Science.gov

Sample records for aerodynamic lift drag

  1. Aerodynamic Assessment of Flight-Determined Subsonic Lift and Drag Characteristics of Seven Lifting-Body and Wing-Body Reentry Vehicle Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Edwin J.; Wang, K. Charles; Iliff, Kenneth W.

    2002-01-01

    This report examines subsonic flight-measured lift and drag characteristics of seven lifting-body and wing-body reentry vehicle configurations with truncated bases. The seven vehicles are the full-scale M2-F1, M2-F2, HL-10, X-24A, X-24B, and X-15 vehicles and the Space Shuttle Enterprise. Subsonic flight lift and drag data of the various vehicles are assembled under aerodynamic performance parameters and presented in several analytical and graphical formats. These formats are intended to unify the data and allow a greater understanding than individually studying the vehicles allows. Lift-curve slope data are studied with respect to aspect ratio and related to generic wind-tunnel model data and to theory for low-aspect-ratio platforms. The definition of reference area is critical for understanding and comparing the lift data. The drag components studied include minimum drag coefficient, lift-related drag, maximum lift-to drag ratio, and, where available, base pressure coefficients. The influence of forebody drag on afterbody and base drag at low lift is shown to be related to Hoerner's compilation for body, airfoil, nacelle, and canopy drag. This feature may result in a reduced need of surface smoothness for vehicles with a large ratio of base area to wetted area. These analyses are intended to provide a useful analytical framework with which to compare and evaluate new vehicle configurations of the same generic family.

  2. Aerodynamic Lifting Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltner, Klaus

    1990-01-01

    Describes some experiments showing both qualitatively and quantitatively that aerodynamic lift is a reaction force. Demonstrates reaction forces caused by the acceleration of an airstream and the deflection of an airstream. Provides pictures of demonstration apparatus and mathematical expressions. (YP)

  3. Aerodynamic drag on intermodal railcars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinghorn, Philip; Maynes, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    The aerodynamic drag associated with transport of commodities by rail is becoming increasingly important as the cost of diesel fuel increases. This study aims to increase the efficiency of intermodal cargo trains by reducing the aerodynamic drag on the load carrying cars. For intermodal railcars a significant amount of aerodynamic drag is a result of the large distance between loads that often occurs and the resulting pressure drag resulting from the separated flow. In the present study aerodynamic drag data have been obtained through wind tunnel testing on 1/29 scale models to understand the savings that may be realized by judicious modification to the size of the intermodal containers. The experiments were performed in the BYU low speed wind tunnel and the test track utilizes two leading locomotives followed by a set of five articulated well cars with double stacked containers. The drag on a representative mid-train car is measured using an isolated load cell balance and the wind tunnel speed is varied from 20 to 100 mph. We characterize the effect that the gap distance between the containers and the container size has on the aerodynamic drag of this representative rail car and investigate methods to reduce the gap distance.

  4. An experimental study of the lift, drag and static longitudinal stability for a three lifting surface configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostowari, C.; Naik, D.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental procedure and aerodynamic force and moment measurements for wind tunnel testing of the three lifting surface configuration (TLC) are described. The influence of nonelliptical lift distributions on lift, drag, and static longitudinal stability are examined; graphs of the lift coefficient versus angle of attack, the pitching moment coefficient, drag coefficient, and lift to drag ratio versus lift coefficient are provided. The TLC data are compared with the conventional tail-aft configuration and the canard-wing configuration; it is concluded that the TLC has better lift and high-lift drag characteristics, lift to drag ratio, and zero-lift moments than the other two configurations. The effects of variations in forward and tail wind incidence angles, gap, stagger, and forward wind span on the drag, lift, longitudinal stability, and zero-lift moments of the configuration are studied.

  5. Powered-Lift Aerodynamics and Acoustics. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Powered lift technology is reviewed. Topics covered include: (1) high lift aerodynamics; (2) high speed and cruise aerodynamics; (3) acoustics; (4) propulsion aerodynamics and acoustics; (5) aerodynamic and acoustic loads; and (6) full-scale and flight research.

  6. Biomimetic spiroid winglets for lift and drag control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, Joel E.; Maestro, Dario; Bottaro, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    In aeronautical engineering, drag reduction constitutes a challenge and there is room for improvement and innovative developments. The drag breakdown of a typical transport aircraft shows that the lift-induced drag can amount to as much as 40% of the total drag at cruise conditions and 80-90% of the total drag in take-off configuration. One way of reducing lift-induced drag is by using wingtip devices. By applying biomimetic abstraction of the principle behind a bird's wingtip feathers, we study spiroid wingtips, which look like an extended blended wingtip that bends upward by 360 degrees to form a large rigid ribbon. The numerical investigation of such a wingtip device is described and preliminary indications of its aerodynamic performance are provided.

  7. Moderate lift-to-drag aeroassist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florence, D. E.; Fischer, G.

    1984-01-01

    Significant performance benefits are realized via aerodynamic braking and/or aerodynamic maneuvering on return from higher altitude orbits to low Earth orbit. This approach substantially reduces the mission propellant requirements by using the aerodynamic drag, D, to brake the vehicle to near circular velocity and the aerodynamic lift, L, to null out accumulated errors as well as change the orbital inclination to that required for rendezvous with the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Broad concept evaluations were performed and the technology requirements and sensitivities for aeroassisted OTV's over a range of vehicle hypersonic L/D from 0.75 to 1.5 were systematically identified and assessed. The aeroassisted OTV is capable of evolving from an initial delivery only system to one eventually capable of supporting manned roundtrip missions to geosynchronous orbit. Concept screening was conducted on numerous configurations spanning the L/D = 0.75 to 1.5 range, and several with attractive features were identified. Initial payload capability was evaluated for a baseline of delivery to GEO, six hour polar, and Molniya (12 hours x 63.4 deg) orbits with return and recovery of the aeroassist orbit transfer vehicle (AOTV) at LEO. Evolutionary payload requirements that were assessed include a GEO servicing mission (6K up and 2K return) and a manned GEO mission (14K roundtrip).

  8. Comparisons of AEROX computer program predictions of lift and induced drag with flight test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Axelson, J.; Hill, G. C.

    1981-01-01

    The AEROX aerodynamic computer program which provides accurate predictions of induced drag and trim drag for the full angle of attack range and for Mach numbers from 0.4 to 3.0 is described. This capability is demonstrated comparing flight test data and AEROX predictions for 17 different tactical aircraft. Values of minimum (skin friction, pressure, and zero lift wave) drag coefficients and lift coefficient offset due to camber (when required) were input from the flight test data to produce total lift and drag curves. The comparisons of trimmed lift drag polars show excellent agreement between the AEROX predictions and the in flight measurements.

  9. A fundamental study of drag and an assessment of conventional drag-due-to-lift reduction devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, J. E.; Donald, C. D.

    1986-01-01

    The integral conservation laws of fluid mechanics are used to assess the drag efficiency of lifting wings, both CTOL and various out-of-plane configurations. The drag-due-to-lift is separated into two major components: (1) the induced drag-due-to-lift that depends on aspect ratio but is relatively independent of Reynolds number; (2) the form drag-due-to-lift that is independent of aspect ratio but dependent on the details of the wing section design, planform and Reynolds number. For each lifting configuration there is an optimal load distribution that yields the minimum value of drag-due-to-lift. For well designed high aspect ratio CTOL wings the two drag components are independent. With modern design technology CTOL wings can be (and usually are) designed with a drag-due-to-lift efficiency close to unity. Wing tip-devices (winglets, feathers, sails, etc.) can improve drag-due-to-lift efficiency by 10 to 15% if they are designed as an integral part of the wing. As add-on devices they can be detrimental. It is estimated that 25% improvements of wing drag-due-to-lift efficiency can be obtained with joined tip configurations and vertically separated lifting elements without considering additional benefits that might be realized by improved structural efficiency. It is strongly recommended that an integrated aerodynamic/structural approach be taken in the design of (or research on) future out-of-plane configurations.

  10. Integrated lift/drag controller for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olcott, J. W.; Seckel, E.; Ellis, D. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A system for altering the lift/drag characteristics of powered aircraft to provide a safe means of glide path control includes a control device integrated for coordination action with the aircraft throttle. Such lift/drag alteration devices as spoilers, dive brakes, and the like are actuated by manual operation of a single lever coupled with the throttle for integrating, blending or coordinating power control. Improper operation of the controller is inhibited by safety mechanisms.

  11. Aerodynamic Drag and Drag Reduction: Energy and Energy Savings (Invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    An assessment of the role of fluid dynamic resistance and/or aerodynamic drag and the relationship to energy use in the United States is presented. Existing data indicates that up to 25% of the total energy consumed in the United States is used to overcome aerodynamic drag, 27% of the total energy used in the United States is consumed by transportation systems, and 60% of the transportation energy or 16% of the total energy consumed in the United States is used to overcome aerodynamic drag in transportation systems. Drag reduction goals of 50% are proposed and discussed which if realized would produce a 7.85% total energy savings. This energy savings correlates to a yearly cost savings in the $30Billion dollar range.

  12. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lift and drag devices, controls. 25.697....697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a) Each lift device control must be designed so that the pilots....101(d). Lift and drag devices must maintain the selected positions, except for movement produced by...

  13. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lift and drag devices, controls. 25.697....697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a) Each lift device control must be designed so that the pilots....101(d). Lift and drag devices must maintain the selected positions, except for movement produced by...

  14. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lift and drag devices, controls. 25.697....697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a) Each lift device control must be designed so that the pilots....101(d). Lift and drag devices must maintain the selected positions, except for movement produced by...

  15. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lift and drag devices, controls. 25.697....697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a) Each lift device control must be designed so that the pilots....101(d). Lift and drag devices must maintain the selected positions, except for movement produced by...

  16. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lift and drag devices, controls. 25.697....697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a) Each lift device control must be designed so that the pilots....101(d). Lift and drag devices must maintain the selected positions, except for movement produced by...

  17. 14 CFR 25.699 - Lift and drag device indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lift and drag device indicator. 25.699....699 Lift and drag device indicator. (a) There must be means to indicate to the pilots the position of each lift or drag device having a separate control in the cockpit to adjust its position. In...

  18. 14 CFR 25.699 - Lift and drag device indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lift and drag device indicator. 25.699....699 Lift and drag device indicator. (a) There must be means to indicate to the pilots the position of each lift or drag device having a separate control in the cockpit to adjust its position. In...

  19. 14 CFR 25.699 - Lift and drag device indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lift and drag device indicator. 25.699....699 Lift and drag device indicator. (a) There must be means to indicate to the pilots the position of each lift or drag device having a separate control in the cockpit to adjust its position. In...

  20. 14 CFR 25.699 - Lift and drag device indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lift and drag device indicator. 25.699....699 Lift and drag device indicator. (a) There must be means to indicate to the pilots the position of each lift or drag device having a separate control in the cockpit to adjust its position. In...

  1. 14 CFR 25.699 - Lift and drag device indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lift and drag device indicator. 25.699....699 Lift and drag device indicator. (a) There must be means to indicate to the pilots the position of each lift or drag device having a separate control in the cockpit to adjust its position. In...

  2. Lift and Drag Measurements of Superhydrophobic Hydrofoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sur, Samrat; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Rothstein, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    For several years, superhydrophobic surfaces which are chemically hydrophobic with micron or nanometer scale surface features have been considered for their ability to reduce drag and produce slip in microfluidic devices. More recently it has been demonstrated that superhydrophobic surfaces reduce friction coefficient in turbulent flows as well. In this talk, we will consider that modifying a hydrofoil's surface to make it superhydrophobic has on the resulting lift and drag measurements over a wide range of angles of attack. Experiments are conducted over the range of Reynolds numbers between 10,000drag and lift coefficients along with changes to separation point at high angles of attack are observed when the hydrofoil is made superhydrophobic. The hydrofoils are coated Teflon that has been hot embossed with a 325grit stainless steel woven mesh to produce a regular pattern of microposts. In addition to fully superhydrophobic hydrofoils, selectively coated symmetrical hydrofoils will also be examined to study the effect that asymmetries in the surface properties can have on lift and drag. Partially funded by NSF CBET-1334962.

  3. Switchable and Tunable Aerodynamic Drag on Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttag, Mark; Lopez Jimenez, Francisco; Reis, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    We report results on the performance of Smart Morphable Surfaces (Smporhs) that can be mounted onto cylindrical structures to actively reduce their aerodynamic drag. Our system comprises of an elastomeric thin shell with a series of carefully designed subsurface cavities that, once depressurized, lead to a dramatic deformation of the surface topography, on demand. Our design is inspired by the morphology of the giant cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) which possesses an array of axial grooves, which are thought to help reduce aerodynamic drag, thereby enhancing the structural robustness of the plant under wind loading. We perform systematic wind tunnel tests on cylinders covered with our Smorphs and characterize their aerodynamic performance. The switchable and tunable nature of our system offers substantial advantages for aerodynamic performance when compared to static topographies, due to their operation over a wider range of flow conditions.

  4. Switchable and Tunable Aerodynamic Drag on Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttag, Mark; Lopéz Jiménez, Francisco; Upadhyaya, Priyank; Kumar, Shanmugam; Reis, Pedro

    We report results on the performance of Smart Morphable Surfaces (Smporhs) that can be mounted onto cylindrical structures to actively reduce their aerodynamic drag. Our system comprises of an elastomeric thin shell with a series of carefully designed subsurface cavities that, once depressurized, lead to a dramatic deformation of the surface topography, on demand. Our design is inspired by the morphology of the giant cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) which possesses an array of axial grooves, thought to help reduce aerodynamic drag, thereby enhancing the structural robustness of the plant under wind loading. We perform systematic wind tunnel tests on cylinders covered with our Smorphs and characterize their aerodynamic performance. The switchable and tunable nature of our system offers substantial advantages for aerodynamic performance when compared to static topographies, due to their operation over a wider range of flow conditions.

  5. Method of reducing drag in aerodynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrach, Frank J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    In the present method, boundary layer thickening is combined with laminar flow control to reduce drag. An aerodynamic body is accelerated enabling a ram turbine on the body to receive air at velocity V sub 0. The discharge air is directed over an aft portion of the aerodynamic body producing boundary layer thickening. The ram turbine also drives a compressor by applying torque to a shaft connected between the ram turbine and the compressor. The compressor sucks in lower boundary layer air through inlets in the shell of the aircraft producing laminar flow control and reducing drag. The discharge from the compressor is expanded in a nozzle to produce thrust.

  6. DOE Project on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Castellucci, P; Pointer, D; Browand, F; Ross, J; Storms, B

    2007-01-04

    Class 8 tractor-trailers consume 11-12% of the total US petroleum use. At highway speeds, 65% of the energy expenditure for a Class 8 truck is in overcoming aerodynamic drag. The project objective is to improve fuel economy of Class 8 tractor-trailers by providing guidance on methods of reducing drag by at least 25%. A 25% reduction in drag would present a 12% improvement in fuel economy at highway speeds, equivalent to about 130 midsize tanker ships per year. Specific goals include: (1) Provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag of heavy truck vehicles; (2) Develop innovative drag reducing concepts that are operationally and economically sound; and (3) Establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information, and demonstrate the potential of new drag-reduction devices. The studies described herein provide a demonstration of the applicability of the experience developed in the analysis of the standard configuration of the Generic Conventional Model. The modeling practices and procedures developed in prior efforts have been applied directly to the assessment of new configurations including a variety of geometric modifications and add-on devices. Application to the low-drag 'GTS' configuration of the GCM has confirmed that the error in predicted drag coefficients increases as the relative contribution of the base drag resulting from the vehicle wake to the total drag increases and it is recommended that more advanced turbulence modeling strategies be applied under those circumstances. Application to a commercially-developed boat tail device has confirmed that this restriction does not apply to geometries where the relative contribution of the base drag to the total drag is reduced by modifying the geometry in that region. Application to a modified GCM geometry with an open grille and radiator has confirmed that the underbody flow, while important for underhood cooling, has little impact on the drag coefficient of

  7. Drag and lift forces in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillard, F.; Forterre, Y.; Pouliquen, O.

    2013-09-01

    Forces exerted on obstacles moving in granular media are studied. The experiment consists in a horizontal cylinder rotating around the vertical axis in a granular medium. Both drag forces and lift forces experienced by the cylinder are measured. The first striking result is obtained during the first half rotation, before the cylinder crosses its wake. Despite the symmetry of the object, a strong lift force is measured, about 20 times the buoyancy. The scaling of this force is studied experimentally. The second remarkable observation is made after several rotations. The drag force dramatically drops and becomes independent of depth, showing that it no longer scales with the hydrostatic pressure. The rotation of the cylinder induces a structure in the packing, which screens the weight of the grains above

  8. Methods of reducing vehicle aerodynamic drag

    SciTech Connect

    Sirenko V.; Rohatgi U.

    2012-07-08

    A small scale model (length 1710 mm) of General Motor SUV was built and tested in the wind tunnel for expected wind conditions and road clearance. Two passive devices, rear screen which is plate behind the car and rear fairing where the end of the car is aerodynamically extended, were incorporated in the model and tested in the wind tunnel for different wind conditions. The conclusion is that rear screen could reduce drag up to 6.5% and rear fairing can reduce the drag by 26%. There were additional tests for front edging and rear vortex generators. The results for drag reduction were mixed. It should be noted that there are aesthetic and practical considerations that may allow only partial implementation of these or any drag reduction options.

  9. Aerodynamic drag in cycling: methods of assessment.

    PubMed

    Debraux, Pierre; Grappe, Frederic; Manolova, Aneliya V; Bertucci, William

    2011-09-01

    When cycling on level ground at a speed greater than 14 m/s, aerodynamic drag is the most important resistive force. About 90% of the total mechanical power output is necessary to overcome it. Aerodynamic drag is mainly affected by the effective frontal area which is the product of the projected frontal area and the coefficient of drag. The effective frontal area represents the position of the cyclist on the bicycle and the aerodynamics of the cyclist-bicycle system in this position. In order to optimise performance, estimation of these parameters is necessary. The aim of this study is to describe and comment on the methods used during the last 30 years for the evaluation of the effective frontal area and the projected frontal area in cycling, in both laboratory and actual conditions. Most of the field methods are not expensive and can be realised with few materials, providing valid results in comparison with the reference method in aerodynamics, the wind tunnel. Finally, knowledge of these parameters can be useful in practice or to create theoretical models of cycling performance. PMID:21936289

  10. Flight-Determined Subsonic Lift and Drag Characteristics of Seven Lifting-Body and Wing-Body Reentry Vehicle Configurations With Truncated Bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Edwin J.; Wang, K. Charles; Iliff, Kenneth W.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines flight-measured subsonic lift and drag characteristics of seven lifting-body and wing-body reentry vehicle configurations with truncated bases. The seven vehicles are the full-scale M2-F1, M2-F2, HL-10, X-24A, X-24B, and X-15 vehicles and the Space Shuttle prototype. Lift and drag data of the various vehicles are assembled under aerodynamic performance parameters and presented in several analytical and graphical formats. These formats unify the data and allow a greater understanding than studying the vehicles individually allows. Lift-curve slope data are studied with respect to aspect ratio and related to generic wind-tunnel model data and to theory for low-aspect-ratio planforms. The proper definition of reference area was critical for understanding and comparing the lift data. The drag components studied include minimum drag coefficient, lift-related drag, maximum lift-to-drag ratio, and, where available, base pressure coefficients. The effects of fineness ratio on forebody drag were also considered. The influence of forebody drag on afterbody (base) drag at low lift is shown to be related to Hoerner's compilation for body, airfoil, nacelle, and canopy drag. These analyses are intended to provide a useful analytical framework with which to compare and evaluate new vehicle configurations of the same generic family.

  11. Survey of lift-fan aerodynamic technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, David H.; Kirk, Jerry V.

    1993-01-01

    Representatives of NASA Ames Research Center asked that a summary of technology appropriate for lift-fan powered short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft be prepared so that new programs could more easily benefit from past research efforts. This paper represents one of six prepared for that purpose. The authors have conducted or supervised the conduct of research on lift-fan powered STOVL designs and some of their important components for decades. This paper will first address aerodynamic modeling requirements for experimental programs to assure realistic, trustworthy results. It will next summarize the results or efforts to develop satisfactory specialized STOVL components such as inlets and flow deflectors. It will also discuss problems with operation near the ground, aerodynamics while under lift-fan power, and aerodynamic prediction techniques. Finally, results of studies to reduce lift-fan noise will be presented. The paper will emphasize results from large scale experiments, where available, for reasons that will be brought out in the discussion. Some work with lift-engine powered STOVL aircraft is also applicable to lift-fan technology and will be presented herein. Small-scale data will be used where necessary to fill gaps.

  12. Experiences with optimizing airfoil shapes for maximum lift over drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doria, Michael L.

    1991-01-01

    The goal was to find airfoil shapes which maximize the ratio of lift over drag for given flow conditions. For a fixed Mach number, Reynolds number, and angle of attack, the lift and drag depend only on the airfoil shape. This then becomes a problem in optimization: find the shape which leads to a maximum value of lift over drag. The optimization was carried out using a self contained computer code for finding the minimum of a function subject to constraints. To find the lift and drag for each airfoil shape, a flow solution has to be obtained. This was done using a two dimensional Navier-Stokes code.

  13. Ontogeny of lift and drag production in ground birds

    PubMed Central

    Heers, Ashley M.; Tobalske, Bret W.; Dial, Kenneth P.

    2011-01-01

    The juvenile period is often a crucial interval for selective pressure on locomotor ability. Although flight is central to avian biology, little is known about factors that limit flight performance during development. To improve understanding of flight ontogeny, we used a propeller (revolving wing) model to test how wing shape and feather structure influence aerodynamic performance during development in the precocial chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar, 4 to >100 days post hatching). We spun wings in mid-downstroke posture and measured lift (L) and drag (D) using a force plate upon which the propeller assembly was mounted. Our findings demonstrate a clear relationship between feather morphology and aerodynamic performance. Independent of size and velocity, older wings with stiffer and more asymmetrical feathers, high numbers of barbicels and a high degree of overlap between barbules generate greater L and L:D ratios than younger wings with flexible, relatively symmetrical and less cohesive feathers. The gradual transition from immature feathers and drag-based performance to more mature feathers and lift-based performance appears to coincide with ontogenetic transitions in locomotor capacity. Younger birds engage in behaviors that require little aerodynamic force and that allow D to contribute to weight support, whereas older birds may expand their behavioral repertoire by flapping with higher tip velocities and generating greater L. Incipient wings are, therefore, uniquely but immediately functional and provide flight-incapable juveniles with access to three-dimensional environments and refugia. Such access may have conferred selective advantages to theropods with protowings during the evolution of avian flight. PMID:21307057

  14. Reference values and improvement of aerodynamic drag in professional cyclists.

    PubMed

    García-López, Juan; Rodríguez-Marroyo, José Antonio; Juneau, Carl-Etienne; Peleteiro, José; Martínez, Alfredo Córdova; Villa, José Gerardo

    2008-02-01

    The aims of this study were to measure the aerodynamic drag in professional cyclists, to obtain aerodynamic drag reference values in static and effort positions, to improve the cyclists' aerodynamic drag by modifying their position and cycle equipment, and to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of these modifications. The study was performed in a wind tunnel with five professional cyclists. Four positions were assessed with a time-trial bike and one position with a standard racing bike. In all positions, aerodynamic drag and kinematic variables were recorded. The drag area for the time-trial bike was 31% higher in the effort than static position, and lower than for the standard racing bike. Changes in the cyclists' position decreased the aerodynamic drag by 14%. The aero-helmet was not favourable for all cyclists. The reliability of aerodynamic drag measures in the wind tunnel was high (r > 0.96, coefficient of variation < 2%). In conclusion, we measured and improved the aerodynamic drag in professional cyclists. Our results were better than those of other researchers who did not assess aerodynamic drag during effort at race pace and who employed different wheels. The efficiency of the aero-helmet, and the validity, reliability, and sensitivity of the wind tunnel and aerodynamic field testing were addressed. PMID:17943597

  15. 1997 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 2; High Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop on February 25-28, 1997. The workshop was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag, prediction and minimization), High-Lift, Flight Controls, Supersonic Laminar Flow Control, and Sonic Boom Prediction. The workshop objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT Motion Simulator results were presented along with executives summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas.

  16. Lift and Drag of Wings with Small Span

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinig, F.

    1947-01-01

    The lift coefficient of!a wing of small span at first shows a linear increase for the increasing angle of attack, but to a lesser degree then was to be expected according to the theory of the lifting line; thereafter the lift coefficient increases more rapidly than linearity, as contrasted with the the theory of the lifting line. The induced drag coefficient for a given lift coefficient, on the other hand, is obviously much smaller than it would be according to the theory. A mall change in the theory of the lifting line will cover these deviations.

  17. Serrated trailing edges for improving lift and drag characteristics of lifting surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vijgen, Paul M. H. W. (Inventor); Howard, Floyd G. (Inventor); Bushnell, Dennis M. (Inventor); Holmes, Bruce J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An improvement in the lift and drag characteristics of a lifting surface is achieved by attaching a serrated panel to the trailing edge of the lifting surface. The serrations may have a saw-tooth configuration, with a 60 degree included angle between adjacent serrations. The serrations may vary in shape and size over the span-wise length of the lifting surface, and may be positioned at fixed or adjustable deflections relative to the chord of the lifting surface.

  18. Fuel Savings and Aerodynamic Drag Reduction from Rail Car Covers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storms, Bruce; Salari, Kambiz; Babb, Alex

    2008-01-01

    The potential for energy savings by reducing the aerodynamic drag of rail cars is significant. A previous study of aerodynamic drag of coal cars suggests that a 25% reduction in drag of empty cars would correspond to a 5% fuel savings for a round trip [1]. Rail statistics for the United States [2] report that approximately 5.7 billion liters of diesel fuel were consumed for coal transportation in 2002, so a 5% fuel savings would total 284 million liters. This corresponds to 2% of Class I railroad fuel consumption nationwide. As part of a DOE-sponsored study, the aerodynamic drag of scale rail cars was measured in a wind tunnel. The goal of the study was to measure the drag reduction of various rail-car cover designs. The cover designs tested yielded an average drag reduction of 43% relative to empty cars corresponding to an estimated round-trip fuel savings of 9%.

  19. Drag and lift coefficients evolution of a Savonius rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvin, A.; Benghrib, D.

    1989-10-01

    The lift and drag coefficients of the rotating Savonius wind machine are determined from the pressure difference measured between the upper plane and the lower plane of a blade. Pressure measurements have been performed for two sets of experiments; the first one for U ∞ = 10 m/s and the second one for U ∞ = 12.5 m/s. In each case it is to be noted that a negative lift effect is present for low values of the tip speed ratio λ. The lift coefficient becomes positive when λ increases. The drag coefficient is of course always negative.

  20. Progress in high-lift aerodynamic calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Stuart E.

    1993-01-01

    The current work presents progress in the effort to numerically simulate the flow over high-lift aerodynamic components, namely, multi-element airfoils and wings in either a take-off or a landing configuration. The computational approach utilizes an incompressible flow solver and an overlaid chimera grid approach. A detailed grid resolution study is presented for flow over a three-element airfoil. Two turbulence models, a one-equation Baldwin-Barth model and a two equation k-omega model are compared. Excellent agreement with experiment is obtained for the lift coefficient at all angles of attack, including the prediction of maximum lift when using the two-equation model. Results for two other flap riggings are shown. Three-dimensional results are presented for a wing with a square wing-tip as a validation case. Grid generation and topology is discussed for computing the flow over a T-39 Sabreliner wing with flap deployed and the initial calculations for this geometry are presented.

  1. In-Flight Subsonic Lift and Drag Characteristics Unique to Blunt-Based Lifting Reentry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Edwin J.; Wang, K. Charles; Iliff, Kenneth W.

    2007-01-01

    Lift and drag measurements have been analyzed for subsonic flight conditions for seven blunt-based reentry-type vehicles. Five of the vehicles are lifting bodies (M2-F1, M2-F2, HL-10, X-24A, and X-24B) and two are wing-body configurations (the X-15 and the Space Shuttle Enterprise). Base pressure measurements indicate that the base drag for full-scale vehicles is approximately three times greater than predicted by Hoerner's equation for three-dimensional bodies. Base drag and forebody drag combine to provide an optimal overall minimum drag (a drag "bucket") for a given configuration. The magnitude of this optimal drag, as well as the associated forebody drag, is dependent on the ratio of base area to vehicle wetted area. Counter-intuitively, the flight-determined optimal minimum drag does not occur at the point of minimum forebody drag, but at a higher forebody drag value. It was also found that the chosen definition for reference area for lift parameters should include the projection of planform area ahead of the wing trailing edge (i.e., forebody plus wing). Results are assembled collectively to provide a greater understanding of this class of vehicles than would occur by considering them individually.

  2. Preliminary flight-determined subsonic lift and drag characteristics of the X-29A forward-swept-wing airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, John W.; Huckabine, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    The X-29A subsonic lift and drag characteristics determined, met, or exceeded predictions, particularly with respect to the drag polar shapes. Induced drag levels were as great as 20 percent less than wind tunnel estimates, particularly at coefficients of lift above 0.8. Drag polar shape comparisons with other modern fighter aircraft showed the X-29A to have a better overall aircraft aerodynamic Oswald efficiency factor for the same aspect ratio. Two significant problems arose in the data reduction and analysis process. These included uncertainties in angle of attack upwash calibration and effects of maneuver dynamics on drag levels. The latter problem resulted from significantly improper control surface automatic camber control scheduling. Supersonic drag polar results were not obtained during this phase because of a lack of engine instrumentation to measure afterburner fuel flow.

  3. Exploring the Aerodynamic Drag of a Moving Cyclist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theilmann, Florian; Reinhard, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Although the physics of cycling itself is a complex mixture of aerodynamics, physiology, mechanics, and heuristics, using cycling as a context for teaching physics has a tradition of certainly more than 30 years. Here, a possible feature is the discussion of the noticeable resistant forces such as aerodynamic drag and the associated power…

  4. Drag of the complete configuration aerodynamic considerations, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.

    1975-01-01

    A number of drag items are related to the performance of a complete aircraft configuration. First, the effect of fuselage camber, wing and nacelle incidence are discussed from a viewpoint of design decision making. Second, the effect of overall cruise drag on the design gross and empty weight of the airplane is discussed. Examples show that cruise drag can have a very important influence on total airplane weight. Third, the effects of usable cruise lift-to-drag ratio and wing loading are shown to be important. Finally several research needs relating to design of the complete configuration are reviewed.

  5. Supersonic Wave Drag of Sweptback Tapered Wings at Zero Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margolis, Kenneth

    1947-01-01

    On the basis of a recently developed theory for sweptback wings at supersonic velocities, equations are derived for the wave drag of sweptback tapered wings with thin symmetrical double-wedge sections at zero lift. Calculations of section wave-drag distributions and wing wave drag are presented for families of tapered plan forms. Distributions of section wave drag along the span of tapered wings are, in general, very similar in shape to those of untapered plan forms. For a given taper ratio and aspect ratio, an appreciable reduction in wing wave-drag coefficient with increased sweepback is noted for the entire range of Mach number considered. For a given sweep and taper ratio, higher aspect ratios reduce the wing wave-drag coefficient at substantially subcritical supersonic Mach numbers. At Mach numbers approaching the critical value, that is, a value equal to the secant of the sweepback angle, the plan forms of low aspect ratio have lower drag coefficients. Calculations for wings of equal root bending stress (and hence different aspect ratio) indicate that tapering the wing reduces the wing wave-drag coefficient at Mach numbers considerably less than the critical value and a decrease of the drag coefficient with taper at Mach numbers near the critical value.

  6. Performance and Design Investigation of Heavy Lift Tiltrotor with Aerodynamic Interference Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeo, Yyeonsoo; Johnson, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    The aerodynamic interference effects on tiltrotor performance in cruise are investigated using comprehensive calculations, to better understand the physics and to quantify the effects on the aircraft design. Performance calculations were conducted for 146,600-lb conventional and quad tiltrotors, which are to cruise at 300 knots at 4000 ft/95 deg F condition. A parametric study was conducted to understand the effects of design parameters on the performance of the aircraft. Aerodynamic interference improves the aircraft lift-to-drag ratio of the baseline conventional tiltrotor. However, interference degrades the aircraft performance of the baseline quad tiltrotor, due mostly to the unfavorable effects from the front wing to the rear wing. A reduction of rotor tip speed increased the aircraft lift-to-drag ratio the most among the design parameters investigated.

  7. Lift, Drag, and Elevator Hinge Moments of Handley Page Control Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R H

    1928-01-01

    This report combines the wind tunnel results of tests on four control surface models made in the two wind tunnels of the Navy Aerodynamic Laboratory, Washington Navy Yard, during the years of 1922 and 1924, and submitted for publication to the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics May 7, 1927. The purpose of the tests was to compare, first, the lifts and the aerodynamic efficiencies of the control surfaces from which their relative effectiveness as tail planes could be determined; then the elevator hinge moments upon which their relative ease of operation depended. The lift and drag forces on the control surface models were obtained for various stabilizer angles and elevator settings in the 8 by 8 foot tunnel by the writer in 1922; the corresponding hinge moments were found in the 4 by 4 foot tunnel by Mr. R. M. Bear in 1924. (author)

  8. 1999 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 2; High Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, David E. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1999 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 8-12, 1999 in Anaheim, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in the areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among die scientists and engineers working on HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and midpoint optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented, along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program. This Volume 2/Part 2 publication covers the tools and methods development session.

  9. 1998 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 2; High Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillin, S. Naomi (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1998 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 9-13, in Los Angeles, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program.

  10. The impact of lift and drag on 6DOF motion of LEO objects : formation control and debris behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Brenton; Boyce, Russell; Brown, Melrose

    2016-07-01

    Perturbing forces on spacecraft are a challenge for the establishment and maintenance of satellite formations. For large satellites, the use of thrusters is a practical means of countering perturbing forces. However, long-term thrusting is not currently feasible for miniaturised satellites due to volume and mass constraints. Astrodynamics effects - in particular, passive aerodynamic lift and drag forces - are possible means for miniaturised satellites to maintain a formation in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Currently, lift and drag for rendezvous have been considered in the presence of simplified orbital models, namely two body motion with the J2 effect. Given the small magnitude of lift and drag in LEO, it is unclear as to the control effectiveness of these aerodynamic forces under all orbital perturbations including solar radiation pressure, third body gravitation, and the non-spherical gravity. The work presented here will explore the extent to which aerodynamic lift and drag can be utilised for formation establishment and maintenance under changing operating conditions, including altitude, orbital inclination, space weather, sensor errors, and all-encompassing orbital perturbations. This work applies an in-house developed orbital propagation code to simulate the motion of formation flying spacecraft under differing conditions. The results will help miniaturised satellite formation flight planners better plan and operate future formation missions, and will also feed into improved understanding of the 6DOF motion of near-Earth orbit objects, including that of uncontrolled objects such as space debris.

  11. Aerodynamic characteristics of a propeller powered high lift semispan wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takallu, M. A.; Gentry, G. L., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted on the engine/airframe integration aerodynamics for potential high-lift aircraft configurations. The model consisted of a semispan wing with a double-isolated flap system and a Krueger leading edge device. The advanced propeller and the powered nacelle were tested and aerodynamic characteristics of the combined system are presented. It was found that the lift coefficient of the powered wing could be increased by the propeller slipstream when the rotational speed was increased and high-lift devices were deployed. Moving the nacelle/propeller closer to the wing in the vertical direction indicated higher lift augmentation than a shift in the longitudinal direction. A pitch-down nacelle inclination enhanced the lift performance of the system much better than vertical and horizontal variation of the nacelle locations and showed that the powered wing can sustain higher angles of attack near maximum lift performance.

  12. Drop tower with no aerodynamic drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, J. M., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Cooling air accelerated to match velocity of falling object eliminates drag. 3 meter drop tower with suction fan and specific geometry causes air to accelerate downward at 1 g. Although cooling of molten material released from top is slow because surrounding air moves with it, drop remains nearly spherical.

  13. Aerodynamic Drag Reduction Apparatus For Wheeled Vehicles In Ground Effect

    DOEpatents

    Ortega, Jason M.; Salari, Kambiz

    2005-12-13

    An apparatus for reducing the aerodynamic drag of a wheeled vehicle in a flowstream, the vehicle having a vehicle body and a wheel assembly supporting the vehicle body. The apparatus includes a baffle assembly adapted to be positioned upstream of the wheel assembly for deflecting airflow away from the wheel assembly so as to reduce the incident pressure on the wheel assembly.

  14. Optimization of ski jumper's posture considering lift-to-drag ratio and stability.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki-Don; Park, Min-Jung; Kim, Kwang-Yong

    2012-08-01

    An optimization analysis of a ski jumper's posture has been performed to improve the lift-to-drag ratio, and to examine aerodynamic stability to ensure flight control and safety. Three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations were discretized using finite volume approximations for the flow analysis, and the shear stress transport k-ω turbulence model was used for a turbulence closure. The Airfoil theory and principles of aircraft stability were used to examine the stability mechanism. Two ski jumper posture angles were chosen as design variables through a preliminary test, and the lift-to-drag ratio was used as an objective function for the optimization problem. Thirteen design points within design spaces are selected by Latin hypercube sampling. In order to predict the objective function values in the design space, the Kriging model was constructed using the numerical results on the design points. By the sequential quadratic programming, the optimal point was found from the constructed the Kriging model. The Kriging model predicted the objective function value at the optimum point with a 1.1% error compared to the value obtained by numerical analysis. The optimum design showed a considerable lift-to-drag ratio improvement compared to the reference design. PMID:22727524

  15. Measuring the Effects of Lift and Drag on Projectile Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2012-01-01

    The trajectory of a projectile through the air is affected both by gravity and by aerodynamic forces. The latter forces can conveniently be ignored in many situations, even when they are comparatively large. For example, if a 145-g, 74-mm diameter baseball is pitched at 40 ms[superscript -1] (89.5 mph), it experiences a drag force of about 1.5 N.…

  16. Exploring the aerodynamic drag of a moving cyclist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theilmann, Florian; Reinhard, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Although the physics of cycling itself is a complex mixture of aerodynamics, physiology, mechanics, and heuristics, using cycling as a context for teaching physics has a tradition of certainly more than 30 years. Here, a possible feature is the discussion of the noticeable resistant forces such as aerodynamic drag and the associated power consumption of cycling. We use an energy-based approach to model the power input for driving a bike at a constant speed. This approach uses a numerical simulation of the slowing down of a bike moving without pedaling which is implementable with standard spreadsheet software. The simulation can be compared directly to simple measurements with real bikes as well as to an analytic solution of the underlying differential equation. It is possible to derive realistic values for the aerodynamic drag coefficient {{c}\\text{D}} and the total power consumption within a secondary physics course. We also report experiences from teaching such a course to class 8 students.

  17. Drag and lift reduction of a 3D bluff-body using active vortex generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aider, Jean-Luc; Beaudoin, Jean-François; Wesfreid, José Eduardo

    2010-05-01

    In this study, a passive flow control experiment on a 3D bluff-body using vortex generators (VGs) is presented. The bluff-body is a modified Ahmed body (Ahmed in J Fluids Eng 105:429-434 1983) with a curved rear part, instead of a slanted one, so that the location of the flow separation is no longer forced by the geometry. The influence of a line of non-conventional trapezoïdal VGs on the aerodynamic forces (drag and lift) induced on the bluff-body is investigated. The high sensitivity to many geometric (angle between the trapezoïdal element and the wall, spanwise spacing between the VGs, longitudinal location on the curved surface) and physical (freestream velocity) parameters is clearly demonstrated. The maximum drag reduction is -12%, while the maximum global lift reduction can reach more than -60%, with a strong dependency on the freestream velocity. For some configurations, the lift on the rear axle of the model can be inverted (-104%). It is also shown that the VGs are still efficient even downstream of the natural separation line. Finally, a dynamic parameter is chosen and a new set-up with motorized vortex generators is proposed. Thanks to this active device. The optimal configurations depending on two parameters are found more easily, and a significant drag and lift reduction (up to -14% drag reduction) can be reached for different freestream velocities. These results are then analyzed through wall pressure and velocity measurements in the near-wake of the bluff-body with and without control. It appears that the largest drag and lift reduction is clearly associated to a strong increase of the size of the recirculation bubble over the rear slant. Investigation of the velocity field in a cross-section downstream the model reveals that, in the same time, the intensity of the longitudinal trailing vortices is strongly reduced, suggesting that the drag reduction is due to the breakdown of the balance between the separation bubble and the longitudinal vortices

  18. Measuring the Effects of Lift and Drag on Projectile Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2012-02-01

    The trajectory of a projectile through the air is affected both by gravity and by aerodynamic forces. The latter forces can conveniently be ignored in many situations, even when they are comparatively large. For example, if a 145-g, 74-mm diameter baseball is pitched at 40 ms-1 (89.5 mph), it experiences a drag force of about 1.5 N. The gravitational force on the ball 1.42 N. Nevertheless, the trajectory of a baseball pitched without spin is not strongly affected by the drag force. Because the ball is relatively heavy and the flight distance is relatively small (about 60 ft), the drag force reduces the ball speed by only about 10% by the time it reaches the batter. As a result, the time taken for the ball to reach the batter is only about 5% longer than in a vacuum, and the actual trajectory is also very similar.2

  19. Aerodynamic drag reduction by vertical splitter plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliéron, Patrick; Kourta, Azeddine

    2010-01-01

    The capacity of vertical splitter plates placed at the front or the rear of a simplified car geometry to reduce drag, with and without skew angle, is investigated for Reynolds numbers between 1.0 × 106 and 1.6 × 106. The geometry used is a simplified geometry to represent estate-type vehicles, for the rear section, and MPV-type vehicle. Drag reductions of nearly 28% were obtained for a zero skew angle with splitter plates placed at the front of models of MPV or utility vehicles. The results demonstrate the advantage of adapting the position and orientation of the splitter plates in the presence of a lateral wind. All these results confirm the advantage of this type of solution, and suggest that this expertise should be used in the automotive field to reduce consumption and improve dynamic stability of road vehicles.

  20. Aerodynamic analysis of natural flapping flight using a lift model based on spanwise flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alford, Lionel D., Jr.

    This study successfully described the mechanics of flapping hovering flight within the framework of conventional aerodynamics. Additionally, the theory proposed and supported by this research provides an entirely new way of looking at animal flapping flight. The mechanisms of biological flight are not well understood, and researchers have not been able to describe them using conventional aerodynamic forces. This study proposed that natural flapping flight can be broken down into a simplest model, that this model can then be used to develop a mathematical representation of flapping hovering flight, and finally, that the model can be successfully refined and compared to biological flapping data. This paper proposed a unique theory that the lift of a flapping animal is primarily the result of velocity across the cambered span of the wing. A force analysis was developed using centripetal acceleration to define an acceleration profile that would lead to a spanwise velocity profile. The force produced by the spanwise velocity profile was determined using a computational fluid dynamics analysis of flow on the simplified wing model. The overall forces on the model were found to produce more than twice the lift required for hovering flight. In addition, spanwise lift was shown to generate induced drag on the wing. Induced drag increased both the model wing's lift and drag. The model allowed the development of a mathematical representation that could be refined to account for insect hovering characteristics and that could predict expected physical attributes of the fluid flow. This computational representation resulted in a profile of lift and drag production that corresponds to known force profiles for insect flight. The model of flapping flight was shown to produce results similar to biological observation and experiment, and these results can potentially be applied to the study of other flapping animals. This work provides a foundation on which to base further exploration

  1. Aerodynamic characteristics of a propeller-powered high-lift semispan wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Garl L., Jr.; Takallu, M. A.; Applin, Zachary T.

    1994-01-01

    A small-scale semispan high-lift wing-flap system equipped under the wing with a turboprop engine assembly was tested in the LaRC 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. Experimental data were obtained for various propeller rotational speeds, nacelle locations, and nacelle inclinations. To isolate the effects of the high lift system, data were obtained with and without the flaps and leading-edge device. The effects of the propeller slipstream on the overall longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of the wing-propeller assembly were examined. Test results indicated that the lift coefficient of the wing could be increased by the propeller slipstream when the rotational speed was increased and high-lift devices were deployed. Decreasing the nacelle inclination (increased pitch down) enhanced the lift performance of the system much more than varying the vertical or horizontal location of the nacelle. Furthermore, decreasing the nacelle inclination led to higher lift curve slope values, which indicated that the powered wing could sustain higher angles of attack near maximum lift performance. Any lift augmentation was accompanied by a drag penalty due to the increased wing lift.

  2. 1999 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 2; High Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, David E. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The High-Speed Research Program sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Review on February 8-12, 1999 in Anaheim, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of: Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization) and High-Lift. The review objectives were to: (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. The HSR AP Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas within the airframe element of the HSR Program. This Volume 2/Part 1 publication presents the High-Lift Configuration Development session.

  3. Aerodynamics model for a generic ASTOVL lift-fan aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birckelbaw, Lourdes G.; Mcneil, Walter E.; Wardwell, Douglas A.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the aerodynamics model used in a simulation model of an advanced short takeoff and vertical landing (ASTOVL) lift-fan fighter aircraft. The simulation model was developed for use in piloted evaluations of transition and hover flight regimes, so that only low speed (M approximately 0.2) aerodynamics are included in the mathematical model. The aerodynamic model includes the power-off aerodynamic forces and moments and the propulsion system induced aerodynamic effects, including ground effects. The power-off aerodynamics data were generated using the U.S. Air Force Stability and Control Digital DATCOM program and a NASA Ames in-house graphics program called VORVIEW which allows the user to easily analyze arbitrary conceptual aircraft configurations using the VORLAX program. The jet-induced data were generated using the prediction methods of R. E. Kuhn et al., as referenced in this report.

  4. System technology analysis of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles - Moderate lift/drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florence, D. E.; Fischer, G.

    1983-01-01

    The utilization of procedures involving aerodynamic braking and/or aerodynamic maneuvering on return from higher altitude orbits to low-earth orbit makes it possible to realize significant performance benefits. The present study is concerned with a number of mission scenarios for Aeroassisted Orbital Transfer Vehicles (AOTV) and the impact of potential technology advances in the performance enhancement of the class of AOTV's having a hypersonic lift to drag ratio (L/D) of 0.75 to 1.5. It is found that the synergistic combination of a hypersonic L/D of 1.2, an advanced cryopropelled engine, and an LH2 drop tank (1-1/2 stage) leads to a single 65,000 pound shuttle, two-man geosynchronous mission with 2100 pounds of useful paylod. Additional payload enhancement is possible with AOTV dry weight reductions due to technology advances in the areas of vehicle structures and thermal protection systems and other subsystems.

  5. Aerodynamics of Drag Reduction Devices for Semi-Trucks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Jason; Salari, Kambiz

    2014-11-01

    An increasing number of semi-trucks throughout the United States are being retrofitted with aerodynamic drag reduction devices to improve the vehicle fuel economy. Such devices typically include both trailer skirts and boattails to mitigate trailer underbody drag and base drag, respectively. Since full-scale measurements of the device performance are especially prone to experimental noise due to the effects of the driver, route, payload, or atmospheric conditions, more precise data must be obtained within a wind tunnel. In this experimental study, the wind-averaged drag coefficient is measured for a detailed 1/8th scale semi-truck model. The Reynolds number based upon the vehicle width is 1.7e6. A number of trailer skirt and boattail device configurations are considered, as well as the effects of the boattail deflection angle. The results of this study demonstrate that a combination of a trailer skirt and boattail reduces the aerodynamic drag of a semi-truck by as much as 25%. If such a combination were applied to each of the semi-trucks throughout the United States, several billion dollars in fuel savings could be achieved each year. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-657810.

  6. Geometry program for aerodynamic lifting surface theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medan, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    A computer program that provides the geometry and boundary conditions appropriate for an analysis of a lifting, thin wing with control surfaces in linearized, subsonic, steady flow is presented. The kernel function method lifting surface theory is applied. The data which is generated by the program is stored on disk files or tapes for later use by programs which calculate an influence matrix, plot the wing planform, and evaluate the loads on the wing. In addition to processing data for subsequent use in a lifting surface analysis, the program is useful for computing area and mean geometric chords of the wing and control surfaces.

  7. Aerodynamic development of a lifting body launch vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Reaser, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    The Lockheed Martin Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) and X-33 demonstrator vehicle incorporate a lifting body aerodynamic design. This design originated from the X-24, HL-20 and ACRV lifting body database. It evolved rapidly through successive wind tunnel tests using stereolithography generated plastic models and rapid data acquisition and analysis. The culmination of this work is a configuration that is close to meeting a goal of at least neutral stability about all axes throughout the operating Mach spectrum. The development process and aerodynamic evolution are described. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Bernoulli's Law and Aerodynamic Lifting Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltner, Klaus

    1990-01-01

    Explains the lifting force based on Bernoulli's law and as a reaction force. Discusses the interrelation of both explanations. Considers accelerations in line with stream lines and perpendicular to stream lines. (YP)

  9. Reducing Aerodynamic Drag on Empty Open Cargo Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C.; Storms, Bruce L.; Dzoan, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Some simple structural modifications have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing aerodynamic drag on vehicles that have empty open cargo bays. The basic idea is to break up the airflow in a large open cargo bay by inserting panels to divide the bay into a series of smaller bays. In the case of a coal car, this involves inserting a small number (typically between two and four) of vertical full-depth or partial-depth panels.

  10. An Aerodynamic Assessment of Micro-Drag Generators (MDGs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1998-01-01

    Commercial transports as well as fighter aircraft of the future are being designed with very low drag (friction and pressure). Concurrently, commuter airports are being built or envisioned to be built in the centers of metropolitan areas where shorter runways and/or reduced noise footprints on takeoff and landing are required. These requirements and the fact that drag is lower on new vehicles than on older aircraft have resulted in vehicles that require a large amount of braking force (from landing-gear brakes, spoilers, high-lift flaps, thrust reversers, etc.). Micro-drag generators (MDGs) were envisioned to create a uniformly distributed drag force along a vehicle by forcing the flow to separate on the aft-facing surface of a series of deployable devices, thus, generating drag. The devices are intended to work at any speed and for any type of vehicle (aircraft, ground vehicles, sea-faring vehicles). MDGs were applied to a general aviation wing and a representative fuselage shape and tested in two subsonic wind tunnels. The results showed increases in drag of 2 to 6 times that of a "clean" configuration.

  11. Simulation-based aerodynamic design of high-lift devices in ground effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melvin, Arron Hector

    2007-12-01

    A simulation-based aerodynamic design tool is developed for multi-element high-lift airfoils operating in ground effect. A control theory approach is adopted, using the compressible Navier-Stokes equations as the basis for viscous design of airfoil element shapes and relative positioning. Particular considerations of aerodynamic design, high-lift systems, and the ground effect are described, and the suitability of aerodynamic shape optimization of such systems is discussed. The model of fluid flow and its discretization for solution on digital computers is investigated. A cell-centered finite-volume explicit multigrid method is used to solve both the flow and adjoint systems utilizing structured multiblock meshes. The adjoint equations for shape optimization are developed using a continuous adjoint formulation, and implemented with a moving ground boundary condition for the first time. A suite of test cases verified and validated the numerical algorithms and implementation. Realistic case studies were performed, demonstrating significant performance improvements over the baseline configurations. These included two free-air multi-element airfoil drag minimizations, and in addition two inverted two-element airfoil drag minimizations in ground effect.

  12. Boundary Layer Relaminarization and High-Lift Aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourassa, Corey; Thomas, Flint O.; Nelson, Robert C.

    1998-11-01

    Modern high-lift devices are complicated systems that exhibit a variety of complex flow physics phenomena. Thomas( Thomas, F.O., Liu, X., & Nelson, R.C., 1997, ``Experimental Investigation of the Confluent Boundary Layer of a High-Lift System,'' AIAA Paper 97-1934.) outlines several critical flow phenomena, dubbed ``high-lift building block flows'', that can be found in a typical multi-element high-lift system. One such high-lift building block flow is turbulent boundary layer relaminarization, which may be responsible for such phenomena as ``inverse Reynolds number effects.'' Flight test experiments on leading edge transition and relaminarization conducted by Yip, et al(Yip, et al), ``The NASA B737-100 High-Lift Flight Research Program--Measurements and Computations,'' Aeronautical Journal, Paper No. 2125, Nov. 1995. using the NASA Transport Systems Research Vehicle, a Boeing 737-100, have provided tantalizing evidence but not proof of the existence of relaminarization in high-lift systems. To investigate the possibility of boundary layer relaminarization occuring on a high-lift system, a joint wind tunnel/flight test program is in progress with the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center to determine the role, if any, that turbulent boundary layer relaminarization plays in high-lift aerodynamics. Sponsored under NASA grant No. NAG4-123

  13. WAVDRAG- ZERO-LIFT WAVE DRAG OF COMPLEX AIRCRAFT CONFIGURATIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craidon, C. B.

    1994-01-01

    WAVDRAG calculates the supersonic zero-lift wave drag of complex aircraft configurations. The numerical model of an aircraft is used throughout the design process from concept to manufacturing. WAVDRAG incorporates extended geometric input capabilities to permit use of a more accurate mathematical model. With WAVDRAG, the engineer can define aircraft components as fusiform or nonfusiform in terms of non-intersecting contours in any direction or more traditional parallel contours. In addition, laterally asymmetric configurations can be simulated. The calculations in WAVDRAG are based on Whitcomb's area-rule computation of equivalent-bodies, with modifications for supersonic speed. Instead of using a single equivalent-body, WAVDRAG calculates a series of equivalent-bodies, one for each roll angle. The total aircraft configuration wave drag is the integrated average of the equivalent-body wave drags through the full roll range of 360 degrees. WAVDRAG currently accepts up to 30 user-defined components containing a maximum of 50 contours as geometric input. Each contour contains a maximum of 50 points. The Mach number, angle-of-attack, and coordinates of angle-of-attack rotation are also input. The program warns of any fusiform-body line segments having a slope larger than the Mach angle. WAVDRAG calculates total drag and the wave-drag coefficient of the specified aircraft configuration. WAVDRAG is written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC CYBER 170 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 63K (octal) of 60 bit words. This program was developed in 1983.

  14. Aerodynamic principles of the direct lifting propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrenk, Martin

    1934-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to make the complicated processes on the direct-lift propeller amenable to analysis and observation. This is accomplished by placing the physical phenomena, starting with the most elementary process, in the foreground, while limiting the mathematical treatment to the most essential in view of the fundamental defects of the theorems. Comparison with model experiments supplements and corroborates the theoretical results.

  15. Two-Dimensional High-Lift Aerodynamic Optimization Using Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenman, Roxana M.

    1998-01-01

    The high-lift performance of a multi-element airfoil was optimized by using neural-net predictions that were trained using a computational data set. The numerical data was generated using a two-dimensional, incompressible, Navier-Stokes algorithm with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Because it is difficult to predict maximum lift for high-lift systems, an empirically-based maximum lift criteria was used in this study to determine both the maximum lift and the angle at which it occurs. The 'pressure difference rule,' which states that the maximum lift condition corresponds to a certain pressure difference between the peak suction pressure and the pressure at the trailing edge of the element, was applied and verified with experimental observations for this configuration. Multiple input, single output networks were trained using the NASA Ames variation of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for each of the aerodynamic coefficients (lift, drag and moment). The artificial neural networks were integrated with a gradient-based optimizer. Using independent numerical simulations and experimental data for this high-lift configuration, it was shown that this design process successfully optimized flap deflection, gap, overlap, and angle of attack to maximize lift. Once the neural nets were trained and integrated with the optimizer, minimal additional computer resources were required to perform optimization runs with different initial conditions and parameters. Applying the neural networks within the high-lift rigging optimization process reduced the amount of computational time and resources by 44% compared with traditional gradient-based optimization procedures for multiple optimization runs.

