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Sample records for aerodynamic roughness length

  1. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE AERODYNAMIC ROUGHNESS LENGTH AND THE ROUGHNESS DENSITY IN CASES OF LOW ROUGHNESS DENSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents measurements of roughness length performed in a wind tunnel for low roughness density. The experiments were performed with both compact and porous obstacles (clusters), in order to simulate the behavior of sparsely vegetated surfaces.

  2. Influence of aerodynamic roughness length on aeolian processes: Earth, Mars, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumberg, Dan G.; Greeley, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    The aerodynamic roughness length (z sub 0) is the height at which a wind profile assumes a zero velocity. The lower part of the atmospheric boundary layer will be impeded by friction with the surface. An increase in surface roughness will also increase the shear stress required to initiate particle entrainment by the wind. Bagnold (1941) estimated z sub 0 as being 1/30 of the mean particle size. In Nature, surface roughness is composed of nonerodible elements as well as sand-size erodible particles. To assess z sub 0 values as a function of terrain, field experiments were conducted to obtain wind profiles monitored over natural surfaces at 15 sites in the Mojave Desert, Death Valley, and Nye County, Nevada. These sites span a variety of arid-land terrains, including smooth playas, alluvial fans, and lava flows; z sub 0 values ranged from 0.0001 cm to 1 cm. These values were incorporated in a threshold model and a flux model to assess transport efficiency over such terrains in three planetary environments (Venus, Earth, and Mars), and for particle sizes ranging from 60-500 micron. Threshold and flux are a function of planetary environment, particle density and size (Dp), and z sub 0, and the shear velocity of 1.2 x U sub *t (for Dp = 250 micron and z sub 0 = 0.84). Results show that flux on Mars is approximately 14 g/(cm x s), on Earth it is approximately 3 g/(cm x s), and on Venus 0.5 g/(cm x s). Under all planetary environments, the results also show a dramatic decrease in the flux for particles greater than 200 microns when z sub 0 increases above 0.0085 cm (corresponding to sites consisting of alluvium). When z sub 0 approaches 0.03 cm (corresponding to a mantled pahoehoe lava), the flux diminishes.

  3. Testing the hypothesis on the relationship between aerodynamic roughness length and albedo using vegetation structure parameters.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jaeil; Miyazaki, Shin; Yeh, Pat J-F; Kim, Wonsik; Kanae, Shinjiro; Oki, Taikan

    2012-03-01

    Surface albedo (α) and aerodynamic roughness length (z(0)), which partition surface net radiation into energy fluxes, are critical land surface properties for biosphere-atmosphere interactions and climate variability. Previous studies suggested that canopy structure parameters influence both α and z(0); however, no field data have been reported to quantify their relationships. Here, we hypothesize that a functional relationship between α and z(0) exists for a vegetated surface, since both land surface parameters can be conceptually related to the characteristics of canopy structure. We test this hypothesis by using the observed data collected from 50 site-years of field measurements from sites worldwide covering various vegetated surfaces. On the basis of these data, a negative linear relationship between α and log(z(0)) was found, which is related to the canopy structural parameter. We believe that our finding is a big step toward the estimation of z(0) with high accuracy. This can be used, for example, in the parameterization of land properties and the observation of z(0) using satellite remote sensing.

  4. Comparison of aerodynamically and model-derived roughness lengths (zo) over diverse surfaces, central Mojave Desert, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacKinnon, D.J.; Clow, G.D.; Tigges, R.K.; Reynolds, R.L.; Chavez, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    The vulnerability of dryland surfaces to wind erosion depends importantly on the absence or the presence and character of surface roughness elements, such as plants, clasts, and topographic irregularities that diminish wind speed near the surface. A model for the friction velocity ratio has been developed to account for wind sheltering by many different types of co-existing roughness elements. Such conditions typify a monitored area in the central Mojave Desert, California, that experiences frequent sand movement and dust emission. Two additional models are used to convert the friction velocity ratio to the surface roughness length (zo) for momentum. To calculate roughness lengths from these models, measurements were made at 11 sites within the monitored area to characterize the surface roughness element. Measurements included (1) the number of roughness species (e.g., plants, small-scale topography, clasts), and their associated heights and widths, (2) spacing among species, and (3) vegetation porosity (a measurement of the spatial distribution of woody elements of a plant). Documented or estimated values of drag coefficients for different species were included in the modeling. At these sites, wind-speed profiles were measured during periods of neutral atmospheric stability using three 9-m towers with three or four calibrated anemometers on each. Modeled roughness lengths show a close correspondence (correlation coefficient, 0.84-0.86) to the aerodynamically determined values at the field sites. The geometric properties of the roughness elements in the model are amenable to measurement at much higher temporal and spatial resolutions using remote-sensing techniques than can be accomplished through laborious ground-based methods. A remote-sensing approach to acquire values of the modeled roughness length is particularly important for the development of linked surface/atmosphere wind-erosion models sensitive to climate variability and land-use changes in areas such

  5. Characterizing aerodynamic roughness length (z0) for a debris-covered glacier: aerodynamic inversion and SfM-derived microtopographic approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Evan; Steiner, Jakob; Brun, Fanny; Detert, Martin; Buri, Pascal; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    Aerodynamic surface roughness is an essential parameter in surface energy balance studies. While actual measurements on bare ice glaciers are rare, a wide range of literature values exist for ice and snow surfaces. There are very few values suggested for debris covered glaciers and actual measurements are even scarcer - studies instead optimize z0 or use a reference value. The increased use of photogrammetry on glaciers provides an opportunity to characterize the range of z0 values meaningful for debris-covered glaciers. We apply Agisoft's Structure-from-Motion process chain to produce high resolution DEMs for five 1m x 1m plots (1mm resolution) with differing grain-size distributions, as well as a large ~180m x ~180m depression (5cm) on Lirung Glacier in the Nepalese Himalayas. For each plot, we calculate z0 according to transect-based microtopographic parameterisations. We compare individual-transect z0 estimates based on profile position and direction, and develop a grid version of the algorithms aggregating height data from all bidirectional transects. This grid approach is applied to our larger DEM to characterize the variability of z0 across the study site for each algorithm. For the plot DEMs, z0 estimated by any algorithm varies by an order of magnitude based on transect position. Although the algorithms reproduce the same variability among transects and plots, z0 estimates vary by an order of magnitude between algorithms. For any algorithm, however, we find minimal difference between cross- and down-glacier profile directions. At the basin scale, results from different algorithms are strongly correlated and results are more closely clustered with the exception of the Rounce (2015) algorithm, while any algorithm's values range by two orders of magnitude across the study depression. The Rounce algorithm consistently produced the highest z0 values, while the Lettau (1969) and Munro (1989) methods produced the lowest values, and use of the Nield (2013

  6. Surface Roughness Lengths

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    m trees 110 - 170 Thom 1972 Pine forest - 20 m trees 128 DeBruin and Moore 1985 Forested plateau, rolling 120 - 130 Ming et al. 1983 Rolling terrain...H. A. R., and C. J. Moore , 1985 , "Zero-Plane Displacement and Roughness Length for Tall Vegetation, Derived from a Simple Mass Conservation

  7. Simulation of the mineral dust emission over Northern Africa and Middle East using an aerodynamic roughness length map derived from the ASCAT/PARASOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basart, Sara; Jorba, Oriol; Pérez García-Pando, Carlos; Prigent, Catherine; Baldasano, Jose M.

    2014-05-01

    Aeolian aerodynamic roughness length in arid regions is a key parameter to predict the vulnerability of the surface to wind erosion, and, as a consequence, the related production of mineral aerosol (e.g. Laurent et al., 2008). Recently, satellite-derived roughness length at the global scale have emerged and provide the opportunity to use them in advanced emission schemes in global and regional models (i.e. Menut et al., 2013). A global map of the aeolian aerodynamic roughness length at high resolution (6 km) is derived, for arid and semi-arid regions merging PARASOL and ASCAT data to estimate aeolian roughness length. It shows very good consistency with the existing information on the properties of these surfaces. The dataset is available to the community, for use in atmospheric dust transport models. The present contribution analyses the behaviour of the NMMB/BSC-Dust model (Pérez et al., 2011) when the ASCAT/PARASOL satellite-derived global roughness length (Prigent et al, 2012) and the State Soil Geographic database Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (STATSGO-FAO) soil texture data set (based on wet techniques) is used. We explore the sensitivity of the drag partition scheme (a critical component of the dust emission scheme) and the dust vertical fluxes (intensity and spatial patterns) to the roughness length. An annual evaluation of NMMB/BSC-Dust (for the year 2011) over Northern Africa and the Middle East using observed aerosol optical depths (AODs) from Aerosol Robotic Network sites and aerosol satellite products (MODIS and MISR) will be discussed. Laurent, B., Marticorena, B., Bergametti, G., Leon, J. F., and Mahowald, N. M.: Modeling mineral dust emissions from the Sahara desert using new surface properties and soil database, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D14218, doi:10.1029/2007JD009484, 2008. Menut, L., C. Pérez, K. Haustein, B. Bessagnet, C. Prigent, and S. Alfaro, Impact of surface roughness and soil texture on mineral dust emission

  8. Comparison of four methods of aerodynamic roughness length parameterization in semi-arid shrublands with airborne LiDAR, hyperspectral, and meteorological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, A.; Mitchell, J. J.; Glenn, N. F.; Zhao, W.; Germino, M. J.; Allen, R.; Sankey, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    The aerodynamic roughness length (z0) plays an important role in the flux exchange between the land surface and atmosphere. Especially in semiarid shrublands, z0 is a key parameter for physical models of aeolian transport. z0 is influenced by the height, geometry, density and pattern of roughness elements. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) is well suited to measure the vegetation height and has been used to estimate z0 across large areas. In this study, we combined airborne LiDAR, hyperspectral imagery and meteorological measurements to estimate z0, and assessed the ability of airborne LiDAR to estimate z0 over semi-arid shrublands. Airborne LiDAR data was used to derive the height of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate subsp. wyomingensis) over a study area in the Great Basin, Idaho. Roughness density was related with percent vegetation cover which was estimated by integrating LiDAR and hyperspectral data, both collected in August 2011. Four methods of parameterization of z0 were applied and compared with the vegetation height from LiDAR; roughness from LiDAR and hyperspectral; NDVI and LAI from HyMap; and a geometric approach using meteorological data (e.g. wind speed). Micrometeorological measurements at two eddy covariance sites in the study area were used for validation of parameterized z0. The spatial variability of z0 was analyzed and the relationship with vegetation density was explored. The results demonstrated the potential of using airborne LiDAR data to estimate z0 at a regional scale in semi-arid shrublands. Furthermore, z0 showed a tight relationship with local variance of vegetation height and vegetation density.

  9. Estimation of effective aerodynamic roughness with altimeter measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menenti, M.; Ritchie, J. C.

    1992-01-01

    A new method is presented for estimating the aerodynamic roughness length of heterogeneous land surfaces and complex landscapes using elevation measurements performed with an airborne laser altimeter and the Seasat radar altimeter. Land surface structure is characterized at increasing length scales by considering three basic landscape elements: (1) partial to complete canopies of herbaceous vegetation; (2) sparse obstacles (e.g., shrubs and trees); and (3) local relief. Measured parameters of land surface geometry are combined to obtain an effective aerodynamic roughness length which parameterizes the total atmosphere-land surface stress.

  10. Upscaling analysis of aerodynamic roughness length based on in situ data at different spatial scales and remote sensing in north Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Genhou; Hu, Zeyong; Wang, Jiemin; Xie, Zhipeng; Lin, Yun; Huang, Fangfang

    2016-07-01

    The aerodynamic roughness length (z0m) is a crucial parameter in quantifying momentum, sensible and latent heat fluxes between land surface and atmosphere, and it depends greatly on spatial scales. This paper presents a tentative study on the upscaling analysis of z0m in the north Tibetan Plateau based on in situ data from eddy covariance (EC) and large aperture scintillometer (LAS) and leaf area index (LAI) of MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) with 250 m and 2 km spatial resolutions. The comparison of z0m calculated from EC (z0m_EC) and LAS (z0m _LAS) data indicates that z0m at both scales has apparent seasonal variations and is in good agreement with the LAI result. However, z0m_LAS is higher than z0m_EC, which is attributed to the differences in roughness elements in their footprints. An upscaling relationship for z0m is developed with z0m_EC, z0m _LAS and LAI with 250 m spatial resolution of MODIS. In addition, an altitude correction factor is introduced into the vegetation height estimation equation because the cold environment in the north Tibetan Plateau, which is due to its high altitude, has a strong influence on vegetation height. The z0m retrieval with 250 m spatial resolution in the rain season is validated with z0m_EC at sites Nagqu/Amdo, Nagqu/MS3478 and Nagqu/NewD66, and the agreement is acceptable. The spatial distribution of z0m retrievals at small spatial scale in the north Tibetan Plateau from June to September 2012 shows that the z0m values are less than 0.015 m in most areas, with the exception of the area in the southeast part, where z0m reaches 0.025 m owing to low altitudes. The z0m retrievals at large spatial scale in the north Tibetan Plateau from June to September 2012 range from 0.015 to 0.065 m, and high values appear in the area with low altitudes. The spatial distribution and frequency statistics of z0m retrievals at both spatial scales reveal the influence of altitude and LAI on the z0m in the north Tibetan

  11. Time Series Vegetation Aerodynamic Roughness Fields Estimated from MODIS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borak, Jordan S.; Jasinski, Michael F.; Crago, Richard D.

    2005-01-01

    Most land surface models used today require estimates of aerodynamic roughness length in order to characterize momentum transfer between the surface and atmosphere. The most common method of prescribing roughness is through the use of empirical look-up tables based solely on land cover class. Theoretical approaches that employ satellite-based estimates of canopy density present an attractive alternative to current look-up table approaches based on vegetation cover type that do not account for within-class variability and are oftentimes simplistic with respect to temporal variability. The current research applies Raupach s formulation of momentum aerodynamic roughness to MODIS data on a regional scale in order to estimate seasonally variable roughness and zero-plane displacement height fields using bulk land cover parameters estimated by [Jasinski, M.F., Borak, J., Crago, R., 2005. Bulk surface momentum parameters for satellite-derived vegetation fields. Agric. For. Meteorol. 133, 55-68]. Results indicate promising advances over look-up approaches with respect to characterization of vegetation roughness variability in land surface and atmospheric circulation models.

  12. Roughness Length Variability over Heterogeneous Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    System ( COAMPS ) model fields for selected times during Tropical Storm Fay. Figure 42. Contoured roughness length from (a) COAMPS and 16.5-m wind...passage of Tropical Storm Fay on 18–21 August 2008. Spatial and temporal variations in roughness lengths for a period of one year are compared to...the same height in the tropical storm case, for wind speeds exceeding 20 ms-1, evidence is presented that indicates roughness lengths are related to

  13. Estimating aerodynamic resistance of rough surfaces from angular reflectance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current wind erosion and dust emission models neglect the heterogeneous nature of surface roughness and its geometric anisotropic effect on aerodynamic resistance, and over-estimate the erodible area by assuming it is not covered by roughness elements. We address these shortfalls with a new model wh...

  14. Dependence of Convective Heat Flux Calculations on Roughness Lengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schieldge, John P.

    1995-01-01

    The zero plane displacement height (d) and aerodynamic roughness length (z0) can be determined separately for momentum, heat, and humidity by using a procedure based on the Levenberg-Marquardt method for solving non-linear equations. This procedure is used to analyze profile data previously collected by Lo (1977) in a forested area in Canada and by Morgan et al (1971) on a field at the University of California at Davis (UCD) in the United States. The UCD data base is used to show the effects of allowing for different roughness lengths (zom,z0h,z0q) in calculating sensible and latent heat flux densities from bulk transfer coefficients.

  15. Estimation of Vegetation Aerodynamic Roughness of Natural Regions Using Frontal Area Density Determined from Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, Michael F.; Crago, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Parameterizations of the frontal area index and canopy area index of natural or randomly distributed plants are developed, and applied to the estimation of local aerodynamic roughness using satellite imagery. The formulas are expressed in terms of the subpixel fractional vegetation cover and one non-dimensional geometric parameter that characterizes the plant's shape. Geometrically similar plants and Poisson distributed plant centers are assumed. An appropriate averaging technique to extend satellite pixel-scale estimates to larger scales is provided. ne parameterization is applied to the estimation of aerodynamic roughness using satellite imagery for a 2.3 sq km coniferous portion of the Landes Forest near Lubbon, France, during the 1986 HAPEX-Mobilhy Experiment. The canopy area index is estimated first for each pixel in the scene based on previous estimates of fractional cover obtained using Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. Next, the results are incorporated into Raupach's (1992, 1994) analytical formulas for momentum roughness and zero-plane displacement height. The estimates compare reasonably well to reference values determined from measurements taken during the experiment and to published literature values. The approach offers the potential for estimating regionally variable, vegetation aerodynamic roughness lengths over natural regions using satellite imagery when there exists only limited knowledge of the vegetated surface.

  16. ROUGHNESS LENGTHS FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, C.

    2012-03-28

    Surface roughness values for the areas surrounding the H, D and N-Area meteorological towers were computed from archived 2010 meteorological data. These 15-minute-averaged data were measured with cup anemometers and bidirectional wind vanes (bivanes) 61 m above the surface. The results of the roughness calculation using the standard deviation of elevation angle {sigma}{sub E}, and applying the simple formula based on tree canopy height, gave consistent estimates for roughness around the H-Area tower in the range of 1.76 to 1.86 m (95% confidence interval) with a mean value of 1.81 m. Application of the {sigma}{sub E} method for the 61-m level at D and N-Areas gave mean values of 1.71 and 1.81 with confidence ranges of 1.62-1.81 and 1.73-1.88 meters, respectively. Roughness results are azimuth dependent, and thus are presented as averages over compass sectors spanning 22.5 degrees. Calculated values were compared to other methods of determining roughness, including the standard deviation of the azimuth direction, {sigma}{sub A}, and standard deviation of the wind speed, {sigma}{sub U}. Additional data was obtained from a sonic anemometer at 61-m on the H-Area tower during a period of a few weeks in 2010. Results from the sonic anemometer support our use of {sigma}{sub E} to calculate roughness. Based on the H-Area tower results, a surface roughness of 1.8 m using is recommended for use in dispersion modeling applications that consider the impacts of a contaminant release to individuals along the Site boundary. The canopy surrounding the H-Area tower is relatively uniform (i.e., little variance in roughness by upwind direction), and data supplied by the U.S. Forest Service at Savannah River show that the canopy height and composition surrounding the H-Area tower is reasonably representative of forested areas throughout the SRS reservation. For dispersion modeling analyses requiring assessments of a co-located worker within the respective operations area, recommended

  17. Effects of plaque lengths on stent surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Syaifudin, Achmad; Takeda, Ryo; Sasaki, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The physical properties of the stent surface influence the effectiveness of vascular disease treatment after stent deployment. During the expanding process, the stent acquires high-level deformation that could alter either its microstructure or the magnitude of surface roughness. This paper constructed a finite element simulation to observe the changes in surface roughness during the stenting process. Structural transient dynamic analysis was performed using ANSYS, to identify the deformation after the stent is placed in a blood vessel. Two types of bare metal stents are studied: a Palmaz type and a Sinusoidal type. The relationship between plaque length and the changes in surface roughness was investigated by utilizing three different length of plaque; plaque length longer than the stent, shorter than the stent and the same length as the stent. In order to reduce computational time, 3D cyclical and translational symmetry was implemented into the FE model. The material models used was defined as a multilinear isotropic for stent and hyperelastic for the balloon, plaque and vessel wall. The correlation between the plastic deformation and the changes in surface roughness was obtained by intermittent pure tensile test using specimen whose chemical composition was similar to that of actual stent material. As the plastic strain is achieved from FE simulation, the surface roughness can be assessed thoroughly. The study found that the plaque size relative to stent length significantly influenced the critical changes in surface roughness. It was found that the length of stent which is equal to the plaque length was preferable due to the fact that it generated only moderate change in surface roughness. This effect was less influential to the Sinusoidal stent.

  18. Evaluation of scalar and momentum roughness lengths in ABL flow over complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, W.

    2012-12-01

    The aerodynamic surface transfer efficiency of momentum and scalars (for example, heat and mass) in atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow is governed by turbulence in the vicinity of the topography. In high-Reynolds number flows, such as the ABL, it is known that surface momentum flux occurs exclusively via pressure drag. Scalar transport, on the other hand, occurs via diffusion within the interfacial region, before being advected by turbulent eddy motions into the bulk of the flow (within which plane-averaged scalar concentration profiles are logarithmic). Owing to these fundamental differences in surface flux mechanisms, the associated roughness length for scalars, z0S, is known to be considerably smaller than for momentum, z0M (it is commonly assumed that z0S is 10% of z0M). Here, the momentum roughness lengths are determined for flow over a suite of differing multiscale, fractal-like topographies, and the scalar roughness is then imposed from classical scaling relations between the interfacial Stanton number and roughness Reynolds number. Results illustrate that dependence on shear (described by the roughness Reynolds number) have a significant effect on concentration profiles of the admixture.

  19. Relationships between aerodynamic roughness and land use and land cover in Baltimore, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholas, F.W.; Lewis, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    Urbanization changes the radiative, thermal, hydrologic, and aerodynamic properties of the Earth's surface. Knowledge of these surface characteristics, therefore, is essential to urban climate analysis. Aerodynamic or surface roughness of urban areas is not well documented, however, because of practical constraints in measuring the wind profile in the presence of large buildings. Using an empirical method designed by Lettau, and an analysis of variance of surface roughness values calculated for 324 samples averaging 0.8 hectare (ha) of land use and land cover sample in Baltimore, Md., a strong statistical relation was found between aerodynamic roughness and urban land use and land cover types. Assessment of three land use and land cover systems indicates that some of these types have significantly different surface roughness characteristics. The tests further indicate that statistically significant differences exist in estimated surface roughness values when categories (classes) from different land use and land cover classification systems are used as surrogates. A Level III extension of the U.S. Geological Survey Level II land use and land cover classification system provided the most reliable results. An evaluation of the physical association between the aerodynamic properties of land use and land cover and the surface climate by numerical simulation of the surface energy balance indicates that changes in surface roughness within the range of values typical of the Level III categories induce important changes in the surface climate.

  20. Turbulent boundary layer over roughness transition with variation in spanwise roughness length scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerweel, Jerry; Tomas, Jasper; Eisma, Jerke; Pourquie, Mathieu; Elsinga, Gerrit; Jonker, Harm

    2016-11-01

    Both large-eddy simulations (LES) and water-tunnel experiments, using simultaneous stereoscopic PIV and LIF were done to investigate pollutant dispersion in a region where the surface changes from rural to urban roughness. This consists of rectangular obstacles where we vary the spanwise aspect ratio of the obstacles. A line source of passive tracer was placed upstream of the roughness transition. The objectives of the study are: (i) to determine the influence of the aspect ratio on the roughness-transition flow, and (ii) to determine the dominant mechanisms of pollutant removal from street canyons in the transition region. It is found that for a spanwise aspect ratio of 2 the drag induced by the roughness is largest of all considered cases, which is caused by a large-scale secondary flow. In the roughness transition the vertical advective pollutant flux is the main ventilation mechanism in the first three streets. Furthermore, by means of linear stochastic estimation the mean flow structure is identied that is responsible for exchange of the fluid between the roughness obstacles and the outer part of the boundary layer. Furthermore, it is found that the vertical length scale of this structure increases with increasing aspect ratio of the obstacles in the roughness region.

  1. Friction velocity and aerodynamic roughness of conventional and undercutter tillage within the Columbia Plateau, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Friction velocity and aerodynamic roughness are characteristics of the soil-plant-atmosphere interface which affect wind erosion. Although exchange of momentum at the interface can be altered by land management practices, no attempts have been made to quantify the effect of tillage on friction veloc...

  2. What is the critical height of leading edge roughness for aerodynamics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Christian; Gaunaa, Mac; Olsen, Anders S.; Kruse, Emil K.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper the critical leading edge roughness height is analyzed in two cases: 1) leading edge roughness influencing the lift-drag ratio and 2) leading edge roughness influencing the maximum lift. The analysis was based on wind tunnel measurements on the airfoils NACA0015, Risoe-B1-18 and Risoe-C2-18 and at three different Reynolds numbers with two different leading edge roughness tape heights. Firstly, an analysis of the momentum thickness as function of Reynolds number was carried out based on the boundary layer theory by Thwaites. Secondly, the wind tunnel measurements combined with panel code predictions of the boundary layer momentum thickness created the basis for determining the impact of roughness on the aerodynamic performance. The critical heights were related to the Reynolds numbers and thereby the size of the wind turbines.

  3. Aerodynamic Properties of Rough Surfaces with High Aspect-Ratio Roughness Elements: Effect of Aspect Ratio and Arrangements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadique, Jasim; Yang, Xiang I. A.; Meneveau, Charles; Mittal, Rajat

    2016-12-01

    We examine the effect of varying roughness-element aspect ratio on the mean velocity distributions of turbulent flow over arrays of rectangular-prism-shaped elements. Large-eddy simulations (LES) in conjunction with a sharp-interface immersed boundary method are used to simulate spatially-growing turbulent boundary layers over these rough surfaces. Arrays of aligned and staggered rectangular roughness elements with aspect ratio >1 are considered. First the temporally- and spatially-averaged velocity profiles are used to illustrate the aspect-ratio effects. For aligned prisms, the roughness length (z_o ) and the friction velocity (u_* ) increase initially with an increase in the roughness-element aspect ratio, until the values reach a plateau at a particular aspect ratio. The exact value of this aspect ratio depends on the coverage density. Further increase in the aspect ratio changes neither z_o , u_* nor the bulk flow above the roughness elements. For the staggered cases, z_o and u_* continue to increase for the surface coverage density and the aspect ratios investigated. To model the flow response to variations in roughness aspect ratio, we turn to a previously developed phenomenological volumetric sheltering model (Yang et al., in J Fluid Mech 789:127-165, 2016), which was intended for low to moderate aspect-ratio roughness elements. Here, we extend this model to account for high aspect-ratio roughness elements. We find that for aligned cases, the model predicts strong mutual sheltering among the roughness elements, while the effect is much weaker for staggered cases. The model-predicted z_o and u_* agree well with the LES results. Results show that the model, which takes explicit account of the mutual sheltering effects, provides a rapid and reliable prediction method of roughness effects in turbulent boundary-layer flows over arrays of rectangular-prism roughness elements.

  4. Experimental research of surface roughness effects on highly-loaded compressor cascade aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shao-wen; Xu, Hao; Wang, Song-tao; Wang, Zhong-qi

    2014-08-01

    Aircraft engines deteriorate during continuous operation under the action of external factors including fouling, corrosion, and abrasion. The increased surface roughness of compressor passage walls limits airflow and leads to flow loss. However, the partial increase of roughness may also restrain flow separation and reduce flow loss. It is necessary to explore methods that will lower compressor deterioration, thereby improving the overall performance. The experimental research on the effects of surface roughness on highly loaded compressor cascade aerodynamics has been conducted in a low-speed linear cascade wind tunnel. The different levels of roughness are arranged on the suction surface and pressure surface, respectively. Ink-trace flow visualization has been used to measure the flow field on the walls of cascades, and a five-hole probe has been traversed across one pitch at the outlet. By comparing the total pressure loss coefficient, the distributions of the secondary-flow speed vector, and flow fields of various cases, the effects of surface roughness on the aerodynamics of a highly loaded compressor cascade are analyzed and discussed. The results show that adding surface roughness on the suction surface and pressure surface make the loss decrease in most cases. Increasing the surface roughness on the suction surface causes reduced flow speed near the blade, which helps to decrease mixing loss at the cascades outlet. Meanwhile, adding surface roughness on the suction surface restrains flow separation, leading to less flow loss. Various levels of surface roughness mostly weaken the flow turning capacity to various degrees, except in specific cases.

  5. The Combined Effects of Freestream Turbulence, Pressure Gradients, and Surface Roughness on Turbine Aerodynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    48 4.5 Cf Data vs. Sandgrain Roughness Predictions ........................................52 4.6 Calculated vs. Measured...5.0 Cf skin friction coefficient F force H momentum shape factor Ku kurtosis ks sandgrain roughness height L length of trace N number of...which is, in turn, often correlated to the well-defined equivalent sandgrain roughness , ks. This research differs in that it uses scaled

  6. Combined experimental and numerical investigations on the roughness effects on the aerodynamic performances of LPT blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrino, Marco; Bigoni, Fabio; Simoni, Daniele; Giovannini, Matteo; Marconcini, Michele; Pacciani, Roberto; Bertini, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    The aerodynamic performance of a high-load low-pressure turbine blade cascade has been analyzed for three different distributed surface roughness levels (Ra) for steady and unsteady inflows. Results from CFD simulations and experiments are presented for two different Reynolds numbers (300000 and 70000 representative of take-off and cruise conditions, respectively) in order to evaluate the roughness effects for two typical operating conditions. Computational fluid dynamics has been used to support and interpret experimental results, analyzing in detail the flow field on the blade surface and evaluating the non-dimensional local roughness parameters, further contributing to understand how and where roughness have some influence on the aerodynamic performance of the blade. The total pressure distributions in the wake region have been measured by means of a five-hole miniaturized pressure probe for the different flow conditions, allowing the evaluation of profile losses and of their dependence on the surface finish, as well as a direct comparison with the simulations. Results reported in the paper clearly highlight that only at the highest Reynolds number tested (Re=300000) surface roughness have some influence on the blade performance, both for steady and unsteady incoming flows. In this flow condition profile losses grow as the surface roughness increases, while no appreciable variations have been found at the lowest Reynolds number. The boundary layer evolution and the wake structure have shown that this trend is due to a thickening of the suction side boundary layer associated to an anticipation of transition process. On the other side, no effects have been observed on the pressure side boundary layer.

  7. A wind tunnel study of the aerodynamic and sand trapping properties of porous mesh 3-dimensional roughness elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, J. A.; Nickling, W. G.; Nikolich, G.; Etyemezian, V.

    2017-04-01

    The aerodynamic drag properties and sand trapping effectiveness of porous roughness elements constructed of wire mesh with two geometries, cube/rectangular cylinder and round cylinder were evaluated in a wind tunnel study. Porosity of the mesh was 0.525. Volumetric porosity and permeability were systematically changed by nesting similar shaped but smaller sized forms within the largest forms for both shapes. Drag curves for both forms show dependence on Reynolds number to 70,000, due to the creation of complex transitional flow conditions in different zones within the forms. Length of sand deposits in the lee of the elements scale with permeability of the form and the trapping efficiency for particles within the forms scales with the cumulative area of the surfaces perpendicular to the directions of air flow. The cube/rectangular cylinder form was more effective at trapping sand than the round cylinder forms for the same saltation flux. The demonstrated effect of porosity and cumulative mesh area on aerodynamic drag and sand trapping effectiveness argues convincingly that porous elements have a greater potential than solid elements for modulating the sand flux to a higher degree than solid elements when used in large spatial arrays to control wind erosion.

  8. Aerodynamic roughness measured in the field and simulated in a wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Robert; Greeley, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    This study evaluates how well values of aerodynamic surface roughness, z sub 0, measured over scale models in wind tunnels correlate with values of z sub 0 measured at full scale in the field. A field experiment was conducted in which values of z sub 0 and u* (wind friction speed) were measured over three arrays of non-erodible roughness elements on a dry lake bed. Wind profiles were measured by ten anemometers on a 15 m mast under thermally neutral atmospheric conditions. Values of z sub 0 increased from .00014 m (dry lake bed only) to .026 m with increasing roughness element density. The three roughness element arrays were simulated at 1/10 and 1/20 scale in an open-circuit atmospheric boundary-layer wind tunnel. Velocities were measured with a boundary-layer pitot-tube rake from the same relative position within the scale model arrays as the anemometers were relative to the field arrays. Each array at each scale was sampled three times at five freestream velocities. Average values of z sub 0 for each model array at each scale were compared with full-scale values of z sub 0 obtained in the field. The field vs. wind tunnel correspondence of z sub 0 is found to be z sub 0 field = 0.2661 x (z sub(0 model) x scale(exp -1))exp .8159.

  9. A wind tunnel evaluation of methods for estimating surface roughness length at industrial facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Ronald L.

    This paper discusses three objective methods for estimating surface roughness length based on the physical dimensions of structures or obstructions at a refinery (or other industrial sites of interest). The three methods are referred to as the Lettau method, simplified Counihan method, and Counihan method. These three methods were evaluated using five wind tunnel databases. The databases consisted of scale models of three refineries and two uniform roughness configurations. Velocity profiles were measured in the wind tunnel over these refinery models and roughness configurations, and were subsequently analyzed to estimate the surface roughness, z0. Seven different methods were used to estimate surface roughness from the velocity profiles and a wide range of z0 estimates was obtained from these methods. Only two of the methods were deemed adequate for estimating surface roughness length for situations with large roughness elements and where a change of roughness has occurred. These two methods were selected to represent 'true' estimates of the surface roughness length for the modeled refineries and roughness configurations. A statistical evaluation of the predicted (Lettau, simplified Counihan and Counihan) and observed surface roughness lengths was then carried out using a statistical analysis program developed by the American Petroleum Institute (API). The results of the evaluation showed that the Lettau method provides a good estimate (within a factor of 0.5-1.5 at the 95% confidence interval) of surface roughness length and one that is better than the other methods tested.

  10. Roughness length estimation over a complex topography under different wind conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falocchi, Marco; Barontini, Stefano; Ranzi, Roberto

    2013-04-01

    The choice of a representative value of the roughness length (z0) is a key aspect to estimate the momentum flux in the lowest atmosphere layer by means of traditional micrometeorological methods. In complex terrains however the orography and the non-uniform land use around the measurement point affect both the winds regime, their turbulent characteristics and therefore the estimate of the representative roughness length as well. Aiming at better characterising this parameter in view of hydrological water-balance applications in complex mountain environments, a micrometeorological station equipped with eddy covariance devices was installed during summer 2012 at Cividate Camuno (Oglio river basin, Central Italian Alps, 274ma.s.l.). The soil of the experimental site was a lawn covered with 0.6m-grass for most of the field campaign duration, and with about 0.1m during the last days. The wind analyses detected an alternation between two main wind regimes: an Eastern katabatic wind blowing daily since 8 pm until 5 am and a local South-Western wind, called Óra, rising the valley from Lake Iseo in the afternoon. Secondary and less frequent drainage conditions were also detected. The aerodynamic drag coefficients (CD) were calculated from the 30 minutes-averaged turbulent momentum flux and for eight different equally spaced wind direction classes. According to the von Kàrmàn logaritmic law for the vertical wind speed profile and to the universal stability functions of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, the z0 was then estimated. The obtained values show a sensitivity to the wind directions, but they seems not to be strongly influenced by the landcover variations.

