Science.gov

Sample records for aerodynamic performance technology

  1. Aerodynamic Measurement Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, Alpheus W.

    2002-01-01

    Ohio State University developed a new spectrally filtered light-scattering apparatus based on a diode laser injected-locked titanium: sapphire laser and rubidium vapor filter at 780.2 nm. When the device was combined with a stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugate mirror, the realizable peak attenuation of elastic scattering interferences exceeded 105. The potential of the system was demonstrated by performing Thomson scattering measurements. Under USAF-NASA funding, West Virginia University developed a Doppler global velocimetry system using inexpensive 8-bit charged coupled device cameras and digitizers and a CW argon ion laser. It has demonstrated a precision of +/- 2.5 m/sec in a swirling jet flow. Low-noise silicon-micromachined microphones developed and incorporated in a novel two-tier, hybrid packaging scheme at the University of Florida used printed circuit board technology to realize a MEMS-based directional acoustic array. The array demonstrated excellent performance relative to conventional sensor technologies and provides scaling technologies that can reduce cost and increase speed and mobility.

  2. 1999 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, David E. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1999 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 8-12, 1999 in Anaheim, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in the areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to: (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working on HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and midpoint optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented, along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program. This Volume 1/Part 1 publication covers configuration aerodynamics.

  3. 1997 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop on February 25-28, 1997. The workshop was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, Flight Controls, Supersonic Laminar Flow Control, and Sonic Boom Prediction. The workshop objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT Motion Simulator results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas.

  4. New technology in turbine aerodynamics.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, A. J.; Moffitt, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    Cursory review of some recent work that has been done in turbine aerodynamic research. Topics discussed include the aerodynamic effect of turbine coolant, high work-factor (ratio of stage work to square of blade speed) turbines, and computer methods for turbine design and performance prediction. Experimental cooled-turbine aerodynamics programs using two-dimensional cascades, full annular cascades, and cold rotating turbine stage tests are discussed with some typical results presented. Analytically predicted results for cooled blade performance are compared to experimental results. The problems and some of the current programs associated with the use of very high work factors for fan-drive turbines of high-bypass-ratio engines are discussed. Computer programs have been developed for turbine design-point performance, off-design performance, supersonic blade profile design, and the calculation of channel velocities for subsonic and transonic flowfields. The use of these programs for the design and analysis of axial and radial turbines is discussed.

  5. Effect of Two Advanced Noise Reduction Technologies on the Aerodynamic Performance of an Ultra High Bypass Ratio Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christoper E.; Gazzaniga, John A.

    2013-01-01

    A wind tunnel experiment was conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center anechoic 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel to investigate two new advanced noise reduction technologies in support of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project. The goal of the experiment was to demonstrate the noise reduction potential and effect on fan model performance of the two noise reduction technologies in a scale model Ultra-High Bypass turbofan at simulated takeoff and approach aircraft flight speeds. The two novel noise reduction technologies are called Over-the-Rotor acoustic treatment and Soft Vanes. Both technologies were aimed at modifying the local noise source mechanisms of the fan tip vortex/fan case interaction and the rotor wake-stator interaction. For the Over-the-Rotor acoustic treatment, two noise reduction configurations were investigated. The results showed that the two noise reduction technologies, Over-the-Rotor and Soft Vanes, were able to reduce the noise level of the fan model, but the Over-the-Rotor configurations had a significant negative impact on the fan aerodynamic performance; the loss in fan aerodynamic efficiency was between 2.75 to 8.75 percent, depending on configuration, compared to the conventional solid baseline fan case rubstrip also tested. Performance results with the Soft Vanes showed that there was no measurable change in the corrected fan thrust and a 1.8 percent loss in corrected stator vane thrust, which resulted in a total net thrust loss of approximately 0.5 percent compared with the baseline reference stator vane set.

  6. 1998 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillin, S. Naomi (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1998 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 9-13, in Los Angeles, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program.

  7. 1999 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, David E. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1999 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 8-12, 1999 in Anaheim, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in the areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working on HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and midpoint optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented, along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program. This Volume 1/Part 2 publication covers the design optimization and testing sessions.

  8. 1998 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillin, S. Naomi (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1998 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 9-13, in Los Angeles, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry HighSpeed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of. Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to: (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program.

  9. New technology in turbine aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, A. J.; Moffitt, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    A cursory review is presented of some of the recent work that has been done in turbine aerodynamic research at NASA-Lewis Research Center. Topics discussed include the aerodynamic effect of turbine coolant, high work-factor (ratio of stage work to square of blade speed) turbines, and computer methods for turbine design and performance prediction. An extensive bibliography is included. Experimental cooled-turbine aerodynamics programs using two-dimensional cascades, full annular cascades, and cold rotating turbine stage tests are discussed with some typical results presented. Analytically predicted results for cooled blade performance are compared to experimental results. The problems and some of the current programs associated with the use of very high work factors for fan-drive turbines of high-bypass-ratio engines are discussed. Turbines currently being investigated make use of advanced blading concepts designed to maintain high efficiency under conditions of high aerodynamic loading. Computer programs have been developed for turbine design-point performance, off-design performance, supersonic blade profile design, and the calculation of channel velocities for subsonic and transonic flow fields. The use of these programs for the design and analysis of axial and radial turbines is discussed.

  10. 1997 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop on February 25-28, 1997. The workshop was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in area of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, Flight Controls, Supersonic Laminar Flow Control, and Sonic Boom Prediction. The workshop objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodyamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT Motion Simulator results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas.

  11. HSR Aerodynamic Performance Status and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, William P.; Antani, Tony; Ball, Doug; Calloway, Robert L.; Snyder, Phil

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes HSR (High Speed Research) Aerodynamic Performance Status and Challenges. The topics include: 1) Aero impact on HSR; 2) Goals and Targets; 3) Progress and Status; and 4) Remaining Challenges. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  12. Unstructured Grid Euler Method Assessment for Longitudinal and Lateral/Directional Aerodynamic Performance Analysis of the HSR Technology Concept Airplane at Supersonic Cruise Speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffari, Farhad

    1999-01-01

    Unstructured grid Euler computations, performed at supersonic cruise speed, are presented for a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configuration, designated as the Technology Concept Airplane (TCA) within the High Speed Research (HSR) Program. The numerical results are obtained for the complete TCA cruise configuration which includes the wing, fuselage, empennage, diverters, and flow through nacelles at M (sub infinity) = 2.4 for a range of angles-of-attack and sideslip. Although all the present computations are performed for the complete TCA configuration, appropriate assumptions derived from the fundamental supersonic aerodynamic principles have been made to extract aerodynamic predictions to complement the experimental data obtained from a 1.675%-scaled truncated (aft fuselage/empennage components removed) TCA model. The validity of the computational results, derived from the latter assumptions, are thoroughly addressed and discussed in detail. The computed surface and off-surface flow characteristics are analyzed and the pressure coefficient contours on the wing lower surface are shown to correlate reasonably well with the available pressure sensitive paint results, particularly, for the complex flow structures around the nacelles. The predicted longitudinal and lateral/directional performance characteristics for the truncated TCA configuration are shown to correlate very well with the corresponding wind-tunnel data across the examined range of angles-of-attack and sideslip. The complementary computational results for the longitudinal and lateral/directional performance characteristics for the complete TCA configuration are also presented along with the aerodynamic effects due to empennage components. Results are also presented to assess the computational method performance, solution sensitivity to grid refinement, and solution convergence characteristics.

  13. NASA/HAA Advanced Rotorcraft Technology and Tilt Rotor Workshops. Volume 3: Aerodynamics and Structures Session

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Advanced rotorcraft technology and tilt rotor aircraft were discussed. Rotorcraft performance, acoustics, and vibrations were discussed, as was the use of composite materials in rotorcraft structures. Rotorcraft aerodynamics, specifically the aerodynamic phenomena of a rotating and the aerodynamics of fuselages, was discussed.

  14. Influence of hinge point on flexible flap aerodynamic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Y Zhao, H.; Ye, Z.; Wu, P.; Li, C.

    2013-12-01

    Large scale wind turbines lead to increasing blade lengths and weights, which presents new challenges for blade design. This paper selects NREL S809 airfoil, uses the parameterized technology to realize the flexible trailing edge deformation, researches the static aerodynamic characteristics of wind turbine blade airfoil with flexible deformation, and the dynamic aerodynamic characteristics in the process of continuous deformation, analyses the influence of hinge point position on flexible flap aerodynamic performance, in order to further realize the flexible wind turbine blade design and provides some references for the active control scheme. The results show that compared with the original airfoil, proper trailing edge deformation can improve the lift coefficient, reduce the drag coefficient, and thereby more efficiently realize flow field active control. With hinge point moving forward, total aerodynamic performance of flexible flap improves. Positive swing angle can push the transition point backward, thus postpones the occurrence of the transition phenomenon.

  15. Study of aerodynamic technology for single-cruise-engine V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, J. R.; Bear, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    A viable, single engine, supersonic V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft concept was defined. This vectored thrust, canard wing configuration utilizes an advanced technology separated flow engine with fan stream burning. The aerodynamic characteristics of this configuration were estimated and performance evaluated. Significant aerodynamic and aerodynamic propulsion interaction uncertainties requiring additional investigation were identified. A wind tunnel model concept and test program to resolve these uncertainties and validate the aerodynamic prediction methods were defined.

  16. 1997 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 2; High Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop on February 25-28, 1997. The workshop was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag, prediction and minimization), High-Lift, Flight Controls, Supersonic Laminar Flow Control, and Sonic Boom Prediction. The workshop objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT Motion Simulator results were presented along with executives summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas.

  17. Survey of lift-fan aerodynamic technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, David H.; Kirk, Jerry V.

    1993-01-01

    Representatives of NASA Ames Research Center asked that a summary of technology appropriate for lift-fan powered short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft be prepared so that new programs could more easily benefit from past research efforts. This paper represents one of six prepared for that purpose. The authors have conducted or supervised the conduct of research on lift-fan powered STOVL designs and some of their important components for decades. This paper will first address aerodynamic modeling requirements for experimental programs to assure realistic, trustworthy results. It will next summarize the results or efforts to develop satisfactory specialized STOVL components such as inlets and flow deflectors. It will also discuss problems with operation near the ground, aerodynamics while under lift-fan power, and aerodynamic prediction techniques. Finally, results of studies to reduce lift-fan noise will be presented. The paper will emphasize results from large scale experiments, where available, for reasons that will be brought out in the discussion. Some work with lift-engine powered STOVL aircraft is also applicable to lift-fan technology and will be presented herein. Small-scale data will be used where necessary to fill gaps.

  18. 1999 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 2; High Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, David E. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1999 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 8-12, 1999 in Anaheim, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in the areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among die scientists and engineers working on HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and midpoint optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented, along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program. This Volume 2/Part 2 publication covers the tools and methods development session.

  19. 1998 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 2; High Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillin, S. Naomi (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1998 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 9-13, in Los Angeles, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program.

  20. Evaluation of thermographic phosphor technology for aerodynamic model testing

    SciTech Connect

    Cates, M.R.; Tobin, K.W.; Smith, D.B.

    1990-08-01

    The goal for this project was to perform technology evaluations applicable to the development of higher-precision, higher-temperature aerodynamic model testing at Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) in Tullahmoa, Tennessee. With the advent of new programs for design of aerospace craft that fly at higher speeds and altitudes, requirements for detailed understanding of high-temperature materials become very important. Model testing is a natural and critical part of the development of these new initiatives. The well-established thermographic phosphor techniques of the Applied Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are highly desirable for diagnostic evaluation of materials and aerodynamic shapes as studied in model tests. Combining this state-of-the-art thermographic technique with modern, higher-temperature models will greatly improve the practicability of tests for the advanced aerospace vehicles and will provide higher precision diagnostic information for quantitative evaluation of these tests. The wavelength ratio method for measuring surface temperatures of aerodynamic models was demonstrated in measurements made for this project. In particular, it was shown that the appropriate phosphors could be selected for the temperature range up to {approximately}700 {degree}F or higher and emission line ratios of sufficient sensitivity to measure temperature with 1% precision or better. Further, it was demonstrated that two-dimensional image- processing methods, using standard hardware, can be successfully applied to surface thermography of aerodynamic models for AEDC applications.

  1. Flipperons for Improved Aerodynamic Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mabe, James H.

    2008-01-01

    Lightweight, piezoelectrically actuated bending flight-control surfaces have shown promise as means of actively controlling airflows to improve the performances of transport airplanes. These bending flight-control surfaces are called flipperons because they look somewhat like small ailerons, but, unlike ailerons, are operated in an oscillatory mode reminiscent of the actions of biological flippers. The underlying concept of using flipperons and other flipperlike actuators to impart desired characteristics to flows is not new. Moreover, elements of flipperon-based active flow-control (AFC) systems for aircraft had been developed previously, but it was not until the development reported here that the elements have been integrated into a complete, controllable prototype AFC system for wind-tunnel testing to enable evaluation of the benefits of AFC for aircraft. The piezoelectric actuator materials chosen for use in the flipperons are single- crystal solid solutions of lead zinc niobate and lead titanate, denoted generically by the empirical formula (1-x)[Pb(Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3]:x[PbTiO3] (where x<1) and popularly denoted by the abbreviation PZN-PT. These are relatively newly recognized piezoelectric materials that are capable of strain levels exceeding 1 percent and strain-energy densities 5 times greater than those of previously commercially available piezoelectric materials. Despite their high performance levels, (1-x)[Pb(Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3]:x[PbTiO3] materials have found limited use until now because, relative to previously commercially available piezoelectric materials, they tend to be much more fragile.

  2. Performance of an aerodynamic particle separator

    SciTech Connect

    Ragland, K.; Han, J.; Aerts, D.

    1996-12-31

    This compact, high-flow device aerodynamically separates small particles from a gas stream by a series of annular truncated airfoils. The operating concept, design and performance of this novel particle separator are described. Tests results using corn starch and post-cyclone coal fly ash are presented. Particle collection efficiencies of 90% for corn starch and 70% for coal fly ash were measured at inlet velocities of 80 ft s{sup {minus}1} (2,700 cfm) and (6 inches) water pressure drop with particle loading up to 4 gr ft{sup {minus}3} in air at standard conditions. Results from computer modeling using FLUENT are presented and compared to the tests. The aerodynamic particle separator is an attractive alternative to a cyclone collector.

  3. Plasma Aerodynamic Control Effectors for Improved Wind Turbine Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Mehul P. Patel; Srikanth Vasudevan; Robert C. Nelson; Thomas C. Corke

    2008-08-01

    Orbital Research Inc is developing an innovative Plasma Aerodynamic Control Effectors (PACE) technology for improved performance of wind turbines. The PACE system is aimed towards the design of "smart" rotor blades to enhance energy capture and reduce aerodynamic loading and noise using flow-control. The PACE system will provide ability to change aerodynamic loads and pitch distribution across the wind turbine blade without any moving surfaces. Additional benefits of the PACE system include reduced blade structure weight and complexity that should translate into a substantially reduced initial cost. During the Phase I program, the ORI-UND Team demonstrated (proof-of-concept) performance improvements on select rotor blade designs using PACE concepts. Control of both 2-D and 3-D flows were demonstrated. An analytical study was conducted to estimate control requirements for the PACE system to maintain control during wind gusts. Finally, independent laboratory experiments were conducted to identify promising dielectric materials for the plasma actuator, and to examine environmental effects (water and dust) on the plasma actuator operation. The proposed PACE system will be capable of capturing additional energy, and reducing aerodynamic loading and noise on wind turbines. Supplementary benefits from the PACE system include reduced blade structure weight and complexity that translates into reduced initial capital costs.

  4. MEMS Applications in Aerodynamic Measurement Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reshotko, E.; Mehregany, M.; Bang, C.

    1998-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) embodies the integration of sensors, actuators, and electronics on a single substrate using integrated circuit fabrication techniques and compatible bulk and surface micromachining processes. Silicon and its derivatives form the material base for the MEMS technology. MEMS devices, including microsensors and microactuators, are attractive because they can be made small (characteristic dimension about 100 microns), be produced in large numbers with uniform performance, include electronics for high performance and sophisticated functionality, and be inexpensive. For aerodynamic measurements, it is preferred that sensors be small so as to approximate measurement at a point, and in fact, MEMS pressure sensors, wall shear-stress sensors, heat flux sensors and micromachined hot wires are nearing application. For the envisioned application to wind tunnel models, MEMS sensors can be placed on the surface or in very shallow grooves. MEMS devices have often been fabricated on stiff, flat silicon substrates, about 0.5 mm thick, and therefore were not easily mounted on curved surfaces. However, flexible substrates are now available and heat-flux sensor arrays have been wrapped around a curved turbine blade. Electrical leads can also be built into the flexible substrate. Thus MEMS instrumented wind tunnel models do not require deep spanwise grooves for tubes and leads that compromise the strength of conventionally instrumented models. With MEMS, even the electrical leads can potentially be eliminated if telemetry of the signals to an appropriate receiver can be implemented. While semiconductor silicon is well known for its electronic properties, it is also an excellent mechanical material for MEMS applications. However, silicon electronics are limited to operations below about 200 C, and silicon's mechanical properties start to diminish above 400 C. In recent years, silicon carbide (SiC) has emerged as the leading material candidate for

  5. Wing Flexion and Aerodynamics Performance of Insect Free Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Haibo; Liang, Zongxian; Ren, Yan

    2010-11-01

    Wing flexion in flapping flight is a hallmark of insect flight. It is widely thought that wing flexibility and wing deformation would potentially provide new aerodynamic mechanisms of aerodynamic force productions over completely rigid wings. However, there are lack of literatures on studying fluid dynamics of freely flying insects due to the presence of complex shaped moving boundaries in the flow domain. In this work, a computational study of freely flying insects is being conducted. High resolution, high speed videos of freely flying dragonflies and damselflies is obtained and used as a basis for developing high fidelity geometrical models of the dragonfly body and wings. 3D surface reconstruction technologies are used to obtain wing topologies and kinematics. The wing motions are highly complex and a number of different strategies including singular vector decomposition of the wing kinematics are used to examine the various kinematical features and their impact on the wing performance. Simulations are carried out to examine the aerodynamic performance of all four wings and understand the wake structures of such wings.

  6. 1999 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 2; High Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, David E. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The High-Speed Research Program sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Review on February 8-12, 1999 in Anaheim, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of: Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization) and High-Lift. The review objectives were to: (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. The HSR AP Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas within the airframe element of the HSR Program. This Volume 2/Part 1 publication presents the High-Lift Configuration Development session.

  7. Aerodynamics and performance testing of the VAWT

    SciTech Connect

    Klimas, P.C.

    1981-01-01

    Early investigations suggest that reductions in cost of energy (COE) and increases in reliability for VAWT systems may be brought about through relatively inexpensive changes to the current aerodynamic design. This design uses blades of symmetrical cross-section mounted such that the radius from the rotating tower centerline is normal to the blade chord at roughly the 40% chord point. The envisioned changes to this existing design are intended to: (1) lower cut-in windspeed; (2) increase maximum efficiency; (3) limit maximum aerodynamic power; and (4) limit peak aerodynamic torques. This paper describes certain experiments designed to both better understand the aerodynamics of a section operating in an unsteady, curvilinear flowfield and achieve some of the desired changes in section properties. The common goal of all of these experiments is to lower VAWT COE and increase system reliability.

  8. Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) Technology Development Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Stephen J.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Calomino, Anthony M.; Wright, Henry S.

    2013-01-01

    Aerocover configuration. Both the Aerocovers and the TPS were populated with high contrast targets so that photogrammetric solutions of the loaded surface could be created. These solutions both refined the aerodynamic shape for CFD modeling and provided a deformed shape to validate structural Finite Element Analysis (FEA) models. Extensive aerothermal testing has been performed on the TPS candidates. This testing has been conducted in several facilities across the country. The majority of the testing has been conducted in the Boeing Large Core Arc Tunnel (LCAT). HIAD is continuing to mature testing methodology in this facility and is developing new test sample fixtures and control methodologies to improve understanding and quality of the environments to which the samples are subjected. Additional testing has been and continues to be performed in the NASA LaRC 8ft High Temperature Tunnel, where samples up to 2ft by 2ft are being tested over representative underlying structures incorporating construction features such as sewn seams and through-thickness quilting. With the successful completion to the IRVE-3 flight demonstration, mission planning efforts are ramping up on the development of the HIAD Earth Atmospheric Reenty Test (HEART) which will demonstrate a relevant scale vehicle in relevant environments via a large-scale aeroshell (approximately 8.5m) entering at orbital velocity (approximately 7km/sec) with an entry mass on the order of 4MT. Also, the Build to Print (BTP) hardware built as a risk mitigation for the IRVE-3 project to have a "spare" ready to go in the event of a launch vehicle delivery failure is now available for an additional sub-orbital flight experiment. Mission planning is underway to define a mission that can utilize this existing hardware and help the HIAD project further mature this technology.

  9. Influence of inflow angle on flexible flap aerodynamic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Y Zhao, H.; Ye, Z.; Li, Z. M.; Li, C.

    2013-12-01

    Large scale wind turbines have larger blade lengths and weights, which creates new challenges for blade design. This paper selects NREL S809 airfoil, and uses the parameterized technology to realize the flexible trailing edge deformation, researches the dynamic aerodynamic characteristics in the process of continuous flexible deformation, analyses the influence of inflow angle on flexible flap aerodynamic performance, in order to further realize the flexible wind turbine blade design and provides some references for the active control scheme. The results show that compared with the original airfoil, proper trailing edge deformation can improve the lift coefficient, reduce the drag coefficient, and thereby more efficiently realize flow field active control. With inflow angle increases, dynamic lift-drag coefficient hysteresis loop shape deviation occurs, even turns into different shapes. Appropriate swing angle can improve the flap lift coefficient, but may cause early separation of flow. To improve the overall performance of wind turbine blades, different angular control should be used at different cross sections, in order to achieve the best performance.

  10. Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) Technology Development Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Stephen J.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Calomino, Anthony M.; Wright, Henry S.; Wusk, Mary E.; Hughes, Monica F.

    2013-01-01

    The successful flight of the Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE)-3 has further demonstrated the potential value of Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) technology. This technology development effort is funded by NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Game Changing Development Program (GCDP). This paper provides an overview of a multi-year HIAD technology development effort, detailing the projects completed to date and the additional testing planned for the future.

  11. Aerodynamic Performances of Corrugated Dragonfly Wings at Low Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamai, Masatoshi; He, Guowei; Hu, Hui

    2006-11-01

    The cross-sections of dragonfly wings have well-defined corrugated configurations, which seem to be not very suitable for flight according to traditional airfoil design principles. However, previous studies have led to surprising conclusions of that corrugated dragonfly wings would have better aerodynamic performances compared with traditional technical airfoils in the low Reynolds number regime where dragonflies usually fly. Unlike most of the previous studies of either measuring total aerodynamics forces (lift and drag) or conducting qualitative flow visualization, a series of wind tunnel experiments will be conducted in the present study to investigate the aerodynamic performances of corrugated dragonfly wings at low Reynolds numbers quantitatively. In addition to aerodynamics force measurements, detailed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements will be conducted to quantify of the flow field around a two-dimensional corrugated dragonfly wing model to elucidate the fundamental physics associated with the flight features and aerodynamic performances of corrugated dragonfly wings. The aerodynamic performances of the dragonfly wing model will be compared with those of a simple flat plate and a NASA low-speed airfoil at low Reynolds numbers.

  12. An overview of NASA's role in maneuvering missile aerodynamic technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, W. C.; Jackson, C. M., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the role NASA has had and continues to pursue in providing missile aerodynamic technology. In the past, NASA has provided considerable support to the missile industry and the military. The support has generally taken the form of theoretical aerodynamic analyses, experimental studies to provide solutions for specific problems, and the documentation of existing foreign missile systems and domestic missiles. In 1975, NASA shifted its missile-related efforts in aerodynamics from this largely service role to one of conducting more basic research. The areas of research include: innovative methods for roll control of cruciform missiles, airbreathing missiles with maneuver requirements, and an advanced generation of monoplanar missiles for efficient supersonic carriage and delivery.

  13. Aerodynamic performance measurements at moderate Re

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, M.; McArthur, J.; Spedding, G. R.

    2004-11-01

    There has been renewed interest in the aerodynamics of lifting wings at Reynolds numbers from 10^4 to 10^5, partly due to engineering requirements of small-scale, remotely piloted aircraft, and partly because birds and bats operate in this regime. Even when the wings do not flap or pitch or plunge, the flow over the small aspect ratio wings is likely to be three-dimensional and unsteady. Wind tunnel test results are described where force measurements are combined with DPIV studies. Some problems and principles of such measurement programs will also be discussed.

  14. Advanced multistage turbine blade aerodynamics, performance, cooling, and heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Fleeter, S.; Lawless, P.B.

    1995-10-01

    The gas turbine has the potential for power production at the highest possible efficiency. The challenge is to ensure that gas turbines operate at the optimum efficiency so as to use the least fuel and produce minimum emissions. A key component to meeting this challenge is the turbine. Turbine performance, both aerodynamics and heat transfer, is one of the barrier advanced gas turbine development technologies. This is a result of the complex, highly three-dimensional and unsteady flow phenomena in the turbine. Improved turbine aerodynamic performance has been achieved with three-dimensional highly-loaded airfoil designs, accomplished utilizing Euler or Navier-Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. These design codes consider steady flow through isolated blade rows. Thus they do not account for unsteady flow effects. However, unsteady flow effects have a significant impact on performance. Also, CFD codes predict the complete flow field. The experimental verification of these codes has traditionally been accomplished with point data - not corresponding plane field measurements. Thus, although advanced CFD predictions of the highly complex and three-dimensional turbine flow fields are available, corresponding data are not. To improve the design capability for high temperature turbines, a detailed understanding of the highly unsteady and three-dimensional flow through multi-stage turbines is necessary. Thus, unique data are required which quantify the unsteady three-dimensional flow through multi-stage turbine blade rows, including the effect of the film coolant flow. This requires experiments in appropriate research facilities in which complete flow field data, not only point measurements, are obtained and analyzed. Also, as design CFD codes do not account for unsteady flow effects, the next logical challenge and the current thrust in CFD code development is multiple-stage analyses that account for the interactions between neighboring blade rows.

  15. Static Aerodynamic Performance Investigation of a Fluid Shield Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balan, C.; Askew, J. W.

    2005-01-01

    In pursuit of an acoustically acceptable, high performance exhaust system capable of meeting Federal Aviation Regulation 36 Stage 3 noise goals for the High Speed Civil Transport application, General Electric Aircraft Engines conducted a design study to incorporate a fluid shield into a 36-chute suppressor exhaust-nozzle system. After a full scale preliminary mechanical design of the resulting fluid shield exhaust system, scale model aerodynamic performance tests and acoustic tests were conducted to establish both aerodynamic performance and acoustic characteristics. Data are presented as thrust coefficients, discharge coefficients, chute-base pressure drags, and plug static pressure distributions.

  16. Study of aerodynamic technology for VSTOL fighter attack aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burhans, W., Jr.; Crafta, V. J., Jr.; Dannenhoffer, N.; Dellamura, F. A.; Krepski, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Vertical short takeoff aircraft capability, supersonic dash capability, and transonic agility were investigated for the development of Fighter/attack aircraft to be accommodated on ships smaller than present aircraft carriers. Topics covered include: (1) description of viable V/STOL fighter/attack configuration (a high wing, close-coupled canard, twin-engine, control configured aircraft) which meets or exceeds specified levels of vehicle performance; (2) estimates of vehicle aerodynamic characteristics and the methodology utilized to generate them; (3) description of propulsion system characteristics and vehicle mass properties; (4) identification of areas of aerodynamic uncertainty; and (5) a test program to investigate the areas of aerodynamic uncertainty in the conventional flight mode.

  17. Aerodynamic Performance of Two Variable-Pitch Fan Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. D.; Kovich, G.

    1976-01-01

    The NASA-Lewis Research Center is investigating a variety of fan stages applicable for short haul aircraft. These low-pressure-ratio low-speed fan stages may require variable-pitch rotor blades to provide optimum performance for the varied flight demands and for thrust reversal on landing. A number of the aerodynamic and structural compromises relating to the variable-pitch rotor blades are discussed. The aerodynamic performance of two variable-pitch fan stages operated at several rotor blade setting angles for both forward and reverse flow application are presented. Detailed radial surveys are presented for both forward and reverse flow.

  18. Aerodynamic performance of vertical and horizontal axis wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maydew, R. C.; Klimas, P. C.

    1981-06-01

    The aerodynamic performance of vertical and horizontal axis wind turbines is investigated, and comparison of data of the 17-m Darrieus VAWT with the 60.7-m Mod-1 HAWT and 37.8-m Mod-0A HAWT is discussed. It is concluded that the maximum average measured power coefficients of the VAWT are about 0%-15% higher than those of the HAWTs. It is suggested that vertical wind shear may have lowered the Mod-1 HAWT aerodynamic performance, but, the magnitude of this effect could not be evaluated. It is included that generalizations which refer to the Darrieus VAWT as aerodynamically less efficient than the HAWT should be used carefully.

  19. Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: Rotor Alone Aerodynamic Performance Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; Jeracki, Robert J.; Woodward, Richard P.; Miller, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of an isolated fan or rotor alone model was measured in the NASA Glenn Research Center 9- by 15- Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel as part of the Fan Broadband Source Diagnostic Test conducted at NASA Glenn. The Source Diagnostic Test was conducted to identify the noise sources within a wind tunnel scale model of a turbofan engine and quantify their contribution to the overall system noise level. The fan was part of a 1/5th scale model representation of the bypass stage of a current technology turbofan engine. For the rotor alone testing, the fan and nacelle, including the inlet, external cowl, and fixed area fan exit nozzle, were modeled in the test hardware; the internal outlet guide vanes located behind the fan were removed. Without the outlet guide vanes, the velocity at the nozzle exit changes significantly, thereby affecting the fan performance. As part of the investigation, variations in the fan nozzle area were tested in order to match as closely as possible the rotor alone performance with the fan performance obtained with the outlet guide vanes installed. The fan operating performance was determined using fixed pressure/temperature combination rakes and the corrected weight flow. The performance results indicate that a suitable nozzle exit was achieved to be able to closely match the rotor alone and fan/outlet guide vane configuration performance on the sea level operating line. A small shift in the slope of the sea level operating line was measured, which resulted in a slightly higher rotor alone fan pressure ratio at take-off conditions, matched fan performance at cutback conditions, and a slightly lower rotor alone fan pressure ratio at approach conditions. However, the small differences in fan performance at all fan conditions were considered too small to affect the fan acoustic performance.

  20. Advanced missile technology. A review of technology improvement areas for cruise missiles. [including missile design, missile configurations, and aerodynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronvich, L. L.; Liepman, H. P.

    1979-01-01

    Technology assessments in the areas of aerodynamics, propulsion, and structures and materials for cruise missile systems are discussed. The cruise missiles considered cover the full speed, altitude, and target range. The penetrativity, range, and maneuverability of the cruise missiles are examined and evaluated for performance improvements.

  1. Aerodynamic performance of flared fan nozzles used as inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, D. A.; Keith, T. G.; Kelm, G. G.

    1976-01-01

    Tests were conducted in a low speed wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic performance of several flared fan nozzles. Each of the flared nozzles was a downstream-facing inlet to a model fan that was used to simulate a variable pitch fan during reverse thrust operation. The total pressure recovery of each of the flared nozzles as well as that of an unflared nozzle and a serrated flare nozzle was obtained for comparison. The aerodynamic performance of a selected flared nozzle was considered in further detail. The nozzle surface pressures for a flared nozzle were also determined. Results indicated that the differences in aerodynamic performance among the nozzles were most apparent at the wind-tunnel-off condition. A nonzero free stream velocity significantly reduced the perforamnce of all the nozzles, and crosswind flow (free stream flow perpendicular to the model axis) further reduced the performance of the nozzles. The unflared nozzle and the serrated flare nozzle had reduced aerodynamic performance compared to a solid surface flared nozzle.

  2. Study of aerodynamic technology for VSTOL fighter/attack aircraft: Vertical attitude concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhardt, H. A.; Chen, W. S.

    1978-01-01

    The aerodynamic technology for a vertical attitude VSTOL (VATOL) supersonic fighter/attack aircraft was studied. The selected configuration features a tailless clipped delta wing with leading-edge extension (LEX), maneuvering flaps, top-side inlet, twin dry engines and vectoring nozzles. A relaxed static stability is employed in conjunction with the maneuvering flaps to optimize transonic performance and minimize supersonic trim drag. Control for subaerodynamic flight is obtained by gimballing the nozzles in combination with wing tip jets. Emphasis is placed on the development of aerodynamic characteristics and the identification of aerodynamic uncertainties. A wind tunnel test program is proposed to resolve these uncertainties and ascertain the feasibility of the conceptual design. Ship interface, flight control integration, crew station concepts, advanced weapons, avionics, and materials are discussed.

  3. Aerodynamic Performance Measurements for a Forward Swept Low Noise Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fite, E. Brian

    2006-01-01

    One source of noise in high tip speed turbofan engines, caused by shocks, is called multiple pure tone noise (MPT's). A new fan, called the Quiet High Speed Fan (QHSF), showed reduced noise over the part speed operating range, which includes MPT's. The QHSF showed improved performance in most respects relative to a baseline fan; however, a partspeed instability discovered during testing reduced the operating range below acceptable limits. The measured QHSF adiabatic efficiency on the fixed nozzle acoustic operating line was 85.1 percent and the baseline fan 82.9 percent, a 2.2 percent improvement. The operating line pressure rise at design point rotational speed and mass flow was 1.764 and 1.755 for the QHSF and baseline fan, respectively. Weight flow at design point speed was 98.28 lbm/sec for the QHSF and 97.97 lbm/sec for the baseline fan. The operability margin for the QHSF approached 0 percent at the 75 percent speed operating condition. The baseline fan maintained sufficient margin throughout the operating range as expected. Based on the stage aerodynamic measurements, this concept shows promise for improved performance over current technology if the operability limitations can be solved.

  4. Aerodynamic performance of a Wells air turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghunathan, S.; Tan, C. P.

    1983-06-01

    Experiments were performed in a unidirectional flow rig to assess the performance of the Wells self-rectifying air turbine. Results indicated that the efficiency of the turbine was very sensitive to the Reynolds number based on blade chord. Increase in Reynolds number by a factor of three resulted in an increase in peak efficiency from 37 to 60 percent. Increases in the solidity of the blade produced increases in pressure drop and power output but decreases in efficiency. The hub-to-tip ratio had only a weak influence on the turbine performance but is critical for starting conditions. It is concluded that a hub-to-tip ratio of 0.6 and a solidity of 0.6 are the most favorable values, taking into consideration both the starting and running performances.

  5. Advanced Noise Control Fan Aerodynamic Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozak, Richard F., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Noise Control Fan at the NASA Glenn Research Center is used to experimentally analyze fan generated acoustics. In order to determine how a proposed noise reduction concept affects fan performance, flow measurements can be used to compute mass flow. Since tedious flow mapping is required to obtain an accurate mass flow, an equation was developed to correlate the mass flow to inlet lip wall static pressure measurements. Once this correlation is obtained, the mass flow for future configurations can be obtained from the nonintrusive wall static pressures. Once the mass flow is known, the thrust and fan performance can be evaluated. This correlation enables fan acoustics and performance to be obtained simultaneously without disturbing the flow.

  6. Application of 3D printing technology in aerodynamic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olasek, K.; Wiklak, P.

    2014-08-01

    3D printing, as an additive process, offers much more than traditional machining techniques in terms of achievable complexity of a model shape. That fact was a motivation to adapt discussed technology as a method for creating objects purposed for aerodynamic testing. The following paper provides an overview of various 3D printing techniques. Four models of a standard NACA0018 aerofoil were manufactured in different materials and methods: MultiJet Modelling (MJM), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) and Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM). Various parameters of the models have been included in the analysis: surface roughness, strength, details quality, surface imperfections and irregularities as well as thermal properties.

  7. The aerodynamic effect of heavy rain on airplane performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D.

    1990-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has been conducting a series of tests to determine the effect of heavy rain on airfoil aerodynamics. The results of these tests have shown that heavy rain can significantly increase drag as well as decrease lift and stall angle of attack. This paper describes a recent effort to use the heavy rain airfoil data to determine the aerodynamic effect on a conventional twin-jet transport. The paper reports on the method used to model the heavy rain aerodynamic effect and the resulting performance degradation. The heavy rain performance effect is presented in terms of the diminished climb performance associated with increasing rain rates. The effect of heavy rain on the airplane's ability to escape a performance-limiting wind shear is illustrated through a numerical simulation of a wet microburst encounter. The results of this paper accentuate the need for further testing to determine scaling relationships and flow mechanics, and the full configuration three-dimensional effects of heavy rain.

  8. Aerodynamic and acoustic performance of high Mach number inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumsdaine, E.; Clark, L. R.; Cherng, J. C.; Tag, I.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental results were obtained for two types of high Mach number inlets, one with a translating centerbody and one with a fixed geometry (collapsing cowl) without centerbody. The aerodynamic and acoustic performance of these inlets was examined. The effects of several parameters such as area ratio and length-diameter ratio were investigated. The translating centerbody inlet was found to be superior to the collapsing cowl inlet both acoustically and aerodynamically, particularly for area ratios greater than 1.5. Comparison of length-diameter ratio and area ratio effects on performance near choked flow showed the latter parameter to be more significant. Also, greater high frequency noise attenuation was achieved by increasing Mach number from low to high subsonic values.

  9. Aerodynamic performance of an annular classical airfoil cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergsten, D. E.; Stauter, R. C.; Fleeter, S.

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented for a series of experiments that were performed in a large-scale subsonic annular cascade facility that was specifically designed to provide three-dimensional aerodynamic data for the verification of numerical-calculation codes. In particular, the detailed three-dimensional aerodynamic performance of a classical flat-plate airfoil cascade is determined for angles of incidence of 0, 5, and 10 deg. The resulting data are analyzed and are correlated with predictions obtained from NASA's MERIDL and TSONIC numerical programs. It is found that: (1) at 0 and 5 deg, the airfoil surface data show a good correlation with the predictions; (2) at 10 deg, the data are in fair agreement with the numerical predictions; and (3) the two-dimensional Gaussian similarity relationship is appropriate for the wake velocity profiles in the mid-span region of the airfoil.

  10. Performance characteristics of aerodynamically optimum turbines for wind energy generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohrbach, C.; Worobel, R.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents a brief discussion of the aerodynamic methodology for wind energy generator turbines, an approach to the design of aerodynamically optimum wind turbines covering a broad range of design parameters, some insight on the effect on performance of nonoptimum blade shapes which may represent lower fabrication costs, the annual wind turbine energy for a family of optimum wind turbines, and areas of needed research. On the basis of the investigation, it is concluded that optimum wind turbines show high performance over a wide range of design velocity ratios; that structural requirements impose constraints on blade geometry; that variable pitch wind turbines provide excellent power regulation and that annual energy output is insensitive to design rpm and solidity of optimum wind turbines.

  11. Technology Development for Deployable Aerodynamic Decelerators at Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masciarelli, James P.

    2002-01-01

    Parachutes used for Mars landing missions are only certified for deployment at Mars behind blunt bodies flying at low angles of attack, Mach numbers up to 2.2, and dynamic pressures of up to 800 Pa. NASA is currently studying entry vehicle concepts for future robotic missions to Mars that would require parachutes to be deployed at higher Mach numbers and dynamic pressures. This paper demonstrates the need for expanding the parachute deployment envelope, and describes a three-phase technology development activity that has been initiated to address the need. The end result of the technology development program will be a aerodynamic decelerator system that can be deployed at Mach numbers of up to 3.1 and dynamic pressures of up to 1400 Pa.

  12. Improvement of Aerodynamic Performance of the Aero-Train by Controlling Wing-Wing Interaction Using Single-Slotted Flap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Dong-Hee; Kohama, Yasuaki; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Kato, Takuma

    Aero-train is a new driving concept using aerodynamic technology under development by the Kohama Laboratory, Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University. It employs the wing-in-ground effect to enable travel at high speeds over land. Aero-train makes use of the ground effects of lift and side force between the wings and a U-shaped guideway for stability. The main wings have vertical wings at the tips, which are arranged in tandem to regulate the roll and yaw stability in the U-shaped guideway. However, the vertical wings deteriorate the lift-to-drag ratio of the Aero-train by aerodynamic interaction with the main wings. The present study was performed to improve the aerodynamic performance of the Aero-train by controlling wing-wing interaction. Installation of a single-slotted flap on the wings considerably improved the aerodynamic performance of the wings.

  13. Aerodynamic Performance of Wind Turbine with Horizontal Axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P. Q.; Zhu, J. Y.; Zhao, W. L.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, the blade arodynamic outline of a 100 kW horizontal axis wind turbine is designed based on the strip theory using low Reynolds number and high lift airfoils. A 1/34 scale model is used to investigate the aerodynamic performance of the prototype by means of wind tunnel test. Based on some similitude criterion and reasonable correction of arodynamic coefficient, the data of prototype can be deduced from the experimente data. Comparared with the theory analysis, the power output can reach the design performance.

  14. An Assessment of NASA Glenn's Aeroacoustic Experimental and Predictive Capabilities for Installed Cooling Fans. Part 1; Aerodynamic Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale E.; Koch, L. Danielle; Wernet, Mark P.; Podboy, Gary G.

    2006-01-01

    Driven by the need for low production costs, electronics cooling fans have evolved differently than the bladed components of gas turbine engines which incorporate multiple technologies to enhance performance and durability while reducing noise emissions. Drawing upon NASA Glenn's experience in the measurement and prediction of gas turbine engine aeroacoustic performance, tests have been conducted to determine if these tools and techniques can be extended for application to the aerodynamics and acoustics of electronics cooling fans. An automated fan plenum installed in NASA Glenn's Acoustical Testing Laboratory was used to map the overall aerodynamic and acoustic performance of a spaceflight qualified 80 mm diameter axial cooling fan. In order to more accurately identify noise sources, diagnose performance limiting aerodynamic deficiencies, and validate noise prediction codes, additional aerodynamic measurements were recorded for two operating points: free delivery and a mild stall condition. Non-uniformities in the fan s inlet and exhaust regions captured by Particle Image Velocimetry measurements, and rotor blade wakes characterized by hot wire anemometry measurements provide some assessment of the fan aerodynamic performance. The data can be used to identify fan installation/design changes which could enlarge the stable operating region for the fan and improve its aerodynamic performance and reduce noise emissions.

  15. Effect of Moving Surface on NACA 63218 Aerodynamic Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahiaoui, Tayeb; Belhenniche, Mohamed; Imine, Bachir

    2015-05-01

    The main subject of this work is the numerical study control of flow separation on a NACA 63218 airfoil by using moving surface. Different numerical cases are considered: the first one is the numerical simulation of non-modified airfoil NACA 63218 according at different angle of attack and the second one a set of moving cylinder is placed on leading edge of the airfoil. The rotational velocity of the cylinder is varied to establish the effect of momentum injection on modified airfoil aerodynamic performances. The turbulence is modeled by two equations k-epsilon model.

  16. Aerodynamic Design Criteria for Class 8 Heavy Vehicles Trailer Base Devices to Attain Optimum Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Salari, K; Ortega, J

    2010-12-13

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of its Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), and Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) effort has investigated class 8 tractor-trailer aerodynamics for many years. This effort has identified many drag producing flow structures around the heavy vehicles and also has designed and tested many new active and passive drag reduction techniques and concepts for significant on the road fuel economy improvements. As part of this effort a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design for aerodynamic drag reduction devices has been established. The objective of this report is to provide design guidance for trailer base devices to improve their aerodynamic performance. These devices are commonly referred to as boattails, base flaps, tail devices, and etc. The information provided here is based on past research and our most recent full-scale experimental investigations in collaboration with Navistar Inc. Additional supporting data from LLNL/Navistar wind tunnel, track test, and on the road test will be published soon. The trailer base devices can be identified by 4 flat panels that are attached to the rear edges of the trailer base to form a closed cavity. These devices have been engineered in many different forms such as, inflatable and non-inflatable, 3 and 4-sided, closed and open cavity, and etc. The following is an in-depth discussion with some recommendations, based on existing data and current research activities, of changes that could be made to these devices to improve their aerodynamic performance. There are 6 primary factors that could influence the aerodynamic performance of trailer base devices: (1) Deflection angle; (2) Boattail length; (3) Sealing of edges and corners; (4) 3 versus 4-sided, Position of the 4th plate; (5) Boattail vertical extension, Skirt - boattail transition; and (6) Closed versus open cavity.

  17. Forward flight of birds revisited. Part 1: aerodynamics and performance.

    PubMed

    Iosilevskii, G

    2014-10-01

    This paper is the first part of the two-part exposition, addressing performance and dynamic stability of birds. The aerodynamic model underlying the entire study is presented in this part. It exploits the simplicity of the lifting line approximation to furnish the forces and moments acting on a single wing in closed analytical forms. The accuracy of the model is corroborated by comparison with numerical simulations based on the vortex lattice method. Performance is studied both in tethered (as on a sting in a wind tunnel) and in free flights. Wing twist is identified as the main parameter affecting the flight performance-at high speeds, it improves efficiency, the rate of climb and the maximal level speed; at low speeds, it allows flying slower. It is demonstrated that, under most circumstances, the difference in performance between tethered and free flights is small. PMID:26064548

  18. Mean streamline aerodynamic performance analysis of centrifugal compressors

    SciTech Connect

    Aungier, R.H.

    1995-07-01

    Aerodynamic performance prediction models for centrifugal compressor impellers are presented. In combination with similar procedures for stationary components, previously published in the open literature, a comprehensive mean streamline performance analysis for centrifugal compressor stages is provided. The accuracy and versatility of the overall analysis is demonstrated for several centrifugal compressor stages of various types, including comparison with intrastage component performance data. Detailed validation of the analysis against experimental data has been accomplished for over a hundred stages, including stage flow coefficients from 0.009 to 0.15 and pressure ratios up to about 3.5. Its application to turbocharger stages includes pressure ratios up to 4.2, but with test uncertainty much greater than for the data used in the detailed validation studies.

  19. Forward flight of birds revisited. Part 1: aerodynamics and performance

    PubMed Central

    Iosilevskii, G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is the first part of the two-part exposition, addressing performance and dynamic stability of birds. The aerodynamic model underlying the entire study is presented in this part. It exploits the simplicity of the lifting line approximation to furnish the forces and moments acting on a single wing in closed analytical forms. The accuracy of the model is corroborated by comparison with numerical simulations based on the vortex lattice method. Performance is studied both in tethered (as on a sting in a wind tunnel) and in free flights. Wing twist is identified as the main parameter affecting the flight performance—at high speeds, it improves efficiency, the rate of climb and the maximal level speed; at low speeds, it allows flying slower. It is demonstrated that, under most circumstances, the difference in performance between tethered and free flights is small. PMID:26064548

  20. Potential impacts of advanced aerodynamic technology on air transportation system productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Summaries of a workshop held at NASA Langley Research Center in 1993 to explore the application of advanced aerodynamics to airport productivity improvement are discussed. Sessions included discussions of terminal area productivity problems and advanced aerodynamic technologies for enhanced high lift and reduced noise, emissions, and wake vortex hazard with emphasis upon advanced aircraft configurations and multidisciplinary solution options.

  1. Performance of SMA-reinforced composites in an aerodynamic profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, John; Boller, Christian

    2002-07-01

    Within the European collaborative applied fundamental research project ADAPT, fundamentals of SMA-reinforced composites were evaluated and the specific manufacturing techniques for these composites developed and realised. The involved partners are listed at the end. To demonstrate applicability of these composites a realistically scaled aerodynamic profile of around 0.5m span by 0.5m root chord was designed, manufactured and assembled. The curved skins were manufactured as SMA composites with two layers of SMA-wires integrated into the layup of aramid fibre prepregs. All SMA wires were connected such that they can be operated as individual sets of wires and at low voltages, similar to the conditions for electrical energy generation in a real aircraft. The profile was then mounted on a vibration test rig and activated and excited by a shaker at its tip which allowed to test the dynamic performance of the profile under different external loading conditions with various internal actuation conditions through the SMA wires. The paper includes some background of the design and manufacturing of the aerodynamic profile and will discuss some of the results determined recently on the test rig. A view with regard to future wind tunnel testing will be given as well.

  2. Aerodynamic and directional acoustic performance of a scoop inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, J. M.; Dietrich, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    Aerodynamic and directional acoustic performances of a scoop inlet were studied. The scoop inlet is designed with a portion of the lower cowling extended forward to direct upward any noise that is propagating out the front of the engine toward the ground. The tests were conducted in an anechoic wind tunnel facility at free stream velocities of 0, 18, 41, and 61 m/sec and angles of attack from -10 deg to 120 deg. Inlet throat Mach number was varied from 0.30 to 0.75. Aerodynamically, at a free stream velocity of 41 m/sec, the design throat Mach number (0.63), and an angle of attack of 50 deg, the scoop inlet total pressure recovery was 0.989 and the total pressure distortion was 0.15. The angles of attack where flow separation occurred with the scoop inlet were higher than those for a conventional symmetric inlet. Acoustically, the scoop inlet provided a maximum noise reduction of 12 to 15 db below the inlet over the entire range of throat Mach number and angle of attack at a free-stream velocity of 41 m/sec.

  3. Aerodynamic Performance Enhancement of a Finite Span Wind Turbine Blade using Synthetic Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Keith; Leong, Chia Min; Amitay, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Modern wind turbines undergo significant changes in pitch angle and structural loading through a revolution. Recent developments in flow control techniques, coupled with increased interest in green energy technologies, have led to interest in applying these techniques to wind turbines, in an effort to increase power output and reduce structural stress associated with widely varying loading. This reduction in structural stress could lead to reduced operational costs associated with the maintenance cycle. The effect of active flow control on the aerodynamic and structural aspects of finite span blade was investigated experimentally. When synthetic jets were employed the effect on aerodynamic performance and structural vibrations, during static and dynamic pitch conditions, was significant. In order to investigate if the jets can be actuated for less time (reduce their power consumption), they were actuated during only a portion of the pitch cycle or using pulse modulation. The results showed that these techniques result in significant reduction in the hysteresis loop and the structural vibrations.

  4. Aerodynamic loads and rotor performance for the Darrieus wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Paraschivoiu, I.

    1981-01-01

    Aerodynamic blade loads and rotor performance are studied for the Darrieus windmill by using a double-multiple streamtube model. The Darrieus is represented as a pair of actuator disks in tandem at each level of the rotor, with upstream and downstream half-cycles. An equilibrium velocity exists in the center plane, and the upwind velocity is higher than the downwind velocity lift and drag coefficients are calculated from the Reynolds number and the local angle of attack. Half-rotor torque and power are found by averaging the contributions from each streamtube at each position of the rotor in the upwind cycle. An example is provided for a 17 m Darrieus employing NACA blades. While the method is found to be suitable for predicting blade and rotor performance, the need to incorporate the effects of dynamic stall in the model is stressed as a means to improve accuracy.

  5. Aeroacoustics and aerodynamic performance of a rotor with flatback airfoils.

    SciTech Connect

    Paquette, Joshua A.; Barone, Matthew Franklin; Christiansen, Monica; Simley, Eric

    2010-06-01

    The aerodynamic performance and aeroacoustic noise sources of a rotor employing flatback airfoils have been studied in field test campaign and companion modeling effort. The field test measurements of a sub-scale rotor employing nine meter blades include both performance measurements and acoustic measurements. The acoustic measurements are obtained using a 45 microphone beamforming array, enabling identification of both noise source amplitude and position. Semi-empirical models of flatback airfoil blunt trailing edge noise are developed and calibrated using available aeroacoustic wind tunnel test data. The model results and measurements indicate that flatback airfoil noise is less than drive train noise for the current test turbine. It is also demonstrated that the commonly used Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini model for blunt trailing edge noise may be over-conservative in predicting flatback airfoil noise for wind turbine applications.

  6. Aerodynamic Performance of Scale-Model Turbofan Outlet Guide Vanes Designed for Low Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.

    2001-01-01

    The design of effective new technologies to reduce aircraft propulsion noise is dependent on an understanding of the noise sources and noise generation mechanisms in the modern turbofan engine. In order to more fully understand the physics of noise in a turbofan engine, a comprehensive aeroacoustic wind tunnel test programs was conducted called the 'Source Diagnostic Test.' The text was cooperative effort between NASA and General Electric Aircraft Engines, as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program. A 1/5-scale model simulator representing the bypass stage of a current technology high bypass ratio turbofan engine was used in the test. The test article consisted of the bypass fan and outlet guide vanes in a flight-type nacelle. The fan used was a medium pressure ratio design with 22 individual, wide chord blades. Three outlet guide vane design configurations were investigated, representing a 54-vane radial Baseline configuration, a 26-vane radial, wide chord Low Count configuration and a 26-vane, wide chord Low Noise configuration with 30 deg of aft sweep. The test was conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center 9 by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at velocities simulating the takeoff and approach phases of the aircraft flight envelope. The Source Diagnostic Test had several acoustic and aerodynamic technical objectives: (1) establish the performance of a scale model fan selected to represent the current technology turbofan product; (2) assess the performance of the fan stage with each of the three distinct outlet guide vane designs; (3) determine the effect of the outlet guide vane configuration on the fan baseline performance; and (4) conduct detailed flowfield diagnostic surveys, both acoustic and aerodynamic, to characterize and understand the noise generation mechanisms in a turbofan engine. This paper addresses the fan and stage aerodynamic performance results from the Source Diagnostic Test.

  7. Assessment of aerodynamic performance of V/STOL and STOVL fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, W. P.

    1984-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of V/STOL and STOVL fighter/attack aircraft was assessed. Aerodynamic and propulsion/airframe integration activities are described and small-and large-scale research programs are considered. Uncertainties affecting aerodynamic performance that are associated with special configuration features resulting from the V/STOL requirement are addressed. Example uncertainties related to minimum drag, wave drag, high angle of attack characteristics, and power-induced effects. Engine design configurations from several aircraft manufacturers are reviewed.

  8. Assessment of aerodynamic performance of V/STOL and STOVL fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, W. P.

    1984-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of V/STOL and STOVL fighter/attack aircraft was assessed. Aerodynamic and propulsion/airframe integration activities are described and small and large scale research programs are considered. Uncertainties affecting aerodynamic performance that are associated with special configuration features resulting from the V/STOL requirement are addressed. Example uncertainties relate to minimum drag, wave drag, high angle of attack characteristics, and power induced effects.

  9. A Survey of Challenges in Aerodynamic Exhaust Nozzle Technology for Aerospace Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyne, Rickey J.

    2002-01-01

    The current paper discusses aerodynamic exhaust nozzle technology challenges for aircraft and space propulsion systems. Technology advances in computational and experimental methods have led to more accurate design and analysis tools, but many major challenges continue to exist in nozzle performance, jet noise and weight reduction. New generations of aircraft and space vehicle concepts dictate that exhaust nozzles have optimum performance, low weight and acceptable noise signatures. Numerous innovative nozzle concepts have been proposed for advanced subsonic, supersonic and hypersonic vehicle configurations such as ejector, mixer-ejector, plug, single expansion ramp, altitude compensating, lobed and chevron nozzles. This paper will discuss the technology barriers that exist for exhaust nozzles as well as current research efforts in place to address the barriers.

  10. Two-stage, low noise advanced technology fan. Volume 2: Aerodynamic data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harley, K. G.; Odegard, P. A.