  16. Aerodynamic drag control by pulsed jets on simplified car geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliéron, Patrick; Kourta, Azeddine

    2013-02-01

    Aerodynamic drag control by pulsed jets is tested in a wind tunnel around a simplified car geometry named Ahmed body with a rear slant angle of 35°. Pulsed jet actuators are located 5 × 10-3 m from the top of the rear window. These actuators are produced by a pressure difference ranging from 1.5 to 6.5 × 105 Pa. Their excitation frequency can vary between 10 and 550 Hz. The analysis of the control effects is based on wall visualizations, aerodynamic drag coefficient measurements, and the velocity fields obtained by 2D PIV measurements. The maximum drag reduction is 20 % and is obtained for the excitation frequency F j = 500 Hz and for the pressure difference ∆ P = 1.5 × 105 Pa. This result is linked with a substantial reduction in the transverse development of the longitudinal vortex structures coming from the left and right lateral sides of the rear window, with a displacement of the vortex centers downstream and with a decrease in the transverse rotational absolute values of these structures.

  17. Effect of Groundboard Height on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Lifting Circular Cylinder Using Tangential Blowing from Surface Slots for Lift Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, Vernard E.

    1961-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation has been made to determine the ground effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of a lifting circular cylinder using tangential blowing from surface slots to generate high lift coefficients. The tests were made on a semispan model having a length 4 times the cylinder diameter and an end plate of 2.5 diameters. The tests were made at low speeds at a Reynolds number of approximately 290,000, over a range of momentum coefficients from 0.14 to 4.60, and over a range of groundboard heights from 1.5 to 10 cylinder diameters. The investigation showed an earlier stall angle and a large loss of lift coefficient as the groundboard was brought close to the cylinder when large lift coefficients were being generated. For example, at a momentum coefficient of 4.60 the maximum lift coefficient was reduced from a value of 20.3 at a groundboard height of 10 cylinder diameters to a value of 8.7 at a groundboard height of 1.5 cylinder diameters. In contrast to this there was little effect on the lift characteristics of changes in groundboard height when lift coefficients of about 4.5 were being generated. At a height of 1.5 cylinder diameters the drag coefficients generally increased rapidly when the slot position angle for maximum lift was exceeded. Slightly below the slot position angle for maximum lift, the groundboard had a beneficial effect, that is, the drag for a given lift was less near the groundboard than away from the groundboard. The variation of maximum circulation lift coefficient (maximum lift coefficient minus momentum coefficient) obtained in this investigation is in general agreement with a theory developed for a jet-flap wing which assumes that the loss in circulation is the result of blockage of the main stream beneath the wing.

  18. Experimental and theoretical aerodynamic characteristics of a high-lift semispan wing model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applin, Zachary T.; Gentry, Garl L., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical aerodynamic characteristics were compared for a high-lift, semispan wing configuration that incorporated a slightly modified version of the NASA Advanced Laminar Flow Control airfoil section. The experimental investigation was conducted in the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel at chord Reynolds numbers of 2.36 and 3.33 million. A two-dimensional airfoil code and a three-dimensional panel code were used to obtain aerodynamic predictions. Two-dimensional data were corrected for three-dimensional effects. Comparisons between predicted and measured values were made for the cruise configuration and for various high-lift configurations. Both codes predicted lift and pitching moment coefficients that agreed well with experiment for the cruise configuration. These parameters were overpredicted for all high-lift configurations. Drag coefficient was underpredicted for all cases. Corrected two-dimensional pressure distributions typically agreed well with experiment, while the panel code overpredicted the leading-edge suction peak on the wing. One important feature missing from both of these codes was a capability for separated flow analysis. The major cause of disparity between the measured data and predictions presented herein was attributed to separated flow conditions.

  19. FY2003 Annual Report: DOE Project on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R C; Salari, K; Ortega, J; DeChant, L J; Roy, C J; Payne, J J; Hassan, B; Pointer, W D; Browand, F; Hammache, M; Hsu, T; Ross, J; Satran, D; Heineck, J; Walker, S; Yaste, D; Englar, R; Leonard, A; Rubel, M; Chatelain, P

    2003-10-24

    Objective: {sm_bullet} Provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag of heavy truck vehicles. {sm_bullet} Establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information, and demonstrate potential of new drag-reduction devices.

  20. Models of Lift and Drag Coefficients of Stalled and Unstalled Airfoils in Wind Turbines and Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Equations are developed with which to calculate lift and drag coefficients along the spans of torsionally-stiff rotating airfoils of the type used in wind turbine rotors and wind tunnel fans, at angles of attack in both the unstalled and stalled aerodynamic regimes. Explicit adjustments are made for the effects of aspect ratio (length to chord width) and airfoil thickness ratio. Calculated lift and drag parameters are compared to measured parameters for 55 airfoil data sets including 585 test points. Mean deviation was found to be -0.4 percent and standard deviation was 4.8 percent. When the proposed equations were applied to the calculation of power from a stall-controlled wind turbine tested in a NASA wind tunnel, mean deviation from 54 data points was -1.3 percent and standard deviation was 4.0 percent. Pressure-rise calculations for a large wind tunnel fan deviated by 2.7 percent (mean) and 4.4 percent (standard). The assumption that a single set of lift and drag coefficient equations can represent the stalled aerodynamic behavior of a wide variety of airfoils was found to be satisfactory.

  1. Applications of low lift to drag ratio aerobrakes using angle of attack variation for control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulqueen, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    Several applications of low lift to drag ratio aerobrakes are investigated which use angle of attack variation for control. The applications are: return from geosynchronous or lunar orbit to low Earth orbit; and planetary aerocapture at Earth and Mars. A number of aerobrake design considerations are reviewed. It was found that the flow impingement behind the aerobrake and the aerodynamic heating loads are the primary factors that control the sizing of an aerobrake. The heating loads and other loads, such as maximum acceleration, are determined by the vehicle ballistic coefficient, the atmosphere entry conditions, and the trajectory design. Several formulations for defining an optimum trajectory are reviewed, and the various performance indices that can be used are evaluated. The 'nearly grazing' optimal trajectory was found to provide the best compromise between the often conflicting goals of minimizing the vehicle propulsive requirements and minimizing vehicle loads. The relationship between vehicle and trajectory design is investigated further using the results of numerical simulations of trajectories for each aerobrake application. The data show the sensitivity of the trajectories to several vehicle parameters and atmospheric density variations. The results of the trajectory analysis show that low lift to drag ratio aerobrakes, which use angle of attack variation for control, can potentially be used for a wide range of aerobrake applications.

  2. Distribution of wave drag and lift in the vicinity of wing tips at supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evvard, John C

    1947-01-01

    The point-source-distribution method of calculating the aerodynamic coefficients of thin wings at supersonic speeds was extended to include the effect of the region between the wing boundary and the foremost Mach wave from the wing leading edge. The effect of this region on the surface velocity potential has been determined by an equivalent function, which is evaluated over a portion of the wing surface. In this manner, the effect of angles of attack and yaw as well as the asymmetry of top and bottom wing surfaces may be calculated. As examples of the method, the pressure distribution on a thin plate wing of rectangular plan form as well as the lift and the drag coefficients as a function of Mach number, angle of attack, and aspect ratio are calculated. The equations for the surface velocity potential of several other plan forms are also included. (author)

  3. Maximum projectile range with drag and lift, with particular application to golf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlichson, Herman

    1983-04-01

    This paper explores the interesting problem of projectile motion without the vacuum idealization. Particular attention is paid to golf ball trajectories with and without lift. No lift trajectories with linear and quadratic drag are considered first. Then, trajectories with lift and linear drag are investigated. Projection angles for maximum range are determined for all these cases. Computer solutions are used throughout, with a Runge-Kutta routine used for all cases except for the well-known closed solution for the no lift, linear drag projectile.

  4. A Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of the Lift and Drag Characteristics of Hydrofoils at Subcritical and Supercritical Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadlin, Kenneth L; Shuford, Charles L , Jr; Mcgehee, John R

    1955-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation at subcavitation speeds was made of the effect of the free-water surface and rigid boundaries on the lift and drag of an aspect-ratio-10 hydrofoil at both subcritical and supercritical speeds and of an aspect ratio-4 hydrofoil at supercritical speeds. Approximate theoretical solutions for the effects of the free-water surface and rigid boundaries on drag at subcritical speeds are developed. An approximate theoretical solution for the effects of these boundaries on drag at subcritical speeds is also presented. The agreement between theory and experiment at both supercritical and subcritical speeds is satisfactory for engineering calculations of hydrofoil characteristics from aerodynamic data. The experimental investigation indicated no appreciable effect of the limiting speed of wave propagation on lift-curve slope or angle of zero lift. It also showed that the increase in drag as the critical speed is approached from the supercritical range is gradual. The result is contrary to the abrupt increase at the critical speed predicted by theory.

  5. Maximum lift/drag ratio of flat plates with bluntness and skin friction at hypersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tauber, M. E.

    1986-01-01

    Newtonian theory is used to derive a simple expression for the maximum lift/drag ratio of flat plates with bluntness and skin friction at hypersonic speeds. The bluntness drag is assumed to be independent of angle of attack. Because the effect of skin friction is of second order over the angle of attack range for maximum lift/drag ratio, it was assumed constant. As an example, the expression is applied to the Space Shuttle.

  6. The spanwise distribution of lift for minimum induced drag of wings having a given lift and a given bending moment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T.

    1950-01-01

    The problem of the minimum induced drag of wings having a given lift and a given span is extended to include cases in which the bending moment to be supported by the wing is also given. The theory is limited to lifting surfaces traveling at subsonic speeds. It is found that the required shape of the downwash distribution can be obtained in an elementary way which is applicable to a variety of such problems. Expressions for the minimum drag and the corresponding spanwise load distributions are also given for the case in which the lift and the bending moment about the wing root are fixed while the span is allowed to vary. The results show a 15-percent reduction of the induced drag with a 15-percent increase in span as compared with results for an elliptically loaded wing having the same total lift and bending moment.

  7. Inlet Aerodynamics and Ram Drag of Laser-Propelled Lightcraft Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langener, Tobias; Myrabo, Leik; Rusak, Zvi

    2010-05-01

    Numerical simulations are used to study the aerodynamic inlet properties of three axisymmetric configurations of laser-propelled Lightcraft vehicles operating at subsonic, transonic and supersonic speeds up to Mach 5. The 60 cm vehicles were sized for launching 0.1-1.0 kg nanosatellites with combined-cycle airbreathing/rocket engines, transitioning between propulsion modes at roughly Mach 5-6. Results provide the pressure, temperature, density, and velocity flowfields around and through the three representative vehicle/engine configurations, as well as giving the resulting ram drag and total drag coefficients—all as a function of flight Mach number. Simulations with rotating boundaries were also carried out, since for stability reasons, Lightcraft are normally spun up before lift-off. Given the three alternatives, it is demonstrated that the optimal geometry for minimum drag is the configuration with a parabola nose; hence, these inlet flow conditions are being applied in subsequent "direct connect" 2D laser propulsion experiments in a small transonic flow facility.

  8. Preliminary report on in-flight measurement of rotor hub drag and lift using the RSRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) is a compound helicopter that was test flown as a fixed wing aircraft, with the main rotor blades removed and the rotor hub installed. An onboard rotor load measurement system measured the resulting rotor hub drag and lift. Measured hub drag and lift are plotted for comparison to that predicted by full scale and 1/6 scale model wind tunnel tests. The success of the demonstration gives confidence that planned improvements to the RSRA will allow high accuracy hub drag and lift measurements to be made in flight on a routine research basis.

  9. Lift, Drag and Flow-field Measurements around a Single-degree-of-freedom Toy Ornithopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez Alarcon, Ramiro; Balakumar, B. J.; Allen, James

    2010-11-01

    The aerodynamics of a flight-worthy toy ornithopter under laminar inflow conditions are studied using a combination of load cell, flow visualization, high speed camera and PIV experiments. All the experiments were performed in the large wind tunnel facility at New Mexico State University, with the exception of a free flight test of the model. Measurements from a six-axis load cell were used to capture the variation of the lift and drag forces at various angles of attack, flapping frequencies and free-speed velocities. Smoke visualization is used to clearly demonstrate that the momentum flux in the downward direction during downstroke exceeds the upward momentum flux during upstroke due to the flexion of the wing and its angle of attack. This net surplus creates the lift in such ornithopter designs despite the stroke symmetry. PIV measurements are then performed at suitable locations to identify flow structures around the wing at various spanwise locations. A control volume analysis is performed to compare the momentum deficit in the wake to the load cell measurements.

  10. Optimal control of lift/drag ratios on a rotating cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ou, Yuh-Roung; Burns, John A.

    1992-01-01

    We present the numerical solution to a problem of maximizing the lift to drag ratio by rotating a circular cylinder in a two-dimensional viscous incompressible flow. This problem is viewed as a test case for the newly developing theoretical and computational methods for control of fluid dynamic systems. We show that the time averaged lift to drag ratio for a fixed finite-time interval achieves its maximum value at an optimal rotation rate that depends on the time interval.

  11. A Summary of Flight-Determined Transonic Lift and Drag Characteristics of Several Research Airplane Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellman, Donald R.

    1959-01-01

    Flight-determined lift and drag data from transonic flights of seven research airplane configurations of widely varying characteristics are presented and compared with wind-tunnel and rocket-model data. The airplanes are the X-5 (590 wing sweep), XF-92A, YF-102 with cambered wing, YF-102 with symmetrical wing, D-558-ii, X-3, and X-LE. The effects of some of the basic configuration differences on the lift and drag characteristics are demonstrated. As indicated by transonic similarity laws, most of the configurations demonstrate a relationship between the transonic increase in zero-lift drag and the maximum cross-sectional area. No such relationship was found between the drag-rise Mach number and its normally related parameters. A comparison of flight and wind-tunnel data shows a generally reasonable agreement, but Reynolds number differences can cause considerable variations in the drag levels of the flight and wind-tunnel tests. Maximum lift-drag ratios vary widely in the subsonic region as would be expected from differences in aspect ratio and wing thickness ratio; however, the variations diminish as the Mach number is increased through the transonic region. The attainment of maximum lift-drag ratio in level flight by several of the airplanes was limited by engine performance, stability characteristics, and buffet boundaries.

  12. The interdependence of profile drag and lift with Joukowski type and related airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muttray, H

    1935-01-01

    On the basis of a systematic investigation of Gottingen wind-tunnel data on Joukowski type and related airfoils, it is shown in what manner the profile drag coefficient is dependent on the lift coefficient. The individual factors for the construction of the profile drag polars are given. They afford a more accurate calculation of the performance coefficients of airplane designs than otherwise attainable with the conventional assumption of constant drag coefficient.

  13. Survey and analysis of research on supersonic drag-due-to-lift minimization with recommendations for wing design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Harry W.; Mann, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of research on drag-due-to-lift minimization at supersonic speeds, including a study of the effectiveness of current design and analysis methods was conducted. The results show that a linearized theory analysis with estimated attainable thrust and vortex force effects can predict with reasonable accuracy the lifting efficiency of flat wings. Significantly better wing performance can be achieved through the use of twist and camber. Although linearized theory methods tend to overestimate the amount of twist and camber required for a given application and provide an overly optimistic performance prediction, these deficiencies can be overcome by implementation of recently developed empirical corrections. Numerous examples of the correlation of experiment and theory are presented to demonstrate the applicability and limitations of linearized theory methods with and without empirical corrections. The use of an Euler code for the estimation of aerodynamic characteristics of a twisted and cambered wing and its application to design by iteration are discussed.

  14. Aerodynamic interaction between vortical wakes and lifting two-dimensional bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stremel, Paul M.

    1989-01-01

    Unsteady rotor wake interactions with the empennage, tail boom, and other aerodynamic surfaces of a helicopter have a significant influence on its aerodynamic performance, the ride quality, and vibration. A numerical method for computing the aerodynamic interaction between an interacting vortex wake and the viscous flow about arbitrary two-dimensional bodies was developed to address this helicopter problem. The method solves for the flow field velocities on a body-fitted computational mesh using finite-difference techniques. The interacting vortex wake is represented by an array of discrete vortices which, in turn, are represented by a finite-core model. The evolution of the interacting vortex wake is calculated by Lagrangian techniques. The viscous flow field of the two-dimensional body is calculated on an Eulerian grid. The flow around circular and elliptic cylinders in the absence of an interacting vortex wake was calculated. These results compare very well with other numerical results and with results obtained from experiment and thereby demonstrate the accuracy of the viscous solution. The interaction of a rotor wake with the flow about a 4 to 1 elliptic cylinder at 45 degree incidence was calculated for a Reynolds number of 3000. The results demonstrate the significant variations in the lift and drag on the elliptic cylinder in the presence of the interacting rotor wake.

  15. System technology analysis of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles: Moderate lift/drag (0.75-1.5). Volume 2: Supporting research and technology report, phase 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Technology payoffs of representative ground based (Phase 1) and space based (Phase 2) mid lift/drag ratio (L/D) aeroassisted orbit transfer vehicles (AOTV) were assessed and prioritized. The methodology employed to generate technology payoffs, the major payoffs identified, the urgency of the technology effort required, and the technology plans suggested are summarized for both study phases. Technology issues concerning aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, thermal protection, propulsion, and guidance, navigation and control are addressed.

  16. A method for the reduction of aerodynamic drag of road vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamadi, Bandu N.; Taylor, Larry W.; Leary, Terrance O.

    1990-01-01

    A method is proposed for the reduction of the aerodynamic drag of bluff bodies, particularly for application to road transport vehicles. This technique consists of installation of panels on the forward surface of the vehicle facing the airstream. With the help of road tests, it was demonstrated that the attachment of proposed panels can reduce aerodynamic drag of road vehicles and result in significant fuel cost savings and conservation of energy resources.

  17. In-flight lift-drag characteristics for a forward-swept wing aircraft and comparisons with contemporary aircraft)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Edwin J.; Hicks, John W.; Luke, Sue (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Lift (L) and drag (D) characteristics have been obtained in flight for the X-29A airplane (a forward swept-wing demonstrator) for Mach numbers (M) from 0.4 to 1.3. Most of the data were obtained near an altitude of 30,000 ft. A representative Reynolds number for M = 0.9, and a pressure altitude of 30,000 ft, is 18.6 x 10(exp 6) based on the mean aerodynamic chord. The X-29A data (forward-swept wing) are compared with three high-performance fighter aircraft: the F-15C, F-16C, and F/A18. The lifting efficiency of the X-29A, as defined by the Oswald lifting efficiency factor, e, is about average for a cantilevered monoplane for M = 0.6 and angles of attack up to those required for maximum L/D. At M = 0.6 the level of L/D and e, as a function of load factor, for the X-29A was about the same as for the contemporary aircraft. The X-29A and its contemporaries have high transonic wave drag and equivalent parasite area compared with aircraft of the 1940's through 1960's.

  18. DOE's effort to reduce truck aerodynamic drag : joint experiments and computations lead to smart design.

    SciTech Connect

    Yaste, David M; Salari, Kambiz; Hammache, Mustapha; Browand, Fred; Pointer, W. David; Ortega, Jason M.; McCallen, Rose; Walker, Stephen M; Heineck, James T; Hassan, Basil; Roy, Christopher John; Storms, B.; Satran, D.; Ross, James; Englar, Robert; Chatalain, Philippe; Rubel, Mike; Leonard, Anthony; Hsu, Tsu-Ya; DeChant, Lawrence Justin.

    2004-06-01

    At 70 miles per hour, overcoming aerodynamic drag represents about 65% of the total energy expenditure for a typical heavy truck vehicle. The goal of this US Department of Energy supported consortium is to establish a clear understanding of the drag producing flow phenomena. This is being accomplished through joint experiments and computations, leading to the smart design of drag reducing devices. This paper will describe our objective and approach, provide an overview of our efforts and accomplishments, and discuss our future direction.

  19. DOE's Effort to Reduce Truck Aerodynamic Drag-Joint Experiments and Computations Lead to Smart Design

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R; Salari, K; Ortega, J; DeChant, L; Hassan, B; Roy, C; Pointer, W; Browand, F; Hammache, M; Hsu, T; Leonard, A; Rubel, M; Chatalain, P; Englar, R; Ross, J; Satran, D; Heineck, J; Walker, S; Yaste, D; Storms, B

    2004-06-17

    At 70 miles per hour, overcoming aerodynamic drag represents about 65% of the total energy expenditure for a typical heavy truck vehicle. The goal of this US Department of Energy supported consortium is to establish a clear understanding of the drag producing flow phenomena. This is being accomplished through joint experiments and computations, leading to the 'smart' design of drag reducing devices. This paper will describe our objective and approach, provide an overview of our efforts and accomplishments, and discuss our future direction.

  20. Laminar, Transitional, and Turbulent Heating on Mid Lift-to-Drag Ratio Entry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Hollingsworth, Kevin E.

    2012-01-01

    The boundary-layer transition characteristics and convective aeroheating levels on mid lift-to-drag ratio entry vehicle configurations have been studied through wind tunnel testing. Several configurations were investigated, including elliptically-blunted cylinders with both circular and elliptically-flattened cross sections, biconic geometries based on launch vehicle dual-use shrouds, and parametrically-optimized analytic geometries. Vehicles of this class have been proposed for high-mass Mars missions, such as sample return and crewed exploration, for which the conventional sphere-cone entry-vehicle geometries of previous Mars missions are insufficient. Testing was conducted at Mach 6 over a range of Reynolds numbers sufficient to generate laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow. Transition onset locations - both straight-line and cross-flow - and heating rates were obtained through global phosphor thermography. Supporting computations were performed to obtain heating rates for comparison with the data. Laminar data and predictions agreed to well within the experimental uncertainty. Fully-turbulent data and predictions also agreed well. However, in transitional flow regions, greater differences were observed. Additional aerodynamic performance data were also generated through Modified-Newtonian analyses of the geometries.

  1. Lift vs. drag based mechanisms for vertical force production in the smallest flying insects.

    PubMed

    Jones, S K; Laurenza, R; Hedrick, T L; Griffith, B E; Miller, L A

    2015-11-01

    We used computational fluid dynamics to determine whether lift- or drag-based mechanisms generate the most vertical force in the flight of the smallest insects. These insects fly at Re on the order of 4-60 where viscous effects are significant. Detailed quantitative data on the wing kinematics of the smallest insects is not available, and as a result both drag- and lift-based strategies have been suggested as the mechanisms by which these insects stay aloft. We used the immersed boundary method to solve the fully-coupled fluid-structure interaction problem of a flexible wing immersed in a two-dimensional viscous fluid to compare three idealized hovering kinematics: a drag-based stroke in the vertical plane, a lift-based stroke in the horizontal plane, and a hybrid stroke on a tilted plane. Our results suggest that at higher Re, a lift-based strategy produces more vertical force than a drag-based strategy. At the Re pertinent to small insect hovering, however, there is little difference in performance between the two strategies. A drag-based mechanism of flight could produce more vertical force than a lift-based mechanism for insects at Re<5; however, we are unaware of active fliers at this scale. PMID:26300066

  2. Light aircraft lift, drag, and moment prediction: A review and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, F. O.; Summey, D. C.; Smith, N. S.; Carden, R. K.

    1975-01-01

    The historical development of analytical methods for predicting the lift, drag, and pitching moment of complete light aircraft configurations in cruising flight is reviewed. Theoretical methods, based in part on techniques described in the literature and in part on original work, are developed. These methods form the basis for understanding the computer programs given to: (1) compute the lift, drag, and moment of conventional airfoils, (2) extend these two-dimensional characteristics to three dimensions for moderate-to-high aspect ratio unswept wings, (3) plot complete configurations, (4) convert the fuselage geometric data to the correct input format, (5) compute the fuselage lift and drag, (6) compute the lift and moment of symmetrical airfoils to M = 1.0 by a simplified semi-empirical procedure, and (7) compute, in closed form, the pressure distribution over a prolate spheroid at alpha = 0. Comparisons of the predictions with experiment indicate excellent lift and drag agreement for conventional airfoils and wings. Limited comparisons of body-alone drag characteristics yield reasonable agreement. Also included are discussions for interference effects and techniques for summing the results above to obtain predictions for complete configurations.

  3. Piloted Simulation Study of the Effects of High-Lift Aerodynamics on the Takeoff Noise of a Representative High-Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaab, Louis J.; Riley, Donald R.; Brandon, Jay M.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Glaab, Patricia C.

    1999-01-01

    As part of an effort between NASA and private industry to reduce airport-community noise for high-speed civil transport (HSCT) concepts, a piloted simulation study was initiated for the purpose of predicting the noise reduction benefits that could result from improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance for a typical HSCT configuration during takeoff and initial climb. Flight profile and engine information from the piloted simulation were coupled with the NASA Langley Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) to estimate jet engine noise and to propagate the resulting source noise to ground observer stations. A baseline aircraft configuration, which also incorporated different levels of projected improvements in low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance, was simulated to investigate effects of increased lift and lift-to-drag ratio on takeoff noise levels. Simulated takeoff flights were performed with the pilots following a specified procedure in which either a single thrust cutback was performed at selected altitudes ranging from 400 to 2000 ft, or a multiple-cutback procedure was performed where thrust was reduced by a two-step process. Results show that improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance provides at least a 4 to 6 dB reduction in effective perceived noise level at the FAA downrange flyover measurement station for either cutback procedure. However, improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance reduced maximum sideline noise levels only when using the multiple-cutback procedures.

  4. DOE Project on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag FY 2005 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R C; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Castellucci, P; Eastwood, C; Paschkewitz, J; Pointer, W D; DeChant, L J; Hassan, B; Browand, F; Radovich, C; Merzel, T; Plocher, D; Ross, J; Storms, B; Heineck, J T; Walker, S; Roy, C J

    2005-11-14

    Class 8 tractor-trailers consume 11-12% of the total US petroleum use. At high way speeds, 65% of the energy expenditure for a Class 8 truck is in overcoming aerodynamic drag. The project objective is to improve fuel economy of Class 8 tractor-trailers by providing guidance on methods of reducing drag by at least 25%. A 25% reduction in drag would present a 12% improvement in fuel economy at highway speeds, equivalent to about 130 midsize tanker ships per year. Specific goals include: (1) Provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag of heavy truck vehicles; and (2) Establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information, and demonstrate the potential of new drag-reduction devices.

  5. The Effect of Various Wing-Gun Installations on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Airplane Model Equipped with an NACA Low-Drag Wing, Special Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muse, Thomas C.

    1941-01-01

    An investigation was made in the NACA 19-foot pressure wind tunnel to determine the effect of various win-gun installation on the aerodynamic characteristics of a model with an NACA low-drag wing. Measurements were made of lift and drag over an angle-of-attack range and for several values of dynamic pressure on a four-tenths scale model of a high-speed airplane equipped with the low-drag wing and with various wing-gun installations. Two installations were tested: one in which the blast tube and part of the gun barrel protrude ahead of the wing and another in which the guns is mounted wholly within the wing. Two types of openings for the latter installation were tested. For each installation three simulated guns were mounted in each wing. The results are given in the form of nondimensional coefficients. The installations tested appear to have little effect on the maximum-lift coefficient of the model. However, the drag coefficient shows a definite change. The least adverse effect was obtained with the completely internal mounting and small nose entrance. The results indicate that a properly designed wing-gun installation will have very little adverse effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of the low-drag wing.

  6. Effect of turbulence on the drag and lift of a particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, P.; Balachandar, S.

    2003-11-01

    A direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used to study the effect of a freestream isotropic turbulent flow on the drag and lift forces on a spherical particle. The particle diameter is about 1.5-10 times the Kolmogorov scale, the particle Reynolds number is about 60-600, and the freestream turbulence intensity is about 10%-25%. The isotropic turbulent field considered here is stationary, i.e., frozen in time. It is shown that the freestream turbulence does not have a substantial and systematic effect on the time-averaged mean drag. The standard drag correlation based on the instantaneous or mean relative velocity results in a reasonably accurate prediction of the mean drag obtained from the DNS. However, the accuracy of prediction of the instantaneous drag decreases with increasing particle size. For the smaller particles, the low frequency oscillations in the DNS drag are well captured by the standard drag, but for the larger particles significant differences exist even for the low frequency components. Inclusion of the added-mass and history forces, computed based on the fluid velocity at the center of the particle, does not improve the prediction. Different estimates of the fluid velocity seen by the particle are examined. It is shown that the mean drag is insensitive to the fluid velocity measured at the particle center, or obtained by averaging over a fluid volume of the order of the particle size. The fluctuations diminish as the size of the averaging volume increases. The effect of increasing freestream turbulence intensity for the same particle size is studied. Fluctuations in the drag and lift forces are shown to scale with the mean drag and freestream intensity. The standard drag without the added-mass and history forces provides the best approximation to the DNS result.

  7. Theoretical lift and drag of thin triangular wings at supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Clinton E

    1946-01-01

    A method is derived for calculating the lift and the drag due to lift of point-forward triangular wings and a restricted series of sweptback wings at supersonic speeds. The elementary or "supersonic sources" solution of the linearized equation of motion is used to find the potential function of a line of doublets. The flow about the triangular flat plate is then obtained by a surface distribution of these doublet lines. The lift-curve slope of triangular wings is found to be a function of the ratio of the tangent of the apex angle to the tangent of the Mach angle. As the apex angle approaches and becomes greater than the Mach angle, the lift coefficient of the triangular wing becomes equal to that of a two-dimensional supersonic airfoil at the same Mach number. The drag coefficient due to lift of triangular wings with leading edges well behind the Mach cone is shown to be close to that of elliptically loaded wings of the same aspect ratio in subsonic flight. The resultant force on wings with leading edges outside the Mach cone, however, is shown to act normal to the surfaces and thus an induced drag equal to the lift times the angle of attack is obtained.

  8. Experimental study of delta wing leading-edge devices for drag reduction at high lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. D., Jr.; Rao, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    The drag reduction devices selected for evaluation were the fence, slot, pylon-type vortex generator, and sharp leading-edge extension. These devices were tested on a 60 degree flatplate delta (with blunt leading edges) in the Langley Research Center 7- by 10-foot high-speed tunnel at low speed and to angles of attack of 28 degrees. Balance and static pressure measurements were taken. The results indicate that all the devices had significant drag reduction capability and improved longitudinal stability while a slight loss of lift and increased cruise drag occurred.

  9. Lift, drag and thrust measurement in a hypersonic impulse facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, S. L.; Mee, D. J.; Simmons, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports the extension of the stress wave force balance to the measurement of forces on models which are non-axisymmetric or which have non-axisymmetric load distributions. Recent results are presented which demonstrate the performance of the stress wave force balance for drag measurement, for three-component force measurement and preliminary results for thrust measurement on a two-dimensional scramjet nozzle. In all cases, the balances respond within a few hundred microseconds.

  10. Characterization of aerodynamic drag force on single particles: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kale, S.R.

    1987-10-01

    An electrodynamic balance was used to measure the drag coefficient and also to record the size and shape of spheres, and coal and oil shale particles (100 ..mu..m to 200 ..mu..m in size). The electrodynamic balance consisted of a central, and two end electrodes. The resulting electric field stably suspended a charged particle. A suspended particle, back illuminated by a light emitting diode, was viewed by a video camera. The image was analyzed for particle position control and was calibrated to give the diameter of spheres, or the area equivalent diameter of nonspherical particles. The drag coefficient was calculated from the air velocity and the dc voltage required to keep the particle at the balance center. The particle Reynolds number varied from 0.2 to 13. Three particles each of coal and oil shale were captured and photographed by a scanning electron microscope and the motion of all the particles was recorded on video tape. Drag coefficient vs Reynolds number data for spheres agreed well with correlations. Data for thirteen particles each of coal and oil shale indicated a power law relationship between drag coefficient and Reynolds number. All these particles exhibited higher drag than spheres and were also observed to rotate. The rotation, however, did not affect the drag coefficient. The choice of characteristic dimension affects the drag characteristics of oil shale more strongly than for coal, owing to the flake-like shape of oil shale. 38 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. On the development of lift and drag in a rotating and translating cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Alcantara, Antonio; Sanmiguel-Rojas, Enrique; Fernandez-Feria, Ramon

    2014-11-01

    The two-dimensional flow around a rotating cylinder is investigated numerically using a vorticity forces formulation with the aim of analyzing the flow structures, and their evolutions, that contribute to the lift and drag forces on the cylinder. The Reynolds number, based on the cylinder diameter and steady free-stream speed, considered is Re = 200 , while the non-dimensional rotation rate (ratio of the surface speed and free-stream speed) selected were α = 1 and 3. For α = 1 the wake behind the cylinder for the fully developed flow is oscillatory due to vortex shedding, and so are the lift and drag forces. For α = 3 the fully developed flow is steady with constant (high) lift and (low) drag. Each of these cases is considered in two different transient problems, one with angular acceleration of the cylinder and constant speed, and the other one with translating acceleration of the cylinder and constant rotation. Special attention is paid to explaining the mechanisms of vortex shedding suppression for high rotation (when α = 3) and its relation to the mechanisms by which the lift is enhanced and the drag is almost suppressed when the fully developed flow is reached. Supported by the Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad of Spain Grant No. DPI2013-40479-P.

  12. Drag and lift on rotating vanes in granular beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soller, Raenell; Koehler, Stephan A.

    2006-08-01

    We have performed systematic experiments on vane intruders of different sizes and aspect ratios that are immersed and slowly rotated in beds of monodisperse glass beads of different diameters. We find that the torque and lift force on the vane increase with bead size. The measured torque on the rotating vanes follows a scaling behavior that depends on the effective immersion depth and the effective vane diameter. The torque increases with the square of the effective immersion depth and the square of the effective vane diameter, and closely resembles the scaling behavior previously reported for the torque on rotating cylinders. We also find that the vertical lift forces have a supralinear dependence on the effective immersion depth, and qualitatively resemble the plunging forces produced when an intruder is slowly immersed into beds of glass beads.

  13. Anisotropic Stokes Drag and Dynamic Lift on Cylindrical Colloids in a Nematic Liquid Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovner, Joel; Lapointe, Clayton; Reich, Daniel; Leheny, Robert

    2011-03-01

    Unlike isotropic fluids, nematic liquid crystals exhibit a complex assortment of hydrodynamic properties that can strongly depend on the director field and local boundary conditions set by inclusions. To understand further these characteristics, measurements were taken of the Stokes drag on magnetic nanowires suspended in nematic 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB). Effective drag viscosities for wires moving perpendicular and parallel to the nematic director were measured and were found to differ by factors of approximately 0.88 to 2.4, depending on the wire orientation and surface anchoring. Additionally, a lift force was observed when wires were forced at an oblique angle to the director resulting in motion divergent from the line of force. The lift was greater for wires with homeotropic anchoring and smaller for wires with longitudinal anchoring, suggesting that the lift force can act as a mechanism for sorting colloidal particles according to their surface chemistry.

  14. Lift and drag in intruders moving through hydrostatic granular media at high speeds.

    PubMed

    Potiguar, Fabricio Q; Ding, Yang

    2013-07-01

    Recently, experiments showed that forces on intruders dragged horizontally through dense, hydrostatic granular packings mainly depend on the local surface orientation and can be seen as the sum of the forces exerted on small surface elements. In order to understand such forces more deeply, we perform a two-dimensional soft-sphere molecular dynamics simulation, on a similar setup, of an intruder dragged through a 50-50 bi-disperse granular packing, with diameters 0.30 and 0.34 cm. We measure, for both circular and half-circle shapes, the forces parallel (drag) and perpendicular (lift) to the drag direction as functions of the drag speed, with V=10.3-309 cm/s, and intruder depths, with D=3.75-37.5 cm. The drag forces on an intruder monotonically increase with V and D, and are larger for the circle. However, the lift force does not depend monotonically on V and D, and this relationship is affected by the shape of the intruder. The vertical force was negative for the half-circle, but for a small range of V and D, we measure positive lift. We find no sign change for the lift on the circle, which is always positive. The explanation for the nonmonotonic dependence is related to the decrease in contacts on the intruder as V increases. This is qualitatively similar to supersonic flow detachment from an obstacle. The detachment picture is supported by simulation measurements of the velocity field around the intruder and force profiles measured on its surface. PMID:23944451

  15. Influence of torque on the lift and drag of a particle in an oscillatory flow.

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, P. F.; Leaf, G. K.; Restrepo, J. M.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Arizona

    2008-10-01

    In the work of Fischer et al. (2002, 'Forces on Particles in an Oscillatory Boundary Layer', J. Fluid Mech., 468, pp. 327-347, 2005; 'Influence of Wall Proximity on the Lift and Drag of a Particle in an Oscillatory Flow', ASME J. Fluids Eng., 127, pp. 583-594) we computed the lift and drag forces on a sphere, subjected to a wall-bounded oscillatory flow. The forces were found as a function of the Reynolds number, the forcing frequency, and the gap between the particle and the ideally smooth rigid bounding wall. Here we investigate how the forces change as a function of the above parameters and its moment of inertia if the particle is allowed to freely rotate. Allowing the particle to rotate does not change appreciably the drag force, as compared to the drag experienced by the particle when it is held fixed. Lift differences between the rotating and nonrotating cases are shown to be primarily dominated in the mean by the pressure component. The lift of the rotating particle varies significantly from the fixed-particle case and depends strongly on the Reynolds number, the forcing frequency, and the gap; much less so on the moment of inertia. Of special significance is that the lift is enhanced for small Reynolds numbers and suppressed for larger ones, with a clear transition point. We also examine how the torque changes when the particle is allowed to rotate as compared to when it is held fixed. As a function of the Reynolds number the torque of the fixed sphere is monotonically decreasing in the range Re=5 to Re=400. The rotating-sphere counterpart experiences a smaller and more complex torque, synchronized with the lift transition mentioned before. As a function of the gap, the torque is significantly larger in the fixed particle case.

  16. Aerodynamic Indicial Functions and Their Use in Aeroelastic Formulation of Lifting Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzocca, Piergiovanni; Librescu, Liviu; Silva, Walter A.

    2000-01-01

    An investigation related to the use of linear indicial functions in the time and frequency domains, enabling one to derive the proper aerodynamic loads as to study the subcritical response and flutter of swept lifting surfaces, respectively, of the open/closed loop aeroelastic system is presented. The expressions of the lift and aerodynamic moment in the frequency domain are given in terms of the Theodorsen's function, while, in the time domain, these are obtained directly with the help of the Wagner's function. Closed form solutions of aerodynamic derivatives are obtained, graphical representations are supplied and conclusions and prospects for further developments are outlined.

  17. DOE's effort to reduce truck aerodynamic drag through joint experiments and computations.

    SciTech Connect

    Salari, Kambiz; Browand, Fred; Sreenivas, Kidambi; Pointer, W. David; Taylor, Lafayette; Pankajakshan, Ramesh; Whitfield, David; Plocher, Dennis; Ortega, Jason M.; Merzel, Tai; McCallen, Rose; Walker, Stephen M; Heineck, James T; Hassan, Basil; Roy, Christopher John; Storms, B.; Ross, James; Englar, Robert; Rubel, Mike; Leonard, Anthony; Radovich, Charles; Eastwood, Craig; Paschkewitz, John; Castellucci, Paul; DeChant, Lawrence Justin.

    2005-08-01

    Class 8 tractor-trailers are responsible for 11-12% of the total US consumption of petroleum. Overcoming aero drag represents 65% of energy expenditure at highway speeds. Most of the drag results from pressure differences and reducing highway speeds is very effective. The goal is to reduce aerodynamic drag by 25% which would translate to 12% improved fuel economy or 4,200 million gal/year. Objectives are: (1) In support of DOE's mission, provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag; (2) To shorten and improve design process, establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information; (3) Demonstrate new drag-reduction techniques; and (4) Get devices on the road. Some accomplishments are: (1) Concepts developed/tested that exceeded 25% drag reduction goal; (2) Insight and guidelines for drag reduction provided to industry through computations and experiments; (3) Joined with industry in getting devices on the road and providing design concepts through virtual modeling and testing; and (4) International recognition achieved through open documentation and database.

  18. Evaluation of Aerodynamic Drag and Torque for External Tanks in Low Earth Orbit

    PubMed Central

    Stone, William C.; Witzgall, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    A numerical procedure is described in which the aerodynamic drag and torque in low Earth orbit are calculated for a prototype Space Shuttle external tank and its components, the “LO2” and “LH2” tanks, carrying liquid oxygen and hydrogen, respectively, for any given angle of attack. Calculations assume the hypersonic limit of free molecular flow theory. Each shell of revolution is assumed to be described by a series of parametric equations for their respective contours. It is discretized into circular cross sections perpendicular to the axis of revolution, which yield a series of ellipses when projected according to the given angle of attack. The drag profile, that is, the projection of the entire shell is approximated by the convex envelope of those ellipses. The area of the drag profile, that is, the drag area, and its center of area moment, that is, the drag center, are then calculated and permit determination of the drag vector and the eccentricity vector from the center of gravity of the shell to the drag center. The aerodynamic torque is obtained as the cross product of those vectors. The tanks are assumed to be either evacuated or pressurized with a uniform internal gas distribution: dynamic shifting of the tank center of mass due to residual propellant sloshing is not considered. PMID:27274926

  19. Evaluation of Aerodynamic Drag and Torque for External Tanks in Low Earth Orbit.

    PubMed

    Stone, William C; Witzgall, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    A numerical procedure is described in which the aerodynamic drag and torque in low Earth orbit are calculated for a prototype Space Shuttle external tank and its components, the "LO2" and "LH2" tanks, carrying liquid oxygen and hydrogen, respectively, for any given angle of attack. Calculations assume the hypersonic limit of free molecular flow theory. Each shell of revolution is assumed to be described by a series of parametric equations for their respective contours. It is discretized into circular cross sections perpendicular to the axis of revolution, which yield a series of ellipses when projected according to the given angle of attack. The drag profile, that is, the projection of the entire shell is approximated by the convex envelope of those ellipses. The area of the drag profile, that is, the drag area, and its center of area moment, that is, the drag center, are then calculated and permit determination of the drag vector and the eccentricity vector from the center of gravity of the shell to the drag center. The aerodynamic torque is obtained as the cross product of those vectors. The tanks are assumed to be either evacuated or pressurized with a uniform internal gas distribution: dynamic shifting of the tank center of mass due to residual propellant sloshing is not considered. PMID:27274926

  20. Advanced natural laminar flow airfoil with high lift to drag ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viken, Jeffrey K.; Pfenninger, Werner; Mcghee, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental verification of a high performance natural laminar flow (NLF) airfoil for low speed and high Reynolds number applications was completed in the Langley Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT). Theoretical development allowed for the achievement of 0.70 chord laminar flow on both surfaces by the use of accelerated flow as long as tunnel turbulence did not cause upstream movement of transition with increasing chord Reynolds number. With such a rearward pressure recovery, a concave type deceleration was implemented. Two-dimensional theoretical analysis indicated that a minimum profile drag coefficient of 0.0026 was possible with the desired laminar flow at the design condition. With the three-foot chord two-dimensional model constructed for the LTPT experiment, a minimum profile drag coefficient of 0.0027 was measured at c sub l = 0.41 and Re sub c = 10 x 10 to the 6th power. The low drag bucket was shifted over a considerably large c sub l range by the use of the 12.5 percent chord trailing edge flap. A two-dimensional lift to drag ratio (L/D) was 245. Surprisingly high c sub l max values were obtained for an airfoil of this type. A 0.20 chort split flap with 60 deg deflection was also implemented to verify the airfoil's lift capabilities. A maximum lift coefficient of 2.70 was attained at Reynolds numbers of 3 and 6 million.

  1. Aerodynamic drag reduction tests on a box-shaped vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, R. L.; Sandlin, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    The intent of the present experiment is to define a near optimum value of drag coefficient for a high volume type of vehicle through the use of a boattail, on a vehicle already having rounded front corners and an underbody seal, or fairing. The results of these tests will constitute a baseline for later follow-on studies to evaluate candidate methods of obtaining afterbody drag coefficients approaching the boattail values, but without resorting to such impractical afterbody extensions. The current modifications to the box-shaped vehicle consisted of a full and truncated boattail in conjunction with the faired and sealed underbody. Drag results from these configurations are compared with corresponding wind tunnel results of a 1/10 scale model. Test velocities ranged up to 96.6 km/h (60 mph) and the corresponding Reynolds numbers ranged up to 1.3 x 10 to the 7th power based on the vehicles length which includes the boattail. A simple coast-down technique was used to define drag.

  2. FY 2004 Annual Report: DOE Project on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R C; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Castellucci, P; Eastwood, C; Whittaker, K; DeChant, L J; Roy, C J; Payne, J L; Hassan, B; Pointer, W D; Browand, F; Hammache, M; Hsu, T; Ross, J; Satran, D; Heineck, J T; Walker, S; Yaste, D; Englar, R; Leonard, A; Rubel, M; Chatelain, P

    2004-11-18

    The objective of this report is: (1) Provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag of heavy truck vehicles; and (2) Establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information, and demonstrate potential of new drag-reduction devices. The approaches used were: (1) Develop and demonstrate the ability to simulate and analyze aerodynamic flow around heavy truck vehicles using existing and advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools; (2) Through an extensive experimental effort, generate an experimental data base for code validation; (3) Using experimental data base, validate computations; (4) Provide industry with design guidance and insight into flow phenomena from experiments and computations; and (5) Investigate aero devices (e.g., base flaps, tractor-trailer gap stabilizer, underbody skirts and wedges, blowing and acoustic devices), provide industry with conceptual designs of drag reducing devices, and demonstrate the full-scale fuel economy potential of these devices.

  3. The variation of aerofoil lift and drag coefficients with changes in size and speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, Walter S

    1923-01-01

    This report contains the results of an investigation into the effect of changes in size and speed upon aerofoil lift and drag coefficients. Certain empirical limitations to the interchangeability of v and l in the general equation of fluid resistance are pointed out and the existing methods of correcting for scale are criticized. New methods of correcting for scale by means of simple formulae are derived and checked by comparison with test results.

  4. Aerodynamic performance of a drag reduction device on a full-scale tractor/trailer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanser, Wendy R.; Ross, James C.; Kaufman, Andrew E.

    1991-09-01

    The effectiveness of an aerodynamic boattail on a tractor/trailer road vehicle was measured in the NASA Ames Research Center 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel. Results are examined for the tractor/trailer with and without the drag reduction device. Pressure measurements and flow visualization show that the aerodynamic boattail traps a vortex or eddy in the corner formed between the device and the rear corner of the trailer. This recirculating flow turns the flow inward as it separates from the edges of the base of the trailer. This modified flow behavior increases the pressure acting over the base area of the truck, thereby reducing the net aerodynamic drag of the vehicle. Drag measurements and pressure distributions in the region of the boattail device are presented for selected configurations. The optimum configuration reduces the overall drag of the tractor/trailer combination by about 10 percent at a zero yaw angle. Unsteady pressure measurements do not indicate strong vortex shedding, although the addition of the boattail plates increases high frequency content of the fluctuating pressure.

  5. Modeling an increase in the lift and aerodynamic efficiency of a thick Göttingen airfoil with optimum arrangement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, S. A.; Sudakov, A. G.; Usachov, A. E.; Kharchenko, V. B.

    2015-06-01

    The Reynolds equations closed using the Menter shear-stress-transfer model modified with allowance for the curvature of flow line have been numerically solved jointly with the energy equation. The obtained solution has been used to calculate subsonic flow (at M = 0.05 and 5° angle of attack) past a thick (24% chord) Göttingen airfoil with variable arrangement of a small-sized (about 10% chord) circular vortex cell with fixed distributed suction Cq = 0.007 from the surface of a central body. It is established that the optimum arrangement of the vortex cell provides a twofold decrease in the bow drag coefficient Cx, a threefold increase in the lift coefficient Cy, and an about fivefold increase in the aerodynamic efficiency at Re = 105 in comparison to the smooth airfoil.

  6. Aerodynamic effects of five lift-fan pod arrangements on an unpowered V/STOL transport model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. L.; Hoad, D. R.; Croom, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel to determine the effect of longitudinally oriented wing-mounted pods on the longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics in the cruise flight condition of a high-wing V/STOL transport model. Five pod arrangements were tested - three configurations with in-line pods at 20, 40, or 60 percent semispan and two split pod configurations with rear pods at 20 percent semispan and front pods at 40 or 60 percent semispan. In general, addition of the pods to the model decreased the stability, increased the lift-curve slope, and alleviated the abrupt stall of the basic model. The configuration with pods at 20 percent semispan had an abrupt instability at 10 deg angle of attack, All the configurations had lateral stability at sideslip angles from 5 to -5 deg. Very little difference in results existed between the configurations with pods at 40 and 60 percent semispan. Of the split pod configurations, the configuration with front pods at 40 percent semispan offered the best trimmed lift and lift-induced drag characteristics at high angles of attack. The configuration with in-line pods at 40 or 60 percent semispan provided the best cruise characteristics of all the pod configurations.

  7. GASP- General Aviation Synthesis Program. Volume 3: Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hague, D.

    1978-01-01

    Aerodynamics calculations are treated in routines which concern moments as they vary with flight conditions and attitude. The subroutines discussed: (1) compute component equivalent flat plate and wetted areas and profile drag; (2) print and plot low and high speed drag polars; (3) determine life coefficient or angle of attack; (4) determine drag coefficient; (5) determine maximum lift coefficient and drag increment for various flap types and flap settings; and (6) determine required lift coefficient and drag coefficient in cruise flight.

  8. Theoretical Calculations of Supersonic Wave Drag at Zero Lift for a Particular Store Arrangement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margolis, Kenneth; Malvestuto, Frank S , Jr; Maxie, Peter J , Jr

    1958-01-01

    An analysis, based on the linearized thin-airfoil theory for supersonic speeds, of the wave drag at zero lift has been carried out for a simple two-body arrangement consisting of two wedgelike surfaces, each with a rhombic lateral cross section and emanating from a common apex. Such an arrangement could be used as two stores, either embedded within or mounted below a wing, or as auxiliary bodies wherein the upper halves could be used as stores and the lower halves for bomb or missile purposes. The complete range of supersonic Mach numbers has been considered and it was found that by orienting the axes of the bodies relative to each other a given volume may be redistributed in a manner which enables the wave drag to be reduced within the lower supersonic speed range (where the leading edge is substantially subsonic). At the higher Mach numbers, the wave drag is always increased. If, in addition to a constant volume, a given maximum thickness-chord ratio is imposed, then canting the two surfaces results in higher wave drag at all Mach numbers. For purposes of comparison, analogous drag calculations for the case of two parallel winglike bodies with the same cross-sectional shapes as the canted configuration have been included. Consideration is also given to the favorable (dragwise) interference pressures acting on the blunt bases of both arrangements.

  9. Investigation of Tractor Base Bleeding for Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, J; Salari, K; Storms, B

    2007-10-25

    One of the main contributors to the aerodynamic drag of a heavy vehicle is tractor-trailer gap drag, which arises when the vehicle operates within a crosswind. Under this operating condition, freestream flow is entrained into the tractor-trailer gap, imparting a momentum exchange to the vehicle and subsequently increasing the aerodynamic drag. While a number of add-on devices, including side extenders, splitter plates, vortex stabilizers, and gap sealers, have been previously tested to alleviate this source of drag, side extenders remain the primary add-on device of choice for reducing tractor-trailer gap drag. However, side extenders are not without maintenance and operational issues. When a heavy vehicle pivots sharply with respect to the trailer, as can occur during loading or unloading operations, the side extenders can become crushed against the trailer. Consequently, fleet operators are forced to incur additional costs to cover the repair or replacement of the damaged side extenders. This issue can be overcome by either shortening the side extenders or by devising an alternative drag reduction concept that can perform just as effectively as side extenders. To explore such a concept, we investigate tractor base bleeding as a means of reducing gap drag. Wind tunnel measurements are made on a 1:20 scale heavy vehicle model at a vehicle width-based Reynolds number of 420,000. The tractor bleeding flow, which is delivered through a porous material embedded within the tractor base, is introduced into the tractor-trailer gap at bleeding coefficients ranging from 0.0-0.018. To determine the performance of tractor base bleeding under more realistic operating conditions, computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed on a full-scale heavy vehicle within a crosswind for bleeding coefficients ranging from 0.0-0.13.

  10. July 2004 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentation, Summary of Comments, and Conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Castellucci, P; Eastwood, C; DeChant, L; Hassan, B; Browand, F; Arcas, D; Ross, J; Heineck, J; Storms, B; Walker, S; Leonard, A; Roy, C; Whitfield, D; Pointer, D; Sofu, T; Englar, R; Funk, R

    2004-08-17

    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held in Portland, Oregon on July 1, 2004. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a summary of achievements, discuss pressing issues, present a general overview of future plans, and to provide a forum for dialogue with the Department of Energy (DOE) and industry representatives. The meeting was held in Portland, because the DOE Aero Team participated in an exclusive session on Heavy Truck Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag at the 34th AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference and Exhibit in Portland on the morning of July 1st, just preceding our Working Group meeting. Even though the paper session was on the last day of the Conference, the Team presented to a full room of interested attendees.

  11. The Minimum Induced Drag of Aerofoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munk, M. M.

    1979-01-01

    Equations are derived to demonstrate which distribution of lifting elements result in a minimum amount of aerodynamic drag. The lifting elements were arranged (1) in one line, (2) parallel lying in a transverse plane, and (3) in any direction in a transverse plane. It was shown that the distribution of lift which causes the least drag is reduced to the solution of the problem for systems of airfoils which are situated in a plane perpendicular to the direction of flight.

  12. The Effect of Porosity on the Lift and Drag of Bird's Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichter, Seth

    1974-01-01

    Bird's wings are porous. The mass flux through the wings for various simulated wing loadings was measured and found to average about 2 x 10(exp -4) g/s.sq cm for one feather thickness at the average pigeon wing loading of 45 newtons/sq m. The calculated effect of the flux on lift was found to be less than 1/2 of 1%. Experiments at a typical pigeon flight Reynolds number of 10(exp 5) on flat plates with 3.5% and 14.5% open area spread over the trailing 58% of the chord showed that it is possible to both increase and decrease profile drag, relative to the drag on a non-porous flat plate, by < or = 5%. Stall on the porous plates occurred up to 3 deg earlier than stall on the non-porous plates. From lift calculations and drag measurements it is shown that the effects of porosity on the gliding characteristics of birds are negligible.

  13. Quadratic nonlinear behavior of lift and drag fluctuations on cylinders undergoing forced oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B.; Williams, D. R.

    1998-11-01

    The instantaneous pressure distribution was measured around the azimuth of a circular cylinder undergoing forced oscillations. The forcing direction was either in-line or cross-flow to produce symmetric or antisymmetric disturbances, respectively. The fluctuating lift and drag coefficients were computed from the pressure distributions. Combination modes appear in the spectrum of the surface pressure signals when the forcing frequency is different from the von Karman vortex shedding frequency, fo. The spatial symmetry of the sum and difference modes depends on the direction of the cylinder oscillation, and is predictable with a simple set of symmetry relations representative of quadratic nonlinear interaction. As a result, cross-flow oscillations channel energy into the fluctuating drag component through the combination modes, while in-line oscillations affect the fluctuating lift. The second harmonic (3 fo) commonly seen in flow-induced vibrations is the result of the nonlinear interaction between the fundamental and its first harmonic. By the symmetry relations, the 3 fo mode necessarily appears in the fluctuating lift spectrum.

  14. Lift distribution in a rectangular jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, A.

    1971-01-01

    Computer programs predict effect of slipstream-wing flow interaction on aerodynamic characteristics of deflected slipstream and tilt aircraft. One program calculates lift distribution, lift, and drag of wing in wide slipstream. Results permit development of simplified lifting surface theory for circular jet.

  15. Aerodynamic sensitivities from subsonic, sonic and supersonic unsteady, nonplanar lifting-surface theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, E. Carson, Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The technique of implicit differentiation has been used in combination with linearized lifting-surface theory to derive analytical expressions for aerodynamic sensitivities (i.e., rates of change of lifting pressures with respect to general changes in aircraft geometry, including planform variations) for steady or oscillating planar or nonplanar lifting surfaces in subsonic, sonic, or supersonic flow. The geometric perturbation is defined in terms of a single variable, and the user need only provide simple expressions or similar means for defining the continuous or discontinuous global or local perturbation of interest. Example expressions are given for perturbations of the sweep, taper, and aspect ratio of a wing with trapezoidal semispan planform. In addition to direct computational use, the analytical method presented here should provide benchmark criteria for assessing the accuracy of aerodynamic sensitivities obtained by approximate methods such as finite geometry perturbation and differencing. The present process appears to be readily adaptable to more general surface-panel methods.