  11. Aerodynamic performance of transonic and subsonic airfoils: Effects of surface roughness, turbulence intensity, Mach number, and streamline curvature-airfoil shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang

    The effects of surface roughness, turbulence intensity, Mach number, and streamline curvature-airfoil shape on the aerodynamic performance of turbine airfoils are investigated in compressible, high speed flows. The University of Utah Transonic Wind Tunnel is employed for the experimental part of the study. Two different test sections are designed to produce Mach numbers, Reynolds numbers, passage mass flow rates, and physical dimensions, which match values along turbine blades in operating engines: (i) a nonturning test section with a symmetric airfoil, and (ii) a cascade test section with a cambered turbine vane. The nonuniform, irregular, three-dimensional surface roughness is characterized using the equivalent sand grain roughness size. Changing the airfoil surface roughness condition has a substantial effect on wake profiles of total pressure loss coefficients, normalized Mach number, normalized kinetic energy, and on the normalized and dimensional magnitudes of Integrated Aerodynamic Losses produced by the airfoils. Comparisons with results for a symmetric airfoil and a cambered vane show that roughness has more substantial effects on losses produced by the symmetric airfoil than the cambered vane. Data are also provided that illustrate the larger loss magnitudes are generally present with flow turning and cambered airfoils, than with symmetric airfoils. Wake turbulence structure of symmetric airfoils and cambered vanes are also studied experimentally. The effects of surface roughness and freestream turbulence levels on wake distributions of mean velocity, turbulence intensity, and power spectral density profiles and vortex shedding frequencies are quantified one axial chord length downstream of the test airfoils. As the level of surface roughness increases, all wake profile quantities broaden significantly and nondimensional vortex shedding frequencies decrease. Wake profiles produced by the symmetric airfoil are more sensitive to variations of surface

  12. Aerodynamic roughness of ice surfaces derived from high resolution topographic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Mark; Quincey, Duncan; Dixon, Timothy; Bingham, Robert; Carrivick, Jonathan; Irvine-Fynn, Tristram; Rippin, David

    2016-04-01

    The aerodynamic roughness of glacier surfaces is an important component of energy balance models and meltwater runoff estimates through its influence on turbulent fluxes of latent and sensible heat. In a warming climate these fluxes are predicted to become more significant in contributing to overall melt volumes. Ice aerodynamic roughness (z0) is commonly estimated from measurements of ice surface microtopography, typically from topographic profiles taken perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction. Recent advances in surveying permit rapid acquisition of high resolution topographic data allowing revision of assumptions underlying conventional topographic profile-based z0 measurement. This poster presents alternative methods of estimating z0 directly from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) or three-dimensional point clouds, and examines the spatial and temporal variability of z0 across the ablation zone of a small Arctic glacier. Using Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry to survey ice surfaces with millimeter-scale accuracy, z0 variation over three orders of magnitude was observed but was unrelated to large scale topographic variables such as elevation or slope. Different surface-types demonstrated different temporal trajectories in z0 through three days of intense melt, though the observed temporal z0 variability was lower than the spatial variability. A glacier-scale topographic model was obtained through Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and sub-grid roughness was significantly related to z0 calculated from a 2 m resolution DEM. Thus, glacier scale TLS or SfM surveys can characterize z0 variability over a glacier surface and allow distributed representations of z0 in surface energy balance models.

  13. Aerodynamic roughness of glacial ice surfaces derived from high-resolution topographic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Mark W.; Quincey, Duncan J.; Dixon, Timothy; Bingham, Robert G.; Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Irvine-Fynn, Tristram D. L.; Rippin, David M.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents new methods of estimating the aerodynamic roughness (z0) of glacier ice directly from three-dimensional point clouds and digital elevation models (DEMs), examines temporal variability of z0, and presents the first fully distributed map of z0 estimates across the ablation zone of an Arctic glacier. The aerodynamic roughness of glacier ice surfaces is an important component of energy balance models and meltwater runoff estimates through its influence on turbulent fluxes of latent and sensible heat. In a warming climate these fluxes are predicted to become more significant in contributing to overall melt volumes. Ice z0 is commonly estimated from measurements of ice surface microtopography, typically from topographic profiles taken perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction. Recent advances in surveying permit rapid acquisition of high-resolution topographic data allowing revision of assumptions underlying conventional z0 measurement. Using Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetry with Multi-View Stereo (MVS) to survey ice surfaces with millimeter-scale accuracy, z0 variation over 3 orders of magnitude was observed. Different surface types demonstrated different temporal trajectories in z0 through 3 days of intense melt. A glacier-scale 2 m resolution DEM was obtained through terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), and subgrid roughness was significantly related to plot-scale z0. Thus, we show for the first time that glacier-scale TLS or SfM-MVS surveys can characterize z0 variability over a glacier surface potentially leading to distributed representations of z0 in surface energy balance models.

  14. Entrainment of radio frequency chaff by wind as a function of surface aerodynamic roughness.

    PubMed

    Gillies, John A; Nickling, William G

    2003-02-01

    Radio frequency (RF) chaff (approximately 2-cm x 25-microm diameter aluminum-coated glass silicate cylinders) released by military aircraft during testing and training activities has the potential to become entrained by wind upon settling to the Earth's surface. Once entrained from the surface there is the potential for RF chaff to be abraded and produce PM10 and PM2.5, which are regulated pollutants and pose health concerns. A series of portable wind tunnel tests were carried out to examine the propensity of RF chaff to become entrained by wind by defining the relationship between the threshold friction velocity of RF chaff (u(*t RF chaff)) and aerodynamic roughness (z(o)) of surfaces onto which it may deposit. The test surfaces were of varying roughness including types near the Naval Air Station (NAS), Fallon, NV, where RF chaff is released. The u(*t) of this fibrous material ranged from 0.14 m/sec for a smooth playa to 0.82 m/sec for a rough crusted playa surface with larger cobble-sized (approximately 6-26-cm diameter) rocks rising above the surface. The u(*t RF chaff) is dependent on the z(o) of the surface onto which it falls as well as the physical characteristics of the roughness. The wind regime of Fallon would allow for chaff suspension events to occur should it settle on typical surfaces in the area. However, the wind climatology of this area makes the probability of such events relatively low.

  15. Estimation of Aerodynamic Roughness and Zero Plane Displacement Using Medium Density of Airborne LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Salleh, M. R.; Rahman, M. Z. Abdul; Abu Bakar, M. A.; Rasib, A. W.; Omar, H.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a framework to estimate aerodynamic roughness over specific height (zo/H) and zero plane displacement (d/H) over various landscapes in Kelantan State using airborne LiDAR data. The study begins with the filtering of airborne LiDAR, which produced ground and non-ground points. The ground points were used to generate digital terrain model (DTM) while the non-ground points were used for digital surface model (DSM) generation. Canopy height model (CHM) was generated by subtracting DTM from DSM. Individual trees in the study area were delineated by applying the Inverse Watershed segmentation method on the CHM. Forest structural parameters including tree height, height to crown base (HCB) and diameter at breast height (DBH) were estimated using existing allometric equations. The airborne LiDAR data was divided into smaller areas, which correspond to the size of the zo/H and d/H maps i.e. 50 m and 100 m. For each area individual tree were reconstructed based on the tree properties, which accounts overlapping between crowns and trunks. The individual tree models were used to estimate individual tree frontal area and the total frontal area over a specific ground surface. Finally, three roughness models were used to estimate zo/H and d/H for different wind directions, which were assumed from North/South and East/West directions. The results were shows good agreements with previous studies that based on the wind tunnel experiments.

  16. Predicting the roughness length of turbulent flows over landscapes with multi-scale microtopography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, J. D.; Field, J. P.

    2015-10-01

    The fully rough form of the law of the wall is commonly used to quantify velocity profiles and associated bed shear stresses in fluvial, aeolian, and coastal environments. A key parameter in this law is the roughness length, z0. Here we propose a predictive formula for z0 that uses the amplitude and slope of each wavelength of microtopography within a discrete-Fourier-transform-based approach. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling is used to quantify the effective z0 value of sinusoidal microtopography as a function of the amplitude and slope. The effective z0 value of landscapes with multi-scale roughness is then given by the sum of contributions from each Fourier mode of the microtopography. Predictions of the equation are tested against z0 values measured in ~105 wind velocity profiles from southwestern US playa surfaces. Our equation is capable of predicting z0 values to 50 % accuracy, on average, across a four order-of-magnitude range.

  17. The effective slip length and vortex formation in laminar flow over a rough surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niavarani, Anoosheh; Priezjev, Nikolai

    2008-11-01

    The flow of viscous incompressible fluid over a periodically corrugated surface is considered by the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation. We define the effective slip length with respect to the level of the mean height of the surface roughness. With increasing corrugation amplitude the effective no-slip boundary plane is shifted towards the bulk of the fluid what implies a negative effective slip length. Analysis of the flow streamlines shows that a flow circulation is developed in the grooves of the rough surface provided that the local boundary condition is no-slip. By applying a local slip boundary condition, the location of vortex is displaced towards the bottom the grooves and the effective slip length increases. For values of the local slip length larger than the period of the surface corrugation, the vortical structure disappears, the flow streamlines are deformed to follow the surface curvature, and the effective slip length saturates to a constant value. Inertial effects promote vortex flow formation in the grooves and reduce the effective slip length.

  18. The effective slip length and vortex formation in laminar flow over a rough surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niavarani, Anoosheh; Priezjev, Nikolai V.

    2009-05-01

    The flow of viscous incompressible fluid over a periodically corrugated surface is investigated numerically by solving the Navier-Stokes equation with the local slip and no-slip boundary conditions. We consider the effective slip length which is defined with respect to the level of the mean height of the surface roughness. With increasing corrugation amplitude the effective no-slip boundary plane is shifted toward the bulk of the fluid, which implies a negative effective slip length. The analysis of the wall shear stress indicates that a flow circulation is developed in the grooves of the rough surface provided that the local boundary condition is no-slip. By applying a local slip boundary condition, the center of the vortex is displaced toward the bottom of the grooves and the effective slip length increases. When the intrinsic slip length is larger than the corrugation amplitude, the flow streamlines near the surface are deformed to follow the boundary curvature, the vortex vanishes, and the effective slip length saturates to a constant value. Inertial effects promote vortex flow formation in the grooves and reduce the effective slip length.

  19. Effect of milling machine roughness and wing dihedral on the supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of a highly swept wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darden, Christine M.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to assess the effect of surface finish on the longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics of a highly-swept wing at supersonic speeds. A study of the effects of wing dihedral was also made. Included in the tests were four wing models: three models having 22.5 degrees of outboard dihedral, identical except for surface finish, and a zero-dihedral, smooth model of the same planform for reference. Of the three dihedral models, two were taken directly from the milling machine without smoothing: one having a maximum scallop height of 0.002 inches and the other a maximum scallop height of 0.005 inches. The third dihedral model was handfinished to a smooth surface. Tests were conducted in Test Section 1 of the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at NASA-Langley over a range of Mach numbers from 1.8 to 2.8, a range of angle of attack from -5 to 8 degrees, and at a Reynolds numbers per foot of 2 x 10(6). Selected data were also taken at a Reynolds number per foot of 6 x 10(6). Drag coefficient increases, with corresponding lift-drag ratio decreases were the primary aerodynamic effects attributed to increased surface roughness due to milling machine grooves. These drag and lift-drag ratio increments due to roughness increased as Reynolds number increased.

  20. Modeling the energy balance in Marseille: Sensitivity to roughness length parameterizations and thermal admittance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demuzere, M.; De Ridder, K.; van Lipzig, N. P. M.

    2008-08-01

    During the ESCOMPTE campaign (Experience sur Site pour COntraindre les Modeles de Pollution atmospherique et de Transport d'Emissions), a 4-day intensive observation period was selected to evaluate the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS), a nonhydrostatic meteorological mesoscale model that was optimized with a parameterization for thermal roughness length to better represent urban surfaces. The evaluation shows that the ARPS model is able to correctly reproduce temperature, wind speed, and direction for one urban and two rural measurements stations. Furthermore, simulated heat fluxes show good agreement compared to the observations, although simulated sensible heat fluxes were initially too low for the urban stations. In order to improve the latter, different roughness length parameterization schemes were tested, combined with various thermal admittance values. This sensitivity study showed that the Zilitinkevich scheme combined with and intermediate value of thermal admittance performs best.

  1. Roughness distribution of multiple hit and long surface diffusion length noise reduced discrete growth models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disrattakit, P.; Chanphana, R.; Chatraphorn, P.

    2016-11-01

    Conventionally, the universality class of a discrete growth model is identified via the scaling of interface width. This method requires large-scale simulations to minimize finite-size effects on the results. The multiple hit noise reduction techniques (m > 1 NRT) and the long surface diffusion length noise reduction techniques (ℓ > 1 NRT) have been used to promote the asymptotic behaviors of the growth models. Lately, an alternative method involving comparison of roughness distribution in the steady state has been proposed. In this work, the roughness distribution of the (2 +1)-dimensional Das Sarma-Tamborenea (DT), Wolf-Villain (WV), and Larger Curvature (LC) models, with and without NRTs, are calculated in order to investigate effects of the NRTs on the roughness distribution. Additionally, effective growth exponents of the noise reduced (2 +1)-dimensional DT, WV and LC models are also calculated. Our results indicate that the NRTs affect the interface width both in the growth and the saturation regimes. In the steady state, the NRTs do not seem to have any impact on the roughness distribution of the DT model, but it significantly changes the roughness distribution of the WV and LC models to the normal distribution curves.

  2. The impacts of thermal roughness length on land surface climate in IPSL-CM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wand, Fuxing; Cheruy, Frédérique; Vuichard, Nicolas; Sima, Adriana; Hourdin, Frederic

    2016-04-01

    The aerodynamic and thermal roughness lengths (z0m and z0h) are the two crucial parameters for bulk transfer equations to calculate turbulent flux. The exchange of momentum is usually different with scalars as heat (or water vapor, carbon dioxide, traces gas). In general, the transport of scalars (by molecular diffusion) is considered less efficient than momentum (by pressure fluctuations), owing to the absence of bluff-body forces for scalar exchange. However, the z0h and z0m are equal in the current IPSL-CM model. The objective of the study is to investigate the impacts of z0h parameterizations on the land surface climate. Several sensitivity experiments that accounting for different z0h and z0m are carried out with IPSL-CM: (1) z0h = z0m/10; (2) z0h = z0m/100; (3) a more physically based z0h parameterizations. A nudging approach is used in order to avoid the time-consuming long-term simulations required to account for the natural variability of the climate. The results show that the seasonal mean surface temperature (Ts) increases 0.5-1 K (for z0h = z0m/10) and 1-2 K (for z0h = z0m/100) over JJA due to the decrease of z0h. The most significant variation is over the Sahara. During the daytime, the increase of Ts (around 1-2 K) is higher than the air temperature (Tair, ~0.2 K) for z0h = z0m/10. During the night time, the increase of Ts and Tair are very close (around 0.3-0.6 K) for z0h = z0m/10. The asymmetric variation of Tair during night and day causes a decrease (~0.3 K for z0h = z0m/10; ~0.6 K for z0h = z0m/100) of diurnal temperature range (DTR). The seasonal mean sensible heat flux decreases by ~4-6 W/m2 (for z0h = z0m/10) with the decrease of z0h as well. The change of latent heat flux is the most significant over the tropics with the seasonal mean decrease of 4-8 W/m2 for z0h = z0m/10 over both JJA and DJF. Besides the change of mean climate, the human thermal comfort is also affected by z0h. A smaller z0h corresponds to a higher wet-bulb temperature

  3. Atmospheric sensitivity to roughness length in a regional atmospheric model over the Ohio-Tennessee River Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintanar, Arturo I.; Mahmood, Rezaul; Suarez, Astrid; Leeper, Ronnie

    2016-06-01

    The response of a regional atmospheric model to small changes in roughness length of two vegetation categories (crops and deciduous broadleaf forest) was analyzed for three synoptic events in June 2006. These were characterized by two convective events (June 11 and 22) and one prefrontal event (June 17). The responses of the model, for precipitation, equivalent potential temperature and wind field were notable in general. However, the response became muted as roughness lengths were increased or decreased. Atmospheric response to these changes varied for different convective events. A small dependence on roughness length was found for the sensible and latent heat fluxes and planetary boundary layer heights during the convective event of June 11. For the June 22 event, the model response was weaker for the crop-only and forest-only roughness length experiments compared to the response when both the crop and forest-only roughness length were changed in combination.

  4. Estimates of bottom roughness length and bottom shear stress in South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, R.T.; Ling, C.-H.; Gartner, J.W.; Wang, P.-F.

    1999-01-01

    A field investigation of the hydrodynamics and the resuspension and transport of participate matter in a bottom boundary layer was carried out in South San Francisco Bay (South Bay), California, during March-April 1995. Using broadband acoustic Doppler current profilers, detailed measurements of turbulent mean velocity distribution within 1.5 m above bed have been obtained. A global method of data analysis was used for estimating bottom roughness length zo and bottom shear stress (or friction velocities u*). Field data have been examined by dividing the time series of velocity profiles into 24-hour periods and independently analyzing the velocity profile time series by flooding and ebbing periods. The global method of solution gives consistent properties of bottom roughness length zo and bottom shear stress values (or friction velocities u*) in South Bay. Estimated mean values of zo and u* for flooding and ebbing cycles are different. The differences in mean zo and u* are shown to be caused by tidal current flood-ebb inequality, rather than the flooding or ebbing of tidal currents. The bed shear stress correlates well with a reference velocity; the slope of the correlation defines a drag coefficient. Forty-three days of field data in South Bay show two regimes of zo (and drag coefficient) as a function of a reference velocity. When the mean velocity is >25-30 cm s-1, the ln zo (and thus the drag coefficient) is inversely proportional to the reference velocity. The cause for the reduction of roughness length is hypothesized as sediment erosion due to intensifying tidal currents thereby reducing bed roughness. When the mean velocity is <25-30 cm s-1, the correlation between zo and the reference velocity is less clear. A plausible explanation of scattered values of zo under this condition may be sediment deposition. Measured sediment data were inadequate to support this hypothesis, but the proposed hypothesis warrants further field investigation.

  5. Fracture Permeability and Specific Stiffness Relations Across Varying Fracture Roughness and Aperture Correlation Length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Cardenas, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    The coupling between hydraulic and mechanical properties of porous and fractured geologic media are critical for many geophysical processes and practical applications. Thus, the prediction of linkage between these properties are broadly important. Here we present a parameterized model that links fracture permeability and specific stiffness with scaling coefficients dependent on fracture roughness and correlation length. The model was developed empirically from results of modeling the deformation and flow through synthetic fractures with aperture fields that follow a normal distribution. The fractures were subjected to increasing normal stress and deformed follow an elastic model. Specific stiffness was directly quantified from these numerical experiments with resultant displacement. Moreover, intrinsic permeability was estimated through calculation of the local flow field while considering effects of local fracture roughness and tortuosity through the modified Local Cubic Law. We found that fracture displacement increases non-linearly with applied normal stress, while specific stiffness is expectedly proportional to normal stress. Most importantly, permeability decreases exponentially with increasing specific stiffness following different deformation paths depending mainly on fracture roughness rather than correlation length. Based on the calculated permeability and specific stiffness, we propose an empirical model that predicts a clustered linkage between specific stiffness and permeability. The model can capture the transition from effective medium to percolation flow regimes with increasing specific stiffness.

  6. Roughness of fault surfaces over a length-scale range from nano- to milimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishida, M.; Mizoguchi, K.; Takahashi, M.; Hirose, T.

    2014-12-01

    Fault-surface roughness is one of the primary factors affecting the mechanics of earthquakes and faulting. We report on the topographic roughness measurements on two natural fault surfaces with a continuous length-scale range from 1 nm to 3 mm. The fault surfaces observed in this study include (1) the Corona Heights fault in the Castro Area of San Francisco, detail microstructures reported by Kirkpatrick et al., (2013), and (2) the Itozawa fault in Fukushima prefecture, a fault moved just after the 2011 Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku earthquake. To measure fault surface to we performed line-measurements both parallel and perpendicular to the slickenlines using two scanner devices; a confocal white-light scanning microscope (measurable range: 0.15 ˜ 3000 μm) and a scanning probe microscope (1 ˜ 50000 nm). The topographic properties of the measured surfaces were expressed either as a Hurst exponent (H) which are calculated from Power Spectrum Density (PSD) of topography data. The measurements revealed that the Corona Heights fault and the Itozawa fault exhibit a similar geometrical property, a linear behavior on a log-log plot where axes are PSD and spatial length scale. A slope of the log-log plot, H, of the Corona Heights fault and the Itozawa fault shows HN = 0.76 ± 0.01 perpendicular to the slickenslide and HP = 0.84 ± 0.01 parallel to it, and HN = 0.88 ± 0.01 and HP = 0.91 ± 0.01, respectively. The measurements on both faults show HP are higher than HN, which is inconsistent with previous results that HP is small compared to HN because surface roughness in the slip direction becomes less pronounced selectively with progressive displacement. (e.g., Sagy et al., 2007). There is a hypotheses that explain the difference that HP and HN are undifferentiated with displacement in the length-scale range from 1 nm to 3 mm. Candela et al., (2012) measured roughness of 13 earthquake fault surfaces and suggested that the fault geometry can be expressed as a single

  7. Predicting the roughness length of turbulent flows over landscapes with multi-scale microtopography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Jon D.; Field, Jason P.

    2016-05-01

    The fully rough form of the law of the wall is commonly used to quantify velocity profiles and associated bed shear stresses in fluvial, aeolian, and coastal environments. A key parameter in this law is the roughness length, z0. Here we propose a predictive formula for z0 that uses the amplitude and slope of each wavelength of microtopography within a discrete-Fourier-transform-based approach. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling is used to quantify the effective z0 value of sinusoidal microtopography as a function of the amplitude and slope. The effective z0 value of landscapes with multi-scale roughness is then given by the sum of contributions from each Fourier mode of the microtopography. Predictions of the equation are tested against z0 values measured in ˜ 105 wind-velocity profiles from southwestern US playa surfaces. Our equation is capable of predicting z0 values to 50 % accuracy, on average, across a 4 order of magnitude range. We also use our results to provide an alternative formula that, while somewhat less accurate than the one obtained from a full multi-scale analysis, has an advantage of being simpler and easier to apply.

  8. Groove depth measurements on roughness reference standards of the Croatian National Laboratory for Length (LFSB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baršić, Gorana; Mahović, Sanjin; Bartolo Picotto, Gian; Amer, Mohamed A.; Runje, Biserka

    2011-09-01

    In the Laboratory for Precise Measurements of Length, LFSB, which is now the Croatian National Laboratory for Length, unique roughness reference standards were developed in the year 1986. Because of the world-class quality of those standards and their measuring features, the same were sold in several European countries, and today they, among others, are used as roughness reference standards in Italy, Slovenia and Croatia. However, especially in the last decade, there was significant progress in the field of nanotechnology that led to the development of new measuring equipment. The above-mentioned standards due to their size, production technology and measuring features cannot fully meet metrological requirements in the field of nanometrology, i.e. they are not compatible with scanning probe microscopes. Therefore, it was decided to search for possible limitations in the procedure of groove depth measurements on the LFSB standards. In order to include as many measuring devices as possible, i.e. measurement methods, in this research, in 2008 the LFSB launched EURAMET Project 1012 'Limitations of methods for measuring the depth of the groove' in collaboration with national metrology institutes of Italy and Egypt. In this paper the results of measurements performed within the project are presented, and based on the obtained results, the advantages and limitations of the LFSB standards have been discussed, with recommendations for their improvement.

  9. Displacement Height and Roughness Length of Forests - Are They Really Dependent on Stability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mölder, M.; Lindroth, A.

    2015-12-01

    Displacement height d and roughness length zo are two important parameters in a commonly used Obukhov-Monin similarity-theory wind-profile formulation. These parameters have historically been considered to be properties of the underlying surface. A few studies have pointed out that d and zo for tall vegetation, like forest, are also dependent on stability. Since d and zo are defined by the semi-logarithmic law, the most strict determination of them would be based on the upper part of the surface layer, which is free of roughness sublayer effects. Often the displacement height is determined from the wind profile inside the stand. The present study makes use of measurements with 14 3D sonic anemometers (Metek) in the Norunda forest in Sweden. This site is dominated by pine with trees up to 26 m tall. The sonics were mounted at 1.8, 4.4, 9.5, 14.8, 20.8, 26.6, 29.6, 32.7, 37.9, 44.7, 59.5, 74, 88.5 and 101.8 m heights. Data from two summer seasons, 2014 and 2015, were used in the current analysis. A serious complication was that the momentum and sensible heat fluxes were rarely constant with height. Also, during nighttime profiles appeared with nearly constant wind speed in the upper part of the profile. In our analysis, the Obukhov length was calculated from friction velocity and sensible heat flux averaged for 26.6, 29.6 and 32.7 m. The mean friction velocity and Obukhov length were then used in the profile formulation. Displacement height giving the best match to the measured data at 44.7, 59.5, 74, 88.5 and 101.8 m was searched for. This method gave extremely erratic results. Alternatively, d was estimated using the exponential law with measurement heights 9.5, 14.8, 20.8 and 26.6 m giving d close to 22 m with a tendency of slightly increasing d towards more stable situations, but with large uncertainty. We then used a constant d of 22 m in the upper part of the profile and this resulted in zo of about 2.5 m. A small tendency of lower zo could be observed for very

  10. Effect of Length-Beam Ratio on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Flying-Boat Hulls without Wing Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, John G.; Riebe, John M.

    1948-01-01

    Contains experimental results of an investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of a family of flying boat hulls of length beam ratios 6, 9, 12, and 15 without wing interference. The results are compared with those taken on the same family of hulls in the presence of a wing.

  11. Developing a swell-dependent surface roughness length for atmosphere-wave-ocean coupled models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutgersson, Anna; Wu, Lichuan

    2014-05-01

    When modelling the atmosphere and the ocean it is of crucial importance to correctly describe the boundary conditions. The atmospheric-ocean boundary is an important source of turbulence and there is a significant exchange of momentum, heat and moisture. The marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) has a considerable impact on global climate atmospheric models as 70 % of the global surface is covered with water. For regional scale models with higher resolution correctly described coupling of spheres is of particular importance in coastal regions due to the greater variability of several parameters. Surface waves can be divided into growing sea (young sea) and decaying sea (swell) with very different impact on the atmosphere. The situation with decaying sea and low wave height has in several experimental investigations been shown to give significantly lower friction at the surface as well as altered wind profiles and atmospheric turbulence. New results using data taken outside Hawaii shows that for high swell waves, wind profiles and turbulence properties are altered similarly as for low swell waves, but the surface friction is significantly enhanced (Rutgersson et al, 2010; Högström et al., 2009; 2012; Smedman et al., 2009). We use a three component regional climate modelling system to investigate the changed surface roughness description. The model covers northern Europe and model components include the atmosphere model RCA (Rossby Centre Climate model), WAM wave model and NEMO ocean model for the Baltic and North Seas. Presently the coupling is focused on introducing wave impact on the atmosphere. Sea surface roughness length is improved to take the variable swell properties into account. Roughness length is expressed in terms of the wave age and significant swell wave height. The impact of improved roughness length on surface fluxes and wind field is investigated as well as the impact on secondary parameters. Högström, U., A. Smedman, E. Sahleé, W

  12. Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Flying-Boat Hull Having a Length-Beam Ratio of 15, TED No. NACA 2206

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riebe, John M.; Naeseth, Rodger L.

    1951-01-01

    An investigation was made in the Langley 300 MPH 7- by 10-foot tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a flying-boat hull of a length-beam ratio of 15 in the presence of a wing. The investigation was an extension of previous tests made on hulls of length-beam ratios of 6, 9, and 12; these hulls were designed to have approximately the same hydrodynamic performance with respect to spray and resistance characteristics. Comparison with the previous investigation at lower length-beam ratios indicated a reduction in minimum drag coefficients of 0.0006 (10 peroent)with fixed transition when the length-beam ratio was extended from 12 to 15. As with the hulls of lower length-beam ratio, the drag reduction with a length-beam ratio of 15 occurred throughout the range of angle of attack tested and the angle of attack for minimum drag was in the range from 2deg to 3deg. Increasing the length-beam ratio from 12 to 15 reduced the hull longitudinal instability by an mount corresponding to an aerodynamic-center shift of about 1/2 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord of the hypothetical flying boat. At an angle of attack of 2deg, the value of the variation of yawing-moment coefficient with angle of yaw for a length-beam ratio of 15 was 0.00144, which was 0.00007 larger than the value for a length-beam ratio of 12.

  13. Application of a roughness-length representation to parameterize energy loss in 3-D numerical simulations of large rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandbach, S. D.; Lane, S. N.; Hardy, R. J.; Amsler, M. L.; Ashworth, P. J.; Best, J. L.; Nicholas, A. P.; Orfeo, O.; Parsons, D. R.; Reesink, A. J. H.; Szupiany, R. N.

    2012-12-01

    Recent technological advances in remote sensing have enabled investigation of the morphodynamics and hydrodynamics of large rivers. However, measuring topography and flow in these very large rivers is time consuming and thus often constrains the spatial resolution and reach-length scales that can be monitored. Similar constraints exist for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies of large rivers, requiring maximization of mesh- or grid-cell dimensions and implying a reduction in the representation of bedform-roughness elements that are of the order of a model grid cell or less, even if they are represented in available topographic data. These "subgrid" elements must be parameterized, and this paper applies and considers the impact of roughness-length treatments that include the effect of bed roughness due to "unmeasured" topography. CFD predictions were found to be sensitive to the roughness-length specification. Model optimization was based on acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements and estimates of the water surface slope for a variety of roughness lengths. This proved difficult as the metrics used to assess optimal model performance diverged due to the effects of large bedforms that are not well parameterized in roughness-length treatments. However, the general spatial flow patterns are effectively predicted by the model. Changes in roughness length were shown to have a major impact upon flow routing at the channel scale. The results also indicate an absence of secondary flow circulation cells in the reached studied, and suggest simpler two-dimensional models may have great utility in the investigation of flow within large rivers.

  14. Pollutant Dispersion in Boundary Layers Exposed to Rural-to-Urban Transitions: Varying the Spanwise Length Scale of the Roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomas, J. M.; Eisma, H. E.; Pourquie, M. J. B. M.; Elsinga, G. E.; Jonker, H. J. J.; Westerweel, J.

    2017-01-01

    Both large-eddy simulations (LES) and water-tunnel experiments, using simultaneous stereoscopic particle image velocimetry and laser-induced fluorescence, have been used to investigate pollutant dispersion mechanisms in regions where the surface changes from rural to urban roughness. The urban roughness was characterized by an array of rectangular obstacles in an in-line arrangement. The streamwise length scale of the roughness was kept constant, while the spanwise length scale was varied by varying the obstacle aspect ratio l / h between 1 and 8, where l is the spanwise dimension of the obstacles and h is the height of the obstacles. Additionally, the case of two-dimensional roughness (riblets) was considered in LES. A smooth-wall turbulent boundary layer of depth 10h was used as the approaching flow, and a line source of passive tracer was placed 2h upstream of the urban canopy. The experimental and numerical results show good agreement, while minor discrepancies are readily explained. It is found that for l/h=2 the drag induced by the urban canopy is largest of all considered cases, and is caused by a large-scale secondary flow. In addition, due to the roughness transition the vertical advective pollutant flux is the main ventilation mechanism in the first three streets. Furthermore, by means of linear stochastic estimation the mean flow structure is identified that is responsible for street-canyon ventilation for the sixth street and onwards. Moreover, it is shown that the vertical length scale of this structure increases with increasing aspect ratio of the obstacles in the canopy, while the streamwise length scale does not show a similar trend.

  15. An estimate of the roughness length and displacement height of Sonoran Desert vegetation, south-central Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Claassen, H.C.; Riggs, A.C.

    1993-12-01

    A somewhat unconventional technique using a tethered balloon was used to estimate the roughness length for momentum (z{sub m}) and displacement height (d) for typical Sonoran Desert vegetation. It has been suggested that measurements of the meteorological fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, and latent heat are best done at heights above ground level determined by either the roughness length (z{sub m}) or the size and shape of vegetation. Therefore, estimates of z{sub m} and vegetation characteristics are a desirable prerequisite to developing a flux-measurement protocol. Because the literature contains little information on z{sub m} for Sonoran Desert vegetation, it is desirable to measure z{sub m} and the displacement height (d) associated with Sonoran Desert vegetation.

  16. Effects of Nanowire Length and Surface Roughness on the Electrochemical Sensor Properties of Nafion-Free, Vertically Aligned Pt Nanowire Array Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiyang; Leung, Calvin; Gao, Fan; Gu, Zhiyong

    2015-09-04

    In this paper, vertically aligned Pt nanowire arrays (PtNWA) with different lengths and surface roughnesses were fabricated and their electrochemical performance toward hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) detection was studied. The nanowire arrays were synthesized by electroplating Pt in nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template. Different parameters, such as current density and deposition time, were precisely controlled to synthesize nanowires with different surface roughnesses and various lengths from 3 μm to 12 μm. The PtNWA electrodes showed better performance than the conventional electrodes modified by Pt nanowires randomly dispersed on the electrode surface. The results indicate that both the length and surface roughness can affect the sensing performance of vertically aligned Pt nanowire array electrodes. Generally, longer nanowires with rougher surfaces showed better electrochemical sensing performance. The 12 μm rough surface PtNWA presented the largest sensitivity (654 μA·mM⁻¹·cm⁻²) among all the nanowires studied, and showed a limit of detection of 2.4 μM. The 12 μm rough surface PtNWA electrode also showed good anti-interference property from chemicals that are typically present in the biological samples such as ascorbic, uric acid, citric acid, and glucose. The sensing performance in real samples (river water) was tested and good recovery was observed. These Nafion-free, vertically aligned Pt nanowires with surface roughness control show great promise as versatile electrochemical sensors and biosensors.

  17. Effects of Nanowire Length and Surface Roughness on the Electrochemical Sensor Properties of Nafion-Free, Vertically Aligned Pt Nanowire Array Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiyang; Leung, Calvin; Gao, Fan; Gu, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, vertically aligned Pt nanowire arrays (PtNWA) with different lengths and surface roughnesses were fabricated and their electrochemical performance toward hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection was studied. The nanowire arrays were synthesized by electroplating Pt in nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template. Different parameters, such as current density and deposition time, were precisely controlled to synthesize nanowires with different surface roughnesses and various lengths from 3 μm to 12 μm. The PtNWA electrodes showed better performance than the conventional electrodes modified by Pt nanowires randomly dispersed on the electrode surface. The results indicate that both the length and surface roughness can affect the sensing performance of vertically aligned Pt nanowire array electrodes. Generally, longer nanowires with rougher surfaces showed better electrochemical sensing performance. The 12 μm rough surface PtNWA presented the largest sensitivity (654 μA·mM−1·cm−2) among all the nanowires studied, and showed a limit of detection of 2.4 μM. The 12 μm rough surface PtNWA electrode also showed good anti-interference property from chemicals that are typically present in the biological samples such as ascorbic, uric acid, citric acid, and glucose. The sensing performance in real samples (river water) was tested and good recovery was observed. These Nafion-free, vertically aligned Pt nanowires with surface roughness control show great promise as versatile electrochemical sensors and biosensors. PMID:26404303

  18. Roughness Characterization of and Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow over flat Snow Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromke, C.; Guala, M.; Manes, C.; Walter, B.; Lehning, M.