    1975-01-01

    Aerodynamic data from static tests of a two-stage advanced technology fan designed to minimize noise are presented. Fan design conditions include delivery of 209.1kg/sec/sq m (42.85 lbm/sec/sq ft) specific corrected flow at an overall pressure ratio of 1.9 and an adiabatic efficiency of 85.3 percent. The 0.836m (2.74ft) diameter first stage rotor has a hub/tip ratio of 0.4 and 365.8m/sec (1200ft/sec) design tip speed. In addition to the moderate tip speed and pressure rise per stage, other noise control design features involve widely spaced blade rows and proper selection of blade-vane ratios. Aerodynamic data are presented for tests with unifrom and with hub and tip radially distorted inlet flow. Aerodynamic data are also presented for tests of this fan with acoustic treatments, including acoustically treated casing walls, a flowpath exit acoustic ring, and a translating centerbody sonic inlet device. A complete tabulation of the overall performance data, the blade element data, and the power spectral density information relating to turbulence levels generated by the sonic inlet obtained during these tests is included. For vol. 1, see N74-33789.

  11. The Benchmark Active Controls Technology Model Aerodynamic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Robert C.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.; Wieseman, Carol D.; Durham, Michael H.

    1997-01-01

    The Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) model is a part of the Benchmark Models Program (BMP). The BMP is a NASA Langley Research Center program that includes a series of models which were used to study different aeroelastic phenomena and to validate computational fluid dynamics codes. The primary objective of BACT testing was to obtain steady and unsteady loads, accelerations, and aerodynamic pressures due to control surface activity in order to calibrate unsteady CFD codes and active control design tools. Three wind-tunnel tests in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) have been completed. The first and parts of the second and third tests focused on collecting open-loop data to define the model's aeroservoelastic characteristics, including the flutter boundary across the Mach range. It is this data that is being presented in this paper. An extensive database of over 3000 data sets was obtained. This database includes steady and unsteady control surface effectiveness data, including pressure distributions, control surface hinge moments, and overall model loads due to deflections of a trailing edge control surface and upper and lower surface

  12. Aerodynamic performance prediction of horizontal axis wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, D. R.; Keith, T. G.; Aliakbarkhanafjeh, A.

    1981-01-01

    A new method for calculating the aerodynamic performance of horizontal axis wind turbines is described. The method, entitled the helical vortex method, directly calculates the local induced velocity due to helical vortices that originate at the rotor blade. Furthermore, the method does not require a specified circulation distribution. Results of the method are compared to similar results obtained from Wilson PROP code methods as well as to existing experimental data taken from a Mod-O wind turbine. It is shown that results of the proposed method agree well with experimental values of the power output both near cut-in and at rated wind speeds. Further, it is found that the method does not experience some of the numerical difficulties encountered by the PROP code when run at low wind velocities.

  13. Aerodynamic performance of osculating-cones waveriders at high altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Rick Evan

    The steady-state aerodynamic characteristics of three-dimensional waverider configurations immersed in hypersonic rarefied flows are investigated. Representative geometries are generated using an inverse design procedure, the method of osculating cones, which defines an exit plane shock shape and approximates the flow properties of the compression surface by assuming that each spanwise station along the shock profile lies within a region of locally conical flow. Vehicle surface and flow field properties are predicted using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method, a probabilistic numerical scheme in which simulated molecules are followed through representative collisions with each other and solid surfaces, and subsequent deterministic displacement. The aerodynamic properties of high- and low-Reynolds number waverider geometries, optimized for maximum lift-to-drag ratio and subject to mission-oriented constraints, are contrasted with results from reference caret and delta wings with similar internal volumes to quantify the relevance and advantage of the waverider concept at high altitudes. The high-Reynolds number waverider, optimized for the continuum regime at Minfinity = 4 and Reinfinity = 250 million, was the focus of recent wind tunnel testing for near on-design and off-design conditions, including low subsonic speeds. The present work extends the previous analyses into the high-altitude regime. The low-Reynolds number waverider, optimized at Minfinity = 20 and Reinfinity = 2.5 million, is studied to determine if optimization potential exists for a high-Mach number waverider at high altitudes. A characteristic length of 5 m is assumed for both waverider configurations, representative of a hypersonic missile concept. The geometries are aerodynamically evaluated over a parametric space consisting of an altitude variation of 95 km to 150 km and an angle of attack range of --5° to 10°. The effect of off-design Mach number on the performance of the high

  14. Study of aerodynamic technology for VSTOL fighter/attack aircraft, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driggers, H. H.

    1978-01-01

    A conceptual design study was performed of a vertical attitude takeoff and landing (VATOL) fighter/attack aircraft. The configuration has a close-coupled canard-delta wing, side two-dimensional ramp inlets, and two augmented turbofan engines with thrust vectoring capability. Performance and sensitivities to objective requirements were calculated. Aerodynamic characteristics were estimated based on contractor and NASA wind tunnel data. Computer simulations of VATOL transitions were performed. Successful transitions can be made, even with series post-stall instabilities, if reaction controls are properly phased. Principal aerodynamic uncertainties identified were post-stall aerodynamics, transonic aerodynamics with thrust vectoring and inlet performance in VATOL transition. A wind tunnel research program was recommended to resolve the aerodynamic uncertainties.

  15. Investigation of Injector Slot Geometry on Curved-Diffuser Aerodynamic Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Odlanier

    2004-01-01

    The Compressor Branch vision is to be recognized as world-class leaders in research for fluid mechanics of compressors. Its mission is to conduct research and develop technology to advance the state of the art of compressors and transfer new technology to U.S. industries. Maintain partnerships with U.S. industries, universities, and other government organizations. Maintain a balance between customers focused and long range research. Flow control comprises enabling technologies to meet compression system performance requirements driven by emissions and fuel reduction goals (e.g., in UEET), missions (e.g., access-to-space), aerodynamically aggressive vehicle configurations (e.g., UAV and future blended wing body configurations with highly distorted inlets), and cost goals (e.g., in VAATE). The compression system requirements include increased efficiency, power-to-weight, and adaptability (i.e., robustness in terms of wide operability, distortion tolerance, and engine system health and reliability). The compressor flow control task comprises efforts to develop, demonstrate, and transfer adaptive flow control technology to industry to increase aerodynamic loading at current blade row loss levels, to enable adaptive1 y wide operability, and to develop plant models for adaptive compression systems. In this context, flow control is the controlled modification of a flow field by a deliberate means beyond the natural (uncontrolled) shaping of the solid surfaces that define the principal flow path. The objective of the compressor flow control task is to develop and apply techniques that control circulation, aerodynamic blockage, and entropy production in order to enhance the performance and operability of compression systems for advanced aero-propulsion applications. This summer I would be working with a curved-diffuser because it simulates what happens with flow in the stator blades in the compressor. With this experiment I will be doing some data analysis and parametric

  16. Aerodynamic Performance Predictions of Single and Twin Jet Afterbodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, John R.; Pao, S. Paul; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Jones, William T.

    1995-01-01

    The multiblock three-dimensional Navier-Stokes method PAB3D was utilized by the Component Integration Branch (formerly Propulsion Aerodynamics Branch) at the NASA-Langley Research Center in an international study sponsored by AGARD Working Group #17 for the assessment of the state-of-the-art of propulsion-airframe integration testing techniques and CFD prediction technologies. Three test geometries from ONERA involving fundamental flow physics and four geometries from NASA-LaRC involving realistic flow interactions of wing, body, tail, and jet plumes were chosen by the Working Group. An overview of results on four (1 ONERA and 3 LaRC) of the seven test cases is presented. External static pressures, integrated pressure drag and total drag were calculated for the Langley test cases and jet plume velocity profiles and turbulent viscous stresses were calculated for the ONERA test case. Only selected data from these calculations are presented in this paper. The complete data sets calculated by the participants will be presented in an AGARD summary report. Predicted surface static pressures compared favorably with experimental data for the Langley geometries. Predicted afterbody drag compared well with experiment. Predicted nozzle drag was typically low due to over-compression of the flow near the trailing edge. Total drag was typically high. Predicted jet plume quantities on the ONERA case compared generally well with data.

  17. Design and aerodynamic performance evaluation of a high-work mixed flow turbine stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neri, Remo N.; Elliott, Thomas J.; Marsh, David N.; Civinskas, Kestutis C.

    1994-01-01

    As axial and radial turbine designs have been pushed to their aerothermodynamic and mechanical limits, the mixed-flow turbine (MFT) concept has been projected to offer performance and durability improvements, especially when ceramic materials are considered. The objective of this NASA/U.S. Army sponsored mixed-flow turbine (AMFT) program was to determine the level of performance attainable with MFT technology within the mechanical constraints of 1997 projected ceramic material properties. The MFT geometry is similar to a radial turbine, exhibiting a large radius change from inlet to exit, but differing in that the inlet flowpath is not purely radial, nor axial, but mixed; it is the inlet geometry that gives rise to the name 'mixed-flow'. The 'mixed' orientation of the turbine inlet offers several advantages over radial designs by allowing a nonzero inlet blade angle yet maintaining radial-element blades. The oblique inlet not only improves the particle-impact survivability of the design, but improves the aerodynamic performance by reducing the incidence at the blade inlet. The difficulty, however, of using mixed-flow geometry lies in the scarcity of detailed data and documented design experience. This paper reports the design of a MFT stage designed with the intent to maximize aerodynamic performance by optimizing design parameters such as stage reaction, rotor incidence, flowpath shape, blade shape, vane geometry, and airfoil counts using 2-D, 3-D inviscid, and 3-D viscous computational fluid dynamics code. The aerodynamic optimization was accomplished while maintaining mechanical integrity with respect to vibration and stress levels in the rotor. A full-scale cold-flow rig test was performed with metallic hardware fabricated to the specifications of the hot ceramic geometry to evaluate the stage performance.

  18. Effects of wing deformation on aerodynamic performance of a revolving insect wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Ryusuke; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Liu, Hao

    2014-12-01

    Flexible wings of insects and bio-inspired micro air vehicles generally deform remarkably during flapping flight owing to aerodynamic and inertial forces, which is of highly nonlinear fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems. To elucidate the novel mechanisms associated with flexible wing aerodynamics in the low Reynolds number regime, we have built up a FSI model of a hawkmoth wing undergoing revolving and made an investigation on the effects of flexible wing deformation on aerodynamic performance of the revolving wing model. To take into account the characteristics of flapping wing kinematics we designed a kinematic model for the revolving wing in two-fold: acceleration and steady rotation, which are based on hovering wing kinematics of hawkmoth, Manduca sexta. Our results show that both aerodynamic and inertial forces demonstrate a pronounced increase during acceleration phase, which results in a significant wing deformation. While the aerodynamic force turns to reduce after the wing acceleration terminates due to the burst and detachment of leading-edge vortices (LEVs), the dynamic wing deformation seem to delay the burst of LEVs and hence to augment the aerodynamic force during and even after the acceleration. During the phase of steady rotation, the flexible wing model generates more vertical force at higher angles of attack (40°-60°) but less horizontal force than those of a rigid wing model. This is because the wing twist in spanwise owing to aerodynamic forces results in a reduction in the effective angle of attack at wing tip, which leads to enhancing the aerodynamics performance by increasing the vertical force while reducing the horizontal force. Moreover, our results point out the importance of the fluid-structure interaction in evaluating flexible wing aerodynamics: the wing deformation does play a significant role in enhancing the aerodynamic performances but works differently during acceleration and steady rotation, which is mainly induced by

  19. Aerodynamic configuration development of the highly maneuverable aircraft technology remotely piloted research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gingrich, P. B.; Child, R. D.; Panageas, G. N.

    1977-01-01

    The aerodynamic development of the highly maneuverable aircraft technology remotely piloted research vehicle (HiMAT/RPRV) from the conceptual design to the final configuration is presented. The design integrates several advanced concepts to achieve a high degree of transonic maneuverability, and was keyed to sustained maneuverability goals while other fighter typical performance characteristics were maintained. When tests of the baseline configuration indicated deficiencies in the technology integration and design techniques, the vehicle was reconfigured to satisfy the subcritical and supersonic requirements. Drag-due-to-lift levels only 5 percent higher than the optimum were obtained for the wind tunnel model at a lift coefficient of 1 for Mach numbers of up to 0.8. The transonic drag rise was progressively lowered with the application of nonlinear potential flow analyses coupled with experimental data.

  20. Advancements in adaptive aerodynamic technologies for airfoils and wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jepson, Jeffrey Keith

    Although aircraft operate over a wide range of flight conditions, current fixed-geometry aircraft are optimized for only a few of these conditions. By altering the shape of the aircraft, adaptive aerodynamics can be used to increase the safety and performance of an aircraft by tailoring the aircraft for multiple flight conditions. Of the various shape adaptation concepts currently being studied, the use of multiple trailing-edge flaps along the span of a wing offers a relatively high possibility of being incorporated on aircraft in the near future. Multiple trailing-edge flaps allow for effective spanwise camber adaptation with resulting drag benefits over a large speed range and load alleviation at high-g conditions. The research presented in this dissertation focuses on the development of this concept of using trailing-edge flaps to tailor an aircraft for multiple flight conditions. One of the major tasks involved in implementing trailing-edge flaps is in designing the airfoil to incorporate the flap. The first part of this dissertation presents a design formulation that incorporates aircraft performance considerations in the inverse design of low-speed laminar-flow adaptive airfoils with trailing-edge cruise flaps. The benefit of using adaptive airfoils is that the size of the low-drag region of the drag polar can be effectively increased without increasing the maximum thickness of the airfoil. Two aircraft performance parameters are considered: level-flight maximum speed and maximum range. It is shown that the lift coefficients for the lower and upper corners of the airfoil low-drag range can be appropriately adjusted to tailor the airfoil for these two aircraft performance parameters. The design problem is posed as a part of a multidimensional Newton iteration in an existing conformal-mapping based inverse design code, PROFOIL. This formulation automatically adjusts the lift coefficients for the corners of the low-drag range for a given flap deflection as

  1. Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Englar

    2000-06-19

    Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design of an efficient blown tractor-trailer configuration. Recent experimental results obtained by GTRI using blowing have shown drag reductions of 35% on a streamlined automobile wind-tunnel model. Also measured were lift or down-load increases of 100-150% and the ability to control aerodynamic moments about all 3 axes without any moving control surfaces. Similar drag reductions yielded by blowing on bluff afterbody trailers in current US trucking fleet operations are anticipated to reduce yearly fuel consumption by more than 1.2 billion gallons, while even further reduction is possible using pneumatic lift to reduce tire rolling resistance. Conversely, increased drag and down force generated instantaneously by blowing can greatly increase braking characteristics and control in wet/icy weather due to effective ''weight'' increases on the tires. Safety is also enhanced by controlling side loads and moments caused on these Heavy Vehicles by winds, gusts and other vehicles passing. This may also help to eliminate the jack-knifing problem if caused by extreme wind side loads on the trailer. Lastly, reduction of the turbulent wake behind the trailer can reduce splash and spray patterns and rough air being experienced by following vehicles. To be presented by GTRI in this paper will be results developed during the early portion of this effort, including a preliminary systems study, CFD prediction of the blown flowfields, and design of the baseline conventional tractor-trailer model and the pneumatic wind-tunnel model.

  2. Advanced Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, Handling, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Englar

    2001-05-14

    Research is being conducted at the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) to develop advanced aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability, handling and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles by using previously-developed and flight-tested pneumatic (blown) aircraft technology. Recent wind-tunnel investigations of a generic Heavy Vehicle model with blowing slots on both the leading and trailing edges of the trailer have been conducted under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. These experimental results show overall aerodynamic drag reductions on the Pneumatic Heavy Vehicle of 50% using only 1 psig blowing pressure in the plenums, and over 80% drag reductions if additional blowing air were available. Additionally, an increase in drag force for braking was confirmed by blowing different slots. Lift coefficient was increased for rolling resistance reduction by blowing only the top slot, while downforce was produced for traction increase by blowing only the bottom. Also, side force and yawing moment were generated on either side of the vehicle, and directional stability was restored by blowing the appropriate side slot. These experimental results and the predicted full-scale payoffs are presented in this paper, as is a discussion of additional applications to conventional commercial autos, buses, motor homes, and Sport Utility Vehicles.

  3. Effect of Trailing Edge Flow Injection on Fan Noise and Aerodynamic Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fite, E. Brian; Woodward, Richard P.; Podboy, Gary G.

    2006-01-01

    An experimental investigation using trailing edge blowing for reducing fan rotor/guide vane wake interaction noise was completed in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel. Data were acquired to measure noise, aerodynamic performance, and flow features for a 22" tip diameter fan representative of modern turbofan technology. The fan was designed to use trailing edge blowing to reduce the fan blade wake momentum deficit. The test objective was to quantify noise reductions, measure impacts on fan aerodynamic performance, and document the flow field using hot-film anemometry. Measurements concentrated on approach, cutback, and takeoff rotational speeds as those are the primary conditions of acoustic interest. Data are presented for a 2% (relative to overall fan flow) trailing edge injection rate and show a 2 dB reduction in Overall Sound Power Level (OAPWL) at all fan test speeds. The reduction in broadband noise is nearly constant and is approximately 1.5 dB up to 20 kHz at all fan speeds. Measurements of tone noise show significant variation, as evidenced by reductions of up to 6 dB in the 2 BPF tone at 6700 rpm.: and increases of nearly 2 dB for the 4 BPF tone at approach speed. Aerodynamic performance measurements show the fan with 2 % injection has an overall efficiency that is comparable to the baseline fan and operates, as intended, with nearly the same pressure ratio and mass flow parameters. Hot-film measurements obtained at the approach operating condition indicate that mean blade wake filling in the tip region was not as significant as expected. This suggests that additional acoustic benefits could be realized if the trailing edge blowing could be modified to provide better filling of the wake momentum deficit. Nevertheless, the hot-film measurements indicate that the trailing edge blowing provided significant reductions in blade wake turbulence. Overall, these results indicate that further work may be required to fully understand the proper

  4. Impact of Aerodynamics and Structures Technology on Heavy Lift Tiltrotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Rotor performance and aeroelastic stability are presented for a 124,000-lb Large Civil Tilt Rotor (LCTR) design. It was designed to carry 120 passengers for 1200 nm, with performance of 350 knots at 30,000 ft altitude. Design features include a low-mounted wing and hingeless rotors, with a very low cruise tip speed of 350 ft/sec. The rotor and wing design processes are described, including rotor optimization methods and wing/rotor aeroelastic stability analyses. New rotor airfoils were designed specifically for the LCTR; the resulting performance improvements are compared to current technology airfoils. Twist, taper and precone optimization are presented, along with the effects of blade flexibility on performance. A new wing airfoil was designed and a composite structure was developed to meet the wing load requirements for certification. Predictions of aeroelastic stability are presented for the optimized rotor and wing, along with summaries of the effects of rotor design parameters on stability.

  5. Computations of Aerodynamic Performance Databases Using Output-Based Refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemec, Marian; Aftosmis, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Handle complex geometry problems; Control discretization errors via solution-adaptive mesh refinement; Focus on aerodynamic databases of parametric and optimization studies: 1. Accuracy: satisfy prescribed error bounds 2. Robustness and speed: may require over 105 mesh generations 3. Automation: avoid user supervision Obtain "expert meshes" independent of user skill; and Run every case adaptively in production settings.

  6. Building Integrated Active Flow Control: Improving the Aerodynamic Performance of Tall Buildings Using Fluid-Based Aerodynamic Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menicovich, David

    By 2050 an estimated 9 billion people will inhabit planet earth and almost all the growth in the next 40 years will be in urban areas putting tremendous pressure on creating sustainable cities. The rapid increase in population, rise in land value and decrease in plot sizes in cities around the world positions tall or more importantly slender buildings as the best suited building typology to address the increasingly critical demand for space in this pressing urbanization trend. However, the majority of new tall building urban developments have not followed principles of environmental and/or sustainable design and incentives to innovate, both technological and economic, are urgently required. The biggest climatic challenge to the design, construction and performance of tall buildings is wind sensitivity. This challenge is further emphasized seeing two market driven trends: on one hand as urban population grows, land value rises while plot sizes decrease; on the other, more cost effective modular construction techniques are introducing much lighter tall building structures. The combination of the two suggests a potential increase in the slenderness ratio of tall buildings (typically less than 6:1 but stretching to 20:1 in the near future) where not-so-tall but much lighter buildings will be the bulk of new construction in densely populated cities, providing affordable housing in the face of fast urbanization but also introducing wind sensitivity which was previously the problem of a very limited number of super tall buildings to a much larger number of buildings and communities. The proposed research aims to investigate a novel approach to the interaction between tall buildings and their environment. Through this approach the research proposes a new relationship between buildings and the flows around, through and inside them, where buildings could adapt to better control and manage the air flow around them, and consequently produce significant opportunities to reduce

  7. Experimental quiet engine program aerodynamic performance of Fan C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giffin, R. G.; Parker, D. E.; Dunbar, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    This report presents the aerodynamic component test results of Fan C, a high-bypass-ratio, low-aerodynamic-loading, 1550 feet per second (472.4 m/sec), single-stage fan, which was designed and tested as part of the NASA Experimental Quiet Engine Program. The fan was designed to deliver a bypass pressure ratio of 1.60 with an adiabatic efficiency of 84.2 percent at a total fan flow of 915 lb/sec (415.0 kg/sec). It was tested with and without inlet distortion. A bypass total-pressure ratio of 1.61 and an adiabatic efficiency of 83.9 percent at a total fan flow of 921 lb/sec (417.8 kg/sec) were actually achieved. An operating margin in excess of 14.6 percent was demonstrated at design speed.

  8. Aerodynamic Performance and Turbulence Measurements in a Turbine Vane Cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Robert J.; Lucci, Barbara L.; Senyitko, Richard G.

    2002-01-01

    Turbine vane aerodynamics were measured in a three vane linear cascade. Surface pressures and blade row losses were obtained over a range of Reynolds and Mach number for three levels of turbulence. Comparisons are made with predictions using a quasi-3D Navier-Stokes analysis. Turbulence intensity measurement were made upstream and downstream of the vane. The purpose of the downstream measurements was to determine how the turbulence was affected by the strong contraction through 75 deg turning.

  9. Research status on aerodynamic interference effects of wind-resistant performance of pylon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, Shengli; Lu, Yu; Wang, Dongwei; Chen, Huai

    2011-04-01

    The aerodynamic interference effects of wind-resistant performance for pylon is one of very important problems in numerical simulation studies of wind resistant of bridges. On the basis of looking through a great deal of related literatures at home and abroad, research history, contents, method and achievements of the aerodynamic interference effects are summarized, and the existing problem for galloping, buffeting and vortex-induced vibration of pylon and directions for the next research are pointed out.

  10. Aerodynamic and performance characterization of supersonic retropropulsion for application to planetary entry and descent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzun, Ashley M.

    shock layer of a blunt body in supersonic flow. Although numerous wind tunnel tests of relevance to SRP have been conducted, the scope of the work is limited in the freestream conditions and composition, retropropulsion conditions and composition, and configurations and geometries explored. The SRP aerodynamic - propulsive interaction alters the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle, and models must be developed that accurately represent the impact of SRP on system mass and performance. Work within this thesis has defined and advanced the state of the art for supersonic retropropulsion. This has been achieved through the application of systems analysis, computational analysis, and analytical methods. The contributions of this thesis include a detailed performance analysis and exploration of the design space specific to supersonic retropropulsion, establishment of the relationship between vehicle performance and the aerodynamic - propulsive interaction, and an assessment of the required fidelity and computational cost in simulating supersonic retropropulsion flowfields, with emphasis on the effort required to develop aerodynamic databases for conceptual design.

  11. Study of aerodynamic technology for single-cruise engine V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driggers, H. H.; Powers, S. A.; Roush, R. T.

    1982-01-01

    A conceptual design analysis is performed on a single engine V/STOL supersonic fighter/attack concept powered by a series flow tandem fan propulsion system. Forward and aft mounted fans have independent flow paths for V/STOL operation and series flow in high speed flight. Mission, combat and V/STOL performance is calculated. Detailed aerodynamic estimates are made and aerodynamic uncertainties associated with the configuration and estimation methods identified. A wind tunnel research program is developed to resolve principal uncertainties and establish a data base for the baseline configuration and parametric variations.

  12. Study of aerodynamic technology for single-cruise-engine V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mark, L.

    1982-01-01

    Conceptual designs and analyses were conducted on two V/STOL supersonic fighter/attack aircraft. These aircraft feature low footprint temperature and pressure thrust augmenting ejectors in the wings for vertical lift, combined with a low wing loading, low wave drag airframe for outstanding cruise and supersonic performance. Aerodynamic, propulsion, performance, and mass properties were determined and are presented for each aircraft. Aerodynamic and Aero/Propulsion characteristics having the most significant effect on the success of the up and away flight mode were identified, and the certainty with which they could be predicted was defined. A wind tunnel model and test program are recommended to resolve the identified uncertainties.

  13. Performance Technology Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison, Roger M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a performance technology landscape that has been developed for performance improvement institutes. Defines performance technology, including identification of value; definition of outcomes; performance analysis; valuation of effectiveness; focusing on results; systemic approach; adding value; aligning workers, activity, the organization,…

  14. Technology Performance Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-01

    To address the need for accessible, high-quality data, the Department of Energy has developed the Technology Performance Exchange (TPEx). TPEx enables technology suppliers, third-party testing laboratories, and other entities to share product performance data. These data are automatically transformed into a format that technology evaluators can easily use in their energy modeling assessments to inform procurement decisions.

  15. Aerodynamic Characterization of a Thin, High-Performance Airfoil for Use in Ground Fluids Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Lee, Sam; Clark, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The FAA has worked with Transport Canada and others to develop allowance times for aircraft operating in ice-pellet precipitation. Wind-tunnel testing has been carried out to better understand the flowoff characteristics and resulting aerodynamic effects of anti-icing fluids contaminated with ice pellets using a thin, high-performance wing section at the National Research Council of Canada Propulsion and Icing Wind Tunnel. The objective of this paper is to characterize the aerodynamic behavior of this wing section in order to better understand the adverse aerodynamic effects of anti-icing fluids and ice-pellet contamination. Aerodynamic performance data, boundary-layer surveys and flow visualization were conducted at a Reynolds number of approximately 6.0 x 10(exp 6) and a Mach number of 0.12. The clean, baseline model exhibited leading-edge stall characteristics including a leading-edge laminar separation bubble and minimal or no separation on the trailing edge of the main element or flap. These results were consistent with expected 2-D aerodynamics and showed no anomalies that could adversely affect the evaluation of anti-icing fluids and ice-pellet contamination on the wing. Tests conducted with roughness and leading-edge flow disturbances helped to explain the aerodynamic impact of the anti-icing fluids and contamination. The stalling characteristics of the wing section with fluid and contamination appear to be driven at least partially by the effects of a secondary wave of fluid that forms near the leading edge as the wing is rotated in the simulated takeoff profile. These results have provided a much more complete understanding of the adverse aerodynamic effects of anti-icing fluids and ice-pellet contamination on this wing section. This is important since these results are used, in part, to develop the ice-pellet allowance times that are applicable to many different airplanes.

  16. Aerodynamic Characterization of a Thin, High-Performance Airfoil for Use in Ground Fluids Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Lee, Sam; Clark, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The FAA has worked with Transport Canada and others to develop allowance times for aircraft operating in ice-pellet precipitation. Wind-tunnel testing has been carried out to better understand the flowoff characteristics and resulting aerodynamic effects of anti-icing fluids contaminated with ice pellets using a thin, high-performance wing section at the National Research Council of Canada Propulsion and Icing Wind Tunnel. The objective of this paper is to characterize the aerodynamic behavior of this wing section in order to better understand the adverse aerodynamic effects of anti-icing fluids and ice-pellet contamination. Aerodynamic performance data, boundary-layer surveys and flow visualization were conducted at a Reynolds number of approximately 6.0×10(exp 6) and a Mach number of 0.12. The clean, baseline model exhibited leading-edge stall characteristics including a leading-edge laminar separation bubble and minimal or no separation on the trailing edge of the main element or flap. These results were consistent with expected 2-D aerodynamics and showed no anomalies that could adversely affect the evaluation of anti-icing fluids and ice-pellet contamination on the wing. Tests conducted with roughness and leading-edge flow disturbances helped to explain the aerodynamic impact of the anti-icing fluids and contamination. The stalling characteristics of the wing section with fluid and contamination appear to be driven at least partially by the effects of a secondary wave of fluid that forms near the leading edge as the wing is rotated in the simulated takeoff profile. These results have provided a much more complete understanding of the adverse aerodynamic effects of anti-icing fluids and ice-pellet contamination on this wing section. This is important since these results are used, in part, to develop the ice-pellet allowance times that are applicable to many different airplanes.

  17. An analysis for high speed propeller-nacelle aerodynamic performance prediction. Volume 2: User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egolf, T. Alan; Anderson, Olof L.; Edwards, David E.; Landgrebe, Anton J.

    1988-01-01

    A user's manual for the computer program developed for the prediction of propeller-nacelle aerodynamic performance reported in, An Analysis for High Speed Propeller-Nacelle Aerodynamic Performance Prediction: Volume 1 -- Theory and Application, is presented. The manual describes the computer program mode of operation requirements, input structure, input data requirements and the program output. In addition, it provides the user with documentation of the internal program structure and the software used in the computer program as it relates to the theory presented in Volume 1. Sample input data setups are provided along with selected printout of the program output for one of the sample setups.

  18. Aerodynamic Characteristics and Glide-Back Performance of Langley Glide-Back Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamadi, Bandu N.; Covell, Peter F.; Tartabini, Paul V.; Murphy, Kelly J.

    2004-01-01

    NASA-Langley Research Center is conducting system level studies on an-house concept of a small launch vehicle to address NASA's needs for rapid deployment of small payloads to Low Earth Orbit. The vehicle concept is a three-stage system with a reusable first stage and expendable upper stages. The reusable first stage booster, which glides back to launch site after staging around Mach 3 is named the Langley Glide-Back Booster (LGBB). This paper discusses the aerodynamic characteristics of the LGBB from subsonic to supersonic speeds, development of the aerodynamic database and application of this database to evaluate the glide back performance of the LGBB. The aerodynamic database was assembled using a combination of wind tunnel test data and engineering level analysis. The glide back performance of the LGBB was evaluated using a trajectory optimization code and subject to constraints on angle of attack, dynamic pressure and normal acceleration.

  19. Geometry effects on aerodynamics performance of a low aspect ratio turbine nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Naixing; Zhang, Hongwu; Xu, Yanji; Huang, Weiguang

    2004-11-01

    This paper describes the influence of some geometric parameters on aerodynamics performance of a low-aspect-ratio turbine blading designed by a novel method developed at the Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This is a part of the study on aerodynamics optimization of turbomachinery. It follows the development of the basic ideas in the turbomachinery aerodynamics research project at the institute. The present paper concentrates mainly on the effects of geometry, such as stagger angle, leading and trailing edge thickness, maximum thickness and its location on adiabatic efficiency, total pressure ratio and mass flow rate. The study was performed and assessed for a low-aspect ratio turbine nozzle using 3D steady Reynolds-averaged N.S. solver. Using the knowledge of the flow physics analysis an optimized turbine nozzle was obtained.

  20. Analysis and Improvement of Aerodynamic Performance of Straight Bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi-Baloutaki, Mojtaba

    Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) with straight blades are attractive for their relatively simple structure and aerodynamic performance. Their commercialization, however, still encounters many challenges. A series of studies were conducted in the current research to improve the VAWTs design and enhance their aerodynamic performance. First, an efficient design methodology built on an existing analytical approach is presented to formulate the design parameters influencing a straight bladed-VAWT (SB-VAWT) aerodynamic performance and determine the optimal range of these parameters for prototype construction. This work was followed by a series of studies to collectively investigate the role of external turbulence on the SB-VAWTs operation. The external free-stream turbulence is known as one of the most important factors influencing VAWTs since this type of turbines is mainly considered for urban applications where the wind turbulence is of great significance. Initially, two sets of wind tunnel testing were conducted to study the variation of aerodynamic performance of a SB-VAWT's blade under turbulent flows, in two major stationary configurations, namely two- and three-dimensional flows. Turbulent flows generated in the wind tunnel were quasi-isotropic having uniform mean flow profiles, free of any wind shear effects. Aerodynamic force measurements demonstrated that the free-stream turbulence improves the blade aerodynamic performance in stall and post-stall regions by delaying the stall and increasing the lift-to-drag ratio. After these studies, a SB-VAWT model was tested in the wind tunnel under the same type of turbulent flows. The turbine power output was substantially increased in the presence of the grid turbulence at the same wind speeds, while the increase in turbine power coefficient due to the effect of grid turbulence was small at the same tip speed ratios. The final section presents an experimental study on the aerodynamic interaction of VAWTs in arrays

  1. Intermediate experimental vehicle, ESA program aerodynamics-aerothermodynamics key technologies for spacecraft design and successful flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutheil, Sylvain; Pibarot, Julien; Tran, Dac; Vallee, Jean-Jacques; Tribot, Jean-Pierre

    2016-07-01

    With the aim of placing Europe among the world's space players in the strategic area of atmospheric re-entry, several studies on experimental vehicle concepts and improvements of critical re-entry technologies have paved the way for the flight of an experimental space craft. The successful flight of the Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV), under ESA's Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (FLPP), is definitively a significant step forward from the Atmospheric Reentry Demonstrator flight (1998), establishing Europe as a key player in this field. The IXV project objectives were the design, development, manufacture and ground and flight verification of an autonomous European lifting and aerodynamically controlled reentry system, which is highly flexible and maneuverable. The paper presents, the role of aerodynamics aerothermodynamics as part of the key technologies for designing an atmospheric re-entry spacecraft and securing a successful flight.

  2. Structural and Aerodynamic Optimization of UltraLightweight Technology for Research in Astronomy (ULTRA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etzel, P. B.; Martin, R.; Romeo, R.; Fesen, R.; Hale, R.; Taghavi, R.; Anthony-Twarog, B. J.; Shawl, S. J.; Twarog, B. A.

    2004-12-01

    The focus of ULTRA (see poster by Twarog et al.) is a three-year plan to develop and test ultralightweight technology for research applications in astronomy. The goal is to demonstrate that a viable alternative exists to traditional glass-mirror technology by designing, fabricating, and testing a research telescope prototype comprising fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) materials. To date, several mirror designs have been tested. The main goal in the first year has been to develop a 0.4m diameter mirror and OTA that serve as prototypes for the 1m telescope design. Mirrors of 0.4m diameter have been successfully fabricated which yield diffraction limited images. This poster will include a display of the complete OTA (including optics), optics test results, and astronomical images taken with prototype mirrors. Finite element analysis has been used to evaluate the OTA and mirror designs. Preliminary design details were incorporated in a knowledge-based system. Adaptive Modeling Language (AML), an object oriented programming language developed by Technosoft, Inc., was used to develop a parameterized geometric model of the preliminary design. The system can generate mirrors with radials/circumferentials, tube core substructures, as well as modeling the support structure. Computational fluid dynamics analyses were performed for sweep, inclination and ambient wind speed. Finite element analyses were performed for core density and arrangement, skin thickness, back-surface curvature, spider configuration and arrangement of the OTA, while the loading conditions considered thus far are thermal, inertial, and aerodynamic pressure loads. Experimental tests, including ultrasonic nondestructive evaluations, infrared imaging, modal testing, and wind tunnel tests, have been performed on the first prototype mirror, with the primary goal of validating analytical models and identifying potential manufacturing induced variations to be expected among "like" mirrors. Support of this work by

  3. Aerodynamic performance due to forewing and hindwing interaction in gliding dragonfly flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Lu, Xi-Yun

    2009-07-01

    Aerodynamic performance due to forewing and hindwing interaction in gliding dragonfly flight has been studied using a multiblock lattice Boltzmann method. We find that the interactions between forewing and hindwing effectively enhance the total lift force and reduce the drag force on the wings compared to two independent wings. The interaction mechanism may be associated with the triangular camber effect by modulating the relative arrangement of the forewing and hindwing. The results obtained in this Brief Report provide physical insight into the understanding of aerodynamic behaviors for gliding dragonfly flight.

  4. Effect of vane opening on aerodynamic performance of the ram-rotor test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ji-ang; Guan, Jian; Zhong, Jingjun; Yuan, Chenguang

    2016-06-01

    In order to research the influence of adjustable vane on the aerodynamic performance of the ram-rotor test system, FLUENT software has been adopted to simulate the flow passage of the ram-rotor test system numerically. The vane opening is controlled by changing the stagger angle of the vane blades. Results show that flow uniformity of vane outlet is influenced by the vane openings, which has an impact on the aerodynamic loss to some extent. Total pressure ratio, adiabatic efficiency and mass flow rate can be regulated by different openings of the vane. Compared with -8° vane opening, top efficiency of the ram-rotor increases by about 13.8% at +6° opening. And total pressure ratio drops by 5.87%. The rising opening increases the relative Mach number at inlet of the ram-rotor and weakens the intensity of the tip clearance leakage, which comes to a decreasing aerodynamic loss.

  5. Aerodynamic and Performance Measurements on a SWT-2.3-101 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, P.; Singh, M.; Johansen, J.; Jove, A.R.; Machefaux, E.; Fingersh, L. J.; Schreck, S.

    2011-10-01

    This paper provides an overview of a detailed wind turbine field experiment being conducted at NREL under U.S. Department of Energy sponsorship. The purpose of the experiment is to obtain knowledge about the aerodynamics, performance, noise emission and structural characteristics of the Siemens SWT-2.3-101 wind turbine.

  6. An Overview of National Transonic Facility Investigations for High Performance Military Aerodynamics (Invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckring, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    A review of National Transonic Facility (NTF) investigations for high-performance military aerodynamics has been completed. The review spans the entire operational period of the tunnel, and includes configurations ranging from full aircraft to basic research geometries. The intent for this document is to establish a comprehensive summary of these experiments with selected technical results

  7. Reconsidering Human Performance Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Hwan Young

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses three perceived challenges in the field of human performance technology: a missing link from training to performance, limitations in gap analysis and cause analysis, and a lack of attention to business and organization performance. It then provides possible alternatives for each issue, such as instructional system…

  8. Rotary-wing aerodynamics. Volume 2: Performance prediction of helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, C. N.; Stephniewski, W. Z. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Application of theories, as well as, special methods of procedures applicable to performance prediction are illustrated first, on an example of the conventional helicopter and then, winged and tandem configurations. Performance prediction of conventional helicopters in hover and vertical ascent are investigated. Various approaches to performance prediction in forward translation are presented. Performance problems are discussed only this time, a wing is added to the baseline configuration, and both aircraft are compared with respect to their performance. This comparison is extended to a tandem. Appendices on methods for estimating performance guarantees and growth of aircraft concludes this volume.

  9. Study of aerodynamic technology for single-cruise-engine VSTOL fighter/attack aircraft, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, W. H.; Sheridan, A. E.; Smith, C. W.

    1982-01-01

    A conceptual design and analysis on a single engine VSTOL fighter/attack aircraft is completed. The aircraft combines a NASA/deHavilland ejector with vectored thrust and is capable of accomplishing the mission and point performance of type Specification 169, and a flight demonstrator could be built with an existing F101/DFE engine. The aerodynamic, aero/propulsive, and propulsive uncertainties are identified, and a wind tunnel program is proposed to address those uncertainties associated with wing borne flight.

  10. Performance and Design Investigation of Heavy Lift Tiltrotor with Aerodynamic Interference Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeo, Yyeonsoo; Johnson, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    The aerodynamic interference effects on tiltrotor performance in cruise are investigated using comprehensive calculations, to better understand the physics and to quantify the effects on the aircraft design. Performance calculations were conducted for 146,600-lb conventional and quad tiltrotors, which are to cruise at 300 knots at 4000 ft/95 deg F condition. A parametric study was conducted to understand the effects of design parameters on the performance of the aircraft. Aerodynamic interference improves the aircraft lift-to-drag ratio of the baseline conventional tiltrotor. However, interference degrades the aircraft performance of the baseline quad tiltrotor, due mostly to the unfavorable effects from the front wing to the rear wing. A reduction of rotor tip speed increased the aircraft lift-to-drag ratio the most among the design parameters investigated.

  11. The influence of vehicle aerodynamic and control response characteristics on driver-vehicle performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandridis, A. A.; Repa, B. S.; Wierwille, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of changes in understeer, control sensitivity, and location of the lateral aerodynamic center of pressure (c.p.) of a typical passenger car on the driver's opinion and on the performance of the driver-vehicle system were studied in a moving-base driving simulator. Twelve subjects with no prior experience on the simulator and no special driving skills performed regulation tasks in the presence of both random and step wind gusts.

  12. Unsteady aerodynamic interaction effects on turbomachinery blade life and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, John J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to address the impact of a class of unsteady flows on the life and performance of turbomachinery blading. These class of flows to be investigated are those whose characteristic frequency is an integral multiple of rotor shaft speed. Analysis of data recorded downstream of a compressor and turbine rotor will reveal that this class of flows can be highly three-dimensional and may lead to the generation of secondary flows within downstream blading. By explicitly accounting for these unsteady flows in the design of turbomachinery blading for multistage applications, it may be possible to bring about gains in performance and blade life.

  13. A computational study of the aerodynamic performance of a dragonfly wing section in gliding flight.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Abel; Mittal, Rajat; Dong, Haibo

    2008-06-01

    A comprehensive computational fluid-dynamics-based study of a pleated wing section based on the wing of Aeshna cyanea has been performed at ultra-low Reynolds numbers corresponding to the gliding flight of these dragonflies. In addition to the pleated wing, simulations have also been carried out for its smoothed counterpart (called the 'profiled' airfoil) and a flat plate in order to better understand the aerodynamic performance of the pleated wing. The simulations employ a sharp interface Cartesian-grid-based immersed boundary method, and a detailed critical assessment of the computed results was performed giving a high measure of confidence in the fidelity of the current simulations. The simulations demonstrate that the pleated airfoil produces comparable and at times higher lift than the profiled airfoil, with a drag comparable to that of its profiled counterpart. The higher lift and moderate drag associated with the pleated airfoil lead to an aerodynamic performance that is at least equivalent to and sometimes better than the profiled airfoil. The primary cause for the reduction in the overall drag of the pleated airfoil is the negative shear drag produced by the recirculation zones which form within the pleats. The current numerical simulations therefore clearly demonstrate that the pleated wing is an ingenious design of nature, which at times surpasses the aerodynamic performance of a more conventional smooth airfoil as well as that of a flat plate. For this reason, the pleated airfoil is an excellent candidate for a fixed wing micro-aerial vehicle design. PMID:18503106

  14. Powered-Lift Aerodynamics and Acoustics. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Powered lift technology is reviewed. Topics covered include: (1) high lift aerodynamics; (2) high speed and cruise aerodynamics; (3) acoustics; (4) propulsion aerodynamics and acoustics; (5) aerodynamic and acoustic loads; and (6) full-scale and flight research.

  15. Experimental study of full-scale iced-airfoil aerodynamic performance using sub-scale simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Greg T.

    Determining the aerodynamic effects of ice accretion on aircraft surfaces is an important step in aircraft design and certification. The goal of this work was to develop a complete sub-scale wind tunnel simulation methodology based on knowledge of the detailed iced-airfoil flowfield that allows the accurate measurement of aerodynamic penalties associated with the accretion of ice on an airfoil and to validate this methodology using full-scale iced-airfoil performance data obtained at near-flight Reynolds numbers. In earlier work, several classifications of ice shape were developed based on key aerodynamic features in the iced-airfoil flowfield: ice roughness, streamwise ice, horn ice, and tall and short spanwise-ridge ice. Castings of each of these classifications were acquired on a full-scale NACA 23012 airfoil model and the aero-dynamic performance of each was measured at a Reynolds number of 12.0 x 106 and a Mach number = 0.20. In the current study, sub-scale simple-geometry and 2-D smooth simulations of each of these castings were constructed based on knowledge of iced-airfoil flowfields. The effects of each simulation on the aerodynamic performance of an 18-inch chord NACA 23012 airfoil model was measured in the University of Illinois 3 x 4 ft. wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of 1.8 x 106 and a Mach number of 0.18 and compared with that measured for the corresponding full-scale casting at high Reynolds number. Geometrically-scaled simulations of the horn-ice and tall spanwise-ridge ice castings modeled C l,maxto within 2% and Cd,min to within 15%. Good qualitative agreement in the Cp distributions suggests that important geometric features such as horn and ridge height, surface location, and angle with respect to the airfoil chordline were appropriately modeled. Geometrically-scaled simulations of the ice roughness, streamwise ice, and short-ridge ice tended to have conservative C l,max and Cd. The aerodynamic performance of simulations of these types of

  16. NASA/Army Rotorcraft Technology. Volume 1: Aerodynamics, and Dynamics and Aeroelasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Conference Proceedings is a compilation of over 30 technical papers presented at this milestone event which reported on the advances in rotorcraft technical knowledge resulting from NASA, Army, and industry rotorcraft research programs over the last 5 to 10 years. The Conference brought together over 230 government, industry, and allied nation conferees to exchange technical information and hear invited technical papers by prominent NASA, Army, and industry researchers covering technology topics which included: aerodynamics, dynamics and elasticity, propulsion and drive systems, flight dynamics and control, acoustics, systems integration, and research aircraft.

  17. Supersonic airplane design optimization method for aerodynamic performance and low sonic boom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Samson H.; Edwards, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for the optimization of supersonic airplane designs to meet the dual design objectives of low sonic boom and high aerodynamic performance. Two sets of design parameters are used on an existing High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configuration to maximize the aerodynamic performance and minimize the sonic boom under the flight track. One set of the parameters perturbs the camber line of the wing sections to maximize the lift-over-drag ratio (L/D). A preliminary optimization run yielded a 3.75 percent improvement in L/D over a baseline low-boom configuration. The other set of parameters modifies the fuselage area to achieve a target F-function. Starting from an initial configuration with strong bow, wing, and tail shocks, a modified design with a flat-top signature is obtained. The methods presented can easily incorporate other design variables and objective functions. Extensions to the present capability in progress are described.

  18. Aerodynamic/acoustic performance of YJ101/double bypass VCE with coannular plug nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vdoviak, J. W.; Knott, P. R.; Ebacker, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Results of a forward Variable Area Bypass Injector test and a Coannular Nozzle test performed on a YJ101 Double Bypass Variable Cycle Engine are reported. These components are intended for use on a Variable Cycle Engine. The forward Variable Area Bypass Injector test demonstrated the mode shifting capability between single and double bypass operation with less than predicted aerodynamic losses in the bypass duct. The acoustic nozzle test demonstrated that coannular noise suppression was between 4 and 6 PNdB in the aft quadrant. The YJ101 VCE equipped with the forward VABI and the coannular exhaust nozzle performed as predicted with exhaust system aerodynamic losses lower than predicted both in single and double bypass modes. Extensive acoustic data were collected including far field, near field, sound separation/ internal probe measurements as Laser Velocimeter traverses.

  19. Aerodynamic simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    In this article two integral computational fluid dynamics methods for steady-state and transient vehicle aerodynamic simulations are described using a Chevrolet Corvette ZR-1 surface panel model. In the last decade, road-vehicle aerodynamics have become an important design consideration. Originally, the design of low-drag shapes was given high priority due to worldwide fuel shortages that occurred in the mid-seventies. More recently, there has been increased interest in the role aerodynamics play in vehicle stability and passenger safety. Consequently, transient aerodynamics and the aerodynamics of vehicle in yaw have become important issues at the design stage. While there has been tremendous progress in Navier-Stokes methodology in the last few years, the physics of bluff-body aerodynamics are still very difficult to model correctly. Moreover, the computational effort to perform Navier-Stokes simulations from the geometric stage to complete flow solutions requires much computer time and impacts the design cycle time. In the short run, therefore, simpler methods must be used for such complicated problems. Here, two methods are described for the simulation of steady-state and transient vehicle aerodynamics.

  20. Dynamic interactions between hypersonic vehicle aerodynamics and propulsion system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flandro, G. A.; Roach, R. L.; Buschek, H.

    1992-01-01

    Described here is the development of a flexible simulation model for scramjet hypersonic propulsion systems. The primary goal is determination of sensitivity of the thrust vector and other system parameters to angle of attack changes of the vehicle. Such information is crucial in design and analysis of control system performance for hypersonic vehicles. The code is also intended to be a key element in carrying out dynamic interaction studies involving the influence of vehicle vibrations on propulsion system/control system coupling and flight stability. Simple models are employed to represent the various processes comprising the propulsion system. A method of characteristics (MOC) approach is used to solve the forebody and external nozzle flow fields. This results in a very fast computational algorithm capable of carrying out the vast number of simulation computations needed in guidance, stability, and control studies. The three-dimensional fore- and aft body (nozzle) geometry is characterized by the centerline profiles as represented by a series of coordinate points and body cross-section curvature. The engine module geometry is represented by an adjustable vertical grid to accommodate variations of the field parameters throughout the inlet and combustor. The scramjet inlet is modeled as a two-dimensional supersonic flow containing adjustable sidewall wedges and multiple fuel injection struts. The inlet geometry including the sidewall wedge angles, the number of injection struts, their sweepback relative to the vehicle reference line, and strut cross-section are user selectable. Combustion is currently represented by a Rayleigh line calculation including corrections for variable gas properties; improved models are being developed for this important element of the propulsion flow field. The program generates (1) variation of thrust magnitude and direction with angle of attack, (2) pitching moment and line of action of the thrust vector, (3) pressure and temperature

  1. Effects of Wing-Cuff on NACA 23015 Aerodynamic Performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meftah, S. M. A.; Belhenniche, M.; Madani Fouatih, O.; Imine, B.

    2014-03-01

    The main subject of this work is the numerical study control of flow separation on a NACA 23015 airfoil by using wing cuff. This last is a leading edge modification done to the wing. The modification consists of a slight extension of the chord on the outboard section of the wings. Different numerical cases are considered for the baseline and modified airfoil NACA 23015 according at different angle of incidence. The turbulence is modeled by two equations k-epsilon model. The results of this numerical investigation showed several benefits of the wing cuff compared with a conventional airfoil and an agreement is observed between the experimental data and the present study. The most intriguing result of this research is the capability for wing cuff to perform short take-offs and landings.

  2. Aerodynamic performance of a transonic low aspect ratio turbine nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Moustapha, S.H. . Turbine Aerodynamics); Carscallen, W.E. . Combustion and Fluids Engineering Lab.); McGeachy, J.D. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1993-07-01

    This paper presents detailed information of the three-dimensional flow field in a realistic turbine nozzle with an aspect ratio of 0.65 and a turning angle of 76 deg. The nozzle has been tested in a large-scale planar cascade over a range of exit Mach numbers from 0.3 to 1.3. The experimental results are presented in the form of nozzle passage Mach number distributions and spanwise distribution of losses and exit flow angle. Details of the flow field inside the nozzle passage are examined by means of surface flow visualization and Schlieren pictures. The performance of the nozzle is compared to the data obtained for the same nozzle tested in an annular cascade and a stage environment. Excellent agreement is found between the measured pressure distribution and the prediction of a three-dimensional Euler flow solver.

  3. Advanced Aerodynamic Technologies for Ground Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement and Emission Reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Ricahrd Wood

    2007-01-15

    SOLUS-Solutions and Technologies LLC utilized the opportunity presented by the Department of Energy (DOE) Inventions and Innovations grant to successfully develop, market, and license two of the original three fuel and emissions saving aerodynamic trailer attachments for the trucking industry. Working independent of the grant and with SOLUS funding SOLUS also developed, marketed and licensed three additional fuel and emissions saving aerodynamic trailer attachments for the trucking industry. The five inventions include four inventions that are applicable to all heavy truck trailers and one invention specifically designed for van trailers with swing doors. The SOLUS inventions have been developed for use on all trailer types as well as light and medium trucks. SOLUS-Solutions and Technologies LLC has licensed the five inventions to Silver Eagle Manufacturing Company of Portland Oregon. Each trailer outfitted with the SOLUS inventions saves approximately 2,000 gallons of fuel every 100,000 miles, which prevents over 20 tons of CO2 from entering the atmosphere. If all applicable trailers used the technology, the country could save more than 4.0 billion gallons of diesel fuel, reduce emissions by 40 million tons and save 10.0 billion dollars annually.

  4. Charts Showing Relations Among Primary Aerodynamic Variables for Helicopter-performance Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talkin, Herbert W

    1947-01-01

    In order to facilitate solutions of the general problem of helicopter selection, the aerodynamic performance of rotors is presented in the form of charts showing relations between primary design and performance variables. By the use of conventional helicopter theory, certain variables are plotted and other variables are considered fixed. Charts constructed in such a manner show typical results, trends, and limits of helicopter performance. Performance conditions considered include hovering, horizontal flight, climb, and ceiling. Special problems discussed include vertical climb and the use of rotor-speed-reduction gears for hovering.

  5. A performance index approach to aerodynamic design with the use of analysis codes only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barger, Raymond L.; Moitra, Anutosh

    1988-01-01

    A method is described for designing an aerodynamic configuration for a specified performance vector, based on results from several similar, but not identical, trial configurations, each defined by a geometry parameter vector. The theory shows the method effective provided that: (1) the results for the trial configuration provide sufficient variation so that a linear combination of them approximates the specified performance; and (2) the difference between the performance vectors (including the specifed performance) are sufficiently small that the linearity assumption of sensitivity analysis applies to the differences. A computed example describes the design of a high supersonic Mach number missile wing body configuration based on results from a set of four trial configurations.

  6. Neural Net-Based Redesign of Transonic Turbines for Improved Unsteady Aerodynamic Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madavan, Nateri K.; Rai, Man Mohan; Huber, Frank W.

    1998-01-01

    A recently developed neural net-based aerodynamic design procedure is used in the redesign of a transonic turbine stage to improve its unsteady aerodynamic performance. The redesign procedure used incorporates the advantages of both traditional response surface methodology (RSM) and neural networks by employing a strategy called parameter-based partitioning of the design space. Starting from the reference design, a sequence of response surfaces based on both neural networks and polynomial fits are constructed to traverse the design space in search of an optimal solution that exhibits improved unsteady performance. The procedure combines the power of neural networks and the economy of low-order polynomials (in terms of number of simulations required and network training requirements). A time-accurate, two-dimensional, Navier-Stokes solver is used to evaluate the various intermediate designs and provide inputs to the optimization procedure. The optimization procedure yields a modified design that improves the aerodynamic performance through small changes to the reference design geometry. The computed results demonstrate the capabilities of the neural net-based design procedure, and also show the tremendous advantages that can be gained by including high-fidelity unsteady simulations that capture the relevant flow physics in the design optimization process.

  7. Improving the Unsteady Aerodynamic Performance of Transonic Turbines using Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, Man Mohan; Madavan, Nateri K.; Huber, Frank W.

    1999-01-01

    A recently developed neural net-based aerodynamic design procedure is used in the redesign of a transonic turbine stage to improve its unsteady aerodynamic performance. The redesign procedure used incorporates the advantages of both traditional response surface methodology and neural networks by employing a strategy called parameter-based partitioning of the design space. Starting from the reference design, a sequence of response surfaces based on both neural networks and polynomial fits are constructed to traverse the design space in search of an optimal solution that exhibits improved unsteady performance. The procedure combines the power of neural networks and the economy of low-order polynomials (in terms of number of simulations required and network training requirements). A time-accurate, two-dimensional, Navier-Stokes solver is used to evaluate the various intermediate designs and provide inputs to the optimization procedure. The procedure yielded a modified design that improves the aerodynamic performance through small changes to the reference design geometry. These results demonstrate the capabilities of the neural net-based design procedure, and also show the advantages of including high-fidelity unsteady simulations that capture the relevant flow physics in the design optimization process.

  8. Aerodynamic Parameters of High Performance Aircraft Estimated from Wind Tunnel and Flight Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Vladislav; Murphy, Patrick C.

