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Sample records for aerodynamic measurements obtained

  1. Unsteady Aerodynamic Force Sensing from Measured Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-Gi

    2016-01-01

    A simple approach for computing unsteady aerodynamic forces from simulated measured strain data is proposed in this study. First, the deflection and slope of the structure are computed from the unsteady strain using the two-step approach. Velocities and accelerations of the structure are computed using the autoregressive moving average model, on-line parameter estimator, low-pass filter, and a least-squares curve fitting method together with analytical derivatives with respect to time. Finally, aerodynamic forces over the wing are computed using modal aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices, a rational function approximation, and a time-marching algorithm. A cantilevered rectangular wing built and tested at the NASA Langley Research Center (Hampton, Virginia, USA) in 1959 is used to validate the simple approach. Unsteady aerodynamic forces as well as wing deflections, velocities, accelerations, and strains are computed using the CFL3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code and an MSC/NASTRAN code (MSC Software Corporation, Newport Beach, California, USA), and these CFL3D-based results are assumed as measured quantities. Based on the measured strains, wing deflections, velocities, accelerations, and aerodynamic forces are computed using the proposed approach. These computed deflections, velocities, accelerations, and unsteady aerodynamic forces are compared with the CFL3D/NASTRAN-based results. In general, computed aerodynamic forces based on the lifting surface theory in subsonic speeds are in good agreement with the target aerodynamic forces generated using CFL3D code with the Euler equation. Excellent aeroelastic responses are obtained even with unsteady strain data under the signal to noise ratio of -9.8dB. The deflections, velocities, and accelerations at each sensor location are independent of structural and aerodynamic models. Therefore, the distributed strain data together with the current proposed approaches can be used as distributed deflection

  2. Aerodynamic Measurement Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, Alpheus W.

    2002-01-01

    Ohio State University developed a new spectrally filtered light-scattering apparatus based on a diode laser injected-locked titanium: sapphire laser and rubidium vapor filter at 780.2 nm. When the device was combined with a stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugate mirror, the realizable peak attenuation of elastic scattering interferences exceeded 105. The potential of the system was demonstrated by performing Thomson scattering measurements. Under USAF-NASA funding, West Virginia University developed a Doppler global velocimetry system using inexpensive 8-bit charged coupled device cameras and digitizers and a CW argon ion laser. It has demonstrated a precision of +/- 2.5 m/sec in a swirling jet flow. Low-noise silicon-micromachined microphones developed and incorporated in a novel two-tier, hybrid packaging scheme at the University of Florida used printed circuit board technology to realize a MEMS-based directional acoustic array. The array demonstrated excellent performance relative to conventional sensor technologies and provides scaling technologies that can reduce cost and increase speed and mobility.

  3. Aerodynamic method for obtaining the soil water retention curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, V. V.; Maksimov, I. I.

    2013-07-01

    A new method for the rapid plotting of the soil water retention curve (SWRC) has been proposed that considers the soil water as an environment limited by the soil solid phase on one side and by the soil air on the other side. Both contact surfaces have surface energies, which play the main role in water retention. The use of an idealized soil model with consideration for the nonequilibrium thermodynamic laws and the aerodynamic similarity principles allows us to estimate the volumetric specific surface areas of soils and, using the proposed pedotransfer function (PTF), to plot the SWRC. The volumetric specific surface area of the solid phase, the porosity, and the specific free surface energy at the water-air interface are used as the SWRC parameters. Devices for measuring the parameters are briefly described. The differences between the proposed PTF and the experimental data have been analyzed using the statistical processing of the data.

  4. Aerodynamic Performance and Turbulence Measurements in a Turbine Vane Cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Robert J.; Lucci, Barbara L.; Senyitko, Richard G.

    2002-01-01

    Turbine vane aerodynamics were measured in a three vane linear cascade. Surface pressures and blade row losses were obtained over a range of Reynolds and Mach number for three levels of turbulence. Comparisons are made with predictions using a quasi-3D Navier-Stokes analysis. Turbulence intensity measurement were made upstream and downstream of the vane. The purpose of the downstream measurements was to determine how the turbulence was affected by the strong contraction through 75 deg turning.

  5. Measurement technology for micro-scale aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Michael James

    As micro-technology improves, it may become possible to build flying vehicles at length scales of millimeters, or even microns. Successful design of vehicles at such sizes requires understanding of the fluid mechanics of flight at the micron scale. While biological flight has been studied at these scales, many questions remain to be answered for flight at these scales. Previous work has not determined the limiting scales of continuum aerodynamics for low-speed flight. This study begins with the development of a new scaling law based on boundary layer theory. The laminar boundary layer equations were solved non-dimensionally for slip flow conditions. These results show that a measurable decrease in skin friction, as well as changes in heat transfer, and flow stability, may occur as the boundary layer Knudsen number approaches 0.01. These flow conditions correspond to airfoil chords of up to 100 microns, pressures of 0.1 to 1.0 atmospheres, and velocities from 30 to 100 m/s. Based on this scaling law, specialized wind-tunnel test facilities were designed to operate at scales not previously studied. The novel wind-tunnel allows for independent control of Reynolds and Knudsen numbers on static airfoils. A draw-through, low turbulence, low-pressure wind tunnel with a 1 cm cross section was built and tested. The flow through these facilities is characterized, and recommendations are made for future wind-tunnel development. To allow testing at these scales, micro-scale airfoils, with chords of 100 microns, thicknesses of 5 microns, and a span of 1 cm were fabricated using MEMS fabrication technology. Fabrication of free-standing micro-structures with meso-scale spans and micro-scale cross sections required the development of specialized fabrication processes. These airfoils were integrated with piezoresistive force sensors, allowing measurement of aerodynamic forces. The airfoil structures were successfully released within the tunnel. The actual aerodynamic load on the

  6. A flight experiment to measure rarefied-flow aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    A flight experiment to measure rarefied-flow aerodynamics of a blunt lifting body is being developed by NASA. This experiment, called the Rarefied-Flow Aerodynamic Measurement Experiment (RAME), is part of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) mission, which is a Pathfinder design tool for aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles. The RAME will use flight measurements from accelerometers, rate gyros, and pressure transducers, combined with knowledge of AFE in-flight mass properties and trajectory, to infer aerodynamic forces and moments in the rarefied-flow environment, including transition into the hypersonic continuum regime. Preflight estimates of the aerodynamic measurements are based upon environment models, existing computer simulations, and ground test results. Planned maneuvers at several altitudes will provide a first-time opportunity to examine gas-surface accommondation effects on aerodynamic coefficients in an environment of changing atmospheric composition. A description is given of the RAME equipment design.

  7. Reliability and Applicability of Aerodynamic Measures in Dysphonia Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yiu, Edwin M.-L.; Yuen, Yuet-Ming; Whitehill, Tara; Winkworth, Alison

    2004-01-01

    Aerodynamic measures are frequently used to analyse and document pathological voices. Some normative data are available for speakers from the English-speaking population. However, no data are available yet for Chinese speakers despite the fact that they are one of the largest populations in the world. The high variability of aerodynamic measures…

  8. Measured Aerodynamic Interaction of Two Tiltrotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Wadcock, Alan J.; Derby, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    The aerodynamic interaction of two model tilrotors in helicopter-mode formation flight is investigated. Three cenarios representing tandem level flight, tandem operations near the ground, and a single tiltrotor operating above thc ground for varying winds are examined. The effect of aircraft separation distance on the thrust and rolling moment of the trailing aircraft with and without the presence of a ground plane are quantified. Without a ground plane, the downwind aircraft experiences a peak rolling moment when the right (left) roto- of the upwind aircraft is laterally aligned with the left (right) rotor of the downwind aircraft. The presence of the ground plane causes the peak rolling moment on the downwind aircraft to occur when the upwind aircraft is further outboard of the downwind aircraft. Ground plane surface flow visualization images obtained using rufts and oil are used to understand mutual interaction between the two aircraft. These data provide guidance in determining tiltrotor flight formations which minimize disturbance to the trailing aircraft.

  9. Aerodynamic Synthesis of a Centrifugal Impeller Using CFD and Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larosiliere, L. M.; Skoch, G. J.; Prahst, P. S.

    1997-01-01

    The performance and flow structure in an unshrouded impeller of approximately 4:1 pressure ratio is synthesized on the basis of a detailed analysis of 3D viscous CFD results and aerodynamic measurements. A good data match was obtained between CFD and measurements using laser anemometry and pneumatic probes. This solidified the role of the CFD model as a reliable representation of the impeller internal flow structure and integrated performance. Results are presented showing the loss production and secondary flow structure in the impeller. The results indicate that while the overall impeller efficiency is high, the impeller shroud static pressure recovery potential is underdeveloped leading to a performance degradation in the downstream diffusing element. Thus, a case is made for a follow-on impeller parametric design study to improve the flow quality. A strategy for aerodynamic performance enhancement is outlined and an estimate of the gain in overall impeller efficiency that might be realized through improvements to the relative diffusion process is provided.

  10. Real-Time Aerodynamic Parameter Estimation without Air Flow Angle Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2010-01-01

    A technique for estimating aerodynamic parameters in real time from flight data without air flow angle measurements is described and demonstrated. The method is applied to simulated F-16 data, and to flight data from a subscale jet transport aircraft. Modeling results obtained with the new approach using flight data without air flow angle measurements were compared to modeling results computed conventionally using flight data that included air flow angle measurements. Comparisons demonstrated that the new technique can provide accurate aerodynamic modeling results without air flow angle measurements, which are often difficult and expensive to obtain. Implications for efficient flight testing and flight safety are discussed.

  11. Deformation Measurements of Smart Aerodynamic Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gary A.; Burner, Alpheus

    2005-01-01

    Video Model Deformation (VMD) and Projection Moire Interferometry (PMI) were used to acquire wind tunnel model deformation measurements of the Northrop Grumman-built Smart Wing tested in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The F18-E/F planform Smart Wing was outfitted with embedded shape memory alloys to actuate a seamless trailing edge aileron and flap, and an embedded torque tube to generate wing twist. The VMD system was used to obtain highly accurate deformation measurements at three spanwise locations along the main body of the wing, and at spanwise locations on the flap and aileron. The PMI system was used to obtain full-field wing shape and deformation measurements over the entire wing lower surface. Although less accurate than the VMD system, the PMI system revealed deformations occurring between VMD target rows indistinguishable by VMD. This paper presents the VMD and PMI techniques and discusses their application in the Smart Wing test.

  12. MEMS Applications in Aerodynamic Measurement Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reshotko, E.; Mehregany, M.; Bang, C.

    1998-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) embodies the integration of sensors, actuators, and electronics on a single substrate using integrated circuit fabrication techniques and compatible bulk and surface micromachining processes. Silicon and its derivatives form the material base for the MEMS technology. MEMS devices, including microsensors and microactuators, are attractive because they can be made small (characteristic dimension about 100 microns), be produced in large numbers with uniform performance, include electronics for high performance and sophisticated functionality, and be inexpensive. For aerodynamic measurements, it is preferred that sensors be small so as to approximate measurement at a point, and in fact, MEMS pressure sensors, wall shear-stress sensors, heat flux sensors and micromachined hot wires are nearing application. For the envisioned application to wind tunnel models, MEMS sensors can be placed on the surface or in very shallow grooves. MEMS devices have often been fabricated on stiff, flat silicon substrates, about 0.5 mm thick, and therefore were not easily mounted on curved surfaces. However, flexible substrates are now available and heat-flux sensor arrays have been wrapped around a curved turbine blade. Electrical leads can also be built into the flexible substrate. Thus MEMS instrumented wind tunnel models do not require deep spanwise grooves for tubes and leads that compromise the strength of conventionally instrumented models. With MEMS, even the electrical leads can potentially be eliminated if telemetry of the signals to an appropriate receiver can be implemented. While semiconductor silicon is well known for its electronic properties, it is also an excellent mechanical material for MEMS applications. However, silicon electronics are limited to operations below about 200 C, and silicon's mechanical properties start to diminish above 400 C. In recent years, silicon carbide (SiC) has emerged as the leading material candidate for

  13. Measurements of Aerodynamic Damping in the MIT Transonic Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawley, E. F.

    1981-01-01

    A method was developed and demonstrated for the direct measurement of aerodynamic forcing and aerodynamic damping of a transonic compressor. The method is based on the inverse solution of the structural dynamic equations of motion of the blade disk system in order to determine the forces acting on the system. The disturbing and damping forces acting on a given blade are determined if the equations of motion are expressed in individual blade coordinates. If the structural dynamic equations are transformed to multiblade coordinates, the damping can be measured for blade disk modes, and related to a reduced frequency and interblade phase angle. In order to measure the aerodynamic damping in this way, the free response to a known excitation is studied.

  14. Measurement and analysis of aircraft far-field aerodynamic noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healy, G. J.

    1974-01-01

    A systematic investigation of aircraft far-field radiated, aerodynamically generated noise was conducted. The test phase of the original program involved the measurement of the noise produced by five gliding aircraft in an aerodynamically clean configuration during low altitude flyovers. These aircraft had gross weights that ranged from 5785 to 173 925N (1300 to 39,000 pounds), fly-by velocities from 30 to 98.5m/sec (58 to 191.5 knots or 98 to 323 ft/sec) and wing aspect ratios from 6.59 to 18.25. The results of these measurements were used to develop an equation relating aerodynamic noise to readily evaluated physical and operational parameters of the aircraft. A non-dimensional frequency spectrum, based on the mean wing thickness, was also developed.

  15. Determining aerodynamic conductance of spar chambers from energy balance measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aerodynamic conductance (gA) of SPAR chambers was determined from measurements of energy balance and canopy temperature over a peanut canopy. gA was calculated from the slope of sensible heat flux (H) versus canopy-to-air temperature difference. H and the canopy-to-air temperature were varied by...

  16. Development of an aerodynamic measurement system for hypersonic rarefied flows.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, T; Fujita, K; Suzuki, T

    2015-01-01

    A hypersonic rarefied wind tunnel (HRWT) has lately been developed at Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency in order to improve the prediction of rarefied aerodynamics. Flow characteristics of hypersonic rarefied flows have been investigated experimentally and numerically. By conducting dynamic pressure measurements with pendulous models and pitot pressure measurements, we have probed flow characteristics in the test section. We have also improved understandings of hypersonic rarefied flows by integrating a numerical approach with the HRWT measurement. The development of the integration scheme between HRWT and numerical approach enables us to estimate the hypersonic rarefied flow characteristics as well as the direct measurement of rarefied aerodynamics. Consequently, this wind tunnel is capable of generating 25 mm-core flows with the free stream Mach number greater than 10 and Knudsen number greater than 0.1.

  17. A method of simultaneously measuring particle shape parameter and aerodynamic size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Lei; Zhang, JinBi; Zheng, HaiYang; Wang, YingPing; Fang, Li

    2016-08-01

    For the purpose of classification of airborne particles, this paper describes an experimental apparatus for simultaneously measuring shape characteristics and aerodynamic size at single particle level. The shape of a particle is indicated through near forward scattering light collected by 3 PMTs placed at 120-degree offset azimuthal angles and the aerodynamic diameter is obtained by time-of-flight that a particle takes to traverse double laser beams. Laboratory experiments are performed on sampled aerosol particles in spherical, cuboid and elongated shape, and preliminary results indicate that the experimental apparatus has a good capability of discriminating between spherical and irregular particles. A variance factor of scattered light related to shape of ambient airborne particles under different conditions are also presented, which can be modeled using lognormal probability density distribution. Combined with aerodynamic size information, these results suggest potential uses in environmental aerosol monitoring for characterizing constituents of particles.

  18. Aerodynamic Flow Field Measurements for Automotive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepner, Timothy E.

    1999-01-01

    The design of a modern automotive air handling system is a complex task. The system is required to bring the interior of the vehicle to a comfortable level in as short a time as possible. A goal of the automotive industry is to predict the interior climate of an automobile using advanced computational fluid dynamic (CFD) methods. The development of these advanced prediction tools will enable better selection of engine and accessory components. The goal of this investigation was to predict methods used by the automotive industry. To accomplish this task three separate experiments were performed. The first was a laboratory setup where laser velocimeter (LV) flow field measurements were made in the heating and air conditioning unit of a Ford Windstar. The second involved flow field measurements in the engine compartment of a Ford Explorer, with the engine running idle. The third mapped the flow field exiting the center dashboard panel vent inside the Explorer, while the circulating fan operated at 14 volts. All three experiments utilized full-coincidence three-component LV systems. This enabled the mean and fluctuating velocities to be measured along with the Reynolds stress terms.

  19. Method for obtaining aerodynamic data on hypersonic configurations with scramjet exhaust flow simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartill, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    A hypersonic wind tunnel test method for obtaining credible aerodynamic data on a complete hypersonic vehicle (generic X-24c) with scramjet exhaust flow simulation is described. The general problems of simulating the scramjet exhaust as well as accounting for scramjet inlet flow and vehicle forces are analyzed, and candidate test methods are described and compared. The method selected as most useful makes use of a thrust-minus-drag flow-through balance with a completely metric model. Inlet flow is diverted by a fairing. The incremental effect of the fairing is determined in the testing of two reference models. The net thrust of the scramjet module is an input to be determined in large-scale module tests with scramjet combustion. Force accounting is described, and examples of force component levels are predicted. Compatibility of the test method with candidate wind tunnel facilities is described, and a preliminary model mechanical arrangement drawing is presented. The balance design and performance requirements are described in a detailed specification. Calibration procedures, model instrumentation, and a test plan for the model are outlined.

  20. In-Flight Aerodynamic Measurements of an Iced Horizontal Tailplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratvasky, Thomas P.; VanZante, Judith Foss

    1999-01-01

    The effects of tailplane icing on aircraft dynamics and tailplane aerodynamics were investigated using, NASA's modified DHC-6 Twin Otter icing research aircraft. This flight program was a major element of the four-year NASA/FAA research program that also included icing wind tunnel testing, dry-air aerodynamic wind tunnel testing, and analytical code development. Flight tests were conducted to obtain aircraft dynamics and tailplane aerodynamics of the DHC-6 with four tailplane leading-edge configurations. These configurations included a clean (baseline) and three different artificial ice shapes. Quasi-steady and various dynamic flight maneuvers were performed over the full range of angles of attack and wing flap settings with each iced tailplane configuration. This paper presents results from the quasi-steady state flight conditions and describes the range of flow fields at the horizontal tailplane, the aeroperformance effect of various ice shapes on tailplane lift and elevator hinge moment, and suggests three paths that can lead toward ice-contaminated tailplane stall. It was found that wing, flap deflection was the most significant factor in driving the tailplane angle of attack toward alpha(tail stall). However, within a given flap setting, an increase in airspeed also drove the tailplane angle of attack toward alpha(tail stall). Moreover, increasing engine thrust setting also pushed the tailplane to critical performance limits, which resulted in premature tailplane stall.

  1. Wing motion measurement and aerodynamics of hovering true hoverflies.

    PubMed

    Mou, Xiao Lei; Liu, Yan Peng; Sun, Mao

    2011-09-01

    Most hovering insects flap their wings in a horizontal plane (body having a large angle from the horizontal), called `normal hovering'. But some of the best hoverers, e.g. true hoverflies, hover with an inclined stroke plane (body being approximately horizontal). In the present paper, wing and body kinematics of four freely hovering true hoverflies were measured using three-dimensional high-speed video. The measured wing kinematics was used in a Navier-Stokes solver to compute the aerodynamic forces of the insects. The stroke amplitude of the hoverflies was relatively small, ranging from 65 to 85 deg, compared with that of normal hovering. The angle of attack in the downstroke (∼50 deg) was much larger that in the upstroke (∼20 deg), unlike normal-hovering insects, whose downstroke and upstroke angles of attack are not very different. The major part of the weight-supporting force (approximately 86%) was produced in the downstroke and it was contributed by both the lift and the drag of the wing, unlike the normal-hovering case in which the weight-supporting force is approximately equally contributed by the two half-strokes and the lift principle is mainly used to produce the force. The mass-specific power was 38.59-46.3 and 27.5-35.4 W kg(-1) in the cases of 0 and 100% elastic energy storage, respectively. Comparisons with previously published results of a normal-hovering true hoverfly and with results obtained by artificially making the insects' stroke planes horizontal show that for the true hoverflies, the power requirement for inclined stroke-plane hover is only a little (<10%) larger than that of normal hovering. PMID:21832126

  2. Wing motion measurement and aerodynamics of hovering true hoverflies.

    PubMed

    Mou, Xiao Lei; Liu, Yan Peng; Sun, Mao

    2011-09-01

    Most hovering insects flap their wings in a horizontal plane (body having a large angle from the horizontal), called `normal hovering'. But some of the best hoverers, e.g. true hoverflies, hover with an inclined stroke plane (body being approximately horizontal). In the present paper, wing and body kinematics of four freely hovering true hoverflies were measured using three-dimensional high-speed video. The measured wing kinematics was used in a Navier-Stokes solver to compute the aerodynamic forces of the insects. The stroke amplitude of the hoverflies was relatively small, ranging from 65 to 85 deg, compared with that of normal hovering. The angle of attack in the downstroke (∼50 deg) was much larger that in the upstroke (∼20 deg), unlike normal-hovering insects, whose downstroke and upstroke angles of attack are not very different. The major part of the weight-supporting force (approximately 86%) was produced in the downstroke and it was contributed by both the lift and the drag of the wing, unlike the normal-hovering case in which the weight-supporting force is approximately equally contributed by the two half-strokes and the lift principle is mainly used to produce the force. The mass-specific power was 38.59-46.3 and 27.5-35.4 W kg(-1) in the cases of 0 and 100% elastic energy storage, respectively. Comparisons with previously published results of a normal-hovering true hoverfly and with results obtained by artificially making the insects' stroke planes horizontal show that for the true hoverflies, the power requirement for inclined stroke-plane hover is only a little (<10%) larger than that of normal hovering.

  3. Rarefied aerodynamics and upper atmosphere density from multiple orbiter flight measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, G. M.; Blanchard, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    Flight data from six flights of the experimental High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HIRAP), a micro-g accelerometer system, have been analyzed to produce rarefied flow aerodynamic coefficients of the Orbiter and freestream density in the altitude range from 60 km to 160 km. The direct measurements of the lift to drag ratio (L/D) are used to obtain individual normalized body-axis force coefficients in a least-squares regression scheme. An aerodynamics model based on an exponential function of Knudsen number is used for the individual coefficients. The calculated L/D from the flight determined coefficients agree with the multiple flight data measurements to within about 5 percent. Simultaneously, an upper altitude density variation is also obtained from the data. Density altitude profiles exhibit a wave feature on all flights. The wave has an amplitude of about + or - 25 percent relative to the 1962 Standard atmosphere model.

  4. Force measurements in aerodynamics using piezoelectric multicomponent force transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schewe, G.

    The present paper is concerned with a device for the measurement of steady and unsteady aerodynamic forces in a wind tunnel test. The paper represents a continuation of an article written by Schewe (1982) about a multicomponent balance consisting of piezoelectric force transducers for a high-pressure wind tunnel. Advantages of the piezoelectric force-measuring technique compared to other techniques are related to the high rigidity of the quartz crystal sensor elements, taking into account low interference (cross talk) for multicomponent measurements, high natural frequency, and broad dynamic range. It is pointed out that the limitations with respect to quasi-static measurements imposed by the drift of the zero point are not as extensive as generally believed, while drift correction methods improve the measurement accuracy.

  5. Aeroacoustic Study of a High-Fidelity Aircraft Model: Part 1- Steady Aerodynamic Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Hannon, Judith A.; Neuhart, Danny H.; Markowski, Gregory A.; VandeVen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present steady aerodynamic measurements for an 18% scale model of a Gulfstream air-craft. The high fidelity and highly-instrumented semi-span model was developed to perform detailed aeroacoustic studies of airframe noise associated with main landing gear/flap components and gear-flap interaction noise, as well as to evaluate novel noise reduction concepts. The aeroacoustic tests, being conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel, are split into two entries. The first entry, completed November 2010, was entirely devoted to the detailed mapping of the aerodynamic characteristics of the fabricated model. Flap deflections of 39?, 20?, and 0? with the main landing gear on and off were tested at Mach numbers of 0.16, 0.20, and 0.24. Additionally, for each flap deflection, the model was tested with the tunnel both in the closed-wall and open-wall (jet) modes. During this first entry, global forces (lift and drag) and extensive steady and unsteady surface pressure measurements were obtained. Preliminary analysis of the measured forces indicates that lift, drag, and stall characteristics compare favorably with Gulfstream?s high Reynolds number flight data. The favorable comparison between wind-tunnel and flight data allows the semi-span model to be used as a test bed for developing/evaluating airframe noise reduction concepts under a relevant environment. Moreover, initial comparison of the aerodynamic measurements obtained with the tunnel in the closed- and open-wall configurations shows similar aerodynamic behavior. This permits the acoustic and off-surface flow measurements, planned for the second entry, to be conducted with the tunnel in the open-jet mode.

  6. Overview of Supersonic Aerodynamics Measurement Techniques in the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    2007-01-01

    An overview is given of selected measurement techniques used in the NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of aerospace vehicles operating at supersonic speeds. A broad definition of a measurement technique is adopted in this paper and is any qualitative or quantitative experimental approach that provides information leading to the improved understanding of the supersonic aerodynamic characteristics. On-surface and off-surface measurement techniques used to obtain discrete (point) and global (field) measurements and planar and global flow visualizations are described, and examples of all methods are included. The discussion is limited to recent experiences in the UPWT and is, therefore, not an exhaustive review of existing experimental techniques. The diversity and high quality of the measurement techniques and the resultant data illustrate the capabilities of a ground-based experimental facility and the key role that it plays in the advancement of our understanding, prediction, and control of supersonic aerodynamics.

  7. Automated Wing Twist And Bending Measurements Under Aerodynamic Load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Martinson, S. D.

    1996-01-01

    An automated system to measure the change in wing twist and bending under aerodynamic load in a wind tunnel is described. The basic instrumentation consists of a single CCD video camera and a frame grabber interfaced to a computer. The technique is based upon a single view photogrammetric determination of two dimensional coordinates of wing targets with a fixed (and known) third dimensional coordinate, namely the spanwise location. The measurement technique has been used successfully at the National Transonic Facility, the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel, and the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. The advantages and limitations (including targeting) of the technique are discussed. A major consideration in the development was that use of the technique must not appreciably reduce wind tunnel productivity.

  8. Wing kinematics measurement and aerodynamics of hovering droneflies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanpeng; Sun, Mao

    2008-07-01

    The time courses of wing and body kinematics of three freely hovering droneflies (Eristalis tenax) were measured using 3D high-speed video, and the morphological parameters of the wings and body of the insects were also measured. The measured wing kinematics was used in a Navier-Stokes solver to compute the aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the insects. The time courses of the geometrical angle of attack and the deviation angle of the wing are considerably different from that of fruit flies recently measured using the same approach. The angle of attack is approximately constant in the mid portions of a half-stroke (a downstroke or upstroke) and varies rapidly during the stroke reversal. The deviation angle is relatively small and is higher at the beginning and the end of a half-stroke and lower at the middle of the half-stroke, giving a shallow U-shaped wing-tip trajectory. For all three insects considered, the computed vertical force is approximately equal to the insect weight (the difference is less than 6% of the weight) and the computed horizontal force and pitching moment about the center of mass of the insect are approximately zero. The computed results satisfying the equilibrium flight conditions, especially the moment balance condition, validate the computation model. The lift principle is mainly used to produce the weight-supporting vertical force, unlike the fruit flies who use both lift and drag principles to generate the vertical force; the vertical force is mainly due to the delayed stall mechanism. The magnitude of the inertia power is larger than that of the aerodynamic power, and the largest possible effect of elastic storage amounts to a reduction of flight power by around 40%, much larger than in the case of the fruit fly. PMID:18552290

  9. Wing kinematics measurement and aerodynamics of hovering droneflies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanpeng; Sun, Mao

    2008-07-01

    The time courses of wing and body kinematics of three freely hovering droneflies (Eristalis tenax) were measured using 3D high-speed video, and the morphological parameters of the wings and body of the insects were also measured. The measured wing kinematics was used in a Navier-Stokes solver to compute the aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the insects. The time courses of the geometrical angle of attack and the deviation angle of the wing are considerably different from that of fruit flies recently measured using the same approach. The angle of attack is approximately constant in the mid portions of a half-stroke (a downstroke or upstroke) and varies rapidly during the stroke reversal. The deviation angle is relatively small and is higher at the beginning and the end of a half-stroke and lower at the middle of the half-stroke, giving a shallow U-shaped wing-tip trajectory. For all three insects considered, the computed vertical force is approximately equal to the insect weight (the difference is less than 6% of the weight) and the computed horizontal force and pitching moment about the center of mass of the insect are approximately zero. The computed results satisfying the equilibrium flight conditions, especially the moment balance condition, validate the computation model. The lift principle is mainly used to produce the weight-supporting vertical force, unlike the fruit flies who use both lift and drag principles to generate the vertical force; the vertical force is mainly due to the delayed stall mechanism. The magnitude of the inertia power is larger than that of the aerodynamic power, and the largest possible effect of elastic storage amounts to a reduction of flight power by around 40%, much larger than in the case of the fruit fly.

  10. The application of vision measurement in aerodynamic testing combined with speckle correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ding; Zhang, Jin-guo; Zhang, Ye-hua; Wang, Wei; Ma, Hong-qiang; Zhang, Shang-bin; Feng, Jia-bo

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a combination of visual measurement technique of speckle correlation method in aerodynamic test application. Modal analysis of aerodynamic testing and deformation measurement is often very important but very difficult to achieve, fortunately, the development of modern optical measurement techniques made it possible. First, we conduct the modal analysis on an airfoil model and its deformation analysis under certain conditions. Then, the above technique was used to verify it. The results of the aerodynamic test and finite element analysis agree well, The novel of the new method is combining the speckle correlation and the model deformation in the aerodynamic testing. This method using the speckle correlation to process the data, combining sub-pixel correlation can make the results achieve very high precision and realized the real planar measuring. This non-contact full-field optical metrology shows a lot of abstracting potentials in aerodynamic test applications.

  11. Aerodynamic levitator furnace for measuring thermophysical properties of refractory liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langstaff, D.; Gunn, M.; Greaves, G. N.; Marsing, A.; Kargl, F.

    2013-12-01

    The development of novel contactless aerodynamic laser heated levitation techniques is reported that enable thermophysical properties of refractory liquids to be measured in situ in the solid, liquid, and supercooled liquid state and demonstrated here for alumina. Starting with polished crystalline ruby spheres, we show how, by accurately measuring the changing radius, the known density in the solid state can be reproduced from room temperature to the melting point at 2323 K. Once molten, by coupling the floating liquid drop to acoustic oscillations via the levitating gas, the mechanical resonance and damping of the liquid can be measured precisely with high-speed high-resolution shadow cast imaging. The resonance frequency relates to the surface tension, the decay constant to the viscosity, and the ellipsoidal size and shape of the levitating drop to the density. This unique instrumentation enables these related thermophysical properties to be recorded in situ over the entire liquid and supercooled range of alumina, from the boiling point at 3240 K, until spontaneous crystallization occurs around 1860 K, almost 500 below the melting point. We believe that the utility that this unique instrumentation provides will be applicable to studying these important properties in many other high temperature liquids.

  12. Aerodynamic levitator furnace for measuring thermophysical properties of refractory liquids.

    PubMed

    Langstaff, D; Gunn, M; Greaves, G N; Marsing, A; Kargl, F

    2013-12-01

    The development of novel contactless aerodynamic laser heated levitation techniques is reported that enable thermophysical properties of refractory liquids to be measured in situ in the solid, liquid, and supercooled liquid state and demonstrated here for alumina. Starting with polished crystalline ruby spheres, we show how, by accurately measuring the changing radius, the known density in the solid state can be reproduced from room temperature to the melting point at 2323 K. Once molten, by coupling the floating liquid drop to acoustic oscillations via the levitating gas, the mechanical resonance and damping of the liquid can be measured precisely with high-speed high-resolution shadow cast imaging. The resonance frequency relates to the surface tension, the decay constant to the viscosity, and the ellipsoidal size and shape of the levitating drop to the density. This unique instrumentation enables these related thermophysical properties to be recorded in situ over the entire liquid and supercooled range of alumina, from the boiling point at 3240 K, until spontaneous crystallization occurs around 1860 K, almost 500 below the melting point. We believe that the utility that this unique instrumentation provides will be applicable to studying these important properties in many other high temperature liquids. PMID:24387452

  13. Aerodynamic Measurements on a Large Splitter Plate for the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, David M.

    2001-01-01

    Tests conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) assess the aerodynamic characteristics of a splitter plate used to test some semispan models in this facility. Aerodynamic data are analyzed to determine the effect of the splitter plate on the operating characteristics of the TDT, as well as to define the range of conditions over which the plate can be reasonably used to obtain aerodynamic data. Static pressures measurements on the splitter plate surface and the equipment fairing between the wind tunnel wall and the splitter plate are evaluated to determine the flow quality around the apparatus over a range of operating conditions. Boundary layer rake data acquired near the plate surface define the viscous characteristics of the flow over the plate. Data were acquired over a range of subsonic, transonic and supersonic conditions at dynamic pressures typical for models tested on this apparatus. Data from this investigation should be used as a guide for the design of TDT models and tests using the splitter plate, as well as to guide future splitter plate design for this facility.

  14. A Method for Obtaining the Nonlinear Aerodynamic Stability Characteristics of Bodies of Revolution from Free-Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, Donn B.

    1961-01-01

    A method is presented for obtaining the nonlinear aerodynamic stability characteristics of bodies of revolution from free-flight test.s The necessary conditions for the application of this method are: (1) that the roll rate and damping encountered in a single cycle of oscillation be small, and (2) that the resulting motion be reasonably planar. Four approximations to the nonlinear restoring moment are considered and solutions are obtained in closed form: 1. A single-term polynomial in an arbitrary power of the angle of attack. 2. A two-term polynomial having linear and cubic terms. 3. A three-term polynomial having linear, quadratic, and cubic terms. 4. A three-term polynomial having linear, quadratic, and cubic terms. An iteration procedure is formulated to allow the use of each of these approximations for obtaining the aerodynamic coefficients of bodies of revolution from free-flight test data. It is found that although the equations that are solved pertain strictly to planar motion, the solutions are applicable to motions that deviate to a fairly large degree from planar motion.

  15. Aerodynamic Measurements of a Gulfstream Aircraft Model With and Without Noise Reduction Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuhart, Dan H.; Hannon, Judith A.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.

    2014-01-01

    Steady and unsteady aerodynamic measurements of a high-fidelity, semi-span 18% scale Gulfstream aircraft model are presented. The aerodynamic data were collected concurrently with acoustic measurements as part of a larger aeroacoustic study targeting airframe noise associated with main landing gear/flap components, gear-flap interaction noise, and the viability of related noise mitigation technologies. The aeroacoustic tests were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel with the facility in the acoustically treated open-wall (jet) mode. Most of the measurements were obtained with the model in landing configuration with the flap deflected at 39º and the main landing gear on and off. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0.16, 0.20, and 0.24. Global forces (lift and drag) and extensive steady and unsteady surface pressure measurements were obtained. Comparison of the present results with those acquired during a previous test shows a significant reduction in the lift experienced by the model. The underlying cause was traced to the likely presence of a much thicker boundary layer on the tunnel floor, which was acoustically treated for the present test. The steady and unsteady pressure fields on the flap, particularly in the regions of predominant noise sources such as the inboard and outboard tips, remained unaffected. It is shown that the changes in lift and drag coefficients for model configurations fitted with gear/flap noise abatement technologies fall within the repeatability of the baseline configuration. Therefore, the noise abatement technologies evaluated in this experiment have no detrimental impact on the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft model.

  16. Aerodynamic Performance Measurements for a Forward Swept Low Noise Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fite, E. Brian

    2006-01-01

    One source of noise in high tip speed turbofan engines, caused by shocks, is called multiple pure tone noise (MPT's). A new fan, called the Quiet High Speed Fan (QHSF), showed reduced noise over the part speed operating range, which includes MPT's. The QHSF showed improved performance in most respects relative to a baseline fan; however, a partspeed instability discovered during testing reduced the operating range below acceptable limits. The measured QHSF adiabatic efficiency on the fixed nozzle acoustic operating line was 85.1 percent and the baseline fan 82.9 percent, a 2.2 percent improvement. The operating line pressure rise at design point rotational speed and mass flow was 1.764 and 1.755 for the QHSF and baseline fan, respectively. Weight flow at design point speed was 98.28 lbm/sec for the QHSF and 97.97 lbm/sec for the baseline fan. The operability margin for the QHSF approached 0 percent at the 75 percent speed operating condition. The baseline fan maintained sufficient margin throughout the operating range as expected. Based on the stage aerodynamic measurements, this concept shows promise for improved performance over current technology if the operability limitations can be solved.

  17. Measurement of Unsteady Aerodynamics Load on the Blade of Field Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, Yasunari; Maeda, Takao; Naito, Keita; Ouchi, Yuu; Kozawa, Masayoshi

    This paper describes an experimental field study of the rotor aerodynamics of wind turbines. The test wind turbine is a horizontal axis wind turbine, or: HAWT with a diameter of 10m. The pressure distributions on the rotating blade are measured with multi point pressure transducers. Sectional aerodynamic forces are analyzed from pressure distribution. Blade root moments are measured simultaneously by a pair of strain gauges. The inflow wind is measured by a three component sonic anemometer, the local inflow of the blade section are measured by a pair of 7 hole Pitot tubes. The relation between the aerodynamic moments on the blade root from pressure distribution and the mechanical moment from strain gauges is discussed. The aerodynamic moments are estimated from the sectional aerodynamic forces and show oscillation caused by local wind speed and direction change. The mechanical moment shows similar oscillation to the aerodynamic excepting the short period oscillation of the blade first mode frequency. The fluctuation of the sectional aerodynamic force triggers resonant blade oscillations. Where stall is present along the blade section, the blade's first mode frequency is dominant. Without stall, the rotating frequency is dominant in the blade root moment.

  18. Orbiter Aerodynamic Acceleration Flight Measurements in the Rarefied-Flow Transition Regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Wilmoth, Richard G.; LeBeau, Gerald J.

    1996-01-01

    Acceleration data taken from the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) during reentry on STS-62 have been analyzed using calibration factors taken on orbit. This is the first Orbiter mission which collected OARE data during the Orbiter reentry phase. The data examined include the flight regime from orbital altitudes down to about 90 km which covers the free-molecule-flow regime and the upper altitude fringes of the rarefied-flow transition into the hypersonic continuum. Ancillary flight data on Orbiter position, orientation, velocity, and rotation rates have been used in models to transform the measured accelerations to the Orbiter center-of-gravity, from which aerodynamic accelerations along the Orbiter body axes have been calculated. Residual offsets introduced in the measurements by unmodeled Orbiter forces are identified and discussed. Direct comparisons are made between the OARE flight data and an independent micro-gravity accelerometer experiment, the High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP), which also obtained flight data on reentry during the mission down to about 95 km. The resulting OARE aerodynamic acceleration measurements along the Orbiter's body axis, aid the normal to axial acceleration ratio in the free-molecule-flow and transition-flow regimes are presented and compared with numerical simulations from three direct simulation Monte Carlo codes.

  19. Full-scale measurements of aerodynamic induction in a rotor plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr; Hansen, Kurt S.

    2014-12-01

    Reliable modelling of aerodynamic induction is imperative for successful prediction of wind turbine loads and wind turbine dynamics when based on state-of- the-art aeroelastic tools. Full-scale LiDAR based wind speed measurements, with high temporal and spatial resolution, have been conducted in the rotor plane of an operating 2MW/80m wind turbine to perform detailed analysis the aerodynamic induction. The experimental setup, analyses of the spatial structure of the aerodynamic induction and subsequent comparisons with numerical predictions, using the HAWC2 aerolastic code, are presented.

  20. Measured wavenumber: frequency spectrum associated with acoustic and aerodynamic wall pressure fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Arguillat, Blandine; Ricot, Denis; Bailly, Christophe; Robert, Gilles

    2010-10-01

    Direct measurements of the wavenumber-frequency spectrum of wall pressure fluctuations beneath a turbulent plane channel flow have been performed in an anechoic wind tunnel. A rotative array has been designed that allows the measurement of a complete map, 63×63 measuring points, of cross-power spectral densities over a large area. An original post-processing has been developed to separate the acoustic and the aerodynamic exciting loadings by transforming space-frequency data into wavenumber-frequency spectra. The acoustic part has also been estimated from a simple Corcos-like model including the contribution of a diffuse sound field. The measured acoustic contribution to the surface pressure fluctuations is 5% of the measured aerodynamic surface pressure fluctuations for a velocity and boundary layer thickness relevant for automotive interior noise applications. This shows that for aerodynamically induced car interior noise, both contributions to the surface pressure fluctuations on car windows have to be taken into account.

  1. Recent Dynamic Measurements and Considerations for Aerodynamic Modeling of Fighter Airplane Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Jay M.; Foster, John V.

    1998-01-01

    As airplane designs have trended toward the expansion of flight envelopes into the high angle of attack and high angular rate regimes, concerns regarding modeling the complex unsteady aerodynamics for simulation have arisen. Most current modeling methods still rely on traditional body axis damping coefficients that are measured using techniques which were intended for relatively benign flight conditions. This paper presents recent wind tunnel results obtained during large-amplitude pitch, roll and yaw testing of several fighter airplane configurations. A review of the similitude requirements for applying sub-scale test results to full-scale conditions is presented. Data is then shown to be a strong function of Strouhal number - both the traditional damping terms, but also the associated static stability terms. Additionally, large effects of sideslip are seen in the damping parameter that should be included in simulation math models. Finally, an example of the inclusion of frequency effects on the data in a simulation is shown.

  2. Comparison of aerodynamic coefficients obtained from theoretical calculations wind tunnel tests and flight tests data reduction for the alpha jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guiot, R.; Wunnenberg, H.

    1980-01-01

    The methods by which aerodynamic coefficients are determined and discussed. These include: calculations, wind tunnel experiments and experiments in flight for various prototypes of the Alpha Jet. A comparison of obtained results shows good correlation between expectations and in-flight test results.

  3. Structural dynamics and aerodynamics measurements of biologically inspired flexible flapping wings.

    PubMed

    Wu, P; Stanford, B K; Sällström, E; Ukeiley, L; Ifju, P G

    2011-03-01

    Flapping wing flight as seen in hummingbirds and insects poses an interesting unsteady aerodynamic problem: coupling of wing kinematics, structural dynamics and aerodynamics. There have been numerous studies on the kinematics and aerodynamics in both experimental and computational cases with both natural and artificial wings. These studies tend to ignore wing flexibility; however, observation in nature affirms that passive wing deformation is predominant and may be crucial to the aerodynamic performance. This paper presents a multidisciplinary experimental endeavor in correlating a flapping micro air vehicle wing's aeroelasticity and thrust production, by quantifying and comparing overall thrust, structural deformation and airflow of six pairs of hummingbird-shaped membrane wings of different properties. The results show that for a specific spatial distribution of flexibility, there is an effective frequency range in thrust production. The wing deformation at the thrust-productive frequencies indicates the importance of flexibility: both bending and twisting motion can interact with aerodynamic loads to enhance wing performance under certain conditions, such as the deformation phase and amplitude. By measuring structural deformations under the same aerodynamic conditions, beneficial effects of passive wing deformation can be observed from the visualized airflow and averaged thrust. The measurements and their presentation enable observation and understanding of the required structural properties for a thrust effective flapping wing. The intended passive responses of the different wings follow a particular pattern in correlation to their aerodynamic performance. Consequently, both the experimental technique and data analysis method can lead to further studies to determine the design principles for micro air vehicle flapping wings. PMID:21339627

  4. Structural dynamics and aerodynamics measurements of biologically inspired flexible flapping wings.

    PubMed

    Wu, P; Stanford, B K; Sällström, E; Ukeiley, L; Ifju, P G

    2011-03-01

    Flapping wing flight as seen in hummingbirds and insects poses an interesting unsteady aerodynamic problem: coupling of wing kinematics, structural dynamics and aerodynamics. There have been numerous studies on the kinematics and aerodynamics in both experimental and computational cases with both natural and artificial wings. These studies tend to ignore wing flexibility; however, observation in nature affirms that passive wing deformation is predominant and may be crucial to the aerodynamic performance. This paper presents a multidisciplinary experimental endeavor in correlating a flapping micro air vehicle wing's aeroelasticity and thrust production, by quantifying and comparing overall thrust, structural deformation and airflow of six pairs of hummingbird-shaped membrane wings of different properties. The results show that for a specific spatial distribution of flexibility, there is an effective frequency range in thrust production. The wing deformation at the thrust-productive frequencies indicates the importance of flexibility: both bending and twisting motion can interact with aerodynamic loads to enhance wing performance under certain conditions, such as the deformation phase and amplitude. By measuring structural deformations under the same aerodynamic conditions, beneficial effects of passive wing deformation can be observed from the visualized airflow and averaged thrust. The measurements and their presentation enable observation and understanding of the required structural properties for a thrust effective flapping wing. The intended passive responses of the different wings follow a particular pattern in correlation to their aerodynamic performance. Consequently, both the experimental technique and data analysis method can lead to further studies to determine the design principles for micro air vehicle flapping wings.

  5. Measuring flux of soil fumigants using the aerodynamic and dynamic flux chamber methods.

    PubMed

    van Wesenbeeck, I J; Knuteson, J A; Barnekow, D E; Phillips, A M

    2007-01-01

    Methods for measuring and estimating flux density of soil fumigants under field conditions are important for the purpose of providing inputs to air dispersion models and for comparing the effects of management practices on emission reduction. The objective of this study was to measure the flux of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin at a site in Georgia (GA) using the aerodynamic method and the dynamic flux chamber (FC) method. A secondary objective was to compare the effects of high density polyethylene (HDPE), and virtually impermeable film (VIF) tarps on fumigant flux at a site in Florida (FL). Chloropicrin and 1,3-D were applied by surface drip application of In-Line soil fumigant on vegetable beds covered by low density polyethylene (LDPE), HDPE, or VIF. The surface drip fumigation using In-Line and LDPE tarp employed in this study resulted in volatilization of 26.5% of applied 1,3-D and 11.2% of the applied chloropicrin at the GA site, as determined using the aerodynamic method. Estimates of mass loss obtained from dynamic FCs were 23.6% for 1,3-D and 18.0% for chloropicrin at the GA site. Flux chamber trials at the FL site indicate significant additional reduction in flux density, and cumulative mass loss when VIF tarp is used. This study supports the use of dynamic FCs as a valuable tool for estimating gas flux density from agricultural soils, and evaluating best management practices for reducing fumigant emissions to the atmosphere.

  6. Plasticity characteristics obtained through hardness measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Milman, Y.V.; Galanov, B.A.; Chugunova, S.I. )

    1993-09-01

    A characteristic of material plasticity [delta][sub H] is proposed. [delta][sub H] is determined as a part of plastic deformation in the total deformation during indentation. The following analytic expressions for the elastic deformation [epsilon][sub e] and for the total deformation [epsilon] on the contact area indenter-specimen in the direction of loading force are obtained, [epsilon][sub e] = 1.08(1 [minus] v [minus] 2v[sup 2])H[sub V/E], [epsilon] [approx] 0.076, where H[sub V] is the Vickers hardness, E is Young's modulus, v is the Poisson ratio, and [delta][sub H] = 1 [minus] ([epsilon][sub e]/[epsilon]). The [delta][sub H] value is calculated for various crystalline materials at different temperatures and in different structural states. [delta][sub H] is consistent with the concept of plasticity established before, and to characterize the influence of temperature, alloying and strain hardening on plasticity. The necessary condition for revealing ductility at tension and bending is [delta][sub H] [>=] 0.9. [delta][sub H] can be used as a plasticity characteristic of brittle materials.

  7. The aerodynamics of avian take-off from direct pressure measurements in Canada geese (Branta canadensis).

    PubMed

    Usherwood, James R; Hedrick, Tyson L; Biewener, Andrew A

    2003-11-01

    Direct pressure measurements using electronic differential pressure transducers along bird wings provide insight into the aerodynamics of these dynamically varying aerofoils. Acceleration-compensated pressures were measured at five sites distributed proximally to distally from the tertials to the primaries along the wings of Canada geese. During take-off flight, ventral-to-dorsal pressure is maintained at the proximal wing section throughout the wingstroke cycle, whereas pressure sense is reversed at the primaries during upstroke. The distal sites experience double pressure peaks during the downstroke. These observations suggest that tertials provide weight-support throughout the wingbeat, that the wingtip provides thrust during upstroke and that the kinetic energy of the rapidly flapping wings may be dissipated via retarding aerodynamic forces (resulting in aerodynamic work) at the end of downstroke.

  8. Aerodynamic and Performance Measurements on a SWT-2.3-101 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, P.; Singh, M.; Johansen, J.; Jove, A.R.; Machefaux, E.; Fingersh, L. J.; Schreck, S.

    2011-10-01

    This paper provides an overview of a detailed wind turbine field experiment being conducted at NREL under U.S. Department of Energy sponsorship. The purpose of the experiment is to obtain knowledge about the aerodynamics, performance, noise emission and structural characteristics of the Siemens SWT-2.3-101 wind turbine.

  9. Aerodynamic force measurement on a large-scale model in a short duration test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Tanno, H.; Kodera, M.; Komuro, T.; Sato, K.; Takahasi, M.; Itoh, K.

    2005-03-01

    A force measurement technique has been developed for large-scale aerodynamic models with a short test time. The technique is based on direct acceleration measurements, with miniature accelerometers mounted on a test model suspended by wires. Measuring acceleration at two different locations, the technique can eliminate oscillations from natural vibration of the model. The technique was used for drag force measurements on a 3 m long supersonic combustor model in the HIEST free-piston driven shock tunnel. A time resolution of 350 {mu}s is guaranteed during measurements, whose resolution is enough for ms order test time in HIEST. To evaluate measurement reliability and accuracy, measured values were compared with results from a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes numerical simulation. The difference between measured values and numerical simulation values was less than 5%. We conclude that this measurement technique is sufficiently reliable for measuring aerodynamic force within test durations of 1 ms.

  10. In vivo measurement of aerodynamic weight support in freely flying birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentink, David; Haselsteiner, Andreas; Ingersoll, Rivers

    2014-11-01

    Birds dynamically change the shape of their wing during the stroke to support their body weight aerodynamically. The wing is partially folded during the upstroke, which suggests that the upstroke of birds might not actively contribute to aerodynamic force production. This hypothesis is supported by the significant mass difference between the large pectoralis muscle that powers the down-stroke and the much smaller supracoracoideus that drives the upstroke. Previous works used indirect or incomplete techniques to measure the total force generated by bird wings ranging from muscle force, airflow, wing surface pressure, to detailed kinematics measurements coupled with bird mass-distribution models to derive net force through second derivatives. We have validated a new method that measures aerodynamic force in vivo time-resolved directly in freely flying birds which can resolve this question. The validation of the method, using independent force measurements on a quadcopter with pulsating thrust, show the aerodynamic force and impulse are measured within 2% accuracy and time-resolved. We demonstrate results for quad-copters and birds of similar weight and size. The method is scalable and can be applied to both engineered and natural flyers across taxa. The first author invented the method, the second and third authors validated the method and present results for quadcopters and birds.

  11. Preliminary Measurements From A New Flat Plate Facility For Aerodynamic Research

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. McEligot; D. W. Nigg; E. J. Walsh; D. Hernon; M.R.D. Davies

    2005-03-01

    This paper details the design and preliminary measurements used in the characterisation of a new flat plate research facility. The facility is designed specifically to aid in the understanding of entropy generation throughout the boundary layer with special attention given to non-equilibrium flows. Hot-wire measurements were obtained downstream of two turbulence generating grids. The turbulence intensity, integral and dissipation length scale ranges measured are 1.6%-7%, 5mm-17mm and 0.7mm-7mm, respectively. These values compared well to existing correlations. The flow downstream of both grids was found to be homogenous and isotropic. Flow visualisation is employed to determine aerodynamic parameters such as flow 2-dimensionality and the effect of the flap angle on preventing separation at the leading edge. The flow was found to be 2-dimensional over all measurement planes. The non-dimensional pressure distribution of a modern turbine blade suction surface is simulated on the flat plate through the use of a variable upper wall. The Reynolds number range based on wetted plate length and inlet velocity is 70,000-4,000,000.

  12. Description of a pressure measurement technique for obtaining surface static pressures of a radial turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicicco, L. D.; Nowlin, Brent C.; Tirres, Lizet

    1992-07-01

    The aerodynamic performance of a solid uncooled version of a cooled radial turbine was evaluated in the Small Engine Components Test Facility Turbine rig at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Specifically, an experiment was conducted to rotor surface static pressures. This was the first time surface static pressures had been measured on a radial turbine at NASA Lewis. These pressures were measured by a modified Rotating Data Package (RDP), a standard product manufactured by Scanivalve, Inc. Described here are the RDP, and the modifications that were made, as well as the checkout, installation, and testing procedures. The data presented are compared to analytical results obtained from NASA's MERIDL TSONIC BLAYER (MTSB) code.

  13. Description of a pressure measurement technique for obtaining surface static pressures of a radial turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicicco, L. Danielle; Nowlin, Brent C.; Tirres, Lizet

    1992-02-01

    The aerodynamic performance of a solid uncooled version of a cooled radial turbine was evaluated in the Small Engine Components Test Facility Turbine rig at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Specifically, an experiment was conducted to rotor surface static pressures. This was the first time surface static pressures had been measured on a radial turbine at NASA Lewis. These pressures were measured by a modified Rotating Data Package (RDP), a standard product manufactured by Scanivalve, Inc. Described here are the RDP, and the modifications that were made, as well as the checkout, installation, and testing procedures. The data presented are compared to analytical results obtained from NASA's MERIDL TSONIC BLAYER (MTSB) code.

  14. Description of a Pressure Measurement Technique for Obtaining Surface Static Pressures of a Radial Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicicco, L. Danielle; Nowlin, Brent C.; Tirres, Lizet

    1992-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of a solid uncooled version of a cooled radial turbine was evaluated in the Small Engine Components Test Facility Turbine rig at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Specifically, an experiment was conducted to rotor surface static pressures. This was the first time surface static pressures had been measured on a radial turbine at NASA Lewis. These pressures were measured by a modified Rotating Data Package (RDP), a standard product manufactured by Scanivalve, Inc. Described here are the RDP, and the modifications that were made, as well as the checkout, installation, and testing procedures. The data presented are compared to analytical results obtained from NASA's MERIDL TSONIC BLAYER (MTSB) code.

  15. Description of a pressure measurement technique for obtaining surface static pressures of a radial turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicicco, L. D.; Nowlin, Brent C.; Tirres, Lizet

    1992-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of a solid uncooled version of a cooled radial turbine was evaluated in the Small Engine Components Test Facility Turbine rig at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Specifically, an experiment was conducted to rotor surface static pressures. This was the first time surface static pressures had been measured on a radial turbine at NASA Lewis. These pressures were measured by a modified Rotating Data Package (RDP), a standard product manufactured by Scanivalve, Inc. Described here are the RDP, and the modifications that were made, as well as the checkout, installation, and testing procedures. The data presented are compared to analytical results obtained from NASA's MERIDL TSONIC BLAYER (MTSB) code.

  16. USE OF THE AERODYNAMIC PARTICLE SIZER TO MEASURE PM-COARSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aerodynamic particle sizer (APS 3321, TSI, Inc.) measures particle size distributions from 0.5 µm to 20 µm by determining the time-of-flight of individual particles in an accelerating flow field. A complete particle size distribution may be determined in a matter of ...

  17. USE OF THE AERODYNAMIC PARTICLE SIZER TO MEASURE PM-COARSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aerodynamic particle sizer (APS 3321, TSI, Inc.) measures particle size distributions from 0.5 µm to 20 µm by determining the time-of-flight of individual particles in an accelerating flow field. A complete particle size distribution may be determined in a matter of s...

  18. Aerodynamic Measurements of an Incidence Tolerant Blade in a Transonic Turbine Cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McVetta, Ashlie B.; Giel, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the recent facility modifications to NASA s Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility and aerodynamic measurements on the VSPT incidence-tolerant blade are presented. This work supports the development of variable-speed power turbine (VSPT) speed-change technology for the NASA Large Civil Tilt Rotor (LCTR) vehicle. In order to maintain acceptable main rotor propulsive efficiency, the VSPT operates over a nearly 50% speed range from takeoff to altitude cruise. This results in 50 or more variations in VSPT blade incidence angles. The Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility has the ability to operate over a wide range of Reynolds numbers and Mach numbers, but had to be modified in order to accommodate the negative incidence angle variation required by the LCTR VSPT operation. Details of the modifications are described. An incidence-tolerant blade was developed under an RTPAS study contract and tested in the cascade to look at the effects of large incidence angle and Reynolds number variations. Recent test results are presented which include midspan exit total pressure and flow angle measurements obtained at three inlet angles representing the cruise, take-off, and maximum incidence flight mission points. For each inlet angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with exit Reynolds numbers varying from 2.12 106 to 2.12 105 and two isentropic exit Mach numbers of 0.72 and 0.35. Three-dimensional flowfield measurements were also acquired at the cruise and take-off points. The flowfield measurements were acquired using a five-hole and three-hole pneumatic probe located in a survey plane 8.6% axial chord downstream of the blade trailing edge plane and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressure distributions were also acquired for each flow condition.

  19. Validation of 3-D Ice Accretion Measurement Methodology for Experimental Aerodynamic Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Lee, Sam; Monastero, Marianne C.

    2015-01-01

    Determining the adverse aerodynamic effects due to ice accretion often relies on dry-air wind-tunnel testing of artificial, or simulated, ice shapes. Recent developments in ice-accretion documentation methods have yielded a laser-scanning capability that can measure highly three-dimensional (3-D) features of ice accreted in icing wind tunnels. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the aerodynamic accuracy of ice-accretion simulations generated from laser-scan data. Ice-accretion tests were conducted in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel using an 18-in. chord, two-dimensional (2-D) straight wing with NACA 23012 airfoil section. For six ice-accretion cases, a 3-D laser scan was performed to document the ice geometry prior to the molding process. Aerodynamic performance testing was conducted at the University of Illinois low-speed wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of 1.8 × 10(exp 6) and a Mach number of 0.18 with an 18-in. chord NACA 23012 airfoil model that was designed to accommodate the artificial ice shapes. The ice-accretion molds were used to fabricate one set of artificial ice shapes from polyurethane castings. The laser-scan data were used to fabricate another set of artificial ice shapes using rapid prototype manufacturing such as stereolithography. The iced-airfoil results with both sets of artificial ice shapes were compared to evaluate the aerodynamic simulation accuracy of the laser-scan data. For five of the six ice-accretion cases, there was excellent agreement in the iced-airfoil aerodynamic performance between the casting and laser-scan based simulations. For example, typical differences in iced-airfoil maximum lift coefficient were less than 3 percent with corresponding differences in stall angle of approximately 1 deg or less. The aerodynamic simulation accuracy reported in this paper has demonstrated the combined accuracy of the laser-scan and rapid-prototype manufacturing approach to simulating ice accretion for a NACA 23012 airfoil. For several

  20. Validation of 3-D Ice Accretion Measurement Methodology for Experimental Aerodynamic Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Lee, Sam; Monastero, Marianne C.

    2014-01-01

    Determining the adverse aerodynamic effects due to ice accretion often relies on dry-air wind-tunnel testing of artificial, or simulated, ice shapes. Recent developments in ice accretion documentation methods have yielded a laser-scanning capability that can measure highly three-dimensional features of ice accreted in icing wind tunnels. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the aerodynamic accuracy of ice-accretion simulations generated from laser-scan data. Ice-accretion tests were conducted in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel using an 18-inch chord, 2-D straight wing with NACA 23012 airfoil section. For six ice accretion cases, a 3-D laser scan was performed to document the ice geometry prior to the molding process. Aerodynamic performance testing was conducted at the University of Illinois low-speed wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of 1.8 x 10(exp 6) and a Mach number of 0.18 with an 18-inch chord NACA 23012 airfoil model that was designed to accommodate the artificial ice shapes. The ice-accretion molds were used to fabricate one set of artificial ice shapes from polyurethane castings. The laser-scan data were used to fabricate another set of artificial ice shapes using rapid prototype manufacturing such as stereolithography. The iced-airfoil results with both sets of artificial ice shapes were compared to evaluate the aerodynamic simulation accuracy of the laser-scan data. For four of the six ice-accretion cases, there was excellent agreement in the iced-airfoil aerodynamic performance between the casting and laser-scan based simulations. For example, typical differences in iced-airfoil maximum lift coefficient were less than 3% with corresponding differences in stall angle of approximately one degree or less. The aerodynamic simulation accuracy reported in this paper has demonstrated the combined accuracy of the laser-scan and rapid-prototype manufacturing approach to simulating ice accretion for a NACA 23012 airfoil. For several of the ice

  1. Experimental measurement of the aerodynamic charateristics of two-dimensional airfoils for an unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velazquez, Luis; Nožička, Jiří; Vavřín, Jan

    2012-04-01

    This paper is part of the development of an airfoil for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with internal propulsion system; the investigation involves the analysis of the aerodynamic performance for the gliding condition of two-dimensional airfoil models which have been tested. This development is based on the modification of a selected airfoil from the NACA four digits family. The modification of this base airfoil was made in order to create a blowing outlet with the shape of a step on the suction surface since the UAV will have an internal propulsion system. This analysis involved obtaining the lift, drag and pitching moment coefficients experimentally for the situation where there is not flow through the blowing outlet, called the no blowing condition by means of wind tunnel tests. The methodology to obtain the forces experimentally was through an aerodynamic wire balance. Obtained results were compared with numerical results by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) from references and found in very good agreement. Finally, a selection of the airfoil with the best aerodynamic performance is done and proposed for further analysis including the blowing condition.

  2. Error Evaluation of Methyl Bromide Aerodynamic Flux Measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majewski, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    Methyl bromide volatilization fluxes were calculated for a tarped and a nontarped field using 2 and 4 hour sampling periods. These field measurements were averaged in 8, 12, and 24 hour increments to simulate longer sampling periods. The daily flux profiles were progressively smoothed and the cumulative volatility losses increased by 20 to 30% with each longer sampling period. Error associated with the original flux measurements was determined from linear regressions of measured wind speed and air concentration as a function of height, and averaged approximately 50%. The high errors resulted from long application times, which resulted in a nonuniform source strength; and variable tarp permeability, which is influenced by temperature, moisture, and thickness. The increase in cumulative volatilization losses that resulted from longer sampling periods were within the experimental error of the flux determination method.

  3. Direct measurements of controlled aerodynamic forces on a wire-suspended axisymmetric body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramson, Philip; Vukasinovic, Bojan; Glezer, Ari

    2011-06-01

    A novel in-line miniature force transducer is developed for direct measurements of the net aerodynamic forces and moments on a bluff body. The force transducers are integrated into each of the eight mounting wires that are utilized for suspension of an axisymmetric model in a wind tunnel having minimal wake interference. The aerodynamic forces and moments on the model are altered by induced active local attachment of the separated base flow. Fluidic control is effected by an array of four integrated aft-facing synthetic jet actuators that emanate from narrow, azimuthally segmented slots, equally distributed around the perimeter of the circular tail end. The jet orifices are embedded within a small backward-facing step that extends into a Coanda surface. The altered flow dynamics associated with both quasi-steady and transitory asymmetric activation of the flow control effect is characterized by direct force and PIV measurements.

  4. Measurements of aerodynamic forces on unsteadily moving bluff parachute canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockrell, D. J.; Harwood, R. J.; Shen, C. Q.