    2009-12-01

    The surface roughness is essential for all turbulent exchange processes within the lower part of the atmospheric boundary layer. Consequently, a proper representation of the surfaces roughness is needed in every mathematical description of near surface mass-, energy- and momentum exchange processes. Considering the vertical mean velocity profile of turbulent boundary layer flow, this is done by assigning an aerodynamic roughness length z0 to the surface. We followed two procedures to describe the roughness of freshly fallen snow surfaces. First, photographs of snow surfaces have been taken and evaluated using digital image analysis giving snow surface contour line coordinates. Applying structure functions to the snow surface coordinates and statistical fitting procedures, resulted in classes of surface characteristic length scales and scaling exponents. These results allow to identify the deposition process of snow fall as scaling exponents corresponded to that of Ballistic Deposition. Moreover, the resulting characteristic length scales can be assigned to typical particle size and aggregation size length scales consistent with results found by Lowe et al. (2007) and Manes et al. (2008). Second, aerodynamic roughness lengths z0 have been estimated from log-law fitting of velocity profiles over the snow surfaces measured in the SLF cold atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel. The aerodynamic roughness lengths found are in general agreement with available literature data and suggest the presence of aerodynamically rough regimes with flow independent z0. In the synthesis of both approaches, we found evidence for a linear relationship between one class of surface characteristic length scales, which is associated with typical snow particle sizes, and aerodynamic roughness lengths z0. The correlation with the aggregation length scale is weaker for the few (4) samples analyzed thus far. The relatively weak pronounced scale separation between particle and aggregation size

  19. Determination of zero-plane displacement and roughness length of a forest canopy using profiles of limited height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Aloysius Kou-Fang

    1995-09-01

    Flux parameters, zero-plane displancement height and roughness length of a forest canopy are determined taking into consideration a transition layer and atmospheric diabatic influences. The present study, unlike previous studies by DeBruin and Moore (1985) and Lo (1990) that accounted for the velocity profile alone, make use of information from both wind and temperature profiles in formulating the governing equations. However, only the top level measurement is assumed to be within the logarithmic regime. In addition to the mass conservation principle (e.g., Lo, 1990; DeBruin and Moore, 1985), an analytic relationship between the Monin-Obukhov length and the bulk Richardson number is employed as the closure equation for the governing system.The present method is applied to profile measurements taken at Camp Borden (den Hartog and Neumann, 1984) in and above a forest canopy with mean crown height of about 18.5 m. Profile data under neutral or near-neutral conditions yieldedd=12.69 m andz 0=0.97 m, which are realistic values. In general,z 0 increases slightly with increasing wind yet remains relatively constant with respect to small variation of stabilities. On the other hand, increases of wind speed reduced values of displacement height,d, by as much as 50%. The influence, if any, of stability ond, however, is not clear from the results of the present study. The validity of using profile data of limited height is also carefully examined. At least for neutral or near-neutral stabilities, the present method can yield realistic results even though the profile heights are substantially below the transition layer height" suggested by Garratt (1978).

  20. Effect of trunnion roughness and length on the modular taper junction strength under typical intraoperative assembly forces.

    PubMed

    Jauch-Matt, S Y; Miles, A W; Gill, H S

    2017-01-01

    Modular hip implants are at risk of fretting-induced postoperative complications most likely initiated by micromotion between adjacent implant components. A stable fixation between ball head and stem-neck taper is critical to avoid excessive interface motions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the effect of trunnion roughness and length on the modular taper strength under typical intraoperative assembly forces. Custom-made Titanium trunnions (standard/mini taper, smooth/grooved surface finish) were assembled with modular Cobalt-chromium heads by impaction with peak forces ranging from 2kN to 6kN. After each assembly process these were disassembled with a materials testing machine to detect the pull-off force as a measure for the taper strength. As expected, the pull-off forces increased with rising peak assembly force (p < 0.001). For low and moderate assembly forces, smooth standard tapers offered higher pull-off forces compared to grooved tapers (p < 0.038). In the case of an assembly force of 2kN, mini tapers showed a higher taper strength than standard ones (p=0.037). The results of this study showed that smooth tapers provided a higher strength for taper junctions. This higher taper strength may reduce the risk of fretting-related complications especially in the most common range of intraoperative assembly forces.

  1. Effects of surface roughness on the aerodynamic characteristics of the modified 089 B shuttle orbiter at Mach 6 (LA15)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, G. C., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A one hundredth scale model of the modified 089B shuttle orbiter was tested in the Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 tunnel. Force and moment, surface pressure and oilflow data were obtained on one model, and phase-change coating data were obtained on another. The pressure tests were conducted first; the tubes were clipped near the base of the model and then the force and moment and oil flow tests conducted. Angles of attack for the tests were from 20 deg to 35 deg and are commensurate with the range of flight values from entry down to Mach 5. The design flight Reynolds number at Mach 6, based on model length, was 15 million, which could not be obtained in the tunnel; therefore, the tests were conducted at the highest and lowest values for this model in the tunnel, 9.4 million and 4.0 million, respectively, to indicate Reynolds number effects. Two control deflection combinations, representative of the bank and pitch control limits of the design flight trajectory, were used.

  2. Aerodynamics of sports balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, R. D.

    Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.

  3. Aerodynamics of sports balls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.

  4. Investigation of surface roughness and tool wear length with varying combination of depth of cut and feed rate of Aluminium alloy and P20 steel machining.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varmma a/l Suparmaniam, Madan; Razlan Yusoff, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    High-speed milling technique is often used in many industries to boost productivity of the manufacturing of high-technology components. The occurrence of wear highly limits the efficiency and accuracy of high- speed milling operations. In this paper, analysis of high-speed milling process parameters such as material removal rate, cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut carried out by implemented to conventional milling. This experiment investigate the effects of varying combination of depth of cut and feed rate to tool wear rate length using metallurgical microscope and surface roughness using portable surface roughness tester after end milling of Aluminium and P20 steel. Results showed that feed rate significantly influences the surface roughness value while depth of cut does not as the surface roughness value keep increasing with the increase of feed rate and decreasing depth of cut. Whereas, tool wear rate almost remain unchanged indicates that material removal rate strongly contribute the wear rate. It believe that with no significant tool wear rate the results of this experiment are useful by showing that HSM technique is possible to be applied in conventional machine with extra benefits of high productivity, eliminating semi-finishing operation and reducing tool load for finishing.

  5. What is the difference between OASIS and OPERA? Roughly five pixels: orthographic structure biases the perceived length of letter strings.

    PubMed

    Chetail, Fabienne; Content, Alain

    2014-01-01

    A thorough understanding of monosyllabic-word-recognition processes, in contrast with multisyllabic-word processing, has accumulated over the past decades. One fundamental challenge regarding multisyllabic words concerns their parsing into smaller units and the nature of the cues determining the parsing. We propose that the organization of consonant and vowel letters provides powerful cues for parsing, and we present data from a new task showing that a word's orthographic structure, as determined by the number of vowel-letter clusters, influences estimations of its length. Words were briefly presented on a computer screen, and participants had to estimate word length by drawing a line on the screen with the mouse. In three experiments, participants estimated words comprising fewer orthographic units as shorter than words comprising more units even though the words matched for number of letters. Further results demonstrated that the length bias was driven by orthographic information and not by phonological structure.

  6. Quantifying surface roughness over debris covered ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quincey, Duncan; Rounce, David; Ross, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Aerodynamic roughness length (z0) remains a major uncertainty when determining turbulent heat fluxes over glacier surfaces, and can vary by an order of magnitude even within a small area and through the melt season. Defining z0 over debris-covered ice is particularly complex, because the surface may comprise clasts of greatly varying size, and the broader-scale surface relief can be similarly heterogeneous. Several recent studies have used Structure from Motion to data model debris-covered surfaces at the centimetric scale and calculate z0 based on measurements of surface microtopography. However, few have validated these measurements with independent vertical wind profile measurements, or considered how the measurements vary over a range of different surface types or scales of analysis. Here, we present the results of a field investigation conducted on the debris covered Khumbu Glacier during the post-monsoon season of 2015. We focus on two sites. The first is characterised by gravels and cobbles supported by a fine sandy matrix. The second comprises cobbles and boulders separated by voids. Vertical profiles of wind speed measured over both sites enable us to derive measurements of aerodynamic roughness that are similar in magnitude, with z0 at the second site exceeding that at the first by < 1 cm. During our observation period, snow covered the second site for three days, but the impact on z0 is small, implying that roughness is predominantly determined by major rock size obstacles rather than the general form of the surface. To complement these aerodynamic measurements we also conducted a Structure from Motion survey across each patch and calculated z0 using microtopographic methods published in a range of recent studies. We compare the outputs of each of these algorithms with each other and with the aerodynamic measurements, assess how they perform over a range of scales, and evaluate the validity of using microtopographic methods where aerodynamic measurements

  7. Iced-airfoil aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragg, M. B.; Broeren, A. P.; Blumenthal, L. A.

    2005-07-01

    Past research on airfoil aerodynamics in icing are reviewed. This review emphasizes the time period after the 1978 NASA Lewis workshop that initiated the modern icing research program at NASA and the current period after the 1994 ATR accident where aerodynamics research has been more aircraft safety focused. Research pre-1978 is also briefly reviewed. Following this review, our current knowledge of iced airfoil aerodynamics is presented from a flowfield-physics perspective. This article identifies four classes of ice accretions: roughness, horn ice, streamwise ice, and spanwise-ridge ice. For each class, the key flowfield features such as flowfield separation and reattachment are discussed and how these contribute to the known aerodynamic effects of these ice shapes. Finally Reynolds number and Mach number effects on iced-airfoil aerodynamics are summarized.

  8. A Theory for the Scalar Roughness and the Scalar Transfer Coefficients over Snow and Sea Ice,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    and camphor ... 7 4. Model predictions for an aerodynamically rough surface compared with the ex- perimental data of Dipprey and Sabersky (1963...stability 4.,. Ls Latent heat of sublimation of ice , . Pr v/D, Prandtl number Q Water vapor density Qr Water vapor density at an arbitrary reference height...specific heat of air at constant pressure L, = latent heat of sublimation of ice. Equations 1-3 define the roughness lengths. z0 is the familiar

  9. Aerodynamic study of a blade with sine variation of chord length along the height for Darrieus wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crunteanu, D. E.; Constantinescu, S. G.; Niculescu, M. L.

    2013-10-01

    The wind energy is deemed as one of the most durable energetic variants of the future because the wind resources are immense. Furthermore, one predicts that the small wind turbines will play a vital role in the urban environment. Unfortunately, the complexity and the price of pitch regulated small horizontal-axis wind turbines represent ones of the main obstacles to widespread the use in populated zones. In contrast to these wind turbines, the Darrieus wind turbines are simpler and their price is lower. Unfortunately, their blades run at high variations of angles of attack, in stall and post-stall regimes, which can induce significant vibrations, fatigue and even the wind turbine failure. For this reason, the present paper deals with a blade with sine variation of chord length along the height because it has better behavior in stall and post-stall regimes than the classic blade with constant chord length.

  10. Aerodynamic Performance and Static Stability at Mach Number 3.3 of an Aircraft Configuration Employing Three Triangular Wing Panels and a Body Equal Length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Carlton S.

    1960-01-01

    An aircraft configuration, previously conceived as a means to achieve favorable aerodynamic stability characteristics., high lift-drag ratio, and low heating rates at high supersonic speeds., was modified in an attempt to increase further the lift-drag ratio without adversely affecting the other desirable characteristics. The original configuration consisted of three identical triangular wing panels symmetrically disposed about an ogive-cylinder body equal in length to the root chord of the panels. This configuration was modified by altering the angular disposition of the wing panels, by reducing the area of the panel forming the vertical fin, and by reshaping the body to produce interference lift. Six-component force and moment tests of the modified configuration at combined angles of attack and sideslip were made at a Mach number of 3.3 and a Reynolds number of 5.46 million. A maximum lift-drag ratio of 6.65 (excluding base drag) was measured at a lift coefficient of 0.100 and an angle of attack of 3.60. The lift-drag ratio remained greater than 3 up to lift coefficient of 0.35. Performance estimates, which predicted a maximum lift-drag ratio for the modified configuration 27 percent greater than that of the original configuration, agreed well with experiment. The modified configuration exhibited favorable static stability characteristics within the test range. Longitudinal and directional centers of pressure were slightly aft of the respective centroids of projected plan-form and side area.

  11. Gliding swifts attain laminar flow over rough wings.

    PubMed

    Lentink, David; de Kat, Roeland

    2014-01-01

    Swifts are among the most aerodynamically refined gliding birds. However, the overlapping vanes and protruding shafts of their primary feathers make swift wings remarkably rough for their size. Wing roughness height is 1-2% of chord length on the upper surface--10,000 times rougher than sailplane wings. Sailplanes depend on extreme wing smoothness to increase the area of laminar flow on the wing surface and minimize drag for extended glides. To understand why the swift does not rely on smooth wings, we used a stethoscope to map laminar flow over preserved wings in a low-turbulence wind tunnel. By combining laminar area, lift, and drag measurements, we show that average area of laminar flow on swift wings is 69% (n = 3; std 13%) of their total area during glides that maximize flight distance and duration--similar to high-performance sailplanes. Our aerodynamic analysis indicates that swifts attain laminar flow over their rough wings because their wing size is comparable to the distance the air travels (after a roughness-induced perturbation) before it transitions from laminar to turbulent. To interpret the function of swift wing roughness, we simulated its effect on smooth model wings using physical models. This manipulation shows that laminar flow is reduced and drag increased at high speeds. At the speeds at which swifts cruise, however, swift-like roughness prolongs laminar flow and reduces drag. This feature gives small birds with rudimentary wings an edge during the evolution of glide performance.

  12. Investigating the influence of roughness length for heat transport (zoh) on the performance of SEBAL in semi-arid irrigated, and dryland agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Satellite-based thermal infrared remote sensing has greatly contributed to the development and improvement of remote sensing–based evapotranspiration (ET) mapping algorithms. Radiometric temperature (Ts) derived from thermal sensors is inherently different from the aerodynamic temperature (To) requi...

  13. Experimental study of noise emitted by circular cylinders with large roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alomar, Antoni; Angland, David; Zhang, Xin; Molin, Nicolas

    2014-12-01

    The aerodynamic noise generated by high Reynolds number flow around a bluff body with large surface roughness was investigated. This is a relevant problem in many applications, in particular aircraft landing gear noise. A circular cylinder in cross-flow and a zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer with various types of roughness was tested in a series of wind tunnel experiments. It has been shown that distributed roughness covering a circular cylinder affects the spectra over the entire frequency range. Roughness noise is dominant at high frequencies, and the peak frequency is well described by Howe's roughness noise model when scaled with the maximum outer velocity. There are differences between hemispherical and cylindrical roughness elements for both the circular cylinder and the zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer cases, indicating a dependence on roughness shape, not described by the considered roughness noise models. Cylindrical roughness generates higher noise levels at the highest frequencies, especially for the zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer case. Cable-type roughness aligned with the mean flow does not generate roughness noise, and its spectrum has been found to collapse with the smooth cylinder at medium and high frequencies. At low and medium frequencies the noise spectra have the same features as the smooth cylinder, but with higher shedding peak levels and fall-off levels, despite the decrease in spanwise correlation length. Roughness induces early separation, and thus a shift of the spectra to lower frequencies.

  14. Aerodynamics and morphodynamics of sand fences: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bailiang; Sherman, Douglas J.

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews literature on the aerodynamics and morphodynamics of sand fences. We consider both wind fences for reducing wind erosion, and sand-trapping fences for controlling sand deposition. There has been substantial trial-and-error research based upon installations of sand fences, but only limited research on the fence and site attributes that provide the main aerodynamic and morphodynamic controls of interactions between aeolian systems and the fences. Such attributes include: fence porosity, height, length, width, opening size and geometry, porosity distribution, and external factors such as incoming flow characteristics, roughness length, atmospheric stability, grain size and local landform change. Considerations for the optimal design for both wind fences and sand-trapping fences are presented.

  15. Surface roughness of sea ice in Fram Strait - A characteristic of the ice-atmosphere interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yearsley, W. A.; Herzfeld, U. C.; McDonald, B.; Wallin, B. F.; Maslanik, J. A.; Fladeland, M. M.; Long, D. G.; Crocker, R. I.

    2012-12-01

    Surface roughness is an important characteristic of the interface between the lower atmosphere and the sea ice. In this paper, we present observational and mathematical methods that yield surface roughness length at centimeter to kilometer scales along transects of several hundred kilometers in Fram Strait. During the Characterization of Arctic Sea Ice Experiment (CASIE, July-August 2009), centimeter-scale laser profilometer data and microASAR data were collected from unmanned aircraft, the SIERRA of NASA's Ames Research Center. After correction for altitude using GPS data, aerodynamic roughness length is derived using patial classification parameters and geometric surface properties. Statistical distributions of ridges in sea-ice are calculated. The roughness-based parameters have several uses in modeling energy flux between ocean, ice and boundary layer and in modeling ridging processes in sea ice.

  16. Comparison of selected approaches for urban roughness determination based on voronoi cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketterer, Christine; Gangwisch, Marcel; Fröhlich, Dominik; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Wind speed is reduced above urban areas due to their high aerodynamic roughness. This not only holds for above the urban canopy. The local vertical wind profile is modified. Aerodynamic roughness (both roughness length and displacement height) therefore is relevant for many fields within human biometeorology, e.g. for the identification of ventilation paths, the concentration and dispersion of air pollutants at street level or to simulate wind speed and direction in urban environments and everything depending on them. Roughness, thus, also shows strong influence on human thermal comfort. Currently, roughness parameters are mostly estimated using classifications. However, such classifications only provide limited assessment of roughness in urban areas. In order to calculate spatially resolved roughness on the micro-scale, three different approaches were implemented in the SkyHelios model. For all of them, the urban area is divided into reference areas for each of the obstacles using a voronoi diagram. The three approaches are based on building and [+one of them also on] vegetation (trees and forests) data. They were compared for the city of Stuttgart, Germany. Results show that the approach after Bottema and Mestayer (J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 74-76:163-173 1998) on the spatial basis of a voronoi diagram provides the most plausible results.

  17. Relationships between topographic roughness and aeolian processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Lancaster, N.; Gaddis, L.; Rasmussen, K. R.; White, B. R.; Saunders, R. S.; Wall, S.; Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.; Iversen, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    The interaction between winds and desert surfaces has important implications for sediment transport on Earth, Mars, and Venus, and for understanding the relationships between radar backscatter and aerodynamic roughness as part of the NASA Shuttle Imaging radar (SIR-C) Mission. Here, researchers report results from measurements of boundary layer wind profiles and surface roughness at sites in Death Valley and discuss their implications. The sites included a flat to undulating gravel and sand reg, alluvial fans, and a playa. Estimates of average particle size composition of Death Valley sites and arithmetic mean values of aerodynamic roughness are given in tabular form.

  18. The Effect of Aerodynamic Evaluators on the Multi-Objective Optimization of Flatback Airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M.; Slew, K. Lee; Matida, E.

    2016-09-01

    With the long lengths of today's wind turbine rotor blades, there is a need to reduce the mass, thereby requiring stiffer airfoils, while maintaining the aerodynamic efficiency of the airfoils, particularly in the inboard region of the blade where structural demands are highest. Using a genetic algorithm, the multi-objective aero-structural optimization of 30% thick flatback airfoils was systematically performed for a variety of aerodynamic evaluators such as lift-to-drag ratio (Cl/Cd), torque (Ct), and torque-to-thrust ratio (Ct/Cn) to determine their influence on airfoil shape and performance. The airfoil optimized for Ct possessed a 4.8% thick trailing-edge, and a rather blunt leading-edge region which creates high levels of lift and correspondingly, drag. It's ability to maintain similar levels of lift and drag under forced transition conditions proved it's insensitivity to roughness. The airfoil optimized for Cl/Cd displayed relatively poor insensitivity to roughness due to the rather aft-located free transition points. The Ct/Cn optimized airfoil was found to have a very similar shape to that of the Cl/Cd airfoil, with a slightly more blunt leading-edge which aided in providing higher levels of lift and moderate insensitivity to roughness. The influence of the chosen aerodynamic evaluator under the specified conditions and constraints in the optimization of wind turbine airfoils is shown to have a direct impact on the airfoil shape and performance.

  19. Hierarchical or not? Effect of the length scale and hierarchy of the surface roughness on omniphobicity of lubricant-infused substrates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Philseok; Kreder, Michael J; Alvarenga, Jack; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-04-10

    Lubricant-infused textured solid substrates are gaining remarkable interest as a new class of omni-repellent nonfouling materials and surface coatings. We investigated the effect of the length scale and hierarchy of the surface topography of the underlying substrates on their ability to retain the lubricant under high shear conditions, which is important for maintaining nonwetting properties under application-relevant conditions. By comparing the lubricant loss, contact angle hysteresis, and sliding angles for water and ethanol droplets on flat, microscale, nanoscale, and hierarchically textured surfaces subjected to various spinning rates (from 100 to 10,000 rpm), we show that lubricant-infused textured surfaces with uniform nanofeatures provide the most shear-tolerant liquid-repellent behavior, unlike lotus leaf-inspired superhydrophobic surfaces, which generally favor hierarchical structures for improved pressure stability and low contact angle hysteresis. On the basis of these findings, we present generalized, low-cost, and scalable methods to manufacture uniform or regionally patterned nanotextured coatings on arbitrary materials and complex shapes. After functionalization and lubrication, these coatings show robust, shear-tolerant omniphobic behavior, transparency, and nonfouling properties against highly contaminating media.

  20. Chaff Aerodynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-01

    further improve the contrast all of the interior surfaces of the test chamber are painted flat black and the bac!-,ground walls in view of the cameras...to be adequate to eliminate wall effects on the chaff aerodynamics. Secondly, the chamber air mass had to be sufficiently small that it would damp out...independently- supported special rotating-shutter system to "strobe" the dipole images. The integral shutter in each lens assembly is also retained for

  1. Analysis of full-length sequences of two Citrus yellow mosaic badnavirus isolates infecting Citrus jambhiri (Rough Lemon) and Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck (Sweet Orange) from a nursery in India.

    PubMed

    Anthony Johnson, A M; Borah, B K; Sai Gopal, D V R; Dasgupta, I

    2012-12-01

    Citrus yellow mosaic badna virus (CMBV), a member of the Family Caulimoviridae, Genus Badnavirus is the causative agent of mosaic disease among Citrus species in southern India. Despite its reported prevalence in several citrus species, complete information on clear functional genomics or functional information of full-length genomes from all the CMBV isolates infecting citrus species are not available in publicly accessible databases. CMBV isolates from Rough Lemon and Sweet Orange collected from a nursery were cloned and sequenced. The analysis revealed high sequence homology of the two CMBV isolates with previously reported CMBV sequences implying that they represent new variants. Based on computational analysis of the predicted secondary structures, the possible functions of some CMBV proteins have been analyzed.

  2. PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akishita, Sadao

    2010-02-01

    The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the

  3. Large-eddy simulations of surface roughness parameter sensitivity to canopy-structure characteristics

    DOE PAGES

    Maurer, K. D.; Bohrer, G.; Kenny, W. T.; ...

    2015-04-30

    Surface roughness parameters, namely the roughness length and displacement height, are an integral input used to model surface fluxes. However, most models assume these parameters to be a fixed property of plant functional type and disregard the governing structural heterogeneity and dynamics. In this study, we use large-eddy simulations to explore, in silico, the effects of canopy-structure characteristics on surface roughness parameters. We performed a virtual experiment to test the sensitivity of resolved surface roughness to four axes of canopy structure: (1) leaf area index, (2) the vertical profile of leaf density, (3) canopy height, and (4) canopy gap fraction.more » We found roughness parameters to be highly variable, but uncovered positive relationships between displacement height and maximum canopy height, aerodynamic canopy height and maximum canopy height and leaf area index, and eddy-penetration depth and gap fraction. We also found negative relationships between aerodynamic canopy height and gap fraction, as well as between eddy-penetration depth and maximum canopy height and leaf area index. We generalized our model results into a virtual "biometric" parameterization that relates roughness length and displacement height to canopy height, leaf area index, and gap fraction. Using a decade of wind and canopy-structure observations in a site in Michigan, we tested the effectiveness of our model-driven biometric parameterization approach in predicting the friction velocity over heterogeneous and disturbed canopies. We compared the accuracy of these predictions with the friction-velocity predictions obtained from the common simple approximation related to canopy height, the values calculated with large-eddy simulations of the explicit canopy structure as measured by airborne and ground-based lidar, two other parameterization approaches that utilize varying canopy-structure inputs, and the annual and decadal means of the surface roughness parameters at

  4. Large-eddy simulations of surface roughness parameter sensitivity to canopy-structure characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, K. D.; Bohrer, G.; Kenny, W. T.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2015-04-01

    Surface roughness parameters, namely the roughness length and displacement height, are an integral input used to model surface fluxes. However, most models assume these parameters to be a fixed property of plant functional type and disregard the governing structural heterogeneity and dynamics. In this study, we use large-eddy simulations to explore, in silico, the effects of canopy-structure characteristics on surface roughness parameters. We performed a virtual experiment to test the sensitivity of resolved surface roughness to four axes of canopy structure: (1) leaf area index, (2) the vertical profile of leaf density, (3) canopy height, and (4) canopy gap fraction. We found roughness parameters to be highly variable, but uncovered positive relationships between displacement height and maximum canopy height, aerodynamic canopy height and maximum canopy height and leaf area index, and eddy-penetration depth and gap fraction. We also found negative relationships between aerodynamic canopy height and gap fraction, as well as between eddy-penetration depth and maximum canopy height and leaf area index. We generalized our model results into a virtual "biometric" parameterization that relates roughness length and displacement height to canopy height, leaf area index, and gap fraction. Using a decade of wind and canopy-structure observations in a site in Michigan, we tested the effectiveness of our model-driven biometric parameterization approach in predicting the friction velocity over heterogeneous and disturbed canopies. We compared the accuracy of these predictions with the friction-velocity predictions obtained from the common simple approximation related to canopy height, the values calculated with large-eddy simulations of the explicit canopy structure as measured by airborne and ground-based lidar, two other parameterization approaches that utilize varying canopy-structure inputs, and the annual and decadal means of the surface roughness parameters at the site

  5. Detecting surface roughness effects on the atmospheric boundary layer via AIRSAR data: A field experiment in Death Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumberg, Dan G.; Greeley, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    The part of the troposphere influenced by the surface of the earth is termed the atmospheric boundary layer. Flow within this layer is influenced by the roughness of the surface; rougher surfaces induce more turbulence than smoother surfaces and, hence, higher atmospheric transfer rates across the surface. Roughness elements also shield erodible particles, thus decreasing the transport of windblown particles. Therefore, the aerodynamic roughness length (z(sub 0)) is an important parameter in aeolian and atmospheric boundary layer processes as it describes the aerodynamic properties of the underlying surface. z(sub 0) is assumed to be independent of wind velocity or height, and dependent only on the surface topography. It is determined using in situ measurements of the wind speed distribution as a function of height. For dry, unvegetated soils the intensity of the radar backscatter (sigma(sup 0)) is affected primarily by surface roughness at a scale comparable with the radar wavelength. Thus, both wind and radar respond to surface roughness variations on a scale of a few meters or less. Greeley showed the existence of a correlation between z(sub 0) and sigma(sup 0). This correlation was based on measurements over lava flows, alluvial fans, and playas in the southwest deserts of the United States. It is shown that the two parameters behave similarly also when there are small changes over a relatively homogeneous surface.

  6. Quantifying trends in surface roughness and the effect on surface wind speed observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wever, N.

    2012-06-01

    Many studies analyzing surface wind speed observations find a decrease in wind speed over the last 30 to 50 years. A cause sometimes proposed is increasing surface roughness, although to date the evidence that this is the primary factor is still inconclusive. In this study, changes in surface roughness are investigated for 20 stations in the Netherlands and 137 stations in 7 other European countries. From the Dutch data set, local aerodynamic roughness lengths were calculated from hourly gust factors. Trends in wind speed for individual stations and wind direction sectors correlate negatively with trends in surface roughness. For 1962-2009, typically a doubling of the local roughness length was found, with the strongest increase after 1981. An accompanying average decrease in wind speed by 3.1% (0.13 m/s) per decade was found for 1981-2009. A conceptual boundary layer model was used to show that 70% of the wind speed trend can be attributed to surface roughness changes; the remaining 30% of the trend remains unresolved. Changes in land use, including urbanization, forestation, and a decrease in pasture land area, are probable causes for the increasing surface roughness. For the European station data from the European Climate Assessment and Dataset (ECA&D) and the Swiss Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology (MeteoSwiss), the analysis was restricted to daily gust factors. Observed trends in wind speed at stations correlate negatively with trends in gust factors. Averaged over all stations, the wind speed decreased 1.2% (0.05 m/s) per decade over 1982-2009, consistent with increasing surface roughness.

  7. Review of Hydraulic Roughness Scales in the Fully Rough Regime

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    Bowden and Davison 11 to be used with the 1978 ITTC perfor - mance prediction line for ship resistance. This coefficient is a function of the mean...con- siderations, along with a lack of accurate hull roughness measure- ments, led the ITTC Specialist Committee on Powering Perfor - mance Prediction...roughness length. For the two layer approach, the wall layer model is patched to the outer layer model by modifying the k boundary condition in the k− model

  8. Greenland Ice Sheet Surface Roughness and Glacier Zones from MISR, 2000-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolin, A. W.; Mar, E.

    2014-12-01

    The surface of the Greenland ice sheet is shaped by wind, melt, and glacier dynamics. Surface roughness affects the surface-atmospheric interactions (via the aerodynamic roughness length) and thus influences fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the ice sheet surface. When combined with near-infrared reflectance, surface roughness has been shown to discriminate between glacier zones. We present the first ever annual time series of Greenland ice sheet surface roughness derived from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) for the years 2000-2013. Our cloud-free multi-angular measurements are calibrated using airborne LiDAR data from the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM). Roughness values range from 10 cm in the dry, snow-covered interior of the ice sheet to over 8 m along the crevassed margins of the ice sheet. Roughness increases from April to July as the surface melts and glaciers become more active. Our roughness maps are restricted to spring and early summer due to limited ATM data. We next employed ISODATA unsupervised clustering with MISR near-infrared reflectance and surface roughness to map glacier zones on the ice sheet for years 2000-2013. The number and locations of the ISODATA-derived glacier zones are consistent from year to year with slight shifts in boundaries depending on the extent of early summer melt. These maps of Greenland ice surface roughness and glacier zones are the result of processing several hundred thousand MISR images and are the first ever full-coverage, annual maps of this kind.

  9. Impact of Surface Roughness and Soil Texture on Mineral Dust Emission Fluxes Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menut, Laurent; Perez, Carlos; Haustein, Karsten; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Prigent, Catherine; Alfaro, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    Dust production models (DPM) used to estimate vertical fluxes of mineral dust aerosols over arid regions need accurate data on soil and surface properties. The Laboratoire Inter-Universitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques (LISA) data set was developed for Northern Africa, the Middle East, and East Asia. This regional data set was built through dedicated field campaigns and include, among others, the aerodynamic roughness length, the smooth roughness length of the erodible fraction of the surface, and the dry (undisturbed) soil size distribution. Recently, satellite-derived roughness length and high-resolution soil texture data sets at the global scale have emerged and provide the opportunity for the use of advanced schemes in global models. This paper analyzes the behavior of the ERS satellite-derived global roughness length and the State Soil Geographic data base-Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (STATSGO-FAO) soil texture data set (based on wet techniques) using an advanced DPM in comparison to the LISA data set over Northern Africa and the Middle East. We explore the sensitivity of the drag partition scheme (a critical component of the DPM) and of the dust vertical fluxes (intensity and spatial patterns) to the roughness length and soil texture data sets. We also compare the use of the drag partition scheme to a widely used preferential source approach in global models. Idealized experiments with prescribed wind speeds show that the ERS and STATSGO-FAO data sets provide realistic spatial patterns of dust emission and friction velocity thresholds in the region. Finally, we evaluate a dust transport model for the period of March to July 2011 with observed aerosol optical depths from Aerosol Robotic Network sites. Results show that ERS and STATSGO-FAO provide realistic simulations in the region.

  10. Impact of surface roughness and soil texture on mineral dust emission fluxes modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menut, Laurent; PéRez, Carlos; Haustein, Karsten; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Prigent, Catherine; Alfaro, StéPhane

    2013-06-01

    Dust production models (DPM) used to estimate vertical fluxes of mineral dust aerosols over arid regions need accurate data on soil and surface properties. The Laboratoire Inter-Universitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques (LISA) data set was developed for Northern Africa, the Middle East, and East Asia. This regional data set was built through dedicated field campaigns and include, among others, the aerodynamic roughness length, the smooth roughness length of the erodible fraction of the surface, and the dry (undisturbed) soil size distribution. Recently, satellite-derived roughness length and high-resolution soil texture data sets at the global scale have emerged and provide the opportunity for the use of advanced schemes in global models. This paper analyzes the behavior of the ERS satellite-derived global roughness length and the State Soil Geographic data base-Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (STATSGO-FAO) soil texture data set (based on wet techniques) using an advanced DPM in comparison to the LISA data set over Northern Africa and the Middle East. We explore the sensitivity of the drag partition scheme (a critical component of the DPM) and of the dust vertical fluxes (intensity and spatial patterns) to the roughness length and soil texture data sets. We also compare the use of the drag partition scheme to a widely used preferential source approach in global models. Idealized experiments with prescribed wind speeds show that the ERS and STATSGO-FAO data sets provide realistic spatial patterns of dust emission and friction velocity thresholds in the region. Finally, we evaluate a dust transport model for the period of March to July 2011 with observed aerosol optical depths from Aerosol Robotic Network sites. Results show that ERS and STATSGO-FAO provide realistic simulations in the region.

  11. Wind-Speed Profile and Roughness Sublayer Depth Modelling in Urban Boundary Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelliccioni, Armando; Monti, Paolo; Leuzzi, Giovanni

    2016-08-01

    We propose a new formulation for the wind-speed profile in the urban boundary layer, which can be viewed as a generalisation of the commonly used logarithmic law. The model is based on the assumption that the role played by the classical aerodynamic roughness length and the displacement height in the logarithmic law is taken by a sole variable, the local length scale, which follows a pattern of exponential decrease with height. Starting from wind-speed profiles collected at Villa Pamphili park, Rome, Italy, an empirical fit is used to determine the model parameters. The results show that the local length scale depends also on the friction velocity and that, with appropriate normalization, it reduces to a family of curves that spreads according to the planar area fraction. Another novel aspect is the estimation of the roughness sublayer depth, which can be expressed as a function of the friction velocity and morphometric quantities such as the building height and the planar area fraction. It is also found that the rate of growth with height of the Prandtl mixing length linked to the new formulation is, just above the canopy, lower than the canonical value 0.41, and approaches the latter value well above the roughness sublayer. The model performance is tested by comparison with laboratory and field data reported in the literature.