    1999-01-01

    A concept of system identification applied to high performance aircraft is introduced followed by a discussion on the identification methodology. Special emphasis is given to model postulation using time invariant and time dependent aerodynamic parameters, model structure determination and parameter estimation using ordinary least squares and mixed estimation methods. At the same time problems of data collinearity detection and its assessment are discussed. These parts of methodology are demonstrated in examples using flight data of the X-29A and X-31A aircraft. In the third example wind tunnel oscillatory data of the F-16XL model are used. A strong dependence of these data on frequency led to the development of models with unsteady aerodynamic terms in the form of indicial functions. The paper is completed by concluding remarks.

  9. Aerodynamic Parameters of High Performance Aircraft Estimated from Wind Tunnel and Flight Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Vladislav; Murphy, Patrick C.

    1998-01-01

    A concept of system identification applied to high performance aircraft is introduced followed by a discussion on the identification methodology. Special emphasis is given to model postulation using time invariant and time dependent aerodynamic parameters, model structure determination and parameter estimation using ordinary least squares an mixed estimation methods, At the same time problems of data collinearity detection and its assessment are discussed. These parts of methodology are demonstrated in examples using flight data of the X-29A and X-31A aircraft. In the third example wind tunnel oscillatory data of the F-16XL model are used. A strong dependence of these data on frequency led to the development of models with unsteady aerodynamic terms in the form of indicial functions. The paper is completed by concluding remarks.

  10. Glide performance and aerodynamics of non-equilibrium glides in northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus).

    PubMed

    Bahlman, Joseph W; Swartz, Sharon M; Riskin, Daniel K; Breuer, Kenneth S

    2013-03-01

    Gliding is an efficient form of travel found in every major group of terrestrial vertebrates. Gliding is often modelled in equilibrium, where aerodynamic forces exactly balance body weight resulting in constant velocity. Although the equilibrium model is relevant for long-distance gliding, such as soaring by birds, it may not be realistic for shorter distances between trees. To understand the aerodynamics of inter-tree gliding, we used direct observation and mathematical modelling. We used videography (60-125 fps) to track and reconstruct the three-dimensional trajectories of northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) in nature. From their trajectories, we calculated velocities, aerodynamic forces and force coefficients. We determined that flying squirrels do not glide at equilibrium, and instead demonstrate continuously changing velocities, forces and force coefficients, and generate more lift than needed to balance body weight. We compared observed glide performance with mathematical simulations that use constant force coefficients, a characteristic of equilibrium glides. Simulations with varying force coefficients, such as those of live squirrels, demonstrated better whole-glide performance compared with the theoretical equilibrium state. Using results from both the observed glides and the simulation, we describe the mechanics and execution of inter-tree glides, and then discuss how gliding behaviour may relate to the evolution of flapping flight. PMID:23256188

  11. Effects of Wing Platform on the Aerodynamic Performance of Finite-Span Flapping Wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Meilin; Wang, Z. J.; Hu, Hui

    2010-11-01

    A numerical study is conducted to investigate the effects of wing platform on the aerodynamics performance of finite-span flapping wings. A three-dimensional high-order Navier-Stokes compressible flow solver was developed using the spectral difference method and dynamic grids. An AUSM^+-up Riemann solver was implemented to simulate the unsteady low Mach number flows over finite-span flapping wings with explicit third order Runge-Kutta time integration. The studied finite-span flapping wings, which include a rectangular flapping wing, an elliptic flapping wing and a bio-inspired flapping wing, have the same wing span, aspect ratio of the platform and the characteristics of the flapping motion (i.e., sinusoidal trajectory of the flapping wing tip, Strouhal number and reduced frequency). In the present study, the Strouhul number (Str) of the finite-span flapping wings was selected to be well within the optimal range usually used by flying insects and birds and swimming fishes (i.e., 0.2 < Str < 0.4). The effects of the wing platform on the aerodynamics performance of the finite-span flapping wings were elucidated in the terms of the evolutions and dynamic interaction between the leading edge vortices (LEV) and the wing tip vortices as well as the resultant aerodynamic forces (both lift and thrust) generated by the flapping wings.

  12. Glide performance and aerodynamics of non-equilibrium glides in northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus)

    PubMed Central

    Bahlman, Joseph W.; Swartz, Sharon M.; Riskin, Daniel K.; Breuer, Kenneth S.

    2013-01-01

    Gliding is an efficient form of travel found in every major group of terrestrial vertebrates. Gliding is often modelled in equilibrium, where aerodynamic forces exactly balance body weight resulting in constant velocity. Although the equilibrium model is relevant for long-distance gliding, such as soaring by birds, it may not be realistic for shorter distances between trees. To understand the aerodynamics of inter-tree gliding, we used direct observation and mathematical modelling. We used videography (60–125 fps) to track and reconstruct the three-dimensional trajectories of northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) in nature. From their trajectories, we calculated velocities, aerodynamic forces and force coefficients. We determined that flying squirrels do not glide at equilibrium, and instead demonstrate continuously changing velocities, forces and force coefficients, and generate more lift than needed to balance body weight. We compared observed glide performance with mathematical simulations that use constant force coefficients, a characteristic of equilibrium glides. Simulations with varying force coefficients, such as those of live squirrels, demonstrated better whole-glide performance compared with the theoretical equilibrium state. Using results from both the observed glides and the simulation, we describe the mechanics and execution of inter-tree glides, and then discuss how gliding behaviour may relate to the evolution of flapping flight. PMID:23256188

  13. Experimental analysis of the aerodynamic performance of an innovative low pressure turbine rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Infantino, Daniele; Satta, Francesca; Simoni, Daniele; Ubaldi, Marina; Zunino, Pietro; Bertini, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    In the present work the aerodynamic performances of an innovative rotor blade row have been experimentally investigated. Measurements have been carried out in a large scale low speed single stage cold flow facility at a Reynolds number typical of aeroengine cruise, under nominal and off-design conditions. The time-mean blade aerodynamic loadings have been measured at three radial positions along the blade height through a pressure transducer installed inside the hollow shaft, by delivering the signal to the stationary frame with a slip ring. The time mean aerodynamic flow fields upstream and downstream of the rotor have been measured by means of a five-hole probe to investigate the losses associated with the rotor. The investigations in the single stage research turbine allow the reproduction of both wake-boundary layer interaction as well as vortex-vortex interaction. The detail of the present results clearly highlights the strong dissipative effects induced by the blade tip vortex and by the momentum defect as well as the turbulence production, which is generated during the migration of the stator wake in the rotor passage. Phase-locked hot-wire investigations have been also performed to analyze the time-varying flow during the wake passing period. In particular the interaction between stator and rotor structures has been investigated also under off-design conditions to further explain the mechanisms contributing to the loss generation for the different conditions.

  14. Aerodynamic loading distribution effects on the overall performance of ultra-high-lift LP turbine cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrino, M.; Satta, F.; Simoni, D.; Ubaldi, M.; Zunino, P.; Bertini, F.

    2014-02-01

    The present paper reports the results of an experimental investigation aimed at comparing aerodynamic performance of three low-pressure turbine cascades for several Reynolds numbers under steady and unsteady inflows. This study is focused on finding design criteria useful to reduce both profile and secondary losses in the aero-engine LP turbine for the different flight conditions. The baseline blade cascade, characterized by a standard aerodynamic loading (Zw=1.03), has been compared with two Ultra-High-Lift profiles with the same Zweifel number (Zw=1.3 for both cascades), but different velocity peak positions, leading to front and mid-loaded blade cascade configurations. The aerodynamic flow fields downstream of the cascades have been experimentally investigated for Reynolds numbers in the range 70000aerodynamic performance of the blade cascades in terms of profile and secondary losses and the understanding of the effects of loading distribution and Zweifel number on secondary flows. When operating under unsteady inflow, contrarily to the steady case, the mid-loaded cascade has been found to be characterized by the lowest profile and secondary losses, making it the most attractive solution for the design of blades working in real conditions where unsteady inflow effects are present.

  15. High fidelity quasi steady-state aerodynamic model effects on race vehicle performance predictions using multi-body simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohrfeld-Halterman, J. A.; Uddin, M.

    2016-07-01

    We described in this paper the development of a high fidelity vehicle aerodynamic model to fit wind tunnel test data over a wide range of vehicle orientations. We also present a comparison between the effects of this proposed model and a conventional quasi steady-state aerodynamic model on race vehicle simulation results. This is done by implementing both of these models independently in multi-body quasi steady-state simulations to determine the effects of the high fidelity aerodynamic model on race vehicle performance metrics. The quasi steady state vehicle simulation is developed with a multi-body NASCAR Truck vehicle model, and simulations are conducted for three different types of NASCAR race tracks, a short track, a one and a half mile intermediate track, and a higher speed, two mile intermediate race track. For each track simulation, the effects of the aerodynamic model on handling, maximum corner speed, and drive force metrics are analysed. The accuracy of the high-fidelity model is shown to reduce the aerodynamic model error relative to the conventional aerodynamic model, and the increased accuracy of the high fidelity aerodynamic model is found to have realisable effects on the performance metric predictions on the intermediate tracks resulting from the quasi steady-state simulation.

  16. Numerical investigations on the aerodynamic performance of wind turbine: Downwind versus upwind configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hu; Wan, Decheng

    2015-03-01

    Although the upwind configuration is more popular in the field of wind energy, the downwind one is a promising type for the offshore wind energy due to its special advantages. Different configurations have different aerodynamic performance and it is important to predict the performance of both downwind and upwind configurations accurately for designing and developing more reliable wind turbines. In this paper, a numerical investigation on the aerodynamic performance of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) phase VI wind turbine in downwind and upwind configurations is presented. The open source toolbox OpenFOAM coupled with arbitrary mesh interface (AMI) method is applied to tackle rotating problems of wind turbines. Two 3D numerical models of NREL phase VI wind turbine with downwind and upwind configurations under four typical working conditions of incoming wind velocities are set up for the study of different unsteady characteristics of the downwind and upwind configurations, respectively. Numerical results of wake vortex structure, time histories of thrust, pressure distribution on the blade and limiting streamlines which can be used to identify points of separation in a 3D flow are presented. It can be concluded that thrust reduction due to blade-tower interaction is small for upwind wind turbines but relatively large for downwind wind turbines and attention should be paid to the vibration at a certain frequency induced by the cyclic reduction for both configurations. The results and conclusions are helpful to analyze the different aerodynamic performance of wind turbines between downwind and upwind configurations, providing useful references for practical design of wind turbine.

  17. Laboratory evaluation of fan/filter units' aerodynamic and energy performance

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tengfang; Jeng, Ming-Shan

    2004-07-27

    The paper discusses the benefits of having a consistent testing method to characterize aerodynamic and energy performance of FFUs. It presents evaluation methods of laboratory-measured performance of ten relatively new, 1220 mm x 610 mm (or 4 ft x 2 ft) fan-filter units (FFUs), and includes results of a set of relevant metrics such as energy performance indices (EPI) based upon the sample FFUs tested. This paper concludes that there are variations in FFUs' performance, and that using a consistent testing and evaluation method can generate compatible and comparable FFU performance information. The paper also suggests that benefits and opportunities exist for our method of testing FFU energy performance to be integrated in future recommended practices.

  18. Acoustic and aerodynamic performance investigation of inverted velocity profile coannular plug nozzles. [variable cycle engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, P. R.; Blozy, J. T.; Staid, P. S.

    1981-01-01

    The results of model scale parametric static and wind tunnel aerodynamic performance tests on unsuppressed coannular plug nozzle configurations with inverted velocity profile are discussed. The nozzle configurations are high-radius-ratio coannular plug nozzles applicable to dual-stream exhaust systems typical of a variable cycle engine for Advanced Supersonic Transport application. In all, seven acoustic models and eight aerodynamic performance models were tested. The nozzle geometric variables included outer stream radius ratio, inner stream to outer stream ratio, and inner stream plug shape. When compared to a conical nozzle at the same specific thrust, the results of the static acoustic tests with the coannular nozzles showed noise reductions of up to 7 PNdB. Extensive data analysis showed that the overall acoustic results can be well correlated using the mixed stream velocity and the mixed stream density. Results also showed that suppression levels are geometry and flow regulation dependent with the outer stream radius ratio, inner stream-to-outer stream velocity ratio and inner stream velocity ratio and inner stream plug shape, as the primary suppression parameters. In addition, high-radius ratio coannular plug nozzles were found to yield shock associated noise level reductions relative to a conical nozzle. The wind tunnel aerodynamic tests showed that static and simulated flight thrust coefficient at typical takeoff conditions are quite good - up to 0.98 at static conditions and 0.974 at a takeoff Mach number of 0.36. At low inner stream flow conditions significant thrust loss was observed. Using an inner stream conical plug resulted in 1% to 2% higher performance levels than nozzle geometries using a bent inner plug.

  19. The Effect of Bypass Nozzle Exit Area on Fan Aerodynamic Performance and Noise in a Model Turbofan Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; Podboy, Gary, G.; Woodward, Richard P.; Jeracki, Robert, J.

    2013-01-01

    The design of effective new technologies to reduce aircraft propulsion noise is dependent on identifying and understanding the noise sources and noise generation mechanisms in the modern turbofan engine, as well as determining their contribution to the overall aircraft noise signature. Therefore, a comprehensive aeroacoustic wind tunnel test program was conducted called the Fan Broadband Source Diagnostic Test as part of the NASA Quiet Aircraft Technology program. The test was performed in the anechoic NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel using a 1/5 scale model turbofan simulator which represented a current generation, medium pressure ratio, high bypass turbofan aircraft engine. The investigation focused on simulating in model scale only the bypass section of the turbofan engine. The test objectives were to: identify the noise sources within the model and determine their noise level; investigate several component design technologies by determining their impact on the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of the fan stage; and conduct detailed flow diagnostics within the fan flow field to characterize the physics of the noise generation mechanisms in a turbofan model. This report discusses results obtained for one aspect of the Source Diagnostic Test that investigated the effect of the bypass or fan nozzle exit area on the bypass stage aerodynamic performance, specifically the fan and outlet guide vanes or stators, as well as the farfield acoustic noise level. The aerodynamic performance, farfield acoustics, and Laser Doppler Velocimeter flow diagnostic results are presented for the fan and four different fixed-area bypass nozzle configurations. The nozzles simulated fixed engine operating lines and encompassed the fan stage operating envelope from near stall to cruise. One nozzle was selected as a baseline reference, representing the nozzle area which would achieve the design point operating conditions and fan stage performance. The total area change from

  20. Effect of design changes on aerodynamic and acoustic performance of translating-centerbody sonic inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, B. A.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of design changes on the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of translating centerbody sonic inlets. Scale model inlets were tested in the Lewis Research Center's V/STOL wind tunnel. The effects of centerbody position, entry lip contraction ratio, diffuser length, and diffuser area ratio on inlet total pressure recovery, distortion, and noise suppression were investigated at static conditions and at forward velocity and angle of attack. With the centerbody in the takeoff position (retracted), good aerodynamic and acoustic performance was attained at static conditions and at forward velocity. At 0 deg incidence angle with a sound pressure level reduction of 20 dB, the total pressure recovery was 0.986. Pressure recovery at 50 deg was 0.981. With the centerbody in the approach position (extended), diffuser flow separation occurred at an incidence angle of approximately 20 deg. However, good performance was attained at lower angles. With the centerbody in the takeoff position the ability of the inlet to tolerate high incidence angles was improved by increasing the lip contraction ratio. However, at static conditions with the centerbody in the approach position, an optimum lip contraction ratio appears to exist, with both thinner and thicker lips yielding reduced performance.

  1. Cooled-turbine aerodynamic performance prediction from reduced primary to coolant total-temperature-ratio results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    The prediction of the cooled aerodynamic performance, for both stators and turbines, at actual primary to coolant inlet total temperature ratios from the results obtained at a reduced total temperature ratio is described. Theoretical and available experimental results were compared for convection film and transpiration cooled stator vanes and for a film cooled, single stage core turbine. For these tests the total temperature ratio varied from near 1.0 to about 2.7. The agreement between the theoretical and the experimental results was, in general, reasonable.

  2. Aerodynamic performance of a 1.35-pressure-ratio axial-flow fan stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborn, W. M.; Moore, R. D.; Steinke, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    The overall blade element performances and the aerodynamic design parameters are presented for a 1.35-pressure-ratio fan stage. The fan stage was designed for a weight flow of 32.7 kilograms per second and a tip speed of 302.8 meters per second. At design speed the stage peak efficiency of 0.879 occurred at a pressure ratio of 1.329 and design flow. Stage stall margin was approximately 14 percent. At design flow rotor efficiency was 0.94 and the pressure ratio was 1.360.

  3. NASA VCE test bed engine aerodynamic performance characteristics and test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, M. W.; Allen, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Core Driven Fan Stage (CDFS) Variable Cycle Engine (VCE) has been identified as a leading candidate for advanced supersonic cruise aircraft. A scale demonstrator version of this engine has been designed and tested. This testbed engine features a split fan with double bypass capability, variable forward and aft mixers, and a variable area low pressure turbine nozzle to permit exploration and optimization of the cycle in both single and double bypass modes. This paper presents the aerodynamic performance characteristics and experimental results obtained from both the core engine and full engine tests.

  4. Vortex shedding and aerodynamic performance of an airfoil with multi-scale trailing edge modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedic, Jovan; Vassilicos, J. Christos

    2014-11-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted into the aerodynamic performance and nature of the vortex shedding generated by truncated and non-flat serrated trailing edges of a NACA 0012 wing section. The truncated trailing edge generates a significant amount of vortex shedding, whilst increasing both the maximum lift and drag coefficients, resulting in an overall reduction in the maximum lift-to-drag ratio (L/D) compared to a plain NACA0012 wing section. By decreasing the chevron angle (ϕ) of the non-flat trailing edge serrations (i.e. by making them sharper), the energy of the vortex shedding significantly decreases and L/D increase compared to a plain NACA0012 wing section. Fractal/multi-scale patterns were also investigated with a view to further improve performance. It was found that the energy of the vortex shedding increases with increasing fractal iteration if the chevron is broad (ϕ ~65°), but decreases for sharper chevrons (ϕ =45°). It is believed that if ϕ is too big, the multi-scale trailing edges are too far away from each other to interact and break down the vortex shedding mechanism. Fractal/multi-scale trailing edges are also able to improve aerodynamic performance compared to the NACA 0012 wing section.

  5. JT9D performance deterioration results from a simulated aerodynamic load test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stakolich, E. G.; Stromberg, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents the results of testing to identify the effects of simulated aerodynamic flight loads on JT9D engine performance. The test results were also used to refine previous analytical studies on the impact of aerodynamic flight loads on performance losses. To accomplish these objectives, a JT9D-7AH engine was assembled with average production clearances and new seals as well as extensive instrumentation to monitor engine performance, case temperatures, and blade tip clearance changes. A special loading device was designed and constructed to permit application of known moments and shear forces to the engine by the use of cables placed around the flight inlet. The test was conducted in the Pratt and Whitney Aircraft X-Ray Test Facility to permit the use of X-ray techniques in conjunction with laser blade tip proximity probes to monitor important engine clearance changes. Upon completion of the test program, the test engine was disassembled, and the condition of gas path parts and final clearances were documented. The test results indicate that the engine lost 1.1 percent in thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC), as measured under sea level static conditions, due to increased operating clearances caused by simulated flight loads. This compares with 0.9 percent predicted by the analytical model and previous study efforts.

  6. JT9D performance deterioration results from a simulated aerodynamic load test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stakolich, E. G.; Stromberg, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    The results of testing to identify the effects of simulated aerodynamic flight loads on JT9D engine performance are presented. The test results were also used to refine previous analytical studies on the impact of aerodynamic flight loads on performance losses. To accomplish these objectives, a JT9D-7AH engine was assembled with average production clearances and new seals as well as extensive instrumentation to monitor engine performance, case temperatures, and blade tip clearance changes. A special loading device was designed and constructed to permit application of known moments and shear forces to the engine by the use of cables placed around the flight inlet. The test was conducted in the Pratt & Whitney Aircraft X-Ray Test Facility to permit the use of X-ray techniques in conjunction with laser blade tip proximity probes to monitor important engine clearance changes. Upon completion of the test program, the test engine was disassembled, and the condition of gas path parts and final clearances were documented. The test results indicate that the engine lost 1.1 percent in thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC), as measured under sea level static conditions, due to increased operating clearances caused by simulated flight loads. This compares with 0.9 percent predicted by the analytical model and previous study efforts.

  7. An analysis for high speed propeller-nacelle aerodynamic performance prediction. Volume 1: Theory and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egolf, T. Alan; Anderson, Olof L.; Edwards, David E.; Landgrebe, Anton J.

    1988-01-01

    A computer program, the Propeller Nacelle Aerodynamic Performance Prediction Analysis (PANPER), was developed for the prediction and analysis of the performance and airflow of propeller-nacelle configurations operating over a forward speed range inclusive of high speed flight typical of recent propfan designs. A propeller lifting line, wake program was combined with a compressible, viscous center body interaction program, originally developed for diffusers, to compute the propeller-nacelle flow field, blade loading distribution, propeller performance, and the nacelle forebody pressure and viscous drag distributions. The computer analysis is applicable to single and coaxial counterrotating propellers. The blade geometries can include spanwise variations in sweep, droop, taper, thickness, and airfoil section type. In the coaxial mode of operation the analysis can treat both equal and unequal blade number and rotational speeds on the propeller disks. The nacelle portion of the analysis can treat both free air and tunnel wall configurations including wall bleed. The analysis was applied to many different sets of flight conditions using selected aerodynamic modeling options. The influence of different propeller nacelle-tunnel wall configurations was studied. Comparisons with available test data for both single and coaxial propeller configurations are presented along with a discussion of the results.

  8. Concept definition and aerodynamic technology studies for single-engine V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, W. P.; Durston, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The results obtained in the early stages of a research program to develop aerodynamic technology for single-engine V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft projected for the post-1990 period are summarized. This program includes industry studies jointly sponsored by NASA and the Navy. Four contractors have identified promising concepts featuring a variety of approaches for providing propulsive lift. Vertical takeoff gross weights range from about 10,000 to 13,600 kg (22,000 to 30,000 lb). The aircraft have supersonic capability, are highly maneuverable, and have significant short takeoff overload capability. The contractors have estimated the aerodynamics and identified aerodynamic uncertainties associated with their concepts. Wind-tunnel research programs will be formulated to investigate these uncertainties. A description of the concepts is emphasized.

  9. Improvement in Capsule Abort Performance Using Supersonic Aerodynamic Interaction by Fences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Hiroto; Wang, Yunpeng; Ozawa, Hiroshi; Doi, Katsunori; Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    The space transportation system will need advanced abort systems to secure crew against serious accidents. Here this study deals with the capsule-type space transportation systems with a Launch Abort System (LAS). This system is composed of a conic capsule as a Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) and a cylindrical rocket as a Service Module (SM), and the capsule is moved away from the rocket by supersonic aerodynamic interactions in an emergency. We propose a method to improve the performance of the LAV by installing fences at the edges of surfaces on the rocket and capsule sides. Their effects were investigated by experimental measurements and numerical simulations. Experimental results show that the fences on the rocket and capsule surfaces increase the aerodynamic thrust force on the capsule by 70% in a certain clearance between the capsule and rocket. Computational results show the detailed flow fields where the centripetal flow near the surface on the rocket side is induced by the fence on the rocket side and the centrifugal flow near the surface on the capsule side is blocked by the fence on the capsule side. These results can confirm favorable effects of the fences on the performance of the LAS.

  10. The Role of Free Stream Turbulence on the Aerodynamic Performance of a Wind Turbine Blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Victor; Thormann, Adrien; Meneveau, Charles; Castillo, Luciano

    2014-11-01

    Effects of free stream turbulence with large integral scale on the aerodynamic performance of an S809 airfoil-based wind turbine blade at low Reynolds number are studied using wind tunnel experiments. A constant chord (2-D) S809 airfoil wind turbine blade model with an operating Reynolds number of 208,000 based on chord length was tested for a range of angles of attack representative of fully attached and stalled flow as encountered in typical wind turbine operation. The smooth-surface blade was subjected to a quasi-laminar free stream with very low free-stream turbulence as well as to elevated free-stream turbulence generated by an active grid. This turbulence contained large-scale eddies with levels of free-stream turbulence intensity of up to 6.14% and an integral length scale of about 60% of chord-length. The pressure distribution was acquired using static pressure taps and the lift was subsequently computed by numerical integration. The wake velocity deficit was measured utilizing hot-wire anemometry to compute the drag coefficient also via integration. In addition, the mean flow was quantified using 2-D particle image velocimetry (PIV) over the suction surface of the blade. Results indicate that turbulence, even with very large-scale eddies comparable in size to the chord-length, significantly improves the aerodynamic performance of the blade by increasing the lift coefficient and overall lift-to-drag ratio, L/D for all angles tested except zero degrees.

  11. Technology Performance Exchange (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-10-01

    This fact sheet, 'The Technology Performance Exchange' will be presented at the ET Summit, held at the Pasadena Convention Center on October 15-17, 2012. The Technology Performance Exchange will be a centralized, Web-based portal for finding and sharing energy performance data for commercial building technologies.

  12. Axial compressor blade design for desensitization of aerodynamic performance and stability to tip clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erler, Engin

    Tip clearance flow is the flow through the clearance between the rotor blade tip and the shroud of a turbomachine, such as compressors and turbines. This flow is driven by the pressure difference across the blade (aerodynamic loading) in the tip region and is a major source of loss in performance and aerodynamic stability in axial compressors of modern aircraft engines. An increase in tip clearance, either temporary due to differential radial expansion between the blade and the shroud during transient operation or permanent due to engine wear or manufacturing tolerances on small blades, increases tip clearance flow and results in higher fuel consumption and higher risk of engine surge. A compressor design that can reduce the sensitivity of its performance and aerodynamic stability to tip clearance increase would have a major impact on short and long-term engine performance and operating envelope. While much research has been carried out on improving nominal compressor performance, little had been done on desensitization to tip clearance increase beyond isolated observations that certain blade designs such as forward chordwise sweep, seem to be less sensitive to tip clearance size increase. The current project aims to identify through a computational study the flow features and associated mechanisms that reduces sensitivity of axial compressor rotors to tip clearance size and propose blade design strategies that can exploit these results. The methodology starts with the design of a reference conventional axial compressor rotor followed by a parametric study with variations of this reference design through modification of the camber line and of the stacking line of blade profiles along the span. It is noted that a simple desensitization method would be to reduce the aerodynamic loading of the blade tip which would reduce the tip clearance flow and its proportional contribution to performance loss. However, with the larger part of the work on the flow done in this

  13. The aerodynamic design and performance of the NASA/GE E3 low pressure turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, D. G.; Dengler, R. P.

    1984-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and scaled rig test results of the low pressure turbine (LPT) component for the NASA/General Electric Energy Efficient Engine (E3) are presented. The low pressure turbine is a highly loaded five-stage design featuring high outer wall slope, controlled vortex aerodynamics, low stage flow coefficient, and reduced clearances. An assessment of its performance has been made based on a series of scaled air turbine tests which were divided into two phases: Block I (March through August, 1979) and Block II (June through September, 1981). Results from the Block II five-stage test, summarized in the paper, indicate that the E3 LPT will attain an efficiency level of 91.5 percent at the Mach 0.8/35,000 ft. max. climb altitude design point. This is relative to program goals of 91.1 percent for the E3 demonstrator engine and 91.7 percent for a fully developed flight propulsion system LPT.

  14. Summary of shuttle data processing and aerodynamic performance comparisons for the first 11 flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Findlay, J. T.; Kelly, G. M.; Heck, M. L.; Mcconnell, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    NASA Space Shuttle aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic research is but one part of the most comprehensive end-to-end flight test program ever undertaken considering: the extensive pre-flight experimental data base development; the multitude of spacecraft and remote measurements taken during entry flight; the complexity of the Orbiter aerodynamic configuration; the variety of flight conditions available across the entire speed regime; and the efforts devoted to flight data reduction throughout the aerospace community. Shuttle entry flights provide a wealth of research quality data, in essence a veritable flying wind tunnel, for use by researchers to verify and improve the operational capability of the Orbiter and provide data for evaluations of experimental facilities as well as computational methods. This final report merely summarizes the major activities conducted by the AMA, Inc. under NASA Contract NAS1-16087 as part of that interesting research. Investigators desiring more detailed information can refer to the glossary of AMA publications attached herein as Appendix A. Section I provides background discussion of software and methodology development to enable Best Estimate Trajectory (BET) generation. Actual products generated are summarized in Section II as tables which completely describe the post-flight products available from the first three-year Shuttle flight history. Summary results are presented in Section III, with longitudinal performance comparisons included as Appendices for each of the flights.

  15. Aerodynamic performance of a full-scale lifting ejector system in a STOVL fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brian E.; Garland, Doug; Poppen, William A.

    1992-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of an advanced lifting ejector system incorporated into a full-scale, powered, fighter aircraft model were measured at statically and at transition airspeeds in the 40- by 80- and 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnels at NASA-Ames. The ejector system was installed in an ejector-lift/vectored thrust STOVL (Short Take-Off Vertical Landing) fighter aircraft configuration. Ejector thrust augmentation ratios approaching 1.6 were demonstrated during static testing. Changes in the internal aerodynamics and exit flow conditions of the ejector ducts are presented for a variety of wind-off and forward-flight test conditions. Wind-on test results indicate a small decrease in ejector performance and increase in exit flow nonuniformity with forward speed. Simulated ejector start-up at high speed, nose-up attitudes caused only small effects on overall vehicle forces and moments despite the fact that the ejector inlet flow was found to induce large regions of negative pressure on the upper surface of the wing apex adjacent to the inlets.

  16. Effect of moment of inertia to H type vertical axis wind turbine aerodynamic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. X.; Li, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    The main aerodynamic performances (out power out power coefficient torque torque coefficient and so on) of H type Vertical Axis wind Turbine (H-VAWT) which is rotating machinery will be impacted by moment of inertia. This article will use NACA0018 airfoil profile to analyze that moment of inertia through impact performance of H type VAWT by utilizing program of Matlab and theory of Double-Multiple Streamtube. The results showed that the max out power coefficient was barely impacted when moment of inertia is changed in a small area,but the lesser moment of inertia's VAWT needs a stronger wind velocity to obtain the max out power. The lesser moment of inertia's VAWT has a big out power coefficient, torque coefficient and out power before it gets to the point of max out power coefficient. Out power coefficient, torque and torque coefficient will obviously change with wind velocity increased for VAWT of the lesser moment of inertia.

  17. Aerodynamic performance of a 1.25-pressure-ratio axial-flow fan stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. D.; Steinke, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Aerodynamic design parameters and overall and blade-element performances of a 1.25-pressure-ratio fan stage are reported. Detailed radial surveys were made over the stable operating flow range at rotative speeds from 70 to 120 percent of design speed. At design speed, the measured stage peak efficiency of 0.872 occurred at a weight flow of 34.92 kilograms per second and a pressure ratio of 1.242. Stage stall margin is about 20 percent based on the peak efficiency and stall conditions. The overall peak efficiency for the rotor was 0.911. The overall stage performance showed no significant change when the stators were positioned at 1, 2, or 4 chords downstream of the rotor.

  18. Performance deterioration based on simulated aerodynamic loads test, JT9D jet engine diagnostics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stromberg, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    An engine was specially prepared with extensive instrumentation to monitor performance, case temperatures, and clearance changes. A special loading device was used to apply known loads on the engine by the use of cables placed around the flight inlet. These loads simulated the estimated aerodynamic pressure distributions that occur on the inlet in various segments of a typical airplane flight. Test results indicate that the engine lost 1.3 percent in take-off thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC) during the course of the test effort. Permanent clearance changes due to the loads accounted for 1.1 percent; increase in low pressure compressor airfoil roughness and thermal distortion in the high pressure turbine accounted for 0.2 percent. Pretest predicted performance loss due to clearance changes was 0.9 percent in TSFC. Therefore, the agreement between measurement and prediction is considered to be excellent.

  19. Effects of aerodynamic interaction between main and tail rotors on helicopter hover performance and noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menger, R. P.; Wood, T. L.; Brieger, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    A model test was conducted to determine the effects of aerodynamic interaction between main rotor, tail rotor, and vertical fin on helicopter performance and noise in hover out of ground effect. The experimental data were obtained from hover tests performed with a .151 scale Model 222 main rotor, tail rotor and vertical fin. Of primary interest was the effect of location of the tail rotor with respect to the main rotor. Penalties on main rotor power due to interaction with the tail rotor ranged up to 3% depending upon tail rotor location and orientation. Penalties on tail rotor power due to fin blockage alone ranged up to 10% for pusher tail rotors and up to 50% for tractor tail rotors. The main rotor wake had only a second order effect on these tail rotor/fin interactions. Design charts are presented showing the penalties on main rotor power as a function of the relative location of the tail rotor.

  20. Aerodynamic design on high-speed trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, San-San; Li, Qiang; Tian, Ai-Qin; Du, Jian; Liu, Jia-Li

    2016-01-01

    Compared with the traditional train, the operational speed of the high-speed train has largely improved, and the dynamic environment of the train has changed from one of mechanical domination to one of aerodynamic domination. The aerodynamic problem has become the key technological challenge of high-speed trains and significantly affects the economy, environment, safety, and comfort. In this paper, the relationships among the aerodynamic design principle, aerodynamic performance indexes, and design variables are first studied, and the research methods of train aerodynamics are proposed, including numerical simulation, a reduced-scale test, and a full-scale test. Technological schemes of train aerodynamics involve the optimization design of the streamlined head and the smooth design of the body surface. Optimization design of the streamlined head includes conception design, project design, numerical simulation, and a reduced-scale test. Smooth design of the body surface is mainly used for the key parts, such as electric-current collecting system, wheel truck compartment, and windshield. The aerodynamic design method established in this paper has been successfully applied to various high-speed trains (CRH380A, CRH380AM, CRH6, CRH2G, and the Standard electric multiple unit (EMU)) that have met expected design objectives. The research results can provide an effective guideline for the aerodynamic design of high-speed trains.

  1. Aerodynamic design on high-speed trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, San-San; Li, Qiang; Tian, Ai-Qin; Du, Jian; Liu, Jia-Li

    2016-04-01

    Compared with the traditional train, the operational speed of the high-speed train has largely improved, and the dynamic environment of the train has changed from one of mechanical domination to one of aerodynamic domination. The aerodynamic problem has become the key technological challenge of high-speed trains and significantly affects the economy, environment, safety, and comfort. In this paper, the relationships among the aerodynamic design principle, aerodynamic performance indexes, and design variables are first studied, and the research methods of train aerodynamics are proposed, including numerical simulation, a reduced-scale test, and a full-scale test. Technological schemes of train aerodynamics involve the optimization design of the streamlined head and the smooth design of the body surface. Optimization design of the streamlined head includes conception design, project design, numerical simulation, and a reduced-scale test. Smooth design of the body surface is mainly used for the key parts, such as electric-current collecting system, wheel truck compartment, and windshield. The aerodynamic design method established in this paper has been successfully applied to various high-speed trains (CRH380A, CRH380AM, CRH6, CRH2G, and the Standard electric multiple unit (EMU)) that have met expected design objectives. The research results can provide an effective guideline for the aerodynamic design of high-speed trains.

  2. Effects of Shrouded Stator Cavity Flows on Multistage Axial Compressor Aerodynamic Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellborn, Steven R.; Okiishi, Theodore H.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments were performed on a low-speed multistage axial-flow compressor to assess the effects of shrouded stator cavity flows on aerodynamic performance. Five configurations, which involved changes in seal-tooth leakage rates and/or elimination of the shrouded stator cavities, were tested. Data collected enabled differences in overall individual stage and the third stage blade element performance parameters to be compared. The results show conclusively that seal-tooth leakage ran have a large impact on compressor aerodynamic performance while the presence of the shrouded stator cavities alone seemed to have little influence. Overall performance data revealed that for every 1% increase in the seal-tooth clearance to blade-height ratio the pressure rise dropped up to 3% while efficiency was reduced by 1 to 1.5 points. These observed efficiency penalty slopes are comparable to those commonly reported for rotor and cantilevered stator tip clearance variations. Therefore, it appears that in order to correctly predict overall performance it is equally important to account for the effects of seal-tooth leakage as it is to include the influence of tip clearance flows. Third stage blade element performance data suggested that the performance degradation observed when leakage was increased was brought about in two distinct ways. First, increasing seal-tooth leakage directly spoiled the near hub performance of the stator row in which leakage occurred. Second, the altered stator exit now conditions caused by increased leakage impaired the performance of the next downstream stage by decreasing the work input of the downstream rotor and increasing total pressure loss of the downstream stator. These trends caused downstream stages to progressively perform worse. Other measurements were acquired to determine spatial and temporal flow field variations within the up-and-downstream shrouded stator cavities. Flow within the cavities involved low momentum fluid traveling primarily

  3. Combined experimental and numerical investigations on the roughness effects on the aerodynamic performances of LPT blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrino, Marco; Bigoni, Fabio; Simoni, Daniele; Giovannini, Matteo; Marconcini, Michele; Pacciani, Roberto; Bertini, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    The aerodynamic performance of a high-load low-pressure turbine blade cascade has been analyzed for three different distributed surface roughness levels (Ra) for steady and unsteady inflows. Results from CFD simulations and experiments are presented for two different Reynolds numbers (300000 and 70000 representative of take-off and cruise conditions, respectively) in order to evaluate the roughness effects for two typical operating conditions. Computational fluid dynamics has been used to support and interpret experimental results, analyzing in detail the flow field on the blade surface and evaluating the non-dimensional local roughness parameters, further contributing to understand how and where roughness have some influence on the aerodynamic performance of the blade. The total pressure distributions in the wake region have been measured by means of a five-hole miniaturized pressure probe for the different flow conditions, allowing the evaluation of profile losses and of their dependence on the surface finish, as well as a direct comparison with the simulations. Results reported in the paper clearly highlight that only at the highest Reynolds number tested (Re=300000) surface roughness have some influence on the blade performance, both for steady and unsteady incoming flows. In this flow condition profile losses grow as the surface roughness increases, while no appreciable variations have been found at the lowest Reynolds number. The boundary layer evolution and the wake structure have shown that this trend is due to a thickening of the suction side boundary layer associated to an anticipation of transition process. On the other side, no effects have been observed on the pressure side boundary layer.

  4. Configuration Aerodynamics: Past - Present - Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Agrawal, Shreekant; Bencze, Daniel P.; Kulfan, Robert M.; Wilson, Douglas L.

    1999-01-01

    The Configuration Aerodynamics (CA) element of the High Speed Research (HSR) program is managed by a joint NASA and Industry team, referred to as the Technology Integration Development (ITD) team. This team is responsible for the development of a broad range of technologies for improved aerodynamic performance and stability and control characteristics at subsonic to supersonic flight conditions. These objectives are pursued through the aggressive use of advanced experimental test techniques and state of the art computational methods. As the HSR program matures and transitions into the next phase the objectives of the Configuration Aerodynamics ITD are being refined to address the drag reduction needs and stability and control requirements of High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft. In addition, the experimental and computational tools are being refined and improved to meet these challenges. The presentation will review the work performed within the Configuration Aerodynamics element in 1994 and 1995 and then discuss the plans for the 1996-1998 time period. The final portion of the presentation will review several observations of the HSR program and the design activity within Configuration Aerodynamics.

  5. Design and performance of a shape memory alloy-reinforced composite aerodynamic profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, J. C.; Boller, C.

    2008-04-01

    Based on a shape memory alloy (SMA)-reinforced composite developed separately, the applicability of the composite has been demonstrated through realization of a realistically scaled aerodynamic profile of around 0.5 m span by 0.5 m root chord whose skins had been made from this composite. The design, manufacturing and assembly of the profile are described. The curved skins were manufactured with two layers of SMA wires integrated into the layup of aramid fibre prepregs. All SMA wires were connected such that they can be operated as individual sets of wires and at low voltages, similar to the conditions for electrical energy generation in a real aircraft. The profile was then mounted on a vibration test rig and excited by a shaker at its tip which allowed the dynamic performance of the profile to be validated under internal actuation conditions generated through the SMA wires.

  6. Effects of aerodynamic heating and TPS thermal performance uncertainties on the Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, W. D.; Derry, S. M.; Maraia, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    A procedure for estimating uncertainties in the aerodynamic-heating and thermal protection system (TPS) thermal-performance methodologies developed for the Shuttle Orbiter is presented. This procedure is used in predicting uncertainty bands around expected or nominal TPS thermal responses for the Orbiter during entry. Individual flowfield and TPS parameters that make major contributions to these uncertainty bands are identified and, by statistical considerations, combined in a manner suitable for making engineering estimates of the TPS thermal confidence intervals and temperature margins relative to design limits. Thus, for a fixed TPS design, entry trajectories for future Orbiter missions can be shaped subject to both the thermal-margin and confidence-interval requirements. This procedure is illustrated by assessing the thermal margins offered by selected areas of the existing Orbiter TPS design for an entry trajectory typifying early flight test missions.

  7. Numerical study of improving aerodynamic performance of low solidity LPT cascade through increasing trailing edge thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Yan, Peigang; Wang, Xiangfeng; Han, Wanjin; Wang, Qingchao

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a new idea to reduce the solidity of low-pressure turbine (LPT) blade cascades, while remain the structural integrity of LPT blade. Aerodynamic performance of a low solidity LPT cascade was improved by increasing blade trailing edge thickness (TET). The solidity of the LPT cascade blade can be reduced by about 12.5% through increasing the TET of the blade without a significant drop in energy efficiency. For the low solidity LPT cascade, increasing the TET can decrease energy loss by 23.30% and increase the flow turning angle by 1.86% for Reynolds number (Re) of 25,000 and freestream turbulence intensities (FSTI) of 2.35%. The flow control mechanism governing behavior around the trailing edge of an LPT cascade is also presented. The results show that appropriate TET is important for the optimal design of high-lift load LPT blade cascades.

  8. Aerodynamic Stability and Performance of Next-Generation Parachutes for Mars Descent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonyea, Keir C.; Tanner, Christopher L.; Clark, Ian G.; Kushner, Laura K.; Schairer, Edward T.; Braun, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    The Low Density Supersonic Decelerator Project is developing a next-generation supersonic parachute for use on future Mars missions. In order to determine the new parachute configuration, a wind tunnel test was conducted at the National Full-scale Aerodynamics Complex 80- by 120-foot Wind Tunnel at the NASA Ames Research Center. The goal of the wind tunnel test was to quantitatively determine the aerodynamic stability and performance of various canopy configurations in order to help select the design to be flown on the Supersonic Flight Dynamics tests. Parachute configurations included the diskgap- band, ringsail, and ringsail-variant designs referred to as a disksail and starsail. During the wind tunnel test, digital cameras captured synchronized image streams of the parachute from three directions. Stereo hotogrammetric processing was performed on the image data to track the position of the vent of the canopy throughout each run. The position data were processed to determine the geometric angular history of the parachute, which were then used to calculate the total angle of attack and its derivatives at each instant in time. Static and dynamic moment coefficients were extracted from these data using a parameter estimation method involving the one-dimensional equation of motion for a rotation of parachute. The coefficients were calculated over all of the available canopy states to reconstruct moment coefficient curves as a function of total angle of attack. From the stability curves, useful metrics such as the trim total angle of attack and pitch stiffness at the trim angle could be determined. These stability metrics were assessed in the context of the parachute's drag load and geometric porosity. While there was generally an inverse relationship between the drag load and the stability of the canopy, the data showed that it was possible to obtain similar stability properties as the disk-gap-band with slightly higher drag loads by appropriately tailoring the

  9. Study of aerodynamic technology for VSTOL fighter/attack aircraft: Horizontal attitude concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    A horizontal attitude VSTOL (HAVSTOL) supersonic fighter attack aircraft powered by RALS turbofan propulsion system is analyzed. Reaction control for subaerodynamic flight is obtained in pitch and yaw from the RALS and roll from wingtip jets powered by bleed air from the RALS duct. Emphasis is placed on the development of aerodynamic characteristics and the identification of aerodynamic uncertainties. A wind tunnel program is shown to resolve some of the uncertainties. Aerodynamic data developed are static characteristics about all axes, control effectiveness, drag, propulsion induced effects and reaction control characteristics.

  10. Single stage, low noise, advanced technology fan. Volume 1: Aerodynamic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, T. J.; Younghans, J. L.; Little, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    The aerodynamic design for a half-scale fan vehicle, which would have application on an advanced transport aircraft, is described. The single stage advanced technology fan was designed to a pressure ratio of 1.8 at a tip speed of 503 m/sec 11,650 ft/sec). The fan and booster components are designed in a scale model flow size convenient for testing with existing facility and vehicle hardware. The design corrected flow per unit annulus area at the fan face is 215 kg/sec sq m (44.0 lb m/sec sq ft) with a hub-tip ratio of 0.38 at the leading edge of the fan rotor. This results in an inlet corrected airflow of 117.9 kg/sec (259.9 lb m/sec) for the selected rotor tip diameter if 90.37 cm (35.58 in.). The variable geometry inlet is designed utilizing a combination of high throat Mach number and acoustic treatment in the inlet diffuser for noise suppression (hybrid inlet). A variable fan exhaust nozzle was assumed in conjunction with the variable inlet throat area to limit the required area change of the inlet throat at approach and hence limit the overall diffusion and inlet length. The fan exit duct design was primarily influenced by acoustic requirements, including length of suppressor wall treatment; length, thickness and position on a duct splitter for additional suppressor treatment; and duct surface Mach numbers.

  11. Comparative aerodynamic performance of flapping flight in two bat species using time-resolved wake visualization.

    PubMed

    Muijres, Florian T; Johansson, L Christoffer; Winter, York; Hedenström, Anders

    2011-10-01

    Bats are unique among extant actively flying animals in having very flexible wings, controlled by multi-jointed fingers. This gives the potential for fine-tuned active control to optimize aerodynamic performance throughout the wingbeat and thus a more efficient flight. But how bat wing performance scales with size, morphology and ecology is not yet known. Here, we present time-resolved fluid wake data of two species of bats flying freely across a range of flight speeds using stereoscopic digital particle image velocimetry in a wind tunnel. From these data, we construct an average wake for each bat species and speed combination, which is used to estimate the flight forces throughout the wingbeat and resulting flight performance properties such as lift-to-drag ratio (L/D). The results show that the wake dynamics and flight performance of both bat species are similar, as was expected since both species operate at similar Reynolds numbers (Re) and Strouhal numbers (St). However, maximum L/D is achieved at a significant higher flight speed for the larger, highly mobile and migratory bat species than for the smaller non-migratory species. Although the flight performance of these bats may depend on a range of morphological and ecological factors, the differences in optimal flight speeds between the species could at least partly be explained by differences in their movement ecology. PMID:21367776

  12. Comparative aerodynamic performance of flapping flight in two bat species using time-resolved wake visualization

    PubMed Central

    Muijres, Florian T.; Johansson, L. Christoffer; Winter, York; Hedenström, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Bats are unique among extant actively flying animals in having very flexible wings, controlled by multi-jointed fingers. This gives the potential for fine-tuned active control to optimize aerodynamic performance throughout the wingbeat and thus a more efficient flight. But how bat wing performance scales with size, morphology and ecology is not yet known. Here, we present time-resolved fluid wake data of two species of bats flying freely across a range of flight speeds using stereoscopic digital particle image velocimetry in a wind tunnel. From these data, we construct an average wake for each bat species and speed combination, which is used to estimate the flight forces throughout the wingbeat and resulting flight performance properties such as lift-to-drag ratio (L/D). The results show that the wake dynamics and flight performance of both bat species are similar, as was expected since both species operate at similar Reynolds numbers (Re) and Strouhal numbers (St). However, maximum L/D is achieved at a significant higher flight speed for the larger, highly mobile and migratory bat species than for the smaller non-migratory species. Although the flight performance of these bats may depend on a range of morphological and ecological factors, the differences in optimal flight speeds between the species could at least partly be explained by differences in their movement ecology. PMID:21367776

  13. Selected advanced aerodynamics and active controls technology concepts development on a derivative B-747 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Analytical design and wind tunnel test evaluations covering the feasibility of applying wing tip extensions, winglets, and active control wing had alleviation to the model B747 are described. Aerodynamic improvement offered by wing tip extension and winglet individually, and the combined aerodynamic and weight improvements when wing load alleviation is combined with the tip extension or the winglet are evaluated. Results are presented in the form of incremental effects on weight mission range, fuel usage, cost, and airline operating economics.

  14. Study of aerodynamic technology for VSTOL fighter/attack aircraft, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lummus, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    An assessment was made of the aerodynamic uncertainties associated with the design of a cold-deck-environment Navy VSTOL fighter/attack aircraft utilizing jet-diffuser ejectors for vertical lift and vectored-engine-over-wing blowing for supercirculation benefits. The critical aerodynamic uncertainties were determined as those associated with the constraints which size the aircraft to a specified set of requirements. A wind tunnel model and test programs are recommended for resolving these uncertainties.

  15. Test Plan for the Technology Maturation of Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Jenny R.; Cruz, Juan R.

    2009-01-01

    Supersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerators (IADs) are drag devices intended to be deployed at high Mach numbers. In the application considered here they assist in the descent and landing of spacecraft on Mars. Although promising, present IAD technology is not yet sufficiently mature for use in the near future. This paper describes a technology maturation plan for tension cone IADs using subscale test articles to reduce development costs. As envisioned, the proposed test plan includes three phases: wind tunnel tests (subsonic), unpowered high-altitude flight tests (transonic), and powered high-altitude tests (supersonic). This test plan is based on a building block approach in which successful completion of each phase adds to the understanding of the behavior of IADs and reduces the risk of the subsequent, more expensive phases. By properly scaling the IADs, test articles of the same size and nearly the same construction can be used for all three phases. The final phase is a dynamically scaled flight test with IAD deployment at the same Mach number as the full-scale vehicle on Mars. Two full-scale example cases are presented: one for a single-stage system (15 m dia. IAD to subsonic retropropulsion), and another for a two-stage system (10.5 m dia. IAD to subsonic parachute). Using scale factors of 0.333 and 0.476 yield subscale test IADs of 5 m dia. The dynamically scaled powered flight test starts at Mach 4 and an altitude of 33.5 km. Existing balloons and rocket motors are shown to be adequate to meet the required test conditions.

  16. Carrier-based dry powder inhalation: Impact of carrier modification on capsule filling processability and in vitro aerodynamic performance.

    PubMed

    Faulhammer, Eva; Wahl, Verena; Zellnitz, Sarah; Khinast, Johannes G; Paudel, Amrit

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of carrier characteristics and dosator capsule filling operation on the in vitro deposition of mixtures containing salbutamol sulphate (SS) and lactose and mannitol as model carrier materials. The carrier surfaces of lactose and mannitol were modified via wet decantation. The impact of the decantation process on the properties of carriers was investigated by laser diffraction, density and powder flow measurements, N2 physisorption, small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SWAXS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Differences in carrier type and untreated and decanted materials were identified and the SAXS measurements proved to be a promising technology confirming the successful removal of fines. Adhesive carrier API mixtures with carrier-to-API ratio of 99:1 wt% were prepared, mixture homogeneity was tested and subsequently the mixtures were filled into capsules at different process settings. Finally, the influence of the decantation process on the in vitro performance of the adhesive mixtures was tested with a next generation impactor. For lactose, the decantation decreased the fine particle fraction (FPF) of SS, whereas the FPF of mannitol as a carrier was only affected by the capsule filling process. In summary, the DPI formulation based on untreated lactose, especially by capsule filling using a dosing chamber to powder layer (compression) ratio of 1:2, proved to be superior in terms of the dosing accuracy (RSD<0.8%) and the in vitro aerodynamic performance (FPF of 12%). PMID:26136200

  17. Precision performance lamp technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Dean A.; Kiesa, James E.; Dean, Raymond A.

    1997-09-01

    A principal function of a lamp is to produce light output with designated spectra, intensity, and/or geometric radiation patterns. The function of a precision performance lamp is to go beyond these parameters and into the precision repeatability of performance. All lamps are not equal. There are a variety of incandescent lamps, from the vacuum incandescent indictor lamp to the precision lamp of a blood analyzer. In the past the definition of a precision lamp was described in terms of wattage, light center length (LCL), filament position, and/or spot alignment. This paper presents a new view of precision lamps through the discussion of a new segment of lamp design, which we term precision performance lamps. The definition of precision performance lamps will include (must include) the factors of a precision lamp. But what makes a precision lamp a precision performance lamp is the manner in which the design factors of amperage, mscp (mean spherical candlepower), efficacy (lumens/watt), life, not considered individually but rather considered collectively. There is a statistical bias in a precision performance lamp for each of these factors; taken individually and as a whole. When properly considered the results can be dramatic to the system design engineer, system production manage and the system end-user. It can be shown that for the lamp user, the use of precision performance lamps can translate to: (1) ease of system design, (2) simplification of electronics, (3) superior signal to noise ratios, (4) higher manufacturing yields, (5) lower system costs, (6) better product performance. The factors mentioned above are described along with their interdependent relationships. It is statistically shown how the benefits listed above are achievable. Examples are provided to illustrate how proper attention to precision performance lamp characteristics actually aid in system product design and manufacturing to build and market more, market acceptable product products in the

  18. Influence of surrounding structures upon the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of the outdoor unit of a split air-conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chengjun; Liu, Jiang; Pan, Jie

    2014-07-01

    DC-inverter split air-conditioner is widely used in Chinese homes as a result of its high-efficiency and energy-saving. Recently, the researches on its outdoor unit have focused on the influence of surrounding structures upon the aerodynamic and acoustic performance, however they are only limited to the influence of a few parameters on the performance, and practical design of the unit requires more detailed parametric analysis. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics(CFD) and computational aerodynamic acoustics(CAA) simulation based on FLUENT solver is used to study the influence of surrounding structures upon the aforementioned properties of the unit. The flow rate and sound pressure level are predicted for different rotating speed, and agree well with the experimental results. The parametric influence of three main surrounding structures(i.e. the heat sink, the bell-mouth type shroud and the outlet grille) upon the aerodynamic performance of the unit is analyzed thoroughly. The results demonstrate that the tip vortex plays a major role in the flow fields near the blade tip and has a great effect on the flow field of the unit. The inlet ring's size and throat's depth of the bell-mouth type shroud, and the through-flow area and configuration of upwind and downwind sections of the outlet grille are the most important factors that affect the aerodynamic performance of the unit. Furthermore, two improved schemes against the existing prototype of the unit are developed, which both can significantly increase the flow rate more than 6 %(i.e. 100 m3·h-1) at given rotating speeds. The inevitable increase of flow noise level when flow rate is increased and the advantage of keeping a lower rotating speed are also discussed. The presented work could be a useful guideline in designing the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of the split air-conditioner in engineering practice.

