its expansion eventually leading to accelerated drag of orbiting satellites, especially those in LEO. In this paper, we present the model of the atmospheric drag effect on the trajectory of hypothetical LEO satellites of different ballistic coefficients. We investigate long-term trend of atmospheric drag on LEO satellites due to solar forcing induced atmospheric perturbations and heating at different phases of the solar cycle, and during interval of strong geomagnetic disturbances or storms. We show the dependence of orbital decay on severity of both the solar cycle and phase, and the extent of geomagnetic perturbations. The result of the model compares well with the observed decay profile of existing LEO satellites and provides a better understanding of the issue of the orbital decay. Our result may also be useful for selection of launch window of satellites for an extended lifetime in the orbit.

  20. On the effect of leading edge blowing on circulation control airfoil aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclachlan, B. G.

    1987-01-01

    In the present context the term circulation control is used to denote a method of lift generation that utilizes tangential jet blowing over the upper surface of a rounded trailing edge airfoil to determine the location of the boundary layer separation points, thus setting an effective Kutta condition. At present little information exists on the flow structure generated by circulation control airfoils under leading edge blowing. Consequently, no theoretical methods exist to predict airfoil performance under such conditions. An experimental study of the flow field generated by a two dimensional circulation control airfoil under steady leading and trailing edge blowing was undertaken. The objective was to fundamentally understand the overall flow structure generated and its relation to airfoil performance. Flow visualization was performed to define the overall flow field structure. Measurements of the airfoil forces were also made to provide a correlation of the observed flow field structure to airfoil performance. Preliminary results are presented, specifically on the effect on the flow field structure of leading edge blowing, alone and in conjunction with trailing edge blowing.

  1. Implementation of a multiblock sensitivity analysis method in numerical aerodynamic shape optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacasse, James M.

    1995-01-01

    A multiblock sensitivity analysis method is applied in a numerical aerodynamic shape optimization technique. The Sensitivity Analysis Domain Decomposition (SADD) scheme which is implemented in this study was developed to reduce the computer memory requirements resulting from the aerodynamic sensitivity analysis equations. Discrete sensitivity analysis offers the ability to compute quasi-analytical derivatives in a more efficient manner than traditional finite-difference methods, which tend to be computationally expensive and prone to inaccuracies. The direct optimization procedure couples CFD analysis based on the two-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations with a gradient-based numerical optimization technique. The linking mechanism is the sensitivity equation derived from the CFD discretized flow equations, recast in adjoint form, and solved using direct matrix inversion techniques. This investigation is performed to demonstrate an aerodynamic shape optimization technique on a multiblock domain and its applicability to complex geometries. The objectives are accomplished by shape optimizing two aerodynamic configurations. First, the shape optimization of a transonic airfoil is performed to investigate the behavior of the method in highly nonlinear flows and the effect of different grid blocking strategies on the procedure. Secondly, shape optimization of a two-element configuration in subsonic flow is completed. Cases are presented for this configuration to demonstrate the effect of simultaneously reshaping interfering elements. The aerodynamic shape optimization is shown to produce supercritical type airfoils in the transonic flow from an initially symmetric airfoil. Multiblocking effects the path of optimization while providing similar results at the conclusion. Simultaneous reshaping of elements is shown to be more effective than individual element reshaping due to the inclusion of mutual interference effects.

  2. Barium ferrite decorated reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite for effective electromagnetic interference shielding.

    PubMed

    Verma, Meenakshi; Singh, Avanish Pratap; Sambyal, Pradeep; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Dhawan, S K; Choudhary, Veena

    2015-01-21

    There is an increased interest in the development of high performance microwave shielding materials against electromagnetic pollution in recent years. Barium ferrite decorated reduced graphene oxide (BaFe12O19@RGO) nanocomposite was synthesized by a high energy ball milling technique and its electromagnetic properties were investigated in the frequency range of 12.4-18 GHz (Ku band). The results showed that barium ferrite (BaFe12O19) nanoparticles with an average particle size of 20-30 nm were well distributed and firmly anchored onto the surface of the reduced graphene oxide sheets. The obtained nanocomposite exhibited a saturation magnetization of 18.1 emu g(-1) at room temperature. The presence of BaFe12O19 nanoparticles in the nanocomposite enhances the space charge polarization, natural resonance, multiple scattering and the effective anisotropy energy leading to a high electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of 32 dB (∼99.9% attenuation) at a critical thickness of 3 mm. The results suggested that the as-prepared BaFe12O19@RGO nanocomposite showed great potential as an effective candidate for a new type of microwave absorbing material. PMID:25437769

  3. The influence of professional expertise and task complexity upon the potency of the contextual interference effect.

    PubMed

    Ollis, Stewart; Button, Chris; Fairweather, Malcolm

    2005-03-01

    The contextual interference (CI) effect has been investigated through practice schedule manipulations within both basic and applied studies. Despite extensive research activity there is little conclusive evidence regarding the optimal practice structure of real world manipulative tasks in professional training settings. The present study therefore assessed the efficacy of practising simple and complex knot-tying skills in professional fire-fighters training. Forty-eight participants were quasi-randomly assigned to various practice schedules along the CI continuum. Twenty-four participants were students selected for their novice knot-tying capabilities and 24 were experienced fire-fighters who were more 'experienced knot-tiers'. They were assessed for skill acquisition, retention and transfer effects having practiced tying knots classified as simple or complex. Surprisingly, high levels of CI scheduling enhance learning for novices even when practising a complex task. The findings also revealed that CI benefits are most apparent as learners engage in tasks high in transfer distality. In conclusion, complexity and experience are mediating factors influencing the potency of the CI training effect in real-world settings. PMID:15698822