    1987-06-01

    Equations which describe the unsteady motion of bluff bodies through fluids contain certain components, termed added mass coefficients, which can only be determined by experiment. From the solutions to such equations the ways in which the shapes of parachute canopies influence the frequency of their oscillatory motion in pitch and their corresponding damping rates are required. Although a full-scale parachute canopy descends through air, oscillating in pitch as it does, experiments necessary to determine these added mass coefficients have been performed under water, using for this purpose a large ship tank from the towing carriage of which the model parachute canopies were suspended. These experiments showed that the added mass coefficients for bluff parachute canopies differed appreciably from their corresponding potential flow values. The latter were obtained from the analysis of inviscid, fluid flow around regular shapes which were representative of those parachute canopies. The significance for the prediction of the parachute's dynamic behavior in pitch is outlined.

  5. Luminescence imaging for aerodynamic temperature and pressure measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Gallery, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    A luminescent temperature sensitive paint containing the molecule rhodamine B base (rhBb) is described whose emission intensity can be monitored by video camera to produce qualitative and quantitative two dimensional surface temperature maps. This paint was designed for use with the pressure sensitive paint containing platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP), but is also a useful tool when used alone in the measurement of heat flow, boundary layer transition, and quantitative surface temperature during wind tunnel studies. The ability of the rhBb paint to produce a continuous temperature map makes it possible to locate structures in the temperature field on an airfoil that are otherwise undetected by surface mounted thermocouples spaced a finite distance apart. A dual temperature/pressure sensitive paint was investigated with both the rhBb and PtOEP dyes incorporated into the silicone polymer paint base of the pressure sensor. Photodegradation and batch variations in the polymer were found to compromise the calibration parameters of the PtOEP paint and therefore the accuracy of pressure predictions. Suggestions are made for improving the prediction ability of the paint. The molecule europium(III) thenoyltrifluoroacetonate (EuTTA) is also discussed as a temperature sensor for a two layer temperature/pressure paint. EuTTA can not be directly incorporated into the silicone paint base of the PtOEP paint (as the rhBp paint can), but performs well in non-oxygenpermeable coatings. Benefits of the EuTTA temperature paint include: (1) decreased photodegradation, (2) very bright luminescence intensity, and (3) long luminescent lifetime (several hundred microseconds). The long lifetime facilitates lifetime imaging, a technique currently under development as an alternative detection method where luminescent lifetimes rather than emission intensity are related to temperature and pressure.

  6. Measured and Computed Hypersonic Aerodynamic/Aeroheating Characteristics for an Elliptically Blunted Flared Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Francis A.; Buck, Gregory M.; Wood, William A.

    2001-01-01

    Computational and experimental hypersonic aerodynamic forces and moments and aeroheating levels for Kistler Aerospace Corporation's baseline orbiter vehicle at incidence are presented. Experimental data were measured in ground-based facilities at the Langley Research Center and predictions were performed using the Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm code. The test parameters were incidence (-4 to 24 degrees), freestream Mach number (6 to 10),freestream ratio o specific heats (1.2 to 1.4), and freestream Reynolds number (0.5 to 8.0 million per foot). The effects of these parameters on aerodynamic characteristics, as well as the effects of Reynolds number on measured heating levels are discussed. Good agreement between computational and experimental aerodynamic and aeroheating values were observed over the wide range of test parameters examined. Reynolds number and ratio of specific heats were observed to significantly alter the trim L/D value. At Mach 6, laminar flow was observed along the entire windward centerline tip to the flare for all angles and Reynolds numbers tested. Flow over the flare transitioned from laminar to transitional/turbulent between 4 and 8 million per foot at 8 and 12 degrees angle of attack, and near 4 million per foot at 16 degrees angle of attack.

  7. Aerodynamic measurements: normative data for children ages 6:0 to 10:11 years.

    PubMed

    Weinrich, Barbara; Salz, Beth; Hughes, Michael

    2005-09-01

    Normative measures of open quotient, speed quotient, maximum flow declination rate (MFDR), and subglottal pressure were determined for 75 children between the ages of 6 years 0 months and 10 years 11 months. The participants produced a sustained /a/ at low, comfort, and high pitches for a minimum of 5 seconds, and five to seven repetitions of /pa/ at low, comfort, and high pitches. No statistically significant differences were found in the mean measures of any aerodynamic variables (open quotient, speed quotient, maximum flow declination rate, subglottal pressure) between the frequency levels (low, comfort, high pitches). Also, no strong evidence (P > .05) exists that age or sex effect differed between the frequency levels (low, comfort, high) for any of the aerodynamic measures. For /a/ response tasks, mean open quotient measures increased slightly from low to comfort frequency and from comfort to high frequency. Mean speed quotient measures showed minimal differences between low and comfort frequency, with decreased mean measures for high frequency. Mean MFDR measures increased from low to comfort frequency and from comfort to high frequency. Mean subglottal pressure measures increased slightly from low to comfort frequency and from comfort to high frequency.

  8. An approach to evaluating and correcting aerodynamic particle sizer measurements for phantom particle count creation.

    PubMed

    Heitbrink, W A; Baron, P A

    1992-07-01

    An aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) can be used to make real-time measurements of the aerodynamic particle size distribution over the range of 0.5 to 32 microns. This instrument is very useful in conducting health-related aerosol measurements involving aerosol generation, respirator efficiency, and particulate sampling efficiency. One of the two signal processors within the APS can create spurious or phantom particle counts that can significantly affect relative measurements and calculated mass distributions. In the APS, particle size measurement is based upon a particle's transit time between two laser beams that are perpendicular to an accelerating airflow. The signal processors measure each particle's transit from the time between the two pulses of scattered light that are generated as the particle passes through the two laser beams. When only a single pulse from a particle is detected, another pulse can cause the recording of a randomly sized phantom particle. The small particle processor (SPP), which measures particle transit from the times in digital increments of 4 nanoseconds, can create phantom particles; the large particle processor (LPP), which measures particle transit times in digital increments of 66.67 nanoseconds, is designed to prevent the creation of phantom particles. These two processors overlap in the range of 5.2 to 15.4 microns.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1496933

  9. Subsonic and supersonic static aerodynamic characteristics of a family of bulbous base cones measured with a magnetic suspension and balance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlajinac, M.; Stephens, T.; Gilliam, G.; Pertsas, N.

    1972-01-01

    Results of subsonic and supersonic wind-tunnel tests with a magnetic balance and suspension system on a family of bulbous based cone configurations are presented. At subsonic speeds the base flow and separation characteristics of these configurations is shown to have a pronounced effect on the static data. Results obtained with the presence of a dummy sting are compared with support interference free data. Support interference is shown to have a substantial effect on the measured aerodynamic coefficient.

  10. Aerodynamic pressure and flow-visualization measurement from a rotating wind turbine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, C P

    1988-11-01

    Aerodynamic, load, flow-visualization, and inflow measurements have been made on a 10-m, three-bladed, downwind, horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT). A video camera mounted on the rotor was used to record nighttime and daytime video images of tufts attached to the low-pressure side of a constant-chord, zero-twist blade. Load measurements were made using strain gages mounted at every 10% of the blade's span. Pressure measurements were made at 80% of the blade's span. Pressure taps were located at 32 chordwise positions, revealing pressure distributions comparable with wind tunnel data. Inflow was measured using a vertical-plane array of eight propvane and five triaxial (U-V-W) prop-type anemometers located 10 m upwind in the predominant wind direction. One objective of this comprehensive research program was to study the effects of blade rotation on aerodynamic behavior below, near, and beyond stall. To this end, flow patterns are presented here that reveal the dynamic and steady behavior of flow conditions on the blade. Pressure distributions are compared to flow patterns and two-dimensional wind tunnel data. Separation boundary locations are shown that change as a function of spanwise location, pitch angle, and wind speed. 6 refs., 23 figs., 1 tab.

  11. HYSHOT-2 Aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cain, T.; Owen, R.; Walton, C.

    2005-02-01

    The scramjet flight test Hyshot-2, flew on the 30 July 2002. The programme, led by the University of Queensland, had the primary objective of obtaining supersonic combustion data in flight for comparison with measurements made in shock tunnels. QinetiQ was one of the sponsors, and also provided aerodynamic data and trajectory predictions for the ballistic re-entry of the spinning sounding rocket. The unconventional missile geometry created by the nose-mounted asymmetric-scramjet in conjunction with the high angle of attack during re-entry makes the problem interesting. This paper presents the wind tunnel measurements and aerodynamic calculations used as input for the trajectory prediction. Indirect comparison is made with data obtained in the Hyshot-2 flight using a 6 degree-of-freedom trajectory simulation.

  12. The aerodynamic cost of flight in the short-tailed fruit bat (Carollia perspicillata): comparing theory with measurement.

    PubMed

    von Busse, Rhea; Waldman, Rye M; Swartz, Sharon M; Voigt, Christian C; Breuer, Kenneth S

    2014-06-01

    Aerodynamic theory has long been used to predict the power required for animal flight, but widely used models contain many simplifications. It has been difficult to ascertain how closely biological reality matches model predictions, largely because of the technical challenges of accurately measuring the power expended when an animal flies. We designed a study to measure flight speed-dependent aerodynamic power directly from the kinetic energy contained in the wake of bats flying in a wind tunnel. We compared these measurements with two theoretical predictions that have been used for several decades in diverse fields of vertebrate biology and to metabolic measurements from a previous study using the same individuals. A high-accuracy displaced laser sheet stereo particle image velocimetry experimental design measured the wake velocities in the Trefftz plane behind four bats flying over a range of speeds (3-7 m s(-1)). We computed the aerodynamic power contained in the wake using a novel interpolation method and compared these results with the power predicted by Pennycuick's and Rayner's models. The measured aerodynamic power falls between the two theoretical predictions, demonstrating that the models effectively predict the appropriate range of flight power, but the models do not accurately predict minimum power or maximum range speeds. Mechanical efficiency--the ratio of aerodynamic power output to metabolic power input--varied from 5.9% to 9.8% for the same individuals, changing with flight speed.

  13. The aerodynamic cost of flight in the short-tailed fruit bat (Carollia perspicillata): comparing theory with measurement

    PubMed Central

    von Busse, Rhea; Waldman, Rye M.; Swartz, Sharon M.; Voigt, Christian C.; Breuer, Kenneth S.

    2014-01-01

    Aerodynamic theory has long been used to predict the power required for animal flight, but widely used models contain many simplifications. It has been difficult to ascertain how closely biological reality matches model predictions, largely because of the technical challenges of accurately measuring the power expended when an animal flies. We designed a study to measure flight speed-dependent aerodynamic power directly from the kinetic energy contained in the wake of bats flying in a wind tunnel. We compared these measurements with two theoretical predictions that have been used for several decades in diverse fields of vertebrate biology and to metabolic measurements from a previous study using the same individuals. A high-accuracy displaced laser sheet stereo particle image velocimetry experimental design measured the wake velocities in the Trefftz plane behind four bats flying over a range of speeds (3–7 m s−1). We computed the aerodynamic power contained in the wake using a novel interpolation method and compared these results with the power predicted by Pennycuick's and Rayner's models. The measured aerodynamic power falls between the two theoretical predictions, demonstrating that the models effectively predict the appropriate range of flight power, but the models do not accurately predict minimum power or maximum range speeds. Mechanical efficiency—the ratio of aerodynamic power output to metabolic power input—varied from 5.9% to 9.8% for the same individuals, changing with flight speed. PMID:24718450

  14. Comparison of theoretical and flight-measured local flow aerodynamics for a low-aspect-ratio fin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. Blair; Sandlin, Doral R.

    1986-01-01

    Flight test and theoretical aerodynamic data were obtained for a flight test fixture mounted on the underside of an F-104G aircraft. The theoretical data were generated using two codes: a two-dimensional transonic code called code H, and a three-dimensional subsonic and supersonic code called wing-body. Pressure distributions generated by the codes for the flight test fixture, as well as compared with the flight-measured data. The two-dimensional code pressure distributions compared well except at the minimum pressure point and the trailing edge. Shock locations compared well except at high transonic speeds. However, the two-dimensional code did not adequately predict the displacement thickness of the flight test fixture. The three-dimensional code pressure distributions compared well except at the trailing edge of the flight test fixture.

  15. In-situ X-ray structure measurements on aerodynamically levitated high temperature liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Richard; Benmore, Christopher; Mei Qiang; Wilding, Martin

    2009-01-29

    High energy, high flux X-ray sources enable new measurements of liquid and amorphous materials in extreme conditions. Aerodynamic levitation in combination with laser beam heating can be used to access high purity and non-equilibrium liquids at temperatures up to 3000 K. In this work, a small aerodynamic levitator was integrated with high energy beamline 11 ID-C at the Advanced Photon Source. Scattered X-rays were detected with a Mar345 image plate. The experiments investigated a series of binary in the CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO-SiO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} metal oxide compositions and pure SiO{sub 2}. The results show that the liquids exhibit large changes in structure when the predominant network former is diluted. Measurements on glasses with the same compositions as the liquids suggest that significant structural rearrangement consistent with a fragile-strong transition occurs in these reluctant glass forming liquids as they vitrify.

  16. A comparison of spanwise aerodynamic loads estimated from measured bending moments versus direct pressure measurements on horizontal axis wind turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Simms, D A; Butterfield, C P

    1991-10-01

    Two methods can be used to determine aerodynamic loads on a rotating wind turbine blade. The first is to make direct pressure measurements on the blade surface. This is a difficult process requiring costly pressure instrumentation. The second method uses measured flap bending moments in conjunction with analytical techniques to estimate airloads. This method, called ALEST, was originally developed for use on helicopter rotors and was modified for use on horizontal axis wind turbine blades. Estimating airloads using flap bending moments in much simpler and less costly because measurements can be made with conventional strain gages and equipment. This paper presents results of airload estimates obtained using both methods under a variety of operating conditions. Insights on the limitations and usefulness of the ALEST bending moment technique are also included. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Analysis of microwave backscatter measured by radar altimeter on land to study surface aerodynamic roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Le; Liu, Qinhuo

    2012-10-01

    The aerodynamic surface roughness z0 is a key parameter for climate and land-surface models to study surfaceatmosphere exchanges of mass and energy. The roughness length is difficult to estimate without wind speed profile data, which is intractable at regional to global scale. Theoretical formulations of roughness have been developed in terms of canopy attributes such as frontal area, height, and drag coefficient. This paper discusses the potential of radar altimetry, which provides the backscatter coefficient of the land surface at nadir view, to characterise the surface roughness at km scale. The AIEM model and ProSARproSIM are employed to simulate the backscatter coefficient under different surface condition and different observation geometry at bare soil and at pine forest, respectively. The altimetry backscatter decreases with increase of geometric roughness. The microwave backscatter measured at the nadir view is more sensitive to the surface roughness than that at the oblique observation, especially for the smooth surface. The direct forest return is the dominated scattering mechanism for normal incidence at forest area. Since we failed to collect the z0 measurement at arid and semi-arid area with sparse vegetation, the backscatter measurements at Ku and C band of altimeter Jason1 were analyzed with the ground measured aerodynamic surface roughness at three vegetated sites (Da yekou, Yin ke, and Chang Baisan) of China. The relationships we found between Jason1 sigma0 and z0 is not significant, since Jason1 lost track seriously at the three sites. Further research using the altimeter data of Jason2 and Cryosat is possible to demonstrate the potential to map z0 from orbit using radar altimeters.

  18. TEPC measurements obtained on the Mir space station.

    PubMed

    Bottollier-Depois, J F; Siegrist, M; Petrov, V M; Shurshakov, V V; Bengin, V; Koslova, S B

    2002-10-01

    Measurements of the radiation environment inside the Mir space station were performed with a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) during the Antares mission in 1992, and over a long period following it. Interesting results concerning radiation measurements show (a) the South Atlantic Anomaly crossing, (b) the increase of radiation near the poles, and (c) the effects of solar particle events (the most important one occurring in early November 1992). This data also provides information about the dose and the quality factor of the radiation to which the cosmonauts were exposed during different missions. These data are compared with measurements obtained using a solid state detector. PMID:12442744

  19. Periods found in heat measurements obtained by calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, K.C.

    1984-02-28

    During a span of 640 days, a periodicity of 1.5158 +- 0.0008 days was discovered in successive heater equilibria on Calorimeter No. 127. Measurements were taken at 12-h intervals, with occasional changes of exactly 3 or 6 h in the schedule of measurements. This schedule eliminated all other possible periods except a period of 0.150156 days. Periods of 1.519125 and 1.511283 days were discovered in data on the excess length of day as obtained by the US Naval Observatory over a period of 24 y. These two periods could equally well represent periods of 0.150189 and 0.150112 days, since measurements were obtained only once every 24 h. It is suggested that periods observed in sensitive calorimeters and in length of day data may be related. 1 reference, 6 figures, 5 tables.

  20. Moving-model technique used in automobile aerodynamics for measurement of ground effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papenfuss, H. D.; Kronast, M.

    1991-05-01

    Efforts are currently underway in many laboratories to simulate correctly the ground effects which occur in windtunnels used for studies in automobile aerodynamics. An experimental approach which is sometimes used, the moving belt technique, is both complicated and expensive. On the other hand, if the model is rapidly accelerated along a stationary rail by a pneumatic launch system, the relative motion between the car and the road is simulated in an optimum manner with less effort and lower costs. The practical advantages and disadvantages of the moving-model technique in comparison with the moving belt in a windtunnel are discussed. Using a two-dimensional model car, the effect of the ground on the body pressure distribution was investigated. In addition, the distribution of the pressure on the surface of the ground board and the velocity profiles underneath the model were measured.

  1. Comparing turbulent parameters obtained from LITOS and radiosonde measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A.; Gerding, M.; Lübken, F.-J.

    2015-02-01

    Stratospheric turbulence is important for the mixing of trace species and the energy balance, but direct measurements are sparse due to the required resolution and accuracy. Recently, turbulence parameters such as the energy dissipation rate ɛ were inferred from standard radiosonde data by means of a Thorpe analysis. To this end, layers with vertically decreasing potential temperature are analysed, which is expected to indicate turbulence. Such an application assumes a proportionality between the Thorpe length LT and the Ozmidov scale LO. While this relation is accepted for the ocean, experimental evidence for such proportionality in the stratosphere is sparse. We have developed a high-resolution (8 kHz) turbulence measurement system called LITOS (Leibniz Institute Turbulence Observations in the Stratosphere), which for the first time resolves the inner scale of turbulence in the stratosphere. Therewith the energy dissipation rate ɛ can be determined by spectral analysis. This independent value for ɛ enables us to check the relation LO ∝ LT. In our measurements no such proportionality can be seen, although the mean of the ratio LO/LT is close to what is assumed in radiosonde analyses. Dissipation rates for individual layers obtained from radiosondes deviate up to a factor of ~3000 from those obtained by spectral analysis. Some turbulent layers measured by LITOS are not observed by the radiosonde at all, and vice versa. However, statements about the statistical mean seem to be possible by Thorpe analysis.

  2. How to obtain traceability on optical radiation measurements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matamoros García, Carlos H.

    2006-02-01

    Traceability to national standards provides confidence in measurements results, granting a guaranty when carrying out governmental rules and when demonstrating conformity with quality requirements such as ISO 9000 or ISO/IEC 17025 (and the Mexican equivalent standards). The appropriate traceability contributes with confidence of the quality of products or services. This paper presents different ways to obtain traceability in Mexico for the optical radiation measurements, mentioning some applications, and highlighting the necessity of having traceability to the appropriate units of the SI. Additionally it present the national standards maintained by Centro Nacional de Metrologia (CENAM), the national metrology institute in Mexico, that give the technical support to Mexican measurements in this field and the international recognition that the personal of the Optics and Radiometry Division had gained in 10 years of development.

  3. Comparison of aerodynamic data measured in air and Freon-12 wind-tunnel test mediums

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weller, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out to measure two dimensional static aerodynamic characteristics of a 65 sub l-213 airfoil in air and Freon-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane) test mediums at corresponding test conditions. The purpose of the tests was to compare measurements in the two test mediums and to evaluate reported methods of converting Freon-12 data to equivalent air values. The test article was a two dimensional wing instrumented to measure chordwise surface pressure distributions. The parameters considered were Mach numbers from 0.6 to 1.0, angles of attack of zero deg and 1 deg, and Reynolds numbers based on model chord from 2,000,000 to 21,000,000. The agreement between data measured in the two test mediums is further improved by application of the transonic or area ratio similarity laws. Where flow conditions are characterized by surface shocks or stall, the effects of flow separation may not be identically reflected in the Freon-12 data, even when converted in accordance with existing similarity laws.

  4. Field comparison of an eddy accumulation and an aerodynamic-gradient system for measuring pesticide volatilization fluxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majewski, M.; Desjardina, R.; Rochette, P.; Pattey, E.; Selber, J.; Glotfelty, D.

    1993-01-01

    The field experiment reported here applied the relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) technique to the measurement of triallate (TA) and trifluralin (TF) volatilization from fallow soil. A critical analysis of the REA system used in this experiment is done, and the fluxes are compared to those obtained by the aerodynamic-gradient (AG) technique. The measured cumulative volatilization losses, corrected for the effective upwind source area (footprint), for the AG system were higher than with the REA system. The differences between the methods over the first 5 days of the experiment were 27 and 13% for TA and TF, respectively. A mass balance based on the amount of parent compounds volatilized from soil during the first 5 days of the experiment showed a 110 and 70% and a 79 and 61% accountability for triallate and trifluralin by the AG and REA methods, respectively. These results also show that the non-footprint-corrected AG flux values underestimated the volatilization flux by approximately 16%. The footprint correction model used in this experiment does not presently have the capability of accounting for changes in atmospheric stability. However, these values still provide an indication of the most likely upwind area affecting the evaporative flux estimations. The soil half-lives for triallate and trifluralin were 9.8 and 7.0 days, respectively. ?? 1992 American Chemical Society.

  5. Aerodynamic drag on intermodal railcars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinghorn, Philip; Maynes, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    The aerodynamic drag associated with transport of commodities by rail is becoming increasingly important as the cost of diesel fuel increases. This study aims to increase the efficiency of intermodal cargo trains by reducing the aerodynamic drag on the load carrying cars. For intermodal railcars a significant amount of aerodynamic drag is a result of the large distance between loads that often occurs and the resulting pressure drag resulting from the separated flow. In the present study aerodynamic drag data have been obtained through wind tunnel testing on 1/29 scale models to understand the savings that may be realized by judicious modification to the size of the intermodal containers. The experiments were performed in the BYU low speed wind tunnel and the test track utilizes two leading locomotives followed by a set of five articulated well cars with double stacked containers. The drag on a representative mid-train car is measured using an isolated load cell balance and the wind tunnel speed is varied from 20 to 100 mph. We characterize the effect that the gap distance between the containers and the container size has on the aerodynamic drag of this representative rail car and investigate methods to reduce the gap distance.

  6. Inflow Characterization and Aerodynamics Measurements on a SWT-2.3-101 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, P.; Singh, M.; Johansen, J.; Jove, A. R.; Fingersh, L.; Schreck, S.

    2012-01-01

    Post processing techniques for aerodynamic data acquired from a Siemens SWT-2.3101 turbine have been developed and applied in this paper. The turbine is installed at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as part of Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between Siemens Wind Power and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship. The results indicate that the use of these corrections is essential for accurate analysis of the data. An example of local inflow angles, velocities, and inflow velocity over the rotor plane derived from measurements from a 5-hole probe is also presented. Finally, the pressure measurements are used to characterize unsteady phenomenon, namely, rotational augmentation and dynamic stall on an inboard station. The results show that the rotational augmentation can considerably increase the attached flow regime compared to the 2D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results. The dynamic stall event was seen to significantly delay the stall. Furthermore, the non-dimensionalized vortex convection derived from the dynamic stall event was found to agree well with results from others studies.

  7. Inflow Characterization and Aerodynamics Measurements on a SWT-2.3-101 Wind Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, P.; Singh, M.; Johansen, J.; Jove, A.; Fingersh, L.; Schreck, S.

    2012-01-01

    Post processing techniques for aerodynamic data acquired from a Siemens SWT-2.3-101 turbine have been developed and applied in this paper. The turbine is installed at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as part of Cooperative Research And Development Agreement between Siemens Wind Power and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship. The results indicate that the use of these corrections is essential for accurate analysis of the data. An example of local inflow angles, velocities, and inflow velocity over the rotor plane derived from measurements from a 5-hole probe is also presented. Finally the pressure measurements are used to characterize unsteady phenomenon, namely, rotational augmentation and dynamic stall on an inboard station. The results show that the rotational augmentation can considerably increase the attached flow regime compared to the 2D CFD results. The dynamic stall event was seen to significantly delay the stall. Furthermore, the nondimensionalized vortex convection derived from the dynamic stall event was found to agree well with results from others studies.

  8. Measurements of Primary Biogenic Aerosol Particles with an Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UVAPS) During AMAZE-08

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollny, A. G.; Garland, R.; Pöschl, U.

    2008-12-01

    Biogenic aerosols are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and they influence atmospheric chemistry and physics, the biosphere, climate, and public health. They play an important role in the spread of biological organisms and reproductive materials, and they can cause or enhance human, animal, and plant diseases. Moreover, they influence the Earth's energy budget by scattering and absorbing radiation, and they can initiate the formation of clouds and precipitation as cloud condensation and ice nuclei. The composition, abundance, and origin of biogenic aerosol particles and components are, however, still not well understood and poorly quantified. Prominent examples of primary biogenic aerosol particles, which are directly emitted from the biosphere to the atmosphere, are pollen, bacteria, fungal spores, viruses, and fragments of animals and plants. During the AMazonian Aerosol CharacteriZation Experiment (AMAZE-08) a large number of aerosol and gas-phase measurements were taken on a remote site close to Manaus, Brazil, during a period of five weeks in February and March 2008. The presented study is focused on data from an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS, TSI inc.) that has been deployed for the first time in Amazonia. In this instrument, particle counting and aerodynamic sizing over the range of 0.5-20 μm are complemented by the measurement of UV fluorescence at 355 nm (excitation) and 420-575 nm (emission), respectively. Fluorescence at these wavelengths is characteristic for reduced pyridine nucleotides (e.g., NAD(P)H) and for riboflavin, which are specific for living cells. Thus particles exhibiting fluorescence signals can be regarded as 'viable aerosols' or 'fluorescent bioparticles' (FBAP), and their concentration can be considered as lower limit for the actual abundance of primary biogenic aerosol particles. First data analyses show a pronounced peak of FBAP at diameters around 2-3 μm. In this size range the biogenic particle fraction was

  9. Aerodynamic Measurements of a Variable-Speed Power-Turbine Blade Section in a Transonic Turbine Cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to document the impact of incidence angle and Reynolds number variations on the three-dimensional flow field and midspan loss and turning of a two-dimensional section of a variable-speed power-turbine (VSPT) rotor blade. Aerodynamic measurements were obtained in a transonic linear cascade at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Steady-state data were obtained for 10 incidence angles ranging from +15.8deg to -51.0deg. At each angle, data were acquired at five flow conditions with the exit Reynolds number (based on axial chord) varying over an order-of-magnitude from 2.12×105 to 2.12×106. Data were obtained at the design exit Mach number of 0.72 and at a reduced exit Mach number of 0.35 as required to achieve the lowest Reynolds number. Midspan tota lpressure and exit flow angle data were acquired using a five-hole pitch/yaw probe surveyed on a plane located 7.0 percent axial-chord downstream of the blade trailing edge plane. The survey spanned three blade passages. Additionally, three-dimensional half-span flow fields were examined with additional probe survey data acquired at 26 span locations for two key incidence angles of +5.8deg and -36.7deg. Survey data near the endwall were acquired with a three-hole boundary-layer probe. The data were integrated to determine average exit total-pressure and flow angle as functions of incidence and flow conditions. The data set also includes blade static pressures measured on four spanwise planes and endwall static pressures.

  10. Comparison between Measurements Obtained with three Different Perineometers

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Patrícia Brentegani; Franco, Maíra Menezes; de Oliveira Souza, Flaviane; Antônio, Flávia Ignácio; Montezuma, Thaís; Ferreira, Cristine Homsi Jorge

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the results obtained in the evaluation of intra-vaginal pressure using three different brands of perineometers in nulliparous volunteers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty nulliparous women with no anatomical alterations and/or dysfunction of the pelvic floor were enrolled in our study. All the women had the ability to voluntarily contract their PFM (Pelvic Floor Muscles), as assessed by digital palpation. The intra-vaginal pressure was assessed using three different brands of perineometer (Neurodyn Evolution™, SensuPower™ and Peritron™). Each volunteer was evaluated on three alternate days by a single examiner using a single brand of perineometer on each day. In the assessment, the volunteers were required to pull (contract) their PFM in and up as strongly as possible 3 times and to sustain the contraction for 5 seconds, with an interval of 30 seconds between each pull. For the statistical analysis, a concordance correlation coefficient was used to compare the values that were obtained with each brand of perineometer. RESULTS: A moderate concordance (0.51) was found between the results from the Peritron™ and Neurodyn™ perineometers, a fair concordance (0.21) between the Peritron™ and SensuPower™ brands and a poor concordance (0.19) between the Neurodyn™ and SensuPower™ brands. CONCLUSION: The concordance of the measurements of the intra-vaginal pressure ranged from poor to moderate, suggesting that perineometers of different brands generate different results. PMID:19578656

  11. Wing kinematics measurement and aerodynamics of free-flight maneuvers in drone-flies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanlai; Sun, Mao

    2010-06-01

    The time courses of wing and body kinematics of two free-flying drone-flies, as they performed saccades, were measured using 3D high-speed video, and the morphological parameters of the wings and body of the insects were also measured. The measured wing kinematics was used in a Navier-Stokes solver to compute the aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the insects. The main results are as following. (1) The turn is mainly a 90° change of heading. It is made in about 10 wingbeats (about 55 ms). It is of interest to note that the number of wingbeats taken to make the turn is approximately the same as and the turning time is only a little different from that of fruitflies measured recently by the same approach, even if the weight of the droneflies is more than 100 times larger than that of the fruitflies. The long axis of body is about 40° from the horizontal during the maneuver. (2) Although the body rotation is mainly about a vertical axis, a relatively large moment around the yaw axis (axis perpendicular to the long axis of body), called as yaw moment, is mainly needed for the turn, because moment of inertial of the body about the yaw axis is much larger than that about the long axis. (3) The yaw moment is mainly produced by changes in wing angles of attack: in a right turn, for example, the dronefly lets its right wing to have a rather large angle of attack in the downstroke (generally larger than 50°) and a small one in the upstroke to start the turn, and lets its left wing to do so to stop the turn, unlike the fruitflies who generate the yaw moment mainly by changes in the stroke plane and stroke amplitude.

  12. Reference values and improvement of aerodynamic drag in professional cyclists.

    PubMed

    García-López, Juan; Rodríguez-Marroyo, José Antonio; Juneau, Carl-Etienne; Peleteiro, José; Martínez, Alfredo Córdova; Villa, José Gerardo

    2008-02-01

    The aims of this study were to measure the aerodynamic drag in professional cyclists, to obtain aerodynamic drag reference values in static and effort positions, to improve the cyclists' aerodynamic drag by modifying their position and cycle equipment, and to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of these modifications. The study was performed in a wind tunnel with five professional cyclists. Four positions were assessed with a time-trial bike and one position with a standard racing bike. In all positions, aerodynamic drag and kinematic variables were recorded. The drag area for the time-trial bike was 31% higher in the effort than static position, and lower than for the standard racing bike. Changes in the cyclists' position decreased the aerodynamic drag by 14%. The aero-helmet was not favourable for all cyclists. The reliability of aerodynamic drag measures in the wind tunnel was high (r > 0.96, coefficient of variation < 2%). In conclusion, we measured and improved the aerodynamic drag in professional cyclists. Our results were better than those of other researchers who did not assess aerodynamic drag during effort at race pace and who employed different wheels. The efficiency of the aero-helmet, and the validity, reliability, and sensitivity of the wind tunnel and aerodynamic field testing were addressed.

  13. Simultaneous measurement of aerodynamic forces and kinematics in flapping wings of tethered locust.

    PubMed

    Shkarayev, Sergey; Kumar, Rajeev

    2015-12-01

    Aerodynamic and inertial forces and corresponding kinematics of flapping wings of locusts, Schistocerca americana, were investigated in a low-speed wind tunnel. The experimental setup included live locusts mounted on microbalance synchronized with a high-speed video system. Simultaneous measurements of wing kinematics and forces were carried out on three locusts at 7° angle of attack and velocities of 0 m s(-1) and 4 m s(-1). Time variations of flapping and pitching angles exhibit similar patterns in fore- and hindwings and among the animals. Significant tip to root variations in pitching angle are found in both wings. The locusts have much larger flapping and pitching amplitudes in still air causing larger oscillations in inertial forces. Inertial forces are added to the lift and thrust on one part of the stroke, resulting in higher reaction forces and subtracted on the other part. Plots of the lift demonstrate similar trends with and without the wind. The global maxima and peak-to-peak amplitudes in lift are about the same in both tests. However, local minima are significantly lower in still air, resulting in much smaller stroke-averaged lift. Amplitudes of thrust force oscillations are much higher in still air; consequently, the stroke-averaged thrust is higher compared to the non-zero freestream velocity case. PMID:26496206

  14. Simultaneous measurement of aerodynamic forces and kinematics in flapping wings of tethered locust.

    PubMed

    Shkarayev, Sergey; Kumar, Rajeev

    2015-10-23

    Aerodynamic and inertial forces and corresponding kinematics of flapping wings of locusts, Schistocerca americana, were investigated in a low-speed wind tunnel. The experimental setup included live locusts mounted on microbalance synchronized with a high-speed video system. Simultaneous measurements of wing kinematics and forces were carried out on three locusts at 7° angle of attack and velocities of 0 m s(-1) and 4 m s(-1). Time variations of flapping and pitching angles exhibit similar patterns in fore- and hindwings and among the animals. Significant tip to root variations in pitching angle are found in both wings. The locusts have much larger flapping and pitching amplitudes in still air causing larger oscillations in inertial forces. Inertial forces are added to the lift and thrust on one part of the stroke, resulting in higher reaction forces and subtracted on the other part. Plots of the lift demonstrate similar trends with and without the wind. The global maxima and peak-to-peak amplitudes in lift are about the same in both tests. However, local minima are significantly lower in still air, resulting in much smaller stroke-averaged lift. Amplitudes of thrust force oscillations are much higher in still air; consequently, the stroke-averaged thrust is higher compared to the non-zero freestream velocity case.

  15. Wing-kinematics measurement and aerodynamics in a small insect in hovering flight.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xin; Sun, Mao

    2016-01-01

    Wing-motion of hovering small fly Liriomyza sativae was measured using high-speed video and flows of the wings calculated numerically. The fly used high wingbeat frequency (≈265 Hz) and large stroke amplitude (≈182°); therefore, even if its wing-length (R) was small (R ≈ 1.4 mm), the mean velocity of wing reached ≈1.5 m/s, the same as that of an average-size insect (R ≈ 3 mm). But the Reynolds number (Re) of wing was still low (≈40), owing to the small wing-size. In increasing the stroke amplitude, the outer parts of the wings had a "clap and fling" motion. The mean-lift coefficient was high, ≈1.85, several times larger than that of a cruising airplane. The partial "clap and fling" motion increased the lift by ≈7%, compared with the case of no aerodynamic interaction between the wings. The fly mainly used the delayed stall mechanism to generate the high-lift. The lift-to-drag ratio is only 0.7 (for larger insects, Re being about 100 or higher, the ratio is 1-1.2); that is, although the small fly can produce enough lift to support its weight, it needs to overcome a larger drag to do so. PMID:27168523

  16. Wing-kinematics measurement and aerodynamics in a small insect in hovering flight.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xin; Sun, Mao

    2016-05-11

    Wing-motion of hovering small fly Liriomyza sativae was measured using high-speed video and flows of the wings calculated numerically. The fly used high wingbeat frequency (≈265 Hz) and large stroke amplitude (≈182°); therefore, even if its wing-length (R) was small (R ≈ 1.4 mm), the mean velocity of wing reached ≈1.5 m/s, the same as that of an average-size insect (R ≈ 3 mm). But the Reynolds number (Re) of wing was still low (≈40), owing to the small wing-size. In increasing the stroke amplitude, the outer parts of the wings had a "clap and fling" motion. The mean-lift coefficient was high, ≈1.85, several times larger than that of a cruising airplane. The partial "clap and fling" motion increased the lift by ≈7%, compared with the case of no aerodynamic interaction between the wings. The fly mainly used the delayed stall mechanism to generate the high-lift. The lift-to-drag ratio is only 0.7 (for larger insects, Re being about 100 or higher, the ratio is 1-1.2); that is, although the small fly can produce enough lift to support its weight, it needs to overcome a larger drag to do so.

  17. Wing-kinematics measurement and aerodynamics in a small insect in hovering flight

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xin; Sun, Mao

    2016-01-01

    Wing-motion of hovering small fly Liriomyza sativae was measured using high-speed video and flows of the wings calculated numerically. The fly used high wingbeat frequency (≈265 Hz) and large stroke amplitude (≈182°); therefore, even if its wing-length (R) was small (R ≈ 1.4 mm), the mean velocity of wing reached ≈1.5 m/s, the same as that of an average-size insect (R ≈ 3 mm). But the Reynolds number (Re) of wing was still low (≈40), owing to the small wing-size. In increasing the stroke amplitude, the outer parts of the wings had a “clap and fling” motion. The mean-lift coefficient was high, ≈1.85, several times larger than that of a cruising airplane. The partial “clap and fling” motion increased the lift by ≈7%, compared with the case of no aerodynamic interaction between the wings. The fly mainly used the delayed stall mechanism to generate the high-lift. The lift-to-drag ratio is only 0.7 (for larger insects, Re being about 100 or higher, the ratio is 1–1.2); that is, although the small fly can produce enough lift to support its weight, it needs to overcome a larger drag to do so. PMID:27168523

  18. Open Source Software Openfoam as a New Aerodynamical Simulation Tool for Rocket-Borne Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staszak, T.; Brede, M.; Strelnikov, B.

    2015-09-01

    The only way to do in-situ measurements, which are very important experimental studies for atmospheric science, in the mesoshere/lower thermosphere (MLT) is to use sounding rockets. The drawback of using rockets is the shock wave appearing because of the very high speed of the rocket motion (typically about 1000 mIs). This shock wave disturbs the density, the temperature and the velocity fields in the vicinity of the rocket, compared to undisturbed values of the atmosphere. This effect, however, can be quantified and the measured data has to be corrected not just to make it more precise but simply usable. The commonly accepted and widely used tool for this calculations is the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique developed by GA. Bird which is available as stand-alone program limited to use a single processor. Apart from complications with simulations of flows around bodies related to different flow regimes in the altitude range of MLT, that rise due to exponential density change by several orders of magnitude, a particular hardware configuration introduces significant difficulty for aerodynamical calculations due to choice of the grid sizes mainly depending on the demands on adequate DSMCs and good resolution of geometries with scale differences of factor of iO~. This makes either the calculation time unreasonably long or even prevents the calculation algorithm from converging. In this paper we apply the free open source software OpenFOAM (licensed under GNU GPL) for a three-dimensional CFD-Simulation of a flow around a sounding rocket instrumentation. An advantage of this software package, among other things, is that it can run on high performance clusters, which are easily scalable. We present the first results and discuss the potential of the new tool in applications for sounding rockets.

  19. Aerodynamic Decelerators for Planetary Exploration: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Juna R.; Lingard, J. Stephen

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, aerodynamic decelerators are defined as textile devices intended to be deployed at Mach numbers below five. Such aerodynamic decelerators include parachutes and inflatable aerodynamic decelerators (often known as ballutes). Aerodynamic decelerators play a key role in the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) of planetary exploration vehicles. Among the functions performed by aerodynamic decelerators for such vehicles are deceleration (often from supersonic to subsonic speeds), minimization of descent rate, providing specific descent rates (so that scientific measurements can be obtained), providing stability (drogue function - either to prevent aeroshell tumbling or to meet instrumentation requirements), effecting further aerodynamic decelerator system deployment (pilot function), providing differences in ballistic coefficients of components to enable separation events, and providing height and timeline to allow for completion of the EDL sequence. Challenging aspects in the development of aerodynamic decelerators for planetary exploration missions include: deployment in the unusual combination of high Mach numbers and low dynamic pressures, deployment in the wake behind a blunt-body entry vehicle, stringent mass and volume constraints, and the requirement for high drag and stability. Furthermore, these aerodynamic decelerators must be qualified for flight without access to the exotic operating environment where they are expected to operate. This paper is an introduction to the development and application of aerodynamic decelerators for robotic planetary exploration missions (including Earth sample return missions) from the earliest work in the 1960s to new ideas and technologies with possible application to future missions. An extensive list of references is provided for additional study.

  20. The influence of wing, fuselage and tail design on rotational flow aerodynamics data obtained beyond maximum lift with general aviation configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bihrle, W., Jr.; Bowman, J. S., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center has initiated a broad general aviation stall/spin research program. A rotary balance system was developed to support this effort. Located in the Langley spin tunnel, this system makes it possible to identify an airplane's aerodynamic characteristics in a rotational flow environment, and thereby permits prediction of spins. This paper presents a brief description of the experimental set-up, testing technique, five model programs conducted to date, and an overview of the rotary balance results and their correlation with spin tunnel free-spinning model results. It is shown, for example, that there is a large, nonlinear dependency of the aerodynamic moments on rotational rate and that these moments are pronouncedly configuration-dependent. Fuselage shape, horizontal tail and, in some instances, wing location are shown to appreciably influence the yawing moment characteristics above an angle of attack of 45 deg.

  1. Aerodynamic potpourri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Aerodynamic developments for vertical axis and horizontal axis wind turbines are given that relate to the performance and aerodynamic loading of these machines. Included are: (1) a fixed wake aerodynamic model of the Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine; (2) experimental results that suggest the existence of a laminar flow Darrieus vertical axis turbine; (3) a simple aerodynamic model for the turbulent windmill/vortex ring state of horizontal axis rotors; and (4) a yawing moment of a rigid hub horizontal axis wind turbine that is related to blade coning.

  2. Aerodynamic potpourri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. E.

    1981-05-01

    Aerodynamic developments for vertical axis and horizontal axis wind turbines are given that relate to the performance and aerodynamic loading of these machines. Included are: (1) a fixed wake aerodynamic model of the Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine; (2) experimental results that suggest the existence of a laminar flow Darrieus vertical axis turbine; (3) a simple aerodynamic model for the turbulent windmill/vortex ring state of horizontal axis rotors; and (4) a yawing moment of a rigid hub horizontal axis wind turbine that is related to blade coning.

  3. Aerodynamic characteristics of the modified 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel as measured in a 1/50th-scale model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brian E.; Naumowicz, Tim

    1987-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at Ames Research Center were measured by using a 1/50th-scale facility. The model was configured to closely simulate the features of the full-scale facility when it became operational in 1986. The items measured include the aerodynamic effects due to changes in the total-pressure-loss characteristics of the intake and exhaust openings of the air-exchange system, total-pressure distributions in the flow field at locations around the wind tunnel circuit, the locations of the maximum total-pressure contours, and the aerodynamic changes caused by the installation of the acoustic barrier in the southwest corner of the wind tunnel. The model tests reveal the changes in the aerodynamic performance of the 1986 version of the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel compared with the performance of the 1982 configuration.

  4. Interpreting measurements obtained with the cloud absorption radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The software developed for the analysis of data from the Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) is discussed. The CAR is a multichannel radiometer designed to measure the radiation field in the middle of an optically thick cloud (the diffusion domain). It can also measure the surface albedo and escape function. The instrument currently flies on a C-131A aircraft operated by the University of Washington. Most of this data was collected during the First International satellite cloud climatology project Regional Experiment (FIRE) Marine Stratocumulus Intensive Field Observation program off San Diego during July 1987. Earlier flights of the CAR have also been studied.

  5. Measured and predicted aerodynamic coefficients and shock shapes for Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, William L.

    1989-01-01

    Two scaled models of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle were tested in two air wind tunnels and one CF4 tunnel. The tests were to determine the static longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics, and shock shapes for the configuration in hypersonic continuum flow. The tests were conducted with a range of angle of attack to evaluate the effects of Mach number, Reynolds numbers, and normal shock density ratio.

  6. An Objective Focussing Measure for Acoustically Obtained Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnecki, Krzysztof; Moszyński, Marek; Rojewski, Mirosław

    In scientific literature many parameters of an image sharpness can be defined, that can be used for the evaluation of display energy concentration (EC). This paper proposes a new, simple approach to EC quantitative evaluation in spectrograms, which are used for the analysis and visualization of sonar signals. The presented approach of the global-image EC measure was developed to the evaluation of EC in arbitrary direction (or at an arbitrary angle) and along an arbitrary path that is contained within the displayed area. The proposed measures were used to establish optimum spectrograph parameters, subject to high EC in images, in particular the type and width of the window. Moreover, the paper defines the marginal EC distributions that can be used in sonar signal detection as a support to the main detector.

  7. Aerodynamic Measurements of a Variable-Speed Power-Turbine Blade Section in a Transonic Turbine Cascade at Low Inlet Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flegel-McVetta, Ashlie B.; Giel, Paul W.; Welch, Gerard E.

    2013-01-01

    Aerodynamic measurements obtained in a transonic linear cascade were used to assess the impact of large incidence angle and Reynolds number variations on the 3-D flow field and midspan loss and turning of a 2-D section of a variable-speed power-turbine (VSPT) rotor blade. Steady-state data were obtained for ten incidence angles ranging from +15.8 deg to -51.0 deg. At each angle, data were acquired at five flow conditions with the exit Reynolds number (based on axial chord) varying over an order-of-magnitude from 2.12×10(exp 5) to 2.12×10(exp 6). Data were obtained at the design exit Mach number of 0.72 and at a reduced exit Mach number of 0.35 as required to achieve the lowest Reynolds number. Midspan total-pressure and exit flow angle data were acquired using a five-hole pitch/yaw probe surveyed on a plane located 7.0 percent axial chord downstream of the blade trailing edge plane. The survey spanned three blade passages. Additionally, three-dimensional half-span flow fields were examined with additional probe survey data acquired at 26 span locations for two key incidence angles of +5.8 deg and -36.7 deg. Survey data near the endwall were acquired with a three-hole boundary-layer probe. The data were integrated to determine average exit total-pressure and flow angle as functions of incidence and flow conditions. The data set also includes blade static pressures measured on four spanwise planes and endwall static pressures. Tests were conducted in the NASA Glenn Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility. The measurements reflect strong secondary flows associated with the high aerodynamic loading levels at large positive incidence angles and an increase in loss levels with decreasing Reynolds number. The secondary flows decrease with negative incidence as the blade becomes unloaded. Transitional flow is admitted in this low inlet turbulence dataset, making it a challenging CFD test case. The dataset will be used to advance understanding of the aerodynamic

  8. Measurement results obtained from air quality monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Turzanski, P.K.; Beres, R.

    1995-12-31

    An automatic system of air pollution monitoring operates in Cracow since 1991. The organization, assembling and start-up of the network is a result of joint efforts of the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Cracow environmental protection service. At present the automatic monitoring network is operated by the Provincial Inspection of Environmental Protection. There are in total seven stationary stations situated in Cracow to measure air pollution. These stations are supported continuously by one semi-mobile (transportable) station. It allows to modify periodically the area under investigation and therefore the 3-dimensional picture of creation and distribution of air pollutants within Cracow area could be more intelligible.

  9. Obtaining environmental measures to facilitate vertebrate habitat modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, J.W.; Wright, N.M.; Heglund, P.J.; Scott, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Published literature generally lacks habitat information needed to adequately model the habitats of most wildlife species at large scales (>1:100,000). We searched in primary and secondary literature for occurrence of several potentially useful habitat measures for 20 species of interest to the Idaho Department of Fish and Game. We found adequate information for modeling only the habitats of certain game species and species of special interest. We suggest that many more researchers could collect simple habitat information regarding vegetation composition and structure, topographic features, soils, temperature, and distance to special landscape features such that current research expenses would not be increased significantly. We recommend that habitat data be consistently reported in peer-reviewed literature or deposited into a central data repository. This will not only help fill the gaps in our current knowledge of wildlife but also place it in a format that is readily accessible by the scientific community.

  10. The Aerodynamic Drag of Flying-boat Hull Model as Measured in the NACA 20-foot Wind Tunnel I.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Edwin P

    1935-01-01

    Measurements of aerodynamic drag were made in the 20-foot wind tunnel on a representative group of 11 flying-boat hull models. Four of the models were modified to investigate the effect of variations in over-all height, contours of deck, depth of step, angle of afterbody keel, and the addition of spray strips and windshields. The results of these tests, which cover a pitch-angle range from -5 to 10 degrees, are presented in a form suitable for use in performance calculations and for design purposes.

  11. Helium measurements of pore-fluids obtained from SAFOD drillcore

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S.; Stute, M.; Torgersen, T.; Winckler, G.; Kennedy, B.M.

    2010-04-15

    {sup 4}He accumulated in fluids is a well established geochemical tracer used to study crustal fluid dynamics. Direct fluid samples are not always collectable; therefore, a method to extract rare gases from matrix fluids of whole rocks by diffusion has been adapted. Helium was measured on matrix fluids extracted from sandstones and mudstones recovered during the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling in California, USA. Samples were typically collected as subcores or from drillcore fragments. Helium concentration and isotope ratios were measured 4-6 times on each sample, and indicate a bulk {sup 4}He diffusion coefficient of 3.5 {+-} 1.3 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} at 21 C, compared to previously published diffusion coefficients of 1.2 x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (21 C) to 3.0 x 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (150 C) in the sands and clays. Correcting the diffusion coefficient of {sup 4}He{sub water} for matrix porosity ({approx}3%) and tortuosity ({approx}6-13) produces effective diffusion coefficients of 1 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (21 C) and 1 x 10{sup -7} (120 C), effectively isolating pore fluid {sup 4}He from the {sup 4}He contained in the rock matrix. Model calculations indicate that <6% of helium initially dissolved in pore fluids was lost during the sampling process. Complete and quantitative extraction of the pore fluids provide minimum in situ porosity values for sandstones 2.8 {+-} 0.4% (SD, n=4) and mudstones 3.1 {+-} 0.8% (SD, n=4).

  12. Evaluation of Rotor Structural and Aerodynamic Loads using Measured Blade Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Sung N.; You, Young-Hyun; Lau, Benton H.; Johnson, Wayne; Lim, Joon W.

    2012-01-01

    The structural properties of Higher harmonic Aeroacoustic Rotor Test (HART I) blades have been measured using the original set of blades tested in the wind tunnel in 1994. A comprehensive rotor dynamics analysis is performed to address the effect of the measured blade properties on airloads, blade motions, and structural loads of the rotor. The measurements include bending and torsion stiffness, geometric offsets, and mass and inertia properties of the blade. The measured properties are correlated against the estimated values obtained initially by the manufacturer of the blades. The previously estimated blade properties showed consistently higher stiffnesses, up to 30% for the flap bending in the blade inboard root section. The measured offset between the center of gravity and the elastic axis is larger by about 5% chord length, as compared with the estimated value. The comprehensive rotor dynamics analysis was carried out using the measured blade property set for HART I rotor with and without HHC (Higher Harmonic Control) pitch inputs. A significant improvement on blade motions and structural loads is obtained with the measured blade properties.

  13. High-temperature deformation field measurement by combining transient aerodynamic heating simulation system and reliability-guided digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Bing; Wu, Dafang; Xia, Yong

    2010-09-01

    To determine the full-field high-temperature thermal deformation of the structural materials used in high-speed aerospace flight vehicles, a novel non-contact high-temperature deformation measurement system is established by combining transient aerodynamic heating simulation device with the reliability-guided digital image correlation (RG-DIC). The test planar sample with size varying from several mm 2 to several hundreds mm 2 can be heated from room temperature to 1100 °C rapidly and accurately using the infrared radiator of the transient aerodynamic heating simulation system. The digital images of the test sample surface at various temperatures are recorded using an ordinary optical imaging system. To cope with the possible local decorrelated regions caused by black-body radiation within the deformed images at the temperatures over 450 °C, the RG-DIC technique is used to extract full-field in-plane thermal deformation from the recorded images. In validation test, the thermal deformation fields and the values of coefficient of thermal expansion (CTEs) of a chromiumnickel austenite stainless steel sample from room temperature to 550 °C is measured and compared with the well-established handbook value, confirming the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed technique. The experimental results reveal that the present system using an ordinary optical imaging system, is able to accurately measure full-field thermal deformation of metals and alloys at temperatures not exceeding 600 °C.

  14. Aerodynamics of Shuttle Orbiter at high altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rault, Didier F. G.

    1993-01-01

    The high-altitude/high-Knudsen number aerodynamics of the Shuttle Orbiter are computed from Low-Earth Orbit down to 100 km using three-dimensional direct simulation Monte Carlo and free molecule codes. Results are compared with Blanchard's latest Shuttle aerodynamic model, which is based on in-flight accelerometer measurements, and bridging formula models. Good comparison is observed, except for the normal force and pitching moment coefficients. The present results were obtained for a generic Shuttle geometry configuration corresponding to a zero deflection for all control surfaces.

  15. Flow Quality Measurements in an Aerodynamic Model of NASA Lewis' Icing Research Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canacci, Victor A.; Gonsalez, Jose C.

    1999-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to improve the aerodynamic flow characteristics of the Icing Research Tunnel (IRT), a modular scale model of the facility was fabricated. This 1/10th-scale model was used to gain further understanding of the flow characteristics in the IRT. The model was outfitted with instrumentation and data acquisition systems to determine pressures, velocities, and flow angles in the settling chamber and test section. Parametric flow quality studies involving the insertion and removal of a model of the IRT's distinctive heat exchanger (cooler) and/or of a honeycomb in the settling chamber were performed. These experiments illustrate the resulting improvement or degradation in flow quality.

  16. Aerodynamics of a Party Balloon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2007-01-01

    It is well-known that a party balloon can be made to fly erratically across a room, but it can also be used for quantitative measurements of other aspects of aerodynamics. Since a balloon is light and has a large surface area, even relatively weak aerodynamic forces can be readily demonstrated or measured in the classroom. Accurate measurements…

  17. Structural and aerodynamic loads and performance measurements of an SA349/2 helicopter with an advanced geometry rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffernan, Ruth M.; Gaubert, Michel

    1986-01-01

    A flight test program was conducted to obtain data from an upgraded Gazelle helicopter with an advanced geometry, three bladed rotor. Data were acquired on upper and lower surface chordwise blade pressure, blade bending and torsion moments, and fuselage structural loads. Results are presented from 16 individual flight conditions, including level flights ranging from 10 to 77 m/sec at 50 to 3000 m altitude, turning flights up to 2.0 g, and autorotation. Rotor aerodynamic data include information from 51 pressure transducers distributed chordwise at 75, 88, and 97% radial stations. Individual tranducer pressure coefficients and airfoil section lift and pitching moment coefficients are presented, as are steady state flight condition parameters and time dependence rotor loads. All dynamic data are presented as harmonic analysis coefficients.

  18. AirDyn: an instrumented model-scale helicopter for measuring unsteady aerodynamic loading in airwakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Curran, J.; Padfield, G. D.; Owen, I.

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes the design, calibration and application of an instrument that measures the effects of unsteady air flow (airwake) on a helicopter in flight. The instrument is a 1/54th-scale model helicopter that is mounted on a six-component dynamic force balance to measure the forces and moments that an airwake imposes onto the helicopter; it is therefore an 'Airwake Dynamometer' to which we have given the name AirDyn. The AirDyn has been designed, in particular, to measure the effect of a ship airwake on a helicopter translating over the ship's landing deck. The AirDyn, which has been implemented in a water tunnel, in preference to a wind tunnel, senses the integrated effect of a turbulent airwake on the helicopter, and the resulting unsteady forces and moments are an indication of the workload the pilot would need to exert to counteract these effects in a real helicopter. Binocular sensing elements and semiconductor strain gauges have been adopted to achieve high sensitivity and relatively high stiffness. The compact strain gauge balance is fitted into the helicopter fuselage, and protective coatings and a flexible bellows are used to seal the balance and protect it from the water. The coefficient matrix of the AirDyn has been obtained by static calibrations, while impulse excitation tests have confirmed that its frequency response is suitable for the measurements of unsteady loads. The application of the instrument is illustrated by using it to quantify the effect that a bulky ship mast has on the airwake and thus on a helicopter as it lands onto a simplified ship in a scaled 50 knot headwind.

  19. Aerodynamics of a freely flying owl from PIV measurements in the wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Gida, Hadar; Gurka, Roi; Weihs, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    The mechanisms of the silent flight of owls have been the subject of scientific interest for many decades and a source of inspiration in the context of reducing flight noise. Over millions of years of evolution, owls have produced many specialized configurations to reduce the aerodynamic noise, which is found to be essential for successful hunting of potential prey. Here, we study how the three-dimensional flow field formed over the wing affect the vortical structures develop in the wake of a freely flying owl. We study the unique flight patterns of the Boobook owl; a mid-sized owl, which has the feature of stealth flight during both gliding and flapping flight. The owl was flown in a hypobaric avian wind tunnel at its comfort speed for various flight modes. The wake velocity field was sampled using long duration high speed PIV whilst the wing's kinematics were imaged using high speed video simultaneously with the PIV. The time series velocity maps acquired during few consecutive wingbeat cycles enabled to describe the various flow features as formed at the owl's wake by reconstructing the wake patterns and associate them with the various phases of the wingbeat cycle. The stealthy flight mode, which is a result of noise reduction mechanisms, formed over the wings (presumably by the leading-edge serrations) results in a unique signature in the wake flow field, which is characterized using the present data.

  20. Aerodynamic and acoustical measures of speech, operatic, and Broadway vocal styles in a professional female singer.

    PubMed

    Stone, R E; Cleveland, Thomas F; Sundberg, P Johan; Prokop, Jan

    2003-09-01

    Understanding how the voice is used in different styles of singing is commonly based on intuitive descriptions offered by performers who are proficient in only one style. Such descriptions are debatable, lack reproducibility, and lack scientifically derived explanations of the characteristics. We undertook acoustic and aerodynamic analyses of a female subject with professional experience in both operatic and Broadway styles of singing, who sang examples in these two styles. How representative the examples are of the respective styles was investigated by means of a listening test. Further, as a reference point, we compared the styles with her speech. Variation in styles associated with pitch and vocal loudness was investigated for various parameters: subglottal pressure, closed quotient, glottal leakage, H1-H2 difference (the level difference between the two lowest partials of the source spectrum), and glottal compliance (the ratio between the air volume displaced in a glottal pulse and the subglottal pressure). Formant frequencies, long-term-average spectrum, and vibrato characteristics were also studied. Characteristics of operatic style emerge as distinctly different from Broadway style, the latter being more similar to speaking. PMID:14513952

  1. Aerodynamic measurements of methyl bromide volatilization from tarped and nontarped fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majewski, M.S.; McChesney, M.M.; Woodrow, J.E.; Prueger, J.H.; Seiber, J.N.

    1995-01-01

    Methyl bromide (MeBr) is used extensively in agriculture as a soil fumigant and there is growing concern over the role it may play in the depletion of stratospheric ozone. Methyl bromide is applied using various techniques and very little is known about how much of the applied fumigant volatilizes into the atmosphere after the application. This held study was designed to estimate the post-application methyl bromide volatilization loss rates from two different application practices. The fields were approximately 6 km apart in Monterey County, California, and were treated in conformity with local practices as of 1992. The MeBr was injected at a depth of 25 to 30 cm. One field was covered simultaneously with a high-barrier plastic film tarp during the application, and the other was left uncovered, but the furrows made by the injection shanks were bedded over. Volatilization fluxes were estimated using an aerodynamic-gradient technique immediately following the completion of the application process and continued for 9 d for the tarped held and 6 d for the nontarped field. The cumulative volatilization losses from the tarped field were 22% of the nominal application within the first 5 d of the experiment and about 32% of the nominal application within 9 d including the one day after the tarp was removed on Day 8 after application. In contrast, the nontarped field lost 89% of the nominal application by volatilization in 5 d. The volatilization rate from the tarped field was shown to he significantly lower than the nontarped field at a 95% confidence level.

  2. Aerodynamic measurements of methyl bromide volatilization from tarped and nontarped fields

    SciTech Connect

    Majewski, M.S.; McChesney, M.M.; Woodrow, J.E.; Seiber, J.N.

    1995-07-01

    Methyl bromide (MeBr) is used extensively in agriculture as a soil fumigant and there is growing concern over the role it may play in the depletion of stratospheric ozone. Methyl bromide is applied using various techniques and very little is known about how much of the applied fumigant volatilizes into the atmosphere after the application. This field study was designed to estimate the post-application methyl bromide volatilization loss rates from two different application practices. The fields were approximately 6 km apart in Monterey County, California, and were treated in conformity with local practices as of 1992. The MeBr was injected at a depth of 25 to 30 cm. One field was covered simultaneously with a high-barrier plastic film tarp during the application, and the other was left uncovered, but the furrows made by the injection shanks were bedded over. Volatilization fluxes were estimated using an aerodynamic-gradient technique immediately following the completion of the application process and continued for 9 d for the tarped field and 6 d for the nontarped field. The cumulative volatilization losses from the tarped field were 22% of the nominal application within the first 5 d of the experiment and about 32% of the nominal application within 9 d including the one day after the tarp was removed on Day 8 after application. In contrast, the nontarped field lost 89% of the nominal application by volatilization in 5 d. The volatilization rate from the tarped field was shown to be significantly lower than the nontarped field at a 95% confidence level. 43 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Fluorescent Biological Aerosol Particle Concentrations and Size Distributions Measured with an Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UV-APS) in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffman, J. A.; Treutlein, B.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-12-01

    Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs), including bacteria, spores and pollen, are essential for the spread of organisms and disease in the biosphere, and numerous studies have suggested that they may be important for atmospheric processes, including the formation of clouds and precipitation. The atmospheric abundance and size distribution of PBAPs, however, are largely unknown. At a semi-urban site in Mainz, Germany, we used an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UV-APS) to measure fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAPs), which can be regarded as viable bioaerosol particles representing a lower limit for the actual abundance of PBAPs. Fluorescence of non-biological aerosol components are likely to influence the measurement results obtained for fine particles (< 1 µm), but not for coarse particles (1 - 20 µm). Averaged over the four-month measurement period (August - December 2006), the mean number concentration of coarse FBAPs was ~3x10-2 cm-3, corresponding to ~4% of total coarse particle number [1]. The mean mass concentration of FBAPs was ~1 µg m-3, corresponding to ~20% of total coarse particle mass. The FBAP number size distributions exhibited alternating patterns with peaks at various diameters. A pronounced peak at ~3 µm was essentially always observed and can be described by the following campaign-average lognormal fit parameters: geometric mean diameter 3.2 µm, geometric standard deviation 1.3, number concentration 1.6 x 10-2 cm-3. This peak is likely due to fungal spores or agglomerated bacteria, and it exhibited a pronounced diel cycle with maximum intensity during early/mid-morning. FBAP peaks around ~1.5 µm, ~5 µm, and ~13 µm were also observed, but less pronounced and less frequent. These may be explained by single bacterial cells, larger fungal spores, and pollen grains, respectively. The observed number concentrations and characteristic sizes of FBAPs are consistent with microscopic, biological and chemical analyses of

  4. Fluorescent biological aerosol particle concentrations and size distributions measured with an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UV-APS) in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffman, J. A.; Treutlein, B.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-08-01

    Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs), including bacteria, spores and pollen, are essential for the spread of organisms and disease in the biosphere, and numerous studies have suggested that they may be important for atmospheric processes, including the formation of clouds and precipitation. The atmospheric abundance and size distribution of PBAPs, however, are largely unknown. At a semi-urban site in Mainz, Germany, we used an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UV-APS) to measure fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAPs), which can be regarded as viable bioaerosol particles representing a lower limit for the actual abundance of PBAPs. Fluorescence of non-biological aerosol components are likely to influence the measurement results obtained for fine particles (<1 μm), but not for coarse particles (1-20 μm). Averaged over the four-month measurement period (August-December 2006), the mean number concentration of coarse FBAPs was ~3×10-2 cm-3, corresponding to ~4% of total coarse particle number. The mean mass concentration of FBAPs was ~1 μg m-3, corresponding to ~20% of total coarse particle mass. The FBAP number size distributions exhibited alternating patterns with peaks at various diameters. A pronounced peak at ~3 μm was essentially always observed and can be described by the following campaign-average lognormal fit parameters: geometric mean diameter 3.2 μm, geometric standard deviation 1.3, number concentration 1.6×10-2 cm-3. This peak is likely due to fungal spores or agglomerated bacteria, and it exhibited a pronounced diel cycle with maximum intensity during early/mid-morning. FBAP peaks around ~1.5 μm, ~5 μm, and ~13 μm were also observed, but less pronounced and less frequent. These may be explained by single bacterial cells, larger fungal spores, and pollen grains, respectively. The observed number concentrations and characteristic sizes of FBAPs are consistent with microscopic, biological and chemical analyses of PBAPs in

  5. Fluorescent biological aerosol particle concentrations and size distributions measured with an Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UV-APS) in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffman, J. A.; Treutlein, B.; Pöschl, U.