  19. Gap and stagger effects on the aerodynamic performance and the wake behind a biplane with endplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hantae

    Modern flow diagnostics applied to a very old aerodynamic problem has produced a number of intriguing new results and new insight into previous results. The aerodynamic performance and associated flow physics of the biplane with endplates as a function of variation in gap and stagger were analytically and experimentally investigated. A combination of vortex lattice method, integrated force measurement, streamwise PIV, and Trefftz plane Stereo PIV were used to better understand the flowfield around the biplane with endplates. This study was performed to determine the configuration with the optimal aerodynamic performance and to understand the fluid mechanics behind optimal and suboptimal performance of the configuration. The Vortex Lattice code (AVL) shows that the gap and stagger have the most dramatic effects out of the six parameters studied: gap, stagger, dihedral, decalage, sweep and overhang. The force balance measurements with fourteen biplane configurations of different gaps and staggers show that as gap and stagger increase, the lift efficiency also increases at all angles of attack tested at both Re 60,000 and 120,000. Using the force balance data, a generalized empirical method for the prediction of lift coefficient as a function of gap, stagger and angle of attack has been determined and validated when combined with existing relations for CL--α adjustments for AR and taper effects. The resulting empirical approach allows for a rapid determination of CL for a biplane having different gap, stagger, AR and taper without the need for a complete flowfield analysis. Two Dimensional PIV results show a distinctive pattern in the downwash angle for the different gap and stagger configurations tested. The downwash angle increases with increasing gap and stagger. It is also evident that the change in downwash angle is directly proportional to the change in lift coefficient as would be expected. Increasing gap spacing increases the downwash angle as well. Based on

  20. Effects of measuring positions on the measured aerodynamic performance of a centrifugal compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hongwei; Zhang, Jun

    2010-04-01

    This paper performs a numerical simulation of three-dimensional flow field in a centrifugal compressor with long inlet and outlet pipes using CFX software. By arranging virtual probes at different positions in both inlet and outlet planes, the aerodynamic performance of the centrifugal compressor is measured and compared with each other. Then effects of measuring positions on measurement results are discussed. The results show that it will generate notable measuring errors of the pressure ratio and efficiency if the inlet total pressure is measured using a single-point probe. The inlet total pressure data can be accurate when they are measured using a 3-point rake. The outlet total pressure and total temperature data can not be accurate if they are respectively measured at one circumferential position even using a multi-point rake. Increasing tangential measuring positions at the outlet is effective to improve the test accuracy. When the outlet total pressure and total temperature are respectively measured at 3 tangential positions, the data can be almost accurate.

  1. The aerodynamic design and performance of the General Electric/NASA EEE fan. [Energy Efficient Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, T. J.; Hager, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and test results of the fan and quarter-stage component for the GE/NASA Energy Efficient Engine (EEE) are presented. The fan is a high bypass ratio, single-stage design having 32 part-span shrouded rotor blades, coupled with a unique quarter-stage arrangement that provides additional core-stream pressure ratio and particle separation. The fan produces a bypass pressure ratio of 1.65 at the exit of the low aspect ratio vane/frame and a core-stream pressure ratio of 1.67 at the entrance to the core frame struts. The full-scale fan vehicle was instrumented, assembled and tested as a component in November 1981. Performance mapping was conducted over a range of speeds and bypass ratios using individually-controlled bypass and core-stream discharge valves. The fan bypass and core-stream test data showed excellent results, with the fan exceeding all performance goals at the important engine operating conditions.

  2. Effects of inlet circumferential fluctuation on the sweep aerodynamic performance of axial fans/compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Xingmin; Zhu, Fang; Wan, Ke; Jin, Donghai

    2013-10-01

    Swept blades have been widely used in the transonic fan/compressor of aircraft engines with the aids of 3D CFD simulation since the design concept of controlling the shock structure was firstly proposed and successfully tested by Dr. Wennerstrom in the 1980s. However, some disadvantage phenomenon has also been induced by excessively 3D blade geometries on the structure stress insufficiency, vibration and reliability. Much confusion in the procedure of design practice leading us to recognize a new view on the flow mechanism of sweep aerodynamical induction: the new radial equilibrium established by the influence of inlet circumferential fluctuation (CF) changes the inlet flows of blading and induces the performance modification of axial fans/compressors blade. The view is verified by simplified models through numerical simulation and circumferentially averaged analysis in the present paper. The results show that the CF source items which originate from design parameters, such as the spanwise distributions of the loading and blading geometries, contribute to the changing of averaged incidence spanwise distribution, and further more affect the performance of axial fans/compressors with swept blades.

  3. Aerodynamic design and initial performance measurements for the SANDIA 34-metre diameter vertical-axis wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, D.E.; Klimas, P.C.; Stephenson, W.A. )

    1989-01-01

    The DOE/Sandia 34-m diameter Vertical-Axis Wind turbine (VAWT) utilizes a step-tapered, multiple-airfoil section blade. One of the airfoil sections is a natural laminar flow profile, the SAND 0018/50, designed specifically for use on VAWTs. The turbine has now been fully operational for more than a year, and extensive turbine aerodynamic performance data have been obtained. This paper reviews the design and fabrication of the rotor blade, with emphasis on the SAND 0018/50 airfoil, and compares the performance measurements to date with the performance predictions. Possible sources of the discrepancies between measured and predicted performance are identified, and plans for additional aerodynamic testing on the turbine are briefly discussed. 12 refs., 10 figs.

  4. An Aerodynamic Performance Evaluation of the NASA/Ames Research Center Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, Paul F.

    1987-01-01

    The results of an aerodynamic performance evaluation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Ames Research Center Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator (ACFS), conducted in association with the Navy-NASA Joint Institute of Aeronautics, are presented. The ACFS is a full-mission flight simulator which provides an excellent platform for the critical evaluation of emerging flight systems and aircrew performance. The propulsion and flight dynamics models were evaluated using classical flight test techniques. The aerodynamic performance model of the ACFS was found to realistically represent that of current day, medium range transport aircraft. Recommendations are provided to enhance the capabilities of the ACFS to a level forecast for 1995 transport aircraft. The graphical and tabular results of this study will establish a performance section of the ACFS Operation's Manual.

  5. Aerodynamic design and initial performance measurements for the SANDIA 34-metre diameter vertical-axis wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Dale E.; Klimas, Paul C.; Stephenson, William A.

    The DOE/Sandia 34-m diameter Vertical-Axis Wind turbine (VAWT) utilizes a step-tapered, multiple-airfoil section blade. One of the airfoil sections is a natural laminar flow profile, the SAND 0018/50, designed specifically for use on VAWTs. The turbine has now been fully operational for more than a year, and extensive turbine aerodynamic performance data have been obtained. This paper reviews the design and fabrication of the rotor blade, with emphasis on the SAND 0018/50 airfoil, and compares the performance measurements to date with the performance predictions. Possible sources of the discrepancies between measured and predicted performance are identified, and plans for additional aerodynamic testing on the turbine are briefly discussed.

  6. Cool and Quiet: Partnering to Enhance the Aerodynamic and Acoustic Performance of Installed Electronics Cooling Fans: A White Paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, L. Danielle; VanZante, Dale E.

    2006-01-01

    Breathtaking images of distant planets. Spacewalks to repair a telescope in orbit. Footprints on the moon. The awesome is made possible by the mundane. Every achievement in space exploration has relied on solid, methodical advances in engineering. Space exploration fuels economic development like no other endeavor can. But which advances will make their way into our homes and businesses? And how long will it take? Answers to these questions are dependent upon industrial involvement in government sponsored research initiatives, market demands, and timing. Recognizing an opportunity is half the battle. This proposal describes the framework for a collaborative research program aimed at improving the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of electronics cooling fans. At its best, the program would involve NASA and academic researchers, as well as corporate researchers representing the Information Technology (IT) and fan manufacturing industries. The momentum of space exploration, the expertise resultant from the nation's substantial investment in turbofan noise reduction research, and the competitiveness of the IT industry are intended to be catalysts of innovation.

  7. An experimental investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of slanted base ogive cylinders using magnetic suspension technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, C. P.; Alcorn, C. W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on an experimental investigation of aerodynamic characteristics of slanted base ogive cylinders at zero incidence. The Mach number range is 0.05 to 0.3. In this investigation, magnetically suspending the wind tunnel models eliminates flow disturbances associated with mechanical supports. This paper reports on the drastic changes in lift, pitching moment, and drag for a slight change in base slant angle. Flow visualization with liquid crystals and oil is used to observe base flow patterns responsible for the sudden changes in aerodynamic characteristics. This paper also reports on hysteretic effects that are present and discusses computational results using VSAERO and SANDRAG.

  8. PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akishita, Sadao

    2010-02-01

    The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the

  9. Human Performance Technology and HRD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carliner, Saul

    2014-01-01

    Performance--the achievement of results--is central to definitions of HRD. Performance Technology (HPT) refers to a systematic methodology for developing performance in individuals and organizations. Through a systematic process, HPT explores issues at the organizational, unit, and individual level, and with skills and knowledge, resources, and…

  10. Aerodynamic force generation, performance and control of body orientation during gliding in sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps).

    PubMed

    Bishop, Kristin L

    2007-08-01

    Gliding has often been discussed in the literature as a possible precursor to powered flight in vertebrates, but few studies exist on the mechanics of gliding in living animals. In this study I analyzed the 3D kinematics of sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps) during short glides in an enclosed space. Short segments of the glide were captured on video, and the positions of marked anatomical landmarks were used to compute linear distances and angles, as well as whole body velocities and accelerations. From the whole body accelerations I estimated the aerodynamic forces generated by the animals. I computed the correlations between movements of the limbs and body rotations to examine the control of orientation during flight. Finally, I compared these results to those of my earlier study on the similarly sized and distantly related southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans). The sugar gliders in this study accelerated downward slightly (1.0+/-0.5 m s(-2)), and also accelerated forward (2.1+/-0.6 m s(-2)) in all but one trial, indicating that the body weight was not fully supported by aerodynamic forces and that some of the lift produced forward acceleration rather than just balancing body weight. The gliders used high angles of attack (44.15+/-3.12 degrees ), far higher than the angles at which airplane wings would stall, yet generated higher lift coefficients (1.48+/-0.18) than would be expected for a stalled wing. Movements of the limbs were strongly correlated with body rotations, suggesting that sugar gliders make extensive use of limb movements to control their orientation during gliding flight. In addition, among individuals, different limb movements were associated with a given body rotation, suggesting that individual variation exists in the control of body rotations. Under similar conditions, flying squirrels generated higher lift coefficients and lower drag coefficients than sugar gliders, yet had only marginally shallower glides. Flying squirrels have a

  11. Ice Accretions and Full-Scale Iced Aerodynamic Performance Data for a Two-Dimensional NACA 23012 Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Broeren, Andy P.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Lee, Sam; Guffond, Didier; Montreuil, Emmanuel; Moens, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the data collected during the large wind tunnel campaigns conducted as part of the SUNSET project (StUdies oN Scaling EffecTs due to ice) also known as the Ice-Accretion Aerodynamics Simulation study: a joint effort by NASA, the Office National d'Etudes et Recherches Aérospatiales (ONERA), and the University of Illinois. These data form a benchmark database of full-scale ice accretions and corresponding ice-contaminated aerodynamic performance data for a two-dimensional (2D) NACA 23012 airfoil. The wider research effort also included an analysis of ice-contaminated aerodynamics that categorized ice accretions by aerodynamic effects and an investigation of subscale, low- Reynolds-number ice-contaminated aerodynamics for the NACA 23012 airfoil. The low-Reynolds-number investigation included an analysis of the geometric fidelity needed to reliably assess aerodynamic effects of airfoil icing using artificial ice shapes. Included herein are records of the ice accreted during campaigns in NASA Glenn Research Center's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). Two different 2D NACA 23012 airfoil models were used during these campaigns; an 18-in. (45.7-cm) chord (subscale) model and a 72-in. (182.9-cm) chord (full-scale) model. The aircraft icing conditions used during these campaigns were selected from the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 25 Appendix C icing envelopes. The records include the test conditions, photographs of the ice accreted, tracings of the ice, and ice depth measurements. Model coordinates and pressure tap locations are also presented. Also included herein are the data recorded during a wind tunnel campaign conducted in the F1 Subsonic Pressurized Wind Tunnel of ONERA. The F1 tunnel is a pressured, high- Reynolds-number facility that could accommodate the full-scale (72-in. (182.9-cm) chord) 2D NACA 23012 model. Molds were made of the ice accreted during selected test runs of the full-scale model

  12. Improvement of the aerodynamic performance by wing flexibility and elytra–hind wing interaction of a beetle during forward flight

    PubMed Central

    Le, Tuyen Quang; Truong, Tien Van; Park, Soo Hyung; Quang Truong, Tri; Ko, Jin Hwan; Park, Hoon Cheol; Byun, Doyoung

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the aerodynamic performance of beetle wing in free-forward flight was explored by a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) simulation with measured wing kinematics. It is shown from the CFD results that twist and camber variation, which represent the wing flexibility, are most important when determining the aerodynamic performance. Twisting wing significantly increased the mean lift and camber variation enhanced the mean thrust while the required power was lower than the case when neither was considered. Thus, in a comparison of the power economy among rigid, twisting and flexible models, the flexible model showed the best performance. When the positive effect of wing interaction was added to that of wing flexibility, we found that the elytron created enough lift to support its weight, and the total lift (48.4 mN) generated from the simulation exceeded the gravity force of the beetle (47.5 mN) during forward flight. PMID:23740486

  13. Aerodynamic Performance of a Compact, High Work-Factor Centrifugal Compressor at the Stage and Subcomponent Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braunscheidel, Edward P.; Welch, Gerard E.; Skoch, Gary J.; Medic, Gorazd; Sharma, Om P.

    2014-01-01

    The measured aerodynamic performance of a compact, high work factor, single-stage centrifugal compressor, comprising an impeller, diffuser, 90-bend, and exit guide vane (EGV), is reported. Performance levels are based on steady-state total-pressure and total-temperature rake and angularity-probe data acquired at key machine rating planes during recent testing at NASA Glenn Research Center. Aerodynamic performance at the stage level are reported for operation between 70 to 105 of design corrected speed, with subcomponent (impeller, diffuser, and exitguide-vane) detailed flow field measurements presented and discussed at the 100 design-speed condition. Individual component losses from measurements are compared with pre-test predictions on a limited basis.

  14. Correlation Between Geometric Similarity of Ice Shapes and the Resulting Aerodynamic Performance Degradation: A Preliminary Investigation Using WIND

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, William B.; Chung, James

    1999-01-01

    Aerodynamic performance calculations were performed using WIND on ten experimental ice shapes and the corresponding ten ice shapes predicted by LEWICE 2.0. The resulting data for lift coefficient and drag coefficient are presented. The difference in aerodynamic results between the experimental ice shapes and the LEWICE ice shapes were compared to the quantitative difference in ice shape geometry presented in an earlier report. Correlations were generated to determine the geometric features which have the most effect on performance degradation. Results show that maximum lift and stall angle can be correlated to the upper horn angle and the leading edge minimum thickness. Drag coefficient can be correlated to the upper horn angle and the frequency-weighted average of the Fourier coefficients. Pitching moment correlated with the upper horn angle and to a much lesser extent to the upper and lower horn thicknesses.

  15. Aerodynamic Performance of a Compact, High Work-Factor Centrifugal Compressor at the Stage and Subcomponent Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braunscheidel, Edward P.; Welch, Gerard E.; Skoch, Gary J.; Medic, Gorazd; Sharma, Om P.

    2015-01-01

    The measured aerodynamic performance of a compact, high work-factor, single-stage centrifugal compressor, comprising an impeller, diffuser, 90deg-bend, and exit guide vane is reported. Performance levels are based on steady-state total-pressure and total-temperature rake and angularity-probe data acquired at key machine rating planes during recent testing at NASA Glenn Research Center. Aerodynamic performance at the stage level is reported for operation between 70 to 105 percent of design corrected speed, with subcomponent (impeller, diffuser, and exit-guide-vane) flow field measurements presented and discussed at the 100 percent design-speed condition. Individual component losses from measurements are compared with pre-test CFD predictions on a limited basis.

  16. Aerodynamic Performance of a Compact, High Work-Factor Centrifugal Compressor at the Stage and Subcomponent Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braunscheidel, Edward P.; Welch, Gerard E.; Skoch, Gary J.; Medic, Gorazd; Sharma, Om P.

    2014-01-01

    The measured aerodynamic performance of a compact, high work-factor, single-stage centrifugal compressor, comprising an impeller, diffuser, 90º-bend, and exit guide vane is reported. Performance levels are based on steady-state total-pressure and total-temperature rake and angularity-probe data acquired at key machine rating planes during recent testing at NASA Glenn Research Center. Aerodynamic performance at the stage level is reported for operation between 70 to 105% of design corrected speed, with subcomponent (impeller, diffuser, and exit-guide-vane) flow field measurements presented and discussed at the 100% design-speed condition. Individual component losses from measurements are compared with pre-test CFD predictions on a limited basis.

  17. Aerodynamic performance of a vibrating piezoelectric fan under varied operational conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, J.; Jeffers, N.

    2014-07-01

    This paper experimentally examines the bulk aerodynamic performance of a vibrating fan operating in the first mode of vibration. The influence of operating condition on the local velocity field has also been investigated to understand the flow distribution at the exit region and determine the stalling condition for vibrating fans. Fan motion has been generated and controlled using a piezoelectric ceramic attached to a stainless steel cantilever. The frequency and amplitude at resonance were 109.4 Hz and 12.5 mm, respectively. A test facility has been developed to measure the pressure-flow characteristics of the vibrating fan and simultaneously conduct local velocity field measurements using particle image velocimetry. The results demonstrate the impact of system characteristics on the local velocity field. High momentum regions generated due to the oscillating motion exist with a component direction that is tangent to the blade at maximum displacement. These high velocity zones are significantly affected by increasing impedance while flow reversal is a dominant feature at maximum pressure rise. The findings outlined provide useful information for design of thermal management solutions that may incorporate this air cooling approach.

  18. Effect of longitudinal ridges on the aerodynamic performance of a leatherback turtle model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, Kyeongtae; Kim, Jooha; Kim, Heesu; Lee, Sang-Im; Choi, Haecheon

    2012-11-01

    Leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are known as the fastest swimmer and the deepest diver in the open ocean among marine turtles. Unlike other marine turtles, leatherback sea turtles have five longitudinal ridges on their carapace. To investigate the effect of these longitudinal ridges on the aerodynamic performance of a leatherback turtle model, the experiment is conducted in a wind tunnel at Re = 1.0 × 105 - 1.4 × 106 (including that of real leatherback turtle in cruising condition) based on the model length. We measure the drag and lift forces on the leatherback turtle model with and without longitudinal ridges. The presence of longitudinal ridges increases both the lift and drag forces on the model, but increases the lift-to-drag ratio by 15 - 40%. We also measure the velocity field around the model with and without the ridges using particle image velocimetry. More details will be shown in the presentation. Supported by the NRF program (2011-0028032).

  19. Aerodynamic Performance of an Active Flow Control Configuration Using Unstructured-Grid RANS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.; Viken, Sally A.

    2001-01-01

    This research is focused on assessing the value of the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) methodology for active flow control applications. An experimental flow control database exists for a TAU0015 airfoil, which is a modification of a NACA0015 airfoil. The airfoil has discontinuities at the leading edge due to the implementation of a fluidic actuator and aft of mid chord on the upper surface. This paper documents two- and three-dimensional computational results for the baseline wing configuration (no control) with tile experimental results. The two-dimensional results suggest that the mid-chord discontinuity does not effect the aerodynamics of the wing and can be ignored for more efficient computations. The leading-edge discontinuity significantly affects tile lift and drag; hence, the integrity of the leading-edge notch discontinuity must be maintained in the computations to achieve a good match with the experimental data. The three-dimensional integrated performance results are in good agreement with the experiments inspite of some convergence and grid resolution issues.

  20. Aerodynamic performance of a wing with a deflected tip-mounted reverse half-delta wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T.; Su, Y. Y.

    2012-11-01

    The impact of a tip-mounted 65°-sweep reverse half-delta wing (RHDW), set at different deflections, on the aerodynamic performance of a rectangular NACA 0012 wing was investigated experimentally at Re = 2.45 × 105. This study is a continuation of the work of Lee and Su (Exp Fluids 52(6):1593-1609, 2012) on the passive control of wing tip vortex by the use of a reverse half-delta wing. The present results show that for RHDW deflection with -5° ≤ δ ≤ +15°, the lift was found to increase nonlinearly with increasing δ compared to the baseline wing. The lift increment was accompanied by an increased total drag. For negative RHDW deflection with δ < -5°, the RHDW-induced lift decrement was, however, accompanied by an improved drag. The deflected RHDW also significantly modified and weakened the tip vortex, leading to a persistently lowered lift-induced drag, regardless of its deflection, compared to the baseline wing. Physical mechanisms responsible for the observed RHDW-induced phenomenon were also discussed.

  1. Aerodynamic Performance of an Active Flow Control Configuration Using Unstructured-Grid RANS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.; Viken, Sally A.

    2001-01-01

    This research is focused on assessing the value of the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) methodology for active flow control applications. An experimental flow control database exists for a TAU0015 airfoil, which is a modification of a NACA0015 airfoil. The airfoil has discontinuities at the leading edge due to the implementation of a fluidic actuator and aft of mid chord oil the upper surface. This paper documents two- and three-dimensional computational results for the baseline wing configuration (no control) with the experimental results. The two-dimensional results suggest that the mid-chord discontinuity does not effect the aerodynamics of the wing and can be ignored for more efficient computations. The leading-edge discontinuity significantly affects the lift and drag; hence the integrity of the leading-edge notch discontinuity must be maintained in the computations to achieve a good match with the experimental data. The three-dimensional integrated performance results are in good agreement with the experiments in spite of some convergence and grid resolution issues.

  2. Aerodynamic and Acoustic Performance of Two Choked-Flow Inlets Under Static Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, B. A.; Abbott, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of two choking flow inlets under static conditions. One inlet choked the flow in the cowl throat by an axial translation of the inlet centerbody. The other inlet employed a translating grid of airfoils to choke the flow. Both inlets were sized to fit a 13.97 cm diameter fan with a design weight flow of 2.49 kg/sec. The inlets were operated in both the choked and unchoked modes over a range of weight flows. Measurements were made of inlet pressure recovery, flow distortion, surface static pressure distribution, and fan noise suppression. Choking of the translating centerbody inlet reduced blade passing frequency noise by 29 db while yielding a total pressure recovery of 0.985. Noise reductions were also measured at 1/3-octave band center frequencies of 2500, 5000, and 20,000 cycles. The translating grid inlet gave a total pressure recovery of 0.968 when operating close to the choking weight flow. However, an intermittent high intensity noise source was encountered with this inlet that precluded an accurate measurement of inlet noise suppression.

  3. Aerodynamic performances of three fan stator designs operating with rotor having tip speed of 337 meters per second and pressure ratio of 1.54. 1: Experimental performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelder, T. F.

    1980-01-01

    The aerodynamic performances of four stator-blade rows are presented and evaluated. The aerodynamic designs of two of these stators were compromised to reduce noise, a third design was not. On a calculated operating line passing through the design point pressure ratio, the best stator had overall pressure-ratio and efficiency decrements of 0.031 and 0.044, respectively, providing a stage pressure ratio of 1.483 and efficiency of 0.865. The other stators showed some correctable deficiencies due partly to the design compromises for noise. In the end-wall regions blade-element losses were significantly less for the shortest chord studied.

  4. Influence of heat transfer on the aerodynamic performance of a plunging and pitching NACA0012 airfoil at low Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinz, Denis F.; Alighanbari, Hekmat; Breitsamter, Christian

    2013-02-01

    The unsteady low Reynolds number aerodynamics phenomena around flapping wings are addressed in several investigations. Elsewhere, airfoils at higher Mach numbers and Reynolds numbers have been treated quite comprehensively in the literature. It is duly noted that the influence of heat transfer phenomena on the aerodynamic performance of flapping wings configurations is not well studied. The objective of the present study is to investigate the effect of heat transfer upon the aerodynamic performance of a pitching and plunging NACA0012 airfoil in the low Reynolds number flow regime with particular emphasis upon the airfoil's lift and drag coefficients. The compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a finite volume method. To consider the variation of fluid properties with temperature, the values of dynamic viscosity and thermal diffusivity are evaluated with Sutherland's formula and the Eucken model, respectively. Instantaneous and mean lift and drag coefficients are calculated for several temperature differences between the airfoil surface and freestream within the range 0-100 K. Simulations are performed for a prescribed airfoil motion schedule and flow parameters. It is learnt that the aerodynamic performance in terms of the lift CL and drag CD behavior is strongly dependent upon the heat transfer rate from the airfoil to the flow field. In the plunging case, the mean value of CD tends to increase, whereas the amplitude of CL tends to decrease with increasing temperature difference. In the pitching case, on the other hand, the mean value and the amplitude of both CD and CL decrease. A spectral analysis of CD and CL in the pitching case shows that the amplitudes of both CD and CL decrease with increasing surface temperature, whereas the harmonic frequencies are not affected.

  5. CF6 Jet Engine Performance Improvement Program: High Pressure Turbine Aerodynamic Performance Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasching, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    The improved single shank high pressure turbine design was evaluated in component tests consisting of performance, heat transfer and mechanical tests, and in core engine tests. The instrumented core engine test verified the thermal, mechanical, and aeromechanical characteristics of the improved turbine design. An endurance test subjected the improved single shank turbine to 1000 simulated flight cycles, the equivalent of approximately 3000 hours of typical airline service. Initial back-to-back engine tests demonstrated an improvement in cruise sfc of 1.3% and a reduction in exhaust gas temperature of 10 C. An additional improvement of 0.3% in cruise sfc and 6 C in EGT is projected for long service engines.

  6. An investigation on the aerodynamic performance of a vertical axis wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaishnav, Etesh

    Scope and Method of Study. The two dimensional unsteady flow around a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) comprising three rotating symmetric airfoils (NACA0018) was studied numerically with the consideration of the near wake. The flow around the wind turbine was simulated using ANSYS FLUENT 12.0.16 at Reynolds number of 106. ICEM CFD was used as a pre-processor to generate hexahedral grid and arbitrary sliding mesh technique was implemented to create a moving mesh. SST k-o turbulence model was employed for the analysis and simulation was set to run at several tip speed ratios ranging from 1 to 5. The variation of the performance coefficient (Cp) as a function of tip speed ratio (lambda) was investigated by plotting a graph between them. A validation was made by comparing CFD results with experimental results. Maximum Cp of 0.34 was obtained at lambda of 3.8. In addition, the effect of the rotor diameter on the VAWT's performance was investigated. In this regard, rotor diameter was halved and the angular velocity was doubled to keep the tip speed ratio constant. Furthermore, the effect of laminar boundary layer separation on Cp of a VAWT was studied by comparing the results of Laminar viscous model and RANS turbulence model. Apart from that, the effect of solidity on Cp was investigated by comparing the Cp obtained from six bladed turbine with the three bladed turbine. Findings and Conclusions. Influence of rotor diameter on the aerodynamic performance of a VAWT was investigated and found that Cp remained almost constant at the same value of lambda ranging from 1 to 5. This was due to the fact that the ratio of the chord length and the rotor radius were kept the same in both cases. For Laminar flow at low Reynolds number, Cp was found to be low due to the presence of leading edge separation bubble and reduced lift-to-drag ratio. Therefore, in order to increase Cp of a VAWT at low Reynolds numbers (e.g. small VAWT), different blade geometry (e.g. cambered) and

  7. High Performance Tools And Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Collette, M R; Corey, I R; Johnson, J R

    2005-01-24

    This goal of this project was to evaluate the capability and limits of current scientific simulation development tools and technologies with specific focus on their suitability for use with the next generation of scientific parallel applications and High Performance Computing (HPC) platforms. The opinions expressed in this document are those of the authors, and reflect the authors' current understanding and functionality of the many tools investigated. As a deliverable for this effort, we are presenting this report describing our findings along with an associated spreadsheet outlining current capabilities and characteristics of leading and emerging tools in the high performance computing arena. This first chapter summarizes our findings (which are detailed in the other chapters) and presents our conclusions, remarks, and anticipations for the future. In the second chapter, we detail how various teams in our local high performance community utilize HPC tools and technologies, and mention some common concerns they have about them. In the third chapter, we review the platforms currently or potentially available to utilize these tools and technologies on to help in software development. Subsequent chapters attempt to provide an exhaustive overview of the available parallel software development tools and technologies, including their strong and weak points and future concerns. We categorize them as debuggers, memory checkers, performance analysis tools, communication libraries, data visualization programs, and other parallel development aides. The last chapter contains our closing information. Included with this paper at the end is a table of the discussed development tools and their operational environment.

  8. Effects of perforation number of blade on aerodynamic performance of dual-rotor small axial flow fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yongjun; Wang, Yanping; Li, Guoqi; Jin, Yingzi; Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Kim, Heuy Dong

    2015-04-01

    Compared with single rotor small axial flow fans, dual-rotor small axial flow fans is better regarding the static characteristics. But the aerodynamic noise of dual-rotor small axial flow fans is worse than that of single rotor small axial flow fans. In order to improve aerodynamic noise of dual-rotor small axial flow fans, the pre-stage blades with different perforation numbers are designed in this research. The RANS equations and the standard k-ɛ turbulence model as well as the FW-H noise model are used to simulate the flow field within the fan. Then, the aerodynamic performance of the fans with different perforation number is compared and analyzed. The results show that: (1) Compared to the prototype fan, the noise of fans with perforation blades is reduced. Additionally, the noise of the fans decreases with the increase of the number of perforations. (2) The vorticity value in the trailing edge of the pre-stage blades of perforated fans is reduced. It is found that the vorticity value in the trailing edge of the pre-stage blades decreases with the increase of the number of perforations. (3) Compared to the prototype fan, the total pressure rising and efficiency of the fans with perforation blades drop slightly.

  9. Air-permeable hole-pattern and nose-droop control improve aerodynamic performance of primary feathers.

    PubMed

    Eder, Heinrich; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Pascoe, Xaver

    2011-01-01

    Primary feathers of soaring land birds have evolved into highly specialized flight feathers characterized by morphological improvements affecting aerodynamic performance. The foremost feathers in the cascade have to bear high lift-loading with a strong bending during soaring flight. A challenge to the study of feather aerodynamics is to understand how the observed low drag and high lift values in the Reynolds (Re) regime from 1.0 to 2.0E4 can be achieved. Computed micro-tomography images show that the feather responds to high lift-loading with an increasing nose-droop and profile-camber. Wind-tunnel tests conducted with the foremost primary feather of a White Stork (Ciconia ciconia) at Re = 1.8E4 indicated a surprisingly high maximum lift coefficient of 1.5 and a glide ratio of nearly 10. We present evidence that this is due to morphologic characteristics formed by the cristae dorsales as well as air-permeable arrays along the rhachis. Measurements of lift and drag forces with open and closed pores confirmed the efficiency of this mechanism. Porous structures facilitate a blow out, comparable to technical blow-hole turbulators for sailplanes and low speed turbine-blades. From our findings, we conclude that the mechanism has evolved in order to affect the boundary layer and to reduce aerodynamic drag of the feather. PMID:20938776

  10. Aerodynamic Decelerators for Planetary Exploration: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Juna R.; Lingard, J. Stephen

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, aerodynamic decelerators are defined as textile devices intended to be deployed at Mach numbers below five. Such aerodynamic decelerators include parachutes and inflatable aerodynamic decelerators (often known as ballutes). Aerodynamic decelerators play a key role in the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) of planetary exploration vehicles. Among the functions performed by aerodynamic decelerators for such vehicles are deceleration (often from supersonic to subsonic speeds), minimization of descent rate, providing specific descent rates (so that scientific measurements can be obtained), providing stability (drogue function - either to prevent aeroshell tumbling or to meet instrumentation requirements), effecting further aerodynamic decelerator system deployment (pilot function), providing differences in ballistic coefficients of components to enable separation events, and providing height and timeline to allow for completion of the EDL sequence. Challenging aspects in the development of aerodynamic decelerators for planetary exploration missions include: deployment in the unusual combination of high Mach numbers and low dynamic pressures, deployment in the wake behind a blunt-body entry vehicle, stringent mass and volume constraints, and the requirement for high drag and stability. Furthermore, these aerodynamic decelerators must be qualified for flight without access to the exotic operating environment where they are expected to operate. This paper is an introduction to the development and application of aerodynamic decelerators for robotic planetary exploration missions (including Earth sample return missions) from the earliest work in the 1960s to new ideas and technologies with possible application to future missions. An extensive list of references is provided for additional study.

  11. A paleo-aerodynamic exploration of the evolution of nature's flyers, man's aircraft, and the needs and options for future technology innovations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulfan, Brenda M.

    2009-03-01

    Insights and observations of fascinating aspects of birds, bugs and flying seeds, of inspired aerodynamic concepts, and visions of past, present and future aircraft developments are presented. The evolution of nature's flyers, will be compared with the corresponding evolution of commercial aircraft. We will explore similarities between nature's creations and man's inventions. Many critical areas requiring future significant technology based solutions remain. With the advent of UAVs and MAVs, the gap between "possible" and "actual" is again very large. Allometric scaling procedures will be used to explore size implications on limitations and performance capabilities of nature's creations. Biologically related technology development concepts including: bionics, biomimicry, neo-bionic, pseudo-mimicry, cybernetic and non-bionic approaches will be discussed and illustrated with numerous examples. Technology development strategies will be discussed along with the pros and cons for each. Future technology developments should include a synergistic coupling of "discovery driven", "product led" and "technology acceleration" strategies. The objective of this presentation is to inspire the creative nature existing within all of us. This is a summary all text version of the complete report with the same title that report includes approximately 80 figures, photos and charts and much more information.

  12. Integrating Human Performance and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald K. Farris; Heather Medema

    2012-05-01

    Human error is a significant factor in the cause and/or complication of events that occur in the commercial nuclear industry. In recent years, great gains have been made using Human Performance (HU) tools focused on targeting individual behaviors. However, the cost of improving HU is growing and resistance to add yet another HU tool certainly exists, particularly for those tools that increase the paperwork for operations. Improvements in HU that are the result of leveraging existing technology, such as hand-held mobile technologies, have the potential to reduce human error in controlling system configurations, safety tag-outs, and other verifications. Operator rounds, valve line-up verifications, containment closure verifications, safety & equipment protection, and system tagging can be supported by field-deployable wireless technologies. These devices can also support the availability of critical component data in the main control room and other locations. This research pilot project reviewing wireless hand-held technology is part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program (LWRSP), a research and development (R&D) program sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The project is being performed in close collaboration with industry R&D programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing, and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. The LWRSP vision is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current nuclear reactor fleet.

  13. Applied aerodynamics: Challenges and expectations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Victor L.; Smith, Charles A.

    1993-01-01

    Aerospace is the leading positive contributor to this country's balance of trade, derived largely from the sale of U.S. commercial aircraft around the world. This powerfully favorable economic situation is being threatened in two ways: (1) the U.S. portion of the commercial transport market is decreasing, even though the worldwide market is projected to increase substantially; and (2) expenditures are decreasing for military aircraft, which often serve as proving grounds for advanced aircraft technology. To retain a major share of the world market for commercial aircraft and continue to provide military aircraft with unsurpassed performance, the U.S. aerospace industry faces many technological challenges. The field of applied aerodynamics is necessarily a major contributor to efforts aimed at meeting these technological challenges. A number of emerging research results that will provide new opportunities for applied aerodynamicists are discussed. Some of these have great potential for maintaining the high value of contributions from applied aerodynamics in the relatively near future. Over time, however, the value of these contributions will diminish greatly unless substantial investments continue to be made in basic and applied research efforts. The focus: to increase understanding of fluid dynamic phenomena, identify new aerodynamic concepts, and provide validated advanced technology for future aircraft.

  14. Quiet Clean Short-Haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) Over-The-Wing (OTW) propulsion system test report. Volume 2: Aerodynamics and performance. [engine performance tests to define propulsion system performance on turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The design and testing of the over the wing engine, a high bypass, geared turbofan engine, are discussed. The propulsion system performance is examined for uninstalled performance and installed performance. The fan aerodynamic performance and the D nozzle and reverser thrust performance are evaluated.

  15. Aerodynamic performance of a drag reduction device on a full-scale tractor/trailer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanser, Wendy R.; Ross, James C.; Kaufman, Andrew E.

    1991-09-01

    The effectiveness of an aerodynamic boattail on a tractor/trailer road vehicle was measured in the NASA Ames Research Center 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel. Results are examined for the tractor/trailer with and without the drag reduction device. Pressure measurements and flow visualization show that the aerodynamic boattail traps a vortex or eddy in the corner formed between the device and the rear corner of the trailer. This recirculating flow turns the flow inward as it separates from the edges of the base of the trailer. This modified flow behavior increases the pressure acting over the base area of the truck, thereby reducing the net aerodynamic drag of the vehicle. Drag measurements and pressure distributions in the region of the boattail device are presented for selected configurations. The optimum configuration reduces the overall drag of the tractor/trailer combination by about 10 percent at a zero yaw angle. Unsteady pressure measurements do not indicate strong vortex shedding, although the addition of the boattail plates increases high frequency content of the fluctuating pressure.

  16. Evaluating the catching performance of aerodynamic rain gauges through field comparisons and CFD modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Michael; Colli, Matteo; Stagnaro, Mattia; Lanza, Luca; Quinn, Paul; Dutton, Mark; O'Donnell, Greg; Wilkinson, Mark; Black, Andrew; O'Connell, Enda

    2016-04-01

    Accurate rainfall measurement is a fundamental requirement in a broad range of applications including flood risk and water resource management. The most widely used method of measuring rainfall is the rain gauge, which is often also considered to be the most accurate. In the context of hydrological modelling, measurements from rain gauges are interpolated to produce an areal representation, which forms an important input to drive hydrological models and calibrate rainfall radars. In each stage of this process another layer of uncertainty is introduced. The initial measurement errors are propagated through the chain, compounding the overall uncertainty. This study looks at the fundamental source of error, in the rainfall measurement itself; and specifically addresses the largest of these, the systematic 'wind-induced' error. Snowfall is outside the scope. The shape of a precipitation gauge significantly affects its collection efficiency (CE), with respect to a reference measurement. This is due to the airflow around the gauge, which causes a deflection in the trajectories of the raindrops near the gauge orifice. Computational Fluid-Dynamic (CFD) simulations are used to evaluate the time-averaged airflows realized around the EML ARG100, EML SBS500 and EML Kalyx-RG rain gauges, when impacted by wind. These gauges have a similar aerodynamic profile - a shape comparable to that of a champagne flute - and they are used globally. The funnel diameter of each gauge, respectively, is 252mm, 254mm and 127mm. The SBS500 is used by the UK Met Office and the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency. Terms of comparison are provided by the results obtained for standard rain gauge shapes manufactured by Casella and OTT which, respectively, have a uniform and a tapered cylindrical shape. The simulations were executed for five different wind speeds; 2, 5, 7, 10 and 18 ms-1. Results indicate that aerodynamic gauges have a different impact on the time-averaged airflow patterns

  17. Selected advanced aerodynamics and active controls technology concepts development on a derivative B-747

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of applying wing tip extensions, winglets, and active control wing load alleviation to the Boeing 747 is investigated. Winglet aerodynamic design methods and high speed wind tunnel test results of winglets and of symmetrically deflected ailerons are presented. Structural resizing analyses to determine weight and aeroelastic twist increments for all the concepts and flutter model test results for the wing with winglets are included. Control law development, system mechanization/reliability studies, and aileron balance tab trade studies for active wing load alleviation systems are discussed. Results are presented in the form of incremental effects on L/D, structural weight, block fuel savings, stability and control, airplane price, and airline operating economics.

  18. An experimental investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of slanted base ogive cylinders using magnetic suspension technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alcorn, Charles W.; Britcher, Colin

    1988-01-01

    An experimental investigation is reported on slanted base ogive cylinders at zero incidence. The Mach number range is 0.05 to 0.3. All flow disturbances associated with wind tunnel supports are eliminated in this investigation by magnetically suspending the wind tunnel models. The sudden and drastic changes in the lift, pitching moment, and drag for a slight change in base slant angle are reported. Flow visualization with liquid crystals and oil is used to observe base flow patterns, which are responsible for the sudden changes in aerodynamic characteristics. Hysteretic effects in base flow pattern changes are present in this investigation and are reported. The effect of a wire support attachment on the 0 deg slanted base model is studied. Computational drag and transition location results using VSAERO and SANDRAG are presented and compared with experimental results. Base pressure measurements over the slanted bases are made with an onboard pressure transducer using remote data telemetry.

  19. Missile aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, Jack N.

    1988-01-01

    The fundamental aerodynamics of slender bodies is examined in the reprint edition of an introductory textbook originally published in 1960. Chapters are devoted to the formulas commonly used in missile aerodynamics; slender-body theory at supersonic and subsonic speeds; vortices in viscid and inviscid flow; wing-body interference; downwash, sidewash, and the wake; wing-tail interference; aerodynamic controls; pressure foredrag, base drag, and skin friction; and stability derivatives. Diagrams, graphs, tables of terms and formulas are provided.

  20. Aerodynamic performance of two-dimensional, chordwise flexible flapping wings at fruit fly scale in hover flight.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Madhu; Kang, Chang-kwon

    2015-06-01

    Fruit flies have flexible wings that deform during flight. To explore the fluid-structure interaction of flexible flapping wings at fruit fly scale, we use a well-validated Navier-Stokes equation solver, fully-coupled with a structural dynamics solver. Effects of chordwise flexibility on a two dimensional hovering wing is studied. Resulting wing rotation is purely passive, due to the dynamic balance between aerodynamic loading, elastic restoring force, and inertial force of the wing. Hover flight is considered at a Reynolds number of Re = 100, equivalent to that of fruit flies. The thickness and density of the wing also corresponds to a fruit fly wing. The wing stiffness and motion amplitude are varied to assess their influences on the resulting aerodynamic performance and structural response. Highest lift coefficient of 3.3 was obtained at the lowest-amplitude, highest-frequency motion (reduced frequency of 3.0) at the lowest stiffness (frequency ratio of 0.7) wing within the range of the current study, although the corresponding power required was also the highest. Optimal efficiency was achieved for a lower reduced frequency of 0.3 and frequency ratio 0.35. Compared to the water tunnel scale with water as the surrounding fluid instead of air, the resulting vortex dynamics and aerodynamic performance remained similar for the optimal efficiency motion, while the structural response varied significantly. Despite these differences, the time-averaged lift scaled with the dimensionless shape deformation parameter γ. Moreover, the wing kinematics that resulted in the optimal efficiency motion was closely aligned to the fruit fly measurements, suggesting that fruit fly flight aims to conserve energy, rather than to generate large forces. PMID:25946079

  1. Numerical investigation of the aerodynamic performance for the newly designed cavity vane type vertical axis wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suffer, K. H.; Usubamatov, R.; Quadir, G. A.; Ismail, K. A.

    2015-05-01

    Research and development activities in the field of renewable energy, especially wind and solar, have been considerably increased, due to the worldwide energy crisis and high global emission. However, the available technical designs are not yet adequate to develop a reliable distributed wind energy converter for low wind speed conditions. The last few years have proved that Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) are more suitable for urban areas than Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs). To date, very little has been published in this area to assess good performance and lifetime of VAWTs either in open or urban areas. The power generated by vertical axis wind turbines is strongly dependent on the aerodynamic performance of the turbines. The main goal of this current research is to investigate numerically the aerodynamic performance of a newly designed cavity type vertical axis wind turbine. In the current new design the power generated depends on the drag force generated by the individual blades and interactions between them in a rotating configuration. For numerical investigation, commercially available computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software GAMBIT and FLUENT were used. In this numerical analysis the Shear Stress Transport (SST) k-ω turbulence model is used which is better than the other turbulence models available as suggested by some researchers. The computed results show good agreement with published experimental results.

  2. Analysis and compilation of missile aerodynamic data. Volume 2: Performance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhalter, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    A general analysis is given of the flight dynamics of several surface-to-air and two air-to-air missile configurations. The analysis involves three phases: vertical climb, straight and level flight, and constant altitude turn. Wind tunnel aerodynamic data and full scale missile characteristics are used where available; unknown data are estimated. For the constant altitude turn phase, a three degree of freedom flight simulation is used. Important parameters considered in this analysis are the vehicle weight, Mach number, heading angle, thrust level, sideslip angle, g loading, and time to make the turn. The actual flight path during the turn is also determined. Results are presented in graphical form.

  3. Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Sean; Bigatel, Patrick

    2004-10-17

    Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by this DOE category one Inventions and Innovations grant to successfully research, develop, test, patent, market, and sell innovative fuel and emissions saving aerodynamic attachments for the trucking industry. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck's fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Market research early in this project revealed the demands of truck fleet operators regarding aerodynamic attachments. Products must not only save fuel, but cannot interfere with the operation of the truck, require significant maintenance, add significant weight, and must be extremely durable. Furthermore, SAE/TMC J1321 tests performed by a respected independent laboratory are necessary for large fleets to even consider purchase. Freight Wing used this information to create a system of three practical aerodynamic attachments for the front, rear and undercarriage of standard semi trailers. SAE/TMC J1321 Type II tests preformed by the Transportation Research Center (TRC) demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy with all three products. If Freight Wing is successful in its continued efforts to gain market penetration, the energy and environmental savings would be considerable. Each truck outfitted saves approximately 1,100 gallons of fuel every 100,000 miles, which prevents over 12 tons of CO2 from entering the atmosphere. If all applicable trailers used the technology, the country could save approximately 1.8 billion gallons of diesel fuel, 18 million tons of emissions and 3.6 billion dollars annually.

  4. New technology enhances compressor performance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This paper reports on new technology using active magnetic bearings and dry gas seals for oil-free compressors, a modified crankshaft arrangement for high-pressure centrifugal compressors, and a grid valve for steam turbines which enhances compressor reliability and longevity. Thermodyn, a division of Framatome, reports it has incorporated this new compressor technology in high-performance facilities equipped with advanced computers to improve its compressor and turbine design and manufacturing. Powerful computer programs associated with CAD were used for accurate geometric design of complex-shape parts which were then produced on N-C machine tools. These precise geometric designs have benefited centrifugal compressors with high or low volume flow, high molecular weight or high flow pressure.

  5. Aerodynamic design guidelines and computer program for estimation of subsonic wind tunnel performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, W. T.; Mort, K. W.; Jope, J.

    1976-01-01

    General guidelines are given for the design of diffusers, contractions, corners, and the inlets and exits of non-return tunnels. A system of equations, reflecting the current technology, has been compiled and assembled into a computer program (a user's manual for this program is included) for determining the total pressure losses. The formulation presented is applicable to compressible flow through most closed- or open-throat, single-, double-, or non-return wind tunnels. A comparison of estimated performance with that actually achieved by several existing facilities produced generally good agreement.

  6. Aerodynamic performance of a new LM 17.2 m rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, F.

    1985-03-01

    The aerodynamic properties of a 17.2 m diameter rotor mounted on a 55 kW windmill were measured. Power curves were measured for a range of blade tip angles to find the best angle in relation to energy production and stalling characteristics. With this optimum blade setting the flapwise blade root bending moment was measured as a function of wind speed. The drag coefficient at 90 deg angle of attack was calculated from measurements of the integrated value, i.e., the flapwise blade root bending moment as a function of wind speed during stand still. Profile properties are estimated from aerodynamic calculations, and the results compared to profile data from three dimensional wind tunnel measurements. The flapwise blade root bending moment versus blade angular position during one revolution was measured in skew wind and compared with calculations. The influence of surface roughnes introduced at a certain percentage of the section chord and the dependency on the Reynolds number is investigated, and discussed from observed discrepancies in the measured power curves.

  7. MSFC Turbine Performance Optimization (TPO) Technology Verification Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Lisa W.; Dorney, Daniel J.; Snellgrove, Lauren M.; Zoladz, Thomas F.; Stroud, Richard T.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Capability to optimize for turbine performance and accurately predict unsteady loads will allow for increased reliability, Isp, and thrust-to-weight. The development of a fast, accurate, validated aerodynamic design, analysis, and optimization system is required.

  8. Complementary Aerodynamic Performance Datasets for Variable Speed Power Turbine Blade Section from Two Independent Transonic Turbine Cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.; Welch, Gerard E.; Giel, Paul W.; Ames, Forrest E.; Long, Jonathon A.

    2015-01-01

    Two independent experimental studies were conducted in linear cascades on a scaled, two-dimensional mid-span section of a representative Variable Speed Power Turbine (VSPT) blade. The purpose of these studies was to assess the aerodynamic performance of the VSPT blade over large Reynolds number and incidence angle ranges. The influence of inlet turbulence intensity was also investigated. The tests were carried out in the NASA Glenn Research Center Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility and at the University of North Dakota (UND) High Speed Compressible Flow Wind Tunnel Facility. A large database was developed by acquiring total pressure and exit angle surveys and blade loading data for ten incidence angles ranging from +15.8deg to -51.0deg. Data were acquired over six flow conditions with exit isentropic Reynolds number ranging from 0.05×106 to 2.12×106 and at exit Mach numbers of 0.72 (design) and 0.35. Flow conditions were examined within the respective facility constraints. The survey data were integrated to determine average exit total-pressure and flow angle. UND also acquired blade surface heat transfer data at two flow conditions across the entire incidence angle range aimed at quantifying transitional flow behavior on the blade. Comparisons of the aerodynamic datasets were made for three "match point" conditions. The blade loading data at the match point conditions show good agreement between the facilities. This report shows comparisons of other data and highlights the unique contributions of the two facilities. The datasets are being used to advance understanding of the aerodynamic challenges associated with maintaining efficient power turbine operation over a wide shaft-speed range.

  9. Off-design computer code for calculating the aerodynamic performance of axial-flow fans and compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, James F.

    1995-01-01

    An off-design axial-flow compressor code is presented and is available from COSMIC for predicting the aerodynamic performance maps of fans and compressors. Steady axisymmetric flow is assumed and the aerodynamic solution reduces to solving the two-dimensional flow field in the meridional plane. A streamline curvature method is used for calculating this flow-field outside the blade rows. This code allows for bleed flows and the first five stators can be reset for each rotational speed, capabilities which are necessary for large multistage compressors. The accuracy of the off-design performance predictions depend upon the validity of the flow loss and deviation correlation models. These empirical correlations for the flow loss and deviation are used to model the real flow effects and the off-design code will compute through small reverse flow regions. The input to this off-design code is fully described and a user's example case for a two-stage fan is included with complete input and output data sets. Also, a comparison of the off-design code predictions with experimental data is included which generally shows good agreement.

  10. Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Haecheon; Lee, Jungil; Park, Hyungmin

    2014-01-01

    We present an overview of the aerodynamics of heavy vehicles, such as tractor-trailers, high-speed trains, and buses. We introduce three-dimensional flow structures around simplified model vehicles and heavy vehicles and discuss the flow-control devices used for drag reduction. Finally, we suggest important unsteady flow structures to investigate for the enhancement of aerodynamic performance and future directions for experimental and numerical approaches.

  11. Effects of icing on the aerodynamic performance of high lift airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankar, L. N.; Phaengsook, N.; Bangalore, A.

    1993-01-01

    A 2D compressible Navier-Stokes solver capable of analyzing multi-element airfoils is described. The flow field is divided into multiple zones. In each zone, the governing equations are solved using an implicit finite difference scheme. The flow solver is validated through a study of the aerodynamic characteristics of a GA(W)-1 configuration, for which good quality measured surface pressure data and load data are available. The solver is next applied to a study of the effects of icing on an iced 5-element airfoil configuration, experimentally studied at NASA Lewis Research Center. It is demonstrated that the formation of ice over the leading edge slat and the main airfoil can lead to significant flow separation, and a significant loss in lift, compared to clean configurations.

  12. Aerodynamic optimization, comparison, and trim design of canard and conventional high performance general aviation configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, M. W.; Selberg, B. P.

    1983-01-01

    A design study has been conducted to optimize trim cruise flight of high performance general aviation canard aircraft which achieve minimum drag. In order to investigate the advantages and disadvantages of canard configured aircraft, corresponding conventional tail-aft 'baseline' aircraft were designed and used for comparison. Two-dimensional predictions were obtained by coupling inviscid results from a vortex panel multi-element program to a momentum integral boundary layer analysis. Using the results of the two-dimensional vortex panel analysis, a vortex lattice method was employed to predict the finite wing results. The analysis utilized a turbulent airfoil and a natural laminar airfoil which are two NASA state-of-the-art airfoil sections. The canard aircraft designs give quantitative results of wing and canard loadings, wing-to-canard moment arm ratios, and aspect ratio effects for trim cruise flight for a wide range of wing-to-canard area ratios. Both canard and baseline aircraft achieved a 25 to 30 percent improvement in performance over typical current technology aircraft, but high canard loading necessary for trim resulted in slightly poorer performance of the canard aircraft as compared to the baseline designs.

  13. The role of free stream turbulence and blade surface conditions on the aerodynamic performance of wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Victor Hugo

    Wind turbines operate within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) which gives rise to turbulence among other flow phenomena. There are several factors that contribute to turbulent flow: The operation of wind turbines in two layers of the atmosphere, the surface layer and the mixed layer. These layers often have unstable wind conditions due to the daily heating and cooling of the atmosphere which creates turbulent thermals. In addition, wind turbines often operate in the wake of upstream turbines such as in wind farms; where turbulence generated by the rotor can be compounded if the turbines are not sited properly. Although turbulent flow conditions are known to affect performance, i.e. power output and lifespan of the turbine, the flow mechanisms by which atmospheric turbulence and other external conditions (such as blade debris contamination) adversely impact wind turbines are not known in enough detail to address these issues. The main objectives of the current investigation are thus two-fold: (i) to understand the interaction of the turbulent integral length scales and surface roughness on the blade and its effect on aerodynamic performance, and (ii) to develop and apply flow control (both passive and active) techniques to alleviate some of the adverse fluid dynamics phenomena caused by the atmosphere (i.e. blade contamination) and restore some of the aerodynamic performance loss. In order to satisfy the objectives of the investigation, a 2-D blade model based on the S809 airfoil for horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) applications was manufactured and tested at the Johns Hopkins University Corrsin Stanley Wind Tunnel facility. Additional levels of free stream turbulence with an intensity of 6.14% and integral length scale of about 0.321 m was introduced into the flow via an active grid. The free stream velocity was 10 m/s resulting in a Reynolds number based on blade chord of Rec ≃ 2.08x105. Debris contamination on the blade was modeled as surface roughness

  14. Post-Flight Aerodynamic and Aerothermal Model Validation of a Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Chun; Muppidi, Suman; Bose, Deepak; Van Norman, John W.; Tanimoto, Rebekah; Clark, Ian

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator Program is developing new technologies that will enable the landing of heavier payloads in low density environments, such as Mars. A recent flight experiment conducted high above the Hawaiian Islands has demonstrated the performance of several decelerator technologies. In particular, the deployment of the Robotic class Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD-R) was highly successful, and valuable data were collected during the test flight. This paper outlines the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis used to estimate the aerodynamic and aerothermal characteristics of the SIAD-R. Pre-flight and post-flight predictions are compared with the flight data, and a very good agreement in aerodynamic force and moment coefficients is observed between the CFD solutions and the reconstructed flight data.

  15. Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test: Trajectory, Atmosphere, and Aerodynamics Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutty, Prasad; Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Blood, Eric M.; O'Farrell, Clara; Ginn, Jason M.; Shoenenberger, Mark; Dutta, Soumyo

    2015-01-01

    The Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test is a full-scale flight test of a Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator, which is part of the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator technology development project. The purpose of the project is to develop and mature aerodynamic decelerator technologies for landing large mass payloads on the surface of Mars. The technologies include a Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator and Supersonic Parachutes. The first Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test occurred on June 28th, 2014 at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. This test was used to validate the test architecture for future missions. The flight was a success and, in addition, was able to acquire data on the aerodynamic performance of the supersonic inflatable decelerator. This paper describes the instrumentation, analysis techniques, and acquired flight test data utilized to reconstruct the vehicle trajectory, atmosphere, and aerodynamics. The results of the reconstruction show significantly higher lofting of the trajectory, which can partially be explained by off-nominal booster motor performance. The reconstructed vehicle force and moment coefficients fall well within pre-flight predictions. A parameter identification analysis indicates that the vehicle displayed greater aerodynamic static stability than seen in pre-flight computational predictions and ballistic range tests.