  4. The effect of multi-wall carbon nanotubes on electromagnetic interference shielding of ceramic composites.

    PubMed

    Shi, Sui-Lin; Liang, Ji

    2008-06-25

    Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-3 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (3Y-TZP) (MWCNTs-3Y-TZP) composite was prepared by spark plasma sintering. The complex permittivities of the composite have been measured in the Ku-band range (12.4-18 GHz) and it is found that both the real and imaginary permittivities of the composite increase with the increasing content of MWCNTs. The effect of the content of MWCNTs on the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) of the composite has been evaluated, and it is found that the EMI SE of the composite increases with the increasing content of MWCNTs. An EMI SE value as high as 25-30 dB has been achieved in the Ku-band range for the composite with 9 wt% content of MWCNTs, indicating that the MWCNTs-3Y-TZP composite can be used as an effective EMI shielding material. PMID:21828667

  5. Induced Voltage Behavior on Pipelines Due to HV AC Interference: Effective Length Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassereddine, Mohamad; Rizk, Jamal; Nagrial, Mahmood; Hellany, Ali

    2015-04-01

    High-voltage infrastructure upgrade is expending due to the growth in populations. To save on easement cost and to reduce the environmental impact of these projects, HV transmission lines occupy the same easement as pipelines in many cases. This joint easement introduces the AC interference between transmission lines and pipelines. The induced voltage can reach a limit which will jeopardize the human safety. The cited research studies the induced voltage under the presence of the overhead earth wire (OHEW) using the shielding factor. The work in this paper studies the induced voltage using the OHEW section current along with the superposition theorem. The simulations are compared to the existing research methods. The case study along with the theoretical study discusses the advance accuracy of the proposed method over the existing shield factor used in the presence research. Furthermore, they introduce the effective length along with the effective shielding factor, which aids in computing the additional effect that the OHEW has on the induced voltage.

  6. Thick Film Interference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trefil, James

    1983-01-01

    Discusses why interference effects cannot be seen with a thick film, starting with a review of the origin of interference patterns in thin films. Considers properties of materials in films, properties of the light source, and the nature of light. (JN)

  7. The aerodynamic effects of wing-wing interaction in flapping insect wings.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf; Sane, Sanjay P; Dickinson, Michael

    2005-08-01

    We employed a dynamically scaled mechanical model of the small fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (Reynolds number 100-200) to investigate force enhancement due to contralateral wing interactions during stroke reversal (the ;clap-and-fling'). The results suggest that lift enhancement during clap-and-fling requires an angular separation between the two wings of no more than 10-12 degrees . Within the limitations of the robotic apparatus, the clap-and-fling augmented total lift production by up to 17%, but depended strongly on stroke kinematics. The time course of the interaction between the wings was quite complex. For example, wing interaction attenuated total force during the initial part of the wing clap, but slightly enhanced force at the end of the clap phase. We measured two temporally transient peaks of both lift and drag enhancement during the fling phase: a prominent peak during the initial phase of the fling motion, which accounts for most of the benefit in lift production, and a smaller peak of force enhancement at the end fling when the wings started to move apart. A detailed digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) analysis during clap-and-fling showed that the most obvious effect of the bilateral ;image' wing on flow occurs during the early phase of the fling, due to a strong fluid influx between the wings as they separate. The DPIV analysis revealed, moreover, that circulation induced by a leading edge vortex (LEV) during the early fling phase was smaller than predicted by inviscid two-dimensional analytical models, whereas circulation of LEV nearly matched the predictions of Weis-Fogh's inviscid model at late fling phase. In addition, the presence of the image wing presumably causes subtle modifications in both the wake capture and viscous forces. Collectively, these effects explain some of the changes in total force and lift production during the fling. Quite surprisingly, the effect of clap-and-fling is not restricted to the dorsal part of the

  8. On the effect of sea spray on the aerodynamic surface drag under severe winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Ezhova, Ekaterina; Soustova, Irina; Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the effect of the sea spray on the air-sea momentum exchange during the entire "life cycle" of a droplet, torn off the crest of a steep surface wave, and its fall down to the water, in the framework of a model covering the following aspects of the phenomenon: (1) motion of heavy particle in the driving air flow (equations of motion); (2) structure of the wind field (wind velocity, wave-induced disturbances, turbulent fluctuations); (3) generation of the sea spray; and (4) statistics of droplets (size distribution, wind speed dependence). It is demonstrated that the sea spray in strong winds leads to an increase in the surface drag up to 40 % on the assumption that the velocity profile is neutral.

  9. The effect of over-the-wing nacelles on wing-body aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reubush, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel to further study benefits in climb and cruise performance due to blowing the jet over the wing for a transport-type wing-body configuration. In this investigation a wing-body model/powered-nacelle test rig combination was tested at Mach numbers of 0.5 and 0.8 at angles of attack from -2 to 4 deg and jet total-pressure ratios from jet off to 3 or 4 (depending on Mach number) for a variety of nacelle locations relative to the wing. Results from this investigation show that positioning of the nacelles can have very large effects on the wing-body drag (nacelles were nonmetric). Some positions yielded much higher drag than the baseline wing-body while others yielded drag which was somewhat lower than the baseline.