    2010-04-01

    Primary Biological Aerosol Particles (PBAPs), including bacteria, spores and pollen, are essential for the spread of organisms and disease in the biosphere, and numerous studies have suggested that they may be important for atmospheric processes, including the formation of clouds and precipitation. The atmospheric abundance and size distribution of PBAPs, however, are largely unknown. At a semi-urban site in Mainz, Germany we used an Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UV-APS) to measure Fluorescent Biological Aerosol Particles (FBAPs), which provide an estimate of viable bioaerosol particles and can be regarded as an approximate lower limit for the actual abundance of PBAPs. Fluorescence of non-biological aerosol components are likely to influence the measurement results obtained for fine particles (<1 μm), but not for coarse particles (1-20 μm). Averaged over the four-month measurement period (August-December 2006), the mean number concentration of coarse FBAPs was ~3×10-2 cm-3, corresponding to ~4% of total coarse particle number. The mean mass concentration of FBAPs was ~1μg m-3, corresponding to ~20% of total coarse particle mass. The FBAP number size distributions exhibited alternating patterns with peaks at various diameters. A pronounced peak at ~3 μm was essentially always observed and can be described by the following campaign-average lognormal fit parameters: geometric mean diameter 3.2 μm, geometric standard deviation 1.3, number concentration 1.6×10-2 cm-3. This peak is likely due to fungal spores or agglomerated bacteria, and it exhibited a pronounced diel cycle (24-h) with maximum intensity during early/mid-morning. FBAP peaks around ~1.5 μm, ~5 μm, and ~13 μm were also observed, but less pronounced and less frequent. These may be single bacterial cells, larger fungal spores, and pollen grains, respectively. The observed number concentrations and characteristic sizes of FBAPs are consistent with microscopic, biological and chemical

  6. Deriving simple empirical relationships between aerodynamic and optical aerosol measurements and their application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different measurement techniques for aerosol characterization and quantification either directly or indirectly measure different aerosol properties (i.e. count, mass, speciation, etc.). Comparisons and combinations of multiple measurement techniques sampling the same aerosol can provide insight into...

  7. Aerodynamic gradient measurements of the NH3-HNO3-NH4NO3 triad using a wet chemical instrument: an analysis of precision requirements and flux errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, V.; Trebs, I.; Ammann, C.; Meixner, F. X.

    2010-02-01

    The aerodynamic gradient method is widely used for flux measurements of ammonia, nitric acid, particulate ammonium nitrate (the NH3-HNO3-NH4NO3 triad) and other water-soluble reactive trace compounds. The surface exchange flux is derived from a measured concentration difference and micrometeorological quantities (turbulent exchange coefficient). The significance of the measured concentration difference is crucial for the significant determination of surface exchange fluxes. Additionally, measurements of surface exchange fluxes of ammonia, nitric acid and ammonium nitrate are often strongly affected by phase changes between gaseous and particulate compounds of the triad, which make measurements of the four individual species (NH3, HNO3, NH4+, NO3- necessary for a correct interpretation of the measured concentration differences. We present here a rigorous analysis of results obtained with a multi-component, wet-chemical instrument, able to simultaneously measure gradients of both gaseous and particulate trace substances. Basis for our analysis are two field experiments, conducted above contrasting ecosystems (grassland, forest). Precision requirements of the instrument as well as errors of concentration differences and micrometeorological exchange parameters have been estimated, which, in turn, allows the establishment of thorough error estimates of the derived fluxes of NH3, HNO3, NH4+, and NO3-. Derived median flux errors for the grassland and forest field experiments were: 39% and 50% (NH3), 31% and 38% (HNO3), 62% and 57% (NH4+), and 47% and 68% (NO3-), respectively. Additionally, we provide the basis for using field data to characterize the instrument performance, as well as subsequent quantification of surface exchange fluxes and underlying mechanistic processes under realistic ambient measurement conditions.

  8. Aerodynamic gradient measurements of the NH3-HNO3-NH4NO3 triad using a wet chemical instrument: an analysis of precision requirements and flux errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, V.; Trebs, I.; Ammann, C.; Meixner, F. X.

    2009-10-01

    The aerodynamic gradient method is widely used for flux measurements of ammonia, nitric acid, particulate ammonium nitrate (the NH3-HNO3-NH4NO3 triad) and other water-soluble reactive trace compounds. The surface exchange flux is derived from a measured concentration difference and micrometeorological quantities (turbulent exchange coefficient). The significance of the measured concentration difference is crucial for the significant determination of surface exchange fluxes. Additionally, measurements of surface exchange fluxes of ammonia, nitric acid and ammonium nitrate are often strongly affected by phase changes between gaseous and particulate compounds of the triad, which make measurements of the four individual species (NH3, HNO3, NH4+, NO3-) necessary for a correct interpretation of the measured concentration differences. We present here a rigorous analysis of results obtained with a multi-component, wet-chemical instrument, able to simultaneously measure gradients of both gaseous and particulate trace substances. Basis for our analysis are two field experiments, conducted above contrasting ecosystems (grassland, forest). Precision requirements of the instrument as well as errors of concentration differences and micrometeorological exchange parameters have been estimated, which, in turn, allows the establishment of thorough error estimates of the derived fluxes of NH3, HNO3, NH4+, and NO3-. Derived median flux errors for the grassland and forest field experiments were: 39 and 50% (NH3), 31 and 38% (HNO3), 62 and 57% (NH4+), and 47 and 68% (NO3-), respectively. Additionally, we provide the basis for using field data to characterize the instrument performance, as well as subsequent quantification of surface exchange fluxes and underlying mechanistic processes under realistic ambient measurement conditions.

  9. Aerodynamic levitator for in situ x-ray structure measurements on high temperature and molten nuclear fuel materials.

    PubMed

    Weber, J K R; Tamalonis, A; Benmore, C J; Alderman, O L G; Sendelbach, S; Hebden, A; Williamson, M A

    2016-07-01

    An aerodynamic levitator with carbon dioxide laser beam heating was integrated with a hermetically sealed controlled atmosphere chamber and sample handling mechanism. The system enabled containment of radioactive samples and control of the process atmosphere chemistry. The chamber was typically operated at a pressure of approximately 0.9 bars to ensure containment of the materials being processed. Samples 2.5-3 mm in diameter were levitated in flowing gas to achieve containerless conditions. Levitated samples were heated to temperatures of up to 3500 °C with a partially focused carbon dioxide laser beam. Sample temperature was measured using an optical pyrometer. The sample environment was integrated with a high energy (100 keV) x-ray synchrotron beamline to enable in situ structure measurements to be made on levitated samples as they were heated, melted, and supercooled. The system was controlled from outside the x-ray beamline hutch by using a LabVIEW program. Measurements have been made on hot solid and molten uranium dioxide and binary uranium dioxide-zirconium dioxide compositions. PMID:27475566

  10. Aerodynamic levitator for in situ x-ray structure measurements on high temperature and molten nuclear fuel materials.

    PubMed

    Weber, J K R; Tamalonis, A; Benmore, C J; Alderman, O L G; Sendelbach, S; Hebden, A; Williamson, M A

    2016-07-01

    An aerodynamic levitator with carbon dioxide laser beam heating was integrated with a hermetically sealed controlled atmosphere chamber and sample handling mechanism. The system enabled containment of radioactive samples and control of the process atmosphere chemistry. The chamber was typically operated at a pressure of approximately 0.9 bars to ensure containment of the materials being processed. Samples 2.5-3 mm in diameter were levitated in flowing gas to achieve containerless conditions. Levitated samples were heated to temperatures of up to 3500 °C with a partially focused carbon dioxide laser beam. Sample temperature was measured using an optical pyrometer. The sample environment was integrated with a high energy (100 keV) x-ray synchrotron beamline to enable in situ structure measurements to be made on levitated samples as they were heated, melted, and supercooled. The system was controlled from outside the x-ray beamline hutch by using a LabVIEW program. Measurements have been made on hot solid and molten uranium dioxide and binary uranium dioxide-zirconium dioxide compositions.

  11. Strain measurement of objects subjected to aerodynamic heating using digital image correlation: experimental design and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Pan, Bing; Jiang, Tianyun; Wu, Dafang

    2014-11-01

    In thermomechanical testing of hypersonic materials and structures, direct observation and quantitative strain measurement of the front surface of a test specimen directly exposed to severe aerodynamic heating has been considered as a very challenging task. In this work, a novel quartz infrared heating device with an observation window is designed to reproduce the transient thermal environment experienced by hypersonic vehicles. The specially designed experimental system allows the capture of test article's surface images at various temperatures using an optical system outfitted with a bandpass filter. The captured images are post-processed by digital image correlation to extract full-field thermal deformation. To verify the viability and accuracy of the established system, thermal strains of a chromiumnickel austenite stainless steel sample heated from room temperature up to 600 °C were determined. The preliminary results indicate that the air disturbance between the camera and the specimen due to heat haze induces apparent distortions in the recorded images and large errors in the measured strains, but the average values of the measured strains are accurate enough. Limitations and further improvements of the proposed technique are discussed.

  12. Aerodynamic levitator for in situ x-ray structure measurements on high temperature and molten nuclear fuel materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, J. K. R.; Tamalonis, A.; Benmore, C. J.; Alderman, O. L. G.; Sendelbach, S.; Hebden, A.; Williamson, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    An aerodynamic levitator with carbon dioxide laser beam heating was integrated with a hermetically sealed controlled atmosphere chamber and sample handling mechanism. The system enabled containment of radioactive samples and control of the process atmosphere chemistry. The chamber was typically operated at a pressure of approximately 0.9 bars to ensure containment of the materials being processed. Samples 2.5-3 mm in diameter were levitated in flowing gas to achieve containerless conditions. Levitated samples were heated to temperatures of up to 3500 °C with a partially focused carbon dioxide laser beam. Sample temperature was measured using an optical pyrometer. The sample environment was integrated with a high energy (100 keV) x-ray synchrotron beamline to enable in situ structure measurements to be made on levitated samples as they were heated, melted, and supercooled. The system was controlled from outside the x-ray beamline hutch by using a LabVIEW program. Measurements have been made on hot solid and molten uranium dioxide and binary uranium dioxide-zirconium dioxide compositions.

  13. Strain measurement of objects subjected to aerodynamic heating using digital image correlation: experimental design and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Pan, Bing; Jiang, Tianyun; Wu, Dafang

    2014-11-01

    In thermomechanical testing of hypersonic materials and structures, direct observation and quantitative strain measurement of the front surface of a test specimen directly exposed to severe aerodynamic heating has been considered as a very challenging task. In this work, a novel quartz infrared heating device with an observation window is designed to reproduce the transient thermal environment experienced by hypersonic vehicles. The specially designed experimental system allows the capture of test article's surface images at various temperatures using an optical system outfitted with a bandpass filter. The captured images are post-processed by digital image correlation to extract full-field thermal deformation. To verify the viability and accuracy of the established system, thermal strains of a chromiumnickel austenite stainless steel sample heated from room temperature up to 600 °C were determined. The preliminary results indicate that the air disturbance between the camera and the specimen due to heat haze induces apparent distortions in the recorded images and large errors in the measured strains, but the average values of the measured strains are accurate enough. Limitations and further improvements of the proposed technique are discussed. PMID:25430144

  14. Comparative study of mandibular linear measurements obtained by cone beam computed tomography and digital calipers

    PubMed Central

    Tarazona-Álvarez, Pablo; Romero-Millán, Javier; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Fuster-Torres, María Á.; Tarazona, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an innovative dental of imaging system characterized by rapid volumetric imaging with patient exposure to a single dose of radiation. The present study was carried out to compare the linear measurements obtained with CBCT and digital caliper in 20 mandibles from human cadavers. Study design: A total of 4800 linear measurements were measured between different mandibular anatomical points with CBCT and digital caliper. The real measurements were defined as those obtained with the digital caliper. Posteriorly, the mandibles were scanned to obtain the CBCT images, with software-based measurements of the distances. Results: The measurements obtained with the digital caliper were greater. The CBCT technique underestimated distances greater than 100 mm. Conclusions: CBCT allows to obtain linear mandibular anatomical measurements equivalent to those obtained with digital caliper. The differences existing between both methods were clinically acceptable. Key words:Computed tomography, cone beam CT, accuracy, reliability, digital caliper. PMID:25136429

  15. NASP aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, Allen H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the critical aerodynamic technologies needed to support the development of a class of aircraft represented by the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). The air-breathing, single-stage-to-orbit mission presents a severe challenge to all of the aeronautical disciplines and demands an extension of the state-of-the-art in each technology area. While the largest risk areas are probably advanced materials and the development of the scramjet engine, there remains a host of design issues and technology problems in aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, and propulsion integration. The paper presents an overview of the most significant propulsion integration problems, and defines the most critical fluid flow phenomena that must be evaluated, defined, and predicted for the class of aircraft represented by the Aero-Space Plane.

  16. Measured pressure distributions, aerodynamic coefficients and shock shapes on blunt bodies at incidence in hypersonic air and CF4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G., III

    1982-01-01

    Pressure distributions, aerodynamic coefficients, and shock shapes were measured on blunt bodies of revolution in Mach 6 CF4 and in Mach 6 and Mach 10 air. The angle of attack was varied from 0 deg to 20 deg in 4 deg increments. Configurations tested were a hyperboloid with an asymptotic angle of 45 deg, a sonic-corner paraboloid, a paraboloid with an angle of 27.6 deg at the base, a Viking aeroshell generated in a generalized orthogonal coordinate system, and a family of cones having a 45 deg half-angle with spherical, flattened, concave, and cusp nose shapes. Real-gas effects were simulated for the hperboloid and paraboloid models at Mach 6 by testing at a normal-shock density ratio of 5.3 in air and 12 CF4. Predictions from simple theories and numerical flow field programs are compared with measurement. It is anticipated that the data presented in this report will be useful for verification of analytical methods for predicting hypersonic flow fields about blunt bodies at incidence.

  17. Final Results from Mexnext-I: Analysis of detailed aerodynamic measurements on a 4.5 m diameter rotor placed in the large German Dutch Wind Tunnel DNW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepers, J. G.; Boorsma, K.; Munduate, X.

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents the final results from the first phase of IEA Task 29 'Mexnext'. Mexnext was a joint project in which 20 parties from 11 different countries cooperated. The main aim of Mexnext was to analyse the wind tunnel measurements which have been taken in the EU project 'MEXICO'. In the MEXICO project 10 institutes from 6 countries cooperated in doing experiments on an instrumented, 3 bladed wind turbine of 4.5 m diameter placed in the 9.5 by 9.5 m2 open section of the Large Low-speed Facility (LLF) of DNW in the Netherlands. Pressure distributions on the blades were obtained from 148 Kulite pressure sensors, distributed over 5 sections at 25, 35, 60, 82 and 92 % radial position respectively. Blade loads were monitored through two strain-gauge bridges at each blade root. Most interesting however are the extensive PIV flow field measurements, which have been taken simultaneously with the pressure and load measurements. As a result of the international collaboration within this task a very thorough analysis of the data could be carried out and a large number of codes were validated not only in terms of loads but also in terms of underlying flow field. The paper will present several results from Mexnext-I, i.e. validation results and conclusion on modelling deficiencies and directions for model improvement. The future plans of the Mexnext consortium are also briefly discussed. Amongst these are Mexnext-II, a project in which also aerodynamic measurements other than MEXICO are included, and 'New MEXICO' in which additional measurement on the MEXICO model are performed.

  18. Joint computational and experimental aerodynamics research on a hypersonic vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Oberkampf, W.L.; Aeschliman, D.P.; Walker, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    A closely coupled computational and experimental aerodynamics research program was conducted on a hypersonic vehicle configuration at Mach 8. Aerodynamic force and moment measurements and flow visualization results were obtained in the Sandia National Laboratories hypersonic wind tunnel for laminar boundary layer conditions. Parabolized and iterative Navier-Stokes simulations were used to predict flow fields and forces and moments on the hypersonic configuration. The basic vehicle configuration is a spherically blunted 10{degrees} cone with a slice parallel with the axis of the vehicle. On the slice portion of the vehicle, a flap can be attached so that deflection angles of 10{degrees}, 20{degrees}, and 30{degrees} can be obtained. Comparisons are made between experimental and computational results to evaluate quality of each and to identify areas where improvements are needed. This extensive set of high-quality experimental force and moment measurements is recommended for use in the calibration and validation of computational aerodynamics codes. 22 refs.

  19. Comparisons among aerodynamic, electroglottographic, and acoustic spectral measures of female voice.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, E B; Hillman, R E; Perkell, J S; Guiod, P C; Goldman, S L

    1995-12-01

    This study examines measures of the glottal airflow waveform, the electroglottographic signal (EGG), amplitude differences between peaks in the acoustic spectrum, and observations of the spectral energy content of the third formant (F3), in terms of how they relate to one another. Twenty females with normal voices served as subjects. Both group and individual data were studied. Measurements were made for the vowel in two speech tasks: strings of the syllable /pae/and sustained phonation of /ae/, which were produced at two levels of vocal effort: comfortable and loud voice. The main results were: 1. Significant differences in parameter values between /pae/and/ae/were related to significant differences in the sound pressure level (SPL). 2. An "adduction quotient," measured from the glottal waveform at a 30% criterion, was sensitive enough to differentiate between waveforms reflecting abrupt versus gradual vocal fold closing movements. 3. DC flow showed weak or nonsignificant relationships with acoustic measures. 4. The spectral content in the third formant (F3) in comfortable loudness typically consisted of a mix of noise and harmonic energy. In loud voice, the F3 spectral content typically consisted of harmonic energy. 5. Significant differences were found in all measures between tokens with F3 harmonic energy and tokens with F3 noise, independent of loudness condition. 6. Strong relationships between flow- and EGG-adduction quotients suggested that these signals can be used to complement each other. 7. The amplitude difference between spectral peaks of the first and third formant (F1-F3) was found to add information about abruptness of airflow decrease (flow declination) that may be lost in the glottal waveform signal due to low-pass filtering. The results are discussed in terms of how an integrated use of these measures can contribute to a better understanding of the normal vocal mechanism and help to improve methods for evaluating vocal function. PMID:8747815

  20. Derivation and use of simple relationships between aerodynamic and optical particle measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple relationship, referred to as a mass conversion factor (MCF), is presented to convert optically based particle measurements to mass concentration. It is calculated from filter-based samples and optical particle counter (OPC) data on a daily or sample period basis. The MCF allows for greater ...

  1. Aerodynamics of the knuckleball pitch: Experimental measurements on slowly rotating baseballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, John P.; Morrissey, Michael P.

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we characterize the lift and lateral forces on a two-seam versus four-seam knuckleball and measure the viscous shear stress. We believe these measurements to be the first reported for slowly rotating baseballs. Our findings indicate the seam acts to either delay or advance separation depending upon the ball angle; these results are supported with flow visualization. The combined effect produces significant lift and lateral forces that can rapidly change as the ball rotates. Furthermore, we found the shear stress to be asymmetric which can result in significant in-flight torque. Together, asymmetries in force and shear stress produce the complicated flight trajectories that can confound the hapless batter.

  2. In-flight measurements of the GA/W/-2 aerodynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregorek, G. M.; Hoffmann, M. J.; Weislogel, G. S.; Vogel, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    Flight tests of a new 13% General Aviation Airfoil - the GA(W)-2 - gloved full span onto the existing wing of a Beech Sundowner have generated chordwise pressure distributions and wake surveys. Section lift, drag and moment coefficients derived from these measurements verify wind tunnel data and theory predicting the performance of this airfoil. The effect of steps, rivets and surface coatings upon the drag of the GA(W)-2 was also evaluated.

  3. Computational aerodynamics and supercomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballhaus, W. F., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Some of the progress in computational aerodynamics over the last decade is reviewed. The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Program objectives, computational goals, and implementation plans are described.

  4. Recovering Aerodynamic Side Loads on Rocket Nozzles using Quasi-Static Strain-Gage Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Andrew; Ruf, Joseph H.; McDaniels, David M.

    2009-01-01

    During over-expanded operation of rocket nozzles, which is defined to be when the exit pressure is greater than internal pressure over some part of the nozzle, the nozzle will experience a transverse forcing function due to the pressure differential across the nozzle wall. Over-expansion occurs during the nozzle start-up and shutdown transient, even in high-altitude engines, because most test facilities cannot completely reproduce the near-vacuum pressures at those altitudes. During this transient, the pressure differential moves axially down the nozzle as it becomes pressurized, but this differential is never perfectly symmetric circumferentially. The character of the forcing function is highly complex and defined by a series of restricted and free shock separations. The subject of this paper is the determination of the magnitude of this loading during sub-scale testing via measurement of the structural dynamic response of the nozzle and its support structure. An initial attempt at back-calculating this load using the inverse of the transfer function was performed, but this attempt was shown to be highly susceptible to numerical error. The final method chosen was to use statically calibrated strain data and to filter out the system fundamental frequency such that the measured response yields close to the correct dynamic loading function. This method was shown to capture 93% of the pressure spectral energy using controlled load shaker testing. This method is one of the only practical ways for the inverse determination of the forcing function for non-stationary excitations, and, to the authors' knowledge, has not been described in the literature to date.

  5. Laryngeal Aerodynamics Associated with Oral Contraceptive Use: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorham-Rowan, Mary; Fowler, Linda

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine possible differences in laryngeal aerodynamic measures during connected speech associated with oral contraceptive (OC) use. Eight women taking an OC, and eight others not taking an OC, participated in the study. Three trials of syllable /p[subscript alpha] /repetitions were obtained using a…

  6. Aerodynamics of the hovering hummingbird.

    PubMed

    Warrick, Douglas R; Tobalske, Bret W; Powers, Donald R

    2005-06-23

    Despite profound musculoskeletal differences, hummingbirds (Trochilidae) are widely thought to employ aerodynamic mechanisms similar to those used by insects. The kinematic symmetry of the hummingbird upstroke and downstroke has led to the assumption that these halves of the wingbeat cycle contribute equally to weight support during hovering, as exhibited by insects of similar size. This assumption has been applied, either explicitly or implicitly, in widely used aerodynamic models and in a variety of empirical tests. Here we provide measurements of the wake of hovering rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus) obtained with digital particle image velocimetry that show force asymmetry: hummingbirds produce 75% of their weight support during the downstroke and only 25% during the upstroke. Some of this asymmetry is probably due to inversion of their cambered wings during upstroke. The wake of hummingbird wings also reveals evidence of leading-edge vortices created during the downstroke, indicating that they may operate at Reynolds numbers sufficiently low to exploit a key mechanism typical of insect hovering. Hummingbird hovering approaches that of insects, yet remains distinct because of effects resulting from an inherently dissimilar-avian-body plan.

  7. Rarefied-flow aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, J. Leith

    1992-01-01

    Means for relatively simple and quick procedures are examined for estimating aerodynamic coefficients of lifting reentry vehicles. The methods developed allow aerospace designers not only to evaluate the aerodynamics of specific shapes but also to optimize shapes under given constraints. The analysis was also studied of the effect of thermomolecular flow on pressures measured by an orifice near the nose of a Space Shuttle Orbiter at altitudes above 75 km. It was shown that pressures corrected for thermomolecular flow effect are in good agreement with values predicted by independent theoretical methods. An incidental product was the insight gained about the free molecular thermal accommodation coefficient applicable under 'real' conditions of high speed flow in the Earth's atmosphere. The results are presented as abstracts of referenced papers. One reference paper is presented in its entirety.

  8. Cruise aerodynamics of USB nacelle/wing geometric variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braden, J. A.; Hancock, J. P.; Burdges, K. P.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on aerodynamic effects of geometric variations in upper surface blown nacelle configurations at high speed cruise conditions. Test data include both force and pressure measurements on two and three dimensional models powered by upper surface blowing nacelles of varying geometries. Experimental results are provided on variations in nozzle aspect ratio, nozzle boattail angle, and multiple nacelle installations. The nacelles are ranked according to aerodynamic drag penalties as well as overall installed drag penalties. Sample effects and correlations are shown for data obtained with the pressure model.

  9. Aerodynamic lift effect on satellite orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, G. R.; Cleland, J. G.; Devries, L. L.

    1975-01-01

    Numerical quadrature is employed to obtain orbit perturbation results from the general perturbation equations. Both aerodynamic lift and drag forces are included in the analysis of the satellite orbit. An exponential atmosphere with and without atmospheric rotation is used. A comparison is made of the perturbations which are caused by atmospheric rotation with those caused by satellite aerodynamic effects. Results indicate that aerodynamic lift effects on the semi-major axis and orbit inclination can be of the same order as the effects of atmosphere rotation depending upon the orientation of the lift vector. The results reveal the importance of including aerodynamic lift effects in orbit perturbation analysis.

  10. Comparison of Temperature Measurements in the Middle Atmosphere by Satellite with Profiles Obtained by Meteorological Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Richard A.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Feofilov, Artem; Bedrick, M.; Rose, R. Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Measurements using the inflatable falling sphere technique have occasionally been used to obtain temperature results from density data and thereby provide comparison with temperature profiles obtained by satellite sounders in the mesosphere and stratosphere. To insure density measurements within narrow time frames and close in space, the inflatable falling sphere is launched within seconds of the nearly overhead satellite pass. Sphere measurements can be used to validate remotely measured temperatures but also have the advantage of measuring small-scale atmospheric features. Even so, with the dearth of remaining falling spheres available (the manufacture of these systems has been discontinued), it may be time to consider whether the remote measurements are mature enough to stand alone. Three field studies are considered, one in 2003 from Northern Sweden, and two in 2010 from the vicinity of Kwajalein Atoll in the South Pacific and from Barking Sands, Hawaii. All three sites are used to compare temperature retrievals between satellite and in situ falling spheres. The major satellite instruments employed are SABER, MLS, and AIRS. The comparisons indicate that remotely measured temperatures mimic the sphere temperature measurements quite well. The data also confirm that satellite retrievals, while not always at the exact location required for detailed studies in space and time, compare sufficiently well to be highly useful. Although the falling sphere will provide a measurement at a specific location and time, satellites only pass a given location daily or less frequently. This report reveals that averaged satellite measurements can provide temperatures and densities comparable to those obtained from the falling sphere, thereby providing a reliable measure of global temperature

  11. Comparison of Temperature Measurements in the Middle Atmosphere by Satellite with Profiles Obtained by Meteorological Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, R. A.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Feofilov, A. G.; Bedrick, M.; Rose, R. L.

    2012-04-01

    Measurements using the inflatable falling sphere technique have occasionally been used to obtain temperature results from density data and thereby provide comparison with temperature profiles obtained by satellite sounders in the mesosphere and stratosphere. To insure density measurements within narrow time frames and close in space, the inflatable falling sphere is launched within seconds of the nearly overhead satellite pass. Sphere measurements can be used to validate remotely measured temperatures but also have the advantage of measuring small-scale atmospheric features. Even so, with the dearth of remaining falling spheres available (the manufacture of these systems has been discontinued), it may be time to consider whether the remote measurements are mature enough to stand alone. Three field studies are considered, one in 2003 from Northern Sweden, and two in 2010 from the vicinity of Kwajalein Atoll in the South Pacific and from Barking Sands, Hawaii. All three sites are used to compare temperature retrievals between satellite and in situ falling spheres. The major satellite instruments employed are SABER, MLS, and AIRS. The comparisons indicate that remotely measured temperatures mimic the sphere temperature measurements quite well. The data also confirm that satellite retrievals, while not always at the exact location required for detailed studies in space and time, compare sufficiently well to be highly useful. Although the falling sphere will provide a measurement at a specific location and time, satellites only pass a given location daily or less frequently. This report reveals that averaged satellite measurements can provide temperatures and densities comparable to those obtained from the falling sphere, thereby providing a reliable measure of global temperature.

  12. Wing-alone aerodynamic characteristics at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallings, R. L., Jr.; Lamb, M.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine wing-alone supersonic aerodynamic characteristics at high angles of attack. The family of wings tested varied in aspect ratio from 0.5 to 4.0 and taper ratio from 0.0 to 1.0. The wings were tested at angles of attack ranging from 0 to 60 deg and Mach numbers from 1.6 to 4.6. The aerodynamic characteristics were obtained by integrating local pressures measured over the wing surface. Comparison of these data with the limited available data from the literature indicate the present data are free of sting interference effects through the test range of angle of attack. Presented and discussed are results showing the effects of model geometry, Mach number and angle of attack on aerodynamic characteristics consisting of normal force, pitching moment, bending moment, longitudinal center-of-pressure locations, and lateral center-of-pressure locations.

  13. Obtaining Heat Stress Measurements. Module 15. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on obtaining heat stress measurements. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) naming and describing the…

  14. Obtaining Measurements of Stationary Environmental Noise Sources. Module 2. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on obtaining measurements of stationary environmental noise sources. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1)…

  15. Evaluation of the Repeatability and the Reproducibility of AL-Scan Measurements Obtained by Residents

    PubMed Central

    Kola, Mehmet; Duran, Hikmet; Turk, Adem; Mollamehmetoglu, Suleyman; Kalkisim, Ahmet; Erdol, Hidayet

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of ocular biometry and intraocular lens (IOL) power measurements obtained by ophthalmology residents using an AL-Scan device, a novel optical biometer. Methods. Two ophthalmology residents were instructed regarding the AL-Scan device. Both performed ocular biometry and IOL power measurements using AL-Scan, three times on each of 128 eyes, independently of one another. Corneal keratometry readings, horizontal iris width, central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, pupil size, and axial length values measured by both residents were recorded together with IOL power values calculated on the basis of four different IOL calculation formulas (SRK/T, Holladay, and HofferQ). Repeatability and reproducibility of the measurements obtained were analyzed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results. Repeatability (ICC, 0.872-0.999 for resident 1 versus 0.905-0.999 for resident 2) and reproducibility (ICC, 0.916-0.999) were high for all biometric measurements. Repeatability (ICC, 0.981-0.983 for resident 1 versus 0.995-0.996 for resident 2) and reproducibility were also high for all IOL power measurements (ICC, 0.996 for all). Conclusions. The AL-Scan device exhibits good repeatability and reproducibility in all biometric measurements and IOL power calculations, independent of the operator concerned. PMID:25136453

  16. 3D flame topography obtained by tomographic chemiluminescence with direct comparison to planar Mie scattering measurements.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenjiang; Wickersham, A J; Wu, Yue; He, Fan; Ma, Lin

    2015-03-20

    This work reports the measurements of 3D flame topography using tomographic chemiluminescence and its validation by direct comparison against planar Mie scattering measurements. Tomographic measurements of the 3D topography of various well-controlled laboratory flames were performed using projections measured by seven cameras, and a simultaneous Mie scattering measurement was performed to measure a 2D cross section of the 3D flame topography. The tomographic measurements were based on chemiluminescence emissions from the flame, and the Mie scattering measurements were based on micrometer-size oil droplets seeded into the flow. The flame topography derived from the 3D tomographic and the Mie scattering measurement was then directly compared. The results show that the flame topography obtained from tomographic chemiluminescence and the Mie measurement agreed qualitatively (i.e., both methods yielded the same profile of the flame fronts), but a quantitative difference on the order of millimeters was observed between these two methods. These results are expected to be useful for understanding the capabilities and limitations of the 3D tomographic and Mie scattering techniques in combustion diagnostics.

  17. Exploratory study on a statistical method to analyse time resolved data obtained during nanomaterial exposure measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerc, F.; Njiki-Menga, G.-H.; Witschger, O.

    2013-04-01

    Most of the measurement strategies that are suggested at the international level to assess workplace exposure to nanomaterials rely on devices measuring, in real time, airborne particles concentrations (according different metrics). Since none of the instruments to measure aerosols can distinguish a particle of interest to the background aerosol, the statistical analysis of time resolved data requires special attention. So far, very few approaches have been used for statistical analysis in the literature. This ranges from simple qualitative analysis of graphs to the implementation of more complex statistical models. To date, there is still no consensus on a particular approach and the current period is always looking for an appropriate and robust method. In this context, this exploratory study investigates a statistical method to analyse time resolved data based on a Bayesian probabilistic approach. To investigate and illustrate the use of the this statistical method, particle number concentration data from a workplace study that investigated the potential for exposure via inhalation from cleanout operations by sandpapering of a reactor producing nanocomposite thin films have been used. In this workplace study, the background issue has been addressed through the near-field and far-field approaches and several size integrated and time resolved devices have been used. The analysis of the results presented here focuses only on data obtained with two handheld condensation particle counters. While one was measuring at the source of the released particles, the other one was measuring in parallel far-field. The Bayesian probabilistic approach allows a probabilistic modelling of data series, and the observed task is modelled in the form of probability distributions. The probability distributions issuing from time resolved data obtained at the source can be compared with the probability distributions issuing from the time resolved data obtained far-field, leading in a

  18. Classical Aerodynamic Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T. (Compiler)

    1979-01-01

    A collection of papers on modern theoretical aerodynamics is presented. Included are theories of incompressible potential flow and research on the aerodynamic forces on wing and wing sections of aircraft and on airship hulls.

  19. The aerodynamics of small Reynolds numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, F. W.

    1980-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics of wing model gliders and bird wings in particular are discussed. Wind tunnel measurements and aerodynamics of small Reynolds numbers are enumerated. Airfoil behavior in the critical transition from laminar to turbulent boundary layer, which is more important to bird wing models than to large airplanes, was observed. Experimental results are provided, and an artificial bird wing is described.

  20. Aerodynamics of a promising vortex furnace design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anufriev, I. S.; Strizhak, P. A.; Chernetskii, M. Yu.; Shadrin, E. Yu.; Sharypov, O. V.

    2015-08-01

    The aerodynamics of a promising vortex furnace design with secondary top blasting has been studied. Flow velocity fields have been measured in an isothermal laboratory model of the furnace using a digital tracer imaging (particle image velocimetry) technique. Three-dimensional diagnostics of flow structure in the combustion chamber has been carried out by the method of laser Doppler anemometry. Processing of the obtained data using the criterion of "minimum total pressure" has been used to visualize the spatial structure of the vortex core.

  1. Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Feathered Dinosaur Measured Using Physical Models. Effects of Form on Static Stability and Control Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Dennis; Cardona, Griselda; Guenther-Gleason, Eric; Huynh, Tony; Kwong, Austin; Marks, Dylan; Ray, Neil; Tisbe, Adrian; Tse, Kyle; Koehl, Mimi

    2014-01-01

    We report the effects of posture and morphology on the static aerodynamic stability and control effectiveness of physical models based on the feathered dinosaur, Microraptor gui, from the Cretaceous of China. Postures had similar lift and drag coefficients and were broadly similar when simplified metrics of gliding were considered, but they exhibited different stability characteristics depending on the position of the legs and the presence of feathers on the legs and the tail. Both stability and the function of appendages in generating maneuvering forces and torques changed as the glide angle or angle of attack were changed. These are significant because they represent an aerial environment that may have shifted during the evolution of directed aerial descent and other aerial behaviors. Certain movements were particularly effective (symmetric movements of the wings and tail in pitch, asymmetric wing movements, some tail movements). Other appendages altered their function from creating yaws at high angle of attack to rolls at low angle of attack, or reversed their function entirely. While M. gui lived after Archaeopteryx and likely represents a side experiment with feathered morphology, the general patterns of stability and control effectiveness suggested from the manipulations of forelimb, hindlimb and tail morphology here may help understand the evolution of flight control aerodynamics in vertebrates. Though these results rest on a single specimen, as further fossils with different morphologies are tested, the findings here could be applied in a phylogenetic context to reveal biomechanical constraints on extinct flyers arising from the need to maneuver. PMID:24454820

  2. NASA aerodynamics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Louis J.; Hessenius, Kristin A.; Corsiglia, Victor R.; Hicks, Gary; Richardson, Pamela F.; Unger, George; Neumann, Benjamin; Moss, Jim

    1992-01-01

    The annual accomplishments is reviewed for the Aerodynamics Division during FY 1991. The program includes both fundamental and applied research directed at the full spectrum of aerospace vehicles, from rotorcraft to planetary entry probes. A comprehensive review is presented of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications; CFD validation; transition and turbulence physics; numerical aerodynamic simulation; test techniques and instrumentation; configuration aerodynamics; aeroacoustics; aerothermodynamics; hypersonics; subsonics; fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.

  3. NASA aerodynamics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Schairer, Edward; Hicks, Gary; Wander, Stephen; Blankson, Isiaiah; Rose, Raymond; Olson, Lawrence; Unger, George

    1990-01-01

    Presented here is a comprehensive review of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation, transition and turbulence physics, numerical aerodynamic simulation, drag reduction, test techniques and instrumentation, configuration aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, aerothermodynamics, hypersonics, subsonic transport/commuter aviation, fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.

  4. The Aerodynamic Plane Table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F

    1924-01-01

    This report gives the description and the use of a specially designed aerodynamic plane table. For the accurate and expeditious geometrical measurement of models in an aerodynamic laboratory, and for miscellaneous truing operations, there is frequent need for a specially equipped plan table. For example, one may have to measure truly to 0.001 inch the offsets of an airfoil at many parts of its surface. Or the offsets of a strut, airship hull, or other carefully formed figure may require exact calipering. Again, a complete airplane model may have to be adjusted for correct incidence at all parts of its surfaces or verified in those parts for conformance to specifications. Such work, if but occasional, may be done on a planing or milling machine; but if frequent, justifies the provision of a special table. For this reason it was found desirable in 1918 to make the table described in this report and to equip it with such gauges and measures as the work should require.

  5. A comparison of systolic blood pressure measurement obtained using a pulse oximeter, and direct systolic pressure measurement in anesthetized sows.

    PubMed Central

    Caulkett, N A; Duke, T; Bailey, J V

    1994-01-01

    Systolic blood pressure measurement obtained with a pulse oximeter has been compared to values obtained by other indirect methods in man. Direct pressure measurement is subject to less error than indirect techniques. This study was designed to compare systolic pressure values obtained using a pulse oximeter, with values obtained by direct arterial pressure measurement. The pulse oximeter waveform was used as an indication of perfusion. A blood pressure cuff was applied proximal to the pulse oximeter probe. The cuff was inflated until the oximeter waveform disappeared, this value was recorded as the systolic pressure at the disappearance of the waveform (SPD). The cuff was inflated to a pressure > 200 mmHg, then gradually deflated until the waveform reappeared, this value was recorded as the systolic pressure at reappearance of the waveform (SPR). The average of the two values, SPD and SPR, was calculated and recorded as SPA. The study was performed in sows (n = 21) undergoing cesarean section under epidural anesthesia and IV sedation. A total of 280 measurements were made of SPD, SPR and SPA. Regression analysis of SPA and direct measurement revealed a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.81. Calculation of mean difference (bias) and standard deviation of the bias (precision) for direct pressure--SPA revealed a value of 1.3 +/- 12.1. When compared with direct measurement, the correlation of this technique was similar to that recorded for other indirect techniques used in small animals. This indicates that this technique would be useful for following systolic pressure trends.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8004540

  6. Comparison of ozone profiles obtained with NIES DIAL and SAGE II measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakane, Hideaki; Sasano, Yasuhiro; Hayashida-Amano, Sachiko; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Matsui, Ichiro; Minato, Atsushi; Mccormick, M. P.

    1993-01-01

    Ozone profiles obtained with the Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) (Tsukuba, Japan) were compared with data provided by the satellite sensor SAGE II. The SAGE II data were selected based on criteria of spatial and temporal differences between the DIAL and the SAGE II measurements: five degrees in latitude and 15 degrees in longitude, within a latitudinal band from 31 deg to 41 deg N, and within one, three and five days after or before the DIAL measurements. Results show very good agreement for the individual and the zonal-mean profiles. The average mean difference between the DIAL and the SAGE II measurements over the altitudes 15-50 km was about 10 percent.

  7. Rotor/body aerodynamic interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betzina, M. D.; Smith, C. A.; Shinoda, P.

    1983-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted in which independent, steady state aerodynamic forces and moments were measured on a 2.24 m diam. two bladed helicopter rotor and on several different bodies. The mutual interaction effects for variations in velocity, thrust, tip-path-plane angle of attack, body angle of attack, rotor/body position, and body geometry were determined. The results show that the body longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of a rotor and hub, and that the hub interference may be a major part of such interaction. The effects of the body on the rotor performance are presented.

  8. Rotor/body aerodynamic interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betzina, M. D.; Smith, C. A.; Shinoda, P.

    1985-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted in which independent, steady state aerodynamic forces and moments were measured on a 2.24 m diam. two bladed helicopter rotor and on several different bodies. The mutual interaction effects for variations in velocity, thrust, tip-path-plane angle of attack, body angle of attack, rotor/body position, and body geometry were determined. The results show that the body longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of a rotor and hub, and that the hub interference may be a major part of such interaction. The effects of the body on the rotor performance are presented.

  9. Bifurcations in unsteady aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobak, M.; Unal, A.

    1986-01-01

    Nonlinear algebraic functional expansions are used to create a form for the unsteady aerodynamic response that is consistent with solutions of the time dependent Navier-Stokes equations. An enumeration of means of invalidating Frechet differentiability of the aerodynamic response, one of which is aerodynamic bifurcation, is proposed as a way of classifying steady and unsteady aerodynamic phenomena that are important in flight dynamics applications. Accomodating bifurcation phenomena involving time dependent equilibrium states within a mathematical model of the aerodynamic response raises an issue of memory effects that becomes more important with each successive bifurcation.

  10. The Importance of Camera Calibration and Distortion Correction to Obtain Measurements with Video Surveillance Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattaneo, C.; Mainetti, G.; Sala, R.

    2015-11-01

    Video surveillance systems are commonly used as important sources of quantitative information but from the acquired images it is possible to obtain a large amount of metric information. Yet, different methodological issues must be considered in order to perform accurate measurements using images. The most important one is the camera calibration, which is the estimation of the parameters defining the camera model. One of the most used camera calibration method is the Zhang's method, that allows the estimation of the linear parameters of the camera model. This method is very diffused as it requires a simple setup and it allows to calibrate cameras using a simple and fast procedure, but it does not consider lenses distortions, that must be taken into account with short focal lenses, commonly used in video surveillance systems. In order to perform accurate measurements, the linear camera model and the Zhang's method are improved in order to take nonlinear parameters into account and compensate the distortion contribute. In this paper we first describe the pinhole camera model that considers cameras as central projection systems. After a brief introduction to the camera calibration process and in particular the Zhang's method, we give a description of the different types of lens distortions and the techniques used for the distortion compensation. At the end some numerical example are shown in order to demonstrate the importance of the distortion compensation to obtain accurate measurements.

  11. Direct Detection Doppler Lidar Wind Measurements Obtained During the 2002 International H2O Project (IHOP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Bruce; Li, Steven; Chen, Huai-Lin; Comer, Joseph; Mathur, Savyasachee; Bobler, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    The Goddard Lidar Observatory for Winds (GLOW) is a mobile Doppler lidar system that uses direct detection techniques for profiling winds in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. In May and June of 2002 GLOW was deployed to the Southern Great Plains of the US to participate in the International H2O Project (IHOP). GLOW was located at the Homestead profiling site in the Oklahoma panhandle about 15 km east of the SPOL radar. Several other Goddard lidars, the Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) and HARLIE, as well as radars and passive instruments were permanently operated from the Homestead site during the IHOP campaign providing a unique cluster of observations. During the IHOP observation period (May 14, 2002 to June 25, 2002) over 240 hours of wind profile measurements were obtained with GLOW. In this paper we will describe the GLOW instrument as it was configured for the IHOP campaign and we will present examples of wind profiles obtained.

  12. Aerodynamic characteristics of a feathered dinosaur measured using physical models. Effects of form on static stability and control effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Dennis; Cardona, Griselda; Guenther-Gleason, Eric; Huynh, Tony; Kwong, Austin; Marks, Dylan; Ray, Neil; Tisbe, Adrian; Tse, Kyle; Koehl, Mimi

    2014-01-01

    We report the effects of posture and morphology on the static aerodynamic stability and control effectiveness of physical models based on the feathered dinosaur, [Formula: see text]Microraptor gui, from the Cretaceous of China. Postures had similar lift and drag coefficients and were broadly similar when simplified metrics of gliding were considered, but they exhibited different stability characteristics depending on the position of the legs and the presence of feathers on the legs and the tail. Both stability and the function of appendages in generating maneuvering forces and torques changed as the glide angle or angle of attack were changed. These are significant because they represent an aerial environment that may have shifted during the evolution of directed aerial descent and other aerial behaviors. Certain movements were particularly effective (symmetric movements of the wings and tail in pitch, asymmetric wing movements, some tail movements). Other appendages altered their function from creating yaws at high angle of attack to rolls at low angle of attack, or reversed their function entirely. While [Formula: see text]M. gui lived after [Formula: see text]Archaeopteryx and likely represents a side experiment with feathered morphology, the general patterns of stability and control effectiveness suggested from the manipulations of forelimb, hindlimb and tail morphology here may help understand the evolution of flight control aerodynamics in vertebrates. Though these results rest on a single specimen, as further fossils with different morphologies are tested, the findings here could be applied in a phylogenetic context to reveal biomechanical constraints on extinct flyers arising from the need to maneuver. PMID:24454820

  13. Parachute Aerodynamics From Video Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenenberger, Mark; Queen, Eric M.; Cruz, Juan R.

    2005-01-01

    A new data analysis technique for the identification of static and dynamic aerodynamic stability coefficients from wind tunnel test video data is presented. This new technique was applied to video data obtained during a parachute wind tunnel test program conducted in support of the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. Total angle-of-attack data obtained from video images were used to determine the static pitching moment curve of the parachute. During the original wind tunnel test program the static pitching moment curve had been determined by forcing the parachute to a specific total angle-of -attack and measuring the forces generated. It is shown with the new technique that this parachute, when free to rotate, trims at an angle-of-attack two degrees lower than was measured during the forced-angle tests. An attempt was also made to extract pitch damping information from the video data. Results suggest that the parachute is dynamically unstable at the static trim point and tends to become dynamically stable away from the trim point. These trends are in agreement with limit-cycle-like behavior observed in the video. However, the chaotic motion of the parachute produced results with large uncertainty bands.

  14. Distributed Aerodynamic Sensing and Processing Toolbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Martin; Jutte, Christine; Mangalam, Arun

    2011-01-01

    A Distributed Aerodynamic Sensing and Processing (DASP) toolbox was designed and fabricated for flight test applications with an Aerostructures Test Wing (ATW) mounted under the fuselage of an F-15B on the Flight Test Fixture (FTF). DASP monitors and processes the aerodynamics with the structural dynamics using nonintrusive, surface-mounted, hot-film sensing. This aerodynamic measurement tool benefits programs devoted to static/dynamic load alleviation, body freedom flutter suppression, buffet control, improvement of aerodynamic efficiency through cruise control, supersonic wave drag reduction through shock control, etc. This DASP toolbox measures local and global unsteady aerodynamic load distribution with distributed sensing. It determines correlation between aerodynamic observables (aero forces) and structural dynamics, and allows control authority increase through aeroelastic shaping and active flow control. It offers improvements in flutter suppression and, in particular, body freedom flutter suppression, as well as aerodynamic performance of wings for increased range/endurance of manned/ unmanned flight vehicles. Other improvements include inlet performance with closed-loop active flow control, and development and validation of advanced analytical and computational tools for unsteady aerodynamics.

  15. The use of palladium to obtain reproducible boundary conditions for permeability measurements using galvanostatic charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowker, J.; Piercy, G. R.

    1985-05-01

    The diffusion current of hydrogen through palladium in an electrochemical cell initially rises linearly with the charging current, reaches a steady “plateau” value, and then rises again. The diffusivity of hydrogen in palladium was measured using standard transient techniques in the initial region of low current density. Combining this value with the measured value of diffusion current at the plateau level gave a concentration of hydrogen at the entrance surface of the palladium that was the same for three different palladium thicknesses, and was equal to the saturation value in α palladium. It is proposed that this can be used as a known and reproducible effective hydrogen pressure (0.019 atm) if palladium is plated onto other metals before measuring their permeability in an electrochemical cell. Experimental evidence for this was obtained from permeability measurements made on several thicknesses of iron. Permeation studies were also made on AISI 410 stainless steel and tin plated mild steel. The measured value for electrolytic tinplate was 107 times that expected from extrapolation of high temperature data. This could be attributed to grain boundaries or porosity covering 0.003 pct of the area. The permeability values of iron and stainless steel are 8.4 x 1012 and 2.8 x 1013 H atom/cm • s • √atm, respectively.

  16. Clinical applications and issues of oxygen saturation level measurements obtained from peripheral sites.

    PubMed

    Foo, Jong Yong Abdiel; Chua, Kok Poo; Tan, Xin Ji Alan

    2013-08-01

    Studies have suggested that the saturated oxygen level within one's arterial blood can provide crucial information about the status of one's cardiopulmonary system. Currently, a popular and convenient approach is to obtain this vital physiological sign through non-invasive measurement on suitable peripheral sites such as a finger, toe or ear lobe. This measurement is known as the SpO2 parameter. It has been increasingly adopted in not only clinical settings but also remote monitoring purposes. In order to measure this optical based parameter, light sources of both the red and infrared wavelengths are required. The most recognized waveform feature is the peripheral pulse or its AC component which is synchronized to each heartbeat. The AC component is superimposed on a constant DC baseline attributed to breathing efforts, sympathetic nervous system activities and thermoregulation. The popularity of the SpO2 parameter may be due to its viable cost, simplicity to build and portability. Moreover, the basic building blocks of a SpO2 based measurement consists of control, filtering and amplification functions that can easily be incorporated with an embedded system. In this review, a brief description of the SpO2 measurement, its normative values and technical issues in its application as a clinical monitor are discussed.

  17. Concordance among Measurements Obtained by Three Pulse Oximeters Currently Used by Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    De La Rosa Hormiga, Milagros; MaríA Ramal LóPez, Josefa; DéNiz Rivero, Yasmina; Sandra Marrero Morales, MaríA

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Oxygen saturation is considered as the 5th vital sign. Presently, there exist fixed and wireless pulse oximeters, being the latter most widely used in the last years. Some of them have no possibility of calibration. This situation leads the health staff to adopt therapeutic attitudes which can be wrong. Therefore, it is extremely important to know if these wireless oximeters show a right concordance as regards measurements, since it is of great interest in daily clinical practice. Objective: To evaluate concordance among measurements obtained by three different pulse oximeters currently used by health professionals. Materials and Methods: This is an observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study related to the concordance of the results obtained in measurements collected by three different pulse oximeters (one monitor and two wireless oximeters) which are available and in use in this hospital unit. The sample size calculation was performed for a concordance above 0.81 and an estimation error which did not exceed 0.20. The intraclass correlation index (ICI) was used to establish the concordance whereas the Landis-Koch criteria were used to interpret the results. Systematic errors were analyzed using the Bland-Altman plot. Results: The overall concordance among the three pulse oximeters analyzed resulted in 0.88, a value considered as “good” according to the Landis-Koch criteria. Conclusion: The results obtained show that in daily clinical practice both wireless pulse oximeters analyzed can be used with a certain reliability, taking into account the limitations of this research. PMID:25302228

  18. Aerodynamic effects of corrugation and deformation in flapping wings of hovering hoverflies.

    PubMed

    Du, Gang; Sun, Mao

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the aerodynamic effects of wing deformation and corrugation of a three-dimensional model hoverfly wing at a hovering condition by solving the Navier-Stokes equations on a dynamically deforming grid. Various corrugated wing models were tested. Insight into whether or not there existed significant aerodynamic coupling between wing deformation (camber and twist) and wing corrugation was obtained by comparing aerodynamic forces of four cases: a smooth-plate wing in flapping motion without deformation (i.e. a rigid flat-plate wing in flapping motion); a smooth-plate wing in flapping motion with deformation; a corrugated wing in flapping motion without deformation (i.e. a rigid corrugated wing in flapping motion); a corrugated wing in flapping motion with deformation. There was little aerodynamic coupling between wing deformation and corrugation: the aerodynamic effect of wing deformation and corrugation acting together was approximately a superposition of those of deformation and corrugation acting separately. When acting alone, the effect of wing deformation was to increase the lift by 9.7% and decrease the torque (or aerodynamic power) by 5.2%, and that of wing corrugation was to decrease the lift by 6.5% and increase the torque by 2.2%. But when acting together, the wing deformation and corrugation only increased the lift by ~3% and decreased the torque by ~3%. That is, the combined aerodynamic effect of deformation and corrugation is rather small. Thus, wing corrugation is mainly for structural, not aerodynamic, purpose, and in computing or measuring the aerodynamic forces, using a rigid flat-plate wing to model the corrugated deforming wing at hovering condition can be a good approximation. PMID:22266123

  19. Aerodynamic effects of corrugation and deformation in flapping wings of hovering hoverflies.

    PubMed

    Du, Gang; Sun, Mao

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the aerodynamic effects of wing deformation and corrugation of a three-dimensional model hoverfly wing at a hovering condition by solving the Navier-Stokes equations on a dynamically deforming grid. Various corrugated wing models were tested. Insight into whether or not there existed significant aerodynamic coupling between wing deformation (camber and twist) and wing corrugation was obtained by comparing aerodynamic forces of four cases: a smooth-plate wing in flapping motion without deformation (i.e. a rigid flat-plate wing in flapping motion); a smooth-plate wing in flapping motion with deformation; a corrugated wing in flapping motion without deformation (i.e. a rigid corrugated wing in flapping motion); a corrugated wing in flapping motion with deformation. There was little aerodynamic coupling between wing deformation and corrugation: the aerodynamic effect of wing deformation and corrugation acting together was approximately a superposition of those of deformation and corrugation acting separately. When acting alone, the effect of wing deformation was to increase the lift by 9.7% and decrease the torque (or aerodynamic power) by 5.2%, and that of wing corrugation was to decrease the lift by 6.5% and increase the torque by 2.2%. But when acting together, the wing deformation and corrugation only increased the lift by ~3% and decreased the torque by ~3%. That is, the combined aerodynamic effect of deformation and corrugation is rather small. Thus, wing corrugation is mainly for structural, not aerodynamic, purpose, and in computing or measuring the aerodynamic forces, using a rigid flat-plate wing to model the corrugated deforming wing at hovering condition can be a good approximation.

  20. Precision and Agreement of Corneal Power Measurements Obtained Using a New Corneal Topographer OphthaTOP

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jinhai; Savini, Giacomo; Chen, Hao; Bao, Fangjun; Li, Yuanguang; Chen, Haisi; Lu, Weicong; Yu, Ye; Wang, Qinmei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate repeatability and reproducibility of anterior corneal power measurements obtained with a new corneal topographer OphthaTOP (Hummel AG, Germany) and agreement with measurements by a rotating Scheimpflug camera (Pentacam HR, Oculus, Germany) and an automated keratometer (IOLMaster, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Germany). Methods The right eyes of 79 healthy subjects were prospectively measured three times with all three devices. Another examiner performed three additional scans with the OphthaTOP in the same session. Within one week, the first examiner repeated the measurements using the OphthaTOP. The flat simulated keratometry (Kf), steep K (Ks), mean K (Km), J0, and J45 were noted. Repeatability and reproducibility of measurements were assessed by within-subject standard deviation (Sw), repeatability (2.77 Sw), coefficient of variation (CoV), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Agreement between devices was assessed using 95% limits of agreement (LoA). Results Intraobserver repeatability and interobserver and intersession reproducibility of all measured parameters showed a 2.77 Sw of 0.29 diopter or less, a CoV of less than 0.24%, and an ICC of more than 0.906. Statistically significant differences (P<0.001) were found between the parameters analyzed by the three devices, except J0 and J45. The mean differences between OphthaTOP and the other two devices were small, and the 95% LoA was narrow for all results. Conclusions The OphthaTOP showed excellent intraobserver repeatability and interobserver and intersession reproducibility of corneal power measurements. Good agreements with the other two devices in these parameters were found in healthy eyes. PMID:25559203

  1. Aircrew dosimetry by means of experimental measurements and calculations: results obtained during the year 2003.

    PubMed

    Spurný, F; Bĕgusová, M; Turek, K; Vlcek, B

    2005-01-01

    The results of measurements performed during the year 2003 onboard aircraft, mostly during regular commercial flights of the Czech Airlines (CSA) are presented. The studies were performed during more than 30 individual flights, several dosemeters and equipments were used for both neutron and non-neutron components of the onboard radiation field. CSA colleagues submitted us for all flights with navigation data necessary for the calculation of onboard aircraft crew exposure with transport codes EPCARD and CARI. Direct readings of experimental equipments were corrected on the base of the calibration in CERN high-energy radiation fields. A reasonable agreement of measured and calculated data was observed. During one of the flights, a very deep Forbush decrease occurred. The experimental results confronted with calculation permitted to obtain new view on the influence of such events on aircraft crew exposure.

  2. Obtaining the Bunch Shape in a Linac from Beam Spectrum Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, Karl LF

    1999-04-14

    In linacs with high single-bunch charge, and tight tolerances for energy spread and emittance growth, controlling the short-range wakefield effects becomes extremely important. The effects of the wakefields, in turn, depend on the bunch length and also on the bunch shape. It was shown in the linac of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC), for example, that by shaping the bunch, the final rms energy spread could be greatly reduced, compared to for the standard Gaussian bunch shape[1]. Therefore, in machines with high single-bunch charge, a method of measuring bunch shape can be an important beam diagnostic. In a linac with low single-bunch charge, the longitudinal bunch shape can be obtained relatively easily from a single measurement of the beam's final energy spectrum, provided that the final to initial energy ratio is large. One merely shifts the average phase of the beam, so that it rides off-crest sufficiently to induce an energy variation that is monotonic with longitudinal position. Then, by knowing the initial and final energies, the rf wave number, and the average beam phase, one can directly map the spectrum into the bunch shape. In a linac with high single-bunch charge, however, due to the effect of the longitudinal wakefield, this method either does not work at all, or it requires such a large shift in beam phase as to become impractical. In earlier work[2],[3] it was shown that, even when wakefields are important, if one measures the final beam spectrum for two different (properly chosen) values of beam phase, then one can again obtain the bunch shape, and--as a by-product--also the form of the wakefield induced voltage; this method was then illustrated using data from the linac of the SLC. These SLC measurements, however, had been performed with the machine in a special configuration, where the current was low; in addition, the noise the data was low and the measured spectra were smooth distributions. Under normal SLC conditions, however, the currents

  3. Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Characteristics of a Tension Cone Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Ian G.; Cruz, Juan R.; Hughes, Monica F.; Ware, Joanne S.; Madlangbayan, Albert; Braun, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    The supersonic aerodynamic and aeroelastic characteristics of a tension cone inflatable aerodynamic decelerator were investigated by wind tunnel testing. Two sets of tests were conducted: one using rigid models and another using textile models. Tests using rigid models were conducted over a Mach number range from 1.65 to 4.5 at angles of attack from -12 to 20 degrees. The axial, normal, and pitching moment coefficients were found to be insensitive to Mach number over the tested range. The axial force coefficient was nearly constant (C(sub A) = 1.45 +/- 0.05) with respect to angle of attack. Both the normal and pitching moment coefficients were nearly linear with respect to angle of attack. The pitching moment coefficient showed the model to be statically stable about the reference point. Schlieren images and video showed a detached bow shock with no evidence of large regions of separated flow and/or embedded shocks at all Mach numbers investigated. Qualitatively similar static aerodynamic coefficient and flow visualization results were obtained using textile models at a Mach number of 2.5. Using inflatable textile models the torus pressure required to maintain the model in the fully-inflated configuration was determined. This pressure was found to be sensitive to details in the structural configuration of the inflatable models. Additional tests included surface pressure measurements on rigid models and deployment and inflation tests with inflatable models.

  4. The influence of radioactive decay on actinide magnetic susceptibility measurements obtained using the Evans method.

    PubMed

    Autillo, Matthieu; Kaden, Peter; Geist, Andreas; Guerin, Laetitia; Moisy, Philippe; Berthon, Claude

    2014-05-14

    In order to explain the higher magnetic susceptibility of some aquo actinide ions than predicted by Hund's rules, the molar magnetic susceptibilities of two americium isotopes ((241)Am and (243)Am) were measured using the Evans method. The results obtained show a growing change in the magnetic susceptibility with α and also a β(-) activity increase in solution. β(-) particle effects appear to be stronger than radicals formed by α particles on the experimental values. The temperature dependence of Am(iii) magnetic susceptibility has been observed but from experiments carried out here, it appears to be difficult to prove whether this effect arises from radicals or β(-). Finally, magnetic susceptibilities of americium recorded in different media (HClO4, HCl, and HNO3) have been compared to alpha and beta emissions' impact.

  5. Wavelength dependence of aerosol backscatter coefficients obtained by multiple wavelength Lidar measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasano, Y.; Browell, E. V.

    1986-01-01

    Aerosols are often classified into several general types according to their origins and composition, such as maritime, continental, and stratospheric aerosols, and these aerosol types generally have different characteristics in chemical and physical properties. The present study aims at demonstrating the potential for distinguishing these aerosol types by the wavelength dependence of their backscatter coefficients obtained from quantitative analyses of multiple wavelength lidar signals. Data from the NASA Airborne Differential Abosrption lidar (DIAL) S ystems, which can measure aerosol backscatter profiles at wavelenghts of 300, 600, and 1064 nm and ozone profiles of backscatter coefficients for these three wavelength were derived from the observations of aerosols of different types. Observations were performed over the Atlantic Ocean, the Southwestern United States, and French Guyana.

  6. Intercomparison among tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide data obtained by satellite- and ground-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, K.; Urita, N.; Ohta, E.; Hayashida, S.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Ziemke, J. R.

    2005-12-01

    Rapid economical growth and industrial development in East Asian regions are causing serious air pollution. The influence of such air pollution is not limited to a local scale but reaches an intercontinental or hemispheric scale. Satellite-borne observations can monitor the behaviors of air pollutants in a global scale for long periods with a single instrument. In particular, ozone and nitrogen dioxide in the troposphere have a crucial role in air pollution, and many studies have tried to derive those species. Recently, instrumentations and retrieval techniques have made a lot of progress in measurements of tropospheric constituents. However, tropospheric observations from space need careful validation because of difficulties in detecting signals from the lower atmosphere through the middle atmosphere. In the present study, we intercompare the tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide data obtained by satellite- and ground-based measurements in order to validate the satellite measurements. For the validation of tropospheric ozone, we utilize ozonesonde data provided by WOUDC, and three satellite-borne data (Tropospheric Ozone Residual (TOR), Cloud Slicing, and GOME) are intercompared. For nitrogen dioxide, we compare GOME observations with ground-based air monitoring measurements in Japan which are operationally conducted by the Ministry of the Environment Japan. This study demonstrates the validity and potential of those satellite datasets to apply for quantitative analysis of dispersion of air pollutants and their chemical lifetime. Acknowledgments. TOR data is provided by J. Fishman via http://asd-www.larc.nasa.gov/TOR/data.html. The ground observation data of nitrogen dioxide over Japan is provided by National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) under the collaboration study with NIES and Nara Women's University.