  12. Effect of roughness on imaging and characterizing rough crack-like defect using ultrasonic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Drinkwater, B. W.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2012-05-01

    All naturally occurring crack-like defects in solid structures are rough to some degree, which can affect defect inspection and characterization. Based on the simulated array data for various rough cracks and the total focusing method imaging algorithm, the effect of roughness on defect imaging and characterization was discussed. The array data was simulated by using the forward model combining with scattering matrices for various rough cracks. The scattering matrix describes the scattering field of a scatterer from all possible incident and scattering directions. It is shown that roughness can be either beneficial or detrimental to the detectability of a crack-like defect, depending on the defect characteristics such as length, roughness, correlation length, orientation angle, and array inspection configuration. It is also shown that roughness can cause the underestimation of length of rough crack-like defects by using the image-based approach.

  13. The boundary layer over turbine blade models with realistic rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIlroy, Hugh M., Jr.

    The impact of turbine blade surface roughness on aerodynamic performance and heat loads is well known. Over time, as the turbine blades are exposed to heat loads, the external surfaces of the blades become rough. Also, for film-cooled blades, surface degradation can have a significant impact on film-cooling effectiveness. Many studies have been conducted on the effects of surface degradation/roughness on engine performance but most investigations have modeled the rough surfaces with uniform or two-dimensional roughness patterns. The objective of the present investigation is to conduct measurements that will reveal the influence of realistic surface roughness on the near-wall behavior of the boundary layer. Measurements have been conducted at the Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory with a laser Doppler velocimeter. A flat plate model of a turbine blade has been developed that produces a transitional boundary layer, elevated freestream turbulence and an accelerating freestream in order to simulate conditions on the suction side of a high-pressure turbine blade. Boundary layer measurements have been completed over a smooth plate model and over a model with a strip of realistic rough surface. The realistic rough surface was developed by scaling actual turbine blade surface data that was provided by U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory. The results indicate that bypass transition occurred very early in the flow over the model and that the boundary layer remained unstable throughout the entire length of the test plate; the boundary layer thickness and momentum thickness Reynolds numbers increased over the rough patch; and the shape factor increased over the rough patch but then decreased downstream of the patch relative to the smooth plate case; in the rough patch case the flow experienced two transition reversals with laminar-like behavior achieved by the end of the test plate; streamwise turbulence

  14. Classical Aerodynamic Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T. (Compiler)

    1979-01-01

    A collection of papers on modern theoretical aerodynamics is presented. Included are theories of incompressible potential flow and research on the aerodynamic forces on wing and wing sections of aircraft and on airship hulls.

  15. Aerodynamics at NASA JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicker, Darby

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing aerodynamics at NASA Johnson Space Center is shown. The topics include: 1) Personal Background; 2) Aerodynamic Tools; 3) The Overset Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Process; and 4) Recent Applicatoins.

  16. NASA aerodynamics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Louis J.; Hessenius, Kristin A.; Corsiglia, Victor R.; Hicks, Gary; Richardson, Pamela F.; Unger, George; Neumann, Benjamin; Moss, Jim

    1992-01-01

    The annual accomplishments is reviewed for the Aerodynamics Division during FY 1991. The program includes both fundamental and applied research directed at the full spectrum of aerospace vehicles, from rotorcraft to planetary entry probes. A comprehensive review is presented of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications; CFD validation; transition and turbulence physics; numerical aerodynamic simulation; test techniques and instrumentation; configuration aerodynamics; aeroacoustics; aerothermodynamics; hypersonics; subsonics; fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.

  17. NASA aerodynamics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Schairer, Edward; Hicks, Gary; Wander, Stephen; Blankson, Isiaiah; Rose, Raymond; Olson, Lawrence; Unger, George

    1990-01-01

    Presented here is a comprehensive review of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation, transition and turbulence physics, numerical aerodynamic simulation, drag reduction, test techniques and instrumentation, configuration aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, aerothermodynamics, hypersonics, subsonic transport/commuter aviation, fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.

  18. Does surface roughness amplify wetting?

    SciTech Connect

    Malijevský, Alexandr

    2014-11-14

    Any solid surface is intrinsically rough on the microscopic scale. In this paper, we study the effect of this roughness on the wetting properties of hydrophilic substrates. Macroscopic arguments, such as those leading to the well-known Wenzel's law, predict that surface roughness should amplify the wetting properties of such adsorbents. We use a fundamental measure density functional theory to demonstrate the opposite effect from roughness for microscopically corrugated surfaces, i.e., wetting is hindered. Based on three independent analyses we show that microscopic surface corrugation increases the wetting temperature or even makes the surface hydrophobic. Since for macroscopically corrugated surfaces the solid texture does indeed amplify wetting there must exist a crossover between two length-scale regimes that are distinguished by opposite response on surface roughening. This demonstrates how deceptive can be efforts to extend the thermodynamical laws beyond their macroscopic territory.

  19. A climatology of formation conditions for aerodynamic contrails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierens, K.; Dilger, F.

    2013-06-01

    Aerodynamic contrails are defined in this paper as line shaped ice clouds caused by aerodynamically triggered cooling over the wings of an aircraft in cruise which become visible immediately at the trailing edge of the wing or close to it. Effects at low altitudes like condensation to liquid droplets and their potential heterogeneous freezing are excluded from our definition. We study atmospheric conditions that allow formation of aerodynamic contrails. These conditions are stated and then applied to atmospheric data, first to a special case where an aerodynamic contrail was actually observed and then to a full year of global reanalysis data. We show where, when (seasonal variation), and how frequently (probability) aerodynamic contrails can form, and how this relates to actual patterns of air traffic. We study the formation of persistent aerodynamic contrails as well. Finally we check whether aerodynamic and exhaust contrails can coexist in the atmosphere. We show that visible aerodynamic contrails are possible only in an altitude range between roughly 540 and 250 hPa, and that the ambient temperature is the most important parameter, not the relative humidity. Finally we give an argument for our believe that currently aerodynamic contrails have a much smaller climate effect than exhaust contrails, which may however change in future with more air traffic in the tropics.

  20. Turbulent Flow over Rough Turbine Airfoils.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB. GR. Turbine blades ’ vanes ; surface roughness...turbulent boundary layer over rough turbine vanes or blades is developed. A new formulation of the mixing length model, expressed in the velocity-space...A-163 005 TURBULENT FLOW OVER ROUGH TURBINE AIRFOILS (U) OHIO 1/ STATE UNIV RESEARCH FOUNDATION COLUMBUS L S HAN AUG B5 OSURF-76357/?i4467 AFWL-TR-95

  1. Subpatch roughness in earthquake rupture investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielke, O.; Mai, P. M.

    2016-03-01

    Fault geometric complexities exhibit fractal characteristics over a wide range of spatial scales (<µm to > km) and strongly affect the rupture process at corresponding scales. Numerical rupture simulations provide a framework to quantitatively investigate the relationship between a fault's roughness and its seismic characteristics. Fault discretization, however, introduces an artificial lower limit to roughness. Individual fault patches are planar and subpatch roughness—roughness at spatial scales below fault patch size—is not incorporated. Does negligence of subpatch roughness measurably affect the outcome of earthquake rupture simulations? We approach this question with a numerical parameter space investigation and demonstrate that subpatch roughness significantly modifies the slip-strain relationship—a fundamental aspect of dislocation theory. Faults with subpatch roughness induce less strain than their planar-fault equivalents at distances beyond the length of a slipping fault. We further provide regression functions that characterize the stochastic effect subpatch roughness.

  2. Fundamental Aspects of the Aerodynamics of Turbojet Engine Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrere, M.

    1978-01-01

    Aerodynamic considerations in the design of high performance combustors for turbojet engines are discussed. Aerodynamic problems concerning the preparation of the fuel-air mixture, the recirculation zone where primary combustion occurs, the secondary combustion zone, and the dilution zone were examined. An aerodynamic analysis of the entire primary chamber ensemble was carried out to determine the pressure drop between entry and exit. The aerodynamics of afterburn chambers are discussed. A model which can be used to investigate the evolution of temperature, pressure, and rate and efficiency of combustion the length of the chamber was developed.

  3. Aerodynamic Simulation of Ice Accretion on Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Bragg, Michael B.; Busch, Greg T.; Montreuil, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    This report describes recent improvements in aerodynamic scaling and simulation of ice accretion on airfoils. Ice accretions were classified into four types on the basis of aerodynamic effects: roughness, horn, streamwise, and spanwise ridge. The NASA Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) was used to generate ice accretions within these four types using both subscale and full-scale models. Large-scale, pressurized windtunnel testing was performed using a 72-in.- (1.83-m-) chord, NACA 23012 airfoil model with high-fidelity, three-dimensional castings of the IRT ice accretions. Performance data were recorded over Reynolds numbers from 4.5 x 10(exp 6) to 15.9 x 10(exp 6) and Mach numbers from 0.10 to 0.28. Lower fidelity ice-accretion simulation methods were developed and tested on an 18-in.- (0.46-m-) chord NACA 23012 airfoil model in a small-scale wind tunnel at a lower Reynolds number. The aerodynamic accuracy of the lower fidelity, subscale ice simulations was validated against the full-scale results for a factor of 4 reduction in model scale and a factor of 8 reduction in Reynolds number. This research has defined the level of geometric fidelity required for artificial ice shapes to yield aerodynamic performance results to within a known level of uncertainty and has culminated in a proposed methodology for subscale iced-airfoil aerodynamic simulation.

  4. Determining Surface Roughness in Urban Areas Using Lidar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Donald

    2009-01-01

    An automated procedure has been developed to derive relevant factors, which can increase the ability to produce objective, repeatable methods for determining aerodynamic surface roughness. Aerodynamic surface roughness is used for many applications, like atmospheric dispersive models and wind-damage models. For this technique, existing lidar data was used that was originally collected for terrain analysis, and demonstrated that surface roughness values can be automatically derived, and then subsequently utilized in disaster-management and homeland security models. The developed lidar-processing algorithm effectively distinguishes buildings from trees and characterizes their size, density, orientation, and spacing (see figure); all of these variables are parameters that are required to calculate the estimated surface roughness for a specified area. By using this algorithm, aerodynamic surface roughness values in urban areas can then be extracted automatically. The user can also adjust the algorithm for local conditions and lidar characteristics, like summer/winter vegetation and dense/sparse lidar point spacing. Additionally, the user can also survey variations in surface roughness that occurs due to wind direction; for example, during a hurricane, when wind direction can change dramatically, this variable can be extremely significant. In its current state, the algorithm calculates an estimated surface roughness for a square kilometer area; techniques using the lidar data to calculate the surface roughness for a point, whereby only roughness elements that are upstream from the point of interest are used and the wind direction is a vital concern, are being investigated. This technological advancement will improve the reliability and accuracy of models that use and incorporate surface roughness.

  5. A climatology of formation conditions for aerodynamic contrails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierens, K.; Dilger, F.

    2013-11-01

    Aircraft at cruise levels can cause two kinds of contrails, the well known exhaust contrails and the less well-known aerodynamic contrails. While the possible climate impact of exhaust contrails has been studied for many years, research on aerodynamic contrails began only a few years ago and nothing is known about a possible contribution of these ice clouds to climate impact. In order to make progress in this respect, we first need a climatology of their formation conditions and this is given in the present paper. Aerodynamic contrails are defined here as line shaped ice clouds caused by aerodynamically triggered cooling over the wings of an aircraft in cruise which become visible immediately at the trailing edge of the wing or close to it. Effects at low altitudes like condensation to liquid droplets and their potential heterogeneous freezing are excluded from our definition. We study atmospheric conditions that allow formation of aerodynamic contrails. These conditions are stated and then applied to atmospheric data: first to a special case where an aerodynamic contrail was actually observed and then to a full year of global reanalysis data. We show where, when (seasonal variation), and how frequently (probability) aerodynamic contrails can form, and how this relates to actual patterns of air traffic. We study the formation of persistent aerodynamic contrails as well. Furthermore, we check whether aerodynamic and exhaust contrails can coexist in the atmosphere. We show that visible aerodynamic contrails are possible only in an altitude range between roughly 540 and 250 hPa, and that the ambient temperature is the most important parameter, not the relative humidity. Finally, we argue that currently aerodynamic contrails have a much smaller climate effect than exhaust contrails, which may however change in future with more air traffic in the tropics.

  6. Unsteady transonic aerodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, D.

    1989-01-01

    Various papers on unsteady transonic aerodynamics are presented. The topics addressed include: physical phenomena associated with unsteady transonic flows, basic equations for unsteady transonic flow, practical problems concerning aircraft, basic numerical methods, computational methods for unsteady transonic flows, application of transonic flow analysis to helicopter rotor problems, unsteady aerodynamics for turbomachinery aeroelastic applications, alternative methods for modeling unsteady transonic flows.

  7. Uncertainty in Computational Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckring, J. M.; Hemsch, M. J.; Morrison, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    An approach is presented to treat computational aerodynamics as a process, subject to the fundamental quality assurance principles of process control and process improvement. We consider several aspects affecting uncertainty for the computational aerodynamic process and present a set of stages to determine the level of management required to meet risk assumptions desired by the customer of the predictions.

  8. Airfoil Ice-Accretion Aerodynamics Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Michael B.; Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Guffond, Didier; Montreuil, E.

    2007-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center, ONERA, and the University of Illinois are conducting a major research program whose goal is to improve our understanding of the aerodynamic scaling of ice accretions on airfoils. The program when it is completed will result in validated scaled simulation methods that produce the essential aerodynamic features of the full-scale iced-airfoil. This research will provide some of the first, high-fidelity, full-scale, iced-airfoil aerodynamic data. An initial study classified ice accretions based on their aerodynamics into four types: roughness, streamwise ice, horn ice, and spanwise-ridge ice. Subscale testing using a NACA 23012 airfoil was performed in the NASA IRT and University of Illinois wind tunnel to better understand the aerodynamics of these ice types and to test various levels of ice simulation fidelity. These studies are briefly reviewed here and have been presented in more detail in other papers. Based on these results, full-scale testing at the ONERA F1 tunnel using cast ice shapes obtained from molds taken in the IRT will provide full-scale iced airfoil data from full-scale ice accretions. Using these data as a baseline, the final step is to validate the simulation methods in scale in the Illinois wind tunnel. Computational ice accretion methods including LEWICE and ONICE have been used to guide the experiments and are briefly described and results shown. When full-scale and simulation aerodynamic results are available, these data will be used to further develop computational tools. Thus the purpose of the paper is to present an overview of the program and key results to date.

  9. Physics of badminton shuttlecocks. Part 1 : aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Caroline; Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Quéré, David; Clanet, Christophe

    2011-11-01

    We study experimentally shuttlecocks dynamics. In this part we show that shuttlecock trajectory is highly different from classical parabola. When one takes into account the aerodynamic drag, the flight of the shuttlecock quickly curves downwards and almost reaches a vertical asymptote. We solve the equation of motion with gravity and drag at high Reynolds number and find an analytical expression of the reach. At high velocity, this reach does not depend on velocity anymore. Even if you develop your muscles you will not manage to launch the shuttlecock very far because of the ``aerodynamic wall.'' As a consequence you can predict the length of the field. We then discuss the extend of the aerodynamic wall to other projectiles like sports balls and its importance.

  10. Laws of Flow in Rough Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikuradse, J

    1950-01-01

    An experimental investigation is made of the turbulent flow of water in pipes with various degrees of relative roughness. The pipes range in size from 25 to 100 millimeters in diameter and from 1800 to 7050 millimeters in length. Flow velocities permitted Reynolds numbers from about 10 (sup. 4) to 10 (sup. 6). The laws of resistance and velocity distributions were obtained as a function of relative roughness and Reynolds number. Mixing length, as described by Prandtl's mixing-length formula, is discussed in relation to the experimental results.

  11. On the calibration of Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter surface roughness estimates using high-resolution DTMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, W.; Muller, J.-P.; Gupta, S.

    2012-04-01

    Planetary surface roughness is critical in the selection of suitable landing sites for robotic lander or roving missions. It has also been used in the identification of terrain, for better calibration of radar returns and improved understanding of aerodynamic roughness [1]. One of the secondary science goals of the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) was the study of surface roughness at 100 m, using the backscatter pulse width of the laser pulse, which has a footprint of 168 m in diameter [2]. The pulse width values in the final release (version L) of the MOLA Precision Experiment Data Record (PEDR) have been corrected for across track slopes and the removal of 'bad points', and footprint diameter was revised to 75 m, with a 35 m response length in [3]. We look here at comparing surface roughness values derived from the MOLA pulse-width data with surface roughness estimates derived at various scales from high-resolution digital terrain models (DTMs) to determine if these theoretically derived surface roughness lengths are physically meaningful. The final four potential landing sites for Mars Science Laboratory were used in this study, as they have extensive HiRISE (1m) and HRSC (50m) DTM coverage [4]. Pulse width data from both the MOLA PEDR (version L) and the data used in [3] was collected and compared for each of the sites against surface roughness estimates at various scales from HiRISE, and HRSC, DTMs using the RMS height. This assumed a circular footprint for each MOLA footprint and that the horizontal geolocation of the PEDR MOLA footprints was sufficiently accurate to only extract those DTM points which lay inside the footprints. Results from the MOLA PEDR data were extremely poor, and show no correlation with surface roughness measurements from DTMs. Results using the corrected data in [3] were mixed. Eberswalde and Holden Craters both show significantly improved correlations for a variety of surface roughness scales. The best correlations were found to

  12. Aerodynamic effects of simulated ice shapes on two-dimensional airfoils and a swept finite tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alansatan, Sait

    -grit roughness to the LEWICE shapes produced greater losses than corresponding smooth ice shapes. Spoiler-ice with constant spanwise height caused larger performance losses than spoiler-ice with height scaled as a function of local chord length. Aerodynamic performance degradation due to the variable height spoiler-ice was similar to that obtained with the corresponding LEWICE shapes.

  13. Effective field model of roughness in magnetic nano-structures

    SciTech Connect

    Lepadatu, Serban

    2015-12-28

    An effective field model is introduced here within the micromagnetics formulation, to study roughness in magnetic structures, by considering sub-exchange length roughness levels as a perturbation on a smooth structure. This allows the roughness contribution to be separated, which is found to give rise to an effective configurational anisotropy for both edge and surface roughness, and accurately model its effects with fine control over the roughness depth without the explicit need to refine the computational cell size to accommodate the roughness profile. The model is validated by comparisons with directly roughened structures for a series of magnetization switching and domain wall velocity simulations and found to be in excellent agreement for roughness levels up to the exchange length. The model is further applied to vortex domain wall velocity simulations with surface roughness, which is shown to significantly modify domain wall movement and result in dynamic pinning and stochastic creep effects.

  14. Aerodynamic Lifting Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltner, Klaus

    1990-01-01

    Describes some experiments showing both qualitatively and quantitatively that aerodynamic lift is a reaction force. Demonstrates reaction forces caused by the acceleration of an airstream and the deflection of an airstream. Provides pictures of demonstration apparatus and mathematical expressions. (YP)

  15. Aerodynamic Shutoff Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horstman, Raymond H.

    1992-01-01

    Aerodynamic flow achieved by adding fixed fairings to butterfly valve. When valve fully open, fairings align with butterfly and reduce wake. Butterfly free to turn, so valve can be closed, while fairings remain fixed. Design reduces turbulence in flow of air in internal suction system. Valve aids in development of improved porous-surface boundary-layer control system to reduce aerodynamic drag. Applications primarily aerospace. System adapted to boundary-layer control on high-speed land vehicles.

  16. Interaction of turbulent length scales with wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Nieves, Sheilla N.

    Understanding the effects of free-stream turbulence (FST) and surface roughness on the flow around wind turbine blades is imperative in the quest for higher wind turbine efficiency, specially under stall conditions. While many investigations have focused on the aerodynamic loads on wind turbine airfoils, there are no studies that examine the effects of free-stream turbulence and surface roughness on the velocity field around a wind turbine airfoil. Hence, the aim of this investigation is to study the influence of high levels of FST on the flow around smooth and rough surfaces with pressure gradients. Moreover, of great importance in this study is the examination of how the length scales of turbulence and surface roughness interact in the flow over wind turbine airfoils to affect flow separation. Particle Image Velocimetry measurements were performed to analyze the overall flow around a S809 wind turbine blade. Results indicate that when the flow is fully attached, free-stream turbulence significantly decreases aerodynamic efficiency by 82%, yielding to higher loads and fatigue on the blades. On the contrary, when the flow is separated, the effect is reversed and aerodynamic performance is slightly improved (i.e., by 5%) by the presence of the free-stream turbulence. Analysis of the mean flow over the suction surface shows that, under stall conditions, free-stream turbulence delays separation, and surface roughness advances separation. Interestingly, the highly non-linear interaction between free-stream turbulence and surface roughness results in the further advancement of separation. Of particular interest is the study of the region closer to the wall (i.e., the boundary layer), where the flow interacts with both the surface of the blade and the free-stream. Turbulent boundary layer experiments subject to an external favorable pressure gradient (FPG) were performed to study the influence of FST, surface roughness and external pressure gradient (present around the

  17. Investigating the Surface Roughness of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susorney, H. C. M.; Barnouin, O. S.; Ernst, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) on the MErcury, Surface, Space ENviorment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft has acquired high-resolution topographic measurements of Mercury's northern hemisphere. These measurements permit the quantification of surface roughness on Mercury over baselines between 500 m and 200 km. In contrast to previous studies of Mercury's surface roughness, which have employed median differential surface slope, we calculate surface roughness as the root mean square (RMS) deviation of the difference in height. If the topography is self-affine or fractal, a power law can be fit to the RMS deviation as a function of baseline length. The exponent of this fit is called the Hurst exponent. This Hurst exponent describes whether or not a surface is self-affine, which occurs when processes produce a surface roughness that is inherently random. The surface roughness of Mercury's northern hemisphere reflects the observed bimodal nature of Mercury: the northern smooth plains have lower roughness values than the rougher heavily cratered terrain and intercrater plains. The relationship between RMS height and baseline length on Mercury shows two fractal sections, one between lengths of 500 m and 1 km, and another between lengths of 1 km and 20 km. We also find that the northern rise is indistinguishable from the surrounding smooth plains across all measured baselines, implying that the rise did not alter its surface topography at the baselines used in this study. Craters that host radar-bright deposits have similar roughness values to craters that do not host such deposits. Finally, fresh crater ejecta within the smooth plains have similar roughness values (particularly at the 1 km baseline) to the intercrater plains, supporting the interpretation that the intercrater plains may result from the modification of volcanic plains via cratering.

  18. Aerodynamic Surface Stress Intermittency and Conditionally Averaged Turbulence Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, W.

    2015-12-01

    Aeolian erosion of dry, flat, semi-arid landscapes is induced (and sustained) by kinetic energy fluxes in the aloft atmospheric surface layer. During saltation -- the mechanism responsible for surface fluxes of dust and sediment -- briefly suspended sediment grains undergo a ballistic trajectory before impacting and `splashing' smaller-diameter (dust) particles vertically. Conceptual models typically indicate that sediment flux, q (via saltation or drift), scales with imposed aerodynamic (basal) stress raised to some exponent, n, where n > 1. Since basal stress (in fully rough, inertia-dominated flows) scales with the incoming velocity squared, u^2, it follows that q ~ u^2n (where u is some relevant component of the above flow field, u(x,t)). Thus, even small (turbulent) deviations of u from its time-averaged value may play an enormously important role in aeolian activity on flat, dry landscapes. The importance of this argument is further augmented given that turbulence in the atmospheric surface layer exhibits maximum Reynolds stresses in the fluid immediately above the landscape. In order to illustrate the importance of surface stress intermittency, we have used conditional averaging predicated on aerodynamic surface stress during large-eddy simulation of atmospheric boundary layer flow over a flat landscape with momentum roughness length appropriate for the Llano Estacado in west Texas (a flat agricultural region that is notorious for dust transport). By using data from a field campaign to measure diurnal variability of aeolian activity and prevailing winds on the Llano Estacado, we have retrieved the threshold friction velocity (which can be used to compute threshold surface stress under the geostrophic balance with the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory). This averaging procedure provides an ensemble-mean visualization of flow structures responsible for erosion `events'. Preliminary evidence indicates that surface stress peaks are associated with the passage of

  19. Powered-Lift Aerodynamics and Acoustics. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Powered lift technology is reviewed. Topics covered include: (1) high lift aerodynamics; (2) high speed and cruise aerodynamics; (3) acoustics; (4) propulsion aerodynamics and acoustics; (5) aerodynamic and acoustic loads; and (6) full-scale and flight research.

  20. Applied computational aerodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Henne, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The present volume discusses the original development of the panel method, the mapping solutions and singularity distributions of linear potential schemes, the capabilities of full-potential, Euler, and Navier-Stokes schemes, the use of the grid-generation methodology in applied aerodynamics, subsonic airfoil design, inverse airfoil design for transonic applications, the divergent trailing-edge airfoil innovation in CFD, Euler and potential computational results for selected aerodynamic configurations, and the application of CFD to wing high-lift systems. Also discussed are high-lift wing modifications for an advanced-capability EA-6B aircraft, Navier-Stokes methods for internal and integrated propulsion system flow predictions, the use of zonal techniques for analysis of rotor-stator interaction, CFD applications to complex configurations, CFD applications in component aerodynamic design of the V-22, Navier-Stokes computations of a complete F-16, CFD at supersonic/hypersonic speeds, and future CFD developments.

  1. Computational aerodynamics and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballhaus, W. F., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The role of computational aerodynamics in design is reviewed with attention given to the design process; the proper role of computations; the importance of calibration, interpretation, and verification; the usefulness of a given computational capability; and the marketing of new codes. Examples of computational aerodynamics in design are given with particular emphasis on the Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology. Finally, future prospects are noted, with consideration given to the role of advanced computers, advances in numerical solution techniques, turbulence models, complex geometries, and computational design procedures. Previously announced in STAR as N82-33348

  2. Nonlinear aerodynamic wing design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, Ellwood

    1985-01-01

    The applicability of new nonlinear theoretical techniques is demonstrated for supersonic wing design. The new technology was utilized to define outboard panels for an existing advanced tactical fighter model. Mach 1.6 maneuver point design and multi-operating point compromise surfaces were developed and tested. High aerodynamic efficiency was achieved at the design conditions. A corollary result was that only modest supersonic penalties were incurred to meet multiple aerodynamic requirements. The nonlinear potential analysis of a practical configuration arrangement correlated well with experimental data.

  3. Effect of Variable Chord Length on Transonic Axial Rotor Performance Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suder, Kenneth L.

    2002-01-01

    During the life of any gas turbine, blade erosion is present, especially for those units that are exposed to unfiltered air, such as aviation turbofan engines. The effect of this erosion is to reduce the blade chord progressively from the midspan to the tip region and to roughen and distort the blade surface. The effects of roughness on rotor performance have been documented by Suder et al. and Roberts. These papers indicate that the penalty for leading-edge roughness and erosion can be significant. Turbofan operators, therefore, restore chord length at routine maintenance intervals to regain performance before deterioration is too severe to salvage blades. As the rotor blades erode, the leading edge becomes rough - blunt and distorted from the nominal shape - and the aerodynamic performance suffers. Nominal performance can be recovered by recontouring the leading edges. This process, which inherently shortens the blade chord, can be used until the blade chord erodes to the stall limit. Below this chord length, which varies among engine-compressor types, a decrease of stall margin is likely. After compressor blade rework that includes leading edge recontouring, the blades have different chord lengths, ranging from blades that are near nominal chord length down to those near the stall chord limit. Furthermore, as blades erode below the stall limit, they must be replaced with new blades that have the full nominal chord length. Consequently, a set of compressor blades with varying chord lengths will be installed into each turbofan engine that goes through a complete maintenance cycle. The question arises, "Does fan or compressor performance depend on the order in which mixed-chord blades are installed into a fan or compressor disk?"

  4. Computer graphics in aerodynamic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cozzolongo, J. V.

    1984-01-01

    The use of computer graphics and its application to aerodynamic analyses on a routine basis is outlined. The mathematical modelling of the aircraft geometries and the shading technique implemented are discussed. Examples of computer graphics used to display aerodynamic flow field data and aircraft geometries are shown. A future need in computer graphics for aerodynamic analyses is addressed.

  5. Influence of surface roughness on the adhesion of elastic films.

    PubMed

    Palasantzas, G; De Hosson, J Th M

    2003-02-01

    It is shown that a self-affine roughness at the junction of an elastic film and a hard solid substrate influences considerably the adhesion of the elastic film, especially for small roughness exponents H (H<0.5) and/or large long wavelength roughness ratios w/xi with w being the rms roughness amplitude and xi being the in-plane roughness correlation length. Analytical calculations of the local surface slope allows an estimate of the roughness effects on the adhesion energy more precisely than those presented in earlier works (especially for roughness exponents H<0.5). For weak surface roughness the elastic energy contribution is significant on the film effective surface energy deltagamma(eff) and on pull-off force for elastic modulus E in the range of GPa. Moreover, in the case of partial contact an estimation of the pull-off force shows that it strongly decreases with reducing contact area due to surface.

  6. Modeling roughness effects in turbulent boundary layers using elliptic relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Jacob; de Simone, Alejandro; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Jimenez, Javier

    2010-11-01

    We present results from the efforts towards modeling roughness in turbulent boundary layers using elliptic relaxation. This scheme, included in the v^2-f model and first formulated by Durbin (1993, JFM, vol. 249, p.465) for smooth-walls, uses an elliptic partial differential equation to incorporate near-wall turbulence anisotropy and non-local pressure-strain effects. The use of the elliptic PDE is extended to model roughness effects in various transitionally-rough and fully-rough boundary layers consisting of a uniform and sparse distribution of cylinders for which experimental data is available. The roughness effects are incorporated through the elliptic PDE by including the length and time scales that the roughness imposes upon the flow, which the experiment has shown to be constant within the rough-walls. Further modeling of roughness effects is considered by altering the source terms in the elliptic PDE.

  7. Effect of truncated cone roughness element density on hydrodynamic drag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Womack, Kristofer; Schultz, Michael; Meneveau, Charles

    2016-11-01

    An experimental study was conducted on rough-wall, turbulent boundary layer flow. Varying planform densities of truncated cone roughness elements were investigated. Element densities studied ranged from 10% to 57%. Detailed turbulent boundary layer velocity statistics were recorded with a two-component LDV system on a three-axis traverse. Hydrodynamic roughness length (z0) and skin-friction coefficient (Cf) were determined and compared with the estimates from existing roughness element drag prediction models including Macdonald et al. (1998) and Yang et al. (2015). The roughness elements used in this work model idealized barnacles, so implications of this data set for ship powering are considered. Office of Naval Research.

  8. The Surface Roughness of Terrains on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deal, K. S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Neumann, G. A.

    2003-01-01

    The RMS roughness measurements produced by Neumann et al. from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data provide unique information about surface height variations at an effective length scale of < 75 m. Roughness at this scale is important not only for landing site safety considerations, but also for assessment of landscape evolution, which depends on emplacement mechanisms and erosional/depositional processes. Here we present an examination of the global surface roughness map with discussion of terrain types and potential formation and/or alteration mechanisms. Spatially coherent terrain types were identified based on inspection of the roughness map. These terrains were further characterized through analysis of morphology and geology using MOLA topography, MOC wide-angle, and MOC narrow-angle images as well as the geologic maps produced by Scott & Tanaka and Greeley & Guest. All of these data were used to explore potential formation and modification processes.

  9. Aerodynamics and thermal physics of helicopter ice accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yiqiang

    Ice accretion on aircraft introduces significant loss in airfoil performance. Reduced lift-to- drag ratio reduces the vehicle capability to maintain altitude and also limits its maneuverability. Current ice accretion performance degradation modeling approaches are calibrated only to a limited envelope of liquid water content, impact velocity, temperature, and water droplet size; consequently inaccurate aerodynamic performance degradations are estimated. The reduced ice accretion prediction capabilities in the glaze ice regime are primarily due to a lack of knowledge of surface roughness induced by ice accretion. A comprehensive understanding of the ice roughness effects on airfoil heat transfer, ice accretion shapes, and ultimately aerodynamics performance is critical for the design of ice protection systems. Surface roughness effects on both heat transfer and aerodynamic performance degradation on airfoils have been experimentally evaluated. Novel techniques, such as ice molding and casting methods and transient heat transfer measurement using non-intrusive thermal imaging methods, were developed at the Adverse Environment Rotor Test Stand (AERTS) facility at Penn State. A novel heat transfer scaling method specifically for turbulent flow regime was also conceived. A heat transfer scaling parameter, labeled as Coefficient of Stanton and Reynolds Number (CSR = Stx/Rex --0.2), has been validated against reference data found in the literature for rough flat plates with Reynolds number (Re) up to 1x107, for rough cylinders with Re ranging from 3x104 to 4x106, and for turbine blades with Re from 7.5x105 to 7x106. This is the first time that the effect of Reynolds number is shown to be successfully eliminated on heat transfer magnitudes measured on rough surfaces. Analytical models for ice roughness distribution, heat transfer prediction, and aerodynamics performance degradation due to ice accretion have also been developed. The ice roughness prediction model was

  10. General laws of X-ray reflection from rough surfaces: II. Conformal roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhevnikov, I. V.

    2012-07-01

    Is shown that, if the expansions of the Debye-Waller formulas for the reflection and total scattering coefficients in the roughness height σ are limited to terms of order σ2, these expressions are valid for any layered inhomogeneous medium with conformal (depth-periodic) roughness and for any distribution function of the roughness heights if the roughness correlation length along the surface is sufficiently large. The advantages of measuring the total reflection coefficient, which characterizes the total intensity of radiation (both specularly reflected and diffusively scattered) directed by a rough surface back into vacuum, for solving the inverse problem of X-ray reflectometry (i.e., the reconstruction of the permittivity profile from a measured reflection curve) are discussed.

  11. Aerodynamic characteristics of the HL-20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, George M.; Cruz, Christopher I.

    1993-09-01

    Wind tunnel tests were made from subsonic to hypersonic speeds to define the aerodynamic characteristics of the HL-20 lifting-body configuration. The data have been assembled into an aerodynamic database for flight analysis of this proposed vehicle. The wind tunnel data indicates that the model is longitudinally and laterally stable (about a center-of-gravity location of 0.54 body length) over the test range from Mach 20 to 0.3. At hypersonic speeds, the HL-20 model trimmed at a lift/drag (L/D) ratio of 1.4. This value gives the vehicle a crossrange capability similar to that of the space shuttle. At subsonic speeds, the HL-20 has a trimmed L/D ratio of about 3.6. Replacing the flat-plate outboard fins with fins having an airfoil shape increased the maximum subsonic trimmed L/D to 4.2.

  12. Aerodynamic shape optimization of arbitrary hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulikravich, George S.; Sheffer, Scott G.

    1991-01-01

    A new method was developed to optimize, in terms of aerodynamic wave drag minimization, arbitrary (nonaxisymmetric) hypersonic vehicles in modified Newtonian flow, while maintaining the initial volume and length of the vehicle. This new method uses either a surface fitted Fourier series to represent the vehicle's geometry or an independent point motion algorithm. In either case, the coefficients of the Fourier series or the spatial locations of the points defining each cross section were varied and a numerical optimization algorithm based on a quasi-Newton gradient search concept was used to determine the new optimal configuration. Results indicate a significant decrease in aerodynamic wave drag for simple and complex geometries at relatively low CPU costs. In the case of a cone, the results agreed well with known analytical optimum ogive shapes. The procedure is capable of accepting more complex flow field analysis codes.