  10. The effect of shielding on the aerodynamic performance of Savonius wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morcos, S. M.; Khalafallah, M. G.; Heikel, H. A.

    The effect of the flat plate shield on the performance of two-bladed Savonius rotor has been experimentally determined. Tests were carried out in a low speed wind tunnel with a working section of 1.0 sq m. Flat plate shields with various values of plate width and inclination angle were tested in order to determine the optimum configuration. The maximum power coefficient of the Savonius rotor was increased from 0.22 for the case without shielding to 0.34 for the case with an optimum shielding configuration. The addition of a flat plate shield to the Savonius rotor can, therefore, enhance the power coefficient to values approaching the more elaborate wind turbines without affecting the simplicity of the Savonius rotor.

  11. Effect of fuselage upwash on the supersonic longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of 2 fighter configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, R. M.; Miller, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of fuselage incidence effects on two fighter aircraft models, which differed in wing planform only, has been conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at Mach numbers of 1.6, 1.8, and 2.0. Results were obtained on the two models at fuselage incidence angles of 0 deg, 2 deg, and 5 deg. The fuselage geometry included two side-mounted, flow-through, half-axisymmetric inlets and twin vertical tails. The two planforms tested were cranked wings with 70 deg/66 deg and 70 deg/30 deg leading-edge sweep angles. Experimental data showed that fuselage incidence resulted in positive increments in configuration lift and pitching moment; most of the lift increment can be attributed to the fuselage-induced upwash acting on the wing and most of the pitching-moment increment is due to the fuselage. Theoretical analysis indicates that linear-theory methods can adequately predict the overall configuration forces and moments resulting from fuselage upwash, but a higher order surface-panel method (PAN AIR) more accurately predicted the distribution of forces and resulting moments between the components.

  12. A POI-Based RFID Reader Deployment and Associated Interference Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Donghun; Yang, Hoongee; Yang, Sunghyun; Kim, Youngsoo; Yook, Jonggwan; Kang, Bongsoon

    This paper presents a simulation based method to predict the amount of frequency interference in a passive type RFID system. To judge occurrence of frequency interference, we use a parameter POI (probability of interference) that depends on several factors such as multiple access method, emission mask, the number of channel, etc. Due to its dependence on several factors, a Monte-carlo based simulation is suitably used. Through the simulation, we draw minimum separation distance between two readers and examine performance degradation due to aggregate interfering readers. Moreover, we present a reader deployment strategy based on the average POI of active readers operating in some area.

  13. Nanoscale transport of phonons: Dimensionality, subdiffusion, molecular damping, and interference effects

    SciTech Connect

    Walczak, Kamil; Yerkes, Kirk L.

    2014-05-07

    We examine heat transport carried by acoustic phonons in the systems composed of nanoscale chains of masses coupled to two thermal baths of different temperatures. Thermal conductance is obtained by using linearized Landauer-type formula for heat flux with phonon transmission probability calculated within atomistic Green's functions (AGF) method. AGF formalism is extended onto dissipative chains of masses with harmonic coupling beyond nearest-neighbor approximation, while atomistic description of heat reservoirs is also included into computational scheme. In particular, the phonon lifetimes and the phonon frequency shifts are discussed for harmonic lattices of different dimensions. Further, resonant structure of phonon transmission spectrum is analyzed with respect to reservoir-induced effects, molecular damping, and mass-to-mass harmonic coupling. Analysis of transmission zeros (antiresonances) and their accompanied Fano-shape resonances are discussed as a result of interference effects between different vibrational modes. Finally, we also predict subdiffusive transport regime for low-frequency ballistic phonons propagated along a linear chain of harmonically coupled masses.

  14. Effect of nacelles on aerodynamic characteristics of an executive-jet model with simulated, partial-chord, laminar-flow-control wing glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the Langley High-Speed 7- by 10-Foot Tunnel using a 1/10-scale model of an executive jet to examine the effects of the nacelles on the wing pressures and model longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics. For the present investigation, each wing panel was modified with a simulated, partial-chord, laminar-flow-control glove. Horizontal-tail effects were also briefly examined. The tests covered a range of Mach numbers from 0.40 to 0.82 and lift coefficients from 0.20 to 0.55. Oil-flow photographs of the wing at selected conditions are included.

  15. Quantum interference and control of the dynamic Franz-Keldysh effect: Generation and detection of terahertz space-charge fields

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Rui; Jacobs, Paul; Smirl, Arthur L.; Zhao, Hui

    2013-06-24

    The Dynamic Franz Keldysh Effect (DFKE) is produced and controlled in bulk gallium arsenide by quantum interference without the aid of externally applied fields and is spatially and temporally resolved using ellipsometric pump-probe techniques. The {approx}3 THz internal driving field for the DFKE is a transient space-charge field that is associated with a critically damped coherent plasma oscillation produced by oppositely traveling ballistic electron and hole currents that are injected by two-color quantum interference techniques. The relative phase and polarization of the two pump pulses can be used to control the DFKE.

  16. Quantum interference and control of the dynamic Franz-Keldysh effect: Generation and detection of terahertz space-charge fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui; Jacobs, Paul; Zhao, Hui; Smirl, Arthur L.