  7. Aerodynamic effects of flexibility in flapping wings.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang; Huang, Qingfeng; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P

    2010-03-01

    Recent work on the aerodynamics of flapping flight reveals fundamental differences in the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation between fixed and flapping wings. When fixed wings translate at high angles of attack, they periodically generate and shed leading and trailing edge vortices as reflected in their fluctuating aerodynamic force traces and associated flow visualization. In contrast, wings flapping at high angles of attack generate stable leading edge vorticity, which persists throughout the duration of the stroke and enhances mean aerodynamic forces. Here, we show that aerodynamic forces can be controlled by altering the trailing edge flexibility of a flapping wing. We used a dynamically scaled mechanical model of flapping flight (Re approximately 2000) to measure the aerodynamic forces on flapping wings of variable flexural stiffness (EI). For low to medium angles of attack, as flexibility of the wing increases, its ability to generate aerodynamic forces decreases monotonically but its lift-to-drag ratios remain approximately constant. The instantaneous force traces reveal no major differences in the underlying modes of force generation for flexible and rigid wings, but the magnitude of force, the angle of net force vector and centre of pressure all vary systematically with wing flexibility. Even a rudimentary framework of wing veins is sufficient to restore the ability of flexible wings to generate forces at near-rigid values. Thus, the magnitude of force generation can be controlled by modulating the trailing edge flexibility and thereby controlling the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity. To characterize this, we have generated a detailed database of aerodynamic forces as a function of several variables including material properties, kinematics, aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure, which can also be used to help validate computational models of aeroelastic flapping wings. These experiments will also be useful for wing design for small

  8. Aerodynamic effects of flexibility in flapping wings

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liang; Huang, Qingfeng; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P.

    2010-01-01

    Recent work on the aerodynamics of flapping flight reveals fundamental differences in the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation between fixed and flapping wings. When fixed wings translate at high angles of attack, they periodically generate and shed leading and trailing edge vortices as reflected in their fluctuating aerodynamic force traces and associated flow visualization. In contrast, wings flapping at high angles of attack generate stable leading edge vorticity, which persists throughout the duration of the stroke and enhances mean aerodynamic forces. Here, we show that aerodynamic forces can be controlled by altering the trailing edge flexibility of a flapping wing. We used a dynamically scaled mechanical model of flapping flight (Re ≈ 2000) to measure the aerodynamic forces on flapping wings of variable flexural stiffness (EI). For low to medium angles of attack, as flexibility of the wing increases, its ability to generate aerodynamic forces decreases monotonically but its lift-to-drag ratios remain approximately constant. The instantaneous force traces reveal no major differences in the underlying modes of force generation for flexible and rigid wings, but the magnitude of force, the angle of net force vector and centre of pressure all vary systematically with wing flexibility. Even a rudimentary framework of wing veins is sufficient to restore the ability of flexible wings to generate forces at near-rigid values. Thus, the magnitude of force generation can be controlled by modulating the trailing edge flexibility and thereby controlling the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity. To characterize this, we have generated a detailed database of aerodynamic forces as a function of several variables including material properties, kinematics, aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure, which can also be used to help validate computational models of aeroelastic flapping wings. These experiments will also be useful for wing design for small robotic

  9. Electron density profiles obtained from CHAMP GPS radio occultation measurements: Initial results from GFZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arras, Christina; Schmidt, Torsten; Lee, Woo-Kyoung; Wickert, Jens; Heise, Stefan; Beyerle, Georg; Rothacher, Markus; Jakowski, Norbert

    GPS radio occultation signals received by Low Earth Orbit satellites provide global information about vertical distribution of lower atmospheric parameters (e.g., temperature and water vapour) and electron density in the ionosphere. Since its launch in July 2000 the German geoscience satellite CHAMP has collected about 400,000 occultation measurements. These data form a first and unique long-term dataset of ionospheric profiles, but also of other geophysical variables as temperature, pressure and water vapour in the lower atmosphere. We present initial results of the ionospheric occultation data analyses at GFZ. Vertical electron density profiles from CHAMP are derived using a recently developed software package. To obtain electron densities from calibrated TEC (Total Electron Content) data the so-called onion peeling method is used. The application of this technique allows for the derivation of the electron density profile iteratively starting from the top altitude. The derived profiles are compared with corresponding data processed by UCAR (University Corporation of Atmospheric Research) and DLR Neustrelitz, but also with independent PLP (Planar Langmuir Probe) measurements from CHAMP. These investigations are complemented by case studies comparing the profiles with ground based ionosonde measurements. The high vertical resolution of the derived ionospheric profiles reveals thin vertical ionospheric structures such as sporadic E layers. We investigate the occurrence distribution of these layers in more detail. Sporadic E appears predominantly during summer in the lower ionosphere and has a considerable effect on the propagation of the GPS radio occultation signals. This feature is used to derive information on the altitude and on the intensity of these irregularities.

  10. Southern Hemispheric nitrous oxide measurements obtained during 1987 airborne Antarctic ozone experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podolske, J. R.; Loewenstein, M.; Strahan, S. E.; Chan, K. Roland

    1988-01-01

    The chemical lifetime of N2O is about 150 years, which makes it an excellent dynamical tracer of air motion on the time scale of the ozone depletion event. For these reasons it was chosen to help test whether dynamical theories of ozone loss over Antarctica were plausible, particularly the theory that upwelling ozone-poor air from the troposphere was replacing ozone-rich stratospheric air. The N2O measurements were made with the Airborne Tunable Laser Absorption Spectrometer (ATLAS) aboard the NASA ER-2 aircraft. The detection technique involves measuring the diffential absorption of the IR laser radiation as it is rapidly scanned over an N2O absorption feature. For the AAOE mission, the instrument was capable of making measurements with a 1 ppb sensitivity, 1 second response time, over an altitude range of 10 to 20 kilometers. The AAOE mission consisted of a series of 12 flights from Punta Arenas (53S) into the polar vortex (approximately 72S) at which time a vertical profile from 65 to 45 km and back was performed. Comparison of the observed profiles inside the vortex with N2O profiles obtained by balloon flights during the austral summer showed that an overall subsidence had occurred during the winter of about 5 to 6 km. Also, over the course of the mission (mid-August to late September), no trend in the N2O vertical profile, either upward or downward, was discernible, eliminating the possibility that upwelling was the cause of the observed ozone decrease.

  11. Comparison of Lagrangian and Steady State Box Model Runs With Measurement Data Obtained During GABRIEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stickler, A.; Fischer, H.; Gurk, C.; Bozem, H.; Schiller, C.; Parchatka, U.; Martinez-Harder, M.; Kubistin, D.; Harder, H.; Williams, J.; Königstedt, R.; Ganzeveld, L.; Lelieveld, J.

    2006-12-01

    Results of a comparison of different Lagrangian and steady state box model runs with measurement data obtained during the GABRIEL campaign over the tropical rainforest in October 2005 (Suriname) are presented and discussed. Lagrangian modelling of boundary layer (BL) CO (0-1 km a.s.l.) constrained by measured O3, methanol, acetone, isoprene, the sum of methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone, NO, HCHO, H2O2, organic peroxide, OH, HO2, H2O and radiation was used to derive the horizontal gradient (~ 8 pptv/km) of this compound from the ocean to the rainforest (east to west). It is significantly smaller than those derived from the measurements (16-48 pptv/km), indicating that photochemical production from organic precursors alone cannot explain the observed strong gradient. The results were cross- checked with a steady state and a Lagrangian box model study for HCHO. It appears that HCHO is significantly overestimated by the models, which include dry deposition, but not exchange with the free troposphere (FT). Sensitivity runs show that only an unlikely combination of several modified parameters (OH minus 25%, NO minus 5 pptv, Cl minus 75%, vdep = vdep(HNO3)) comes close to the observed values. The relatively short calculated lifetime of HCHO (50-100 min) implies significant BL-FT exchange even on small timescales if heterogeneous loss of HCHO on aerosol particles is considered to be unimportant. The mixing-in from above of FT air affected by biomass burning would increase the CO and lower the HCHO mixing ratios, leading to a better agreement of models and measurements. The deposition velocity for H2O2 over ocean and rainforest is deduced from box model results constrained by HOx and radiation measurements and assuming BL-FT exchange adequate to the results for CO. The Lagrangian model is used to check if the horizontal gradient observed for organic peroxides can be reproduced assuming that their deposition velocity is smaller than that of H2O2. Finally O3 formation

  12. Block distributions on the lunar surface: A comparison between measurements obtained from surface and orbital photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cintala, Mark J.; Mcbride, Kathleen M.

    1995-01-01

    Among the hazards that must be negotiated by lunar-landing spacecraft are blocks on the surface of the Moon. Unfortunately, few data exist that can be used to evaluate the threat posed by such blocks to landing spacecraft. Perhaps the best information is that obtained from Surveyor photographs, but those data do not extend to the dimensions of the large blocks that would pose the greatest hazards. Block distributions in the vicinities of the Surveyor 1, 3, 6, and 7 sites have been determined from Lunar Orbiter photography and are presented here. Only large (i.e., greater than or equal to 2.5 m) blocks are measurable in these pictures, resulting in a size gap between the Surveyor and Lunar Orbiter distributions. Nevertheless, the orbital data are self-consistent, a claim supported by the similarity in behavior between the subsets of data from the Surveyor 1, 3, and 6 sites and by the good agreement in position (if not slopes) between the data obtained from the Surveyor 3 photography and those derived from the Lunar Orbiter photographs. Confidence in the results is also justified by the well-behaved distribution of large blocks at the surveyor site. Comparisons between the Surveyor distributions and those derived from the orbital photography permit these observations: (1) in all cases but that for Surveyor 3, the density of large blocks is overestimated by extrapolation of the Surveyor-derived trends; (2) the slopes of the Surveyor-derived distributions are consistently lower than those determined for the large blocks; and (3) these apparent disagreements could be mitigated if the overall shapes of the cumulative lunar block populations were nonlinear, allowing for different slopes over different size intervals. The relatively large gaps between the Surveyor-derived and Orbiter-derived data sets, however, do not permit a determination of those shapes.

  13. Performance measures of NCAA baseball tryouts obtained from the new 60-yd run-shuttle.

    PubMed

    Priest, Joe W; Jones, Jason N; Conger, Bryan; Marble, Daniel K

    2011-10-01

    The ability to accelerate, decelerate, and change directions quickly is a well-known asset to athletic performance. Determination of basic movement skills may be accomplished by timing the athlete's ability to move through a prescribed course. The purpose of this investigation was (a) to describe and compare 4 distinct segments of a new agility test called "JJ Shuttle," and (b) to describe the agility and kinetic factors obtained from young men (age 18-22 years) who were competing for a limited number of positions on the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II team. Speed calculations allowed for comparisons between and among shuttle segments and, when considered with body mass, permitted calculation of an energy of motion represented by the kinetic factor (K-factor). Sorting of shuttle times identified the fastest athletes and revealed that they do not necessarily have the highest K-factor. Similarly, highlighting performances by K-factors identified athletes who may be able to contribute more by a particular combination of speed and size. Furthermore, rare individuals who might have both attributes stand out to the coach by employing sorting and ranking, all within the capabilities of Microsoft Office Excel® 2007. These performance measures and calculations obtained from the agility test may provide the coach or trainer with valuable insight into movement skills and potential contribution of the individual athlete to the success of the team. This information is critical in preseason assessments to help decide who makes the team and to evaluate progress within and between competitive seasons.

  14. Block distributions on the lunar surface: A comparison between measurements obtained from surface and orbital photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cintala, Mark J.; Mcbride, Kathleen M.

    1994-01-01

    Enlargements of Lunar-Orbiter photography were used in conjunction with a digitizing tablet to collect the locations and dimensions of blocks surrounding the Surveyor 1, 3, 6, and 7 landing sites. Data were reduced to the location and the major axis of the visible portion of each block. Shadows sometimes made it difficult to assess whether the visible major axis corresponded with the actual principal dimension. These data were then correlated with the locations of major craters in the study areas, thus subdividing the data set into blocks obviously associated with craters and those in intercrater areas. A block was arbitrarily defined to be associated with a crater when its location was within 1.1 crater radii of the crater's center. Since this study was commissioned for the ultimate purpose of determining hazards to landing spacecraft, such a definition was deemed appropriate in defining block-related hazards associated with craters. Size distributions of smaller fragments as determined from Surveyor photography were obtained as measurements from graphical data. Basic comparisons were performed through use of cumulative frequency distributions identical to those applied to studies of crater-count data.

  15. Unsteady transonic aerodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, D.

    1989-01-01

    Various papers on unsteady transonic aerodynamics are presented. The topics addressed include: physical phenomena associated with unsteady transonic flows, basic equations for unsteady transonic flow, practical problems concerning aircraft, basic numerical methods, computational methods for unsteady transonic flows, application of transonic flow analysis to helicopter rotor problems, unsteady aerodynamics for turbomachinery aeroelastic applications, alternative methods for modeling unsteady transonic flows.

  16. Uncertainty in Computational Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckring, J. M.; Hemsch, M. J.; Morrison, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    An approach is presented to treat computational aerodynamics as a process, subject to the fundamental quality assurance principles of process control and process improvement. We consider several aspects affecting uncertainty for the computational aerodynamic process and present a set of stages to determine the level of management required to meet risk assumptions desired by the customer of the predictions.

  17. Aerodynamic characteristics of French consonants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demolin, Didier; Hassid, Sergio; Soquet, Alain

    2001-05-01

    This paper reports some aerodynamic measurements made on French consonants with a group of ten speakers. Speakers were recorded while saying nonsense words in phrases such as papa, dis papa encore. The nonsense words in the study combined each of the French consonants with three vowels /i, a, u/ to from two syllables words with the first syllable being the same as the second. In addition to the audio signal, recordings were made of the oral airflow, the pressure of the air in the pharynx above the vocal folds and the pressure of the air in the trachea just below the vocal folds. The pharyngeal pressure was recorded via a catheter (i.d. 5 mm) passed through the nose so that its open end could be seen in the pharynx below the uvula. The subglottal pressure was recorded via a tracheal puncture between the first and the second rings of the trachea or between the cricoid cartilage and the first tracheal ring. Results compare subglottal presssure, pharyngeal pressure, and airflow values. Comparisons are made between values obtained with male and female subjects and various types of consonants (voiced versus voiceless at the same place of articulation, stops, fricatives, and nasals).

  18. Aerodynamic Noise Generated by Shinkansen Cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KITAGAWA, T.; NAGAKURA, K.

    2000-03-01

    The noise value (A -weighted sound pressure level, SLOW) generated by Shinkansen trains, now running at 220-300 km/h, should be less than 75 dB(A) at the trackside. Shinkansen noise, such as rolling noise, concrete support structure noise, and aerodynamic noise are generated by various parts of Shinkansen trains. Among these aerodynamic noise is important because it is the major contribution to the noise generated by the coaches running at high speed. In order to reduce the aerodynamic noise, a number of improvements to coaches have been made. As a result, the aerodynamic noise has been reduced, but it still remains significant. In addition, some aerodynamic noise generated from the lower parts of cars remains. In order to investigate the contributions of these noises, a method of analyzing Shinkansen noise has been developed and applied to the measured data of Shinkansen noise at speeds between 120 and 315 km/h. As a result, the following conclusions have been drawn: (1) Aerodynamic noise generated from the upper parts of cars was reduced considerably by smoothing car surfaces. (2) Aerodynamic noise generated from the lower parts of cars has a major influence upon the wayside noise.

  19. Validation of keratometric measurements obtained with a new integrated aberrometry-topography system

    PubMed Central

    Shneor, Einat; Millodot, Michel; Zyroff, Meira; Gordon-Shaag, Ariela

    2012-01-01

    Purpose A clinical evaluation of the L80 videokeratographer (Visionix Luneau, Chartres, France) was performed to assess its validity and repeatability compared with a traditional Bausch and Lomb (B & L) keratometer. Methods 87 right eyes of 87 subjects, (mean age 23.72 ± 3.62 years old, 70 women and 17 men), participated in this study. Corneal curvature was measured using the L80 instrument by one practitioner and the manual B & L keratometer by a different practitioner. Intratest and intertest repeatability were assessed. Results Corneal curvature was found to be statistically different between the two instruments (p < 0.001), with the L80 providing a slightly steeper bias of 0.05 mm and 0.07 mm for the horizontal and vertical meridians, respectively than the B & L keratometer. 78.2% and 86.2% of the L80 results were within ±0.1 mm (±0.06 D) and 95.4% and 97.7% within ±0.2 mm (±0.11 D) of the readings obtained with the B & L keratometer along the horizontal and the vertical meridians, respectively. The agreement between the L80 and B & L keratometers axes was 31.0% within ±5°, 54.0% within ±10°, 60.9% within ±15°, 71.3% within ±20° and 87.4% within ±40°. Intratest repeatability was the same for both instruments. Intertest repeatability was better for the L80 videokeratographer compared to the B & L keratometer and showed no significant difference between the two sessions. Conclusion The L80 videokeratographer is a reliable objective instrument comparable to other autokeratometers which, in addition, combines many other useful clinical features. It provides steeper radii of curvature measurements than the B & L keratometer. An offset incorporated into the instrument could mitigate the difference between the two instruments and make them interchangeable.

  20. Measuring Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Mechanical Properties Using Flat Punch Nanoindentation Focusing on Obtaining Full Contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Paoli, Federico

    In this research, the materials used were the Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymers. PDMS mechanicals properties were measured using a customized version of the nanoindentation test using a flat punch tip. The method is proposed in Chapter 3 and it is used to calculate the elastic modulus of different PDMS samples. The samples tested were both produced specifically for this research and available in the laboratory's storage. They all present different levels of cross-linking degree. It is quite common to not have full contact between the cylindrical flat punch and the sample because of the unavoidable tilt. The new method guarantees establishing full contact between the sample and the tip. The tip used for this purpose is a flat punch tip. The Young's moduli of the following samples were calculated: 10:1, 30:1 and 50:1. The Young's moduli found were: 2.85+/-0.001 MPa for the 10:1 sample, 0.34+/-0.001 MPa for the 30:1 sample and 0.15+/-0.002 MPa for the 50:1 sample. All the experiments were repeated at least three times to assure the validity and the repeatability of the method. The results were then compared with values available in the literature. The same method was applied to analyze the viscosity of the samples. Even if a mathematical result was not obtained, data and analysis through graphical representations are available in this thesis. The sample tested was a PDMS sample with a cross-linking degree of 30:1. The experiment has been repeated three times.

  1. Viking entry aerodynamics and heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polutchko, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of the Mars entry including the mission sequence of events and associated spacecraft weights are described along with the Viking spacecraft. Test data are presented for the aerodynamic characteristics of the entry vehicle showing trimmed alpha, drag coefficient, and trimmed lift to drag ratio versus Mach number; the damping characteristics of the entry configuration; the angle of attack time history of Viking entries; stagnation heating and pressure time histories; and the aeroshell heating distribution as obtained in tests run in a shock tunnel for various gases. Flight tests which demonstrate the aerodynamic separation of the full-scale aeroshell and the flying qualities of the entry configuration in an uncontrolled mode are documented. Design values selected for the heat protection system based on the test data and analysis performed are presented.

  2. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvořák, Rudolf

    2016-03-01

    Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird). Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust - two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc.), and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  3. Evaluation of Three-Dimensional Low-Speed Aerodynamic Performance for a Supersonic Biplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Shuichi; Ogawa, Toshihiro; Obayashi, Shigeru; Matsuno, Takashi; Kawazoe, Hiromitsu

    This study focuses on the aerodynamic performance of the supersonic biplane at the low-speed region. The performance was evaluated and discussed through Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Experimental Fluid Dynamics (EFD). The result of the CFD simulation was compared with the experimental result to validate the simulation and confirmed to be reliable. Therefore, the CFD results were employed to derive the aerodynamic performance coupled with the theoretical equations. In the wind tunnel experiment, the three-component force measurement was conducted to obtain lift, drag and pitching moment coefficients. The wake survey was conducted to measure the drag in detail. The results proved the low-speed aerodynamic performance of the supersonic biplane can be described by the classical ``general biplane theory'' reasonably well.

  4. Aerodynamic Performance of Hand Launch Glider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Masaru; Ishii, Mitsuru

    In recent years Micro Air Vehicles (MAV) for disaster aerial video are developed vigorously. In order to improve aerodynamic performance of MAV wing performance in low Reynolds numbers (Re) need to be improved, but research on the theme are very rare. In category of Hand Launch Glider, a kind of model aircraft, glide performance are competed, as a result high performance airfoils in Re is around 20,000 are developed. Therefore for MAV's aerodynamic performance improvement airfoils of Hand Launch Gliders should be referred and aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoils desired to be studied. So in this research, aerodynamic characteristics of the gliders are measured in wind tunnel. And also consistency between wind tunnel test and glide test in calm air is examined to confirm reliability of wind tunnel test. Comparison of different airfoils and flow visualization are also performed.

  5. Aerodynamic investigation by infrared imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, A. Sidney, Jr.; Mcree, Griffith J.; Gartenberg, Ehud

    1988-01-01

    Infrared imaging systems can be used to measure temperatures of actively heated bodies immersed in an airstream. This monitoring of the convective heat transfer process, provides also information about the interaction between the body and the flow. The concept appeals to Nusselt/Reynolds numbers relations in order to produce data of interest from surface temperatures. Two test cases are presented and reference is made to analytical results: the mapping of a laminar jet and the temperature distribution along a constant power heated flat plate in laminar boundary layer regime. Although this research is currently focused on low speed aerodynamics, the extension to high speed aerodynamics, where the body undergoes frictional heating is of interest in this context, too.

  6. Comparison of results obtained with various sensors used to measure fluctuating quantities in jets.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathy, S. P.; Massier, P. F.; Cuffel, R. F.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted to compare the results obtained with six different instruments that sense fluctuating quantities in free jets. These sensors are typical of those that have recently been used by various investigators who are engaged in experimental studies of jet noise. Intensity distributions and two-point correlations with space separation and time delay were obtained. The static pressure, density, and velocity fluctuations are well correlated over the entire cross section of the jet and the cross-correlations persist for several jet diameters along the flow direction. The eddies appear to be flattened in the flow direction by a ratio of 0.4.

  7. Effects of fluid-structure interaction on the aerodynamics of an insect wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Han, Jae-Hung

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, an insect wing structure is modeled based on data obtained from measurements on real hawkmoth (Manduca Sexta) wings. The aerodynamics of insect wings is simulated by an extended unsteady vortex-lattice method. The finite-element model of a flexible hawkmoth wing is built and validated. A computer program, which couples the finite-element model with the aerodynamic model, is used to study the effects of fluid-structure interaction. Some important features due to the fluid-structure interaction in hovering and forward flight are observed in the present study.

  8. Effect of Head Position on Facial Soft Tissue Depth Measurements Obtained Using Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Caple, Jodi M; Stephan, Carl N; Gregory, Laura S; MacGregor, Donna M

    2016-01-01

    Facial soft tissue depth (FSTD) studies employing clinical computed tomography (CT) data frequently rely on depth measurements from raw 2D orthoslices. However, the position of each patient's head was not standardized in this method, potentially decreasing measurement reliability and accuracy. This study measured FSTDs along the original orthoslice plane and compared these measurements to those standardized by the Frankfurt horizontal (FH). Subadult cranial CT scans (n = 115) were used to measure FSTDs at 18 landmarks. Significant differences were observed between the methods at eight of these landmarks (p < 0.05), demonstrating that high-quality data are not generated simply by employing modern imaging modalities such as CT. Proper technique is crucial to useful results, and maintaining control over head position during FSTD data collection is important. This is easily and most readily achieved in CT techniques by rotating the head to the FH plane after constructing a 3D rendering of the data.

  9. Fourier functional analysis for unsteady aerodynamic modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, C. Edward; Chin, Suei

    1991-01-01

    A method based on Fourier analysis is developed to analyze the force and moment data obtained in large amplitude forced oscillation tests at high angles of attack. The aerodynamic models for normal force, lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients are built up from a set of aerodynamic responses to harmonic motions at different frequencies. Based on the aerodynamic models of harmonic data, the indicial responses are formed. The final expressions for the models involve time integrals of the indicial type advocated by Tobak and Schiff. Results from linear two- and three-dimensional unsteady aerodynamic theories as well as test data for a 70-degree delta wing are used to verify the models. It is shown that the present modeling method is accurate in producing the aerodynamic responses to harmonic motions and the ramp type motions. The model also produces correct trend for a 70-degree delta wing in harmonic motion with different mean angles-of-attack. However, the current model cannot be used to extrapolate data to higher angles-of-attack than that of the harmonic motions which form the aerodynamic model. For linear ramp motions, a special method is used to calculate the corresponding frequency and phase angle at a given time. The calculated results from modeling show a higher lift peak for linear ramp motion than for harmonic ramp motion. The current model also shows reasonably good results for the lift responses at different angles of attack.

  10. Uncertainty limits for quantum metrology obtained from the statistics of weak measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, Holger F.

    2011-02-15

    Quantum metrology uses small changes in the output probabilities of a quantum measurement to estimate the magnitude of a weak interaction with the system. The sensitivity of this procedure depends on the relation between the input state, the measurement results, and the generator observable describing the effect of the weak interaction on the system. This is similar to the situation in weak measurements, where the weak value of an observable exhibits a symmetric dependence on initial and final conditions. In this paper, it is shown that the phase sensitivity of a quantum measurement is in fact given by the variance of the imaginary parts of the weak values of the generator over the different measurement outcomes. It is then possible to include the limitations of a specific quantum measurement in the uncertainty bound for phase estimates by subtracting the variance of the real parts of the weak values from the initial generator uncertainty. This uncertainty relation can be interpreted as the time-symmetric formulation of the uncertainty limit of quantum metrology, where the real parts of the weak values represent the information about the generator observable in the final measurement result.

  11. Temperature Variability in the Stratosphere Obtained from 7 years of Vibrational-Raman- lidar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iserhienrhien, B.; Sica, R. J.; Argall, P. S.

    2009-05-01

    The Purple Crow Lidar (PCL) is a large power-aperture product monostatic laser radar located at the Delaware Observatory (42° 52' N, 81° 23' W, 225 m elevation above sea level) near the campus of The University of Western Ontario. It is capable of measuring temperature and wave parameters from 10 to 110 km altitude, as well as water vapor in the troposphere and stratosphere. We use upper tropospheric and stratospheric vibrational Raman N2 backscatter-derived temperatures to form a climatology for the years 1999 to 2007 from 10 to 30 km altitude. The lidar temperatures are validated using coincident radiosondes measurements from Detroit and Buffalo. The measured temperatures show good agreement with the radiosonde soundings. An agreement of ±1 K is found during summer months and ±2.5 K during the winter months, validating the calibration of the lidar to within the geophysical variability of the measurements. Comparison between the PCL measurements and atmospheric models shows the PCL measurements are 5 K or less colder than CIRA-86 below 25 km and 2.5 K warmer above during the summer months. Below 16 km the PCL measurements are 5 K or less colder than the MSIS-90 model, while above this region, the PCL agrees to about ±3.5 K or less. The temperature differences between the PCL measurements and the models are consistent with the differences between the atmospheric models and the Detroit and Buffalo radiosonde measurements. The temperature differences compared to the models are consistent with previous comparisons between other radiosondes and satellite data sets, confirming that these differences with the models are real. We will highlight nights which show significant variations from the long-term averages, and when possible, the evolution of the variations.

  12. A Tool and a Method for Obtaining Hydrologic Flow Velocity Measurements in Geothermal Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, C.R.; Dunn, J.C.; Hardee, H.C.

    1986-01-21

    Downhole instruments based on a thermal perturbation principle are being developed to measure heat flow in permeable formations where convective transport of heat is important. To make heat flow measurements in these regions, the ground water velocity vector must be determined. A downhole probe has been designed to measure the local ground water velocity vector. The probe is a cylindrical heat source operated at a constant heat flux. In a convecting environment, surface temperatures on the probe are perturbed from those values of a purely conductive environment. With the aid of analytical and numerical models, these temperature differences can be related to the local velocity vector.

  13. In vivo recording of aerodynamic force with an aerodynamic force platform: from drones to birds.

    PubMed

    Lentink, David; Haselsteiner, Andreas F; Ingersoll, Rivers

    2015-03-01

    Flapping wings enable flying animals and biomimetic robots to generate elevated aerodynamic forces. Measurements that demonstrate this capability are based on experiments with tethered robots and animals, and indirect force calculations based on measured kinematics or airflow during free flight. Remarkably, there exists no method to measure these forces directly during free flight. Such in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of their flapping wings, in particular during the downstroke versus upstroke. Here, we demonstrate a new aerodynamic force platform (AFP) for non-intrusive aerodynamic force measurement in freely flying animals and robots. The platform encloses the animal or object that generates fluid force with a physical control surface, which mechanically integrates the net aerodynamic force that is transferred to the earth. Using a straightforward analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation, we verified that the method is accurate. We subsequently validated the method with a quadcopter that is suspended in the AFP and generates unsteady thrust profiles. These independent measurements confirm that the AFP is indeed accurate. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the AFP by studying aerodynamic weight support of a freely flying bird in vivo. These measurements confirm earlier findings based on kinematics and flow measurements, which suggest that the avian downstroke, not the upstroke, is primarily responsible for body weight support during take-off and landing.

  14. In vivo recording of aerodynamic force with an aerodynamic force platform: from drones to birds

    PubMed Central

    Lentink, David; Haselsteiner, Andreas F.; Ingersoll, Rivers

    2015-01-01

    Flapping wings enable flying animals and biomimetic robots to generate elevated aerodynamic forces. Measurements that demonstrate this capability are based on experiments with tethered robots and animals, and indirect force calculations based on measured kinematics or airflow during free flight. Remarkably, there exists no method to measure these forces directly during free flight. Such in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of their flapping wings, in particular during the downstroke versus upstroke. Here, we demonstrate a new aerodynamic force platform (AFP) for non-intrusive aerodynamic force measurement in freely flying animals and robots. The platform encloses the animal or object that generates fluid force with a physical control surface, which mechanically integrates the net aerodynamic force that is transferred to the earth. Using a straightforward analytical solution of the Navier–Stokes equation, we verified that the method is accurate. We subsequently validated the method with a quadcopter that is suspended in the AFP and generates unsteady thrust profiles. These independent measurements confirm that the AFP is indeed accurate. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the AFP by studying aerodynamic weight support of a freely flying bird in vivo. These measurements confirm earlier findings based on kinematics and flow measurements, which suggest that the avian downstroke, not the upstroke, is primarily responsible for body weight support during take-off and landing. PMID:25589565

  15. In vivo recording of aerodynamic force with an aerodynamic force platform: from drones to birds.

    PubMed

    Lentink, David; Haselsteiner, Andreas F; Ingersoll, Rivers

    2015-03-01

    Flapping wings enable flying animals and biomimetic robots to generate elevated aerodynamic forces. Measurements that demonstrate this capability are based on experiments with tethered robots and animals, and indirect force calculations based on measured kinematics or airflow during free flight. Remarkably, there exists no method to measure these forces directly during free flight. Such in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of their flapping wings, in particular during the downstroke versus upstroke. Here, we demonstrate a new aerodynamic force platform (AFP) for non-intrusive aerodynamic force measurement in freely flying animals and robots. The platform encloses the animal or object that generates fluid force with a physical control surface, which mechanically integrates the net aerodynamic force that is transferred to the earth. Using a straightforward analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation, we verified that the method is accurate. We subsequently validated the method with a quadcopter that is suspended in the AFP and generates unsteady thrust profiles. These independent measurements confirm that the AFP is indeed accurate. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the AFP by studying aerodynamic weight support of a freely flying bird in vivo. These measurements confirm earlier findings based on kinematics and flow measurements, which suggest that the avian downstroke, not the upstroke, is primarily responsible for body weight support during take-off and landing. PMID:25589565

  16. Aerodynamic characteristics and design guidelines of push-pull ventilation systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, R F; Lin, S Y; Jan, S-Y; Hsieh, R H; Chen, Y-K; Chen, C-W; Yeh, W-Y; Chang, C-P; Shih, T-S; Chen, C-C

    2005-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics such as the flow patterns, velocity field, streamline evolutions, characteristic flow modes and characteristic flow regimes of the push-pull ventilation system are cross-examined by using the laser-light sheet smoked-flow visualization method and laser Doppler velocimetry. Four characteristic flow modes, which are denoted as dispersion, transition, encapsulation and strong suction, are identified in the domain of the push-jet and pull-flow velocities at various open-surface tank widths and rising gas velocities. It is argued phenomenologically, from the aerodynamic point of view, that operating the system in the strong suction regime would be a better strategy than operating it in other characteristic regimes for the consideration of capture efficiency. Design guidelines are developed and summarized based on the results obtained from this study. The regression formulas for calculating the critical values of the push-jet and the pull-flow velocities are provided for easy access. The sulfur hexafluoride tracer gas validation technique is performed to measure the capture efficiency. The results of tracer gas validations are consistent with those obtained from the aerodynamic visualization and measurements. The operation points obtained by employing the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists design criteria are compared with the results obtained in this study for both the aerodynamics and the capture efficiency. Methods for improving the capture efficiency and energy consumptions are suggested.

  17. Advanced turboprop installation aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    The expected aerodynamic effects of a propfan installed on a thick supercritical wing are summarized qualitatively. Nacelle/wing and jet interactions, slipstream incremental velocity, nonuniform inflow, and swirl loss recovery are discussed.

  18. Aerodynamic Lifting Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltner, Klaus

    1990-01-01

    Describes some experiments showing both qualitatively and quantitatively that aerodynamic lift is a reaction force. Demonstrates reaction forces caused by the acceleration of an airstream and the deflection of an airstream. Provides pictures of demonstration apparatus and mathematical expressions. (YP)

  19. Technique for Obtaining Vertical Profiles of Backscattering and Extinction Cross Sections Using Slant Path Lidar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, J. D.; Herman, B. M.

    1973-01-01

    A method is presented for solving for vertical profiles of atmospheric particulate extinction and backscattering cross-sections utilizing monostatic lidar slant path measurements. The method is an extension of work by Fernald. It is shown that the number of assumptions necessary for an iterative solution of extinction and backscattering cross sections can be reduced if lidar slant path measurements are used to solve directly for optical depths. The technique is useful only if sufficiently accurate lidar measurements are available. With highly accurate measurements it is also possible to solve directly for extinction cross sections without an iterative solution of a transcendental equation if the proper reduction scheme is used. The required accuracy is discussed and results showing the effect of errors are presented.

  20. Obtaining Reliable Predictions of Terrestrial Energy Coupling From Real-Time Solar Wind Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weimer, Daniel R.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) from the ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer), Wind, IMP-8 (Interplanetary Monitoring Platform), and Geotail spacecraft have revealed that the IMF variations are contained in phase planes that are tilted with respect to the propagation direction, resulting in continuously variable changes in propagation times between spacecraft, and therefore, to the Earth. Techniques for using 'minimum variance analysis' have been developed in order to be able to measure the phase front tilt angles, and better predict the actual propagation times from the L1 orbit to the Earth, using only the real-time IMF measurements from one spacecraft. The use of empirical models with the IMF measurements at L1 from ACE (or future satellites) for predicting 'space weather' effects has also been demonstrated.

  1. Introduction. Computational aerodynamics.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Paul G

    2007-10-15

    The wide range of uses of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for aircraft design is discussed along with its role in dealing with the environmental impact of flight. Enabling technologies, such as grid generation and turbulence models, are also considered along with flow/turbulence control. The large eddy simulation, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes and hybrid turbulence modelling approaches are contrasted. The CFD prediction of numerous jet configurations occurring in aerospace are discussed along with aeroelasticity for aeroengine and external aerodynamics, design optimization, unsteady flow modelling and aeroengine internal and external flows. It is concluded that there is a lack of detailed measurements (for both canonical and complex geometry flows) to provide validation and even, in some cases, basic understanding of flow physics. Not surprisingly, turbulence modelling is still the weak link along with, as ever, a pressing need for improved (in terms of robustness, speed and accuracy) solver technology, grid generation and geometry handling. Hence, CFD, as a truly predictive and creative design tool, seems a long way off. Meanwhile, extreme practitioner expertise is still required and the triad of computation, measurement and analytic solution must be judiciously used.

  2. Aerodynamic Design Using Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, Man Mohan; Madavan, Nateri K.

    2003-01-01

    The design of aerodynamic components of aircraft, such as wings or engines, involves a process of obtaining the most optimal component shape that can deliver the desired level of component performance, subject to various constraints, e.g., total weight or cost, that the component must satisfy. Aerodynamic design can thus be formulated as an optimization problem that involves the minimization of an objective function subject to constraints. A new aerodynamic design optimization procedure based on neural networks and response surface methodology (RSM) incorporates the advantages of both traditional RSM and neural networks. The procedure uses a strategy, denoted parameter-based partitioning of the design space, to construct a sequence of response surfaces based on both neural networks and polynomial fits to traverse the design space in search of the optimal solution. Some desirable characteristics of the new design optimization procedure include the ability to handle a variety of design objectives, easily impose constraints, and incorporate design guidelines and rules of thumb. It provides an infrastructure for variable fidelity analysis and reduces the cost of computation by using less-expensive, lower fidelity simulations in the early stages of the design evolution. The initial or starting design can be far from optimal. The procedure is easy and economical to use in large-dimensional design space and can be used to perform design tradeoff studies rapidly. Designs involving multiple disciplines can also be optimized. Some practical applications of the design procedure that have demonstrated some of its capabilities include the inverse design of an optimal turbine airfoil starting from a generic shape and the redesign of transonic turbines to improve their unsteady aerodynamic characteristics.

  3. Clinical use of diodes and micro-chambers to obtain accurate small field output factor measurements.

    PubMed

    Kairn, T; Charles, P H; Cranmer-Sargison, G; Crowe, S B; Langton, C M; Thwaites, D I; Trapp, J V

    2015-06-01

    There have been substantial advances in small field dosimetry techniques and technologies, over the last decade, which have dramatically improved the achievable accuracy of small field dose measurements. This educational note aims to help radiation oncology medical physicists to apply some of these advances in clinical practice. The evaluation of a set of small field output factors (total scatter factors) is used to exemplify a detailed measurement and simulation procedure and as a basis for discussing the possible effects of simplifying that procedure. Field output factors were measured with an unshielded diode and a micro-ionisation chamber, at the centre of a set of square fields defined by a micro-multileaf collimator. Nominal field sizes investigated ranged from 6 × 6 to 98 × 98 mm(2). Diode measurements in fields smaller than 30 mm across were corrected using response factors calculated using Monte Carlo simulations of the diode geometry and daisy-chained to match micro-chamber measurements at intermediate field sizes. Diode measurements in fields smaller than 15 mm across were repeated twelve times over three separate measurement sessions, to evaluate the reproducibility of the radiation field size and its correspondence with the nominal field size. The five readings that contributed to each measurement on each day varied by up to 0.26  %, for the "very small" fields smaller than 15 mm, and 0.18 % for the fields larger than 15 mm. The diode response factors calculated for the unshielded diode agreed with previously published results, within uncertainties. The measured dimensions of the very small fields differed by up to 0.3 mm, across the different measurement sessions, contributing an uncertainty of up to 1.2 % to the very small field output factors. The overall uncertainties in the field output factors were 1.8 % for the very small fields and 1.1 % for the fields larger than 15 mm across. Recommended steps for acquiring small field output

  4. Use of aluminum nitride to obtain temperature measurements in a high temperature and high radiation environment

    DOEpatents

    Wernsman, Bernard R.; Blasi, Raymond J.; Tittman, Bernhard R.; Parks, David A.

    2016-04-26

    An aluminum nitride piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer successfully operates at temperatures of up to 1000.degree. C. and fast (>1 MeV) neutron fluencies of more than 10.sup.18 n/cm.sup.2. The transducer comprises a transparent, nitrogen rich aluminum nitride (AlN) crystal wafer that is coupled to an aluminum cylinder for pulse-echo measurements. The transducer has the capability to measure in situ gamma heating within the core of a nuclear reactor.

  5. Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Haecheon; Lee, Jungil; Park, Hyungmin

    2014-01-01

    We present an overview of the aerodynamics of heavy vehicles, such as tractor-trailers, high-speed trains, and buses. We introduce three-dimensional flow structures around simplified model vehicles and heavy vehicles and discuss the flow-control devices used for drag reduction. Finally, we suggest important unsteady flow structures to investigate for the enhancement of aerodynamic performance and future directions for experimental and numerical approaches.

  6. Aerodynamic Shutoff Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horstman, Raymond H.

    1992-01-01

    Aerodynamic flow achieved by adding fixed fairings to butterfly valve. When valve fully open, fairings align with butterfly and reduce wake. Butterfly free to turn, so valve can be closed, while fairings remain fixed. Design reduces turbulence in flow of air in internal suction system. Valve aids in development of improved porous-surface boundary-layer control system to reduce aerodynamic drag. Applications primarily aerospace. System adapted to boundary-layer control on high-speed land vehicles.

  7. Measured and predicted aerodynamic heating on a cylinder in wake of AFE configuration at incidence. [Aeroassist Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, William L.

    1989-01-01

    Thin-film resistance gages were used to measure cylinder surface heat-transfer rates in the near wake of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment vehicle configuration, while surface-streamline directions were ascertained by the oil-flow techniques under the same configuration and test conditions. Both heat transfer distributions and flow over the entire cylinder surface were influenced by impingement of that portion of the free shear layer originating at the forebody shoulder in the upper symmetry plane. Heating rate distributions predicted with a Navier-Stokes solver computer code were in general agreement with measurements.

  8. Aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils with ice accretions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, M. B.; Gregorek, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    Results of a wind tunnel test to evaluate the performance of an airfoil with simulated rime ice are presented with theoretical comparisons. A NACA 65A413 airfoil was tested in the OSU 6 x 22 inch Transonic Airfoil Wind Tunnel at a Reynolds number near three million and Mach numbers from 0.20 to 0.80. The model was tested in four configurations to determine the aero-dynamic effects of the roughness and shape of a rime ice accretion. The simulated rime ice shape was obtained analytically using a time-stepping dry ice accretion computer code. Lift, drag, moment coefficients, and pressure distributions for the clean and simulated rime ice cases are reported. The measured degradation in airfoil performance is compared to an analytical method which uses existing airfoil analysis computer codes with empirical corrections for the surface roughness. A discussion of the empirical surface roughness correction and uses of other airfoil computer methods is included.

  9. Photopic Negative Response Obtained Using a Handheld Electroretinogram Device: Determining the Optimal Measure and Repeatability

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhichao; Hadoux, Xavier; Hui, Flora; Sarossy, Marc G.; Crowston, Jonathan G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the measure of the photopic negative response (PhNR) of the full-field electroretinogram (ERG) that exhibits the optimal level of test-retest repeatability, and examine its repeatability under different conditions using a handheld, nonmydriatic ERG system and self-adhering skin electrodes. Methods Multiple ERG recordings (using 200 sweeps each) were performed in both eyes of 20 normal participants at two different sessions to compare its coefficient of repeatability (CoR; where 95% of the test-retest difference is expected to lie) between different PhNR measures and under different testing conditions (within and between examiners, and between sessions). Results The ratio between the PhNR trough to b-wave peak and b-wave peak to a-wave trough amplitude (PhNR/B ratio) exhibited the lowest CoR relative to its effective dynamic range (30 ± 4%) when including three recordings. There were no significant changes in the PhNR/B ratio over seven measurements (4 right and 3 left eyes) at either session (P ≥ 0.100), or significant difference in its CoR between different testing conditions (P = 0.314). Conclusion The PhNR/B ratio was the measure that minimized variability, and its measurements using a novel handheld ERG system with self-adhering skin electrodes and the protocols described in this study were comparable under different testing conditions and over multiple recordings. Translational Relevance The PhNR can be measured for clinical and research purposes using a simple-to-implement technique that is consistent within and between visits, and also between examiners. PMID:27540494

  10. Comparisons of brightness temperature measurements and calculations obtained during the spectral radiance experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Y.; Snider, J.B.; Westwater, E.R.; Melfi, S.H.; Ferrare, R.A.

    1995-04-01

    In radiometric remote sensing of the atmosphere, the ability to calculate radiances from underlying state variables is fundamental. To infer temperature and water vapor profiles from satellite- or ground-based radiometers, one must determine cloud-free regions and then calculate clear-sky radiance emerging from the top of the earth`s atmosphere from the underlying profiles of temperature and water vapor. Equally important is the validation of the radiometric retrievals. Usually such validation is made by comparing retrievals with profiles derived from other sensors. Traditionally, such {open_quotes}forward model{close_quotes} calculations and validations have coupled radiosonde observations of the state variables with detailed absorption and radiative transfer models. However, for a variety of reasons, radiosonde moisture measurements are not always satisfactory, especially during low humidity conditions or when there are large horizontal or temporal gradients in the humidity structure. A recent alternative to radiosonde moisture measurements is Raman lidar. The Raman lidar provides humidity measurements with temporal and spatial resolution far superior to radiosonde measurements. In November-December 1991, a substantial number of remote sensor and in-situ instruments were operated together in Coffeyville, Kansas, during the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) 11. Included in the suite of instruments were (1) the Environmental Technology Laboratory`s (ETL) three-channel microwave radiometer, (2) the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center`s (GSFC) Raman lidar, (3) ETL`s radio acoustic sounding system (RASS), and (4) frequent research-quality radiosondes. The Raman lidar operated only at night, and this portion of the experiment focused on cloud-free conditions. In this presentation, we present results of simultaneous microwave radiometer measurements with collocated Raman lidar measurements of water vapor over 10 nights during the experiments.

  11. Measurement of liquid scintillation sources of (210)Pb obtained from (222)Rn decay.

    PubMed

    Antohe, A; Sahagia, M; Luca, A; Ioan, M-R; Ivan, C

    2016-03-01

    Liquid scintillation samples were filled with (222)Rn and the activity was measured with good precision after reaching the secular equilibrium with the progeny (218)Po, (214)Pb, (214)Bi and (214)Po. After decay of most of (222)Rn activity, the samples contain (210)Pb and progeny. The activities of (210)Pb and progeny can be calculated as a function of time using the initial (222)Rn activity. The samples were measured in a TDCR counter and the experimentally determined counting efficiencies are in accordance with previously published results.

  12. Measurement of liquid scintillation sources of (210)Pb obtained from (222)Rn decay.

    PubMed

    Antohe, A; Sahagia, M; Luca, A; Ioan, M-R; Ivan, C

    2016-03-01

    Liquid scintillation samples were filled with (222)Rn and the activity was measured with good precision after reaching the secular equilibrium with the progeny (218)Po, (214)Pb, (214)Bi and (214)Po. After decay of most of (222)Rn activity, the samples contain (210)Pb and progeny. The activities of (210)Pb and progeny can be calculated as a function of time using the initial (222)Rn activity. The samples were measured in a TDCR counter and the experimentally determined counting efficiencies are in accordance with previously published results. PMID:26725538

  13. Microwave interferometry technique for obtaining gas interface velocity measurements in an expansion tube facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laney, C. C., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A microwave interferometer technique to determine the front interface velocity of a high enthalpy gas flow, is described. The system is designed to excite a standing wave in an expansion tube, and to measure the shift in this standing wave as it is moved by the test gas front. Data, in the form of a varying sinusoidal signal, is recorded on a high-speed drum camera-oscilloscope combination. Measurements of average and incremental velocities in excess of 6,000 meters per second were made.

  14. System Identification of a Vortex Lattice Aerodynamic Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Kholodar, Denis; Dowell, Earl H.

    2001-01-01

    The state-space presentation of an aerodynamic vortex model is considered from a classical and system identification perspective. Using an aerodynamic vortex model as a numerical simulator of a wing tunnel experiment, both full state and limited state data or measurements are considered. Two possible approaches for system identification are presented and modal controllability and observability are also considered. The theory then is applied to the system identification of a flow over an aerodynamic delta wing and typical results are presented.

  15. A comparison of the three methods used to obtain acoustic measurements for the NASA Flight Effects Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, A. W.

    1980-01-01

    The NASA Flight Effects Program has a requirement to compare acoustic data obtained from flyover, static test stand, and wind tunnel tests. Results a laboratory study of the acoustic characteristics of the three technqiues used to measure noise during these tests are presented. Recommendations are made to allow for a comparison of data obtained with each technique.

  16. The Effects of Survey Timing on Student Evaluation of Teaching Measures Obtained Using Online Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estelami, Hooman

    2015-01-01

    Teaching evaluations are an important measurement tool used by business schools in gauging the level of student satisfaction with the educational services delivered by faculty. The growing use of online teaching evaluations has enabled educational administrators to expand the time period during which student evaluation of teaching (SET) surveys…

  17. High precision 7Be solar neutrinos measurement and day night effect obtained with Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testera, G.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonetti, S.; Bonfini, G.; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Carraro, C.; Chavarria, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Göger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Guardincerri, E.; Hardy, S.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Korablev, D.; Kobychev, V.; Korga, G.; Koshio, Y.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Leung, M.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Lombardi, F.; Ludhova, L.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Manuzio, G.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Pena-Garay, C.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Raghavan, R. S.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Romani, A.; Sabelnikov, A.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuzel, G.

    2012-11-01

    We report the direct measurement of the 7Be solar neutrino signal rate performed with the Borexino detector at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and the search for a day-night asymmetry of this interaction rate. The interaction rate of the 0.862 MeV 7Be neutrinos is 46±1.6(stat)-1.6+1.5(syst) counts/(day · 100 ton). The hypothesis of no oscillation for this solar neutrinos is inconsistent with our measurement at the 5.8σ C.L. Our result is the first direct measurement of solar neutrinos with an accuracy better than 5%. We report the survival probability for solar νe in the transition region between matter-enhanced and vacuum-driven oscillations. The measured day night asymmetry is Adn=0.001±0.012 (stat)±0.007 (syst), in agreement with the predicition of MSW-LMA neutrino [13] oscillations. This result discourages MSW oscillations with mixing parameters in the LOW region at more than 8.5σ, meaning that this region is, for the first time, strongly rejected without the assumption of CPT symmetry. The result can also be used to constrain some neutrino oscillation scenarios involving new physics.

  18. Methods for obtaining true particle size distributions from cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, Kristina Alyse

    2013-01-01

    Sectioning methods are frequently used to measure grain sizes in materials. These methods do not provide accurate grain sizes for two reasons. First, the sizes of features observed on random sections are always smaller than the true sizes of solid spherical shaped objects, as noted by Wicksell [1]. This is the case because the section very rarely passes through the center of solid spherical shaped objects randomly dispersed throughout a material. The sizes of features observed on random sections are inversely related to the distance of the center of the solid object from the section [1]. Second, on a plane section through the solid material, larger sized features are more frequently observed than smaller ones due to the larger probability for a section to come into contact with the larger sized portion of the spheres than the smaller sized portion. As a result, it is necessary to find a method that takes into account these reasons for inaccurate particle size measurements, while providing a correction factor for accurately determining true particle size measurements. I present a method for deducing true grain size distributions from those determined from specimen cross sections, either by measurement of equivalent grain diameters or linear intercepts.

  19. Acoustic resolution photoacoustic Doppler flowmetry: practical considerations for obtaining accurate measurements of blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunker, J.; Beard, P.

    2014-03-01

    An assessment has been made of various experimental factors affecting the accuracy of flow velocities measured using a pulsed time correlation photoacoustic Doppler technique. In this method, Doppler time shifts are quantified via crosscorrelation of pairs of photoacoustic waveforms generated in moving absorbers using pairs of laser light pulses, and the photoacoustic waves are detected using an ultrasound transducer. The acoustic resolution mode is employed by using the transducer focal width, rather than the large illuminated volume, to define the lateral spatial resolution. This enables penetration depths of several millimetres or centimetres, unlike methods using the optical resolution mode, which limits the maximum penetration depth to approximately 1 mm. In the acoustic resolution mode, it is difficult to detect time shifts in highly concentrated suspensions of flowing absorbers, such as red blood cell suspensions and whole blood, and this challenge supposedly arises because of the lack of spatial heterogeneity. However, by assessing the effect of different absorption coefficients and tube diameters, we offer an alternative explanation relating to light attenuation and parabolic flow. We also demonstrate a new signal processing method that surmounts the previous problem of measurement under-reading. This method is a form of signal range gating and enables mapping of the flow velocity profile across the tube as well as measurement of the average flow velocity. We show that, using our signal processing scheme, it is possible to measure the flow of whole blood using a relatively low frequency detector. This important finding paves the way for application of the technique to measurements of blood flow several centimetres deep in living tissue.

  20. A CLOSURE STUDY OF AEROSOL MASS CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENTS: COMPARISON OF VALUES OBTAINED WITH FILTERS AND BY DIRECT MEASUREMENTS OF MASS DISTRIBUTIONS. (R826372)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compare measurements of aerosol mass concentrations obtained gravimetrically using Teflon coated glass fiber filters and by integrating mass distributions measured with the differential mobility analyzer–aerosol particle mass analyzer (DMA–APM) technique (Aero...

  1. Aerodynamic Parameter Identification of a Venus Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, Robert A.

    An analysis was conducted to identify the parameters of an aerodynamic model for a Venus lander based on experimental free-flight data. The experimental free-flight data were collected in the NASA Langley 20-ft Vertical Spin Tunnel with a 25-percent Froude-scaled model. The experimental data were classified based on the wind tunnel run type: runs where the lander model was unperturbed over the course of the run, and runs were the model was perturbed (principally in pitch, yaw, and roll) by the wind tunnel operator. The perturbations allow for data to be obtained at higher wind angles and rotation rates than those available from the unperturbed data. The model properties and equations of motion were used to determine experimental values for the aerodynamic coefficients. An aerodynamic model was selected using a priori knowledge of axisymmetric blunt entry vehicles. The least squares method was used to estimate the aerodynamic parameters. Three sets of results were obtained from the following data sets: perturbed, unperturbed, and the combination of both. The combined data set was selected for the final set of aerodynamic parameters based on the quality of the results. The identified aerodynamic parameters are consistent with that of the static wind tunnel data. Reconstructions, of experimental data not used in the parameter identification analyses, achieved similar residuals as those with data used to identify the parameters. Simulations of the experimental data, using the identified parameters, indicate that the aerodynamic model used is incapable of replicating the limit cycle oscillations with stochastic peak amplitudes observed during the test.

  2. Airborne FTIR Measurements Obtained Aboard the UW CV-580 During SAFARI-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokelson, R. J.; Bertschi, I.; Christian, T. J.; Hobbs, P. V.; Ward, D. E.; Hao, W. M.

    2001-12-01

    The University of Montana/Forest Service airborne FTIR (AFTIR) was installed on the University of Washington Convair-580 for 19 flights between 14 August and 14 September 2000. We quantified the major trace gases in minutes-old biomass burning smoke (namely CO2, CO, CH4, C2H4, C2H2, CH2O, CH3OH, CH3COOH, HCOOH, NH3, NO, NO2, and HCN) from 9 fires in both arid and humid, wooded savannas where most global biomass burning occurs. Several of these measurements coincided with TERRA/ER2 overpasses. The AFTIR fire measurements confirmed the importance of oxygenated organic compounds in tropical smoke and provided an emission factor for HCN (a potential biomass burning tracer) that is 20 times higher than previously thought. AFTIR also documented some rapid post-emission chemical transformations in smoke. We measured actual formation rates for ozone and acetic acid in smoke downwind from two savanna fires. The ratio of excess ozone to excess CO reached 9% after a few hours of photochemical processing. The similar ratio for acetic acid increased from 1.4 to approximately 5% over the same time period. We observed cloud scavenging of methanol, ammonia, and acetic acid from smoke and a simultaneous, cloud-related source of formaldehyde in the plumes from two other savanna fires. To our knowledge, the SAFARI-2000 flights provided the first comprehensive characterization of savanna fire smoke samples with explicitly known smoke ages and post-emission processing scenarios. We also measured vertical profiles for CO2, CO, CH4, and H2O under TERRA/ER2 at 5 locations in the southern African gyre, one location in the continental outflow over the Atlantic, and one location in the inflow adjacent to the Indian Ocean. During a 3-aircraft intercomparison we observed trace gas enhancement in the free troposphere due to deep cumulus convection. Finally, we measured high NOx emission factors for ships off Namibia. Taken together, our FTIR-based measurements of the emissions from ships

  3. Effect of wind tunnel acoustic modes on linear oscillating cascade aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffum, Daniel H.; Fleeter, Sanford

    1993-01-01

    The aerodynamics of a biconvex airfoil cascade oscillating in torsion is investigated using the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. For subsonic flow and reduced frequencies as large as 0.9, airfoil surface unsteady pressures resulting from oscillation of one of the airfoils are measured using flush-mounted high-frequency-response pressure transducers. The influence coefficient data are examined in detail and then used to predict the unsteady aerodynamics of a cascade oscillating at various interblade phase angles. These results are correlated with experimental data obtained in the traveling-wave mode of oscillation and linearized analysis predictions. It is found that the unsteady pressure disturbances created by an oscillating airfoil excite wind tunnel acoustic modes which have detrimental effects on the experimental data. Acoustic treatment is proposed to rectify this problem.

  4. Comparison of in situ stratospheric ozone measurements obtained during the MAP/GLOBUS 1983 campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aimedieu, P.; Matthews, W. A.; Attmannspacher, W.; Hartmannsgruber, R.; Cisneros, J.; Komhyr, W.; Robbins, D. E.

    1987-01-01

    Data from five types of in situ ozone sensors flown aboard ballons during the MAP/GLOBUS 1983 campaign were found to agree to within 5 percent uncertainty throughout the middle atmosphere. A description of the individual techniques and the error budget is given in addition to explanations for the discrepancies found at higher and lower altitudes. In comparison to UV photometry values, results from two electrochemical techniques were found to be greater in the lower atmosphere and to be lower in the upper atmosphere. In general, olefin chemiluminescence results were within 8 percent of the UV photometry results. Ozone column contents measured by the indigo colorization technique for two altitude regions of about 6 km height were greater than measurements from other techniques by 52 and 17 percent, respectively.

  5. Obtaining Reliable Predictions of Terrestrial Energy Coupling From Real-Time Solar Wind Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weimer, Daniel R.

    2001-01-01

    The first draft of a manuscript titled "Variable time delays in the propagation of the interplanetary magnetic field" has been completed, for submission to the Journal of Geophysical Research. In the preparation of this manuscript all data and analysis programs had been updated to the highest temporal resolution possible, at 16 seconds or better. The program which computes the "measured" IMF propagation time delays from these data has also undergone another improvement. In another significant development, a technique has been developed in order to predict IMF phase plane orientations, and the resulting time delays, using only measurements from a single satellite at L1. The "minimum variance" method is used for this computation. Further work will be done on optimizing the choice of several parameters for the minimum variance calculation.

  6. A NEW RECIPE FOR OBTAINING CENTRAL VOLUME DENSITIES OF PRESTELLAR CORES FROM SIZE MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Tassis, Konstantinos; Yorke, Harold W.

    2011-07-10

    We propose a simple analytical method for estimating the central volume density of prestellar molecular cloud cores from their column density profiles. Prestellar cores feature a flat central part of the column density and volume density profiles of the same size indicating the existence of a uniform-density inner region. The size of this region is set by the thermal pressure force which depends only on the central volume density and temperature of the core, and can provide a direct measurement of the central volume density. Thus, a simple length measurement can immediately yield a central density estimate independent of any dynamical model for the core and without the need for fitting. Using the radius at which the column density is 90% of the central value as an estimate of the size of the flat inner part of the column density profile yields an estimate of the central volume density within a factor of two for well-resolved cores.

  7. Perturbation Centrality and Turbine: A Novel Centrality Measure Obtained Using a Versatile Network Dynamics Tool

    PubMed Central

    Szalay, Kristóf Z.; Csermely, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of network dynamics became a focal point to understand and predict changes of complex systems. Here we introduce Turbine, a generic framework enabling fast simulation of any algorithmically definable dynamics on very large networks. Using a perturbation transmission model inspired by communicating vessels, we define a novel centrality measure: perturbation centrality. Hubs and inter-modular nodes proved to be highly efficient in perturbation propagation. High perturbation centrality nodes of the Met-tRNA synthetase protein structure network were identified as amino acids involved in intra-protein communication by earlier studies. Changes in perturbation centralities of yeast interactome nodes upon various stresses well recapitulated the functional changes of stressed yeast cells. The novelty and usefulness of perturbation centrality was validated in several other model, biological and social networks. The Turbine software and the perturbation centrality measure may provide a large variety of novel options to assess signaling, drug action, environmental and social interventions. PMID:24205090

  8. Tropospheric water vapor and aerosol measurements obtained during LASE validation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Browell, E.V.; Ismail, S.; Hall, W.M.; Moore, A.S.

    1996-10-01

    The Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) is a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system flown on the NASA ER-2 aircraft to remotely measure distributions of tropospheric water vapor, aerosols, and clouds. LASE was developed at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to demonstrate autonomous operation of a DIAL system from a high-altitude aircraft as an important step towards developing a spaceborne DIAL system. LASE uses a double pulsed Ti:sapphire laser operating in the 815-nm absorption band of water vapor to generate the on- and off-line DIAL laser pulses. The system has two avalanche photodiode detectors and three signal digitizers to preserve the lidar backscatter signals over a large dynamic range. In September 1995, LASE completed a comprehensive validation program at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility. The system was flown on the ER-2 during ten flights for a total of 60 hours. LASE measurements of tropospheric water vapor were compared with other remote and in situ measurements of water vapor from the ground and from aircraft which underflew the ER-2. Besides making intercomparisons with a number of water vapor sensors, this experiment incorporated a number of case studies related to atmospheric events including flights over and around Hurricane Luis over the Atlantic ocean, sea breeze development along the east coast of Virginia, and stratosphere-troposphere exchange. This paper presents data taken during this field experiment that demonstrate the accuracy of LASE for tropospheric water vapor measurements. The paper also discusses results from several of the atmospheric case studies conducted during this experiment and the potential future uses of LASE.

  9. Development, calibration and experimental results obtained with an innovative calorimeter (CALMOS) for nuclear heating measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Carcreff, H.; Cloute-Cazalaa, V.; Salmon, L.