  16. A theoretical note on aerodynamic lifting in dust devils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen-Ting

    2016-02-01

    The stress distribution of a known rotating flow near the ground in fluid mechanics indicates that the horizontal aerodynamic entrainment of particles within dust devils is attributed to friction force rather than pressure force. The expression of dust emission rate on Earth was theoretically discussed based on simulated flow field and our current understanding of the physics of aeolian dust. It seems that transition flow is vital to dust devils on Mars.

  17. Anisotropic Stokes drag and dynamic lift on spheres sedimenting in a nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Rovner, Joel B; Reich, Daniel H; Leheny, Robert L

    2013-02-19

    The motion of silica spheres with homeotropic anchoring sedimenting within nematic liquid crystal 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) has been studied at low Ericksen number. The magnitude of the spheres' velocity depends on the angle θ between the far-field nematic director and the gravitational force, indicating an anisotropic Stokes drag. When the director is oriented at an oblique angle to the gravitational force, the velocity also acquires a component normal to the force, demonstrating the existence of a lift force generated by the fluid. The magnitude and direction of the velocity as functions of θ quantitatively obey theoretically predicted forms. PMID:23379634

  18. Experimental Results for a Flapped Natural-laminar-flow Airfoil with High Lift/drag Ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcghee, R. J.; Viken, J. K.; Pfenninger, W.; Beasley, W. D.; Harvey, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental results have been obtained for a flapped natural-laminar-flow airfoil, NLF(1)-0414F, in the Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.05 to 0.40 and a chord Reynolds number range from about 3.0 x 10(6) to 22.0 x 10(6). The airfoil was designed for 0.70 chord laminar flow on both surfaces at a lift coefficient of 0.40, a Reynolds number of 10.0 x 10(6), and a Mach number of 0.40. A 0.125 chord simple flap was incorporated in the design to increase the low-drag, lift-coefficient range. Results were also obtained for a 0.20 chord split-flap deflected 60 deg.

  19. An aerodynamic comparison of blown and mechanical high lift airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, John E.

    1987-01-01

    Short takeoff and landing (STOL) performance utilizing a circulation control airfoil was successfully demonstrated on the A-6 CCW (circulation control wing). Controlled flight at speeds as slow as 67 knots was demonstrated. Takeoff ground run and liftoff speed reductions in excess of 40 and 20 percent respectively were achieved. Landing ground roll and approach speeds were similarly reduced. The technology demonstrated was intended to be useable on modern high performance aircraft. STOL performance would be achieved through the combination of a 2-D vectored nozzle and a circulation control type of high lift system. The primary objective of this demonstration was to attain A-6 CCW magnitude reductions in takeoff and landing flight speed and ground distance requirements using practical bleed flow rates from a modern turbofan engine for the blown flap system. Also, cruise performance could not be reduced by the wing high lift system. The A-6 was again selected as the optimum demonstration vehicle. The procedure and findings of the study to select the optimum high lift wing design are documented. Some findings of a supercritical airfoil and a comparison of 2-D and 3-D results are also described.

  20. Non-Equilibrium Turbulence Modeling for High Lift Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durbin, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    This phase is discussed in ('Non linear kappa - epsilon - upsilon(sup 2) modeling with application to high lift', Application of the kappa - epsilon -upsilon(sup 2) model to multi-component airfoils'). Further results are presented in 'Non-linear upsilon(sup 2) - f modeling with application to high-lift' The ADI solution method in the initial implementation was very slow to converge on multi-zone chimera meshes. I modified the INS implementation to use GMRES. This provided improved convergence and less need for user intervention in the solution process. There were some difficulties with implementation into the NASA compressible codes, due to their use of approximate factorization. The Helmholtz equation for f is not an evolution equation, so it is not of the form assumed by the approximate factorization method. Although The Kalitzin implementation involved a new solution algorithm ('An implementation of the upsilon(sup 2) - f model with application to transonic flows'). The algorithm involves introducing a relaxation term in the f-equation so that it can be factored. The factorization can be into a plane and a line, with GMRES used in the plane. The NASA code already evaluated coefficients in planes, so no additional memory is required except that associated the the GMRES algorithm. So the scope of this project has expanded via these interactions. . The high-lift work has dovetailed into turbine applications.

  1. Prediction of longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of STOL configurations with externally blown high lift devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, M. R.; Spangler, S. B.

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical method has been developed to predict the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of engine-wing-flap combinations with externally blown flaps (EBF) and upper surface blowing (USB) high lift devices. Potential flow models of the lifting surfaces and the jet wake are combined to calculate the induced interference of the engine wakes on the lifting surfaces. The engine wakes may be circular, elliptic, or rectangular cross-sectional jets, and the lifting surfaces are comprised of a wing with multiple-slotted trailing-edge flaps or a deflected trailing-edge Coanda surface. Results are presented showing comparisons of measured and predicted forces, pitching moments, span-load distributions, and flow fields.

  2. System technology analysis of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles: Moderate lift/drag (0.75-1.5),volume 1B, part 1, study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Significant performance benefits can be realized via aerodynamic breaking and/or aerodynamic maneuvering on return from higher altitude orbits to low Earth orbit. This approach substantially reduces the mission propellant requirements by using the aerodynamic drag, D, to brake the vehicle to near circular velocity and the aerodynamic lift, L, to null out accumulated errors as well as change the orbital inclination to that required for rendezous with the Space Shuttle Orbiter. A study was completed where broad concept evaluations were performed and the technology requirements and sensitivities for aeroassisted Orbital Transfer Vehicles (AOTVs) over a range of vehicle hypersonic L/D from 0.75 to 1.5 were systematically identified and assessed. The AOTV is capable of evolving from an initial delivery only system to one eventually capable of supporting manned roundtrip missions to geosynchronous orbit. Concept screenings were conducted on numerous configurations spanning the L/D = 0.75 to 1.5 range, and several with attractive features were identified. Initial payload capability was evaluated for a baseline of delivery to GEO, six hour polar, and Molniya orbits with return and recovery of the AOTV at LEO. Evolutionary payload requirements that were assessed include a GEO servicing mission and a manned GEO mission.

  3. Lift to Drag Ratio Analysis in Magnetic Levitation with an Electrodynamic Wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutarra-Leon, Angel; Cordrey, Vincent; Majewski, Walerian

    Our experiments explored inductive magnetic levitation (MagLev) using simple permanent magnets and conductive tracks. Our investigations used a circular Halbach array with a 1 Tesla variable magnetic field on the outer rim of the ring. Such a system is usually called an Electrodynamic Wheel (EDW). Rotating this wheel around a horizontal axis above or below a flat conducting surface should induce eddy currents in said surface through the variable magnetic flux. The eddy currents produce, in turn, their own magnetic fields, which interact with the magnets of the EDW. We constructed a four-inch diameter Electrodynamic Wheel using twelve Neodymium permanent magnets and demonstrated that the magnetic interactions produce both lift and drag forces on the EDW. These forces can be used for levitation and propulsion of the EDW to produce magnetic levitation without coils and complex control circuitry. We achieved full levitation of the non-magnetic aluminum and copper plates. Our results confirm the expected behavior of lift to drag ratio as proportional to (L/R) ω, with L and R being the inductance and resistance of the track plate, and ω being the angular velocity of the magnetic flux. Supported by grants from the Virginia Academy of Science, Society of Physics Students, Virginia Community College System, and the NVCC Educational Foundation.

  4. Supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of a proposed Assured Crew Return Capability (ACRC) lifting-body configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ware, George M.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at Mach numbers from 1.6 to 4.5. The model had a low-aspect-ratio body with a flat undersurface. A center fin and two outboard fins were mounted on the aft portion of the upper body. The outboard fins were rolled outboard 40 deg from the vertical. Elevon surfaces made up the trailing edges of the outboard fins, and body flaps were located on the upper and lower aft fuselage. The center fin pivoted about its midchord for yaw control. The model was longitudinally stable about the design center-of-gravity position at 54 percent of the body length. The configuration with undeflected longitudinal controls trimmed near 0 deg angle of attack at Mach numbers from 1.6 to 3.0 where lift and lift-drag ratio were negative. Longitudinal trim was near the maximum lift-drag ratio (1.4) at Mach 4.5. The model was directionally stable over Mach number range except at angles of attack around 4 deg at M = 2.5. Pitch control deflection of more than -10 deg with either elevons or body flaps is needed to trim the model to angles of attack at which lift becomes positive. With increased control deflection, the lifting-body configuration should perform the assured crew return mission through the supersonic speed range.

  5. Scaling of Lift Degradation Due to Anti-Icing Fluids Based Upon the Aerodynamic Acceptance Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy; Riley, Jim

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the FAA has worked with Transport Canada, National Research Council Canada (NRC) and APS Aviation, Inc. to develop allowance times for aircraft operations in ice-pellet precipitation. These allowance times are critical to ensure safety and efficient operation of commercial and cargo flights. Wind-tunnel testing with uncontaminated anti-icing fluids and fluids contaminated with simulated ice pellets had been carried out at the NRC Propulsion and Icing Wind Tunnel (PIWT) to better understand the flow-off characteristics and resulting aerodynamic effects. The percent lift loss on the thin, high-performance wing model tested in the PIWT was determined at 8 deg. angle of attack and used as one of the evaluation criteria in determining the allowance times. Because it was unclear as to how performance degradations measured on this model were relevant to an actual airplane configuration, some means of interpreting the wing model lift loss was deemed necessary. This paper describes how the lift loss was related to the loss in maximum lift of a Boeing 737-200ADV airplane through the Aerodynamic Acceptance Test (AAT) performed for fluids qualification. A loss in maximum lift coefficient of 5.24% on the B737-200ADV airplane (which was adopted as the threshold in the AAT) corresponds to a lift loss of 7.3% on the PIWT model at 8 deg. angle of attack. There is significant scatter in the data used to develop the correlation related to varying effects of the anti-icing fluids that were tested and other factors. A statistical analysis indicated the upper limit of lift loss on the PIWT model was 9.2%. Therefore, for cases resulting in PIWT model lift loss from 7.3% to 9.2%, extra scrutiny of the visual observations is required in evaluating fluid performance with contamination.

  6. Scaling of Lift Degradation Due to Anti-Icing Fluids Based Upon the Aerodynamic Acceptance Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Riley, James T.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the FAA has worked with Transport Canada, National Research Council Canada (NRC) and APS Aviation, Inc. to develop allowance times for aircraft operations in ice-pellet precipitation. These allowance times are critical to ensure safety and efficient operation of commercial and cargo flights. Wind-tunnel testing with uncontaminated anti-icing fluids and fluids contaminated with simulated ice pellets had been carried out at the NRC Propulsion and Icing Wind Tunnel (PIWT) to better understand the flowoff characteristics and resulting aerodynamic effects. The percent lift loss on the thin, high-performance wing model tested in the PIWT was determined at 8 angle of attack and used as one of the evaluation criteria in determining the allowance times. Because it was unclear as to how performance degradations measured on this model were relevant to an actual airplane configuration, some means of interpreting the wing model lift loss was deemed necessary. This paper describes how the lift loss was related to the loss in maximum lift of a Boeing 737-200ADV airplane through the Aerodynamic Acceptance Test (AAT) performed for fluids qualification. A loss in maximum lift coefficient of 5.24 percent on the B737-200ADV airplane (which was adopted as the threshold in the AAT) corresponds to a lift loss of 7.3 percent on the PIWT model at 8 angle of attack. There is significant scatter in the data used to develop the correlation related to varying effects of the anti-icing fluids that were tested and other factors. A statistical analysis indicated the upper limit of lift loss on the PIWT model was 9.2 percent. Therefore, for cases resulting in PIWT model lift loss from 7.3 to 9.2 percent, extra scrutiny of the visual observations is required in evaluating fluid performance with contamination.

  7. Sunspots and the physics of magnetic flux tubes. III - Aerodynamic lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, E. N.

    1979-01-01

    The aerodynamic lift exerted on a magnetic flux tube by the asymmetric flow around the two sides of the tube is calculated as part of an investigation of the physics of solar flux tubes. The general hydrodynamic forces on a rigid circular cylinder in a nonuniform flow of an ideal fluid are derived from the first derivatives of the velocity field. Aerodynamic lift in a radial nonuniform flow is found to act in the direction of the flow, toward the region of increased flow velocity, while in a shear flow, lift is perpendicular to the free stream and directed toward increasing flow velocity. For a general, three dimensional, large-scale stationary incompressible equilibrium flow, an expression is also derived relating the lift per unit length to the dynamical pressure, cylinder radius and the gradient of the free-stream velocity. Evidence from an asymmetric airfoil in a uniform flow indicates that lift is enhanced in a real fluid in the presence of turbulence.

  8. Maximization of the lift/drag ratio of airfoils with a turbulent boundary layer: Sharp estimates, approximation, and numerical solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizarov, A. M.; Kalimullina, A. N.

    2009-03-01

    The lift/drag ratio of an airfoil placed in an incompressible attached flow is maximized taking into account the viscosity in the boundary-layer approximation. An exact solution is constructed. The situation when the resulting solutions are not in the admissible class of univalent flows is discussed. A procedure is proposed for determining physically feasible airfoils (with a univalent flow region) with a high lift/drag ratio. For this purpose, a class of airfoils is constructed that are determined by a twoparameter function approximating the found exact solution to the variational problem. For this class, the ranges of free parameters leading to physically feasible flows are found. The results are verified by computing a turbulent boundary layer using Eppler’s method, and airfoils with a high lift/drag ratio in an attached flow are detected.

  9. A Mission-Adaptive Variable Camber Flap Control System to Optimize High Lift and Cruise Lift-to-Drag Ratios of Future N+3 Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urnes, James, Sr.; Nguyen, Nhan; Ippolito, Corey; Totah, Joseph; Trinh, Khanh; Ting, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Boeing and NASA are conducting a joint study program to design a wing flap system that will provide mission-adaptive lift and drag performance for future transport aircraft having light-weight, flexible wings. This Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system offers a lighter-weight lift control system having two performance objectives: (1) an efficient high lift capability for take-off and landing, and (2) reduction in cruise drag through control of the twist shape of the flexible wing. This control system during cruise will command varying flap settings along the span of the wing in order to establish an optimum wing twist for the current gross weight and cruise flight condition, and continue to change the wing twist as the aircraft changes gross weight and cruise conditions for each mission segment. Design weight of the flap control system is being minimized through use of light-weight shape memory alloy (SMA) actuation augmented with electric actuators. The VCCTEF program is developing better lift and drag performance of flexible wing transports with the further benefits of lighter-weight actuation and less drag using the variable camber shape of the flap.

  10. An aerodynamic design study of a series of lifting bodies at angles of attack from 10 to 53 degrees at Mach numbers from 2.30 to 4.62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.; Torres, Abel O.

    1992-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics in the transition from high to low angles of attack at supersonic speeds have been experimentally and theoretically studied for a series of lifting bodies with various upper and lower surface camber designs. The configurations under consideration have a 75-degree swept delta planform with a rounded nose. Data obtained indicate that changes in the camber design cause some distinct changes in the aerodynamic characteristics that shoud be taken into account in the selection of a lifting body shape. The flat bottom designs with upper surface camber are found to provide greater drag for retardation at high angles of attack but are considerably out of trim longitudinally. The flat top designs with lower surface camber provide less drag at high angles of attack but can be more easily trimmed. Calculated results are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data.

  11. The use of velodrome tests to evaluate aerodynamic drag in professional cyclists.

    PubMed

    García-López, J; Ogueta-Alday, A; Larrazabal, J; Rodríguez-Marroyo, J A

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the validity, reliability and sensitivity of velodrome tests to detect small changes in aerodynamic drag in cycling. 12 professional cyclists were assessed to obtain the drag area (SCx) during wind tunnel and velodrome tests. Incremental and steady-state protocols were performed in the velodrome with a portable power meter, and 6 bicycle positions were analysed and compared that involved lowering the handlebars and advancing the pads between 2-5 cm. A significant relationship (r=0.88, p<0.001) between the SCx in the wind tunnel and velodrome tests was found (0.240 ± 0.007 and 0.237 ± 0.008 m2, respectively). The velodrome tests underestimated the SCx (0.0035 ± 0.0038 m2 and p<0.01), which decreased (p<0.001) when the bicycle speed increased (0.0013 m2 each 1 km · h(-1)). The SCx values showed high reliability during the steady-state (r=0.99, p<0.001) and incremental protocols (r=0.94, p<0.001). Small changes in the aerodynamic position affected the SCx (p<0.001), which decreased by 0.011 ± 0.007 m2 (4.6 ± 2.9%, 95% CI=2.7-6.4%). In conclusion, the validity, reliability and sensitivity of velodrome tests to detect small changes in aerodynamic drag in cycling were demonstrated. Although SCx values were not interchangeable between different studies, the velodrome tests presented advantages with respect to the wind tunnel tests. PMID:24081618

  12. User's guide for a computer program for calculating the zero-lift wave drag of complex aircraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craidon, C. B.

    1983-01-01

    A computer program was developed to extend the geometry input capabilities of previous versions of a supersonic zero lift wave drag computer program. The arbitrary geometry input description is flexible enough to describe almost any complex aircraft concept, so that highly accurate wave drag analysis can now be performed because complex geometries can be represented accurately and do not have to be modified to meet the requirements of a restricted input format.

  13. Aerodynamic characteristics of some lifting reentry concepts applicable to transatmospheric vehicle design studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of some lifting reentry concepts are examined with a view to the applicability of such concepts to the design of possible transatmospheric vehicles (TAV). A considerable amount of research has been done in past years with vehicle concepts suitable for manned atmospheric-entry, atmospheric flight, and landing. Some of the features of these concepts that permit flight in or out of the atmosphere with maneuver capability should be useful in the mission requirements of TAV's. The concepts illustrated include some hypersonic-body shapes with and without variable geometry surfaces, and a blunt lifting-body configuration. The merits of these concepts relative to the aerodynamic behavior of a TAV are discussed.

  14. Progress in reducing aerodynamic drag for higher efficiency of heavy duty trucks (class 7-8)

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M; Browand, F; Hammache, M; Heineck, J T; Leonard, A; McCallen, R; Ross, J; Rutledge, W; Salari, K; Storms, B

    1999-04-01

    This paper describes research and development for reducing the aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles by demonstrating new approaches for the numerical simulation and analysis of aerodynamic flow. In addition, greater use of newly developed computational tools holds promise for reducing the number of prototype tests, for cutting manufacturing costs, and for reducing overall time to market. Experimental verification and validation of new computational fluid dynamics methods are also an important part of this approach. Experiments on a model of an integrated tractor-trailer are underway at NASA Ames Research Center and the University of Southern California. Companion computer simulations are being performed by Sandia National Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and California Institute of Technology using state-of-the-art techniques, with the intention of implementing more complex methods in the future.

  15. Progress in Reducing Aerodynamic Drag for Higher Efficiency of Heavy Duty Trucks (Class 7-8)

    SciTech Connect

    Rose McCallen; Richard Couch; Juliana Hsu; Fred Browand; Mustapha Hammache; Anthony Leonard; Mark Brady; Kambiz Salari; Walter Rutledge; James Ross; Bruce Storms; J.T. Heineck; David Driver; James Bell; Gregory Zilliac

    1999-12-31

    This paper describes research and development for reducing the aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles by demonstrating new approaches for the numerical simulation and analysis of aerodynamic flow. In addition, greater use of newly developed computational tools holds promise for reducing the number of prototype tests, for cutting manufacturing costs, and for reducing overall time to market. Experimental verification and validation of new computational fluid dynamics methods are also an important part of this approach. Experiments on a model of an integrated tractor-trailer are underway at NASA Ames Research Center and the University of Southern California. Companion computer simulations are being performed by Sandia National Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and California Institute of Technology using state-of-the-art techniques, with the intention of implementing more complex methods in the future.

  16. Systematic approach to analyzing and reducing aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R.; Browand, F.; Leonard, A.; Rutledge, W.

    1997-09-16

    This paper presents an approach for reducing aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles by systematically analyzing trailer components using existing computational tools and moving on to the analyses of integrated tractor-trailers using advanced computational tools. Experimental verification and validation are also an important part of this approach. The project is currently in the development phase while we are in the process of constructing a Multi-Year Program Plan. Projects I and 2 as described in this paper are the anticipated project direction. Also included are results from past and current related activities by the project participants which demonstrate the analysis approach.

  17. Elytra boost lift, but reduce aerodynamic efficiency in flying beetles

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, L. Christoffer; Engel, Sophia; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie; Muijres, Florian T.; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Flying insects typically possess two pairs of wings. In beetles, the front pair has evolved into short, hardened structures, the elytra, which protect the second pair of wings and the abdomen. This allows beetles to exploit habitats that would otherwise cause damage to the wings and body. Many beetles fly with the elytra extended, suggesting that they influence aerodynamic performance, but little is known about their role in flight. Using quantitative measurements of the beetle's wake, we show that the presence of the elytra increases vertical force production by approximately 40 per cent, indicating that they contribute to weight support. The wing-elytra combination creates a complex wake compared with previously studied animal wakes. At mid-downstroke, multiple vortices are visible behind each wing. These include a wingtip and an elytron vortex with the same sense of rotation, a body vortex and an additional vortex of the opposite sense of rotation. This latter vortex reflects a negative interaction between the wing and the elytron, resulting in a single wing span efficiency of approximately 0.77 at mid downstroke. This is lower than that found in birds and bats, suggesting that the extra weight support of the elytra comes at the price of reduced efficiency. PMID:22593097

  18. Impact of Airfoils on Aerodynamic Optimization of Heavy Lift Rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, Cecil W., Jr.; Martin Preston B.; Romander, Ethan A.

    2006-01-01

    Rotor airfoils were developed for two large tiltrotor designs, the Large Civil Tilt Rotor (LCTR) and the Military Heavy Tilt Rotor (MHTR). The LCTR was the most promising of several rotorcraft concepts produced by the NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation. It was designed to carry 120 passengers for 1200 nm, with performance of 350 knots cruise at 30,000 ft altitude. A parallel design, the MHTR, had a notional mission of 40,000 Ib payload, 500 nm range, and 300 knots cruise at 4000 ft, 95 F. Both aircraft were sized by the RC code developed by the U. S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AFDD). The rotors were then optimized using the CAMRAD II comprehensive analysis code. Rotor airfoils were designed for each aircraft, and their effects on performance analyzed by CAMRAD II. Airfoil design criteria are discussed for each rotor. Twist and taper optimization are presented in detail for each rotor, with discussions of performance improvements provided by the new airfoils, compared to current technology airfoils. Effects of stall delay and blade flexibility on performance are also included.

  19. Drag and Longitudinal Trim at Low Lift of the North American YF-100A Airplane at Mach Numbers from 0.76 to 1.77 as Determined from the Flight Test of a 0.11-Scale Rocket Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Willard S.

    1953-01-01

    Drag and longitudinal trim at low lift of the North American YF-100A airplane at Mach numbers from 0.76 to 1.77 as determined from the flight test of a 0.11-scale rocket model are presented herein. Also included are some longitudinal stability and some qualitative pitch-damping data. The subsonic external-drag-coefficient level was about 0.012, and the supersonic level was about 0.043. The drag rise occurred at a Mach number of 0.95. The longitudinal trim change at low lift consisted basically of a mild nose-up tendency at a Mach number of 0.90. An indication of wing flutter was present at Mach numbers from 0.95 to 1.11. However, the full-scale airplane wing has approximately twice the scaled first-bending frequency as the model tested and, hence, will probably be free of this type of flutter. The aerodynamic-center location was 71 percent behind the leading edge of the mean aerodynamic chord at a Mach number of 1.03 and 62 percent at a Mach number of 1.74. Qualitative measurement of damping in pitch indicates that at low lift coefficients damping will be low at a Mach number of 1.03.

  20. Investigation of Aerodynamic Capabilities of Flying Fish in Gliding Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, H.; Choi, H.

    In the present study, we experimentally investigate the aerodynamic capabilities of flying fish. We consider four different flying fish models, which are darkedged-wing flying fishes stuffed in actual gliding posture. Some morphological parameters of flying fish such as lateral dihedral angle of pectoral fins, incidence angles of pectoral and pelvic fins are considered to examine their effect on the aerodynamic performance. We directly measure the aerodynamic properties (lift, drag, and pitching moment) for different morphological parameters of flying fish models. For the present flying fish models, the maximum lift coefficient and lift-to-drag ratio are similar to those of medium-sized birds such as the vulture, nighthawk and petrel. The pectoral fins are found to enhance the lift-to-drag ratio and the longitudinal static stability of gliding flight. On the other hand, the lift coefficient and lift-to-drag ratio decrease with increasing lateral dihedral angle of pectoral fins.

  1. Boundary-integral method for calculating aerodynamic sensitivities with illustration for lifting-surface theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, E. Carson, Jr.; Desmarais, Robert N.

    1990-01-01

    The technique of implicit differentiation has been used in combination with linearized lifting-surface theory to derive analytical expressions for aerodynamic sensitivities (i.e., rates of change of lifting pressures with respect to general changes in aircraft geometry, including planform variations) for steady or oscillating planar or nonplanar lifting surfaces in subsonic, sonic, or supersonic flow. The geometric perturbation is defined in terms of a single variable, and the user need only provide simple expressions or similar means for defining the continuous or discontinuous global or local perturbation of interest. Example expressions are given for perturbations of the sweep, taper, and aspect ratio of a wing with trapezoidal semispan planform. The present process appears to be readily adaptable to more general surface-panel methods.

  2. Large-eddy simulation - prediction of fluctuating lift and drag forces and comparison with experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Pruitt, J.M.; Hassan, Y.A. ); Steininger, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    Excessive tube vibration caused by turbulent flow buffeting and fluid-elastic excitation is one of the main problems associated with steam generators. Vibration can lead to rupture of tubes within the steam generator, necessitating plugging, and perhaps even replacement of the component. Turbulence buffeting, and resulting excitation, is believed to be one of the mechanisms leading to tube vibration. The large-eddy simulation (LES) technique is being considered as a possible design analysis tool for defining the temporally fluctuating forces on steam generator tube banks. The present investigation uses LES to calculate the flow field for an array of tubes subject to turbulent flow and to compare the fluctuating lift and drag forces on a central tube with experimental findings. Predictions to date using LES methodology compare quite favorably with experimental data.

  3. An application of active surface heating for augmenting lift and reducing drag of an airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, Lucio; Badavi, Forooz F.; Noonan, Kevin W.

    1988-01-01

    Application of active control to separated flow on the RC(6)-08 airfoil at high angle of attack by localized surface heating is numerically simulated by integrating the compressible 2-D nonlinear Navier-Stokes equation solver. Active control is simulated by local modification of the temperature boundary condition over a narrow strip of the upper surface of the airfoil. Both mean and perturbed profiles are favorably altered when excited with the same natural frequency of the shear layer by moderate surface heating for both laminar and turbulent separation. The shear layer is found to be very sensitive to localized surface heating in the vicinity of the separation point. The excitation field at the surface sufficiently altered both the local as well as the global circulation to cause a significant increase in lift and reduction in drag.

  4. Aerodynamic drag reduction of a simplified squareback vehicle using steady blowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littlewood, R. P.; Passmore, M. A.

    2012-08-01

    A large contribution to the aerodynamic drag of a vehicle arises from the failure to fully recover pressure in the wake region, especially on squareback configurations. A degree of base pressure recovery can be achieved through careful shape optimisation, but the freedom of an automotive aerodynamicist to implement significant shape changes is limited by a variety of additional factors such styling, ergonomics and loading capacity. Active flow control technologies present the potential to create flow field modifications without the need for external shape changes and have received much attention in previous years within the aeronautical industry and, more recently, within the automotive industry. In this work the influence of steady blowing applied at a variety of angles on the roof trailing edge of a simplified ¼ scale squareback style vehicle has been investigated. Hot-wire anemometry, force balance measurements, surface pressure measurements and PIV have been used to investigate the effects of the steady blowing on the vehicle wake structures and the resulting body forces. The energy consumption of the steady jet is calculated and is used to deduce an aerodynamic drag power change. Results show that overall gains can be achieved; however, the large mass flow rate required restricts the applicability of the technique to road vehicles. Means by which the mass flow rate requirements of the jet may be reduced are discussed and suggestions for further work put forward.

  5. System technology analysis of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles. Moderate lift/drag (0.75-1.5): Volume 1A, part 2: Executive summary, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Significant achievements and activities of Phase 2 of a study to assess aeroassisted orbit transfer vehicle (AOTV) system technology are summarized. Phase 2 was directed towards identification and prioritization of technology payoffs of representative space based mid lift/drag ratio (L/D) AOTV's and the cryofueled propulsion subsystem - configuration interactions. Enhancing technology areas were identified which could provide substantial transport cost reduction. These include: (1) improved lifetime of storable propellant engines; (2) avionics weight reduction; (3) external thermal protection system weight reduction; (4) decrease of uncertainties in aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic performance; electrical power subsystem weight reduction due to incorporation of advanced materials; and (6) structural shell weight reduction. Results indicated that advanced aerothermodynamic methodology and aft end configuring may provide an enlarged allowable zone for engine nozzle protrusions into the separated flow region. Payload manifesting and non-hydrogen propellant manifesting at the space station is recommended.

  6. Lift, drag and flow-field measurements around a small ornithopter

    SciTech Connect

    Balakumar, B J; Chavez - Alarcon, Ramiro; Shu, Fangjun

    2011-01-12

    The aerodynamics of a flight-worthy, radio controlled ornithopter is investigated using a combination of Particle-Image Velocimetry (PIV), load cell measurements, and high-speed photography of smoke visualizations. The lift and thrust forces of the ornithopter are measured at various flow speeds, flapping frequencies and angles of attack to characterize the flight performance. These direct force measurements are then compared with forces estimated using control volume analysis on PIV data. High-speed photography of smoke streaks is used to visualize the evolution of leading edge vortices, and to qualitatively infer the effect of wing deformation on the net downwash. Vortical structures in the wake are compared to previous studies on root flapping, and direct measurements of flapping efficiency are used to argue that the current ornithopter operates sub-optimally in converting the input energy into propulsive work.

  7. Observations from varying the lift and drag inputs to a noise prediction method for supersonic helical tip speed propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    Previous comparisons between calculated and measured supersonic helical tip speed propeller noise show them to have different trends of peak blade passing tone versus helical tip Mach number. It was postulated that improvements in this comparison could be made first by including the drag force terms in the prediction and then by reducing the blade lift terms at the tip to allow the drag forces to dominate the noise prediction. Propeller hub to tip lift distributions were varied, but they did not yield sufficient change in the predicted lift noise to improve the comparison. This result indicates that some basic changes in the theory may be needed. In addition, the noise predicted by the drag forces did not exhibit the same curve shape as the measured data. So even if the drag force terms were to dominate, the trends with helical tip Mach number for theory and experiment would still not be the same. The effect of the blade shock wave pressure rise was approxmated by increasing the drag coefficient at the blade tip. Predictions using this shock wdave approximation did have a curve shape similar to the measured data. This result indicates that the shock pressure rise probably controls the noise at supersonic tip speed and that the linear prediction method can give the proper noise trend with Mach number.

  8. Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentations and Summary of Comments and Conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Browand, F; Gutierrez, W; Leonard, A; McBride, D; McCallen, R; Ross, J; Roth, K; Rutledge, W; Salari, K

    1998-09-28

    The first Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, New Mexico on August 28, 1998. The purpose of the meeting was to review the proposed Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) and provide an update on the Group"s progress. In addition, the technical details of each organization"s activities were presented and discussed. Presentations were given by representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Transportation Technology Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology (OHVT), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), SNL, University of Southern California (USC), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and NASA Ames Research Center. These presenters are part of a DOE appointed Technical Team assigned to developing the MYPP. The goal of the MYPP is to develop and demonstrate the ability to simulate and analyze aerodynamic flow around heavy truck vehicles using existing and advanced computational tools (A Multi-Year Program Plan for the Aerodynamic Design of Heavy Vehicles, R. McCallen, D. McBride, W. Rutledge, F. Browand, A. Leonard, .I. Ross, UCRL-PROP- 127753 Dr. Rev 2, May 1998). This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions from the Meeting participants, and outlines the future action items.

  9. Determining the Lift and Drag Distributions on a Three-Dimensional Airfoil from Flow-Field Velocity Surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orloff, K. L.

    1977-01-01

    The application of the incompressible momentum integral equation to a three-dimensional airfoil was reviewed to interpret the resulting equations in a way that suggests a reasonable experimental technique for determining the spanwise distributions of lift and drag. Consideration was given to constraints that must be placed on the character of the vortex wake structure shed by the wing, to provide the familiar relationship between lift and bound vorticity. It is shown that the induced drag distribution is not directly measurable, but can be obtained, via the lift distribution, approximately for a deflected wake and exactly for a planar wake. Moreover, it is shown that it is only necessary to survey a short distance above and below the wing trailing edge. Examples are presented for several typical loading distributions and the results of a numerical simulation of the suggested experiment are discussed.

  10. Supersonic and Moment-of-Area Rules Combined for Rapid Zero-Lift Wave-Drag Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Lionel L., Jr.

    1959-01-01

    The concepts of the supersonic area rule and the moment-of-area rule are combined to develop a new method for calculating zero-lift wave drag which is amenable to the use of ordinary desk calculators. The total zero-lift wave drag of a configuration is calculated by the new method as the sum of the wave drag of each component alone plus the interference between components. In calculating the separate contributions each component or pair of components is analyzed over the smallest allowable length in order to improve the convergence of the series expression for the wave drag. The accuracy of the present method is evaluated by comparing the total zero-lift wave-drag solutions for several simplified configurations obtained by the present method with solutions given by slender-body and linearized theory. The accuracy and computational time required by the present method are also evaluated relative to the supersonic area rule and the moment-of-area rule. The results of the evaluation indicate that total zero-lift wave-drag solutions for simplified configurations can be obtained by the present method which differ from solutions given by slender-body and linearized theory by less than 6 percent. This accuracy for simplified configurations was obtained from only nine terms of the series expression for the wave drag as a result of calculating the total zero-lift wave drag by parts. For the same number of terms these results represent an accuracy greater than that for solutions obtained by either of the two methods upon which the present method is based, except in a few isolated cases. For the excepted cases, solutions by the present method and the supersonic area rule are identical. Solutions by the present method are obtained in one fifth the computing time required by the supersonic area rule. This difference in computing time of course would be substantially reduced if the complete procedures for both methods were programmed on electronic computing machines.

  11. The Effect of Lift-Drag Ratio and Speed on the Ability to Position a Gliding Aircraft for a Landing on a 5,000-Foot Runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeder, John P.

    1959-01-01

    Flight tests were made to determine the capability of positioning a gliding airplane for a landing on a 5,000-foot runway with special reference to the gliding flight of a satellite vehicle of fixed configuration upon reentry into the earth's atmosphere. The lift-drag ratio and speed of the airplane in the glides were varied through as large a range as possible. The results showed a marked tendency to undershoot the runway when the lift-drag ratios were below certain values, depending upon the speed in the glide. A straight line dividing the successful approaches from the undershoots could be drawn through a lift-drag ratio of about 3 at 100 knots and through a lift-drag ratio of about 7 at 185 knots. Provision of a drag device would be very beneficial, particularly in reducing the tendency toward undershooting at the higher speeds.

  12. Incompressible lifting-surface aerodynamics for a rotor-stator combination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandra, S. M.

    1984-01-01

    Current literature on the three dimensional flow through compressor cascades deals with a row of rotor blades in isolation. Since the distance between the rotor and stator is usually 10 to 20 percent of the blade chord, the aerodynamic interference between them has to be considered for a proper evaluation of the aerothermodynamic performance of the stage. A unified approach to the aerodynamics of the incompressible flow through a stage is presented that uses the lifting surface theory for a compressor cascade of arbitrary camber and thickness distribution. The effects of rotor stator interference are represented as a linear function of the rotor and stator flows separately. The loading distribution on the rotor and stator flows separately. The loading distribution on the rotor and stator blades and the interference factor are determined concurrently through a matrix iteration process.

  13. Low-Lift Drag and Duct Pressure Recovery of a 1/8.25-Scale Model of the Consolidated Vultee XF-92 Airplane at Mach Numbers from 0.7 to 1.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitcham, Grady L.; Stevens, Joseph E.; Crabill, Norman L.; Hinners, Arthur H., Jr.

    1951-01-01

    A flight investigation has been made to determine the external drag and pressure recovery of a 1/8.25 - scale flight model of the Consolidated Vultee XF-92 from Mach numbers 0.7 to 1.4 and Reynolds numbers from 8.5 x 10(exp 6) to 19.2 x 10(exp 6) at or near zero lift. Relative mass flow, average pressure recovery, total drag, internal drag, and external drag are presented as functions of Mach number. Between Mach numbers of 0.90 and 0.975, the external drag of the configuration (including base drag of the inner body and additive drag) was about equal to that of a similar model with a faired nose and no mass flow; however, at supersonic speeds the drag coefficient for the faired-nose model remained relatively constant whereas the drag coefficient for the ducted model continued to increase sharply. The internal drag coefficient of the duct was roughly constant at 0.013 up to a Mach number of 1.20; after which it decreased to 0.0075 at a Mach number of 1.4. The over-all pressure recovery of the inlet and duct varied from 94 percent at a Mach number of 0.7 to about 91 percent at a Mach number of 1.4 at a relative-mass-flow ratio of about 0.30. The losses in pressure recovery were believed to be caused by the possible occurrence of separation of flow from the inner body and by an aerodynamically unclean internal configuration which did not duplicate the form proposed for the original XF-92 airplane.

  14. Preliminary subsonic aerodynamic model for simulation studies of the HL-20 lifting body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, E. Bruce; Cruz, Christopher I.

    1992-01-01

    A nonlinear, six-degree-of-freedom aerodynamic model for an early version of the HL-20 lifting body is described and compared with wind tunnel data upon which it is based. Polynomial functions describing most of the aerodynamic parameters are given and tables of these functions are presented. Techniques used to arrive at these functions are described. Basic aerodynamic coefficients were modeled as functions of angles of attack and sideslip. Vehicle lateral symmetry was assumed. Compressibility (Mach) effects were ignored. Control-surface effectiveness was assumed to vary linearly with angle of deflection and was assumed to be invariant with the angle of sideslip. Dynamic derivatives were obtained from predictive aerodynamic codes. Landing-gear and ground effects were scaled from Space Shuttle data. The model described is provided to support pilot-in-the-loop simulation studies of the HL-20. By providing the data in tabular format, the model is suitable for the data interpolation architecture of many existing engineering simulation facilities. Because of the preliminary nature of the data, however, this model is not recommended for study of the absolute performance of the HL-20.

  15. Aerodynamic drag reduction apparatus for gap-divided bluff bodies such as tractor-trailers

    DOEpatents

    Ortega, Jason M.; Salari, Kambiz

    2006-07-11

    An apparatus for reducing the aerodynamic drag of a bluff-bodied vehicle such as a tractor-trailer in a flowstream, the bluff-bodied vehicle of a type having a leading portion, a trailing portion connected to the leading portion, and a gap between the leading and trailing portions defining a recirculation zone. The apparatus is preferably a baffle assembly, such as a vertical panel, adapted to span a width of the gap between the leading and trailing portions so as to impede cross-flow through the gap, with the span of the baffle assembly automatically adjusting for variations in the gap width when the leading and trailing portions pivot relative to each other.

  16. Study of the triple-mass Tethered Satellite System under aerodynamic drag and J2 perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razzaghi, Pourya; Assadian, Nima

    2015-11-01

    The dynamics of multi-tethered satellite formations consisting of three masses are studied in this paper. The triple-mass triple-tethered satellite system is modeled under the low Earth orbit perturbations of drag and Earth's oblateness and its equilibrium conditions are derived. It is modeled as three equal end-masses connected by a uniform-mass straight tether. The lengths of tethers are supposed to be constant and in this manner the angles of the plane consisting the masses are taken as the state variables of the system. The governing equations of motion are derived using Lagrangian approach. The aerodynamic drag perturbation is expressed as an external non-conservative force and the Earth oblateness (J2 perturbation) is considered as a term of potential energy. The equilibrium conditions of this system are found and their stability is investigated through the linear stability theory. Then, the results are verified by using a nonlinear simulation for three types of equilibrium conditions.

  17. May 2005 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentation, Summary of Comments and Conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R C

    2005-08-17

    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California on May 12th and 13th of 2005. The purpose of the first day's meeting, May 12th, was to provide a summary of achievements, discuss issues, present a general overview of future plans, and to offer a forum for dialogue with the Department of Energy (DOE) and representatives from industry, universities, and research and development organizations performing work related to heavy vehicle aerodynamics. This first meeting day was open to participants from industry and research organizations from both the US and Canada. The second day, May 13th, was attended only by representatives from the 9 organizations that form the DOE Consortium effort and their government sponsors. The purpose of the second day's meeting was to further discuss fiscal year 2005's activities, any further specific pressing issues, identify individual action items, and provide an overview of plans for fiscal year 2006. Based on discussions at the Meeting, the existing project goals remain unchanged and enhancing interactions with fleet owners and operators was emphasized: (1) Perform heavy vehicle computations and experiments, (2) Validate computations using experimental data, (3) Provide design guidance and insight into flow phenomena from experiments and computations, and (4) Investigate aero devices with emphasis on collaborative efforts with fleet owners and operators.

  18. Aerodynamics: The Wright Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Jennifer Hansen

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the basic principles of aerodynamics. Included in the presentation are: a few demonstrations of the principles, an explanation of the concepts of lift, drag, thrust and weight, a description of Bernoulli's principle, the concept of the airfoil (i.e., the shape of the wing) and how that effects lift, and the method of controlling an aircraft by manipulating the four forces using control surfaces.

  19. On drag and lift forces in two-dimensional flows of a particulate mixture: A theoretical study

    SciTech Connect

    Massoudi, M.

    2006-06-01

    In this paper we propose and derive expressions for the drag and lift forces in a two-phase particulate mixture. The analysis is limited to two-dimensional laminar flows. In the Section after the Introduction, a brief review of the single particle approach is provided; it is then shown that in most multiphase flow problems some generalization of these forces acting on a single particle is used. We then describe a different way of defining the lift force and the drag force, an approach used in non-Newtonian fluid mechanics. In the following Section, the essential equations of Mixture Theory are provided and the specific approach of [1] is used. In this scheme, the lift force is part of the interaction mechanisms, which are to be modeled as constitutive parameters. In the final Section, we derive an expression for the lift force, whereby it is shown that the normal component of the force acting on the body, obtained by integrating the traction vector of the mixture acting on a single isolated particle, will give us the desired expression for the lift force in multi-component flows.

  20. Optimization of natural laminar flow airfoils for high section lift-to-drag ratios in the lower Reynolds number range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfenninger, Werner; Vemuru, Chandra S.

    1989-01-01

    Relatively thin natural-laminar-flow airfoils were arranged optimally for different design lift coefficients in the wing chord Reynolds number ranges of 200,000-600,00 and 0.875 x 10 to the 6th to 2 x 10 to the 6th. The 9.5 percent thick airfoil ASM-LRN-010, the 7.9 percent thick airfoil ASM-LRN-012, the 10.4 percent thick airfoil ASM-LRN-015, and the 8.2 percent thick airfoil ASM-LRN-017 were designed for high lift-to-drag ratios using Drela's design and analysis.

  1. Subsonic aerodynamic characteristics of the HL-20 lifting-body configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ware, George M.; Cruz, Christopher I.

    1993-01-01

    The HL-20 is proposed as a possible future manned spacecraft. The configuration consists of a low-aspect-ratio body with a flat undersurface. Three fins (a small centerline fin and two outboard (tip) fins set at a dihedral angle of 50 deg) are mounted on the aft body. The control system consists of elevon surfaces on the outboard fins, a set of four body flaps on the upper and lower aft body, and an all-movable center fin. Both the elevons and body flaps were capable of trimming the model to angles of attack from -2 deg to above 20 deg. The maximum trimmed lift-drag ratio was 3.6. Replacing the flat-plate tip fins with airfoil tip fins increased the maximum trimmed lift-drag ratio to 4.2. The elevons were effective as a roll control, but they produced about as much yawing moment as rolling moment because of the tip-fin dihedral angle. The body flaps produced less rolling moment than the elevons and only small values of yawing moment. A limited investigation of the effect of varying tip-fin dihedral angle indicated that a dihedral angle of 50 deg was a reasonable compromise for longitudinal and lateral stability, longitudinal trim, and performance at subsonic speeds.

  2. Laminar, Transitional, and Turbulent Heating on Mid Lift-to-Drag Ratio Entry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Hollingsworth, Kevin E.

    2013-01-01

    The boundary-layer transition characteristics and convective aeroheating levels on mid lift-to-drag ratio entry vehicle configurations have been studied through wind-tunnel testing. Several configurations were investigated, including elliptically blunted cylinders with both circular and elliptically flattened cross sections, biconic geometries based on launch vehicle dual-use shrouds, and parametrically optimized analytic geometries. Vehicles of this class have been proposed for high-mass Mars missions, such as sample return and crewed exploration, for which the conventional sphere-cone entry-vehicle geometries of previous Mars missions are insufficient. Testing was conducted at Mach 6 over a range of Reynolds numbers sufficient to generate laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow. Transition onset locations, both straight-line and cross-flow, and heating rates were obtained through global phosphor thermography. Supporting computations were performed to obtain heating rates for comparison with the data. Laminar data and predictions agreed to well within the experimental uncertainty. Fully turbulent data and predictions also agreed well. However, in transitional flow regions, greater differences were observed.

  3. Aerodynamic performance of a full-scale lifting ejector system in a STOVL fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brian E.; Garland, Doug; Poppen, William A.

    1992-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of an advanced lifting ejector system incorporated into a full-scale, powered, fighter aircraft model were measured at statically and at transition airspeeds in the 40- by 80- and 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnels at NASA-Ames. The ejector system was installed in an ejector-lift/vectored thrust STOVL (Short Take-Off Vertical Landing) fighter aircraft configuration. Ejector thrust augmentation ratios approaching 1.6 were demonstrated during static testing. Changes in the internal aerodynamics and exit flow conditions of the ejector ducts are presented for a variety of wind-off and forward-flight test conditions. Wind-on test results indicate a small decrease in ejector performance and increase in exit flow nonuniformity with forward speed. Simulated ejector start-up at high speed, nose-up attitudes caused only small effects on overall vehicle forces and moments despite the fact that the ejector inlet flow was found to induce large regions of negative pressure on the upper surface of the wing apex adjacent to the inlets.

  4. Application of empirical and linear methods to VSTOL powered-lift aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margason, Richard; Kuhn, Richard

    1988-01-01

    Available prediction methods applied to problems of aero/propulsion interactions for short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft are critically reviewed and an assessment of their strengths and weaknesses provided. The first two problems deal with aerodynamic performance effects during hover: (1) out-of-ground effect, and (2) in-ground effect. The first can be evaluated for some multijet cases; however, the second problem is very difficult to evaluate for multijets. The ground-environment effects due to wall jets and fountain flows directly affect hover performance. In a related problem: (3) hot-gas ingestion affects the engine operation. Both of these problems as well as jet noise affect the ability of people to work near the aircraft and the ability of the aircraft to operate near the ground. Additional problems are: (4) the power-augmented lift due to jet-flap effects (both in- and out-of-ground effects), and (5) the direct jet-lift effects during short takeoff and landing (STOL) operations. The final problem: (6) is the aerodynamic/propulsion interactions in transition between hover and wing-borne flight. Areas where modern CFD methods can provide improvements to current computational capabilities are identified.

  5. Formulas for the Supersonic Loading, Lift, and Drag of Flat Swept-Back Wings with Leading Edges Behind the Mach Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Doris

    1951-01-01

    The method of superposition of linearized conical flows has been applied to the calculation of the aerodynamic properties, in supersonic flight, of thin flat, swept-back wings at an angle of attack. The wings are assumed to have rectilinear plan forms, with tips parallel to the stream, and to taper in the conventional sense. The investigation covers the moderately supersonic speed range where the Mach lines from the leading-edge apex lie ahead of the wing. The trailing edge may lie ahead of or behind the Mach lines from its apex. The case in which the Mach cone from one tip intersects the other tip is not treated. Formulas are obtained for the load distribution, the total lift, and the drag due to lift. For the cases in which the trailing edge is outside the Mach cone from its apex the formulas are complete. For wings with both leading and trailing edges behind their respective Mach lines, a degree of approximation is necessary. Charts of some of the functions derived are included to facilitate computing, and several examples are worked out in outline.

  6. A proof of the theorem regarding the distribution of lift over the span for minimum induced drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durand, W F

    1931-01-01

    The proof of the theorem that the elliptical distribution of lift over the span is that which will give rise to the minimum induced drag has been given in a variety of ways, generally speaking too difficult to be readily followed by the graduate of the average good technical school of the present day. In the form of proof this report makes an effort to bring the matter more readily within the grasp of this class of readers.

  7. Flight Investigation of the Lift and Drag Characteristics of a Swept-Wing, Multijet, Transport-Type Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tambor, Ronald

    1960-01-01

    The lift and drag characteristics of a Boeing KC-135 airplane were determined during maneuvering flight over the Mach number range from 0.70 to 0.85 for the airplane in the clean configuration at an altitude of 26,000 feet. Data were also obtained over the speed range of 130 knots to 160 knots at 9,000 feet for various flap deflections with gear down.

  8. A Note on the Drag Due to Lift of Delta Wings at Mach Numbers up to 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, Robert S.; Kelly, Thomas C.

    1960-01-01

    In order to indicate the effects of Reynolds number and other variables on the drag due to lift of delta wings for Mach numbers up to 2.0, the results of several investigations of wing-body combinations having plane delta wings with aspect ratios from 2 to 4 have been assembled for comparison and brief analysis. The effects of Reynolds number, leading-edge radius, and thickness ratio could generally be correlated with Reynolds number based on the leading-edge radius as a parameter. The effects of leading-edge Reynolds number on drag due to lift were large at Mach numbers less than 0.25. However, with increases in Mach number, the effects decreased and were almost negligible at a Mach number of 2.0. and trimming were large, as would be expected. The effects of aspect ratio and trimming were large, as would be expected. It was indicated at least for subsonic and transonic speeds that improvement in the drag due to lift might be obtained from wing modifications designed to inhibit flow separation.

  9. Aerodynamic loading distribution effects on the overall performance of ultra-high-lift LP turbine cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrino, M.; Satta, F.; Simoni, D.; Ubaldi, M.; Zunino, P.; Bertini, F.

    2014-02-01

    The present paper reports the results of an experimental investigation aimed at comparing aerodynamic performance of three low-pressure turbine cascades for several Reynolds numbers under steady and unsteady inflows. This study is focused on finding design criteria useful to reduce both profile and secondary losses in the aero-engine LP turbine for the different flight conditions. The baseline blade cascade, characterized by a standard aerodynamic loading (Zw=1.03), has been compared with two Ultra-High-Lift profiles with the same Zweifel number (Zw=1.3 for both cascades), but different velocity peak positions, leading to front and mid-loaded blade cascade configurations. The aerodynamic flow fields downstream of the cascades have been experimentally investigated for Reynolds numbers in the range 70000aerodynamic performance of the blade cascades in terms of profile and secondary losses and the understanding of the effects of loading distribution and Zweifel number on secondary flows. When operating under unsteady inflow, contrarily to the steady case, the mid-loaded cascade has been found to be characterized by the lowest profile and secondary losses, making it the most attractive solution for the design of blades working in real conditions where unsteady inflow effects are present.

  10. Aerodynamic drag reduction tests on a full-scale tractor-trailer combination with several add-on devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, L. C.; Steers, L. L.

    1974-01-01

    Aerodynamic drag tests were performed on a conventional cab-over-engine tractor with a 45-foot trailer and five commercially available or potentially available add-on devices using the coast-down method. The tests ranged in velocity from approximately 30 miles per hour to 65 miles per hour and included some flow visualization. A smooth, level runway at Edwards Air Force Base was used for the tests, and deceleration measurements were taken with both accelerometers and stopwatches. An evaluation of the drag reduction results obtained with each of the five add-on devices is presented.

  11. Three-dimensional aerodynamic analysis of a subsonic transport high-lift configuration and comparisons with wind-tunnel test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edge, D. Christian; Perkins, John N.

    1995-01-01

    The sizing and efficiency of an aircraft is largely determined by the performance of its high-lift system. Subsonic civil transports most often use deployable multi-element airfoils to achieve the maximum-lift requirements for landing, as well as the high lift-to-drag ratios for take-off. However, these systems produce very complex flow fields which are not fully understood by the scientific community. In order to compete in today's market place, aircraft manufacturers will have to design better high-lift systems. Therefore, a more thorough understanding of the flows associated with these systems is desired. Flight and wind-tunnel experiments have been conducted on NASA Langley's B737-100 research aircraft to obtain detailed full-scale flow measurements on a multi-element high-lift system at various flight conditions. As part of this effort, computational aerodynamic tools are being used to provide preliminary flow-field information for instrumentation development, and to provide additional insight during the data analysis and interpretation process. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the ability and usefulness of a three-dimensional low-order potential flow solver, PMARC, by comparing computational results with data obtained from 1/8 scale wind-tunnel tests. Overall, correlation of experimental and computational data reveals that the panel method is able to predict reasonably well the pressures of the aircraft's multi-element wing at several spanwise stations. PMARC's versatility and usefulness is also demonstrated by accurately predicting inviscid three-dimensional flow features for several intricate geometrical regions.

  12. Aerodynamic tests of Darrieus wind turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Migliore, P.G.; Walters, R.E.; Wolfe, W.P.

    1983-03-01

    An indoor facility for the aerodynamic testing of Darrieus turbine blades was developed. Lift, drag, and moment coefficients were measured for two blades whose angle of attack and chord-to-radius ratio were varied. The first blade used an NACA 0015 airfoil section; the second used a 15% elliptical cross section with a modified circular arc trailing edge. Blade aerodynamic coefficients were corrected to section coefficients for comparison to published rectilinear flow data. Although the airfoil sections were symmetrical, moment coefficients were not zero and the lift and drag curves were asymmetrical about zero lift coefficient and angle of attack. These features verified the predicted virtual camber and incidence phenomena. Boundary-layer centrifugal effects were manifested by discontinuous lift curves and large differences in the angle of zero lift between th NACA 0015 and elliptical airfoils. It was concluded that rectilinear flow aerodynamic data are not applicable to Darrieus turbine blades, even for small chord-to-radius ratios.

  13. Test, Evaluation, and Demonstration of Practical Devices/Systems to Reduce Aerodynamic Drag of Tractor/Semitrailer Combination Unit Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Smith; Karla Younessi; Matt Markstaller; Dan Schlesinger; Bhaskar Bhatnagar; Donald Smith; Bruno Banceu; Ron Schoon; V.K. Sharma; Mark Kachmarsky; Srikant Ghantae; Michael Sorrels; Conal Deedy; Justin Clark; Skip Yeakel; Michael D. Laughlin; Charlotte Seigler; Sidney Diamond

    2007-04-30

    Class 8 heavy-duty trucks account for over three-quarters of the total diesel fuel used by commercial trucks (trucks with GVWRs more than 10,000 pounds) in the United States each year. At the highway speeds at which these trucks travel (i.e., 60 mph or greater), aerodynamic drag is a major part of total horsepower needed to move the truck down the highway, Reductions in aerodynamic drag can yield measurable benefits in fuel economy through the use of relatively inexpensive and simple devices. The goal of this project was to examine a number of aerodynamic drag reduction devices and systems and determine their effectiveness in reducing aerodynamic drag of Class 8 tractor/semitrailer combination-units, thus contributing to DOE's goal of reducing transportation petroleum use. The project team included major heavy truck manufacturers in the United States, along with the management and industry expertise of the Truck Manufacturers Association as the lead investigative organization. The Truck Manufacturers Association (TMA) is the national trade association representing the major North American manufacturers of Class 6-8 trucks (GVWRs over 19,500 lbs). Four major truck manufacturers participated in this project with TMA: Freightliner LLC; International Truck and Engine Corporation; Mack Trucks Inc.; and Volvo Trucks North America, Inc. Together, these manufacturers represent over three-quarters of total Class 8 truck sales in the United States. These four manufacturers pursued complementary research efforts as part of this project. The project work was separated into two phases conducted over a two-year period. In Phase I, candidate aerodynamic devices and systems were screened to focus research and development attention on devices that offered the most potential. This was accomplished using full-size vehicle tests, scale model tests, and computational fluid dynamics analyses. In Phase II, the most promising devices were installed on full-size trucks and their effect on

  14. Effects of icing on the aerodynamic performance of high lift airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankar, L. N.; Phaengsook, N.; Bangalore, A.