    2013-06-01

    The Dynamic Franz Keldysh Effect (DFKE) is produced and controlled in bulk gallium arsenide by quantum interference without the aid of externally applied fields and is spatially and temporally resolved using ellipsometric pump-probe techniques. The ˜3 THz internal driving field for the DFKE is a transient space-charge field that is associated with a critically damped coherent plasma oscillation produced by oppositely traveling ballistic electron and hole currents that are injected by two-color quantum interference techniques. The relative phase and polarization of the two pump pulses can be used to control the DFKE.

  17. Involvement of the Parietal Cortex in Perceptual Learning (Eureka Effect): An Interference Approach Using rTMS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giovannelli, Fabio; Silingardi, Davide; Borgheresi, Alessandra; Feurra, Matteo; Amati, Gianluca; Pizzorusso, Tommaso; Viggiano, Maria Pia; Zaccara, Gaetano; Berardi, Nicoletta; Cincotta, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying perceptual learning are still under investigation. Eureka effect is a form of rapid, long-lasting perceptual learning by which a degraded image, which appears meaningless when first seen, becomes recognizable after a single exposure to its undegraded version. We used online interference by focal 10-Hz repetitive…

  18. Working Memory Capacity and Its Relation to Stroop Interference and Facilitation Effects in Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Jee Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Jeong, Jee Hyang; Kang, Heejin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of the study were to investigate (a) the task-specific differences in short-term memory (STM) and working memory capacity (WMC) in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and normal elderly adults (NEAs), (b) the Stroop interference and facilitation effects, and (c) the relationship of STM and WMC to the Stroop…

  19. Interference and Facilitation in Spoken Word Production: Effects of Morphologically and Semantically Related Context Stimuli on Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Jens; Dohmes, Petra; Zwitserlood, Pienie

    2013-01-01

    We report two picture-word interference experiments investigating conceptual and lexical activation, and response selection, in speaking. We varied stimulus onset asynchrony to investigate potential fine-grained activation and competition effects. Morphologically related existing and pseudoword adjectives, as well as associatively related…

  20. Task-dependency and structure-dependency in number interference effects in sentence comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Franck, Julie; Colonna, Saveria; Rizzi, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    We report three experiments on French that explore number mismatch effects in intervention configurations in the comprehension of object A’-dependencies, relative clauses and questions. The study capitalizes on the finding of object attraction in sentence production, in which speakers sometimes erroneously produce a verb that agrees in number with a plural object in object relative clauses. Evidence points to the role of three critical constructs from formal syntax: intervention, intermediate traces and c-command (Franck et al., 2010). Experiment 1, using a self-paced reading procedure on these grammatical structures with an agreement error on the verb, shows an enhancing effect of number mismatch in intervention configurations, with faster reading times with plural (mismatching) objects. Experiment 2, using an on-line grammaticality judgment task on the ungrammatical versions of these structures, shows an interference effect in the form of attraction, with slower response times with plural objects. Experiment 3 with a similar grammaticality judgment task shows stronger attraction from c-commanding than from preceding interveners. Overall, the data suggest that syntactic computations in performance refer to the same syntactic representations in production and comprehension, but that different tasks tap into different processes involved in parsing: whereas performance in self-paced reading reflects the intervention of the subject in the process of building an object A’-dependency, performance in grammaticality judgment reflects intervention of the object on the computation of the subject-verb agreement dependency. The latter shows the hallmarks of structure-dependent attraction effects in sentence production, in particular, a sensitivity to specific characteristics of hierarchical representations. PMID:25914652

  1. Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Four-Propeller Tilt-Wing VTOL Model with Twin Vertical Tails, Including Effects of Ground Proximity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Kalman J.

    1961-01-01

    Results are presented of a wind-tunnel investigation of the aerodynamic stability, control, and performance characteristics of a model of a four-propeller tilt-wing VTOL airplane employing flaps and speed brakes through the transition speed range. The results indicate that the wing was stalled for steady level flight for all conditions of the investigation; however, the flapped configuration did produce a higher maximum lift. The effectiveness of the flap in delaying the stall in the present investigation was not as great as in some previous investigations because the flap used was smaller than that used previously. The wing stall resulted in an appreciable reduction of aileron effectiveness during the transition. Out of ground effect the low horizontal tail did not appear to be in an adverse flow field as had been expected and showed no erratic changes in effectiveness; however, in ground effect a large nose-down moment was experienced by the model. In general, the lateral aerodynamic data indicate that the configuration is directionally stable and possesses positive dihedral effect throughout the transition, and the data show no signs of erratic flow at the vertical tails.

  2. The effects of inlet turbulence and rotor/stator interactions on the aerodynamics and heat transfer of a large-scale rotating turbine model. Part 4: Aerodynamic data tabulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dring, R. P.; Joslyn, H. D.; Blair, M. F.

    1987-01-01

    A combined experimental and analytical program was conducted to examine the effects of inlet turbulence and airfoil heat transfer. The experimental portion of the study was conducted in a large-scale (approx. 5X engine), ambient temperature, rotating turbine model configured in both single-stage and stage-and-a-half arrangements. Heat transfer measurements were obtained using low-conductivity airfoils with miniature thermocouples welded to a thin, electrically heated surface skin. Heat transfer data were acquired for various combinations of low or high inlet turbulence intensity, flow coefficient, first stator-rotor axial spacing, Reynolds number and relative circumferential position of the first and second stators. Aerodynamic measurements obtained include distributions of the mean and fluctuating velocities at the turbine inlet and, for each airfoil row, midspan airfoil surface pressures and circumferential distributions of the downstream steady state pressures and fluctuating velocities. Results include airfoil heat transfer predictions produced using existing 2-D boundary layer computation schemes and an examination of solutions of the unsteady boundary layer equations.