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear heating inside an MTR reactor has to be known in order to be able to control samples temperature during irradiation experiments. An R and D program has been carried out at CEA to design a new type of in-core calorimetric system. This new development, started in 2002, has for main objective to manufacture a calorimeter suitable to monitoring nuclear heating inside the 70 MWth OSIRIS material testing reactor operated by CEA's Nuclear Energy Div. at the Saclay research center. An innovative calorimetric probe, associated to a specific handling system, has been designed to provide access to measurements both along the fissile height and on the upper part of the core, where nuclear heating still remains high. Two mock-ups of the probe were manufactured and tested in 2005 and 2009 in ex-core area of OSIRIS reactor for process validation, while a displacement system has been especially studied to move the probe along a given axial measurement range. This paper deals with the development, tests on preliminary mock-ups and the finalization of the probe. Main modeling and experimental results are presented. Moreover, alternative methods to calibration for nuclear heating rate measurements which are now possible with this new calorimeter are presented and discussed. (authors)

  10. Development, calibration, and experimental results obtained with an innovative calorimeter (CALMOS) for nuclear heating measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Carcreff, Hubert; Cloute-Cazalaa, Veronique; Salmon, Laurent

    2012-08-15

    Nuclear heating inside an MTR reactor has to be known in order to be able to control samples temperature during irradiation experiments. An R and D program has been carried out at CEA to design a new type of in-core calorimetric system. This new development, started in 2002, has for main objective to manufacture a calorimeter suitable to monitoring nuclear heating inside the 70 MWth OSIRIS material testing reactor operated by CEA's Nuclear Energy Division at the Saclay research center. An innovative calorimetric probe, associated to a specific handling system, has been designed to provide access to measurements both along the fissile height and on the upper part of the core, where nuclear heating still remains high. Two mock-ups of the probe were manufactured and tested in 2005 and 2009 in ex-core area of OSIRIS reactor for process validation, while a displacement system has been especially studied to move the probe along a given axial measurement range. This paper deals with the development, tests on preliminary mock-ups and the finalization of the probe. Main modeling and experimental results are presented. Moreover, alternative methods to calibration for nuclear heating rate measurements which are now possible with this new calorimeter are presented and discussed. (authors)

  11. Pilot model expansion tunnel test flow properties obtained from velocity, pressure, and probe measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friesen, W. J.; Moore, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Velocity-profile, pitot-pressure, and supplemental probe measurements were made at the nozzle exist of an expansion tunnel (a modification to the Langley pilot model expansion tube) for a nozzle net condition of a nitrogen test sample with a velocity of 4.5 km/sec and a density 0.005 times the density of nitrogen at standard conditions, both with the nozzle initially immersed in a helium atmosphere and with the nozzle initially evacuated. The purpose of the report is to present the results of these measurements and some of the physical properties of the nitrogen test sample which can be inferred from the measured results. The main conclusions reached are that: the velocity profiles differ for two nozzle conditions; regions of the flow field can be found where the velocity is uniform to within 5 percent and constant for several hundred microseconds; the velocity of the nitrogen test sample is reduced due to passage through the nozzle; and the velocity profiles do not significantly reflect the large variations which occur in the inferred density profiles.

  12. Techniques for obtaining detailed heat transfer coefficient measurements within gas turbine blade and vane cooling passages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, R. J.; Jones, T. V.; Dunnne, S. T.

    1983-03-01

    Techniques developed jointly by Rolls-Royce Bristol and Oxford University for determining detailed heat transfer distributions inside turbine blade and vane cooling passages are reviewed. Use is made of a low temperature phase change paint to map the heat flux distributions within models of the cooling passages; the paints change from an opaque coating to a clear liquid at a well-defined melting point. In this way the surface temperature history of a model subjected to transient convective heating is recorded. The heat transfer coefficient distribution is deduced from this history using a transient conduction analysis within the model. Results are presented on detailed heat transfer coefficient distributions within a variety of cooling passages; and data obtained from a comprehensive study of a typical engine multipass cooling geometry are examined.

  13. Drude's Model Optical Parameters and the Color of TiNx Films Obtained Through Reflectivity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, L. A.; Sagás, J. C.; Damião, A. J.; Fontana, L. C.

    2015-02-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) has been applied as decorative coating due to its high reflectivity and goldish color, having high hardness and wear resistance. In the present work, TiNx films were deposited by grid-assisted magnetron sputtering. The color and reflectivity were investigated by spectrophotometry as a function of the working gas ratio N2/Ar used during films deposition. The crystalline phases were identified by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD). The TiNx plasma frequency ( ω p) and the relaxation time ( τ) were determined by fitting the experimental reflectivity curves, according to the Drude model. The color parameters obtained by the CieLab method were used to compare TiNx films with gold film.

  14. Polarization measurement and vertical aperture optimization for obtaining circularly polarized bend-magnet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kortright, J.B.; Rice, M.; Hussain, Z.

    1997-04-01

    Growing interest in utilizing circular polarization prompted the design of bend-magnet beamline 9.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source, covering the 30-1500 eV spectral region, to include vertical aperturing capabilities for optimizing the collection of circular polarization above and below the orbit plane. After commissioning and early use of the beamline, a multilayer polarimeter was used to characterize the polarization state of the beam as a function of vertical aperture position. This report partially summarizes the polarimetry measurements and compares results with theoretical calculations intended to simulate experimental conditions.

  15. Ocean current surface measurement using dynamic elevations obtained by the GEOS-3 radar altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leitao, C. D.; Huang, N. E.; Parra, C. G.

    1977-01-01

    Remote Sensing of the ocean surface from the GEOS-3 satellite using radar altimeter data has confirmed that the altimeter can detect the dynamic ocean topographic elevations relative to an equipotential surface, thus resulting in a reliable direct measurement of the ocean surface. Maps of the ocean dynamic topography calculated over a one month period and with 20 cm contour interval are prepared for the last half of 1975. The Gulf Stream is observed by the rapid slope change shown by the crowding of contours. Cold eddies associated with the current are seen as roughly circular depressions.

  16. A comparison of the acoustic and aerodynamic measurements of a model rotor tested in two anechoic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boxwell, D. A.; Schmitz, F. H.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K. J.; Lewy, S.; Caplot, M.

    1986-01-01

    Two aeroacoustic facilities--the CEPRA 19 in France and the DNW in the Netherlands--are compared. The two facilities have unique acoustic characteristics that make them appropriate for acoustic testing of model-scale helicopter rotors. An identical pressure-instrumented model-scale rotor was tested in each facility and acoustic test results are compared with full-scale-rotor test results. Blade surface pressures measured in both tunnels were used to correlated nominal rotor operating conditions in each tunnel, and also used to assess the steadiness of the rotor in each tunnel's flow. In-the-flow rotor acoustic signatures at moderate forward speeds (35-50 m/sec) are presented for each facility and discussed in relation to the differences in tunnel geometries and aeroacoustic characteristics. Both reports are presented in appendices to this paper. ;.);

  17. A comparison of the acoustic and aerodynamic measurements of a model rotor tested in two anechoic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boxwell, D. A.; Schmitz, F. H.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K. J.; Lewy, S.

    1986-01-01

    Two aeroacoustic facilities - the CEPRA 19 in France and the DNW in the Netherlands - are compared. The two facilities have unique acoustic characteristics that make them appropriate for acoustic testing of model-scale helicopter rotors. An identical pressure-instrumented model-scale rotor was tested in each facility and acoustic test results are compared with full-scale-rotor test results. Blade surface pressures measured in both tunnels were used to correlated nominal rotor operating conditions in each tunnel, and also used to assess the steadiness of the rotor in each tunnel's flow. In-the-flow rotor acoustic signatures at moderate forward speeds (35-50 m/sec) are presented for each facility and discussed in relation to the differences in tunnel geometries and aeroacoustic characteristics. Both reports are presented in appendices to this paper.

  18. Transport Property Measurements in Doped Bi2Te3 Single Crystals Obtained via Zone Melting Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jariwala, Bhakti; Shah, Dimple; Ravindra, N. M.

    2015-06-01

    Single crystals of Se- and Fe-doped Bi2Te3 have been synthesized via the zone melting method. Energy-dispersive x-ray and x-ray powder diffraction analyses have been carried out to identify the constituent elements and determine the lattice parameters of the grown crystals. Surface topological features of the as-grown single crystals have been studied. The transport properties of doped stoichiometric Bi2Te3 single crystals have been studied by measuring the thermoelectric power and electrical conductivity in the temperature range from 303 K to 473 K. The thermoelectric power, S, effective mass, scattering parameter, and Fermi energy have been calculated from thermoelectric power measurements. The temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity, σ, shows that the dopants in the crystals are thermally activated. All the crystals exhibit semiconducting behavior as confirmed by the temperature dependence of σ and S. The effective mass of electrons and the effective density of states have been determined and are reported for Bi2Te3- x Se x (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.3) and Bi2- y Fe y Te3 (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.3).

  19. Dose Measurement Results Obtained by Radiation Monitoring System of Russian Segment of International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, V. M.; Benghin, V. V.; Volkov, A. N.; Aleksandrin, A. P.; Lyagushin, V. I.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Tel'Tsov, M. V.; Kutuzov, Yu. V.

    Radiation monitoring system RMS being deployed on the International Space Station is a part of radiation safety system of the station The purpose of the RMS is to provide information for assessment of radiation doses absorbed by the crews during space flights Radiation monitoring system RMS has worked on board of the International Space Station ISS practically continuously beginning from August 2001 RMS consist of 7 units begin itemize item The R-16 dosimeter Two ionization chambers are the sensitive elements of the R-16 dosimeter item Four DB-8 dosimeters with semiconductor radiation detectors item Data collection unit and Utility unit destined for processing and analysis of measurement results end itemize RMS with other ISS systems integration permits to downlink telemetry information and to display radiation parameters to crew In June 2005 the software of data collection unit was updated It permits the RMS telemetry information upgrading to alert the crew when exposure rates exceed set threshold to supply an opportunity of interactive communication the crew and RMS The report contains information on performance of equipment and dose rate measured since August 2001 till December 2005 both in quiet time and during solar proton events Comparison with MIR station R-16 data registered since 1991 year is carried out

  20. Optimal flapping wing for maximum vertical aerodynamic force in hover: twisted or flat?

    PubMed

    Phan, Hoang Vu; Truong, Quang Tri; Au, Thi Kim Loan; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a parametric study, using the unsteady blade element theory, to investigate the role of twist in a hovering flapping wing. For the investigation, a flapping-wing system was developed to create a wing motion of large flapping amplitude. Three-dimensional kinematics of a passively twisted wing, which is capable of creating a linearly variable geometric angle of attack (AoA) along the wingspan, was measured during the flapping motion and used for the analysis. Several negative twist or wash-out configurations with different values of twist angle, which is defined as the difference in the average geometric AoAs at the wing root and the wing tip, were obtained from the measured wing kinematics through linear interpolation and extrapolation. The aerodynamic force generation and aerodynamic power consumption of these twisted wings were obtained and compared with those of flat wings. For the same aerodynamic power consumption, the vertical aerodynamic forces produced by the negatively twisted wings are approximately 10%-20% less than those produced by the flat wings. However, these twisted wings require approximately 1%-6% more power than flat wings to produce the same vertical force. In addition, the maximum-force-producing twisted wing, which was found to be the positive twist or wash-in configuration, was used for comparison with the maximum-force-producing flat wing. The results revealed that the vertical aerodynamic force and aerodynamic power consumption of the two types of wings are almost identical for the hovering condition. The power loading of the positively twisted wing is only approximately 2% higher than that of the maximum-force-producing flat wing. Thus, the flat wing with proper wing kinematics (or wing rotation) can be regarded as a simple and efficient candidate for the development of hovering flapping-wing micro air vehicle. PMID:27387833

  1. Optimal flapping wing for maximum vertical aerodynamic force in hover: twisted or flat?

    PubMed

    Phan, Hoang Vu; Truong, Quang Tri; Au, Thi Kim Loan; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2016-07-08

    This work presents a parametric study, using the unsteady blade element theory, to investigate the role of twist in a hovering flapping wing. For the investigation, a flapping-wing system was developed to create a wing motion of large flapping amplitude. Three-dimensional kinematics of a passively twisted wing, which is capable of creating a linearly variable geometric angle of attack (AoA) along the wingspan, was measured during the flapping motion and used for the analysis. Several negative twist or wash-out configurations with different values of twist angle, which is defined as the difference in the average geometric AoAs at the wing root and the wing tip, were obtained from the measured wing kinematics through linear interpolation and extrapolation. The aerodynamic force generation and aerodynamic power consumption of these twisted wings were obtained and compared with those of flat wings. For the same aerodynamic power consumption, the vertical aerodynamic forces produced by the negatively twisted wings are approximately 10%-20% less than those produced by the flat wings. However, these twisted wings require approximately 1%-6% more power than flat wings to produce the same vertical force. In addition, the maximum-force-producing twisted wing, which was found to be the positive twist or wash-in configuration, was used for comparison with the maximum-force-producing flat wing. The results revealed that the vertical aerodynamic force and aerodynamic power consumption of the two types of wings are almost identical for the hovering condition. The power loading of the positively twisted wing is only approximately 2% higher than that of the maximum-force-producing flat wing. Thus, the flat wing with proper wing kinematics (or wing rotation) can be regarded as a simple and efficient candidate for the development of hovering flapping-wing micro air vehicle.

  2. Event generator tunes obtained from underlying event and multiparton scattering measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Yonamine, R.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Júnior, W. L. Aldá; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mora Herrera, C.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Awad, A.; Mahrous, A.; Mohammed, Y.; Radi, A.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Toriashvili, T.; Lomidze, D.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schulte, J. F.; Verlage, T.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. J.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Campbell, A.; Choudhury, S.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Gallo, E.; Garcia, J. Garay; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Trippkewitz, K. D.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Gonzalez, D.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Kovalchuk, N.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Meyer, M.; Nowatschin, D.; Ott, J.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Scharf, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schwandt, J.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; de Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Fink, S.; Frensch, F.; Friese, R.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Haitz, D.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Maier, B.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Sieber, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T.; Williamson, S.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Tziaferi, E.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Strologas, J.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hazi, A.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Makovec, A.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Sahoo, D. K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Gupta, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mehta, A.; Mittal, M.; Singh, J. B.; Walia, G.; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Garg, R. B.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nishu, N.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, V.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dey, S.; Dutta, S.; Jain, Sa.; Majumdar, N.; Modak, A.; Mondal, K.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Roy, A.; Roy, D.; Roy Chowdhury, S.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Chudasama, R.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Dugad, S.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Mahakud, B.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mitra, S.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sarkar, T.; Sur, N.; Sutar, B.; Wickramage, N.; Chauhan, S.; Dube, S.; Kapoor, A.; Kothekar, K.; Sharma, S.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Behnamian, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Goldouzian, R.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; de Filippis, N.; de Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Miniello, G.; Maggi, M.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Chhibra, S. S.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Primavera, F.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. 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F.; Khatiwada, A.; Prosper, H.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, L. D.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Wu, Z.; Zakaria, M.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Anderson, I.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Osherson, M.; Roskes, J.; Sady, A.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; You, C.; Xiao, M.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Kenny, R. P.; Majumder, D.; Majumder, D.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Bierwagen, K.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Marini, A. C.; McGinn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Ratnikov, F.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira de Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Ling, T. Y.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Primavera, F.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Hindrichs, O.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Petrillo, G.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Celik, A.; Dalchenko, M.; de Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Huang, T.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Krutelyov, V.; Mueller, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.

    2016-03-01

    New sets of parameters ("tunes") for the underlying-event (UE) modelling of the pythia8, pythia6 and herwig++ Monte Carlo event generators are constructed using different parton distribution functions. Combined fits to CMS UE proton-proton ({p}{p}) data at sqrt{s} = 7 text {TeV} and to UE proton-antiproton ({p}overline{p} ) data from the CDF experiment at lower sqrt{s}, are used to study the UE models and constrain their parameters, providing thereby improved predictions for proton-proton collisions at 13 text {TeV}. In addition, it is investigated whether the values of the parameters obtained from fits to UE observables are consistent with the values determined from fitting observables sensitive to double-parton scattering processes. Finally, comparisons are presented of the UE tunes to "minimum bias" (MB) events, multijet, and Drell-Yan (q overline{q} rightarrow Z/ γ ^* rightarrow lepton-antilepton+jets) observables at 7 and 8 text {TeV}, as well as predictions for MB and UE observables at 13 text {TeV}.

  3. Photogrammetry of a Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushner, Laura Kathryn; Littell, Justin D.; Cassell, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, two large-scale models of a Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic decelerator were tested in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at NASA Ames Research Center. One of the objectives of this test was to measure model deflections under aerodynamic loading that approximated expected flight conditions. The measurements were acquired using stereo photogrammetry. Four pairs of stereo cameras were mounted inside the NFAC test section, each imaging a particular section of the HIAD. The views were then stitched together post-test to create a surface deformation profile. The data from the photogram- metry system will largely be used for comparisons to and refinement of Fluid Structure Interaction models. This paper describes how a commercial photogrammetry system was adapted to make the measurements and presents some preliminary results.

  4. Obtaining full contact for measuring polydimethylsiloxane mechanical properties with flat punch nanoindentation.

    PubMed

    De Paoli, Federico; Volinsky, Alex A

    2015-01-01

    Procedure to establish full contact between the sample and the 1 mm diameter cylindrical flat punch tip to measure polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mechanical properties using the Hysitron TriboIndenter is described. This procedure differs from the standard automated indentation because each indent has to be performed manually after establishing full contact with the sample surface. Incomplete contact happens because of the sample tilt with respect to the flat punch surface and results in incorrect elastic modulus values.•Automated indentation results in incorrect values of the elastic modulus due to initial incomplete contact between the flat punch and the PDMS sample surface, caused by the tilt, and using the unloading slope, which is affected by viscoelastic soft polymer deformation.•Correct procedure requires establishing the full contact between the tip and the sample. This is achieved by moving the tip into the sample in 1-2 μm increments, up to 40-80 μm maximum combined displacement, until the loading stiffness no longer increases.•The elastic modulus is calculated from the loading stiffness and the diameter of the flat punch, instead of the unloading stiffness, which is larger due to viscoelastic unloading. After establishing the full contact, other mechanical testing can be conducted. PMID:26587387

  5. Elastic Distribution of Microshutters, Measurements Obtainable on James Web Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kletetschka, Gunther; King, Todd; Mikula, Vilem

    2008-01-01

    Spectrographic astronomy measurements in the near-infrared region will be done by functional two-dimensional microshutter arrays that are being fabricated at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). These micro-shutter arrays will represent the first mission-critical MEMS devices to be flown in space. JWST will use microshutter arrays to select focal plane object. 2-D programmable aperture masks of more than 200,000 elements select such space object. The use of silicon wafer material promises high efficiency and high contrast. Microshutter operation temperature is around 35K. Microshutter arrays are fabricated as close-packed silicon nitride membranes with a unit cell size of 105 x 204 micrometers. A layer of magnetic material is deposited onto each shutter. Individual shutters are equipped with a torsion flexure. Reactive ion etching (RIE) releases the shutters so they can open up to 90 degrees using the torsion flexure. Shutter rotation is initiated into a silicon support structure via an external magnetic field. Two electrically independent aluminum electrodes are deposited, one onto each shutter and another onto the support structure side-wall, permitting electrostatic latching and 2-D addressing to hold specific shutters open via external electronics.

  6. Latest results of SEE measurements obtained by the STRURED demonstrator ASIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candelori, A.; De Robertis, G.; Gabrielli, A.; Mattiazzo, S.; Pantano, D.; Ranieri, A.; Tessaro, M.

    2011-01-01

    With the perspective to develop a radiation-tolerant circuit for High Energy Physics (HEP) applications, a test digital ASIC VLSI chip, called STRURED, has been designed and fabricated using a standard-cell library of commercial 130 nm CMOS technology by implementing three different radiation-tolerant architectures (Hamming, Triple Modular Redundancy and Triple Time Redundancy) in order to correct circuit malfunctions induced by the occurrence of Soft Errors (SEs). SEs are one of the main reasons of failures affecting electronic digital circuits operating in harsh radiation environments, such as in experiments performed at HEP colliders or in apparatus to be operated in space. In this paper we present and discuss the latest results of SE cross-section measurements performed using the STRURED digital device, exposed to high energy heavy ions at the SIRAD irradiation facility of the INFN National Laboratories of Legnaro (Padova, Italy). In particular the different behaviors of the input part and the core of the three radiation-tolerant architectures are analyzed in detail.

  7. Polarization measurement and vertical aperture optimization for obtaining circularly polarized bend-magnet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kortright, J.B.; Rice, M.; Hussain, Z.

    1995-10-01

    Using multilayer linear polarizers, we have studied the polarization state of radiation from bend magnet beamline 9.3.2 at Advanced Light Source as function of vertical oping angle at photon energies 367 and 722 eV. Both a fine slit and a coarse semi-aperture were stepped across the beam to accept different parts of the vertical radiation fan. Polarimetry yields the degree of linear polarization directly and the degree of circular polarization indirectly assuming an immeasurably small amount of unpolarized radiation based on close agreement of theory and experiment for linear polarization. Results are in good agreement with theoretical calculations, with departures from theory owing to uncertainty in effective aperture of the measured beam. The narrow 0.037 mrad aperture on the orbit plane transmits a beam whose degree of linear polarization exceeds 0.99 at these energies. The wide semi-aperture blocking the beam from above and below transmits a beam with a max figure of merit, given by the square root of flux times degree of circular polarization, when the aperture edge is on the orbit plane thus blocking only half of the total available flux.

  8. SU-E-I-53: Variation in Measurements of Breast Skin Thickness Obtained Using Different Imaging Modalities

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, U; Kumaraswamy, N; Markey, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate variation in measurements of breast skin thickness obtained using different imaging modalities, including mammography, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: Breast skin thicknesses as measured by mammography, CT, ultrasound, and MRI were compared. Mammographic measurements of skin thickness were obtained from published studies that utilized standard positioning (upright) and compression. CT measurements of skin thickness were obtained from a published study of a prototype breast CT scanner in which the women were in the prone position and the breast was uncompressed. Dermatological ultrasound exams of the breast skin were conducted at our institution, with the subjects in the upright position and the breast uncompressed. Breast skin thickness was calculated from breast MRI exams at our institution, with the patient in the prone position and the breast uncompressed. Results: T tests for independent samples demonstrated significant differences in the mean breast skin thickness as measured by different imaging modalities. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences in breast skin thickness across different quadrants of the breast for some modalities. Conclusion: The measurement of breast skin thickness is significantly different across different imaging modalities. Differences in the amount of compression and differences in patient positioning are possible reasons why measurements of breast skin thickness vary by modality.

  9. Auditory evoked potential measurement methodology for odontocetes and a comparison of measured thresholds with those obtained using psychophysical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachtigall, Paul E.; Yuen, Michelle; Mooney, T. Aran; Taylor, Kristen

    2005-04-01

    Most measurements of the hearing capabilities of toothed whales and dolphins have been taken using traditional psychophysical procedures in which the animals have been maintained in laboratory environments and trained to behaviorally report the sensation or difference of acoustic stimuli. Because of the advantage of rapid data collection, increased opportunities, and new methods, Auditory Evoked Potentials (AEPs) have become increasingly used to measure audition. The use of this new procedure calls to question the comparability of the established literature and the new results collected with AEPs. The results of behavioral and AEP methods have been directly compared with basic audiogram measurements and have been shown to produce similar (but not exactly the same) values when the envelope following response procedure has been used and the length of the stimulus is taken into account. The AEP methods allow possible audiometric opportunities beyond those available with conventional psychophysics including: (1) the measurement of stranded dolphins and whales that may never be kept in laboratories, (2) the testing of stranded animals for hearing deficits perhaps caused by overexposure to noise, and (3) passive testing of hearing mechanisms while animals actively echolocate. [Work supported by the Office of Naval Research and NOAA-NMFS.

  10. Obtaining biophysical measurements of woody vegetation from high resolution digital aerial photography in tropical and arid environments: Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staben, G. W.; Lucieer, A.; Evans, K. G.; Scarth, P.; Cook, G. D.

    2016-10-01

    Biophysical parameters obtained from woody vegetation are commonly measured using field based techniques which require significant investment in resources. Quantitative measurements of woody vegetation provide important information for ecological studies investigating landscape change. The fine spatial resolution of aerial photography enables identification of features such as trees and shrubs. Improvements in spatial and spectral resolution of digital aerial photographic sensors have increased the possibility of using these data in quantitative remote sensing. Obtaining biophysical measurements from aerial photography has the potential to enable it to be used as a surrogate for the collection of field data. In this study quantitative measurements obtained from digital aerial photography captured at ground sampling distance (GSD) of 15 cm (n = 50) and 30 cm (n = 52) were compared to woody biophysical parameters measured from 1 ha field plots. Supervised classification of the aerial photography using object based image analysis was used to quantify woody and non-woody vegetation components in the imagery. There was a high correlation (r ≥ 0.92) between all field measured woody canopy parameters and aerial derived green woody cover measurements, however only foliage projective cover (FPC) was found to be statistically significant (paired t-test; α = 0.01). There was no significant difference between measurements derived from imagery captured at either GSD of 15 cm and 30 cm over the same field site (n = 20). Live stand basal area (SBA) (m2 ha-1) was predicted from the aerial photographs by applying an allometric equation developed between field-measured live SBA and woody FPC. The results show that there was very little difference between live SBA predicted from FPC measured in the field or from aerial photography. The results of this study show that accurate woody biophysical parameters can be obtained from aerial photography from a range of woody vegetation

  11. Parameterization of Vegetation Aerodynamic Roughness of Natural Regions Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, Michael F.; Crago, Richard; Stewart, Pamela

    1998-01-01

    Parameterizations of the frontal area index and canopy area index of natural or randomly distributed plants are developed, and applied to the estimation of local aerodynamic roughness using satellite imagery. The formulas are expressed in terms of the subpixel fractional vegetation cover and one non-dimensional geometric parameter that characterizes the plant's shape. Geometrically similar plants and Poisson distributed plant centers are assumed. An appropriate averaging technique to extend satellite pixel-scale estimates to larger scales is provided. The parameterization is applied to the estimation of aerodynamic roughness using satellite imagery for a 2.3 sq km coniferous portion of the Landes Forest near Lubbon, France, during the 1986 HAPEX-Mobilhy Experiment. The canopy area index is estimated first for each pixel in the scene based on previous estimates of fractional cover obtained using Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. Next, the results are incorporated into Raupach's (1992, 1994) analytical formulas for momentum roughness and zero-plane displacement height. The estimates compare reasonably well to reference values determined from measurements taken during the experiment and to published literature values. The approach offers the potential for estimating regionally variable, vegetation aerodynamic roughness lengths over natural regions using satellite imagery when there exists only limited knowledge of the vegetated surface.

  12. Powered-Lift Aerodynamics and Acoustics. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Powered lift technology is reviewed. Topics covered include: (1) high lift aerodynamics; (2) high speed and cruise aerodynamics; (3) acoustics; (4) propulsion aerodynamics and acoustics; (5) aerodynamic and acoustic loads; and (6) full-scale and flight research.

  13. Applied computational aerodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Henne, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The present volume discusses the original development of the panel method, the mapping solutions and singularity distributions of linear potential schemes, the capabilities of full-potential, Euler, and Navier-Stokes schemes, the use of the grid-generation methodology in applied aerodynamics, subsonic airfoil design, inverse airfoil design for transonic applications, the divergent trailing-edge airfoil innovation in CFD, Euler and potential computational results for selected aerodynamic configurations, and the application of CFD to wing high-lift systems. Also discussed are high-lift wing modifications for an advanced-capability EA-6B aircraft, Navier-Stokes methods for internal and integrated propulsion system flow predictions, the use of zonal techniques for analysis of rotor-stator interaction, CFD applications to complex configurations, CFD applications in component aerodynamic design of the V-22, Navier-Stokes computations of a complete F-16, CFD at supersonic/hypersonic speeds, and future CFD developments.

  14. Nonlinear aerodynamic wing design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, Ellwood

    1985-01-01

    The applicability of new nonlinear theoretical techniques is demonstrated for supersonic wing design. The new technology was utilized to define outboard panels for an existing advanced tactical fighter model. Mach 1.6 maneuver point design and multi-operating point compromise surfaces were developed and tested. High aerodynamic efficiency was achieved at the design conditions. A corollary result was that only modest supersonic penalties were incurred to meet multiple aerodynamic requirements. The nonlinear potential analysis of a practical configuration arrangement correlated well with experimental data.

  15. Computational aerodynamics and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballhaus, W. F., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The role of computational aerodynamics in design is reviewed with attention given to the design process; the proper role of computations; the importance of calibration, interpretation, and verification; the usefulness of a given computational capability; and the marketing of new codes. Examples of computational aerodynamics in design are given with particular emphasis on the Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology. Finally, future prospects are noted, with consideration given to the role of advanced computers, advances in numerical solution techniques, turbulence models, complex geometries, and computational design procedures. Previously announced in STAR as N82-33348

  16. Aerodynamic Tests of the Space Launch System for Database Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, Victor E.; Mayle, Melody N.; Blevins, John A.; Crosby, William A.; Purinton, David C.

    2014-01-01

    The Aerosciences Branch (EV33) at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been responsible for a series of wind tunnel tests on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) vehicles. The primary purpose of these tests was to obtain aerodynamic data during the ascent phase and establish databases that can be used by the Guidance, Navigation, and Mission Analysis Branch (EV42) for trajectory simulations. The paper describes the test particulars regarding models and measurements and the facilities used, as well as database preparations.

  17. Experimental Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of the 2001 Mars Surveyor Precision Lander with Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Thomas J.; OConnell, Tod F.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Prabhu, Ramadas K.; Alter, Stephen J.

    2002-01-01

    Aerodynamic wind-tunnel screening tests were conducted on a 0.029 scale model of a proposed Mars Surveyor 2001 Precision Lander (70 deg half angle spherically blunted cone with a conical afterbody). The primary experimental objective was to determine the effectiveness of a single flap to trim the vehicle at incidence during a lifting hypersonic planetary entry. The laminar force and moment data, presented in the form of coefficients, and shock patterns from schlieren photography were obtained in the NASA Langley Aerothermodynamic Laboratory for post-normal shock Reynolds numbers (based on forebody diameter) ranging from 2,637 to 92,350, angles of attack ranging from 0 tip to 23 degrees at 0 and 2 degree sideslip, and normal-shock density ratios of 5 and 12. Based upon the proposed entry trajectory of the 2001 Lander, the blunt body heavy gas tests in CF, simulate a Mach number of approximately 12 based upon a normal shock density ratio of 12 in flight at Mars. The results from this experimental study suggest that when traditional means of providing aerodynamic trim for this class of planetary entry vehicle are not possible (e.g. offset c.g.), a single flap can provide similar aerodynamic performance. An assessment of blunt body aerodynamic effects attributed to a real gas were obtained by synergistic testing in Mach 6 ideal-air at a comparable Reynolds number. From an aerodynamic perspective, an appropriately sized flap was found to provide sufficient trim capability at the desired L/D for precision landing. Inviscid hypersonic flow computations using an unstructured grid were made to provide a quick assessment of the Lander aerodynamics. Navier-Stokes computational predictions were found to be in very good agreement with experimental measurement.

  18. Results of an investigation of the space shuttle integrated vehicle aerodynamic heating characteristics obtained using the 0.0175-scale model 60-OTS in AEDC tunnel A during tests IH41 and IH41A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cummings, J. W.; Dye, W. H.

    1977-01-01

    A thin skin thermocouple test was conducted to obtain heat-transfer data on the space shuttle integrated vehicle during the ascent phase of the flight profile. The test model was the 0.0175-scale thin skin thermocouple model (60-OTS) of the Rockwell International vehicle 5 configuration. The test was conducted at nominal Mach numbers of 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5, and a free stream unit Reynolds number of 5 million per ft. Heat transfer data were obtained for angles of attack of 0, + or - 5, and 10 deg and yaw angles of 0, 3, and 6 deg. The integrated vehicle model was tested with the external tank configured with both a smooth ogive nose and an ogive nose with a spherical nose tip (nipple nose). The remainder of the test was conducted with the external tank installed alone in the tunnel.

  19. Dynamic stall and aerodynamic damping

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, F.; Petersen, J.T.; Madsen, H.A.

    1999-08-01

    A dynamic stall model is used to analyze and reproduce open air blade section measurements as well as wind tunnel measurements. The dynamic stall model takes variations in both angle of attack and flow velocity into account. The paper gives a brief description of the dynamic stall model and presents results from analyses of dynamic stall measurements for a variety of experiments with different airfoils in wind tunnel and on operating rotors. The wind tunnel experiments comprises pitching as well as plunging motion of the airfoils. The dynamic stall model is applied for derivation of aerodynamic damping characteristics for cyclic motion of the airfoils in flapwise and edgewise direction combined with pitching. The investigation reveals that the airfoil dynamic stall characteristics depend on the airfoil shape, and the type of motion (pitch, plunge). The aerodynamic damping characteristics, and thus the sensitivity to stall induced vibrations, depend highly on the relative motion of the airfoil in flapwise and edgewise direction, and on a possibly coupled pitch variation, which is determined by the structural characteristics of the blade.

  20. Aerodynamics of Race Cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.

  1. Concordance of macular pigment measurements obtained using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry, dual-wavelength autofluorescence, and single-wavelength reflectance.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Jessica L; Stack, Jim; Beatty, Stephen; Nolan, John M

    2013-11-01

    This study compares in vivo measurements of macular pigment (MP) obtained using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry (cHFP; Macular Metrics Densitometer(™)), dual-wavelength fundus autofluorescence (Heidelberg Spectralis(®) HRA + OCT MultiColor) and single-wavelength fundus reflectance (Zeiss Visucam(®) 200). MP was measured in one eye of 62 subjects on each device. Data from 49 subjects (79%) was suitable for analysis. Agreement between the Densitometer and Spectralis was investigated at various eccentricities using a variety of quantitative and graphical methods, including: Pearson correlation coefficient to measure degree of scatter (precision), accuracy coefficient, concordance correlation coefficient (ccc), paired t-test, scatter and Bland-Altman plots. The relationship between max MP from the Visucam and central MP from the Spectralis and Densitometer was investigated using regression methods. Agreement was strong between the Densitometer and Spectralis at all central eccentricities (e.g. at 0.25° eccentricity: accuracy = 0.97, precision = 0.90, ccc = 0.87). Regression analysis showed a very weak relationship between the Visucam and Densitometer (e.g. Visucam max on Densitometer central MP: R(2) = 0.008, p = 0.843). Regression analysis also demonstrated a weak relationship between MP measured by the Spectralis and Visucam (e.g. Visucam max on Spectralis central MP: R(2) = 0.047, p = 0.348). MP values obtained using the Heidelberg Spectralis are comparable to MP values obtained using the Densitometer. In contrast, MP values obtained using the Zeiss Visucam are not comparable with either the Densitometer or the Spectralis MP measuring devices. Taking cHFP as the current standard to which other MP measuring devices should be compared, the Spectralis is suitable for use in a clinical and research setting, whereas the Visucam is not.

  2. Aerodynamic tests of Darrieus wind turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Migliore, P.G.; Walters, R.E.; Wolfe, W.P.

    1983-03-01

    An indoor facility for the aerodynamic testing of Darrieus turbine blades was developed. Lift, drag, and moment coefficients were measured for two blades whose angle of attack and chord-to-radius ratio were varied. The first blade used an NACA 0015 airfoil section; the second used a 15% elliptical cross section with a modified circular arc trailing edge. Blade aerodynamic coefficients were corrected to section coefficients for comparison to published rectilinear flow data. Although the airfoil sections were symmetrical, moment coefficients were not zero and the lift and drag curves were asymmetrical about zero lift coefficient and angle of attack. These features verified the predicted virtual camber and incidence phenomena. Boundary-layer centrifugal effects were manifested by discontinuous lift curves and large differences in the angle of zero lift between th NACA 0015 and elliptical airfoils. It was concluded that rectilinear flow aerodynamic data are not applicable to Darrieus turbine blades, even for small chord-to-radius ratios.

  3. Aerodynamic analysis of a tumbling American football

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, Daniel Edmundson

    In this study, the aerodynamic effects on an American football are characterized, especially in a tumbling, or end-over-end, motion as seen in a typical kickoff or field goal attempt. The objective of this study is to establish aerodynamic coefficients for the dynamic motion of a tumbling American football. A subsonic wind tunnel was used to recreate a range of air velocities that, when coupled with rotation rates and differing laces orientations, would provide a test bed for aerodynamic drag, side, and lift coefficient analysis. Test results quantify effect of back-spin and top-spin on lift force. Results show that the presence of laces imposes a side force in the opposite direction of the laces orientation. A secondary system was installed to visualize air flow around the tumbling ball and record high-speed video of wake patterns, as a qualitative check of measured force directions.

  4. Inlet noise on 0.5-meter-diameter NASA QF-1 fan as measured in an unmodified compressor aerodynamic test facility and in an anechoic chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelder, T. F.; Soltis, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    Narrowband analysis revealed grossly similar sound pressure level spectra in each facility. Blade passing frequency (BPF) noise and multiple pure tone (MPT) noise were superimposed on a broadband (BB) base noise. From one-third octave bandwidth sound power analyses the BPF noise (harmonics combined), and the MPT noise (harmonics combined, excepting BPF's) agreed between facilities within 1.5 db or less over the range of speeds and flows tested. Detailed noise and aerodynamic performance is also presented.

  5. Velopharyngeal orifice area prediction during aerodynamic simulation of fricative consonants.

    PubMed

    Smith, B E; Weinberg, B

    1983-01-01

    The present work examined the predictive nature of modeled velopharyngeal orifice area calculations obtained using the hydrokinetic equation (Warren and DuBois, 1964) during conditions simulating voiceless fricative production. Results indicated that accurate estimates of velopharyngeal orifice area can be obtained during aerodynamic events like those known to exist during fricative production. These findings were interpreted to lend support to the view that aerodynamic assessment incorporating hydrokinetic principles provides a useful, noninvasive method for clinical testing and research investigation of velopharyngeal function.

  6. Airfoil Ice-Accretion Aerodynamics Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Michael B.; Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Guffond, Didier; Montreuil, E.

    2007-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center, ONERA, and the University of Illinois are conducting a major research program whose goal is to improve our understanding of the aerodynamic scaling of ice accretions on airfoils. The program when it is completed will result in validated scaled simulation methods that produce the essential aerodynamic features of the full-scale iced-airfoil. This research will provide some of the first, high-fidelity, full-scale, iced-airfoil aerodynamic data. An initial study classified ice accretions based on their aerodynamics into four types: roughness, streamwise ice, horn ice, and spanwise-ridge ice. Subscale testing using a NACA 23012 airfoil was performed in the NASA IRT and University of Illinois wind tunnel to better understand the aerodynamics of these ice types and to test various levels of ice simulation fidelity. These studies are briefly reviewed here and have been presented in more detail in other papers. Based on these results, full-scale testing at the ONERA F1 tunnel using cast ice shapes obtained from molds taken in the IRT will provide full-scale iced airfoil data from full-scale ice accretions. Using these data as a baseline, the final step is to validate the simulation methods in scale in the Illinois wind tunnel. Computational ice accretion methods including LEWICE and ONICE have been used to guide the experiments and are briefly described and results shown. When full-scale and simulation aerodynamic results are available, these data will be used to further develop computational tools. Thus the purpose of the paper is to present an overview of the program and key results to date.

  7. Aeroacoustics and aerodynamic performance of a rotor with flatback airfoils.

    SciTech Connect

    Paquette, Joshua A.; Barone, Matthew Franklin; Christiansen, Monica; Simley, Eric

    2010-06-01

    The aerodynamic performance and aeroacoustic noise sources of a rotor employing flatback airfoils have been studied in field test campaign and companion modeling effort. The field test measurements of a sub-scale rotor employing nine meter blades include both performance measurements and acoustic measurements. The acoustic measurements are obtained using a 45 microphone beamforming array, enabling identification of both noise source amplitude and position. Semi-empirical models of flatback airfoil blunt trailing edge noise are developed and calibrated using available aeroacoustic wind tunnel test data. The model results and measurements indicate that flatback airfoil noise is less than drive train noise for the current test turbine. It is also demonstrated that the commonly used Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini model for blunt trailing edge noise may be over-conservative in predicting flatback airfoil noise for wind turbine applications.

  8. A comparison of vertical velocity in cirrus obtained from aircraft and lidar divergence measurements during FIRE. [First ISCCP Regional Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gultepe, Ismail; Heymsfield, A. J.; Lenschow, D. H.

    1990-01-01

    Techniques are presented to obtain vertical velocity in cirrus clouds from in situ aircraft lateral wind measurements and from ground-based remote Doppler lidar measurements. The approach used is to calculate w from the integral of the divergence of the horizontal velocity around a closed path. Divergence measurements from both aircraft and Doppler lidar are discussed. The principal errors in the calculation of w from aircraft lateral wind measurements are bias in the lateral wind, ground speed errors, and error due to vertical shear of the horizontal wind. For Doppler lidar measurements the principal errors are in the estimate of mean terminal velocity and the zeroth order coefficients of the Fourier series that is fitted to the data. The technique is applied to a cirrus cloud investigated during the FIRE (First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Regional Experiment) Cirrus Intensive Field Observation Program. The results indicate that the error in w is about + or - 14 cm/s from the aircraft technique; this can be reduced to about + or - 2 to 3 cm/s with technical improvements in both ground speed and lateral velocity measurements. The error in w from Doppler lidar measurements, which is about + or - 8 cm/s, can be reduced to about + or - 5 cm/s by improvements in the Doppler velocity measurements with technology that is currently available.

  9. System Dynamic Analysis of a Wind Tunnel Model with Applications to Improve Aerodynamic Data Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, Ralph David

    1997-01-01

    The research investigates the effect of wind tunnel model system dynamics on measured aerodynamic data. During wind tunnel tests designed to obtain lift and drag data, the required aerodynamic measurements are the steady-state balance forces and moments, pressures, and model attitude. However, the wind tunnel model system can be subjected to unsteady aerodynamic and inertial loads which result in oscillatory translations and angular rotations. The steady-state force balance and inertial model attitude measurements are obtained by filtering and averaging data taken during conditions of high model vibrations. The main goals of this research are to characterize the effects of model system dynamics on the measured steady-state aerodynamic data and develop a correction technique to compensate for dynamically induced errors. Equations of motion are formulated for the dynamic response of the model system subjected to arbitrary aerodynamic and inertial inputs. The resulting modal model is examined to study the effects of the model system dynamic response on the aerodynamic data. In particular, the equations of motion are used to describe the effect of dynamics on the inertial model attitude, or angle of attack, measurement system that is used routinely at the NASA Langley Research Center and other wind tunnel facilities throughout the world. This activity was prompted by the inertial model attitude sensor response observed during high levels of model vibration while testing in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The inertial attitude sensor cannot distinguish between the gravitational acceleration and centrifugal accelerations associated with wind tunnel model system vibration, which results in a model attitude measurement bias error. Bias errors over an order of magnitude greater than the required device accuracy were found in the inertial model attitude measurements during dynamic testing of two model systems. Based on a theoretical modal

  10. Low Speed Aerodynamics of the X-38 CRV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komerath, N. M.; Funk, R.; Ames, R. G.; Mahalingam, R.; Matos, C.

    1998-01-01

    This project was performed in support of the engineering development of the NASA X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV)system. Wind tunnel experiments were used to visualize various aerodynamic phenomena encountered by the CRV during the final stages of descent and landing. Scale models of the CRV were used to visualize vortex structures above and below the vehicle, and in its wake, and to quantify their trajectories. The effect of flaperon deflection on these structures was studied. The structure and dynamics of the CRV's wake during the drag parachute deployment stage were measured. Regions of high vorticity were identified using surveys conducted in several planes using a vortex meter. Periodic shedding of the vortex sheets from the sides of the CRV was observed using laser sheet videography as the CRV reached high angles of attack during the quasi-steady pitch-up prior to parafoil deployment. Using spectral analysis of hot-film anemometer data, the Strouhal number of these wake fluctuations was found to be 0.14 based on the model span. Phenomena encountered in flight test during parafoil operation were captured in scale-model tests, and a video photogrammetry technique was implemented to obtain parafoil surface shapes during flight in the tunnel. Forces on the parafoil were resolved using tension gages on individual lines. The temporal evolution of the phenomenon of leading edge collapse was captured. Laser velocimetry was used to demonstrate measurement of the porosity of the parafoil surface. From these measurements, several physical explanations have been developed for phenomena observed at various stages of the X-38 development program. Quantitative measurement capabilities have also been demonstrated for continued refinement of the aerodynamic technologies employed in the X-38 project. Detailed results from these studies are given in an AIAA Paper, two slide presentations, and other material which are given on a Web-based archival resource. This is the Digital

  11. Determination of corrections to flow direction measurements obtained with a wing-tip mounted sensor. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moul, T. M.

    1983-01-01

    The nature of corrections for flow direction measurements obtained with a wing-tip mounted sensor was investigated. Corrections for the angle of attack and sideslip, measured by sensors mounted in front of each wing tip of a general aviation airplane, were determined. These flow corrections were obtained from both wind-tunnel and flight tests over a large angle-of-attack range. Both the angle-of-attack and angle-of-sideslip flow corrections were found to be substantial. The corrections were a function of the angle of attack and angle of sideslip. The effects of wing configuration changes, small changes in Reynolds number, and spinning rotation on the angle-of-attack flow correction were found to be small. The angle-of-attack flow correction determined from the static wind-tunnel tests agreed reasonably well with the correction determined from flight tests.

  12. Technique for measuring picomolar amounts of bound and unbound amino acids obtained from myogenic cell cultures of skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Bullaro, J.C.

    1981-10-01

    A procedure is described that compares the isotope dilution method of measuring picomolar amounts of amino acids obtained from cellular extracts with a direct method of analysis. Evidence is provided that shows that the direct method is at least as accurate as the isotope dilution method. In addition the direct method is as expedient an requires but a single isotope and fewer chromatograms for analysis. A procedure also is described for selecting the appropriate conditions for dansylation and for measuring the loss of dansyl amino acid due to decomposition.

  13. New aspects of subsonic aerodynamic noise theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. E.; Howes, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    A theory of aerodynamic noise is presented which differs from Lighthill's theory primarily in the way in which convection of the noise sources is treated. The sound directivity pattern obtained from the present theory agrees better with jet-noise directivity data than does that obtained from Lighthill's theory. The results imply that the shear-noise contribution to jet noise is smaller than previously expected.

  14. Measuring internal energy deposition in collisional activation using hydrated ion nanocalorimetry to obtain peptide dissociation energies and entropies.

    PubMed

    Demireva, Maria; Williams, Evan R

    2010-07-01

    The internal energy deposited in both on- and off-resonance collisional activation in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry is measured with ion nanocalorimetry and is used to obtain information about the dissociation energy and entropy of a protonated peptide. Activation of Na(+)(H(2)O)(30) results in sequential loss of water molecules, and the internal energy of the activated ion can be obtained from the abundances of the product ions. Information about internal energy deposition in on-resonance collisional activation of protonated peptides is inferred from dissociation data obtained under identical conditions for hydrated ions that have similar m/z and degrees-of-freedom. From experimental internal energy deposition curves and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory, dissociation data as a function of collision energy for protonated leucine enkephalin, which has a comparable m/z and degrees-of-freedom as Na(+)(H(2)O)(30), are modeled. The threshold dissociation energies and entropies are correlated for data acquired at a single time point, resulting in a relatively wide range of threshold dissociation energies (1.1 to 1.7 eV) that can fit these data. However, this range of values could be significantly reduced by fitting data acquired at different dissociation times. By measuring the internal energy of an activated ion, the number of fitting parameters necessary to obtain information about the dissociation parameters by modeling these data is reduced and could result in improved accuracy for such methods.

  15. Wind-tunnel/flight correlation study of aerodynamic characteristics of a large flexible supersonic cruise airplane (XB-70-1). 3: A comparison between characteristics predicted from wind-tunnel measurements and those measured in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaiz, H. H.; Peterson, J. B., Jr.; Daugherty, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    A program was undertaken by NASA to evaluate the accuracy of a method for predicting the aerodynamic characteristics of large supersonic cruise airplanes. This program compared predicted and flight-measured lift, drag, angle of attack, and control surface deflection for the XB-70-1 airplane for 14 flight conditions with a Mach number range from 0.76 to 2.56. The predictions were derived from the wind-tunnel test data of a 0.03-scale model of the XB-70-1 airplane fabricated to represent the aeroelastically deformed shape at a 2.5 Mach number cruise condition. Corrections for shape variations at the other Mach numbers were included in the prediction. For most cases, differences between predicted and measured values were within the accuracy of the comparison. However, there were significant differences at transonic Mach numbers. At a Mach number of 1.06 differences were as large as 27 percent in the drag coefficients and 20 deg in the elevator deflections. A brief analysis indicated that a significant part of the difference between drag coefficients was due to the incorrect prediction of the control surface deflection required to trim the airplane.

  16. Precision (Repeatability and Reproducibility) and Agreement of Corneal Power Measurements Obtained by Topcon KR-1W and iTrace

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yanjun; Xu, Zequan; Qiu, Wei; Wu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of corneal power measurements obtained by Topcon KR-1W and iTrace, and assess the agreement with measurements obtained by Allegro Topolyzer and IOLMaster. Methods The right eyes of 100 normal subjects were prospectively scanned 3 times using all the 4 devices. Another observer performed additional 3 consecutive scans using the Topcon KR-1W and iTrace in the same session. About one week later, the first observer repeated the measurements using the Topcon KR-1W and iTrace. The steep keratometry (Ks), flat keratometry (Kf), mean keratometry (Km), J0 and J45 were analyzed. Repeatability and reproducibility of measurements were evaluated by the within-subject standard deviation (Sw), coefficient of variation (CoV), test-retest repeatability (2.77Sw), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Agreements between devices were assessed using Bland-Altman analysis and 95% limits of agreement (LoA). Results Intraobserver repeatability and interobserver and intersession reproducibility of the Ks, Kf and Km showed a CoV of no more than 0.5%, a 2.77Sw of 0.70 D or less, and an ICC of no less than 0.99. However, J0 and J45 showed poor intraobserver repeatability and interobserver and intersession reproducibility (all ICCs not greater than 0.446). Statistically significant differences existed between Topcon KR-1W and IOLMaster, Topcon KR-1W and iTrace, Topcon KR-1W and Topolyzer, iTrace and Topolyzer, iTrace and IOLMaster for Ks, Kf and Km measurements (all P < 0.05). The mean differences between Topcon KR-1W, iTrace, and the other 2 devices were small. The 95% LoA were approximately 1.0 D to 1.5 D for all measurements. Conclusions The Ks, Kf and Km obtained by Topcon KR-1W and iTrace showed excellent intraobserver repeatability and interobserver and intersession reproducibility in normal eyes. The agreement between Topcon KR-1W and Topolyzer, Topcon KR-1W and IOLMaster, iTrace and Topolyzer, iTrace and IOLMaster

  17. Aerodynamic Performance of Electro-Active Membrane Wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbu, Ioan-Alexandru; de Kat, Roeland; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram

    2014-11-01

    Electro-active polymers offer due to their multivariate compliant nature a great potential for integrating the lift producing system and the control system into one. This work presents the first step in describing both the mechanical and aerodynamic performance of such materials and focuses on both understanding their behaviour in aerodynamic applications and on analysing their aerodynamic performance. Photogrammetry and load measurements are conducted in a wind tunnel for both silicone-based and acrylic-based membranes at zero prestrain supported in a perimeter reinforced frame in electrically passive, active and pulsing conditions. A wide range of fixed voltages and pulsing frequencies are considered. Due to their hyper-viscoelastic nature, both short and long term hysteresis analysis are conducted in terms of aerodynamic performance. Along with these tests, analyses of the effects of the percentage electrode area and silicone content on aerodynamic performance are conducted.

  18. Aerodynamics of high frequency flapping wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zheng; Roll, Jesse; Cheng, Bo; Deng, Xinyan

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the aerodynamic performance of high frequency flapping wings using a 2.5 gram robotic insect mechanism developed in our lab. The mechanism flaps up to 65Hz with a pair of man-made wing mounted with 10cm wingtip-to-wingtip span. The mean aerodynamic lift force was measured by a lever platform, and the flow velocity and vorticity were measured using a stereo DPIV system in the frontal, parasagittal, and horizontal planes. Both near field (leading edge vortex) and far field flow (induced flow) were measured with instantaneous and phase-averaged results. Systematic experiments were performed on the man-made wings, cicada and hawk moth wings due to their similar size, frequency and Reynolds number. For insect wings, we used both dry and freshly-cut wings. The aerodynamic force increase with flapping frequency and the man-made wing generates more than 4 grams of lift at 35Hz with 3 volt input. Here we present the experimental results and the major differences in their aerodynamic performances.

  19. Advanced Aerodynamic Control Effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1999-01-01

    A 1990 research program that focused on the development of advanced aerodynamic control effectors (AACE) for military aircraft has been reviewed and summarized. Data are presented for advanced planform, flow control, and surface contouring technologies. The data show significant increases in lift, reductions in drag, and increased control power, compared to typical aerodynamic designs. The results presented also highlighted the importance of planform selection in the design of a control effector suite. Planform data showed that dramatic increases in lift (greater than 25%) can be achieved with multiple wings and a sawtooth forebody. Passive porosity and micro drag generator control effector data showed control power levels exceeding that available from typical effectors (moving surfaces). Application of an advanced planform to a tailless concept showed benefits of similar magnitude as those observed in the generic studies.

  20. Aerodynamic characteristics of generic flight vehicle configuration from shock tunnel tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarwade, A. G.; Narayana, A. S.; Panneerselvam, S.; Sahoo, N.; Saravanan, S.; Jagadeesh, G.; Reddy, K. P. J.

    A generic flight vehicle configuration has been designed as a possible candidate for hypersonic flight. Aerodynamic force coefficients over the test model configuration for different angles of attack are measured using a three-component accelerometer force balance system. Experiments are conducted in HST2 shock tunnel facility of IISc at an enthalpy of 2 MJ/kg and nominal Mach number of 6. This data will be useful for validating numerical results obtained by CFD techniques.

  1. Aerodynamic noise sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munin, A. G.; Kuznetsov, V. M.; Leontev, E. A.

    A general theory is developed for aerodynamic sound generation and its propagation in an inhomogeneous medium. Results of theoretical and experimental studies of the acoustic characteristics of jets are discussed, and a solution is presented to the problem concerning the noise from a section, free rotor, and a rotor located inside a channel. Sound propagation in a channel with flow and selection of soundproofing liners for the channel walls are also discussed.

  2. Aerodynamic drag control by pulsed jets on simplified car geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliéron, Patrick; Kourta, Azeddine

    2013-02-01

    Aerodynamic drag control by pulsed jets is tested in a wind tunnel around a simplified car geometry named Ahmed body with a rear slant angle of 35°. Pulsed jet actuators are located 5 × 10-3 m from the top of the rear window. These actuators are produced by a pressure difference ranging from 1.5 to 6.5 × 105 Pa. Their excitation frequency can vary between 10 and 550 Hz. The analysis of the control effects is based on wall visualizations, aerodynamic drag coefficient measurements, and the velocity fields obtained by 2D PIV measurements. The maximum drag reduction is 20 % and is obtained for the excitation frequency F j = 500 Hz and for the pressure difference ∆ P = 1.5 × 105 Pa. This result is linked with a substantial reduction in the transverse development of the longitudinal vortex structures coming from the left and right lateral sides of the rear window, with a displacement of the vortex centers downstream and with a decrease in the transverse rotational absolute values of these structures.

  3. Aerodynamic database development of the ESA intermediate experimental vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzella, Giuseppe; Marino, Giuliano; Rufolo, Giuseppe C.

    2014-01-01

    This work deals with the aerodynamic database development of the Intermediate Experiment Vehicle. The aerodynamic analysis, carried out for the whole flight scenario, relies on computational fluid dynamics, wind tunnel test, and engineering-based design data generated during the project phases, from rarefied flow conditions, to hypersonic continuum flow up to reach subsonic speeds regime. Therefore, the vehicle aerodynamic database covers the range of Mach number, angle of attack, sideslip and control surface deflections foreseen for the vehicle nominal re-entry. In particular, the databasing activities are developed in the light of build-up approach. This means that all aerodynamic force and moment coefficients are provided by means of a linear summation over certain number of incremental contributions such as, for example, effect of sideslip angle, aerodynamic control surface effectiveness, etc. Each force and moment coefficient is treated separately and appropriate equation is provided, in which all the pertinent contributions for obtaining the total coefficient for any selected flight conditions appear. To this aim, all the available numerical and experimental aerodynamic data are gathered in order to explicit the functional dependencies from each aerodynamic model addend through polynomial expressions obtained with the least squares method. These polynomials are function of the primary variable that drives the phenomenon whereas secondary dependencies are introduced directly into its unknown coefficients which are determined by means of best-fitting algorithms.

  4. Compendium of NASA Langley reports on hypersonic aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabo, Frances E.; Cary, Aubrey M.; Lawson, Shirley W.

    1987-01-01

    Reference is made to papers published by the Langley Research Center in various areas of hypersonic aerodynamics for the period 1950 to 1986. The research work was performed either in-house by the Center staff or by other personnel supported entirely or in part by grants or contracts. Abstracts have been included with the references when available. The references are listed chronologically and are grouped under the following general headings: (1) Aerodynamic Measurements - Single Shapes; (2) Aerodynamic Measurements - Configurations; (3) Aero-Heating; (4) Configuration Studies; (5) Propulsion Integration Experiment; (6) Propulsion Integration - Study; (7) Analysis Methods; (8) Test Techniques; and (9) Airframe Active Cooling Systems.

  5. Estimation of unsteady aerodynamic forces using pointwise velocity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, F.; Sharma, A. S.; Blackburn, H. M.

    2016-10-01

    A novel method to estimate unsteady aerodynamic force coefficients from pointwise velocity measurements is presented. The methodology is based on a resolvent-based reduced-order model which requires the mean flow to obtain physical flow structures and pointwise measurement to calibrate their amplitudes. A computationally-affordable time-stepping methodology to obtain resolvent modes in non-trivial flow domains is introduced and compared to previous existing matrix-free and matrix-forming strategies. The technique is applied to the unsteady flow around an inclined square cylinder at low Reynolds number. The potential of the methodology is demonstrated through good agreement between the fluctuating pressure distribution on the cylinder and the temporal evolution of the unsteady lift and drag coefficients predicted by the model and those computed by direct numerical simulation.

  6. Rarefaction Effects in Hypersonic Aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riabov, Vladimir V.

    2011-05-01

    The Direct Simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) technique is used for numerical analysis of rarefied-gas hypersonic flows near a blunt plate, wedge, two side-by-side plates, disk, torus, and rotating cylinder. The role of various similarity parameters (Knudsen and Mach numbers, geometrical and temperature factors, specific heat ratios, and others) in aerodynamics of the probes is studied. Important kinetic effects that are specific for the transition flow regime have been found: non-monotonic lift and drag of plates, strong repulsive force between side-by-side plates and cylinders, dependence of drag on torus radii ratio, and the reverse Magnus effect on the lift of a rotating cylinder. The numerical results are in a good agreement with experimental data, which were obtained in a vacuum chamber at low and moderate Knudsen numbers from 0.01 to 10.

  7. Rarefield-Flow Shuttle Aerodynamics Flight Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Larman, Kevin T.; Moats, Christina D.

    1994-01-01

    A model of the Shuttle Orbiter rarefied-flow aerodynamic force coefficients has been derived from the ratio of flight acceleration measurements. The in-situ, low-frequency (less than 1Hz), low-level (approximately 1 x 10(exp -6) g) acceleration measurements are made during atmospheric re-entry. The experiment equipment designed and used for this task is the High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP), one of the sensor packages in the Orbiter Experiments Program. To date, 12 HiRAP re-entry mission data sets spanning a period of about 10 years have been processed. The HiRAP-derived aerodynamics model is described in detail. The model includes normal and axial hypersonic continuum coefficient equations as function of angle of attack, body-flap deflection, and elevon deflection. Normal and axial free molecule flow coefficient equations as a function of angle of attack are also presented, along with flight-derived rarefied-flow transition bridging formulae. Comparisons are made between the aerodynamics model, data from the latest Orbiter Operational Aerodynamic Design Data Book, applicable computer simulations, and wind-tunnel data.

  8. Remote measurement of water color in coastal waters. [spectral radiance data used to obtain quantitative values for chlorophyll and turbidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weldon, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to develop procedure to obtain quantitative values for chlorophyll and turbidity in coastal waters by observing the changes in spectral radiance of the backscattered spectrum. The technique under consideration consists of Examining Exotech model 20-D spectral radiometer data and determining which radiance ratios best correlated with chlorophyll and turbidity measurements as obtained from analyses of water samples and sechi visibility readings. Preliminary results indicate that there is a correlation between backscattered light and chlorophyll concentration and secchi visibility. The tests were conducted with the spectrometer mounted in a light aircraft over the Mississippi Sound at altitudes of 2.5K, 2.8K and 10K feet.

  9. High speed propeller acoustics and aerodynamics - A boundary element approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Myers, M. K.; Dunn, M. H.

    1989-01-01

    The Boundary Element Method (BEM) is applied in this paper to the problems of acoustics and aerodynamics of high speed propellers. The underlying theory is described based on the linearized Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation. The surface pressure on the blade is assumed unknown in the aerodynamic problem. It is obtained by solving a singular integral equation. The acoustic problem is then solved by moving the field point inside the fluid medium and evaluating some surface and line integrals. Thus the BEM provides a powerful technique in calculation of high speed propeller aerodynamics and acoustics.

  10. Efficient Global Aerodynamic Modeling from Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2012-01-01

    A method for identifying global aerodynamic models from flight data in an efficient manner is explained and demonstrated. A novel experiment design technique was used to obtain dynamic flight data over a range of flight conditions with a single flight maneuver. Multivariate polynomials and polynomial splines were used with orthogonalization techniques and statistical modeling metrics to synthesize global nonlinear aerodynamic models directly and completely from flight data alone. Simulation data and flight data from a subscale twin-engine jet transport aircraft were used to demonstrate the techniques. Results showed that global multivariate nonlinear aerodynamic dependencies could be accurately identified using flight data from a single maneuver. Flight-derived global aerodynamic model structures, model parameter estimates, and associated uncertainties were provided for all six nondimensional force and moment coefficients for the test aircraft. These models were combined with a propulsion model identified from engine ground test data to produce a high-fidelity nonlinear flight simulation very efficiently. Prediction testing using a multi-axis maneuver showed that the identified global model accurately predicted aircraft responses.

  11. Aerodynamic analysis of an isolated vehicle wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leśniewicz, P.; Kulak, M.; Karczewski, M.

    2014-08-01

    Increasing fuel prices force the manufacturers to look into all aspects of car aerodynamics including wheels, tyres and rims in order to minimize their drag. By diminishing the aerodynamic drag of vehicle the fuel consumption will decrease, while driving safety and comfort will improve. In order to properly illustrate the impact of a rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body, precise analysis of an isolated wheel should be performed beforehand. In order to represent wheel rotation in contact with the ground, presented CFD simulations included Moving Wall boundary as well as Multiple Reference Frame should be performed. Sliding mesh approach is favoured but too costly at the moment. Global and local flow quantities obtained during simulations were compared to an experiment in order to assess the validity of the numerical model. Results of investigation illustrates dependency between type of simulation and coefficients (drag and lift). MRF approach proved to be a better solution giving result closer to experiment. Investigation of the model with contact area between the wheel and the ground helps to illustrate the impact of rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body.

  12. Some interesting aspects of physisorption stay-time measurements obtained using molecular-beam techniques. [on Ni surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilmoth, R. G.; Fisher, S. S.

    1974-01-01

    Stay-time distributions have been obtained for Xe physisorbing on polycrystalline nickel as a function of the target temperature using a pulsed molecular-beam technique. Some interesting effects due to ion bombardment of the surface using He, Ar, and Xe ions are presented. Measured detector signal shapes are found to deviate from those predicted for first-order desorption with velocities corresponding to Maxwellian effusion at the surface temperature. Evidence is found for interaction between beam pulse adsorption and steady-state adsorption of beam species background atoms.

  13. The SWEX at the area of Eastern Poland: Comparison of soil moisture obtained from ground measurements and SMOS satellite data*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usowicz, J. B.; Marczewski, W.; Usowicz, B.; Lukowski, M. I.; Lipiec, J.; Slominski, J.