    1993-01-01

    A 2D compressible Navier-Stokes solver capable of analyzing multi-element airfoils is described. The flow field is divided into multiple zones. In each zone, the governing equations are solved using an implicit finite difference scheme. The flow solver is validated through a study of the aerodynamic characteristics of a GA(W)-1 configuration, for which good quality measured surface pressure data and load data are available. The solver is next applied to a study of the effects of icing on an iced 5-element airfoil configuration, experimentally studied at NASA Lewis Research Center. It is demonstrated that the formation of ice over the leading edge slat and the main airfoil can lead to significant flow separation, and a significant loss in lift, compared to clean configurations.

  15. The effect of plasma actuator on the depreciation of the aerodynamic drag on box model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harinaldi, Budiarso, Julian, James; Rabbani M., N.

    2016-06-01

    Recent active control research advances have provided many benefits some of which in the field of transportation by land, sea as well as by air. Flow engineering by using active control has proven advantages in energy saving significantly. One of the active control equipment that is being developed, especially in the 21st century, is a plasma actuator, with the ability to modify the flow of fluid by the approach of ion particles makes these actuators a very powerful and promising tool. This actuator can be said to be better to the previously active control such as suction, blowing and synthetic jets because it is easier to control, more flexible because it has no moving parts, easy to be manufactured and installed, and consumes a small amount of energy with maximum capability. Plasma actuator itself is the composition of a material composed of copper and a dielectric sheet, where the copper sheets act as an electricity conductor and the dielectric sheet as electricity insulator. Products from the plasma actuators are ion wind which is the result of the suction of free air around the actuator to the plasma zone. This study investigates the ability of plasma actuators in lowering aerodynamic drag which is commonly formed in the models of vehicles by varying the shape of geometry models and the flow speed.

  16. Sunspots and the physics of magnetic flux tubes. I - The general nature of the sunspot. II - Aerodynamic drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, E. N.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of the dynamical stability of a large flux tube suggests that the field of a sunspot must divide into many separate tubes within the first 1000 km below the surface. Buoyancy of the Wilson depression at the visible surface and probably also a downdraft beneath the sunspot hold the separate tubes in a loose cluster. Convective generation of Alfven waves, which are emitted preferentially downward, cools the tubes. Aerodynamic drag on a slender flux tube stretched vertically across a convective cell is also studied. Since the drag is approximately proportional to the local kinetic energy density, the density stratification weights the drag in favor of the upper layers. Horizontal motions concentrated in the bottom of the convective cell may reverse this density effect. A downdraft of about two km/sec through the flux tubes beneath the sunspot is hypothesized.

  17. Hypersonic aerodynamics and entry-maneuver: Aerothermodynamic interactions for two lifting entry vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrington, J. P.; Woods, W. C.

    1972-01-01

    The longitudinal, directional, and lateral static stability and control characteristics of a delta lifting body and a delta-wing body were obtained at a Mach number of 20 in helium for operational Reynolds numbers over an angle-of-attack range of -4 deg to 55 deg. The aerodynamic characteristics of the wing body were then evaluated in an entry study to examine the effects of vehicle performance on the aerothermodynamic parameters associated with constant and variable angle-of-attack modes for a 1500-n. mi. cross range. The experimental results indicated that the vehicles were stable, except for neutral directional stability for the wing-body shape, and could be trimmed over the operational angle-of-attack range; however, the wing-body vehicle had adverse yaw due to roll control. This roll-yaw coupling was not examined for the lifting body. The trajectory analysis indicated that a 17-percent decrease in performance required little change in the constant angle-of-attack entry mode and, in turn, resulted in a small decrease in the total heat load. For the pitch-modulated entry, the performance decrease required the pitch maneuver to begin earlier during entry and to last longer in order to meet the 1500-n. mi. cross range without a major heating penalty. The performance reduction also had little effect on the maximum laminar radiation equilibrium temperature over a major portion of the lower surface of the wing-body vehicle regardless of the entry mode.

  18. A comprehensive preference-based optimization framework with application to high-lift aerodynamic design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrese, Robert; Winarto, Hadi; Li, Xiaodong; Sóbester, András; Ebenezer, Samuel

    2012-10-01

    An integral component of transport aircraft design is the high-lift configuration, which can provide significant benefits in aircraft payload-carrying capacity. However, aerodynamic optimization of a high-lift configuration is a computationally challenging undertaking, due to the complex flow-field. The use of a designer-interactive multiobjective optimization framework is proposed, which identifies and exploits preferred regions of the Pareto frontier. Visual data mining tools are introduced to statistically extract information from the design space and confirm the relative influence of both variables and objectives to the preferred interests of the designer. The framework is assisted by the construction of time-adaptive Kriging models, which are cooperatively used with a high-fidelity Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solver. The successful integration of these design tools is facilitated through the specification of a reference point, which can ideally be based on an existing design configuration. The framework is demonstrated to perform efficiently for the present case-study within the imposed computational budget.

  19. Advanced Aero-Propulsive Mid-Lift-to-Drag Ratio Entry Vehicle for Future Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, C. H.; Stosaric, R. R; Cerimele, C. J.; Wong, K. A.; Valle, G. D.; Garcia, J. A.; Melton, J. E.; Munk, M. M.; Blades, E.; Kuruvila, G.; Picetti, D. J.; Hassan, B.; Kniskern, M. W.

    2012-01-01

    vehicle stage return, thus making ideas reality. These paradigm shifts include the technology maturation of advanced flexible thermal protection materials onto mid lift-to-drag ratio entry vehicles, the development of integrated supersonic aero-propulsive maneuvering, and the implementation of advanced asymmetric launch shrouds. These paradigms have significant overlap with launch vehicle stage return already being developed by the Air Force and several commercial space efforts. Completing the realization of these combined paradigms holds the key to a high-performing entry vehicle system capability that fully leverages multiple technology benefits to accomplish NASA's Exploration missions to atmospheric planetary destinations.

  20. Lift, Drag, and Pitching Moments of an Arrow Wing Having 80 Degree of Sweepback at Mach Numbers from 2.48 to 3.51 and Reynolds Numbers up to 11.0 Million

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Edward J.; Jillie, Don W.; Levin, Alan D.

    1959-01-01

    Measurements were made of the lift, drag, and pitching moments on an arrow wing (taper ratio of zero) having an aspect ratio of 1.4 and a leading-edge sweepback of 80 (degrees). The wing was designed to have a subsonic leading-edge and a Clark-Y airfoil with a thickness ratio of 12 percent of the chord perpendicular to the wing leading edge. The wing was tested both with and without the wing tips bent upward in an attempt to alleviate possible flow separation in the vicinity of the wing tips. Small jets of air were used to fix transition near the wing leading edge. Force results are presented for Mach numbers of 2.48, 2.75, 3.04, 3.28, and 3.51 at Reynolds numbers of 3.5 and 9.0 million and for a Mach number of 3.04 at a Reynolds number of 11.0 million. The measured aerodynamic characteristics are compared with those estimated by linear theory. The maximum lift-drag ratio measured was much less than that predicted. This difference is attributed to lack of full leading-edge thrust and to the experimental lift-curve slope being about 20 percent below the theoretical value.

  1. September 2002 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentations and Summary of Comments and Conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R

    2002-09-01

    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at NASA Ames Research Center on September 23, 2002. The purpose of the meeting was to present and discuss technical details on the experimental and computational work in progress and future project plans. Representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE)/Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy/Office of FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), NASA Ames Research Center (NASA), University of Southern California (USC), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Freightliner, and Portland State University participated in the meeting. This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions, and outlines the future action items. The meeting began with an introduction by the Project Lead Rose McCallen of LLNL, where she emphasized that the world energy consumption is predicted to relatively soon exceed the available resources (i.e., fossil, hydro, non-breeder fission). This short fall is predicted to begin around the year 2050. Minimizing vehicle aerodynamic drag will significantly reduce our Nation's dependence on foreign oil resources and help with our world-wide fuel shortage. Rose also mentioned that educating the populace and researchers as to our world energy issues is important and that our upcoming United Engineering Foundation (UEF) Conference on ''The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles: Trucks, Busses, and Trains'' was one way our DOE Consortium was doing this. Mentioned were the efforts of Fred Browand from USC in organizing and attracting internationally recognized speakers to the Conference. Rose followed with an overview of the DOE project goals, deliverables, and FY03 activities. The viewgraphs are attached at the end of this report. Sid Diamond of DOE

  2. Dynamic Soaring: Aerodynamics for Albatrosses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Albatrosses have evolved to soar and glide efficiently. By maximizing their lift-to-drag ratio "L/D", albatrosses can gain energy from the wind and can travel long distances with little effort. We simplify the difficult aerodynamic equations of motion by assuming that albatrosses maintain a constant "L/D". Analytic solutions to the simplified…

  3. Dynamic soaring: aerodynamics for albatrosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Albatrosses have evolved to soar and glide efficiently. By maximizing their lift-to-drag ratio L/D, albatrosses can gain energy from the wind and can travel long distances with little effort. We simplify the difficult aerodynamic equations of motion by assuming that albatrosses maintain a constant L/D. Analytic solutions to the simplified equations provide an instructive and appealing example of fixed-wing aerodynamics suitable for undergraduate demonstration.

  4. System technology analysis of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles. Moderate lift/drag (0.75-1.5). Volume 1A, part 1: Executive summary, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Activities and significant results of Phase 1 of a study to access aeroassisted orbit transfer vehicle (AOTV) system technology are summarized. Broad concept evaluations were performed and the technology requirements and sensitivities for ground based AOTV's over a range of vehicle hypersonic lift/drag (L/D) from 0.75 to 1.5 were systematically identified and assessed. The four major task areas included systems analysis, system/subsystem trades, technology payoff assessment and plan, and cost analysis. Findings indicate that substantial performance improvements and hence cost benefit can be obtained by developing enhanced technologies such as: (1) low thrust advanced expander LOX-hydrogen engines with specific impulse of 480 to 490 sec; (2) reducing the external thermal protection system weight and increasing the maximum allowable bond/structure temperature; and (3) reducing the structural shell weight by improving the quality of the design allowable data, or use of advanced structural materials. Results also show that use of mid L/D AOTV's provide significant aerodynamic plane change capability and control authority over trajectory dispersions and off-nominal atmospheres.

  5. Computational Design and Analysis of a Micro-Tab Based Aerodynamic Loads Control System for Lifting Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dam, C P; Nakafuji, D Y; Bauer, C; Chao, D; Standish, K

    2002-11-01

    A computational design and analysis of a microtab based aerodynamic loads control system is presented. The microtab consists of a small tab that emerges from a wing approximately perpendicular to its surface in the vicinity of its trailing edge. Tab deployment on the upper side of the wing causes a decrease in the lift generation whereas deployment on the pressure side causes an increase. The computational methods applied in the development of this concept solve the governing Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations on structured, overset grids. The application of these methods to simulate the flows over lifting surface including the tabs has been paramount in the development of these devices. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the microtab and that it is possible to carry out a sensitivity analysis on the positioning and sizing of the tabs before they are implemented in successfully controlling the aerodynamic loads.

  6. March 2001 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentations and Summary of Comments and Conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Greenman, R; Dunn, T; Owens, J; Laskowski, G; Flowers, D; Browand, F; Knight, A; Hammache, M; Leoard, A; Rubel, M; Salari, K; Rutledge, W; Ross, J; Satran, D; Heineck, J T; Walker, S; Driver, D; Storms, B

    2001-05-14

    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on March 28 and 29, 2001. The purpose of the meeting was to present and discuss technical details on the experimental and computational work in progress and future project plans. Due to the large participation from industry and other research organizations, a large portion of the meeting (all of the first day and part of the second day) was devoted to the presentation and discussion of industry's perspective and work being done by other organizations on the demonstration of commercial software and the demonstration of a drag reduction device. This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions, and outlines the future action items.

  7. May 2003 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentations and Summary of Comments and Conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Browand, F; Hammache, M; Hsu, T Y; Arcas, D; Leoard, A; Chatelain, P; Rubel, M; Roy, C; DeChant, L; Hassan, B; Ross, J; Satran, D; Walker, S; Heineck, J T; Englar, R; Pointer, D; Sofu, T

    2003-05-01

    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on May 29-30, 2003. The purpose of the meeting was to present and discuss suggested guidance and direction for the design of drag reduction devices determined from experimental and computational studies. Representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE)/Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy/Office of FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), NASA Ames Research Center (NASA), University of Southern California (USC), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Clarkson University, and PACCAR participated in the meeting. This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions, provides some highlighted items, and outlines the future action items.

  8. Flight-determined aerodynamic stability and control derivatives of the M2-F2 lifting body vehicle at subsonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempel, R. W.; Thompson, R. C.

    1971-01-01

    Aerodynamic derivatives were obtained for the M2-F2 lifting body flight vehicle in the subsonic flight region between Mach numbers of 0.41 and 0.64 and altitudes of 7000 feet to 45,000 feet. The derivatives were determined by a flight time history curve-fitting process utilizing a hybrid computer. The flight-determined derivatives are compared with wind-tunnel and predicted values. Modal-response characteristics, calculated from the flight derivatives, are presented.

  9. Sunspots and the physics of magnetic flux tubes. IV - Aerodynamic lift on a thin cylinder in convective flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsinganos, K. C.

    1979-01-01

    The aerodynamic lift exerted on a long circular cylinder immersed in a convective flow pattern in an ideal fluid is calculated to establish the equilibrium position of the cylinder. The calculations establish the surprising result that the cylinder is pushed out the upwellings and the downdrafts of the convective cell, into a location midway between them. The implications for the intense magnetic flux tubes in the convection beneath the surface of the sun are considered.

  10. The Aerodynamic Drag of Flying-boat Hull Model as Measured in the NACA 20-foot Wind Tunnel I.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Edwin P

    1935-01-01

    Measurements of aerodynamic drag were made in the 20-foot wind tunnel on a representative group of 11 flying-boat hull models. Four of the models were modified to investigate the effect of variations in over-all height, contours of deck, depth of step, angle of afterbody keel, and the addition of spray strips and windshields. The results of these tests, which cover a pitch-angle range from -5 to 10 degrees, are presented in a form suitable for use in performance calculations and for design purposes.

  11. Advanced Aerodynamic Control Effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1999-01-01

    A 1990 research program that focused on the development of advanced aerodynamic control effectors (AACE) for military aircraft has been reviewed and summarized. Data are presented for advanced planform, flow control, and surface contouring technologies. The data show significant increases in lift, reductions in drag, and increased control power, compared to typical aerodynamic designs. The results presented also highlighted the importance of planform selection in the design of a control effector suite. Planform data showed that dramatic increases in lift (greater than 25%) can be achieved with multiple wings and a sawtooth forebody. Passive porosity and micro drag generator control effector data showed control power levels exceeding that available from typical effectors (moving surfaces). Application of an advanced planform to a tailless concept showed benefits of similar magnitude as those observed in the generic studies.

  12. Aerodynamic drag and fuel spreading measurements in a simulated scramjet combustion module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, L. A.

    1974-01-01

    The drag of a simulated scramjet combustion module was measured at Mach 2, 2.5, and 3. The combustor was rectangular in cross section and incorporated six swept fuel injector struts. The effect of strut leading edge radius, position of maximum thickness, thickness ratio, sweep angle, and strut length on the drag was determined. Reduction in thickness ratio had the largest effect on drag reduction. Sweeping the struts upstream yielded the same drag as sweeping the struts downstream and potentially offers the advantages of increased mixing time for the fuel. Helium injection was used to simulate hydrogen fuel. The interstrut spacing required to achieve good distribution of fuel was was found to be about 10 jet diameters. The contribution of helium injection to drag reduction was small.

  13. On a global aerodynamic optimization of a civil transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savu, G.; Trifu, O.

    1991-01-01

    An aerodynamic optimization procedure developed to minimize the drag to lift ratio of an aircraft configuration: wing - body - tail, in accordance with engineering restrictions, is described. An algorithm developed to search a hypersurface with 18 dimensions, which define an aircraft configuration, is discussed. The results, when considered from the aerodynamic point of view, indicate the optimal configuration is one that combines a lifting fuselage with a canard.

  14. The Aerodynamic Drag of Five Models of Side Floats N.A.C.A. Models 51-E, 51-F, 51-G, 51-H, 51-J

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, R O

    1938-01-01

    The drag of five models of side floats was measured in the N.A.C.A. 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel. The most promising method of reducing the drag of floats indicated by these tests is lowering the angle at which the floats are rigged. The addition of a step to a float does not always increase the drag in the flying range, floats with steps sometimes having lower drag than similar floats without steps. Making the bow chine no higher than necessary might result in a reduction in air drag because of the lower angle of pitch of the chines. Since side floats are used formally to obtain lateral stability when the seaplane is operating on the water at slow speeds or at rest, greater consideration can be given to factors affecting aerodynamic drag than is possible for other types of floats and hulls.

  15. Closed-form equations for the lift, drag, and pitching-moment coefficients of airfoil sections in subsonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Closed-form equations for the lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients of two dimensional airfoil sections in steady subsonic flow were obtained from published theoretical and experimental results. A turbulent boundary layer was assumed to exist on the airfoil surfaces. The effects of section angle of attack, Mach number, Reynolds number, and the specific airfoil type were considered. The equations were applicable through an angle of attack range of -180 deg to +180 deg; however, above about + or - 20 deg, the section characteristics were assumed to be functions only of angle of attack. A computer program is presented which evaluates the equations for a range of Mach numbers and angles of attack. Calculated results for the NACA 23012 airfoil section were compared with experimental data.

  16. A note on the drag due to lift of delta wings at Mach numbers up to 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, Robert S; Kelly, Thomas C

    1953-01-01

    In order to indicate the effects of Reynolds number and other variables on the drag due to lift of delta wings for Mach numbers up to 2.0, the results of several investigations of wing-body combinations employing delta wings with aspect ratios from 2 to 4 have been assembled for comparison. Effects of Reynolds number, leading-edge radius, and thickness ratio could be correlated with Reynolds number based on the leading-edge radius as a parameter. The results indicated that leading-edge Reynolds number effects were large at low speeds, but decreased with increases in Mach number. The effects of aspect ratio, wing modifications, and trim requirements are discussed.

  17. Dimples and drag: Experimental demonstration of the aerodynamics of golf balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libii, Josué Njock

    2007-08-01

    While it is well known that the presence of dimples reduces the drag force exerted on a golf ball, demonstrations of this phenomenon are not common. A simple pendulum is designed and used in a wind tunnel to measure the drag force exerted by a moving stream of air on a spherical object. This pendulum is then used in experiments to measure drag forces exerted on smooth balls and on golf balls in order to compare the results. Data collected from 12 balls tested at speeds ranging from 54to180km/h demonstrate that the presence of dimples on the surface of golf balls causes them to experience drag forces that are smaller than those on smooth balls of the same diameters and weights.

  18. Problems of control of a re-entry vehicle with a moderate lift-to-drag ratio during its entry into the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobylev, A. V.; Dyad'Kin, A. A.; Kobzev, V. I.; Poedinok, V. M.; Reshetin, A. G.; Suprunenko, S. N.; Jaroshevskii, V. A.

    2008-02-01

    We consider the problems of control of the angular and trajectory motion of the Kliper re-entry vehicle. This spacecraft with a moderate hypersonic lift-to-drag ratio is designed according to the load-carrying frame scheme. Gas-dynamic engines, a split balancing flap, and an air brake are used as mounting devices of control.

  19. Comparison of Experimental and Theoretical Zero-Lift Wave-Drag Results for Various Wing-Body-Tail Combinations at Mach Numbers up to 1.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, R. B.

    1957-01-01

    Comparisons are made of experimental and theoretical zero-lift wave drag for several nose shapes, wing-body combinations, and models of current airplanes at Mach numbers up to 1.0. The experimental data were obtained from tests in the Ames 6- by6-foot supersonic wind tunnel and at the NACA Wallops Island facility. The theoretical drag was found by use of linear theory utilizing model area distributions. The agreement between theoretical and experimental zero-lift wave-drag coefficients was generally very good, especially for a fuselage or for fuselage-wing combinations that were vertically symmetrical. For other models that had rapid changes in body shape and/or were not vertically symmetrical, the agreement of theory with experiment ranged from fair to poor, depending on the severity of the change in shape.

  20. Drag evaluation of the Bellanca Skyrocket II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregorek, G. M.; Hoffmann, M. J.; Payne, H. E.; Harris, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    The Bellanca Skyrocket II, possessor of five world speed records, is a single engine aircraft with high performance that has been attributed to a laminar flow airfoil and an all composite structure. Utilization of composite materials in the Skyrocket II is unique since this selection was made to increase the aerodynamic efficiency of the aircraft. Flight tests are in progress to measure the overall aircraft drag and the wing section drag for comparison with the predicted performance of the Skyrocket. Initial results show the zero lift drag is indeed low, equalling 0.016.

  1. Lift producing device exhibiting low drag and reduced ventilation potential and method for producing the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Richard A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A lift producing device is disclosed which is adapted to be connected to a vehicle to provide lift to the vehicle when the vehicle is moved relative to a first fluid medium having a first density and viscosity and being in contact with a second fluid medium adjacent the vehicle. The second fluid medium has a second fluid density which is different from the first fluid density. The lift producing device comprises opposed first and second major surfaces joined at a longitudinally extending leading edge and at a longitudinally extending trailing edge, with at least a portion of the longitudinally extending leading edge being spaced from the longitudinally extending trailing edge by a predetermined mean chord length. When the vehicle is moved relative to the first fluid medium at a velocity within a range of predetermined velocities, with each of the velocities having a direction inclined from a plane extending through the leading edge and the trailing edge within a predetermined angular range, a region of high pressure is generated in the first fluid medium adjacent the first major surface and a region of low pressure is generated in the first fluid medium adjacent the second major surface. The lift producing device has a cross-sectional shape which will generate a pressure distribution around the device when the vehicle is moved relative to the first fluid medium at a velocity within the range of predetermined velocities such that the first fluid medium exhibits attached laminar flow along the device for a portion of the predetermined mean chord length from the leading edge to the trailing edge and will neither form a laminar separation bubble adjacent the second major surface of the device, nor exhibit turbulent separation adjacent the second major surface for substantially all of the predetermined mean chord length from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The portion along which attached laminar flow is maintained is the longest portion which will still fulfill

  2. The effect of solar forcing induced atmospheric perturbations on LEO satellites' nominal aerodynamic drag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwankwo, Victor U. J.; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Weigel, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric drag is the strongest force perturbing the motion of satellites in low Earth orbits LEO, and could cause re-entry of satellites, difficulty in identifying and tracking of the satellites and other space objects, manuvering and prediction of lifetime and re-entry. Solar activities influence the temperature, density and composition of the upper atmosphere. These effects thus strongly depend on the phase of a solar cycle. The frequency of intense flares and storms increase during solar maximum. Heating up of the atmosphere causes its expansion eventually leading to accelerated drag of orbiting satellites, especially those in LEO. In this paper, we present the model of the atmospheric drag effect on the trajectory of hypothetical LEO satellites of different ballistic coefficients. We investigate long-term trend of atmospheric drag on LEO satellites due to solar forcing induced atmospheric perturbations and heating at different phases of the solar cycle, and during interval of strong geomagnetic disturbances or storms. We show the dependence of orbital decay on severity of both the solar cycle and phase, and the extent of geomagnetic perturbations. The result of the model compares well with the observed decay profile of existing LEO satellites and provides a better understanding of the issue of the orbital decay. Our result may also be useful for selection of launch window of satellites for an extended lifetime in the orbit.

  3. The aerodynamic analysis of the gyroplane rotating-wing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheatley, John B

    1934-01-01

    An aerodynamic analysis of the gyroplane rotating-wing system is presented herein. This system consists of a freely rotating rotor in which opposite blades are rigidly connected and allowed to rotate or feather freely about their span axis. Equations have been derived for the lift, the lift-drag ratio, the angle of attack, the feathering angles, and the rolling and pitching moments of a gyroplane rotor in terms of its basic parameters. Curves of lift-drag ratio against lift coefficient have been calculated for a typical case, showing the effect of varying the pitch angle, the solidarity, and the average blade-section drag coefficient. The analysis expresses satisfactorily the qualitative relations between the rotor characteristics and the rotor parameters. As disclosed by this investigation, the aerodynamic principles of the gyroplane are sound, and further research on this wing system is justified.

  4. October 1998 working group meeting on heavy vehicle aerodynamic drag: presentations and summary of comments and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Browand, F; Heineck, J T; Leonard, A; McBride, D; McCallen, R; Ross, J; Rutledge, W; Salari, K; Storms, B

    1998-10-01

    A Working Group 1Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California on October 22, 1998. The purpose of the meeting was to present an overview of the computational and experimental approach for modeling the integrated tractor-trailer benchmark geometry called the Sandia IModel and to review NASA' s test plan for their experiments in the 7 ft x 10 ft wind tunnel. The present and projected funding situation was also discussed. Presentations were given by representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Transportation Technology Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology (OHVT). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and NASA Ames Research Center. This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions. and outlines the future action items.

  5. April 2002 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentations and Summary of Comments and Conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Salari, K; Dunn, T; Ortega, J; Yen-Nakafuji, D; Browand, F; Arcas, D; Jammache, M; Leoard, A; Chatelain, P; Rubel, M; Rutledge, W; McWherter-Payne, M; Roy, Ca; Ross, J; Satran, D; Heineck, J T; Storms, B; Pointer, D; Sofu, T; Weber, D; Chu, E; Hancock, P; Bundy, B; Englar, B

    2002-08-22

    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on April 3 and 4, 2002. The purpose of the meeting was to present and discuss technical details on the experimental and computational work in progress and future project plans. Representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Transportation Technology Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology (OHVT), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), NASA Ames Research Center, University of Southern California (USC), and California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Volvo Trucks, and Freightliner Trucks presented and participated in discussions. This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions, and outlines the future action items.

  6. Flight Investigation at Mach Numbers from 0.6 to 1.7 to Determine Drag and Base Pressures on a Blunt Trailing-edge Airfoil and Drag of Diamond and Circular-arc Airfoils at Zero Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, John D; Katz, Ellis

    1955-01-01

    Results of an exploratory free-flight investigation at zero lift of several rocket-powered drag-research models having rectangular 6-percent-thick wings are presented for a Mach number range of 0.6 to 1.7. Wings having diamond, circular-arc, and blunt-trailing-edge airfoil sections were tested. Pressures over the base of the blunt-trailing-edge airfoil were measured. The drags of all the models were measured and are compared with theory in this paper.

  7. Compressible unsteady potential aerodynamic flow around lifting bodies having arbitrary shapes and motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morino, L.

    1975-01-01

    The program SUSSA ACTS, steady and unsteady subsonic and supersonic aerodynamics for aerospace complex transportation system, is presented. Fully unsteady aerodynamics is discussed first, followed by developments on normal wash, pressure distribution, generalized forces, supersonic formulation, numerical results, geometry preprocessor, the user manual, control surfaces, and first order formulation. The ILSWAR program was also discussed.

  8. 1997 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop on February 25-28, 1997. The workshop was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, Flight Controls, Supersonic Laminar Flow Control, and Sonic Boom Prediction. The workshop objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT Motion Simulator results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas.

  9. Aerodynamic interaction between vortical wakes and lifting two-dimensional bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stremel, Paul M.

    1987-01-01

    Unsteady rotor wake interactions with the empenage, tail boom, and other aerodynamic surfaces of a helicopter have a significant influence on its aerodynamic performance, the ride quality, and amount of vibration. A numerical method for computing the aerodynamic interaction between an interacting vortex wake and the viscous flow about arbitrary two-dimensional bodies has been developed to address this helicopter problem. The method solves for the flow field velocities on a body-fitted computational mesh using finite-difference techniques. The interaction of a rotor wake with the flow about a 4:1 elliptic cylinder at 45-deg incidence was calculated for a Reynolds number of 3000.

  10. Semiempirical Procedure for Estimating Lift and Drag Characteristics of Propeller-Wing-Flap Configurations for Vertical-and Short-Take-Off-and-Landing Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Richard E.

    1959-01-01

    The analysis presented uses the momentum theory as a starting point in developing semiempirical expressions for calculating the effect of propeller thrust and slipstream on the lift and drag characteristics of wing-flap configurations that would be suitable for vertical-take-off-and-landing (VTOL) and short-take-off-and-landing (STOL) airplanes. The method uses power-off forward-speed information and measured slipstream deflection data at zero forward speed to provide a basis for estimating the lift and drag at combined forward speed and power-on conditions. A correlation of slipstream deflection data is also included. The procedure is applicable only in the unstalled flight regime; nevertheless, it should be useful in preliminary design estimates of the performance that may be expected of VTOL and STOL airplanes.

  11. Aerodynamic Lift and Moment Calculations Using a Closed-Form Solution of the Possio Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Jensen; Iliff, Kenneth W.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we present closed-form formulas for the lift and moment coefficients of a lifting surface in two dimensional, unsteady, compressible, subsonic flow utilizing a newly developed explicit analytical solution of the Possio equation. Numerical calculations are consistent with previous numerical tables based on series expansions or ad hoc numerical schemes. More importantly, these formulas lend themselves readily to flutter analysis, compared with the tedious table-look-up schemes currently in use.

  12. Normal loads program for aerodynamic lifting surface theory. [evaluation of spanwise and chordwise loading distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medan, R. T.; Ray, K. S.

    1974-01-01

    A description of and users manual are presented for a U.S.A. FORTRAN 4 computer program which evaluates spanwise and chordwise loading distributions, lift coefficient, pitching moment coefficient, and other stability derivatives for thin wings in linearized, steady, subsonic flow. The program is based on a kernel function method lifting surface theory and is applicable to a large class of planforms including asymmetrical ones and ones with mixed straight and curved edges.

  13. Dividers for reduction of aerodynamic drag of vehicles with open cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storms, Bruce L. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A drag-reduction concept for vehicles with open cavities includes dividing a cavity into smaller adjacent cavities through installation of one or more vertical dividers. The dividers may extend the full depth of the cavity or only partial depth. In either application, the top of the dividers are typically flush with the top of the bed or cargo bay of the vehicle. The dividers may be of any material, but are strong enough for both wind loads and forces encountered during cargo loading/unloading. For partial depth dividers, a structural angle may be desired to increase strength.

  14. Aerodynamics overview of the ground transportation systems (GTS) project for heavy vehicle drag reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, W.T.; Hassan, B.; Croll, R.H.; Rutledge, W.H.

    1995-12-31

    The focus of the research was to investigate the fundamental aerodynamics of the base flow of a tractor trailer that would prove useful in fluid flow management. Initially, industry design needs and constraints were defined. This was followed by an evaluation of state-of-the-art Navier-Stokes based computational fluid dynamics tools. Analytical methods were then used in combination with computational tools in a design process. Several geometries were tested at 1:8 scale in a low speed wind tunnel. In addition to the baseline geometry, base add-on devices of the class of ogival boattails and slants were analyzed.

  15. Reduction of aerodynamic drag and fuel consumption for tractor-trailer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muirhead, V. U.; Saltzman, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests were performed on a scale model of a cab-over-engine tractor-trailer vehicle and several modifications of the model. Results from two of the model configurations were compared with full-scale drag data obtained from similar configurations during coast-down tests. Reductions in fuel consumption derived from these tests are presented in terms of fuel quantity and dollar savings per vehicle year, based on an annual driving distance of 160,900 km (100,000 mi.). The projected savings varied from 13,001 (3435) to 25,848 (6829) liters (gallons) per year which translated to economic savings from $3435 to about $6829 per vehicle year for an operating speed of 88.5 km/h (55 mph) and wind speeds near the national average of 15.3 km/h (9.5 mph). The estimated cumulative fuel savings for the entire U.S. fleet of cab-over-engine tractor, van-type trailer combinations ranged from 4.18 million kl (26.3 million bbl) per year for a low-drag configuration to approximately twice that amount for a more advanced configuration.

  16. The BMW analytic aerodynamic drag method for the Vinti satellite theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, J. S.; Mistretta, G. D.; Bonavito, N. L.

    1972-01-01

    In order to retain separability in the Vinti theory of earth satellite motion when a non conservative force such as air drag is considered, a set of variational equations for the orbital elements are introduced, and expressed as functions of the transverse, radial, and normal components of the nonconservative forces acting on the system. In particular, the atmospheric density profile is written as a fitted exponential function of the eccentric anomaly, which reproduces tabular values of static model atmospheric densities at all altitudes to within ninety-eight percent and simultaneously reduces the variational equations to indefinite integrals with closed form evaluations, whose limits are in terms of the eccentric anomaly. The values of the limits for any arbitrary time interval are obtained from the Vinti program. Results of the BMW (Bonavito, Mistretta, Watson) theory for the case of the intense air drag satellites San Marco-2 and Air Force Cannonball are given. These results indicate that the satellite ephemerides produced by the BMW theory in conjunction with the Vinti program are of very high accuracy. In addition, since the program is entirely analytic, several months of ephemerides can be obtained within a few seconds of computer time.

  17. Aerodynamic characteristics, including effect of body shape, of a Mach 6 aircraft concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riebe, G. D.

    1983-01-01

    Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics for a hydrogen-fueled hypersonic transport concept at Mach 6 are presented. The model components consist of four bodies with identical longitudinal area distributions but different cross-sectional shapes and widths, a wing, horizontal and vertical tails, and a set of wing-mounted nacelles simulated by slid bodies on the wing upper surface. Lift-drag ratios were found to be only sightly affected by fuselage planform width or cross sectional shape. Relative distribution of fuselage volume above and below the wing was found to have an effect on the lift-drag ratio, with a higher lift drag ratio produced by the higher wing position.

  18. A Study of the Zero-Lift Drag-Rise Characteristics of Wing-Body Combinations Near the Speed of Sound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitcomb, Richard T

    1956-01-01

    Comparisons have been made of the shock phenomena and drag-rise increments for representative wing and central-body combinations with those for bodies of revolution having the same axial developments of cross-sectional areas normal to the airstream. On the basis of these comparisons, it is concluded that near the speed of sound the zero-lift drag rise of a low-aspect-ratio thin-wing and body combination is primarily dependent on the axial development of the cross-sectional areas normal to the airstream. It follows that the drag rise for any such configuration is approximately the same as that for any other with the same development of cross-sectional areas. Investigations have also been made of representative wing-body combinations with the body so indented that the axial developments of cross-sectional areas for the combinations were the same as that for the original body alone. Such indentations greatly reduced or eliminated the zero-lift drag-rise increments associated with the wings near the speed of sound.

  19. On the effect of sea spray on the aerodynamic surface drag under severe winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Ezhova, Ekaterina; Soustova, Irina; Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the effect of the sea spray on the air-sea momentum exchange during the entire "life cycle" of a droplet, torn off the crest of a steep surface wave, and its fall down to the water, in the framework of a model covering the following aspects of the phenomenon: (1) motion of heavy particle in the driving air flow (equations of motion); (2) structure of the wind field (wind velocity, wave-induced disturbances, turbulent fluctuations); (3) generation of the sea spray; and (4) statistics of droplets (size distribution, wind speed dependence). It is demonstrated that the sea spray in strong winds leads to an increase in the surface drag up to 40 % on the assumption that the velocity profile is neutral.

  20. Summary analysis of the Gemini entry aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitnah, A. M.; Howes, D. B.

    1972-01-01

    The aerodynamic data that were derived in 1967 from the analysis of flight-generated data for the Gemini entry module are presented. These data represent the aerodynamic characteristics exhibited by the vehicle during the entry portion of Gemini 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions. For the Gemini, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions, the flight-generated lift-to-drag ratios and corresponding angles of attack are compared with the wind tunnel data. These comparisons show that the flight generated lift-to-drag ratios are consistently lower than were anticipated from the tunnel data. Numerous data uncertainties are cited that provide an insight into the problems that are related to an analysis of flight data developed from instrumentation systems, the primary functions of which are other than the evaluation of flight aerodynamic performance.

  1. Influence of Lift Offset on Rotorcraft Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    The influence of lift offset on the performance of several rotorcraft configurations is explored. A lift-offset rotor, or advancing blade concept, is a hingeless rotor that can attain good efficiency at high speed by operating with more lift on the advancing side than on the retreating side of the rotor disk. The calculated performance capability of modern-technology coaxial rotors utilizing a lift offset is examined, including rotor performance optimized for hover and high-speed cruise. The ideal induced power loss of coaxial rotors in hover and twin rotors in forward flight is presented. The aerodynamic modeling requirements for performance calculations are evaluated, including wake and drag models for the high-speed flight condition. The influence of configuration on the performance of rotorcraft with lift-offset rotors is explored, considering tandem and side-by-side rotorcraft as well as wing-rotor lift share.

  2. Influence of Lift Offset on Rotorcraft Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The influence of lift offset on the performance of several rotorcraft configurations is explored. A lift-offset rotor, or advancing blade concept, is a hingeless rotor that can attain good efficiency at high speed, by operating with more lift on the advancing side than on the retreating side of the rotor disk. The calculated performance capability of modern-technology coaxial rotors utilizing a lift offset is examined, including rotor performance optimized for hover and high-speed cruise. The ideal induced power loss of coaxial rotors in hover and twin rotors in forward flight is presented. The aerodynamic modeling requirements for performance calculations are evaluated, including wake and drag models for the high speed flight condition. The influence of configuration on the performance of rotorcraft with lift-offset rotors is explored, considering tandem and side-by-side rotorcraft as well as wing-rotor lift share.

  3. Aerodynamic drag is not the major determinant of performance during giant slalom skiing at the elite level.

    PubMed

    Supej, M; Saetran, L; Oggiano, L; Ettema, G; Šarabon, N; Nemec, B; Holmberg, H-C

    2013-02-01

    This investigation was designed to (a) develop an individualized mechanical model for measuring aerodynamic drag (F(d) ) while ski racing through multiple gates, (b) estimate energy dissipation (E(d) ) caused by F(d) and compare this to the total energy loss (E(t) ), and (c) investigate the relative contribution of E(d) /E(t) to performance during giant slalom skiing (GS). Nine elite skiers were monitored in different positions and with different wind velocities in a wind tunnel, as well as during GS and straight downhill skiing employing a Global Navigation Satellite System. On the basis of the wind tunnel measurements, a linear regression model of drag coefficient multiplied by cross-sectional area as a function of shoulder height was established for each skier (r > 0.94, all P < 0.001). Skiing velocity, F(d) , E(t) , and E(d) per GS turn were 15-21 m/s, 20-60 N, -11 to -5 kJ, and -2.3 to -0.5 kJ, respectively. E(d) /E(t) ranged from ∼5% to 28% and the relationship between E(t) /v(in) and E(d) was r = -0.12 (all NS). In conclusion, (a) F(d) during alpine skiing was calculated by mechanical modeling, (b) E(d) made a relatively small contribution to E(t) , and (c) higher relative E(d) was correlated to better performance in elite GS skiers, suggesting that reducing ski-snow friction can improve this performance. PMID:23121340

  4. March 2000 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic DragL Presentations and Summary of Comments and Conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R.; Flowers, D.; Dunn, T.; Owens, J.; Browand, F.; Hammache, M.; Loenard, A.; Brady, M.; Salari, K.; Rutledge, W.; Scheckler, R.; Ross, J.; Storms, B.; Heineck, J.T.; Arledge, T

    2000-05-15

    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on March 16, 2000. The purpose of the meeting was to present technical details on the experimental and computational plans and approaches and provide an update on progress in the analysis of experimental results, model developments, simulations, and an investigation of an aerodynamic device. The focus of the meeting was a review of University of Southern California's (USC) experimental plans and results, NASA Ames experimental plans, the computational results from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the integrated tractor-trailer benchmark geometry called the Ground Transportation System (GTS) Model, and turbulence model development and benchmark simulation for a rounded cube from California Institute of Technology (Caltech). Much of the meeting discussion involved deficiencies in commercial software, needed modeling improvements, and the importance of detailed data for code validation. The present and projected budget and funding situation was also discussed. Presentations were given by representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Transportation Technology Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology (OHVT), LLNL, SNL, NASA Ames, USC, and Caltech. Representatives from Argonne National Laboratory also participated via telephone. This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions, and outlines the future action items. There were 3 major issues raised at the meeting. (1) Our funding is inadequate to satisfy industries request for high Reynolds number experimentation and computation. Plans are to respond to the DOD and DOE requests for proposals, which require a 50-50 cost share with industry, to acquire funding for high Reynolds number experiments at NASA Ames. (2) The deficiencies in commercial software, the need for

  5. Plotting program for aerodynamic lifting surface theory. [user manual for FORTRAN computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medan, R. T.; Ray, K. S.

    1973-01-01

    A description of and users manual for a USA FORTRAN IV computer program which plots the planform and control points of a wing are presented. The program also plots some of the configuration data such as the aspect ratio. The planform data is stored on a disc file which is created by a geometry program. This program, the geometry program, and several other programs are used together in the analysis of lifting, thin wings in steady, subsonic flow according to a kernel function lifting surface theory.

  6. Theoretical model of aerodynamic forces at high speeds and angle of attack in a stratified flowfield of UF6

    SciTech Connect

    Harloff, G.J.

    1985-09-01

    A theoretical aerodynamic model of lift and drag forces on a flat plate at angle of attack and at hypersonic speeds is presented. Real gas effects and friction drag are accounted for. Theoretical results are presented as a function of the viscous interaction parameter. The performance for two geometries is presented. 3 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. 1997 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop on February 25-28, 1997. The workshop was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in area of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, Flight Controls, Supersonic Laminar Flow Control, and Sonic Boom Prediction. The workshop objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodyamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT Motion Simulator results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas.

  8. Aerodynamic characteristics of NACA 4412 airfoil sction with flap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ockfen, Alex E.; Matveev, Konstantin I.

    2009-09-01

    Wing-in-Ground vehicles and aerodynamically assisted boats take advantage of increased lift and reduced drag of wing sections in the ground proximity. At relatively low speeds or heavy payloads of these craft, a flap at the wing trailing-ground-effect flow id numerically investigated in this study. The computational method consists of a steady-state, incompressible, finite volume method utilizing the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Grid generation and solution of the Navier-Stokes equations are completed flow with a flap, as well as ground-effect motion without a flap. Aerodynamic forces are plain flap. Changes in the flow introduced with the flap addition are also discussed. Overall, the use of a flap on wings with small attack angles is found to be beneficial for small flap deflections up to 5% of the chord, where the contribution of lift augmentation exceeds the drag increase, yielding an augmented lift-to-drag ratio

  9. Drag calculations of wings using Euler methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dam, C. P.; Chang, I. C.; Vijgen, P. M. H. W.; Nikfetrat, Koorosh

    1991-01-01

    Several techniques for the calculation of drag using Euler-equation formulations are discussed and compared. Surface-pressure integration (a nearfield technique) as well as two different farfield calculation techniques are described and applied to three-dimensional flow-field solutions for an aspect-ratio-7 wing with attached flow. The present calculations are limited to steady, low-Mach-number flows around three-dimensional configurations in the absence of active systems such as surface blowing/suction and propulsion. Although the main focus of the paper is the calculation of aerodynamic drag, the calculation of aerodynamic lift is also briefly discussed. Three Euler methods are used to obtain the flowfield solutions. The farfield technique based on the evaluation of a wake-integral appears to provide the most consistent and accurate drag predictions.

  10. March 1999 working group meeting on heavy vehicle aerodynamic drag: presentations and summary of comments and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M; Browand, F; McCallen, R; Ross, J; Salari, K

    1999-03-01

    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California on March 11, 1999. The purpose of the meeting was to present technical details on the experimental and computational plans and approaches and provide an update on progress in obtaining experimental results, model developments, and simulations. The focus of the meeting was a review of the experimental results for the integrated tractor-trailer benchmark geometry called the Sandia Model in the NASA Ames 7 ft x 10 ft wind tunnel. The present and projected budget and funding situation was also discussed. Presentations were given by representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Transportation Technology Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology (OHVT), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), University of Southern California (USC), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and NASA Ames Research Center.This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions, and outlines the future action items.

  11. Boattail Plates With Non-Rectangular Geometries For Reducing Aerodynamic Base Drag Of A Bluff Body In Ground Effect

    DOEpatents

    Ortega, Jason M.; Sabari, Kambiz

    2006-03-07

    An apparatus for reducing the aerodynamic base drag of a bluff body having a leading end, a trailing end, a top surface, opposing left and right side surfaces, and a base surface at the trailing end substantially normal to a longitudinal centerline of the bluff body, with the base surface joined (1) to the left side surface at a left trailing edge, (2) to the right side surface at a right trailing edge, and (3) to the top surface at a top trailing edge. The apparatus includes left and right vertical boattail plates which are orthogonally attached to the base surface of the bluff body and inwardly offset from the left and right trailing edges, respectively. This produces left and right vertical channels which generate, in a flowstream substantially parallel to the longitudinal centerline, respective left and right vertically-aligned vortical structures, with the left and right vertical boattail plates each having a plate width defined by a rear edge of the plate spaced from the base surface. Each plate also has a peak plate width at a location between top and bottom ends of the plate corresponding to a peak vortex of the respective vertically-aligned vortical structures.

  12. July 1999 working group meeting on heavy vehicle aerodynamic drag: presentations and summary of comments and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M; Browand, F; Flowers, D; Hammache, M; Landreth, G; Leonard, A; McCallen, R; Ross, J; Rutledge, W; Salari, K

    1999-08-16

    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California on July 30, 1999. The purpose of the meeting was to present technical details on the experimental and computational plans and approaches and provide an update on progress in obtaining experimental results, model developments, and simulations. The focus of the meeting was a review of University of Southern California's (USC) experimental plans and results and the computational results from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the integrated tractor-trailer benchmark geometry called the Sandia Model. Much of the meeting discussion involved the NASA Ames 7 ft x 10 ft wind tunnel tests and the need for documentation of the results. The present and projected budget and funding situation was also discussed. Presentations were given by representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Transportation Technology Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology (OHVT), LLNL, SNL, USC, and California Institute of Technology (Caltech). This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions, and outlines the future action items.

  13. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil optimized for maximum lift coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingham, G. J.; Chen, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel to determine the two-dimensional characteristics of an airfoil optimized for maximum lift coefficient. The design maximum lift coefficient was 2.1 at a Reynolds number of 9.7 million. The airfoil with a smooth surface and with surface roughness was tested at angles of attack from 6 deg to 26 deg, Reynolds numbers (based on airfoil chord) from 2.0 million to 12.9 million, and Mach numbers from 0.10 to 0.35. The experimental results are compared with values predicted by theory. The experimental pressure distributions observed at angles of attack up to at least 12 deg were similar to the theoretical values except for a slight increase in the experimental upper-surface pressure coefficients forward of 26 percent chord and a more severe gradient just behind the minimum-pressure-coefficient location. The maximum lift coefficients were measured with the model surface smooth and, depending on test conditions, varied from 1.5 to 1.6 whereas the design value was 2.1.

  14. Experimental study of the lift and drag characteristics of a cascade of flat plates in a configuration of interest for tidal energy converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedoul, Faical; Parras, Luis; Del Pino, Carlos; Fernandez-Feria, Ramon

    2012-11-01

    Wind tunnel experiments are conducted for the flow around both a single flat plate and a cascade of three parallel flat plates at different angles of incidence to compare their lift and drag coefficients in a range of Reynolds number about 105, and for two values of the aspect ratio of the flat plates. The selected cascade configuration is of interest for a particular type of tidal energy converter. The lift and drag characteristics of the central plate in the cascade are compared to those of the isolated plate, finding that there exist an angle of incidence, which depends on the Reynolds number and the aspect ratio, above which the effective lift of the plate in the cascade becomes larger than that of an isolated plate. These experimental results, which are also analyzed in the light of theoretical predictions, are used as a guide for the design of the optimum configuration of the cascade which extracts the maximum power from a tidal current for a given value of the Reynolds number. Supported by the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion (Spain) Grant no. ENE2010-16851.

  15. Two-dimensional Aerodynamic Characteristics of 34 Miscellaneous Airfoil Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, Laurence K , Jr; Smith, Hamilton A

    1949-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of 34 miscellaneous airfoils tested in the Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence tunnels are presented. The data include lift, drag, and in some cases, pitching-moment characteristics, for Reynolds numbers between 3.0 x 10 (exp 6) and 9.0 x 10 (exp 6).

  16. AEROX: Computer program for transonic aircraft aerodynamics to high angles of attack. Volume 1: Aerodynamic methods and program users' guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Axelson, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The AEROX program estimates lift, induced-drag and pitching moments to high angles (typ. 60 deg) for wings and for wingbody combinations with or without an aft horizontal tail. Minimum drag coefficients are not estimated, but may be input for inclusion in the total aerodynamic parameters which are output in listed and plotted formats. The theory, users' guide, test cases, and program listing are presented.

  17. Application to rotary wings of a simplified aerodynamic lifting surface theory for unsteady compressible flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. M.; Jones, W. P.

    1974-01-01

    A general method of predicting airloads is applied to helicopter rotor blades on a full three-dimensional basis using the general theory developed for a rotor blade at the psi = pi/2 position where flutter is most likely to occur. Calculations of aerodynamic coefficients for use in flutter analysis are made for forward and hovering flight with low inflow. The results are compared with values given by two-dimensional strip theory for a rigid rotor hinged at its root. The comparisons indicate the inadequacies of strip theory for airload prediction. One important conclusion drawn from this study is that the curved wake has a substantial effect on the chordwise load distribution.

  18. Rationalizing the bumps on whale flippers using basic aerodynamic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Nierop, Ernst; Alben, Silas; Brenner, Michael

    2006-11-01

    Recent experiments and numerics demonstrated that bumps on the leading edge of humpback whale flippers can lead to an increase in the lift/drag ratio and an increase in the stall angle, as compared to smooth flippers. Using basic aerodynamic theory (potential flow around a Joukowski profile, combined with lifting-line theory) we attempt to rationalize the experimental and numerical findings. We use this basic theory to find perturbations which could lead to an increase in stall angle.

  19. Preliminary Free-flight Investigation of the Zero-lift Drag Penalties of Several Missile Nose Shapes for Infrared Seeking Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piland, Robert O

    1952-01-01

    The results of a preliminary investigation to develop a nose shape suitable for housing an infrared seeker are presented. The zero-lift drag characteristics of a missile-like body with various unconventional nose shapes were obtained through a range of Mach numbers from 0.8 to 1.8 and Reynolds numbers, based on body length, from 20 x10 to the 6th power to 70 x 10 to the 6th power, respectively, by using rocket-propelled free-flight models. Results of the test indicate that at supersonic speeds about 70 percent of the drag penalty incurred by using spherical-tip nose shapes may be eliminated by using nose shapes which will still allow the seeker to function.

  20. Flight determined lift and drag characteristics of an F-8 airplane modified with a supercritical wing with comparison to wind-tunnel results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pyle, J. S.; Steers, L. L.

    1975-01-01

    Flight measurements obtained with a TF-8A airplane modified with a supercritical wing are presented for altitudes from 7.6 kilometers (25,000 feet) to 13.7 kilometers (45,000 feet), Mach numbers from 0.6 to 1.2, and Reynolds numbers from 0.8 x 10 to the 7th power to 2.3 x 10 to the 7th power. Flight results for the airplane with and without area-rule fuselage fairings are compared. The techniques used to determine the lift and drag characteristics of the airplane are discussed. Flight data are compared with wind-tunnel model results, where applicable.

  1. Optimization of the Slot Suction of Air from a Circular Vortex Cell on a Thick NACA0022 Airfoil with a Maximum Lift-Drag Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, S. A.; Kalinin, E. I.; Sudakov, A. G.; Kharchenko, V. B.

    2015-11-01

    On the basis of multiblock computational technologies and the Menter model of shear-stress transfer modified with account of the curvature of streamlines, the optimum position of a slot for air suction on the leeward side of the contour of a vortex cell built in a thick NACA0022 airfoil was determined for the purpose of increasing its lift-drag ratio to a maximum value in a nondisturbed air flow at a Mach number of 0.05 and an angle of attack of 7°.

  2. TRW vortex-lattice method subsonic aerodynamic analysis for multiple-lifting-surfaces (N. surface) TRW program number HA010B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, A. V.

    1972-01-01

    The program was designed to provide solutions of engineering accuracy for determining the aerodynamic loads on single- or multiple-lifting-surface configurations that represent vehicles in subsonic flight, e.g., wings, wing-tail, wing-canard, lifting bodies, etc. The preparation is described of the input data, associated input arrangement, and the output format for the program data, including specification of the various operational details of the program such as array sizes, tape numbers utilized, and program dumps. A full description of the underlying theory used in the program development and a review of the program qualification tests are included.

  3. Computerized three-dimensional aerodynamic design of a lifting rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tauber, M. E.; Hicks, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    A three-dimensional, inviscid, full-potential lifting rotor code was used to demonstrate that pressure distributions on both advancing and retreating blades could be significantly improved by perturbing local airfoil sections. The perturbations were described by simple geometric shape functions. To illustrate the procedure, an example calculation was made at a forward flight speed of 85 m/sec (165 knots) and an advance ratio of 0.385. It was found that a minimum of three shape functions was required to improve the pressures without producing undesirable secondary effects in high-speed forward flight on a hypothetical modern rotor blade initially having an NLR-1 supercritical airfoil. Reductions in the shock strength on the advancing blade could be achieved, while simultaneously lessening leading-edge pressure gradients on the retreating blade. The major blade section modifications required were blunting of the upper surface leading edge and some reshaping of the blade's upper surface resulting in moderately thicker airfoils.

  4. Static Extended Trailing Edge for Lift Enhancement: Experimental and Computational Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tianshu; Montefort; Liou, William W.; Pantula, Srinivasa R.; Shams, Qamar A.

    2007-01-01

    A static extended trailing edge attached to a NACA0012 airfoil section is studied for achieving lift enhancement at a small drag penalty. It is indicated that the thin extended trailing edge can enhance the lift while the zero-lift drag is not significantly increased. Experiments and calculations are conducted to compare the aerodynamic characteristics of the extended trailing edge with those of Gurney flap and conventional flap. The extended trailing edge, as a simple mechanical device added on a wing without altering the basic configuration, has a good potential to improve the cruise flight efficiency.

  5. A unified viscous theory of lift and drag of 2-D thin airfoils and 3-D thin wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, John E.

    1991-01-01

    A unified viscous theory of 2-D thin airfoils and 3-D thin wings is developed with numerical examples. The viscous theory of the load distribution is unique and tends to the classical inviscid result with Kutta condition in the high Reynolds number limit. A new theory of 2-D section induced drag is introduced with specific applications to three cases of interest: (1) constant angle of attack; (2) parabolic camber; and (3) a flapped airfoil. The first case is also extended to a profiled leading edge foil. The well-known drag due to absence of leading edge suction is derived from the viscous theory. It is independent of Reynolds number for zero thickness and varies inversely with the square root of the Reynolds number based on the leading edge radius for profiled sections. The role of turbulence in the section induced drag problem is discussed. A theory of minimum section induced drag is derived and applied. For low Reynolds number the minimum drag load tends to the constant angle of attack solution and for high Reynolds number to an approximation of the parabolic camber solution. The parabolic camber section induced drag is about 4 percent greater than the ideal minimum at high Reynolds number. Two new concepts, the viscous induced drag angle and the viscous induced separation potential are introduced. The separation potential is calculated for three 2-D cases and for a 3-D rectangular wing. The potential is calculated with input from a standard doublet lattice wing code without recourse to any boundary layer calculations. Separation is indicated in regions where it is observed experimentally. The classical induced drag is recovered in the 3-D high Reynolds number limit with an additional contribution that is Reynold number dependent. The 3-D viscous theory of minimum induced drag yields an equation for the optimal spanwise and chordwise load distribution. The design of optimal wing tip planforms and camber distributions is possible with the viscous 3-D wing theory.

  6. A comparison of Wortmann airfoil computer-generated lift and drag polars with flight and wind tunnel results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, A. H.; Sim, A. G.