  3. Effects of perforation number of blade on aerodynamic performance of dual-rotor small axial flow fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yongjun; Wang, Yanping; Li, Guoqi; Jin, Yingzi; Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Kim, Heuy Dong

    2015-04-01

    Compared with single rotor small axial flow fans, dual-rotor small axial flow fans is better regarding the static characteristics. But the aerodynamic noise of dual-rotor small axial flow fans is worse than that of single rotor small axial flow fans. In order to improve aerodynamic noise of dual-rotor small axial flow fans, the pre-stage blades with different perforation numbers are designed in this research. The RANS equations and the standard k-ɛ turbulence model as well as the FW-H noise model are used to simulate the flow field within the fan. Then, the aerodynamic performance of the fans with different perforation number is compared and analyzed. The results show that: (1) Compared to the prototype fan, the noise of fans with perforation blades is reduced. Additionally, the noise of the fans decreases with the increase of the number of perforations. (2) The vorticity value in the trailing edge of the pre-stage blades of perforated fans is reduced. It is found that the vorticity value in the trailing edge of the pre-stage blades decreases with the increase of the number of perforations. (3) Compared to the prototype fan, the total pressure rising and efficiency of the fans with perforation blades drop slightly.

  4. An investigation into the effects of unsteady parameters on the aerodynamics of a low Reynolds number pitching airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiralaei, M. R.; Alighanbari, H.; Hashemi, S. M.

    2010-08-01

    The growing applications of low Reynolds number (LRN) operating vehicles impose the need for accurate LRN flow solutions. These applications usually involve complex unsteady phenomena, which depend on the kinematics of the vehicle such as pitching, plunging, and flapping of a wing. The objective of the present study is to address the issues related to LRN aerodynamics of a harmonically pitching NACA0012 airfoil. To this end, the influence of unsteady parameters, namely, amplitude of oscillation, d, reduced frequency, k, and Reynolds number, Re, on the aerodynamic performance of the model is investigated. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is utilized to solve Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations discretized based on the Finite Volume Method (FVM). The resulting instantaneous lift coefficients are compared with analytical data from Theodorsen’s method. The simulation results reveal that d, k, and Re are of great importance in the aerodynamic performance of the system, as they affect the maximum lift coefficients, hysteresis loops, strength, and number of the generated vortices within the harmonic motion, and the extent of the so-called figure-of-eight phenomenon region. Thus, achieving the optimum lift coefficients demands a careful selection of these parameters.

  5. Aerodynamic Lifting Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltner, Klaus

    1990-01-01

    Describes some experiments showing both qualitatively and quantitatively that aerodynamic lift is a reaction force. Demonstrates reaction forces caused by the acceleration of an airstream and the deflection of an airstream. Provides pictures of demonstration apparatus and mathematical expressions. (YP)

  6. Methods for mitigating the effect of noise, interference, and model error on microwave breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burfeindt, Matthew J.

    Microwave inverse scattering shows promise for meeting important clinical needs in breast imaging that arise due to drawbacks in traditional imaging technologies. The dielectric contrast between different breast tissue types, the 3-D nature of various inverse scattering algorithms, as well as microwave technology's relative safety and low cost motivate a microwave-based approach. However, challenges remain for this type of imaging technique, as it requires solving a linear system that is ill-posed and underdetermined, thus making it sensitive to noise, interference, and mismatch between the assumed and actual properties of the propagation environment. In this document, we report a series of studies performed with the goal of mitigating the effect of these types of signal errors on the imaging results. We conduct a numerical feasibility study to demonstrate the efficacy of microwave breast imaging using an enclosed array of miniaturized, multi-band patch antennas designed to account for the ill-posed nature of the imaging problem. We then conduct several experimental studies with an array prototype, wherein we characterize the sensitivity of the array to model error as well as create experimental reconstructions of both geometrically-simple objects and an MRI-derived 3-D-printed breast phantom. Lastly, we incorporate a beamforming-enhancement into the imaging algorithm with the goal of making it less sensitive to signal error.

  7. Porosity measurements of interstellar ice mixtures using optical laser interference and extended effective medium approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossa, J.-B.; Isokoski, K.; Paardekooper, D. M.; Bonnin, M.; van der Linden, E. P.; Triemstra, T.; Cazaux, S.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Linnartz, H.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: This article aims to provide an alternative method of measuring the porosity of multi-phase composite ices from their refractive indices and of characterising how the abundance of a premixed contaminant (e.g., CO2) affects the porosity of water-rich ice mixtures during omni-directional deposition. Methods: We combine optical laser interference and extended effective medium approximations (EMAs) to measure the porosity of three astrophysically relevant ice mixtures: H2O:CO2 = 10:1, 4:1, and 2:1. Infrared spectroscopy is used as a benchmarking test of this new laboratory-based method. Results: By independently monitoring the O-H dangling modes of the different water-rich ice mixtures, we confirm the porosities predicted by the extended EMAs. We also demonstrate that CO2 premixed with water in the gas phase does not significantly affect the ice morphology during omni-directional deposition, as long as the physical conditions favourable to segregation are not reached. We propose a mechanism in which CO2 molecules diffuse on the surface of the growing ice sample prior to being incorporated into the bulk and then fill the pores partly or completely, depending on the relative abundance and the growth temperature.