    2012-04-01

    Soil moisture, together with soil and vegetation characteristics, plays an important role in exchange of water and energy between the land surface and the atmospheric boundary layer. Accurate knowledge of current and future spatial and temporal variation in soil moisture is not well known, nor easy to measure or predict. Knowledge of soil moisture in surface and root zone soil moisture is critical for achieving sustainable land and water management. The importance of SM is so high that this ECV is recommended by GCOS (Global Climate Observing System) to any attempts of evaluating of effects the climate change, and therefore it is one of the goals for observing the Earth by the ESA SMOS Mission (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity), globally. SMOS provides its observations by means of the interferometric radiometry method (1.4 GHz) from the orbit. In parallel, ten ground based stations are kept by IA PAN, in area of the Eastern Wall in Poland, in order to validate SMOS data and for other ground based agrophysical purposes. Soil moisture measurements obtained from ground and satellite measurements from SMOS were compared using Bland-Altman method of agreement, concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) and total deviation index (TDI). Observed similar changes in soil moisture, but the values obtained from satellite measurements were lower. Minor differences between the compared data are at higher moisture contents of soil and they grow with decreasing soil moisture. Soil moisture trends are maintained in the individual stations. Such distributions of soil moisture were mainly related to soil type. * The work was financially supported in part by the ESA Programme for European Cooperating States (PECS), No.98084 "SWEX-R, Soil Water and Energy Exchange/Research", AO3275.

  14. Investigation of oscillating cascade aerodynamics by an experimental influence coefficient technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffum, Daniel H.; Fleeter, Sanford

    1988-01-01

    Fundamental experiments are performed in the NASA Lewis Transonic Oscillating Cascade Facility to investigate the torsion mode unsteady aerodynamics of a biconvex airfoil cascade at realistic values of the reduced frequency for all interblade phase angles at a specified mean flow condition. In particular, an unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique is developed and utilized in which only one airfoil in the cascade is oscillated at a time and the resulting airfoil surface unsteady pressure distribution measured on one dynamically instrumented airfoil. The unsteady aerodynamics of an equivalent cascade with all airfoils oscillating at a specified interblade phase angle are then determined through a vector summation of these data. These influence coefficient determined oscillation cascade data are correlated with data obtained in this cascade with all airfoils oscillating at several interblade phase angle values. The influence coefficients are then utilized to determine the unsteady aerodynamics of the cascade for all interblade phase angles, with these unique data subsequently correlated with predictions from a linearized unsteady cascade model.

  15. Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Using Hybridized Differential Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madavan, Nateri K.

    2003-01-01

    An aerodynamic shape optimization method that uses an evolutionary algorithm known at Differential Evolution (DE) in conjunction with various hybridization strategies is described. DE is a simple and robust evolutionary strategy that has been proven effective in determining the global optimum for several difficult optimization problems. Various hybridization strategies for DE are explored, including the use of neural networks as well as traditional local search methods. A Navier-Stokes solver is used to evaluate the various intermediate designs and provide inputs to the hybrid DE optimizer. The method is implemented on distributed parallel computers so that new designs can be obtained within reasonable turnaround times. Results are presented for the inverse design of a turbine airfoil from a modern jet engine. (The final paper will include at least one other aerodynamic design application). The capability of the method to search large design spaces and obtain the optimal airfoils in an automatic fashion is demonstrated.

  16. Effect of charge and aerodynamic properties of particles on electrified fabric filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, G.S.; Hutchins, D.K.; Ware, R.E.; Cramer, D.; Grayson, G.; Foti, T.; Wankum, D.; Coffman, I.; Mazumder, M.K.

    1985-09-01

    An electrical-single particle aerodynamic relaxation time (E-SPART) analyzer employs a laser Doppler velocimeter for measuring motion of charged particles in an applied oscillatory electric field in order to simultaneously measure the aerodynamic diameter and electrostatic charge on a single particle. A modification has been made to incorporate both acoustic excitation and a DC electric field for simultaneous measurement of the aerodynamic diameter and electrical charge of particles so that measurement of particle size is possible even for uncharged particles. Other modifications include use of a frequency counting technique for measuring the drift velocity of the particle, thereby determining the particle charge, use of a Millikan apparatus only for calibrating electrical charge above q = 4, and optimization of the operation of the aerosol generator and an electrostatic charger for calibration. The analyzer optics are being modified for determining particle size down to 0.1 microns in diameter. Experimental data on particle size and charge measurement obtained after stabilizing the operating temperature of the phase locked loop demodulator are presented. (LEW)

  17. Aerodynamic characteristics of reentry vehicles at supersonic velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamov, N. P.; Kharitonov, A. M.; Chasovnikov, E. A.; Dyad'kin, A. A.; Kazakov, M. I.; Krylov, A. N.; Skorovarov, A. Yu.

    2015-09-01

    Models of promising reentry vehicles, experimental equipment, and test program are described. The method used to determine the total aerodynamic characteristics of these models on the AB-313 mechanical balance in the T-313 supersonic wind tunnel and the method used for simulations are presented. The aerodynamic coefficients of the examined objects in wide ranges of Mach numbers and angles of attack are obtained. The experimental data are compared with the results of simulations.

  18. Aerodynamics and thermal physics of helicopter ice accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yiqiang

    developed based on a set of 82 experimental measurements and also compared to existing predictions tools. Two reference predictions found in the literature yielded 76% and 54% discrepancy with respect to experimental testing, whereas the proposed ice roughness prediction model resulted in a 31% minimum accuracy in prediction. It must be noted that the accuracy of the proposed model is within the ice shape reproduction uncertainty of icing facilities. Based on the new ice roughness prediction model and the CSR heat transfer scaling method, an icing heat transfer model was developed. The approach achieved high accuracy in heat transfer prediction compared to experiments conducted at the AERTS facility. The discrepancy between predictions and experimental results was within +/-15%, which was within the measurement uncertainty range of the facility. By combining both the ice roughness and heat transfer predictions, and incorporating the modules into an existing ice prediction tool (LEWICE), improved prediction capability was obtained, especially for the glaze regime. With the available ice shapes accreted at the AERTS facility and additional experiments found in the literature, 490 sets of experimental ice shapes and corresponding aerodynamics testing data were available. A physics-based performance degradation empirical tool was developed and achieved a mean absolute deviation of 33% when compared to the entire experimental dataset, whereas 60% to 243% discrepancies were observed using legacy drag penalty prediction tools. Rotor torque predictions coupling Blade Element Momentum Theory and the proposed drag performance degradation tool was conducted on a total of 17 validation cases. The coupled prediction tool achieved a 10% predicting error for clean rotor conditions, and 16% error for iced rotor conditions. It was shown that additional roughness element could affect the measured drag by up to 25% during experimental testing, emphasizing the need of realistic ice structures

  19. Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Sean; Bigatel, Patrick

    2004-10-17

    Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by this DOE category one Inventions and Innovations grant to successfully research, develop, test, patent, market, and sell innovative fuel and emissions saving aerodynamic attachments for the trucking industry. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck's fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Market research early in this project revealed the demands of truck fleet operators regarding aerodynamic attachments. Products must not only save fuel, but cannot interfere with the operation of the truck, require significant maintenance, add significant weight, and must be extremely durable. Furthermore, SAE/TMC J1321 tests performed by a respected independent laboratory are necessary for large fleets to even consider purchase. Freight Wing used this information to create a system of three practical aerodynamic attachments for the front, rear and undercarriage of standard semi trailers. SAE/TMC J1321 Type II tests preformed by the Transportation Research Center (TRC) demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy with all three products. If Freight Wing is successful in its continued efforts to gain market penetration, the energy and environmental savings would be considerable. Each truck outfitted saves approximately 1,100 gallons of fuel every 100,000 miles, which prevents over 12 tons of CO2 from entering the atmosphere. If all applicable trailers used the technology, the country could save approximately 1.8 billion gallons of diesel fuel, 18 million tons of emissions and 3.6 billion dollars annually.

  20. TAD- THEORETICAL AERODYNAMICS PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrowman, J.

    1994-01-01

    This theoretical aerodynamics program, TAD, was developed to predict the aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles with sounding rocket configurations. These slender, axisymmetric finned vehicle configurations have a wide range of aeronautical applications from rockets to high speed armament. Over a given range of Mach numbers, TAD will compute the normal force coefficient derivative, the center-of-pressure, the roll forcing moment coefficient derivative, the roll damping moment coefficient derivative, and the pitch damping moment coefficient derivative of a sounding rocket configured vehicle. The vehicle may consist of a sharp pointed nose of cone or tangent ogive shape, up to nine other body divisions of conical shoulder, conical boattail, or circular cylinder shape, and fins of trapezoid planform shape with constant cross section and either three or four fins per fin set. The characteristics computed by TAD have been shown to be accurate to within ten percent of experimental data in the supersonic region. The TAD program calculates the characteristics of separate portions of the vehicle, calculates the interference between separate portions of the vehicle, and then combines the results to form a total vehicle solution. Also, TAD can be used to calculate the characteristics of the body or fins separately as an aid in the design process. Input to the TAD program consists of simple descriptions of the body and fin geometries and the Mach range of interest. Output includes the aerodynamic characteristics of the total vehicle, or user-selected portions, at specified points over the mach range. The TAD program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 360 computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 123K of 8 bit bytes. The TAD program was originally developed in 1967 and last updated in 1972.

  1. Future requirements and roles of computers in aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    While faster computers will be needed to make solution of the Navier-Stokes equations practical and useful, most all of the other aerodynamic solution techniques can benefit from faster computers. There is a wide variety of computational and measurement techniques, the prospect of more powerful computers permits extension and an enhancement across all aerodynamic methods, including wind-tunnel measurement. It is expected that, as in the past, a blend of methods will be used to predict aircraft aerodynamics in the future. These will include methods based on solution of the Navier-Stokes equations and the potential flow equations as well as those based on empirical and measured results. The primary flows of interest in aircraft aerodynamics are identified, the predictive methods currently in use and/or under development are reviewed and two of these methods are analyzed in terms of the computational resources needed to improve their usefulness and practicality.

  2. Atmospheric determination for Shuttle aerodynamic studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Evaluation of the aerodynamic performance of the Shuttle during atmospheric reentry requires a determination of the free-stream atmospheric properties along the entry path. This determination must be of the best possible accuracy in order to fully utilize the Shuttle as an aerodynamic flight research vehicle. To accomplish this, two Shuttle Orbiter experiments, the Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS) and the Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS), are being developed to provide onboard measurements. SUMS will measure freestream parameters in the high altitude (above 90 km), high Mach number (M above 20) regions where conventional static pressure measurements are not available. SEADS will provide research quality data below about 90 km. Since these two experiments were not installed for the Shuttle developmental flights, an alternate method was needed to determine the freestream atmospheric properties along the entry trajectory. The method which was developed is described with a discussion of the results from the first five Shuttle flights.

  3. Wing-alone aerodynamic characteristics for high angles of attack of supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallings, R. L., Jr.; Lamb, M.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine wing-alone supersonic aerodynamic characteristics at high angles of attack. The wings tested varied in aspect ratio from 0.5 to 4.0 and in taper ratio from 0 to 1.0. The wings were tested at angles of attack ranging rom -5 deg to 60 deg and at Mach number from 1.60 to 4.60. The aerodynamic characteristics were obtained by integrating local pressures measured over the wing surfaces. Presented and discussed are results showing the effects of aspect ratio, taper ratio, Mach number, and angle of attack on force and moment coefficients and center of pressure locations. Also included are tabulations of the pressure measurements.

  4. Characteristics of ionospheric plasma drifts as obtained from Doppler ionosonde measurements at magnetic equator over Indian sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samireddipalle, Sripathi; Banola, Sridhar; Singh, Ram

    2016-07-01

    We present equatorial plasma drifts over Tirunelveli (8.73°N, 77.70°E; Dip 0.5°N), an equatorial site over Indian region using Doppler interferometry technique of Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde (CADI) system. In the Doppler interferometry technique, it is possible to infer three dimensional bulk motion of the scatterers as reflected from the ionosphere at selected frequencies using spaced receivers arranged in mag. east-west, north-south directions. Spectral phases and amplitudes are calculated using FFT to identify the Doppler frequencies and their drifts. This technique produces reliable drifts when sharp refractive index gradients exists which produces higher scattering sources. The vertical drifts so obtained are compared with same drifts from Digisonde at Trivandrum. After having compared with Digisonde drifts, we studied the temporal and seasonal variability of these drifts during quiet periods for the year 2012. It is seen that vertical drifts exhibited equinoctial maximum in the Pre-Reversal-Enhancement (PRE) followed by winter and summer respectively. A comparison of these vertical drifts is made with drifts obtained from (a) virtual height measured at 4 MHz and (b) Fejer drift model. The comparison suggests that Doppler vertical drifts are relatively higher as compared to the drifts obtained from model and virtual height. However, the correlation seems to be good around evening PRE times. The zonal drifts, on the other hand, showed westward drifts during daytime with mean drifts of ~250 m/s, while they are eastward during nighttime with mean drifts of ~150 m/s. These drifts seems to be higher as compared to zonal drifts obtained in the South American sector. However, the zonal drifts so obtained showed good correlation with Equatorial Electrojet (EEJ) strength suggesting zonal drifts are influenced by E region drifts during daytime in agreement with Woodman et al., 2013 paper. The magnitude of these drifts are comparable to other independent

  5. Study of Dual-Wavelength PIA Estimates: Ratio of Ka- and Ku-band Attenuations Obtained from Measured DSD Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, L.; Meneghini, R.; Tokay, A.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate attenuation corrections to the measurements of the Ku- and Ka-band dual-wavelength precipitation radar (DPR) aboard the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) satellite is crucial for estimates of precipitation rate and microphysical properties of hydrometeors. Surface reference technique (SRT) provides a means to infer path-integrated attenuation (PIA) by comparing differences of normalized surface cross sections (σ0) between rain and rain-free areas. Although single-wavelength SRT has been widely used in attenuation correction for airborne/spaceborne radar applications, its accuracy relies on the variance of σ0 in rain-free region. Dual-wavelength surface reference technique (DSRT) has shown promising ways to improve accuracy in PIA estimates over single-wavelength as a result of that the variance of the difference of PIA between two wavelengths (δPIA) is much smaller than the variance of σ0 at single wavelength arising from high correlation of σ0 between Ku- and Ka-bands. However, derivation of PIA at either wavelength from DSRT requires an assumption of the ratio of Ka- and Ku-band PIAs (p). Inappropriate assumption of this ratio will lead to the bias of PIA estimates. In this study the ratio p will be investigated through measured DSD data. The attenuation coefficients at Ku and Ka bands are first computed directly from measured DSD spectra, and then regression analysis is performed to the data points (Ku- and Ka-band attenuation coefficients) in obtaining p values for rain. Taking an advantage of large collection of the DSD measurements from various GPM Ground Validation (GPM GV) programs, the results of the ratio p will be examined from different climatological regimes. Because PIA is affected by all types of hydrometeors contained in the columns of radar measurements, the synthetic profiles composed of different types of hydrometeors are constructed using measured DSD to look into impacts of different phase hydrometeors on the p values. To

  6. Optic Disc, Macula, and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Measurements Obtained by OCT in Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Sayın, Osman; Yeter, Volkan; Arıtürk, Nurşen

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To compare the measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), macula and optic disc parameters obtained by optical coherence tomography (OCT), and intraocular pressure (IOP) between the patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) and healthy controls. Methods. One hundred and thirty-two eyes of 66 patients with TAO and 72 eyes of 36 healthy controls were included in the study. Proptosis level was determined by Hertel exophthalmometer. Optic disc, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer, and macula parameters were measured by OCT. All measurements of the patients were compared with those of age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Results. No statistically significant difference was found between the patients with TAO and control group in terms of demographic characteristics (P > 0.05). Exophthalmometer measurements and IOP were higher in TAO group (P < 0.05). Mean macula thicknesses in TAO and control groups were 239.3 ± 29.8 μm and 246.6 ± 31.8 μm, respectively, and the difference between the groups was statistically significant (P = 0.000). TAO group had thinner inferior RNFL thickness and macular thicknesses (superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal) and higher disc area and C/D ratio when compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion. IOP, disc area, and C/D area ratio were higher in the patients with TAO and the thicknesses of macula and inferior RNFL were thinner when compared with healthy controls. This trial is registered with registration number at clinicaltrials.gov NCT02766660. PMID:27493796

  7. Optic Disc, Macula, and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Measurements Obtained by OCT in Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sayın, Osman; Arıtürk, Nurşen

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To compare the measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), macula and optic disc parameters obtained by optical coherence tomography (OCT), and intraocular pressure (IOP) between the patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) and healthy controls. Methods. One hundred and thirty-two eyes of 66 patients with TAO and 72 eyes of 36 healthy controls were included in the study. Proptosis level was determined by Hertel exophthalmometer. Optic disc, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer, and macula parameters were measured by OCT. All measurements of the patients were compared with those of age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Results. No statistically significant difference was found between the patients with TAO and control group in terms of demographic characteristics (P > 0.05). Exophthalmometer measurements and IOP were higher in TAO group (P < 0.05). Mean macula thicknesses in TAO and control groups were 239.3 ± 29.8 μm and 246.6 ± 31.8 μm, respectively, and the difference between the groups was statistically significant (P = 0.000). TAO group had thinner inferior RNFL thickness and macular thicknesses (superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal) and higher disc area and C/D ratio when compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion. IOP, disc area, and C/D area ratio were higher in the patients with TAO and the thicknesses of macula and inferior RNFL were thinner when compared with healthy controls. This trial is registered with registration number at clinicaltrials.gov NCT02766660. PMID:27493796

  8. Aerodynamics of sports balls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.

  9. Aerodynamics of sports balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, R. D.

    Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.

  10. Aerodynamic challenges of ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooks, I.; Homan, D.; Romere, P. O.

    1985-01-01

    The approach and landing test (ALT) of the Space Shuttle Orbiter presented a number of unique challenges in the area of aerodynamics. The purpose of the ALT program was both to confirm the use of the Boeing 747 as a transport vehicle for ferrying the Orbiter across the country and to demonstrate the flight characteristics of the Orbiter in its approach and landing phase. Concerns for structural fatigue and performance dictated a tailcone be attached to the Orbiter for ferry and for the initial landing tests. The Orbiter with a tailcone attached presented additional challenges to the normal aft sting concept of wind tunnel testing. The landing tests required that the Orbiter be separated from the 747 at approximately 20,000 feet using aerodynamic forces to fly the vehicles apart. The concept required a complex test program to determine the relative effects of the two vehicles on each other. Also of concern, and tested, was the vortex wake created by the 747 and the means for the Orbiter to avoid it following separation.

  11. Aerodynamic design using numerical optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murman, E. M.; Chapman, G. T.

    1983-01-01

    The procedure of using numerical optimization methods coupled with computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes for the development of an aerodynamic design is examined. Several approaches that replace wind tunnel tests, develop pressure distributions and derive designs, or fulfill preset design criteria are presented. The method of Aerodynamic Design by Numerical Optimization (ADNO) is described and illustrated with examples.

  12. Aerodynamic coefficients and transformation tables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Joseph S

    1918-01-01

    The problem of the transformation of numerical values expressed in one system of units into another set or system of units frequently arises in connection with aerodynamic problems. Report contains aerodynamic coefficients and conversion tables needed to facilitate such transformation. (author)

  13. On Wings: Aerodynamics of Eagles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millson, David

    2000-01-01

    The Aerodynamics Wing Curriculum is a high school program that combines basic physics, aerodynamics, pre-engineering, 3D visualization, computer-assisted drafting, computer-assisted manufacturing, production, reengineering, and success in a 15-hour, 3-week classroom module. (JOW)

  14. Ice crystal habits from cloud chamber studies obtained by in-line holographic microscopy related to depolarization measurements.

    PubMed

    Amsler, Peter; Stetzer, Olaf; Schnaiter, Martin; Hesse, Evelyn; Benz, Stefan; Moehler, Ottmar; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2009-10-20

    We investigate hydrometeor habits at the AIDA chamber with a newly developed in-line holographic microscope HOLographic Imager for Microscopic Objects (HOLIMO). Sizes and habits of ice crystals and droplets in a mixed-phase cloud experiment are related to relative humidity with respect to ice (RH(ice)), temperature (T), and experiment time. This experiment is initiated with supercooled water drops. As a result, ice crystals within a maximum particle diameter size range of 2 to 118 microm (average size of 19 microm) are detected and 63% of them reveal regular habits. The observed particle habits match those predicted for a given RH(ice) and T. Two different growth modes emerge from this cloud. The first one appears during water injection and reveals mainly optical particle sizes in the range of 5 to 250 microm. The second mode grows to sizes of 5 to 63 microm, just after the particles of the first one fall out. It is found that an increasing aspect ratio chi of maximum length over thickness from 2 to 20 as obtained by HOLIMO corresponds to a decreasing linear depolarization ratio from 0.1 to 0.04, as independently obtained by depolarization measurements.

  15. [Retrieval of dust fraction of atmospheric aerosols based on spectra characteristics of refractive indices obtained from remote sensing measurements].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Li, Zheng-Qiang; Li, Dong-Hui; Li, Kai-Tao; Tian, Qing-Jiu; Li, Li; Zhang, Ying; Lü, Yang; Gu, Xing-Fa

    2012-06-01

    Mineral dust is an important chemical component of aerosol, which has a significant impact on the climate and environmental changes. The spectral behavior of aerosol refractive indices at four wavelengths from 440 to 1 020 nm was analyzed based on one year observation obtained from Beijing AERONET site. The real parts of refractive index (n) in each band did not differ greatly, however the imaginary parts (k) showed a significant difference due to the absorption of mineral dust in aerosol. From 440 to 670 nm k decreased rapidly, while from 670 to 1 020 nm featured a lower, constant value. Accordingly, k(440 nm) could be considered separately with other three bands. Hence, we added mineral dust into the currently used three-component aerosol chemical model to form a new four-component model (i. e. BC, AS, dust and water) which is more suitable to represent the aerosol chemical composition. Then we presented a method to retrieve dust content in aerosols using this four-component model and refractive indices obtained from the sunphotometer measurements. Finally the dust content in aerosol was investigated under different weather conditions, i. e. clear, haze and dust in Beijing. The results showed that volume fractions of the dust component were 88%, 37% and 48% for clear, hazy and dusty day respectively, which was consistent with the coarse mode proportion in aerosols calculated from aerosol size distributions.

  16. Ice crystal habits from cloud chamber studies obtained by in-line holographic microscopy related to depolarization measurements.

    PubMed

    Amsler, Peter; Stetzer, Olaf; Schnaiter, Martin; Hesse, Evelyn; Benz, Stefan; Moehler, Ottmar; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2009-10-20

    We investigate hydrometeor habits at the AIDA chamber with a newly developed in-line holographic microscope HOLographic Imager for Microscopic Objects (HOLIMO). Sizes and habits of ice crystals and droplets in a mixed-phase cloud experiment are related to relative humidity with respect to ice (RH(ice)), temperature (T), and experiment time. This experiment is initiated with supercooled water drops. As a result, ice crystals within a maximum particle diameter size range of 2 to 118 microm (average size of 19 microm) are detected and 63% of them reveal regular habits. The observed particle habits match those predicted for a given RH(ice) and T. Two different growth modes emerge from this cloud. The first one appears during water injection and reveals mainly optical particle sizes in the range of 5 to 250 microm. The second mode grows to sizes of 5 to 63 microm, just after the particles of the first one fall out. It is found that an increasing aspect ratio chi of maximum length over thickness from 2 to 20 as obtained by HOLIMO corresponds to a decreasing linear depolarization ratio from 0.1 to 0.04, as independently obtained by depolarization measurements. PMID:19844319

  17. Space Shuttle Plume Simulation Effect on Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hair, L. M.

    1978-01-01

    Technology for simulating plumes in wind tunnel tests was not adequate to provide the required confidence in test data where plume induced aerodynamic effects might be significant. A broad research program was undertaken to correct the deficiency. Four tasks within the program are reported. Three of these tasks involve conducting experiments, related to three different aspects of the plume simulation problem: (1) base pressures; (2) lateral jet pressures; and (3) plume parameters. The fourth task involves collecting all of the base pressure test data generated during the program. Base pressures were measured on a classic cone ogive cylinder body as affected by the coaxial, high temperature exhaust plumes of a variety of solid propellant rockets. Valid data were obtained at supersonic freestream conditions but not at transonic. Pressure data related to lateral (separation) jets at M infinity = 4.5, for multiple clustered nozzles canted to the freestream and operating at high dynamic pressure ratios. All program goals were met although the model hardware was found to be large relative to the wind tunnel size so that operation was limited for some nozzle configurations.

  18. Predicting Accumulations of Ice on Aerodynamic Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, Colin; Potapczuk, Mark; Addy, Gene; Wright, William

    2003-01-01

    LEWICE is a computer program that predicts the accumulation of ice on two-dimensional aerodynamic surfaces under conditions representative of the flight of an aircraft through an icing cloud. The software first calculates the airflow surrounding the body of interest, then uses the airflow to compute the trajectories of water droplets that impinge on the surface of the body. The droplet trajectories are also used to compute impingement limits and local collection efficiencies, which are used in subsequent ice-growth calculations and are also useful for designing systems to protect against icing. Next, the software predicts the shape of accumulating ice by modeling transfers of mass and energy in small control volumes. The foregoing computations are repeated over several computational time steps until the total icing exposure time is reached. Results of computations by LEWICE have been compared with an extensive database of measured ice shapes obtained from experiments, and have been shown to closely approximate those shapes under most conditions of interest to the aviation community.

  19. Unsteady aerodynamics of blade rows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdon, Joseph M.

    1989-01-01

    The requirements placed on an unsteady aerodynamic theory intended for turbomachinery aeroelastic or aeroacoustic applications are discussed along with a brief description of the various theoretical models that are available to address these requirements. The major emphasis is placed on the description of a linearized inviscid theory which fully accounts for the affects of a nonuniform mean or steady flow on unsteady aerodynamic response. Although this linearization was developed primarily for blade flutter prediction, more general equations are presented which account for unsteady excitations due to incident external aerodynamic disturbances as well as those due to prescribed blade motions. The motivation for this linearized unsteady aerodynamic theory is focused on, its physical and mathematical formulation is outlined and examples are presented to illustrate the status of numerical solution procedures and several effects of mean flow nonuniformity on unsteady aerodynamic response.

  20. The aerodynamics of hovering flight in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Fry, Steven N; Sayaman, Rosalyn; Dickinson, Michael H

    2005-06-01

    Using 3D infrared high-speed video, we captured the continuous wing and body kinematics of free-flying fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, during hovering and slow forward flight. We then 'replayed' the wing kinematics on a dynamically scaled robotic model to measure the aerodynamic forces produced by the wings. Hovering animals generate a U-shaped wing trajectory, in which large drag forces during a downward plunge at the start of each stroke create peak vertical forces. Quasi-steady mechanisms could account for nearly all of the mean measured force required to hover, although temporal discrepancies between instantaneous measured forces and model predictions indicate that unsteady mechanisms also play a significant role. We analyzed the requirements for hovering from an analysis of the time history of forces and moments in all six degrees of freedom. The wing kinematics necessary to generate sufficient lift are highly constrained by the requirement to balance thrust and pitch torque over the stroke cycle. We also compare the wing motion and aerodynamic forces of free and tethered flies. Tethering causes a strong distortion of the stroke pattern that results in a reduction of translational forces and a prominent nose-down pitch moment. The stereotyped distortion under tethered conditions is most likely due to a disruption of sensory feedback. Finally, we calculated flight power based directly on the measurements of wing motion and aerodynamic forces, which yielded a higher estimate of muscle power during free hovering flight than prior estimates based on time-averaged parameters. This discrepancy is mostly due to a two- to threefold underestimate of the mean profile drag coefficient in prior studies. We also compared our values with the predictions of the same time-averaged models using more accurate kinematic and aerodynamic input parameters based on our high-speed videography measurements. In this case, the time-averaged models tended to overestimate flight

  1. A study on annealing effects of AgInS2/GaAs epilayer obtained from photoluminescence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, K. J.; Jeong, J. W.; Baek, H. W.; Kim, K. S.; Moon, J. D.; Kim, H. S.; Im, K. H.

    2002-05-01

    The AgInS2 epilayers with a chalcopyrite structure grown using a hot-wall epitaxy (HWE) method have been confirmed to be a high quality crystal. From the optical absorption measurement, the temperature dependence of the energy band gap on AgInS2/GaAs was found to be Eg(T)=2.1365 eV-(9.89×10-3 eV)T2/(2930+T). After the as-grown AgInS2/GaAs was annealed in Ag-, S-, and In-atmospheres, the origin of point defects of AgInS2/GaAs has been investigated by using the photoluminescence (PL) at 10 K. The native defects of VAg, VS, Agint, and Sint obtained from PL measurements were classified as a donors or acceptors type. And we concluded that the heat-treatment in the S-atmosphere converted AgInS2/GaAs to an optical p-type. Also, we confirmed that In in AgInS2/GaAs did not form the native defects because In in AgInS2 did exist in the form of stable bonds.

  2. Compilation of ground-water level measurements, obtained by the United States Geological Survey in Puerto Rico, 1958-1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres-Gonzalez, Sigfredo

    1991-01-01

    A digital compilation of the groundwater levels in Puerto Rico was prepared as part of the Caribbean Islands Regional Aquifers System Analysis program. Of special interest are the groundwater levels measurements obtained on a routine basis at wells located in the different aquifer regions or aquifer zones. Data from 181 observation wells were entered in the computer data base. The data base includes the following: name, latitude and longitude coordinates, owner, diameter, depth, station identification, local number, aquifer area or region, period of record, construction date, earliest groundwater level reported, and groundwater level fluctuations for various time periods between 1958 and 1985. Data showing conditions under which groundwater level measurements may have been affected by (1) pumping of the well, (2) by a nearby pumping well (3) a specific method by which the groundwater level was determined, (4) whether the well was recently pumped, and (5) when recorded, the lowest water level are also indicated. The summarized information is available in printed format on a yearly basis as part of the Water Resources Data Publication series. (USGS)

  3. Wind turbine blade aerodynamics: The analysis of field test data

    SciTech Connect

    Luttges, M.W.; Miller, M.S.; Robinson, M.C.; Shipley, D.E.; Young, T.S.

    1994-08-01

    Data obtained from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory site test of a wind turbine (The Combined Experiment) was analyzed specifically to capture information regarding the aerodynamic loading experienced by the machine rotor blades. The inflow conditions were shown to be extremely variable. These inflows yielded three different operational regimes about the blades. Each regime produced very different aerodynamic loading conditions. Two of these regimes could not have been readily predicted from wind tunnel data. These conditions are being subjected to further analyses to provide new guidelines for both designers and operators. The roles of unsteady aerodynamics effects are highlighted since periods of dynamic stall were shown to be associated with brief episodes of high aerodynamic forces.

  4. Effects of agri-environmental schemes on farmland birds: do food availability measurements improve patterns obtained from simple habitat models?

    PubMed

    Ponce, Carlos; Bravo, Carolina; Alonso, Juan Carlos

    2014-07-01

    Studies evaluating agri-environmental schemes (AES) usually focus on responses of single species or functional groups. Analyses are generally based on simple habitat measurements but ignore food availability and other important factors. This can limit our understanding of the ultimate causes determining the reactions of birds to AES. We investigated these issues in detail and throughout the main seasons of a bird's annual cycle (mating, postfledging and wintering) in a dry cereal farmland in a Special Protection Area for farmland birds in central Spain. First, we modeled four bird response parameters (abundance, species richness, diversity and "Species of European Conservation Concern" [SPEC]-score), using detailed food availability and vegetation structure measurements (food models). Second, we fitted new models, built using only substrate composition variables (habitat models). Whereas habitat models revealed that both, fields included and not included in the AES benefited birds, food models went a step further and included seed and arthropod biomass as important predictors, respectively, in winter and during the postfledging season. The validation process showed that food models were on average 13% better (up to 20% in some variables) in predicting bird responses. However, the cost of obtaining data for food models was five times higher than for habitat models. This novel approach highlighted the importance of food availability-related causal processes involved in bird responses to AES, which remained undetected when using conventional substrate composition assessment models. Despite their higher costs, measurements of food availability add important details to interpret the reactions of the bird community to AES interventions and thus facilitate evaluating the real efficiency of AES programs.

  5. Effects of agri-environmental schemes on farmland birds: do food availability measurements improve patterns obtained from simple habitat models?

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, Carlos; Bravo, Carolina; Alonso, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Studies evaluating agri-environmental schemes (AES) usually focus on responses of single species or functional groups. Analyses are generally based on simple habitat measurements but ignore food availability and other important factors. This can limit our understanding of the ultimate causes determining the reactions of birds to AES. We investigated these issues in detail and throughout the main seasons of a bird's annual cycle (mating, postfledging and wintering) in a dry cereal farmland in a Special Protection Area for farmland birds in central Spain. First, we modeled four bird response parameters (abundance, species richness, diversity and “Species of European Conservation Concern” [SPEC]-score), using detailed food availability and vegetation structure measurements (food models). Second, we fitted new models, built using only substrate composition variables (habitat models). Whereas habitat models revealed that both, fields included and not included in the AES benefited birds, food models went a step further and included seed and arthropod biomass as important predictors, respectively, in winter and during the postfledging season. The validation process showed that food models were on average 13% better (up to 20% in some variables) in predicting bird responses. However, the cost of obtaining data for food models was five times higher than for habitat models. This novel approach highlighted the importance of food availability-related causal processes involved in bird responses to AES, which remained undetected when using conventional substrate composition assessment models. Despite their higher costs, measurements of food availability add important details to interpret the reactions of the bird community to AES interventions and thus facilitate evaluating the real efficiency of AES programs. PMID:25165523

  6. Effects of agri-environmental schemes on farmland birds: do food availability measurements improve patterns obtained from simple habitat models?

    PubMed

    Ponce, Carlos; Bravo, Carolina; Alonso, Juan Carlos

    2014-07-01

    Studies evaluating agri-environmental schemes (AES) usually focus on responses of single species or functional groups. Analyses are generally based on simple habitat measurements but ignore food availability and other important factors. This can limit our understanding of the ultimate causes determining the reactions of birds to AES. We investigated these issues in detail and throughout the main seasons of a bird's annual cycle (mating, postfledging and wintering) in a dry cereal farmland in a Special Protection Area for farmland birds in central Spain. First, we modeled four bird response parameters (abundance, species richness, diversity and "Species of European Conservation Concern" [SPEC]-score), using detailed food availability and vegetation structure measurements (food models). Second, we fitted new models, built using only substrate composition variables (habitat models). Whereas habitat models revealed that both, fields included and not included in the AES benefited birds, food models went a step further and included seed and arthropod biomass as important predictors, respectively, in winter and during the postfledging season. The validation process showed that food models were on average 13% better (up to 20% in some variables) in predicting bird responses. However, the cost of obtaining data for food models was five times higher than for habitat models. This novel approach highlighted the importance of food availability-related causal processes involved in bird responses to AES, which remained undetected when using conventional substrate composition assessment models. Despite their higher costs, measurements of food availability add important details to interpret the reactions of the bird community to AES interventions and thus facilitate evaluating the real efficiency of AES programs. PMID:25165523

  7. Rarefaction effects on Galileo probe aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, James N.; LeBeau, Gerald J.; Blanchard, Robert C.; Price, Joseph M.

    1996-01-01

    Solutions of aerodynamic characteristics are presented for the Galileo Probe entering Jupiter's hydrogen-helium atmosphere at a nominal relative velocity of 47.4 km/s. Focus is on predicting the aerodynamic drag coefficient during the transitional flow regime using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Accuracy of the probe's drag coefficient directly impacts the inferred atmospheric properties that are being extracted from the deceleration measurements made by onboard accelerometers as part of the Atmospheric Structure Experiment. The range of rarefaction considered in the present study extends from the free molecular limit to continuum conditions. Comparisons made with previous calculations and experimental measurements show the present results for drag to merge well with Navier-Stokes and experimental results for the least rarefied conditions considered.

  8. Sampling efficiency of the TSI aerodynamic particle sizer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.; Barber, E.M.; Zhang, Y.

    1998-09-01

    The Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS) has been tested and used in a variety of laboratory and field situations for indoor air quality research of both industrial and livestock buildings. The APS is capable of providing rapid, real-time measurement of particle size distribution. However, no literature was found in which the sampling efficiency of the APS was addressed. This paper presents a method to evaluate the sampling efficiency of the APS, considering both the aspiration efficiency and the penetration efficiency. Six tests were conducted and measurements were taken by a cascade impact sampler and the APS simultaneously. The results obtained by the APS were compared with the results of the cascade impact sampler.

  9. Unsteady aerodynamic modeling for arbitrary motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, J. W.; Ashley, H.; Breakwell, J. V.

    1977-01-01

    A study is presented on the unsteady aerodynamic loads due to arbitrary motions of a thin wing and their adaptation for the calculation of response and true stability of aeroelastic modes. In an Appendix, the use of Laplace transform techniques and the generalized Theodorsen function for two-dimensional incompressible flow is reviewed. New applications of the same approach are shown also to yield airloads valid for quite general small motions. Numerical results are given for the two-dimensional supersonic case. Previously proposed approximate methods, starting from simple harmonic unsteady theory, are evaluated by comparison with exact results obtained by the present approach. The Laplace inversion integral is employed to separate the loads into 'rational' and 'nonrational' parts, of which only the former are involved in aeroelastic stability of the wing. Among other suggestions for further work, it is explained how existing aerodynamic computer programs may be adapted in a fairly straightforward fashion to deal with arbitrary transients.

  10. Aerodynamics of Small Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Thomas J.

    In this review we describe the aerodynamic problems that must be addressed in order to design a successful small aerial vehicle. The effects of Reynolds number and aspect ratio (AR) on the design and performance of fixed-wing vehicles are described. The boundary-layer behavior on airfoils is especially important in the design of vehicles in this flight regime. The results of a number of experimental boundary-layer studies, including the influence of laminar separation bubbles, are discussed. Several examples of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in this regime are described. Also, a brief survey of analytical models for oscillating and flapping-wing propulsion is presented. These range from the earliest examples where quasi-steady, attached flow is assumed, to those that account for the unsteady shed vortex wake as well as flow separation and aeroelastic behavior of a flapping wing. Experiments that complemented the analysis and led to the design of a successful ornithopter are also described.

  11. Reciprocity relations in aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaslet, Max A; Spreiter, John R

    1953-01-01

    Reverse flow theorems in aerodynamics are shown to be based on the same general concepts involved in many reciprocity theorems in the physical sciences. Reciprocal theorems for both steady and unsteady motion are found as a logical consequence of this approach. No restrictions on wing plan form or flight Mach number are made beyond those required in linearized compressible-flow analysis. A number of examples are listed, including general integral theorems for lifting, rolling, and pitching wings and for wings in nonuniform downwash fields. Correspondence is also established between the buildup of circulation with time of a wing starting impulsively from rest and the buildup of lift of the same wing moving in the reverse direction into a sharp-edged gust.

  12. Vortex flow aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. H. B.; Campbell, J. F.; Young, A. D. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The principal emphasis of the meeting was to be on the understanding and prediction of separation-induced vortex flows and their effects on vehicle performance, stability, control, and structural design loads. This report shows that a substantial amount of the papers covering this area were received from a wide range of countries, together with an attendance that was even more diverse. In itself, this testifies to the current interest in the subject and to the appropriateness of the Panel's choice of topic and approach. An attempt is made to summarize each paper delivered, and to relate the contributions made in the papers and in the discussions to some of the important aspects of vortex flow aerodynamics. This reveals significant progress and important clarifications, but also brings out remaining weaknesses in predictive capability and gaps in understanding. Where possible, conclusions are drawn and areas of continuing concern are identified.

  13. Predicted and experimental aerodynamic forces on the Darrieus rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraschivoiu, I.

    1983-12-01

    The present paper compares the aerodynamic loads predicted by a double-multiple-streamtube model with wind tunnel measurements for a straight-bladed Darrieus rotor. Thus the CARDAA computer code uses two constant-interference factors in the induced velocity for estimating the aerodynamic loads. This code has been improved by considering the variation in the upwind and downwind induced velocities as a function of the blade position, and, in this case, the CARDAAV code is used. The Boeing-Vertol dynamic-stall model is incorporated in both the CARDAA and CARDAAV codes, and a better approach is obtained. The transient normal- and tangential-force coefficients predicted with and without dynamic-stall effects are compared with wind tunnel data for one and two NACA 0018 straight-bladed rotors. The results are given for a rotor with a large solidity (chord-to-radius ratio of 0.20) at two tip-speed ratios (X = 1.5 and 3.0) and at a low Reynolds number of 3.8 x 10 to the 4th. The comparisons between experimental data and theoretical results show the CARDAAV predictions to be more accurate than those estimated by the CARDAA code.

  14. A simple method for converting frequency domain aerodynamics to the time domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowell, E. H.

    1980-01-01

    A simple, direct procedure was developed for converting frequency domain aerodynamics into indicial aerodynamics. The data required for aerodynamic forces in the frequency domain may be obtained from any available (linear) theory. The method retains flexibility for the analyst and is based upon the particular character of the frequency domain results. An evaluation of the method was made for incompressible, subsonic, and transonic two dimensional flows.

  15. Comparison of the Ionospheric Electron Density Profiles Obtained by COSMIC Radio Occultation with Ground-based Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharenkova, I.; Shagimuratov, I.; Krankowski, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Radio Occultation technique using GPS signals has been proven to be a promising technique to retrieve accurate profiles of the ionospheric electron density with high vertical resolution on a global scale. Formosat-3/COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate) is a joint scientific mission between Taiwan and the U.S.A. The mission placed six small micro-satellites into six different orbits at 700~800 kilometer above the earth surface. Each microsatellite has a GPS Occultation Experiment payload to operate the ionospheric radio occultation (RO). With the ability of performing both rising and setting occultation, Formosat-3/COSMIC has been producing about 2000 profiles of the ionospheric electron density per day - much more than ever before. In the given paper we used the ionograms recorded by European ionosonde stations for the cases of winter and summer solstices and time of quiet and geomagnetically disturbed days in March 2008 and compare these ground measured data with the GPS COSMIC radio occultation ionospheric profiles. This result is important to validate the reliability of the COSMIC ionospheric observations using the radio occultation technique. The comparison of RO data with measurements provided by European ionosondes (Pruhonice, Iuliusruh, Ebre, Rome) indicates that usually COSMIC RO profiles are in a good agreement with ionosonde's profiles both in the F2 layer peak electron density (NmF2) and the bottom side part of the profiles. The coincidence of profiles is better in the cases when projection of the ray path of tangent points is closer to the ionosonde location. But it is necessary to mention that practically for all analyzed cases there are observed the understated values of electron density in the topside part of the ionosonde's profiles in compare with RO profiles. As the topside ionosonde profile is obtained by fitting a model to the peak electron density value, the COSMIC radio occultation measurements

  16. Full-scale wind turbine rotor aerodynamics research

    SciTech Connect

    Simms, D A; Butterfield, C P

    1994-11-01

    The United States Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are conducting research to improve wind turbine technology at the NREL National Wind Technology Center (NWTC). One program, the Combined Experiment, has focused on making measurements needed to understand aerodynamic and structural responses of horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT). A new phase of this program, the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment, will focus on quantifying unsteady aerodynamic phenomena prevalent in stall-controlled HAWTs. Optimally twisted blades and innovative instrumentation and data acquisition systems will be used in these tests. Data can now be acquired and viewed interactively during turbine operations. This paper describes the NREL Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment and highlights planned future research activities.

  17. Vortical sources of aerodynamic force and moment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, J. Z.; Wu, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the aerodynamic force and moment can be expressed in terms of vorticity distribution (and entropy variation for compressible flow) on near wake plane, or in terms of boundary vorticity flux on the body surface. Thus the vortical sources of lift and drag are clearly identified, which is the real physical basis of optimal aerodynamic design. Moreover, these sources are highly compact, hence allowing one to concentrate on key local regions of the configuration, which have dominating effect to the lift and drag. A detail knowledge of the vortical low requires measuring or calculating the vorticity and dilatation field, which is however still a challenging task. Nevertheless, this type of formulation has some unique advantages; and how to set up a well-posed problem, in particular how to establish vorticity-dilatation boundary conditions, is addressed.

  18. Aerodynamic Reconstruction Applied to Parachute Test Vehicle Flight Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassady, Leonard D.; Ray, Eric S.; Truong, Tuan H.

    2013-01-01

    The aerodynamics, both static and dynamic, of a test vehicle are critical to determining the performance of the parachute cluster in a drop test and for conducting a successful test. The Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project is conducting tests of NASA's Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) parachutes at the Army Yuma Proving Ground utilizing the Parachute Test Vehicle (PTV). The PTV shape is based on the MPCV, but the height has been reduced in order to fit within the C-17 aircraft for extraction. Therefore, the aerodynamics of the PTV are similar, but not the same as, the MPCV. A small series of wind tunnel tests and computational fluid dynamics cases were run to modify the MPCV aerodynamic database for the PTV, but aerodynamic reconstruction of the flights has proven an effective source for further improvements to the database. The acceleration and rotational rates measured during free flight, before parachute inflation but during deployment, were used to con rm vehicle static aerodynamics. A multibody simulation is utilized to reconstruct the parachute portions of the flight. Aerodynamic or parachute parameters are adjusted in the simulation until the prediction reasonably matches the flight trajectory. Knowledge of the static aerodynamics is critical in the CPAS project because the parachute riser load measurements are scaled based on forebody drag. PTV dynamic damping is critical because the vehicle has no reaction control system to maintain attitude - the vehicle dynamics must be understood and modeled correctly before flight. It will be shown here that aerodynamic reconstruction has successfully contributed to the CPAS project.

  19. A Visual Technique for Determining Qualitative Aerodynamic Heating Rates on Complex Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stainback, P. Calvin

    1960-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted at a test-section Mach number of 4.95 and a stagnation temperature of 400 F to evaluate a visual technique for obtaining qualitative aerodynamic heat-transfer data on complex configurations.This technique utilized a temperature-sensetive paint indicated that this technique was satisfactory for determining qualitative heat-transfer rates on various bodies, some of which exhibited complex flow patterns. The results obtained have been found useful to guide the instrumentation of quantitative heat-transfer models, to supplement quantitative heat-transfer measurements, and to make preliminary heat-transfer studies for new configurations.

  20. Supersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of Blunt Body Trim Tab Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korzun, Ashley M.; Murphy, Kelly J.; Edquist, Karl T.

    2013-01-01

    Trim tabs are aerodynamic control surfaces that can allow an entry vehicle to meet aerodynamic performance requirements while reducing or eliminating the use of ballast mass and providing a capability to modulate the lift-to-drag ratio during entry. Force and moment data were obtained on 38 unique, blunt body trim tab configurations in the NASA Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The data were used to parametrically assess the supersonic aerodynamic performance of trim tabs and to understand the influence of tab area, cant angle, and aspect ratio. Across the range of conditions tested (Mach numbers of 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5; angles of attack from -4deg to +20deg; angles of sideslip from 0deg to +8deg), the effects of varying tab area and tab cant angle were found to be much more significant than effects from varying tab aspect ratio. Aerodynamic characteristics exhibited variation with Mach number and forebody geometry over the range of conditions tested. Overall, the results demonstrate that trim tabs are a viable approach to satisfy aerodynamic performance requirements of blunt body entry vehicles with minimal ballast mass. For a 70deg sphere-cone, a tab with 3% area of the forebody and canted approximately 35deg with no ballast mass was found to give the same trim aerodynamics as a baseline model with ballast mass that was 5% of the total entry mass.

  1. Collaborating with the local community of Kullorsuaq, Greenland to obtain high-quality hydrographic measurements near Alison Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, D. F.; Turrin, M.; Tinto, K. J.; Giulivi, C. F.; Cochran, J. R.; Bell, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    Warming ocean waters around Greenland have been implicated, along with warmer air temperatures, in the rapid increase of melt of the tidewater glaciers that drain the ice sheet. Most available regional oceanographic measurements have been collected during the summer seasons and are concentrated near the largest and most accessible glaciers. In order to gain a more comprehensive picture of the changing environment around the entirety of Greenland, more fjords, especially in the north, must be sampled. In July 2014, we travelled to Kullorsuaq in Northwest Greenland in order to foster a partnership with the local community to obtain new hydrographic data from CTD casts near Alison Glacier (74.6N, 57W). The terminus of this glacier abruptly retreated 10 km between 2000 and 2006. Although adequate observations from that time period are unavailable, our recently collected temperature and salinity data suggests that the deep water near Alison is similar to the waters further south, where near-synchronous ocean warming and glacial acceleration has been documented. Over the course of two sampling days, a hand-operated winch from a small boat was used to make standard CTD casts in front of Alison Glacier. We find evidence of glacial and mélange melt and the signature of both Polar and Atlantic Water masses at depth. Along-fjord casts illustrate how the ocean waters are modified as they circulate in and out of the fjord and the interaction of this water with the melting glacial front. At 500m depths, ocean temperatures are about 3°C above the in-situ freezing point of seawater, suggesting a possible influence of warm ocean waters on the mass loss of Alison Glacier. Using NASA Operation IceBridge and satellite altimetry data, we relate our new hydrographic data to the observed recent changes in Alison Glacier. An additional important result is that this short field campaign uncovered the possibility of working with local Greenlandic communities to aid scientists in both

  2. Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutler, P.; Mehta, U. B.

    1984-01-01

    Some aspects of artificial intelligence are considered and questions are speculated on, including how knowledge-based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use 'expert' systems and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. The anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements are examined for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics. Considering two of the essentials of computational aerodynamics - reasoniing and calculating - it is believed that a substantial part of the reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence, with computers being used as reasoning machines to set the stage for calculating. Expert systems will probably be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

  3. Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, U. B.; Kutler, P.

    1984-01-01

    The general principles of artificial intelligence are reviewed and speculations are made concerning how knowledge based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use expert systems, and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. In addition, the anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics are examined. Three main conclusions are presented. First, there are two related aspects of computational aerodynamics: reasoning and calculating. Second, a substantial portion of reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence. It offers the opportunity of using computers as reasoning machines to set the stage for efficient calculating. Third, expert systems are likely to be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

  4. Turbine Aerodynamics Design Tool Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Frank W.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the Marshal Space Flight Center Fluids Workshop on Turbine Aerodynamic design tool development. The topics include: (1) Meanline Design/Off-design Analysis; and (2) Airfoil Contour Generation and Analysis. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  5. Combining scintillometry and scalar turbulence measurements to obtain minute interval mass fluxes of H2O and CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartogensis, O. K.; van Dinther, D.; de Bruin, H. A. R.; Moene, A. F.; van Kesteren, A. J. H.; Schüttemeyer, D.; Graf, A.

    2009-09-01

    The goal of this study is to test an alternative method to determine turbulent H2O and CO2 fluxes, which has a faster statistical convergence than the classical eddy-covariance method. The reason to develop such a tool is that eddy-covariance is questionable under non-stationary conditions, e.g. in the intermittent stable boundary layer or rapidly changing cloud-cover. The eddy-covariance method requires an integration time of at least 20 minutes under statistically stationary conditions, see e.g. Aubinet et al. (2000). Under non-stationary conditions this record length may not be available. Howell and Sun (1999) showed that strength of intermittency increases with stability, but, surprisingly, intermittency also occurs under weakly stable conditions, see Kondo et al. (1978). Also, by taking extremely short flux averaging intervals of one minute or even less, we would like to investigate the response time of a crop in terms of the H2O and CO2 flux to rapid changing radiation conditions, i.e. rapidly changing cloud cover. In our new method, that we forward as an alternative to eddy covariance, we suggest a hybrid set-up that combines a point-sensor for scalar H2O and CO2 with a dual-beam laser-scintillometer (DBLS). We used a LiCor7500 open path fast response H2O/CO2 sensor. The H2O/CO2 sensor forms the basis for estimating the turbulent exchange scale for H2O and CO2. The DBLS gives the friction velocity and stability. With the DBLS turbulence is averaged both in time and space allowing short averaging flux intervals down to a couple of seconds (Hartogensis et al., 2002). We will discuss a number of path-ways to combine the scintillometer and point-scalar measurements and demonstrate their potential in obtaining short (~minute) interval mass fluxes of H2O and CO2. The first path-way is based on structure parameters of H2O and CO2. The second path-way uses the variance of H2O and CO2 and applies the ideas posed by De Bruin et al. (1999). The third path-way is based

  6. The aerodynamics of supersonic parachutes

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.W.

    1987-06-01

    A discussion of the aerodynamics and performance of parachutes flying at supersonic speeds is the focus of this paper. Typical performance requirements for supersonic parachute systems are presented, followed by a review of the literature on supersonic parachute configurations and their drag characteristics. Data from a recent supersonic wind tunnel test series is summarized. The value and limitations of supersonic wind tunnel data on hemisflo and 20-degree conical ribbon parachutes behind several forebody shapes and diameters are discussed. Test techniques were derived which avoided many of the opportunities to obtain erroneous supersonic parachute drag data in wind tunnels. Preliminary correlations of supersonic parachute drag with Mach number, forebody shape and diameter, canopy porosity, inflated canopy diameter and stability are presented. Supersonic parachute design considerations are discussed and applied to a M = 2 parachute system designed and tested at Sandia. It is shown that the performance of parachutes in supersonic flows is a strong function of parachute design parameters and their interactions with the payload wake.

  7. A Hybrid Aerodynamic and Aeroacoustic Modeling for Small Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, C.; Dumitrescu, H.; Dumitrache, Al.

    2010-09-01

    Stall control and pitch control are the most commonly used methods of regulating power. However, through the opportunities presented by the flexible (or teetered) hub of a two-bladed teetered rotor one can also utilize yaw control to regulate power. This is achieved by adjusting the capture area of the rotor disk relative to the prevailing wind direction. This paper presents the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic results obtained from theoretical models for such a rotor when is yawed to the undisturbed flow. The non-axial flow operating conditions results in a variation in the power output and noise spectrum. Some comparisons between calculated and measured noise spectra of a yaw controlled wind turbine show good agreement over all angles up to 60 degrees of yaw.

  8. Aerodynamic analysis of a helicopter fuselage with rotating rotor head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reß, R.; Grawunder, M.; Breitsamter, Ch.

    2015-06-01

    The present paper describes results of wind tunnel experiments obtained during a research programme aimed at drag reduction of the fuselage of a twin engine light helicopter configuration. A 1 : 5 scale model of a helicopter fuselage including a rotating rotor head and landing gear was investigated in the low-speed wind tunnel A of Technische Universität a München (TUM). The modelled parts of the helicopter induce approxiu mately 80% of the total parasite drag thus forming a major potential for shape optimizations. The present paper compares results of force and moment measurements of a baseline configuration and modified variants with an emphasis on the aerodynamic drag, lift, and yawing moment coefficients.

  9. Laser velocimetry applied to transonic and supersonic aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. A.; Bachalo, W. D.; Moddaress, D.

    1976-01-01

    As a further demonstration of the capabilities of laser velocity in compressible aerodynamics, measurements obtained in a Mach 2.9 separated turbulent boundary layer and in the transonic flow past a two-dimensional airfoil section are presented and compared to data realized by conventional techniques. In the separated-flow study, the comparisons were made against pitot-static pressure data. Agreement in mean velocities was realized where the pressure measurements could be considered reliable; however, in regions of instantaneous reverse velocities, the laser results were found to be consistent with the physics of the flow whereas the pressure data were not. The laser data obtained in regions of extremely high turbulence suggest that velocity biasing does not occur if the particle occurrence rate is low relative to the turbulent fluctuation rate. Streamwise turbulence intensities are also presented. In the transonic airfoil study, velocity measurements obtained immediately outside the upper surface boundary layer of a 6-inch chord MACA 64A010 airfoil are compared to edge velocities inferred from surface pressure measurements. For free-stream Mach numbers of 0.6 and 0.8, the agreement in results was very good. Dual scatter optical arrangements in conjunction with a single particle, counter-type signal processor were employed in these investigations. Half-micron-diameter polystyrene spheres and naturally occurring condensed oil vapor acted as light scatterers in the two respective flows. Bragg-cell frequency shifting was utilized in the separated flow study.

  10. Aerodynamics of badminton shuttlecocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Aekaansh; Desai, Ajinkya; Mittal, Sanjay

    2013-08-01

    A computational study is carried out to understand the aerodynamics of shuttlecocks used in the sport of badminton. The speed of the shuttlecock considered is in the range of 25-50 m/s. The relative contribution of various parts of the shuttlecock to the overall drag is studied. It is found that the feathers, and the net in the case of a synthetic shuttlecock, contribute the maximum. The gaps, in the lower section of the skirt, play a major role in entraining the surrounding fluid and causing a difference between the pressure inside and outside the skirt. This pressure difference leads to drag. This is confirmed via computations for a shuttlecock with no gaps. The synthetic shuttle experiences more drag than the feather model. Unlike the synthetic model, the feather shuttlecock is associated with a swirling flow towards the end of the skirt. The effect of the twist angle of the feathers on the drag as well as the flow has also been studied.

  11. Aerodynamics of Laminar Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Chung K.

    2000-11-01

    The presentation will review recent advances in the understanding of the structure, dynamics, and geometry of stretched, nonequidiffusive, laminar premixed flames, as exemplified by the unsteady propagation of wrinkled flames in nonuniform flow fields. It is first shown that by considering the effects of aerodynamic stretch on the flame structure, and by allowing for mixture nonequidiffusion, the flame responses, especially the flame propagation speed, can be quantitatively as well as qualitatively modified from the idealized planar limit. Subsequently, by treating the flame as a level surface propagating with the stretch-affected flame speed, problems of increasing complexity are presented to illustrate various features of flame propagation. The illustration first treats the flame as a structureless surface propagating into a constant-density combustible with a constant velocity * the laminar flame speed, and demonstrates the phenomena of cusp formation and volumetric burning rate augmentation through flame wrinkling. By using the stretch-affected flame speed, we then describe the phenomena of cusp broadening as well as tip opening of the Bunsen flame. Finally, by allowing for the density jump across the flame surface, a unified dispersion relation is derived for the intrinsic hydrodynamic, body-force, and nonequidiffusive modes of flame

  12. Velopharyngeal orifice area prediction during aerodynamic simulation of fricative consonants.

    PubMed

    Smith, B E; Weinberg, B

    1983-01-01

    The present work examined the predictive nature of modeled velopharyngeal orifice area calculations obtained using the hydrokinetic equation (Warren and DuBois, 1964) during conditions simulating voiceless fricative production. Results indicated that accurate estimates of velopharyngeal orifice area can be obtained during aerodynamic events like those known to exist during fricative production. These findings were interpreted to lend support to the view that aerodynamic assessment incorporating hydrokinetic principles provides a useful, noninvasive method for clinical testing and research investigation of velopharyngeal function. PMID:6572571

  13. The Aerodynamics of a Flying Sports Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potts, Jonathan R.; Crowther, William J.

    2001-11-01

    The flying sports disc is a spin-stabilised axi-symmetric wing of quite remarkable design. A typical disc has an approximate elliptical cross-section and hollowed out under-side cavity, such as the Frisbee(TM) disc. An experimental study of flying disc aerodynamics, including both spinning and non-spinning tests, has been carried out in the wind tunnel. Load measurements, pressure data and flow visualisation techniques have enabled an explanation of the flow physics and provided data for free-flight simulations. A computer simulation that predicts free-flight trajectories from a given set of initial conditions was used to investigate the dynamics of a flying disc. This includes a six-degree of freedom mathematical model of disc flight mechanics, with aerodynamic coefficients derived from experimental data. A flying sports disc generates lift through forward velocity just like a conventional wing. The lift contributed by spin is insignificant and does not provide nearly enough down force to support hover. Without spin, the disc tumbles ground-ward under the influence of an unstable aerodynamic pitching moment. From a backhand throw however, spin is naturally given to the disc. The unchanged pitching moment now results in roll, due to gyroscopic precession, stabilising the disc in free-flight.

  14. Asymmetric Uncertainty Expression for High Gradient Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinier, Jeremy T

    2012-01-01

    When the physics of the flow around an aircraft changes very abruptly either in time or space (e.g., flow separation/reattachment, boundary layer transition, unsteadiness, shocks, etc), the measurements that are performed in a simulated environment like a wind tunnel test or a computational simulation will most likely incorrectly predict the exact location of where (or when) the change in physics happens. There are many reasons for this, includ- ing the error introduced by simulating a real system at a smaller scale and at non-ideal conditions, or the error due to turbulence models in a computational simulation. The un- certainty analysis principles that have been developed and are being implemented today do not fully account for uncertainty in the knowledge of the location of abrupt physics changes or sharp gradients, leading to a potentially underestimated uncertainty in those areas. To address this problem, a new asymmetric aerodynamic uncertainty expression containing an extra term to account for a phase-uncertainty, the magnitude of which is emphasized in the high-gradient aerodynamic regions is proposed in this paper. Additionally, based on previous work, a method for dispersing aerodynamic data within asymmetric uncer- tainty bounds in a more realistic way has been developed for use within Monte Carlo-type analyses.

  15. Real-Time Unsteady Loads Measurements Using Hot-Film Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangalam, Arun S.; Moes, Timothy R.

    2004-01-01

    Several flight-critical aerodynamic problems such as buffet, flutter, stall, and wing rock are strongly affected or caused by abrupt changes in unsteady aerodynamic loads and moments. Advanced sensing and flow diagnostic techniques have made possible simultaneous identification and tracking, in realtime, of the critical surface, viscosity-related aerodynamic phenomena under both steady and unsteady flight conditions. The wind tunnel study reported here correlates surface hot-film measurements of leading edge stagnation point and separation point, with unsteady aerodynamic loads on a NACA 0015 airfoil. Lift predicted from the correlation model matches lift obtained from pressure sensors for an airfoil undergoing harmonic pitchup and pitchdown motions. An analytical model was developed that demonstrates expected stall trends for pitchup and pitchdown motions. This report demonstrates an ability to obtain unsteady aerodynamic loads in real time, which could lead to advances in air vehicle safety, performance, ride-quality, control, and health management.

  16. Real-Time Unsteady Loads Measurements Using Hot-Film Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangalam, Arun S.; Moes, Timothy R.

    2004-01-01

    Several flight-critical aerodynamic problems such as buffet, flutter, stall, and wing rock are strongly affected or caused by abrupt changes in unsteady aerodynamic loads and moments. Advanced sensing and flow diagnostic techniques have made possible simultaneous identification and tracking, in real-time, of the critical surface, viscosity-related aerodynamic phenomena under both steady and unsteady flight conditions. The wind tunnel study reported here correlates surface hot-film measurements of leading edge stagnation point and separation point, with unsteady aerodynamic loads on a NACA 0015 airfoil. Lift predicted from the correlation model matches lift obtained from pressure sensors for an airfoil undergoing harmonic pitchup and pitchdown motions. An analytical model was developed that demonstrates expected stall trends for pitchup and pitchdown motions. This report demonstrates an ability to obtain unsteady aerodynamic loads in real-time, which could lead to advances in air vehicle safety, performance, ride-quality, control, and health management.

  17. Aerodynamics of Unsteady Sailing Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, Colin; Schutt, Riley; Borshoff, Jennifer; Alley, Philip; de Zegher, Maximilien; Williamson, Chk

    2015-11-01

    In small sailboats, the bodyweight of the sailor is proportionately large enough to induce significant unsteady motion of the boat and sail. Sailors use a variety of kinetic techniques to create sail dynamics which can provide an increment in thrust, thereby increasing the boatspeed. In this study, we experimentally investigate the unsteady aerodynamics associated with two techniques, ``upwind leech flicking'' and ``downwind S-turns''. We explore the dynamics of an Olympic class Laser sailboat equipped with a GPS, IMU, wind sensor, and camera array, sailed expertly by a member of the US Olympic team. The velocity heading of a sailing boat is oriented at an apparent wind angle to the flow. In contrast to classic flapping propulsion, the heaving of the sail section is not perpendicular to the sail's motion through the air. This leads to heave with components parallel and perpendicular to the incident flow. The characteristic motion is recreated in a towing tank where the vortex structures generated by a representative 2-D sail section are observed using Particle Image Velocimetry and the measurement of thrust and lift forces. Amongst other results, we show that the increase in driving force, generated due to heave, is larger for greater apparent wind angles.