    1984-01-01

    Computations of drag polars for a low-speed Wortmann sailplane airfoil are compared with both wind tunnel and flight test results. Excellent correlation was shown to exist between computations and flight results except when separated flow regimes were encountered. Smoothness of the input coordinates to the PROFILE computer program was found to be essential to obtain accurate comparisons of drag polars or transition location to either the flight or wind tunnel flight results.

  7. Low-speed, high-lift aerodynamic characteristics of slender, hypersonic accelerator-type configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatlin, Gregory M.

    1989-01-01

    Two investigations were conducted in the Langley 14 by 22 Foot Subsonic Tunnel to determine the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a generic hypersonic accelerator-type configuration. The model was a delta wing configuration incorporating a conical forebody, a simulated wrap-around engine package, and a truncated conical aftbody. Six-component force and moment data were obtained over a range of attack from -4 to 30 degrees and for a sideslip range of + or - 20 degrees. In addition to tests of the basic configuration, component build-up tests were conducted; and the effects of power, forebody nose geometry, canard surfaces, fuselage strakes, and engines on the lower surface alone were also determined. Control power available from deflections of wing flaps and aftbody flaps was also investigated and found to be significantly increased during power-on conditions. Large yawing moments resulted from asymmetric flow fields exhibited by the forebody as revealed by both surface pressure data and flow visualization. Increasing nose bluntness reduced the yawing-moment asymmetry, and the addition of a canard eliminated the yawing-moment asymmetry.

  8. Supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of a lifting-body orbiter model with a blunted delta planform at Mach 2.30 to 4.60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, A. B., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation has been made in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a lifting-body orbiter model with a blunted delta planform. The model was tested at Mach numbers from 2.30 to 4.60, at nominal angles of attack from -4 deg to 60 deg and angles of sideslip from -4 deg to 10 deg, and at a Reynolds number of 2.5 million per foot.

  9. Aerodynamic Characteristics and Control Effectiveness of the HL-20 Lifting Body Configuration at Mach 10 in Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scallion, William I.

    1999-01-01

    A 0.0196-scale model of the HL-20 lifting-body, one of several configurations proposed for future crewed spacecraft, was tested in the Langley 31-Inch Mach 10 Tunnel. The purpose of the tests was to determine the effectiveness of fin-mounted elevons, a lower surface flush-mounted body flap, and a flush-mounted yaw controller at hypersonic speeds. The nominal angle-of-attack range, representative of hypersonic entry, was 2 deg to 41 deg, the sideslip angles were 0 deg, 2 deg, and -2 deg, and the test Reynolds number was 1.06 x 10 E6 based on model reference length. The aerodynamic, longitudinal, and lateral control effectiveness along with surface oil flow visualizations are presented and discussed. The configuration was longitudinally and laterally stable at the nominal center of gravity. The primary longitudinal control, the fin-mounted elevons, could not trim the model to the desired entry angle of attack of 30 deg. The lower surface body flaps were effective for roll control and the associated adverse yawing moment was eliminated by skewing the body flap hinge lines. A yaw controller, flush-mounted on the lower surface, was also effective, and the associated small rolling moment was favorable.

  10. Low speed aerodynamic characteristics of a lifting-body hypersonic research aircraft configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penland, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the low-speed longitudinal, lateral, and directional stability characteristics of a lifting-body hypersonic research airplane concept was conducted in a low-speed tunnel with a 12-foot (3.66-meter) octagonal test section at the Langley Research Center. The model was tested with two sets of horizontal and vertical tip controls having different planform areas, a center vertical tail and two sets of canard controls having trapezoidal and delta planforms, and retracted and deployed engine modules and canopy. This investigation was conducted at a dynamic pressure of 239.4 Pa (5 psf) (Mach number of 0.06) and a Reynolds number of 2 million based on the fuselage length. The tests were conducted through an angle-of-attack range of 0 deg to 30 deg and through horizontal-tail deflections of 10 deg to minus 30 deg. The complete configuration exhibited excessive positive static longitudinal stability about the design center-of-gravity location. However, the configuration was unstable laterally at low angles of attack and unstable directionally throughout the angle-of-attack range. Longitudinal control was insufficient to trim at usable angles of attack. Experiments showed that a rearward shift of the center of gravity and the use of a center-located vertical tail would result in a stable and controllable vehicle.

  11. Computation of interactional aerodynamics for noise prediction of heavy lift rotorcraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennes, Christopher C.

    Many computational tools are used when developing a modern helicopter. As the design space is narrowed, more accurate and time-intensive tools are brought to bear. These tools are used to determine the effect of a design decision on the performance, handling, stability and efficiency of the aircraft. One notable parameter left out of this process is acoustics. This is due in part to the difficulty in making useful acoustics calculations that reveal the differences between various design configurations. This thesis presents a new approach designed to bridge the gap in prediction capability between fast but low-fidelity Lagrangian particle methods, and slow but high-fidelity Eulerian computational fluid dynamics simulations. A multi-pronged approach is presented. First, a simple flow solver using well-understood and tested flow solution methodologies is developed specifically to handle bodies in arbitrary motion. To this basic flow solver two new technologies are added. The first is an Immersed Boundary technique designed to be tolerant of geometric degeneracies and low-resolution grids. This new technique allows easy inclusion of complex fuselage geometries at minimal computational cost, improving the ability of a solver to capture the complex interactional aerodynamic effects expected in modern rotorcraft design. The second new technique is an extension of a concept from flow visualization where the motion of tip vortices are tracked through the solution using massless particles convecting with the local flow. In this extension of that concept, the particles maintain knowledge of the expected and actual vortex strength. As a post-processing step, when the acoustic calculations are made, these particles are used to augment the loading noise calculation and reproduce the highly-impulsive character of blade-vortex interaction noise. In combination these new techniques yield a significant improvement to the state of the art in rotorcraft blade-vortex interaction noise

  12. Viking entry aerodynamics and heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polutchko, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of the Mars entry including the mission sequence of events and associated spacecraft weights are described along with the Viking spacecraft. Test data are presented for the aerodynamic characteristics of the entry vehicle showing trimmed alpha, drag coefficient, and trimmed lift to drag ratio versus Mach number; the damping characteristics of the entry configuration; the angle of attack time history of Viking entries; stagnation heating and pressure time histories; and the aeroshell heating distribution as obtained in tests run in a shock tunnel for various gases. Flight tests which demonstrate the aerodynamic separation of the full-scale aeroshell and the flying qualities of the entry configuration in an uncontrolled mode are documented. Design values selected for the heat protection system based on the test data and analysis performed are presented.

  13. Aerodynamic flow control of a high lift system with dual synthetic jet arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alstrom, Robert Bruce

    Implementing flow control systems will mitigate the vibration and aeroacoustic issues associated with weapons bays; enhance the performance of the latest generation aircraft by reducing their fuel consumption and improving their high angle-of-attack handling qualities; facilitate steep climb out profiles for military transport aircraft. Experimental research is performed on a NACA 0015 airfoil with a simple flap at angle of attack of 16o in both clean and high lift configurations. The results of the active control phase of the project will be discussed. Three different experiments were conducted; they are Amplitude Modulated Dual Location Open Loop Control, Adaptive Control with Amplitude Modulation using Direct Sensor Feedback and Adaptive Control with Amplitude Modulation using Extremum Seeking Control. All the closed loop experiments are dual location. The analysis presented uses the spatial variation of the root mean square pressure fluctuations, power spectral density estimates, Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs), and time frequency analysis which consists of the application of the Morlet and Mexican Hat wavelets. Additionally, during the course of high speed testing in the wind tunnel, some aeroacoustic phenomena were uncovered; those results will also be presented. A cross section of the results shows that the shape of the RMS pressure distributions is sensitive to forcing frequency. The application of broadband excitation in the case adaptive control causes the flow to select a frequency to lock in to. Additionally, open loop control results in global synchronization via switching between two stable states and closed loop control inhibits the switching phenomena, but rather synchronizes the flow about multiple stable shedding frequencies.

  14. Rarefaction Effects in Hypersonic Aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riabov, Vladimir V.

    2011-05-01

    The Direct Simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) technique is used for numerical analysis of rarefied-gas hypersonic flows near a blunt plate, wedge, two side-by-side plates, disk, torus, and rotating cylinder. The role of various similarity parameters (Knudsen and Mach numbers, geometrical and temperature factors, specific heat ratios, and others) in aerodynamics of the probes is studied. Important kinetic effects that are specific for the transition flow regime have been found: non-monotonic lift and drag of plates, strong repulsive force between side-by-side plates and cylinders, dependence of drag on torus radii ratio, and the reverse Magnus effect on the lift of a rotating cylinder. The numerical results are in a good agreement with experimental data, which were obtained in a vacuum chamber at low and moderate Knudsen numbers from 0.01 to 10.

  15. 1999 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, David E. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1999 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 8-12, 1999 in Anaheim, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in the areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to: (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working on HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and midpoint optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented, along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program. This Volume 1/Part 1 publication covers configuration aerodynamics.

  16. A comparison of computer-generated lift and drag polars for a Wortmann airfoil to flight and wind tunnel results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, A. H.; Sandlin, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    Computations of drag polars for a low-speed Wortmann sailplane airfoil are compared to both wind tunnel and flight results. Excellent correlation is shown to exist between computations and flight results except when separated flow regimes were encountered. Wind tunnel transition locations are shown to agree with computed predictions. Smoothness of the input coordinates to the PROFILE airfoil analysis computer program was found to be essential to obtain accurate comparisons of drag polars or transition location to either the flight or wind tunnel results.

  17. Analysis of Nonplanar Wing-tip-mounted Lifting Surfaces on Low-speed Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandam, C. P.; Roskam, J.

    1983-01-01

    Nonplanar wing tip mounted lifting surfaces reduce lift induced drag substantially. Winglets, which are small, nearly vertical, winglike surfaces, are an example of these devices. To achieve reduction in lift induced drag, winglets produce significant side forces. Consequently, these surfaces can seriously affect airplane lateral directional aerodynamic characteristics. Therefore, the effects of nonplanar wing tip mounted surfaces on the lateral directional stability and control of low speed general aviation airplanes were studied. The study consists of a theoretical and an experimental, in flight investigation. The experimental investigation involves flight tests of winglets on an agricultural airplane. Results of these tests demonstrate the significant influence of winglets on airplane lateral directional aerodynamic characteristics. It is shown that good correlations exist between experimental data and theoretically predicted results. In addition, a lifting surface method was used to perform a parametric study of the effects of various winglet parameters on lateral directional stability derivatives of general aviation type wings.

  18. Prediction of static aerodynamic characteristics for slender bodies alone and with lifting surfaces to very high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, L. H.

    1977-01-01

    An engineering-type method is presented for computing normal-force and pitching-moment coefficients for slender bodies of circular and noncircular cross section alone and with lifting surfaces. In this method, a semi-empirical term representing viscous-separation crossflow is added to a term representing potential-theory crossflow. For many bodies of revolution, computed aerodynamic characteristics are shown to agree with measured results for investigated free-stream Mach numbers from 0.6 to 2.9. The angles of attack extend from 0 deg to 180 deg for M = 2.9 from 0 deg to 60 deg for M = 0.6 to 2.0. For several bodies of elliptic cross section, measured results are also predicted reasonably well over the investigated Mach number range from 0.6 to 2.0 and at angles of attack from 0 deg to 60 deg. As for the bodies of revolution, the predictions are best for supersonic Mach numbers. For body-wing and body-wing-tail configurations with wings of aspect ratios 3 and 4, measured normal-force coefficients and centers are predicted reasonably well at the upper test Mach number of 2.0. Vapor-screen and oil-flow pictures are shown for many body, body-wing and body-wing-tail configurations. When spearation and vortex patterns are asymmetric, undesirable side forces are measured for the models even at zero sideslip angle. Generally, the side-force coefficients decrease or vanish with the following: increase in Mach number, decrease in nose fineness ratio, change from sharp to blunt nose, and flattening of body cross section (particularly the body nose).

  19. Prediction of static aerodynamic characteristics for slender bodies alone and with lifting surfaces to very high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, L. H.

    1976-01-01

    An engineering-type method is presented for computing normal-force and pitching-moment coefficients for slender bodies of circular and noncircular cross section alone and with lifting surfaces. In this method, a semi-empirical term representing viscous-separation crossflow is added to a term representing potential-theory crossflow. For many bodies of revolution, computed aerodynamic characteristics are shown to agree with measured results for investigated free-stream Mach numbers from 0.6 to 2.9. For several bodies of elliptic cross section, measured results are also predicted reasonably well over the investigated Mach number range from 0.6 to 2.0 and at angles of attack from 0 to 60 deg. As for the bodies of revolution, the predictions are best for supersonic Mach numbers. For body-wing and body-wing-tail configurations with wings of aspect ratios 3 and 4, measured normal-force coefficients and centers are predicted reasonably well at the upper test Mach number of 2.0. However, with a decrease in Mach number to 0.6, the agreement for C sub N rapidly deteriorates, although the normal-force centers remain in close agreement. Vapor-screen and oil-flow pictures are shown for many body, body-wing, and body-wing-tail configurations. When separation and vortex patterns are asymmetric, undesirable side forces are measured for the models even at zero sideslip angle. Generally, the side-force coefficients decrease or vanish with the following: increase in Mach number, decrease in nose fineness ratio, change from sharp to blunt nose, and flattening of body cross section (particularly the body nose).

  20. Fourier functional analysis for unsteady aerodynamic modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, C. Edward; Chin, Suei

    1991-01-01

    A method based on Fourier analysis is developed to analyze the force and moment data obtained in large amplitude forced oscillation tests at high angles of attack. The aerodynamic models for normal force, lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients are built up from a set of aerodynamic responses to harmonic motions at different frequencies. Based on the aerodynamic models of harmonic data, the indicial responses are formed. The final expressions for the models involve time integrals of the indicial type advocated by Tobak and Schiff. Results from linear two- and three-dimensional unsteady aerodynamic theories as well as test data for a 70-degree delta wing are used to verify the models. It is shown that the present modeling method is accurate in producing the aerodynamic responses to harmonic motions and the ramp type motions. The model also produces correct trend for a 70-degree delta wing in harmonic motion with different mean angles-of-attack. However, the current model cannot be used to extrapolate data to higher angles-of-attack than that of the harmonic motions which form the aerodynamic model. For linear ramp motions, a special method is used to calculate the corresponding frequency and phase angle at a given time. The calculated results from modeling show a higher lift peak for linear ramp motion than for harmonic ramp motion. The current model also shows reasonably good results for the lift responses at different angles of attack.

  1. Estimating unsteady aerodynamic forces on a cascade in a three-dimensional turbulence field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, T.; Johnson, W.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical method has been developed to estimate the unsteady aerodynamic forces caused by flow field turbulence on a wind tunnel turning vane cascade system (vane set). This method approximates dynamic lift and drag by linearly perturbing the appropriate steady state force equations, assuming that the dynamic loads are due only to free stream turbulence and that this turbulence is homogeneous, isotropic, and Gaussian. Correlation and unsteady aerodynamic effects are also incorporated into the analytical model. Using these assumptions, equations relating dynamic lift and drag to flow turbulence, mean velocity, and vane set geometry are derived. From these equations, estimates for the power spectra and rms (root mean squared value, delta) loading of both lift and drag can be determined.

  2. Theoretical aerodynamics of upper-surface-blowing jet-wing interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, C. E.; Campbell, J. F.

    1975-01-01

    A linear, inviscid subsonic compressible flow theory is formulated to treat the aerodynamic interaction between the wing and an inviscid upper-surface-blowing (USB) thick jet with Mach number nonuniformity. The predicted results show reasonably good agreement with some available lift and induced-drag data. It was also shown that the thin-jet-flap theory is inadequate for the USB configurations with thick jet. Additional theoretical results show that the lift and induced drag were reduced by increasing jet temperature and increased by increasing jet Mach number. Reducing jet aspect ratio, while holding jet area constant, caused reductions in lift, induced drag, and pitching moment at a given angle of attack but with a minimal change in the curve of lift coefficient against induced-drag coefficient. The jet-deflection effect was shown to be beneficial to cruise performance. The aerodynamic center was shifted forward by adding power or jet-deflection angle. Moving the jet away from the wing surface resulted in rapid changes in lift and induced drag. Reducing the wing span of a rectangular wing by half decreased the jet-circulation lift by only 24 percent at a thrust coefficient of 2.

  3. A Quasi-Steady Lifting Line Theory for Insect-Like Hovering Flight

    PubMed Central

    Nabawy, Mostafa R. A.; Crowthe, William J.

    2015-01-01

    A novel lifting line formulation is presented for the quasi-steady aerodynamic evaluation of insect-like wings in hovering flight. The approach allows accurate estimation of aerodynamic forces from geometry and kinematic information alone and provides for the first time quantitative information on the relative contribution of induced and profile drag associated with lift production for insect-like wings in hover. The main adaptation to the existing lifting line theory is the use of an equivalent angle of attack, which enables capture of the steady non-linear aerodynamics at high angles of attack. A simple methodology to include non-ideal induced effects due to wake periodicity and effective actuator disc area within the lifting line theory is included in the model. Low Reynolds number effects as well as the edge velocity correction required to account for different wing planform shapes are incorporated through appropriate modification of the wing section lift curve slope. The model has been successfully validated against measurements from revolving wing experiments and high order computational fluid dynamics simulations. Model predicted mean lift to weight ratio results have an average error of 4% compared to values from computational fluid dynamics for eight different insect cases. Application of an unmodified linear lifting line approach leads on average to a 60% overestimation in the mean lift force required for weight support, with most of the discrepancy due to use of linear aerodynamics. It is shown that on average for the eight insects considered, the induced drag contributes 22% of the total drag based on the mean cycle values and 29% of the total drag based on the mid half-stroke values. PMID:26252657

  4. A Quasi-Steady Lifting Line Theory for Insect-Like Hovering Flight.

    PubMed

    Nabawy, Mostafa R A; Crowthe, William J

    2015-01-01

    A novel lifting line formulation is presented for the quasi-steady aerodynamic evaluation of insect-like wings in hovering flight. The approach allows accurate estimation of aerodynamic forces from geometry and kinematic information alone and provides for the first time quantitative information on the relative contribution of induced and profile drag associated with lift production for insect-like wings in hover. The main adaptation to the existing lifting line theory is the use of an equivalent angle of attack, which enables capture of the steady non-linear aerodynamics at high angles of attack. A simple methodology to include non-ideal induced effects due to wake periodicity and effective actuator disc area within the lifting line theory is included in the model. Low Reynolds number effects as well as the edge velocity correction required to account for different wing planform shapes are incorporated through appropriate modification of the wing section lift curve slope. The model has been successfully validated against measurements from revolving wing experiments and high order computational fluid dynamics simulations. Model predicted mean lift to weight ratio results have an average error of 4% compared to values from computational fluid dynamics for eight different insect cases. Application of an unmodified linear lifting line approach leads on average to a 60% overestimation in the mean lift force required for weight support, with most of the discrepancy due to use of linear aerodynamics. It is shown that on average for the eight insects considered, the induced drag contributes 22% of the total drag based on the mean cycle values and 29% of the total drag based on the mid half-stroke values. PMID:26252657

  5. Prediction of Aerodynamic Coefficients using Neural Networks for Sparse Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajkumar, T.; Bardina, Jorge; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Basic aerodynamic coefficients are modeled as functions of angles of attack and sideslip with vehicle lateral symmetry and compressibility effects. Most of the aerodynamic parameters can be well-fitted using polynomial functions. In this paper a fast, reliable way of predicting aerodynamic coefficients is produced using a neural network. The training data for the neural network is derived from wind tunnel test and numerical simulations. The coefficients of lift, drag, pitching moment are expressed as a function of alpha (angle of attack) and Mach number. The results produced from preliminary neural network analysis are very good.

  6. Missile aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, Jack N.

    1988-01-01

    The fundamental aerodynamics of slender bodies is examined in the reprint edition of an introductory textbook originally published in 1960. Chapters are devoted to the formulas commonly used in missile aerodynamics; slender-body theory at supersonic and subsonic speeds; vortices in viscid and inviscid flow; wing-body interference; downwash, sidewash, and the wake; wing-tail interference; aerodynamic controls; pressure foredrag, base drag, and skin friction; and stability derivatives. Diagrams, graphs, tables of terms and formulas are provided.

  7. Aerodynamics/ACEE: Aircraft energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An overview is presented of a 10 year program managed by NASA which seeks to make possible the most efficient use of energy for aircraft propulsion and lift as well as provide a technology that can be used by U.S. manufacturers of air transports and engines. Supercritical wings, winglets, vortex drag reduction, high lift, active control, laminar flow control, and aerodynamics by computer are among the topics discussed. Wind tunnel models in flight verification of advanced technology, and the design, construction and testing of various aircraft structures are also described.

  8. Aerodynamics of Wiffle Balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utvich, Alexis; Jemmott, Colin; Logan, Sheldon; Rossmann, Jenn

    2003-11-01

    A team of undergraduate students has performed experiments on Wiffle balls in the Harvey Mudd College wind tunnel facility. Wiffle balls are of particular interest because they can attain a curved trajectory with little or no pitcher-imparted spin. The reasons behind this have not previously been quantified formally. A strain gauge device was designed and constructed to measure the lift and drag forces on the Wiffle ball; a second device to measure lift and drag on a spinning ball was also developed. Experiments were conducted over a range of Reynolds numbers corresponding to speeds of roughly 0-40 mph. Lift forces of up to 0.2 N were measured for a Wiffle ball at 40 mph. This is believed to be due to air flowing into the holes on the Wiffle ball in addition to the effect of the holes on external boundary layer separation. A fog-based flow visualization system was developed in order to provide a deeper qualitative understanding of what occurred in the flowfield surrounding the ball. The data and observations obtained in this study support existing assumptions about Wiffle ball aerodynamics and begin to elucidate the mechanisms involved in Wiffle ball flight.

  9. Aerodynamic investigations into various low speed L/D improvement devices on the 140A/B space shuttle orbiter configuration in the Rockwell International low speed wind tunnel (OA86)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mennell, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted to investigate various base drag reduction techniques in an attempt to improve Orbiter lift-to-drag ratios and to calculate sting interference effects on the Orbiter aerodynamic characteristics. Test conditions and facilites, and model dimensional data are presented along with the data reduction guidelines and data set/run number collation used for the studies. Aerodynamic force and moment data and the results of stability and control tests are also given.

  10. 1998 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillin, S. Naomi (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1998 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 9-13, in Los Angeles, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program.

  11. 1999 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, David E. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1999 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 8-12, 1999 in Anaheim, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in the areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working on HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and midpoint optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented, along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program. This Volume 1/Part 2 publication covers the design optimization and testing sessions.

  12. 1998 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillin, S. Naomi (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1998 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 9-13, in Los Angeles, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry HighSpeed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of. Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to: (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program.

  13. The aerodynamic cost of head morphology in bats: maybe not as bad as it seems.

    PubMed

    Vanderelst, Dieter; Peremans, Herbert; Razak, Norizham Abdul; Verstraelen, Edouard; Dimitriadis, Grigorios; Dimitriadis, Greg

    2015-01-01

    At first sight, echolocating bats face a difficult trade-off. As flying animals, they would benefit from a streamlined geometric shape to reduce aerodynamic drag and increase flight efficiency. However, as echolocating animals, their pinnae generate the acoustic cues necessary for navigation and foraging. Moreover, species emitting sound through their nostrils often feature elaborate noseleaves that help in focussing the emitted echolocation pulses. Both pinnae and noseleaves reduce the streamlined character of a bat's morphology. It is generally assumed that by compromising the streamlined charactered of the geometry, the head morphology generates substantial drag, thereby reducing flight efficiency. In contrast, it has also been suggested that the pinnae of bats generate lift forces counteracting the detrimental effect of the increased drag. However, very little data exist on the aerodynamic properties of bat pinnae and noseleaves. In this work, the aerodynamic forces generated by the heads of seven species of bats, including noseleaved bats, are measured by testing detailed 3D models in a wind tunnel. Models of Myotis daubentonii, Macrophyllum macrophyllum, Micronycteris microtis, Eptesicus fuscus, Rhinolophus formosae, Rhinolophus rouxi and Phyllostomus discolor are tested. The results confirm that non-streamlined facial morphologies yield considerable drag forces but also generate substantial lift. The net effect is a slight increase in the lift-to-drag ratio. Therefore, there is no evidence of high aerodynamic costs associated with the morphology of bat heads. PMID:25739038

  14. The Aerodynamic Cost of Head Morphology in Bats: Maybe Not as Bad as It Seems

    PubMed Central

    Vanderelst, Dieter; Peremans, Herbert; Razak, Norizham Abdul; Verstraelen, Edouard; Dimitriadis, Greg

    2015-01-01

    At first sight, echolocating bats face a difficult trade-off. As flying animals, they would benefit from a streamlined geometric shape to reduce aerodynamic drag and increase flight efficiency. However, as echolocating animals, their pinnae generate the acoustic cues necessary for navigation and foraging. Moreover, species emitting sound through their nostrils often feature elaborate noseleaves that help in focussing the emitted echolocation pulses. Both pinnae and noseleaves reduce the streamlined character of a bat’s morphology. It is generally assumed that by compromising the streamlined charactered of the geometry, the head morphology generates substantial drag, thereby reducing flight efficiency. In contrast, it has also been suggested that the pinnae of bats generate lift forces counteracting the detrimental effect of the increased drag. However, very little data exist on the aerodynamic properties of bat pinnae and noseleaves. In this work, the aerodynamic forces generated by the heads of seven species of bats, including noseleaved bats, are measured by testing detailed 3D models in a wind tunnel. Models of Myotis daubentonii, Macrophyllum macrophyllum, Micronycteris microtis, Eptesicus fuscus, Rhinolophus formosae, Rhinolophus rouxi and Phyllostomus discolor are tested. The results confirm that non-streamlined facial morphologies yield considerable drag forces but also generate substantial lift. The net effect is a slight increase in the lift-to-drag ratio. Therefore, there is no evidence of high aerodynamic costs associated with the morphology of bat heads. PMID:25739038

  15. Aerodynamics, kinematics, and energetics of horizontal flapping flight in the long-eared bat Plecotus auritus.

    PubMed

    Norberg, U M

    1976-08-01

    The kinematics, aerodynamics, and energetics of Plecotus auritus in slow horizontal flight, 2-35 m s-1, are analysed. At this speed the inclination of the stroke path is ca. 58 degrees to the horizontal, the stroke angle ca. 91 degrees, and the stroke frequency ca. 11-9 Hz. A method, based on steady-state aerodynamic and momenthum theories, is derived to calculate the lift and drag coefficients as averaged over the whole wing the whole wing-stroke for horizontal flapping flight. This is a further development of Pennycuick's (1968) and Weis-Fogh's (1972) expressions for calculating the lift coefficient. The lift coefficient obtained varies between 1-4 and 1-6, the drag coefficient between 0-4 and 1-2, and the lift:drag ratio between 1-2 and 4-0. The corresponding, calculated, total specific mechanical power output of the wing muscles varies between 27-0 and 40-4 W kg-1 body mass. A maximum estimate of mechanical efficiency is 0-26. The aerodynamic efficiency varies between 0-07 and 0-10. The force coefficient, total mechanical power output, and mechanical and aerodynamic efficiencies are all plausible, demonstrating that the slow flapping flight of Plecotus is thus explicable by steady-state aerodynamics. The downstroke is the power stroke for the vertical upward forces and the upstroke for the horizontal forward forces. PMID:993701

  16. Drag reduction in nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushnell, D. M.; Moore, K. J.

    Recent studies on the drag-reducing shapes, structures, and behaviors of swimming and flying animals are reviewed, with an emphasis on potential analogs in vehicle design. Consideration is given to form drag reduction (turbulent flow, vortex generation, mass transfer, and adaptations for body-intersection regions), skin-friction drag reduction (polymers, surfactants, and bubbles as surface 'additives'), reduction of the drag due to lift, drag-reduction studies on porpoises, and drag-reducing animal behavior (e.g., leaping out of the water by porpoises). The need for further research is stressed.

  17. Drag reduction in nature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, D. M.; Moore, K. J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies on the drag-reducing shapes, structures, and behaviors of swimming and flying animals are reviewed, with an emphasis on potential analogs in vehicle design. Consideration is given to form drag reduction (turbulent flow, vortex generation, mass transfer, and adaptations for body-intersection regions), skin-friction drag reduction (polymers, surfactants, and bubbles as surface 'additives'), reduction of the drag due to lift, drag-reduction studies on porpoises, and drag-reducing animal behavior (e.g., leaping out of the water by porpoises). The need for further research is stressed.

  18. Impact of fuselage incidence on the supersonic aerodynamics of two fighter configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, R. M.; Miller, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    The results of experimental and theoretical investigations into the effect of fuselage upwash on fighter aircraft wing performance are reported. Wind tunnel trials were performed on 4 percent scale models of two supersonic fighters. The trials were run at Mach 1.6-2.0, an Re of 2,000,000 and at angles of attack (AOA) of -4 to 20 deg. Measurements were made of lift, drag and pitching moments. Two linearized theory supersonic aerodynamic prediction codes, PAN AIR and the SDAS lift analysis, were used to predict the same aerodynamic coefficients. The fuselage AOA augmented the lift and pitching moment at 0, 2 and 5 deg. The contribution mainly arose from the fuselage-induced upwash. The PAN AIR code gave superior data for the fuselage aerodynamics and effects, although both codes accurately predicted the overall lift and moment increments due to the fuselage AOA.

  19. Airfoil design: Finding the balance between design lift and structural stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Christian; Gaudern, Nicholas; Zahle, Frederik; Vronsky, Tomas

    2014-06-01

    When upscaling wind turbine blades there is an increasing need for high levels of structural efficiency. In this paper the relationships between the aerodynamic characteristics; design lift and lift-drag ratio; and the structural characteristics were investigated. Using a unified optimization setup, airfoils were designed with relative thicknesses between 18% and 36%, a structural box height of 85% of the relative thickness, and varying box widths in chordwise direction between 20% and 40% of the chord length. The results from these airfoil designs showed that for a given flapwise stiffness, the design lift coefficient increases if the box length reduces and at the same time the relative thickness increases. Even though the conclusions are specific to the airfoil design approach used, the study indicated that an increased design lift required slightly higher relative thickness compared to airfoils with lower design lift to maintain the flapwise stiffness. Also, the study indicated that the lift-drag ratio as a function of flapwise stiffness was relatively independent of the airfoil design with a tendency that the lift-drag ratio decreased for large box lengths. The above conclusions were supported by an analysis of the three airfoil families Riso-C2, DU and FFA, where the lift-drag ratio as a function of flapwise stiffness was decreasing, but relatively independent of the airfoil design, and the design lift coefficient was varying depending on the design philosophy. To make the analysis complete also design lift and lift- drag ratio as a function of edgewise and torsional stiffness were shown.

  20. Aerodynamic Analyses and Database Development for Lift-Off/Transition and First Stage Ascent of the Ares I A106 Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamadi, Bandu N.; Pei, Jing; Covell, Peter F.; Favaregh, Noah M.; Gumbert, Clyde R.; Hanke, Jeremy L.

    2011-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center, in partnership with NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and NASA Ames Research Center, was involved in the aerodynamic analyses, testing, and database development for the Ares I A106 crew launch vehicle in support of the Ares Design and Analysis Cycle. This paper discusses the development of lift-off/transition and ascent databases. The lift-off/transition database was developed using data from tests on a 1.75% scale model of the A106 configuration in the NASA Langley 14x22 Subsonic Wind Tunnel. The power-off ascent database was developed using test data on a 1% A106 scale model from two different facilities, the Boeing Polysonic Wind Tunnel and the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The ascent database was adjusted for differences in wind tunnel and flight Reynolds numbers using USM3D CFD code. The aerodynamic jet interaction effects due to first stage roll control system were modeled using USM3D and OVERFLOW CFD codes.

  1. Guide to AERO2S and WINGDES Computer Codes for Prediction and Minimization of Drag Due to Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Harry W.; Chu, Julio; Ozoroski, Lori P.; McCullers, L. Arnold

    1997-01-01

    The computer codes, AER02S and WINGDES, are now widely used for the analysis and design of airplane lifting surfaces under conditions that tend to induce flow separation. These codes have undergone continued development to provide additional capabilities since the introduction of the original versions over a decade ago. This code development has been reported in a variety of publications (NASA technical papers, NASA contractor reports, and society journals). Some modifications have not been publicized at all. Users of these codes have suggested the desirability of combining in a single document the descriptions of the code development, an outline of the features of each code, and suggestions for effective code usage. This report is intended to supply that need.

  2. Supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of hypersonic low-wave-drag elliptical body-tail combinations as affected by changes in stabilizer configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, B., Jr.; Fournier, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation has been made at Mach numbers from 1.50 to 4.63 to determine systematically the effects of the addition and position of outboard stabilizers and vertical- and vee-tail configurations on the performance and stability characteristics of a low-wave-drag elliptical body. The basic body shape was a zero-lift hypersonic minimum-wave-drag body as determined for the geometric constraints of length and volume. The elliptical cross section had an axis ratio of 2 (major axis horizontal) and an equivalent fineness ratio of 6.14. Base-mounted outboard stabilizers were at various dihedral angles from 90 deg to minus 90 deg with and without a single center-line vertical tail or a vee-tail. The angle of attack was varied from about minus 6 to 27 deg at sideslip angles of 0 and 5 deg and a constant Reynolds number of 4.58 x one million (based on body length).

  3. Aerodynamic Force Characteristics of a Series of Lifting Cone and Cone-Cylinder Configurations at a Mach Number of 6.83 and Angles of Attack up to 130 Deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penland, Jim A.

    1961-01-01

    Force tests of a series of right circular cones having semivertex angles ranging from 5 deg to 45 deg and a series of right circular cone-cylinder configurations having semivertex angles ranging from 5 deg to 20 deg and an afterbody fineness ratio of 6 have been made in the Langley 11-inch hypersonic tunnel at a Mach number of 6.83, a Reynolds number of 0.24 x 10.6 per inch, and angles of attack up to 130 deg. An analysis of the results made use of the Newtonian and modified Newtonian theories and the exact theory. A comparison of the experimental data of both cone and cone-cylinder configurations with theoretical calculations shows that the Newtonian concept gives excellent predictions of trends of the force characteristics and the locations with respect to angle of attack of the points of maximum lift, maximum drag, and maximum lift-drag ratio. Both the Newtonian a.nd exact theories give excellent predictions of the sign and value of the initial lift-curve slope. The maximum lift coefficient for conical bodies is nearly constant at a value of 0.5 based on planform area for semivertex angles up to 30 deg. The maximum lift-drag ratio for conical bodies can be expected to be not greater than about 3.5, and this value might be expected only for slender cones having semivertex angles of less than 5 deg. The increments of angle of attack and lift coefficient between the maximum lift-drag ratio and the maximum lift coefficient for conical bodies decrease rapidly with increasing semivertex angles as predicted by the modified Newtonian theory.

  4. Experimental and theoretical study of aerodynamic characteristics of some lifting bodies at angles of attack from -10 degrees to 53 degrees at Mach numbers from 2.30 to 4.62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. Leroy; Torres, Abel O.

    1994-01-01

    Lifting bodies are of interest for possible use as space transportation vehicles because they have the volume required for significant payloads and the aerodynamic capability to negotiate the transition from high angles of attack to lower angles of attack (for cruise flight) and thus safely reenter the atmosphere and perform conventional horizontal landings. Results are presented for an experimental and theoretical study of the aerodynamic characteristics at supersonic speeds for a series of lifting bodies with 75 deg delta planforms, rounded noses, and various upper and lower surface cambers. The camber shapes varied in thickness and in maximum thickness location, and hence in body volume. The experimental results were obtained in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel for both the longitudinal and the lateral aerodynamic characteristics. Selected experimental results are compared with calculated results obtained through the use of the Hypersonic Arbitrary-Body Aerodynamic Computer Program.

  5. Aerodynamic Performance and Static Stability at Mach Number 3.3 of an Aircraft Configuration Employing Three Triangular Wing Panels and a Body Equal Length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Carlton S.

    1960-01-01

    An aircraft configuration, previously conceived as a means to achieve favorable aerodynamic stability characteristics., high lift-drag ratio, and low heating rates at high supersonic speeds., was modified in an attempt to increase further the lift-drag ratio without adversely affecting the other desirable characteristics. The original configuration consisted of three identical triangular wing panels symmetrically disposed about an ogive-cylinder body equal in length to the root chord of the panels. This configuration was modified by altering the angular disposition of the wing panels, by reducing the area of the panel forming the vertical fin, and by reshaping the body to produce interference lift. Six-component force and moment tests of the modified configuration at combined angles of attack and sideslip were made at a Mach number of 3.3 and a Reynolds number of 5.46 million. A maximum lift-drag ratio of 6.65 (excluding base drag) was measured at a lift coefficient of 0.100 and an angle of attack of 3.60. The lift-drag ratio remained greater than 3 up to lift coefficient of 0.35. Performance estimates, which predicted a maximum lift-drag ratio for the modified configuration 27 percent greater than that of the original configuration, agreed well with experiment. The modified configuration exhibited favorable static stability characteristics within the test range. Longitudinal and directional centers of pressure were slightly aft of the respective centroids of projected plan-form and side area.

  6. Tip aerodynamics from wind tunnel test of semi-span wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanaken, Johannes M.; Stroub, Robert H.

    1986-01-01

    Presented are the results of a low-speed wind tunnel test on a 5.33-aspect-ratio, semi-span wing with 30- and 35 deg swept tapered tips. The test results include aerodynamic data for the tip itself and for the entire wing including the tip. The metric tip extended inboard 1.58 wing chord lengths. The aerodynamic drag data show the strong influence of tip incidence angle on tip drag for various lift levels. Pitching-moment characteristics show the effect of a moment center at 0.13 c and 0.25 c.

  7. Wind turbine trailing edge aerodynamic brakes

    SciTech Connect

    Migliore, P G; Miller, L S; Quandt, G A

    1995-04-01

    Five trailing-edge devices were investigated to determine their potential as wind-turbine aerodynamic brakes, and for power modulation and load alleviation. Several promising configurations were identified. A new device, called the spoiler-flap, appears to be the best alternative. It is a simple device that is effective at all angles of attack. It is not structurally intrusive, and it has the potential for small actuating loads. It is shown that simultaneous achievement of a low lift/drag ratio and high drag is the determinant of device effectiveness, and that these attributes must persist up to an angle of attack of 45{degree}. It is also argued that aerodynamic brakes must be designed for a wind speed of at least 45 m/s (100 mph).

  8. Aerodynamic tests and analysis of a turbojet-boosted launch vehicle concept (spacejet) over a Mach number range of 1.50 to 2.86. [Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riebe, G. D.; Small, W. J.; Morris, O. A.

    1981-01-01

    Results from analytical and experimental studies of the aerodynamic characteristics of a turbojet-boosted launch vehicle concept through a Mach number range of 1.50 to 2.86 are presented. The vehicle consists of a winged orbiter utilizing an area-ruled axisymmetric body and two winged turbojet boosters mounted underneath the orbiter wing. Drag characteristics near zero lift were of prime interest. Force measurements and flow visualization techniques were employed. Estimates from wave drag theory, supersonic lifting surface theory, and impact theory are compared with data and indicate the ability of these theories to adequately predict the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle. Despite the existence of multiple wings and bodies in close proximity to each other, no large scale effects of boundary layer separation on drag or lift could be discerned. Total drag levels were, however, sensitive to booster locations.

  9. Aerodynamic Design Opportunities for Future Supersonic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Flamm, Jeffrey D.

    2002-01-01

    A discussion of a diverse set of aerodynamic opportunities to improve the aerodynamic performance of future supersonic aircraft has been presented and discussed. These ideas are offered to the community in a hope that future supersonic vehicle development activities will not be hindered by past efforts. A number of nonlinear flow based drag reduction technologies are presented and discussed. The subject technologies are related to the areas of interference flows, vehicle concepts, vortex flows, wing design, advanced control effectors, and planform design. The authors also discussed the importance of improving the aerodynamic design environment to allow creativity and knowledge greater influence. A review of all of the data presented show that pressure drag reductions on the order of 50 to 60 counts are achievable, compared to a conventional supersonic cruise vehicle, with the application of several of the discussed technologies. These drag reductions would correlate to a 30 to 40% increase in cruise L/D (lift-to-drag ratio) for a commercial supersonic transport.

  10. Aerodynamic analysis of an isolated vehicle wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leśniewicz, P.; Kulak, M.; Karczewski, M.

    2014-08-01

    Increasing fuel prices force the manufacturers to look into all aspects of car aerodynamics including wheels, tyres and rims in order to minimize their drag. By diminishing the aerodynamic drag of vehicle the fuel consumption will decrease, while driving safety and comfort will improve. In order to properly illustrate the impact of a rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body, precise analysis of an isolated wheel should be performed beforehand. In order to represent wheel rotation in contact with the ground, presented CFD simulations included Moving Wall boundary as well as Multiple Reference Frame should be performed. Sliding mesh approach is favoured but too costly at the moment. Global and local flow quantities obtained during simulations were compared to an experiment in order to assess the validity of the numerical model. Results of investigation illustrates dependency between type of simulation and coefficients (drag and lift). MRF approach proved to be a better solution giving result closer to experiment. Investigation of the model with contact area between the wheel and the ground helps to illustrate the impact of rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body.

  11. Supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of canard, tailless, and aft-tail configurations for 2 wing planforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covell, P. F.

    1985-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics of canard, tailless, and aft tail configurations were compared in tests on a general research model (generic fuselage without canopy, inlets, or vertical tails) at Mach 1.60 and 2.00 in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. Two uncambered wing planforms (trapezoidal with 44 deg leading edge sweep and delta with 60 deg leading edge sweep) were tested for each configuration. The relative merits of the configurations were also determined theoretically, to evaluate the capabilities of a linear theory code for such analyses. The canard and aft tail configurations have similar measured values for lift curve slope, maximum lift drag ratio, and zero lift drag. The stability decrease as Mach number increases is greatest for the tailless configuration and least for the canard configuration. Because of very limited accuracy in predicting the aerodynamic parameter increments between configurations, the linear theory code is not adequate for determining the relative merits of canard, tailless, and aft tail configurations.

  12. Apparatus And Method For Reducing Drag Of A Bluff Body In Ground Effect Using Counter-Rotating Vortex Pairs

    DOEpatents

    Ortega, Jason M.; Salari, Kambiz

    2005-08-09

    An aerodynamic base drag reduction apparatus and method for bluff bodies, such as tractor-trailer trucks, utilizing a pair of lift surfaces extending to lift surface tips and located alongside the bluff body such as on opposing left and right side surfaces. In a flowstream substantially parallel to the longitudinal centerline of the bluff body, the pair of lift surfaces generate a pair of counter-rotating trailing vortices which confluence together in the wake of the bluff body in a direction orthogonal to the flowstream. The confluence draws or otherwise turns the flowstream, such as the flowstream passing over a top surface of the bluff body, in and around behind a trailing end of the bluff body to raise the pressure on a base surface at the trailing end and thereby reduce the aerodynamic base drag.

  13. Apparatus And Method For Reducing Drag Of A Bluff Body In Ground Effect Using Counter-Rotating Vortex Pairs

    DOEpatents

    Ortega, Jason M.; Sabari, Kambiz

    2005-12-27

    An aerodynamic base drag reduction apparatus and method for bluff bodies, such as tractor-trailer trucks, utilizing a pair of lift surfaces extending to lift surface tips and located alongside the bluff body such as on opposing left and right side surfaces. In a flowstream substantially parallel to the longitudinal centerline of the bluff body, the pair of lift surfaces generate a pair of counter-rotating trailing vortices which confluence together in the wake of the bluff body in a direction orthogonal to the flowstream. The confluence draws or otherwise turns the flowstream, such as the flowstream passing over a top surface of the bluff body, in and around behind a trailing end of the bluff body to raise the pressure on a base surface at the trailing end and thereby reduce the aerodynamic base drag.

  14. Atmospheric testing of wind turbine trailing edge aerodynamic brakes

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.S.; Migliore, P.G.; Quandt, G.A.

    1997-12-31

    An experimental investigation was conducted using an instrumented horizontal-axis wind turbine that incorporated variable span trailing-edge aerodynamic brakes. A primary goal was to directly compare study results with (infinite-span) wind tunnel data and to provide information on how to account for device span effects during turbine design or analysis. Comprehensive measurements were utilized to define effective changes in the aerodynamic coefficients, as a function of angle of attack and control deflection, for three device spans and configurations. Differences in the lift and drag behavior are most pronounced near stall and for device spans of less than 15%. Drag performance is affected only minimally (<70%) for 15% or larger span devices. Interestingly, aerodynamic controls with characteristic vents or openings appear most affected by span reductions and three-dimensional flow.

  15. An Aerodynamic Force Estimation Method for Winged Models at the JAXA 60cm Magnetic Suspension and Balance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    澤田, 秀夫

    The aerodynamic performance of an AGARD-B model, as an example of a winged model, was measured in a low-speed wind tunnel equipped with the JAXA 60cm Magnetic Suspension and Balance System (MSBS). The flow speed was in the range between 25m/s and 35m/s, and the angle of attack and the yaw angle were in the range of [- 8, 4] and [- 3, 3] degrees, respectively. Six components of the aerodynamic force were evaluated by using the control coil currents of the MSBS. In evaluating the drag, the effect of the lift on the drag must be evaluated at MSBS when the lift is much larger than drag. A new evaluation method for drag and lift was proposed and was examined successfully by subjecting the model to the same loads as in the wind tunnel test. The drag coefficient at zero lift and the derivatives of the lift and pitching moment coefficient with respect to the angle of attack were evaluated and compared with other source data sets. The obtained data agreed well with the corresponding values of the other sources. The side force, yawing moment and rolling moment coefficients were also evaluated on the basis of corresponding calibration test results, and reasonable results were obtained, although they could not be compared due to the lack of reliable data sets.

  16. Study of potential aerodynamic benefits from spanwise blowing at wingtip. Ph.D. Thesis - George Washington Univ., 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineck, Raymond E.

    1995-01-01

    Comprehensive experimental and analytical studies have been conducted to assess the potential aerodynamic benefits from spanwise blowing at the tip of a moderate-aspect-ratio swept wing. Previous studies on low-aspect-ratio wings indicated that blowing from the wingtip can diffuse the tip vortex and displace it outward. The diffused and displaced vortex will induce a smaller downwash at the wing, and consequently the wing will have increased lift and decreased induced drag at a given angle of attack. Results from the present investigation indicated that blowing from jets with a short chord had little effect on lift or drag, but blowing from jets with a longer chord increased lift near the tip and reduced drag at low Mach numbers. A Navier-Stokes solver with modified boundary conditions at the tip was used to extrapolate the results to a Mach number of 0.72. Calculations indicated that lift and drag increase with increasing jet momentum coefficient. Because the momentum of the jet is typically greater than the reduction in the wing drag and the increase in the wing lift due to spanwise blowing is small, spanwise blowing at the wingtip does not appear to be a practical means of improving the aerodynamic efficiency of moderate-aspectratio swept wings at high subsonic Mach numbers.

  17. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 13.1-percent-thick, high-lift airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivier, K. R.; Ormsbee, A. I.; Awker, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Low speed sectional characteristics of a high lift airfoil are studied and a comparison is made of those characteristics with the predictions of the theoretical methods used in the airfoil's design. The 13.1 percent-thick, UI-1720 airfoil was found to achieve the predicted maximum lift coefficient of nearly 2.0. No upper-surface, flow separation was found below the stall angle of attack of 16 degrees; it appeared that stall was due to an abrupt leading edge flow separation.

  18. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 13.1-percent-thick, high-lift airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivier, K. R.; Ormsbee, A. I.; Awker, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental study of the low-speed, sectional characteristics of a high-lift airfoil, and comparison of these characteristics with the predictions of the theoretical methods used in the airfoil's design. The 13.1% thick UI-1720 airfoil was found to achieve the predicted maximum lift coefficient of nearly 2.0. No upper-surface flow separation was found below the stall angle of attack of 16 deg; it appeared that stall was due to an abrupt leading-edge flow separation.

  19. Reduction of aerodynamic friction drag of moving bodies using a Microwave-Dielectric-Barrier-Discharge actuator controlling the boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, Thiery

    2015-11-01

    A new plasma device named M-DBD (Microwave Dielectric Barrier Discharge) is used for controlling the boundary layer in order to reduce the drag force. A compact resonant UHF structure comprising a resonant element in the form of a quarter-wave antenna creates a mini-plasma insulated from the UHF electrodes by mica sheets. Additional electrodes induce an electric field in the plasma and transiently move the ions of the plasma. The high collision rate with the neutral molecules induce the global transient flow of the neutral gas. The temporal variation of the applied electric field is chosen in order to obtain a modification of the local boundary layer. First tests using an array of M-DBD plasma actuators are underway (see Patent ref. WO 2014111469 A1).

  20. Lewis icing research tunnel test of the aerodynamic effects of aircraft ground deicing/anti-icing fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runyan, L. James; Zierten, Thomas A.; Hill, Eugene G.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation of the effect of aircraft ground deicing/anti-icing fluids on the aerodynamic characteristics of a Boeing 737-200ADV airplane was conducted. The test was carried out in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. Fluids tested include a Newtonian deicing fluid, three non-Newtonian anti-icing fluids commercially available during or before 1988, and eight new experimental non-Newtonian fluids developed by four fluid manufacturers. The results show that fluids remain on the wind after liftoff and cause a measurable lift loss and drag increase. These effects are dependent on the high-lift configuration and on the temperature. For a configuration with a high-lift leading-edge device, the fluid effect is largest at the maximum lift condition. The fluid aerodynamic effects are related to the magnitude of the fluid surface roughness, particularly in the first 30 percent chord. The experimental fluids show a significant reduction in aerodynamic effects.

  1. Lifting Body Flight Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    1998-01-01

    NASA has a technology program in place to build the X-33 test vehicle and then the full sized Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. VentureStar is a Lifting Body (LB) flight vehicle which will carry our future payloads into orbit, and will do so at a much reduced cost. There were three design contenders for the new Reusable Launch Vehicle: a Winged Vehicle, a Vertical Lander, and the Lifting Body(LB). The LB design won the competition. A LB vehicle has no wings and derives its lift solely from the shape of its body, and has the unique advantages of superior volumetric efficiency, better aerodynamic efficiency at high angles-of-attack and hypersonic speeds, and reduced thermal protection system weight. Classically, in a ballistic vehicle, drag has been employed to control the level of deceleration in reentry. In the LB, lift enables the vehicle to decelerate at higher altitudes for the same velocity and defines the reentry corridor which includes a greater cross range. This paper outlines our LB heritage which was utilized in the design of the new Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. NASA and the U.S. Air Force have a rich heritage of LB vehicle design and flight experience. Eight LB's were built and over 225 LB test flights were conducted through 1975 in the initial LB Program. Three LB series were most significant in the advancement of today's LB technology: the M2-F; HL-1O; and X-24 series. The M2-F series was designed by NASA Ames Research Center, the HL-10 series by NASA Langley Research Center, and the X-24 series by the Air Force. LB vehicles are alive again today.

  2. Induced drag of multiplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prandtl, L

    1924-01-01

    The most important part of the resistance or drag of a wing system,the induced drag, can be calculated theoretically, when the distribution of lift on the individual wings is known. The calculation is based upon the assumption that the lift on the wings is distributed along the wing in proportion to the ordinates of a semi-ellipse. Formulas and numerical tables are given for calculating the drag. In this connection, the most favorable arrangements of biplanes and triplanes are discussed and the results are further elucidated by means of numerical examples.

  3. CFD aerodynamic analysis of non-conventional airfoil sections for very large rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadakis, G.; Voutsinas, S.; Sieros, G.; Chaviaropoulos, T.

    2014-12-01

    The aerodynamic performance of flat-back and elliptically shaped airfoils is analyzed on the basis of CFD simulations. Incompressible and low-Mach preconditioned compressible unsteady simulations have been carried out using the k-w SST and the Spalart Allmaras turbulence models. Time averaged lift and drag coefficients are compared to wind tunnel data for the FB 3500-1750 flat back airfoil while amplitudes and frequencies are also recorded. Prior to separation averaged lift is well predicted while drag is overestimated keeping however the trend in the tests. The CFD models considered, predict separation with a 5° delay which is reflected on the load results. Similar results are provided for a modified NACA0035 with a rounded (elliptically shaped) trailing edge. Finally as regards the dynamic characteristics in the load signals, there is fair agreement in terms of Str number but significant differences in terms of lift and drag amplitudes.

  4. NASA aerodynamics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Schairer, Edward; Hicks, Gary; Wander, Stephen; Blankson, Isiaiah; Rose, Raymond; Olson, Lawrence; Unger, George

    1990-01-01

    Presented here is a comprehensive review of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation, transition and turbulence physics, numerical aerodynamic simulation, drag reduction, test techniques and instrumentation, configuration aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, aerothermodynamics, hypersonics, subsonic transport/commuter aviation, fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.

  5. Spacecraft drag modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostaza Prieto, David; Graziano, Benjamin P.; Roberts, Peter C. E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews currently available methods to calculate drag coefficients of spacecraft traveling in low Earth orbits (LEO). Aerodynamic analysis of satellites is necessary to predict the drag force perturbation to their orbital trajectory, which for LEO orbits is the second in magnitude after the gravitational disturbance due to the Earth's oblateness. Historically, accurate determination of the spacecraft drag coefficient (CD) was rarely required. This fact was justified by the low fidelity of upper atmospheric models together with the lack of experimental validation of the theory. Therefore, the calculation effort was a priori not justified. However, advances on the field, such as new atmospheric models of improved precision, have allowed for a better characterization of the drag force. They have also addressed the importance of using physically consistent drag coefficients when performing aerodynamic calculations to improve analysis and validate theories. We review the most common approaches to predict these coefficients.

  6. Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Large-Scale Model with a High Disk-Loading Lifting Fan Mounted in the Fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Hickey, David H.; deSavigny, Richard A.

    1961-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the longitudinal characteristics during low-speed flight of a large-scale VTOL airplane model with a direct lifting fan enclosed in the fuselage. The model had a shoulder-mounted unswept wing of aspect ratio 5. The effect on longitudinal characteristics of fan operation, propulsion by means of deflecting the fan efflux, trailing-edge flap deflection, and horizontal-tail height were studied.

  7. Hub and pylon fairing integration for helicopter drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, D. M.; Mort, R. W.; Squires, P. K.; Young, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    The results of testing hub and pylon fairings mounted on a one-fifth scale helicopter with the goal of reducing parasite drag are presented. Lift, drag, and pitching moment, as well as side force and yawing moment, were measured. The primary objective of the test was to validate the drag reduction capability of integrated hub and pylon configurations in the aerodynamic environment produced by a rotating hub in forward flight. In addition to the baseline helicopter without fairings, three hub fairings and three pylon fairings were tested in various combinations. The three hub fairings tested reflect two different conceptual design approaches to implementing an integrated fairing configuration on an actual aircraft. The design philosophy is discussed in detail and comparisons are made between the wind tunnel models and potential full-scale prototypes. The data show that model drag can be reduced by as much as 20.8 percent by combining a small hub fairing with circular arc upper and flat lower surfaces and a nontapered 34-percent thick pylon fairing. Aerodynamic effects caused by the fairings, which may have a significant impact on static longitudinal and directional stability, were observed. The results support previous research which showed that the greatest reduction in model drag is achieved if the hub and pylon fairings are integrated with minimum gap between the two.