  8. Effective knockdown of Drosophila long non-coding RNAs by CRISPR interference.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sanjay; Tibbit, Charlotte; Liu, Ji-Long

    2016-05-19

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as regulators of gene expression across metazoa. Interestingly, some lncRNAs function independently of their transcripts - the transcription of the lncRNA locus itself affects target genes. However, current methods of loss-of-function analysis are insufficient to address the role of lncRNA transcription from the transcript which has impeded analysis of their function. Using the minimal CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) system, we show that coexpression of the catalytically inactive Cas9 (dCas9) and guide RNAs targeting the endogenous roX locus in the Drosophila cells results in a robust and specific knockdown of roX1 and roX2 RNAs, thus eliminating the need for recruiting chromatin modifying proteins for effective gene silencing. Additionally, we find that the human and Drosophila codon optimized dCas9 genes are functional and show similar transcription repressive activity. Finally, we demonstrate that the minimal CRISPRi system suppresses roX transcription efficiently in vivo resulting in loss-of-function phenotype, thus validating the method for the first time in a multicelluar organism. Our analysis expands the genetic toolkit available for interrogating lncRNA function in situ and is adaptable for targeting multiple genes across model organisms. PMID:26850642

  9. Global effects on gene expression in fission yeast by silencing and RNA interference machineries.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Klavs R; Burns, Gavin; Mata, Juan; Volpe, Thomas A; Martienssen, Robert A; Bähler, Jürg; Thon, Geneviève

    2005-01-01

    Histone modifications influence gene expression in complex ways. The RNA interference (RNAi) machinery can repress transcription by recruiting histone-modifying enzymes to chromatin, although it is not clear whether this is a general mechanism for gene silencing or whether it requires repeated sequences such as long terminal repeats (LTRs). We analyzed the global effects of the Clr3 and Clr6 histone deacetylases, the Clr4 methyltransferase, the zinc finger protein Clr1, and the RNAi proteins Dicer, RdRP, and Argonaute on the transcriptome of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast). The clr mutants derepressed similar subsets of genes, many of which also became transcriptionally activated in cells that were exposed to environmental stresses such as nitrogen starvation. Many genes that were repressed by the Clr proteins clustered in extended regions close to the telomeres. Surprisingly few genes were repressed by both the silencing and RNAi machineries, with transcripts from centromeric repeats and Tf2 retrotransposons being notable exceptions. We found no correlation between repression by RNAi and proximity to LTRs, and the wtf family of repeated sequences seems to be repressed by histone deacetylation independent of RNAi. Our data indicate that the RNAi and Clr proteins show only a limited functional overlap and that the Clr proteins play more global roles in gene silencing. PMID:15632061

  10. Effective knockdown of Drosophila long non-coding RNAs by CRISPR interference

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sanjay; Tibbit, Charlotte; Liu, Ji-Long

    2016-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as regulators of gene expression across metazoa. Interestingly, some lncRNAs function independently of their transcripts – the transcription of the lncRNA locus itself affects target genes. However, current methods of loss-of-function analysis are insufficient to address the role of lncRNA transcription from the transcript which has impeded analysis of their function. Using the minimal CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) system, we show that coexpression of the catalytically inactive Cas9 (dCas9) and guide RNAs targeting the endogenous roX locus in the Drosophila cells results in a robust and specific knockdown of roX1 and roX2 RNAs, thus eliminating the need for recruiting chromatin modifying proteins for effective gene silencing. Additionally, we find that the human and Drosophila codon optimized dCas9 genes are functional and show similar transcription repressive activity. Finally, we demonstrate that the minimal CRISPRi system suppresses roX transcription efficiently in vivo resulting in loss-of-function phenotype, thus validating the method for the first time in a multicelluar organism. Our analysis expands the genetic toolkit available for interrogating lncRNA function in situ and is adaptable for targeting multiple genes across model organisms. PMID:26850642

  11. Filling Predictable and Unpredictable Gaps, with and without Similarity-Based Interference: Evidence for LIFG Effects of Dependency Processing

    PubMed Central

    Leiken, Kimberly; McElree, Brian; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2015-01-01

    One of the most replicated findings in neurolinguistic literature on syntax is the increase of hemodynamic activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) in response to object relative (OR) clauses compared to subject relative clauses. However, behavioral studies have shown that ORs are primarily only costly when similarity-based interference is involved and recently, Leiken and Pylkkänen (2014) showed with magnetoencephalography (MEG) that an LIFG increase at an OR gap is also dependent on such interference. However, since ORs always involve a cue indicating an upcoming dependency formation, OR dependencies could be processed already prior to the gap-site and thus show no sheer dependency effects at the gap itself. To investigate the role of gap predictability in LIFG dependency effects, this MEG study compared ORs to verb phrase ellipsis (VPE), which was used as an example of a non-predictable dependency. Additionally, we explored LIFG sensitivity to filler-gap order by including right node raising structures, in which the order of filler and gap is reverse to that of ORs and VPE. Half of the stimuli invoked similarity-based interference and half did not. Our results demonstrate that LIFG effects of dependency can be elicited regardless of whether the dependency is predictable, the stimulus materials evoke similarity-based interference, or the filler precedes the gap. Thus, contrary to our own prior data, the current findings suggest a highly general role for the LIFG in dependency interpretation that is not limited to environments involving similarity-based interference. Additionally, the millisecond time-resolution of MEG allowed for a detailed characterization of the temporal profiles of LIFG dependency effects across our three constructions, revealing that the timing of these effects is somewhat construction-specific. PMID:26635655