  18. Aerodynamic heating in hypersonic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, C. Subba

    1993-01-01

    Aerodynamic heating in hypersonic space vehicles is an important factor to be considered in their design. Therefore the designers of such vehicles need reliable heat transfer data in this respect for a successful design. Such data is usually produced by testing the models of hypersonic surfaces in wind tunnels. Most of the hypersonic test facilities at present are conventional blow-down tunnels whose run times are of the order of several seconds. The surface temperatures on such models are obtained using standard techniques such as thin-film resistance gages, thin-skin transient calorimeter gages and coaxial thermocouple or video acquisition systems such as phosphor thermography and infrared thermography. The data are usually reduced assuming that the model behaves like a semi-infinite solid (SIS) with constant properties and that heat transfer is by one-dimensional conduction only. This simplifying assumption may be valid in cases where models are thick, run-times short, and thermal diffusivities small. In many instances, however, when these conditions are not met, the assumption may lead to significant errors in the heat transfer results. The purpose of the present paper is to investigate this aspect. Specifically, the objectives are as follows: (1) to determine the limiting conditions under which a model can be considered a semi-infinite body; (2) to estimate the extent of errors involved in the reduction of the data if the models violate the assumption; and (3) to come up with correlation factors which when multiplied by the results obtained under the SIS assumption will provide the results under the actual conditions.

  19. Generic Wing-Body Aerodynamics Data Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, Terry L.; Olsen, Thomas H.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The wing-body aerodynamics data base consists of a series of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations about a generic wing body configuration consisting of a ogive-circular-cylinder fuselage and a simple symmetric wing mid-mounted on the fuselage. Solutions have been obtained for Nonlinear Potential (P), Euler (E) and Navier-Stokes (N) solvers over a range of subsonic and transonic Mach numbers and angles of attack. In addition, each solution has been computed on a series of grids, coarse, medium and fine to permit an assessment of grid refinement errors.

  20. Measurement of Aerodynamic Forces for Various Mean Angles of Attack on an Airfoil Oscillating in Pitch and on Two Finite-span Wings Oscillating in Bending with Emphasis on Damping in the Stall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rainey, A Gerald

    1957-01-01

    The oscillating air forces on a two-dimensional wing oscillating in pitch about the midchord have been measured at various mean angles of attack and at Mach numbers of 0.35 and 0.7. The magnitudes of normal-force and pitching-moment coefficients were much higher at high angles of attack than at low angles of attack for some conditions. Large regions of negative damping in pitch were found, and it was shown that the effect of increasing the Mach number 0.35 to 0.7 was to decrease the initial angle of attack at which negative damping occurred. Measurements of the aerodynamic damping of a 10-percent-thick and of a 3-percent-thick finite-span wing oscillating in the first bending mode indicate no regions of negative damping for this type of motion over the range of variables covered. The damping measured at high angles of attack was generally larger than that at low angles of attack. (author)

  1. NREL Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment phase 3 test objectives and preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Simms, D.A.; Fingersh, L.J.; Butterfield, C.P.

    1995-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are conducting research to improve a wind turbine technology. One program, the Combined Experiment, has focused on making measurements needed to understand aerodynamic and structural responses of horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT). A new phase of this program, the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment, will focus on quantifying unsteady aerodynamic phenomena prevalent install controlled HAWTs. Optimally twisted blades and innovative data acquisition systems will be used in these tests. data can now be acquired and viewed interactively during turbine operations. This paper describes the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment and highlights planned future research activities.

  2. Mass spectrometric analysis and aerodynamic properties of various types of combustion-related aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, J.; Weimer, S.; Drewnick, F.; Borrmann, S.; Helas, G.; Gwaze, P.; Schmid, O.; Andreae, M. O.; Kirchner, U.

    2006-12-01

    Various types of combustion-related particles in the size range between 100 and 850 nm were analyzed with an aerosol mass spectrometer and a differential mobility analyzer. The measurements were performed with particles originating from biomass burning, diesel engine exhaust, laboratory combustion of diesel fuel and gasoline, as well as from spark soot generation. Physical and morphological parameters like fractal dimension, effective density, bulk density and dynamic shape factor were derived or at least approximated from the measurements of electrical mobility diameter and vacuum aerodynamic diameter. The relative intensities of the mass peaks in the mass spectra obtained from particles generated by a commercial diesel passenger car, by diesel combustion in a laboratory burner, and by evaporating and re-condensing lubrication oil were found to be very similar. The mass spectra from biomass burning particles show signatures identified as organic compounds like levoglucosan but also others which are yet unidentified. The aerodynamic behavior yielded a fractal dimension (Df) of 2.09 +/- 0.06 for biomass burning particles from the combustion of dry beech sticks, but showed values around three, and hence more compact particle morphologies, for particles from combustion of more natural oak. Scanning electron microscope images confirmed the finding that the beech combustion particles were fractal-like aggregates, while the oak combustion particles displayed a much more compact shape. For particles from laboratory combusted diesel fuel, a Df value of 2.35 was found, for spark soot particles, Df [approximate] 2.10. The aerodynamic properties of fractal-like particles from dry beech wood combustion indicate an aerodynamic shape factor [chi] that increases with electrical mobility diameter, and a bulk density of 1.92 g cm-3. An upper limit of [chi] [approximate] 1.2 was inferred for the shape factor of the more compact particles from oak combustion.

  3. Experimental Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Space Shuttle Orbiter for a Range of Damage Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brauckman, Gregory J.; Scallion, William I.

    2003-01-01

    Aerodynamic tests in support of the Columbia accident investigation were conducted in two hypersonic wind tunnels at the NASA Langley Research Center, the 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel and the 20-Inch Mach 6 CF4 Tunnel. The primary purpose of these tests was to measure the forces and moments generated by a variety of outer mold line alterations (damage scenarios) using 0.0075-scale models of the Space Shuttle Orbiter (approximately 10 inches in length). Simultaneously acquired global heat transfer mappings were obtained for a majority of the configurations tested. Test parameters include angles of attack from 38 to 42 deg, unit Reynolds numbers from 0.26 to 3.0 x10^6 per foot, and normal shock density ratios of 5 (Mach 6 air) and 12 (Mach 6 CF4). The damage scenarios evaluated included asymmetric boundary layer transition, gouges in the windward surface acreage thermal protection system tiles, wing leading edge damage (partially and fully missing reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) panels), holes through the wing from the windward surface to the leeside, deformation of the wing windward surface, and main landing gear door and/or gear deployment. The aerodynamic data were compared to the magnitudes and directions observed in flight, and the heating images were evaluated in terms of the location of the generated disturbances and how these disturbance might relate to the response of discrete gages on the Columbia Orbiter vehicle during entry. The measured aerodynamic increments were generally small in magnitude, as were the flight-derived values during most of the entry. Asymmetric boundary layer transition (ABLT) results were consistent with the flight-derived Shuttle ABLT model, but not with the observed flight trends for STS-107. The partially missing leading edge panel results best matched both the early aerodynamic and heating trends observed in flight. A progressive damage scenario is presented that qualitatively matches the flight observations for the full entry.

  4. Obtaining Efficacy and Aptitude Measures from the ACID Profiles of Post-Secondary Students with and without Severe Scholastic Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slemon, Jill C.; Shafrir, Uri

    This study investigated how obtaining predicted and actual scores on aptitude tests can provide crucial information regarding personal beliefs about ability. The ACID profile of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (Revised) (WAIS-R) was used to collect the subjective and objective scores of 92 college students with severe scholastic deficits…

  5. Results of Measurements of Maximum Lift and Buffeting Intensities Obtained During Flight Investigation of the Northrop X-4 Research Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Thomas F

    1953-01-01

    The variation of the intensity of buffeting experienced throughout the operational region of the semitailless Northrop X-4 airplane and the values of maximum and peak normal-force coefficients in the Mach number range from 0.42 to 0.92 have been determined. The results are compared with data obtained with the swept-wing Douglas D-558-II airplane.

  6. Unsteady Aerodynamic Model Tuning for Precise Flutter Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-gi

    2011-01-01

    A simple method for an unsteady aerodynamic model tuning is proposed in this study. This method is based on the direct modification of the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices. The aerostructures test wing 2 flight-test data is used to demonstrate the proposed model tuning method. The flutter speed margin computed using only the test validated structural dynamic model can be improved using the additional unsteady aerodynamic model tuning, and then the flutter speed margin requirement of 15 percent in military specifications can apply towards the test validated aeroelastic model. In this study, unsteady aerodynamic model tunings are performed at two time invariant flight conditions, at Mach numbers of 0.390 and 0.456. When the Mach number for the unsteady aerodynamic model tuning approaches to the measured fluttering Mach number, 0.502, at the flight altitude of 9,837 ft, the estimated flutter speed is approached to the measured flutter speed at this altitude. The minimum flutter speed difference between the estimated and measured flutter speed is -0.14 percent.

  7. Transient platoon aerodynamics and bluff body flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuei, Lun

    There are two components of this experimental work: transient vehicle platoon aerodynamics and bluff-body flows. The transient aerodynamic effects in a four-vehicle platoon during passing maneuvers and in-line oscillations are investigated. A vehicle model is moved longitudinally parallel to a four-car platoon to simulate passing maneuvers. The drag and side forces experienced by each platoon member are measured using strain gauge balances. The resulting data are presented as dimensionless coefficients. It is shown that each car in the platoon experiences a repulsive side force when the passing vehicle is in the neighborhood of its rear half. The side force reverses its direction and becomes an attractive force when the passing vehicle moves to the neighborhood of its front half. The drag force experienced by each platoon member is increased when the passing vehicle is in its proximity. The effects of the lateral spacing and relative velocity between the platoon and the passing vehicle, as well as the shape of the passing vehicle, are also investigated. Similar trends are observed in simulations of both a vehicle passing a platoon and a platoon overtaking a vehicle. During the in-line oscillation experiments, one of the four platoon members is forced to undergo longitudinal periodic motions. The drag force experienced by each platoon member is determined simultaneously during the oscillations. The effects of the location of the oscillating vehicle, the shape of the vehicles and the displacement and velocity amplitudes of the oscillation are examined. The results from the transient conditions are compared to those from the steady tests in the same setup. In the case of a four-car platoon, the drag variations experienced by the vehicles adjacent to the oscillating vehicle are discussed using a cavity model. It is found that when the oscillating car moves forward and approaches its upstream neighbor, itself and its downstream neighbor experiences an increased drag

  8. Using time separation of signals to obtain independent proton and antiproton beam position measurements around the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, R.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    Independent position measurement of the counter-circulating proton and antiproton beams in the Tevatron, never supported by the original Tevatron Beam Position Monitor (BPM) system, presents a challenge to upgrading that system. This paper discusses the possibilities and complications of using time separation of proton and antiproton signals at the numerous BPM locations and for the dynamic Tevatron operating conditions. Results of measurements using one such method are presented.

  9. An evaluation of deep-sea benthic megafauna length measurements obtained with laser and stereo camera methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, Katherine M.; Kuhnz, Linda A.; Ruhl, Henry A.; Huffard, Christine L.; Caress, David W.; Henthorn, Richard G.; Hobson, Brett W.; McGill, Paul; Smith, Kenneth L.

    2015-02-01

    The 25 year time-series collected at Station M, ~4000 m on the Monterey Deep-sea Fan, has substantially improved understanding of the role of the deep-ocean benthic environment in the global carbon cycle. However, the role of deep-ocean benthic megafauna in carbon bioturbation, remineralization and sequestration is relatively unknown. It is important to gather both accurate and precise measurements of megafaunal community abundance, size distribution and biomass to further define their role in deep-sea carbon cycling and possible sequestration. This study describes initial results from a stereo camera system attached to a remotely operated vehicle and analyzed using the EventMeasure photogrammetric measurement software to estimate the density, length and biomass of 10 species of mobile epibenthic megafauna. Stereo length estimates were compared to those from a single video camera system equipped with sizing lasers and analyzed using the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute's Video Annotation and Reference System. Both camera systems and software were capable of high measurement accuracy and precision (<±1 mm measurement error and precision). However, the oblique angle of the single video camera caused the spatial scale of the image perspective to change with distance from the camera, resulting in error when measurements were not parallel or vertical to two horizontal-oriented scaling lasers. Analysis showed that the stereo system recorded longer lengths and higher biomass estimates than the single video camera system for the majority of the 10 megafauna species studied. The stereo image analysis process took substantially longer than the video analysis and the value of the EventMeasure software tool would be improved with developments in analysis automation. The stereo system is less influenced by object orientation and height, and is potentially a useful tool to be mounted on an autonomous underwater vehicle and for measuring deep-sea pelagic animals where

  10. Configuration Aerodynamics: Past - Present - Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Agrawal, Shreekant; Bencze, Daniel P.; Kulfan, Robert M.; Wilson, Douglas L.

    1999-01-01

    The Configuration Aerodynamics (CA) element of the High Speed Research (HSR) program is managed by a joint NASA and Industry team, referred to as the Technology Integration Development (ITD) team. This team is responsible for the development of a broad range of technologies for improved aerodynamic performance and stability and control characteristics at subsonic to supersonic flight conditions. These objectives are pursued through the aggressive use of advanced experimental test techniques and state of the art computational methods. As the HSR program matures and transitions into the next phase the objectives of the Configuration Aerodynamics ITD are being refined to address the drag reduction needs and stability and control requirements of High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft. In addition, the experimental and computational tools are being refined and improved to meet these challenges. The presentation will review the work performed within the Configuration Aerodynamics element in 1994 and 1995 and then discuss the plans for the 1996-1998 time period. The final portion of the presentation will review several observations of the HSR program and the design activity within Configuration Aerodynamics.

  11. Application of CAD/CAE class systems to aerodynamic analysis of electric race cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, L.; Baier, A.; Buchacz, A.; Majzner, M.; Sobek, M.

    2015-11-01

    Aerodynamics is one of the most important factors which influence on every aspect of a design of a car and car driving parameters. The biggest influence aerodynamics has on design of a shape of a race car body, especially when the main objective of the race is the longest distance driven in period of time, which can not be achieved without low energy consumption and low drag of a car. Designing shape of the vehicle body that must generate the lowest possible drag force, without compromising the other parameters of the drive. In the article entitled „Application of CAD/CAE class systems to aerodynamic analysis of electric race cars” are being presented problems solved by computer analysis of cars aerodynamics and free form modelling. Analysis have been subjected to existing race car of a Silesian Greenpower Race Team. On a basis of results of analysis of existence of Kammback aerodynamic effect innovative car body were modeled. Afterwards aerodynamic analysis were performed to verify existence of aerodynamic effect for innovative shape and to recognize aerodynamics parameters of the shape. Analysis results in the values of coefficients and aerodynamic drag forces. The resulting drag forces Fx, drag coefficients Cx(Cd) and aerodynamic factors Cx*A allowed to compare all of the shapes to each other. Pressure distribution, air velocities and streams courses were useful in determining aerodynamic features of analyzed shape. For aerodynamic tests was used Ansys Fluent CFD software. In a paper the ways of surface modeling with usage of Realize Shape module and classic surface modeling were presented. For shapes modeling Siemens NX 9.0 software was used. Obtained results were used to estimation of existing shapes and to make appropriate conclusions.

  12. Development of Nonlinear Aerodynamic Models for Unsteady Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Suei

    In the current study, a method based on Fourier analysis is developed to analyze the force and moment data obtained in large amplitude forced oscillation tests at high angles of attack. The aerodynamic models for normal force, lift, drag and pitching moment coefficients are built up from a set of aerodynamic responses to harmonic motions at different frequencies. Based on the aerodynamic models of harmonic data, the indicial responses are formed. The final expressions for the models involve time integrals of the indicial type advocated by Tobak and Schiff. Results from linear two- and three-dimensional unsteady aerodynamic theories as well as test data for a 70-deg delta wing are used to verify the models. It is shown that the present modeling method is accurate in producing the aerodynamic responses to harmonic motions and the ramp type motions. The model also produces correct trend for a 70-deg delta wing in harmonic motion with different mean angles-of-attack. However, the current model cannot be used to extrapolate data to higher angles-of-attack than that of the harmonic motions which form the aerodynamic model. For linear ramp motions, a special method is used to calculate the corresponding frequency and phase angle at a given time. The calculated results from modeling show higher lift peak for linear ramp motion than for harmonic ramp motion. The current model also shows reasonably good results for the lift responses at different mean angles of attack. To the author's knowledge, the current methodology of aerodynamic modeling is the first to produce the harmonic oscillation responses at high angle-of-attack and the ramp type motions.

  13. Aerodynamic Investigation of Incidence Angle Effects in a Large Scale Transonic Turbine Cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McVetta, Ashlie B.; Giel, Paul W.; Welch, Gerard E.

    2013-01-01

    Aerodynamic measurements showing the effects of large incidence angle variations on an HPT turbine blade set are presented. Measurements were made in NASA's Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility which has been used in previous studies to acquire detailed aerodynamic and heat transfer measurements for CFD code validation. The current study supports the development of variable-speed power turbine (VSPT) speed-change technology for the NASA Large Civil Tilt Rotor (LCTR) vehicle. In order to maintain acceptable main rotor propulsive efficiency, the VSPT operates over a nearly 50 percent speed range from takeoff to altitude cruise. This results in 50deg or more variations in VSPT blade incidence angles. The cascade facility has the ability to operate over a wide range of Reynolds numbers and Mach numbers, but had to be modified in order to accommodate the negative incidence angle variation required by the LCTR VSPT operation. Using existing blade geometry with previously acquired aerodynamic data, the tunnel was re-baselined and the new incidence angle range was exercised. Midspan exit total pressure and flow angle measurements were obtained at seven inlet flow angles. For each inlet angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with inlet Reynolds numbers varying from 6.83×10(exp 5) to 0.85×10(exp 5) and two isentropic exit Mach numbers of 0.74 and 0.34. The midspan flowfield measurements were acquired using a three-hole pneumatic probe located in a survey plane 8.6 percent axial chord downstream of the blade trailing edge plane and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressure distributions were also acquired for each flow condition.

  14. Aerodynamic Investigation of Incidence Angle Effects in a Large Scale Transonic Turbine Cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McVetta, Ashlie B.; Giel, Paul W.; Welch, Gerard E.

    2012-01-01

    Aerodynamic measurements showing the effects of large incidence angle variations on an HPT turbine blade set are presented. Measurements were made in NASA's Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility which has been used in previous studies to acquire detailed aerodynamic and heat transfer measurements for CFD code validation. The current study supports the development of variable-speed power turbine (VSPT) speed-change technology for the NASA Large Civil Tilt Rotor (LCTR) vehicle. In order to maintain acceptable main rotor propulsive efficiency, the VSPT operates over a nearly 50% speed range from takeoff to altitude cruise. This results in 50 degrees or more variations in VSPT blade incidence angles. The cascade facility has the ability to operate over a wide range of Reynolds numbers and Mach numbers, but had to be modified in order to accommodate the negative incidence angle variation required by the LCTR VSPT operation. Using existing blade geometry with previously acquired aerodynamic data, the tunnel was re-baselined and the new incidence angle range was exercised. Midspan exit total pressure and flow angle measurements were obtained at seven inlet flow angles. For each inlet angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with inlet Reynolds numbers varying from 6.83 × 10(exp 5) to 0.85 ×10(exp 5) and two isentropic exit Mach numbers of 0.74 and 0.34. The midspan flowfield measurements were acquired using a three-hole pneumatic probe located in a survey plane 8.6% axial chord downstream of the blade trailing edge plane and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressure distributions were also acquired for each flow condition

  15. Aerodynamic Investigation of Incidence Angle Effects in a Large Scale Transonic Turbine Cascade. Revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McVetta, Ashlie B.; Giel, Paul W.; Welch, Gerard E.

    2014-01-01

    Aerodynamic measurements showing the effects of large incidence angle variations on an HPT turbine blade set are presented. Measurements were made in NASA's Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility which has been used in previous studies to acquire detailed aerodynamic and heat transfer measurements for CFD code validation. The current study supports the development of variable-speed power turbine (VSPT) speed-change technology for the NASA Large Civil Tilt Rotor (LCTR) vehicle. In order to maintain acceptable main rotor propulsive efficiency, the VSPT operates over a nearly 50 percent speed range from takeoff to altitude cruise. This results in 50 deg or more variations in VSPT blade incidence angles. The cascade facility has the ability to operate over a wide range of Reynolds numbers and Mach numbers, but had to be modified in order to accommodate the negative incidence angle variation required by the LCTR VSPT operation. Using existing blade geometry with previously acquired aerodynamic data, the tunnel was re-baselined and the new incidence angle range was exercised. Midspan exit total pressure and flow angle measurements were obtained at seven inlet flow angles. For each inlet angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with inlet Reynolds numbers varying from 6.83×10 (exp 5) to 0.85×10(exp 5) and two isentropic exit Mach numbers of 0.74 and 0.34. The midspan flowfield measurements were acquired using a three-hole pneumatic probe located in a survey plane 8.6 percent axial chord downstream of the blade trailing edge plane and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressure distributions were also acquired for each flow condition.

  16. Optimum Duty Cycle of Unsteady Plasma Aerodynamic Actuation for NACA0015 Airfoil Stall Separation Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Min; Yang, Bo; Peng, Tianxiang; Lei, Mingkai

    2016-06-01

    Unsteady dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma aerodynamic actuation technology is employed to suppress airfoil stall separation and the technical parameters are explored with wind tunnel experiments on an NACA0015 airfoil by measuring the surface pressure distribution of the airfoil. The performance of the DBD aerodynamic actuation for airfoil stall separation suppression is evaluated under DBD voltages from 2000 V to 4000 V and the duty cycles varied in the range of 0.1 to 1.0. It is found that higher lift coefficients and lower threshold voltages are achieved under the unsteady DBD aerodynamic actuation with the duty cycles less than 0.5 as compared to that of the steady plasma actuation at the same free-stream speeds and attack angles, indicating a better flow control performance. By comparing the lift coefficients and the threshold voltages, an optimum duty cycle is determined as 0.25 by which the maximum lift coefficient and the minimum threshold voltage are obtained at the same free-stream speed and attack angle. The non-uniform DBD discharge with stronger discharge in the positive half cycle due to electrons deposition on the dielectric slabs and the suppression of opposite momentum transfer due to the intermittent discharge with cutoff of the negative half cycle are responsible for the observed optimum duty cycle. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21276036), Liaoning Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 2015020123) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (No. 3132015154)

  17. Estimation of Vegetation Aerodynamic Roughness of Natural Regions Using Frontal Area Density Determined from Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, Michael F.; Crago, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Parameterizations of the frontal area index and canopy area index of natural or randomly distributed plants are developed, and applied to the estimation of local aerodynamic roughness using satellite imagery. The formulas are expressed in terms of the subpixel fractional vegetation cover and one non-dimensional geometric parameter that characterizes the plant's shape. Geometrically similar plants and Poisson distributed plant centers are assumed. An appropriate averaging technique to extend satellite pixel-scale estimates to larger scales is provided. ne parameterization is applied to the estimation of aerodynamic roughness using satellite imagery for a 2.3 sq km coniferous portion of the Landes Forest near Lubbon, France, during the 1986 HAPEX-Mobilhy Experiment. The canopy area index is estimated first for each pixel in the scene based on previous estimates of fractional cover obtained using Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. Next, the results are incorporated into Raupach's (1992, 1994) analytical formulas for momentum roughness and zero-plane displacement height. The estimates compare reasonably well to reference values determined from measurements taken during the experiment and to published literature values. The approach offers the potential for estimating regionally variable, vegetation aerodynamic roughness lengths over natural regions using satellite imagery when there exists only limited knowledge of the vegetated surface.

  18. Noise measurements at Stockton Airport obtained during engineering evaluation of two-segment approaches in a 727-222 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, R. E.; Tanner, C. S.

    1973-01-01

    The results of acoustic measurements made on a 727-222 aircraft during standard ILS and two-segment approaches are presented. The aircraft was equipped with a special purpose glide slope computer to provide the capability of making two-segment noise abatement approaches. For upper segment computations, the computer used barometric-corrected pressure altitude and the slant range to a DME transmitter which was colocated with the glide slope transmitter. The computer used the ILS glide slope deviation for lower segment computations. Additional measurements were made on 737 revenue aircraft using the Stockton Airport. The purpose of the acoustical portion of the test was to measure and identify the noise levels during the various approaches.

  19. New technology in turbine aerodynamics.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, A. J.; Moffitt, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    Cursory review of some recent work that has been done in turbine aerodynamic research. Topics discussed include the aerodynamic effect of turbine coolant, high work-factor (ratio of stage work to square of blade speed) turbines, and computer methods for turbine design and performance prediction. Experimental cooled-turbine aerodynamics programs using two-dimensional cascades, full annular cascades, and cold rotating turbine stage tests are discussed with some typical results presented. Analytically predicted results for cooled blade performance are compared to experimental results. The problems and some of the current programs associated with the use of very high work factors for fan-drive turbines of high-bypass-ratio engines are discussed. Computer programs have been developed for turbine design-point performance, off-design performance, supersonic blade profile design, and the calculation of channel velocities for subsonic and transonic flowfields. The use of these programs for the design and analysis of axial and radial turbines is discussed.

  20. Recent advances in computational aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Ramesh K.; Desse, Jerry E.

    1991-04-01

    The current state of the art in computational aerodynamics is described. Recent advances in the discretization of surface geometry, grid generation, and flow simulation algorithms have led to flowfield predictions for increasingly complex and realistic configurations. As a result, computational aerodynamics is emerging as a crucial enabling technology for the development and design of flight vehicles. Examples illustrating the current capability for the prediction of aircraft, launch vehicle and helicopter flowfields are presented. Unfortunately, accurate modeling of turbulence remains a major difficulty in the analysis of viscosity-dominated flows. In the future inverse design methods, multidisciplinary design optimization methods, artificial intelligence technology and massively parallel computer technology will be incorporated into computational aerodynamics, opening up greater opportunities for improved product design at substantially reduced costs.

  1. The influence of unsteady aerodynamics on hingeless rotor ground resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W.

    1981-01-01

    Calculations of the model frequency and damping for a hingeless rotor on a gimballed support in hover are compared with measured results for two configurations (differing in blade flap stiffness). Good correlation is obtaned when an inflow dynamics model is used to account for the influence of the unsteady aerodynamics. The effect of the unsteady aerodynamics is significant for this rotor system. The inflow dynamics model introduces additional states corresponding to perturbations of the wake-induced velocity at the rotor disk. The calculations confirm the experimental observation that the inflow mode introduced by these additional states is measurable for one configuration but not for the other.

  2. Measurements of chlorofluorocarbons and their replacement compounds at Monte Cimone: results obtained after eighteen months of observations.

    PubMed

    Maione, Michela; Mangani, Filippo; Lattanzi, Luciano; Arduini, Jgor; Bonasoni, Paolo

    2002-04-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons and their substitutes are anthropogenic compounds strongly involved in global change phenomena. Therefore, their atmospheric mixing-ratios are monitored on a worldwide scale. In order to evaluate source strength of these compounds in Southern Europe, in 1999 a research activity, monitoring these compounds in the atmosphere of the Monte Cimone (MO, Italy) was started. Air samples, collected on a weekly base, were analyzed using a GC-MS methodology recently devised by our group. The reported results, obtained after eighteen months of observation, are relative to four fully halogenated halocarbons and four hydrogenated halocarbons.

  3. Advanced multistage turbine blade aerodynamics, performance, cooling, and heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Fleeter, S.; Lawless, P.B.

    1995-10-01

    The gas turbine has the potential for power production at the highest possible efficiency. The challenge is to ensure that gas turbines operate at the optimum efficiency so as to use the least fuel and produce minimum emissions. A key component to meeting this challenge is the turbine. Turbine performance, both aerodynamics and heat transfer, is one of the barrier advanced gas turbine development technologies. This is a result of the complex, highly three-dimensional and unsteady flow phenomena in the turbine. Improved turbine aerodynamic performance has been achieved with three-dimensional highly-loaded airfoil designs, accomplished utilizing Euler or Navier-Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. These design codes consider steady flow through isolated blade rows. Thus they do not account for unsteady flow effects. However, unsteady flow effects have a significant impact on performance. Also, CFD codes predict the complete flow field. The experimental verification of these codes has traditionally been accomplished with point data - not corresponding plane field measurements. Thus, although advanced CFD predictions of the highly complex and three-dimensional turbine flow fields are available, corresponding data are not. To improve the design capability for high temperature turbines, a detailed understanding of the highly unsteady and three-dimensional flow through multi-stage turbines is necessary. Thus, unique data are required which quantify the unsteady three-dimensional flow through multi-stage turbine blade rows, including the effect of the film coolant flow. This requires experiments in appropriate research facilities in which complete flow field data, not only point measurements, are obtained and analyzed. Also, as design CFD codes do not account for unsteady flow effects, the next logical challenge and the current thrust in CFD code development is multiple-stage analyses that account for the interactions between neighboring blade rows.

  4. A Direct Method for Obtaining Approximate Standard Error and Confidence Interval of Maximal Reliability for Composites with Congeneric Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Penev, Spiridon

    2006-01-01

    Unlike a substantial part of reliability literature in the past, this article is concerned with weighted combinations of a given set of congeneric measures with uncorrelated errors. The relationship between maximal coefficient alpha and maximal reliability for such composites is initially dealt with, and it is shown that the former is a lower…

  5. Evaluating the catching performance of aerodynamic rain gauges through field comparisons and CFD modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Michael; Colli, Matteo; Stagnaro, Mattia; Lanza, Luca; Quinn, Paul; Dutton, Mark; O'Donnell, Greg; Wilkinson, Mark; Black, Andrew; O'Connell, Enda

    2016-04-01

    Accurate rainfall measurement is a fundamental requirement in a broad range of applications including flood risk and water resource management. The most widely used method of measuring rainfall is the rain gauge, which is often also considered to be the most accurate. In the context of hydrological modelling, measurements from rain gauges are interpolated to produce an areal representation, which forms an important input to drive hydrological models and calibrate rainfall radars. In each stage of this process another layer of uncertainty is introduced. The initial measurement errors are propagated through the chain, compounding the overall uncertainty. This study looks at the fundamental source of error, in the rainfall measurement itself; and specifically addresses the largest of these, the systematic 'wind-induced' error. Snowfall is outside the scope. The shape of a precipitation gauge significantly affects its collection efficiency (CE), with respect to a reference measurement. This is due to the airflow around the gauge, which causes a deflection in the trajectories of the raindrops near the gauge orifice. Computational Fluid-Dynamic (CFD) simulations are used to evaluate the time-averaged airflows realized around the EML ARG100, EML SBS500 and EML Kalyx-RG rain gauges, when impacted by wind. These gauges have a similar aerodynamic profile - a shape comparable to that of a champagne flute - and they are used globally. The funnel diameter of each gauge, respectively, is 252mm, 254mm and 127mm. The SBS500 is used by the UK Met Office and the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency. Terms of comparison are provided by the results obtained for standard rain gauge shapes manufactured by Casella and OTT which, respectively, have a uniform and a tapered cylindrical shape. The simulations were executed for five different wind speeds; 2, 5, 7, 10 and 18 ms-1. Results indicate that aerodynamic gauges have a different impact on the time-averaged airflow patterns

  6. Precision of Corneal Thickness Measurements Obtained Using the Scheimpflug-Placido Imaging and Agreement with Ultrasound Pachymetry

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jinhai; Wang, Chengfang; Lu, Weicong; Gao, Rongrong; Li, Yuanguang; Wang, Qinmei; Zhao, Yune

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the reliability and comparability of measuring central corneal thickness (CCT) and thinnest corneal thickness (TCT) using a new Scheimpflug-Placido analyzer (TMS-5, Japan) and ultrasound (US) pachymetry. Methods. Seventy-six healthy subjects were prospectively measured 3 times by 1 operator using the TMS-5, 3 additional consecutive scans were performed by a second operator, and ultrasound (US) pachymetry measurements were taken. The test-retest repeatability (TRT), coefficient of variation (CoV), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated to evaluate intraoperator repeatability and interoperator reproducibility. Agreement among the devices was assessed using Bland-Altman plots and 95% limits of agreement (LoA). Results. The intraoperators TRT and CoV were <19 μm and 2.0%, respectively. The interoperators TRT and CoV were <12 μm and 1.0%, respectively, and ICC was >0.90. The mean CCT and TCT measurements using the TMS-5 were 15.97 μm (95% LoA from −26.42 to −5.52 μm) and 20.32 μm (95% LoA from −30.67 to −9.97 μm) smaller, respectively, than those using US pachymetry. Conclusions. The TMS-5 shows good repeatability and reproducibility for measuring CCT and TCT in normal subjects but only moderate agreement with US pachymetry results. Caution is warranted before using these techniques interchangeably. PMID:25810919

  7. Measuring surface topography with scanning electron microscopy. I. EZEImage: a program to obtain 3D surface data.

    PubMed

    Ponz, Ezequiel; Ladaga, Juan Luis; Bonetto, Rita Dominga

    2006-04-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is widely used in the science of materials and different parameters were developed to characterize the surface roughness. In a previous work, we studied the surface topography with fractal dimension at low scale and two parameters at high scale by using the variogram, that is, variance vs. step log-log graph, of a SEM image. Those studies were carried out with the FERImage program, previously developed by us. To verify the previously accepted hypothesis by working with only an image, it is indispensable to have reliable three-dimensional (3D) surface data. In this work, a new program (EZEImage) to characterize 3D surface topography in SEM has been developed. It uses fast cross correlation and dynamic programming to obtain reliable dense height maps in a few seconds which can be displayed as an image where each gray level represents a height value. This image can be used for the FERImage program or any other software to obtain surface topography characteristics. EZEImage also generates anaglyph images as well as characterizes 3D surface topography by means of a parameter set to describe amplitude properties and three functional indices for characterizing bearing and fluid properties. PMID:17481354

  8. Aerodynamics Research Revolutionizes Truck Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s, researchers at Dryden Flight Research Center conducted numerous tests to refine the shape of trucks to reduce aerodynamic drag and improved efficiency. During the 1980s and 1990s, a team based at Langley Research Center explored controlling drag and the flow of air around a moving body. Aeroserve Technologies Ltd., of Ottawa, Canada, with its subsidiary, Airtab LLC, in Loveland, Colorado, applied the research from Dryden and Langley to the development of the Airtab vortex generator. Airtabs create two counter-rotating vortices to reduce wind resistance and aerodynamic drag of trucks, trailers, recreational vehicles, and many other vehicles.

  9. An experimental study of an aerodynamically optimum windmill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Y.; Toda, N.; Hoshino, H.; Noguchi, M.

    1982-08-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics of an optimum horizontal axis windmill are described. The windmill, rated at 20 KW at 8 m/s with a two bladed rotor of 14m diameter, is designed so as to vary the geometry of the blade in such a way that the aerodynamic efficiency becomes maximum. The combined blade element momentum theory is used as an analytical tool. To check the design method and get some useful aerodynamic data, a wind tunnel test of a 1/7th scale model (2m diameter) is performed in a low speed tunnel, whose test section is 35.75 sq m. Two models, whose blades have the same optimum chord distribution but have different planforms, are tested. Measurements are made of the efficiency, torque, axial drag force and initial torque for various combinations of the pitch angle and the tip speed ratio. The yaw characteristics of the windmill are also measured.

  10. Fuel Savings and Aerodynamic Drag Reduction from Rail Car Covers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storms, Bruce; Salari, Kambiz; Babb, Alex

    2008-01-01

    The potential for energy savings by reducing the aerodynamic drag of rail cars is significant. A previous study of aerodynamic drag of coal cars suggests that a 25% reduction in drag of empty cars would correspond to a 5% fuel savings for a round trip [1]. Rail statistics for the United States [2] report that approximately 5.7 billion liters of diesel fuel were consumed for coal transportation in 2002, so a 5% fuel savings would total 284 million liters. This corresponds to 2% of Class I railroad fuel consumption nationwide. As part of a DOE-sponsored study, the aerodynamic drag of scale rail cars was measured in a wind tunnel. The goal of the study was to measure the drag reduction of various rail-car cover designs. The cover designs tested yielded an average drag reduction of 43% relative to empty cars corresponding to an estimated round-trip fuel savings of 9%.

  11. Motion transitions of falling plates via quasisteady aerodynamics.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ruifeng; Wang, Lifeng

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we study the dynamics of freely falling plates based on the Kirchhoff equation and the quasisteady aerodynamic model. Motion transitions among fluttering, tumbling along a cusp-like trajectory, irregular, and tumbling along a straight trajectory are obtained by solving the dynamical equations. Phase diagrams spanning between the nondimensional moment of inertia and aerodynamic coefficients or aspect ratio are built to identify regimes for these falling styles. We also investigate the stability of fixed points and bifurcation scenarios. It is found that the transitions are all heteroclinic bifurcations and the influence of the fixed-point stability is local.

  12. System Identification and POD Method Applied to Unsteady Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Deman; Kholodar, Denis; Juang, Jer-Nan; Dowell, Earl H.

    2001-01-01

    The representation of unsteady aerodynamic flow fields in terms of global aerodynamic modes has proven to be a useful method for reducing the size of the aerodynamic model over those representations that use local variables at discrete grid points in the flow field. Eigenmodes and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) modes have been used for this purpose with good effect. This suggests that system identification models may also be used to represent the aerodynamic flow field. Implicit in the use of a systems identification technique is the notion that a relative small state space model can be useful in describing a dynamical system. The POD model is first used to show that indeed a reduced order model can be obtained from a much larger numerical aerodynamical model (the vortex lattice method is used for illustrative purposes) and the results from the POD and the system identification methods are then compared. For the example considered, the two methods are shown to give comparable results in terms of accuracy and reduced model size. The advantages and limitations of each approach are briefly discussed. Both appear promising and complementary in their characteristics.

  13. Computations of Aerodynamic Performance Databases Using Output-Based Refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemec, Marian; Aftosmis, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Handle complex geometry problems; Control discretization errors via solution-adaptive mesh refinement; Focus on aerodynamic databases of parametric and optimization studies: 1. Accuracy: satisfy prescribed error bounds 2. Robustness and speed: may require over 105 mesh generations 3. Automation: avoid user supervision Obtain "expert meshes" independent of user skill; and Run every case adaptively in production settings.

  14. Sensor Systems Collect Critical Aerodynamics Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    With the support of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Dryden Flight Research Center, Tao of Systems Integration Inc. developed sensors and other components that will ultimately form a first-of-its-kind, closed-loop system for detecting, measuring, and controlling aerodynamic forces and moments in flight. The Hampton, Virginia-based company commercialized three of the four planned components, which provide sensing solutions for customers such as Boeing, General Electric, and BMW and are used for applications such as improving wind turbine operation and optimizing air flow from air conditioning systems. The completed system may one day enable flexible-wing aircraft with flight capabilities like those of birds.

  15. Skin friction drag measurements by LDV.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, M K; Wanchoo, S; McLeod, P C; Ballard, G S; Mozumdar, S; Caraballo, N

    1981-08-15

    A laser Doppler velocimeter employing a microscope objective as the receiving lens has been developed for measuring fluid velocity inside the boundary layer flow field with a spatial resolution of 40 microm. The method was applied for direct measurement of aerodynamic skin friction drag from the measured velocity gradient at the wall. Experimental results obtained on skin friction and on velocity components in a turbulent boundary layer on a low speed wind tunnel showed good agreement with previously reported data using conventional instruments such as hot-wire anemometers and Preston tubes. The method thus provides a tool for measurement and control of skin friction on aerodynamic bodies without perturbing the flow field.

  16. Comparison between computations and experimental data in unsteady three-dimensional transonic aerodynamics, including aeroelastic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruswamy, P.; Goorjian, P. M.

    1982-01-01

    Comparisons were made of computed and experimental data in three-dimensional unsteady transonic aerodynamics, including aeroelastic applications. The computer code LTRAN3, which is based on small-disturbance aerodynamic theory, was used to obtain the aerodynamic data. A procedure based on the U-g method was developed to compute flutter boundaries by using the unsteady aerodynamic coefficients obtained from LTRAN3. The experimental data were obtained from available NASA publications. All the studies were conducted for thin, unswept, rectangular wings with circular-arc cross sections. Numerical and experimental steady and unsteady aerodynamic data were compared for a wing with an aspect ratio of 3 and a thickness ratio of 5% at Mach numbers of 0.7 and 0.9. Flutter data were compared for a wing with an aspect ratio of 5. Two thickness ratios, 6% at Mach numbers of 0.715, 0.851, and 0.913, and 4% at Mach number of 0.904, were considered. Based on the unsteady aerodynamic data obtained from LTRAN3, flutter boundaries were computed; they were compared with those obtained from experiments and the code NASTRAN, which uses linear aerodynamics.

  17. Analysis of Earthquake Recordings Obtained from the Seafloor Earthquake Measurement System (SEMS) Instruments Deployed off the Coast of Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.; Smith, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    For more than 20 years, a program has been underway to obtain records of earthquake shaking on the seafloor at sites offshore of southern California, near oil platforms. The primary goal of the program is to obtain data that can help determine if ground motions at offshore sites are significantly different than those at onshore sites; if so, caution may be necessary in using onshore motions as the basis for the seismic design of oil platforms. We analyze data from eight earthquakes recorded at six offshore sites; these are the most important data recorded on these stations to date. Seven of the earthquakes were recorded at only one offshore station; the eighth event was recorded at two sites. The earthquakes range in magnitude from 4.7 to 6.1. Because of the scarcity of multiple recordings from any one event, most of the analysis is based on the ratio of spectra from vertical and horizontal components of motion. The results clearly show that the offshore motions have very low vertical motions compared to those from an average onshore site, particularly at short periods. Theoretical calculations find that the water layer has little effect on the horizontal components of motion but that it produces a strong spectral null on the vertical component at the resonant frequency of P waves in the water layer. The vertical-to-horizontal ratios for a few selected onshore sites underlain by relatively low shear-wave velocities are similar to the ratios from offshore sites for frequencies less than about one-half the water layer P-wave resonant frequency, suggesting that the shear-wave velocities beneath a site are more important than the water layer in determining the character of the ground motions at lower frequencies.

  18. Preliminary aerodynamic design considerations for advanced laminar flow aircraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Joseph L., Jr.; Yip, Long P.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Modern composite manufacturing methods have provided the opportunity for smooth surfaces that can sustain large regions of natural laminar flow (NLF) boundary layer behavior and have stimulated interest in developing advanced NLF airfoils and improved aircraft designs. Some of the preliminary results obtained in exploratory research investigations on advanced aircraft configurations at the NASA Langley Research Center are discussed. Results of the initial studies have shown that the aerodynamic effects of configuration variables such as canard/wing arrangements, airfoils, and pusher-type and tractor-type propeller installations can be particularly significant at high angles of attack. Flow field interactions between aircraft components were shown to produce undesirable aerodynamic effects on a wing behind a heavily loaded canard, and the use of properly designed wing leading-edge modifications, such as a leading-edge droop, offset the undesirable aerodynamic effects by delaying wing stall and providing increased stall/spin resistance with minimum degradation of laminar flow behavior.

  19. Geometrical Measures Obtained from Pretreatment Postcontrast T1 Weighted MRIs Predict Survival Benefits from Bevacizumab in Glioblastoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sepúlveda, Juan M.; Peralta, Sergi; Gil-Gil, Miguel J.; Reynes, Gaspar; Herrero, Ana; De Las Peñas, Ramón; Luque, Raquel; Capellades, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    Background Antiangiogenic therapies for glioblastoma (GBM) such as bevacizumab (BVZ), have been unable to extend survival in large patient cohorts. However, a subset of patients having angiogenesis-dependent tumors might benefit from these therapies. Currently, there are no biomarkers allowing to discriminate responders from non-responders before the start of the therapy. Methods 40 patients from the randomized GENOM009 study complied the inclusion criteria (quality of images, clinical data available). Of those, 23 patients received first line temozolomide (TMZ) for eight weeks and then concomitant radiotherapy and TMZ. 17 patients received BVZ+TMZ for seven weeks and then added radiotherapy to the treatment. Clinical variables were collected, tumors segmented and several geometrical measures computed including: Contrast enhancing (CE), necrotic, and total volumes; equivalent spherical CE width; several geometric measures of the CE ‘rim’ geometry and a set of image texture measures. The significance of the results was studied using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards analysis. Correlations were assessed using Spearman correlation coefficients. Results Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that total, CE and inner volume (p = 0.019, HR = 4.258) and geometric heterogeneity of the CE areas (p = 0.011, HR = 3.931) were significant parameters identifying response to BVZ. The group of patients with either regular CE areas (small geometric heterogeneity, median difference survival 15.88 months, p = 0.011) or those with small necrotic volume (median survival difference 14.50 months, p = 0.047) benefited substantially from BVZ. Conclusion Imaging biomarkers related to the irregularity of contrast enhancing areas and the necrotic volume were able to discriminate GBM patients with a substantial survival benefit from BVZ. A prospective study is needed to validate our results. PMID:27557121

  20. Development of a Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostic for Time-Resolved Gas Flow Velocity, Temperature, and Density Measurements in Aerodynamic Test Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mielke, Amy F.; Elam, Kristie A.; Sung, Chih-Jen

    2007-01-01

    A molecular Rayleigh scattering technique is developed to measure time-resolved gas velocity, temperature, and density in unseeded turbulent flows at sampling rates up to 32 kHz. A high power continuous-wave laser beam is focused at a point in an air flow field and Rayleigh scattered light is collected and fiber-optically transmitted to the spectral analysis and detection equipment. The spectrum of the light, which contains information about the temperature and velocity of the flow, is analyzed using a Fabry-Perot interferometer. Photomultiplier tubes operated in the photon counting mode allow high frequency sampling of the circular interference pattern to provide time-resolved flow property measurements. An acoustically driven nozzle flow is studied to validate velocity fluctuation measurements, and an asymmetric oscillating counterflow with unequal enthalpies is studied to validate the measurement of temperature fluctuations. Velocity fluctuations are compared with constant temperature anemometry measurements and temperature fluctuations are compared with constant current anemometry measurements at the same locations. Time-series and power spectra of the temperature and velocity measurements are presented. A numerical simulation of the light scattering and detection process was developed and compared with experimental data for future use as an experiment design tool.

  1. The aerodynamics of insect flight.

    PubMed

    Sane, Sanjay P

    2003-12-01

    The flight of insects has fascinated physicists and biologists for more than a century. Yet, until recently, researchers were unable to rigorously quantify the complex wing motions of flapping insects or measure the forces and flows around their wings. However, recent developments in high-speed videography and tools for computational and mechanical modeling have allowed researchers to make rapid progress in advancing our understanding of insect flight. These mechanical and computational fluid dynamic models, combined with modern flow visualization techniques, have revealed that the fluid dynamic phenomena underlying flapping flight are different from those of non-flapping, 2-D wings on which most previous models were based. In particular, even at high angles of attack, a prominent leading edge vortex remains stably attached on the insect wing and does not shed into an unsteady wake, as would be expected from non-flapping 2-D wings. Its presence greatly enhances the forces generated by the wing, thus enabling insects to hover or maneuver. In addition, flight forces are further enhanced by other mechanisms acting during changes in angle of attack, especially at stroke reversal, the mutual interaction of the two wings at dorsal stroke reversal or wing-wake interactions following stroke reversal. This progress has enabled the development of simple analytical and empirical models that allow us to calculate the instantaneous forces on flapping insect wings more accurately than was previously possible. It also promises to foster new and exciting multi-disciplinary collaborations between physicists who seek to explain the phenomenology, biologists who seek to understand its relevance to insect physiology and evolution, and engineers who are inspired to build micro-robotic insects using these principles. This review covers the basic physical principles underlying flapping flight in insects, results of recent experiments concerning the aerodynamics of insect flight, as well

  2. Effects of ice accretions on aircraft aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Frank T.; Khodadoust, Abdollah

    2001-11-01

    This article is a systematic and comprehensive review, correlation, and assessment of test results available in the public domain which address the aerodynamic performance and control degradations caused by various types of ice accretions on the lifting surfaces of fixed wing aircraft. To help put the various test results in perspective, overviews are provided first of the important factors and limitations involved in computational and experimental icing simulation techniques, as well as key aerodynamic testing simulation variables and governing flow physics issues. Following these are the actual reviews, assessments, and correlations of a large number of experimental measurements of various forms of mostly simulated in-flight and ground ice accretions, augmented where appropriate by similar measurements for other analogous forms of surface contamination and/or disruptions. In-flight icing categories reviewed include the initial and inter-cycle ice accretions inherent in the use of de-icing systems which are of particular concern because of widespread misconceptions about the thickness of such accretions which can be allowed before any serious consequences occur, and the runback/ridge ice accretions typically associated with larger-than-normal water droplet encounters which are of major concern because of the possible potential for catastrophic reductions in aerodynamic effectiveness. The other in-flight ice accretion category considered includes the more familiar large rime and glaze ice accretions, including ice shapes with rather grotesque features, where the concern is that, in spite of all the research conducted to date, the upper limit of penalties possible has probably not been defined. Lastly, the effects of various possible ground frost/ice accretions are considered. The concern with some of these is that for some types of configurations, all of the normally available operating margins to stall at takeoff may be erased if these accretions are not

  3. Comparison between two different methods to obtain the proportions of myoglobin redox forms on fresh meat from reflectance measurements.

    PubMed

    Hernández, B; Sáenz, C; Alberdi, C; Diñeiro, J M

    2015-12-01

    Two procedures based on reflectance (R) measurements to calculate the proportions of deoxymyoglobin (DMb), oxymyoglobin (OMb) and metmyoglobin (MMb) in meat are recommended by the American Meat Science Association (AMSA). One uses the K/S ratios (K and S are the absorption and scattering coefficients) and the other method (Krzywicki 1979) uses the reflex attenuance A = log (1/R). Both methods were compared in: a) synthetic sets of two pigment mixtures and b) 15 samples of beef Longissimus Lumborum measured after 24 h, 4 and 7 days of exposure to air. It was found that K/S and Krzywicki methods gave different values of pigment proportions. However both methods exhibited a high linear correlation (R(2) = 0.8733 in DMb, R(2) = 0.9771 in OMb and R(2) = 0.9390 in MMb, p < 0.0001). This makes them equivalent for statistical analysis based on differences in pigment proportions.

  4. Road grade quantification based on global positioning system data obtained from real-world vehicle fuel use and emissions measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani Boroujeni, Behdad; Frey, H. Christopher

    2014-03-01

    Real-world vehicle fuel use and emission rates depend on engine load, which is quantified in terms of Vehicle Specific Power (VSP). VSP depends on vehicle speed, acceleration, and road grade. There is not a standard method for measuring road grade from a moving vehicle. A method for quantifying grade is evaluated based on statistical analysis of multiple runs using low cost consumer grade Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers with in-built Barometric Altimeter (GPS/BA). The average grade precision is ±0.71, ±0.46, and ±0.31 percentage points, for sample sizes of 9, 18, and 36 GPS/BA runs, respectively, among 2213 individual 0.08 km road segments. In addition, 4 sets of repeated measurements were performed on the same routes using a high cost, high accuracy Differential GPS (DGPS). Both sets of GPS-based grade estimates compared well with those derived from LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) data. GPS/BA and DGPS grade estimates were similar, except for high magnitude grades of 8-10 percent for which DGPS estimates are more accurate. DGPS is more sensitive to loss of signal; thus, a hybrid approach for substituting GPS/BA data for missing DGPS data at specific locations along a route is demonstrated. The local and overall effects of road grade on fuel use and emission rates are investigated for an example light duty gasoline vehicle.

  5. Langley Symposium on Aerodynamics, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stack, Sharon H. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to present current work and results of the Langley Aeronautics Directorate covering the areas of computational fluid dynamics, viscous flows, airfoil aerodynamics, propulsion integration, test techniques, and low-speed, high-speed, and transonic aerodynamics. The following sessions are included in this volume: theoretical aerodynamics, test techniques, fluid physics, and viscous drag reduction.

  6. Unsteady aerodynamics modeling for flight dynamics application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; He, Kai-Feng; Qian, Wei-Qi; Zhang, Tian-Jiao; Cheng, Yan-Qing; Wu, Kai-Yuan

    2012-02-01

    In view of engineering application, it is practicable to decompose the aerodynamics into three components: the static aerodynamics, the aerodynamic increment due to steady rotations, and the aerodynamic increment due to unsteady separated and vortical flow. The first and the second components can be presented in conventional forms, while the third is described using a one-order differential equation and a radial-basis-function (RBF) network. For an aircraft configuration, the mathematical models of 6-component aerodynamic coefficients are set up from the wind tunnel test data of pitch, yaw, roll, and coupled yawroll large-amplitude oscillations. The flight dynamics of an aircraft is studied by the bifurcation analysis technique in the case of quasi-steady aerodynamics and unsteady aerodynamics, respectively. The results show that: (1) unsteady aerodynamics has no effect upon the existence of trim points, but affects their stability; (2) unsteady aerodynamics has great effects upon the existence, stability, and amplitudes of periodic solutions; and (3) unsteady aerodynamics changes the stable regions of trim points obviously. Furthermore, the dynamic responses of the aircraft to elevator deflections are inspected. It is shown that the unsteady aerodynamics is beneficial to dynamic stability for the present aircraft. Finally, the effects of unsteady aerodynamics on the post-stall maneuverability are analyzed by numerical simulation.

  7. How long should a system be observed to obtain reliable concentration estimates from the measurement of fluctuations?

    PubMed

    Pérez Ipiña, Emiliano; Ponce Dawson, Silvina

    2014-12-01

    The interior of cells is a highly fluctuating environment. Fluctuations set limits to the accuracy with which endogenous processes can occur. The physical principles that rule these limits also affect the experimental quantification of biophysical parameters in situ. The characterization of fluctuations, on the other hand, provides a way to quantify biophysical parameters. But as with any random process, enough data has to be collected to achieve a reliable quantitative description. In this article we study the accuracy with which intracellular concentrations can be estimated using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. We show that, when the observed molecules interact with immobile species or experience other restrictions to their movement, the hypotheses commonly used to estimate concentrations are no longer valid. The interactions with immobile sites reduce the fluorescence variance by a finite amount. The time that is necessary to obtain an accurate concentration estimate, on the other hand, is hundreds of times larger than the slowest correlation time and is much larger when the sites move slowly than when they are immobile. Our analysis is applicable to other related techniques and it also sheds light on the way in which effector concentrations are read by target molecules in cells. PMID:25468346

  8. Simulation of maize irrigation requirements at the regional scale: comparison between results obtained with measured and FAO-56 crop coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facchi, A.; Gharsallah, O.; Gandolfi, C.; Chiaradia, E.; Mancini, M.

    2012-04-01

    The FAO-56 "single crop coefficient" or "double crop coefficient" approaches are the most recommended and widely adopted procedures for the estimation of crop irrigation requirements. In these methods crop evapotranspiration in well-watered conditions is calculated by multiplying the grass reference evapotranspiration ET0 determined by the Penman-Monteith FAO-56 equation and a crop coefficient Kc depending on the crop type and its growing stage. In particular, the "double crop coefficient" allows the separation of soil evaporation and crop transpiration, splitting Kc in two different terms: a basal crop coefficient Kcb and a soil evaporation coefficient Ke. Many authors in the last fifteen years showed that the FAO Kc and Kcb tabulated coefficients, even if adjusted using the specific procedure based on local meteorological, irrigation and crop data suggested by FAO-56, tend to underestimate the observed crop coefficients in arid and semi-arid environments, while an overestimation often occurs for humid and semi-humid regions. In the literature differences up to ±40% especially during the middle growth cycle are reported, mainly due to the complexity of the crop coefficient which actually integrates several physical and biological factors. The purpose of our research was to measure the Kc pattern for maize grown in the Lombardy Region (Northern Italy) and to evaluate the difference in crop irrigation requirements at a regional scale considering the measured Kc instead of the FAO tabulated values using a spatially distributed hydrological model. Kc was calculated for two experimental maize fields for years 2006, 2010 and 2011 as the ratio between actual crop evapotranspiration (ET) in well watered conditions and ET0. ET was measured using eddy-covariance technique while ET0 was determined from agro-meteorological data registered by the two standard meteo stations closest to the experimental areas. The second step of the research was achieved by using the

  9. Aerodynamic Simulation of the MEXICO Rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herraez, I.; Medjroubi, W.; Stoevesandt, B.; Peinke, J.

    2014-12-01

    CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations are a very promising method for predicting the aerodynamic behavior of wind turbines in an inexpensive and accurate way. One of the major drawbacks of this method is the lack of validated models. As a consequence, the reliability of numerical results is often difficult to assess. The MEXICO project aimed at solving this problem by providing the project partners with high quality measurements of a 4.5 meters rotor diameter wind turbine operating under controlled conditions. The large measurement data-set allows the validation of all kind of aerodynamic models. This work summarizes our efforts for validating a CFD model based on the open source software OpenFoam. Both steady- state and time-accurate simulations have been performed with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model for several operating conditions. In this paper we will concentrate on axisymmetric inflow for 3 different wind speeds. The numerical results are compared with pressure distributions from several blade sections and PIV-flow data from the near wake region. In general, a reasonable agreement between measurements the and our simulations exists. Some discrepancies, which require further research, are also discussed.

  10. Soil water content and evaporation determined by thermal parameters obtained from ground-based and remote measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B.; Jackson, R. D.; Vedder, J. F.; Blanchard, M. B.; Goettelman, R.

    1976-01-01

    Soil water contents from both smooth and rough bare soil were estimated from remotely sensed surface soil and air temperatures. An inverse relationship between two thermal parameters and gravimetric soil water content was found for Avondale loam when its water content was between air-dry and field capacity. These parameters, daily maximum minus minimum surface soil temperature and daily maximum soil minus air temperature, appear to describe the relationship reasonably well. These two parameters also describe relative soil water evaporation (actual/potential). Surface soil temperatures showed good agreement among three measurement techniques: in situ thermocouples, a ground-based infrared radiation thermometer, and the thermal infrared band of an airborne multispectral scanner.

  11. Ozone columns obtained by ground-based remote sensing in Kiev for Aura Ozone Measuring Instrument validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shavrina, A. V.; Pavlenko, Y. V.; Veles, A.; Syniavskyi, I.; Kroon, M.

    2007-12-01

    Ground-based observations with a Fourier transform spectrometer in the infrared region (FTIR) were performed in Kiev (Ukraine) during the time frames August-October 2005 and June-October 2006 within the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) validation project 2907 entitled "OMI validation by ground based remote sensing: ozone columns and profiles" in the frame of the international European Space Agency/Netherlands Agency for Aerospace Programmes/Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute OMI Announcement of Opportunity effort. Ozone column data for 2005 were obtained by modeling the ozone spectral band at 9.6 μm with the radiative transfer code MODTRAN3.5. Our total ozone column values were found to be lower than OMI Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) total ozone column data by 8-10 Dobson units (DU, 1 DU = 0.001 atm cm) on average, while our observations have a relatively small standard error of about 2 DU. Improved modeling of the ozone spectral band, now based on HITRAN-2004 spectral data as calculated by us, moves our results toward better agreement with the OMI DOAS total ozone column data. The observations made during 2006 with a modernized FTIR spectrometer and higher signal-to-noise ratio were simulated by the MODTRAN4 model computations. For ozone column estimates the Aqua Atmospheric Infrared Sounder satellite water vapor and temperature profiles were combined with the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder stratospheric ozone profiles and Tropospheric Emission Monitoring Internet Service-Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut climatological profiles to create a priori input files for spectral modeling. The MODTRAN4 estimates of ozone columns from the 2006 observations compare rather well with the OMI total ozone column data: standard errors are of 1.11 DU and 0.68 DU, standard deviation are of 8.77 DU and 5.37 DU for OMI DOAS and OMI Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, respectively.

  12. New technology in turbine aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, A. J.; Moffitt, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    A cursory review is presented of some of the recent work that has been done in turbine aerodynamic research at NASA-Lewis Research Center. Topics discussed include the aerodynamic effect of turbine coolant, high work-factor (ratio of stage work to square of blade speed) turbines, and computer methods for turbine design and performance prediction. An extensive bibliography is included. Experimental cooled-turbine aerodynamics programs using two-dimensional cascades, full annular cascades, and cold rotating turbine stage tests are discussed with some typical results presented. Analytically predicted results for cooled blade performance are compared to experimental results. The problems and some of the current programs associated with the use of very high work factors for fan-drive turbines of high-bypass-ratio engines are discussed. Turbines currently being investigated make use of advanced blading concepts designed to maintain high efficiency under conditions of high aerodynamic loading. Computer programs have been developed for turbine design-point performance, off-design performance, supersonic blade profile design, and the calculation of channel velocities for subsonic and transonic flow fields. The use of these programs for the design and analysis of axial and radial turbines is discussed.

  13. Sensitivity analysis in computational aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bristow, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    Information on sensitivity analysis in computational aerodynamics is given in outline, graphical, and chart form. The prediction accuracy if the MCAERO program, a perturbation analysis method, is discussed. A procedure for calculating perturbation matrix, baseline wing paneling for perturbation analysis test cases and applications of an inviscid sensitivity matrix are among the topics covered.

  14. Aerodynamic laboratory at Cuatro Vientos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    JUBERA

    1922-01-01

    This report presents a listing of the many experiments in aerodynamics taking place at Cuatro Vientos. Some of the studies include: testing spheres, in order to determine coefficients; mechanical and chemical tests of materials; and various tests of propeller strength and flexibility.

  15. Shuttle reentry aerodynamic heating test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pond, J. E.; Mccormick, P. O.; Smith, S. D.

    1971-01-01

    The research for determining the space shuttle aerothermal environment is reported. Brief summaries of the low Reynolds number windward side heating test, and the base and leeward heating and high Reynolds number heating test are included. Also discussed are streamline divergence and the resulting effect on aerodynamic heating, and a thermal analyzer program that is used in the Thermal Environment Optimization Program.

  16. Dynamic Soaring: Aerodynamics for Albatrosses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Albatrosses have evolved to soar and glide efficiently. By maximizing their lift-to-drag ratio "L/D", albatrosses can gain energy from the wind and can travel long distances with little effort. We simplify the difficult aerodynamic equations of motion by assuming that albatrosses maintain a constant "L/D". Analytic solutions to the simplified…

  17. POEMS in Newton's Aerodynamic Frustum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampedro, Jaime Cruz; Tetlalmatzi-Montiel, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    The golden mean is often naively seen as a sign of optimal beauty but rarely does it arise as the solution of a true optimization problem. In this article we present such a problem, demonstrating a close relationship between the golden mean and a special case of Newton's aerodynamical problem for the frustum of a cone. Then, we exhibit a parallel…

  18. Rotary wing aerodynamically generated noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, F. J.; Morse, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    The history and methodology of aerodynamic noise reduction in rotary wing aircraft are presented. Thickness noise during hover tests and blade vortex interaction noise are determined and predicted through the use of a variety of computer codes. The use of test facilities and scale models for data acquisition are discussed.

  19. Aerodynamic design via control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, Antony

    1988-01-01

    The question of how to modify aerodynamic design in order to improve performance is addressed. Representative examples are given to demonstrate the computational feasibility of using control theory for such a purpose. An introduction and historical survey of the subject is included.

  20. Aerodynamic and Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel Testing of the Orion Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C.

    2011-01-01

    The Orion aerodynamic testing team has completed more than 40 tests as part of developing the aerodynamic and loads databases for the vehicle. These databases are key to achieving good mechanical design for the vehicle and to ensure controllable flight during all potential atmospheric phases of a mission, including launch aborts. A wide variety of wind tunnels have been used by the team to document not only the aerodynamics but the aeroacoustic environment that the Orion might experience both during nominal ascents and launch aborts. During potential abort scenarios the effects of the various rocket motor plumes on the vehicle must be accurately understood. The Abort Motor (AM) is a high-thrust, short duration motor that rapidly separates Orion from its launch vehicle. The Attitude Control Motor (ACM), located in the nose of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle, is used for control during a potential abort. The 8 plumes from the ACM interact in a nonlinear manner with the four AM plumes which required a carefully controlled test to define the interactions and their effect on the control authority provided by the ACM. Techniques for measuring dynamic stability and for simulating rocket plume aerodynamics and acoustics were improved or developed in the course of building the aerodynamic and loads databases for Orion.