  8. Aerodynamic characteristics of flying fish in gliding flight.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyungmin; Choi, Haecheon

    2010-10-01

    The flying fish (family Exocoetidae) is an exceptional marine flying vertebrate, utilizing the advantages of moving in two different media, i.e. swimming in water and flying in air. Despite some physical limitations by moving in both water and air, the flying fish has evolved to have good aerodynamic designs (such as the hypertrophied fins and cylindrical body with a ventrally flattened surface) for proficient gliding flight. Hence, the morphological and behavioral adaptations of flying fish to aerial locomotion have attracted great interest from various fields including biology and aerodynamics. Several aspects of the flight of flying fish have been determined or conjectured from previous field observations and measurements of morphometric parameters. However, the detailed measurement of wing performance associated with its morphometry for identifying the characteristics of flight in flying fish has not been performed yet. Therefore, in the present study, we directly measure the aerodynamic forces and moment on darkedged-wing flying fish (Cypselurus hiraii) models and correlated them with morphological characteristics of wing (fin). The model configurations considered are: (1) both the pectoral and pelvic fins spread out, (2) only the pectoral fins spread with the pelvic fins folded, and (3) both fins folded. The role of the pelvic fins was found to increase the lift force and lift-to-drag ratio, which is confirmed by the jet-like flow structure existing between the pectoral and pelvic fins. With both the pectoral and pelvic fins spread, the longitudinal static stability is also more enhanced than that with the pelvic fins folded. For cases 1 and 2, the lift-to-drag ratio was maximum at attack angles of around 0 deg, where the attack angle is the angle between the longitudinal body axis and the flying direction. The lift coefficient is largest at attack angles around 30∼35 deg, at which the flying fish is observed to emerge from the sea surface. From glide polar

  9. Influence of hinge point on flexible flap aerodynamic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Y Zhao, H.; Ye, Z.; Wu, P.; Li, C.

    2013-12-01

    Large scale wind turbines lead to increasing blade lengths and weights, which presents new challenges for blade design. This paper selects NREL S809 airfoil, uses the parameterized technology to realize the flexible trailing edge deformation, researches the static aerodynamic characteristics of wind turbine blade airfoil with flexible deformation, and the dynamic aerodynamic characteristics in the process of continuous deformation, analyses the influence of hinge point position on flexible flap aerodynamic performance, in order to further realize the flexible wind turbine blade design and provides some references for the active control scheme. The results show that compared with the original airfoil, proper trailing edge deformation can improve the lift coefficient, reduce the drag coefficient, and thereby more efficiently realize flow field active control. With hinge point moving forward, total aerodynamic performance of flexible flap improves. Positive swing angle can push the transition point backward, thus postpones the occurrence of the transition phenomenon.

  10. Aerodynamic effects of flexibility in flapping wings

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liang; Huang, Qingfeng; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P.

    2010-01-01

    Recent work on the aerodynamics of flapping flight reveals fundamental differences in the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation between fixed and flapping wings. When fixed wings translate at high angles of attack, they periodically generate and shed leading and trailing edge vortices as reflected in their fluctuating aerodynamic force traces and associated flow visualization. In contrast, wings flapping at high angles of attack generate stable leading edge vorticity, which persists throughout the duration of the stroke and enhances mean aerodynamic forces. Here, we show that aerodynamic forces can be controlled by altering the trailing edge flexibility of a flapping wing. We used a dynamically scaled mechanical model of flapping flight (Re ≈ 2000) to measure the aerodynamic forces on flapping wings of variable flexural stiffness (EI). For low to medium angles of attack, as flexibility of the wing increases, its ability to generate aerodynamic forces decreases monotonically but its lift-to-drag ratios remain approximately constant. The instantaneous force traces reveal no major differences in the underlying modes of force generation for flexible and rigid wings, but the magnitude of force, the angle of net force vector and centre of pressure all vary systematically with wing flexibility. Even a rudimentary framework of wing veins is sufficient to restore the ability of flexible wings to generate forces at near-rigid values. Thus, the magnitude of force generation can be controlled by modulating the trailing edge flexibility and thereby controlling the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity. To characterize this, we have generated a detailed database of aerodynamic forces as a function of several variables including material properties, kinematics, aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure, which can also be used to help validate computational models of aeroelastic flapping wings. These experiments will also be useful for wing design for small robotic

  11. Fitting aerodynamics and propulsion into the puzzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Patrick J.; Whitehead, Allen H., Jr.; Chapman, Gary T.

    1987-01-01

    The development of an airbreathing single-stage-to-orbit vehicle, in particular the problems of aerodynamics and propulsion integration, is examined. The boundary layer transition on constant pressure surfaces at hypersonic velocities, and the effects of noise on the transition are investigated. The importance of viscosity, real-gas effects, and drag at hypersonic speeds is discussed. A propulsion system with sufficient propulsive lift to enhance the performance of the vehicle is being developed. The difficulties of engine-airframe integration are analyzed.

  12. Air-permeable hole-pattern and nose-droop control improve aerodynamic performance of primary feathers.

    PubMed

    Eder, Heinrich; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Pascoe, Xaver

    2011-01-01

    Primary feathers of soaring land birds have evolved into highly specialized flight feathers characterized by morphological improvements affecting aerodynamic performance. The foremost feathers in the cascade have to bear high lift-loading with a strong bending during soaring flight. A challenge to the study of feather aerodynamics is to understand how the observed low drag and high lift values in the Reynolds (Re) regime from 1.0 to 2.0E4 can be achieved. Computed micro-tomography images show that the feather responds to high lift-loading with an increasing nose-droop and profile-camber. Wind-tunnel tests conducted with the foremost primary feather of a White Stork (Ciconia ciconia) at Re = 1.8E4 indicated a surprisingly high maximum lift coefficient of 1.5 and a glide ratio of nearly 10. We present evidence that this is due to morphologic characteristics formed by the cristae dorsales as well as air-permeable arrays along the rhachis. Measurements of lift and drag forces with open and closed pores confirmed the efficiency of this mechanism. Porous structures facilitate a blow out, comparable to technical blow-hole turbulators for sailplanes and low speed turbine-blades. From our findings, we conclude that the mechanism has evolved in order to affect the boundary layer and to reduce aerodynamic drag of the feather. PMID:20938776

  13. Estimation of aerodynamics for slender bodies alone and with lifting surfaces at alpha's from 0 deg to 90 deg.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, L. H.

    1973-01-01

    Expressions are derived, according to a method developed by the author (1972), for bodies in which the cross-sectional shape (but not necessarily the area) is constant along the longitudinal axis. For the more general case of a body alone or with lifting surfaces where the cross-sectional shape varies along the length, a similar procedure is suggested. The specific case for an elliptic cone with a triangular wing is considered, and formulas for winged elliptic cross sections are developed. For the limited test conditions shown, the agreement between computed and experimental results is very good.

  14. Low speed aerodynamic characteristics of a vectored thrust V/STOL transport with two lift/cruise fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renselaer, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    A wind tunnel test was conducted to obtain power on low speed characteristics of a twin fan vectored thrust V/STOL transport aircraft. Longitudinal, as well as some lateral directional data, were analyzed. Hover, STOL, and conventional flight modes were investigated. Determination of STOL characteristics, hover characteristics, roll control effectiveness and aircraft attitude were evaluated. The study also included various means to improve the lifting capability of the aircraft such as by application of fuselage strakes, exhaust vanes capable of shifting the thrust vector aft, and external flap blowing for STOL performance.

  15. Experimental Effects of Propulsive Jets and Afterbody Configurations on the Zero-lift Drag of Bodies of Revolution at a Mach Number of 1.59

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Moraes, Carlos A; Nowitzky, Albin M

    1954-01-01

    The present investigation was made at a free-stream Mach number of 1.59 to compare the afterbody drags to a series of conical boattailed models at zero angle of attack. Afterbody drags were obtained for both the power-off and the power-on conditions. Power-on drags were obtained as a function of afterbody fineness ratio, jet pressure ratio and divergence, and jet Mach number.

  16. Experimental Investigation on Aerodynamic Control of a Wing with Distributed Plasma Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Menghu; Li, Jun; Liang, Hua; Niu, Zhongguo; Zhao, Guangyin

    2015-06-01

    Experimental investigation of active flow control on the aerodynamic performance of a flying wing is conducted. Subsonic wind tunnel tests are performed using a model of a 35° swept flying wing with an nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge (NS-DBD) plasma actuator, which is installed symmetrically on the wing leading edge. The lift and drag coefficient, lift-to-drag ratio and pitching moment coefficient are tested by a six-component force balance for a range of angles of attack. The results indicate that a 44.5% increase in the lift coefficient, a 34.2% decrease in the drag coefficient and a 22.4% increase in the maximum lift-to-drag ratio can be achieved as compared with the baseline case. The effects of several actuation parameters are also investigated, and the results show that control efficiency demonstrates a strong dependence on actuation location and frequency. Furthermore, we highlight the use of distributed plasma actuators at the leading edge to enhance the aerodynamic performance, giving insight into the different mechanism of separation control and vortex control, which shows tremendous potential in practical flow control for a broad range of angles of attack. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51276197, 51207169 and 51336011)

  17. Aerodynamic damping and oscillatory stability in pitch of a model of a proposed manned lifting entry vehicle at Mach Numbers of 1.80, 2.16, and 2.86

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, R. A.; Davenport, E. E.

    1975-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted using a model of a proposed manned lifting entry vehicle to determine the aerodynamic damping and oscillatory stability in pitch. The model was tested at Mach numbers of 1.80, 2.16, and 2.86. Angles of attack varied from minus 2 degrees to plus 30 degrees at zero angle of sideslip using a small-amplitude, forced-oscillation technique. It was determined that, in general, all the configurations have near zero or slightly positive damping in pitch throughout the angle of attack range. The effects of the deflection of flaps on aerodynamic damping are discussed.

  18. Subsonic aerodynamic characteristics of interacting lifting surfaces with separated flow around sharp edges predicted by a vortex-lattice method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, J. E.; Gloss, B. B.

    1975-01-01

    Because the potential flow suction along the leading and side edges of a planform can be used to determine both leading- and side-edge vortex lift, the present investigation was undertaken to apply the vortex-lattice method to computing side-edge suction force for isolated or interacting planforms. Although there is a small effect of bound vortex sweep on the computation of the side-edge suction force, the results obtained for a number of different isolated planforms produced acceptable agreement with results obtained from a method employing continuous induced-velocity distributions. By using the method outlined, better agreement between theory and experiment was noted for a wing in the presence of a canard than was previously obtained.

  19. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Airfoils at High Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, L J; Hull, G F; Dryden, H L

    1925-01-01

    This report deals with an experimental investigation of the aerodynamical characteristics of airfoils at high speeds. Lift, drag, and center of pressure measurements were made on six airfoils of the type used by the air service in propeller design, at speeds ranging from 550 to 1,000 feet per second. The results show a definite limit to the speed at which airfoils may efficiently be used to produce lift, the lift coefficient decreasing and the drag coefficient increasing as the speed approaches the speed of sound. The change in lift coefficient is large for thick airfoil sections (camber ratio 0.14 to 0.20) and for high angles of attack. The change is not marked for thin sections (camber ratio 0.10) at low angles of attack, for the speed range employed. At high speeds the center of pressure moves back toward the trailing edge of the airfoil as the speed increases. The results indicate that the use of tip speeds approaching the speed of sound for propellers of customary design involves a serious loss in efficiency.

  20. System technology analysis of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles: Moderate lift/drag (0.75-1.5). Volume 3: Cost estimates and work breakdown structure/dictionary, phase 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Technology payoffs of representative ground based (Phase 1) and space based (Phase 2) mid lift/drag ratio aeroassisted orbit transfer vehicles (AOTV) were assessed and prioritized. A narrative summary of the cost estimates and work breakdown structure/dictionary for both study phases is presented. Costs were estimated using the Grumman Space Programs Algorithm for Cost Estimating (SPACE) computer program and results are given for four AOTV configurations. The work breakdown structure follows the standard of the joint government/industry Space Systems Cost Analysis Group (SSCAG). A table is provided which shows cost estimates for each work breakdown structure element.

  1. Lift, Drag, and Pitching Moment of Low-Aspect-Ratio Wings at Subsonic and Supersonic Speeds: Triangular Wing of Aspect Ratio 2 with NACA 0005-63 Thickness Distribution, Cambered and Twisted for a Trapezoidal Span Load Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Willard G.; Phelps, E. Ray

    1951-01-01

    A wing-body combination having a plane triangular wing of aspect ratio 2 with NACA 0005-63 thickness distribution in streamwise planes, and twisted and cambered for a trapezoidal span load distribution has been investigated at both subsonic and supersonic Mach numbers. The lift, drag, and pitching moment of the model are presented for Mach numbers from 0.60 to 0.90 and 1.30 to 1.70 at a Reynolds number of 3.0 million. The variations of the characteristics with Reynolds number are also shown for several Mach numbers.

  2. Lift, Drag, and Pitching Moment of Low-aspect-ratio Wings at Subsonic and Supersonic Speeds : Twisted and Cambered Triangular Wing of Aspect Ratio 2 with NACA 0003-63 Thickness Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Charles F; Heitmeyer, John C

    1951-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to ascertain the lift, drag, and pitching moment of a wing-body combination having a triangular wing of aspect ratio 2 with NACA 0003-63 thickness distribution in streamwise planes and twisted and cambered for a nearly elliptical span load distribution. Results are shown for Mach numbers from 0.60 to 0.90 and from 1.30 to 1.70 at Reynolds numbers of 3.0 million and 7.5 million.

  3. Supersonic aerodynamics of delta wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.

    1988-01-01

    Through the empirical correlation of experimental data and theoretical analysis, a set of graphs has been developed which summarize the inviscid aerodynamics of delta wings at supersonic speeds. The various graphs which detail the aerodynamic performance of delta wings at both zero-lift and lifting conditions were then employed to define a preliminary wing design approach in which both the low-lift and high-lift design criteria were combined to define a feasible design space.

  4. Drag Minimization for Wings and Bodies in Supersonic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaslet, Max A; Fuller, Franklyn B

    1958-01-01

    The minimization of inviscid fluid drag is studied for aerodynamic shapes satisfying the conditions of linearized theory, and subject to imposed constraints on lift, pitching moment, base area, or volume. The problem is transformed to one of determining two-dimensional potential flows satisfying either Laplace's or Poisson's equations with boundary values fixed by the imposed conditions. A general method for determining integral relations between perturbation velocity components is developed. This analysis is not restricted in application to optimum cases; it may be used for any supersonic wing problem.

  5. Understanding Wing Lift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, J.; Soares, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    The conventional explanation of aerodynamic lift based on Bernoulli's equation is one of the most common mistakes in presentations to school students and is found in children's science books. The fallacies in this explanation together with an alternative explanation for aerofoil lift have already been presented in an excellent article by Babinsky…

  6. Performance of Advanced Heavy-Lift, High-Speed Rotorcraft Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Acree, C. W., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of rotorcraft designed for heavy-lift and high-speed cruise is examined. Configurations considered include the tiltrotor, the compound helicopter, and the lift-offset rotor. Design conditions are hover and 250-350 knot cruise, at 5k/ISA+20oC (civil) or 4k/95oF (military); with cruise conditions at 4000 or 30,000 ft. The performance was calculated using the comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II, emphasizing rotor optimization and performance, including wing-rotor interference. Aircraft performance was calculated using estimates of the aircraft drag and auxiliary propulsion efficiency. The performance metric is total power, in terms of equivalent aircraft lift-to-drag ratio L/D = WV/P for cruise, and figure of merit for hover.

  7. Aerodynamic simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    In this article two integral computational fluid dynamics methods for steady-state and transient vehicle aerodynamic simulations are described using a Chevrolet Corvette ZR-1 surface panel model. In the last decade, road-vehicle aerodynamics have become an important design consideration. Originally, the design of low-drag shapes was given high priority due to worldwide fuel shortages that occurred in the mid-seventies. More recently, there has been increased interest in the role aerodynamics play in vehicle stability and passenger safety. Consequently, transient aerodynamics and the aerodynamics of vehicle in yaw have become important issues at the design stage. While there has been tremendous progress in Navier-Stokes methodology in the last few years, the physics of bluff-body aerodynamics are still very difficult to model correctly. Moreover, the computational effort to perform Navier-Stokes simulations from the geometric stage to complete flow solutions requires much computer time and impacts the design cycle time. In the short run, therefore, simpler methods must be used for such complicated problems. Here, two methods are described for the simulation of steady-state and transient vehicle aerodynamics.

  8. Modeling the High Speed Research Cycle 2B Longitudinal Aerodynamic Database Using Multivariate Orthogonal Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, E. A.; Proffitt, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    The data for longitudinal non-dimensional, aerodynamic coefficients in the High Speed Research Cycle 2B aerodynamic database were modeled using polynomial expressions identified with an orthogonal function modeling technique. The discrepancy between the tabular aerodynamic data and the polynomial models was tested and shown to be less than 15 percent for drag, lift, and pitching moment coefficients over the entire flight envelope. Most of this discrepancy was traced to smoothing local measurement noise and to the omission of mass case 5 data in the modeling process. A simulation check case showed that the polynomial models provided a compact and accurate representation of the nonlinear aerodynamic dependencies contained in the HSR Cycle 2B tabular aerodynamic database.

  9. Free-Flight Zero-Lift Drag Results from a 1/5-Scale Model and Several Small-Scale Equivalent Bodies of Revolution of the Convair F-102 Configuration at Mach Numbers up to 1.34

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallskog, Harvey A.

    1954-01-01

    A 1/5-scale, rocket-propelled model of the Convair F-102 configuration was tested in free flight to determine zero-lift drag at Mach numbers up to 1.34 and at Reynolds numbers comparable to those of the full-scale airplane. This large-scale model corresponded to the prototype airplane and had air flow through the duct. Additional zero-lift drag tests involved a series of small equivalent bodies of revolution which were launched by means of a helium gun. The several small-scale models tested corresponded to: the basic configuration, the 1/5-scale rocket-propelled model configuration, a 2-foot (full-scale) fuselage-extension configuration, and a 7-foot (full-scale) fuselage-extension configuration. Models designed to correspond to the area distribution at a Mach number of 1.0 were flown for each of these 'shapes and, in addition, models designed to correspond to the area distribution at a Mach number of 1.2 were flown for the 1/5-scale rocket-propelled model and the 7-foot-fuselage-extension configuration. The value of external pressure drag coefficient (including base drag) obtained from the large-scale rocket model was 0.0190 at a Mach number of 1..05 and the corresponding values from the equivalent-body tests varied from 0.0183 for the rocket-propelled model shape to 0.0137 for the 7-foot-fuselage-extension configuration. From the results of tests of equivalent bodies designed to correspond to the area distribution at a Mach number of 1.0, it is evident that the small changes in shape incorporated in the basic and 2-foot-fuselage-extension configurations from that of the rocket-propelled model configuration will provide no significant change in pressure drag. On the other hand, the data from the 7-foot-fuselage-extension model indicate a substantial reduction in pressure drag at transonic speeds.

  10. Planform effects on the supersonic aerodynamics of multibody configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillin, Naomi; Wood, Richard M.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of the effect of planform on the supersonic aerodynamics of low-fineness-ratio multibody configurations was conducted. Longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic and flow visualization data were obtained on three multibody configurations. The data indicated that planform has a small effect on the zero lift drag of a multibody configuration. The longitudinal data obtained at lifting conditions showed a sensitivity to planform shape. Lateral-directional data obtained for all configurations did not uncover any unusual stability traits for this class of configuration. A comparison study was also made between the planform effects observed on single-body and multibody configurations. Results from this study indicate that the multibody concept appears to offer a mechanism for employing a low-sweep wing with no significant increase in zero-lift drag but still retaining high-performance characteristics at high-lift conditions. Evaluation of the linear-theory prediction methods revealed a general inability of the methods to predict the characteristics of low-fineness-ratio geometries.

  11. Measurements of noise produced by flow past lifting surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Wind tunnel studies have been conducted to determine the specific locations of aerodynamic noise production within the flow field about various lifting-surface configurations. The models tested included low aspect ratio shapes intended to represent aircraft flaps, a finite aspect ratio NACA 0012 wing, and a multi-element wing section consisting of a main section, a leading edge flap, and dual trailing edge flaps. Turbulence was induced on the models by surface roughness. Lift and drag were measured for the flap models. Hot-wire anemometry was used for study of the flap-model vortex roll-up. Apparent noise source distributions were measured by use of a directional microphone system, located outside the tunnel, which was scanned about the flow region to be analyzed under computer control. These distributions exhibited a diversity of pattern, suggesting that several flow processes are important to lifting-surface noise production. Speculation concerning these processes is offered.

  12. Improvement of Aerodynamic Performance of the Aero-Train by Controlling Wing-Wing Interaction Using Single-Slotted Flap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Dong-Hee; Kohama, Yasuaki; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Kato, Takuma

    Aero-train is a new driving concept using aerodynamic technology under development by the Kohama Laboratory, Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University. It employs the wing-in-ground effect to enable travel at high speeds over land. Aero-train makes use of the ground effects of lift and side force between the wings and a U-shaped guideway for stability. The main wings have vertical wings at the tips, which are arranged in tandem to regulate the roll and yaw stability in the U-shaped guideway. However, the vertical wings deteriorate the lift-to-drag ratio of the Aero-train by aerodynamic interaction with the main wings. The present study was performed to improve the aerodynamic performance of the Aero-train by controlling wing-wing interaction. Installation of a single-slotted flap on the wings considerably improved the aerodynamic performance of the wings.

  13. Skylon Aerodynamics and SABRE Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Unmeel; Afosmis, Michael; Bowles, Jeffrey; Pandya, Shishir

    2015-01-01

    An independent partial assessment is provided of the technical viability of the Skylon aerospace plane concept, developed by Reaction Engines Limited (REL). The objectives are to verify REL's engineering estimates of airframe aerodynamics during powered flight and to assess the impact of Synergetic Air-Breathing Rocket Engine (SABRE) plumes on the aft fuselage. Pressure lift and drag coefficients derived from simulations conducted with Euler equations for unpowered flight compare very well with those REL computed with engineering methods. The REL coefficients for powered flight are increasingly less acceptable as the freestream Mach number is increased beyond 8.5, because the engineering estimates did not account for the increasing favorable (in terms of drag and lift coefficients) effect of underexpanded rocket engine plumes on the aft fuselage. At Mach numbers greater than 8.5, the thermal environment around the aft fuselage is a known unknown-a potential design and/or performance risk issue. The adverse effects of shock waves on the aft fuselage and plumeinduced flow separation are other potential risks. The development of an operational reusable launcher from the Skylon concept necessitates the judicious use of a combination of engineering methods, advanced methods based on required physics or analytical fidelity, test data, and independent assessments.

  14. Benefits of high aerodynamic efficiency to orbital transfer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, D. G.; Norris, R. B.; Paris, S. W.

    1984-01-01

    The benefits and costs of high aerodynamic efficiency on aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles (AOTV) are analyzed. Results show that a high lift to drag (L/D) AOTV can achieve significant velocity savings relative to low L/D aerobraked OTV's when traveling round trip between low Earth orbits (LEO) and alternate orbits as high as geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Trajectory analysis is used to show the impact of thermal protection system technology and the importance of lift loading coefficient on vehicle performance. The possible improvements in AOTV subsystem technologies are assessed and their impact on vehicle inert weight and performance noted. Finally, the performance of high L/D AOTV concepts is compared with the performances of low L/D aeroassisted and all propulsive OTV concepts to assess the benefits of aerodynamic efficiency on this class of vehicle.

  15. Inclusion of nonlinear aerodynamics in the FLAP code

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, T. )

    1989-11-01

    Horizontal axis wind turbines usually operate with significant portions of the blade in deep stall. This contradicts the assumption in the FLAP code that a linear relation exists between the angle of attack and the lift coefficient. The objective of this paper is to determine the importance of nonlinear aerodynamics in the prediction of loads. The FLAP code has been modified to include the nonlinear relationships between the lift and drag coefficients with the angle of attack. The modification affects the calculation of the induced velocities and the aerodynamic loads. This requires an iterative procedure to determine the induced velocities instead of a closed form solution. A more advanced tower interference model has also been added that accounts for both upwind and downwind tower effects. 7 refs., 14 figs.

  16. Aerodynamic Characteristics of a 0.04956-Scale Model of the Convair TF-102A Airplane at Transonic Speeds, Coord. No. AF-120

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, Robert S.

    1957-01-01

    The basic aerodynamic characteristics of a 0.04956-scale model of the Convair TF-102A airplane with controls undeflected have been determined at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.135 for angles of attack up to approximately 22 deg in the Langley 8-foot transonic tunnel. In addition, comparisons have been made with data obtained from a previous investigation of a 0.04956-scale model of the Convair F-102A airplane. The results indicated the TF-102A airplane was longitudinally stable for all conditions tested. An increase in lift-curve slope from 0.045 to 0.059 and an 11-percent rearward shift in aerodynamic-center location occurred with increases in Mach number from 0.60 to approximately 1.05. The zero-lift drag coefficient for the TF-102A airplane increased 145 percent between the Mach numbers of 0.85 and 1.075; the maximum lift-drag ratio decreased from 9.5 at a Mach number of 0.60 to 5.0 at Mach numbers above 1.025. There was little difference in the lift and pitching-moment characteristics and drag due to life between the TF-102A and F-102A configurations. However, as compared with the F-102A airplane, the zero-lift drag-rise Mach number for the TF-102A was reduced by at least 0.06, the zero-lift peak wave drag was increased 50 percent, and the maximum lift-drag ratio was reduced as much as 20 percent.

  17. Space Shuttle entry aerodynamic comparisons of flight 1 with preflight predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. C.; Perez, L. F.; Romere, P. O.; Kanipe, D. B.

    1981-01-01

    Results of comparisons of predictions of aerodynamic performance, longitudinal trim, and reaction control jet interaction with data from the initial Shuttle flight are presented. The Shuttle's control surfaces are described, and it is noted that the flight plan contained no provisions for maneuvering capability tests. Wind tunnel testing totaling 35,000 hr were used to replace graduated flight testing, and calculations were made to allow for nonsimulated structural deformation, flowfield parameters, and profile drag. The goal was to desensitize the flight control system with respect to the aerodynamics by adding variations to the predictions. Lift/drag agreed well above Mach 1, while lower drag was encountered below Mach 1. Trim characteristics were predicted accurately between Mach 2-10, and less than satisfactorily outside that range. Discrepancies were also observed for jet interaction effects for the aft yaw jets at Mach numbers greater than 10.

  18. Aerodynamic enhancement of space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walberg, G. D.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a number of recent investigations are reviewed and used to demonstrate gains in launch, orbital transfer, and planetary vehicle performance and economy that can result from the proper exploitation of aerodynamic phenomena. For launch vehicles, application of control-configured design is shown to allow substantial reduction in wing and vertical fin area (and hence, weight) while maintaining acceptable vehicle performance and control. For orbital transfer and planetary vehicles, the use of aerodynamic lift and drag to reduce retropropulsion requirements is shown to produce payload increases of up to 100 percent and to enable some planetary missions that are not feasible with all-propulsive vehicles. Finally, the application of various advanced technologies to a complete set of launch and orbit transfer vehicles in an early space industrialization mission scenario is considered.

  19. Development of multi-element active aerodynamics for the formula sae car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkel, James Patrick

    This thesis focuses on the design, development, and implementation of an active aerodynamics system on 2013 Formula SAE car. The aerodynamics package itself consists of five element front and rear wings as well as an under body diffuser. Five element wings produce significant amounts of drag which is a compromise between the cornering ability of the car and the acceleration capability on straights. The active aerodynamics system allows for the wing angle of attack to dynamically change their configuration on track based on sensory data to optimize the wings for any given scenario. The wings are studied using computational fluid dynamics both in their maximum lift configuration as well as a minimum drag configuration. A control system is then developed using an electro mechanical actuation system to articulate the wings between these two states.

  20. Aerodynamics of a golf ball with grooves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jooha; Son, Kwangmin; Choi, Haecheon

    2009-11-01

    It is well known that the drag on a dimpled ball is much lower than that on smooth ball. Choi et al. (Phys. Fluids, 2006) showed that turbulence is generated through the instability of shear layer separating from the edge of dimples and delays flow separation. Based on this mechanism, we devise a new golf ball with grooves on the surface but without any dimples. To investigate the aerodynamic performance of this new golf ball, an experiment is conducted in a wind tunnel at the Reynolds numbers of 0.5 x10^5 - 2.7 x10^5 and the spin ratios (ratio of surface velocity to the free-stream velocity) of α=0 - 0.5, which are within the ranges of real golf-ball velocity and spin rate. We measure the drag and lift forces on the grooved ball and compare them with those of smooth ball. At zero spin, the drag coefficient on the grooved ball shows a rapid fall-off at a critical Reynolds number and maintains a minimum value which is lower by 50% than that on smooth ball. At non-zero α, the drag coefficient on the grooved ball increases with increasing α, but is still lower by 40% than that on smooth ball. The lift coefficient on the grooved ball increases with increasing α, and is 100% larger than that on smooth ball. The aerodynamic characteristics of grooved ball is in general quite similar to that of dimpled ball. Some more details will be discussed in the presentation.

  1. Computations of Viking Lander Capsule Hypersonic Aerodynamics with Comparisons to Ground and Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edquist, Karl T.

    2006-01-01

    Comparisons are made between the LAURA Navier-Stokes code and Viking Lander Capsule hypersonic aerodynamics data from ground and flight measurements. Wind tunnel data are available for a 3.48 percent scale model at Mach 6 and a 2.75 percent scale model at Mach 10.35, both under perfect gas air conditions. Viking Lander 1 aerodynamics flight data also exist from on-board instrumentation for velocities between 2900 and 4400 m/sec (Mach 14 to 23.3). LAURA flowfield solutions are obtained for the geometry as tested or flown, including sting effects at tunnel conditions and finite-rate chemistry effects in flight. Using the flight vehicle center-of-gravity location (trim angle approx. equals -11.1 deg), the computed trim angle at tunnel conditions is within 0.31 degrees of the angle derived from Mach 6 data and 0.13 degrees from the Mach 10.35 trim angle. LAURA Mach 6 trim lift and drag force coefficients are within 2 percent of measured data, and computed trim lift-to-drag ratio is within 4 percent of the data. Computed trim lift and drag force coefficients at Mach 10.35 are within 5 percent and 3 percent, respectively, of wind tunnel data. Computed trim lift-to-drag ratio is within 2 percent of the Mach 10.35 data. Using the nominal density profile and center-of-gravity location, LAURA trim angle at flight conditions is within 0.5 degrees of the total angle measured from on-board instrumentation. LAURA trim lift and drag force coefficients at flight conditions are within 7 and 5 percent, respectively, of the flight data. Computed trim lift-to-drag ratio is within 4 percent of the data. Computed aerodynamics sensitivities to center-of-gravity location, atmospheric density, and grid refinement are generally small. The results will enable a better estimate of aerodynamics uncertainties for future Mars entry vehicles where non-zero angle-of-attack is required.

  2. Peak-Seeking Optimization of Spanwise Lift Distribution for Wings in Formation Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curtis E.; Ryan, Jack

    2012-01-01

    A method is presented for the in-flight optimization of the lift distribution across the wing for minimum drag of an aircraft in formation flight. The usual elliptical distribution that is optimal for a given wing with a given span is no longer optimal for the trailing wing in a formation due to the asymmetric nature of the encountered flow field. Control surfaces along the trailing edge of the wing can be configured to obtain a non-elliptical profile that is more optimal in terms of minimum combined induced and profile drag. Due to the difficult-to-predict nature of formation flight aerodynamics, a Newton-Raphson peak-seeking controller is used to identify in real time the best aileron and flap deployment scheme for minimum total drag. Simulation results show that the peak-seeking controller correctly identifies an optimal trim configuration that provides additional drag savings above those achieved with conventional anti-symmetric aileron trim.

  3. Aerodynamic analysis of a helicopter fuselage with rotating rotor head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reß, R.; Grawunder, M.; Breitsamter, Ch.

    2015-06-01

    The present paper describes results of wind tunnel experiments obtained during a research programme aimed at drag reduction of the fuselage of a twin engine light helicopter configuration. A 1 : 5 scale model of a helicopter fuselage including a rotating rotor head and landing gear was investigated in the low-speed wind tunnel A of Technische Universität a München (TUM). The modelled parts of the helicopter induce approxiu mately 80% of the total parasite drag thus forming a major potential for shape optimizations. The present paper compares results of force and moment measurements of a baseline configuration and modified variants with an emphasis on the aerodynamic drag, lift, and yawing moment coefficients.

  4. A computational study of the aerodynamic performance of a dragonfly wing section in gliding flight.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Abel; Mittal, Rajat; Dong, Haibo

    2008-06-01

    A comprehensive computational fluid-dynamics-based study of a pleated wing section based on the wing of Aeshna cyanea has been performed at ultra-low Reynolds numbers corresponding to the gliding flight of these dragonflies. In addition to the pleated wing, simulations have also been carried out for its smoothed counterpart (called the 'profiled' airfoil) and a flat plate in order to better understand the aerodynamic performance of the pleated wing. The simulations employ a sharp interface Cartesian-grid-based immersed boundary method, and a detailed critical assessment of the computed results was performed giving a high measure of confidence in the fidelity of the current simulations. The simulations demonstrate that the pleated airfoil produces comparable and at times higher lift than the profiled airfoil, with a drag comparable to that of its profiled counterpart. The higher lift and moderate drag associated with the pleated airfoil lead to an aerodynamic performance that is at least equivalent to and sometimes better than the profiled airfoil. The primary cause for the reduction in the overall drag of the pleated airfoil is the negative shear drag produced by the recirculation zones which form within the pleats. The current numerical simulations therefore clearly demonstrate that the pleated wing is an ingenious design of nature, which at times surpasses the aerodynamic performance of a more conventional smooth airfoil as well as that of a flat plate. For this reason, the pleated airfoil is an excellent candidate for a fixed wing micro-aerial vehicle design. PMID:18503106

  5. Variable Camber Continuous Aerodynamic Control Surfaces and Methods for Active Wing Shaping Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An aerodynamic control apparatus for an air vehicle improves various aerodynamic performance metrics by employing multiple spanwise flap segments that jointly form a continuous or a piecewise continuous trailing edge to minimize drag induced by lift or vortices. At least one of the multiple spanwise flap segments includes a variable camber flap subsystem having multiple chordwise flap segments that may be independently actuated. Some embodiments also employ a continuous leading edge slat system that includes multiple spanwise slat segments, each of which has one or more chordwise slat segment. A method and an apparatus for implementing active control of a wing shape are also described and include the determination of desired lift distribution to determine the improved aerodynamic deflection of the wings. Flap deflections are determined and control signals are generated to actively control the wing shape to approximate the desired deflection.

  6. Baseball Aerodynamics: What do we know and how do we know it?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathan, Alan

    2009-11-01

    Baseball aerodynamics is governed by three phenomenological quantities: the coefficients of drag, lift, and moment, the latter determining the spin decay time constant. In past years, these quantities were studied mainly in wind tunnel experiments, whereby the forces on the baseball are measured directly. More recently, new tools are being used that focus on measuring accurate baseball trajectories, from which the forces can be inferred. These tools include high-speed motion analysis, video tracking of pitched baseballs (the PITCHf/x system), and Doppler radar tracking. In this contribution, I will discuss what these new tools are teaching us about baseball aerodynamics.

  7. Aerodynamic performance due to forewing and hindwing interaction in gliding dragonfly flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Lu, Xi-Yun

    2009-07-01

    Aerodynamic performance due to forewing and hindwing interaction in gliding dragonfly flight has been studied using a multiblock lattice Boltzmann method. We find that the interactions between forewing and hindwing effectively enhance the total lift force and reduce the drag force on the wings compared to two independent wings. The interaction mechanism may be associated with the triangular camber effect by modulating the relative arrangement of the forewing and hindwing. The results obtained in this Brief Report provide physical insight into the understanding of aerodynamic behaviors for gliding dragonfly flight.

  8. Study of aerodynamic technology for single-cruise-engine V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mark, L.

    1982-01-01

    Conceptual designs and analyses were conducted on two V/STOL supersonic fighter/attack aircraft. These aircraft feature low footprint temperature and pressure thrust augmenting ejectors in the wings for vertical lift, combined with a low wing loading, low wave drag airframe for outstanding cruise and supersonic performance. Aerodynamic, propulsion, performance, and mass properties were determined and are presented for each aircraft. Aerodynamic and Aero/Propulsion characteristics having the most significant effect on the success of the up and away flight mode were identified, and the certainty with which they could be predicted was defined. A wind tunnel model and test program are recommended to resolve the identified uncertainties.

  9. An experimental investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of slanted base ogive cylinders using magnetic suspension technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, C. P.; Alcorn, C. W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on an experimental investigation of aerodynamic characteristics of slanted base ogive cylinders at zero incidence. The Mach number range is 0.05 to 0.3. In this investigation, magnetically suspending the wind tunnel models eliminates flow disturbances associated with mechanical supports. This paper reports on the drastic changes in lift, pitching moment, and drag for a slight change in base slant angle. Flow visualization with liquid crystals and oil is used to observe base flow patterns responsible for the sudden changes in aerodynamic characteristics. This paper also reports on hysteretic effects that are present and discusses computational results using VSAERO and SANDRAG.

  10. Low Dimensional Modeling And Computational Analysis of Dragonfly Wing Aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yan; Wan, Hui; Dong, Haibo; Flow Simulation Research Group Team

    2011-11-01

    High-fidelity numerical simulations are being used to examine the key aerodynamic features and lift production of insect wings. However, the kinematics of the insect's wing and the resulting aerodynamics is highly complex, and does not lend itself easily to analysis based on simple notions of pitching/heaving kinematics or lift/drag based propulsive mechanisms. A more inventive approach is therefore needed to dissect the wing gait and gain insight into the remarkable aerodynamic performance of the insect's wing. The focus of the current investigation is on the aerodynamics of the wing of a dragonfly (Erythemis Simplicicollis) in hovering motion. The three-dimensional, time-dependent wing kinematics is obtained via a high-speed photogrammetry system. Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is then applied to extract the essential features of the wing gait. The SVD spectrum shows that the first four modes capture more than 80% of the motion. Aerodynamics of wings flapping with kinematics synthesized from SVD modes will be discussed in detail. This work is supported by NSF CBET-1055949.

  11. Device measures fluid drag on test vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, R.; Judd, J. H.; Leiss, A.

    1965-01-01

    Electromechanical drag balance device measures the aerodynamic drag force acting on a vehicle as it moves through the atmosphere and telemeters the data to a remote receiving station. This device is also used for testing the hydrodynamic drag characteristics of underwater vehicles.

  12. Correlation Between Geometric Similarity of Ice Shapes and the Resulting Aerodynamic Performance Degradation: A Preliminary Investigation Using WIND

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, William B.; Chung, James

    1999-01-01

    Aerodynamic performance calculations were performed using WIND on ten experimental ice shapes and the corresponding ten ice shapes predicted by LEWICE 2.0. The resulting data for lift coefficient and drag coefficient are presented. The difference in aerodynamic results between the experimental ice shapes and the LEWICE ice shapes were compared to the quantitative difference in ice shape geometry presented in an earlier report. Correlations were generated to determine the geometric features which have the most effect on performance degradation. Results show that maximum lift and stall angle can be correlated to the upper horn angle and the leading edge minimum thickness. Drag coefficient can be correlated to the upper horn angle and the frequency-weighted average of the Fourier coefficients. Pitching moment correlated with the upper horn angle and to a much lesser extent to the upper and lower horn thicknesses.

  13. High-Lift Optimization Design Using Neural Networks on a Multi-Element Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenman, Roxana M.; Roth, Karlin R.; Smith, Charles A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The high-lift performance of a multi-element airfoil was optimized by using neural-net predictions that were trained using a computational data set. The numerical data was generated using a two-dimensional, incompressible, Navier-Stokes algorithm with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Because it is difficult to predict maximum lift for high-lift systems, an empirically-based maximum lift criteria was used in this study to determine both the maximum lift and the angle at which it occurs. Multiple input, single output networks were trained using the NASA Ames variation of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for each of the aerodynamic coefficients (lift, drag, and moment). The artificial neural networks were integrated with a gradient-based optimizer. Using independent numerical simulations and experimental data for this high-lift configuration, it was shown that this design process successfully optimized flap deflection, gap, overlap, and angle of attack to maximize lift. Once the neural networks were trained and integrated with the optimizer, minimal additional computer resources were required to perform optimization runs with different initial conditions and parameters. Applying the neural networks within the high-lift rigging optimization process reduced the amount of computational time and resources by 83% compared with traditional gradient-based optimization procedures for multiple optimization runs.

  14. Attitude Dependent De-Orbit Lifetime Analysis of an Aerodynamic Drag Sail Demonstration Spacecraft and Detailed Thermal Subsystem Design for a Polar Orbiting Communications Nanosatellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarantini, Vincent Claudio Franco

    Contributions to two missions are presented. The first is a demonstration mission called CanX-7 that uses a 4 square metre drag sail to de-orbit a 3.5 kg satellite. In order to estimate the effectiveness of the drag sail, a novel method is developed that takes into account the time-varying nature of the projected drag area. The Space Flight Laboratory designed drag sail is shown lo be sufficient to de-orbit the CanX-7 spacecraft within the 25 year requirement. The Antarctic Broadband demonstrator spacecraft is a 20 cm cubical nanosatellite that will demonstrate the feasibility of a Ka-band link between the research community in Antarctica and stakeholders in Australia. In support of this mission, a passive thermal control subsystem is designed that will keep all the components within their operational temperature limits at all times throughout the mission.

  15. Influence of inflow angle on flexible flap aerodynamic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Y Zhao, H.; Ye, Z.; Li, Z. M.; Li, C.

    2013-12-01

    Large scale wind turbines have larger blade lengths and weights, which creates new challenges for blade design. This paper selects NREL S809 airfoil, and uses the parameterized technology to realize the flexible trailing edge deformation, researches the dynamic aerodynamic characteristics in the process of continuous flexible deformation, analyses the influence of inflow angle on flexible flap aerodynamic performance, in order to further realize the flexible wind turbine blade design and provides some references for the active control scheme. The results show that compared with the original airfoil, proper trailing edge deformation can improve the lift coefficient, reduce the drag coefficient, and thereby more efficiently realize flow field active control. With inflow angle increases, dynamic lift-drag coefficient hysteresis loop shape deviation occurs, even turns into different shapes. Appropriate swing angle can improve the flap lift coefficient, but may cause early separation of flow. To improve the overall performance of wind turbine blades, different angular control should be used at different cross sections, in order to achieve the best performance.

  16. Analytical observations on the aerodynamics of a delta wing with leading edge flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, S.; Tavella, D.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of a leading edge flap on the aerodynamics of a low aspect ratio delta wing is studied analytically. The separated flow field about the wing is represented by a simple vortex model composed of a conical straight vortex sheet and a concentrated vortex. The analysis is carried out in the cross flow plane by mapping the wing trace, by means of the Schwarz-Christoffel transformation into the real axis of the transformed plane. Particular attention is given to the influence of the angle of attack and flap deflection angle on lift and drag forces. Both lift and drag decrease with flap deflection, while the lift-to-drag ratioe increases. A simple coordinate transformation is used to obtain a closed form expression for the lift-to-drag ratio as a function of flap deflection. The main effect of leading edge flap deflection is a partial suppression of the separated flow on the leeside of the wing. Qualitative comparison with experiments is presented, showing agreement in the general trends.

  17. Aerodynamic shape optimization using control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, James

    1996-01-01

    Aerodynamic shape design has long persisted as a difficult scientific challenge due its highly nonlinear flow physics and daunting geometric complexity. However, with the emergence of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) it has become possible to make accurate predictions of flows which are not dominated by viscous effects. It is thus worthwhile to explore the extension of CFD methods for flow analysis to the treatment of aerodynamic shape design. Two new aerodynamic shape design methods are developed which combine existing CFD technology, optimal control theory, and numerical optimization techniques. Flow analysis methods for the potential flow equation and the Euler equations form the basis of the two respective design methods. In each case, optimal control theory is used to derive the adjoint differential equations, the solution of which provides the necessary gradient information to a numerical optimization method much more efficiently then by conventional finite differencing. Each technique uses a quasi-Newton numerical optimization algorithm to drive an aerodynamic objective function toward a minimum. An analytic grid perturbation method is developed to modify body fitted meshes to accommodate shape changes during the design process. Both Hicks-Henne perturbation functions and B-spline control points are explored as suitable design variables. The new methods prove to be computationally efficient and robust, and can be used for practical airfoil design including geometric and aerodynamic constraints. Objective functions are chosen to allow both inverse design to a target pressure distribution and wave drag minimization. Several design cases are presented for each method illustrating its practicality and efficiency. These include non-lifting and lifting airfoils operating at both subsonic and transonic conditions.

  18. Boundary-layer transition and displacement thickness effects on zero-lift drag of a series of power-law bodies at Mach 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, G. C., Jr.; Harris, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    Wave and skin-friction drag have been numerically calculated for a series of power-law bodies at a Mach number of 6 and Reynolds numbers, based on body length, from 1.5 million to 9.5 million. Pressure distributions were computed on the nose by the inverse method and on the body by the method of characteristics. These pressure distributions and the measured locations of boundary-layer transition were used in a nonsimilar-boundary-layer program to determine viscous effects. A coupled iterative approach between the boundary-layer and pressure-distribution programs was used to account for boundary-layer displacement-thickness effects. The calculated-drag coefficients compared well with previously obtained experimental data.

  19. Experimental wing and canard jet-flap aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeltzer, D. B.; Durston, D. A.; Stewart, V. R.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of upper surface blowing on the aerodynamics of a 1/2-span wing/body/canard configuration are shown. The results expand a data base that is limited at high subsonic Mach numbers (M = 0.6-0.9), data that are needed if computational techniques are to be developed for the complex flowfields generated by jet blowing. At lift coefficients greater than about 1.0, the thrust removed drag coefficient was lower with jet blowing than without jet blowing. This favorable effect increased with increasing jet blowing coefficient, and, for a fixed coefficient, simultaneous wing/canard jet blowing was slightly more effective than blowing either surface alone.

  20. Aerodynamic Optimization of Supersonic Transport at Near-Sonic Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Wataru; Matsushima, Kisa; Obayashi, Shigeru; Nakahashi, Kazuhiro

    Recently, an airplane cruising at near-sonic regime is watched with keen interest. The Sonic-Cruiser, of which the Boeing Company has examined and challenged the development, is the most remarkable case. In this paper, motivated by this trend, aerodynamic performance optimization for an airplane cruising at near-sonic regime is discussed based on CFD simulations. NAL’s experimental supersonic airplane, called NEXST-1, was employed as the baseline model for optimization. Aerodynamic performance was evaluated by solving the Euler equations with the unstructured grid method. It was confirmed that the performance Euler simulation predicted was qualitatively correct. By the evaluation to select a baseline model for optimization, NEXST-1 was accepted as a candidate of sonic plane because of the existence of drag bucket at near-sonic regime. In the optimization, Genetic Algorithm was used with Euler simulations. The objective was to reduce drag keeping lift constant, at the flying speed of Mach 0.98. The optimized result showed L/D improvement not only for near-sonic regime but also for transonic regime. The mechanism of design to reduce drag force was found through the analysis and comparison of the geometries and aerodynamic phenomena about the baseline model and the optimized one.

  1. Aerodynamic Performances of Corrugated Dragonfly Wings at Low Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamai, Masatoshi; He, Guowei; Hu, Hui

    2006-11-01

    The cross-sections of dragonfly wings have well-defined corrugated configurations, which seem to be not very suitable for flight according to traditional airfoil design principles. However, previous studies have led to surprising conclusions of that corrugated dragonfly wings would have better aerodynamic performances compared with traditional technical airfoils in the low Reynolds number regime where dragonflies usually fly. Unlike most of the previous studies of either measuring total aerodynamics forces (lift and drag) or conducting qualitative flow visualization, a series of wind tunnel experiments will be conducted in the present study to investigate the aerodynamic performances of corrugated dragonfly wings at low Reynolds numbers quantitatively. In addition to aerodynamics force measurements, detailed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements will be conducted to quantify of the flow field around a two-dimensional corrugated dragonfly wing model to elucidate the fundamental physics associated with the flight features and aerodynamic performances of corrugated dragonfly wings. The aerodynamic performances of the dragonfly wing model will be compared with those of a simple flat plate and a NASA low-speed airfoil at low Reynolds numbers.

  2. Supersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of Blunt Body Trim Tab Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korzun, Ashley M.; Murphy, Kelly J.; Edquist, Karl T.

    2013-01-01

    Trim tabs are aerodynamic control surfaces that can allow an entry vehicle to meet aerodynamic performance requirements while reducing or eliminating the use of ballast mass and providing a capability to modulate the lift-to-drag ratio during entry. Force and moment data were obtained on 38 unique, blunt body trim tab configurations in the NASA Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The data were used to parametrically assess the supersonic aerodynamic performance of trim tabs and to understand the influence of tab area, cant angle, and aspect ratio. Across the range of conditions tested (Mach numbers of 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5; angles of attack from -4deg to +20deg; angles of sideslip from 0deg to +8deg), the effects of varying tab area and tab cant angle were found to be much more significant than effects from varying tab aspect ratio. Aerodynamic characteristics exhibited variation with Mach number and forebody geometry over the range of conditions tested. Overall, the results demonstrate that trim tabs are a viable approach to satisfy aerodynamic performance requirements of blunt body entry vehicles with minimal ballast mass. For a 70deg sphere-cone, a tab with 3% area of the forebody and canted approximately 35deg with no ballast mass was found to give the same trim aerodynamics as a baseline model with ballast mass that was 5% of the total entry mass.

  3. An experimental and theoretical analysis of the aerodynamic characteristics of a biplane-winglet configuration. M.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gall, P. D.

    1984-01-01

    Improving the aerodynamic characteristics of an airplane with respect to maximizing lift and minimizing induced and parasite drag are of primary importance in designing lighter, faster, and more efficient aircraft. Previous research has shown that a properly designed biplane wing system can perform superiorly to an equivalent monoplane system with regard to maximizing the lift-to-drag ratio and efficiency factor. Biplanes offer several potential advantages over equivalent monoplanes, such as a 60-percent reduction in weight, greater structural integrity, and increased roll response. The purpose of this research is to examine, both theoretically and experimentally, the possibility of further improving the aerodynamic characteristics of the biplanes configuration by adding winglets. Theoretical predictions were carried out utilizing vortex-lattice theory, which is a numerical method based on potential flow theory. Experimental data were obtained by testing a model in the Pennsylvania State University's subsonic wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of 510,000. The results showed that the addition of winglets improved the performance of the biplane with respect to increasing the lift-curve slope, increasing the maximum lift coefficient, increasing the efficiency factor, and decreasing the induced drag. A listing of the program is included in the Appendix.

  4. The Kutta-Zhukovsky Lift Theorem revisited: Alteration due to the Viscous Wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Sven

    2011-11-01

    The circulation theory of lift comprised in the classical Kutta-Zhukovsky Lift Theorem forms the foundation of modern aerodynamic wing theory. The theorem has been applied ever since in lifting-line models of aircraft and rotary wings. Reynolds numbers larger than one million support its validity, yet the effect of a viscous wake on a change in the functional relationship between lift and circulation is not taken into account in standard lifting-line analyses. A discrepancy in circulation of more than six percent in comparison to the classical Kutta-Zhukovsky Lift Theorem has been demonstrated by the author (Schmitz & Chattot, Computers & Fluids, 36) for moderately separated flow around a wind turbine airfoil by means of a control volume analysis governed by the Navier-Stokes equations. The present work extends the previous analysis to general three-dimensional flow around a lifting body. An analytical expression is presented that extends the classical Kutta-Zhukovsky Lift Theorem by adding terms to the theorem due to chord- and spanwise vorticity transport. An integrated solution for induced drag is given that has not been documented in previous literature on the subject. The generalized theorem will find future application and quantification in actuator-line methods used to predict wind farm wake interactions with Atmospheric Boundary Layer flow.

  5. Refined AFC-Enabled High-Lift System Integration Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwich, Peter M.; Shmilovich, Arvin; Lacy, Douglas S.; Dickey, Eric D.; Scalafani, Anthony J.; Sundaram, P.; Yadlin, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    A prior trade study established the effectiveness of using Active Flow Control (AFC) for reducing the mechanical complexities associated with a modern high-lift system without sacrificing aerodynamic performance at low-speed flight conditions representative of takeoff and landing. The current technical report expands on this prior work in two ways: (1) a refined conventional high-lift system based on the NASA Common Research Model (CRM) is presented that is more representative of modern commercial transport aircraft in terms of stall characteristics and maximum Lift/Drag (L/D) ratios at takeoff and landing-approach flight conditions; and (2) the design trade space for AFC-enabled high-lift systems is expanded to explore a wider range of options for improving their efficiency. The refined conventional high-lift CRM (HL-CRM) concept features leading edge slats and slotted trailing edge flaps with Fowler motion. For the current AFC-enhanced high lift system trade study, the refined conventional high-lift system is simplified by substituting simply-hinged trailing edge flaps for the slotted single-element flaps with Fowler motion. The high-lift performance of these two high-lift CRM variants is established using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions to the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. These CFD assessments identify the high-lift performance that needs to be recovered through AFC to have the CRM variant with the lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift system match the performance of the conventional high-lift system. In parallel to the conventional high-lift concept development, parametric studies using CFD guided the development of an effective and efficient AFC-enabled simplified high-lift system. This included parametric trailing edge flap geometry studies addressing the effects of flap chord length and flap deflection. As for the AFC implementation, scaling effects (i.e., wind-tunnel versus full-scale flight conditions) are addressed

  6. Longitudinal Stability and Drag Characteristics at Mach Numbers from 0.70 to 1.37 of Rocket-propelled Models Having a Modified Triangular Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Rowe, Jr; Morrow, John D

    1952-01-01

    A modified triangular wing of aspect ratio 2.53 having an airfoil section 3.7 percent thick at the root and 5.98 percent thick at the tip was designed in an attempt to improve the lift and drag characteristics of triangular wings. Free-flight drag and stability tests were made using rocket-propelled models equipped with the modified wing. The Mach number range of the test was from 0.70 to 1.37. Test results indicated the following: The lift-curve slope of wing plus fuselage approaches the theoretical value of wing alone at supersonic Mach numbers. The drag coefficient, based on total wing area, for wing plus interference was approximately 0.0035 at subsonic Mach numbers and 0.0080 at supersonic Mach numbers. The maximum shift in aerodynamic center for the complete configuration was 14 percent in the rearward direction from the forward position of 51.5 percent of mean aerodynamic chord at subsonic Mach numbers. The variation of lift and moment with angle of attack was linear at supersonic Mach numbers for the range of coefficients covered in the test. The high value of lift-curve slope was considered to be a significant result attributable to the wing modifications.

  7. Efficiency of lift production in flapping and gliding flight of swifts.

    PubMed

    Henningsson, Per; Hedenström, Anders; Bomphrey, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Many flying animals use both flapping and gliding flight as part of their routine behaviour. These two kinematic patterns impose conflicting requirements on wing design for aerodynamic efficiency and, in the absence of extreme morphing, wings cannot be optimised for both flight modes. In gliding flight, the wing experiences uniform incident flow and the optimal shape is a high aspect ratio wing with an elliptical planform. In flapping flight, on the other hand, the wing tip travels faster than the root, creating a spanwise velocity gradient. To compensate, the optimal wing shape should taper towards the tip (reducing the local chord) and/or twist from root to tip (reducing local angle of attack). We hypothesised that, if a bird is limited in its ability to morph its wings and adapt its wing shape to suit both flight modes, then a preference towards flapping flight optimization will be expected since this is the most energetically demanding flight mode. We tested this by studying a well-known flap-gliding species, the common swift, by measuring the wakes generated by two birds, one in gliding and one in flapping flight in a wind tunnel. We calculated span efficiency, the efficiency of lift production, and found that the flapping swift had consistently higher span efficiency than the gliding swift. This supports our hypothesis and suggests that even though swifts have been shown previously to increase their lift-to-drag ratio substantially when gliding, the wing morphology is tuned to be more aerodynamically efficient in generating lift during flapping. Since body drag can be assumed to be similar for both flapping and gliding, it follows that the higher total drag in flapping flight compared with gliding flight is primarily a consequence of an increase in wing profile drag due to the flapping motion, exceeding the reduction in induced drag. PMID:24587260

  8. Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of an elliptical body with a horizontal tail at Mach numbers from 2.3 to 4.63

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrout, B. L.; Robins, A. W.

    1982-01-01

    Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a configuration consisting of an elliptical body with an in plane horizontal tail were investigated. The tests were conducted at Mach numbers of 2.3, 2.96, 4.0, and 4.63. In some cases, the configuration with negative tail deflections yielded higher values of maximum lift drag ratio than did the configuration with an undeflected tail. This was due to body upwash acting on the tail and producing an additional lift increment with essentially no drag penalty. Linear theory methods used to estimate some of the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of the model yielded results which compared well with experimental data for all Mach numbers in this investigation and for both small angles of attack and larger angles of attack where nonlinear (vortex) flow phenomena were present.