  16. The effect of prewhirl on the internal aerodynamics and performance of a mixed flow research centrifugal compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, William B.; Fleeter, Sanford

    1987-01-01

    The internal three-dimensional steady and time-varying flow through the diffusing elements of a centrifugal impeller were investigated using a moderate scale, subsonic, mixed flow research compressor facility. The characteristics of the test facility which permit the measurement of internal flow conditions throughout the entire research compressor and radial diffuser for various operating conditions are described. Results are presented in the form of graphs and charts to cover a range of mass flow rates with inlet guide vane settings varying from minus 15 degrees to plus 45 degrees. The static pressure distributions in the compressor inlet section and on the impeller and exit diffuser vanes, as well as the overall pressure and temperature rise and mass flow rate, were measured and analyzed at each operating point to determine the overall performance as well as the detailed aerodynamics throughout the compressor.

  17. On the flight derived/aerodynamic data base performance comparisons for the NASA Space Shuttle entries during the hypersonic regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Findlay, J. T.; Compton, H. R.

    1983-01-01

    Aerodynamic performance data from the first four Shuttle reentry flights are compared with preflight predictions covering hypersonic longitudinal mode down to Mach 2. The extraction of the flight coefficients, as measured by the spacecraft angular rates and the linear accelerations, derived from the inertial measurement unit, the best estimate trajectory, and the remotely measured atmosphere are discussed. The ground predictions were developed from 30,000 hr of wind tunnel testing. Actual flight data are presented for 80-260 kft, from Mach 2-26, comprising the dynamic pressure, the vehicle air relative attitude angles, control surface deflections, reaction jet activity, and body axis rates and accelerations. The second and fourth flights gave results which deviated from predictions between 230-260 kft. The accuracy limits of the derived atmospheric densities are considered, together with potential data base updates in the light of limitations imposed on the corrections by available flight data.

  18. Aerodynamic performance of a transonic turbine guide vane with trailing edge coolant ejection. Part 1: Experimental approach

    SciTech Connect

    Kapteijn, C.; Amecke, J.; Michelassi, V.

    1996-07-01

    Inlet guide vanes (IGV) of high-temperature gas turbines require an effective trailing edge cooling. But this cooling significantly influences the aerodynamic performance caused by the unavoidable thickening of the trailing edge and the interference of the cooling flow with the main flow. As part of a comprehensive research program, an inlet guide vane was designed and manufactured with two different trailing edge shapes. The results from the cascade tests show that the flow behavior upstream of the trailing edge remains unchanged. The homogeneous values downstream show higher turning and higher losses for the cut-back blade, especially in the supersonic range. Additional tests were conducted with carbon dioxide ejection, in order to analyze the mixing process downstream of the cascade.

  19. Inner workings of aerodynamic sweep

    SciTech Connect

    Wadia, A.R.; Szucs, P.N.; Crall, D.W.

    1998-10-01

    The recent trend in using aerodynamic sweep to improve the performance of transonic blading has been one of the more significant technological evolutions for compression components in turbomachinery. This paper reports on the experimental and analytical assessment of the pay-off derived from both aft and forward sweep technology with respect to aerodynamic performance and stability. The single-stage experimental investigation includes two aft-swept rotors with varying degree and type of aerodynamic sweep and one swept forward rotor. On a back-to-back test basis, the results are compared with an unswept rotor with excellent performance and adequate stall margin. Although designed to satisfy identical design speed requirements as the unswept rotor, the experimental results reveal significant variations in efficiency and stall margin with the swept rotors. At design speed, all the swept rotors demonstrated a peak stage efficiency level that was equal to that of the unswept rotor. However, the forward-swept rotor achieved the highest rotor-alone peak efficiency. At the same time, the forward-swept rotor demonstrated a significant improvement in stall margin relative to the already satisfactory level achieved by the unswept rotor. Increasing the level of aft sweep adversely affected the stall margin. A three-dimensional viscous flow analysis was used to assist in the interpretation of the data. The reduced shock/boundary layer interaction, resulting from reduced axial flow diffusion and less accumulation of centrifuged blade surface boundary layer at the tip, was identified as the prime contributor to the enhanced performance with forward sweep. The impact of tip clearance on the performance and stability for one of the aft-swept rotors was also assessed.

  20. Characterization of Aerodynamic Performance of Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Under Crosswind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Lee, Byung Joon

    2012-01-01

    NASA has been studying future transport concepts, envisioned to be technically realizable in the timeframe of 2020-2030, to meet environmental and performance goals. One concept receiving considerable interest involves a propulsion system embedded into a hybrid wing-body aircraft. While offering significant advantages in fuel savings and noise reduction by this concept, there are several technical challenges that are not encountered in the current fleet and must be overcome so as to deliver target performance and operability. One of these challenges is associated with an inlet system that ingests a significantly thick boundary layer, developing along the wing-body surface, into a serpentine diffuser before the flow meeting fan blades. The flow is subject to considerable total pressure loss and distorted at the fan face, much more significantly than in the inlet system of conventional aircraft. In our previous studies [1, 2], we have shown that through innovative design changes on the airframe surface, it is possible to simultaneously increase total pressure recovery and decrease distortion in the flow, without resorting to conventional penalty-ridden flow control concepts, such as vortex generator or boundary layer bleeding/suction. In the current study, we are interested in understanding the following issues: how the embedded propulsion system performs under a crosswind condition by studying in detail the flow characteristics of two inlets, the baseline and another optimized previously under the cruise condition. With the insight, it is hoped that it can help in the follow-on study by devising effective strategies to minimize flow distortion arising from the integration of an embedded-engine system into an airframe to the level acceptable to the operation and fuel consumption before 2030. To achieve these demanding goals, non-conventional concepts are called for; but technology gap is too big that it requires evolutionary approach by focusing various concepts and

  1. Aerodynamics of the flying snake Chrysopelea paradisi: how a bluff body cross-sectional shape contributes to gliding performance.

    PubMed

    Holden, Daniel; Socha, John J; Cardwell, Nicholas D; Vlachos, Pavlos P

    2014-02-01

    A prominent feature of gliding flight in snakes of the genus Chrysopelea is the unique cross-sectional shape of the body, which acts as the lifting surface in the absence of wings. When gliding, the flying snake Chrysopelea paradisi morphs its circular cross-section into a triangular shape by splaying its ribs and flattening its body in the dorsoventral axis, forming a geometry with fore-aft symmetry and a thick profile. Here, we aimed to understand the aerodynamic properties of the snake's cross-sectional shape to determine its contribution to gliding at low Reynolds numbers. We used a straight physical model in a water tunnel to isolate the effects of 2D shape, analogously to studying the profile of an airfoil of a more typical flyer. Force measurements and time-resolved (TR) digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) were used to determine lift and drag coefficients, wake dynamics and vortex-shedding characteristics of the shape across a behaviorally relevant range of Reynolds numbers and angles of attack. The snake's cross-sectional shape produced a maximum lift coefficient of 1.9 and maximum lift-to-drag ratio of 2.7, maintained increases in lift up to 35 deg, and exhibited two distinctly different vortex-shedding modes. Within the measured Reynolds number regime (Re=3000-15,000), this geometry generated significantly larger maximum lift coefficients than many other shapes including bluff bodies, thick airfoils, symmetric airfoils and circular arc airfoils. In addition, the snake's shape exhibited a gentle stall region that maintained relatively high lift production even up to the highest angle of attack tested (60 deg). Overall, the cross-sectional geometry of the flying snake demonstrated robust aerodynamic behavior by maintaining significant lift production and near-maximum lift-to-drag ratios over a wide range of parameters. These aerodynamic characteristics help to explain how the snake can glide at steep angles and over a wide range of angles of attack

  2. The Aerodynamic Performance of an Over-The-Rotor Liner with Circumferential Grooves on a High Bypass Ratio Turbofan Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozak, Rick; Hughes, Christopher; Buckley, James

    2013-01-01

    While liners have been utilized throughout turbofan ducts to attenuate fan noise, additional attenuation is obtainable by placing an acoustic liner over-the-rotor. Previous experiments have shown significant fan performance losses when acoustic liners are installed over-the-rotor. The fan blades induce an oscillating flow in the acoustic liners which results in a performance loss near the blade tip. An over-the-rotor liner was designed with circumferential grooves between the fan blade tips and the acoustic liner to reduce the oscillating flow in the acoustic liner. An experiment was conducted in the W-8 Single-Stage Axial Compressor Facility at NASA Glenn Research Center on a 1.5 pressure ratio fan to evaluate the impact of this over-the-rotor treatment design on fan aerodynamic performance. The addition of a circumferentially grooved over-the-rotor design between the fan blades and the acoustic liner reduced the performance loss, in terms of fan adiabatic efficiency, to less than 1% which is within the repeatability of this experiment.

  3. The Aerodynamic Performance of an Over-the-Rotor Liner With Circumferential Grooves on a High Bypass Ratio Turbofan Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozak, Richard F.; Hughes, Christopher E.; Buckley, James

    2013-01-01

    While liners have been utilized throughout turbofan ducts to attenuate fan noise, additional attenuation is obtainable by placing an acoustic liner over-the-rotor. Previous experiments have shown significant fan performance losses when acoustic liners are installed over-the-rotor. The fan blades induce an oscillating flow in the acoustic liners which results in a performance loss near the blade tip. An over-the-rotor liner was designed with circumferential grooves between the fan blade tips and the acoustic liner to reduce the oscillating flow in the acoustic liner. An experiment was conducted in the W-8 Single-Stage Axial Compressor Facility at NASA Glenn Research Center on a 1.5 pressure ratio fan to evaluate the impact of this over-the-rotor treatment design on fan aerodynamic performance. The addition of a circumferentially grooved over-the-rotor design between the fan blades and the acoustic liner reduced the performance loss, in terms of fan adiabatic efficiency, to less than 1 percent which is within the repeatability of this experiment.

  4. An overview of aerodynamic research and technology requirements as related to some military needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    Based on unclassified sources, a general review is presented of some military needs in light of the perceived U.S.S.R. doctrine, force balances, inventory growth, inventory items, and current actions. The Soviets appear to be attempting to increase their sphere of influence throught economic and political control as well as possible military control of land, sea, air, and space. To offset such possibilities, certain areas of deterrent needs that the Western World might pursue are suggested. Particular emphasis is placed on the role of research and technology related to aerospace systems as part of the deterrent needs.

  5. Vortex wake, downwash distribution, aerodynamic performance and wingbeat kinematics in slow-flying pied flycatchers

    PubMed Central

    Muijres, Florian T.; Bowlin, Melissa S.; Johansson, L. Christoffer; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Many small passerines regularly fly slowly when catching prey, flying in cluttered environments or landing on a perch or nest. While flying slowly, passerines generate most of the flight forces during the downstroke, and have a ‘feathered upstroke’ during which they make their wing inactive by retracting it close to the body and by spreading the primary wing feathers. How this flight mode relates aerodynamically to the cruising flight and so-called ‘normal hovering’ as used in hummingbirds is not yet known. Here, we present time-resolved fluid dynamics data in combination with wingbeat kinematics data for three pied flycatchers flying across a range of speeds from near hovering to their calculated minimum power speed. Flycatchers are adapted to low speed flight, which they habitually use when catching insects on the wing. From the wake dynamics data, we constructed average wingbeat wakes and determined the time-resolved flight forces, the time-resolved downwash distributions and the resulting lift-to-drag ratios, span efficiencies and flap efficiencies. During the downstroke, slow-flying flycatchers generate a single-vortex loop wake, which is much more similar to that generated by birds at cruising flight speeds than it is to the double loop vortex wake in hovering hummingbirds. This wake structure results in a relatively high downwash behind the body, which can be explained by the relatively active tail in flycatchers. As a result of this, slow-flying flycatchers have a span efficiency which is similar to that of the birds in cruising flight and which can be assumed to be higher than in hovering hummingbirds. During the upstroke, the wings of slowly flying flycatchers generated no significant forces, but the body–tail configuration added 23 per cent to weight support. This is strikingly similar to the 25 per cent weight support generated by the wing upstroke in hovering hummingbirds. Thus, for slow-flying passerines, the upstroke cannot be regarded as

  6. Validation of a computer code for analysis of subsonic aerodynamic performance of wings with flaps in combination with a canard or horizontal tail and an application to optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Harry W.; Darden, Christine M.; Mann, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive correlations of computer code results with experimental data are employed to illustrate the use of a linearized theory, attached flow method for the estimation and optimization of the longitudinal aerodynamic performance of wing-canard and wing-horizontal tail configurations which may employ simple hinged flap systems. Use of an attached flow method is based on the premise that high levels of aerodynamic efficiency require a flow that is as nearly attached as circumstances permit. The results indicate that linearized theory, attached flow, computer code methods (modified to include estimated attainable leading-edge thrust and an approximate representation of vortex forces) provide a rational basis for the estimation and optimization of aerodynamic performance at subsonic speeds below the drag rise Mach number. Generally, good prediction of aerodynamic performance, as measured by the suction parameter, can be expected for near optimum combinations of canard or horizontal tail incidence and leading- and trailing-edge flap deflections at a given lift coefficient (conditions which tend to produce a predominantly attached flow).

  7. Performance and aerodynamic braking of a horizontal-axis wind turbine from small-scale wind tunnel tests

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, H.V.; Wentz, W.H. Jr.

    1987-07-01

    Wind tunnel tests of three 20-inch diameter, zero-twist, zero-pitch wind turbine rotor models have been conducted in the WSU 7' x 10' wind tunnel to determine the performance of such rotors with NACA 23024 and NACA 64/sub 3/-621 airfoil sections. Aerodynamic braking characteristics of a 38 percent span, 30 percent chord, vented aileron configuration were measured on the NACA 23024 rotor. Surface flow patterns were observed using fluorescent mini-tufts attached to the suction side of the rotor blades. Experimental results with and without ailerons are compared to predictions using airfoil section data and a momentum performance code. Results of the performance studies show that the 64/sub 3/-621 rotor produces higher peak power than the 23024 rotor for a given rotor speed. Analytical studies, however, indicate that the 23024 should produce higher power. Transition strip experiments show that the 23024 rotor is much more sensitive to roughness than the 64/sub 3/-621 rotor. These trends agree with analytical predictions. Results of the aileron tests show that this aileron, when deflected, produces a braking torque at all tip-speed ratios. In free-wheeling coastdowns the rotor blade stopped, then rotated backward at a tip-speed ratio of -0.6. Results of the tuft studies indicate that substantial spanwise flow develops as blade stall occurs at low tip-speed ratios.

  8. Aerodynamic performance of conventional and advanced design labyrinth seals with solid-smooth abradable, and honeycomb lands. [gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, H. L.; Cox, D. M.; Holle, G. F.

    1977-01-01

    Labyrinth air seal static and dynamic performance was evaluated using solid, abradable, and honeycomb lands with standard and advanced seal designs. The effects on leakage of land surface roughness, abradable land porosity, rub grooves in abradable lands, and honeycomb land cell size and depth were studied using a standard labyrinth seal. The effects of rotation on the optimum seal knife pitch were also investigated. Selected geometric and aerodynamic parameters for an advanced seal design were evaluated to derive an optimized performance configuration. The rotational energy requirements were also measured to determine the inherent friction and pumping energy absorbed by the various seal knife and land configurations tested in order to properly assess the net seal system performance level. Results indicate that: (1) seal leakage can be significantly affected with honeycomb or abradable lands; (2) rotational energy absorption does not vary significantly with the use of a solid-smooth, an abradable, or a honeycomb land; and (3) optimization of an advanced lab seal design produced a configuration that had leakage 25% below a conventional stepped seal.

  9. Performance and aerodynamic braking of a horizontal-axis wind turbine from small-scale wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, H. V.; Wentz, W. H., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests of three 20" diameter, zero twist, zero pitch wind turbine rotor models were conducted in a 7' x 10' wind tunnel to determine the performance of such rotors with NACA 23024 and NACA 64 sub 3-621 airfoil sections. Aerodynamic braking characteristics of a 38% span, 30% chord, vented aileron configuration were measured on the NACA 23024 rotor. Surface flow patterns were observed using fluorescent mini-tufts attached to the suction side of the rotor blades. Experimental results with and without ailerons are compared to predictions using airfoil section data and a momentum performance code. Results of the performance studies show that the 64 sub 3-621 rotor produces higher peak power than the 23024 rotor for a given rotor speed. Analytical studies, however, indicate that the 23024 should produce higher power. Transition strip experiments show that the 23024 rotor is much more sensitive to roughness than the 64 sub 3-621 rotor. These trends agree with analytical predictions. Results of the aileron test show that this aileron, when deflected, produces a braking torque at all tip speed ratios. In free wheeling coastdowns the rotor blade stopped, then rotated backward at a tip speed ratio of -0.6.

  10. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of cyclist aerodynamics: performance of different turbulence-modelling and boundary-layer modelling approaches.

    PubMed

    Defraeye, Thijs; Blocken, Bert; Koninckx, Erwin; Hespel, Peter; Carmeliet, Jan

    2010-08-26

    This study aims at assessing the accuracy of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for applications in sports aerodynamics, for example for drag predictions of swimmers, cyclists or skiers, by evaluating the applied numerical modelling techniques by means of detailed validation experiments. In this study, a wind-tunnel experiment on a scale model of a cyclist (scale 1:2) is presented. Apart from three-component forces and moments, also high-resolution surface pressure measurements on the scale model's surface, i.e. at 115 locations, are performed to provide detailed information on the flow field. These data are used to compare the performance of different turbulence-modelling techniques, such as steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), with several k-epsilon and k-omega turbulence models, and unsteady large-eddy simulation (LES), and also boundary-layer modelling techniques, namely wall functions and low-Reynolds number modelling (LRNM). The commercial CFD code Fluent 6.3 is used for the simulations. The RANS shear-stress transport (SST) k-omega model shows the best overall performance, followed by the more computationally expensive LES. Furthermore, LRNM is clearly preferred over wall functions to model the boundary layer. This study showed that there are more accurate alternatives for evaluating flow around bluff bodies with CFD than the standard k-epsilon model combined with wall functions, which is often used in CFD studies in sports. PMID:20488446

  11. Evaluating Technology Resistance and Technology Satisfaction on Students' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norzaidi, Mohd Daud; Salwani, Mohamed Intan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Using the extended task-technology fit (TTF) model, this paper aims to examine technology resistance, technology satisfaction and internet usage on students' performance. Design/methodology/approach: The study was conducted at Universiti Teknologi MARA, Johor, Malaysia and questionnaires were distributed to 354 undergraduate students.…

  12. Validation of a pair of computer codes for estimation and optimization of subsonic aerodynamic performance of simple hinged-flap systems for thin swept wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Harry W.; Darden, Christine M.

    1988-01-01

    Extensive correlations of computer code results with experimental data are employed to illustrate the use of linearized theory attached flow methods for the estimation and optimization of the aerodynamic performance of simple hinged flap systems. Use of attached flow methods is based on the premise that high levels of aerodynamic efficiency require a flow that is as nearly attached as circumstances permit. A variety of swept wing configurations are considered ranging from fighters to supersonic transports, all with leading- and trailing-edge flaps for enhancement of subsonic aerodynamic efficiency. The results indicate that linearized theory attached flow computer code methods provide a rational basis for the estimation and optimization of flap system aerodynamic performance at subsonic speeds. The analysis also indicates that vortex flap design is not an opposing approach but is closely related to attached flow design concepts. The successful vortex flap design actually suppresses the formation of detached vortices to produce a small vortex which is restricted almost entirely to the leading edge flap itself.

  13. HIAD-2 (Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator)

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) project is a disruptive technology that will accommodate the atmospheric entry of heavy payloads to planetary bodies such as Mars. HIAD over...

  14. Parameter Estimation of Actuators for Benchmark Active Control Technology (BACT) Wind Tunnel Model with Analysis of Wear and Aerodynamic Loading Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R.; Fung, Jimmy

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the development of transfer function models for the trailing-edge and upper and lower spoiler actuators of the Benchmark Active Control Technology (BACT) wind tunnel model for application to control system analysis and design. A simple nonlinear least-squares parameter estimation approach is applied to determine transfer function parameters from frequency response data. Unconstrained quasi-Newton minimization of weighted frequency response error was employed to estimate the transfer function parameters. An analysis of the behavior of the actuators over time to assess the effects of wear and aerodynamic load by using the transfer function models is also presented. The frequency responses indicate consistent actuator behavior throughout the wind tunnel test and only slight degradation in effectiveness due to aerodynamic hinge loading. The resulting actuator models have been used in design, analysis, and simulation of controllers for the BACT to successfully suppress flutter over a wide range of conditions.

  15. Improvement of the cruise performances of a wing by means of aerodynamic optimization. Validation with a Far-Field method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Varona, J.; Ponsin Roca, J.

    2015-06-01

    Under a contract with AIRBUS MILITARY (AI-M), an exercise to analyze the potential of optimization techniques to improve the wing performances at cruise conditions has been carried out by using an in-house design code. The original wing was provided by AI-M and several constraints were posed for the redesign. To maximize the aerodynamic efficiency at cruise, optimizations were performed using the design techniques developed internally at INTA under a research program (Programa de Termofluidodinámica). The code is a gradient-based optimizaa tion code, which uses classical finite differences approach for gradient computations. Several techniques for search direction computation are implemented for unconstrained and constrained problems. Techniques for geometry modifications are based on different approaches which include perturbation functions for the thickness and/or mean line distributions and others by Bézier curves fitting of certain degree. It is very e important to afford a real design which involves several constraints that reduce significantly the feasible design space. And the assessment of the code is needed in order to check the capabilities and the possible drawbacks. Lessons learnt will help in the development of future enhancements. In addition, the validation of the results was done using also the well-known TAU flow solver and a far-field drag method in order to determine accurately the improvement in terms of drag counts.

  16. Human Performance Technology and Its Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger; Bernardez, Mariano L.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional human performance technology has had a good run. It allowed scientific and data-based research to be applied to improve performance, usually just individual performance. The field must be expanded without losing this individual performance focus to include a scope that measurably improves performance for individuals and organizations…

  17. Performance Based Education. Technology Activity Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Custer, Rodney L., Ed.

    These Technology Activity Modules are designed to serve as an implementation resource for technology education teachers as they integrate technology education with Missouri's Academic Performance Standards and provide a source of activities and activity ideas that can be used to integrate and reinforce learning across the curriculum. The modules…

  18. Performance Testing in Electronic Technology. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Bert; Pedersen, Joe F.

    This set of 21 performance tests in electronics technology was developed on the basis of a review of commercial and noncommercial instructional materials dealing with electronics technology. The tests, which were reviewed by a group of community college instructors and an advisory committee for electronics technology, address the following…

  19. EGADS: A microcomputer program for estimating the aerodynamic performance of general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, John E.

    1994-01-01

    EGADS is a comprehensive preliminary design tool for estimating the performance of light, single-engine general aviation aircraft. The software runs on the Apple Macintosh series of personal computers and assists amateur designers and aeronautical engineering students in performing the many repetitive calculations required in the aircraft design process. The program makes full use of the mouse and standard Macintosh interface techniques to simplify the input of various design parameters. Extensive graphics, plotting, and text output capabilities are also included.

  20. Cooperation, Technology, and Performance: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Thomas; Dickenson, Sabrina; Brandt, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    Describes the CTP (Cooperation, Technology, and Performance) model and explains how it is used by the Department of Veterans Affairs-Veteran's Benefit Administration (VBA) for training. Discusses task analysis; computer-based training; cooperative-based learning environments; technology-based learning; performance-assessment methods; courseware…

  1. The effect of incidence angle on the overall three-dimensional aerodynamic performance of a classical annular airfoil cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergsten, D. E.; Fleeter, S.

    1983-01-01

    To be of quantitative value to the designer and analyst, it is necessary to experimentally verify the flow modeling and the numerics inherent in calculation codes being developed to predict the three dimensional flow through turbomachine blade rows. This experimental verification requires that predicted flow fields be correlated with three dimensional data obtained in experiments which model the fundamental phenomena existing in the flow passages of modern turbomachines. The Purdue Annular Cascade Facility was designed specifically to provide these required three dimensional data. The overall three dimensional aerodynamic performance of an instrumented classical airfoil cascade was determined over a range of incidence angle values. This was accomplished utilizing a fully automated exit flow data acquisition and analysis system. The mean wake data, acquired at two downstream axial locations, were analyzed to determine the effect of incidence angle, the three dimensionality of the cascade exit flow field, and the similarity of the wake profiles. The hub, mean, and tip chordwise airfoil surface static pressure distributions determined at each incidence angle are correlated with predictions from the MERIDL and TSONIC computer codes.

  2. Aerodynamic performance of a 5-metre-diameter Darrieus turbine with extruded aluminum NACA-0015 blades

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldahl, R.E.; Klimas, P.C.; Feltz, L.V.

    1980-03-01

    A 5-metre-diameter vertical-axis wind turbine has undergone continued testing since 1976 at the Sandia Laboratories Wind Turbine site. The latest tests of this machine have been with extruded aluminum blades of NACA-0015 airfoil cross section. The results of these tests at several turbine rotational speeds are presented and compared with earlier test results. A performance comparison is made with a vortex/lifting line computational code. The performance of the turbine with the extruded blades met all expectations.

  3. Effect of coolant flow ejection on aerodynamic performance of low-aspect-ratio vanes. 2: Performance with coolant flow ejection at temperature ratios up to 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hass, J. E.; Kofskey, M. G.

    1977-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of a 0.5 aspect ratio turbine vane configuration with coolant flow ejection was experimentally determined in a full annular cascade. The vanes were tested at a nominal mean section ideal critical velocity ratio of 0.890 over a range of primary to coolant total temperature ratio from 1.0 to 2.08 and a range of coolant to primary total pressure ratio from 1.0 to 1.4 which corresponded to coolant flows from 3.0 to 10.7 percent of the primary flow. The variations in primary and thermodynamic efficiency and exit flow conditions with circumferential and radial position were obtained.

  4. Cold-air annular-cascade investigation of aerodynamic performance of core-engine-cooled turbine vanes. 1: Solid-vane performance and facility description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, L. J.; Mclallin, K. L.

    1975-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of a solid (uncooled) version of a core engine cooled stator vane was experimentally determined in a full-annular cascade, where three-dimensional effects could be obtained. The solid vane, which serves as a basis for comparison with subsequent cooled tests, was tested over a range of aftermixed critical velocity ratios of 0.57 to 0.90. Overall vane aftermixed efficiencies were obtained over this critical velocity ratio range and compared with results from a two-dimensional cascade. The variation in vane efficiency and aftermixed flow conditions with circumferential and radial position were obtained and compared with design values. Vane surface static-pressure distributions were also measured and compared with theoretical results.

  5. Aerodynamic performance of a 5-metre-diameter Darrieus turbine with extruded aluminum NACA-0015 blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldahl, R. E.; Klimas, P. C.; Feltz, L. V.

    1980-03-01

    A 5 metric-diameter vertical-axis wind turbine with extruded aluminum blades of NACA-0015 airfoil cross section was tested. Several turbine rotational speeds are presented and compared with earlier test results. Performance comparison is made with a vortex/lifting line computational code.

  6. An Engine Research Program Focused on Low Pressure Turbine Aerodynamic Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castner, Raymond; Wyzykowski, John; Chiapetta, Santo; Adamczyk, John

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive test program was performed in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland Ohio using a highly instrumented Pratt and Whitney Canada PW 545 turbofan engine. A key objective of this program was the development of a high-altitude database on small, high-bypass ratio engine performance and operability. In particular, the program documents the impact of altitude (Reynolds Number) on the aero-performance of the low-pressure turbine (fan turbine). A second objective was to assess the ability of a state-of-the-art CFD code to predict the effect of Reynolds number on the efficiency of the low-pressure turbine. CFD simulation performed prior and after the engine tests will be presented and discussed. Key findings are the ability of a state-of-the art CFD code to accurately predict the impact of Reynolds Number on the efficiency and flow capacity of the low-pressure turbine. In addition the CFD simulations showed the turbulent intensity exiting the low-pressure turbine to be high (9%). The level is consistent with measurements taken within an engine.

  7. Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sean Graham

    2007-10-31

    Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by a DOE category two Inventions and Innovations grant to commercialize and improve upon aerodynamic technology for semi-tuck trailers, capable of decreasing heavy vehicle fuel consumption, related environmental damage, and U.S. consumption of foreign oil. Major project goals included the demonstration of aerodynamic trailer technology in trucking fleet operations, and the development and testing of second generation products. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck’s fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Freight Wing utilized a 2003 category one Inventions and Innovations grant to develop practical solutions to trailer aerodynamics. Fairings developed for the front, rear, and bottom of standard semi-trailers together demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy in scientific tests conducted by the Transportation Research Center (TRC). Operational tests with major trucking fleets proved the functionality of the products, which were subsequently brought to market. This category two grant enabled Freight Wing to further develop, test and commercialize its products, resulting in greatly increased understanding and acceptance of aerodynamic trailer technology. Commercialization was stimulated by offering trucking fleets 50% cost sharing on trial implementations of Freight Wing products for testing and evaluation purposes. Over 230 fairings were implemented through the program with 35 trucking fleets including industry leaders such as Wal-Mart, Frito Lay and Whole Foods. The feedback from these testing partnerships was quite positive with product performance exceeding fleet expectations in many cases. Fleet feedback also was also valuable from a product development standpoint and assisted the design of several second generation products

  8. Aerodynamic drag is not the major determinant of performance during giant slalom skiing at the elite level.

    PubMed

    Supej, M; Saetran, L; Oggiano, L; Ettema, G; Šarabon, N; Nemec, B; Holmberg, H-C

    2013-02-01

    This investigation was designed to (a) develop an individualized mechanical model for measuring aerodynamic drag (F(d) ) while ski racing through multiple gates, (b) estimate energy dissipation (E(d) ) caused by F(d) and compare this to the total energy loss (E(t) ), and (c) investigate the relative contribution of E(d) /E(t) to performance during giant slalom skiing (GS). Nine elite skiers were monitored in different positions and with different wind velocities in a wind tunnel, as well as during GS and straight downhill skiing employing a Global Navigation Satellite System. On the basis of the wind tunnel measurements, a linear regression model of drag coefficient multiplied by cross-sectional area as a function of shoulder height was established for each skier (r > 0.94, all P < 0.001). Skiing velocity, F(d) , E(t) , and E(d) per GS turn were 15-21 m/s, 20-60 N, -11 to -5 kJ, and -2.3 to -0.5 kJ, respectively. E(d) /E(t) ranged from ∼5% to 28% and the relationship between E(t) /v(in) and E(d) was r = -0.12 (all NS). In conclusion, (a) F(d) during alpine skiing was calculated by mechanical modeling, (b) E(d) made a relatively small contribution to E(t) , and (c) higher relative E(d) was correlated to better performance in elite GS skiers, suggesting that reducing ski-snow friction can improve this performance. PMID:23121340

  9. Aerodynamic performance of 1.38-pressure-ratio, variable-pitch fan stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. D.; Osborn, W. M.

    1979-01-01

    The performance of a variable pitch fan stage tested over a range of blade setting angles, speeds, and flows is presented. The fan was designed for a tip speed of 289.6 m/sec and a flow of 29.6 kg/sec. The measured performance agreed reasonably well with the design point. The stall margin was only 5 percent. Static thrust values along an operating line ranged from less than 15 to over 115 percent of that at design angle as the blade setting angle was varied from 25 degrees (closed) to -8 degrees (opened). The use of casing treatment increased the stall margin to 20.6 percent but decreased efficiency by 4 percentage points.

  10. Initial Low-Reynolds Number Iced Aerodynamic Performance for CRM Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Brian; Diebold, Jeff; Broeren, Andy; Potapczuk, Mark; Lee, Sam; Bragg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    NASA, FAA, ONERA, and other partner organizations have embarked on a significant, collaborative research effort to address the technical challenges associated with icing on large scale, three-dimensional swept wings. These are extremely complex phenomena important to the design, certification and safe operation of small and large transport aircraft. There is increasing demand to balance trade-offs in aircraft efficiency, cost and noise that tend to compete directly with allowable performance degradations over an increasing range of icing conditions. Computational fluid dynamics codes have reached a level of maturity that they are being proposed by manufacturers for use in certification of aircraft for flight in icing. However, sufficient high-quality data to evaluate their performance on iced swept wings are not currently available in the public domain and significant knowledge gaps remain.

  11. Aerodynamic and propeller performance characteristics of a propfan-powered, semispan model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Alan D.; Smith, Ronald C.; Wood, Richard D.

    1985-01-01

    A semispan wing/body model with a powered propeller was tested to provide data on a total powerplant installation drag penalty of advanced propfan-powered aircraft. The test objectives were to determine the total power plant installation drag penalty on a representative propfan aircraft; to study the effect of configuration modifications on the installed powerplant drag; and to determine performance characteristics of an advanced design propeller which was mounted on a representative nacelle in the presence of a wing.

  12. Aerodynamics of Race Cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.

  13. Aerodynamics in Sports Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, Mark; Budenbender, Christiy; Mehta, Rabi

    1999-01-01

    The following report is broken down into two components. First, a status report covering the period from January 4, 1999 to February 28, 1999. The remainder of the report summarizes all project accomplishments from June 1997 through February, 1999.

  14. Enhanced performance of wind energy harvester by aerodynamic treatment of a square prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Gang; Tse, K. T.; Kwok, K. C. S.

    2016-03-01

    This letter presents the effects that fitting fins to various corners of a square-prism galloping-based piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH) has on its performance, based on results from a series of wind tunnel model tests. The results show that attaching fins to the leading edge significantly improves the efficiency of the harvester, achieving a maximum power 2.5 times that attained by a plain square prism PEH. Furthermore, a length that is 1/6 of the prism's cross-sectional width is found to be optimal for fins that are attached to the harvester.

  15. Aerodynamic Performance and Flow-Field Characteristics of Two Waverider-Derived Hypersonic Cruise Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, Charles E., Jr.; Huebner, Lawrence D.; Finley, Dennis B.

    1995-01-01

    The component integration of a class of hypersonic high-lift configurations known as waveriders into hypersonic cruise vehicles was evaluated. A wind-tunnel model was developed which integrates realistic vehicle components with two waverider shapes, referred to as the straight-wing and cranked-wing shapes. Both shapes were conical-flow-derived waveriders for a design Mach number of 4.0. Experimental data and limited computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions were obtained over a Mach number range of 1.6 to 4.63 at a Reynolds number of 2.0 x 10(exp 6) per foot. The CFD predictions and flow visualization data confirmed the shock attachment characteristics of the baseline waverider shapes and illustrated the waverider flow-field properties. Experimental data showed that no significant performance degradations, in terms of maximum lift-to-drag ratios, occur at off-design Mach numbers for the waverider shapes and the integrated configurations. A comparison of the fully-integrated waverider vehicles to the baseline shapes showed that the performance was significantly degraded when all of the components were added to the waveriders, with the most significant degradation resulting from aftbody closure and the addition of control surfaces. Both fully-integrated configurations were longitudinally unstable over the Mach number range studied with the selected center of gravity location and for unpowered conditions. The cranked-wing configuration provided better lateral-directional stability characteristics than the straight-wing configuration.

  16. Investigation of Active Flow Control to Improve Aerodynamic Performance of Oscillating Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narducci, Robert P.; Bowersox, Rodney; Bussom, Richard; McVeigh, Michael; Raghu, Surya; White, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this effort is to design a promising active flow control concept on an oscillating airfoil for on-blade alleviation of dynamic stall. The concept must be designed for a range of representative Mach numbers (0.2 to 0.5) and representative reduced frequency characteristics of a full-scale rotorcraft. Specifications for a sweeping-jet actuator to mitigate the detrimental effects of retreating blade stall experienced by edgewise rotors in forward flight has been performed. Wind tunnel modifications have been designed to accommodate a 5x6 test section in the Oran W. Nicks Low Speed Wind Tunnel at Texas A&M University that will allow the tunnel to achieve Mach 0.5. The flow control design is for a two-dimensional oscillating VR-7 blade section with a 15- inch chord at rotor-relevant flow conditions covering the range of reduced frequencies from 0.0 to 0.15 and Mach numbers from 0.2 to 0.5. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis has been performed to influence the placement of the flow control devices for optimal effectiveness.

  17. Iterative learning control applied to a non-linear vortex panel model for improved aerodynamic load performance of wind turbines with smart rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackwell, Mark W.; Tutty, Owen R.; Rogers, Eric; Sandberg, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of smart devices in wind turbine rotor blades could, in conjunction with collective and individual pitch control, improve the aerodynamic performance of the rotors. This is currently an active area of research with the primary objective of reducing the fatigue loads but mitigating the effects of extreme loads is also of interest. The aerodynamic loads on a wind turbine blade contain periodic and non-periodic components and one approach is to consider the application of iterative learning control algorithms. In this paper, the control design is based on a simple, in relative terms, computational fluid dynamics model that uses non-linear wake effects to represent flow past an airfoil. A representation for the actuator dynamics is included to undertake a detailed investigation into the level of control possible and on how performance can be effectively measured.

  18. Aerodynamic performance investigation of advanced mechanical suppressor and ejector nozzle concepts for jet noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagenknecht, C. D.; Bediako, E. D.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced Supersonic Transport jet noise may be reduced to Federal Air Regulation limits if recommended refinements to a recently developed ejector shroud exhaust system are successfully carried out. A two-part program consisting of a design study and a subscale model wind tunnel test effort conducted to define an acoustically treated ejector shroud exhaust system for supersonic transport application is described. Coannular, 20-chute, and ejector shroud exhaust systems were evaluated. Program results were used in a mission analysis study to determine aircraft takeoff gross weight to perform a nominal design mission, under Federal Aviation Regulation (1969), Part 36, Stage 3 noise constraints. Mission trade study results confirmed that the ejector shroud was the best of the three exhaust systems studied with a significant takeoff gross weight advantage over the 20-chute suppressor nozzle which was the second best.

  19. The effect of shielding on the aerodynamic performance of Savonius wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morcos, S. M.; Khalafallah, M. G.; Heikel, H. A.

    The effect of the flat plate shield on the performance of two-bladed Savonius rotor has been experimentally determined. Tests were carried out in a low speed wind tunnel with a working section of 1.0 sq m. Flat plate shields with various values of plate width and inclination angle were tested in order to determine the optimum configuration. The maximum power coefficient of the Savonius rotor was increased from 0.22 for the case without shielding to 0.34 for the case with an optimum shielding configuration. The addition of a flat plate shield to the Savonius rotor can, therefore, enhance the power coefficient to values approaching the more elaborate wind turbines without affecting the simplicity of the Savonius rotor.

  20. The aerodynamic performance of several flow control devices for internal flow systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, W. T.; Wettlaufer, B. M.; Mort, K. W.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental reseach and development program was undertaken to develop and document new flow-control devices for use in the major modifications to the 40 by 80 Foot wind tunnel at Ames Research Center. These devices, which are applicable to other facilities as well, included grid-type and quasi-two-dimensional flow straighteners, louver panels for valving, and turning-vane cascades with net turning angles from 0 deg to 90 deg. The tests were conducted at model scale over a Reynolds number range from 2 x 100,000 to 17 x 100,000, based on chord. The results showed quantitatively the performance benefits of faired, low-blockage, smooth-surface straightener systems, and the advantages of curved turning-vanes with hinge-line gaps sealed and a preferred chord-to-gap ratio between 2.5 and 3.0 for 45 deg or 90 deg turns.

  1. Aerodynamic enhancement of space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walberg, G. D.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a number of recent investigations are reviewed and used to demonstrate gains in launch, orbital transfer, and planetary vehicle performance and economy that can result from the proper exploitation of aerodynamic phenomena. For launch vehicles, application of control-configured design is shown to allow substantial reduction in wing and vertical fin area (and hence, weight) while maintaining acceptable vehicle performance and control. For orbital transfer and planetary vehicles, the use of aerodynamic lift and drag to reduce retropropulsion requirements is shown to produce payload increases of up to 100 percent and to enable some planetary missions that are not feasible with all-propulsive vehicles. Finally, the application of various advanced technologies to a complete set of launch and orbit transfer vehicles in an early space industrialization mission scenario is considered.

  2. Assessment of an Unstructured-Grid Method for Predicting Aerodynamic Performance of Jet Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Josue; Anders, Scott G.

    2006-01-01

    The application of a Computational Fluid Dynamics tool to a jet flap control effector on an elliptical airfoil-section wing was investigated. The study utilized the Tetrahedral Unstructured Software System developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver code used was USM3D. The CFD-based jet flap simulations were compared to experimental results from a wind tunnel test conducted at the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The wind tunnel model consisted of a six percent thick elliptical airfoil with a modified trailing edge. The jet flap was located at 95% chord and exited at 90 degrees to the lower surface. The experimental model was designed to promote two-dimensional flow across the wing. It was found that the CFD simulation had to model the three-dimensional geometry of the experiment in order to obtain good agreement. Tests were performed at two Mach numbers at several different jet momentum coefficients. In order to be consistent with the experimental method, the CFD lift and pitching moment values were determined by integrating the pressures over the wing.

  3. Simulation and experiment research of aerodynamic performance of small axial fans with struts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Wei; Lin, Peifeng; Zhang, Li; Jin, Yingzi; Wang, Yanping; Kim, Heuy Dong; Setoguchi, Toshiaki

    2016-06-01

    Interaction between rotor and struts has great effect on the performance of small axial fan systems. The small axial fan systems are selected as the studied objects in this paper, and four square struts are downstream of the rotor. The cross section of the struts is changed to the cylindrical shapes for the investigation: one is in the same hydraulic diameter as the square struts and another one is in the same cross section as the square struts. Influence of the shape of the struts on the static pressure characteristics, the internal flow and the sound emission of the small axial fans are studied. Standard K-ɛ turbulence model and SIMPLE algorithm are applied in the calculation of the steady fluid field, and the curves of the pressure rising against the flow rate are obtained, which demonstrates that the simulation results are in nice consistence with the experimental data. The steady calculation results are set as the initial field in the unsteady calculation. Large eddy simulation and PISO algorithm are used in the transient calculation, and the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings model is introduced to predict the sound level at the eight monitoring points. The research results show that: the static pressure coefficients of the fan with cylindrical struts increase by about 25% compared to the fan with square struts, and the efficiencies increase by about 28.6%. The research provides a theoretical guide for shape optimization and noise reduction of small axial fan with struts.

  4. Analysis of Performance of Jet Engine from Characteristics of Components I : Aerodynamic and Matching Characteristics of Turbine Component Determined with Cold Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Arthur W

    1947-01-01

    The performance of the turbine component of an NACA research jet engine was investigated with cold air. The interaction and the matching of the turbine with the NACA eight-stage compressor were computed with the combination considered as a jet engine. The over-all performance of the engine was then determined. The internal aerodynamics were studied to the extent of investigating the performance of the first stator ring and its influence on the turbine performance. For this ring, the stream-filament method for computing velocity distribution permitted efficient sections to be designed, but the design condition of free-vortex flow with uniform axial velocities was not obtained.

  5. Beyond Instructional Systems: A Performance Technology Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruckdeschel, Clare; Yarter, Michael; Riveccio, Mary Ann; Cortes, Ivan; Cookson, Mark S.

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of performance technology, the application of knowledge for optimizing performance. Discusses the influence of ISD (instructional systems design), tactical interventions, business, and industry; its use in business, industry, military, and government; and academic backgrounds of performance designers. Outlines a…

  6. Toward a Science Performance Assessment Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shavelson, Richard J.; Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Ruiz-Primo, Maria Araceli

    1998-01-01

    Research on developing technology for large-scale performance assessments in science is reported briefly, and a conceptual framework is presented for defining, generating, and evaluating science performance assessments. Types of tasks are discussed, and the technical qualities of performance assessments are discussed in the context of…

  7. Aerodynamic Design Opportunities for Future Supersonic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Flamm, Jeffrey D.

    2002-01-01

    A discussion of a diverse set of aerodynamic opportunities to improve the aerodynamic performance of future supersonic aircraft has been presented and discussed. These ideas are offered to the community in a hope that future supersonic vehicle development activities will not be hindered by past efforts. A number of nonlinear flow based drag reduction technologies are presented and discussed. The subject technologies are related to the areas of interference flows, vehicle concepts, vortex flows, wing design, advanced control effectors, and planform design. The authors also discussed the importance of improving the aerodynamic design environment to allow creativity and knowledge greater influence. A review of all of the data presented show that pressure drag reductions on the order of 50 to 60 counts are achievable, compared to a conventional supersonic cruise vehicle, with the application of several of the discussed technologies. These drag reductions would correlate to a 30 to 40% increase in cruise L/D (lift-to-drag ratio) for a commercial supersonic transport.

  8. Performance Evaluation Methods for Assistive Robotic Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, Katherine M.; Feil-Seifer, David J.; Matarić, Maja J.; Yanco, Holly A.

    Robots have been developed for several assistive technology domains, including intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorders, eldercare, and post-stroke rehabilitation. Assistive robots have also been used to promote independent living through the use of devices such as intelligent wheelchairs, assistive robotic arms, and external limb prostheses. Work in the broad field of assistive robotic technology can be divided into two major research phases: technology development, in which new devices, software, and interfaces are created; and clinical, in which assistive technology is applied to a given end-user population. Moving from technology development towards clinical applications is a significant challenge. Developing performance metrics for assistive robots poses a related set of challenges. In this paper, we survey several areas of assistive robotic technology in order to derive and demonstrate domain-specific means for evaluating the performance of such systems. We also present two case studies of applied performance measures and a discussion regarding the ubiquity of functional performance measures across the sampled domains. Finally, we present guidelines for incorporating human performance metrics into end-user evaluations of assistive robotic technologies.

  9. Acoustic and aerodynamic performance of a 1.83-meter (6-ft) diameter 1.25-pressure-ratio fan (QF-8)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, R. P.; Lucas, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    A 1.25-pressure-ratio 1.83-meter (6-ft) tip diameter experimental fan stage with characteristics suitable for engine application on STOL aircraft was tested for acoustic and aerodynamic performance. The design incorporated proven features for low noise, including absence of inlet guide vanes, low rotor blade tip speed, low aerodynamic blade loading, and long axial spacing between the rotor and stator blade rows. The fan was operated with five exhaust nozzle areas. The stage noise levels generally increased with a decrease in nozzle area. Separation of the acoustic one-third octave results into broadband and pure-tone components showed the broadband noise to be greater than the corresponding pure-tone components. The sideline perceived noise was highest in the rear quadrants. The acoustic results of QF-8 were compared with those of two similar STOL application fans in the test series. The QF-8 had somewhat higher relative noise levels than those of the other two fans. The aerodynamic results of QF-8 and the other two fans were compared with corresponding results from 50.8-cm (20-in.) diam scale models of these fans and design values. Although the results for the full-scale and scale models of the other two fans were in reasonable agreement for each design, the full-scale fan QF-8 results showed poor performance compared with corresponding model results and design expectations. Facility effects of the full-scale fan QF-8 installation were considered in analyzing this discrepancy.

  10. Performance of an aerodynamic yaw controller mounted on the space shuttle orbiter body flap at Mach 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scallion, W. I.

    1995-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation of the effectiveness of an aerodynamic yaw controller mounted on the lower surface of a shuttle orbiter model body flap was conducted in the Langley 31-Inch Mach 10 Tunnel. The controller consisted of a 60 deg delta fin mounted perpendicular to the body flap lower surface and yawed 30 deg to the free stream direction. The control was tested at angles of attack from 20 deg to 40 deg at zero sideslip for a Reynolds number based on wing mean aerodynamic chord of 0.66 x 10(exp 6). The aerodynamic and control effectiveness characteristics are presented along with an analysis of the effectiveness of the controller in making a bank maneuver for Mach 18 flight conditions. The controller was effective in yaw and produced a favorable rolling moment. The analysis showed that the controller was as effective as the reaction control system in making the bank maneuver. These results warrant further studies of the aerodynamic/aerothermodynamic characteristics of the control concept for application to future transportation vehicles.

  11. Aerodynamic performance and pressure distributions for a NASA SC(2)-0714 airfoil tested in the Langley 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Renaldo V.; Hill, Acquilla S.; Ray, Edward J.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents in graphic and tabular forms the aerodynamic coefficient and surface pressure distribution data for a NASA SC(2)-0714 airfoil tested in the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. The test was another in a series of tests involved in the joint NASA/U.S. Industry Advanced Technology Airfoil Tests program. This 14% thick supercritical airfoil was tested at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 0.76 and angles of attack from -2.0 to 6.0 degrees. The test Reynolds numbers were 4 million, 6 million, 10 million, 15 million, 30 million, 40 million, and 45 million.

  12. Advanced Aerodynamic Control Effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1999-01-01

    A 1990 research program that focused on the development of advanced aerodynamic control effectors (AACE) for military aircraft has been reviewed and summarized. Data are presented for advanced planform, flow control, and surface contouring technologies. The data show significant increases in lift, reductions in drag, and increased control power, compared to typical aerodynamic designs. The results presented also highlighted the importance of planform selection in the design of a control effector suite. Planform data showed that dramatic increases in lift (greater than 25%) can be achieved with multiple wings and a sawtooth forebody. Passive porosity and micro drag generator control effector data showed control power levels exceeding that available from typical effectors (moving surfaces). Application of an advanced planform to a tailless concept showed benefits of similar magnitude as those observed in the generic studies.

  13. Performance Contracting: Taking School Technology Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taival, Dane

    2009-01-01

    Energy efficiency makes fiscal and environmental sense, and so does energy savings performance contracting. Because an energy savings performance contract can create a self-funding package of products and services that reduce energy and operating costs, over time, school districts' sometimes-large initial investment in emerging technologies saves…

  14. Research of laser stealth performance test technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhen-xing; Shi, Sheng-bing; Han, Fu-li; Wu, Yan-lin; Song, Chun-yan

    2014-09-01

    Laser stealth is an important way of photoelectric stealth weapons systems. According to operational principle of laser range finder, we actively explore and study the stealth performance approval testing technology of laser stealth materials, and bring forward and establish the stealth performance field test methods of stealth efficiency evaluation. Through contrastive test of two kinds of materials, the method is correct and effective.

  15. New Metacognitive Model for Human Performance Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Addressing metacognitive functions has been shown to improve performance at the individual, team, group, and organizational levels. Metacognition is beginning to surface as an added cognate discipline for the field of human performance technology (HPT). Advances from research in the fields of cognition and metacognition offer a place for HPT to…

  16. Development of mathematical models and numerical methods for aerodynamic design on multiprocessor computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimov, F. A.; Churakov, D. A.; Shevelev, Yu. D.

    2011-02-01

    Complex-geometry design and grid generation are addressed. The gasdynamic equations are solved, and the numerical results are compared with experimental data. For aerodynamic problems, a suite of mathematical and information technology tools is proposed for the support and management of geometric models of actual objects. Based on the mathematical modeling methods developed, numerical experiments can be performed for a wide class of geometric forms and the aerodynamic properties of aircraft can be predicted with allowance for the viscosity effects.

  17. Supersonic aerodynamics of delta wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.

    1988-01-01

    Through the empirical correlation of experimental data and theoretical analysis, a set of graphs has been developed which summarize the inviscid aerodynamics of delta wings at supersonic speeds. The various graphs which detail the aerodynamic performance of delta wings at both zero-lift and lifting conditions were then employed to define a preliminary wing design approach in which both the low-lift and high-lift design criteria were combined to define a feasible design space.

  18. Recent advances in computational aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Ramesh K.; Desse, Jerry E.

    1991-04-01

    The current state of the art in computational aerodynamics is described. Recent advances in the discretization of surface geometry, grid generation, and flow simulation algorithms have led to flowfield predictions for increasingly complex and realistic configurations. As a result, computational aerodynamics is emerging as a crucial enabling technology for the development and design of flight vehicles. Examples illustrating the current capability for the prediction of aircraft, launch vehicle and helicopter flowfields are presented. Unfortunately, accurate modeling of turbulence remains a major difficulty in the analysis of viscosity-dominated flows. In the future inverse design methods, multidisciplinary design optimization methods, artificial intelligence technology and massively parallel computer technology will be incorporated into computational aerodynamics, opening up greater opportunities for improved product design at substantially reduced costs.

  19. Aerodynamics of a linear oscillating cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffum, Daniel H.; Fleeter, Sanford

    1990-01-01

    The steady and unsteady aerodynamics of a linear oscillating cascade are investigated using experimental and computational methods. Experiments are performed to quantify the torsion mode oscillating cascade aerodynamics of the NASA Lewis Transonic Oscillating Cascade for subsonic inlet flowfields using two methods: simultaneous oscillation of all the cascaded airfoils at various values of interblade phase angle, and the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. Analysis of these data and correlation with classical linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis predictions indicate that the wind tunnel walls enclosing the cascade have, in some cases, a detrimental effect on the cascade unsteady aerodynamics. An Euler code for oscillating cascade aerodynamics is modified to incorporate improved upstream and downstream boundary conditions and also the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. The new boundary conditions are shown to improve the unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique. The new boundary conditions are shown to improve the unsteady aerodynamic predictions of the code, and the computational unsteady aerodynamic influence coefficient technique is shown to be a viable alternative for calculation of oscillating cascade aerodynamics.

  20. Aerodynamic performance and particle image velocimetery of piezo actuated biomimetic manduca sexta engineered wings towards the design and application of a flapping wing flight vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLuca, Anthony M.

    Considerable research and investigation has been conducted on the aerodynamic performance, and the predominate flow physics of the Manduca Sexta size of biomimetically designed and fabricated wings as part of the AFIT FWMAV design project. Despite a burgeoning interest and research into the diverse field of flapping wing flight and biomimicry, the aerodynamics of flapping wing flight remains a nebulous field of science with considerable variance into the theoretical abstractions surrounding aerodynamic mechanisms responsible for aerial performance. Traditional FWMAV flight models assume a form of a quasi-steady approximation of wing aerodynamics based on an infinite wing blade element model (BEM). An accurate estimation of the lift, drag, and side force coefficients is a critical component of autonomous stability and control models. This research focused on two separate experimental avenues into the aerodynamics of AFIT's engineered hawkmoth wings|forces and flow visualization. 1. Six degree of freedom force balance testing, and high speed video analysis was conducted on 30°, 45°, and 60° angle stop wings. A novel, non-intrusive optical tracking algorithm was developed utilizing a combination of a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and ComputerVision (OpenCV) tools to track the wing in motion from multiple cameras. A complete mapping of the wing's kinematic angles as a function of driving amplitude was performed. The stroke angle, elevation angle, and angle of attack were tabulated for all three wings at driving amplitudes ranging from A=0.3 to A=0.6. The wing kinematics together with the force balance data was used to develop several aerodynamic force coefficient models. A combined translational and rotational aerodynamic model predicted lift forces within 10%, and vertical forces within 6%. The total power consumption was calculated for each of the three wings, and a Figure of Merit was calculated for each wing as a general expression of the overall efficiency of

  1. The size and performance effects of high lift system technology on a modern twin engine jet transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    The energy and economic benefits of low-speed aerodynamic system technology applied to a modern 200-passenger, 2000-nmi range, twin engine jet transport are reviewed. Results of a new method to design flap systems at flight Reynolds number are summarized. The study contains the airplane high lift configuration drag characteristics and design selection charts showing the effect of flap technology on the airplane size and performance. The study areas include: wing and flap geometry, climb and descent speed schedules with partial flap deflection, flap system technology, and augmented stability. The results compare the improvements in payload from a hot, high elevation airport.