  13. Evaluation of the surface roughness effect on suspended particle deposition near unpaved roads

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Dongzi; Gillies, J. A.; Etyemezian, V.; Nikolich, G.; Shaw, William J.

    2015-11-11

    The downwind transport and deposition of suspended dust raised by a vehicle driving on unpaved roads was studied for four differently vegetated surfaces in the USA states of Kansas and Washington, and one barren surface in Nevada. A 10 m high tower adjacent to the source (z10 m downwind) and an array of multi-channel optical particle counters at three positions downwind of the source measured the flux of particles and the particle size distribution in the advecting dust plumes in the horizontal and vertical directions. Aerodynamic parameters such as friction velocity (u*) and surface roughness length (z0) were calculated from wind speed measurements made on the tower. Particle number concentration, PM10 mass exhibited an exponential decay along the direction of transport. Coarse particles accounted for z95% of the PM10 mass, at least to a downwind distance of 200 m from the source. PM10 removed by deposition was found to increase with increasing particle size and increasing surface roughness under similar moderate wind speed conditions. The surface of dense, long grass (1.2 m high and complete surface cover) had the greatest reduction of PM10 among the five surfaces tested due to deposition induced by turbulence effects created by the rougher surface and by enhanced particle impaction/ interception effects to the grass blades.

  14. Soil surface roughness characterization for microwave remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzahn, P.; Rieke-Zapp, D.; Ludwig, R.

    2012-04-01

    With this poster we present a simple and efficient method to measure soil surface roughness in an agricultural environment. Micro scale soil surface roughness is a crucial parameter in many environmental applications. In recent studies it is strongly recognized that soil surface roughness significantly influences the backscatter of agricultural surface, especially on bare fields. Indeed, while different roughness indices depend on their measurement length, no satisfying roughness parametrization and measurement technique has been found yet, introducing large uncertainty in the interpretation of the radar backscattering. In this study, we introduce a photogrammetric system which consists of a customized consumer grade Canon EOS 5d camera and a reference frame providing ground control points. With the system one can generate digital surface models (DSM) with a minimum size of 1 x 2.5 m2, extendable to any desired size, with a ground x,y- resolution of 2 mm. Using this approach, we generated a set of DSM with sizes ranging from 2.5 m2 to 22 m2, acquired over different roughness conditions representing ploughed, harrowed as well as crusted fields on different test sites. For roughness characterization we calculated in microwave remote sensing common roughness indices such as the RMS- height s and the autocorrelation length l. In an extensive statistical investigation we show the behavior of the roughness indices for different acquisition sizes of the proposed method. Results indicate, compared to results from profiles generated out of the dataset, that using a three dimensional measuring device, the calculated roughness indices are more robust in their estimation. In addition, a strong directional dependency of the proposed roughness indices was observed which could be related to the orientation of the seedbed rows to the acqusition direction. In a geostatistical analysis, we decomposed the acquired roughness indices into different scales, yielding a roughness quantity

  15. Rarefied-flow aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, J. Leith

    1992-01-01

    Means for relatively simple and quick procedures are examined for estimating aerodynamic coefficients of lifting reentry vehicles. The methods developed allow aerospace designers not only to evaluate the aerodynamics of specific shapes but also to optimize shapes under given constraints. The analysis was also studied of the effect of thermomolecular flow on pressures measured by an orifice near the nose of a Space Shuttle Orbiter at altitudes above 75 km. It was shown that pressures corrected for thermomolecular flow effect are in good agreement with values predicted by independent theoretical methods. An incidental product was the insight gained about the free molecular thermal accommodation coefficient applicable under 'real' conditions of high speed flow in the Earth's atmosphere. The results are presented as abstracts of referenced papers. One reference paper is presented in its entirety.

  16. HYSHOT-2 Aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cain, T.; Owen, R.; Walton, C.

    2005-02-01

    The scramjet flight test Hyshot-2, flew on the 30 July 2002. The programme, led by the University of Queensland, had the primary objective of obtaining supersonic combustion data in flight for comparison with measurements made in shock tunnels. QinetiQ was one of the sponsors, and also provided aerodynamic data and trajectory predictions for the ballistic re-entry of the spinning sounding rocket. The unconventional missile geometry created by the nose-mounted asymmetric-scramjet in conjunction with the high angle of attack during re-entry makes the problem interesting. This paper presents the wind tunnel measurements and aerodynamic calculations used as input for the trajectory prediction. Indirect comparison is made with data obtained in the Hyshot-2 flight using a 6 degree-of-freedom trajectory simulation.

  17. Advanced Aerodynamic Control Effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1999-01-01

    A 1990 research program that focused on the development of advanced aerodynamic control effectors (AACE) for military aircraft has been reviewed and summarized. Data are presented for advanced planform, flow control, and surface contouring technologies. The data show significant increases in lift, reductions in drag, and increased control power, compared to typical aerodynamic designs. The results presented also highlighted the importance of planform selection in the design of a control effector suite. Planform data showed that dramatic increases in lift (greater than 25%) can be achieved with multiple wings and a sawtooth forebody. Passive porosity and micro drag generator control effector data showed control power levels exceeding that available from typical effectors (moving surfaces). Application of an advanced planform to a tailless concept showed benefits of similar magnitude as those observed in the generic studies.

  18. Aerodynamic Leidenfrost effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Anaïs; Bird, James C.; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David

    2016-12-01

    When deposited on a plate moving quickly enough, any liquid can levitate as it does when it is volatile on a very hot solid (Leidenfrost effect). In the aerodynamic Leidenfrost situation, air gets inserted between the liquid and the moving solid, a situation that we analyze. We observe two types of entrainment. (i) The thickness of the air gap is found to increase with the plate speed, which is interpreted in the Landau-Levich-Derjaguin frame: Air is dynamically dragged along the surface and its thickness results from a balance between capillary and viscous effects. (ii) Air set in motion by the plate exerts a force on the levitating liquid. We discuss the magnitude of this aerodynamic force and show that it can be exploited to control the liquid and even to drive it against gravity.

  19. Brightness versus roughness: a multiscale approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigerelle, M.; Marteau, J.; Paulin, C.

    2015-03-01

    A link between roughness and brightness is sought for brass specimens that were superfinished, sandblasted and brushed. Only the blasting conditions are varied in order to get different roughness and brightness. First, a relation between roughness and brightness is sought for specimens that were superfinished and sandblasted. The best relation is obtained using the mean height of the motifs, calculated using a low-pass filter and cut-off length equal to 30 μm, with a logarithmic-logarithmic model. Then, the same type of relation is determined after superfinishing sandblasting and brushing. The core material volume Vmc, computed using a high-pass filter with a cut-off length of 60 μm and a linear-logarithmic relationship, gives the best results. A relation between roughness and brightness that is common to both the pre-brushing state and post-brushing state is identified: the best roughness parameter is the arithmetic mean deviation Sa using a high-pass filter with a cut-off of 15 μm, with a logarithmic-logarithmic relationship. Finally, it is shown that the use of these filtering conditions enables us to verify the model of Beckmann and Spizzichino for the examined specimens. This scale corresponds to the end of the fractal regime and is close to the end of the signal correlation.

  20. Aerodynamics: The Wright Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Jennifer Hansen

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the basic principles of aerodynamics. Included in the presentation are: a few demonstrations of the principles, an explanation of the concepts of lift, drag, thrust and weight, a description of Bernoulli's principle, the concept of the airfoil (i.e., the shape of the wing) and how that effects lift, and the method of controlling an aircraft by manipulating the four forces using control surfaces.

  1. Fault Roughness Records Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, E. E.; Candela, T.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Fault roughness is commonly ~0.1-1% at the outcrop exposure scale. More mature faults are smoother than less mature ones, but the overall range of roughness is surprisingly limited which suggests dynamic control. In addition, the power spectra of many exposed fault surfaces follow a single power law over scales from millimeters to 10's of meters. This is another surprising observation as distinct structures such as slickenlines and mullions are clearly visible on the same surfaces at well-defined scales. We can reconcile both observations by suggesting that the roughness of fault surfaces is controlled by the maximum strain that can be supported elastically in the wallrock. If the fault surface topography requires more than 0.1-1% strain, it fails. Invoking wallrock strength explains two additional observations on the Corona Heights fault for which we have extensive roughness data. Firstly, the surface is isotropic below a scale of 30 microns and has grooves at larger scales. Samples from at least three other faults (Dixie Valley, Mount St. Helens and San Andreas) also are isotropic at scales below 10's of microns. If grooves can only persist when the walls of the grooves have a sufficiently low slope to maintain the shape, this scale of isotropy can be predicted based on the measured slip perpendicular roughness data. The observed 30 micron scale at Corona Heights is consistent with an elastic strain of 0.01 estimated from the observed slip perpendicular roughness with a Hurst exponent of 0.8. The second observation at Corona Heights is that slickenlines are not deflected around meter-scale mullions. Yielding of these mullions at centimeter to meter scale is predicted from the slip parallel roughness as measured here. The success of the strain criterion for Corona Heights supports it as the appropriate control on fault roughness. Micromechanically, the criterion implies that failure of the fault surface is a continual process during slip. Macroscopically, the

  2. The role of free stream turbulence and blade surface conditions on the aerodynamic performance of wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Victor Hugo

    Wind turbines operate within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) which gives rise to turbulence among other flow phenomena. There are several factors that contribute to turbulent flow: The operation of wind turbines in two layers of the atmosphere, the surface layer and the mixed layer. These layers often have unstable wind conditions due to the daily heating and cooling of the atmosphere which creates turbulent thermals. In addition, wind turbines often operate in the wake of upstream turbines such as in wind farms; where turbulence generated by the rotor can be compounded if the turbines are not sited properly. Although turbulent flow conditions are known to affect performance, i.e. power output and lifespan of the turbine, the flow mechanisms by which atmospheric turbulence and other external conditions (such as blade debris contamination) adversely impact wind turbines are not known in enough detail to address these issues. The main objectives of the current investigation are thus two-fold: (i) to understand the interaction of the turbulent integral length scales and surface roughness on the blade and its effect on aerodynamic performance, and (ii) to develop and apply flow control (both passive and active) techniques to alleviate some of the adverse fluid dynamics phenomena caused by the atmosphere (i.e. blade contamination) and restore some of the aerodynamic performance loss. In order to satisfy the objectives of the investigation, a 2-D blade model based on the S809 airfoil for horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) applications was manufactured and tested at the Johns Hopkins University Corrsin Stanley Wind Tunnel facility. Additional levels of free stream turbulence with an intensity of 6.14% and integral length scale of about 0.321 m was introduced into the flow via an active grid. The free stream velocity was 10 m/s resulting in a Reynolds number based on blade chord of Rec ≃ 2.08x105. Debris contamination on the blade was modeled as surface roughness

  3. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Telescopic Aerospikes with Multiple-Row-Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Maru, Yusuke; Sato, Tetsuya

    This paper reports experimental studies on telescopic aerospikes with multiple disks. The telescopic aerospike is useful as an aerodynamic control device; however, changing its length causes a buzz phenomenon, which many researchers have reported. The occurrence of buzzing might be critical to the vehicle because it brings about severe pressure oscillations on the surface. Disks on the shaft produce stable recirculation regions by dividing the single separation flow into several conical cavity flows. The telescopic aerospikes with stabilizer disks are useful without any length constraints. Aerodynamic characteristics of the telescopic aerospikes were investigated through a series of wind tunnel tests. Transition of recirculation/reattachment flow modes of a plain spike causes a large change in the drag coefficient. Because of this hysteresis phenomenon and the buzzing, the plain spike is unsuitable for fine aerodynamic control devices. Adding stabilizer disks is effective for the improved control of aerospikes.

  4. ROUGH ROCK DEMONSTRATION SCHOOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FORBES, JACK

    THE ROUGH ROCK DEMONSTRATION SCHOOL IS LOCATED IN NORTHEASTERN ARIZONA, WHERE THE NAVAJO LANGUAGE IS UNIVERSALLY SPOKEN BY THE NAVAJO PEOPLE. IT IS LOCATED ON A NAVAJO RESERVATION AND WAS DESIGNED AS A BIA EXPERIMENTAL SCHOOL TO SERVE 200 ELEMENTARY PUPILS, MOST OF WHOM ARE IN THE BOARDING SCHOOL SITUATION. AN OBJECTIVE OF THE SCHOOL IS TO GAIN…

  5. Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Sean; Bigatel, Patrick

    2004-10-17

    Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by this DOE category one Inventions and Innovations grant to successfully research, develop, test, patent, market, and sell innovative fuel and emissions saving aerodynamic attachments for the trucking industry. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck's fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Market research early in this project revealed the demands of truck fleet operators regarding aerodynamic attachments. Products must not only save fuel, but cannot interfere with the operation of the truck, require significant maintenance, add significant weight, and must be extremely durable. Furthermore, SAE/TMC J1321 tests performed by a respected independent laboratory are necessary for large fleets to even consider purchase. Freight Wing used this information to create a system of three practical aerodynamic attachments for the front, rear and undercarriage of standard semi trailers. SAE/TMC J1321 Type II tests preformed by the Transportation Research Center (TRC) demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy with all three products. If Freight Wing is successful in its continued efforts to gain market penetration, the energy and environmental savings would be considerable. Each truck outfitted saves approximately 1,100 gallons of fuel every 100,000 miles, which prevents over 12 tons of CO2 from entering the atmosphere. If all applicable trailers used the technology, the country could save approximately 1.8 billion gallons of diesel fuel, 18 million tons of emissions and 3.6 billion dollars annually.

  6. TAD- THEORETICAL AERODYNAMICS PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrowman, J.

    1994-01-01

    This theoretical aerodynamics program, TAD, was developed to predict the aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles with sounding rocket configurations. These slender, axisymmetric finned vehicle configurations have a wide range of aeronautical applications from rockets to high speed armament. Over a given range of Mach numbers, TAD will compute the normal force coefficient derivative, the center-of-pressure, the roll forcing moment coefficient derivative, the roll damping moment coefficient derivative, and the pitch damping moment coefficient derivative of a sounding rocket configured vehicle. The vehicle may consist of a sharp pointed nose of cone or tangent ogive shape, up to nine other body divisions of conical shoulder, conical boattail, or circular cylinder shape, and fins of trapezoid planform shape with constant cross section and either three or four fins per fin set. The characteristics computed by TAD have been shown to be accurate to within ten percent of experimental data in the supersonic region. The TAD program calculates the characteristics of separate portions of the vehicle, calculates the interference between separate portions of the vehicle, and then combines the results to form a total vehicle solution. Also, TAD can be used to calculate the characteristics of the body or fins separately as an aid in the design process. Input to the TAD program consists of simple descriptions of the body and fin geometries and the Mach range of interest. Output includes the aerodynamic characteristics of the total vehicle, or user-selected portions, at specified points over the mach range. The TAD program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 360 computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 123K of 8 bit bytes. The TAD program was originally developed in 1967 and last updated in 1972.

  7. Prediction of Aerodynamic Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    predictable even with knowledge of the motion and the quasi- steady aerodynamic coefficients . It sems likely that the unsteady boundary-layer...build up, which are explainable 41 terams of the stability coefficients . More research is needed on the former type of undemanded manoeuvre. In some...drag 81, 82... B5 body sections I. kg lift St strdke 1M kg m pitching moment N kg normal force T kg axial force a 0 angle of attack Coefficie its: CD, cD

  8. Mask roughness induced LER: a rule of thumb -- paper

    SciTech Connect

    McClinton, Brittany; Naulleau, Patrick

    2010-03-12

    Much work has already been done on how both the resist and line-edge roughness (LER) on the mask affect the final printed LER. What is poorly understood, however, is the extent to which system-level effects such as mask surface roughness, illumination conditions, and defocus couple to speckle at the image plane, and currently factor into LER limits. Here, we propose a 'rule-of-thumb' simplified solution that provides a fast and powerful method to obtain mask roughness induced LER. We present modeling data on an older generation mask with a roughness of 230 pm as well as the ultimate target roughness of 50 pm. Moreover, we consider feature sizes of 50 nm and 22 nm, and show that as a function of correlation length, the LER peaks at the condition that the correlation length is approximately equal to the resolution of the imaging optic.

  9. On Wings: Aerodynamics of Eagles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millson, David

    2000-01-01

    The Aerodynamics Wing Curriculum is a high school program that combines basic physics, aerodynamics, pre-engineering, 3D visualization, computer-assisted drafting, computer-assisted manufacturing, production, reengineering, and success in a 15-hour, 3-week classroom module. (JOW)

  10. Aerodynamics of a Party Balloon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2007-01-01

    It is well-known that a party balloon can be made to fly erratically across a room, but it can also be used for quantitative measurements of other aspects of aerodynamics. Since a balloon is light and has a large surface area, even relatively weak aerodynamic forces can be readily demonstrated or measured in the classroom. Accurate measurements…

  11. The Aerodynamic Plane Table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F

    1924-01-01

    This report gives the description and the use of a specially designed aerodynamic plane table. For the accurate and expeditious geometrical measurement of models in an aerodynamic laboratory, and for miscellaneous truing operations, there is frequent need for a specially equipped plan table. For example, one may have to measure truly to 0.001 inch the offsets of an airfoil at many parts of its surface. Or the offsets of a strut, airship hull, or other carefully formed figure may require exact calipering. Again, a complete airplane model may have to be adjusted for correct incidence at all parts of its surfaces or verified in those parts for conformance to specifications. Such work, if but occasional, may be done on a planing or milling machine; but if frequent, justifies the provision of a special table. For this reason it was found desirable in 1918 to make the table described in this report and to equip it with such gauges and measures as the work should require.

  12. Aerodynamic challenges of ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooks, I.; Homan, D.; Romere, P. O.

    1985-01-01

    The approach and landing test (ALT) of the Space Shuttle Orbiter presented a number of unique challenges in the area of aerodynamics. The purpose of the ALT program was both to confirm the use of the Boeing 747 as a transport vehicle for ferrying the Orbiter across the country and to demonstrate the flight characteristics of the Orbiter in its approach and landing phase. Concerns for structural fatigue and performance dictated a tailcone be attached to the Orbiter for ferry and for the initial landing tests. The Orbiter with a tailcone attached presented additional challenges to the normal aft sting concept of wind tunnel testing. The landing tests required that the Orbiter be separated from the 747 at approximately 20,000 feet using aerodynamic forces to fly the vehicles apart. The concept required a complex test program to determine the relative effects of the two vehicles on each other. Also of concern, and tested, was the vortex wake created by the 747 and the means for the Orbiter to avoid it following separation.

  13. Unsteady aerodynamics of blade rows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdon, Joseph M.

    1989-01-01

    The requirements placed on an unsteady aerodynamic theory intended for turbomachinery aeroelastic or aeroacoustic applications are discussed along with a brief description of the various theoretical models that are available to address these requirements. The major emphasis is placed on the description of a linearized inviscid theory which fully accounts for the affects of a nonuniform mean or steady flow on unsteady aerodynamic response. Although this linearization was developed primarily for blade flutter prediction, more general equations are presented which account for unsteady excitations due to incident external aerodynamic disturbances as well as those due to prescribed blade motions. The motivation for this linearized unsteady aerodynamic theory is focused on, its physical and mathematical formulation is outlined and examples are presented to illustrate the status of numerical solution procedures and several effects of mean flow nonuniformity on unsteady aerodynamic response.

  14. Identifying Changes in Snowpack Surface Roughness Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassnacht, S. R.; Corrao, M. V.; Deems, J. S.; Stednick, J. D.

    2006-12-01

    The flow of air over a surface is influenced by its roughness. The surface of a snowpack is smooth relative to the underlying ground surface. The relative roughness of the snowpack surface changes directionally, spatially, and temporally, due to deposition, erosion, and melt. To examine these changes in snowpack surface roughness at the microtopographic scale for a Northern Colorado site, the surface was photographed using a darker-coloured roughness board that was inserted into the snowpack so that a black (board) versus white (snow) contrast existed along the entire length of the board. The board was 1-m long and was inserted 11 times at 10-cm intervals to create a 1-m by 1-m mesh. The orientation of the boards was rotated 90 degrees to provide finer resolution data in perpendicular directions. For the 1-m boards, the pixel resolution was approximately 0.4 mm. To measure the snow grain scale, a crystal card was photographed and yielded a pixel resolution of approximately 0.1 mm. Incorporating image processing issues such as image contrast and brightness, the digital images were translated into individual lines. These lines were used to compute semi- variograms in log-log space, from which the magnitude of semi-variance, the fractal dimensions, and the scale break were computed. The semi-variogram characteristics were used to illustrate directional, spatial, and temporal changes in snowpack surface roughness.

  15. Wind-tunnel studies of roughness effects in gas dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, P. T.; Fryer-Taylor, R. E. J.; Hall, D. J.

    A programme of work has been carried out using wind-tunnel modelling to investigate the effect of surface roughness on dense-gas dispersion from ground-level sources where the roughness height is large compared with the cloud depth. Neutrally buoyant gas releases were included as control experiments. The results are compared with results of a 1:100 scale simulation of dispersion in high roughness conducted by CPP Inc. for the American Petroleum Institute (API). For surface roughness lengths, z0, smaller than about 0.5 cm (0.5 m full scale), dispersion is shown to be well described by a Gaussian plume model. Plume width and depth increase with z0 and are simple functions of distance from the source. For larger roughness, dispersion depends on the arrangement of the roughness elements, plume width, σy, can be restricted by channelling and plume depth, σz, becomes sensitive to run conditions.

  16. Spatially-varying surface roughness and ground-level air quality in an operational dispersion model.

    PubMed

    Barnes, M J; Brade, T K; MacKenzie, A R; Whyatt, J D; Carruthers, D J; Stocker, J; Cai, X; Hewitt, C N

    2014-02-01

    Urban form controls the overall aerodynamic roughness of a city, and hence plays a significant role in how air flow interacts with the urban landscape. This paper reports improved model performance resulting from the introduction of variable surface roughness in the operational air-quality model ADMS-Urban (v3.1). We then assess to what extent pollutant concentrations can be reduced solely through local reductions in roughness. The model results suggest that reducing surface roughness in a city centre can increase ground-level pollutant concentrations, both locally in the area of reduced roughness and downwind of that area. The unexpected simulation of increased ground-level pollutant concentrations implies that this type of modelling should be used with caution for urban planning and design studies looking at ventilation of pollution. We expect the results from this study to be relevant for all atmospheric dispersion models with urban-surface parameterisations based on roughness.

  17. Aerodynamic Size Classification of Glass Fibers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laosmaa, Pekka J. J.

    The objective of this research was to examine a technique by which fibers may be aerodynamically classified by diameter and/or length. In this study a system for fiber preparation and generation as well as an in situ fiber classifier were constructed and evaluated. A recently developed technique, the size classification of particles by opposing jets, was modified. The research set-up consisted of (1) a vibrating bed fiber generator, which also functioned as a preselector, (2) an opposing-jet classifier equipped with electrodes and high voltage power supplies to create fiber-aligning electric fields inside the classifier and (3) an optoelectric fiber sensor to measure the concentration and length of fibers. The classified fibers were also collected on filters for the counting and dimensional analysis of the fibers. Some flow instability problems were found during the initial tests of the classifier. They were attributed to random flow fluctuations in the nozzles caused by very small perturbations upstream of the nozzles. Within a critical range of flow Reynolds numbers the flow becomes "intermittent", i.e. it alternates in time between being laminar and turbulent in a random sequence. Small disturbances upstream of the point of consideration can "trigger" the changes from laminar to turbulent flow and the initial disturbance may be "amplified", sending a turbulent flash through the flow system. The classifier performed well with test aerosols after the nozzle flowrate had been decreased to correspond to a lower and less critical Reynolds number and after some modifications had been made to smooth the flow inside the classifier inlet chambers. The cut-off of test aerosols was sharp, but the loss of particles greater than 2.5 (mu)m in aerodynamic diameter was unsatisfactorily high. The classifier was able to classify fibers by aerodynamic diameter, but not as predicted through calculations. The results were difficult to interpret because of the high loss of fibers

  18. Theory of adhesion: role of surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Persson, B N J; Scaraggi, M

    2014-09-28

    We discuss how surface roughness influences the adhesion between elastic solids. We introduce a Tabor number which depends on the length scale or magnification, and which gives information about the nature of the adhesion at different length scales. We consider two limiting cases relevant for (a) elastically hard solids with weak (or long ranged) adhesive interaction (DMT-limit) and (b) elastically soft solids with strong (or short ranged) adhesive interaction (JKR-limit). For the former cases we study the nature of the adhesion using different adhesive force laws (F ∼ u(-n), n = 1.5-4, where u is the wall-wall separation). In general, adhesion may switch from DMT-like at short length scales to JKR-like at large (macroscopic) length scale. We compare the theory predictions to results of exact numerical simulations and find good agreement between theory and simulation results.

  19. Theory of adhesion: Role of surface roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, B. N. J.; Scaraggi, M.

    2014-09-01

    We discuss how surface roughness influences the adhesion between elastic solids. We introduce a Tabor number which depends on the length scale or magnification, and which gives information about the nature of the adhesion at different length scales. We consider two limiting cases relevant for (a) elastically hard solids with weak (or long ranged) adhesive interaction (DMT-limit) and (b) elastically soft solids with strong (or short ranged) adhesive interaction (JKR-limit). For the former cases we study the nature of the adhesion using different adhesive force laws (F ˜ u-n, n = 1.5-4, where u is the wall-wall separation). In general, adhesion may switch from DMT-like at short length scales to JKR-like at large (macroscopic) length scale. We compare the theory predictions to results of exact numerical simulations and find good agreement between theory and simulation results.

  20. Aerodynamic properties of agricultural and natural surfaces in northwestern Tarim Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Friction velocity (u*) and aerodynamic roughness (z0) are important parameters that influence soil erosion, but no attempts have been made to quantify these parameters as affected by different land use types in the northwestern Tarim Basin. Wind velocity profiles were measured and used to determine ...

  1. Aerodynamic Classification of Swept-Wing Ice Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy; Diebold, Jeff; Bragg, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The continued design, certification and safe operation of swept-wing airplanes in icing conditions rely on the advancement of computational and experimental simulation methods for higher fidelity results over an increasing range of aircraft configurations and performance, and icing conditions. The current state-of-the-art in icing aerodynamics is mainly built upon a comprehensive understanding of two-dimensional geometries that does not currently exist for fundamentally three-dimensional geometries such as swept wings. The purpose of this report is to describe what is known of iced-swept-wing aerodynamics and to identify the type of research that is required to improve the current understanding. Following the method used in a previous review of iced-airfoil aerodynamics, this report proposes a classification of swept-wing ice accretion into four groups based upon unique flowfield attributes. These four groups are: ice roughness, horn ice, streamwise ice, and spanwise-ridge ice. For all of the proposed ice-shape classifications, relatively little is known about the three-dimensional flowfield and even less about the effect of Reynolds number and Mach number on these flowfields. The classifications and supporting data presented in this report can serve as a starting point as new research explores swept-wing aerodynamics with ice shapes. As further results are available, it is expected that these classifications will need to be updated and revised.

  2. Vortex flow aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. H. B.; Campbell, J. F.; Young, A. D. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The principal emphasis of the meeting was to be on the understanding and prediction of separation-induced vortex flows and their effects on vehicle performance, stability, control, and structural design loads. This report shows that a substantial amount of the papers covering this area were received from a wide range of countries, together with an attendance that was even more diverse. In itself, this testifies to the current interest in the subject and to the appropriateness of the Panel's choice of topic and approach. An attempt is made to summarize each paper delivered, and to relate the contributions made in the papers and in the discussions to some of the important aspects of vortex flow aerodynamics. This reveals significant progress and important clarifications, but also brings out remaining weaknesses in predictive capability and gaps in understanding. Where possible, conclusions are drawn and areas of continuing concern are identified.

  3. Rough and Tumble Play 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Frances

    2009-01-01

    Many people fear that play-fighting or rough and tumble play is the same as real fighting. There is also a fear that this rough play will become real fighting if allowed to continue. Most of all, parents and teachers fear that during the course of rough and tumble play a child may be hurt. To provide for and allow children to play rough without…

  4. Rough Sea Transfer Ship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    GROUP 2.3 2.36003 TRIAGE 20.00 60.00 GROUP 2.4 2.41005 VENDING MACHINE AREA 1.84 5.53 2.42001 LAUNDRY 27.15 81.44 GROUP 2.5...Research Enterprise Intern Program Rough Seas Transfer Ship Acknowledgements This report is the culmination of work conducted by students hired...under the National Research Enterprise Intern Program sponsored by the Office of Naval Research. This program provides an opportunity for students to

  5. Payload vehicle aerodynamic reentry analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Donald

    An approach for analyzing the dynamic behavior of a cone-cylinder payload vehicle during reentry to insure proper deployment of the parachute system and recovery of the payload is presented. This analysis includes the study of an aerodynamic device that is useful in extending vehicle axial rotation through the maximum dynamic pressure region. Attention is given to vehicle configuration and reentry trajectory, the derivation of pitch static aerodynamics, the derivation of the pitch damping coefficient, pitching moment modeling, aerodynamic roll device modeling, and payload vehicle reentry dynamics. It is shown that the vehicle dynamics at parachute deployment are well within the design limit of the recovery system, thus ensuring successful payload recovery.

  6. Armor Plate Surface Roughness Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    Armor Plate Surface Roughness Measurements by Brian Stanton, William Coburn, and Thomas J. Pizzillo ARL-TR-3498 April 2005... Armor Plate Surface Roughness Measurements Brian Stanton, William Coburn and Thomas J. Pizzillo Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate...October 2004 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Armor Plate Surface Roughness Measurements 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  7. Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, U. B.; Kutler, P.

    1984-01-01

    The general principles of artificial intelligence are reviewed and speculations are made concerning how knowledge based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use expert systems, and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. In addition, the anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics are examined. Three main conclusions are presented. First, there are two related aspects of computational aerodynamics: reasoning and calculating. Second, a substantial portion of reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence. It offers the opportunity of using computers as reasoning machines to set the stage for efficient calculating. Third, expert systems are likely to be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

  8. Dynamic soaring: aerodynamics for albatrosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Albatrosses have evolved to soar and glide efficiently. By maximizing their lift-to-drag ratio L/D, albatrosses can gain energy from the wind and can travel long distances with little effort. We simplify the difficult aerodynamic equations of motion by assuming that albatrosses maintain a constant L/D. Analytic solutions to the simplified equations provide an instructive and appealing example of fixed-wing aerodynamics suitable for undergraduate demonstration.

  9. Supersonic aerodynamics of delta wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.

    1988-01-01

    Through the empirical correlation of experimental data and theoretical analysis, a set of graphs has been developed which summarize the inviscid aerodynamics of delta wings at supersonic speeds. The various graphs which detail the aerodynamic performance of delta wings at both zero-lift and lifting conditions were then employed to define a preliminary wing design approach in which both the low-lift and high-lift design criteria were combined to define a feasible design space.

  10. Parametric Study of Urban-Like Topographic Statistical Moments Relevant to a Priori Modelling of Bulk Aerodynamic Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaowei; Iungo, G. Valerio; Leonardi, Stefano; Anderson, William

    2017-02-01

    For a horizontally homogeneous, neutrally stratified atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), aerodynamic roughness length, z_0, is the effective elevation at which the streamwise component of mean velocity is zero. A priori prediction of z_0 based on topographic attributes remains an open line of inquiry in planetary boundary-layer research. Urban topographies - the topic of this study - exhibit spatial heterogeneities associated with variability of building height, width, and proximity with adjacent buildings; such variability renders a priori, prognostic z_0 models appealing. Here, large-eddy simulation (LES) has been used in an extensive parametric study to characterize the ABL response (and z_0) to a range of synthetic, urban-like topographies wherein statistical moments of the topography have been systematically varied. Using LES results, we determined the hierarchical influence of topographic moments relevant to setting z_0. We demonstrate that standard deviation and skewness are important, while kurtosis is negligible. This finding is reconciled with a model recently proposed by Flack and Schultz (J Fluids Eng 132:041203-1-041203-10, 2010), who demonstrate that z_0 can be modelled with standard deviation and skewness, and two empirical coefficients (one for each moment). We find that the empirical coefficient related to skewness is not constant, but exhibits a dependence on standard deviation over certain ranges. For idealized, quasi-uniform cubic topographies and for complex, fully random urban-like topographies, we demonstrate strong performance of the generalized Flack and Schultz model against contemporary roughness correlations.

  11. ROUGHNESS ANALYSIS OF VARIOUSLY POLISHED NIOBIUM SURFACES

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeill, G.; Reece, C.

    2008-01-01

    Niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities have gained widespread use in accelerator systems. It has been shown that surface roughness is a determining factor in the cavities’ effi ciency and maximum accelerating potential achievable through this technology. Irregularities in the surface can lead to spot heating, undesirable local electrical fi eld enhancement and electron multipacting. Surface quality is typically ensured through the use of acid etching in a Buffered Chemical Polish (BCP) bath and electropolishing (EP). In this study, the effects of these techniques on surface morphology have been investigated in depth. The surface of niobium samples polished using different combinations of these techniques has been characterized through atomic force microscopy (AFM) and stylus profi lometry across a range of length scales. The surface morphology was analyzed using spectral techniques to determine roughness and characteristic dimensions. Experimentation has shown that this method is a valuable tool that provides quantitative information about surface roughness at different length scales. It has demonstrated that light BCP pretreatment and lower electrolyte temperature favors a smoother electropolish. These results will allow for the design of a superior polishing process for niobium SRF cavities and therefore increased accelerator operating effi ciency and power.

  12. Engine roughness control means

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuura, M.; Doi, N.; Yoshioka, S.; Okimoto, H.; Veda, K.

    1987-08-04

    This patent describes a control system for a vehicle engine comprising engine condition detecting means for detecting an engine operating condition and producing an engine condition signal representing the engine operating condition, engine combustion control means for controlling a condition of combustion in the engine; and a control factor storage means for storing control factors for controlling the engine combustion. A modifying means connect the comparator means to receive the output signal and to modify the control factor from the storage means by the output of the comparator means so that the combustion control means is controlled by the modified control factor in a direction that the engine vibrations are suppressed. A reference signal changes means connected with the engine condition detecting means to change the reference roughness signal in accordance with the engine operating condition so that the reference signal is decreased when the engine is in idling operation.

  13. On universality of scaling law describing roughness of triple line.

    PubMed

    Bormashenko, Edward; Musin, Albina; Whyman, Gene; Barkay, Zahava; Zinigrad, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The fine structure of the three-phase (triple) line was studied for different liquids, various topographies of micro-rough substrates and various wetting regimes. Wetting of porous and pillar-based micro-scaled polymer surfaces was investigated. The triple line was visualized with the environmental scanning electron microscope and scanning electron microscope for the "frozen" triple lines. The value of the roughness exponent ζ for water (ice)/rough polymer systems was located within 0.55-0.63. For epoxy glue/rough polymer systems somewhat lower values of the exponent, 0.42 < ζ < 0.54, were established. The obtained values of ζ were close for the Cassie and Wenzel wetting regimes, different liquids, and different substrates' topographies. Thus, the above values of the exponent are to a great extent universal. The switch of the exponent, when the roughness size approaches to the correlation length of the defects, is also universal.