  9. Peak-Seeking Optimization of Spanwise Lift Distribution for Wings in Formation Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curtis E.; Ryan, Jack

    2012-01-01

    A method is presented for the optimization of the lift distribution across the wing of an aircraft in formation flight. The usual elliptical distribution is no longer optimal for the trailing wing in the formation due to the asymmetric nature of the encountered flow field. Control surfaces along the trailing edge of the wing can be configured to obtain a non-elliptical profile that is more optimal in terms of minimum drag. Due to the difficult-to-predict nature of formation flight aerodynamics, a Newton-Raphson peak-seeking controller is used to identify in real time the best aileron and flap deployment scheme for minimum total drag. Simulation results show that the peak-seeking controller correctly identifies an optimal trim configuration that provides additional drag savings above those achieved with conventional anti-symmetric aileron trim.

  10. Understanding wing lift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, J.; Soares, A. A.

    2010-05-01

    The conventional explanation of aerodynamic lift based on Bernoulli's equation is one of the most common mistakes in presentations to school students and is found in children's science books. The fallacies in this explanation together with an alternative explanation for aerofoil lift have already been presented in an excellent article by Babinsky (2003 Phys. Educ. 38 497-503). However, in Babinsky's explanation, the air friction forces are ignored and the flow-field curvature introduced by the aerofoil shape is understood intuitively. In this article, a simple analysis of the lift with friction forces incorporated is presented to give a more precise qualitative explanation.

  11. Aerodynamics of a hybrid airship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andan, Amelda Dianne; Asrar, Waqar; Omar, Ashraf A.

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the results of a numerical study of the aerodynamic parameters of a wingless and a winged-hull airship. The total forces and moment coefficients of the airships have been computed over a range of angles. The results obtained show that addition of a wing to a conventional airship increases the lift has three times the lifting force at positive angle of attack as compared to a wingless airship whereas the drag increases in the range of 19% to 58%. The longitudinal and directional stabilities were found to be statically stable, however, both the conventional airship and the hybrid or winged airships were found to have poor rolling stability. Wingless airship has slightly higher longitudinal stability than a winged airship. The winged airship has better directional stability than the wingless airship. The wingless airship only possesses static rolling stability in the range of yaw angles of -5° to 5°. On the contrary, the winged airship initially tested does not possess rolling stability at all. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations show that modifications to the wing placement and its dihedral have strong positive effect on the rolling stability. Raising the wings to the center of gravity and introducing a dihedral angle of 5° stabilizes the rolling motion of the winged airship.

  12. Semi-Empirical Prediction of Aircraft Low-Speed Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Erik D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper lays out a comprehensive methodology for computing a low-speed, high-lift polar, without requiring additional details about the aircraft design beyond what is typically available at the conceptual design stage. Introducing low-order, physics-based aerodynamic analyses allows the methodology to be more applicable to unconventional aircraft concepts than traditional, fully-empirical methods. The methodology uses empirical relationships for flap lift effectiveness, chord extension, drag-coefficient increment and maximum lift coefficient of various types of flap systems as a function of flap deflection, and combines these increments with the characteristics of the unflapped airfoils. Once the aerodynamic characteristics of the flapped sections are known, a vortex-lattice analysis calculates the three-dimensional lift, drag and moment coefficients of the whole aircraft configuration. This paper details the results of two validation cases: a supercritical airfoil model with several types of flaps; and a 12-foot, full-span aircraft model with slats and double-slotted flaps.

  13. AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference, 8th, Portland, OR, Aug. 20-22, 1990, Technical Papers. Parts 1 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The present conference discusses topics in CFD methods and their validation, vortices and vortical flows, STOL/VSTOL aerodynamics, boundary layer transition and separation, wing airfoil aerodynamics, laminar flow, supersonic and hypersonic aerodynamics, CFD for wing airfoil and nacelle applications, wind tunnel testing, flight testing, missile aerodynamics, unsteady flow, configuration aerodynamics, and multiple body/interference flows. Attention is given to the numerical simulation of vortical flows over close-coupled canard-wing configuration, propulsive lift augmentation by side fences, road-vehicle aerodynamics, a shock-capturing method for multidimensional flow, transition-detection studies in a cryogenic environment, a three-dimensional Euler analysis of ducted propfan flowfields, multiple vortex and shock interaction at subsonic and supersonic speeds, and a Navier-Stokes simulation of waverider flowfields. Also discussed are the induced drag of crescent-shaped wings, the preliminary design aerodynamics of missile inlets, finite wing lift prediction at high angles-of-attack, optimal supersonic/hypersonic bodies, and adaptive grid embedding for the two-dimensional Euler equations.

  14. Pneumatic Spoiler Controls Airfoil Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, D.; Krauss, T.

    1991-01-01

    Air ejection from leading edge of airfoil used for controlled decrease of lift. Pneumatic-spoiler principle developed for equalizing lift on helicopter rotor blades. Also used to enhance aerodynamic control of short-fuselage or rudderless aircraft such as "flying-wing" airplanes. Leading-edge injection increases maneuverability of such high-performance fixed-wing aircraft as fighters.

  15. Aerodynamic configuration development of the highly maneuverable aircraft technology remotely piloted research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gingrich, P. B.; Child, R. D.; Panageas, G. N.

    1977-01-01

    The aerodynamic development of the highly maneuverable aircraft technology remotely piloted research vehicle (HiMAT/RPRV) from the conceptual design to the final configuration is presented. The design integrates several advanced concepts to achieve a high degree of transonic maneuverability, and was keyed to sustained maneuverability goals while other fighter typical performance characteristics were maintained. When tests of the baseline configuration indicated deficiencies in the technology integration and design techniques, the vehicle was reconfigured to satisfy the subcritical and supersonic requirements. Drag-due-to-lift levels only 5 percent higher than the optimum were obtained for the wind tunnel model at a lift coefficient of 1 for Mach numbers of up to 0.8. The transonic drag rise was progressively lowered with the application of nonlinear potential flow analyses coupled with experimental data.

  16. A simple analytical aerodynamic model of Langley Winged-Cone Aerospace Plane concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamadi, Bandu N.

    1994-01-01

    A simple three DOF analytical aerodynamic model of the Langley Winged-Coned Aerospace Plane concept is presented in a form suitable for simulation, trajectory optimization, and guidance and control studies. The analytical model is especially suitable for methods based on variational calculus. Analytical expressions are presented for lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients from subsonic to hypersonic Mach numbers and angles of attack up to +/- 20 deg. This analytical model has break points at Mach numbers of 1.0, 1.4, 4.0, and 6.0. Across these Mach number break points, the lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients are made continuous but their derivatives are not. There are no break points in angle of attack. The effect of control surface deflection is not considered. The present analytical model compares well with the APAS calculations and wind tunnel test data for most angles of attack and Mach numbers.

  17. Aerodynamic performance of osculating-cones waveriders at high altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Rick Evan

    The steady-state aerodynamic characteristics of three-dimensional waverider configurations immersed in hypersonic rarefied flows are investigated. Representative geometries are generated using an inverse design procedure, the method of osculating cones, which defines an exit plane shock shape and approximates the flow properties of the compression surface by assuming that each spanwise station along the shock profile lies within a region of locally conical flow. Vehicle surface and flow field properties are predicted using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method, a probabilistic numerical scheme in which simulated molecules are followed through representative collisions with each other and solid surfaces, and subsequent deterministic displacement. The aerodynamic properties of high- and low-Reynolds number waverider geometries, optimized for maximum lift-to-drag ratio and subject to mission-oriented constraints, are contrasted with results from reference caret and delta wings with similar internal volumes to quantify the relevance and advantage of the waverider concept at high altitudes. The high-Reynolds number waverider, optimized for the continuum regime at Minfinity = 4 and Reinfinity = 250 million, was the focus of recent wind tunnel testing for near on-design and off-design conditions, including low subsonic speeds. The present work extends the previous analyses into the high-altitude regime. The low-Reynolds number waverider, optimized at Minfinity = 20 and Reinfinity = 2.5 million, is studied to determine if optimization potential exists for a high-Mach number waverider at high altitudes. A characteristic length of 5 m is assumed for both waverider configurations, representative of a hypersonic missile concept. The geometries are aerodynamically evaluated over a parametric space consisting of an altitude variation of 95 km to 150 km and an angle of attack range of --5° to 10°. The effect of off-design Mach number on the performance of the high

  18. Aerodynamic Characteristics over a Mach Number Range of 1.40 to 2.78 of a Rocket-Propelled Airplane Configuration having a Low 52.50 Delta Wing and an Unswept Horizontal Tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kehlet, Alan B.

    1961-01-01

    A free-flight investigation of an airplane configuration having a low 52.5 deg. delta wing and an unswept horizontal tail has been conducted over a Mach number range of 1.40 to 2.78. At a fixed tail setting of -3.0 deg., the trim lift coefficient and angle of attack varied from about 0.12 to 0.04 and 3.8 deg. to 2.0 deg., respectively. The base drag was approximately 5 percent of the total drag at trim lift. Lift-curve slope, static longitudinal stability, and damping in pitch were obtained only at Mach numbers of 2.59 t o 2.74. Theoretical calculations of lift-curve slope and aerodynamic-center location were in good agreement with experimental results.

  19. Summary of Free-Flight Zero-Lift Drag Results from Tests of 1/5-Scale Models of the Convair YF-102 and F-102A Airplanes and Several Related Small Equivalent Bodies at Mach Numbers from 0.70 to 1.46

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallskog, Harvey A.

    1954-01-01

    One-fifth-scale rocket-propelled models of the Convair YF-102 and F-102A airplanes were tested to determine free-flight zero-lift drag coefficients through the transonic speed range at Reynolds numbers near those to be encountered by the full-scale airplane. Trim and duct characteristics were obtained along with measurements of total-, internal-, and base-drag coefficients. Additional zero-lift drag tests involved a series of small equivalent-body-of-revolution models which were launched to low supersonic speeds by means of a helium gun. The several small models tested corresponded to the following full-scale airplanes: basic, YF-102, 2-foot (full-scale) fuselage extension, F-102A, F-102A (relocated inlets), F-102A (faired nose), and F-102A (parabolic nose) . Equivalent-body models corresponding to the normal area distribution (derived for Mach number 1.0) of each of these airplane shapes were flown and, in addition, equivalent-body models designed to represent the YF-102 and F-102A airplanes at Mach number 1.2 were tested. External-drag coefficients obtained from the 115-scale tests ranged from 0.0094 to 0.0273 for the YF-102 model and from 0.0100 to 0.0255 for the F-102A model. Forebody external-pressure-drag coefficients (drag rise) at Mach number 1.05 of 0.0183 and 0.0134 were obtained from the 115-scale models of the YF-102 and F-102A, respectively, a 16-percent reduction for the F-102A model. Values of drag rise at Mach number 1.05 from the small equivalent-body tests were nearly the same for the basic, YF-102, and 2-foot-fuselage-extension airplane shapes. Equivalent-body tests of the YF-102 and F-102A shapes showed the latter to have about 25 percent less drag rise as compared with a 16-percent reduction illustrated by the 1/5-scale tests. Additional equivalent-body tests illustrating effects of modifications to the F-102A airplane shape shared that relocating the inlets on the fuselage or altering the nose shape to provide a smoother cross-sectional area

  20. Aerodynamic parameter studies and sensitivity analysis for rotor blades in axial flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Y. Danny; Peters, David A.

    1991-01-01

    The analytical capability is offered for aerodynamic parametric studies and sensitivity analyses of rotary wings in axial flight by using a 3-D undistorted wake model in curved lifting line theory. The governing equations are solved by both the Multhopp Interpolation technique and the Vortex Lattice method. The singularity from the bound vortices is eliminated through the Hadamard's finite part concept. Good numerical agreement between both analytical methods and finite differences methods are found. Parametric studies were made to assess the effects of several shape variables on aerodynamic loads. It is found, e.g., that a rotor blade with out-of-plane and inplane curvature can theoretically increase lift in the inboard and outboard regions respectively without introducing an additional induced drag.

  1. Transition aerodynamics for close-coupled wing-canard configuration. [V/STOL operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, J. W., Jr.; Thomas, J. L.; Winston, M. M.

    1979-01-01

    A series of wind-tunnel tests have been conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel to investigate the low-speed longitudinal aerodynamics of two powered close-coupled wing-canard fighter configurations. A brief review is provided of the high angle-of-attack data for the two wing-canard configurations tested showing the benefits and problem areas of powered lift. A takeoff and landing analysis is presented which defines the area in which a fighter-type aircraft must operate in order to achieve 305-m field lengths. The wing-canard configuration data are analyzed in detail showing the problems of obtaining high lift, high drag, and trimmed moments. Assuming that power will be used to trim the aircraft, data are presented comparing the transition aerodynamics of the wing-canard configuration using a nose jet with several V/STOL configurations.

  2. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Two Rotary Wing UAV Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Henry E.; Wong, Oliver D.; Noonan, Kevin W.; Reis, Deane G.; Malovrh, Brendon D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of two rotary-wing UAV designs. The primary goal of the investigation was to provide a set of interactional aerodynamic data for an emerging class of rotorcraft. The present paper provides an overview of the test and an introduction to the test articles, and instrumentation. Sample data in the form of a parametric study of fixed system lift and drag coefficient response to changes in configuration and flight condition for both rotor off and on conditions are presented. The presence of the rotor is seen to greatly affect both the character and magnitude of the response. The affect of scaled stores on body drag is observed to be dependent on body shape.

  3. AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO ROTARY WING UAV DESIGNS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Henry E.; Wong, Oliver D.; Noonan, Kevin W.; Reis, Deane G.; Malovrh, Brendon D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of two rotary-wing UAV designs. The primary goal of the investigation was to provide a set of interactional aerodynamic data for an emerging class of rotorcraft. The present paper provides an overview of the test and an introduction to the test articles, and instrumentation. Sample data in the form of a parametric study of fixed system lift and drag coefficient response to changes in configuration and flight condition for both rotor off and on conditions are presented. The presence of the rotor is seen to greatly affect both the character and magnitude of the response. The affect of scaled stores on body drag is observed to be dependent on body shape.

  4. Tip Fence for Reduction of Lift-Generated Airframe Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C. (Inventor); Storms, Bruce L. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward a unique lift-generated noise reduction apparatus. This apparatus includes a plurality of tip fences that are secured to the trailing and leading assemblies of the high-lift system, as close as possible to the discontinuities where the vortices are most likely to form. In one embodiment, these tip fences are secured to some or all of the outboard and inboard tips of the wing slats and flaps. The tip fence includes a generally flat, or an aerodynamically shaped plate or device that could be formed of almost any rigid material, such as metal, wood, plastic, fiber glass, aluminum, etc. In a preferred embodiment, the tip fences extend below and perpendicularly to flaps and the slats to which they are attached, such that these tip fences are aligned with the nominal free stream velocity of the aircraft. In addition to reducing airframe noise, the tip fence tends to decrease drag and to increase lift, thus improving the overall aerodynamic performance of the aircraft. Another advantage presented by the tip fence lies in the simplicity of its design, its elegance, and its ready ability to fit on the wing components, such as the flaps and the slats. Furthermore, it does not require non-standard materials or fabrication techniques, and it can be readily, easily and inexpensively retrofited on most of the existing aircraft, with minimal design changes.

  5. Aerodynamic Shutoff Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horstman, Raymond H.

    1992-01-01

    Aerodynamic flow achieved by adding fixed fairings to butterfly valve. When valve fully open, fairings align with butterfly and reduce wake. Butterfly free to turn, so valve can be closed, while fairings remain fixed. Design reduces turbulence in flow of air in internal suction system. Valve aids in development of improved porous-surface boundary-layer control system to reduce aerodynamic drag. Applications primarily aerospace. System adapted to boundary-layer control on high-speed land vehicles.

  6. Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Haecheon; Lee, Jungil; Park, Hyungmin

    2014-01-01

    We present an overview of the aerodynamics of heavy vehicles, such as tractor-trailers, high-speed trains, and buses. We introduce three-dimensional flow structures around simplified model vehicles and heavy vehicles and discuss the flow-control devices used for drag reduction. Finally, we suggest important unsteady flow structures to investigate for the enhancement of aerodynamic performance and future directions for experimental and numerical approaches.

  7. Aero-acoustics of Drag Generating Swirling Exhaust Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, P. N.; Mobed, D.; Spakovszky, Z. S.; Brooks, T. F.; Humphreys, W. M. Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft on approach in high-drag and high-lift configuration create unsteady flow structures which inherently generate noise. For devices such as flaps, spoilers and the undercarriage there is a strong correlation between overall noise and drag such that, in the quest for quieter aircraft, one challenge is to generate drag at low noise levels. This paper presents a rigorous aero-acoustic assessment of a novel drag concept. The idea is that a swirling exhaust flow can yield a steady, and thus relatively quiet, streamwise vortex which is supported by a radial pressure gradient responsible for pressure drag. Flows with swirl are naturally limited by instabilities such as vortex breakdown. The paper presents a first aero-acoustic assessment of ram pressure driven swirling exhaust flows and their associated instabilities. The technical approach combines an in-depth aerodynamic analysis, plausibility arguments to qualitatively describe the nature of acoustic sources, and detailed, quantitative acoustic measurements using a medium aperture directional microphone array in combination with a previously established Deconvolution Approach for Mapping of Acoustic Sources (DAMAS). A model scale engine nacelle with stationary swirl vanes was designed and tested in the NASA Langley Quiet Flow Facility at a full-scale approach Mach number of 0.17. The analysis shows that the acoustic signature is comprised of quadrupole-type turbulent mixing noise of the swirling core flow and scattering noise from vane boundary layers and turbulent eddies of the burst vortex structure near sharp edges. The exposed edges are the nacelle and pylon trailing edge and the centerbody supporting the vanes. For the highest stable swirl angle setting a nacelle area based drag coefficient of 0.8 was achieved with a full-scale Overall Sound Pressure Level (OASPL) of about 40dBA at the ICAO approach certification point.

  8. Aerodynamic force by Lamb vector integrals in compressible flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mele, Benedetto; Tognaccini, Renato

    2014-05-01

    A new exact expression of the aerodynamic force acting on a body in steady high Reynolds number (laminar and turbulent) compressible flow is proposed. The aerodynamic force is obtained by integration of the Lamb vector field given by the cross product of vorticity times velocity. The result is obtained extending a theory developed for the incompressible case. A decomposition in lift and drag contribution is obtained in the two-dimensional case. The theory links the force generation to local flow properties, in particular to the Lamb vector field and to the kinetic energy. The theoretical results are confirmed analyzing numerical solutions obtained by a standard Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes solver. Results are discussed for the case of a two-dimensional airfoil in subsonic, transonic, and supersonic free stream conditions.

  9. Grid Sensitivity and Aerodynamic Optimization of Generic Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadrehaghighi, Ideen; Smith, Robert E.; Tiwari, Surendra N.

    1995-01-01

    An algorithm is developed to obtain the grid sensitivity with respect to design parameters for aerodynamic optimization. The procedure is advocating a novel (geometrical) parameterization using spline functions such as NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B- Splines) for defining the airfoil geometry. An interactive algebraic grid generation technique is employed to generate C-type grids around airfoils. The grid sensitivity of the domain with respect to geometric design parameters has been obtained by direct differentiation of the grid equations. A hybrid approach is proposed for more geometrically complex configurations such as a wing or fuselage. The aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients are obtained by direct differentiation of the compressible two-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. An optimization package has been introduced into the algorithm in order to optimize the airfoil surface. Results demonstrate a substantially improved design due to maximized lift/drag ratio of the airfoil.

  10. Aerodynamic performance of a wing with a deflected tip-mounted reverse half-delta wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T.; Su, Y. Y.

    2012-11-01

    The impact of a tip-mounted 65°-sweep reverse half-delta wing (RHDW), set at different deflections, on the aerodynamic performance of a rectangular NACA 0012 wing was investigated experimentally at Re = 2.45 × 105. This study is a continuation of the work of Lee and Su (Exp Fluids 52(6):1593-1609, 2012) on the passive control of wing tip vortex by the use of a reverse half-delta wing. The present results show that for RHDW deflection with -5° ≤ δ ≤ +15°, the lift was found to increase nonlinearly with increasing δ compared to the baseline wing. The lift increment was accompanied by an increased total drag. For negative RHDW deflection with δ < -5°, the RHDW-induced lift decrement was, however, accompanied by an improved drag. The deflected RHDW also significantly modified and weakened the tip vortex, leading to a persistently lowered lift-induced drag, regardless of its deflection, compared to the baseline wing. Physical mechanisms responsible for the observed RHDW-induced phenomenon were also discussed.

  11. Aerodynamic canard/wing parametric analysis for general aviation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, M. W.; Selberg, B. P.

    1984-01-01

    Vortex panel and vortex lattice methods have been utilized in an analytic study to determine the two- and three-dimensional aerodynamic behavior of canard and wing configurations. The purpose was to generate data useful for the design of general aviation canard aircraft. Essentially no two-dimensional coupling was encountered and the vertical distance between the lifting surfaces was found to be the main contributor to interference effects of the three-dimensional analysis. All canard configurations were less efficient than a forward wing with an aft horizontal tail, but were less sensitive to off-optimum division of total lift between the two surfaces, such that trim drag could be less for canard configurations. For designing a general aviation canard aircraft, results point toward large horizontal and vertical distance between the canard and wing, a large wing-to-canard area ratio, and with the canard at a low incidence angle relative to the wing.

  12. On least-order flow decompositions for aerodynamics and aeroacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlegel, Michael; Noack, Bernd R.; Jordan, Peter

    2012-11-01

    A generalisation of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) for optimal flow resolution of linearly related observables is presented, as proposed in the identically named publication of Schlegel, Noack, Jordan, Dillmann, Groeschel, Schroeder, Wei, Freund, Lehmann and Tadmor (Journal of Fluid Mechanics 2012, vol. 697, pp. 367-398). This Galerkin expansion, termed ``observable inferred decomposition'' (OID), addresses a need in aerodynamic and aeroacoustic applications by identifying the modes contributing most to these observables. Thus, OID constitutes a building block for physical understanding, least-biased conditional sampling, state estimation and control design. From a continuum of OID versions, two variants are tailored for purposes of observer and control design, respectively. Three aerodynamic and aeroacoustic observables are studied: (1) lift and drag fluctuation of a two-dimensional cylinder wake flow, (2) aeroacoustic density fluctuations measured by a sensor array and emitted from a two-dimensional compressible mixing layer, and (3) aeroacoustic pressure monitored by a sensor array and emitted from a three-dimensional compressible jet. The most ``drag-related,'' ``lift-related'' and ``loud'' structures are distilled and interpreted in terms of known physical processes. This work was partially funded by the DFG under grants SCHL 586/2-1 and ANR, Chair of Excellence, TUCOROM.

  13. An aerodynamic tradeoff study of the scissor wing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selberg, Bruce P.; Rokhsaz, Kamran; Housh, Clinton S.

    1990-01-01

    A scissor wing configuration, consisting of two independently sweeping wings was numerically studied. This configuration was also compared with an equivalent fixed wing baseline. Aerodynamic and stability and control characteristics of these geometries were investigated over a wide range of flight Mach numbers. It is demonstrated that in the purely subsonic flight regime, the scissor wing can achieve higher aerodynamic efficiency as the result of slightly higher aspect ratio. In the transonic regime, the lift to drag ratio of the scissor wing is shown to be higher than that of the baseline, for higer values of the lift coefficient. This tends to make the scissor wing more efficient during transonic cruise at high altitudes as well as during air combat at all altitudes. In supersonic flight, where the wings are maintained at maximum sweep angle, the scissor wing is shown to have a decided advantage in terms of reduced wave drag. From the view point of stability and control, the scissor wing is shown to have distinct advantages. It is shown that this geometry can maintain a constant static margin in supersonic as well as subsonic flight, by proper sweep scheduling. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that addition of wing mounted elevons can greatly enhance control authority in pitch and roll.

  14. Influence of Different Diffuser Angle on Sedan's Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xingjun; Zhang, Rui; Ye, Jian; Yan, Xu; Zhao, Zhiming

    The aerodynamic characteristics have a great influence on the fuel economics and the steering stability of a high speed vehicle. The underbody rear diffuser is one of important aerodynamic add-on devices. The parameters of the diffuser, including the diffuser angle, the number and the shape of separators, the shape of the end plate and etc, will affect the underbody flow and the wake. Here, just the influence of the diffuser angle was investigated without separator and the end plate. The method of Computational Fluid Dynamics was adopted to study the aerodynamic characteristics of a simplified sedan with a different diffuser angle respectively. The diffuser angle was set to 0°, 3°, 6°, 9.8° and 12° respectively. The diffuser angle of the original model is 9.8°. The conclusions were drawn that when the diffuser angle increases, the underbody flow and especially the wake change greatly and the pressure change correspondingly; as a result, the total aerodynamic drag coefficients of car first decrease and then increases, while the total aerodynamic lift coefficients decrease.

  15. Effect of the Surface Condition of a Wing on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defrance, S J

    1934-01-01

    In order to determine the effect of the surface conditions of a wing on the aerodynamic characteristics of an airplane, tests were conducted in the N.A.C.A. full-scale wind tunnel on the Fairchild F-22 airplane first with normal commercial finish of wing surface and later with the same wing polished. Comparison of the characteristics of the airplane with the two surface conditions shows that the polish caused a negligible change in the lift curve, but reduced the minimum drag coefficient by 0.001. This reduction in drag if applied to an airplane with a given speed of 200 miles per hour and a minimum drag coefficient of 0.025 would increase the speed only 2.9 miles per hour, but if the speed remained the same, the power would be reduced 4 percent.

  16. Studies of friction drag and pressure drag of airfoils using the Eppler program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, William H.

    1988-01-01

    Most previous studies of the drag and two-dimensional airfoils consider only the total drag. The present report gives results of a study of three airfoils, using the Eppler program, to determine the distribution of friction drag along the chord and to obtain relative values of friction drag and pressure drag over a wide range of angle of attack and Reynolds number. The effects of boundary-layer suction in the turbulent region of the boundary layer of two of the airfoils are also investigated. The pressure drag is found to be an important component of the total drag, reaching values of 60 to 80 percent of the total drag near the stall. The use of suction producing a uniform inflow in the turbulent region of the boundary layer results in large increases in maximum lift, and increases the skin-friction drag but reduces or even changes the sign of the pressure drag.

  17. A closed-form trim solution yielding minimum trim drag for airplanes with multiple longitudinal-control effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Sliwa, Steven M.; Lallman, Frederick J.

    1989-01-01

    Airplane designs are currently being proposed with a multitude of lifting and control devices. Because of the redundancy in ways to generate moments and forces, there are a variety of strategies for trimming each airplane. A linear optimum trim solution (LOTS) is derived using a Lagrange formulation. LOTS enables the rapid calculation of the longitudinal load distribution resulting in the minimum trim drag in level, steady-state flight for airplanes with a mixture of three or more aerodynamic surfaces and propulsive control effectors. Comparisons of the trim drags obtained using LOTS, a direct constrained optimization method, and several ad hoc methods are presented for vortex-lattice representations of a three-surface airplane and two-surface airplane with thrust vectoring. These comparisons show that LOTS accurately predicts the results obtained from the nonlinear optimization and that the optimum methods result in trim drag reductions of up to 80 percent compared to the ad hoc methods.

  18. Aerodynamics of thrust vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, J. B.; Lan, C. Edward

    1989-01-01

    Thrust vectoring as a means to enhance maneuverability and aerodynamic performane of a tactical aircraft is discussed. This concept usually involves the installation of a multifunction nozzle. With the nozzle, the engine thrust can be changed in direction without changing the attitude of the aircraft. Change in the direction of thrust induces a significant change in the aerodynamic forces on the aircraft. Therefore, this device can be used for lift-augmenting as well as stability and control purposes. When the thrust is deflected in the longitudinal direction, the lift force and the pitching stability can be manipulated, while the yawing stability can be controlled by directing the thrust in the lateral direction.

  19. Aerodynamic performance of the DeSiReH high-lift laminar wing at free flight and ETW in-tunnel conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosnyakov, S.; Kazhan, E.; Kursakov, I.; Matyash, S.; Mikhaylov, S.; Lysenkov, A.

    2015-06-01

    The current research concerns a half-model high-lift configuration inside the European Transonic Wind Tunnel (ETW) at landing regime. The influence of the wind-tunnel walls (both slotted and closed) is investigated and the numerical results are compared with measured data. The investigated model is a three-element landing configuration with Krueger device and flap. All calculations are performed on structured grids using EWT-TsAGI code. The computed in-tunnel results are in good agreement with uncorrected experimental data, with maximum lift predicted at the same angle of attack. The slotted wall configuration produces less wall interference than the closed wall configuration.

  20. A Free-flight Wind Tunnel for Aerodynamic Testing at Hypersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiff, Alvin

    1954-01-01

    The supersonic free-flight wind tunnel is a facility at the Ames Laboratory of the NACA in which aerodynamic test models are gun-launched at high speed and directed upstream through the test section of a supersonic wind tunnel. In this way, test Mach numbers up to 10 have been attained and indications are that still higher speeds will be realized. An advantage of this technique is that the air and model temperatures simulate those of flight through the atmosphere. Also the Reynolds numbers are high. Aerodynamic measurements are made from photographic observation of the model flight. Instruments and techniques have been developed for measuring the following aerodynamic properties: drag, initial lift-curve slope, initial pitching-moment-curve slope, center of pressure, skin friction, boundary-layer transition, damping in roll, and aileron effectiveness. (author)

  1. Prediction of Aerodynamic Coefficients for Wind Tunnel Data using a Genetic Algorithm Optimized Neural Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajkumar, T.; Aragon, Cecilia; Bardina, Jorge; Britten, Roy

    2002-01-01

    A fast, reliable way of predicting aerodynamic coefficients is produced using a neural network optimized by a genetic algorithm. Basic aerodynamic coefficients (e.g. lift, drag, pitching moment) are modelled as functions of angle of attack and Mach number. The neural network is first trained on a relatively rich set of data from wind tunnel tests of numerical simulations to learn an overall model. Most of the aerodynamic parameters can be well-fitted using polynomial functions. A new set of data, which can be relatively sparse, is then supplied to the network to produce a new model consistent with the previous model and the new data. Because the new model interpolates realistically between the sparse test data points, it is suitable for use in piloted simulations. The genetic algorithm is used to choose a neural network architecture to give best results, avoiding over-and under-fitting of the test data.

  2. Space shuttle: Aerodynamic stability, control effectiveness and drag characteristics of a shuttle orbiter configuration at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 4.96

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, P. E.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted in the NASA/MSFC 14-inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel from Sept. 27 to Oct. 7, 1972 on a 0.004 scale model of the NR ATP baseline shuttle orbiter configuration. Six component aerodynamic force and moment data were recorded at 0 deg sideslip angle over an angle of attack range from 0 to 20 deg for Mach numbers of 0.6 to 4.96, 20 to 40 deg for Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.9, 2.99, and 4.96, and 40 to 60 deg for Mach numbers of 2.99 and 4.96. Data were obtained over a sideslip range of -10 to 10 deg at 0, 10, and 20 deg angles of attack over the Mach range and 30 and 50 deg at Mach numbers of 2.99 and 4.96. The purpose of the test was to define the buildup, performance, stability, and control characteristics of the orbiter configuration. The model parameters, were: body alone; body-wing; body-wing-tail; elevon deflections of 0, 10, -20, and -40 deg both full and split); aileron deflections of plus or minus 10 deg (full and split); rudder flares of 10 and 40 deg, and a rudder deflection of 15 deg about the 10 and 40 deg flare positions.

  3. Predicted Aerodynamic Characteristics of a NACA 0015 Airfoil Having a 25% Integral-Type Trailing Edge Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, Ahmed

    1999-01-01

    Using the two-dimensional ARC2D Navier-Stokes flow solver analyses were conducted to predict the sectional aerodynamic characteristics of the flapped NACA-0015 airfoil section. To facilitate the analyses and the generation of the computational grids, the airfoil with the deflected trailing edge flap was treated as a single element airfoil with no allowance for a gap between the flap's leading edge and the base of the forward portion of the airfoil. Generation of the O-type computational grids was accomplished using the HYGRID hyperbolic grid generation program. Results were obtained for a wide range of Mach numbers, angles of attack and flap deflections. The predicted sectional lift, drag and pitching moment values for the airfoil were then cast in tabular format (C81) to be used in lifting-line helicopter rotor aerodynamic performance calculations. Similar were also generated for the flap. Mathematical expressions providing the variation of the sectional lift and pitching moment coefficients for the airfoil and for the flap as a function of flap chord length and flap deflection angle were derived within the context of thin airfoil theory. The airfoil's sectional drag coefficient were derived using the ARC2D drag predictions for equivalent two dimensional flow conditions.

  4. Low speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 17 percent thick airfoil section designed for general aviation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcghee, R. J.; Beasley, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests have been conducted to determine the low-speed two-dimensional aerodynamic characteristics of a 17-percent-thick airfoil designed for general aviation applications (GA(W)-1). The results were compared with predictions based on a theoretical method for calculating the viscous flow about the airfoil. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.10 to 0.28. Reynolds numbers based on airfoil chord varied from 2.0 million to 20.0 million. Maximum section lift coefficients greater than 2.0 were obtained and section lift-drag ratio at a lift coefficient of 1.0 (climb condition) varied from about 65 to 85 as the Reynolds number increased from about 2.0 million to 6.0 million.

  5. Aerodynamic analysis of Audi A4 Sedan using CFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birwa, S. K.; Rathi, N.; Gupta, R.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the aerodynamic influence of velocity and ground clearance for Audi A4 Sedan. The topology of the test vehicle was modeled using CATIA P3 V5 R17. ANSYS FLUENT 12 was the CFD solver employed in this study. The distribution of pressure and velocity was obtained. The velocities were 30, 40, 50 and 60 m/s and ground clearances were 76.2 mm,101.6 mm,127 mm and 152.4 mm. The simulation results were compared with the available resources. It was found that the drag coefficient decreases with the velocity increasing from 30 to 60 m/s and increases with the ground clearance from 101.6 mm to 152.4 mm. Further decrease in ground clearance showed no effect on the value of coefficient of drag. The lift coefficient was found to decrease firstly with ground clearance from 152.4 mm to 101.6 mm, and then increase from 101.6 mm to 76.2 mm. Both the lift coefficient and drag coefficient was found to be minimum for the ground clearance of 101.6 mm as designed by the company.

  6. The aerodynamic design of the oblique flying wing supersonic transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandervelden, Alexander J. M.; Kroo, Ilan

    1990-01-01

    The aerodynamic design of a supersonic oblique flying wing is strongly influenced by the requirement that passengers must be accommodated inside the wing. It was revealed that thick oblique wings of very high sweep angle can be efficient at supersonic speeds when transonic normal Mach numbers are allowed on the upper surface of the wing. The goals were motivated by the ability to design a maximum thickness, minimum size oblique flying wing. A 2-D Navier-Stokes solver was used to design airfoils up to 16 percent thickness with specified lift, drag and pitching moment. A new method was developed to calculate the required pressure distribution on the wing based on the airfoil loading, normal Mach number distribution and theoretical knowledge of the minimum drag of oblique configurations at supersonic speeds. The wing mean surface for this pressure distribution was calculated using an inverse potential flow solver. The lift to drag ratio of this wing was significantly higher than that of a comparable delta wing for cruise speeds up to Mach 2.

  7. Atmospheric tests of trailing-edge aerodynamic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L S; Huang, S; Quandt, G A

    1998-01-01

    An experiment was conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s (NREL`s) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) using an instrumented horizontal-axis wind turbine that incorporated variable-span, trailing-edge aerodynamic brakes. The goal of the investigation was to directly compare results with (infinite-span) wind tunnel data and to provide information on how to account for device span effects during turbine design or analysis. Comprehensive measurements were used to define effective changes in the aerodynamic and hinge-moment coefficients, as a function of angle of attack and control deflection, for three device spans (7.5%, 15%, and 22.5%) and configurations (Spoiler-Flap, vented sileron, and unvented aileron). Differences in the lift and drag behavior are most pronounced near stall and for device spans of less than 15%. Drag performance is affected only minimally (about a 30% reduction from infinite-span) for 15% or larger span devices. Interestingly, aerodynamic controls with vents or openings appear most affected by span reductions and three-dimensional flow.

  8. Langley Symposium on Aerodynamics, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stack, Sharon H. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to present current work and results of the Langley Aeronautics Directorate covering the areas of computational fluid dynamics, viscous flows, airfoil aerodynamics, propulsion integration, test techniques, and low-speed, high-speed, and transonic aerodynamics. The following sessions are included in this volume: theoretical aerodynamics, test techniques, fluid physics, and viscous drag reduction.

  9. Aerodynamics Research Revolutionizes Truck Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s, researchers at Dryden Flight Research Center conducted numerous tests to refine the shape of trucks to reduce aerodynamic drag and improved efficiency. During the 1980s and 1990s, a team based at Langley Research Center explored controlling drag and the flow of air around a moving body. Aeroserve Technologies Ltd., of Ottawa, Canada, with its subsidiary, Airtab LLC, in Loveland, Colorado, applied the research from Dryden and Langley to the development of the Airtab vortex generator. Airtabs create two counter-rotating vortices to reduce wind resistance and aerodynamic drag of trucks, trailers, recreational vehicles, and many other vehicles.

  10. Wind tunnel and ground static investigation of a large scale model of a lift/cruise fan V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in a 40 foot by 80 foot wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic/propulsion characteristics of a large scale powered model of a lift/cruise fan V/STOL aircraft. The model was equipped with three 36 inch diameter turbotip X376B fans powered by three T58 gas generators. The lift fan was located forward of the cockpit area and the two lift/cruise fans were located on top of the wing adjacent to the fuselage. The three fans with associated thrust vectoring systems were used to provide vertical, and short, takeoff and landing capability. For conventional cruise mode operation, only the lift/cruise fans were utilized. The data that were obtained include lift, drag, longitudinal and lateral-directional stability characteristics, and control effectiveness. Data were obtained up to speeds of 120 knots at one model height of 20 feet for the conventional aerodynamic lift configuration and at several thrust vector angles for the powered lift configuration.

  11. Wing-kinematics measurement and aerodynamics in a small insect in hovering flight.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xin; Sun, Mao

    2016-01-01

    Wing-motion of hovering small fly Liriomyza sativae was measured using high-speed video and flows of the wings calculated numerically. The fly used high wingbeat frequency (≈265 Hz) and large stroke amplitude (≈182°); therefore, even if its wing-length (R) was small (R ≈ 1.4 mm), the mean velocity of wing reached ≈1.5 m/s, the same as that of an average-size insect (R ≈ 3 mm). But the Reynolds number (Re) of wing was still low (≈40), owing to the small wing-size. In increasing the stroke amplitude, the outer parts of the wings had a "clap and fling" motion. The mean-lift coefficient was high, ≈1.85, several times larger than that of a cruising airplane. The partial "clap and fling" motion increased the lift by ≈7%, compared with the case of no aerodynamic interaction between the wings. The fly mainly used the delayed stall mechanism to generate the high-lift. The lift-to-drag ratio is only 0.7 (for larger insects, Re being about 100 or higher, the ratio is 1-1.2); that is, although the small fly can produce enough lift to support its weight, it needs to overcome a larger drag to do so. PMID:27168523

  12. Wing-kinematics measurement and aerodynamics in a small insect in hovering flight

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xin; Sun, Mao

    2016-01-01

    Wing-motion of hovering small fly Liriomyza sativae was measured using high-speed video and flows of the wings calculated numerically. The fly used high wingbeat frequency (≈265 Hz) and large stroke amplitude (≈182°); therefore, even if its wing-length (R) was small (R ≈ 1.4 mm), the mean velocity of wing reached ≈1.5 m/s, the same as that of an average-size insect (R ≈ 3 mm). But the Reynolds number (Re) of wing was still low (≈40), owing to the small wing-size. In increasing the stroke amplitude, the outer parts of the wings had a “clap and fling” motion. The mean-lift coefficient was high, ≈1.85, several times larger than that of a cruising airplane. The partial “clap and fling” motion increased the lift by ≈7%, compared with the case of no aerodynamic interaction between the wings. The fly mainly used the delayed stall mechanism to generate the high-lift. The lift-to-drag ratio is only 0.7 (for larger insects, Re being about 100 or higher, the ratio is 1–1.2); that is, although the small fly can produce enough lift to support its weight, it needs to overcome a larger drag to do so. PMID:27168523

  13. Effect of milling machine roughness and wing dihedral on the supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of a highly swept wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darden, Christine M.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to assess the effect of surface finish on the longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics of a highly-swept wing at supersonic speeds. A study of the effects of wing dihedral was also made. Included in the tests were four wing models: three models having 22.5 degrees of outboard dihedral, identical except for surface finish, and a zero-dihedral, smooth model of the same planform for reference. Of the three dihedral models, two were taken directly from the milling machine without smoothing: one having a maximum scallop height of 0.002 inches and the other a maximum scallop height of 0.005 inches. The third dihedral model was handfinished to a smooth surface. Tests were conducted in Test Section 1 of the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at NASA-Langley over a range of Mach numbers from 1.8 to 2.8, a range of angle of attack from -5 to 8 degrees, and at a Reynolds numbers per foot of 2 x 10(6). Selected data were also taken at a Reynolds number per foot of 6 x 10(6). Drag coefficient increases, with corresponding lift-drag ratio decreases were the primary aerodynamic effects attributed to increased surface roughness due to milling machine grooves. These drag and lift-drag ratio increments due to roughness increased as Reynolds number increased.

  14. Powered-lift aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, W. H.; Franklin, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    Powered lift aircraft have the ability to vary the magnitude and direction of the force produced by the propulsion system so as to control the overall lift and streamwise force components of the aircraft, with the objective of enabling the aircraft to operate from minimum sized terminal sites. Power lift technology has contributed to the development of the jet lift Harrier and to the forth coming operational V-22 Tilt Rotor and the C-17 military transport. This technology will soon be expanded to include supersonic fighters with short takeoff and vertical landing capability, and will continue to be used for the development of short- and vertical-takeoff and landing transport. An overview of this field of aeronautical technology is provided for several types of powered lift aircraft. It focuses on the description of various powered lift concepts and their operational capability. Aspects of aerodynamics and flight controls pertinent to powered lift are also discussed.

  15. Overview of NASA HSR high-lift program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, William P.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of the NASA High-Speed Research (HSR) Program being conducted to develop the technologies essential for the successful U.S. development of a commercial supersonic air transport in the 2005 timeframe are provided. The HSR program is being conducted in two phases, with the first phase stressing technology to ensure environmental acceptability and the second phase stressing technology to make the vehicle economically viable (in contrast to the current Concorde design). During Phase 1 of the program, a key element of the environmental emphases is minimization of community noise through effective engine nozzle noise suppression technology and through improving the performance of high-lift systems. An overview of the current Phase 1 High-Lift Program, directed at technology for community noise reduction, is presented. The total target for takeoff engine noise reduction to meet expected regulations is believed to be about 20 EPNdB. The high-lift research is stressing the exploration of innovative high-lift concepts and advanced flight operations procedures to achieve a substantial (approximately 6 EPNdB) reduction in community noise to supplement the reductions expected from engine nozzle noise suppression concepts; primary concern is focused on the takeoff and climbout operations where very high engine power settings are used. Significant reductions in aerodynamic drag in this regime will allow substantial reductions in the required engine thrust levels and therefore reductions in the noise generated.

  16. Effects of jets, wakes, and vortices on lifting surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margason, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The interaction of jets, wakes, and vortices on lifting bodies represents a broad spectrum of aerodynamic flow phenomena. A literature survey is presented of 79 research activities in related aerodynamic situations.

  17. Low-speed longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a flat-plate planform model of an advanced fighter configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgrath, Brian E.; Neuhart, Dan H.; Gatlin, Gregory M.; Oneil, Pat

    1994-01-01

    A flat-plate wind tunnel model of an advanced fighter configuration was tested in the NASA LaRC Subsonic Basic Research Tunnel and the 16- by 24-inch Water Tunnel. The test objectives were to obtain and evaluate the low-speed longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a candidate configuration for the integration of several new innovative wing designs. The flat plate test allowed for the initial evaluation of the candidate planform and was designated as the baseline planform for the innovative wing design study. Low-speed longitudinal aerodynamic data were obtained over a range of freestream dynamic pressures from 7.5 psf to 30 psf (M = 0.07 to M = 0.14) and angles-of-attack from 0 to 40 deg. The aerodynamic data are presented in coefficient form for the lift, induced drag, and pitching moment. Flow-visualization results obtained were photographs of the flow pattern over the flat plate model in the water tunnel for angles-of-attack from 10 to 40 deg. The force and moment coefficients and the flow-visualization photographs showed the linear and nonlinear aerodynamic characteristics due to attached flow and vortical flow over the flat plate model. Comparison between experiment and linear theory showed good agreement for the lift and induced drag; however, the agreement was poor for the pitching moment.

  18. AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference, 10th, Palo Alto, CA, June 22-24, 1992, Technical Papers. Pts. 1 AND 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Consideration is given to vortex physics and aerodynamics; supersonic/hypersonic aerodynamics; STOL/VSTOL/rotors; missile and reentry vehicle aerodynamics; CFD as applied to aircraft; unsteady aerodynamics; supersonic/hypersonic aerodynamics; low-speed/high-lift aerodynamics; airfoil/wing aerodynamics; measurement techniques; CFD-solvers/unstructured grid; airfoil/drag prediction; high angle-of-attack aerodynamics; and CFD grid methods. Particular attention is given to transonic-numerical investigation into high-angle-of-attack leading-edge vortex flow, prediction of rotor unsteady airloads using vortex filament theory, rapid synthesis for evaluating the missile maneuverability parameters, transonic calculations of wing/bodies with deflected control surfaces; the static and dynamic flow field development about a porous suction surface wing; the aircraft spoiler effects under wind shear; multipoint inverse design of an infinite cascade of airfoils, turbulence modeling for impinging jet flows; numerical investigation of tail buffet on the F-18 aircraft; the surface grid generation in a parameter space; and the flip flop nozzle extended to supersonic flows.

  19. Investigation at Mach Numbers of 0.20 to 3.50 of a Blended Diamond Wing and Body Combination of Sonic Design but with Low Wave-Drag Increase with Increasing Mach Number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdaway, George H.; Mellenthin, Jack A.; Hatfield, Elaine W.

    1959-01-01

    A diamond wing and body combination was designed to have an area distribution which would result in near optimum zero-lift wave-drag coefficients at a Mach number of 1.00, and decreasing wave-drag coefficient with increasing Mach number up to near sonic leading-edge conditions for the wing. The airfoil section were computed by varying their shape along with the body radii (blending process) to match the selected area distribution and the given plan form. The exposed wing section had an average maximum thickness of about 3 percent of the local chords, and the maximum thickness of the center-line chord was 5.49 percent. The wing had an aspect ratio of 2 and a leading-edge sweep of 45 deg. Test data were obtained throughout the Mach number range from 0.20 to 3.50 at Reynolds numbers based on the mean aerodynamic chord of roughly 6,000,000 to 9,000,000. The zero-lift wave-drag coefficients of the diamond model satisfied the design objectives and were equal to the low values for the Mach number 1.00 equivalent body up to the limit of the transonic tests. From the peak drag coefficient near M = 1.00 there was a gradual decrease in wave-drag coefficient up to M = 1.20. Above sonic leading-edge conditions of the wing there was a rise in the wave-drag coefficient which was attributed in part to the body contouring as well as to the wing geometry. The diamond model had good lift characteristics, in spite of the prediction from low-aspect-ratio theory that the rear half of the diamond wing would carry little lift. The experimental lift-curve slope obtained at supersonic speeds were equal to or greater than the values predicted by linear theory. Similarly the other basic aerodynamic parameters, aerodynamic center position, and maximum lift-drag ratios were satisfactorily predicted at supersonic speeds.

  20. Aerodynamics of the flying snake Chrysopelea paradisi: how a bluff body cross-sectional shape contributes to gliding performance.

    PubMed

    Holden, Daniel; Socha, John J; Cardwell, Nicholas D; Vlachos, Pavlos P

    2014-02-01

    A prominent feature of gliding flight in snakes of the genus Chrysopelea is the unique cross-sectional shape of the body, which acts as the lifting surface in the absence of wings. When gliding, the flying snake Chrysopelea paradisi morphs its circular cross-section into a triangular shape by splaying its ribs and flattening its body in the dorsoventral axis, forming a geometry with fore-aft symmetry and a thick profile. Here, we aimed to understand the aerodynamic properties of the snake's cross-sectional shape to determine its contribution to gliding at low Reynolds numbers. We used a straight physical model in a water tunnel to isolate the effects of 2D shape, analogously to studying the profile of an airfoil of a more typical flyer. Force measurements and time-resolved (TR) digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) were used to determine lift and drag coefficients, wake dynamics and vortex-shedding characteristics of the shape across a behaviorally relevant range of Reynolds numbers and angles of attack. The snake's cross-sectional shape produced a maximum lift coefficient of 1.9 and maximum lift-to-drag ratio of 2.7, maintained increases in lift up to 35 deg, and exhibited two distinctly different vortex-shedding modes. Within the measured Reynolds number regime (Re=3000-15,000), this geometry generated significantly larger maximum lift coefficients than many other shapes including bluff bodies, thick airfoils, symmetric airfoils and circular arc airfoils. In addition, the snake's shape exhibited a gentle stall region that maintained relatively high lift production even up to the highest angle of attack tested (60 deg). Overall, the cross-sectional geometry of the flying snake demonstrated robust aerodynamic behavior by maintaining significant lift production and near-maximum lift-to-drag ratios over a wide range of parameters. These aerodynamic characteristics help to explain how the snake can glide at steep angles and over a wide range of angles of attack

  1. Numerical and Experimental Study on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Basic Airfoils at Low Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Katsuya; Kawakita, Masatoshi; Iijima, Takayoshi; Koga, Mitsuhiro; Kihira, Mitsuhiko; Funaki, Jiro

    The aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils have been researched in higher Reynolds-number ranges more than 106, in a historic context closely related with the developments of airplanes and fluid machineries in the last century. However, our knowledge is not enough at low and middle Reynolds-number ranges. So, in the present study, we investigate such basic airfoils as a NACA0015, a flat plate and the flat plates with modified fore-face and after-face geometries at Reynolds number Re < 1.0×105, using two- and three-dimensional computations together with wind-tunnel and water-tank experiments. As a result, we have revealed the effect of the Reynolds number Re upon the minimum drag coefficient CDmin. Besides, we have shown the effects of attack angle α upon various aerodynamic characteristics such as the lift coefficient CL, the drag coefficient CD and the lift-to-drag ratio CL/CD at Re = 1.0×102, discussing those effects on the basis of both near-flow-field information and surface-pressure profiles. Such results suggest the importance of sharp leading edges, which implies the possibility of an inversed NACA0015. Furthermore, concerning the flat-plate airfoil, we investigate the influences of fore-face and after-face geometries upon such effects.

  2. The influence of wing, fuselage and tail design on rotational flow aerodynamics data obtained beyond maximum lift with general aviation configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bihrle, W., Jr.; Bowman, J. S., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center has initiated a broad general aviation stall/spin research program. A rotary balance system was developed to support this effort. Located in the Langley spin tunnel, this system makes it possible to identify an airplane's aerodynamic characteristics in a rotational flow environment, and thereby permits prediction of spins. This paper presents a brief description of the experimental set-up, testing technique, five model programs conducted to date, and an overview of the rotary balance results and their correlation with spin tunnel free-spinning model results. It is shown, for example, that there is a large, nonlinear dependency of the aerodynamic moments on rotational rate and that these moments are pronouncedly configuration-dependent. Fuselage shape, horizontal tail and, in some instances, wing location are shown to appreciably influence the yawing moment characteristics above an angle of attack of 45 deg.

  3. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 14-percent-thick NASA phase 2 supercritical airfoil designed for a lift coefficient of 0.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, C. D.; Mcghee, R. J.; Allison, D. O.

    1980-01-01

    The low speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 14 percent thick supercritical airfoil are documented. The wind tunnel test was conducted in the Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The effects of varying chord Reynolds number from 2,000,000 to 18,000,000 at a Mach number of 0.15 and the effects of varying Mach number from 0.10 to 0.32 at a Reynolds number of 6,000,000 are included.

  4. Rocket-Model Investigation of the Longitudinal Stability, Drag, and Duct Performance Characteristics of the North American MX-770 (X-10) Missile at Mach Numbers from 0.80 to 1.70

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Aleck C.; Swanson, Andrew G.

    1953-01-01

    A free-flight 0.12-scale rocket-boosted model of the North American MX-770 (X-10) missile has been tested in flight by the Pilotless Aircraft Research Division of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory. Drag, longitudinal stability, and duct performance data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.8 to 1.7 covering a Reynolds number range of about 9 x 10(exp 6) to 24 x 10(exp 6) based on wing mean aerodynamic chord. The lift-curve slope, static stability, and damping-in-pitch derivatives showed similar variations with Mach number, the parameters increasing from subsonic values in the transonic region and decreasing in the supersonic region. The variations were for the most part fairly smooth. The aerodynamic center of the configuration shifted rearward in the transonic region and moved forward gradually in the supersonic region. The pitching effectiveness of the canard control surfaces was maintained throughout the flight speed range, the supersonic values being somewhat greater than the subsonic. Trim values of angle of attack and lift coefficient changed abruptly in the transonic region, the change being associated with variations in the out-of-trim pitching moment, control effectiveness, and aerodynamic-center travel in this speed range. Duct total-pressure recovery decreased with increase in free-stream Mach number and the values were somewhat less than normal-shock recovery. Minimum drag data indicated a supersonic drag coefficient about twice the subsonic drag coefficient and a drag-rise Mach number of approximately 0.90. Base drag was small subsonically but was about 25 percent of the minimum drag of the configuration supersonically.

  5. Drag and Propulsive Characteristics of Air-Cooled Engine-Nacelle Installations for Large Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverstein, Abe; Wilson, Herbert A , Jr

    1942-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the NACA full-scale wind tunnel to determine the drag and the propulsive efficiency of nacelle-propeller arrangements for a large range of nacelle sizes. In contrast with usual tests with a single nacelle, these tests were conducted with nacelle-propeller installations on a large model of a four-engine airplane. Data are presented on the first part of the investigation, covering seven nacelle arrangements with nacelle diameters from 0.53 to 1.5 times the wing thickness. These ratios are similar to those occurring on airplanes weighing from about 20 to 100 tons. The results show the drag, the propulsive efficiency, and the over-all efficiency of the various nacelle arrangements as functions of the nacelle size, the propeller position, and the airplane lift coefficient. The effect of the nacelles on the aerodynamic characteristics of the model is shown for both propeller-removed and propeller-operating conditions.

  6. The Role of Free Stream Turbulence on the Aerodynamic Performance of a Wind Turbine Blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Victor; Thormann, Adrien; Meneveau, Charles; Castillo, Luciano

    2014-11-01

    Effects of free stream turbulence with large integral scale on the aerodynamic performance of an S809 airfoil-based wind turbine blade at low Reynolds number are studied using wind tunnel experiments. A constant chord (2-D) S809 airfoil wind turbine blade model with an operating Reynolds number of 208,000 based on chord length was tested for a range of angles of attack representative of fully attached and stalled flow as encountered in typical wind turbine operation. The smooth-surface blade was subjected to a quasi-laminar free stream with very low free-stream turbulence as well as to elevated free-stream turbulence generated by an active grid. This turbulence contained large-scale eddies with levels of free-stream turbulence intensity of up to 6.14% and an integral length scale of about 60% of chord-length. The pressure distribution was acquired using static pressure taps and the lift was subsequently computed by numerical integration. The wake velocity deficit was measured utilizing hot-wire anemometry to compute the drag coefficient also via integration. In addition, the mean flow was quantified using 2-D particle image velocimetry (PIV) over the suction surface of the blade. Results indicate that turbulence, even with very large-scale eddies comparable in size to the chord-length, significantly improves the aerodynamic performance of the blade by increasing the lift coefficient and overall lift-to-drag ratio, L/D for all angles tested except zero degrees.