  2. Aerodynamic levitator for large-sized glassy material production.

    PubMed

    Yoda, Shinichi; Cho, Won-Seung; Imai, Ryoji

    2015-09-01

    Containerless aerodynamic levitation processing is a unique technology for the fabrication of bulk non-crystalline materials. Using conventional aerodynamic levitation, a high reflective index (RI) material (BaTi2O5 and LaO3/2-TiO2-ZrO2 system) was developed with a RI greater than approximately 2.2, which is similar to that of diamond. However, the glass size was small, approximately 3 mm in diameter. Therefore, it is essential to produce large sized materials for future optical materials applications, such as camera lenses. In this study, a new aerodynamic levitator was designed to produce non-crystalline materials with diameters larger than 6 mm. The concept of this new levitator was to set up a reduced pressure at the top of the molten samples without generating turbulent flow. A numerical simulation was also performed to verify the concept. PMID:26429456

  3. Review of aerodynamic design in the Netherlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labrujere, Th. E.

    1991-01-01

    Aerodynamic design activities in the Netherlands, which take place mainly at Fokker, the National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR), and Delft University of Technology (TUD), are discussed. The survey concentrates on the development of the Fokker 100 wing, glider design at TUD, and research at NLR in the field of aerodynamic design. Results are shown to illustrate these activities.

  4. Benefits of high aerodynamic efficiency to orbital transfer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, D. G.; Norris, R. B.; Paris, S. W.

    1984-01-01

    The benefits and costs of high aerodynamic efficiency on aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles (AOTV) are analyzed. Results show that a high lift to drag (L/D) AOTV can achieve significant velocity savings relative to low L/D aerobraked OTV's when traveling round trip between low Earth orbits (LEO) and alternate orbits as high as geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Trajectory analysis is used to show the impact of thermal protection system technology and the importance of lift loading coefficient on vehicle performance. The possible improvements in AOTV subsystem technologies are assessed and their impact on vehicle inert weight and performance noted. Finally, the performance of high L/D AOTV concepts is compared with the performances of low L/D aeroassisted and all propulsive OTV concepts to assess the benefits of aerodynamic efficiency on this class of vehicle.

  5. Beginning Teachers' Understanding Performances of Technology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Ping; Wong, Angela F. L.; Choy, Doris; Wu, Jing

    2011-01-01

    As part of a two-year, mixed methods study, the focus of this paper reports the qualitative findings that are related to nine beginning teachers' learning to teach with Information and Communication Technology (ICT) during their first year of teaching. It aims to explore how these teachers deepen their understanding performances of technology…

  6. Electronics Technology. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Guy

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 20 terminal objectives for a basic electronics technology course. The materials were developed for a two-semester course (2 hours daily) designed to include instruction in basic electricity and electronic fundamentals, and to develop skills and…

  7. Electronic Performance Support Systems and Technological Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maughan, George R.

    2005-01-01

    Electronic performance support systems (EPSS) can provide alternative learning opportunities to supplement traditional classroom or training strategies. Today's students may benefit from educational settings and strategies that they will use in the future. In using EPSS to nurture the development of technological literacy, workers and students can…

  8. Cold-air annular-cascade investigation of aerodynamic performance of cooled turbine vanes. 2: Trailing-edge ejection, film cooling, and transpiration cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, L. J.; Mclallin, K. L.

    1975-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of four different cooled vane configurations was experimentally determined in a full-annular cascade at a primary- to coolant-total-temperature ratio of 1.0. The vanes were tested over a range of coolant flow rates and pressure ratios. Overall vane efficiencies were obtained and compared, where possible, with the results obtained in a four-vane, annular-sector cascade. The vane efficiency and exit flow conditions as functions of radial position were also determined and compared with solid (uncooled) vane results.

  9. Aerodynamic Design Study of Advanced Multistage Axial Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larosiliere, Louis M.; Wood, Jerry R.; Hathaway, Michael D.; Medd, Adam J.; Dang, Thong Q.

    2002-01-01

    As a direct response to the need for further performance gains from current multistage axial compressors, an investigation of advanced aerodynamic design concepts that will lead to compact, high-efficiency, and wide-operability configurations is being pursued. Part I of this report describes the projected level of technical advancement relative to the state of the art and quantifies it in terms of basic aerodynamic technology elements of current design systems. A rational enhancement of these elements is shown to lead to a substantial expansion of the design and operability space. Aerodynamic design considerations for a four-stage core compressor intended to serve as a vehicle to develop, integrate, and demonstrate aerotechnology advancements are discussed. This design is biased toward high efficiency at high loading. Three-dimensional blading and spanwise tailoring of vector diagrams guided by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are used to manage the aerodynamics of the high-loaded endwall regions. Certain deleterious flow features, such as leakage-vortex-dominated endwall flow and strong shock-boundary-layer interactions, were identified and targeted for improvement. However, the preliminary results were encouraging and the front two stages were extracted for further aerodynamic trimming using a three-dimensional inverse design method described in part II of this report. The benefits of the inverse design method are illustrated by developing an appropriate pressure-loading strategy for transonic blading and applying it to reblade the rotors in the front two stages of the four-stage configuration. Multistage CFD simulations based on the average passage formulation indicated an overall efficiency potential far exceeding current practice for the front two stages. Results of the CFD simulation at the aerodynamic design point are interrogated to identify areas requiring additional development. In spite of the significantly higher aerodynamic loadings, advanced CFD

  10. Extended-performance thruster technology evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beattie, J. R.; Poeschel, R. L.; Bechtel, R. T.

    1978-01-01

    Two 30-cm ion thruster technology areas are investigated in support of the extended-performance thruster operation required for the Halley's comet rendezvous mission. These areas include an evaluation of the thruster performance and lifetime characteristics at increased specific impulse and power levels, and the design and evaluation of a high-voltage propellant electrical isolator. Experimental results are presented indicating that all elements of the thruster design function well at the higher specific impulse and power levels. It is shown that the only thruster modifications required for extended-performance operation are a respacing of the ion optics assembly and a redesign of the propellant isolators. Experimental results obtained from three isolator designs are presented, and it is concluded that the design and development of a high-voltage isolator is possible using existing technology.

  11. Advancement of proprotor technology. Task 1: Design study summary. [aerodynamic concept of minimum size tilt proprotor research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    A tilt-proprotor proof-of-concept aircraft design study has been conducted. The results are presented. The ojective of the contract is to advance the state of proprotor technology through design studies and full-scale wind-tunnel tests. The specific objective is to conduct preliminary design studies to define a minimum-size tilt-proprotor research aircraft that can perform proof-of-concept flight research. The aircraft that results from these studies is a twin-engine, high-wing aircraft with 25-foot, three-bladed tilt proprotors mounted on pylons at the wingtips. Each pylon houses a Pratt and Whitney PT6C-40 engine with a takeoff rating of 1150 horsepower. Empty weight is estimated at 6876 pounds. The normal gross weight is 9500 pounds, and the maximum gross weight is 12,400 pounds.

  12. Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage-Structural Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, T. H.; Minguet, P. J.; Flynn, B. W.; Carbery, D. J.; Swanson, G. D.; Ilcewicz, L. B.

    1997-01-01

    Boeing is studying the technologies associated with the application of composite materials to commercial transport fuselage structure under the NASA-sponsored contracts for Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) and Materials Development Omnibus Contract (MDOC). This report addresses the program activities related to structural performance of the selected concepts, including both the design development and subsequent detailed evaluation. Design criteria were developed to ensure compliance with regulatory requirements and typical company objectives. Accurate analysis methods were selected and/or developed where practical, and conservative approaches were used where significant approximations were necessary. Design sizing activities supported subsequent development by providing representative design configurations for structural evaluation and by identifying the critical performance issues. Significant program efforts were directed towards assessing structural performance predictive capability. The structural database collected to perform this assessment was intimately linked to the manufacturing scale-up activities to ensure inclusion of manufacturing-induced performance traits. Mechanical tests were conducted to support the development and critical evaluation of analysis methods addressing internal loads, stability, ultimate strength, attachment and splice strength, and damage tolerance. Unresolved aspects of these performance issues were identified as part of the assessments, providing direction for future development.

  13. An experimental investigation of the aerodynamics and cooling of a horizontally-opposed air-cooled aircraft engine installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, S. J.; Cross, E. J., Jr.; Owens, J. K.; Lawrence, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    A flight-test based research program was performed to investigate the aerodynamics and cooling of a horizontally-opposed engine installation. Specific areas investigated were the internal aerodynamics and cooling mechanics of the installation, inlet aerodynamics, and exit aerodynamics. The applicable theory and current state of the art are discussed for each area. Flight-test and ground-test techniques for the development of the cooling installation and the solution of cooling problems are presented. The results show that much of the internal aerodynamics and cooling technology developed for radial engines are applicable to horizontally opposed engines. Correlation is established between engine manufacturer's cooling design data and flight measurements of the particular installation. Also, a flight-test method for the development of cooling requirements in terms of easily measurable parameters is presented. The impact of inlet and exit design on cooling and cooling drag is shown to be of major significance.

  14. Aerodynamics Research Revolutionizes Truck Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s, researchers at Dryden Flight Research Center conducted numerous tests to refine the shape of trucks to reduce aerodynamic drag and improved efficiency. During the 1980s and 1990s, a team based at Langley Research Center explored controlling drag and the flow of air around a moving body. Aeroserve Technologies Ltd., of Ottawa, Canada, with its subsidiary, Airtab LLC, in Loveland, Colorado, applied the research from Dryden and Langley to the development of the Airtab vortex generator. Airtabs create two counter-rotating vortices to reduce wind resistance and aerodynamic drag of trucks, trailers, recreational vehicles, and many other vehicles.

  15. Performance Engineering Technology for Scientific Component Software

    SciTech Connect

    Malony, Allen D.

    2007-05-08

    Large-scale, complex scientific applications are beginning to benefit from the use of component software design methodology and technology for software development. Integral to the success of component-based applications is the ability to achieve high-performing code solutions through the use of performance engineering tools for both intra-component and inter-component analysis and optimization. Our work on this project aimed to develop performance engineering technology for scientific component software in association with the DOE CCTTSS SciDAC project (active during the contract period) and the broader Common Component Architecture (CCA) community. Our specific implementation objectives were to extend the TAU performance system and Program Database Toolkit (PDT) to support performance instrumentation, measurement, and analysis of CCA components and frameworks, and to develop performance measurement and monitoring infrastructure that could be integrated in CCA applications. These objectives have been met in the completion of all project milestones and in the transfer of the technology into the continuing CCA activities as part of the DOE TASCS SciDAC2 effort. In addition to these achievements, over the past three years, we have been an active member of the CCA Forum, attending all meetings and serving in several working groups, such as the CCA Toolkit working group, the CQoS working group, and the Tutorial working group. We have contributed significantly to CCA tutorials since SC'04, hosted two CCA meetings, participated in the annual ACTS workshops, and were co-authors on the recent CCA journal paper [24]. There are four main areas where our project has delivered results: component performance instrumentation and measurement, component performance modeling and optimization, performance database and data mining, and online performance monitoring. This final report outlines the achievements in these areas for the entire project period. The submitted progress

  16. Performance and benefits of an advanced technology supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzsimmons, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    The results of four years research on technology are synthesized in an advanced supersonic cruise aircraft design. Comparisons are presented with the former United States SST and the British-French Concorde, including aerodynamic efficiency, propulsion efficiency, weight efficiency, and community noise. Selected trade study results are presented on the subjects of design cruise Mach number, engine cycle selection, and noise suppression. The critical issue of program timing is addressed and some observations made regarding the impact that timing has on engine selection and minimization of program risk.

  17. Aerodynamic Models for the Low Density Supersonic Declerator (LDSD) Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Norman, John W.; Dyakonov, Artem; Schoenenberger, Mark; Davis, Jody; Muppidi, Suman; Tang, Chun; Bose, Deepak; Mobley, Brandon; Clark, Ian

    2015-01-01

    An overview of pre-flight aerodynamic models for the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT) campaign is presented, with comparisons to reconstructed flight data and discussion of model updates. The SFDT campaign objective is to test Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD) and large supersonic parachute technologies at high altitude Earth conditions relevant to entry, descent, and landing (EDL) at Mars. Nominal SIAD test conditions are attained by lifting a test vehicle (TV) to 36 km altitude with a large helium balloon, then accelerating the TV to Mach 4 and and 53 km altitude with a solid rocket motor. The first flight test (SFDT-1) delivered a 6 meter diameter robotic mission class decelerator (SIAD-R) to several seconds of flight on June 28, 2014, and was successful in demonstrating the SFDT flight system concept and SIAD-R. The trajectory was off-nominal, however, lofting to over 8 km higher than predicted in flight simulations. Comparisons between reconstructed flight data and aerodynamic models show that SIAD-R aerodynamic performance was in good agreement with pre-flight predictions. Similar comparisons of powered ascent phase aerodynamics show that the pre-flight model overpredicted TV pitch stability, leading to underprediction of trajectory peak altitude. Comparisons between pre-flight aerodynamic models and reconstructed flight data are shown, and changes to aerodynamic models using improved fidelity and knowledge gained from SFDT-1 are discussed.

  18. Aerodynamic performance of transonic and subsonic airfoils: Effects of surface roughness, turbulence intensity, Mach number, and streamline curvature-airfoil shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang

    The effects of surface roughness, turbulence intensity, Mach number, and streamline curvature-airfoil shape on the aerodynamic performance of turbine airfoils are investigated in compressible, high speed flows. The University of Utah Transonic Wind Tunnel is employed for the experimental part of the study. Two different test sections are designed to produce Mach numbers, Reynolds numbers, passage mass flow rates, and physical dimensions, which match values along turbine blades in operating engines: (i) a nonturning test section with a symmetric airfoil, and (ii) a cascade test section with a cambered turbine vane. The nonuniform, irregular, three-dimensional surface roughness is characterized using the equivalent sand grain roughness size. Changing the airfoil surface roughness condition has a substantial effect on wake profiles of total pressure loss coefficients, normalized Mach number, normalized kinetic energy, and on the normalized and dimensional magnitudes of Integrated Aerodynamic Losses produced by the airfoils. Comparisons with results for a symmetric airfoil and a cambered vane show that roughness has more substantial effects on losses produced by the symmetric airfoil than the cambered vane. Data are also provided that illustrate the larger loss magnitudes are generally present with flow turning and cambered airfoils, than with symmetric airfoils. Wake turbulence structure of symmetric airfoils and cambered vanes are also studied experimentally. The effects of surface roughness and freestream turbulence levels on wake distributions of mean velocity, turbulence intensity, and power spectral density profiles and vortex shedding frequencies are quantified one axial chord length downstream of the test airfoils. As the level of surface roughness increases, all wake profile quantities broaden significantly and nondimensional vortex shedding frequencies decrease. Wake profiles produced by the symmetric airfoil are more sensitive to variations of surface

  19. Structural and aerodynamic loads and performance measurements of an SA349/2 helicopter with an advanced geometry rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffernan, Ruth M.; Gaubert, Michel

    1986-01-01

    A flight test program was conducted to obtain data from an upgraded Gazelle helicopter with an advanced geometry, three bladed rotor. Data were acquired on upper and lower surface chordwise blade pressure, blade bending and torsion moments, and fuselage structural loads. Results are presented from 16 individual flight conditions, including level flights ranging from 10 to 77 m/sec at 50 to 3000 m altitude, turning flights up to 2.0 g, and autorotation. Rotor aerodynamic data include information from 51 pressure transducers distributed chordwise at 75, 88, and 97% radial stations. Individual tranducer pressure coefficients and airfoil section lift and pitching moment coefficients are presented, as are steady state flight condition parameters and time dependence rotor loads. All dynamic data are presented as harmonic analysis coefficients.

  20. First NASA/Industry High-Speed Research Configuration Aerodynamics Workshop. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of documents presented at the First NASA/Industry High Speed Research Configuration Aerodynamics Workshop held on February 27-29, 1996 at NASA Langley Research Center. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together the broad spectrum of aerodynamicists, engineers, and scientists working within the Configuration Aerodynamics element of the HSR Program to collectively evaluate the technology status and to define the needs within Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis Methodology, Aerodynamic Shape Design, Propulsion/Airframe Integration (PAI), Aerodynamic Performance, and Stability and Control (S&C) to support the development of an economically viable High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft. To meet these objectives, papers were presented by representative from NASA Langley, Ames, and Lewis Research Centers; Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, Northrop-Grumman, Lockheed-Martin, Vigyan, Analytical Services, Dynacs, and RIACS.

  1. First NASA/Industry High-Speed Research Configuration Aerodynamics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of documents presented at the First NASA/Industry High Speed Research Configuration Aerodynamics Workshop held on February 27-29, 1996 at NASA Langley Research Center. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together the broad spectrum of aerodynamicists, engineers, and scientists working within the Configuration Aerodynamics element of the HSR Program to collectively evaluate the technology status and to define the needs within Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis Methodology, Aerodynamic Shape Design, Propulsion/Airframe Integration (PAI), Aerodynamic Performance, and Stability and Control (S&C) to support the development of an economically viable High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft. To meet these objectives, papers were presented by representative from NASA Langley, Ames, and Lewis Research Centers; Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, Northrop-Grumman, Lockheed-Martin, Vigyan, Analytical Services, Dynacs, and RIACS.

  2. First NASA/Industry High-Speed Research Configuration Aerodynamics Workshop. Pt. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of documents presented at the First NASA Industry High Speed Research Configuration Aerodynamics Workshop held on February 27-29, 1996 at NASA Langley Research Center. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together the broad spectrum of aerodynamicists, engineers, and scientists working within the Configuration Aerodynamics element of the HSR Program to collectively evaluate the technology status and to define the needs within Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis Methodology, Aerodynamic Shape Design, Propulsion/Airframe Integration (PAI), Aerodynamic Performance, and Stability and Control (S&C) to support the development of an economically viable High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft. To meet these objectives, papers were presented by representatives from NASA Langley, Ames, and Lewis Research Centers; Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, Northrop-Grumman, Lockheed-Martin, Vigyan, Analytical Services, Dynacs, and RIACS.

  3. A Method for Integrating Thrust-Vectoring and Actuated Forebody Strakes with Conventional Aerodynamic Controls on a High-Performance Fighter Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lallman, Frederick J.; Davidson, John B.; Murphy, Patrick C.

    1998-01-01

    A method, called pseudo controls, of integrating several airplane controls to achieve cooperative operation is presented. The method eliminates conflicting control motions, minimizes the number of feedback control gains, and reduces the complication of feedback gain schedules. The method is applied to the lateral/directional controls of a modified high-performance airplane. The airplane has a conventional set of aerodynamic controls, an experimental set of thrust-vectoring controls, and an experimental set of actuated forebody strakes. The experimental controls give the airplane additional control power for enhanced stability and maneuvering capabilities while flying over an expanded envelope, especially at high angles of attack. The flight controls are scheduled to generate independent body-axis control moments. These control moments are coordinated to produce stability-axis angular accelerations. Inertial coupling moments are compensated. Thrust-vectoring controls are engaged according to their effectiveness relative to that of the aerodynamic controls. Vane-relief logic removes steady and slowly varying commands from the thrust-vectoring controls to alleviate heating of the thrust turning devices. The actuated forebody strakes are engaged at high angles of attack. This report presents the forward-loop elements of a flight control system that positions the flight controls according to the desired stability-axis accelerations. This report does not include the generation of the required angular acceleration commands by means of pilot controls or the feedback of sensed airplane motions.

  4. Aerodynamic Limits on Large Civil Tiltrotor Sizing and Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, C W.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Large Civil Tiltrotor (2nd generation, or LCTR2) is a useful reference design for technology impact studies. The present paper takes a broad view of technology assessment by examining the extremes of what aerodynamic improvements might hope to accomplish. Performance was analyzed with aerodynamically idealized rotor, wing, and airframe, representing the physical limits of a large tiltrotor. The analysis was repeated with more realistic assumptions, which revealed that increased maximum rotor lift capability is potentially more effective in improving overall vehicle efficiency than higher rotor or wing efficiency. To balance these purely theoretical studies, some practical limitations on airframe layout are also discussed, along with their implications for wing design. Performance of a less efficient but more practical aircraft with non-tilting nacelles is presented.

  5. Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, V. L.; Ballhaus, W. F., Jr.; Bailey, F. R.

    1983-01-01

    The history of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Program, which is designed to provide a leading-edge capability to computational aerodynamicists, is traced back to its origin in 1975. Factors motivating its development and examples of solutions to successively refined forms of the governing equations are presented. The NAS Processing System Network and each of its eight subsystems are described in terms of function and initial performance goals. A proposed usage allocation policy is discussed and some initial problems being readied for solution on the NAS system are identified.

  6. Classical Aerodynamic Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T. (Compiler)

    1979-01-01

    A collection of papers on modern theoretical aerodynamics is presented. Included are theories of incompressible potential flow and research on the aerodynamic forces on wing and wing sections of aircraft and on airship hulls.

  7. Supersonic aerodynamic trade data for a low-profile monoplanar missile concept. [air launched maneuvering missile design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, E. B.; Robins, A. W.

    1979-01-01

    A monoplanar missile concept has been studied which shows promise of improving the aerodynamic performance of air-launched missiles. This missile concept has a constant eccentricity elliptical cross-section body. Since current guidance and propulsion technologies influence missile nose and base shapes, an experimental investigation has been conducted at Mach number 2.50 to determine the effects of variations in these shapes on the missile aerodynamics. Results of these tests are presented.

  8. NASA aerodynamics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Louis J.; Hessenius, Kristin A.; Corsiglia, Victor R.; Hicks, Gary; Richardson, Pamela F.; Unger, George; Neumann, Benjamin; Moss, Jim

    1992-01-01

    The annual accomplishments is reviewed for the Aerodynamics Division during FY 1991. The program includes both fundamental and applied research directed at the full spectrum of aerospace vehicles, from rotorcraft to planetary entry probes. A comprehensive review is presented of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications; CFD validation; transition and turbulence physics; numerical aerodynamic simulation; test techniques and instrumentation; configuration aerodynamics; aeroacoustics; aerothermodynamics; hypersonics; subsonics; fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.

  9. Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology

    DOEpatents

    Dahlgran, J.R.

    1999-08-17

    Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation uses encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration. 1 fig.

  10. Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology

    DOEpatents

    Dahlgran, James R.

    1999-01-01

    Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation using encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration.

  11. NASA aerodynamics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Schairer, Edward; Hicks, Gary; Wander, Stephen; Blankson, Isiaiah; Rose, Raymond; Olson, Lawrence; Unger, George

    1990-01-01

    Presented here is a comprehensive review of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation, transition and turbulence physics, numerical aerodynamic simulation, drag reduction, test techniques and instrumentation, configuration aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, aerothermodynamics, hypersonics, subsonic transport/commuter aviation, fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.

  12. Performance and loads data from a hover test of a full-scale advanced technology XV-15 rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felker, Fort F.; Young, Larry A.; Signor, David B.

    1986-01-01

    A hover test of a full-scale, composite, advanced technology XV-15 rotor was conducted at the Outdoor Aerodynamic Research Facility at Ames Research Center. The primary objective of the test was to obtain accurate measurements of the hover performance of this rotor system. Data were acquired for rotor tip Mach numbers ranging from 0.35 to 0.73. The rotor was tested with several alternate blade root and blade-tip configurations. Data are presented on rotor performance, rotor-wake downwash velocities, and rotor system loads.

  13. Aerodynamic drag on intermodal railcars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinghorn, Philip; Maynes, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    The aerodynamic drag associated with transport of commodities by rail is becoming increasingly important as the cost of diesel fuel increases. This study aims to increase the efficiency of intermodal cargo trains by reducing the aerodynamic drag on the load carrying cars. For intermodal railcars a significant amount of aerodynamic drag is a result of the large distance between loads that often occurs and the resulting pressure drag resulting from the separated flow. In the present study aerodynamic drag data have been obtained through wind tunnel testing on 1/29 scale models to understand the savings that may be realized by judicious modification to the size of the intermodal containers. The experiments were performed in the BYU low speed wind tunnel and the test track utilizes two leading locomotives followed by a set of five articulated well cars with double stacked containers. The drag on a representative mid-train car is measured using an isolated load cell balance and the wind tunnel speed is varied from 20 to 100 mph. We characterize the effect that the gap distance between the containers and the container size has on the aerodynamic drag of this representative rail car and investigate methods to reduce the gap distance.

  14. Sharp Hypervelocity Aerodynamic Research Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Jeffrey; Kolodziej, Paul; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this flight demonstration is to deploy a slender-body hypervelocity aerodynamic research probe (SHARP) from an orbiting platform using a tether, deorbit and fly it along its aerothermal performance constraint, and recover it intact in mid-air. To accomplish this objective, two flight demonstrations are proposed. The first flight uses a blunt-body, tethered reentry experiment vehicle (TREV) to prove out tethered deployment technology for accurate entries, a complete SHARP electronics suite, and a new soft mid-air helicopter recovery technique. The second flight takes advantage of this launch and recovery capability to demonstrate revolutionary sharp body concepts for hypervelocity vehicles, enabled by new Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs) recently developed by Ames Research Center. Successful demonstration of sharp body hypersonic vehicle technologies could have radical impact on space flight capabilities, including: enabling global reentry cross range capability from Station, eliminating reentry communications blackout, and allowing new highly efficient launch systems incorporating air breathing propulsion and zeroth staging.

  15. Performance Evaluation of Emerging High Performance Computing Technologies using WRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, G. B.; Morton, D.

    2008-12-01

    The Arctic Region Supercomputing Center (ARSC) has evaluated multicore processors and other emerging processor technologies for a variety of high performance computing applications in the earth and space sciences, especially climate and weather applications. A flagship effort has been to assess dual core processor nodes on ARSC's Midnight supercomputer, in which two-socket systems were compared to eight-socket systems. Midnight is utilized for ARSC's twice-daily weather research and forecasting (WRF) model runs, available at weather.arsc.edu. Among other findings on Midnight, it was found that the Hypertransport system for interconnecting Opteron processors, memory, and other subsystems does not scale as well on eight-socket (sixteen processor) systems as well as two-socket (four processor) systems. A fundamental limitation is the cache snooping operation performed whenever a computational thread accesses main memory. This increases memory latency as the number of processor sockets increases. This is particularly noticeable on applications such as WRF that are primarily CPU-bound, versus applications that are bound by input/output or communication. The new Cray XT5 supercomputer at ARSC features quad core processors, and will host a variety of scaling experiments for WRF, CCSM4, and other models. Early results will be presented, including a series of WRF runs for Alaska with grid resolutions under 2km. ARSC will discuss a set of standardized test cases for the Alaska domain, similar to existing test cases for CONUS. These test cases will provide different configuration sizes and resolutions, suitable for single processors up to thousands. Beyond multi-core Opteron-based supercomputers, ARSC has examined WRF and other applications on additional emerging technologies. One such technology is the graphics processing unit, or GPU. The 9800-series nVidia GPU was evaluated with the cuBLAS software library. While in-socket GPUs might be forthcoming in the future, current

  16. Distributed Aerodynamic Sensing and Processing Toolbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Martin; Jutte, Christine; Mangalam, Arun

    2011-01-01

    A Distributed Aerodynamic Sensing and Processing (DASP) toolbox was designed and fabricated for flight test applications with an Aerostructures Test Wing (ATW) mounted under the fuselage of an F-15B on the Flight Test Fixture (FTF). DASP monitors and processes the aerodynamics with the structural dynamics using nonintrusive, surface-mounted, hot-film sensing. This aerodynamic measurement tool benefits programs devoted to static/dynamic load alleviation, body freedom flutter suppression, buffet control, improvement of aerodynamic efficiency through cruise control, supersonic wave drag reduction through shock control, etc. This DASP toolbox measures local and global unsteady aerodynamic load distribution with distributed sensing. It determines correlation between aerodynamic observables (aero forces) and structural dynamics, and allows control authority increase through aeroelastic shaping and active flow control. It offers improvements in flutter suppression and, in particular, body freedom flutter suppression, as well as aerodynamic performance of wings for increased range/endurance of manned/ unmanned flight vehicles. Other improvements include inlet performance with closed-loop active flow control, and development and validation of advanced analytical and computational tools for unsteady aerodynamics.

  17. Aerodynamic design via control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, Antony

    1988-01-01

    The question of how to modify aerodynamic design in order to improve performance is addressed. Representative examples are given to demonstrate the computational feasibility of using control theory for such a purpose. An introduction and historical survey of the subject is included.

  18. Space IRU's of diverse technologies and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Clifford O.; Kumar, Shri A.

    The Dynamically Tuned Gyro (DTG) has displaced the floated, single-degree-of-freedom gyro as the gyro of choice in new U.S. three-axis-stabilized spacecraft during the last decade. The Space-Qualified Kearfott Inertial Reference Unit (SKIRU), which contains DTG's, has evolved through several configurations as required by the applications. This technology has been extended to low cost, moderate performance requirements by the use of the CONEX(R) DTG through adapting missile Inertial Reference Units (IRU's) for space, or by using the new Two-Axis Reference Assembly (TARA). Now, IRU's based upon Kearfott's three-axis Monolithic Ring Units (IRU's) based upon Kearfott's three-axis Monolithic Ring Laser Gyro (MRLG), are being miniaturized for space applications requiring low weight.

  19. Performance of the SDHCAL technological prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, G.

    2016-07-01

    The SDHCAL technological prototype is a 1 × 1 × 1.3 m3 high-granularity Semi-Digital Hadronic CALorimeter using Glass Resistive Plate Chambers as sensitive medium. It is one of the two HCAL options considered by the ILD Collaboration to be proposed for the detector of the future International Linear Collider project. The prototype is made of up to 50 GRPC detectors of 1 m2 size and 3 mm thickness each with an embedded semi-digital electronics readout that is autotriggering and power-pulsed. The GRPC readout is finely segmented into pads of 1 cm2. This proceeding describes the prototype, its operation and its performance in energy reconstruction. Aspects of the GRPC readout modelling and comparisons with simulations are also presented.

  20. Aerodynamic challenges of ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooks, I.; Homan, D.; Romere, P. O.

    1985-01-01

    The approach and landing test (ALT) of the Space Shuttle Orbiter presented a number of unique challenges in the area of aerodynamics. The purpose of the ALT program was both to confirm the use of the Boeing 747 as a transport vehicle for ferrying the Orbiter across the country and to demonstrate the flight characteristics of the Orbiter in its approach and landing phase. Concerns for structural fatigue and performance dictated a tailcone be attached to the Orbiter for ferry and for the initial landing tests. The Orbiter with a tailcone attached presented additional challenges to the normal aft sting concept of wind tunnel testing. The landing tests required that the Orbiter be separated from the 747 at approximately 20,000 feet using aerodynamic forces to fly the vehicles apart. The concept required a complex test program to determine the relative effects of the two vehicles on each other. Also of concern, and tested, was the vortex wake created by the 747 and the means for the Orbiter to avoid it following separation.

  1. A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Integrated Hypersonic Aerodynamics, Thermal Protection Systems, and RBCC Engine Performance for Single Stage to Orbit Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Thomas Troy; Alexander, Reginald; Landrum, Brian

    2000-01-01

    engine model. HYFIM performs the aerodynamic analysis of forebodies and inlet characteristics of RBCC powered SSTO launch vehicles. HYFIM is applicable to the analysis of the ramjet/scramjet engine operations modes (Mach 3-12), and provides estimates of parameters such as air capture area, shock-on-lip Mach number, design Mach number, compression ratio, etc., based on a basic geometry routine for modeling axisymmetric cones, 2-D wedge geometries. HYFIM also estimates the variation of shock layer properties normal to the forebody surface. The thermal protection system (TPS) is directly linked to determination of the vehicle moldline and the shaping of the trajectory. Thermal protection systems to maintain the structural integrity of the vehicle must be able to mitigate the heat transfer to the structure and be lightweight. Herein lies the interdependency, in that as the vehicle's speed increases, the TPS requirements are increased. And as TPS masses increase the effect on the propulsion system and all other systems is compounded. The need to analyze vehicle forebody and engine inlet is critical to be able to design the RBCC vehicle. To adequately determine insulation masses for an RBCC vehicle, the hypersonic aerodynamic environment and aeroheating loads must be calculated and the TPS thicknesses must be calculated for the entire vehicle. To accomplish this an ascent or reentry trajectory is obtained using the computer code Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST). The trajectory is then used to calculate the convective heat rates on several locations on the vehicles using the Miniature Version of the JA70 Aerodynamic Heating Computer Program (MINIVER). Once the heat rates are defined for each body point on the vehicle, then insulation thicknesses that are required to maintain the vehicle within structural limits are calculated using Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA) models. If the TPS masses are too heavy for the performance of the vehicle

  2. Assessment of advanced technologies for high performance single-engine business airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohlman, D. L.; Holmes, B. J.

    1982-01-01

    The prospects for significantly increasing the fuel efficiency and mission capability of single engine business aircraft through the incorporation of advanced propulsion, aerodynamics and materials technologies are explored. It is found that turbine engines cannot match the fuel economy of the heavier rotary, diesel and advanced spark reciprocating engines. The rotary engine yields the lightest and smallest aircraft for a given mission requirement, and also offers greater simplicity and a multifuel capability. Great promise is also seen in the use of composite material primary structures in conjunction with laminar flow wing surfaces, a pusher propeller and conventional wing-tail configuration. This study was conducted with the General Aviation Synthesis Program, which can furnish the most accurate mission performance calculations yet obtained.

  3. Switchable and Tunable Aerodynamic Drag on Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttag, Mark; Lopez Jimenez, Francisco; Reis, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    We report results on the performance of Smart Morphable Surfaces (Smporhs) that can be mounted onto cylindrical structures to actively reduce their aerodynamic drag. Our system comprises of an elastomeric thin shell with a series of carefully designed subsurface cavities that, once depressurized, lead to a dramatic deformation of the surface topography, on demand. Our design is inspired by the morphology of the giant cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) which possesses an array of axial grooves, which are thought to help reduce aerodynamic drag, thereby enhancing the structural robustness of the plant under wind loading. We perform systematic wind tunnel tests on cylinders covered with our Smorphs and characterize their aerodynamic performance. The switchable and tunable nature of our system offers substantial advantages for aerodynamic performance when compared to static topographies, due to their operation over a wider range of flow conditions.

  4. Switchable and Tunable Aerodynamic Drag on Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttag, Mark; Lopéz Jiménez, Francisco; Upadhyaya, Priyank; Kumar, Shanmugam; Reis, Pedro

    We report results on the performance of Smart Morphable Surfaces (Smporhs) that can be mounted onto cylindrical structures to actively reduce their aerodynamic drag. Our system comprises of an elastomeric thin shell with a series of carefully designed subsurface cavities that, once depressurized, lead to a dramatic deformation of the surface topography, on demand. Our design is inspired by the morphology of the giant cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) which possesses an array of axial grooves, thought to help reduce aerodynamic drag, thereby enhancing the structural robustness of the plant under wind loading. We perform systematic wind tunnel tests on cylinders covered with our Smorphs and characterize their aerodynamic performance. The switchable and tunable nature of our system offers substantial advantages for aerodynamic performance when compared to static topographies, due to their operation over a wider range of flow conditions.

  5. Rotorcraft Technology for HALE Aeroelastic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry; Johnson, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Much of technology needed for analysis of HALE nonlinear aeroelastic problems is available from rotorcraft methodologies. Consequence of similarities in operating environment and aerodynamic surface configuration. Technology available - theory developed, validated by comparison with test data, incorporated into rotorcraft codes. High subsonic to transonic rotor speed, low to moderate Reynolds number. Structural and aerodynamic models for high aspect-ratio wings and propeller blades. Dynamic and aerodynamic interaction of wing/airframe and propellers. Large deflections, arbitrary planform. Steady state flight, maneuvers and response to turbulence. Linearized state space models. This technology has not been extensively applied to HALE configurations. Correlation with measured HALE performance and behavior required before can rely on tools.

  6. Production Well Performance Enhancement using Sonication Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Adewumi, Michael A; Ityokumbul, M Thaddeus; Watson, Robert W; Eltohami, Eltohami; Farias, Mario; Heckman, Glenn; Houlihan, Brendan; Karoor, Samata Prakash; Miller, Bruce G; Mohammed, Nazia; Olanrewaju, Johnson; Ozdemir, Mine; Rejepov, Dautmamed; Sadegh, Abdallah A; Quammie, Kevin E; Zaghloul, Jose; Hughes, W Jack; Montgomery, Thomas C

    2005-12-31

    The objective of this project was to develop a sonic well performance enhancement technology that focused on near wellbore formation damage. In order to successfully achieve this objective, a three-year project was defined. The entire project was broken into four tasks. The overall objective of all this was to foster a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in sonic energy interactions with fluid flow in porous media and adapt such knowledge for field applications. The fours tasks are: • Laboratory studies • Mathematical modeling • Sonic tool design and development • Field demonstration The project was designed to be completed in three years; however, due to budget cuts, support was only provided for the first year, and hence the full objective of the project could not be accomplished. This report summarizes what was accomplished with the support provided by the US Department of Energy. Experiments performed focused on determining the inception of cavitation, studying thermal dissipation under cavitation conditions, investigating sonic energy interactions with glass beads and oil, and studying the effects of sonication on crude oil properties. Our findings show that the voltage threshold for onset of cavitation is independent of transducer-hydrophone separation distance. In addition, thermal dissipation under cavitation conditions contributed to the mobilization of deposited paraffins and waxes. Our preliminary laboratory experiments suggest that waxes are mobilized when the fluid temperature approaches 40°C. Experiments were conducted that provided insights into the interactions between sonic wave and the fluid contained in the porous media. Most of these studies were carried out in a slim-tube apparatus. A numerical model was developed for simulating the effect of sonication in the nearwellbore region. The numerical model developed was validated using a number of standard testbed problems. However, actual application of the model for scale

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: CREDIBLE PERFORMANCE DATA FOR TECHNOLOGY USERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper summarizes accomplishments of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program, discusses lessons learned during the pilot period, briefly notes the restructuring of the pilot programs into six centers beginning in late 2000, and discusses in detail the Air Pol...

  8. Effect of Flow Rate on In Vitro Aerodynamic Performance of NEXThaler® in Comparison with Diskus® and Turbohaler® Dry Powder Inhalers

    PubMed Central

    Buttini, Francesca; Brambilla, Gaetano; Copelli, Diego; Sisti, Viviana; Balducci, Anna Giulia; Bettini, Ruggero; Pasquali, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: European and United States Pharmacopoeia compendial procedures for assessing the in vitro emitted dose and aerodynamic size distribution of a dry powder inhaler require that 4.0 L of air at a pressure drop of 4 kPa be drawn through the inhaler. However, the product performance should be investigated using conditions more representative of what is achievable by the patient population. This work compares the delivered dose and the drug deposition profile at different flow rates (30, 40, 60, and 90 L/min) of Foster NEXThaler® (beclomethasone dipropionate/formoterol fumarate), Seretide® Diskus® (fluticasone propionate/salmeterol xinafoate), and Symbicort® Turbohaler® (budesonide/formoterol fumarate). Methods: The delivered dose uniformity was tested using a dose unit sampling apparatus (DUSA) at inhalation volumes either 2.0 or 4.0 L and flow rates 30, 40, 60, or 90 L/min. The aerodynamic assessment was carried out using a Next Generation Impactor by discharging each inhaler at 30, 40, 60, or 90 L/min for a time sufficient to obtain an air volume of 4 L. Results: Foster® NEXThaler® and Seretide® Diskus® showed a consistent dose delivery for both the drugs included in the formulation, independently of the applied flow rate. Contrary, Symbicort® Turbohaler® showed a high decrease of the emitted dose for both budesonide and formoterol fumarate when the device was operated at airflow rate lower that 60 L/min. The aerosolizing performance of NEXThaler® and Diskus® was unaffected by the flow rate applied. Turbohaler® proved to be the inhaler most sensitive to changes in flow rate in terms of fine particle fraction (FPF) for both components. Among the combinations tested, Foster NEXThaler® was the only one capable to deliver around 50% of extra-fine particles relative to delivered dose. Conclusions: NEXThaler® and Diskus® were substantially unaffected by flow rate through the inhaler in terms of both delivered dose and

  9. Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    An overview of historical and current numerical aerodynamic simulation (NAS) is given. The capabilities and goals of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility are outlined. Emphasis is given to numerical flow visualization and its applications to structural analysis of aircraft and spacecraft bodies. The uses of NAS in computational chemistry, engine design, and galactic evolution are mentioned.

  10. Uncertainty in Computational Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckring, J. M.; Hemsch, M. J.; Morrison, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    An approach is presented to treat computational aerodynamics as a process, subject to the fundamental quality assurance principles of process control and process improvement. We consider several aspects affecting uncertainty for the computational aerodynamic process and present a set of stages to determine the level of management required to meet risk assumptions desired by the customer of the predictions.

  11. Computation of dragonfly aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafson, Karl; Leben, Robert

    1991-04-01

    Dragonflies are seen to hover and dart, seemingly at will and in remarkably nimble fashion, with great bursts of speed and effectively discontinuous changes of direction. In their short lives, their gossamer flight provides us with glimpses of an aerodynamics of almost extraterrestrial quality. Here we present the first computer simulations of such aerodynamics.

  12. Experimental research in aerodynamic control with electric and electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, E. M.; Lu, F. K.; Wilson, D. R.

    2009-01-01

    Fifty years ago, publications began to discuss the possibilities of electromagnetic flow control (EMFC) to improve aerodynamic performance. This led to an era of research that focused on coupling the fundamentals of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) with propulsion, control, and power generation systems. Unfortunately, very few designs made it past an exploratory phase as, among other issues, power consumption was unreasonably high. Recent proposed advancements in technology like the MARIAH hypersonic wind tunnel and the AJAX scramjet engine concepts have led to a new phase of MHD research in the aerospace industry, with many interdisciplinary applications. Compared with propulsion systems and channel flow accelerators, EMFC concepts applied to control surface aerodynamics have not seen the same level of advancement that may eventually produce a device that can be integrated with an aircraft or missile. The purpose of this paper is to review the overall feasibility of the different electric and EMFC concepts. Emphasis is placed on EMFC with high voltage ionization sources and experimental work.

  13. Model-Scale Aerodynamic Performance Testing of Proposed Modifications to the NASA Langley Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Earl R., Jr.; Coston, Calvin W., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Tests were performed on a 1/20th-scale model of the Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel to determine the performance effects of insertion of acoustic baffles in the tunnel inlet, replacement of the existing collector with a new collector design in the open jet test section, and addition of flow splitters to the acoustic baffle section downstream of the test section. As expected, the inlet baffles caused a reduction in facility performance. About half of the performance loss was recovered by addition the flow splitters to the downstream baffles. All collectors tested reduced facility performance. However, test chamber recirculation flow was reduced by the new collector designs and shielding of some of the microphones was reduced owing to the smaller size of the new collector. Overall performance loss in the facility is expected to be a 5 percent top flow speed reduction, but the facility will meet OSHA limits for external noise levels and recirculation in the test section will be reduced.

  14. Communication Network Patterns and Employee Performance with New Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papa, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between employee performance, new technology, employee communication network variables (activity, size, diversity, and integrativeness), and productivity at two corporate offices. Reports significant positive relationships between three of the network variables and employee productivity with new technology. Discusses…

  15. Aerodynamic Performance and Static Stability at Mach Number 3.3 of an Aircraft Configuration Employing Three Triangular Wing Panels and a Body Equal Length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Carlton S.

    1960-01-01

    An aircraft configuration, previously conceived as a means to achieve favorable aerodynamic stability characteristics., high lift-drag ratio, and low heating rates at high supersonic speeds., was modified in an attempt to increase further the lift-drag ratio without adversely affecting the other desirable characteristics. The original configuration consisted of three identical triangular wing panels symmetrically disposed about an ogive-cylinder body equal in length to the root chord of the panels. This configuration was modified by altering the angular disposition of the wing panels, by reducing the area of the panel forming the vertical fin, and by reshaping the body to produce interference lift. Six-component force and moment tests of the modified configuration at combined angles of attack and sideslip were made at a Mach number of 3.3 and a Reynolds number of 5.46 million. A maximum lift-drag ratio of 6.65 (excluding base drag) was measured at a lift coefficient of 0.100 and an angle of attack of 3.60. The lift-drag ratio remained greater than 3 up to lift coefficient of 0.35. Performance estimates, which predicted a maximum lift-drag ratio for the modified configuration 27 percent greater than that of the original configuration, agreed well with experiment. The modified configuration exhibited favorable static stability characteristics within the test range. Longitudinal and directional centers of pressure were slightly aft of the respective centroids of projected plan-form and side area.

  16. Wind Tunnel Results of the Aerodynamic Performance of a 1/8-Scale Model of a Twin-Engine Transport with Multi-Element Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laflin, Brenda E. Gile; Applin, Zachary T.; Jones, Kenneth M.

    1997-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was performed in the 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel on a pressure instrumented 1/8-scale twin-engine subsonic transport to better understand the flow physics on a multi-element wing section. The wing consisted of a part-span, triple-slotted trailing edge flap, inboard leading-edge Krueger flap and an outboard leading-edge slat. The model was instrumented with flush pressure ports at the fuselage centerline and seven spanwise wing locations. The model was tested in cruise, take-off and landing configurations at dynamic pressures and Mach numbers from 10 lbf/ft(exp 2) to 50 lbf/ft(exp 2) and 0.08 to 0.17, respectively. This resulted in corresponding Reynolds numbers of 0.8 x 10(exp 5) to 1.8 x 10(exp 6). Pressure data were collected using electronically scanned pressure devices and force and moment data were collected with a six component strain gauge balance. Results are presented for various control surface deflections over an angle-of-attack range from -4 degrees to 16 degrees and sideslip angle range from -10 degrees to 10 degrees. Longitudinal and lateral directional aerodynamic data are presented as well as chordwise pressure distributions at the seven spanwise wing locations and the fuselage centerline.

  17. Acoustic and aerodynamic performance of a variable-pitch 1.83-meter-(6-ft) diameter 1.20-pressure-ratio fan stage (QF-9)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, F. W.; Woodward, R. P.; Lucas, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Far field noise data and related aerodynamic performance are presented for a variable pitch fan stage having characteristics suitable for low noise, STOL engine application. However, no acoustic suppression material was used in the flow passages. The fan was externally driven by an electric motor. Tests were made at several forward thrust rotor blade pitch angles and one for reverse thrust. Fan speed was varied from 60 to 120 percent of takeoff (design) speed, and exhaust nozzles having areas 92 to 105 percent of design were tested. The fan noise level was at a minimum at the design rotor blade pitch angles of 64 deg for takeoff thrust and at 57 deg for approach (50 percent takeoff thrust). Perceived noise along a 152.4-m sideline reached 100.1 PNdb for the takeoff (design) configuration for a stage pressure ratio of 1.17 and thrust of 57,600 N. For reverse thrust the PNL values were 4 to 5 PNdb above the takeoff values at comparable fan speeds.

  18. Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator Ground Test Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Corso, Jospeh A.; Hughes, Stephen; Cheatwood, Neil; Johnson, Keith; Calomino, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) technology readiness levels have been incrementally matured by NASA over the last thirteen years, with most recent support from NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Game Changing Development Program (GCDP). Recently STMD GCDP has authorized funding and support through fiscal year 2015 (FY15) for continued HIAD ground developments which support a Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) study. The Mars study will assess the viability of various EDL architectures to enable a Mars human architecture pathfinder mission planned for mid-2020. At its conclusion in November 2014, NASA's first HIAD ground development effort had demonstrated success with fabricating a 50 W/cm2 modular thermal protection system, a 400 C capable inflatable structure, a 10-meter scale aeroshell manufacturing capability, together with calibrated thermal and structural models. Despite the unquestionable success of the first HIAD ground development effort, it was recognized that additional investment was needed in order to realize the full potential of the HIAD technology capability to enable future flight opportunities. The second HIAD ground development effort will focus on extending performance capability in key technology areas that include thermal protection system, lifting-body structures, inflation systems, flight control, stage transitions, and 15-meter aeroshell scalability. This paper presents an overview of the accomplishments under the baseline HIAD development effort and current plans for a follow-on development effort focused on extending those critical technologies needed to enable a Mars Pathfinder mission.

  19. X-34 Vehicle Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brauckmann, Gregory J.

    1998-01-01

    The X-34, being designed and built by the Orbital Sciences Corporation, is an unmanned sub-orbital vehicle designed to be used as a flying test bed to demonstrate key vehicle and operational technologies applicable to future reusable launch vehicles. The X-34 will be air-launched from an L-1011 carrier aircraft at approximately Mach 0.7 and 38,000 feet altitude, where an onboard engine will accelerate the vehicle to speeds above Mach 7 and altitudes to 250,000 feet. An unpowered entry will follow, including an autonomous landing. The X-34 will demonstrate the ability to fly through inclement weather, land horizontally at a designated site, and have a rapid turn-around capability. A series of wind tunnel tests on scaled models was conducted in four facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the X-34. Analysis of these test results revealed that longitudinal trim could be achieved throughout the design trajectory. The maximum elevon deflection required to trim was only half of that available, leaving a margin for gust alleviation and aerodynamic coefficient uncertainty. Directional control can be achieved aerodynamically except at combined high Mach numbers and high angles of attack, where reaction control jets must be used. The X-34 landing speed, between 184 and 206 knots, is within the capabilities of the gear and tires, and the vehicle has sufficient rudder authority to control the required 30-knot crosswind.

  20. Performance and test section flow characteristics of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zell, Peter T.; Flack, Karen

    1989-01-01

    Results from the performance and test section flow calibration of the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel are presented. A flow calibration test was conducted in May and June 1987. The goal of the flow calibration test was to determine detailed spatial variations in the 40- by 80-ft test section flow quality throughout the tunnel operational envelope. Data were collected for test section speeds up to 300 knots and for air exchange rates of 0, 5, and 10 percent. The tunnel performance was also calibrated during the detailed mapping of the test section flow field. Experimental results presented indicate that the flow quality in the test section, with the exception of temperature, is relatively insensitive to the level of dynamic pressure and the air exchange rate. The dynamic pressure variation in the test section is within + or - 0.5 deg at all test section velocities. Cross-stream temperature gradients in the test section caused by the air exchange system were documented, and a correction method was established. Streamwise static pressure variation on the centerline is about 1 percent of test section dynamic pressure over 30 ft of the test section length.

  1. Performance and test section flow characteristics of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zell, Peter T.

    1993-01-01

    Results from the performance and test section flow calibration of the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel are presented. Measurements indicating the 80- by 120-ft test section flow quality were obtained throughout the tunnel operational envelope and for atmospheric wind speeds up to approximately 20 knots. Tunnel performance characteristics and a dynamic pressure system calibration were also documented during the process of mapping the test section flow field. Experimental results indicate that the test section flow quality is relatively insensitive to dynamic pressure and the level of atmospheric winds experienced during the calibration. The dynamic pressure variation in the test section is within +/-75 percent of the average. The axial turbulence intensity is less than 0.5 percent up to the maximum test section speed of 100 knots, and the vertical and lateral flow angle variations are within +/-5 deg and +/-7 deg, respectively. Atmospheric winds were found to affect the pressure distribution in the test section only at high ratios of wind speed to test section speed.

  2. Aerodynamic Characterization of a Modern Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Robert M.; Holland, Scott D.; Blevins, John A.

    2011-01-01

    A modern launch vehicle is by necessity an extremely integrated design. The accurate characterization of its aerodynamic characteristics is essential to determine design loads, to design flight control laws, and to establish performance. The NASA Ares Aerodynamics Panel has been responsible for technical planning, execution, and vetting of the aerodynamic characterization of the Ares I vehicle. An aerodynamics team supporting the Panel consists of wind tunnel engineers, computational engineers, database engineers, and other analysts that address topics such as uncertainty quantification. The team resides at three NASA centers: Langley Research Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Ames Research Center. The Panel has developed strategies to synergistically combine both the wind tunnel efforts and the computational efforts with the goal of validating the computations. Selected examples highlight key flow physics and, where possible, the fidelity of the comparisons between wind tunnel results and the computations. Lessons learned summarize what has been gleaned during the project and can be useful for other vehicle development projects.

  3. Viking entry aerodynamics and heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polutchko, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of the Mars entry including the mission sequence of events and associated spacecraft weights are described along with the Viking spacecraft. Test data are presented for the aerodynamic characteristics of the entry vehicle showing trimmed alpha, drag coefficient, and trimmed lift to drag ratio versus Mach number; the damping characteristics of the entry configuration; the angle of attack time history of Viking entries; stagnation heating and pressure time histories; and the aeroshell heating distribution as obtained in tests run in a shock tunnel for various gases. Flight tests which demonstrate the aerodynamic separation of the full-scale aeroshell and the flying qualities of the entry configuration in an uncontrolled mode are documented. Design values selected for the heat protection system based on the test data and analysis performed are presented.

  4. Perceptual and Communicative Indices of Employee Performance with New Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papa, Michael J.; Papa, Wendy H.

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between employee performance with new technology and perceptual and communication factors. Finds strong correlational evidence that three aspects of employees' perceptions of a new technology's attributes and two types of messages affect their productivity levels with that technology. (MG)

  5. Managing Technological Change by Changing Performance Appraisal to Performance Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquardt, Steve

    1996-01-01

    Academic libraries can improve their management of change by reshaping performance appraisal into performance planning. This article notes problems with traditional employee evaluation as well as benefits of alternatives that focus on the future, on users, on planning and learning, and on skills needed to address problems and enhance individual…

  6. Simplified dragonfly airfoil aerodynamics at Reynolds numbers below 8000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, David-Elie; Seifert, Avraham

    2009-07-01

    Effective aerodynamics at Reynolds numbers lower than 10 000 is of great technological interest and a fundamental scientific challenge. The current study covers a Reynolds number range of 2000-8000. At these Reynolds numbers, natural insect flight could provide inspiration for technology development. Insect wings are commonly characterized by corrugated airfoils. In particular, the airfoil of the dragonfly, which is able to glide, can be used for two-dimensional aerodynamic study of fixed rigid wings. In this study, a simplified dragonfly airfoil is numerically analyzed in a steady free-stream flow. The aerodynamic performance (such as mean and fluctuating lift and drag), are first compared to a "traditional" low Reynolds number airfoil: the Eppler-E61. The numerical results demonstrate superior performances of the corrugated airfoil. A series of low-speed wind and water tunnel experiments were performed on the corrugated airfoil, to validate the numerical results. The findings indicate quantitative agreement with the mean wake velocity profiles and shedding frequencies while validating the two dimensionality of the flow. A flow physics numerical study was performed in order to understand the underlying mechanism of corrugated airfoils at these Reynolds numbers. Airfoil shapes based on the flow field characteristics of the corrugated airfoil were built and analyzed. Their performances were compared to those of the corrugated airfoil, stressing the advantages of the latter. It was found that the flow which separates from the corrugations and forms spanwise vortices intermittently reattaches to the aft-upper arc region of the airfoil. This mechanism is responsible for the relatively low intensity of the vortices in the airfoil wake, reducing the drag and increasing the flight performances of this kind of corrugated airfoil as compared to traditional low Reynolds number airfoils such as the Eppler E-61.

  7. Aerodynamic performance of 0.4066-scale model of JT8D refan stage with S-duct inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. D.; Kovich, G.; Lewis, G. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A scale model of the JT8D refan stage was tested with a scale model of the S-duct inlet design for the refanned Boeing 727 center engine. Detailed survey data of pressures, temperatures, and flow angles were obtained over a range of flows at speeds from 70 to 97 percent of design speed. Two S-duct configurations were tested; one with a bellmouth inlet and the other with a flight lip inlet. The results indicated that the overall performance was essentially unaffected by the distortion generated by the S-duct inlet. The stall weight flow increased by less than 0.5 kg/sec (approximately 1.5% of design flow) with the S-duct inlet compared with that obtained with uniform flow. The detailed measurements indicated that the inlet guide vane (IGV) significantly reduced circumferential variations. For example, the flow angles ahead of the IGV were positive in the right half of the inlet and negative in the left half. Behind the IGV, the flow angles tended to be more uniform circumferentially.

  8. Computational Study of the Impact of Unsteadiness on the Aerodynamic Performance of a Variable- Speed Power Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Gerard E.