  12. Aerodynamic performance of transonic and subsonic airfoils: Effects of surface roughness, turbulence intensity, Mach number, and streamline curvature-airfoil shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang

    The effects of surface roughness, turbulence intensity, Mach number, and streamline curvature-airfoil shape on the aerodynamic performance of turbine airfoils are investigated in compressible, high speed flows. The University of Utah Transonic Wind Tunnel is employed for the experimental part of the study. Two different test sections are designed to produce Mach numbers, Reynolds numbers, passage mass flow rates, and physical dimensions, which match values along turbine blades in operating engines: (i) a nonturning test section with a symmetric airfoil, and (ii) a cascade test section with a cambered turbine vane. The nonuniform, irregular, three-dimensional surface roughness is characterized using the equivalent sand grain roughness size. Changing the airfoil surface roughness condition has a substantial effect on wake profiles of total pressure loss coefficients, normalized Mach number, normalized kinetic energy, and on the normalized and dimensional magnitudes of Integrated Aerodynamic Losses produced by the airfoils. Comparisons with results for a symmetric airfoil and a cambered vane show that roughness has more substantial effects on losses produced by the symmetric airfoil than the cambered vane. Data are also provided that illustrate the larger loss magnitudes are generally present with flow turning and cambered airfoils, than with symmetric airfoils. Wake turbulence structure of symmetric airfoils and cambered vanes are also studied experimentally. The effects of surface roughness and freestream turbulence levels on wake distributions of mean velocity, turbulence intensity, and power spectral density profiles and vortex shedding frequencies are quantified one axial chord length downstream of the test airfoils. As the level of surface roughness increases, all wake profile quantities broaden significantly and nondimensional vortex shedding frequencies decrease. Wake profiles produced by the symmetric airfoil are more sensitive to variations of surface

  13. Aerodynamic canard/wing parametric analysis for general aviation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, M. W.; Selberg, B. P.

    1984-01-01

    Vortex panel and vortex lattice methods have been utilized in an analytic study to determine the two- and three-dimensional aerodynamic behavior of canard and wing configurations. The purpose was to generate data useful for the design of general aviation canard aircraft. Essentially no two-dimensional coupling was encountered and the vertical distance between the lifting surfaces was found to be the main contributor to interference effects of the three-dimensional analysis. All canard configurations were less efficient than a forward wing with an aft horizontal tail, but were less sensitive to off-optimum division of total lift between the two surfaces, such that trim drag could be less for canard configurations. For designing a general aviation canard aircraft, results point toward large horizontal and vertical distance between the canard and wing, a large wing-to-canard area ratio, and with the canard at a low incidence angle relative to the wing.

  14. Aerodynamic Shutoff Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horstman, Raymond H.

    1992-01-01

    Aerodynamic flow achieved by adding fixed fairings to butterfly valve. When valve fully open, fairings align with butterfly and reduce wake. Butterfly free to turn, so valve can be closed, while fairings remain fixed. Design reduces turbulence in flow of air in internal suction system. Valve aids in development of improved porous-surface boundary-layer control system to reduce aerodynamic drag. Applications primarily aerospace. System adapted to boundary-layer control on high-speed land vehicles.

  15. Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Haecheon; Lee, Jungil; Park, Hyungmin

    2014-01-01

    We present an overview of the aerodynamics of heavy vehicles, such as tractor-trailers, high-speed trains, and buses. We introduce three-dimensional flow structures around simplified model vehicles and heavy vehicles and discuss the flow-control devices used for drag reduction. Finally, we suggest important unsteady flow structures to investigate for the enhancement of aerodynamic performance and future directions for experimental and numerical approaches.

  16. Unsteady aerodynamic flow field analysis of the space shuttle configuration. Part 4: 747/orbiter aeroelastic stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reding, J. P.; Ericsson, L. E.

    1976-01-01

    A quasi-steady analysis of the aeroelastic stability of the lateral (antisymmetric) modes of the 747/orbiter vehicle was accomplished. The interference effect of the orbiter wake on the 747 tail furnishes an aerodynamic undamping contribution to the elastic modes. Likewise, the upstream influence of the 747 tail and aft fuselage on the orbiter beaver-tail rail fairing also is undamping. Fortunately these undamping effects cannot overpower the large damping contribution of the 747 tail and the modes are damped for the configurations analyzed. However, significant interference effects of the orbiter on the 747 tail have been observed in the pitch plane. The high response of the 747 vertical tail in the orbiter wave was also considered. Wind tunnel data points to flapping of the OMS pod wakes as the source of the wake resonance phenomenon.