  14. Introduction. Computational aerodynamics.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Paul G

    2007-10-15

    The wide range of uses of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for aircraft design is discussed along with its role in dealing with the environmental impact of flight. Enabling technologies, such as grid generation and turbulence models, are also considered along with flow/turbulence control. The large eddy simulation, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes and hybrid turbulence modelling approaches are contrasted. The CFD prediction of numerous jet configurations occurring in aerospace are discussed along with aeroelasticity for aeroengine and external aerodynamics, design optimization, unsteady flow modelling and aeroengine internal and external flows. It is concluded that there is a lack of detailed measurements (for both canonical and complex geometry flows) to provide validation and even, in some cases, basic understanding of flow physics. Not surprisingly, turbulence modelling is still the weak link along with, as ever, a pressing need for improved (in terms of robustness, speed and accuracy) solver technology, grid generation and geometry handling. Hence, CFD, as a truly predictive and creative design tool, seems a long way off. Meanwhile, extreme practitioner expertise is still required and the triad of computation, measurement and analytic solution must be judiciously used.

  15. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvořák, Rudolf

    2016-03-01

    Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird). Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust - two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc.), and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  16. Application of 3D printing technology in aerodynamic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olasek, K.; Wiklak, P.

    2014-08-01

    3D printing, as an additive process, offers much more than traditional machining techniques in terms of achievable complexity of a model shape. That fact was a motivation to adapt discussed technology as a method for creating objects purposed for aerodynamic testing. The following paper provides an overview of various 3D printing techniques. Four models of a standard NACA0018 aerofoil were manufactured in different materials and methods: MultiJet Modelling (MJM), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) and Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM). Various parameters of the models have been included in the analysis: surface roughness, strength, details quality, surface imperfections and irregularities as well as thermal properties.

  17. A rough earth scattering model for multipath prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, L. J.; Chestnut, P. C.

    1970-01-01

    The most important phenomena to be considered in a model of radio wave communication between earth satellites are scattering from the surface of the earth. A model is derived and implemented on a computer to predict the field received after reflection from a rough, spherical earth. The scattering integrals are computed numerically; the domain of integration is the appropriate region on the surface of the earth. Calculations have been performed at VHF frequencies and for terrain which could be described as marshy land. Rough surface scattering calculations must be performed over a spherical earth when satellites are involved. There is a definite dependence on the values of the roughness, and the correlation length.

  18. Roughness characteristics of natural channels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Harry Hawthorne

    1967-01-01

    Color photographs and descriptive data are presented for 50 stream channels for which roughness coefficients have been determined. All hydraulic computations involving flow in open channels require an evaluation of the roughness characteristics of the channel. In the absence of a satisfactory quantitative procedure this evaluation remains chiefly an art. The ability to evaluate roughness coefficients must be developed through experience. One means of gaining this experience is by examining and becoming acquainted with the appearance of some typical channels whose roughness coefficients are known. The photographs and data contained in this report represent a wide range of channel conditions. Familiarity with the appearance, geometry, and roughness characteristics of these channels will improve the engineer's ability to select roughness coefficients for other channels .

  19. Roughness Measurement of Dental Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulev, Assen; Roussev, Ilia; Karpuzov, Simeon; Stoilov, Georgi; Ignatova, Detelina; See, Constantin von; Mitov, Gergo

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a roughness measurement of zirconia ceramics, widely used for dental applications. Surface roughness variations caused by the most commonly used dental instruments for intraoral grinding and polishing are estimated. The applied technique is simple and utilizes the speckle properties of the scattered laser light. It could be easily implemented even in dental clinic environment. The main criteria for roughness estimation is the average speckle size, which varies with the roughness of zirconia. The algorithm used for the speckle size estimation is based on the normalized autocorrelation approach.

  20. Aerodynamics Via Acoustics: Application of Acoustic Formulas for Aerodynamic Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Myers, M. K.

    1986-01-01

    Prediction of aerodynamic loads on bodies in arbitrary motion is considered from an acoustic point of view, i.e., in a frame of reference fixed in the undisturbed medium. An inhomogeneous wave equation which governs the disturbance pressure is constructed and solved formally using generalized function theory. When the observer is located on the moving body surface there results a singular linear integral equation for surface pressure. Two different methods for obtaining such equations are discussed. Both steady and unsteady aerodynamic calculations are considered. Two examples are presented, the more important being an application to propeller aerodynamics. Of particular interest for numerical applications is the analytical behavior of the kernel functions in the various integral equations.

  1. Surface roughness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Thomas G.

    1994-10-01

    The Optics Division is currently in the research phase of producing grazing-incidence mirrors to be used in x-ray detector applications. The traditional method of construction involves labor-intensive glass grinding. This also culminates in a relatively heavy mirror. For lower resolution applications, the mirrors may be of a replicated design which involves milling a mandrel as a negative of the final shape and electroplating the cylindrical mirror onto it. The mirror is then separated from the mandrel by cooling. The mandrel will shrink more than the 'shell' (mirror) allowing it to be pulled from the mandrel. Ulmer (2) describes this technique and its variations in more detail. To date, several mirrors have been tested at MSFC by the Optical Fabrication Branch by focusing x-ray energy onto a detector with limited success. Little is known about the surface roughness of the actual mirror. Hence, the attempt to gather data on these surfaces. The test involves profiling the surface of a sample, replicating the surface as described above, and then profiling the replicated surface.

  2. Configuration Aerodynamics: Past - Present - Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Agrawal, Shreekant; Bencze, Daniel P.; Kulfan, Robert M.; Wilson, Douglas L.

    1999-01-01

    The Configuration Aerodynamics (CA) element of the High Speed Research (HSR) program is managed by a joint NASA and Industry team, referred to as the Technology Integration Development (ITD) team. This team is responsible for the development of a broad range of technologies for improved aerodynamic performance and stability and control characteristics at subsonic to supersonic flight conditions. These objectives are pursued through the aggressive use of advanced experimental test techniques and state of the art computational methods. As the HSR program matures and transitions into the next phase the objectives of the Configuration Aerodynamics ITD are being refined to address the drag reduction needs and stability and control requirements of High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft. In addition, the experimental and computational tools are being refined and improved to meet these challenges. The presentation will review the work performed within the Configuration Aerodynamics element in 1994 and 1995 and then discuss the plans for the 1996-1998 time period. The final portion of the presentation will review several observations of the HSR program and the design activity within Configuration Aerodynamics.

  3. Aerodynamic drag on intermodal railcars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinghorn, Philip; Maynes, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    The aerodynamic drag associated with transport of commodities by rail is becoming increasingly important as the cost of diesel fuel increases. This study aims to increase the efficiency of intermodal cargo trains by reducing the aerodynamic drag on the load carrying cars. For intermodal railcars a significant amount of aerodynamic drag is a result of the large distance between loads that often occurs and the resulting pressure drag resulting from the separated flow. In the present study aerodynamic drag data have been obtained through wind tunnel testing on 1/29 scale models to understand the savings that may be realized by judicious modification to the size of the intermodal containers. The experiments were performed in the BYU low speed wind tunnel and the test track utilizes two leading locomotives followed by a set of five articulated well cars with double stacked containers. The drag on a representative mid-train car is measured using an isolated load cell balance and the wind tunnel speed is varied from 20 to 100 mph. We characterize the effect that the gap distance between the containers and the container size has on the aerodynamic drag of this representative rail car and investigate methods to reduce the gap distance.

  4. Influence of Nanoscale Surface Roughness on Colloidal Force Measurements.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yi; Jayasuriya, Sunil; Manke, Charles W; Mao, Guangzhao

    2015-09-29

    Forces between colloidal particles determine the performances of many industrial processes and products. Colloidal force measurements conducted between a colloidal particle AFM probe and particles immobilized on a flat substrate are valuable in selecting appropriate surfactants for colloidal stabilization. One of the features of inorganic fillers and extenders is the prevalence of rough surfaces-even the polymer latex particles, often used as model colloidal systems including the current study, have rough surfaces albeit at a much smaller scale. Surface roughness is frequently cited as the reason for disparity between experimental observations and theoretical treatment but seldom verified by direct evidence. This work reports the effect of nanoscale surface roughness on colloidal force measurements carried out in the presence of surfactants. We applied a heating method to reduce the mean surface roughness of commercial latex particles from 30 to 1 nm. We conducted force measurements using the two types of particles at various salt and surfactant concentrations. The surfactants used were pentaethylene glycol monododecyl ether, Pluronic F108, and a styrene/acrylic copolymer, Joncryl 60. In the absence of the surfactant, nanometer surface roughness affects colloidal forces only in high salt conditions when the Debye length becomes smaller than the surface roughness. The adhesion is stronger between colloids with higher surface roughness and requires a higher surfactant concentration to be eliminated. The effect of surface roughness on colloidal forces was also investigated as a function of the adsorbed surfactant layer structure characterized by AFM indentation and dynamic light scattering. We found that when the layer thickness exceeds the surface roughness, the colloidal adhesion is less influenced by surfactant concentration variation. This study demonstrates that surface roughness at the nanoscale can influence colloidal forces significantly and should be taken

  5. Subglacial roughness of the former Barents Sea ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudlaugsson, E.; Humbert, A.; Winsborrow, M.; Andreassen, K.

    2013-12-01

    The roughness of a glacier bed has high importance for the estimation of the sliding velocity and can also provide valuable insights into the dynamics and history of ice sheets, depending on scale. Measurement of basal properties in present-day ice sheets is restricted to ground-penetrating radar and seismics, with surveys retrieving relatively coarse data sets. Deglaciated areas, like the Barents Sea, can be surveyed by shipborne 2-D and 3-D seismics and multibeam sonar and provide the possibility of studying the basal roughness of former ice sheets and ice streams with high resolution. Here, for the first time, we quantify the subglacial roughness of the former Barents Sea ice sheet by estimating the spectral roughness of the basal topography. We also make deductions about the past flow directions by investigating how the roughness varies along a 2-D line as the orientation of the line changes. Lastly, we investigate how the estimated basal roughness is affected by the resolution of the basal topography data set by comparing the spectral roughness along a cross section using various sampling intervals. We find that the roughness typically varies on a similar scale as for other previously marine-inundated areas in West Antarctica, with subglacial troughs having very low roughness, consistent with fast ice flow and high rates of basal erosion. The resolution of the data set seems to be of minor importance when comparing roughness indices calculated with a fixed profile length. A strong dependence on track orientation is shown for all wavelengths, with profiles having higher roughness across former flow directions than along them.

  6. Methods of reducing vehicle aerodynamic drag

    SciTech Connect

    Sirenko V.; Rohatgi U.

    2012-07-08

    A small scale model (length 1710 mm) of General Motor SUV was built and tested in the wind tunnel for expected wind conditions and road clearance. Two passive devices, rear screen which is plate behind the car and rear fairing where the end of the car is aerodynamically extended, were incorporated in the model and tested in the wind tunnel for different wind conditions. The conclusion is that rear screen could reduce drag up to 6.5% and rear fairing can reduce the drag by 26%. There were additional tests for front edging and rear vortex generators. The results for drag reduction were mixed. It should be noted that there are aesthetic and practical considerations that may allow only partial implementation of these or any drag reduction options.

  7. Special opportunities in helicopter aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccroskey, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    Aerodynamic research relating to modern helicopters includes the study of three dimensional, unsteady, nonlinear flow fields. A selective review is made of some of the phenomenon that hamper the development of satisfactory engineering prediction techniques, but which provides a rich source of research opportunities: flow separations, compressibility effects, complex vortical wakes, and aerodynamic interference between components. Several examples of work in progress are given, including dynamic stall alleviation, the development of computational methods for transonic flow, rotor-wake predictions, and blade-vortex interactions.

  8. Aerodynamics Research Revolutionizes Truck Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s, researchers at Dryden Flight Research Center conducted numerous tests to refine the shape of trucks to reduce aerodynamic drag and improved efficiency. During the 1980s and 1990s, a team based at Langley Research Center explored controlling drag and the flow of air around a moving body. Aeroserve Technologies Ltd., of Ottawa, Canada, with its subsidiary, Airtab LLC, in Loveland, Colorado, applied the research from Dryden and Langley to the development of the Airtab vortex generator. Airtabs create two counter-rotating vortices to reduce wind resistance and aerodynamic drag of trucks, trailers, recreational vehicles, and many other vehicles.

  9. Generalizing roughness: experiments with flow-oriented roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevisani, Sebastiano

    2015-04-01

    Surface texture analysis applied to High Resolution Digital Terrain Models (HRDTMs) improves the capability to characterize fine-scale morphology and permits the derivation of useful morphometric indexes. An important indicator to be taken into account in surface texture analysis is surface roughness, which can have a discriminant role in the detection of different geomorphic processes and factors. The evaluation of surface roughness is generally performed considering it as an isotropic surface parameter (e.g., Cavalli, 2008; Grohmann, 2011). However, surface texture has often an anisotropic character, which means that surface roughness could change according to the considered direction. In some applications, for example involving surface flow processes, the anisotropy of roughness should be taken into account (e.g., Trevisani, 2012; Smith, 2014). Accordingly, we test the application of a flow-oriented directional measure of roughness, computed considering surface gravity-driven flow. For the calculation of flow-oriented roughness we use both classical variogram-based roughness (e.g., Herzfeld,1996; Atkinson, 2000) as well as an ad-hoc developed robust modification of variogram (i.e. MAD, Trevisani, 2014). The presented approach, based on a D8 algorithm, shows the potential impact of considering directionality in the calculation of roughness indexes. The use of flow-oriented roughness could improve the definition of effective proxies of impedance to flow. Preliminary results on the integration of directional roughness operators with morphometric-based models, are promising and can be extended to more complex approaches. Atkinson, P.M., Lewis, P., 2000. Geostatistical classification for remote sensing: an introduction. Computers & Geosciences 26, 361-371. Cavalli, M. & Marchi, L. 2008, "Characterization of the surface morphology of an alpine alluvial fan using airborne LiDAR", Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 323-333. Grohmann, C

  10. Langley Symposium on Aerodynamics, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stack, Sharon H. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to present current work and results of the Langley Aeronautics Directorate covering the areas of computational fluid dynamics, viscous flows, airfoil aerodynamics, propulsion integration, test techniques, and low-speed, high-speed, and transonic aerodynamics. The following sessions are included in this volume: theoretical aerodynamics, test techniques, fluid physics, and viscous drag reduction.

  11. Aerodynamic penalties of heavy rain on a landing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, P. A.; Luers, J. K.

    1982-01-01

    The aerodynamic penalties of very heavy rain on landing aircraft were investigated. Based on severity and frequency of occurrence, the rainfall rates of 100 mm/hr, 500 mm/hr, and 2000 mm/hr were designated, respectively, as heavy, severe, and incredible. The overall and local collection efficiencies of an aircraft encountering these rains were calculated. The analysis was based on raindrop trajectories in potential flow about an aircraft. All raindrops impinging on the aircraft are assumed to take on its speed. The momentum loss from the rain impact was later used in a landing simulation program. The local collection efficiency was used in estimating the aerodynamic roughness of an aircraft in heavy rain. The drag increase from this roughness was calculated. A number of landing simulations under a fixed stick assumption were done. Serious landing shortfalls were found for either momentum or drag penalties and especially large shortfalls for the combination of both. The latter shortfalls are comparable to those found for severe wind shear conditions.

  12. Clouds Versus Carbon: Predicting Vegetation Roughness by Maximizing Productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Lola M.

    2004-01-01

    Surface roughness is one of the dominant vegetation properties that affects land surface exchange of energy, water, carbon, and momentum with the overlying atmosphere. We hypothesize that the canopy structure of terrestrial vegetation adapts optimally to climate by maximizing productivity, leading to an optimum surface roughness. An optimum should exist because increasing values of surface roughness cause increased surface exchange, leading to increased supply of carbon dioxide for photosynthesis. At the same time, increased roughness enhances evapotranspiration and cloud cover, thereby reducing the supply of photosynthetically active radiation. We demonstrate the optimum through sensitivity simulations using a coupled dynamic vegetation-climate model for present day conditions, in which we vary the value of surface roughness for vegetated surfaces. We find that the maximum in productivity occurs at a roughness length of 2 meters, a value commonly used to describe the roughness of today's forested surfaces. The sensitivity simulations also illustrate the strong climatic impacts of vegetation roughness on the energy and water balances over land: with increasing vegetation roughness, solar radiation is reduced by up to 20 W/sq m in the global land mean, causing shifts in the energy partitioning and leading to general cooling of the surface by 1.5 K. We conclude that the roughness of vegetated surfaces can be understood as a reflection of optimum adaptation, and it is associated with substantial changes in the surface energy and water balances over land. The role of the cloud feedback in shaping the optimum underlines the importance of an integrated perspective that views vegetation and its adaptive nature as an integrated component of the Earth system.

  13. POEMS in Newton's Aerodynamic Frustum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampedro, Jaime Cruz; Tetlalmatzi-Montiel, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    The golden mean is often naively seen as a sign of optimal beauty but rarely does it arise as the solution of a true optimization problem. In this article we present such a problem, demonstrating a close relationship between the golden mean and a special case of Newton's aerodynamical problem for the frustum of a cone. Then, we exhibit a parallel…

  14. Aerodynamic laboratory at Cuatro Vientos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    JUBERA

    1922-01-01

    This report presents a listing of the many experiments in aerodynamics taking place at Cuatro Vientos. Some of the studies include: testing spheres, in order to determine coefficients; mechanical and chemical tests of materials; and various tests of propeller strength and flexibility.

  15. Aerodynamic design via control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, Antony

    1988-01-01

    The question of how to modify aerodynamic design in order to improve performance is addressed. Representative examples are given to demonstrate the computational feasibility of using control theory for such a purpose. An introduction and historical survey of the subject is included.

  16. Dynamic Soaring: Aerodynamics for Albatrosses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Albatrosses have evolved to soar and glide efficiently. By maximizing their lift-to-drag ratio "L/D", albatrosses can gain energy from the wind and can travel long distances with little effort. We simplify the difficult aerodynamic equations of motion by assuming that albatrosses maintain a constant "L/D". Analytic solutions to the simplified…

  17. Feedback Control for Aerodynamics (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    AFRL-VA-WP-TP-2006-348 FEEDBACK CONTROL FOR AERODYNAMICS (PREPRINT) R. Chris Camphouse, Seddik M. Djouadi, and James H. Myatt...CONSTRUCTION FOR THE DESIGN OF BOUNDARY FEEDBACK CONTROLS FROM REDUCED ORDER MODELS (PREPRINT) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 0601102F 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...

  18. Adjustment of roughness sublayer in turbulent flows over two-dimensional idealised roughness elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HO, Yat-Kiu; LIU, Chun-Ho

    2015-04-01

    The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) immediately above the urban canopy is the roughness sublayer (RSL). In this layer, flows and turbulence are strongly affected by the roughness elements beneath, e.g. building obstacles. The wind flows over urban areas could be represented by conventional logarithmic law of the wall (log-law) in the neutrally stratified ABL. However, in the RSL region, the vertical wind profile deviates from that predicted from log-law and the effect could be extended from ground level up to several canopy heights. As a result, the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST) fails and an additional length scale is required to describe the flows. The key aim of this study is to introduce a simple wind profile model which accounts for the effect of the RSL in neutral stratification using wind tunnel experiments. Profile measurements of wind speeds and turbulence quantities over various two-dimensional (2D) idealised roughness elements are carried out in an open-circuit wind tunnel with test section of size 560 mm (width) × 560 mm (height) × 6 m (length). The separation between the roughness elements is varied systematically so that ten different types of surface forms are adopted. The velocity measurements are obtained by hot-wire anemometry using X-probe design (for UW- measurements) with a constant temperature anemometer. For each configuration, eight vertical profiles are collected over the canopy, including solid boundaries and cavities of the roughness elements. Firstly, we compute the measurement results using conventional MOST to determine different roughness parameters. Afterwards, we derive the RSL height from the Reynolds stress profiles. Since the profiles taken from different locations of the canopy are eventually converged with increasing height, we use this 'congregated height' to define the RSL height. Next, we introduce an alternative function, i.e. power-law function, instead of MOST, to describe the velocity profile in attempt to

  19. Aerodynamic Classification of Swept-Wing Ice Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diebold, Jeff M.; Broeren, Andy P.; Bragg, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    The continued design, certification and safe operation of swept-wing airplanes in icing conditions rely on the advancement of computational and experimental simulation methods for higher fidelity results over an increasing range of aircraft configurations and performance, and icing conditions. The current stateof- the-art in icing aerodynamics is mainly built upon a comprehensive understanding of two-dimensional geometries that does not currently exist for fundamentally three-dimensional geometries such as swept wings. The purpose of this report is to describe what is known of iced-swept-wing aerodynamics and to identify the type of research that is required to improve the current understanding. Following the method used in a previous review of iced-airfoil aerodynamics, this report proposes a classification of swept-wing ice accretion into four groups based upon unique flowfield attributes. These four groups are: ice roughness, horn ice, streamwise ice and spanwise-ridge ice. In the case of horn ice it is shown that a further subclassification of "nominally 3D" or "highly 3D" horn ice may be necessary. For all of the proposed ice-shape classifications, relatively little is known about the three-dimensional flowfield and even less about the effect of Reynolds number and Mach number on these flowfields. The classifications and supporting data presented in this report can serve as a starting point as new research explores swept-wing aerodynamics with ice shapes. As further results are available, it is expected that these classifications will need to be updated and revised.

  20. Aerodynamic Classification of Swept-Wing Ice Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diebold, Jeff M.; Broeren, Andy P.; Bragg, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    The continued design, certification and safe operation of swept-wing airplanes in icing conditions rely on the advancement of computational and experimental simulation methods for higher fidelity results over an increasing range of aircraft configurations and performance, and icing conditions. The current state-of-the-art in icing aerodynamics is mainly built upon a comprehensive understanding of two-dimensional geometries that does not currently exist for fundamentally three-dimensional geometries such as swept wings. The purpose of this report is to describe what is known of iced-swept-wing aerodynamics and to identify the type of research that is required to improve the current understanding. Following the method used in a previous review of iced-airfoil aerodynamics, this report proposes a classification of swept-wing ice accretion into four groups based upon unique flowfield attributes. These four groups are: ice roughness, horn ice, streamwise ice and spanwise-ridge ice. In the case of horn ice it is shown that a further subclassification of nominally 3D or highly 3D horn ice may be necessary. For all of the proposed ice-shape classifications, relatively little is known about the three-dimensional flowfield and even less about the effect of Reynolds number and Mach number on these flowfields. The classifications and supporting data presented in this report can serve as a starting point as new research explores swept-wing aerodynamics with ice shapes. As further results are available, it is expected that these classifications will need to be updated and revised.

  1. Influence of hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces on reducing aerodynamic insect residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, K. Ghokulla; Milionis, Athanasios; Loth, Eric; Farrell, Thomas E.; Crouch, Jeffrey D.; Berry, Douglas H.

    2017-01-01

    Insect fouling during takeoff, climb and landing can result in increased drag and fuel consumption for aircrafts with laminar-flow surfaces. This study investigates the effectiveness of various hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces in reducing residue of insects on an aerodynamic surface at relatively high impact speeds (about 45 m/s). An experimental setup consisting of a wind tunnel and a method to inject live flightless fruit flies was used to test the effectiveness of various surfaces against insect fouling. Insect fouling was analyzed based on residue area and height from multiple impacts. In general most of the residue area was due to the hemolymph spreading while most of the residue height was due to adhesion of exoskeleton parts. Hydrophobic and especially superhydrophobic surfaces performed better than a hydrophilic aluminum surface in terms of minimizing the residue area of various insect components (exoskeleton, hemolymph, and red fluid). Surfaces with reduced wettability and short lateral length scales tended to have the smallest residue area. Residue height was not as strongly influenced by surface wettability since even a single exoskeleton adhered to the surface upon impact was enough to produce a residue height of the order of one mm. In general, the results indicate that hemolymph spread needs to be avoided (e.g. by having reduced wettability and short lateral correlation lengths) in order to minimize the residue area, while exoskeleton adherence needs to be avoided (e.g. by having oleophobic properties and micro/nano roughness) in order to minimize the residue height. In particular, two of the superhydrophobic coatings produced substantial reduction in residue height and area, relative to the baseline surface of aluminum. However, the surfaces also showed poor mechanical durability on the high-speed insect impact location. This suggests that although low wettability materials show great insect anti-fouling behavior, their durability needs to

  2. Surface roughness scattering of electrons in bulk mosfets

    SciTech Connect

    Zuverink, Amanda Renee

    2015-11-01

    Surface-roughness scattering of electrons at the Si-SiO2 interface is a very important consideration when analyzing Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Scattering reduces the mobility of the electrons and degrades the device performance. 250-nm and 50-nm bulk MOSFETs were simulated with varying device parameters and mesh sizes in order to compare the effects of surface-roughness scattering in multiple devices. The simulation framework includes the ensemble Monte Carlo method used to solve the Boltzmann transport equation coupled with a successive over-relaxation method used to solve the two-dimensional Poisson's equation. Four methods for simulating the surface-roughness scattering of electrons were implemented on both devices and compared: the constant specularity parameter, the momentum-dependent specularity parameter, and the real-space-roughness method with both uniform and varying electric fields. The specularity parameter is the probability of an electron scattering speculariy from a rough surface. It can be chosen as a constant, characterizing partially diffuse scattering of all electrons from the surface the same way, or it can be momentum dependent, where the size of rms roughness and the normal component of the electron wave number determine the probability of electron-momentum randomization. The real-space rough surface method uses the rms roughness height and correlation length of an actual MOSFET to simulate a rough interface. Due to their charge, electrons scatter from the electric field and not directly from the surface. If the electric field is kept uniform, the electrons do not perceive the roughness and scatter as if from a at surface. However, if the field is allowed to vary, the electrons scatter from the varying electric field as they would in a MOSFET. These methods were implemented for both the 50-nm and 250-nm MOSFETs, and using the rms roughness heights and correlation lengths for real devices. The

  3. Effects of surface roughness and film thickness on the adhesion of a bioinspired nanofilm.

    PubMed

    Peng, Z L; Chen, S H

    2011-05-01

    Inspired by the gecko's climbing ability, adhesion between an elastic nanofilm with finite length and a rough substrate with sinusoidal roughness is studied in the present paper, considering the effects of substrate roughness and film thickness. It demonstrates that the normal adhesion force of the nanofilm on a rough substrate depends significantly on the geometrical parameters of the substrate. When the film length is larger than the wavelength of the sinusoidal roughness of the substrate, the normal adhesion force decreases with increasing surface roughness, while the normal adhesion force initially decreases then increases if the wavelength of roughness is larger than the film length. This finding is qualitatively consistent with a previously interesting experimental observation in which the adhesion force of the gecko spatula is found to reduce significantly at an intermediate roughness. Furthermore, it is inferred that the gecko may achieve an optimal spatula thickness not only to follow rough surfaces, but also to saturate the adhesion force. The results in this paper may be helpful for understanding how geckos overcome the influence of natural surface roughness and possess such adhesion to support their weights.

  4. Measuring Roughnesses Of Optical Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulter, Daniel R.; Al-Jumaily, Gahnim A.; Raouf, Nasrat A.; Anderson, Mark S.

    1994-01-01

    Report discusses use of scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy to measure roughnesses of optical surfaces. These techniques offer greater spatial resolution than other techniques. Report notes scanning tunneling microscopes and atomic force microscopes resolve down to 1 nm.

  5. The effect of sidewall roughness on line edge roughness in top-down scanning electron microscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verduin, T.; Lokhorst, S. R.; Kruit, P.; Hagen, C. W.

    2015-03-01

    We have investigated in a numerical study the determination of sidewall roughness (SWR) from top down scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. In a typical metrology application, top-down SEM images are acquired in a (critical-dimension) SEM and the roughness is analyzed. However, the true size, shape and roughness characteristics of resist features are not fully investigated in the analysis of top-down SEM images. In reality, rough resist features are complex three-dimensional structures and the characterization naturally extends to the analysis of SWR. In this study we randomly generate images of rough lines and spaces, where the lines are made of PMMA on a silicon substrate. The lines that we study have a length of 2 µm, a width of 32nm and a height of 32 nm. The SWR is modeled by using the power spectral density (PSD) function of Palasantzas, which characterizes roughness by the standard deviation σ, correlation length ξ and roughness exponent α . The actual roughness is generated by application of the method of Thorsos in two dimensions. The images are constructed by using a home-built program for simulating electron-specimen interactions. The program that we have developed is optimized for complex arbitrary geometries and large number of incident low energy primary electrons by using multi-core CPUs and GPUs. The program uses the dielectric function model for inelastic scattering events and has an implementation specifically for low energy electrons. A satisfactory comparison is made between the secondary electron yields from the home-built program and another program found in literature. In order to reduce the risk of shrinkage, we use a beam energy of 300 eV and a spot size of 3 nm. Each pixel is exposed with 20 electrons on average (≍ 276 µC/cm2), following the Poisson distribution to account for illumination shot noise. We have assumed that the detection of electrons is perfect and does not introduce additional noise. We measure line edge

  6. Radar-aeolian roughness project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Dobrovolskis, A.; Gaddis, L.; Iversen, J. D.; Lancaster, N.; Leach, Rodman N.; Rasnussen, K.; Saunders, S.; Vanzyl, J.; Wall, S.

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to establish an empirical relationship between measurements of radar, aeolian, and surface roughness on a variety of natural surfaces and to understand the underlying physical causes. This relationship will form the basis for developing a predictive equation to derive aeolian roughness from radar backscatter. Results are given from investigations carried out in 1989 on the principal elements of the project, with separate sections on field studies, radar data analysis, laboratory simulations, and development of theory for planetary applications.

  7. Aerodynamic properties of turbulent combustion fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsiao, C. C.; Oppenheim, A. K.

    1985-01-01

    Flow fields involving turbulent flames in premixed gases under a variety of conditions are modeled by the use of a numerical technique based on the random vortex method to solve the Navier-Stokes equations and a flame propagation algorithm to trace the motion of the front and implement the Huygens principle, both due to Chorin. A successive over-relaxation hybrid method is applied to solve the Euler equation for flows in an arbitrarily shaped domain. The method of images, conformal transformation, and the integral-equation technique are also used to treat flows in special cases, according to their particular requirements. Salient features of turbulent flame propagation in premixed gases are interpreted by relating them to the aerodynamic properties of the flow field. Included among them is the well-known cellular structure of flames stabilized by bluff bodies, as well as the formation of the characteristic tulip shape of flames propagating in ducts. In its rudimentary form, the mechanism of propagation of a turbulent flame is shown to consist of: (1) rotary motion of eddies at the flame front, (2) self-advancement of the front at an appropriate normal burning speed, and (3) dynamic effects of expansion due to exothermicity of the combustion reaction. An idealized model is used to illustrate these fundamental mechanisms and to investigate basic aerodynamic features of flames in premixed gases. The case of a confined flame stabilized behind a rearward-facing step is given particular care and attention. Solutions are shown to be in satisfactory agreement with experimental results, especially with respect to global properties such as the average velocity profiles and reattachment length.

  8. Hypersonic aerodynamics test facility using the external propulsion accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rom, J.; Lewis, M.; Gupta, A.; Sabean, J.

    1995-01-01

    The use of the External propulsion Accelerator (EPA) for launching models of hypersonic aerodynamic configurations into an instrumented ballistic range is discussed. The aerodynamic model is encased inside an axisymmetric projectile designed to be accelerated to high speed in the EPA. Accelerator lengths required to achieve hypersonic speeds are estimated to vary from 10 meters for Mach 7, 40 meters for Mach 10, 150 meters for Mach 15, and 700 meters for Mach 30, assuming a limit of 50,000 g's acceleration. For a model span of 10 cm to 25 cm, the launch tube diameters are 40 cm and 100 cm, respectively. Using this EPA launcher will enable exact simulation of hypersonic flight in ground facilities where both the gas composition and pressure can be controlled in the ballistic range.

  9. Control of helicopter rotorblade aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabunmi, James A.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study of a method for controlling the aerodynamics of helicopter rotorblades using stacks of piezoelectric ceramic plates are presented. A resonant mechanism is proposed for the amplification of the displacements produced by the stack. This motion is then converted into linear displacement for the actuation of the servoflap of the blades. A design which emulates the actuation of the servoflap on the Kaman SH-2F is used to demonstrate the fact that such a system can be designed to produce the necessary forces and velocities needed to control the aerodynamics of the rotorblades of such a helicopter. Estimates of the electrical power requirements are also presented. A Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 2 Program is suggested, whereby a bench-top prototype of the device can be built and tested. A collaborative effort between AEDAR Corporation and Kaman Aerospace Corporation is anticipated for future effort on this project.

  10. Simulating Magneto-Aerodynamic Actuator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-20

    2005. 19. Boeuf, J.P., Lagmich, Y., Callegari, Th., and Pitchford , L.C., Electro- hydrodynamic Force and Acceleration in Surface Discharge, AIAA 2006...Plasmadynamics and Laser Award, 2004 AFRL Point of Contact Dr. Donald B. Paul , AFRL/VA WPAFB, OH 937-255-7329, met weekly. Dr. Alan Garscadden, AFRL/PR...validating database for numerical simulation of magneto-aerodynamic actuator for hypersonic flow control. Points of contact at the AFRL/VA are Dr. D. Paul

  11. Nonaxisymmetric Body Supersonic, Aerodynamic Prediction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    wing - tail configuration are compared in Figure 27. CN comparisons are good. C. is a sensitive computation for xcp close to x’. 7.2...Analytical and Experimental Supersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Forward Control Missile , AIAA Paper No. 81-0398, AIAA 19th Aerospace Sciences...body diameter. The next computational example is for a body- wing - tail configuration from Reference 32 A body-alone comparison has been made earlier in

  12. Aerodynamics of Supersonic Lifting Bodies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    verso of front cover. 19 Y WOROS (Continue on rt.’,;erso side i recessary and identily by block number) Theoretical Aerodynamics Lifting Bodies Wind ...waverider solution, developed from the supersonic wedge flow solution, is then i Fused to fashion vertLcal stabilizer-likh control surfaces. Wind ...served as Project Engineers ror thE wind tunnel work. Important contributions were also made bv: Mr. iis±ung Miin; Lee, -M. Beom-Soo Kim, Mtr. Martin Weeks

  13. Unsteady Aerodynamic Phenomena in Turbomachines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    The first part of a systematic variation of important parameters shows their influence on the aerodynamic forces and moments coefficients . 2-2...real physical phenomena. Besides, for reasons of stability it in necessary to introduce an additional damping coefficient , which depends on the... coefficients for the "Fourth Standard Configu- ration No. 4" /10/, using a mesh with 51 x 17 points (Fig. I). This grid represents a typical section of

  14. Aerodynamic Design Using Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, Man Mohan; Madavan, Nateri K.

    2003-01-01

    The design of aerodynamic components of aircraft, such as wings or engines, involves a process of obtaining the most optimal component shape that can deliver the desired level of component performance, subject to various constraints, e.g., total weight or cost, that the component must satisfy. Aerodynamic design can thus be formulated as an optimization problem that involves the minimization of an objective function subject to constraints. A new aerodynamic design optimization procedure based on neural networks and response surface methodology (RSM) incorporates the advantages of both traditional RSM and neural networks. The procedure uses a strategy, denoted parameter-based partitioning of the design space, to construct a sequence of response surfaces based on both neural networks and polynomial fits to traverse the design space in search of the optimal solution. Some desirable characteristics of the new design optimization procedure include the ability to handle a variety of design objectives, easily impose constraints, and incorporate design guidelines and rules of thumb. It provides an infrastructure for variable fidelity analysis and reduces the cost of computation by using less-expensive, lower fidelity simulations in the early stages of the design evolution. The initial or starting design can be far from optimal. The procedure is easy and economical to use in large-dimensional design space and can be used to perform design tradeoff studies rapidly. Designs involving multiple disciplines can also be optimized. Some practical applications of the design procedure that have demonstrated some of its capabilities include the inverse design of an optimal turbine airfoil starting from a generic shape and the redesign of transonic turbines to improve their unsteady aerodynamic characteristics.