  1. Characterization of Strategies for Obtaining Confident Identifications in Bottom-Up Proteomics Measurements Using Hybrid FTMS instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Moore, Ronald J.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Adkins, Joshua N.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2008-11-15

    Hybrid FTMS instruments, such as the LTQ-FTTM and LTQ-OrbitrapTM, are capable of generating fast duty cycle linear ion trap MS/MS data along with high resolution information without compromising the overall throughput of measurements. Combined with online LC separations, these instruments represent powerful and flexible tools for proteomics research. In the present work, we explore strategies for high throughput, high coverage proteomics measurements using hybrid FTMS instruments. Our accurate mass and time tag (AMT tag) strategy enables identification of thousands of peptides in a single LC-FTMS analysis by comparing accurate molecular mass and LC elution time information from the analysis to a reference database. An alternative strategy considered here employs linear ion trap (low resolution) MS/MS identifications generated by an appropriate search engine, such as SEQUEST; the high resolution precursor ion spectra were used to refine the MS/MS identifications, an approach termed Accurate Precursor Mass Filter (APMF). The APMF results can be additionally filtered using the LC elution time information from the AMT tag database, which constitutes a Precursor Mass and Time Filter (PMTF), the third approach implemented in this study. Both the APMF and the PMTF approaches are evaluated for coverage and confidence of peptide identifications and contrasted with the current AMT tag strategy. Two separate methodologies were used to reliably quantify identification confidence: a commonly used decoy database method and an alternative method based on the mass accuracy histogram. The two methodologies produced consistent results, confirming the validity of the identification confidence evaluations. Comparison of the three approaches has shown that the AMT tag data analysis approach may be preferential for studies giving a priority to the highest achievable coverage. The APMF approach by itself does not require AMT tag database and provides a moderate coverage combined with

  2. Model aerodynamic test results for two variable cycle engine coannular exhaust systems at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions. Comprehensive data report. Volume 2: Tabulated aerodynamic data book 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    Tabulated aerodynamic data from coannular nozzle performance tests are given for test runs 26 through 37. The data include nozzle thrust coefficient parameters, nozzle discharge coefficients, and static pressure tap measurements.

  3. Aerosol optical properties in the Iranian region obtained by ground-based solar radiation measurements in the summer of 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Teruyuki; Hayasaka, Tadahiro; Higurashi, Akiko; Hashida, Gen; Moharram-Nejad, N.; Najafi, Y.; Valavi, H.

    1996-08-01

    Solar radiation measurements were made using sun photometers and pyranometers during 31 May-7 June 1991 at several places in Iran and during 12 June-17 September 1991 at a fixed place, Bushehr, Iran. In the first period the aerosol optical thickness had values about 0.4 at the wavelength of 0.5 {mu}m in the coastal area and about 0.2 in the plateau area. The Angstrom`s exponent, which is the slope of optical thickness spectrum, had values around 1 for large city areas and less than 0.5 for inland arid areas. Chemical analyses of sampled air indicate an effect of fossil fuel burning from local sources. Such optical and chemical characteristics of atmospheres suggest that soil-derived coarse particles contributed considerably to the atmospheric turbidity in arid areas, whereas an active generation of aerosols was dominant near large cities. Significant rises in atmospheric turbidity were observed in the earlier part of the second period at Bushehr about once a week with a duration of about one day, which may have been caused by smoke from oil-well fires in Kuwait. The aerosol optical thickness in these events had values of about 1.5, which is equivalent to a columnar aerosol volume of 4.4 x 10{sup -4} cm{sup 3} cm{sup -2}. The absorption index ranged from 0.005 to 0.02 with several peaks reaching 0.1 in the second period. These peaks can be attributed to prevailing smoke particles. 32 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Absorption, scattering and single scattering albedo of aerosols obtained from in situ measurements in the subarctic coastal region of Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montilla, E.; Mogo, S.; Cachorro, V.; Lopez, J.; de Frutos, A.

    2011-01-01

    In situ measurements of aerosol optical properties were made in summer 2008 at the ALOMAR station facility (69°16 N, 16°00 E), located at a rural site in the North of the island of Andøya (Vesterålen archipelago), about 300 km north of the Arctic Circle. The extended three months campaign was part of the POLAR-CAT Project of the International Polar Year (IPY-2007-2008), and its goal was to characterize the aerosols of this sub-Arctic area which frequently transporte to the Arctic region. The ambient light-scattering coefficient, σs(550 nm), at ALOMAR had a hourly mean value of 5.412 Mm-1 (StD = 3.545 Mm-1) and the light-absorption coefficient, σa(550 nm), had an hourly mean value of 0.400 Mm-1 (StD = 0.273 Mm-1). The scattering/absorption Ångström exponents, αs,a, are used for detailed analysis of the variations of the spectral shape of σs,a. The single scattering albedo, &omega0, ranges from 0.622 to 0.985 (mean = 0.913, StD = 0.052) and the relation of this property to the absorption/scattering coefficients and the Ångström exponents is presented. The relationships between all the parameters analyzed, mainly those related to the single scattering albedo, allow us to describe the local atmosphere as extremely clean.

  5. Aerodynamic Indicial Functions and Their Use in Aeroelastic Formulation of Lifting Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzocca, Piergiovanni; Librescu, Liviu; Silva, Walter A.

    2000-01-01

    An investigation related to the use of linear indicial functions in the time and frequency domains, enabling one to derive the proper aerodynamic loads as to study the subcritical response and flutter of swept lifting surfaces, respectively, of the open/closed loop aeroelastic system is presented. The expressions of the lift and aerodynamic moment in the frequency domain are given in terms of the Theodorsen's function, while, in the time domain, these are obtained directly with the help of the Wagner's function. Closed form solutions of aerodynamic derivatives are obtained, graphical representations are supplied and conclusions and prospects for further developments are outlined.

  6. Tabulation of data from the tip aerodynamics and acoustics test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Jeffrey L.; Tu, Wilson

    1990-01-01

    In a continuing effort to understand helicopter rotor tip aerodynamics and acoustics, researchers at Ames Research Center conducted a flight test. The test was performed using the NASA White Cobra and a set of highly instrumented blades. Tabular and graphic summaries of two data subsets from the Tip Aerodynamics and Acoustics Test are given. The data presented are for airloads, blade structural loads, blade vibrations, with summary tables of the aircraft states for each test point. The tabular data consist of the first 15 harmonics only, whereas the plots contain the entire measured frequency content.

  7. Exploring the aerodynamic drag of a moving cyclist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theilmann, Florian; Reinhard, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Although the physics of cycling itself is a complex mixture of aerodynamics, physiology, mechanics, and heuristics, using cycling as a context for teaching physics has a tradition of certainly more than 30 years. Here, a possible feature is the discussion of the noticeable resistant forces such as aerodynamic drag and the associated power consumption of cycling. We use an energy-based approach to model the power input for driving a bike at a constant speed. This approach uses a numerical simulation of the slowing down of a bike moving without pedaling which is implementable with standard spreadsheet software. The simulation can be compared directly to simple measurements with real bikes as well as to an analytic solution of the underlying differential equation. It is possible to derive realistic values for the aerodynamic drag coefficient {{c}\\text{D}} and the total power consumption within a secondary physics course. We also report experiences from teaching such a course to class 8 students.

  8. Fluidic Control of Aerodynamic Forces on an Axisymmetric Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramson, Philip; Vukasinovic, Bojan; Glezer, Ari

    2007-11-01

    The aerodynamic forces and moments on a wind tunnel model of an axisymmetric bluff body are modified by induced local vectoring of the separated base flow. Control is effected by an array of four integrated aft-facing synthetic jets that emanate from narrow, azimuthally-segmented slots, equally distributed around the perimeter of the circular tail end within a small backward facing step that extends into a Coanda surface. The model is suspended in the wind tunnel by eight thin wires for minimal support interference with the wake. Fluidic actuation results in a localized, segmented vectoring of the separated base flow along the rear Coanda surface and induces asymmetric aerodynamic forces and moments to effect maneuvering during flight. The aerodynamic effects associated with quasi-steady and transitory differential, asymmetric activation of the Coanda effect are characterized using direct force and PIV measurements.

  9. Atmospheric testing of wind turbine trailing edge aerodynamic brakes

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.S.; Migliore, P.G.; Quandt, G.A.

    1997-12-31

    An experimental investigation was conducted using an instrumented horizontal-axis wind turbine that incorporated variable span trailing-edge aerodynamic brakes. A primary goal was to directly compare study results with (infinite-span) wind tunnel data and to provide information on how to account for device span effects during turbine design or analysis. Comprehensive measurements were utilized to define effective changes in the aerodynamic coefficients, as a function of angle of attack and control deflection, for three device spans and configurations. Differences in the lift and drag behavior are most pronounced near stall and for device spans of less than 15%. Drag performance is affected only minimally (<70%) for 15% or larger span devices. Interestingly, aerodynamic controls with characteristic vents or openings appear most affected by span reductions and three-dimensional flow.

  10. Investigation of Aerodynamic Capabilities of Flying Fish in Gliding Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, H.; Choi, H.

    In the present study, we experimentally investigate the aerodynamic capabilities of flying fish. We consider four different flying fish models, which are darkedged-wing flying fishes stuffed in actual gliding posture. Some morphological parameters of flying fish such as lateral dihedral angle of pectoral fins, incidence angles of pectoral and pelvic fins are considered to examine their effect on the aerodynamic performance. We directly measure the aerodynamic properties (lift, drag, and pitching moment) for different morphological parameters of flying fish models. For the present flying fish models, the maximum lift coefficient and lift-to-drag ratio are similar to those of medium-sized birds such as the vulture, nighthawk and petrel. The pectoral fins are found to enhance the lift-to-drag ratio and the longitudinal static stability of gliding flight. On the other hand, the lift coefficient and lift-to-drag ratio decrease with increasing lateral dihedral angle of pectoral fins.

  11. Aerodynamic performance of vertical and horizontal axis wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maydew, R. C.; Klimas, P. C.

    1981-06-01

    The aerodynamic performance of vertical and horizontal axis wind turbines is investigated, and comparison of data of the 17-m Darrieus VAWT with the 60.7-m Mod-1 HAWT and 37.8-m Mod-0A HAWT is discussed. It is concluded that the maximum average measured power coefficients of the VAWT are about 0%-15% higher than those of the HAWTs. It is suggested that vertical wind shear may have lowered the Mod-1 HAWT aerodynamic performance, but, the magnitude of this effect could not be evaluated. It is included that generalizations which refer to the Darrieus VAWT as aerodynamically less efficient than the HAWT should be used carefully.

  12. AERODYNAMIC AND BLADING DESIGN OF MULTISTAGE AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouse, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    The axial-flow compressor is used for aircraft engines because it has distinct configuration and performance advantages over other compressor types. However, good potential performance is not easily obtained. The designer must be able to model the actual flows well enough to adequately predict aerodynamic performance. This computer program has been developed for computing the aerodynamic design of a multistage axial-flow compressor and, if desired, the associated blading geometry input for internal flow analysis. The aerodynamic solution gives velocity diagrams on selected streamlines of revolution at the blade row edges. The program yields aerodynamic and blading design results that can be directly used by flow and mechanical analysis codes. Two such codes are TSONIC, a blade-to-blade channel flow analysis code (COSMIC program LEW-10977), and MERIDL, a more detailed hub-to-shroud flow analysis code (COSMIC program LEW-12966). The aerodynamic and blading design program can reduce the time and effort required to obtain acceptable multistage axial-flow compressor configurations by generating good initial solutions and by being compatible with available analysis codes. The aerodynamic solution assumes steady, axisymmetric flow so that the problem is reduced to solving the two-dimensional flow field in the meridional plane. The streamline curvature method is used for the iterative aerodynamic solution at stations outside of the blade rows. If a blade design is desired, the blade elements are defined and stacked within the aerodynamic solution iteration. The blade element inlet and outlet angles are established by empirical incidence and deviation angles to the relative flow angles of the velocity diagrams. The blade element centerline is composed of two segments tangentially joined at a transition point. The local blade angle variation of each element can be specified as a fourth-degree polynomial function of path distance. Blade element thickness can also be specified

  13. Resampling soil profiles can constrain large-scale changes in the C cycle: obtaining robust information from radiocarbon measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baisden, W. T.; Prior, C.; Lambie, S.; Tate, K.; Bruhn, F.; Parfitt, R.; Schipper, L.; Wilde, R. H.; Ross, C.

    2006-12-01

    , 1 kg C m-2 or more may be reactive on decadal timescales, supporting evidence of soil C losses from throughout the soil profiles. Information from resampled soil profiles can be combined with additional contemporary measurements to test hypotheses about mechanisms for soil C changes. For example, Δ14C in excess of 200‰ in water extractable dissolved organic C (DOC) from surface soil horizons supports the hypothesis that decadal movement of DOC represents an important translocation of soil C. These preliminary results demonstrate that resampling whole soil profiles can support substantial progress in C cycle science, ranging from updating operational C accounting systems to the frontiers of research. Resampling can be complementary or superior to fixed-depth interval sampling of surface soil layers. Resampling must however be undertaken with relative urgency to maximize the potential interpretive power of bomb-derived radiocarbon.

  14. Aerodynamic characteristics of popcorn ash particles

    SciTech Connect

    Cherkaduvasala, V.; Murphy, D.W.; Ban, H.; Harrison, K.E.; Monroe, L.S.

    2007-07-01

    Popcorn ash particles are fragments of sintered coal fly ash masses that resemble popcorn in low apparent density. They can travel with the flow in the furnace and settle on key places such as catalyst surfaces. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are often used in the design process to prevent the carryover and settling of these particles on catalysts. Particle size, density, and drag coefficient are the most important aerodynamic parameters needed in CFD modeling of particle flow. The objective of this study was to experimentally determine particle size, shape, apparent density, and drag characteristics for popcorn ash particles from a coal-fired power plant. Particle size and shape were characterized by digital photography in three orthogonal directions and by computer image analysis. Particle apparent density was determined by volume and mass measurements. Particle terminal velocities in three directions were measured in water and each particle was also weighed in air and in water. The experimental data were analyzed and models were developed for equivalent sphere and equivalent ellipsoid with apparent density and drag coefficient distributions. The method developed in this study can be used to characterize the aerodynamic properties of popcorn-like particles.

  15. Aerodynamics of a linear oscillating cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffum, Daniel H.; Fleeter, Sanford

    1990-01-01

    The steady and unsteady aerodynamics of a linear oscillating cascade are investigated using experimental and computational methods. Experiments are performed to quantify the torsion mode oscillating cascade aerodynamics of the NASA Lewis Transonic Oscillating Cascade for subsonic inlet flowfields using two methods: simultaneous oscillation of all the cascaded airfoils at various values of interblade phase angle, and the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. Analysis of these data and correlation with classical linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis predictions indicate that the wind tunnel walls enclosing the cascade have, in some cases, a detrimental effect on the cascade unsteady aerodynamics. An Euler code for oscillating cascade aerodynamics is modified to incorporate improved upstream and downstream boundary conditions and also the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. The new boundary conditions are shown to improve the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. The new boundary conditions are shown to improve the unsteady aerodynamic predictions of the code, and the computational unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique is shown to be a viable alternative for calculation of oscillating cascade aerodynamics.

  16. A Sample of NASA Langley Unsteady Pressure Experiments for Computational Aerodynamics Code Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, David M.; Scott, Robert C.; Bartels, Robert E.; Edwards, John W.; Bennett, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    As computational fluid dynamics methods mature, code development is rapidly transitioning from prediction of steady flowfields to unsteady flows. This change in emphasis offers a number of new challenges to the research community, not the least of which is obtaining detailed, accurate unsteady experimental data with which to evaluate new methods. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) have been actively measuring unsteady pressure distributions for nearly 40 years. Over the last 20 years, these measurements have focused on developing high-quality datasets for use in code evaluation. This paper provides a sample of unsteady pressure measurements obtained by LaRC and available for government, university, and industry researchers to evaluate new and existing unsteady aerodynamic analysis methods. A number of cases are highlighted and discussed with attention focused on the unique character of the individual datasets and their perceived usefulness for code evaluation. Ongoing LaRC research in this area is also presented.

  17. The Aeroacoustics and Aerodynamics of High-Speed Coanda Devices, Part 1: Conventional Arrangement of Exit Nozzle and Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, P. W.; Green, P. N.

    1997-12-01

    The literature on high-speed Coanda flows and its applications is reviewed. The lack of basic information for design engineers is noted. The present paper is based on an investigation of the aeroacoustics and aerodynamics of the high-speed Coanda flow that is formed when a supersonic jet issues from a radial nozzle and adheres to a tulip-shaped body of revolution. Schlieren and other flow visualization techniques together with theoretical methods are used to reveal the various features of this complex flow field. The acoustic characteristics were obtained from measurements with an array of microphones in an anechoic chamber. The emphasis is placed on those features of the aerodynamics and aeroacoustics which may be of general interest.

  18. Characterization of physical and aerodynamic properties of walnuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to study the physical and aerodynamic properties of freshly harvested walnuts. Measurements were carried out for three walnut varieties, Tulare, Howard and Chandler cultivated in California, USA. The nuts treated with and without Ethephon were collected from mechan...

  19. Aerodynamic levitation : an approach to microgravity.

    SciTech Connect

    Glorieux, B.; Saboungi, M.-L.; Millot, F.; Enderby, J.; Rifflet, J.-C.

    2000-12-05

    Measurements of the thermophysical and structural properties of liquid materials at high temperature have undergone considerable development in the past few years. Following improvements in electromagnetic levitation, aerodynamic levitation associated with laser heating has shown promise for assessing properties of different molten materials (metals, oxides, and semiconductors), preserving sample purity over a wide range of temperatures and under different gas environments. The density, surface tension and viscosity are measured with a high-speed video camera and an image analysis system. Results on nickel and alumina show that small droplets can be considered in the first approximation to be under microgravity conditions. Using a non-invasive contactless technique recently developed to measure electrical conductivity, results have been extended to variety of materials ranging from liquid metals and liquid semiconductors to ionically conducting materials. The advantage of this technique is the feasibility of monitoring changes in transport occurring during phase transitions and in deeply undercooled states.

  20. Noise Trends of a 0.5 M (20 In.) Diameter Supersonic Throughflow Fan as Measured in an Unmodified Compressor Aerodynamic Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.; Hall, David G.; Moore, Royce D.

    1993-01-01

    The tone noise levels of a supersonic throughflow fan were measured at subsonic and supersonic axial duct Mach numbers. The noise in the inlet plenum showed no blade passing and harmonic tones at subsonic or supersonic axial flow conditions. At subsonic axial flow conditions, the supersonic throughflow fan showed no inlet plenum tones at fan operating conditions where tone noise had been previously measured for a subsonic fan design. This lower inlet-quadrant noise level for the supersonic throughflow fan was the result of high subsonic inlet velocities acting to reduce the noise propagating out the inlet. The fan noise, which was prevented from propagating upstream by the high subsonic inlet velocities, appeared to increase the noise in the exhaust duct at subsonic throughflow conditions. The exhaust duct noise decreased at supersonic axial throughflow Mach numbers, with the lowest blade passing and harmonic tones levels being observed at the design axial Mach number of 2.0. Multiple pure tone noise was observed in the inlet duct at subsonic axial flow Mach numbers but was seen only in the exhaust duct at supersonic axial flow conditions.

  1. The reproducibility of fetal crown rump length measurements obtained with real time ultrasound systems compared with those of a conventional B-scanner.

    PubMed

    Parker, A J; Docker, M F; Davies, P; Newton, J R

    1981-07-01

    Comparison of the reproducibility of fetal crown rump length measurements (CRL) obtained in a resting state by sonar with a phase focused linear array real time scanner, a real time mechanical sector scanner, and a static B-scanner did not show any significant differences between machines. Maternal movement was found to produce a change in fetal intrauterine position and to induce fetal movement. Examination following maternal movement was felt to be more representative of clinical conditions and produced greater variability of CRL measurement, shown by all machines to a differing extent, although the differences between machines were not substantial. There is some evidence that the discernment of fetal movement and the quality of fetal echoes obtained with different machines affects the reproducibility of CRL measurement. Thus variability of CRL measurement with every machine is small in terms of gestational age and justifies the use of real time machines to establish gestational age.

  2. Whispering--a single-subject study of glottal configuration and aerodynamics.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, Johan; Scherer, Ronald; Hess, Markus; Müller, Frank

    2010-09-01

    Whisper productions were produced by a single adult male subject over a wide range of subglottal pressures, glottal areas, and glottal flows. Dimensional measurements were made of these three variables, including glottal perimeter. Subglottal pressure was directly obtained by a pressure transducer in a tracheal catheter, and wide-band flow with a pneumotach mask. Four types of whispers were used-hyperfunctional, hypofunctional, neutral, and postphonation-in addition to three levels of loudness (soft, medium, loud). Sequences of the /pae/ syllable were used. Video recordings of the larynx were made. The glottis was outlined by hand with extrapolation for unseen parts, and area and perimeter were obtained through image analysis software. The whisper tokens resulted in the following wide ranges: subglottal pressure: 1.3-17 cm H2O; glottal flow: 0.9-1.71 L/s; glottal area: 0.065-1.76 m2; and glottal perimeter: 1.09-6.55 cm. Hyperfunctional whisper tended to have higher subglottal pressures and lower areas and flows than hypofunctional whisper, with neutral and postphonation whisper values in between. An important finding is that glottal flow changed more for small changes of area when the area was already small, and did not create much flow change when area was changed for already larger areas; that is, whisper is "more sensitive" to airflow changes for smaller glottal areas. A general equation for whisper aerodynamics was obtained, namely, P (subglottal pressure [cm H2O])=C X F (glottal flow [cm(3)/s]), where C = 0.052 x A(4) - 0.1913 x A(3) + 0.2577 x A(2) - 0.1523 x A+0.0388, where A is the glottal area (cm(2)). Another general equation for nondimensional terms (pressure coefficient vs Reynolds number) also is offered. Implications for whisper flow resistance and aerodynamic power are given. These results give insight into whisper aerodynamics and offer equations relevant to speech synthesis.

  3. Effect of Trailing Edge Flow Injection on Fan Noise and Aerodynamic Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fite, E. Brian; Woodward, Richard P.; Podboy, Gary G.

    2006-01-01

    An experimental investigation using trailing edge blowing for reducing fan rotor/guide vane wake interaction noise was completed in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel. Data were acquired to measure noise, aerodynamic performance, and flow features for a 22" tip diameter fan representative of modern turbofan technology. The fan was designed to use trailing edge blowing to reduce the fan blade wake momentum deficit. The test objective was to quantify noise reductions, measure impacts on fan aerodynamic performance, and document the flow field using hot-film anemometry. Measurements concentrated on approach, cutback, and takeoff rotational speeds as those are the primary conditions of acoustic interest. Data are presented for a 2% (relative to overall fan flow) trailing edge injection rate and show a 2 dB reduction in Overall Sound Power Level (OAPWL) at all fan test speeds. The reduction in broadband noise is nearly constant and is approximately 1.5 dB up to 20 kHz at all fan speeds. Measurements of tone noise show significant variation, as evidenced by reductions of up to 6 dB in the 2 BPF tone at 6700 rpm.: and increases of nearly 2 dB for the 4 BPF tone at approach speed. Aerodynamic performance measurements show the fan with 2 % injection has an overall efficiency that is comparable to the baseline fan and operates, as intended, with nearly the same pressure ratio and mass flow parameters. Hot-film measurements obtained at the approach operating condition indicate that mean blade wake filling in the tip region was not as significant as expected. This suggests that additional acoustic benefits could be realized if the trailing edge blowing could be modified to provide better filling of the wake momentum deficit. Nevertheless, the hot-film measurements indicate that the trailing edge blowing provided significant reductions in blade wake turbulence. Overall, these results indicate that further work may be required to fully understand the proper

  4. Flight loads measurements obtained from calibrated strain-gage bridges mounted externally on the skin of a low-aspect-ratio wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckstrom, C. V.

    1976-01-01

    Flight-test measurements of wingloads (shear, bending moment, and torque) were obtained by means of strain-gage bridges mounted on the exterior surface of a low-aspect-ratio, thin, swept wing which had a structural skin, full-depth honeycomb core, sandwich construction. Details concerning the strain-gage bridges, the calibration procedures used, and the flight-test results are presented along with some pressure measurements and theoretical calculations for comparison purposes.

  5. Application of digital particle image velocimetry to insect aerodynamics: measurement of the leading-edge vortex and near wake of a Hawkmoth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomphrey, Richard J.; Lawson, Nicholas J.; Taylor, Graham K.; Thomas, Adrian L. R.

    2006-04-01

    Some insects use leading-edge vortices to generate high lift forces, as has been inferred from qualitative smoke visualisations of the flow around their wings. Here we present the first Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) data and quantitative analysis of an insect’s leading-edge vortex and near wake at two flight speeds. This allows us to describe objectively 2D slices through the flow field of a tethered Tobacco Hawkmoth ( Manduca sexta). The near-field vortex wake appears to braodly resemble elliptical vortex loops. The presence of a leading-edge vortex towards the end of the downstroke is found to coincide with peak upward force production measured by a six-component force-moment balance. The topology of Manduca’s leading-edge vortex differs from that previously described because late in the downstroke, the structure extends continuously from wingtip across the thorax to the other wingtip.

  6. Evaluation of agreement in corneal thickness measurements obtained using optical coherence tomography and ultrasound technique and determination of its specificity in keratoconus screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunvant, P.; Darner, R.

    2011-03-01

    The aims of the present study are 1) to evaluate inter and intra observer repeatability of optical coherence tomography corneal thickness measurements 2) to investigate the agreement in corneal thickness obtained using an ultrasound pachymeter and the non-contact high resolution optical coherence tomography 3) to evaluate the false positive rate of identifying keratoconic suspects on the basis of standard machine protocol. Measurements were performed on 51 eyes of 51 individuals without any known corneal pathology. Altman and Bland plots were analyzed to determine agreement of corneal thickness measurements obtained using optical coherence tomography and ultrasound pachymeter; linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate its interchangeability. The agreement between the optical coherence tomography and ultrasonic pachymeter measurements was best for the central corneal thickness with a mean bias of 13.4 microns, with optical coherence tomography values being lower than the ultrasound pachymeter. The agreement of measurements in the mid-peripheral cornea was poor, with bias in measurements ranging from 33 to 55 microns. The optical coherence tomography measurements were repeatable with no differences in values between intra and inter observer repeat measurements. Using standard machine protocol for keratoconus screening, utilizing 1 out of 4 criteria gave a specificity of 86% and using 2 of the 4 criteria gave a specificity of 98%.

  7. Modeling the High Speed Research Cycle 2B Longitudinal Aerodynamic Database Using Multivariate Orthogonal Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, E. A.; Proffitt, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    The data for longitudinal non-dimensional, aerodynamic coefficients in the High Speed Research Cycle 2B aerodynamic database were modeled using polynomial expressions identified with an orthogonal function modeling technique. The discrepancy between the tabular aerodynamic data and the polynomial models was tested and shown to be less than 15 percent for drag, lift, and pitching moment coefficients over the entire flight envelope. Most of this discrepancy was traced to smoothing local measurement noise and to the omission of mass case 5 data in the modeling process. A simulation check case showed that the polynomial models provided a compact and accurate representation of the nonlinear aerodynamic dependencies contained in the HSR Cycle 2B tabular aerodynamic database.

  8. The DELTA MONSTER: An RPV designed to investigate the aerodynamics of a delta wing platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Kristen; Flynn, Mike; Gallagher, Randy; Greek, Chris; Kozlowski, Marc; Mcdonald, Brian; Mckenna, Matt; Sellar, Rich; Shearon, Andy

    1989-01-01

    The mission requirements for the performance of aerodynamic tests on a delta wind planform posed some problems, these include aerodynamic interference; structural support; data acquisition and transmission instrumentation; aircraft stability and control; and propulsion implementation. To eliminate the problems of wall interference, free stream turbulence, and the difficulty of achieving dynamic similarity between the test and actual flight aircraft that are associated with aerodynamic testing in wind tunnels, the concept of the remotely piloted vehicle which can perform a basic aerodynamic study on a delta wing was the main objective for the Green Mission - the Delta Monster. The basic aerodynamic studies were performed on a delta wing with a sweep angle greater than 45 degrees. These tests were performed at various angles of attack and Reynolds numbers. The delta wing was instrumented to determine the primary leading edge vortex formation and location, using pressure measurements and/or flow visualization. A data acquisition system was provided to collect all necessary data.

  9. Evaluation of thermographic phosphor technology for aerodynamic model testing

    SciTech Connect

    Cates, M.R.; Tobin, K.W.; Smith, D.B.

    1990-08-01

    The goal for this project was to perform technology evaluations applicable to the development of higher-precision, higher-temperature aerodynamic model testing at Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) in Tullahmoa, Tennessee. With the advent of new programs for design of aerospace craft that fly at higher speeds and altitudes, requirements for detailed understanding of high-temperature materials become very important. Model testing is a natural and critical part of the development of these new initiatives. The well-established thermographic phosphor techniques of the Applied Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are highly desirable for diagnostic evaluation of materials and aerodynamic shapes as studied in model tests. Combining this state-of-the-art thermographic technique with modern, higher-temperature models will greatly improve the practicability of tests for the advanced aerospace vehicles and will provide higher precision diagnostic information for quantitative evaluation of these tests. The wavelength ratio method for measuring surface temperatures of aerodynamic models was demonstrated in measurements made for this project. In particular, it was shown that the appropriate phosphors could be selected for the temperature range up to {approximately}700 {degree}F or higher and emission line ratios of sufficient sensitivity to measure temperature with 1% precision or better. Further, it was demonstrated that two-dimensional image- processing methods, using standard hardware, can be successfully applied to surface thermography of aerodynamic models for AEDC applications.

  10. Unsteady Aerodynamic Model Tuning for Precise Flutter Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-Gi

    2011-01-01

    A simple method for an unsteady aerodynamic model tuning is proposed in this study. This method is based on the direct modification of the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices. The aerostructures test wing 2 flight-test data is used to demonstrate the proposed model tuning method. The flutter speed margin computed using only the test validated structural dynamic model can be improved using the additional unsteady aerodynamic model tuning, and then the flutter speed margin requirement of 15 % in military specifications can apply towards the test validated aeroelastic model. In this study, unsteady aerodynamic model tunings are performed at two time invariant flight conditions, at Mach numbers of 0.390 and 0.456. When the Mach number for the unsteady model tuning approaches to the measured fluttering Mach number, 0.502, at the flight altitude of 9,837 ft, the estimated flutter speed is approached to the measured flutter speed at this altitude. The minimum flutter speed difference between the estimated and measured flutter speed is -.14 %.

  11. Passive flow control by membrane wings for aerodynamic benefit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timpe, Amory; Zhang, Zheng; Hubner, James; Ukeiley, Lawrence

    2013-03-01

    The coupling of passive structural response of flexible membranes with the flow over them can significantly alter the aerodynamic characteristic of simple flat-plate wings. The use of flexible wings is common throughout biological flying systems inspiring many engineers to incorporate them into small engineering flying systems. In many of these systems, the motion of the membrane serves to passively alter the flow over the wing potentially resulting in an aerodynamic benefit. In this study, the aerodynamic loads and the flow field for a rigid flat-plate wing are compared to free trailing-edge membrane wings with two different pre-tensions at a chord-based Reynolds number of approximately 50,000. The membrane was silicon rubber with a scalloped free trailing edge. The analysis presented includes load measurements from a sting balance along with velocity fields and membrane deflections from synchronized, time-resolved particle image velocimetry and digital image correlation. The load measurements demonstrate increased aerodynamic efficiency and lift, while the synchronized flow and membrane measurements show how the membrane motion serves to force the flow. This passive flow control introduced by the membranes motion alters the flows development over the wing and into the wake region demonstrating how, at least for lower angles of attack, the membranes motion drives the flow as opposed to the flow driving the membrane motion.

  12. An improved quasi-steady aerodynamic model for insect wings that considers movement of the center of pressure.

    PubMed

    Han, Jong-Seob; Kim, Joong-Kwan; Chang, Jo Won; Han, Jae-Hung

    2015-07-30

    A quasi-steady aerodynamic model in consideration of the center of pressure (C.P.) was developed for insect flight. A dynamically scaled-up robotic hawkmoth wing was used to obtain the translational lift, drag, moment and rotational force coefficients. The translational force coefficients were curve-fitted with respect to the angles of attack such that two coefficients in the Polhamus leading-edge suction analogy model were obtained. The rotational force coefficient was also compared to that derived by the standard Kutta-Joukowski theory. In order to build the accurate pitching moment model, the locations of the C.Ps. and its movements depending on the pitching velocity were investigated in detail. We found that the aerodynamic moment model became suitable when the rotational force component was assumed to act on the half-chord. This implies that the approximation borrowed from the conventional airfoil concept, i.e., the 'C.P. at the quarter-chord' may lead to an incorrect moment prediction. In the validation process, the model showed excellent time-course force and moment estimations in comparison with the robotic wing measurement results. A fully nonlinear multibody flight dynamic simulation was conducted to check the effect of the traveling C.P. on the overall flight dynamics. This clearly showed the importance of an accurate aerodynamic moment model.

  13. An improved quasi-steady aerodynamic model for insect wings that considers movement of the center of pressure.

    PubMed

    Han, Jong-Seob; Kim, Joong-Kwan; Chang, Jo Won; Han, Jae-Hung

    2015-08-01

    A quasi-steady aerodynamic model in consideration of the center of pressure (C.P.) was developed for insect flight. A dynamically scaled-up robotic hawkmoth wing was used to obtain the translational lift, drag, moment and rotational force coefficients. The translational force coefficients were curve-fitted with respect to the angles of attack such that two coefficients in the Polhamus leading-edge suction analogy model were obtained. The rotational force coefficient was also compared to that derived by the standard Kutta-Joukowski theory. In order to build the accurate pitching moment model, the locations of the C.Ps. and its movements depending on the pitching velocity were investigated in detail. We found that the aerodynamic moment model became suitable when the rotational force component was assumed to act on the half-chord. This implies that the approximation borrowed from the conventional airfoil concept, i.e., the 'C.P. at the quarter-chord' may lead to an incorrect moment prediction. In the validation process, the model showed excellent time-course force and moment estimations in comparison with the robotic wing measurement results. A fully nonlinear multibody flight dynamic simulation was conducted to check the effect of the traveling C.P. on the overall flight dynamics. This clearly showed the importance of an accurate aerodynamic moment model. PMID:26226478

  14. Computer Simulation of Aircraft Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inouye, Mamoru

    1989-01-01

    The role of Ames Research Center in conducting basic aerodynamics research through computer simulations is described. The computer facilities, including supercomputers and peripheral equipment that represent the state of the art, are described. The methodology of computational fluid dynamics is explained briefly. Fundamental studies of turbulence and transition are being pursued to understand these phenomena and to develop models that can be used in the solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Four applications of computer simulations for aerodynamics problems are described: subsonic flow around a fuselage at high angle of attack, subsonic flow through a turbine stator-rotor stage, transonic flow around a flexible swept wing, and transonic flow around a wing-body configuration that includes an inlet and a tail.

  15. Control of helicopter rotorblade aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabunmi, James A.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study of a method for controlling the aerodynamics of helicopter rotorblades using stacks of piezoelectric ceramic plates are presented. A resonant mechanism is proposed for the amplification of the displacements produced by the stack. This motion is then converted into linear displacement for the actuation of the servoflap of the blades. A design which emulates the actuation of the servoflap on the Kaman SH-2F is used to demonstrate the fact that such a system can be designed to produce the necessary forces and velocities needed to control the aerodynamics of the rotorblades of such a helicopter. Estimates of the electrical power requirements are also presented. A Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 2 Program is suggested, whereby a bench-top prototype of the device can be built and tested. A collaborative effort between AEDAR Corporation and Kaman Aerospace Corporation is anticipated for future effort on this project.

  16. Improved Aerodynamic Influence Coefficients for Dynamic Aeroelastic Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratton, Patrice

    2011-12-01

    Currently at Bombardier Aerospace, aeroelastic analyses are performed using the Doublet Lattice Method (DLM) incorporated in the NASTRAN solver. This method proves to be very reliable and fast in preliminary design stages where wind tunnel experimental results are often not available. Unfortunately, the geometric simplifications and limitations of the DLM, based on the lifting surfaces theory, reduce the ability of this method to give reliable results for all flow conditions, particularly in transonic flow. Therefore, a new method has been developed involving aerodynamic data from high-fidelity CFD codes which solve the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations. These new aerodynamic loads are transmitted to the NASTRAN aeroelastic module through improved aerodynamic influence coefficients (AIC). A cantilevered wing model is created from the Global Express structural model and a set of natural modes is calculated for a baseline configuration of the structure. The baseline mode shapes are then combined with an interpolation scheme to deform the 3-D CFD mesh necessary for Euler and Navier-Stokes analyses. An uncoupled approach is preferred to allow aerodynamic information from different CFD codes. Following the steady state CFD analyses, pressure differences ( DeltaCp), calculated between the deformed models and the original geometry, lead to aerodynamic loads which are transferred to the DLM model. A modal-based AIC method is applied to the aerodynamic matrices of NASTRAN based on a least-square approximation to evaluate aerodynamic loads of a different wing configuration which displays similar types of mode shapes. The methodology developed in this research creates weighting factors based on steady CFD analyses which have an equivalent reduced frequency of zero. These factors are applied to both the real and imaginary part of the aerodynamic matrices as well as all reduced frequencies used in the PK-Method which solves flutter problems. The modal-based AIC method

  17. Aerodynamics and combustion of axial swirlers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yongqiang

    A multipoint lean direct injection (LDI) concept was introduced recently in non-premixed combustion to obtain both low NOx emissions and good combustion stability. In this concept, a key feature is the injection of finely atomized fuel into the high-swirling airflow at the combustor dome that provides a homogenous, lean fuel-air mixture. In order to achieve the fine atomization and mixing of the fuel and air quickly and uniformly, a good swirler design should be studied. The focus of this dissertation is to investigate the aerodynamics and combustion of the swirling flow field in a multipoint Lean Direct Injector combustor. A helical axial-vaned swirler with a short internal convergent-divergent venturi was used. Swirlers with various vane angles and fuel nozzle insertion lengths have been designed. Three non-dimensional parameter effects on non-reacting, swirling flow field were studied: swirler number, confinement ratio and Reynolds number. Spray and combustion characteristics on the single swirler were studied to understand the mechanism of fuel-air mixing in this special configuration. Multi-swirler interactions were studied by measuring the confined flow field of a multipoint swirler array with different configurations. Two different swirler arrangements were investigated experimentally, which include a co-swirling array and a counter-swirling array. In order to increase the range of stability of multipoint LDI combustors, an improved design were also conducted. The results show that the degree of swirl and the level of confinement have a clear impact on the mean and turbulent flow fields. The swirling flow fields may also change significantly with the addition of a variety of simulated fuel nozzle insertion lengths. The swirler with short insertion has the stronger swirling flow as compared with the long insertion swirler. Reynolds numbers, with range of current study, will not alter mean and turbulent properties of generated flows. The reaction of the spray

  18. PIV-based study of the gliding osprey aerodynamics in a wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurka, Roi; Liberzon, Alex; Kopp, Gregory; Kirchhefer, Adam; Weihs, Daniel

    2009-11-01

    The hunting flight of an osprey consists of periods where the bird glides while foraging for prey. High quality measurements of aerodynamics in this flight mode are needed in order to estimate the daily energy expenditure of the bird accurately. An experimental study of an osprey model in a wind tunnel (BLWTL, UWO) was performed in order to characterize the aerodynamic forces using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The model was a stuffed osprey with mechanical joints allowing control of the the wing (angle of attack, tilt) and tail orientation. Two-dimensional velocity realizations in the streamwise-normal plane were obtained simultaneously in the two fields of view: above the wing and in the wake of the wing. Mean and turbulent flow characteristics are presented as function of angle of attack based on measurements taken at 4 different angles of attack at three different locations over the wingspan. The main outcome is the accurate estimate of the drag from the measurements of momentum thickness in the turbulent boundary layer of the osprey wing. Moreover, the gradient of the momentum thickness method was applied to identify the separation point in the boundary layer. This estimate has been compared to the total drag calculated from measurements in the wake of the wing and with a theoretical prediction.

  19. Wind Tunnel Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Transport-type Airfoil in a Simulated Heavy Rain Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bezos, Gaudy M.; Dunham, R. Earl, Jr.; Gentry, Garl L., Jr.; Melson, W. Edward, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of simulated heavy rain on the aerodynamic characteristics of an NACA 64-210 airfoil section equipped with leading-and trailing-edge high-lift devices were investigated in the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. The model had a chord of 2.5 ft, a span of 8 ft, and was mounted on the tunnel centerline between two large endplates. Aerodynamic measurements in and out of the simulated rain environment were obtained for dynamic pressures of 30 and 50 psf and an angle-of-attack range of 0 to 20 degrees for the cruise configuration. The rain intensity was varied to produce liquid water contents ranging from 16 to 46 gm/cu m. The results obtained for various rain intensity levels and tunnel speeds showed significant losses in maximum lift capability and increases in drag for a given lift as the liquid water content was increased. The results obtained on the landing configuration also indicate a progressive decrease in the angle of attack at which maximum lift occurred and an increase in the slope of the pitching-moment curve as the liquid water content was increased. The sensitivity of test results to the effects of the water surface tension was also investigated. A chemical was introduced into the rain environment that reduced the surface tension of water by a factor of 2. The reduction in the surface tension of water did not significantly alter the level of performance losses for the landing configuration.

  20. Aerodynamic instability: A case history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenmann, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The identification, diagnosis, and final correction of complex machinery malfunctions typically require the correlation of many parameters such as mechanical construction, process influence, maintenance history, and vibration response characteristics. The progression is reviewed of field testing, diagnosis, and final correction of a specific machinery instability problem. The case history presented addresses a unique low frequency instability problem on a high pressure barrel compressor. The malfunction was eventually diagnosed as a fluidic mechanism that manifested as an aerodynamic disturbance to the rotor assembly.

  1. Unsteady aerodynamics of insect flight.

    PubMed

    Ellington, C P

    1995-01-01

    Over the past decade, the importance of unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms for flapping insect flight has become widely recognised. Even at the fastest flight speeds, the old quasi-steady aerodynamic interpretation seems inadequate to explain the extra lift produced by the wings. Recent experiments on rigid model wings have confirmed the effectiveness of several postulated high-lift mechanisms. Delayed stall can produce extra lift for several chords of travel during the translational phases of the wingbeat. Lift can also be enhanced by circulation created during pronation and supination by rotational mechanisms: the fling/peel, the near fling/peel and isolated rotation. These studies have revealed large leading-edge vortices which contribute to the circulation around the wing, augmenting the lift. The mechanisms show distinctive patterns of vortex shedding from leading and trailing edges. The results of flow visualization experiments on tethered insects are reviewed in an attempt to identify the high-lift mechanisms actually employed. The fling/peel mechanism is clearly used by some insects. The near fling/peel is the wing motion most commonly observed, but evidence for the production of high lift remains indirect. For many insects, lift on the upstroke probably results from delayed stall instead of the flex mechanism of isolated rotation. The large leading-edge vortices from experiments on rigid model wings are greatly reduced or missing around the real insect wings, often making the identification of aerodynamic mechanisms inconclusive. A substantial spanwise flow component has been detected over the aerodynamic upper wing surface, which should transport leading-edge vorticity towards the wingtip before it has much time to roll up. This spanwise transport, arising from centrifugal acceleration, is probably a general phenomenon for flapping insect flight. It should reduce and stabilise any leading-edge vortices that are present, which is essential for preventing

  2. Applied aerodynamics: Challenges and expectations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Victor L.; Smith, Charles A.

    1993-01-01

    Aerospace is the leading positive contributor to this country's balance of trade, derived largely from the sale of U.S. commercial aircraft around the world. This powerfully favorable economic situation is being threatened in two ways: (1) the U.S. portion of the commercial transport market is decreasing, even though the worldwide market is projected to increase substantially; and (2) expenditures are decreasing for military aircraft, which often serve as proving grounds for advanced aircraft technology. To retain a major share of the world market for commercial aircraft and continue to provide military aircraft with unsurpassed performance, the U.S. aerospace industry faces many technological challenges. The field of applied aerodynamics is necessarily a major contributor to efforts aimed at meeting these technological challenges. A number of emerging research results that will provide new opportunities for applied aerodynamicists are discussed. Some of these have great potential for maintaining the high value of contributions from applied aerodynamics in the relatively near future. Over time, however, the value of these contributions will diminish greatly unless substantial investments continue to be made in basic and applied research efforts. The focus: to increase understanding of fluid dynamic phenomena, identify new aerodynamic concepts, and provide validated advanced technology for future aircraft.

  3. X-34 Vehicle Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brauckmann, Gregory J.

    1998-01-01

    The X-34, being designed and built by the Orbital Sciences Corporation, is an unmanned sub-orbital vehicle designed to be used as a flying test bed to demonstrate key vehicle and operational technologies applicable to future reusable launch vehicles. The X-34 will be air-launched from an L-1011 carrier aircraft at approximately Mach 0.7 and 38,000 feet altitude, where an onboard engine will accelerate the vehicle to speeds above Mach 7 and altitudes to 250,000 feet. An unpowered entry will follow, including an autonomous landing. The X-34 will demonstrate the ability to fly through inclement weather, land horizontally at a designated site, and have a rapid turn-around capability. A series of wind tunnel tests on scaled models was conducted in four facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the X-34. Analysis of these test results revealed that longitudinal trim could be achieved throughout the design trajectory. The maximum elevon deflection required to trim was only half of that available, leaving a margin for gust alleviation and aerodynamic coefficient uncertainty. Directional control can be achieved aerodynamically except at combined high Mach numbers and high angles of attack, where reaction control jets must be used. The X-34 landing speed, between 184 and 206 knots, is within the capabilities of the gear and tires, and the vehicle has sufficient rudder authority to control the required 30-knot crosswind.

  4. Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Slender Cone-cylinder Body of Revolution at a Mach Number of 3.85

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, John R

    1951-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the aerodynamics of a slender cone-cylinder body of revolution was conducted at a Mach number of 3.85 for angles of attack of 0 degree to 10 degrees and a Reynolds number of 3.85x10(exp 6). Boundary-layer measurements at zero angle of attack are compared with the compressible-flow formulations for predicting laminar boundary-layer characteristics. Comparison of experimental pressure and force values with theoretical values showed relatively good agreement for small angles of attack. The measured mean skin-friction coefficients agreed well with theoretical values obtained for laminar flow over cones.

  5. Grid Sensitivity and Aerodynamic Optimization of Generic Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadrehaghighi, Ideen; Smith, Robert E.; Tiwari, Surendra N.

    1995-01-01

    An algorithm is developed to obtain the grid sensitivity with respect to design parameters for aerodynamic optimization. The procedure is advocating a novel (geometrical) parameterization using spline functions such as NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B- Splines) for defining the airfoil geometry. An interactive algebraic grid generation technique is employed to generate C-type grids around airfoils. The grid sensitivity of the domain with respect to geometric design parameters has been obtained by direct differentiation of the grid equations. A hybrid approach is proposed for more geometrically complex configurations such as a wing or fuselage. The aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients are obtained by direct differentiation of the compressible two-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. An optimization package has been introduced into the algorithm in order to optimize the airfoil surface. Results demonstrate a substantially improved design due to maximized lift/drag ratio of the airfoil.

  6. Intercomparison of 15 aerodynamic particle size spectrometers (APS 3321): uncertainties in particle sizing and number size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeifer, Sascha; Müller, Thomas; Weinhold, Kay; Zikova, Nadezda; Martins dos Santos, Sebastiao; Marinoni, Angela; Bischof, Oliver F.; Kykal, Carsten; Ries, Ludwig; Meinhardt, Frank; Aalto, Pasi; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Wiedensohler, Alfred

    2016-04-01

    Aerodynamic particle size spectrometers are a well-established method to measure number size distributions of coarse mode particles in the atmosphere. Quality assurance is essential for atmospheric observational aerosol networks to obtain comparable results with known uncertainties. In a laboratory study within the framework of ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research Infrastructure Network), 15 aerodynamic particle size spectrometers (APS model 3321, TSI Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA) were compared with a focus on flow rates, particle sizing, and the unit-to-unit variability of the particle number size distribution. Flow rate deviations were relatively small (within a few percent), while the sizing accuracy was found to be within 10 % compared to polystyrene latex (PSL) reference particles. The unit-to-unit variability in terms of the particle number size distribution during this study was within 10 % to 20 % for particles in the range of 0.9 up to 3 µm, which is acceptable for atmospheric measurements. For particles smaller than that, the variability increased up to 60 %, probably caused by differences in the counting efficiencies of individual units. Number size distribution data for particles smaller than 0.9 µm in aerodynamic diameter should only be used with caution. For particles larger than 3 µm, the unit-to-unit variability increased as well. A possible reason is an insufficient sizing accuracy in combination with a steeply sloping particle number size distribution and the increasing uncertainty due to decreasing counting. Particularly this uncertainty of the particle number size distribution must be considered if higher moments of the size distribution such as the particle volume or mass are calculated, which require the conversion of the aerodynamic diameter measured to a volume equivalent diameter. In order to perform a quantitative quality assurance, a traceable reference method for the particle number concentration in the size range 0.5-3 µm

  7. Results of in vivo measurements of strontium-90 body-burden in Urals residents: analyses of data obtained 2006-2012

    SciTech Connect

    Tolstykh, E. I.; Bougrov, N. G.; Krivoshchapov, Victor A.; Shishkina, Elena A.; Shagina, N. B.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2012-06-01

    A part of the Urals territory was contaminated with 90Sr and 137Cs in the 1950s as a result of accidents at the "Mayak" Production Association. The paper describes the analysis of in vivo 90Sr measurements in Urals residents. The measurements were performed with the use of whole-body-counter SICH-9.1M in 2006-2012. Totally 5840 measurements for 4876 persons were performed from 2006 to 2012; maximal measured value was 24 kBq. Earlier, similar measurements were performed with SICH-9.1 (1974-1997). Comparison of the results obtained with SICH-9.1 and SICH-9.1M has shown a good agreement of the two data sets.

  8. Upper surface blowing aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryle, D. M., Jr.; Braden, J. A.; Gibson, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    Aerodynamic performance at cruise, and noise effects due to variations in nacelle and wing geometry and mode of operation are studied using small aircraft models that simulate upper surface blowing (USB). At cruise speeds ranging from Mach .50 to Mach .82, the key determinants of drag/thrust penalties are found to be nozzle aspect ratio, boattailing angle, and chordwise position; number of nacelles; and streamlined versus symmetric configuration. Recommendations are made for obtaining favorable cruise configurations. The acoustic studies, which concentrate on the noise created by the jet exhaust flow and its interaction with wing and flap surfaces, isolate several important sources of USB noise, including nozzle shape, exit velocity, and impingement angle; flow pathlength; and flap angle and radius of curvature. Suggestions for lessening noise due to trailing edge flow velocity, flow pathlength, and flow spreading are given, though compromises between some design options may be necessary.

  9. Parameter identification for nonlinear aerodynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Allan E.

    1990-01-01

    Parameter identification for nonlinear aerodynamic systems is examined. It is presumed that the underlying model can be arranged into an input/output (I/O) differential operator equation of a generic form. The algorithm estimation is especially efficient since the equation error can be integrated exactly given any I/O pair to obtain an algebraic function of the parameters. The algorithm for parameter identification was extended to the order determination problem for linear differential system. The degeneracy in a least squares estimate caused by feedback was addressed. A method of frequency analysis for determining the transfer function G(j omega) from transient I/O data was formulated using complex valued Fourier based modulating functions in contrast with the trigonometric modulating functions for the parameter estimation problem. A simulation result of applying the algorithm is given under noise-free conditions for a system with a low pass transfer function.

  10. Aerodynamics of seeing on large transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Data were obtained in the full scale flight environment of the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) on the nature of turbulent shear layer over the open cavity. These data were used to verify proposed aerodynamic scaling relationships to describe the behavior of the turbulent layers and to estimate the optical performance of systems of various wavelengths operating within the KAO environment. These data and wind tunnel data are used to scale the expected optical effects for a potential stratospheric observatory for infrared astronomy (SOFIA) in which a telescope approximately 3.5 times larger than that on the KAO is envisioned. It appears that the use of combinations of active and passive aeromechanical flow control techniques can improve the optical behavior of systems in the SOFIA environment. Experiments to verify these potential improvements can be performed on the KAO with sufficient modifications to the cavity and aero-mechanical technique installations.

  11. Middle atmospheric water vapour measurements obtained at the Maido observatory on la Réunion with a ground-based microwave radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschanz, Brigitte; Duflot, Valentin; Kämpfer, Niklaus

    2014-05-01

    The ground-based microwave radiometer MIAWARA-C measures middle atmospheric water vapour profiles and is especially designed for the use on campaigns. The instrument is of a compact design, has a simple set up procedure and can be operated remotely. It has been operational for five years and has successfully participated in measurement campaigns under various climatic conditions in Germany, Switzerland, California, Finland and has started to measure on la Réunion (21S, 56E) in September 2013. Under most tropospheric conditions, the instrument can obtain water vapour profiles with a temporal resolution of approximately 2 hours. MIAWARA-C is a reliable instrument and has been validated against similar instruments and satellite experiments. The data sets obtained with MIAWARA-C offer the possibility of comparison with other ground-based instruments and with satellites as well as case studies of atmospheric dynamics. In the southern hemisphere and particularly in the tropical region ground-based measurements of the middle atmosphere are scarce. In MIAWARA-C's water vapour data set a strong seasonal cycle in the stratosphere and signatures of the Semi-Annual Oscillation in the mesosphere are expected. Additionally, the high temporal resolution of the measured data set allows the investigation of short period signals such as diurnal variations. First results after four months of measurements are presented including signatures of the Semi-Annual Oscillation and a first transition to summer condition. In addition, short-term variations observed by MIAWARA-C are analysed.

  12. Aerodynamics of hovering flight in the long-eared bat Plecotus auritus.

    PubMed

    Norberg, U M

    1976-10-01

    Steady-state aerodynamic and momentum theories were used for calculations of the lift and drag coefficients of Plecotus auritus in hovering flight. The lift coefficient obtained varies between 3-1 and 6-4, and the drag coefficient between --5-0 and 10-5, for the possible assumptions regarding the effective angles of attack during the upstroke. This demonstrates that hovering flight in Plecotus auritus can not be explained by quasi-steady-state aerodynamics. Thus, non-steady-state aerodynamics must prevail.

  13. An analysis of aerodynamic requirements for coordinated bank-to-turn autopilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrow, A.

    1982-01-01

    Two planar missile airframes were compared having the potential for improved bank-to-turn control but having different aerodynamic properties. The comparison was made with advanced level autopilots using both linear and nonlinear 3-D aerodynamic models to obtain realistic missile body angular rates and control surface incidence. Cortical cross-coupling effects are identified and desirable aerodynamics are recommended for improved coordinated (BTT) (CBTT) performance. In addition, recommendations are made for autopilot control law analyses and design techniques for improving CBTT performance.

  14. Study of aerodynamic technology for VSTOL fighter/attack aircraft: Horizontal attitude concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    A horizontal attitude VSTOL (HAVSTOL) supersonic fighter attack aircraft powered by RALS turbofan propulsion system is analyzed. Reaction control for subaerodynamic flight is obtained in pitch and yaw from the RALS and roll from wingtip jets powered by bleed air from the RALS duct. Emphasis is placed on the development of aerodynamic characteristics and the identification of aerodynamic uncertainties. A wind tunnel program is shown to resolve some of the uncertainties. Aerodynamic data developed are static characteristics about all axes, control effectiveness, drag, propulsion induced effects and reaction control characteristics.

  15. Association of physical activity measured by accelerometer, knee joint abnormalities and cartilage T2-measurements obtained from 3T MRI: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Kretzschmar, M.; Lin, W.; Nardo, L.; Joseph, G. B.; Dunlop, D. D.; Heilmeier, U.; Nevitt, M. C.; Alizai, H.; McCulloch, C. E.; Lynch, J. A.; Link, T. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the cross-sectional association between physical activity measured with an accelerometer, structural knee abnormalities and cartilage T2-values assessed with 3T MRI. Methods We included 274 subjects from the Osteoarthritis Initiative cohort without definite radiographic osteoarthritis (KL 0 and 1) and at most mild pain, stiffness and functional limitation in the study knee (WOMAC 0–1), which had not limited their activity due to knee pain. Physical activity was measured over seven days with an ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer. Subjects were categorized by quartile of physical activity based on the average daily minutes of moderate/vigorous activity (mv-PA). MR images of the right knee (at 48-months visit) were assessed for structural abnormalities using a modified WORMS score and for T2-relaxation times derived from segmented cartilage of 4 femorotibial regions and the patella. WORMS-grades and T2-measurements were compared between activity quartiles using a linear regression model. Covariates included age, sex, BMI, knee injury, family history of knee replacement, knee symptoms, hip and ankle pain and daily wear time of the accelerometer. Results Higher mv-PA was associated with increased severity (p=0.0087) and number of lesions of the medial meniscus (p=0.0089) and severity of bone marrow edema lesions (p=0.0053). No association between cartilage lesions and mv-PA was found. T2-values of cartilage (loss, damage, abnormalities) tended to be greater in the higher quartiles of mv-PA, but the differences were non-significant. Conclusion In knees without radiographic osteoarthritis in subjects with no or mild knee pain, higher physical activity levels were associated with increases in meniscal and BMEP lesions. PMID:25777255

  16. Experimental aerodynamic study of a car-type bluff body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conan, Boris; Anthoine, Jérôme; Planquart, Philippe

    2011-05-01

    The Ahmed body is used as a reference model for fundamental studies of car-type bluff body aerodynamics, in particular focused on the influence of the rear slant angle on the drag coefficient. The objectives of the present work are to obtain reliable drag coefficient comparable to the literature and to explain, based on the nature of the flow, its variation when changing the rear slant angle from 10° to 40°. The drag coefficients measured in both an open and a closed test sections differ by less than 0.5% which proves the reliability and reproducibility of the results. The sensitivity of the drag coefficient to some parameters such as the model roughness or the oncoming boundary layer and the lack of precise information on these parameters in the literature could explain the difference observed with the Ahmed drag coefficient data. The various types of measurement techniques used in the study underline their complementarity. The combination of particle image velocimetry and oil visualization provides a deeper understanding of the flow behaviour around the Ahmed body and a physical interpretation of the drag coefficient evolution.

  17. Correlation between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA measurements obtained with dried blood spots and those obtained with plasma by use of Nuclisens EasyQ HIV-1 and Abbott RealTime HIV load tests.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Carolina; Zahonero, Natalia; Corral, Angélica; Arredondo, Miguel; Soriano, Vincent; de Mendoza, Carmen

    2009-04-01

    The plasma human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA load is used in the clinical routine for the monitoring of HIV infection and the patient's response to antiretroviral therapy. Other body fluids or dried blood spots (DBS) can be used, however, to assess the level of viremia. The use of DBS may be especially helpful for the monitoring of HIV-infected patients in resource-poor settings, where access to adequate laboratory facilities is often difficult. However, the correlation between the HIV RNA levels in plasma and those in DBSs has not been well established. Paired plasma and DBS samples obtained from HIV type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients were tested for HIV RNA copy numbers by using two different commercial assays, the Nuclisens EasyQ HIV-1 (version 1.1) test (the Nuclisens test; Biomerieux) and the m2000rt RealTime HIV test (the m2000rt test; Abbott). Nucleic acid extraction was performed manually by using either the Nuclisens isolation kit (which uses the Boom methodology) or the m2000rt sample preparation kit (an iron particle-based method). A total of 103 paired plasma and DBS samples were tested. Viral load results were obtained for 97 (94.2%) samples with the Nuclisens isolation kit and 81 (78.6%) samples with the m2000rt kit. The overall correlation between the RNA loads in plasma and DBS was good, although better results were obtained by the Nuclisens test (R(2) = 0.87, P < 0.001) than by the m2000rt test (R(2) = 0.70, P < 0.001). While the specificities were excellent and similar for both the Nuclisens and the m2000rt tests (97.1% and 100%, respectively), the sensitivity was greater by the Nuclisens test than by the m2000rt test (75.8% and 56.6%, respectively). Overall, the viral loads in DBS tended to be lower than those in plasma, with mean differences of 0.3 log unit (standard deviation, 0.5 log unit) and 0.76 log unit (standard deviation, 0.8 log unit) for the Nuclisens and the m2000rt tests, respectively. The levels of agreement between the

  18. A Basic Study on Countermeasure Against Aerodynamic Force Acting on Train Running Inside Tunnel Using Air Blowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Nakade, Koji

    A basic study of flow controls using air blowing was conducted to reduce unsteady aerodynamic force acting on trains running in tunnels. An air blowing device is installed around a model car in a wind tunnel. Steady and periodic blowings are examined utilizing electromagnetic valves. Pressure fluctuations are measured and the aerodynamic force acting on the car is estimated. The results are as follows: a) The air blowing allows reducing the unsteady aerodynamic force. b) It is effective to blow air horizontally at the lower side of the car facing the tunnel wall. c) The reduction rate of the unsteady aerodynamic force relates to the rate of momentum of the blowing to that of the uniform flow. d) The periodic blowing with the same frequency as the unsteady aerodynamic force reduces the aerodynamic force in a manner similar to the steady blowing.

  19. Comparison of Measurements of the Uterus and Cervix Obtained by Magnetic Resonance and Transabdominal Ultrasound Imaging to Identify the Brachytherapy Target in Patients With Cervix Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Dyk, Sylvia van; Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas; Schneider, Michal; Bernshaw, David; Narayan, Kailash

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To compare measurements of the uterus and cervix obtained with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transabdominal ultrasound to determine whether ultrasound can identify the brachytherapy target and be used to guide conformal brachytherapy planning and treatment for cervix cancer. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients undergoing curative treatment with radiation therapy between January 2007 and March 2012 were included in the study. Intrauterine applicators were inserted into the uterine canal while patients were anesthetized. Images were obtained by MRI and transabdominal ultrasound in the longitudinal axis of the uterus with the applicator in treatment position. Measurements were taken at the anterior and posterior surface of the uterus at 2.0-cm intervals along the applicator, from the external os to the tip of the applicator. Data were analyzed using Bland Altman plots examining bias and 95% limits of agreement. Results: A total of 192 patients contributed 1668 measurements of the cervix and uterus. Mean (±SD) differences of measurements between imaging modalities at the anterior and posterior uterine surface ranged from 1.5 (±3.353) mm to 3.7 (±3.856) mm, and −1.46 (±3.308) mm to 0.47 (±3.502) mm, respectively. The mean differences were less than 3 mm in the cervix. The mean differences were less than 1.5 mm at all measurement points on the posterior surface. Conclusion: Differences in the measurements of the cervix and uterus obtained by MRI and ultrasound were within clinically acceptable limits. Transabdominal ultrasound can be substituted for MRI in defining the target volume for conformal brachytherapy treatment of cervix cancer.

  20. 40 CFR 1037.521 - Aerodynamic measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vehicle using the coastdown procedure in 40 CFR part 1066 or an alternative method correlated to it. (a... dynamic modeling, or constant-speed road load testing. See 40 CFR 1068.5 for provisions describing how we...-aero would be 1.037. (b) Recommended method. Perform coastdown testing as described in 40 CFR part...