  7. Influence of heat transfer on the aerodynamic performance of a plunging and pitching NACA0012 airfoil at low Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinz, Denis F.; Alighanbari, Hekmat; Breitsamter, Christian

    2013-02-01

    The unsteady low Reynolds number aerodynamics phenomena around flapping wings are addressed in several investigations. Elsewhere, airfoils at higher Mach numbers and Reynolds numbers have been treated quite comprehensively in the literature. It is duly noted that the influence of heat transfer phenomena on the aerodynamic performance of flapping wings configurations is not well studied. The objective of the present study is to investigate the effect of heat transfer upon the aerodynamic performance of a pitching and plunging NACA0012 airfoil in the low Reynolds number flow regime with particular emphasis upon the airfoil's lift and drag coefficients. The compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a finite volume method. To consider the variation of fluid properties with temperature, the values of dynamic viscosity and thermal diffusivity are evaluated with Sutherland's formula and the Eucken model, respectively. Instantaneous and mean lift and drag coefficients are calculated for several temperature differences between the airfoil surface and freestream within the range 0-100 K. Simulations are performed for a prescribed airfoil motion schedule and flow parameters. It is learnt that the aerodynamic performance in terms of the lift CL and drag CD behavior is strongly dependent upon the heat transfer rate from the airfoil to the flow field. In the plunging case, the mean value of CD tends to increase, whereas the amplitude of CL tends to decrease with increasing temperature difference. In the pitching case, on the other hand, the mean value and the amplitude of both CD and CL decrease. A spectral analysis of CD and CL in the pitching case shows that the amplitudes of both CD and CL decrease with increasing surface temperature, whereas the harmonic frequencies are not affected.

  8. Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics at Mach numbers from 1.60 to 2.86 for a fixed-span missile with three wing planforms. [conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.; Sawyer, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    Effects of wing planform modifications on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a fixed span, maneuverable cruciform missile configuration were determined. A basic delta planform and two alternate trapezoidal planforms having progressively increasing tip chords were included. Data were obtained for angles of attack up to approximately -32 deg, model roll angles of 0 deg to 45 deg, and tail control deflections of 0 deg and -20 deg. The experimental drag due to lift was compared with linear values.

  9. Effects at Mach Numbers of 1.61 and 2.01 of Camber and Twist on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Three Swept Wings Having the Same Planform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landrum, Emma Jean; Czarnecki, K. R.

    1961-01-01

    An investigation has been made at Mach numbers of 1.61 and 2.01 to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of three wings having a sweepback of 50 deg at the quarter-chord line, a taper ratio of 0.20, an NACA 65A005 thickness distribution, and an aspect ratio of 3.5. One wing was flat, one had at each spanwise station an a = 0 mean line modified to have a maximum height of 4-percent chord, and one had a linear variation of twist with 6 deg of washout at the tip. Tests were made with natural and fixed transition at Reynolds numbers ranging from 1.2 x 10(exp 6) to 3.6 x 10(exp 6) through an angle-of-attack range of -20 deg to 20 deg. When compared with the flat wing, the effect of the linear variation of twist with 6 deg of washout at the tip was to increase the lift-drag ratio when the leading edge was subsonic; but little increase in lift-drag ratio was obtained when the leading edge was supersonic. Pitching moment was increased and gave a positive trim point without greatly affecting the rate of change of pitching moment with lift coefficient. For the cambered wing the high minimum drag resulted in comparatively low lift-drag ratios. In addition, the pitching moments were decreased so that a negative trim point was obtained.

  10. Aerodynamic design and analysis of the AST-200 supersonic transport configuration concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkley, K. B.; Martin, G. L.

    1979-01-01

    The design and analysis of a supersonic transport configuration was conducted using linear theory methods in conjunction with appropriate constraints. Wing optimization centered on the determination of the required twist and camber and proper integration of the wing and fuselage. Also included in the design are aerodynamic refinements to the baseline wing thickness distribution and nacelle shape. Analysis to the baseline and revised configurations indicated an improvement in lift-to-drag ratio of 0.36 at the Mach 2.7 cruise condition. Validation of the design is planned through supersonic wing tunnel tests.

  11. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Four Republic Airfoil Sections from Tests in Langley Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Milton M.

    1945-01-01

    Four airfoils sections, designed by the Republic Aviation Corporation for the root and tip sections of the XF-12 airplane, were tested in the Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence tunnels to obtain their aerodynamic characteristics. Lift characteristics were obtained at Reynolds numbers of 3,000,000, 6,000,000, 9,000,000, and 14,000,000, whereas drag characteristics were obtained at Reynolds numbers of 3,000,000, 6,000,000, and 9,000,000. Pressure distributions were obtained for one of the root sections for several angles of attack at a Reynolds number of 2,600,000. Comparison of the root section that appeared best from the tests with the corresponding NACA 65-series section shows the Republic section has a higher maximum lift and higher calculated critical speeds, but a higher minimum drag. In addition, with standard roughness applied to the leading edge, the maximum lift of the Republic airfoil is lower than that of the NACA airfoil. Comparison of the Republic tip section with the corresponding NACA 65-series section shows the Republic airfoil has a lower maximum lift and a higher minimum drag than the NACA airfoil. The calculated critical speeds of the Republic section are slightly higher than those of the NACA section.

  12. Aerodynamic characteristics of wing-body configuration with two advanced general aviation airfoil sections and simple flap systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, H. L., Jr.; Paulson, J. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics of a general aviation wing equipped with NACA 65 sub 2-415, NASA GA(W)-1, and NASA GA(PC)-1 airfoil sections were examined. The NASA GA(W)-1 wing was equipped with plain, split, and slotted partial- and full-span flaps and ailerons. The NASA GA(PC)-1 wing was equipped with plain, partial- and full-span flaps. Experimental chordwise static-pressure distribution and wake drag measurements were obtained for the NASA GA(PC)-1 wing at the 22.5-percent spanwise station. Comparisons were made between the three wing configurations to evaluate the wing performance, stall, and maximum lift capabilities. The results of this investigation indicated that the NASA GA(W)-1 wing had a higher maximum lift capability and almost equivalent drag values compared with both the NACA 65 sub 2-415 and NASA GA(PC)-1 wings. The NASA GA(W)-1 had a maximum lift coefficient of 1.32 with 0 deg flap deflection, and 1.78 with 41.6 deg deflection of the partial-span slotted flap. The effectiveness of the NASA GA(W)-1 plain and slotted ailerons with differential deflections were equivalent. The NASA GA(PC)-1 wing with full-span flaps deflected 0 deg for the design climb configuration showed improved lift and drag performance over the cruise flap setting of -10 deg.

  13. An Efficient Multiblock Method for Aerodynamic Analysis and Design on Distributed Memory Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, James; Alonso, Juan Jose; Vassberg, John C.; Jameson, Antony; Martinelli, Luigi

    1997-01-01

    The work presented in this paper describes the application of a multiblock gridding strategy to the solution of aerodynamic design optimization problems involving complex configurations. The design process is parallelized using the MPI (Message Passing Interface) Standard such that it can be efficiently run on a variety of distributed memory systems ranging from traditional parallel computers to networks of workstations. Substantial improvements to the parallel performance of the baseline method are presented, with particular attention to their impact on the scalability of the program as a function of the mesh size. Drag minimization calculations at a fixed coefficient of lift are presented for a business jet configuration that includes the wing, body, pylon, aft-mounted nacelle, and vertical and horizontal tails. An aerodynamic design optimization is performed with both the Euler and Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations governing the flow solution and the results are compared. These sample calculations establish the feasibility of efficient aerodynamic optimization of complete aircraft configurations using the RANS equations as the flow model. There still exists, however, the need for detailed studies of the importance of a true viscous adjoint method which holds the promise of tackling the minimization of not only the wave and induced components of drag, but also the viscous drag.

  14. Applied computational aerodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Henne, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The present volume discusses the original development of the panel method, the mapping solutions and singularity distributions of linear potential schemes, the capabilities of full-potential, Euler, and Navier-Stokes schemes, the use of the grid-generation methodology in applied aerodynamics, subsonic airfoil design, inverse airfoil design for transonic applications, the divergent trailing-edge airfoil innovation in CFD, Euler and potential computational results for selected aerodynamic configurations, and the application of CFD to wing high-lift systems. Also discussed are high-lift wing modifications for an advanced-capability EA-6B aircraft, Navier-Stokes methods for internal and integrated propulsion system flow predictions, the use of zonal techniques for analysis of rotor-stator interaction, CFD applications to complex configurations, CFD applications in component aerodynamic design of the V-22, Navier-Stokes computations of a complete F-16, CFD at supersonic/hypersonic speeds, and future CFD developments.

  15. Effect of longitudinal ridges on the aerodynamic performance of a leatherback turtle model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, Kyeongtae; Kim, Jooha; Kim, Heesu; Lee, Sang-Im; Choi, Haecheon

    2012-11-01

    Leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are known as the fastest swimmer and the deepest diver in the open ocean among marine turtles. Unlike other marine turtles, leatherback sea turtles have five longitudinal ridges on their carapace. To investigate the effect of these longitudinal ridges on the aerodynamic performance of a leatherback turtle model, the experiment is conducted in a wind tunnel at Re = 1.0 × 105 - 1.4 × 106 (including that of real leatherback turtle in cruising condition) based on the model length. We measure the drag and lift forces on the leatherback turtle model with and without longitudinal ridges. The presence of longitudinal ridges increases both the lift and drag forces on the model, but increases the lift-to-drag ratio by 15 - 40%. We also measure the velocity field around the model with and without the ridges using particle image velocimetry. More details will be shown in the presentation. Supported by the NRF program (2011-0028032).

  16. Aerodynamic Analysis of Flexible Flapping Wing Micro Aerial Vehicle Using Quasi-Steady Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayakumar, Kolandapaiyan; Chandrasekhar, Uttam; Chandrashekhar, Nagaraj

    2016-04-01

    In recent times flexible flapping-wing aerodynamics has generated a great deal of interest and is the topic of contemporary research because of its potential application in micro aerial vehicles (MAVs). The prominent features of MAVs include low Reynolds Number, changing the camber of flapping wings, development of related mechanisms, study of the suitability airfoil shape selection and other parameters. Generally, low Reynolds Number is similar to that of an insect or a bird (103-105). The primary goal of this project work is to perform CFD analysis on flexible flapping wing MAVs in order to estimate the lift and drag by using engineering methods such as quasi-steady approach. From the wind tunnel data, 3-D deformation is obtained. For CFD analysis, two types of quasi-steady methods are considered. The first method is to slice the wing section chord-wise and span wise at multiple regions, frame by frame, and obtain the 2-D corrugated camber section for each frame. This 2-D corrugated camber is analysed using CFD techniques and all the individual 2-D corrugated camber results are summed up frame by frame, to obtain the total lift and drag for one wing beat. The second method is to consider the 3D wing in entirety and perform the CFD analysis to obtain the lift and drag for five wing beat.

  17. Analysis of some aerodynamic characteristics due to wing-jet interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fillman, G. L.; Lan, C. E.

    1979-01-01

    The results of two separate theoretical investigations are presented. A program was used which is capable of predicting the aerodynamic characteristics of both upper-surface blowing (USB) and over-wing blowing (OWB) configurations. A theoretical analysis of the effects of over-wing blowing jets on the induced drag of a 50 deg sweep back wing was developed. Experiments showed net drag reductions associated with the well known lift enhancement due to over-wing blowing. The mechanisms through which this drag reduction is brought about are presented. Both jet entrainment and the so called wing-jet interaction play important roles in this process. The effects of a rectangular upper-surface blowing jet were examined for a wide variety of planforms. The isolated effects of wing taper, sweep, and aspect ratio variations on the incremental lift due to blowing are presented. The effects of wing taper ratio and sweep angle were found to be especially important parameters when considering the relative levels of incremental lift produced by an upper-surface blowing configuration.

  18. Aerodynamic characteristics of scissor-wing geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selberg, Bruce P.; Rokhsaz, Kamran; Housh, Clinton S.

    1991-01-01

    A scissor-wing configuration, consisting of two independently sweeping-wing surfaces, is compared with an equivalent fixed-wing geometry baseline over a wide Mach number range. The scissor-wing configuration is shown to have a higher total lift-to-drag ratio than the baseline in the subsonic region primarily due to the slightly higher aspect ratio of the unswept scissor wing. In the transonic region, the scissor wing is shown to have a higher lift-to-drag ratio than the baseline for values of lift coefficient greater than 0.35. It is also shown that, through the use of wing decalage, the lift of the two independent scissor wings can be equalized. In the supersonic regime, the zero lift wave drag of the scissor-wing at maximum sweep is shown to be 50 and 28 percent less than the zero lift wave drag of the baseline at Mach numbers 1.5 and 3.0, respectively. In addition, a pivot-wing configuration is introduced and compared with the scissor wing. The pivot-wing configuration is shown to have a slightly higher total lift-to-drag ratio than the scissor wing in the supersonic region due to the decreased zero lift wave drag of the pivot-wing configuration.

  19. Aerodynamic effects of simulated ice shapes on two-dimensional airfoils and a swept finite tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alansatan, Sait

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of simulated glaze ice shapes on the aerodynamic performance characteristics of two-dimensional airfoils and a swept finite tail. The two dimensional tests involved two NACA 0011 airfoils with chords of 24 and 12 inches. Glaze ice shapes computed with the LEWICE code that were representative of 22.5-min and 45-min ice accretions were simulated with spoilers, which were sized to approximate the horn heights of the LEWICE ice shapes. Lift, drag, pitching moment, and surface pressure coefficients were obtained for a range of test conditions. Test variables included Reynolds number, geometric scaling, control deflection and the key glaze ice features, which were horn height, horn angle, and horn location. For the three-dimensional tests, a 25%-scale business jet empennage (BJE) with a T-tail configuration was used to study the effect of ice shapes on the aerodynamic performance of a swept horizontal tail. Simulated glaze ice shapes included the LEWICE and spoiler ice shapes to represent 9-min and 22.5-min ice accretions. Additional test variables included Reynolds number and elevator deflection. Lift, drag, hinge moment coefficients as well as boundary layer velocity profiles were obtained. The experimental results showed substantial degradation in aerodynamic performance of the airfoils and the swept horizontal tail due to the simulated ice shapes. For the two-dimensional airfoils, the largest aerodynamic penalties were obtained when the 3-in spoiler-ice, which was representative of 45-min glaze ice accretions, was set normal to the chord. Scale and Reynolds effects were not significant for lift and drag. However, pitching moments and pressure distributions showed great sensitivity to Reynolds number and geometric scaling. For the threedimensional study with the swept finite tail, the 22.5-min ice shapes resulted in greater aerodynamic performance degradation than the 9-min ice shapes. The addition of 24

  20. Micro air vehicle motion tracking and aerodynamic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlig, Daniel V.

    Aerodynamic performance of small-scale fixed-wing flight is not well understood, and flight data are needed to gain a better understanding of the aerodynamics of micro air vehicles (MAVs) flying at Reynolds numbers between 10,000 and 30,000. Experimental studies have shown the aerodynamic effects of low Reynolds number flow on wings and airfoils, but the amount of work that has been conducted is not extensive and mostly limited to tests in wind and water tunnels. In addition to wind and water tunnel testing, flight characteristics of aircraft can be gathered through flight testing. The small size and low weight of MAVs prevent the use of conventional on-board instrumentation systems, but motion tracking systems that use off-board triangulation can capture flight trajectories (position and attitude) of MAVs with minimal onboard instrumentation. Because captured motion trajectories include minute noise that depends on the aircraft size, the trajectory results were verified in this work using repeatability tests. From the captured glide trajectories, the aerodynamic characteristics of five unpowered aircraft were determined. Test results for the five MAVs showed the forces and moments acting on the aircraft throughout the test flights. In addition, the airspeed, angle of attack, and sideslip angle were also determined from the trajectories. Results for low angles of attack (less than approximately 20 deg) showed the lift, drag, and moment coefficients during nominal gliding flight. For the lift curve, the results showed a linear curve until stall that was generally less than finite wing predictions. The drag curve was well described by a polar. The moment coefficients during the gliding flights were used to determine longitudinal and lateral stability derivatives. The neutral point, weather-vane stability and the dihedral effect showed some variation with different trim speeds (different angles of attack). In the gliding flights, the aerodynamic characteristics

  1. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes investigation of high-lift low-pressure turbine blade aerodynamics at low Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, Bryan M.

    Design trends for the low-pressure turbine (LPT) section of modern gas turbine engines include increasing the loading per airfoil, which promises a decreased airfoil count resulting in reduced manufacturing and operating costs. Accurate Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes predictions of separated boundary layers and transition to turbulence are needed, as the lack of an economical and reliable computational model has contributed to this high-lift concept not reaching its full potential. Presented here for what is believed to be the first time applied to low-Re computations of high-lift linear cascade simulations is the Abe-Kondoh-Nagano (AKN) linear low-Re two-equation turbulence model which utilizes the Kolmogorov velocity scale for improved predictions of separated boundary layers. A second turbulence model investigated is the Kato-Launder modified version of the AKN, denoted MPAKN, which damps turbulent production in highly strained regions of flow. Fully Laminar solutions have also been calculated in an effort to elucidate the transitional quality of the turbulence model solutions. Time accurate simulations of three modern high-lift blades at a Reynolds number of 25,000 are compared to experimental data and higher-order computations in order to judge the accuracy of the results, where it is shown that the RANS simulations with highly refined grids can produce both quantitatively and qualitatively similar separation behavior as found in experiments. In particular, the MPAKN model is shown to predict the correct boundary layer behavior for all three blades, and evidence of transition is found through inspection of the components of the Reynolds Stress Tensor, spectral analysis, and the turbulence production parameter. Unfortunately, definitively stating that transition is occurring becomes an uncertain task, as similar evidence of the transition process is found in the Laminar predictions. This reveals that boundary layer reattachment may be a result of laminar

  2. Analysis of Asymmetric Aircraft Aerodynamics Due to an Experimental Wing Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartshorn, Fletcher

    2011-01-01

    Aerodynamic computational fluid dynamics analysis of a wing glove attached to one wing of a business jet is presented and discussed. A wing glove placed on only one wing will produce asymmetric aerodynamic effects that will result in overall changes in the forces and moments acting on the aircraft. These changes, referred to as deltas, need to be determined and quantified to ensure that the wing glove does not have a significant effect on the aircraft flight characteristics. TRANAIR (Calmar Research Corporation, Cato, New York), a nonlinear full potential solver, and Star-CCM+ (CD-adapco, Melville, New York), a finite volume full Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics solver, are used to analyze a full aircraft with and without the glove at a variety of flight conditions, aircraft configurations, and angles of attack and sideslip. Changes in the aircraft lift, drag, and side force along with roll, pitch, and yaw are presented. Span lift and moment distributions are also presented for a more detailed look at the effects of the glove on the aircraft. Aerodynamic flow phenomena due to the addition of the glove are discussed. Results show that the glove produces only small changes in the aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the aircraft, most of which are insignificant.

  3. Optimum configuration of high-lift aeromaneuvering orbital transfer vehicles in viscous flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, C. B.; Park, C.

    1985-01-01

    The results of an analysis to determine the geometrical configuration of an aeroassisted transfer vehicle with a high lift-to-drag ratio (L/D) are described and the constraints imposed on this type of entry vehicle are considered. The aerodynamic characteristics of three configurations, a flat-plate delta wing, a truncated straight cone, and a truncated bent biconic are compared. The effect of viscosity is included in the analysis which examines the rounding of the sharp leading edges. It is shown that, under the constraints of carrying a given volume in the dead air region, the values of L/D are similar for each configuration and that a small blunt leading edge only slightly affects each vehicle's aerodynamic performance, causing less than a 5 percent drop in L/D. The truncated bent biconic is found to be the only configuration that provides the necessary stabilizing moments.

  4. Serrated-Planform Lifting-Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, Brian E. (Inventor); Wood, Richard M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A novel set of serrated-planform lifting surfaces produce unexpectedly high lift coefficients at moderate to high angles-of-attack. Each serration, or tooth, is designed to shed a vortex. The interaction of the vortices greatly enhances the lifting capability over an extremely large operating range. Variations of the invention use serrated-planform lifting surfaces in planes different than that of a primary lifting surface. In an alternate embodiment, the individual teeth are controllably retractable and deployable to provide for active control of the vortex system and hence lift coefficient. Differential lift on multiple serrated-planform lifting surfaces provides a means for vehicle control. The important aerodynamic advantages of the serrated-planform lifting surfaces are not limited to aircraft applications but can be used to establish desirable performance characteristics for missiles, land vehicles, and/or watercraft.

  5. The Lifting Body Legacy...X-33

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    1999-01-01

    NASA has a technology program in place to enable the development of a next generation Reusable Launch Vehicle that will carry our future payloads into orbit at a much-reduced cost. The VentureStar, Lifting Body (LB) flight vehicle, is one of the potential reusable launch vehicle configurations being studied. A LB vehicle has no wings and derives its lift solely from the shape of its body, and has the unique advantages of superior volumetric efficiency, better aerodynamic efficiency at high angles-of-attack and hypersonic speeds, and reduced thermal protection system weight. Classically, in a ballistic vehicle, drag has been employed to control the level of deceleration in reentry. In the LB, lift enables the vehicle to decelerate at higher altitudes for the same velocity and defines the reentry corridor which includes a greater cross range. This paper outlines the flight stability and control aspects of our LB heritage which was utilized in the design of the VentureStar LB and its test version, the X-33. NASA and the U.S. Air Force have a rich heritage of LB vehicle design and flight experience. In the initial LB Program, eight LB's were built and over 225 LB test flights were conducted through 1975. Three LB series were most significant in the advancement of today's LB technolocy: the M2-F; the HL-10; and the X-24 series. The M2-F series was designed by NASA Ames Research Center, the HL-10 series by NASA Langley Research Center, and the X-24 series by the U. S. Air Force. LB vehicles are alive again today with the X- 33, X-38, and VentureStar.

  6. Wind Tunnel Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Transport-type Airfoil in a Simulated Heavy Rain Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bezos, Gaudy M.; Dunham, R. Earl, Jr.; Gentry, Garl L., Jr.; Melson, W. Edward, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of simulated heavy rain on the aerodynamic characteristics of an NACA 64-210 airfoil section equipped with leading-and trailing-edge high-lift devices were investigated in the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. The model had a chord of 2.5 ft, a span of 8 ft, and was mounted on the tunnel centerline between two large endplates. Aerodynamic measurements in and out of the simulated rain environment were obtained for dynamic pressures of 30 and 50 psf and an angle-of-attack range of 0 to 20 degrees for the cruise configuration. The rain intensity was varied to produce liquid water contents ranging from 16 to 46 gm/cu m. The results obtained for various rain intensity levels and tunnel speeds showed significant losses in maximum lift capability and increases in drag for a given lift as the liquid water content was increased. The results obtained on the landing configuration also indicate a progressive decrease in the angle of attack at which maximum lift occurred and an increase in the slope of the pitching-moment curve as the liquid water content was increased. The sensitivity of test results to the effects of the water surface tension was also investigated. A chemical was introduced into the rain environment that reduced the surface tension of water by a factor of 2. The reduction in the surface tension of water did not significantly alter the level of performance losses for the landing configuration.

  7. Numerical analysis of the three-dimensional aerodynamics of a hovering rufous hummingbird ( Selasphorus rufus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Songyuan; Zhang, Weiping

    2015-12-01

    Hummingbirds have a unique way of hovering. However, only a few published papers have gone into details of the corresponding three-dimensional vortex structures and transient aerodynamic forces. In order to deepen the understanding in these two realms, this article presents an integrated computational fluid dynamics study on the hovering aerodynamics of a rufous hummingbird. The original morphological and kinematic data came from a former researcher's experiments. We found that conical and stable leading-edge vortices (LEVs) with spanwise flow inside their cores existed on the hovering hummingbird's wing surfaces. When the LEVs and other near-field vortices were all shed into the wake after stroke reversals, periodically shed bilateral vortex rings were formed. In addition, a strong downwash was present throughout the flapping cycle. Time histories of lift and drag were also obtained. Combining the three-dimensional flow field and time history of lift, we believe that high lift mechanisms (i.e., rotational circulation and wake capture) which take place at stroke reversals in insect flight was not evident here. For mean lift throughout a whole cycle, it is calculated to be 3.60 g (104.0 % of the weight support). The downstroke and upstroke provide 64.2 % and 35.8 % of the weight support, respectively.

  8. High lift function of the pteroid bone and forewing of pterosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Matthew T; Unwin, David M; Ellington, Charles P

    2005-01-01

    The pteroid bone is a rod-like element found only in pterosaurs, the flying reptiles of the Mesozoic. It articulated at the wrist, and supported a membranous forewing in front of the inner part of the wing spar. The function of this bone, particularly its orientation, has been much debated. It is widely believed that it pointed towards the body, and that the forewing was relatively narrow. An alternative hypothesis states that it was directed forwards during flight, resulting in a much broader forewing that acted as a leading edge flap. We tested scale models in a wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic consequences of these conflicting hypotheses, and found that performance is greatly improved if the pteroid is directed forwards: the lift : drag ratios are superior and the maximum lift is exceptionally high in comparison with conventional aerofoils. This high lift capability may have enabled even the largest pterosaurs to take off and land without difficulty. PMID:16519243

  9. The size and performance effects of high lift system technology on a modern twin engine jet transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    The energy and economic benefits of low-speed aerodynamic system technology applied to a modern 200-passenger, 2000-nmi range, twin engine jet transport are reviewed. Results of a new method to design flap systems at flight Reynolds number are summarized. The study contains the airplane high lift configuration drag characteristics and design selection charts showing the effect of flap technology on the airplane size and performance. The study areas include: wing and flap geometry, climb and descent speed schedules with partial flap deflection, flap system technology, and augmented stability. The results compare the improvements in payload from a hot, high elevation airport.

  10. Aerodynamic Analysis of Simulated Heat Shield Recession for the Orion Command Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bibb, Karen L.; Alter, Stephen J.; Mcdaniel, Ryan D.

    2008-01-01

    The aerodynamic effects of the recession of the ablative thermal protection system for the Orion Command Module of the Crew Exploration Vehicle are important for the vehicle guidance. At the present time, the aerodynamic effects of recession being handled within the Orion aerodynamic database indirectly with an additional safety factor placed on the uncertainty bounds. This study is an initial attempt to quantify the effects for a particular set of recessed geometry shapes, in order to provide more rigorous analysis for managing recession effects within the aerodynamic database. The aerodynamic forces and moments for the baseline and recessed geometries were computed at several trajectory points using multiple CFD codes, both viscous and inviscid. The resulting aerodynamics for the baseline and recessed geometries were compared. The forces (lift, drag) show negligible differences between baseline and recessed geometries. Generally, the moments show a difference between baseline and recessed geometries that correlates with the maximum amount of recession of the geometry. The difference between the pitching moments for the baseline and recessed geometries increases as Mach number decreases (and the recession is greater), and reach a value of -0.0026 for the lowest Mach number. The change in trim angle of attack increases from approx. 0.5deg at M = 28.7 to approx. 1.3deg at M = 6, and is consistent with a previous analysis with a lower fidelity engineering tool. This correlation of the present results with the engineering tool results supports the continued use of the engineering tool for future work. The present analysis suggests there does not need to be an uncertainty due to recession in the Orion aerodynamic database for the force quantities. The magnitude of the change in pitching moment due to recession is large enough to warrant inclusion in the aerodynamic database. An increment in the uncertainty for pitching moment could be calculated from these results and

  11. Effects of deflected thrust on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a close-coupled wing-canard configuration. [in the Langley V/STOL tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yip, L. P.; Paulson, J. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of power on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a close-coupled wing-canard fighter configuration with partial-span rectangular nozzles at the trailing edge of the wing were investigated. Data were obtained on a basic wing-strake configuration for nozzle and flap deflections from 0 deg to 30 deg and for nominal thrust coefficients from 0 to 0.30. The model was tested over an angle-of-attack range from -2 deg to 40 deg at Mach numbers of 0.15 and 0.18. Results show substantial improvements in lift-curve slope, in maximum lift, and in drag-due-to-lift efficiency when the canard and strakes have been added to the basic wing-fuselage (wing-alone) configuration. Addition of power increased both lift-curve slope and maximum lift, improved longitudinal stability, and reduced drag due to lift on both the wing-canard and wing-canard-strake configurations. These beneficial effects are primarily derived from boundary-layer control due to moderate thrust coefficients which delay flow separation on the nozzle and inboard portion of the wing flaps.

  12. Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…

  13. Aerodynamics of the curve-ball: An investigation of the effects of angular velocity on baseball trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaways, Leroy Ward

    In this dissertation the aerodynamic force and initial conditions of pitched baseballs are estimated from high-speed video data. Fifteen parameters are estimated including the lift coefficient, drag coefficient and the angular velocity vector using a parameter estimation technique that minimizes the residual error between measured and estimated trajectories of markers on the ball's surface and the center of mass of pitched baseballs. Studies are carried out using trajectory data acquired from human pitchers and, in a more controlled environment, with a pitching machine. In all 58 pitch trajectories from human pitchers and 20 pitching machine pitches with spin information are analyzed. In the pitching machine trials four markers on the ball are tracked over the first 4 ft (1.22 m) and the center of mass of the ball is tracked over the last 13 ft (3.96 m) of flight. The estimated lift coefficients are compared to previous measured lift coefficients of Sikorsky (Alaways & Lightfoot, 1998) and Watts & Ferrer (1987) and show that significant differences exists in the lift coefficients of two- and four-seam curve balls at lower values of spin parameter, S. As S increased the two- and four-seam lift coefficients merge becoming statistically insignificant. The estimated drag coefficients are compared to drag coefficients of smooth spheres and golf-balls and show that these data sets bound the drag-coefficient of the baseball. Finally, it is shown that asymmetries of the ball associated with the knuckleball can influence the trajectory of the more common curve and fastball.

  14. Assessment of Potential Aerodynamic Benefits from Spanwise Blowing at the Wing Tip. Ph.D. Thesis - George Washington Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineck, Raymond Edward

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive set of experimental and analytical investigations have been conducted to assess the potential aerodynamic benefits from spanwise blowing at the tip of a moderate aspect ratio, swept wing. An analytical model has been developed to simulate a jet exhausting from the wing tip. An experimental study of a subsonic jet exhausting from the wing tip was conducted to investigate the effect of spanwise blowing from the tip on the aerodynamic characteristics of a moderate aspect ratio, swept wing. Wing force and moment data and surface pressure data were measured at Mach numbers up to 0.72. Results indicate that small amounts of blowing from small jets increase the lift curve slope a small amount, but have no effect on drag. Larger amounts of blowing from longer jets blowing increases lift near the tip and reduce drag at low Mach numbers. These benefits decrease with increasing Mach number, and vanish at Mach 0.5. A Navier-Stokes solver with modified boundary conditions at the tip was used to extrapolate the results to a Mach number of 0.72. With current technology and conventional wing shapes, spanwise blowing at the wing tip does not appear to be a practical means of reducing drag of moderate aspect ratio wings at high subsonic Mach numbers.

  15. Lift and power requirements of hovering insect flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Sun; Gang, Du

    2003-10-01

    Lift and power requirements for hovering flight of eight species of insects are studied by solving the Navier-Stokes equation numerically. The solution provides velocity and pressure fields, from which unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments are obtained. The inertial torque of wing mass are computed analytically. The wing length of the insects ranges from 2 mm (fruit fly) to 52mm (hawkmoth); Reynolds numbers Re (based on mean flapping speed and mean chord length) ranges from 75 to 3 850. The primary findings are shown in the following: (1) Either small ( R=2mm, Re=75), medium ( R≈10mm, Re≈500) or large ( R≈50 mm, Re≈4000) insects mainly employ the same high-lift mechanism, delayed stall, to produce lift in hovering flight. The midstroke angle of attack needed to produce a mean lift equal to the insect weight is approximately in the range of 25° to 45°, which is approximately in agreement with observation. (2) For the small insect (fruit fly) and for the medium and large insects with relatively small wingbeat frequency (cranefly, ladybird and hawkmoth), the specific power ranges from 18 to 39 W·kg-1, the major part of the power is due to aerodynamic force, and the elastic storage of negatige work does not change the specific power greatly. However for medium and large insects with relatively large wingbeat frequency (hoverfly, dronefly, honey bee and bumble bee), the specific power ranges from 39 to 61 W·kg-1, the major part of the power is due to wing inertia, and the elastic storage of negative work can decrease the specific power by approximately 33%. (3) For the case of power being mainly contributed by aerodynamic force (fruit fly, cranefly, ladybird and hawkmoth), the specific power is proportional to the product of the wingbeat frequency, the stroke amplitude, the wing length and the drag-to-lift ratio. For the case of power being mainly contributed by wing inertia (hoverfly, dronefly, honey bee and bumble bee), the specific power (without

  16. Hydrodynamic and Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Model of a Supersonic Multijet Water-Based Aircraft Equipped with Supercavitating Hydrofoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKann, Robert E.; Blanchard, Ulysse J.; Pearson, Albin O.

    1960-01-01

    The hydrodynamic and aerodynamic characteristics of a model of a multijet water-based Mach 2.0 aircraft equipped with hydrofoils have been determined. Takeoff stability and spray characteristics were very good, and sufficient excess thrust was available for takeoff in approximately 32 seconds and 4,700 feet at a gross weight of 225,000 pounds. Longitudinal and lateral stability during smooth-water landings were good. Lateral stability was good during rough-water landings, but forward location of the hydrofoils or added pitch damping was required to prevent diving. Hydrofoils were found to increase the aerodynamic lift-curve slope and to increase the aerodynamic drag coefficient in the transonic speed range, and the maximum lift-drag ratio decreased from 7.6 to 7.2 at the cruise Mach number of 0.9. The hydrofoils provided an increment of positive pitching moment over the Mach number range of the tests (0.6 to 1.42) and reduced the effective dihedral and directional stability.

  17. Aerodynamics in the classroom and at the ball park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2012-04-01

    Experiments suitable for classroom projects or demonstrations are described concerning the aerodynamics of polystyrene balls. A light ball with sufficient backspin can curve vertically upward through the air, defying gravity and providing a dramatic visual demonstration of the Magnus effect. A ball projected with backspin can also curve downward with a vertical acceleration greater than that due to gravity if the Magnus force is negative. These effects were investigated by filming the flight of balls projected in an approximately horizontal direction so that the lift and drag forces could be easily measured. The balls were also fitted with artificial raised seams and projected with backspin toward a vertical target in order to measure the sideways deflection over a known horizontal distance. It was found that (a) a ball with a seam on one side can deflect either left or right depending on its launch speed and (b) a ball with a baseball seam can also deflect sideways even when there is no sideways component of the drag or lift forces acting on the ball. Depending on the orientations of the seam and the spin axis, a sideways force on a baseball can arise either if there is rough patch on one side of the ball or if there is a smooth patch. A scuff ball with a rough patch on one side is illegal in baseball. The effect of a smooth patch is a surprising new observation.

  18. Breast lift

    MedlinePlus

    ... enable JavaScript. A breast lift, or mastopexy, is cosmetic breast surgery to lift the breasts. The surgery ... the position of the areola and nipple. Description Cosmetic breast surgery can be done at an outpatient ...

  19. Eyelid lift

    MedlinePlus

    Eyelid lift surgery is done to repair sagging or drooping upper eyelids ( ptosis ). The surgery is called blepharoplasty. Sagging ... An eyelid lift is needed when eyelid drooping reduces your vision. You may be asked to have your eye doctor test ...

  20. Forehead lift

    MedlinePlus

    ... both sides even. If you have already had plastic surgery to lift your upper eyelids, a forehead lift ... Managing the cosmetic patient. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap ...

  1. Abatement of an aircraft exhaust plume using aerodynamic baffles.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Michael; Christie, Simon M; Graham, Angus; Garry, Kevin P; Velikov, Stefan; Poll, D Ian; Smith, Malcolm G; Mead, M Iqbal; Popoola, Olalekan A M; Stewart, Gregor B; Jones, Roderic L

    2013-03-01

    The exhaust jet from a departing commercial aircraft will eventually rise buoyantly away from the ground; given the high thrust/power (i.e., momentum/buoyancy) ratio of modern aero-engines, however, this is a slow process, perhaps requiring ∼ 1 min or more. Supported by theoretical and wind tunnel modeling, we have experimented with an array of aerodynamic baffles on the surface behind a set of turbofan engines of 124 kN thrust. Lidar and point sampler measurements show that, as long as the intervention takes place within the zone where the Coanda effect holds the jet to the surface (i.e., within about 70 m in this case), then quite modest surface-mounted baffles can rapidly lift the jet away from the ground. This is of potential benefit in abating both surface concentrations and jet blast downstream. There is also some modest acoustic benefit. By distributing the aerodynamic lift and drag across an array of baffles, each need only be a fraction of the height of a single blast fence. PMID:23343109

  2. Some Advanced Concepts in Discrete Aerodynamic Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Arthur C., III; Green, Lawrence L.; Newman, Perry A.; Putko, Michele M.

    2003-01-01

    An efficient incremental iterative approach for differentiating advanced flow codes is successfully demonstrated on a two-dimensional inviscid model problem. The method employs the reverse-mode capability of the automatic differentiation software tool ADIFOR 3.0 and is proven to yield accurate first-order aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives. A substantial reduction in CPU time and computer memory is demonstrated in comparison with results from a straightforward, black-box reverse-mode applicaiton of ADIFOR 3.0 to the same flow code. An ADIFOR-assisted procedure for accurate second-rder aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives is successfully verified on an inviscid transonic lifting airfoil example problem. The method requires that first-order derivatives are calculated first using both the forward (direct) and reverse (adjoinct) procedures; then, a very efficient noniterative calculation of all second-order derivatives can be accomplished. Accurate second derivatives (i.e., the complete Hesian matrices) of lift, wave drag, and pitching-moment coefficients are calculated with respect to geometric shape, angle of attack, and freestream Mach number.

  3. Some Advanced Concepts in Discrete Aerodynamic Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Arthur C., III; Green, Lawrence L.; Newman, Perry A.; Putko, Michele M.

    2001-01-01

    An efficient incremental-iterative approach for differentiating advanced flow codes is successfully demonstrated on a 2D inviscid model problem. The method employs the reverse-mode capability of the automatic- differentiation software tool ADIFOR 3.0, and is proven to yield accurate first-order aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives. A substantial reduction in CPU time and computer memory is demonstrated in comparison with results from a straight-forward, black-box reverse- mode application of ADIFOR 3.0 to the same flow code. An ADIFOR-assisted procedure for accurate second-order aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives is successfully verified on an inviscid transonic lifting airfoil example problem. The method requires that first-order derivatives are calculated first using both the forward (direct) and reverse (adjoint) procedures; then, a very efficient non-iterative calculation of all second-order derivatives can be accomplished. Accurate second derivatives (i.e., the complete Hessian matrices) of lift, wave-drag, and pitching-moment coefficients are calculated with respect to geometric- shape, angle-of-attack, and freestream Mach number

  4. Interference-free measurements of the subsonic aerodynamics of slanted-base ogive cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, Colin P.; Alcorn, Charles W.

    1991-01-01

    Drag, lift, pitching moment, and base-pressure measurements have been made, free of support interference, on a range of slanted-base ogive cylinders, using the NASA Langley Research Center 13-in magnetic suspension and balance system. Test Mach numbers were in the range 0.04-0.2. Two types of wake flow were observed, a quasi-symmetric turbulent closure or a longitudinal vortex flow. Aerodynamic characteristics differ dramatically between the two wake types. Drag measurements are shown to be in agreement with previous tests. A hysteretic behavior of the wake with varying Reynold's number has been discovered for the 45-deg base. An interaction between forebody boundary-layer state and wake flow and base pressures has been detected for higher slant angles.

  5. An experimental investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of slanted base ogive cylinders using magnetic suspension technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alcorn, Charles W.; Britcher, Colin

    1988-01-01

    An experimental investigation is reported on slanted base ogive cylinders at zero incidence. The Mach number range is 0.05 to 0.3. All flow disturbances associated with wind tunnel supports are eliminated in this investigation by magnetically suspending the wind tunnel models. The sudden and drastic changes in the lift, pitching moment, and drag for a slight change in base slant angle are reported. Flow visualization with liquid crystals and oil is used to observe base flow patterns, which are responsible for the sudden changes in aerodynamic characteristics. Hysteretic effects in base flow pattern changes are present in this investigation and are reported. The effect of a wire support attachment on the 0 deg slanted base model is studied. Computational drag and transition location results using VSAERO and SANDRAG are presented and compared with experimental results. Base pressure measurements over the slanted bases are made with an onboard pressure transducer using remote data telemetry.

  6. Drag and Propulsive Characteristics of Air-Cooled Engine-Nacelle Installations for Large Airplanes, Special Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverstein, Abe; Wilson, Herbert A., Jr.

    1939-01-01

    An investigation is in progress in the NACA full-scale wind tunnel to determine the drag and propulsive efficiency of nacelle sizes. In contrast with the usual tests with a single nacelle, these tests were conducted with nacelle-propeller installations on a large model of a 4-engine airplane. Data are presented on the first part of the investigation, covering seven nacelle arrangements with nacelle diameters from 0.53 to 1.5 times the wing thickness. These ratios are similar to those occurring on airplane weighing from about 20 to 100 tons. The results show that the drag, the propulsive efficiency, and the overall efficiency of the various nacelle arrangements as functions of the nacelle size, the propeller position, and the airplane lift coefficient. The effect of the nacelles on the aerodynamic characteristics of the model are shown for both propeller-removed and propeller-operating conditions.

  7. Aerodynamic Simulation of Runback Ice Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Whalen, Edward A.; Busch, Greg T.; Bragg, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the results of recent investigations into the aerodynamics of simulated runback ice accretion on airfoils. Aerodynamic tests were performed on a full-scale model using a high-fidelity, ice-casting simulation at near-flight Reynolds (Re) number. The ice-casting simulation was attached to the leading edge of a 72-in. (1828.8-mm ) chord NACA 23012 airfoil model. Aerodynamic performance tests were conducted at the ONERA F1 pressurized wind tunnel over a Reynolds number range of 4.7?10(exp 6) to 16.0?10(exp 6) and a Mach (M) number ran ge of 0.10 to 0.28. For Re = 16.0?10(exp 6) and M = 0.20, the simulated runback ice accretion on the airfoil decreased the maximum lift coe fficient from 1.82 to 1.51 and decreased the stalling angle of attack from 18.1deg to 15.0deg. The pitching-moment slope was also increased and the drag coefficient was increased by more than a factor of two. In general, the performance effects were insensitive to Reynolds numb er and Mach number changes over the range tested. Follow-on, subscale aerodynamic tests were conducted on a quarter-scale NACA 23012 model (18-in. (457.2-mm) chord) at Re = 1.8?10(exp 6) and M = 0.18, using low-fidelity, geometrically scaled simulations of the full-scale castin g. It was found that simple, two-dimensional simulations of the upper- and lower-surface runback ridges provided the best representation of the full-scale, high Reynolds number iced-airfoil aerodynamics, whereas higher-fidelity simulations resulted in larger performance degrada tions. The experimental results were used to define a new subclassification of spanwise ridge ice that distinguishes between short and tall ridges. This subclassification is based upon the flow field and resulting aerodynamic characteristics, regardless of the physical size of the ridge and the ice-accretion mechanism.

  8. Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Englar

    2000-06-19

    Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design of an efficient blown tractor-trailer configuration. Recent experimental results obtained by GTRI using blowing have shown drag reductions of 35% on a streamlined automobile wind-tunnel model. Also measured were lift or down-load increases of 100-150% and the ability to control aerodynamic moments about all 3 axes without any moving control surfaces. Similar drag reductions yielded by blowing on bluff afterbody trailers in current US trucking fleet operations are anticipated to reduce yearly fuel consumption by more than 1.2 billion gallons, while even further reduction is possible using pneumatic lift to reduce tire rolling resistance. Conversely, increased drag and down force generated instantaneously by blowing can greatly increase braking characteristics and control in wet/icy weather due to effective ''weight'' increases on the tires. Safety is also enhanced by controlling side loads and moments caused on these Heavy Vehicles by winds, gusts and other vehicles passing. This may also help to eliminate the jack-knifing problem if caused by extreme wind side loads on the trailer. Lastly, reduction of the turbulent wake behind the trailer can reduce splash and spray patterns and rough air being experienced by following vehicles. To be presented by GTRI in this paper will be results developed during the early portion of this effort, including a preliminary systems study, CFD prediction of the blown flowfields, and design of the baseline conventional tractor-trailer model and the pneumatic wind-tunnel model.

  9. Aerodynamic characteristics of wheelchairs. [Langley V/STOL wind tunnel tests for human factors engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, P. L., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The overall aerodynamic drag characteristics of a conventional wheelchair were defined and the individual drag contributions of its components were determined. The results show that a fiftieth percentile man sitting in the complete wheelchair would experience an aerodynamic drag coefficient on the order of 1.4.

  10. An evaluation of several wind turbine trailing-edge aerodynamic brakes

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.S.; Migliore, P.G.; Quandt, G.A.

    1995-09-01

    An investigation was undertaken to identify the aerodynamic performance of five separate trailing-edge control devices and to evaluate their potential for wind turbine overspeed control applications. A modular two-dimensional wind tunnel model was constructed and evaluated during extensive wind tunnel testing. Aerodynamic lift, drag and suction coefficient data were acquired and analyzed for various control configurations and angles-of-attack. To further interpret their potential performance, the controls were evaluated numerically using a generic wind turbine geometry and a performance analysis computer program. On the basis of the results of the investigation, the Spoiler-Flap control configuration was deemed best suited for turbine braking applications. This particular control exhibited a good negative suction coefficient behavior over a broad angle-of-attack range and good turbine braking capabilities, especially at low tip-speed ratio conditions.

  11. Uncovering the aerodynamics of the smallest insects using numerical and physical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Laura

    2011-11-01

    A vast body of research has described the complexity of flight in insects ranging from the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to the hawk moth, Manduca sexta. The smallest flying insects have received far less attention, although previous work has shown that flight kinematics and aerodynamics can be significantly different. In this presentation, three-dimensional direct numerical simulations are used to compute the lift and drag forces generated by flexible wings to reveal the aerodynamics of these tiny fliers. Results are validated against dynamically scaled physical models. At the lowest Reynolds numbers relevant to insect flight, the relative forces required to rotate the wings and fling them apart become substantially greater. Wing flexibility can reduce these forces and improve efficiency in some situations.

  12. Experimental investigation of aerodynamic devices for wind turbine rotational speed control. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.S.

    1995-02-01

    An investigation was undertaken to identify the aerodynamic performance of five separate trailing-edge control devices, and to evaluate their potential for wind turbine overspeed and power modulation applications. A modular two-dimensional wind tunnel model was constructed and evaluated during extensive wind tunnel testing. Aerodynamic lift, drag, suction, and pressure coefficient data were acquired and analyzed for various control configurations and angles of attack. To further interpret their potential performance, the controls were evaluated numerically using a generic wind turbine geometry and a performance analysis computer program. Results indicated that the Spoiler-Flap control configuration was best softed for turbine braking applications. It exhibited a large negative suction coefficient over a broad angle-of-attack range, and good turbine braking capabilities, especially at low tip-speed ratio.

  13. Flow fields and aerodynamic characteristics for hypersonic missiles with mid-fuselage inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, J. L.; Johnston, P. J.; Riebe, G. D.

    1983-01-01

    A study was made to quantify forebody flow fields and to evaluate aerodynamic performance trends on a matrix of fuselage shapes for the mid-inlet/bolt-on-engine class of hypersonic airbreathing missiles for the Navy's vertical box launcher. The study indicated that inlet mass flow and pressure recovery can be increased by cambering the nose and increasing the width of the fuselage at both Mach 4 acceleration and Mach 6 cruise conditions. Aerodynamic trim predictions show that the drag at zero lift at Mach 4 decreases while the L/D max at Mach 6 increases with the nose camber, although these tendencies reverse with increasing width of maximum fuselage cross section.

  14. Supersonic airplane design optimization method for aerodynamic performance and low sonic boom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Samson H.; Edwards, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for the optimization of supersonic airplane designs to meet the dual design objectives of low sonic boom and high aerodynamic performance. Two sets of design parameters are used on an existing High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configuration to maximize the aerodynamic performance and minimize the sonic boom under the flight track. One set of the parameters perturbs the camber line of the wing sections to maximize the lift-over-drag ratio (L/D). A preliminary optimization run yielded a 3.75 percent improvement in L/D over a baseline low-boom configuration. The other set of parameters modifies the fuselage area to achieve a target F-function. Starting from an initial configuration with strong bow, wing, and tail shocks, a modified design with a flat-top signature is obtained. The methods presented can easily incorporate other design variables and objective functions. Extensions to the present capability in progress are described.

  15. Some lessons from NACA/NASA aerodynamic studies following World War II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    An historical account is presented of the new departures in aerodynamic research conducted by NACA, and subsequently NASA, as a result of novel aircraft technologies and operational regimes encountered in the course of the Second World War. The invention and initial development of the turbojet engine furnished the basis for a new speed/altitude regime in which numerous aerodynamic design problems arose. These included compressibility effects near the speed of sound, with attendant lift/drag efficiency reductions and longitudinal stability enhancements that were accompanied by a directional stability reduction. Major research initiatives were mounted in the investigation of swept, delta, trapezoidal and variable sweep wing configurations, sometimes conducted through flight testing of the 'X-series' aircraft. Attention is also given to the development of the first generation of supersonic fighter aircraft.

  16. Space Shuttle entry longitudinal aerodynamic comparisons of flight 2 with preflight predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romere, P. O.; Young, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    An overview of the aerodynamic performance, longitudinal trim, and control surface effectiveness as developed from the second Shuttle flight is presented, along with comparisons with preflight predictions. The Orbiter enters the atmosphere at Mach 29 and descends through all the Mach speeds until touchdown. Control mechanisms for the Orbiter are outlined, noting the lessening of angle of attack as the terminal configuration is reached. Methods of developing the wind tunnel predictions are reviewed, including performance in different altitudes and speed regimes, and the impetus to decouple the flight control system from aerodynamics with respect to uncertainties. Preflight predictions agreed well with the lift/drag ratio above Mach 1, but higher L/D was exhibited than predicted below Mach 1. A deficiency in the wind tunnel environment was concluded for the inaccuracies in the predictions for hypersonic trim characteristics.

  17. Operational considerations for aerodynamic testing of large-scale wing sections in a simulated natural rain environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Bryan A.; Bezos, Gaudy M.; Dunham, R. Earl, Jr.; Melson, W. Edward, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    One of the necessary areas of consideration for outdoor heavy rain testing is the effect of wind on both the simulated rain field and the quality and repeatability of the aerodynamic data. This paper discusses the data acquisition and subsequent reduction to nondimensional coefficients of lift and drag, with the appropriate correction for wind and rain field. Sample force data showing these effects are presented, along with estimates for accuracy and repeatability. The capability to produce high-quality data for rain drop size distribution using photographic and computerized image processing techniques was developed. Sample photographs depicting rain drop size are shown.

  18. Aerodynamic Measurements of a Gulfstream Aircraft Model With and Without Noise Reduction Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuhart, Dan H.; Hannon, Judith A.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.

    2014-01-01

    Steady and unsteady aerodynamic measurements of a high-fidelity, semi-span 18% scale Gulfstream aircraft model are presented. The aerodynamic data were collected concurrently with acoustic measurements as part of a larger aeroacoustic study targeting airframe noise associated with main landing gear/flap components, gear-flap interaction noise, and the viability of related noise mitigation technologies. The aeroacoustic tests were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel with the facility in the acoustically treated open-wall (jet) mode. Most of the measurements were obtained with the model in landing configuration with the flap deflected at 39º and the main landing gear on and off. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0.16, 0.20, and 0.24. Global forces (lift and drag) and extensive steady and unsteady surface pressure measurements were obtained. Comparison of the present results with those acquired during a previous test shows a significant reduction in the lift experienced by the model. The underlying cause was traced to the likely presence of a much thicker boundary layer on the tunnel floor, which was acoustically treated for the present test. The steady and unsteady pressure fields on the flap, particularly in the regions of predominant noise sources such as the inboard and outboard tips, remained unaffected. It is shown that the changes in lift and drag coefficients for model configurations fitted with gear/flap noise abatement technologies fall within the repeatability of the baseline configuration. Therefore, the noise abatement technologies evaluated in this experiment have no detrimental impact on the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft model.

  19. Aerodynamics of intermittent bounds in flying birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobalske, Bret W.; Hearn, Jason W. D.; Warrick, Douglas R.

    2009-05-01

    Flap-bounding is a common flight style in small birds in which flapping phases alternate with flexed-wing bounds. Body lift is predicted to be essential to making this flight style an aerodynamically attractive flight strategy. To elucidate the contributions of the body and tail to lift and drag during the flexed-wing bound phase, we used particle image velocimetry (PIV) and measured properties of the wake of zebra finch ( Taeniopygia guttata, N = 5), flying at 6-10 m s-1 in a variable speed wind tunnel as well as flow around taxidermically prepared specimens ( N = 4) mounted on a sting instrumented with force transducers. For the specimens, we varied air velocity from 2 to 12 m s-1 and body angle from -15° to 50°. The wake of bounding birds and mounted specimens consisted of a pair of counter-rotating vortices shed into the wake from the tail, with induced downwash in the sagittal plane and upwash in parasagittal planes lateral to the bird. This wake structure was present even when the tail was entirely removed. We observed good agreement between force measures derived from PIV and force transducers over the range of body angles typically used by zebra finch during forward flight. Body lift:drag ( L: D) ratios averaged 1.4 in live birds and varied between 1 and 1.5 in specimens at body angles from 10° to 30°. Peak ( L: D) ratio was the same in live birds and specimens (1.5) and was exhibited in specimens at body angles of 15° or 20°, consistent with the lower end of body angles utilized during bounds. Increasing flight velocity in live birds caused a decrease in C L and C D from maximum values of 1.19 and 0.95 during flight at 6 m s-1 to minimum values of 0.70 and 0.54 during flight at 10 m s-1. Consistent with delta-wing theory as applied to birds with a graduated-tail shape, trimming the tail to 0 and 50% of normal length reduced L: D ratios and extending tail length to 150% of normal increased L: D ratio. As downward induced velocity is present in the

  20. Aerodynamics of intermittent bounds in flying birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobalske, Bret W.; Hearn, Jason W. D.; Warrick, Douglas R.

    Flap-bounding is a common flight style in small birds in which flapping phases alternate with flexed-wing bounds. Body lift is predicted to be essential to making this flight style an aerodynamically attractive flight strategy. To elucidate the contributions of the body and tail to lift and drag during the flexed-wing bound phase, we used particle image velocimetry (PIV) and measured properties of the wake of zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata, N = 5), flying at 6-10 m s- 1 in a variable speed wind tunnel as well as flow around taxidermically prepared specimens (N = 4) mounted on a sting instrumented with force transducers. For the specimens, we varied air velocity from 2 to 12 m s- 1 and body angle from -15∘ to 50∘. The wake of bounding birds and mounted specimens consisted of a pair of counterrotating vortices shed into the wake from the tail, with induced downwash in the sagittal plane and upwash in parasagittal planes lateral to the bird. This wake structure was present even when the tail was entirely removed. We observed good agreement between force measures derived from PIV and force transducers over the range of body angles typically used by zebra finch during forward flight. Body lift:drag (L:D) ratios averaged 1.4 in live birds and varied between 1 and 1.5 in specimens at body angles from 10∘ to 30∘. Peak (L:D) ratio was the same in live birds and specimens (1.5) and was exhibited in specimens at body angles of 15∘ or 20∘, consistent with the lower end of body angles utilized during bounds. Increasing flight velocity in live birds caused a decrease in CL and CD from maximum values of 1.19 and 0.95 during flight at 6 m s- 1 to minimum values of 0.70 and 0.54 during flight at 10 m s- 1. Consistent with delta-wing theory as applied to birds with a graduated-tail shape, trimming the tail to 0 and 50% of normal length reduced L:D ratios and extending tail length to 150% of normal increased L:D ratio. As downward induced velocity is present in the