  15. X-34 Vehicle Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brauckmann, Gregory J.

    1998-01-01

    The X-34, being designed and built by the Orbital Sciences Corporation, is an unmanned sub-orbital vehicle designed to be used as a flying test bed to demonstrate key vehicle and operational technologies applicable to future reusable launch vehicles. The X-34 will be air-launched from an L-1011 carrier aircraft at approximately Mach 0.7 and 38,000 feet altitude, where an onboard engine will accelerate the vehicle to speeds above Mach 7 and altitudes to 250,000 feet. An unpowered entry will follow, including an autonomous landing. The X-34 will demonstrate the ability to fly through inclement weather, land horizontally at a designated site, and have a rapid turn-around capability. A series of wind tunnel tests on scaled models was conducted in four facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the X-34. Analysis of these test results revealed that longitudinal trim could be achieved throughout the design trajectory. The maximum elevon deflection required to trim was only half of that available, leaving a margin for gust alleviation and aerodynamic coefficient uncertainty. Directional control can be achieved aerodynamically except at combined high Mach numbers and high angles of attack, where reaction control jets must be used. The X-34 landing speed, between 184 and 206 knots, is within the capabilities of the gear and tires, and the vehicle has sufficient rudder authority to control the required 30-knot crosswind.

  16. Applied aerodynamics: Challenges and expectations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Victor L.; Smith, Charles A.

    1993-01-01

    Aerospace is the leading positive contributor to this country's balance of trade, derived largely from the sale of U.S. commercial aircraft around the world. This powerfully favorable economic situation is being threatened in two ways: (1) the U.S. portion of the commercial transport market is decreasing, even though the worldwide market is projected to increase substantially; and (2) expenditures are decreasing for military aircraft, which often serve as proving grounds for advanced aircraft technology. To retain a major share of the world market for commercial aircraft and continue to provide military aircraft with unsurpassed performance, the U.S. aerospace industry faces many technological challenges. The field of applied aerodynamics is necessarily a major contributor to efforts aimed at meeting these technological challenges. A number of emerging research results that will provide new opportunities for applied aerodynamicists are discussed. Some of these have great potential for maintaining the high value of contributions from applied aerodynamics in the relatively near future. Over time, however, the value of these contributions will diminish greatly unless substantial investments continue to be made in basic and applied research efforts. The focus: to increase understanding of fluid dynamic phenomena, identify new aerodynamic concepts, and provide validated advanced technology for future aircraft.

  17. Roughness effects in uncompensated antiferromagnets

    SciTech Connect

    Charilaou, M.; Hellman, F.

    2015-02-28

    Monte Carlo simulations show that roughness in uncompensated antiferromagnets decreases not just the surface magnetization but also the net magnetization and particularly strongly affects the temperature dependence. In films with step-type roughness, each step creates a new compensation front that decreases the global net magnetization. The saturation magnetization decreases non-monotonically with increasing roughness and does not scale with the surface area. Roughness in the form of surface vacancies changes the temperature-dependence of the magnetization; when only one surface has vacancies, the saturation magnetization will decrease linearly with surface occupancy, whereas when both surfaces have vacancies, the magnetization is negative and exhibits a compensation point at finite temperature, which can be tuned by controlling the occupancy. Roughness also affects the spin-texture of the surfaces due to long-range dipolar interactions and generates non-collinear spin configurations that could be used in devices to produce locally modified exchange bias. These results explain the strongly reduced magnetization found in magnetometry experiments and furthers our understanding of the temperature-dependence of exchange bias.

  18. Experimental investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics for a winged-cone concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. Pelham; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Micol, John R.; Woods, William C.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamics were obtained for a generic aerodynamics were obtaiend for a generic winged-cone configuration having possible application as a transatmospheric vehicle concept. Data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 20.0; Reynolds numbers, based on model length, between 2.5 and 5.3 million; and angles of attack from -4 to 20 deg. Results indicate a longitudinal center-of-pressure travel of about 23 percent of the fuselage length for the test Mach number range, with longitudinal instabilities noted at high-supersonic to hypersonic Mach numbers. These instabilities are coupled with directional instability at similar Mach numbers. Predictions with analytic codes, namely, the USAF DATCOM and the tangent-cone option of the Hypersonic Arbitrary Body Program, provided fair agreement with the experimental aerodynamic characteristics at low angles-of-attack.

  19. Aerodynamic Characterization of a Thin, High-Performance Airfoil for Use in Ground Fluids Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Lee, Sam; Clark, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The FAA has worked with Transport Canada and others to develop allowance times for aircraft operating in ice-pellet precipitation. Wind-tunnel testing has been carried out to better understand the flowoff characteristics and resulting aerodynamic effects of anti-icing fluids contaminated with ice pellets using a thin, high-performance wing section at the National Research Council of Canada Propulsion and Icing Wind Tunnel. The objective of this paper is to characterize the aerodynamic behavior of this wing section in order to better understand the adverse aerodynamic effects of anti-icing fluids and ice-pellet contamination. Aerodynamic performance data, boundary-layer surveys and flow visualization were conducted at a Reynolds number of approximately 6.0×10(exp 6) and a Mach number of 0.12. The clean, baseline model exhibited leading-edge stall characteristics including a leading-edge laminar separation bubble and minimal or no separation on the trailing edge of the main element or flap. These results were consistent with expected 2-D aerodynamics and showed no anomalies that could adversely affect the evaluation of anti-icing fluids and ice-pellet contamination on the wing. Tests conducted with roughness and leading-edge flow disturbances helped to explain the aerodynamic impact of the anti-icing fluids and contamination. The stalling characteristics of the wing section with fluid and contamination appear to be driven at least partially by the effects of a secondary wave of fluid that forms near the leading edge as the wing is rotated in the simulated takeoff profile. These results have provided a much more complete understanding of the adverse aerodynamic effects of anti-icing fluids and ice-pellet contamination on this wing section. This is important since these results are used, in part, to develop the ice-pellet allowance times that are applicable to many different airplanes.

  20. Aerodynamic Characterization of a Thin, High-Performance Airfoil for Use in Ground Fluids Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Lee, Sam; Clark, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The FAA has worked with Transport Canada and others to develop allowance times for aircraft operating in ice-pellet precipitation. Wind-tunnel testing has been carried out to better understand the flowoff characteristics and resulting aerodynamic effects of anti-icing fluids contaminated with ice pellets using a thin, high-performance wing section at the National Research Council of Canada Propulsion and Icing Wind Tunnel. The objective of this paper is to characterize the aerodynamic behavior of this wing section in order to better understand the adverse aerodynamic effects of anti-icing fluids and ice-pellet contamination. Aerodynamic performance data, boundary-layer surveys and flow visualization were conducted at a Reynolds number of approximately 6.0 x 10(exp 6) and a Mach number of 0.12. The clean, baseline model exhibited leading-edge stall characteristics including a leading-edge laminar separation bubble and minimal or no separation on the trailing edge of the main element or flap. These results were consistent with expected 2-D aerodynamics and showed no anomalies that could adversely affect the evaluation of anti-icing fluids and ice-pellet contamination on the wing. Tests conducted with roughness and leading-edge flow disturbances helped to explain the aerodynamic impact of the anti-icing fluids and contamination. The stalling characteristics of the wing section with fluid and contamination appear to be driven at least partially by the effects of a secondary wave of fluid that forms near the leading edge as the wing is rotated in the simulated takeoff profile. These results have provided a much more complete understanding of the adverse aerodynamic effects of anti-icing fluids and ice-pellet contamination on this wing section. This is important since these results are used, in part, to develop the ice-pellet allowance times that are applicable to many different airplanes.

  1. Characterization of Pressure Sensitive Paint Intrusiveness Effects on Aerodynamic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, Tahani R.; Liu, Tianshu; Oglesby, Donald M.

    2001-01-01

    One effect of using pressure sensitive paint (PSP) is the potential intrusiveness to the aerodynamic characteristics of the model. The paint thickness and roughness may affect the pressure distribution. and therefore, the forces and moments on the wind tunnel model. A study of these potential intrusive effects was carried out at NASA Langley Research Center where a series of wind tunnel tests were conducted using the Modem Design of Experiments (MDOE) test approach. The PSP effects on the integrated forces were measured on two different models at different test conditions in both the Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT) and the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) at Langley. The paint effect was found to be very small over a range of Reynolds numbers, Mach numbers and angles of attack. This is due to the very low surface roughness of the painted surface. The surface roughness, after applying the NASA Langley developed PSP, was lower than that of the clean wing. However, the PSP coating had a localized effects on the pressure taps, which leads to an appreciable decrease in the pressure tap reading.

  2. Characteristics of Pressure Sensitive Paint Intrusiveness Effects on Aerodynamic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, Tahani R.; Liu, Tianshu; Oglesby, Donald M.

    2001-01-01

    One effect of using pressure sensitive paint (PSP) is the potential intrusiveness to the aerodynamic characteristics of the model. The paint thickness and roughness may affect the pressure distribution, and therefore, the forces and moments on the wind tunnel model. A study of these potential intrusive effects was carried out at NASA Langley Research Center where a series of wind tunnel tests were conducted using the Modem Design of Experiments (MDOE) test approach. The PSP effects on the integrated forces were measured on two different models at different test conditions in both the Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT) and the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) at Langley. The paint effect was found to be very small over a range of Reynolds numbers, Mach numbers and angles of attack. This is due to the very low surface roughness of the painted surface. The surface roughness, after applying the NASA Langley developed PSP, was lower than that of the clean wing. However, the PSP coating had a localized effects on the pressure taps, which leads to an appreciable decrease in the pressure tap reading.

  3. Aerodynamics of a finite wing with simulated ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, M. B.; Khodadoust, A.; Kerho, M.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of a simulated glaze ice accretion on the aerodynamic performance of a three-dimensional wing is studied experimentally. Results are reviewed from earlier two-dimensional tests which show the character of the large leading-edge separation bubbles caused by the simulated ice accretion. The 2-D bubbles are found to closely resemble well known airfoil laminar separation bubbles. For the 3-D experiments a semispan wing of effective aspect ratio five was mounted from the sidewall of the UIUC subsonic wind tunnel. The model uses a NACA 0012 airfoil section on a rectangular planform with interchangeable tip and root sections to allow for 0- and 30-degree sweep. A three-component sidewall balance was used to measure lift, drag and pitching moment on the clean and iced model. Fluorescent oil flow visualization has been performed on the iced model and reveals extensive spanwise and vortical flow in the separation bubble aft of the upper surface horn. Sidewall interaction and spanwise nonuniformity are also seen on the unswept model. Comparisons to the computed flow fields are shown. Results are also shown for roughness effects on the straight wing. Sand grain roughness on the ice shape is seen to have a different effect than isolated 3-D roughness elements.

  4. Direct simulations of a rough-wall channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Tomoaki

    -dimensional roughness, and that this vortical structure is responsible for high energy production. The difference in turbulence structure between smooth- and rough-wall layers can also be seen in other flow properties, such as anisotropy and turbulence length scales.

  5. Non-Porod behavior in systems with rough morphologies.

    PubMed

    Shrivastav, Gaurav P; Banerjee, Varsha; Puri, Sanjay

    2014-10-01

    Many experiments yield multi-scale morphologies which are smooth on some length scales and fractal on others. Accurate statements about morphological properties, e.g., roughness exponent, fractal dimension, domain size, interfacial width, etc. are obtained from the correlation function and structure factor. In this paper, we present structure factor data for two systems: (a) droplet-in-droplet morphologies of double-phase-separating mixtures; and (b) ground-state morphologies in dilute anti-ferromagnets. An important characteristic of the scattering data is a non-Porod tail, which is associated with scattering off rough domains and interfaces.

  6. Laser scattering properties of rough spherical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chun-ping; Wu, Jian

    2007-12-01

    An approximate model is developed to study the properties of laser scattering from a rough spherical surface based on a random facet model and the electromagnetic scattering theory. For actual spheres, for instance oilcan, its lateral correlation length is much longer than the incident laser wavelength, and its surface distribution is usually isotropic and conforms to Gaussian distribution. Hence, it is feasible to deal with scattering of the rough spherical surface with the random facet model. First, power scattered into a detective system can be denoted for every facet with the scattering model of a coarse plane corresponded to the isotropic Gaussian statistics. Second, total power received by the detective system should correspond to incoherent addition of power scattered into a far-field detector system by all facets. Here, an incident shadow function has been taken into account to exclude the contribution of the facets not being illuminated. Likewise, a scattering shadow function is introduced to exclude the contribution of the scattered light blocked by undulations of spherical surface. An unfolded factor has been taken into account in this model, too. Finally, to verify this model, the angular distribution of the scattering intensity in far field is calculated and analyzed under different cases. The results show that the scattering intensity is stronger in the backward than in other directions if the spherical surface is smooth, but if the spherical surface is rough to some extent, the incident laser power will be scattered to other direction and there is faint scattered intensity in forward direction concomitantly. We can use these properties to make remote sensing for spherical objects.

  7. Robust Prediction of Hydraulic Roughness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    floodplain hydraulics, in particular hydraulic roughness, is critical for flood control concerns; however, diversity of vegetation type and...or particular flood return inter- val analyses. Field Assessment. Field assessment methods refer to those that do not rely on direct mea- surement or...material (riprap) Form Roughness Calculators Brownlie ( 1983 ) Lab, Field H, S, d50, σg 0.082 < R < 55.8 ft (0.025 < R < 17 m), 2.9 × 10-4 < d50

  8. Topology theory on rough sets.

    PubMed

    Wu, QingE; Wang, Tuo; Huang, YongXuan; Li, JiSheng

    2008-02-01

    For further studying the theories and applications of rough sets (RS), this paper proposes a new theory on RS, which mainly includes topological space, topological properties, homeomorphism, and its properties on RS by some new definitions and theorems given. The relationship between partition and countable open covering is discussed, and some applications based on the topological rough space and its topological properties are introduced. Moreover, some perspectives for future research are given. Throughout this paper, the advancements of the new theory on RS and topological algebra not only represent an important theoretical value but also exhibit significant applications of RS and topology.

  9. HIAD-2 (Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator)

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) project is a disruptive technology that will accommodate the atmospheric entry of heavy payloads to planetary bodies such as Mars. HIAD over...

  10. Aerodynamic lift effect on satellite orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, G. R.; Cleland, J. G.; Devries, L. L.

    1975-01-01

    Numerical quadrature is employed to obtain orbit perturbation results from the general perturbation equations. Both aerodynamic lift and drag forces are included in the analysis of the satellite orbit. An exponential atmosphere with and without atmospheric rotation is used. A comparison is made of the perturbations which are caused by atmospheric rotation with those caused by satellite aerodynamic effects. Results indicate that aerodynamic lift effects on the semi-major axis and orbit inclination can be of the same order as the effects of atmosphere rotation depending upon the orientation of the lift vector. The results reveal the importance of including aerodynamic lift effects in orbit perturbation analysis.

  11. Surface Roughness Characterization of Niobium Subjected to Incremental BCP and EP Processing Steps

    SciTech Connect

    Hui Tian; Guihem Ribeill; Charles Reece; Michael Kelley

    2008-02-12

    The surface of niobium samples polished under incremental Buffered Chemical Polish (BCP) and Electro-Polishing (EP) have been characterized through Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and stylus profilometry across a range of length of scales. The results were analyzed using Power Density Spectral (PSD) technique to determine roughness and characteristic dimensions. This study has shown that the PSD method is a valuable tool that provides quantitative information about surface roughness at different length scales.

  12. 31 CFR 592.310 - Rough diamond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rough diamond. 592.310 Section 592.310... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 592.310 Rough diamond. The term rough diamond means any diamond that is unworked or simply sawn,...

  13. 31 CFR 592.310 - Rough diamond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rough diamond. 592.310 Section 592.310... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 592.310 Rough diamond. The term rough diamond means any diamond that is unworked or simply sawn,...

  14. 31 CFR 592.310 - Rough diamond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rough diamond. 592.310 Section 592.310... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 592.310 Rough diamond. The term rough diamond means any diamond that is unworked or simply sawn,...

  15. 31 CFR 592.310 - Rough diamond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rough diamond. 592.310 Section 592.310... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 592.310 Rough diamond. The term rough diamond means any diamond that is unworked or simply sawn,...

  16. 31 CFR 592.310 - Rough diamond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rough diamond. 592.310 Section 592... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 592.310 Rough diamond. The term rough diamond means any diamond that is unworked or simply...

  17. Aerodynamics of two-dimensional flapping wings in tandem configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lua, K. B.; Lu, H.; Zhang, X. H.; Lim, T. T.; Yeo, K. S.

    2016-12-01

    This paper reports a fundamental investigation on the aerodynamics of two-dimensional flapping wings in tandem configuration in forward flight. Of particular interest are the effects of phase angle (φ) and center-to-center distance (L) between the front wing and the rear wing on the aerodynamic force generation at a Reynolds number of 5000. Both experimental and numerical methods were employed. A force sensor was used to measure the time-history aerodynamic forces experienced by the two wings and digital particle image velocimetry was utilized to obtain the corresponding flow structures. Both the front wing and the rear wing executed the same simple harmonic motions with φ ranging from -180° to 180° and four values of L, i.e., 1.5c, 2c, 3c, and 4c (c is the wing chord length). Results show that at fixed L = 2c, tandem wings perform better than the sum of two single wings that flap independently in terms of thrust for phase angle approximately from -90° to 90°. The maximum thrust on the rear wing occurs during in-phase flapping (φ = 0°). Correlation of transient thrust and flow structure indicates that there are generally two types of wing-wake interactions, depending on whether the rear wing crosses the shear layer shed from the front wing. Finally, increasing wing spacing has similar effect as reducing the phase angle, and an approximate mathematical model is derived to describe the relationship between these two parameters.

  18. Light Scattering from Rough Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-17

    us (V. Ruiz Cortes) was supported by a CONACYT and CICESE scholarship. 5. REFERENCES I.-K.A. O’Donnell and E.R. Mdndez, "Experimental study of...Calculated variation of scattenng for increasing roughness. The angle of incidence is 800. The solid line is (DAJA45-90-C-0026). VRC thanks CONACYT and for a

  19. Plant Communities of Rough Rock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Linda

    A unit of study on plants grown in the Navajo community of Rough Rock, Arizona, is presented in sketches providing the common Navajo name for the plant, a literal English translation, the English name of the plant, and the Latin name. A brief description of each plant includes where the plant grows, how the Navajos use the plant, and the color and…

  20. Effects of Leading Edge Defect on the Aerodynamic and Flow Characteristics of an S809 Airfoil

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Zheng, Xiaojing; Hu, Ruifeng; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background Unexpected performance degradation occurs in wind turbine blades due to leading edge defect when suffering from continuous impacts with rain drops, hails, insects, or solid particles during its operation life. To assess this issue, this paper numerically investigates the steady and dynamic stall characteristics of an S809 airfoil with various leading edge defects. More leading edge defect sizes and much closer to practical parameters are investigated in the paper. Methodology Numerical computation is conducted using the SST k-ω turbulence model, and the method has been validated by comparison with existed published data. In order to ensure the calculation convergence, the residuals for the continuity equation are set to be less than 10−7 and 10−6 in steady state and dynamic stall cases. The simulations are conducted with the software ANSYS Fluent 13.0. Results It is found that the characteristics of aerodynamic coefficients and flow fields are sensitive to leading edge defect both in steady and dynamic conditions. For airfoils with the defect thickness of 6%tc, leading edge defect has a relative small influence on the aerodynamics of S809 airfoil. For other investigated defect thicknesses, leading edge defect has much greater influence on the flow field structures, pressure coefficients and aerodynamic characteristics of airfoil at relative small defect lengths. For example, the lift coefficients decrease and drag coefficients increase sharply after the appearance of leading edge defect. However, the aerodynamic characteristics could reach a constant value when the defect length is large enough. The flow field, pressure coefficient distribution and aerodynamic coefficients do not change a lot when the defect lengths reach to 0.5%c,1%c, 2%c and 3%c with defect thicknesses of 6%tc, 12%tc,18%tc and 25%tc, respectively. In addition, the results also show that the critical defect length/thickness ratio is 0.5, beyond which the aerodynamic characteristics

  1. Aerodynamic performance of centrifugal compressors

    SciTech Connect

    Sayyed, S.

    1981-12-01

    Saving money with an efficient pipeline system design depends on accurately predicting compressor performance and ensuring that it meets the manufacturer's guaranteed levels. When shop testing with the actual gas is impractical, an aerodynamic test can ascertain compressor efficiency, but the accuracy and consistency of data acquisition in such tests is critical. Low test-pressure levels necessitate accounting for the effects of Reynolds number and heat transfer. Moreover, the compressor user and manufacturer must agree on the magnitude of the corrections to be applied to the test data.

  2. Multi-Disciplinary Computational Aerodynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    However, as the DSV is shed and propagates along the wing it induces sudden and difficult to predict variations in aerodynamic forces and pitching ...circulation build- up around the airfoil. The pitching moment is also shifted to a lower value due to rotation- induced camber effects. Beyond a critical...on vortex breakdown,” AIAA J., Vol. 12, No. 5, 1974, pp. 602–607. 66Visbal, M. R., “Onset of vortex breakdown about a pitching delta wing ,” AIAA J

  3. Simulation of iced wing aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapczuk, M. G.; Bragg, M. B.; Kwon, O. J.; Sankar, L. N.

    1991-01-01

    The sectional and total aerodynamic load characteristics of moderate aspect ratio wings with and without simulated glaze leading edge ice were studied both computationally, using a three dimensional, compressible Navier-Stokes solver, and experimentally. The wing has an untwisted, untapered planform shape with NACA 0012 airfoil section. The wing has an unswept and swept configuration with aspect ratios of 4.06 and 5.0. Comparisons of computed surface pressures and sectional loads with experimental data for identical configurations are given. The abrupt decrease in stall angle of attack for the wing, as a result of the leading edge ice formation, was demonstrated numerically and experimentally.

  4. Tantalum films with well-controlled roughness grown by oblique incidence deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechendorff, K.; Hovgaard, M. B.; Chevallier, J.; Foss, M.; Besenbacher, F.

    2005-08-01

    We have investigated how tantalum films with well-controlled surface roughness can be grown by e-gun evaporation with oblique angle of incidence between the evaporation flux and the surface normal. Due to a more pronounced shadowing effect the root-mean-square roughness increases from about 2 to 33 nm as grazing incidence is approached. The exponent, characterizing the scaling of the root-mean-square roughness with length scale (α), varies from 0.75 to 0.93, and a clear correlation is found between the angle of incidence and root-mean-square roughness.

  5. Rough interfaces and ultrasonic imaging logging behind casing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Bei; Chen, De-Hua; He, Xiao; Wang, Xiu-Ming

    2016-12-01

    Ultrasonic leaky Lamb waves are sensitive to defects and debonding in multilayer media. In this study, we use the finite-difference method to simulate the response of flexural waves in the presence of defects owing to casing corrosion and rough fluctuations at the cement-formation interface. The ultrasonic obliquely incidence could effectively stimulate the flexural waves. The defects owing to casing corrosion change the amplitude of the earlyarrival flexural wave, which gradually decrease with increasing defect thickness on the exterior walls and is the lowest when the defect length and wavelength were comparable. The scattering at the defects decreases the energy of flexural waves in the casing that leaks directly to fluids. For rough cement-formation interface, the early-arrival flexural waves do not change, whereas the late-arrival flexural waves have reduced amplitude owing to the scattering at rough interface.

  6. Addressing scale dependence in roughness and morphometric statistics derived from point cloud data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscombe, D.; Wheaton, J. M.; Hensleigh, J.; Grams, P. E.; Welcker, C. W.; Anderson, K.; Kaplinski, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The heights of natural surfaces can be measured with such spatial density that almost the entire spectrum of physical roughness scales can be characterized, down to the morphological form and grain scales. With an ability to measure 'microtopography' comes a demand for analytical/computational tools for spatially explicit statistical characterization of surface roughness. Detrended standard deviation of surface heights is a popular means to create continuous maps of roughness from point cloud data, using moving windows and reporting window-centered statistics of variations from a trend surface. If 'roughness' is the statistical variation in the distribution of relief of a surface, then 'texture' is the frequency of change and spatial arrangement of roughness. The variance in surface height as a function of frequency obeys a power law. In consequence, roughness is dependent on the window size through which it is examined, which has a number of potential disadvantages: 1) the choice of window size becomes crucial, and obstructs comparisons between data; 2) if windows are large relative to multiple roughness scales, it is harder to discriminate between those scales; 3) if roughness is not scaled by the texture length scale, information on the spacing and clustering of roughness `elements' can be lost; and 4) such practice is not amenable to models describing the scattering of light and sound from rough natural surfaces. We discuss the relationship between roughness and texture. Some useful parameters which scale vertical roughness to characteristic horizontal length scales are suggested, with examples of bathymetric point clouds obtained using multibeam from two contrasting riverbeds, namely those of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, and the Snake River in Hells Canyon. Such work, aside from automated texture characterization and texture segmentation, roughness and grain size calculation, might also be useful for feature detection and classification from point

  7. Dynamic Stall in Pitching Airfoils: Aerodynamic Damping and Compressibility Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corke, Thomas C.; Thomas, Flint O.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic stall is an incredibly rich fluid dynamics problem that manifests itself on an airfoil during rapid, transient motion in which the angle of incidence surpasses the static stall limit. It is an important element of many manmade and natural flyers, including helicopters and supermaneuverable aircraft, and low-Reynolds number flapping-wing birds and insects. The fluid dynamic attributes that accompany dynamic stall include an eruption of vorticity that organizes into a well-defined dynamic stall vortex and massive excursions in aerodynamic loads that can couple with the airfoil structural dynamics. The dynamic stall process is highly sensitive to surface roughness that can influence turbulent transition and to local compressibility effects that occur at free-stream Mach numbers that are otherwise incompressible. Under some conditions, dynamic stall can result in negative aerodynamic damping that leads to limit-cycle growth of structural vibrations and rapid mechanical failure. The mechanisms leading to negative damping have been a principal interest of recent experiments and analysis. Computational fluid dynamic simulations and low-order models have not been good predictors so far. Large-eddy simulation could be a viable approach although it remains computationally intensive. The topic is technologically important owing to the desire to develop next-generation rotorcraft that employ adaptive rotor dynamic stall control.

  8. The aerodynamics of small Reynolds numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, F. W.

    1980-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics of wing model gliders and bird wings in particular are discussed. Wind tunnel measurements and aerodynamics of small Reynolds numbers are enumerated. Airfoil behavior in the critical transition from laminar to turbulent boundary layer, which is more important to bird wing models than to large airplanes, was observed. Experimental results are provided, and an artificial bird wing is described.

  9. A new technique for aerodynamic noise calculation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, J. C.; Pope, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    A novel method for the numerical analysis of aerodynamic noise generation is presented. The method involves first solving for the time-dependent incompressible flow for the given geometry. This fully nonlinear method that is tailored to extract the relevant acoustic fluctuations seems to be an efficient approach to the numerical analysis of aerodynamic noise generation.

  10. Future Computer Requirements for Computational Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Recent advances in computational aerodynamics are discussed as well as motivations for and potential benefits of a National Aerodynamic Simulation Facility having the capability to solve fluid dynamic equations at speeds two to three orders of magnitude faster than presently possible with general computers. Two contracted efforts to define processor architectures for such a facility are summarized.

  11. Aerodynamics of Sounding-Rocket Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrowman, J.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical aerodynamics program TAD predicts aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles with sounding-rocket configurations. These slender, Axisymmetric finned vehicles have a wide range of aeronautical applications from rockets to high-speed armament. TAD calculates characteristics of separate portions of vehicle, calculates interference between portions, and combines results to form total vehicle solution.

  12. Aerodynamic seal assemblies for turbo-machinery

    DOEpatents

    Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Wolfe, Christopher; Fang, Biao

    2015-09-29

    The present application provides an aerodynamic seal assembly for use with a turbo-machine. The aerodynamic seal assembly may include a number of springs, a shoe connected to the springs, and a secondary seal positioned about the springs and the shoe.

  13. Rough-to-smooth transition of an equilibrium neutral constant stress layer. [atmospheric flow over rough terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, E., Jr.; Fichtl, G. H.

    1975-01-01

    A model is proposed for low-level atmospheric flows over terrains of changing roughness length, such as those found at the windward end of landing strips adjoining rough terrain. The proposed model is used to develop a prediction technique for calculating transition wind and shear-stress profiles in the region following surface roughness discontinuity. The model for the transition region comprises two layers: a logarithmic layer and a buffer layer. The flow is assumed to be steady, two-dimensional, and incompressible, with neutral hydrostatic stability. A diagram is presented for a typical wind profile in the transition region, obtained from the logarithmic and velocity defect profiles using shear stress calculated by relevant equations.

  14. X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will design, build, and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604BOO02G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate the aerodynamic flight database for the hypersonic regime. The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. Al these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

  15. X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will build and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604B0002G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate an aerodynamic flight database i n the hypersonic regime. The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. At these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

  16. Orion Crew Module Aerodynamic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Bibb, Karen L.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Rhode, Matthew N.; Owens, Bruce; Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Bell, James H.; Wilson, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    The Apollo-derived Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), part of NASA s now-cancelled Constellation Program, has become the reference design for the new Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The MPCV will serve as the exploration vehicle for all near-term human space missions. A strategic wind-tunnel test program has been executed at numerous facilities throughout the country to support several phases of aerodynamic database development for the Orion spacecraft. This paper presents a summary of the experimental static aerodynamic data collected to-date for the Orion Crew Module (CM) capsule. The test program described herein involved personnel and resources from NASA Langley Research Center, NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Johnson Space Flight Center, Arnold Engineering and Development Center, Lockheed Martin Space Sciences, and Orbital Sciences. Data has been compiled from eight different wind tunnel tests in the CEV Aerosciences Program. Comparisons are made as appropriate to highlight effects of angle of attack, Mach number, Reynolds number, and model support system effects.

  17. Aerodynamics of the hovering hummingbird.

    PubMed

    Warrick, Douglas R; Tobalske, Bret W; Powers, Donald R

    2005-06-23

    Despite profound musculoskeletal differences, hummingbirds (Trochilidae) are widely thought to employ aerodynamic mechanisms similar to those used by insects. The kinematic symmetry of the hummingbird upstroke and downstroke has led to the assumption that these halves of the wingbeat cycle contribute equally to weight support during hovering, as exhibited by insects of similar size. This assumption has been applied, either explicitly or implicitly, in widely used aerodynamic models and in a variety of empirical tests. Here we provide measurements of the wake of hovering rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus) obtained with digital particle image velocimetry that show force asymmetry: hummingbirds produce 75% of their weight support during the downstroke and only 25% during the upstroke. Some of this asymmetry is probably due to inversion of their cambered wings during upstroke. The wake of hummingbird wings also reveals evidence of leading-edge vortices created during the downstroke, indicating that they may operate at Reynolds numbers sufficiently low to exploit a key mechanism typical of insect hovering. Hummingbird hovering approaches that of insects, yet remains distinct because of effects resulting from an inherently dissimilar-avian-body plan.

  18. Perching aerodynamics and trajectory optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickenheiser, Adam; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2007-04-01

    Advances in smart materials, actuators, and control architecture have enabled new flight capabilities for aircraft. Perching is one such capability, described as a vertical landing maneuver using in-flight shape reconfiguration in lieu of high thrust generation. A morphing, perching aircraft design is presented that is capable of post stall flight and very slow landing on a vertical platform. A comprehensive model of the aircraft's aerodynamics, with special regard to nonlinear affects such as flow separation and dynamic stall, is discussed. Trajectory optimization using nonlinear programming techniques is employed to show the effects that morphing and nonlinear aerodynamics have on the maneuver. These effects are shown to decrease the initial height and distance required to initiate the maneuver, reduce the bounds on the trajectory, and decrease the required thrust for the maneuver. Perching trajectories comparing morphing versus fixed-configuration and stalled versus un-stalled aircraft are presented. It is demonstrated that a vertical landing is possible in the absence of high thrust if post-stall flight capabilities and vehicle reconfiguration are utilized.

  19. X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will build and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604B0002G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate an aerodynamic flight database in the hypersonic regime. The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. At these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

  20. X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will build and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604B0002G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate an aerodynamic flight database in the hypersonic regime, The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. At these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

  1. Simulation Study of the Flow Boundary Condition for Rough Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Gang; Robbins, Mark O.

    2001-03-01

    In order to solve a flow problem with the continuum Navier-Stokes equation, a boundary condition must be assumed. In most cases, a no-slip condition is used, i.e. the velocity of the fluid is set equal to that of a bounding solid at their interface. Deviations from this condition can be quantified by a slip length S that represents the additional width of fluid that would be needed to accomodate any velocity difference at the interface. Previous simulations with atomically flat surfaces show that S can be very large in certain limits. (P. A. Thompson and M. O. Robbins, Phys. Rev. A, 41), 6830(1990). ( J.-L. Barrat and L. Bocquet, Phys. Rev. Lett., 82), 4671(1999). A dramatic divergence with S as shear rate increases has also been seen.( P. A. Thompson and S. M. Troian, Nature, 389), 360(1997) We have extended these simulations to surfaces with random roughness, steps, and angled facets typical of twin boundaries. In all cases, S decreases rapidly as the roughness increases. When peak-to-peak roughness is only two atomic diameters, values of S have dropped from more than 20 diameters to only one or two. In addition, the non-linear regime where S diverges with shear rate is supressed by surface roughness. These results suggest that the experimental behavior of atomically flat surfaces such as mica may be very different than that of more typical rough surfaces.

  2. Interaction of fast charges with a rough metal surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, Keenan; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Mišković, Z. L.; Song, Yuan-Hong; Wang, You-Nian

    2015-09-01

    We use the Green function formulation of a dielectric response formalism to study the dynamic polarization of a rough metal surface by a single charged particle and by a pair of charged particles that move parallel to the surface. While the surface roughness is treated nonperturbatively, the plasmon excitation of the metal electron gas is described locally. We find that the magnitudes of both the image potential and the stopping power of a single particle are increased by the increasing roughness and decreasing correlation length of the surface. On the other hand, both the long-range wake potential of a single charged particle and the interaction potential between two particles are weakly affected by the surface roughness. However, the strongest effects of the surface roughness are seen in the correlated stopping power of two charged particles, giving rise to oscillations in the dependence of the stopping ratio on their distance, both when the interparticle axis is perpendicular to their direction of motion and when the wake-related oscillations are damped by adiabatic suppression of plasmon excitations at low particle speeds.