    2012-01-01

    The design-point and off-design performance of an embedded 1.5-stage portion of a variable-speed power turbine (VSPT) was assessed using Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) analyses with mixing-planes and sector-periodic, unsteady RANS analyses. The VSPT provides one means by which to effect the nearly 50 percent main-rotor speed change required for the NASA Large Civil Tilt-Rotor (LCTR) application. The change in VSPT shaft-speed during the LCTR mission results in blade-row incidence angle changes of as high as 55 . Negative incidence levels of this magnitude at takeoff operation give rise to a vortical flow structure in the pressure-side cove of a high-turn rotor that transports low-momentum flow toward the casing endwall. The intent of the effort was to assess the impact of unsteadiness of blade-row interaction on the time-mean flow and, specifically, to identify potential departure from the predicted trend of efficiency with shaft-speed change of meanline and 3-D RANS/mixing-plane analyses used for design.

  9. Computational Assessment of the Aerodynamic Performance of a Variable-Speed Power Turbine for Large Civil Tilt-Rotor Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Gerard E.

    2011-01-01

    The main rotors of the NASA Large Civil Tilt-Rotor notional vehicle operate over a wide speed-range, from 100% at take-off to 54% at cruise. The variable-speed power turbine offers one approach by which to effect this speed variation. Key aero-challenges include high work factors at cruise and wide (40 to 60 deg.) incidence variations in blade and vane rows over the speed range. The turbine design approach must optimize cruise efficiency and minimize off-design penalties at take-off. The accuracy of the off-design incidence loss model is therefore critical to the turbine design. In this effort, 3-D computational analyses are used to assess the variation of turbine efficiency with speed change. The conceptual design of a 4-stage variable-speed power turbine for the Large Civil Tilt-Rotor application is first established at the meanline level. The design of 2-D airfoil sections and resulting 3-D blade and vane rows is documented. Three-dimensional Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes computations are used to assess the design and off-design performance of an embedded 1.5-stage portion-Rotor 1, Stator 2, and Rotor 2-of the turbine. The 3-D computational results yield the same efficiency versus speed trends predicted by meanline analyses, supporting the design choice to execute the turbine design at the cruise operating speed.

  10. Aerodynamic Design Using Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, Man Mohan; Madavan, Nateri K.

    2003-01-01

    The design of aerodynamic components of aircraft, such as wings or engines, involves a process of obtaining the most optimal component shape that can deliver the desired level of component performance, subject to various constraints, e.g., total weight or cost, that the component must satisfy. Aerodynamic design can thus be formulated as an optimization problem that involves the minimization of an objective function subject to constraints. A new aerodynamic design optimization procedure based on neural networks and response surface methodology (RSM) incorporates the advantages of both traditional RSM and neural networks. The procedure uses a strategy, denoted parameter-based partitioning of the design space, to construct a sequence of response surfaces based on both neural networks and polynomial fits to traverse the design space in search of the optimal solution. Some desirable characteristics of the new design optimization procedure include the ability to handle a variety of design objectives, easily impose constraints, and incorporate design guidelines and rules of thumb. It provides an infrastructure for variable fidelity analysis and reduces the cost of computation by using less-expensive, lower fidelity simulations in the early stages of the design evolution. The initial or starting design can be far from optimal. The procedure is easy and economical to use in large-dimensional design space and can be used to perform design tradeoff studies rapidly. Designs involving multiple disciplines can also be optimized. Some practical applications of the design procedure that have demonstrated some of its capabilities include the inverse design of an optimal turbine airfoil starting from a generic shape and the redesign of transonic turbines to improve their unsteady aerodynamic characteristics.

  11. Preliminary Aerodynamic Investigation of Fan Rotor Blade Morphing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Various new technologies currently under development may enable controlled blade shape variability, or so-called blade morphing, to be practically employed in aircraft engine fans and compressors in the foreseeable future. The current study is a relatively brief, preliminary computational fluid dynamics investigation aimed at partially demonstrating and quantifying the aerodynamic potential of fan rotor blade morphing. The investigation is intended to provide information useful for near-term planning, as well as aerodynamic solution data sets that can be subsequently analyzed using advanced acoustic diagnostic tools, for the purpose of making fan noise comparisons. Two existing fan system models serve as baselines for the investigation: the Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan with a design tip speed of 806 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.294, and the Source Diagnostic Test fan with a design tip speed of 1215 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.470. Both are 22-in. sub-scale, low-noise research fan/nacelle models that have undergone extensive experimental testing in the 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The study, restricted to fan rotor blade morphing only, involves a fairly simple blade morphing technique. Specifically, spanwise-linear variations in rotor blade-section setting angle are applied to alter the blade shape; that is, the blade is linearly retwisted from hub to tip. Aerodynamic performance comparisons are made between morphed-blade and corresponding baseline configurations on the basis of equal fan system thrust, where rotor rotational speed for the morphed-blade fan is varied to change the thrust level for that configuration. The results of the investigation confirm that rotor blade morphing could be a useful technology, with the potential to enable significant improvements in fan aerodynamic performance. Even though the study is very limited in scope and confined to simple geometric perturbations of two existing fan

  12. Integrated aerodynamic/structural design of a sailplane wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, B.; Gurdal, Z.; Haftka, R. T.; Strauch, G. J.; Eppard, W. M.

    1986-01-01

    Using lifting-line theory and beam analysis, the geometry (planiform and twist) and composite material structural sizes (skin thickness, spar cap, and web thickness) were designed for a sailplane wing, subject to both structural and aerodynamic constraints. For all elements, the integrated design (simultaneously designing the aerodynamics and the structure) was superior in terms of performance and weight to the sequential design (where the aerodynamic geometry is designed to maximize the performance, following which a structural/aeroelastic design minimizes the weight). Integrated designs produced less rigid, higher aspect ratio wings with favorable aerodynamic/structural interactions.

  13. Aerodynamic Lifting Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltner, Klaus

    1990-01-01

    Describes some experiments showing both qualitatively and quantitatively that aerodynamic lift is a reaction force. Demonstrates reaction forces caused by the acceleration of an airstream and the deflection of an airstream. Provides pictures of demonstration apparatus and mathematical expressions. (YP)

  14. PERFORMANCE VERIFICATION OF ANIMAL WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES THROUGH EPA'S ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency created the Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to further environmental protection by accelerating the commercialization of new and innovative technology through independent performance verification and dissemination of in...

  15. THIRD PARTY TECHNOLOGY PERFORMANCE VERIFICATION DATA FROM A STAKEHOLD-DRIVEN TECHNOLOGY TESTING PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Technology Verification Center is one of 12 independently operated verification centers established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The Center provides third-party performance data to stakeholders interested in environmetnal technologies tha...

  16. Aerodynamic Shutoff Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horstman, Raymond H.

    1992-01-01

    Aerodynamic flow achieved by adding fixed fairings to butterfly valve. When valve fully open, fairings align with butterfly and reduce wake. Butterfly free to turn, so valve can be closed, while fairings remain fixed. Design reduces turbulence in flow of air in internal suction system. Valve aids in development of improved porous-surface boundary-layer control system to reduce aerodynamic drag. Applications primarily aerospace. System adapted to boundary-layer control on high-speed land vehicles.

  17. Aerodynamic Design Study of an Advanced Active Twist Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekula, Martin K.; Wilbur, Matthew L.; Yeager, William T., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    An Advanced Active Twist Rotor (AATR) is currently being developed by the U.S. Army Vehicle Technology Directorate at NASA Langley Research Center. As a part of this effort, an analytical study was conducted to determine the impact of blade geometry on active-twist performance and, based on those findings, propose a candidate aerodynamic design for the AATR. The process began by creating a baseline design which combined the dynamic design of the original Active Twist Rotor and the aerodynamic design of a high lift rotor concept. The baseline model was used to conduct a series of parametric studies to examine the effect of linear blade twist and blade tip sweep, droop, and taper on active-twist performance. Rotor power requirements and hub vibration were also examined at flight conditions ranging from hover to advance ratio = 0.40. A total of 108 candidate designs were analyzed using the second-generation version of the Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD II) code. The study concluded that the vibration reduction capabilities of a rotor utilizing controlled, strain-induced twisting are enhanced through the incorporation of blade tip sweep, droop, and taper into the blade design, while they are degraded by increasing the nose-down linear blade twist. Based on the analysis of rotor power, hub vibration, and active-twist response, a candidate aerodynamic design for the AATR consisting of a blade with approximately 10 degrees of linear blade twist and a blade tip design with 30 degree sweep, 10 degree droop, and 2.5:1 taper ratio over the outer five percent of the blade is proposed.

  18. Wind Tunnel Aerodynamic Tests of Six Airfoils for Use on Small Wind Turbines; Period of Performance: October 31, 2002--January 31, 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Selig, M. S.; McGranahan, B. D.

    2004-10-01

    Wind Tunnel Aerodynamic Tests of Six Airfoils for Use on Small Wind Turbinesrepresents the fourth installment in a series of volumes documenting the ongoing work of th University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Low-Speed Airfoil Tests Program. This particular volume deals with airfoils that are candidates for use on small wind turbines, which operate at low Reynolds numbers.

  19. Aerodynamics of Wiffle Balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utvich, Alexis; Jemmott, Colin; Logan, Sheldon; Rossmann, Jenn

    2003-11-01

    A team of undergraduate students has performed experiments on Wiffle balls in the Harvey Mudd College wind tunnel facility. Wiffle balls are of particular interest because they can attain a curved trajectory with little or no pitcher-imparted spin. The reasons behind this have not previously been quantified formally. A strain gauge device was designed and constructed to measure the lift and drag forces on the Wiffle ball; a second device to measure lift and drag on a spinning ball was also developed. Experiments were conducted over a range of Reynolds numbers corresponding to speeds of roughly 0-40 mph. Lift forces of up to 0.2 N were measured for a Wiffle ball at 40 mph. This is believed to be due to air flowing into the holes on the Wiffle ball in addition to the effect of the holes on external boundary layer separation. A fog-based flow visualization system was developed in order to provide a deeper qualitative understanding of what occurred in the flowfield surrounding the ball. The data and observations obtained in this study support existing assumptions about Wiffle ball aerodynamics and begin to elucidate the mechanisms involved in Wiffle ball flight.

  20. The aerodynamics of propellers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wald, Quentin R.

    2006-02-01

    The theory and the design of propellers of minimum induced loss is treated. The pioneer analysis of this problem was presented more than half a century ago by Theodorsen, but obscurities in his treatment and inaccuracies and limited coverage in his tables of the Goldstein circulation function for helicoidal vortex sheets have not been remedied until the present work which clarifies and extends his work. The inverse problem, the prediction of the performance of a given propeller of arbitrary form, is also treated. The theory of propellers of minimum energy loss is dependent on considerations of a regular helicoidal trailing vortex sheet; consequently, a more detailed discussion of the dynamics of vortex sheets and the consequences of their instability and roll up is presented than is usually found in treatments of propeller aerodynamics. Complete and accurate tables of the circulation function are presented. Interference effects between a fuselage or a nacelle and the propeller are considered. The regimes of propeller, vortex ring, and windmill operation are characterized.

  1. Instrumentation Development for Large Scale Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Gregory T.; Cassell, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) technology is currently being considered for multiple atmospheric entry applications as the limitations of traditional entry vehicles have been reached. The Inflatable Re-entry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE) has successfully demonstrated this technology as a viable candidate with a 3.0 m diameter vehicle sub-orbital flight. To further this technology, large scale HIADs (6.0 8.5 m) must be developed and tested. To characterize the performance of large scale HIAD technology new instrumentation concepts must be developed to accommodate the flexible nature inflatable aeroshell. Many of the concepts that are under consideration for the HIAD FY12 subsonic wind tunnel test series are discussed below.

  2. Sensitivity of transport aircraft performance and economics to advanced technology and cruise Mach number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1974-01-01

    Sensitivity data for advanced technology transports has been systematically collected. This data has been generated in two separate studies. In the first of these, three nominal, or base point, vehicles designed to cruise at Mach numbers .85, .93, and .98, respectively, were defined. The effects on performance and economics of perturbations to basic parameters in the areas of structures, aerodynamics, and propulsion were then determined. In all cases, aircraft were sized to meet the same payload and range as the nominals. This sensitivity data may be used to assess the relative effects of technology changes. The second study was an assessment of the effect of cruise Mach number. Three families of aircraft were investigated in the Mach number range 0.70 to 0.98: straight wing aircraft from 0.70 to 0.80; sweptwing, non-area ruled aircraft from 0.80 to 0.95; and area ruled aircraft from 0.90 to 0.98. At each Mach number, the values of wing loading, aspect ratio, and bypass ratio which resulted in minimum gross takeoff weight were used. As part of the Mach number study, an assessment of the effect of increased fuel costs was made.

  3. Atmospheric tests of trailing-edge aerodynamic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L S; Huang, S; Quandt, G A

    1998-01-01

    An experiment was conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s (NREL`s) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) using an instrumented horizontal-axis wind turbine that incorporated variable-span, trailing-edge aerodynamic brakes. The goal of the investigation was to directly compare results with (infinite-span) wind tunnel data and to provide information on how to account for device span effects during turbine design or analysis. Comprehensive measurements were used to define effective changes in the aerodynamic and hinge-moment coefficients, as a function of angle of attack and control deflection, for three device spans (7.5%, 15%, and 22.5%) and configurations (Spoiler-Flap, vented sileron, and unvented aileron). Differences in the lift and drag behavior are most pronounced near stall and for device spans of less than 15%. Drag performance is affected only minimally (about a 30% reduction from infinite-span) for 15% or larger span devices. Interestingly, aerodynamic controls with vents or openings appear most affected by span reductions and three-dimensional flow.

  4. Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter description report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, M.C.; Morrison, J.L.; Morneau, R.A.; Rudin, M.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1992-05-01

    A formal methodology has been developed for identifying technology gaps and assessing innovative or postulated technologies for inclusion in proposed Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) remediation systems. Called the Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter, the methodology provides a formalized selection process where technologies and systems are rated and assessments made based on performance measures, and regulatory and technical requirements. The results are auditable, and can be validated with field data. This analysis methodology will be applied to the remedial action of transuranic contaminated waste pits and trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL).

  5. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) Under-The-Wing (UTW) engine composite nacelle test report. Volume 1: Summary, aerodynamic and mechanical performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The performance test results of the final under-the-wing engine configuration are presented. One hundred and six hours of engine operation were completed, including mechanical and performance checkout, baseline acoustic testing with a bellmouth inlet, reverse thrust testing, acoustic technology tests, and limited controls testing. The engine includes a variable pitch fan having advanced composite fan blades and using a ball-spline pitch actuation system.

  6. Aerodynamic Influence Coefficient Computations Using Euler/Navier-Stokes Equations on Parallel Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byun, Chansup; Farhangnia, Mehrdad; Bhatia, Kumar; Guruswamy, Guru; VanDalsem, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Modem design requirements for an aircraft push current technologies used in the design process to their limit or sometimes require more advanced technologies to meet the requirement. New design requirements always demand to improve the operational performance. Accurate prediction of aerodynamic coefficients is essential to improve the performance. For example, in the design of an advanced subsonic civil transport, since the fluid flow at transonic regime shows strong nonlinearities, high fidelity equations, such as the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations predict flow characteristics more accurately than the linear aerodynamics, which are widely used in the current design process However, high fidelity flow equations are computationally expensive and require an order of magnitude longer time to obtain aerodynamic coefficients required in the design. Parallel computing is one possibility to cut down the computational turn-around time in using high fidelity equations so that high fidelity equations would be incorporated into the design process. By doing so, high fidelity equations would be used in the routine design process. This work will demonstrate the feasibility of using high fidelity flow equations in a design process by computing aerodynamic influence coefficients of a wing-body-empennage configuration on a multiple-instruction, multiple-data parallel computer.

  7. Unsteady aerodynamics and flow control for flapping wing flyers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Steven; Nassef, Hany; Pornsinsirirak, Nick; Tai, Yu-Chong; Ho, Chih-Ming

    2003-11-01

    The creation of micro air vehicles (MAVs) of the same general sizes and weight as natural fliers has spawned renewed interest in flapping wing flight. With a wingspan of approximately 15 cm and a flight speed of a few meters per second, MAVs experience the same low Reynolds number (10 4-10 5) flight conditions as their biological counterparts. In this flow regime, rigid fixed wings drop dramatically in aerodynamic performance while flexible flapping wings gain efficacy and are the preferred propulsion method for small natural fliers. Researchers have long realized that steady-state aerodynamics does not properly capture the physical phenomena or forces present in flapping flight at this scale. Hence, unsteady flow mechanisms must dominate this regime. Furthermore, due to the low flight speeds, any disturbance such as gusts or wind will dramatically change the aerodynamic conditions around the MAV. In response, a suitable feedback control system and actuation technology must be developed so that the wing can maintain its aerodynamic efficiency in this extremely dynamic situation; one where the unsteady separated flow field and wing structure are tightly coupled and interact nonlinearly. For instance, birds and bats control their flexible wings with muscle tissue to successfully deal with rapid changes in the flow environment. Drawing from their example, perhaps MAVs can use lightweight actuators in conjunction with adaptive feedback control to shape the wing and achieve active flow control. This article first reviews the scaling laws and unsteady flow regime constraining both biological and man-made fliers. Then a summary of vortex dominated unsteady aerodynamics follows. Next, aeroelastic coupling and its effect on lift and thrust are discussed. Afterwards, flow control strategies found in nature and devised by man to deal with separated flows are examined. Recent work is also presented in using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) actuators and angular speed

  8. Lytro camera technology: theory, algorithms, performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Todor; Yu, Zhan; Lumsdaine, Andrew; Goma, Sergio

    2013-03-01

    The Lytro camera is the first implementation of a plenoptic camera for the consumer market. We consider it a successful example of the miniaturization aided by the increase in computational power characterizing mobile computational photography. The plenoptic camera approach to radiance capture uses a microlens array as an imaging system focused on the focal plane of the main camera lens. This paper analyzes the performance of Lytro camera from a system level perspective, considering the Lytro camera as a black box, and uses our interpretation of Lytro image data saved by the camera. We present our findings based on our interpretation of Lytro camera file structure, image calibration and image rendering; in this context, artifacts and final image resolution are discussed.

  9. Future Challenges and Opportunities in Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Ajay; Hefner, Jerry N.

    2000-01-01

    Investments in aeronautics research and technology have declined substantially over the last decade, in part due to the perception that technologies required in aircraft design are fairly mature and readily available. This perception is being driven by the fact that aircraft configurations, particularly the transport aircraft, have evolved only incrementally, over last several decades. If however, one considers that the growth in air travel is expected to triple in the next 20 years, it becomes quickly obvious that the evolutionary development of technologies is not going to meet the increased demands for safety, environmental compatibility, capacity, and economic viability. Instead, breakthrough technologies will he required both in traditional disciplines of aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, materials, controls, and avionics as well as in the multidisciplinary integration of these technologies into the design of future aerospace vehicles concepts. The paper discusses challenges and opportunities in the field of aerodynamics over the next decade. Future technology advancements in aerodynamics will hinge on our ability, to understand, model, and control complex, three-dimensional, unsteady viscous flow across the speed range. This understanding is critical for developing innovative flow and noise control technologies and advanced design tools that will revolutionize future aerospace vehicle systems and concepts. Specifically, the paper focuses on advanced vehicle concepts, flow and noise control technologies, and advanced design and analysis tools.

  10. Aerodynamic Simulation of Ice Accretion on Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Bragg, Michael B.; Busch, Greg T.; Montreuil, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    This report describes recent improvements in aerodynamic scaling and simulation of ice accretion on airfoils. Ice accretions were classified into four types on the basis of aerodynamic effects: roughness, horn, streamwise, and spanwise ridge. The NASA Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) was used to generate ice accretions within these four types using both subscale and full-scale models. Large-scale, pressurized windtunnel testing was performed using a 72-in.- (1.83-m-) chord, NACA 23012 airfoil model with high-fidelity, three-dimensional castings of the IRT ice accretions. Performance data were recorded over Reynolds numbers from 4.5 x 10(exp 6) to 15.9 x 10(exp 6) and Mach numbers from 0.10 to 0.28. Lower fidelity ice-accretion simulation methods were developed and tested on an 18-in.- (0.46-m-) chord NACA 23012 airfoil model in a small-scale wind tunnel at a lower Reynolds number. The aerodynamic accuracy of the lower fidelity, subscale ice simulations was validated against the full-scale results for a factor of 4 reduction in model scale and a factor of 8 reduction in Reynolds number. This research has defined the level of geometric fidelity required for artificial ice shapes to yield aerodynamic performance results to within a known level of uncertainty and has culminated in a proposed methodology for subscale iced-airfoil aerodynamic simulation.

  11. Applying Human Performance Technology While Staying out of Trouble.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Edward W.

    2003-01-01

    Human performance technology is a collection of techniques for evaluating and designing human performance systems. It isn't a philosophy, a moral imperative, or a way of life. When technologists promote as more than what it is, they jeopardize their credibility and distort their own roles as performance engineers. (Author)

  12. Numerical Study of Steady and Unsteady Canard-Wing-Body Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eugene, L. Tu

    1996-01-01

    The use of canards in advanced aircraft for control and improved aerodynamic performance is a topic of continued interest and research. In addition to providing maneuver control and trim, the influence of canards on wing aerodynamics can often result in increased maximum lift and decreased trim drag. In many canard-configured aircraft, the main benefits of canards are realized during maneuver or other dynamic conditions. Therefore, the detailed study and understanding of canards requires the accurate prediction of the non-linear unsteady aerodynamics of such configurations. For close-coupled canards, the unsteady aerodynamic performance associated with the canard-wing interaction is of particular interest. The presence of a canard in close proximity to the wing results in a highly coupled canard-wing aerodynamic flowfield which can include downwash/upwash effects, vortex-vortex interactions and vortex-surface interactions. For unsteady conditions, these complexities of the canard-wing flowfield are further increased. The development and integration of advanced computational technologies provide for the time-accurate Navier-Stokes simulations of the steady and unsteady canard-wing-body flox,fields. Simulation, are performed for non-linear flight regimes at transonic Mach numbers and for a wide range of angles of attack. For the static configurations, the effects of canard positioning and fixed deflection angles on aerodynamic performance and canard-wing vortex interaction are considered. For non-static configurations, the analyses of the canard-wing body flowfield includes the unsteady aerodynamics associated with pitch-up ramp and pitch oscillatory motions of the entire geometry. The unsteady flowfield associated with moving canards which are typically used as primary control surfaces are considered as well. The steady and unsteady effects of the canard on surface pressure integrated forces and moments, and canard-wing vortex interaction are presented in detail

  13. Technology Subcultures and Indicators Associated with High Technology Performance in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Nancy

    2000-01-01

    This statewide study identified an association between the relative integration of instructional technology departments and information services departments with indicators of high technology performance in school districts. Discusses cultural integration between the two subcultures of information services and instructional technology, types of…

  14. Tactical missile aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemsch, Michael J. (Editor); Nielsen, Jack N. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The present conference on tactical missile aerodynamics discusses autopilot-related aerodynamic design considerations, flow visualization methods' role in the study of high angle-of-attack aerodynamics, low aspect ratio wing behavior at high angle-of-attack, supersonic airbreathing propulsion system inlet design, missile bodies with noncircular cross section and bank-to-turn maneuvering capabilities, 'waverider' supersonic cruise missile concepts and design methods, asymmetric vortex sheding phenomena from bodies-of-revolution, and swept shock wave/boundary layer interaction phenomena. Also discussed are the assessment of aerodynamic drag in tactical missiles, the analysis of supersonic missile aerodynamic heating, the 'equivalent angle-of-attack' concept for engineering analysis, the vortex cloud model for body vortex shedding and tracking, paneling methods with vorticity effects and corrections for nonlinear compressibility, the application of supersonic full potential method to missile bodies, Euler space marching methods for missiles, three-dimensional missile boundary layers, and an analysis of exhaust plumes and their interaction with missile airframes.

  15. Advances in the application of information technology to sport performance.

    PubMed

    Liebermann, Dario G; Katz, Larry; Hughes, Mike D; Bartlett, Roger M; McClements, Jim; Franks, Ian M

    2002-10-01

    This paper overviews the diverse information technologies that are used to provide athletes with relevant feedback. Examples taken from various sports are used to illustrate selected applications of technology-based feedback. Several feedback systems are discussed, including vision, audition and proprioception. Each technology described here is based on the assumption that feedback would eventually enhance skill acquisition and sport performance and, as such, its usefulness to athletes and coaches in training is critically evaluated. PMID:12363293

  16. Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Tidball, Rick; Bluestein, Joel; Rodriguez, Nick; Knoke, Stu

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this project was to compare and contrast utility scale power plant characteristics used in data sets that support energy market models. Characteristics include both technology cost and technology performance projections to the year 2050. Cost parameters include installed capital costs and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Performance parameters include plant size, heat rate, capacity factor or availability factor, and plant lifetime. Conventional, renewable, and emerging electricity generating technologies were considered. Six data sets, each associated with a different model, were selected. Two of the data sets represent modeled results, not direct model inputs. These two data sets include cost and performance improvements that result from increased deployment as well as resulting capacity factors estimated from particular model runs; other data sets represent model input data. For the technologies contained in each data set, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) was also evaluated, according to published cost, performance, and fuel assumptions.

  17. A Case Study on Advanced Technology: Understanding the Impact of Advanced Technology on Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jill Sellars

    2010-01-01

    While research has focused on the effect of technology on student performance, it is not yet known how advanced technology, such as Promethean boards influence student achievement. The purpose of this mixed-method study was to examine how Promethean boards impact academic performance of elementary school students in third and fifth grade…

  18. Applied computational aerodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Henne, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The present volume discusses the original development of the panel method, the mapping solutions and singularity distributions of linear potential schemes, the capabilities of full-potential, Euler, and Navier-Stokes schemes, the use of the grid-generation methodology in applied aerodynamics, subsonic airfoil design, inverse airfoil design for transonic applications, the divergent trailing-edge airfoil innovation in CFD, Euler and potential computational results for selected aerodynamic configurations, and the application of CFD to wing high-lift systems. Also discussed are high-lift wing modifications for an advanced-capability EA-6B aircraft, Navier-Stokes methods for internal and integrated propulsion system flow predictions, the use of zonal techniques for analysis of rotor-stator interaction, CFD applications to complex configurations, CFD applications in component aerodynamic design of the V-22, Navier-Stokes computations of a complete F-16, CFD at supersonic/hypersonic speeds, and future CFD developments.

  19. Aerodynamic design and performance testing of an advanced 30 deg swept, eight bladed propeller at Mach numbers from 0.2 to 0.85

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. M.; Menthe, R. W.; Wainauski, H. S.

    1978-01-01

    The increased emphasis on fuel conservation in the world has stimulated a series of studies of both conventional and unconventional propulsion systems for commercial aircraft. Preliminary results from these studies indicate that a fuel saving of from 15 to 28 percent may be realized by the use of an advanced high speed turboprop. The turboprop must be capable of high efficiency at Mach 0.8 above 10.68 km (35,000 ft) altitude if it is to compete with turbofan powered commercial aircraft. An advanced turboprop concept was wind tunnel tested. The model included such concepts as an aerodynamically integrated propeller/nacelle, blade sweep and power (disk) loadings approximately three times higher than conventional propeller designs. The aerodynamic design for the model is discussed. Test results are presented which indicate propeller net efficiencies near 80 percent were obtained at high disk loadings at Mach 0.8.

  20. Acoustic and aerodynamic performance of a 1.5-pressure-ratio, 1.83-meter (6 ft) diameter fan stage for turbofan engines (QF-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, R. P.; Lucas, J. G.; Balombin, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The fan was externally driven by an electric motor. Design features for low-noise generation included the elimination of inlet guide vanes, long axial spacing between the rotor and stator blade rows, and the selection of blade-vane numbers to achieve duct-mode cutoff. The fan QF-2 results were compared with those of another full-scale fan having essentially identical aerodynamic design except for nozzle geometry and the direction of rotation. The fan QF-2 aerodynamic results were also compared with those obtained from a 50.8 cm rotor-tip-diameter model of the reverse rotation fan QF-2 design. Differences in nozzle geometry other than exit area significantly affected the comparison of the results of the full-scale fans.

  1. Effect of cooling-hole geometry on aerodynamic performance of a film-cooled turbine vane tested with cold air in a two-dimensional cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline, J. F.; Stabe, R. G.; Moffitt, T. P.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of the orientation and cooling-hole size on turbine-vane aerodynamic losses was evaluated. The contribution of individual vane regions to the overall effect was also investigated. Test configurations were based upon a representative configuration having 45 spanwise rows of holes spaced about the entire vane profile. Nominal hole diameters of 0.0254 and 0.0356 cm and nominal hole orientations of 35 deg, 45 deg, and 55 deg from the local vane surface and 0 deg, 45 deg, and 90 deg from the main-stream flow direction were investigated. Flow conditions and aerodynamic losses were determined by vane-exit surveys of total pressure, static pressure, and flow angle.

  2. Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology.

    PubMed

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace. PMID:25740899

  3. Aerodynamics of thrust vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, J. B.; Lan, C. Edward

    1989-01-01

    Thrust vectoring as a means to enhance maneuverability and aerodynamic performane of a tactical aircraft is discussed. This concept usually involves the installation of a multifunction nozzle. With the nozzle, the engine thrust can be changed in direction without changing the attitude of the aircraft. Change in the direction of thrust induces a significant change in the aerodynamic forces on the aircraft. Therefore, this device can be used for lift-augmenting as well as stability and control purposes. When the thrust is deflected in the longitudinal direction, the lift force and the pitching stability can be manipulated, while the yawing stability can be controlled by directing the thrust in the lateral direction.

  4. Preliminary Assessment of Variable Speed Power Turbine Technology on Civil Tiltrotor Size and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Christopher A.; Acree, Cecil W., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    A Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR) conceptual design was developed as part of the NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation in order to establish a consistent basis for evaluating the benefits of advanced technology for large tiltrotors. The concept has since evolved into the second-generation LCTR2, designed to carry 90 passengers for 1,000 nm at 300 knots, with vertical takeoff and landing capability. This paper performs a preliminary assessment of variable-speed power turbine technology on LCTR2 sizing, while maintaining the same, advanced technology engine core. Six concepts were studied; an advanced, single-speed engine with a conventional power turbine layout (Advanced Conventional Engine, or ACE) using a multi-speed (shifting) gearbox. There were five variable-speed power turbine (VSPT) engine concepts, comprising a matrix of either three or four turbine stages, and fixed or variable guide vanes; plus a minimum weight, twostage, fixed-geometry VSPT. The ACE is the lightest engine, but requires a multi-speed (shifting) gearbox to maximize its fuel efficiency, whereas the VSPT concepts use a lighter, fixed-ratio gearbox. The NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft (NDARC) design code was used to study the trades between rotor and engine efficiency and weight. Rotor performance was determined by Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD II), and engine performance was estimated with the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). Design trades for the ACE vs. VSPT are presented in terms of vehicle gross and empty weight, propulsion system weight and mission fuel burn for the civil mission. Because of its strong effect on gearbox weight and on both rotor and engine efficiency, rotor speed was chosen as the reference design variable for comparing design trades. Major study assumptions are presented and discussed. Impressive engine power-to-weight and fuel efficiency reduced vehicle sensitivity to propulsion system choice

  5. An approach for the development of an aerodynamic-structural interaction numerical simulation for aeropropulsion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Naziar, J.; Couch, R.; Davis, M.

    1996-01-01

    Traditionally, aeropropulsion structural performance and aerodynamic performance have been designed separately and later mated together via flight testing. In today`s atmosphere of declining resources, it is imperative that more productive ways of designing and verifying aeropropulsion performance and structural interaction be made available to the aerospace industry. One method of obtaining a more productive design and evaluation capability is through the use of numerical simulations. Currently, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed a generalized fluid/structural interaction code known as ALE3D. This code is capable of characterizing fluid and structural interaction for components such as the combustor, fan/stators, inlet and/or nozzles. This code solves the 3D Euler equations and has been applied to several aeropropulsion applications such as a supersonic inlet and a combustor rupture simulation. To characterize aerodynamic-structural interaction for rotating components such as the compressor, appropriate turbomachinery simulations would need to be implemented within the ALE3D structure. The Arnold Engineering Development Center is currently developing a three-dimensional compression system code known as TEACC (Turbine Engine Analysis Compressor Code). TEACC also solves the 3D Euler equations and is intended to simulate dynamic behavior such as inlet distortion, surge or rotating stall. The technology being developed within the TEACC effort provides the necessary turbomachinery simulation for implementation into ALE3D. This paper describes a methodology to combine three-dimensional aerodynamic turbomachinery technology into the existing aerodynamic-structural interaction simulation, ALE3D to obtain the desired aerodynamic and structural integrated simulation for an aeropropulsion system.

  6. Reference values and improvement of aerodynamic drag in professional cyclists.

    PubMed

    García-López, Juan; Rodríguez-Marroyo, José Antonio; Juneau, Carl-Etienne; Peleteiro, José; Martínez, Alfredo Córdova; Villa, José Gerardo

    2008-02-01

    The aims of this study were to measure the aerodynamic drag in professional cyclists, to obtain aerodynamic drag reference values in static and effort positions, to improve the cyclists' aerodynamic drag by modifying their position and cycle equipment, and to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of these modifications. The study was performed in a wind tunnel with five professional cyclists. Four positions were assessed with a time-trial bike and one position with a standard racing bike. In all positions, aerodynamic drag and kinematic variables were recorded. The drag area for the time-trial bike was 31% higher in the effort than static position, and lower than for the standard racing bike. Changes in the cyclists' position decreased the aerodynamic drag by 14%. The aero-helmet was not favourable for all cyclists. The reliability of aerodynamic drag measures in the wind tunnel was high (r > 0.96, coefficient of variation < 2%). In conclusion, we measured and improved the aerodynamic drag in professional cyclists. Our results were better than those of other researchers who did not assess aerodynamic drag during effort at race pace and who employed different wheels. The efficiency of the aero-helmet, and the validity, reliability, and sensitivity of the wind tunnel and aerodynamic field testing were addressed. PMID:17943597

  7. Computer graphics in aerodynamic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cozzolongo, J. V.

    1984-01-01

    The use of computer graphics and its application to aerodynamic analyses on a routine basis is outlined. The mathematical modelling of the aircraft geometries and the shading technique implemented are discussed. Examples of computer graphics used to display aerodynamic flow field data and aircraft geometries are shown. A future need in computer graphics for aerodynamic analyses is addressed.

  8. The Myths and Realities of Simulations in Performance Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiagarajan, Sivasailam

    1998-01-01

    Examines misconceptions about simulations for performance technology concerning what they reflect, varieties, uses (instruction, awareness, performance assessment, team building, transfer, research, therapy), levels of fidelity, design approaches, formats (graphic models; card, race, and cyclical games; interactive fiction; production simulations;…

  9. Learning from History: Chronicling the Emergence of Human Performance Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Driscoll, Tony

    2003-01-01

    Defines human performance technology (HPT) as systems thinking applied to human resource activities, chronicles the emergence of HPT and the development of the HPT process model, and considers its use to define and implement high-performance work systems in information age organizations. (Author/LRW)

  10. Primary Sources of Cognate Research in Human Performance Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnsen, Liz V.; Huglin, Linda M.; Marker, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    This article is third in a series written to address questions regarding the need for more empirical research in the field of human performance technology (HPT) and the need to determine the future direction of HPT research. The call for more empirical research has been published in journals such as "Performance Improvement Quarterly" and…

  11. Work Organization, Technology, and Performance in Customer Service and Sales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batt, Rosemary

    1999-01-01

    Performance data on 223 customer-service and sales representatives showed that participation in self-managed teams correlated with significant improvement in service quality and 9.3% sales increase. New technology helped teams increase sales 17.4%. Total-quality management did not affect performance. Results show that group collaboration fosters…

  12. Development and performance of a large-scale, transonic turbine blade cascade facility for aerodynamic studies of merging coolant-mainstream flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sayeh, Amjad Isaaf

    1998-11-01

    A new, large scale, linear cascade facility of turbine blades has been developed for the experimental exploration of the aerodynamic aspects of film cooling technology. Primary interest is in the mixing of the ejected coolant with the mainstream, at both subsonic and supersonic mainstream Mach numbers at the cascade exit. In order to achieve a spatial resolution adequate for the exploration of details on the scale of the coolant ejection holes, the cascade dimensions were maximized, within the limitations of the air supply system. The cascade contains four blades (three passages) with 14.05 cm axial chord, 17.56 cm span and a design total turning angle of 130.6 degrees. Exit Mach numbers range from 0.6 to 1.5 and Reynolds numbers from 0.5 to 1.5 million. The air supply system capacity allows run times up to five minutes at maximum flow rates. A coolant supply system has been built to deliver mixtures of SFsb6 and air to simulate coolant/mainstream density ratios up to 2. The cascade contains several novel features. A full-perimeter bleed slot upstream of the blades is used to remove the approach boundary layer from all four walls, to improve the degree of two-dimensionality. The exit flow is bounded by two adjustable tailboards that are hinged at the trailing edges and actuated to set the exit flow direction according to the imposed pressure ratio. The boards are perforated and subjected to mass removal near the blades, to minimize the undesirable reflection of shocks and expansion waves. A probe actuator is incorporated that allows continuous positioning of probes in the exhaust stream, in both the streamwise and pitchwise directions. Diagnostic methods include extensive surface pressure taps on the approach and exhaust ducts and on the blade surfaces. The large size permitted as many as 19 taps on the trailing edge itself. Shadowgraph and schlieren are available. A three-prong wake probe has been constructed to simultaneously measure total and static pressures

  13. Aerodynamics Improve Wind Wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, V. W.

    1982-01-01

    Modifications based on aerodynamic concepts would raise efficiency of wind-wheel electric-power generator. Changes smooth airflow, to increase power output, without increasing size of wheel. Significant improvements in efficiency anticipated without any increase in size or number of moving parts and without departing from simplicity of original design.

  14. Aerodynamic performance of 0.5 meter-diameter, 337 meter-per-second tip speed, 1.5 pressure-ratio, single-stage fan designed for low noise aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelder, T. F.; Lewis, G. W., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Overall and blade-element aerodynamic performance of a 0.271-scale model of QF-1 are presented, examined, and then compared and evaluated with that from similar low noise fan stage designs. The tests cover a wide range of speeds and weight flows along with variations in stator setting angle and stator axial spacing from the rotor. At design speed with stator at design setting angle and a fixed distance between stage measuring stations, there were no significant effects of increasing the axial spacing between rotor stator from 1.0 to 3.5 rotor chords on stage overall pressure ratio, efficiency or stall margin.

  15. Summary analysis of the Gemini entry aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitnah, A. M.; Howes, D. B.

    1972-01-01

    The aerodynamic data that were derived in 1967 from the analysis of flight-generated data for the Gemini entry module are presented. These data represent the aerodynamic characteristics exhibited by the vehicle during the entry portion of Gemini 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions. For the Gemini, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions, the flight-generated lift-to-drag ratios and corresponding angles of attack are compared with the wind tunnel data. These comparisons show that the flight generated lift-to-drag ratios are consistently lower than were anticipated from the tunnel data. Numerous data uncertainties are cited that provide an insight into the problems that are related to an analysis of flight data developed from instrumentation systems, the primary functions of which are other than the evaluation of flight aerodynamic performance.

  16. Aerodynamic heated steam generating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.

    1986-08-12

    An aerodynamic heated steam generating apparatus is described which consists of: an aerodynamic heat immersion coil steam generator adapted to be located on the leading edge of an airframe of a hypersonic aircraft and being responsive to aerodynamic heating of water by a compression shock airstream to produce steam pressure; an expansion shock air-cooled condensor adapted to be located in the airframe rearward of and operatively coupled to the aerodynamic heat immersion coil steam generator to receive and condense the steam pressure; and an aerodynamic heated steam injector manifold adapted to distribute heated steam into the airstream flowing through an exterior generating channel of an air-breathing, ducted power plant.

  17. Multijunction Photovoltaic Technologies for High-Performance Concentrators

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.; Symko-Davies, M.

    2006-01-01

    Multijunction solar cells provide high-performance technology pathways leading to potentially low-cost electricity generated from concentrated sunlight. The National Center for Photovoltaics at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has funded different III-V multijunction solar cell technologies and various solar concentration approaches. Within this group of projects, III-V solar cell efficiencies of 41% are close at hand and will likely be reported in these conference proceedings. Companies with well-developed solar concentrator structures foresee installed system costs of $3/watt--half of today's costs--within the next 2 to 5 years as these high-efficiency photovoltaic technologies are incorporated into their concentrator photovoltaic systems. These technology improvements are timely as new large-scale multi-megawatt markets, appropriate for high performance PV concentrators, open around the world.

  18. Multijunction Photovoltaic Technologies for High-Performance Concentrators: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.; Symko-Davies, M.

    2006-05-01

    Multijunction solar cells provide high-performance technology pathways leading to potentially low-cost electricity generated from concentrated sunlight. The National Center for Photovoltaics at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has funded different III-V multijunction solar cell technologies and various solar concentration approaches. Within this group of projects, III-V solar cell efficiencies of 41% are close at hand and will likely be reported in these conference proceedings. Companies with well-developed solar concentrator structures foresee installed system costs of $3/watt--half of today's costs--within the next 2 to 5 years as these high-efficiency photovoltaic technologies are incorporated into their concentrator photovoltaic systems. These technology improvements are timely as new large-scale multi-megawatt markets, appropriate for high performance PV concentrators, open around the world.

  19. GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) MITIGATION AND MONITORING TECHNOLOGY PERFORMANCE: ACTIVITIES OF THE GHG TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and monitoring technology performance activities of the GHG Technology Verification Center. The Center is a public/private partnership between Southern Research Institute and the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development. It...

  20. Students' Perceptions of Teaching Technologies, Application of Technologies, and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Thomas Li-Ping; Austin, M. Jill

    2009-01-01

    This study examined business students' perceptions of four objectives (i.e., Enjoyment, Learning, Motivation, and Career Application) across five teaching technologies (i.e., Projector, PowerPoint, Video, the Internet, and Lecture), business professors' effective application of technologies, and students' academic performance. We collected data…

  1. PERFORMANCE VERIFICATION TESTING OF SOURCE WATER PROTECTION TECHNOLOGIES UNDER EPA'S ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a brief overview of EPA's ETV program established in 1995 to overcome the numerous impediments to commercialization experienced by developers of innovative environmental technologies. Among those most frequently mentioned is the lack of credible performance da...

  2. Development of selected advanced aerodynamics and active control concepts for commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, A. B.

    1984-01-01

    Work done under the Energy Efficient Transport project in the field of advanced aerodynamics and active controls is summarized. The project task selections focused on the following: the investigation of long-duct nacelle shape variation on interference drag; the investigation of the adequacy of a simple control law for the elastic modes of a wing; the development of the aerodynamic technology at cruise and low speed of high-aspect-ratio supercritical wings of high performance; and the development of winglets for a second-generation jet transport. All the tasks involved analysis and substantial wind tunnel testing. The winglet program also included flight evaluation. It is considered that the technology base has been built for the application of high-aspect-ratio supercritical wings and for the use of winglets on second-generation transports.

  3. Aerodynamics of high frequency flapping wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zheng; Roll, Jesse; Cheng, Bo; Deng, Xinyan

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the aerodynamic performance of high frequency flapping wings using a 2.5 gram robotic insect mechanism developed in our lab. The mechanism flaps up to 65Hz with a pair of man-made wing mounted with 10cm wingtip-to-wingtip span. The mean aerodynamic lift force was measured by a lever platform, and the flow velocity and vorticity were measured using a stereo DPIV system in the frontal, parasagittal, and horizontal planes. Both near field (leading edge vortex) and far field flow (induced flow) were measured with instantaneous and phase-averaged results. Systematic experiments were performed on the man-made wings, cicada and hawk moth wings due to their similar size, frequency and Reynolds number. For insect wings, we used both dry and freshly-cut wings. The aerodynamic force increase with flapping frequency and the man-made wing generates more than 4 grams of lift at 35Hz with 3 volt input. Here we present the experimental results and the major differences in their aerodynamic performances.

  4. Viscous-Inviscid Methods in Unsteady Aerodynamic Analysis of Bio-Inspired Morphing Wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhruv, Akash V.

    Flight has been one of the greatest realizations of human imagination, revolutionizing communication and transportation over the years. This has greatly influenced the growth of technology itself, enabling researchers to communicate and share their ideas more effectively, extending the human potential to create more sophisticated systems. While the end product of a sophisticated technology makes our lives easier, its development process presents an array of challenges in itself. In last decade, scientists and engineers have turned towards bio-inspiration to design more efficient and robust aerodynamic systems to enhance the ability of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to be operated in cluttered environments, where tight maneuverability and controllability are necessary. Effective use of UAVs in domestic airspace will mark the beginning of a new age in communication and transportation. The design of such complex systems necessitates the need for faster and more effective tools to perform preliminary investigations in design, thereby streamlining the design process. This thesis explores the implementation of numerical panel methods for aerodynamic analysis of bio-inspired morphing wings. Numerical panel methods have been one of the earliest forms of computational methods for aerodynamic analysis to be developed. Although the early editions of this method performed only inviscid analysis, the algorithm has matured over the years as a result of contributions made by prominent aerodynamicists. The method discussed in this thesis is influenced by recent advancements in panel methods and incorporates both viscous and inviscid analysis of multi-flap wings. The surface calculation of aerodynamic coefficients makes this method less computationally expensive than traditional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solvers available, and thus is effective when both speed and accuracy are desired. The morphing wing design, which consists of sequential feather-like flaps installed

  5. HYSHOT-2 Aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cain, T.; Owen, R.; Walton, C.

    2005-02-01

    The scramjet flight test Hyshot-2, flew on the 30 July 2002. The programme, led by the University of Queensland, had the primary objective of obtaining supersonic combustion data in flight for comparison with measurements made in shock tunnels. QinetiQ was one of the sponsors, and also provided aerodynamic data and trajectory predictions for the ballistic re-entry of the spinning sounding rocket. The unconventional missile geometry created by the nose-mounted asymmetric-scramjet in conjunction with the high angle of attack during re-entry makes the problem interesting. This paper presents the wind tunnel measurements and aerodynamic calculations used as input for the trajectory prediction. Indirect comparison is made with data obtained in the Hyshot-2 flight using a 6 degree-of-freedom trajectory simulation.

  6. Airfoil Ice-Accretion Aerodynamics Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Michael B.; Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Guffond, Didier; Montreuil, E.

    2007-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center, ONERA, and the University of Illinois are conducting a major research program whose goal is to improve our understanding of the aerodynamic scaling of ice accretions on airfoils. The program when it is completed will result in validated scaled simulation methods that produce the essential aerodynamic features of the full-scale iced-airfoil. This research will provide some of the first, high-fidelity, full-scale, iced-airfoil aerodynamic data. An initial study classified ice accretions based on their aerodynamics into four types: roughness, streamwise ice, horn ice, and spanwise-ridge ice. Subscale testing using a NACA 23012 airfoil was performed in the NASA IRT and University of Illinois wind tunnel to better understand the aerodynamics of these ice types and to test various levels of ice simulation fidelity. These studies are briefly reviewed here and have been presented in more detail in other papers. Based on these results, full-scale testing at the ONERA F1 tunnel using cast ice shapes obtained from molds taken in the IRT will provide full-scale iced airfoil data from full-scale ice accretions. Using these data as a baseline, the final step is to validate the simulation methods in scale in the Illinois wind tunnel. Computational ice accretion methods including LEWICE and ONICE have been used to guide the experiments and are briefly described and results shown. When full-scale and simulation aerodynamic results are available, these data will be used to further develop computational tools. Thus the purpose of the paper is to present an overview of the program and key results to date.

  7. Aerodynamics: The Wright Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Jennifer Hansen

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the basic principles of aerodynamics. Included in the presentation are: a few demonstrations of the principles, an explanation of the concepts of lift, drag, thrust and weight, a description of Bernoulli's principle, the concept of the airfoil (i.e., the shape of the wing) and how that effects lift, and the method of controlling an aircraft by manipulating the four forces using control surfaces.

  8. Enabling Detailed Energy Analyses via the Technology Performance Exchange: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Studer, D.; Fleming, K.; Lee, E.; Livingood, W.

    2014-08-01

    One of the key tenets to increasing adoption of energy efficiency solutions in the built environment is improving confidence in energy performance. Current industry practices make extensive use of predictive modeling, often via the use of sophisticated hourly or sub-hourly energy simulation programs, to account for site-specific parameters (e.g., climate zone, hours of operation, and space type) and arrive at a performance estimate. While such methods are highly precise, they invariably provide less than ideal accuracy due to a lack of high-quality, foundational energy performance input data. The Technology Performance Exchange was constructed to allow the transparent sharing of foundational, product-specific energy performance data, and leverages significant, external engineering efforts and a modular architecture to efficiently identify and codify the minimum information necessary to accurately predict product energy performance. This strongly-typed database resource represents a novel solution to a difficult and established problem. One of the most exciting benefits is the way in which the Technology Performance Exchange's application programming interface has been leveraged to integrate contributed foundational data into the Building Component Library. Via a series of scripts, data is automatically translated and parsed into the Building Component Library in a format that is immediately usable to the energy modeling community. This paper (1) presents a high-level overview of the project drivers and the structure of the Technology Performance Exchange; (2) offers a detailed examination of how technologies are incorporated and translated into powerful energy modeling code snippets; and (3) examines several benefits of this robust workflow.

  9. On Cup Anemometer Rotor Aerodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Pindado, Santiago; Pérez, Javier; Avila-Sanchez, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    The influence of anemometer rotor shape parameters, such as the cups' front area or their center rotation radius on the anemometer's performance was analyzed. This analysis was based on calibrations performed on two different anemometers (one based on magnet system output signal, and the other one based on an opto-electronic system output signal), tested with 21 different rotors. The results were compared to the ones resulting from classical analytical models. The results clearly showed a linear dependency of both calibration constants, the slope and the offset, on the cups' center rotation radius, the influence of the front area of the cups also being observed. The analytical model of Kondo et al. was proved to be accurate if it is based on precise data related to the aerodynamic behavior of a rotor's cup. PMID:22778638

  10. Distributed utility technology cost, performance, and environmental characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Y; Adelman, S

    1995-06-01

    Distributed Utility (DU) is an emerging concept in which modular generation and storage technologies sited near customer loads in distribution systems and specifically targeted demand-side management programs are used to supplement conventional central station generation plants to meet customer energy service needs. Research has shown that implementation of the DU concept could provide substantial benefits to utilities. This report summarizes the cost, performance, and environmental and siting characteristics of existing and emerging modular generation and storage technologies that are applicable under the DU concept. It is intended to be a practical reference guide for utility planners and engineers seeking information on DU technology options. This work was funded by the Office of Utility Technologies of the US Department of Energy.

  11. Aerodynamic Analysis of the Truss-Braced Wing Aircraft Using Vortex-Lattice Superposition Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, Eric Bi-Wen; Reynolds, Kevin Wayne; Nguyen, Nhan T.; Totah, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    aeroelasticity and flutter. These studies have sought to develop tools and methods to analyze aeroelastic effects by laying the foundation for more modern high aspect ratio wing aircraft such as the Truss-Braced Wing (TBW).1-3 Originally suggested by Northrop Grumman for the development of a long-range bomber, the idea of using truss structures to alleviate the bending moments of an ultra-high aspect ratio wing has culminated in more than a decade of work focused on understanding the aeroelastic properties and structural weight penalties due to the more aerodynamically efficient wing. The Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) Truss-Braced Wing (TBW) aircraft concept is a Boeingdeveloped N+3 aircraft configuration funded by NASA ARMD Fixed Wing Project.4, 5 The TBW aircraft concept is designed to be aerodynamically efficient by employing an aspect ratio on the order of 14, which is significantly greater than those of conventional aircraft wings. As a result, intermediate structural supports are required. The main wings The development of the TBW aircraft is supported through a collaboration between the NASA FixedWing Project, Boeing Research and Technology, and a number of other organizations. Multidisciplinary design analysis and optimization (MDAO) studies have been conducted at each stage to improve the wing aerodynamics, structural efficiency, and flight performance using advanced N+4 turbofan engines. These MDAO studies have refined the geometry of the wing and configuration layout and have involved trade studies involving minimizing induced drag with wing span, minimizing profile drag at lower Reynolds numbers, and minimizing wave drag due to the addition of the strut and brace. The chart in Fig. 2 summarizes progression of the past revisions of the TBW aircraft design at various developmental stage This paper presents an initial aerodynamic analysis of the TBW aircraft using a conceptual vortex-lattice aerodynamic tool VORLAX coupled with the aerodynamic

  12. Learning Strategies and Performance in a Technology Integrated Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debevec, Kathleen; Shih, Mei-Yau; Kashyap, Vishal

    2006-01-01

    This study examines students' use of technology for learning (accessing the course Web site to download PowerPoint slides for note taking and exam preparation) relative to more traditional learning methods (reading the textbook and taking notes in class and from the textbook) and the effect of their learning strategies on exam performance and…

  13. The Use of Technology to Improve Staff Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nepo, Kaori G.

    2010-01-01

    The on-going staff training is one of critical components for the effective programming for adolescents and adults with autism, although it is often overlooked. The available technology can be useful to improve not only productivity and organization of our daily life, but also the work performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the…

  14. Visualization and Students' Performance in Technology-Based Calculus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galindo, Enrique

    The relationship between college students' preferred mode of processing mathematical information--visual or nonvisual--and their performance in calculus classes with and without technology was investigated. Students elected one of three different versions of an introductory differential calculus course: using graphing calculators, using the…

  15. A Cross-Cultural Investigation of Human Performance Technology Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadivelu, Ramaswamy N.

    2010-01-01

    Human Performance Technology (HPT) is a field of practice that has evolved from advancements in organizational development, instructional design, strategic human resource management and cognitive psychology. As globalization and trends like outsourcing and off-shoring start to dominate the way organizations grow, HPT practitioners are managing the…

  16. SUMMARY OF NEW TECHNOLOGY WOODSTOVE IN-HOUSE PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper summarizes the in-house performance of new technology wood-stoves. se of wood as a residential heating fuel increased markedly in the U.S. during the l970s in response to an increase in fossil fuel costs. ost of the increase represented wood burned in airtight parlor st...

  17. School Reform and Restructuring: Does Performance Technology Have a Role?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrock, Sharon A.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses problems in American schools and suggests how performance technology could help with school reforms. An overview of school reform since 1983 is given, and components of recent school reform are discussed, including personnel selection; job and organization redesign, including decentralization of schools; evaluation/feedback programs for…

  18. Application of Data Collection Techniques by Human Performance Technology Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duan, Minjing

    2011-01-01

    By content-analyzing 22 published cases from a variety of professional and academic books and journals, this study examines the status quo of human performance technology (HPT) practitioners' application of five major data collection techniques in their everyday work: questionnaire, interview, focus group, observation, and document collection. The…

  19. APPLICATION, PERFORMANCE, AND COSTS OF BIOTREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A critical review of biological treatment processes for remediation of contaminated soils is presented. The focus of the review is on documented cost and performance of biological treatment technologies demonstrated at full- or
    field-scale. Some of the data were generated b...

  20. Synthesizing Soft Systems Methodology and Human Performance Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Glen; Winiecki, Donald J.