  17. An experimental study on the effects of blade row interactions on aerodynamic loss mechanisms in a multistage compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Natalie Rochelle

    While the gas turbine engine has existed for nearly 80 years, much of the complex aerodynamics which governs compressor performance is still not well understood. The unsteady flow field consists of periodic blade row interactions from the wakes and potential fields of each blade and vane. Vane clocking is the relative circumferential indexing of adjacent vane rows with the same vane count, and it is one method to change blade row interactions. Though the potential of performance benefits with vane clocking is known, the driving flow physics have yet to be identified. This research examines the effects of blade row interactions on embedded stator total pressure loss and boundary layer transition in the Purdue 3-stage axial compressor. The inlet guide vane, Stator 1, and Stator 2 all have 44 vanes which enable vane clocking of the embedded stage, while the rotors have different blade counts producing amplitude modulation of the unsteady interactions. A detailed investigation of corrected conditions is presented to establish repeatable, compressor performance year-round in a facility utilizing ambient inlet conditions. Without proper humidity accounting of compressor corrected conditions and an understanding of the potential for inlet temperature changes to affect clearances due to thermal growth, measurements of small performance changes in detailed research studies could be indiscernible. The methodology and implementation of a powder-paint flow visualization technique along with the illuminated flow physics are presented in detail. This method assists in understanding the loss development in the compressor by highlighting stator corner separations and endwall flow patterns. Effects of loading condition, rotor tip clearance height, and stator wake and rotor tip leakage interactions are shown with this technique. Vane clocking effects on compressor performance were quantified for nine loading conditions and six clocking configurations - the largest vane clocking

  18. The Effect of Various Wing-Gun Installations on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Airplane Model Equipped with an NACA Low-Drag Wing, Special Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muse, Thomas C.

    1941-01-01

    An investigation was made in the NACA 19-foot pressure wind tunnel to determine the effect of various win-gun installation on the aerodynamic characteristics of a model with an NACA low-drag wing. Measurements were made of lift and drag over an angle-of-attack range and for several values of dynamic pressure on a four-tenths scale model of a high-speed airplane equipped with the low-drag wing and with various wing-gun installations. Two installations were tested: one in which the blast tube and part of the gun barrel protrude ahead of the wing and another in which the guns is mounted wholly within the wing. Two types of openings for the latter installation were tested. For each installation three simulated guns were mounted in each wing. The results are given in the form of nondimensional coefficients. The installations tested appear to have little effect on the maximum-lift coefficient of the model. However, the drag coefficient shows a definite change. The least adverse effect was obtained with the completely internal mounting and small nose entrance. The results indicate that a properly designed wing-gun installation will have very little adverse effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of the low-drag wing.

  19. Effects of vaccination against paratuberculosis on tuberculosis in goats: diagnostic interferences and cross-protection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most countries carrying out campaigns of bovine tuberculosis (TB) eradication impose a ban on the use of mycobacterial vaccines in cattle. However, vaccination against paratuberculosis (PTB) in goats is often allowed even when its effect on TB diagnosis has not been fully evaluated. To address this issue, goat kids previously vaccinated against PTB were experimentally infected with TB. Results Evaluation of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion induced by avian and bovine tuberculins (PPD) showed a predominant avian PPD-biased response in the vaccinated group from week 4 post-vaccination onward. Although 60% of the animals were bovine reactors at week 14, avian PPD-biased responses returned at week 16. After challenge with M. caprae, the IFN-γ responses radically changed to show predominant bovine PPD-biased responses from week 18 onward. In addition, cross-reactions with bovine PPD that had been observed in the vaccinated group at week 14 were reduced when using the M. tuberculosis complex-specific antigens ESAT-6/CFP-10 and Rv3615c as new DIVA (differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals) reagents, which further maintained sensitivity post-challenge. Ninety percent of the animals reacted positively to the tuberculin cervical comparative intradermal test performed at 12 weeks post-infection. Furthermore, post-mortem analysis showed reductions in tuberculous lesions and bacterial burden in some vaccinated animals, particularly expressed in terms of the degree of extrapulmonary dissemination of TB infection. Conclusions Our results suggest a degree of interference of PTB vaccination with current TB diagnostics that can be fully mitigated when using new DIVA reagents. A partial protective effect associated with vaccination was also observed in some vaccinated animals. PMID:23072619

  20. Highly Effective Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Materials based on Silver Nanowire/Cellulose Papers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae-Won; Lee, Sang-Eui; Jeong, Young Gyu

    2016-05-25

    We fabricated silver nanowire (AgNW)-coated cellulose papers with a hierarchical structure by an efficient and facile dip-coating process, and investigated their microstructures, electrical conductivity and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness. SEM images confirm that AgNWs are coated dominantly on the paper surfaces, although they exist partially in the inner parts of the cellulose papers, which demonstrates that the AgNW density gradually decreases in thickness direction of the AgNW/cellulose papers. This result is supported by the anisotropic apparent electrical conductivity of the AgNW/cellulose papers depending on in-plane or thickness direction. Even for a AgNW/cellulose paper obtained by a single dip-coating cycle, the apparent electrical conductivity in the in-plane direction of 0.34 S/cm is achieved, which is far higher than the neat cellulose paper with ∼10(-11) S/cm. In addition, the apparent electrical conductivity of the papers in the in-plane direction increases significantly from 0.34 to 67.51 S/cm with increasing the number of dip-coating cycle. Moreover, although the AgNW/cellulose paper with 67.51 S/cm possesses 0.53 vol % AgNW only, it exhibits high EMI shielding performance of ∼48.6 dB at 1 GHz. This indicates that the cellulose paper structure is highly effective to form a conductive AgNW network. Overall, it can be concluded that the AgNW/cellulose papers with high flexibility and low density can be used as electrically conductive components and EMI shielding elements in advanced application areas. PMID:27156577