    2012-01-01

    Human performance technology (HPT), like other concepts, models, and frameworks that we use to describe the world in which we live and the way we organize ourselves to accomplish valuable activities, is built from paradigms that were fresh and relevant at the time it was conceived and from the fields of study from which it grew. However, when the…

  1. Wind energy technology program summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of the Federal Wind Energy Technology Program is to perform research that will enable the private sector to develop and utilize safe, reliable, and efficient wind energy systems. Generic research will provide the technology base and scientific understanding necessary to allow industry to develop wind energy systems competitive with conventional energy sources. The goal of the DOE wind program is to improve the basic understanding of aerodynamics and structural dynamics in order to more accurately predict wind turbine aerodynamic performance, natural resonance frequencies, and structural loads. Areas included in the research plan being developed for the next five years include: advanced fluid dynamics, aerodynamics research, structural dynamics research, and advanced components and systems research, including multimegawatt (MOD-5) development.

  2. Revisit of Energy Use and Technologies of High Performance Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Cheng; Hong, Tianzhen

    2014-03-30

    Energy consumed by buildings accounts for one third of the world?s total primary energy use. Associated with the conscious of energy savings in buildings, High Performance Buildings (HPBs) has surged across the world, with wide promotion and adoption of various performance rating and certification systems. It is valuable to look into the actual energy performance of HPBs and to understand their influencing factors. To shed some light on this topic, this paper conducted a series of portfolio analysis based on a database of 51 high performance office buildings across the world. Analyses showed that the actual site Energy Use Intensity (EUI) of the 51 buildings varied by a factor of up to 11, indicating a large scale of variation of the actual energy performance of the current HPBs. Further analysis of the correlation between EUI and climate elucidated ubiquitous phenomenon of EUI scatter throughout all climate zones, implying that the weather is not a decisive factor, although important, for the actual energy consumption of an individual building. On the building size via EUI, analysis disclosed that smaller buildings have a tendency to achieving lower energy use. Even so, the correlation is not absolute since some large buildings demonstrated low energy use while some small buildings performed opposite. Concerning the technologies, statistics indicated that the application of some technologies had correlations with some specific building size and climate characteristic. However, it was still hard to pinpoint a set of technologies which was directly correlative with a group of low EUI buildings. It is concluded that no a single factor essentially determines the actual energy performance of HPBs. To deliver energy-efficient buildings, an integrated design taking account of climate, technology, occupant behavior as well as operation and maintenance should be implemented.

  3. Identification of aerodynamic models for maneuvering aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Suei; Lan, C. Edward

    1990-01-01

    Due to the requirement of increased performance and maneuverability, the flight envelope of a modern fighter is frequently extended to the high angle-of-attack regime. Vehicles maneuvering in this regime are subjected to nonlinear aerodynamic loads. The nonlinearities are due mainly to three-dimensional separated flow and concentrated vortex flow that occur at large angles of attack. Accurate prediction of these nonlinear airloads is of great importance in the analysis of a vehicle's flight motion and in the design of its flight control system. A satisfactory evaluation of the performance envelope of the aircraft may require a large number of coupled computations, one for each change in initial conditions. To avoid the disadvantage of solving the coupled flow-field equations and aircraft's motion equations, an alternate approach is to use a mathematical modeling to describe the steady and unsteady aerodynamics for the aircraft equations of motion. Aerodynamic forces and moments acting on a rapidly maneuvering aircraft are, in general, nonlinear functions of motion variables, their time rate of change, and the history of maneuvering. A numerical method was developed to analyze the nonlinear and time-dependent aerodynamic response to establish the generalized indicial function in terms of motion variables and their time rates of change.

  4. Aerodynamics of a Cryogenic Semi-Tanker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Jason; Salari, Kambiz

    2009-11-01

    The design of a modern cryogenic semi-tanker is based primarily upon functionality with little consideration given to aerodynamic drag. As a result, these tankers have maintained the appearance of a wheeled cylinder for several decades. To reduce the fuel usage of these vehicles, this study investigates their aerodynamics. A detailed understanding of the flow field about the vehicle and its influence on aerodynamic drag is obtained by performing Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations of a full-scale tractor and cryogenic tanker-trailer operating at highway speed within a crosswind. The tanker-trailer has a length to diameter ratio of 6.3. The Reynolds number, based upon the tanker diameter, is 4.0x10^6, while the effective vehicle yaw angle is 6.1 . The flow field about the vehicle is characterized by large flow separation regions at the tanker underbody and base. In addition, the relatively large gap between the tractor and the tanker-trailer allows the free-stream flow to be entrained into the tractor-tanker gap. By mitigating these drag-producing phenomena through the use of simple geometry modifications, it may be possible to reduce the aerodynamic drag of cryogenic semi-tankers and, thereby, improve their fuel economy. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Aerodynamic analysis of an isolated vehicle wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leśniewicz, P.; Kulak, M.; Karczewski, M.

    2014-08-01

    Increasing fuel prices force the manufacturers to look into all aspects of car aerodynamics including wheels, tyres and rims in order to minimize their drag. By diminishing the aerodynamic drag of vehicle the fuel consumption will decrease, while driving safety and comfort will improve. In order to properly illustrate the impact of a rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body, precise analysis of an isolated wheel should be performed beforehand. In order to represent wheel rotation in contact with the ground, presented CFD simulations included Moving Wall boundary as well as Multiple Reference Frame should be performed. Sliding mesh approach is favoured but too costly at the moment. Global and local flow quantities obtained during simulations were compared to an experiment in order to assess the validity of the numerical model. Results of investigation illustrates dependency between type of simulation and coefficients (drag and lift). MRF approach proved to be a better solution giving result closer to experiment. Investigation of the model with contact area between the wheel and the ground helps to illustrate the impact of rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body.

  6. Aerodynamic drag in cycling: methods of assessment.

    PubMed

    Debraux, Pierre; Grappe, Frederic; Manolova, Aneliya V; Bertucci, William

    2011-09-01

    When cycling on level ground at a speed greater than 14 m/s, aerodynamic drag is the most important resistive force. About 90% of the total mechanical power output is necessary to overcome it. Aerodynamic drag is mainly affected by the effective frontal area which is the product of the projected frontal area and the coefficient of drag. The effective frontal area represents the position of the cyclist on the bicycle and the aerodynamics of the cyclist-bicycle system in this position. In order to optimise performance, estimation of these parameters is necessary. The aim of this study is to describe and comment on the methods used during the last 30 years for the evaluation of the effective frontal area and the projected frontal area in cycling, in both laboratory and actual conditions. Most of the field methods are not expensive and can be realised with few materials, providing valid results in comparison with the reference method in aerodynamics, the wind tunnel. Finally, knowledge of these parameters can be useful in practice or to create theoretical models of cycling performance. PMID:21936289

  7. A review of potential turbine technology options for improving the off-design performance of direct coal-fired gas turbines in base load service. Second topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.L.

    1988-03-01

    The January, 1988 draft topical report, entitled ``An Assessment of Off-Design Particle Control Performance on Direct Coal-Fired Gas Turbine Systems`` [Ref.1.1], identified the need to assess potential trade-offs in turbine aerodynamic and thermodynamic design which may offer improvements in the performance, operational and maintenance characteristics of open-cycle, direct coal-fired, combustion gas turbines. In this second of a series of three topical reports, an assessment of the technical options posed by the above trade-offs is presented. The assessment is based on the current status of gas turbine technology. Several industry and university experts were contacted to contribute to the study. Literature sources and theoretical considerations are used only to provide additional background and insight to the technology involved.

  8. A review of potential turbine technology options for improving the off-design performance of direct coal-fired gas turbines in base load service

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.L.

    1988-03-01

    The January, 1988 draft topical report, entitled An Assessment of Off-Design Particle Control Performance on Direct Coal-Fired Gas Turbine Systems'' (Ref.1.1), identified the need to assess potential trade-offs in turbine aerodynamic and thermodynamic design which may offer improvements in the performance, operational and maintenance characteristics of open-cycle, direct coal-fired, combustion gas turbines. In this second of a series of three topical reports, an assessment of the technical options posed by the above trade-offs is presented. The assessment is based on the current status of gas turbine technology. Several industry and university experts were contacted to contribute to the study. Literature sources and theoretical considerations are used only to provide additional background and insight to the technology involved.

  9. Turbine stage aerodynamics and heat transfer prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Lisa W.; Mcconnaughey, H. V.

    1989-01-01

    A numerical study of the aerodynamic and thermal environment associated with axial turbine stages is presented. Computations were performed using a modification of the unsteady NASA Ames viscous code, ROTOR1, and an improved version of the NASA Lewis steady inviscid cascade system MERIDL-TSONIC coupled with boundary layer codes BLAYER and STAN5. Two different turbine stages were analyzed: the first stage of the United Technologies Research Center Large Scale Rotating Rig (LSRR) and the first stage of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) high pressure fuel turbopump turbine. The time-averaged airfoil midspan pressure and heat transfer profiles were predicted for numerous thermal boundary conditions including adiabatic wall, prescribed surface temperature, and prescribed heat flux. Computed solutions are compared with each other and with experimental data in the case of the LSRR calculations. Modified ROTOR1 predictions of unsteady pressure envelopes and instantaneous contour plots are also presented for the SSME geometry. Relative merits of the two computational approaches are discussed.

  10. Aerodynamic shape optimization using control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, James

    1996-01-01

    Aerodynamic shape design has long persisted as a difficult scientific challenge due its highly nonlinear flow physics and daunting geometric complexity. However, with the emergence of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) it has become possible to make accurate predictions of flows which are not dominated by viscous effects. It is thus worthwhile to explore the extension of CFD methods for flow analysis to the treatment of aerodynamic shape design. Two new aerodynamic shape design methods are developed which combine existing CFD technology, optimal control theory, and numerical optimization techniques. Flow analysis methods for the potential flow equation and the Euler equations form the basis of the two respective design methods. In each case, optimal control theory is used to derive the adjoint differential equations, the solution of which provides the necessary gradient information to a numerical optimization method much more efficiently then by conventional finite differencing. Each technique uses a quasi-Newton numerical optimization algorithm to drive an aerodynamic objective function toward a minimum. An analytic grid perturbation method is developed to modify body fitted meshes to accommodate shape changes during the design process. Both Hicks-Henne perturbation functions and B-spline control points are explored as suitable design variables. The new methods prove to be computationally efficient and robust, and can be used for practical airfoil design including geometric and aerodynamic constraints. Objective functions are chosen to allow both inverse design to a target pressure distribution and wave drag minimization. Several design cases are presented for each method illustrating its practicality and efficiency. These include non-lifting and lifting airfoils operating at both subsonic and transonic conditions.

  11. Performance Management Practices, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Adoption and Managed Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagaari, James R. K.; Munene, John C.; Ntayi, Joseph Mpeera

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the need for managers of public universities to pay attention to performance management practices and information communication technology (ICT) adoption in order to achieve successful managed performance. Design/methodology/approach: Using a disproportionate stratified purposive approach, a…

  12. Aerodynamic research on tipvane windturbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanbussel, G. J. W.; Vanholten, T.; Vankuik, G. A. M.

    1982-09-01

    Tipvanes are small auxiliary wings mounted at the tips of windturbine blades in such a way that a diffuser effect is generated, resulting in a mass flow augmentation through the turbine disc. For predicting aerodynamic loads on the tipvane wind turbine, the acceleration potential is used and an expansion method is applied. In its simplest form, this method can essentially be classified as a lifting line approach, however, with a proper choice of the basis load distributions of the lifting line, the numerical integration of the pressurefield becomes one dimensional. the integration of the other variable can be performed analytically. The complete analytical expression for the pressure field consists of two series of basic pressure fields. One series is related to the basic load distributions over the turbineblade, and the other series to the basic load distribution over the tipvane.

  13. Modelling of Remediation Technologies at the Performance Assessment Level

    SciTech Connect

    Parton, N.J.; Paksy, A.; Eden, L.; Trivedi, D.P.

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents approaches to modelling three different remediation technologies that are designed to support site operators during their assessment of remediation options for the management of radioactively contaminated land on nuclear licensed sites in the UK. The three selected technologies were soil washing, permeable reactive barrier and in-situ stabilisation. The potential exists to represent electrokinetics in the future. These technologies were chosen because it was considered that enough information already existed for site operators to assess mature technologies such as soil dig and disposal and groundwater pump and treat. Using the software code GoldSim, the models have been designed to allow site operators to make both a reasonable scoping level assessment of the viability of treatment and understand the cost-benefits of each technology. For soil washing, a standard soil leaching technique was simulated whereby the soil is separated into fines and oversize particles, and subsequently a chemical reagent is used to strip contamination off the soil. The cost benefit of this technology in terms of capital costs for the plant and materials, operational costs and waste disposal costs can also be assessed. The permeable reactive barrier (PRB) model can represent either a continuous wall or a funnel and gate system. The model simulates the transport of contaminants through the reactive material contained in the PRB. The outputs from the model include concentration of contaminants in the groundwater flow downstream of the PRB, mass of contaminants retained by the PRB, total mass and volume of waste and the various costs associated with the PRB remediation technology. The in-situ stabilisation (ISS) model has the capability to represent remediation by the addition of reagents that immobilise contaminated soil. The model simulates the release of contaminants from the treated soil over time. Performance is evaluated by comparison of the mass of contaminants

  14. NASA aeronautics research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The technical accomplishments and research highlights of 1986 are featured, along with information on possible areas of future research. These include hypersonic, supersonic, high performance, subsonic, and rotorcraft vehicle technology. Fundamental disciplinary research areas discussed include aerodynamics, propulsion, materials and structures, information sciences and human factors, and flight systems/safety. A description of the NASA organization and facilities is given.

  15. Low Speed Aerodynamics of the X-38 CRV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komerath, N. M.; Funk, R.; Ames, R. G.; Mahalingam, R.; Matos, C.

    1998-01-01

    This project was performed in support of the engineering development of the NASA X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV)system. Wind tunnel experiments were used to visualize various aerodynamic phenomena encountered by the CRV during the final stages of descent and landing. Scale models of the CRV were used to visualize vortex structures above and below the vehicle, and in its wake, and to quantify their trajectories. The effect of flaperon deflection on these structures was studied. The structure and dynamics of the CRV's wake during the drag parachute deployment stage were measured. Regions of high vorticity were identified using surveys conducted in several planes using a vortex meter. Periodic shedding of the vortex sheets from the sides of the CRV was observed using laser sheet videography as the CRV reached high angles of attack during the quasi-steady pitch-up prior to parafoil deployment. Using spectral analysis of hot-film anemometer data, the Strouhal number of these wake fluctuations was found to be 0.14 based on the model span. Phenomena encountered in flight test during parafoil operation were captured in scale-model tests, and a video photogrammetry technique was implemented to obtain parafoil surface shapes during flight in the tunnel. Forces on the parafoil were resolved using tension gages on individual lines. The temporal evolution of the phenomenon of leading edge collapse was captured. Laser velocimetry was used to demonstrate measurement of the porosity of the parafoil surface. From these measurements, several physical explanations have been developed for phenomena observed at various stages of the X-38 development program. Quantitative measurement capabilities have also been demonstrated for continued refinement of the aerodynamic technologies employed in the X-38 project. Detailed results from these studies are given in an AIAA Paper, two slide presentations, and other material which are given on a Web-based archival resource. This is the Digital

  16. Nozzle Aerodynamic Stability During a Throat Shift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawecki, Edwin J.; Ribeiro, Gregg L.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted on the internal aerodynamic stability of a family of two-dimensional (2-D) High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) nozzle concepts. These nozzles function during takeoff as mixer-ejectors to meet acoustic requirements, and then convert to conventional high-performance convergent-divergent (CD) nozzles at cruise. The transition between takeoff mode and cruise mode results in the aerodynamic throat and the minimum cross-sectional area that controls the engine backpressure shifting location within the nozzle. The stability and steadiness of the nozzle aerodynamics during this so called throat shift process can directly affect the engine aerodynamic stability, and the mechanical design of the nozzle. The objective of the study was to determine if pressure spikes or other perturbations occurred during the throat shift process and, if so, identify the caused mechanisms for the perturbations. The two nozzle concepts modeled in the test program were the fixed chute (FC) and downstream mixer (DSM). These 2-D nozzles differ principally in that the FC has a large over-area between the forward throat and aft throat locations, while the DSM has an over-area of only about 10 percent. The conclusions were that engine mass flow and backpressure can be held constant simultaneously during nozzle throat shifts on this class of nozzles, and mode shifts can be accomplished at a constant mass flow and engine backpressure without upstream pressure perturbations.

  17. Student perceptions of secondary science: A performance technology application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, Belinda Rusnak

    The primary purpose of this study was to identify influences blocking or promoting science performance from the lived K-12 classroom experience. Human Performance Technology protocols were used to understand factors promoting or hindering science performance. The goal was to gain information from the individual students' perspective to enhance opportunities for stakeholders to improve the current state of performance in science education. Individual perspectives of 10 secondary science students were examined using grounded theory protocols. Findings include students' science learning behaviors are influenced by two major themes, environmental supports and individual learning behaviors. The three environmental support factors identified include the methods students receive instruction, students' opportunities to access informal help apart from formal instruction, and students' feelings of teacher likability. Additionally, findings include three major factors causing individual learners to generate knowledge in science. Factors reported include personalizing information to transform data into knowledge, customizing learning opportunities to maximize peak performance, and tapping motivational opportunities to persevere through complex concepts. The emergent theory postulated is that if a performance problem exists in an educational setting, then integrating student perspectives into the cause analysis opens opportunity to align interventions for influencing student performance outcomes. An adapted version of Gilbert's Behavioral Engineering Model is presented as an organizational tool to display the findings. The boundaries of this Performance Technology application do not extend to the identification, selection, design, or implementation of solutions to improved science performance. However, as stakeholders begin to understand learner perspectives then aligned decisions may be created to support learners of science in a direct, cost effective manner.

  18. Compendium of NASA Langley reports on hypersonic aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabo, Frances E.; Cary, Aubrey M.; Lawson, Shirley W.

    1987-01-01

    Reference is made to papers published by the Langley Research Center in various areas of hypersonic aerodynamics for the period 1950 to 1986. The research work was performed either in-house by the Center staff or by other personnel supported entirely or in part by grants or contracts. Abstracts have been included with the references when available. The references are listed chronologically and are grouped under the following general headings: (1) Aerodynamic Measurements - Single Shapes; (2) Aerodynamic Measurements - Configurations; (3) Aero-Heating; (4) Configuration Studies; (5) Propulsion Integration Experiment; (6) Propulsion Integration - Study; (7) Analysis Methods; (8) Test Techniques; and (9) Airframe Active Cooling Systems.

  19. Benchmarking and performance improvement at Rocky Flats Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, C.; Doyle, G.; Featherman, W.L.

    1997-03-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site has initiated a major work process improvement campaign using the tools of formalized benchmarking and streamlining. This paper provides insights into some of the process improvement activities performed at Rocky Flats from November 1995 through December 1996. It reviews the background, motivation, methodology, results, and lessons learned from this ongoing effort. The paper also presents important gains realized through process analysis and improvement including significant cost savings, productivity improvements, and an enhanced understanding of site work processes.

  20. Automated Fabrication Technologies for High Performance Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuart , M. J.; Johnston, N. J.; Dexter, H. B.; Marchello, J. M.; Grenoble, R. W.

    1998-01-01

    New fabrication technologies are being exploited for building high graphite-fiber-reinforced composite structure. Stitched fiber preforms and resin film infusion have been successfully demonstrated for large, composite wing structures. Other automatic processes being developed include automated placement of tacky, drapable epoxy towpreg, automated heated head placement of consolidated ribbon/tape, and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding. These methods have the potential to yield low cost high performance structures by fabricating composite structures to net shape out-of-autoclave.

  1. Aerodynamics of sports balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, R. D.

    Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.

  2. Aerodynamics of sports balls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.

  3. Characteristics and Performance of Existing Load Disaggregation Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Sullivan, Greg P.; Butner, Ryan S.; Hao, He; Baechler, Michael C.

    2015-04-10

    Non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM) or non-intrusive appliance load monitoring (NIALM) is an analytic approach to disaggregate building loads based on a single metering point. This advanced load monitoring and disaggregation technique has the potential to provide an alternative solution to high-priced traditional sub-metering and enable innovative approaches for energy conservation, energy efficiency, and demand response. However, since the inception of the concept in the 1980’s, evaluations of these technologies have focused on reporting performance accuracy without investigating sources of inaccuracies or fully understanding and articulating the meaning of the metrics used to quantify performance. As a result, the market for, as well as, advances in these technologies have been slowly maturing.To improve the market for these NILM technologies, there has to be confidence that the deployment will lead to benefits. In reality, every end-user and application that this technology may enable does not require the highest levels of performance accuracy to produce benefits. Also, there are other important characteristics that need to be considered, which may affect the appeal of NILM products to certain market targets (i.e. residential and commercial building consumers) and the suitability for particular applications. These characteristics include the following: 1) ease of use, the level of expertise/bandwidth required to properly use the product; 2) ease of installation, the level of expertise required to install along with hardware needs that impact product cost; and 3) ability to inform decisions and actions, whether the energy outputs received by end-users (e.g. third party applications, residential users, building operators, etc.) empower decisions and actions to be taken at time frames required for certain applications. Therefore, stakeholders, researchers, and other interested parties should be kept abreast of the evolving capabilities, uses, and characteristics

  4. Aerodynamic design using numerical optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murman, E. M.; Chapman, G. T.

    1983-01-01

    The procedure of using numerical optimization methods coupled with computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes for the development of an aerodynamic design is examined. Several approaches that replace wind tunnel tests, develop pressure distributions and derive designs, or fulfill preset design criteria are presented. The method of Aerodynamic Design by Numerical Optimization (ADNO) is described and illustrated with examples.

  5. On Wings: Aerodynamics of Eagles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millson, David

    2000-01-01

    The Aerodynamics Wing Curriculum is a high school program that combines basic physics, aerodynamics, pre-engineering, 3D visualization, computer-assisted drafting, computer-assisted manufacturing, production, reengineering, and success in a 15-hour, 3-week classroom module. (JOW)

  6. Aerodynamics of a Party Balloon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2007-01-01

    It is well-known that a party balloon can be made to fly erratically across a room, but it can also be used for quantitative measurements of other aspects of aerodynamics. Since a balloon is light and has a large surface area, even relatively weak aerodynamic forces can be readily demonstrated or measured in the classroom. Accurate measurements…

  7. Progress in reducing aerodynamic drag for higher efficiency of heavy duty trucks (class 7-8)

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M; Browand, F; Hammache, M; Heineck, J T; Leonard, A; McCallen, R; Ross, J; Rutledge, W; Salari, K; Storms, B

    1999-04-01

    This paper describes research and development for reducing the aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles by demonstrating new approaches for the numerical simulation and analysis of aerodynamic flow. In addition, greater use of newly developed computational tools holds promise for reducing the number of prototype tests, for cutting manufacturing costs, and for reducing overall time to market. Experimental verification and validation of new computational fluid dynamics methods are also an important part of this approach. Experiments on a model of an integrated tractor-trailer are underway at NASA Ames Research Center and the University of Southern California. Companion computer simulations are being performed by Sandia National Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and California Institute of Technology using state-of-the-art techniques, with the intention of implementing more complex methods in the future.

  8. Progress in Reducing Aerodynamic Drag for Higher Efficiency of Heavy Duty Trucks (Class 7-8)

    SciTech Connect

    Rose McCallen; Richard Couch; Juliana Hsu; Fred Browand; Mustapha Hammache; Anthony Leonard; Mark Brady; Kambiz Salari; Walter Rutledge; James Ross; Bruce Storms; J.T. Heineck; David Driver; James Bell; Gregory Zilliac

    1999-12-31

    This paper describes research and development for reducing the aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles by demonstrating new approaches for the numerical simulation and analysis of aerodynamic flow. In addition, greater use of newly developed computational tools holds promise for reducing the number of prototype tests, for cutting manufacturing costs, and for reducing overall time to market. Experimental verification and validation of new computational fluid dynamics methods are also an important part of this approach. Experiments on a model of an integrated tractor-trailer are underway at NASA Ames Research Center and the University of Southern California. Companion computer simulations are being performed by Sandia National Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and California Institute of Technology using state-of-the-art techniques, with the intention of implementing more complex methods in the future.

  9. Aerodynamics/ACEE: Aircraft energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An overview is presented of a 10 year program managed by NASA which seeks to make possible the most efficient use of energy for aircraft propulsion and lift as well as provide a technology that can be used by U.S. manufacturers of air transports and engines. Supercritical wings, winglets, vortex drag reduction, high lift, active control, laminar flow control, and aerodynamics by computer are among the topics discussed. Wind tunnel models in flight verification of advanced technology, and the design, construction and testing of various aircraft structures are also described.

  10. Aerodynamic Simulation of Runback Ice Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Whalen, Edward A.; Busch, Greg T.; Bragg, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the results of recent investigations into the aerodynamics of simulated runback ice accretion on airfoils. Aerodynamic tests were performed on a full-scale model using a high-fidelity, ice-casting simulation at near-flight Reynolds (Re) number. The ice-casting simulation was attached to the leading edge of a 72-in. (1828.8-mm ) chord NACA 23012 airfoil model. Aerodynamic performance tests were conducted at the ONERA F1 pressurized wind tunnel over a Reynolds number range of 4.7?10(exp 6) to 16.0?10(exp 6) and a Mach (M) number ran ge of 0.10 to 0.28. For Re = 16.0?10(exp 6) and M = 0.20, the simulated runback ice accretion on the airfoil decreased the maximum lift coe fficient from 1.82 to 1.51 and decreased the stalling angle of attack from 18.1deg to 15.0deg. The pitching-moment slope was also increased and the drag coefficient was increased by more than a factor of two. In general, the performance effects were insensitive to Reynolds numb er and Mach number changes over the range tested. Follow-on, subscale aerodynamic tests were conducted on a quarter-scale NACA 23012 model (18-in. (457.2-mm) chord) at Re = 1.8?10(exp 6) and M = 0.18, using low-fidelity, geometrically scaled simulations of the full-scale castin g. It was found that simple, two-dimensional simulations of the upper- and lower-surface runback ridges provided the best representation of the full-scale, high Reynolds number iced-airfoil aerodynamics, whereas higher-fidelity simulations resulted in larger performance degrada tions. The experimental results were used to define a new subclassification of spanwise ridge ice that distinguishes between short and tall ridges. This subclassification is based upon the flow field and resulting aerodynamic characteristics, regardless of the physical size of the ridge and the ice-accretion mechanism.

  11. Mimicking the humpback whale: An aerodynamic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aftab, S. M. A.; Razak, N. A.; Mohd Rafie, A. S.; Ahmad, K. A.

    2016-07-01

    This comprehensive review aims to provide a critical overview of the work on tubercles in the past decade. The humpback whale is of interest to aerodynamic/hydrodynamic researchers, as it performs manoeuvres that baffle the imagination. Researchers have attributed these capabilities to the presence of lumps, known as tubercles, on the leading edge of the flipper. Tubercles generate a unique flow control mechanism, offering the humpback exceptional manoeuverability. Experimental and numerical studies have shown that the flow pattern over the tubercle wing is quite different from conventional wings. Research on the Tubercle Leading Edge (TLE) concept has helped to clarify aerodynamic issues such as flow separation, tonal noise and dynamic stall. TLE shows increased lift by delaying and restricting spanwise separation. A summary of studies on different airfoils and reported improvement in performance is outlined. The major contributions and limitations of previous work are also reported.

  12. The aerodynamic challenges of SRB recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacchus, D. L.; Kross, D. A.; Moog, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    Recovery and reuse of the Space Shuttle solid rocket boosters was baselined to support the primary goal to develop a low cost space transportation system. The recovery system required for the 170,000-lb boosters was for the largest and heaviest object yet to be retrieved from exoatmospheric conditions. State-of-the-art design procedures were ground-ruled and development testing minimized to produce both a reliable and cost effective system. The ability to utilize the inherent drag of the boosters during the initial phase of reentry was a key factor in minimizing the parachute loads, size and weight. A wind tunnel test program was devised to enable the accurate prediction of booster aerodynamic characteristics. Concurrently, wind tunnel, rocket sled and air drop tests were performed to develop and verify the performance of the parachute decelerator subsystem. Aerodynamic problems encountered during the overall recovery system development and the respective solutions are emphasized.

  13. High-performance holographic technologies for fluid-dynamics experiments

    PubMed Central

    Orlov, Sergei S.; Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Oh, Se Baek; Barbastathis, George; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2010-01-01

    Modern technologies offer new opportunities for experimentalists in a variety of research areas of fluid dynamics. Improvements are now possible in the state-of-the-art in precision, dynamic range, reproducibility, motion-control accuracy, data-acquisition rate and information capacity. These improvements are required for understanding complex turbulent flows under realistic conditions, and for allowing unambiguous comparisons to be made with new theoretical approaches and large-scale numerical simulations. One of the new technologies is high-performance digital holography. State-of-the-art motion control, electronics and optical imaging allow for the realization of turbulent flows with very high Reynolds number (more than 107) on a relatively small laboratory scale, and quantification of their properties with high space–time resolutions and bandwidth. In-line digital holographic technology can provide complete three-dimensional mapping of the flow velocity and density fields at high data rates (over 1000 frames per second) over a relatively large spatial area with high spatial (1–10 μm) and temporal (better than a few nanoseconds) resolution, and can give accurate quantitative description of the fluid flows, including those of multi-phase and unsteady conditions. This technology can be applied in a variety of problems to study fundamental properties of flow–particle interactions, rotating flows, non-canonical boundary layers and Rayleigh–Taylor mixing. Some of these examples are discussed briefly. PMID:20211881

  14. Evaluation of IR technology applied to cooling tower performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacNamara, Neal A.; Zayicek, Paul A.

    1999-03-01

    Infrared thermography (IR) is widely used by electric utilities as an integral part of their predictive maintenance program. IR is utilized for inspection of a variety of plant mechanical and electrical components. Additionally, IR can be used to provide thermal performance information for other key plant systems, including assessment of cooling towers. Cooling tower performance directly affects availability and heat rate in fossil and nuclear power plants. Optimal tower performance contributes to efficient turbine operation and maximum power output. It is estimated that up to half of the cooling towers installed have failed to meet their design performance specifications. As a result, any additional degradation of tower performance resulting from fouling, valve degradation, unbalanced flow, or a poor maintenance practice has a direct effect on generation output. We have collected infrared thermography images of mechanical draft cooling towers, as part of Evaluation of IR Technology Applied to Cooling Tower Performance. IR images have been analyzed to provide information regarding general performance conditions and identification of operational deficiencies related to thermal performance. Similarly, IR can be implemented for monitoring of tower flow balance activities and for post-maintenance surveillance. To date, IR images have been used to identify areas of general flow imbalance, flooding or limited flow in individual cells, missing or broken tower fill material, fan performance and other problems related to maintenance or operational issues. Additionally, an attempt is being made to use quantitative thermal data, provided by the IR image analysis software, in conjunction with condenser input/output site ambient information, to evaluate and compare individual tower cell performance.

  15. Risk and Performance Technologies: Identifying the Keys to Successful Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    McClain, Lynn; Smith, Art; O'Regan, Patrick

    2002-07-01

    The nuclear power industry has been utilizing risk and performance based technologies for over thirty years. Applications of these technologies have included risk assessment (e.g. Individual Plant Examinations), burden reduction (e.g. Risk-Informed Inservice Inspection, RI-ISI) and risk management (Maintenance Rule, 10CFR50.65). Over the last five to ten years the number of risk-informed (RI) burden reduction initiatives has increased. Unfortunately, the efficiencies of some of these applications have been questionable. This paper investigates those attributes necessary to support successful, cost-effective RI-applications. The premise to this paper is that by understanding the key attributes that support one successful application, insights can be gleaned that will streamline/coordinate future RI-applications. This paper is an extension to a paper presented at the Pressure Vessel and Piping (PVP-2001) Conference. In that paper, a number issues and opportunities were identified that needed to be assessed in order to support future (and efficient) RI-applications. It was noted in the paper that a proper understanding and resolution of these issues will facilitate implementation of risk and performance technology in the operation, maintenance and design disciplines. In addition, it will provide the foundation necessary to support regulatory review and approval. (authors)

  16. Improvements in process performance for immersion technology high volume manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafus, K.; Shimoaoki, T.; Enomoto, M.; Shite, H.; Otsuka, T.; Kosugi, H.; Shibata, T.; Mallmann, J.; Maas, R.; Verspaget, C.; van der Heijden, E.; van Setten, E.; Finders, J.; Wang, S.; Boudou, N.; Zoldesi, C.

    2009-03-01

    Through collaborative efforts ASML and TEL are continuously improving the process performance for the LITHIUS Pro -i/ TWINSCAN XT:1900Gi litho cluster. In previous work from this collaboration, TEL and ASML have investigated the CDU and defectivity performance for the 45nm node with high through put processing. CDU performance for both memory and logic illumination conditions were shown to be on target for ITRS roadmap specifications. Additionally, it was shown that the current defect metrology is able to measure the required defect size of 30nm with a 90% capture rate. For the target through put of 180wph, no added impact to defectivity was seen from the multi-module processing on the LITHIUS Pro -i, using a topcoat resist process. For increased productivity, a new bevel cut strategy was investigated and shown to have no adverse impact while increasing the usable wafer surface. However, with the necessity of double patterning for at least the next technology node, more stringent requirements are necessary to prevent, in the worst case, doubling of the critical dimension variation and defectivity. In this work, improvements in process performance with regards to critical dimension uniformity and defectivity are investigated to increase the customer's productivity and yield for whichever double patterning scheme is utilized. Specifically, TEL has designed, evaluated and proven the capability of the latest technology hardware for post exposure bake and defect reduction. For the new post exposure bake hardware, process capability data was collected for 40nm CD targets. For defectivity reduction, a novel concept in rinse technology and processing was investigated on hydrophobic non top coat resists processes. Additionally, improvements to reduce micro bridging were evaluated. Finally bevel rinse hardware to prevent contamination of the immersion scanner was tested.

  17. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE). Aerodynamic and aeromechanical performance of a 50.8 cm (20 inch) diameter 1.34 PR variable pitch fan with core flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giffin, R. G.; Mcfalls, R. A.; Beacher, B. F.

    1977-01-01

    The fan aerodynamic and aeromechanical performance tests of the quiet clean short haul experimental engine under the wing fan and inlet with a simulated core flow are described. Overall forward mode fan performance is presented at each rotor pitch angle setting with conventional flow pressure ratio efficiency fan maps, distinguishing the performance characteristics of the fan bypass and fan core regions. Effects of off design bypass ratio, hybrid inlet geometry, and tip radial inlet distortion on fan performance are determined. The nonaxisymmetric bypass OGV and pylon configuration is assessed relative to both total pressure loss and induced circumferential flow distortion. Reverse mode performance, obtained by resetting the rotor blades through both the stall pitch and flat pitch directions, is discussed in terms of the conventional flow pressure ratio relationship and its implications upon achievable reverse thrust. Core performance in reverse mode operation is presented in terms of overall recovery levels and radial profiles existing at the simulated core inlet plane. Observations of the starting phenomena associated with the initiation of stable rotor flow during acceleration in the reverse mode are briefly discussed. Aeromechanical response characteristics of the fan blades are presented as a separate appendix, along with a description of the vehicle instrumentation and method of data reduction.

  18. Performance Enhancement Technology for the Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man'o, Tatsunori

    High efficiency refrigerator have been developed. For energy saving that is concerned with against global warming, performance enhancement of vapor compression refrigerator is required in field of air condition and refrigeration facility. In this paper, a review of recent performance enhancement technologies for the vapor compression refrigeration cycle is presented. This review contains high performance cycles of large sized centrifugal chiller, small to middle sized chiller and packaged air conditioner. Moreover, researches and developments of the refrigeration cycle recovering throttling loss, applications of ejector to boost in compressor suction pressure and to recirculate vapor refrigerant in the evaporator for heat transfer enhancement, and applications of expander to employ expansion work for compression work, are reviewed.

  19. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite - Performance, Reliability and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krawczyk, Richard J.; Ignaczak, Louis R.

    2000-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Satellite (ACTS) was conceived and developed in the mid- 1980s as an experimental satellite to demonstrate unproven Ka-band technology, and potential new commercial applications and services. Since launch into geostationary orbit in September 1993. ACTS has accumulated almost seven years of essentially trouble-free operation and met all program objectives. The unique technology, service experiments. and system level demonstrations accomplished by ACTS have been reported in many forums over the past several years. As ACTS completes its final experiments activity, this paper will relate the top-level program goals that have been achieved in the design, operation, and performance of the particular satellite subsystems. Pre-launch decisions to ensure satellite reliability and the subsequent operational experiences contribute to lessons learned that may be applicable to other comsat programs.

  20. Oil Bypass Filter Technology Performance Evaluation - First Quarterly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zirker, L.R.; Francfort, J.E.

    2003-01-31

    This report details the initial activities to evaluate the performance of the oil bypass filter technology being tested by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U.S. Department of Energy's FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Eight full-size, four-cycle diesel-engine buses used to transport INEEL employees on various routes have been equipped with oil bypass systems from the puraDYN Corporation. Each bus averages about 60,000 miles a year. The evaluation includes an oil analysis regime to monitor the presence of necessary additives in the oil and to detect undesirable contaminants. Very preliminary economic analysis suggests that the oil bypass system can reduce life-cycle costs. As the evaluation continues and oil avoidance costs are quantified, it is estimated that the bypass system economics may prove increasingly favorable, given the anticipated savings in operational costs and in reduced use of oil and waste oil avoidance.

  1. Oil Bypass Filter Technology Performance Evaluation - January 2003 Quarterly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence R. Zirker; James E. Francfort

    2003-01-01

    This report details the initial activities to evaluate the performance of the oil bypass filter technology being tested by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U.S. Department of Energy's FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Eight full-size, four-cycle diesel-engine buses used to transport INEEL employees on various routes have been equipped with oil bypass systems from the puraDYN Corporation. Each bus averages about 60,000 miles a year. The evaluation includes an oil analysis regime to monitor the presence of necessary additives in the oil and to detect undesirable contaminants. Very preliminary economic analysis suggests that the oil bypass system can reduce life-cycle costs. As the evaluation continues and oil avoidance costs are quantified, it is estimated that the bypass system economics may prove increasingly favorable, given the anticipated savings in operational costs and in reduced use of oil and waste oil avoidance.

  2. One high performance technology of infrared scene projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong-jie; Qian, Li-xun; Cao, Chun; Li, Zhuo

    2014-11-01

    Infrared scenes generation technologies are used to simulate the infrared radiation characteristics of target and background in the laboratory. They provide synthetic infrared imagery for thermal imager test and evaluation application in the infrared imaging systems. At present, many Infrared scenes generation technologies have been widely used, and they make a lot of achievements. In this paper, we design and manufacture one high performance IR scene generation technology, and the whole thin film type transducer is the key, which is fabricated based on micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS). The specific MEMS technological process parameters are obtained from a large number of experiments. The properties of infrared scene generation chip are investigated experimentally. It achieves high resolution, high frame, and reliable performance, which can meet the requirements of most simulation system. The radiation coefficient of the thin film transducer is measured to be 0.86. The frame rate is 160 Hz. The emission spectrum is from 2μm to 12μm in infrared band. Illuminated by the visible light with different intensities the equivalent black body temperature of transducer could be varied in the range of 290K to 440K. The spatial resolution is more than 256×256.The geometric distortion and the uniformity of the generated infrared scene is 5 percent. The infrared scene generator based on the infrared scene generation chip include three parts, which are visual image projector, visual to thermal transducer and the infrared scene projector. The experimental results show that this thin film type infrared scene generation chip meets the requirements of most of hardware-in-the-loop scene simulation systems for IR sensors testing.

  3. Technology-Supported Performance Assessments for Middle School Geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalles, D. R.; Quellmalz, E.; Rosenquist, A.; Kreikemeier, P.

    2002-12-01

    Under funding from the World Bank, the U.S. Department of Education, the National Science Foundation, and the Federal Government's Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment Program (GLOBE), SRI International has developed and piloted web-accessible performance assessments that measure K-12 students' abilities to use learning technologies to reason with scientific information and communicate evidence-based conclusions to scientific problems. This presentation will describe the assessments that pertain to geoscience at the middle school level. They are the GLOBE Assessments and EPA Phoenix, an instantiation of SRI's model of assessment design known as Integrative Performance Assessments in Technology (IPAT). All are publicly-available on the web. GLOBE engages students in scientific data collection and observation about the environment. SRI's classroom assessments for GLOBE provide sample student assessment tools and frameworks that allow teachers and students to assess how well students can use the data in scientific inquiry projects. Teachers can use classroom assessment tools on the site to develop integrated investigations for assessing GLOBE within their particular science curricula. Rubrics are provided for measuring students' GLOBE-related skills, and alignments are made to state, national, and international science standards. Sample investigations are provided about atmosphere, hydrology, landcover, soils, earth systems, and visualizations. The IPAT assessments present students with engaging problems rooted in science or social science content, plus sets of tasks and questions that require them to gather relevant information on the web, use reasoning strategies to analyze and interpret the information, use spreadsheets, word processors, and other productivity tools, and communicate evidence-based findings and recommendations. In the process of gathering information and drawing conclusions, students are assessed on how well they can operate

  4. Supersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of Blunt Body Trim Tab Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korzun, Ashley M.; Murphy, Kelly J.; Edquist, Karl T.

    2013-01-01

    Trim tabs are aerodynamic control surfaces that can allow an entry vehicle to meet aerodynamic performance requirements while reducing or eliminating the use of ballast mass and providing a capability to modulate the lift-to-drag ratio during entry. Force and moment data were obtained on 38 unique, blunt body trim tab configurations in the NASA Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The data were used to parametrically assess the supersonic aerodynamic performance of trim tabs and to understand the influence of tab area, cant angle, and aspect ratio. Across the range of conditions tested (Mach numbers of 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5; angles of attack from -4deg to +20deg; angles of sideslip from 0deg to +8deg), the effects of varying tab area and tab cant angle were found to be much more significant than effects from varying tab aspect ratio. Aerodynamic characteristics exhibited variation with Mach number and forebody geometry over the range of conditions tested. Overall, the results demonstrate that trim tabs are a viable approach to satisfy aerodynamic performance requirements of blunt body entry vehicles with minimal ballast mass. For a 70deg sphere-cone, a tab with 3% area of the forebody and canted approximately 35deg with no ballast mass was found to give the same trim aerodynamics as a baseline model with ballast mass that was 5% of the total entry mass.

  5. Reciprocity relations in aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaslet, Max A; Spreiter, John R

    1953-01-01

    Reverse flow theorems in aerodynamics are shown to be based on the same general concepts involved in many reciprocity theorems in the physical sciences. Reciprocal theorems for both steady and unsteady motion are found as a logical consequence of this approach. No restrictions on wing plan form or flight Mach number are made beyond those required in linearized compressible-flow analysis. A number of examples are listed, including general integral theorems for lifting, rolling, and pitching wings and for wings in nonuniform downwash fields. Correspondence is also established between the buildup of circulation with time of a wing starting impulsively from rest and the buildup of lift of the same wing moving in the reverse direction into a sharp-edged gust.

  6. Benchmarking and Performance Improvement at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, C. , Doyle, D. , Featherman, W.D.

    1997-12-31

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) has initiated a major work process improvement campaign using the tools of formalized benchmarking and streamlining. This paper provides insights into some of the process improvement activities performed at Rocky Flats from November 1995 through December 1996. It reviews the background, motivation, methodology, results, and lessons learned from this ongoing effort. The paper also presents important gains realized through process analysis and improvement including significant cost savings, productivity improvements, and an enhanced understanding of site work processes.

  7. The aerodynamics of supersonic parachutes

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.W.

    1987-06-01

    A discussion of the aerodynamics and performance of parachutes flying at supersonic speeds is the focus of this paper. Typical performance requirements for supersonic parachute systems are presented, followed by a review of the literature on supersonic parachute configurations and their drag characteristics. Data from a recent supersonic wind tunnel test series is summarized. The value and limitations of supersonic wind tunnel data on hemisflo and 20-degree conical ribbon parachutes behind several forebody shapes and diameters are discussed. Test techniques were derived which avoided many of the opportunities to obtain erroneous supersonic parachute drag data in wind tunnels. Preliminary correlations of supersonic parachute drag with Mach number, forebody shape and diameter, canopy porosity, inflated canopy diameter and stability are presented. Supersonic parachute design considerations are discussed and applied to a M = 2 parachute system designed and tested at Sandia. It is shown that the performance of parachutes in supersonic flows is a strong function of parachute design parameters and their interactions with the payload wake.

  8. Selectively oxidized vertical-cavity laser performance and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Choquette, K.D.; Hou, H.Q.; Geib, K.M.; Hammons, B.E.

    1998-02-01

    The authors discuss revolutionary performance advances in selectively oxidized vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), which have enabled low operating power laser diodes appropriate for aerospace applications. Incorporating buried oxide layers converted from AIGaAs layers within the laser cavity produces enhanced optical and electrical confinement enabling superior laser performance, such as high efficiency and modulation bandwidth. VCSELs also shown to be viable over varied environmental conditions such as ambient temperature and ionized radiation. The development of novel VCSEL technologies for advanced system applications is also described. Two dimensional individually addressable VCSEL arrays exhibit uniform threshold and operating characteristics. Bottom emitting 850 nm VCSEL arrays fabricated using wafer fusion are also reported.

  9. New technology appears to perform several processes in one step

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-17

    A new catalyst system is the basis of a simple technology that appears to perform several conventional refinery processes in a single step. Dubbed the Darcy process, it has shown impressive results in a small demonstration unit at a Texas Gulf Coast refinery. Inventor John Darcy says the results from the demonstration unit show that the process performs cracking, isomerization, desulfurization, and cyclization functions. The process produces a water-white naphtha stream containing less than 0.02 wt% sulfur. A gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis of the feed and products shows that the catalyst increases paraffins, isoparaffins, and naphthenes, and decreases aromatics. Natural gas streams can also be treated at the well head, after the slug catcher, to sweeten the gas stream. This prevents microbial-induced corrosion during pipeline transportation.

  10. Computational Aerodynamic Analysis of Offshore Upwind and Downwind Turbines

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhao, Qiuying; Sheng, Chunhua; Afjeh, Abdollah

    2014-01-01

    Aerodynamic interactions of the model NREL 5 MW offshore horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) are investigated using a high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Four wind turbine configurations are considered; three-bladed upwind and downwind and two-bladed upwind and downwind configurations, which operate at two different rotor speeds of 12.1 and 16 RPM. In the present study, both steady and unsteady aerodynamic loads, such as the rotor torque, blade hub bending moment, and base the tower bending moment of the tower, are evaluated in detail to provide overall assessment of different wind turbine configurations. Aerodynamic interactions between the rotor and tower are analyzed,more » including the rotor wake development downstream. The computational analysis provides insight into aerodynamic performance of the upwind and downwind, two- and three-bladed horizontal axis wind turbines.« less

  11. High-angle-of-attack aerodynamics - Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    Recently, the military and civil technical communities have undertaken numerous studies of the high angle-of-attack aerodynamic characteristics of advanced airplane and missile configurations. The method of approach and the design methodology employed have necessarily been experimental and exploratory in nature, due to the complex nature of separated flows. However, despite the relatively poor definition of many of the key aerodynamic phenomena involved for high-alpha conditions, some generic guidelines for design consideration have been identified. The present paper summarizes some of the more important lessons learned in the area of high angle-of-attack aerodynamics with examples of a number of key concepts and with particular emphasis on high-alpha stability and control characteristics of high performance aircraft. Topics covered in the discussion include the impact of design evolution, forebody flows, control of separated flows, configuration effects, aerodynamic controls, wind-tunnel flight correlation, and recent NASA research activities.

  12. NREL Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment phase 3 test objectives and preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Simms, D.A.; Fingersh, L.J.; Butterfield, C.P.

    1995-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are conducting research to improve a wind turbine technology. One program, the Combined Experiment, has focused on making measurements needed to understand aerodynamic and structural responses of horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT). A new phase of this program, the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment, will focus on quantifying unsteady aerodynamic phenomena prevalent install controlled HAWTs. Optimally twisted blades and innovative data acquisition systems will be used in these tests. data can now be acquired and viewed interactively during turbine operations. This paper describes the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment and highlights planned future research activities.

  13. Optimum Duty Cycle of Unsteady Plasma Aerodynamic Actuation for NACA0015 Airfoil Stall Separation Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Min; Yang, Bo; Peng, Tianxiang; Lei, Mingkai

    2016-06-01

    Unsteady dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma aerodynamic actuation technology is employed to suppress airfoil stall separation and the technical parameters are explored with wind tunnel experiments on an NACA0015 airfoil by measuring the surface pressure distribution of the airfoil. The performance of the DBD aerodynamic actuation for airfoil stall separation suppression is evaluated under DBD voltages from 2000 V to 4000 V and the duty cycles varied in the range of 0.1 to 1.0. It is found that higher lift coefficients and lower threshold voltages are achieved under the unsteady DBD aerodynamic actuation with the duty cycles less than 0.5 as compared to that of the steady plasma actuation at the same free-stream speeds and attack angles, indicating a better flow control performance. By comparing the lift coefficients and the threshold voltages, an optimum duty cycle is determined as 0.25 by which the maximum lift coefficient and the minimum threshold voltage are obtained at the same free-stream speed and attack angle. The non-uniform DBD discharge with stronger discharge in the positive half cycle due to electrons deposition on the dielectric slabs and the suppression of opposite momentum transfer due to the intermittent discharge with cutoff of the negative half cycle are responsible for the observed optimum duty cycle. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21276036), Liaoning Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 2015020123) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (No. 3132015154)

  14. CFD research, parallel computation and aerodynamic optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, James S.

    1995-01-01

    Over five years of research in Computational Fluid Dynamics and its applications are covered in this report. Using CFD as an established tool, aerodynamic optimization on parallel architectures is explored. The objective of this work is to provide better tools to vehicle designers. Submarine design requires accurate force and moment calculations in flow with thick boundary layers and large separated vortices. Low noise production is critical, so flow into the propulsor region must be predicted accurately. The High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) has been the subject of recent work. This vehicle is to be a passenger vehicle with the capability of cutting overseas flight times by more than half. A successful design must surpass the performance of comparable planes. Fuel economy, other operational costs, environmental impact, and range must all be improved substantially. For all these reasons, improved design tools are required, and these tools must eventually integrate optimization, external aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, heat transfer and other disciplines.

  15. High speed civil transport aerodynamic optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, James S.

    1994-01-01

    This is a report of work in support of the Computational Aerosciences (CAS) element of the Federal HPCC program. Specifically, CFD and aerodynamic optimization are being performed on parallel computers. The long-range goal of this work is to facilitate teraflops-rate multidisciplinary optimization of aerospace vehicles. This year's work is targeted for application to the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), one of four CAS grand challenges identified in the HPCC FY 1995 Blue Book. This vehicle is to be a passenger aircraft, with the promise of cutting overseas flight time by more than half. To meet fuel economy, operational costs, environmental impact, noise production, and range requirements, improved design tools are required, and these tools must eventually integrate optimization, external aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, heat transfer, controls, and perhaps other disciplines. The fundamental goal of this project is to contribute to improved design tools for U.S. industry, and thus to the nation's economic competitiveness.

  16. Aerodynamic interference between two Darrieus wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Schatzle, P.R.; Klimas, P.C.; Spahr, H.R.

    1981-04-01

    The effect of aerodynamic interference on the performance of two curved bladed Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbines has been calculated using a vortex/lifting line aerodynamic model. The turbines have a tower-to-tower separation distance of 1.5 turbine diameters, with the line of turbine centers varying with respect to the ambient wind direction. The effects of freestream turbulence were neglected. For the cases examined, the calculations showed that the downwind turbine power decrement (1) was significant only when the line of turbine centers was coincident with the ambient wind direction, (2) increased with increasing tipspeed ratio, and (3) is due more to induced flow angularities downstream than to speed deficits near the downstream turbine.

  17. Transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doig, G.

    2014-08-01

    A review of recent and historical work in the field of transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics has been conducted, focussing on applied research on wings and aircraft, present and future ground transportation, projectiles, rocket sleds and other related bodies which travel in close ground proximity in the compressible regime. Methods for ground testing are described and evaluated, noting that wind tunnel testing is best performed with a symmetry model in the absence of a moving ground; sled or rail testing is ultimately preferable, though considerably more expensive. Findings are reported on shock-related ground influence on aerodynamic forces and moments in and accelerating through the transonic regime - where force reversals and the early onset of local supersonic flow is prevalent - as well as more predictable behaviours in fully supersonic to hypersonic ground effect flows.

  18. Survey of LWR environmental control technology performance and cost

    SciTech Connect

    Heeb, C.M.; Aaberg, R.L.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Lewallen, M.A.

    1980-03-01

    This study attempts to establish a ranking for species that are routinely released to the environment for a projected nuclear power growth scenario. Unlike comparisons made to existing standards, which are subject to frequent revision, the ranking of releases can be used to form a more logical basis for identifying the areas where further development of control technology could be required. This report describes projections of releases for several fuel cycle scenarios, identifies areas where alternative control technologies may be implemented, and discusses the available alternative control technologies. The release factors were used in a computer code system called ENFORM, which calculates the annual release of any species from any part of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle given a projection of installed nuclear generation capacity. This survey of fuel cycle releases was performed for three reprocessing scenarios (stowaway, reprocessing without recycle of Pu and reprocessing with full recycle of U and Pu) for a 100-year period beginning in 1977. The radioactivity releases were ranked on the basis of a relative ranking factor. The relative ranking factor is based on the 100-year summation of the 50-year population dose commitment from an annual release of radioactive effluents. The nonradioactive releases were ranked on the basis of dilution factor. The twenty highest ranking radioactive releases were identified and each of these was analyzed in terms of the basis for calculating the release and a description of the currently employed control method. Alternative control technology is then discussed, along with the available capital and operating cost figures for alternative control methods.

  19. Using distributed OLTP technology in a high performance storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, T.W.; Fisher, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    The design of scaleable mass storage systems requires various system components to be distributed across multiple processors. Most of these processes maintain persistent database-type information (i.e., metadata) on the resources they are responsible for managing (e.g., bitfiles, bitfile segments, physical volumes, virtual volumes, cartridges, etc.). These processes all participate in fulfilling end-user requests and updating metadata information. A number of challenges arise when distributed processes attempt to maintain separate metadata resources with production-level integrity and consistency. For example, when requests fail, metadata changes made by the various processes must be aborted or rolled back. When requests are successful, all metadata changes must be committed together. If all metadata changes cannot be committed together for some reason, then all metadata changes must be rolled back to the previous consistent state. Lack of metadata consistency jeopardizes storage system integrity. Distributed on-line transaction processing (OLTP) technology can be applied to distributed mass storage systems as the mechanism for managing the consistency of distributed metadata. OLTP concepts are familiar to manN, industries such as banking and financial services but are less well known and understood in scientific and technical computing. As mass storage systems and other products are designed using distributed processing and data-management strategies for performance, scalability, and/or availability reasons, distributed OLTP technology can be applied to solve the inherent challenges raised by such environments. This paper discusses the benefits in using distributed transaction processing products. Design and implementation experiences using the Encina OLTP product from Transarc in the High Performance Storage System are presented in more detail as a case study for how this technology can be applied to mass storage systems designed for distributed environments.

  20. Preliminary performance of a vertical-attitude takeoff and landing, supersonic cruise aircraft concept having thrust vectoring integrated into the flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robins, A. W.; Beissner, F. L., Jr.; Domack, C. S.; Swanson, E. E.

    1985-01-01

    A performance study was made of a vertical attitude takeoff and landing (VATOL), supersonic cruise aircraft concept having thrust vectoring integrated into the flight control system. Those characteristics considered were aerodynamics, weight, balance, and performance. Preliminary results indicate that high levels of supersonic aerodynamic performance can be achieved. Further, with the assumption of an advanced (1985 technology readiness) low bypass ratio turbofan engine and advanced structures, excellent mission performance capability is indicated.