  3. Aerodynamic effects of flexibility in flapping wings.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang; Huang, Qingfeng; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P

    2010-03-06

    Recent work on the aerodynamics of flapping flight reveals fundamental differences in the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation between fixed and flapping wings. When fixed wings translate at high angles of attack, they periodically generate and shed leading and trailing edge vortices as reflected in their fluctuating aerodynamic force traces and associated flow visualization. In contrast, wings flapping at high angles of attack generate stable leading edge vorticity, which persists throughout the duration of the stroke and enhances mean aerodynamic forces. Here, we show that aerodynamic forces can be controlled by altering the trailing edge flexibility of a flapping wing. We used a dynamically scaled mechanical model of flapping flight (Re approximately 2000) to measure the aerodynamic forces on flapping wings of variable flexural stiffness (EI). For low to medium angles of attack, as flexibility of the wing increases, its ability to generate aerodynamic forces decreases monotonically but its lift-to-drag ratios remain approximately constant. The instantaneous force traces reveal no major differences in the underlying modes of force generation for flexible and rigid wings, but the magnitude of force, the angle of net force vector and centre of pressure all vary systematically with wing flexibility. Even a rudimentary framework of wing veins is sufficient to restore the ability of flexible wings to generate forces at near-rigid values. Thus, the magnitude of force generation can be controlled by modulating the trailing edge flexibility and thereby controlling the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity. To characterize this, we have generated a detailed database of aerodynamic forces as a function of several variables including material properties, kinematics, aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure, which can also be used to help validate computational models of aeroelastic flapping wings. These experiments will also be useful for wing design for small

  4. Noise of sliding rough contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bot, Alain

    2017-01-01

    This article is a discussion about the origin of friction noise produced when rubbing solids having rough surfaces. We show that noise emerges from numerous impacts into the contact between antagonist asperities of surfaces. Prediction of sound sources reduces to a statistical problem of contact mechanics. On the other hand, contact is also responsible of dissipation of vibration. This leads to the paradoxical result that the noise may not be proportional to the number of sources.

  5. Relevance of roughness parameters of surface finish in precision hard turning.

    PubMed

    Jouini, Nabil; Revel, Philippe; Bigerelle, Maxence

    2014-01-01

    Precision hard turning is a process to improve the surface integrity of functional surfaces. Machining experiments are carried out on hardened AISI 52100 bearing steel under dry condition using c-BN cutting tools. A full factorial experimental design is used to characterize the effect of cutting parameters. As surface topography is characterized by numerous roughness parameters, their relative relevance is investigated by statistical indices of performance computed by combining the analysis of variance, discriminant analysis and the bootstrap method. The analysis shows that the profile Length ratio (Lr) and the Roughness average (Ra) are the relevant pair of roughness parameters which best discriminates the effect of cutting parameters and enable the classification of surfaces which cannot be distinguished by one parameter: low profile length ratio Lr (Lr = 100.23%) is clearly distinguished from an irregular surface corresponding to a profile length ratio Lr (Lr = 100.42%), whereas the roughness average Ra values are nearly identical.

  6. Sensing roughness and polish direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsen, M. L.; Olesen, A. S.; Larsen, H. E.; Stubager, J.; Hanson, S. G.; Pedersen, T. F.; Pedersen, H. C.

    2016-04-01

    As a part of the work carried out on a project supported by the Danish council for technology and innovation, we have investigated the option of smoothing standard CNC machined surfaces. In the process of constructing optical prototypes, involving custom-designed optics, the development cost and time consumption can become relatively large numbers in a research budget. Machining the optical surfaces directly is expensive and time consuming. Alternatively, a more standardized and cheaper machining method can be used, but then the object needs to be manually polished. During the polishing process the operator needs information about the RMS-value of the surface roughness and the current direction of the scratches introduces by the polishing process. The RMS-value indicates to the operator how far he is from the final finish, and the scratch orientation is often specified by the customer in order to avoid complications during the casting process. In this work we present a method for measuring the RMS-values of the surface roughness while simultaneously determining the polishing direction. We are mainly interested in the RMS-values in the range from 0 - 100 nm, which corresponds to the finish categories of A1, A2 and A3. Based on simple intensity measurements we estimates the RMS-value of the surface roughness, and by using a sectioned annual photo-detector to collect the scattered light we can determine the direction of polishing and distinguish light scattered from random structures and light scattered from scratches.

  7. A Heat Transfer Analysis for Rough Turbine Airfoils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-16

    overshoot near the center of the tunnel. A total Pitot tube made of a hypodermic needle of 0.30 mm inside diameter and 0.60 mm outside diameter was... community , and it was due primarily to the work of Dvorak [91 that a more rational approach was developed. His consideration was based on the spatial...RECOMMENDATIONS Essentially retaining the concept of Prandtl’s mixing length theory , an earlier research has successfully expressed the rough-wall mixing

  8. Speed, pacing strategy and aerodynamic drafting in Thoroughbred horse racing.

    PubMed

    Spence, Andrew J; Thurman, Andrew S; Maher, Michael J; Wilson, Alan M

    2012-08-23

    Choice of pacing strategy and the benefit of aerodynamic drafting are thought to be key determinants of racing performance. These effects have largely been analysed without reference to final outcome, in small datasets with low temporal resolution, and a focus on human swimming, cycling and running. Here, we determined the position and speed of 44,803 racehorses, once per second, in 3,357 races ranging in length from 1006 to 4225 m (50.9-292.9 seconds duration) using a validated radio tracking system. We find that aerodynamic drafting has a marked effect on horse performance, and hence racing outcome. Furthermore, we demonstrate that race length-dependent pacing strategies are correlated with the fastest racing times, with some horses reaching a maximum speed in excess of 19 m s(-1). The higher speeds seen with certain pacing strategies may arise due to the nature of pack racing itself, or may be a reflection of individual capabilities, that is, corresponding to horses that perform well in roles suited to their 'front-running' or 'chaser' personality traits.

  9. NASA Iced Aerodynamics and Controls Current Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addy, Gene

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the state of current research in the area of aerodynamics and aircraft control with ice conditions by the Aviation Safety Program, part of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Controls Project (IRAC). Included in the presentation is a overview of the modeling efforts. The objective of the modeling is to develop experimental and computational methods to model and predict aircraft response during adverse flight conditions, including icing. The Aircraft icing modeling efforts includes the Ice-Contaminated Aerodynamics Modeling, which examines the effects of ice contamination on aircraft aerodynamics, and CFD modeling of ice-contaminated aircraft aerodynamics, and Advanced Ice Accretion Process Modeling which examines the physics of ice accretion, and works on computational modeling of ice accretions. The IRAC testbed, a Generic Transport Model (GTM) and its use in the investigation of the effects of icing on its aerodynamics is also reviewed. This has led to a more thorough understanding and models, both theoretical and empirical of icing physics and ice accretion for airframes, advanced 3D ice accretion prediction codes, CFD methods for iced aerodynamics and better understanding of aircraft iced aerodynamics and its effects on control surface effectiveness.

  10. Supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of a tail-control cruciform maneuverable missile with and without wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.; Fournier, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics for a winged and a wingless cruciform missile are examined. The body was an ogive-cylinder with a 3.5 caliber forebody; an overall length-to-diameter ratio of 11.667; and has cruciform tails that were trapexoidal in planform. Tests were made both with and without 72.9 deg cruciform delta wings. The investigation was made for Mach numbers from 1.50 to 4.63, roll attitudes of 0 and 45 deg, angles of attack from -40 to 22 deg, and tail control deflections from 10 to -40 deg. The purpose is to determine the influence of the aerodynamic behavior on the design choice for maneuverable missiles intended primarily for air-to-air or surface-to-surface missions. The results indicate that the winged missile with its more linear aerodynamic characteristics and higher lift-curve slope, should provide the highest maneuverability over a large operational range.

  11. On Cup Anemometer Rotor Aerodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Pindado, Santiago; Pérez, Javier; Avila-Sanchez, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    The influence of anemometer rotor shape parameters, such as the cups' front area or their center rotation radius on the anemometer's performance was analyzed. This analysis was based on calibrations performed on two different anemometers (one based on magnet system output signal, and the other one based on an opto-electronic system output signal), tested with 21 different rotors. The results were compared to the ones resulting from classical analytical models. The results clearly showed a linear dependency of both calibration constants, the slope and the offset, on the cups' center rotation radius, the influence of the front area of the cups also being observed. The analytical model of Kondo et al. was proved to be accurate if it is based on precise data related to the aerodynamic behavior of a rotor's cup. PMID:22778638

  12. On cup anemometer rotor aerodynamics.

    PubMed

    Pindado, Santiago; Pérez, Javier; Avila-Sanchez, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    The influence of anemometer rotor shape parameters, such as the cups' front area or their center rotation radius on the anemometer's performance was analyzed. This analysis was based on calibrations performed on two different anemometers (one based on magnet system output signal, and the other one based on an opto-electronic system output signal), tested with 21 different rotors. The results were compared to the ones resulting from classical analytical models. The results clearly showed a linear dependency of both calibration constants, the slope and the offset, on the cups' center rotation radius, the influence of the front area of the cups also being observed. The analytical model of Kondo et al. was proved to be accurate if it is based on precise data related to the aerodynamic behavior of a rotor's cup.

  13. System for determining aerodynamic imbalance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Churchill, Gary B. (Inventor); Cheung, Benny K. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A system is provided for determining tracking error in a propeller or rotor driven aircraft by determining differences in the aerodynamic loading on the propeller or rotor blades of the aircraft. The system includes a microphone disposed relative to the blades during the rotation thereof so as to receive separate pressure pulses produced by each of the blades during the passage thereof by the microphone. A low pass filter filters the output signal produced by the microphone, the low pass filter having an upper cut-off frequency set below the frequency at which the blades pass by the microphone. A sensor produces an output signal after each complete revolution of the blades, and a recording display device displays the outputs of the low pass filter and sensor so as to enable evaluation of the relative magnitudes of the pressure pulses produced by passage of the blades by the microphone during each complete revolution of the blades.

  14. Rarefaction Effects in Hypersonic Aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riabov, Vladimir V.

    2011-05-01

    The Direct Simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) technique is used for numerical analysis of rarefied-gas hypersonic flows near a blunt plate, wedge, two side-by-side plates, disk, torus, and rotating cylinder. The role of various similarity parameters (Knudsen and Mach numbers, geometrical and temperature factors, specific heat ratios, and others) in aerodynamics of the probes is studied. Important kinetic effects that are specific for the transition flow regime have been found: non-monotonic lift and drag of plates, strong repulsive force between side-by-side plates and cylinders, dependence of drag on torus radii ratio, and the reverse Magnus effect on the lift of a rotating cylinder. The numerical results are in a good agreement with experimental data, which were obtained in a vacuum chamber at low and moderate Knudsen numbers from 0.01 to 10.

  15. Aerodynamic seals for rotary machine

    DOEpatents

    Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Cirri, Massimiliano; Thatte, Azam Mihir; Williams, John Robert

    2016-02-09

    An aerodynamic seal assembly for a rotary machine includes multiple sealing device segments disposed circumferentially intermediate to a stationary housing and a rotor. Each of the segments includes a shoe plate with a forward-shoe section and an aft-shoe section having multiple labyrinth teeth therebetween facing the rotor. The sealing device segment also includes multiple flexures connected to the shoe plate and to a top interface element, wherein the multiple flexures are configured to allow the high pressure fluid to occupy a forward cavity and the low pressure fluid to occupy an aft cavity. Further, the sealing device segments include a secondary seal attached to the top interface element at one first end and positioned about the flexures and the shoe plate at one second end.

  16. Lewis icing research tunnel test of the aerodynamic effects of aircraft ground deicing/anti-icing fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runyan, L. James; Zierten, Thomas A.; Hill, Eugene G.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation of the effect of aircraft ground deicing/anti-icing fluids on the aerodynamic characteristics of a Boeing 737-200ADV airplane was conducted. The test was carried out in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. Fluids tested include a Newtonian deicing fluid, three non-Newtonian anti-icing fluids commercially available during or before 1988, and eight new experimental non-Newtonian fluids developed by four fluid manufacturers. The results show that fluids remain on the wind after liftoff and cause a measurable lift loss and drag increase. These effects are dependent on the high-lift configuration and on the temperature. For a configuration with a high-lift leading-edge device, the fluid effect is largest at the maximum lift condition. The fluid aerodynamic effects are related to the magnitude of the fluid surface roughness, particularly in the first 30 percent chord. The experimental fluids show a significant reduction in aerodynamic effects.

  17. Fractal study and simulation of fracture roughness

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S.; Bodvarsson, G.S. )

    1990-05-01

    This study examines the roughness profiles of the surfaces of fractures and faults by using concepts from fractal geometry. Relationships between fractal characteristics of profiles and isotropic surfaces are analytically developed and a deterministic representation of the roughness is examined.

  18. Aerodynamics in the classroom and at the ball park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2012-04-01

    Experiments suitable for classroom projects or demonstrations are described concerning the aerodynamics of polystyrene balls. A light ball with sufficient backspin can curve vertically upward through the air, defying gravity and providing a dramatic visual demonstration of the Magnus effect. A ball projected with backspin can also curve downward with a vertical acceleration greater than that due to gravity if the Magnus force is negative. These effects were investigated by filming the flight of balls projected in an approximately horizontal direction so that the lift and drag forces could be easily measured. The balls were also fitted with artificial raised seams and projected with backspin toward a vertical target in order to measure the sideways deflection over a known horizontal distance. It was found that (a) a ball with a seam on one side can deflect either left or right depending on its launch speed and (b) a ball with a baseball seam can also deflect sideways even when there is no sideways component of the drag or lift forces acting on the ball. Depending on the orientations of the seam and the spin axis, a sideways force on a baseball can arise either if there is rough patch on one side of the ball or if there is a smooth patch. A scuff ball with a rough patch on one side is illegal in baseball. The effect of a smooth patch is a surprising new observation.

  19. The effect of adding roughness and thickness to a transonic axial compressor rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suder, Kenneth L.; Chima, Rodrick V.; Strazisar, Anthony J.; Roberts, William B.

    1995-01-01

    The performance deterioration of a high speed axial compressor rotor due to surface roughness and airfoil thickness variations is reported. A 0.025 mm (0.001 in.) thick rough coating with a surface finish of 2.54-3.18 RMS microns (100-125 RMS microinches) is applied to the pressure and suction surface of the rotor blades. Coating both surfaces increases the leading edge thickness by 10% at the hub and 20% at the tip. Application of this coating results in a loss in efficiency of 6 points and a 9% reduction in the pressure ratio across the rotor at an operating condition near the design point. To separate the effect of thickness and roughness, a smooth coating of equal thickness is also applied to the blade. The smooth coating surface finish is 0.254-0.508 RMS microns (10-20 RMS microinches), compared to the bare metal blade surface finish of 0.508 RMS microns (20 RMS microinches). The smooth coating results in approximately half of the performance deterioration found from the rough coating. Both coatings are then applied to different portions of the blade surface to determine which portions of the airfoil are most sensitive to thickness/roughness variations. Aerodynamic performance measurements are presented for a number of coating configurations at 60%, 80%, and 100% of design speed. The results indicate that thickness/roughness over the first 10% of blade chord accounts for virtually all of the observed performance degradation for the smooth coating, compared to about 70% of the observed performance degradation for the rough coating. The performance deterioration is investigated in more detail at design speed using laser anemometer measurements as well as predictions generated by a quasi-3D Navier-Stokes flow solver which includes a surface roughness model. Measurements and analysis are performed on the baseline blade and the full-coverage smooth and rough coatings. The results indicate that coating the blade causes a thickening of the blade boundary layers. The

  20. Plume Dispersion over Idealized Urban-liked Roughness with Height Variation: an LES Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Colman Ching Chi; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2013-04-01

    Human activities (e.g. vehicular emission) are the primary pollutant sources affecting the health and living quality of stakeholders in modern compact cities. Gaussian plume dispersion model is commonly used for pollutant distribution estimate that works well over rural areas with flat terrain. However, its major parameters, dispersion coefficients, exclude the effect of surface roughness that unavoidably prone to error handling the pollutant transport in the urban boundary layer (UBL) over building roughness. Our recent large-eddy simulation (LES) has shown that urban surfaces affect significantly the pollutant dispersion over idealized, identical two-dimensional (2D) street canyons of uniform height. As an extension to our on-going effort, this study is conceived to investigate how rough urban surfaces, which are constructed by 2D street canyons of non-uniform height, modify the UBL pollutant dispersion . A series of LESs with idealized roughness elements of non-uniform heights were performed in neutral stratification. Building models with two different heights were placed alternatively in the computational domain to construct 2D street canyons in cross flows. The plume dispersion from a ground-level passive pollutant source over more realistic urban areas was then examined. Along with the existing building-height-to-street-width (aspect) ratio (AR), a new parameter, building-height variability (BHV), is used to measure the building height unevenness. Four ARs (1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125) and three BHVs (20%, 40% and 60%) were considered in this study. Preliminary results show that BHV greatly increases the aerodynamic roughness of the hypothetical urban surfaces for narrow street canyons. Analogous to our previous findings, the air exchange rate (ACH) of street canyons increases with increasing friction factor, implying that street-level ventilation could be improved by increasing building roughness via BHV. In addition, the parameters used in dispersion coefficient

  1. Transpiration Control Of Aerodynamics Via Porous Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Daniel W.; Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1993-01-01

    Quasi-active porous surface used to control pressure loading on aerodynamic surface of aircraft or other vehicle, according to proposal. In transpiration control, one makes small additions of pressure and/or mass to cavity beneath surface of porous skin on aerodynamic surface, thereby affecting rate of transpiration through porous surface. Porous skin located on forebody or any other suitable aerodynamic surface, with cavity just below surface. Device based on concept extremely lightweight, mechanically simple, occupies little volume in vehicle, and extremely adaptable.

  2. Active Control of Aerodynamic Noise Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Gregory A.

    2001-01-01

    Aerodynamic noise sources become important when propulsion noise is relatively low, as during aircraft landing. Under these conditions, aerodynamic noise from high-lift systems can be significant. The research program and accomplishments described here are directed toward reduction of this aerodynamic noise. Progress toward this objective include correction of flow quality in the Low Turbulence Water Channel flow facility, development of a test model and traversing mechanism, and improvement of the data acquisition and flow visualization capabilities in the Aero. & Fluid Dynamics Laboratory. These developments are described in this report.

  3. 1997 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop on February 25-28, 1997. The workshop was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, Flight Controls, Supersonic Laminar Flow Control, and Sonic Boom Prediction. The workshop objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT Motion Simulator results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas.

  4. Intelligent Information Retrieval Using Rough Set Approximations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Padmini

    1989-01-01

    Describes rough sets theory and discusses the advantages it offers for information retrieval, including the implicit inclusion of Boolean logic, term weighting, ranked retrieval output, and relevance feedback. Rough set formalism is compared to Boolean, vector, and fuzzy models of information retrieval and a small scale evaluation of rough sets is…

  5. Some aspects of the aerodynamics of separating strap-ons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, K. K.; Krishnan, C. G.

    1994-11-01

    An aerodynamics model for analyzing strap-on separation is proposed. This model comprises both interference aerodynamics and free-body aerodynamics. The interference aerodynamics is primarily due to the close proximity of core and strap-ons. The free-body aerodynamics is solely due to the body geometry of the strap-ons. Using this aerodynamic model, the dynamics of separating strap-ons has been simulated in a six-degree-of-freedom mode to determine if a collision occurs. This aerodynamic model is very handy for various off-design studies relating to separating strap-ons.

  6. Comparative study of line roughness metrics of chemically amplified and inorganic resists for extreme ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallica, Roberto; Buitrago, Elizabeth; Ekinci, Yasin

    2016-07-01

    We present a comprehensive comparative study of the roughness metrics of different resists. Dense line/space of polymethyl methacrylate, hydrogen silsesquioxane, a metal oxide-based resist, and different chemically amplified resists (CARs) have been patterned by extreme ultraviolet interference lithography. All three line width roughness (LWR) metrics: the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) roughness value σLWR, the correlation length ξ, and the roughness exponent α, were extracted by metrological analysis of top-down SEM images. We found that all metrics are required to fully describe the overall roughness of each resist. Our measurements indicate that in fact, a few of the state-of-the-art resists tested here can meet the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors requirements for σLWR. The correlation length ξ was also found to be considerably higher in polymer-based materials in comparison to nonpolymers. Finally, the roughness exponent α, interpreted using the concept of fractal geometry, was found to be mainly affected by acid diffusion in CARs, where it produces line edges with a higher complexity than in non-CAR resists. These results indicate that the different resists platforms show very different LWR metrics and roughness is not manifested only in the σLWR but in all parameters. Therefore, all roughness metrics should be taken into account when comparing the performance among different resists since they ultimately have a substantial impact on device performance.

  7. The roles of aerodynamic and inertial forces on maneuverability in flapping flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vejdani, Hamid; Boerma, David; Swartz, Sharon; Breuer, Kenneth

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the relative contributions of aerodynamic and the whole-body dynamics in generating extreme maneuvers. We developed a 3D dynamical model of a body (trunk) and two rectangular wings using a Lagrangian formulation. The trunk has 6 degrees of freedom and each wing has 4 degrees of actuation (flapping, sweeping, wing pronation/supination and wing extension/flexion) and can be massless (like insect wings) or relatively massive (like bats). To estimate aerodynamic forces, we use a blade element method; drag and lift are calculated using a quasi-steady model. We validated our model using several benchmark tests, including gliding and hovering motion. To understand the roles of aerodynamic and inertial forces, we start the investigation by constraining the wing motion to flapping and wing length extension/flexion motion. This decouples the trunk degrees of freedom and affects only roll motion. For bats' dynamics (massive wings), the model is much more maneuverable than the insect dynamics case, and the effect of inertial forces dominates the behavior of the system. The role of the aerodynamic forces increases when the wings have sweeping and flapping motion, which affects the pitching motion of the body. We also analyzed the effect of all wing motions together on the behavior of the model in the presence and in the absence of aerodynamic forces.

  8. Large eddy simulations of surface roughness parameter sensitivity to canopy-structure characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, K. D.; Bohrer, G.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2014-11-01

    Surface roughness parameters are at the core of every model representation of the coupling and interactions between land-surface and atmosphere, and are used in every model of surface fluxes. However, most models assume these parameters to be a fixed property of plant functional type and do not vary them in response to spatial or temporal changes to canopy structure. In part, this is due to the difficulty of reducing the complexity of canopy structure and its spatiotemporal dynamic and heterogeneity to less than a handful of parameters describing its effects of atmosphere-surface interactions. In this study we use large-eddy simulations to explore, in silico, the effects of canopy structure characteristics on surface roughness parameters. We performed a virtual experiment to test the sensitivity of resolved surface roughness to four axes of canopy structure: (1) leaf area index, (2) the vertical profile of leaf density, (3) canopy height, and (4) canopy gap fraction. We found roughness parameters to be highly variable, but were able to find positive relationships between displacement height and maximum canopy height, aerodynamic canopy height and maximum canopy height and leaf area index, and eddy-penetration depth and gap fraction. We also found negative relationships between aerodynamic canopy height and gap fraction, and between eddy-penetration depth and maximum canopy height and leaf area index. Using a decade of wind and canopy structure observations in a site in Michigan, we tested the effectiveness of our model-resolved parameters in predicting the frictional velocity over heterogeneous and disturbed canopies. We compared it with three other semi-empirical models and with a decade of meteorological observations. We found that parameterizations with fixed representations of roughness performed relatively well. Nonetheless, some empirical approaches that incorporate seasonal and inter-annual changes to the canopy structure performed even better than models

  9. Using the HARV simulation aerodynamic model to determine forebody strake aerodynamic coefficients from flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messina, Michael D.

    1995-01-01

    The method described in this report is intended to present an overview of a process developed to extract the forebody aerodynamic increments from flight tests. The process to determine the aerodynamic increments (rolling pitching, and yawing moments, Cl, Cm, Cn, respectively) for the forebody strake controllers added to the F/A - 18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) aircraft was developed to validate the forebody strake aerodynamic model used in simulation.

  10. A Reduced-Complexity Investigation of Blunt Leading-Edge Separation Motivated by UCAV Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckring, James M.; Boelens, Okko J.

    2015-01-01

    A reduced complexity investigation for blunt-leading-edge vortical separation has been undertaken. The overall approach is to design the fundamental work in such a way so that it relates to the aerodynamics of a more complex Uninhabited Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV) concept known as SACCON. Some of the challenges associated with both the vehicle-class aerodynamics and the fundamental vortical flows are reviewed, and principles from a hierarchical complexity approach are used to relate flow fundamentals to system-level interests. The work is part of roughly 6-year research program on blunt-leading-edge separation pertinent to UCAVs, and was conducted under the NATO Science and Technology Organization, Applied Vehicle Technology panel.

  11. 1999 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, David E. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1999 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 8-12, 1999 in Anaheim, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in the areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to: (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working on HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and midpoint optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented, along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program. This Volume 1/Part 1 publication covers configuration aerodynamics.

  12. Disentangling the origins of torque enhancement through wall roughness in Taylor-Couette turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaojue; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef

    2017-02-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNSs) are performed to analyze the global transport properties of turbulent Taylor-Couette flow with inner rough wall up to Taylor number $Ta=10^{10}$. The dimensionless torque $Nu_\\omega$ shows an effective scaling of $Nu_\\omega \\propto Ta^{0.42\\pm0.01}$, which is steeper than the ultimate regime effective scaling $Nu_\\omega \\propto Ta^{0.38}$ seen for smooth inner and outer walls. It is found that at the inner rough wall, the dominant contribution to the torque comes from the pressure forces on the radial faces of the rough elements; while viscous shear stresses on the rough surfaces contribute little to $Nu_\\omega$. Thus, the log layer close to the rough wall depends on the roughness length scale, rather than on the viscous length scale. We then separate the torque contributed from the smooth inner wall and the rough outer wall. It is found that the smooth wall torque scaling follows $Nu_s \\propto Ta_s^{0.38\\pm0.01}$, in excellent agreement with the case where both walls are smooth. In contrast, the rough wall torque scaling follows $Nu_r \\propto Ta_r^{0.47\\pm0.03}$, very close to the pure ultimate regime scaling $Nu_\\omega \\propto Ta^{1/2}$. The energy dissipation rate at the wall of inner rough cylinder decreases significantly as a consequence of the wall shear stress reduction caused by the flow separation at the rough elements. On the other hand, the latter shed vortices in the bulk that are transported towards the outer cylinder and dissipated. Compared to the purely smooth case, the inner wall roughness renders the system more bulk dominated and thus increases the effective scaling exponent.

  13. Aerodynamic Analyses Requiring Advanced Computers, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Papers given at the conference present the results of theoretical research on aerodynamic flow problems requiring the use of advanced computers. Topics discussed include two-dimensional configurations, three-dimensional configurations, transonic aircraft, and the space shuttle.

  14. Aerodynamic Analyses Requiring Advanced Computers, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Papers are presented which deal with results of theoretical research on aerodynamic flow problems requiring the use of advanced computers. Topics discussed include: viscous flows, boundary layer equations, turbulence modeling and Navier-Stokes equations, and internal flows.

  15. HSR Aerodynamic Performance Status and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, William P.; Antani, Tony; Ball, Doug; Calloway, Robert L.; Snyder, Phil

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes HSR (High Speed Research) Aerodynamic Performance Status and Challenges. The topics include: 1) Aero impact on HSR; 2) Goals and Targets; 3) Progress and Status; and 4) Remaining Challenges. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  16. Vertical Landing Aerodynamics of Reusable Rocket Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonaka, Satoshi; Nishida, Hiroyuki; Kato, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Inatani, Yoshifumi

    The aerodynamic characteristics of a vertical landing rocket are affected by its engine plume in the landing phase. The influences of interaction of the engine plume with the freestream around the vehicle on the aerodynamic characteristics are studied experimentally aiming to realize safe landing of the vertical landing rocket. The aerodynamic forces and surface pressure distributions are measured using a scaled model of a reusable rocket vehicle in low-speed wind tunnels. The flow field around the vehicle model is visualized using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) method. Results show that the aerodynamic characteristics, such as the drag force and pitching moment, are strongly affected by the change in the base pressure distributions and reattachment of a separation flow around the vehicle.

  17. Aerodynamics of a rolling airframe missile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisserand, L. E.

    1981-05-01

    For guidance-related reasons, there is considerable interest in rolling missiles having single-plane steering capability. To aid the aerodynamic design of these airframes, a unique investigation into the aerodynamics of a rolling, steering missile has been carried out. It represents the first known attempt to measure in a wind tunnel the aerodynamic forces and moments that act on a spinning body-canard-tail configuration that exercises canard steering in phase with body roll position. Measurements were made with the model spinning at steady-state roll rates ranging from 15 to 40 Hz over an angle-of-attack range up to about 16 deg. This short, exploratory investigation has demonstrated that a better understanding and a more complete definition of the aerodynamics of rolling, steering vehicles can be developed by way of simulative wind-tunnel testing.

  18. Switchable and Tunable Aerodynamic Drag on Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttag, Mark; Lopéz Jiménez, Francisco; Upadhyaya, Priyank; Kumar, Shanmugam; Reis, Pedro

    We report results on the performance of Smart Morphable Surfaces (Smporhs) that can be mounted onto cylindrical structures to actively reduce their aerodynamic drag. Our system comprises of an elastomeric thin shell with a series of carefully designed subsurface cavities that, once depressurized, lead to a dramatic deformation of the surface topography, on demand. Our design is inspired by the morphology of the giant cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) which possesses an array of axial grooves, thought to help reduce aerodynamic drag, thereby enhancing the structural robustness of the plant under wind loading. We perform systematic wind tunnel tests on cylinders covered with our Smorphs and characterize their aerodynamic performance. The switchable and tunable nature of our system offers substantial advantages for aerodynamic performance when compared to static topographies, due to their operation over a wider range of flow conditions.

  19. Switchable and Tunable Aerodynamic Drag on Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttag, Mark; Lopez Jimenez, Francisco; Reis, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    We report results on the performance of Smart Morphable Surfaces (Smporhs) that can be mounted onto cylindrical structures to actively reduce their aerodynamic drag. Our system comprises of an elastomeric thin shell with a series of carefully designed subsurface cavities that, once depressurized, lead to a dramatic deformation of the surface topography, on demand. Our design is inspired by the morphology of the giant cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) which possesses an array of axial grooves, which are thought to help reduce aerodynamic drag, thereby enhancing the structural robustness of the plant under wind loading. We perform systematic wind tunnel tests on cylinders covered with our Smorphs and characterize their aerodynamic performance. The switchable and tunable nature of our system offers substantial advantages for aerodynamic performance when compared to static topographies, due to their operation over a wider range of flow conditions.

  20. Hypervelocity Free-Flight Aerodynamic Facility (HFFAF)

    NASA Video Gallery

    The HFFAF is the only aeroballistic range the nation currently capable of testing in gases other than air and at sub-atmospheric pressures. It is used primarily to study the aerodynamics, Aerotherm...

  1. Steady incompressible variable thickness shear layer aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chi, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    A shear flow aerodynamic theory for steady incompressible flows is presented for both the lifting and non lifting problems. The slow variation of the boundary layer thickness is considered. The slowly varying behavior is treated by using multitime scales. The analysis begins with the elementary wavy wall problem and, through Fourier superpositions over the wave number space, the shear flow equivalents to the aerodynamic transfer functions of classical potential flow are obtained. The aerodynamic transfer functions provide integral equations which relate the wall pressure and the upwash. Computational results are presented for the pressure distribution, the lift coefficient, and the center of pressure travel along a two dimensional flat plate in a shear flow. The aerodynamic load is decreased by the shear layer, compared to the potential flow. The variable thickness shear layer decreases it less than the uniform thickness shear layer based upon equal maximum shear layer thicknesses.

  2. Uniaxial aerodynamic attitude control of artificial satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sazonov, V. V.

    1983-01-01

    Within the context of a simple mechanical model the paper examines the movement of a satellite with respect to the center of masses under conditions of uniaxial aerodynamic attitude control. The equations of motion of the satellite take account of the gravitational and restorative aerodynamic moments. It is presumed that the aerodynamic moment is much larger than the gravitational, and the motion equations contain a large parameter. A two-parameter integrated surface of these equations is constructed in the form of formal series in terms of negative powers of the large parameter, describing the oscillations and rotations of the satellite about its lengthwise axis, approximately oriented along the orbital tangent. It is proposed to treat such movements as nominal undisturbed motions of the satellite under conditions of aerodynamic attitude control. A numerical investigation is made for the above integrated surface.

  3. Aerodynamic Characterization of a Modern Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Robert M.; Holland, Scott D.; Blevins, John A.

    2011-01-01

    A modern launch vehicle is by necessity an extremely integrated design. The accurate characterization of its aerodynamic characteristics is essential to determine design loads, to design flight control laws, and to establish performance. The NASA Ares Aerodynamics Panel has been responsible for technical planning, execution, and vetting of the aerodynamic characterization of the Ares I vehicle. An aerodynamics team supporting the Panel consists of wind tunnel engineers, computational engineers, database engineers, and other analysts that address topics such as uncertainty quantification. The team resides at three NASA centers: Langley Research Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Ames Research Center. The Panel has developed strategies to synergistically combine both the wind tunnel efforts and the computational efforts with the goal of validating the computations. Selected examples highlight key flow physics and, where possible, the fidelity of the comparisons between wind tunnel results and the computations. Lessons learned summarize what has been gleaned during the project and can be useful for other vehicle development projects.

  4. Transition Experiments on Blunt Bodies with Distributed Roughness in Hypersonic Free Flight in Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilder, Michael C.; Reda, Daniel C.; Prabhu, Dinesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Blunt-body geometries were flown through carbon dioxide in the NASA Ames Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamic Facility to investigate the influence of distributed surface roughness on transition to turbulence in CO2-dominated atmospheres, such as those of Mars and Venus. Tests were also performed in air for direct comparison with archival results. Models of hemispherical and spherically-blunted large-angle conical geometries were flown at speeds between 2.8 km/s and 5.1 km/s and freestream pressures between 50 Torr and 228 Torr. Transition fronts were determined from global surface heat flux distributions measured using thermal imaging techniques. Distributed surface roughness was produced by grit-blasting the model surfaces. Real-gas Navier-Stokes solutions were used to calculate non-dimensional correlating parameters at the measured transition onset locations. Transition-onset locations correlated well with a constant roughness Reynolds number based on the mean roughness element height. The critical roughness Reynolds number for transition onset determined for flight in CO2 was 223 +/- 25%. This mean value is lower than the critical value of 250 +/- 20% previously-established from tests conducted in air, but within the bounds of the expected measurement uncertainty.

  5. Roughness Based Crossflow Transition Control for a Swept Airfoil Design Relevant to Subsonic Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Carpenter, Mark H.; Malik, Mujeeb R.; Eppink, Jenna; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Streett, Craig L.

    2010-01-01

    A high fidelity transition prediction methodology has been applied to a swept airfoil design at a Mach number of 0.75 and chord Reynolds number of approximately 17 million, with the dual goal of an assessment of the design for the implementation and testing of roughness based crossflow transition control and continued maturation of such methodology in the context of realistic aerodynamic configurations. Roughness based transition control involves controlled seeding of suitable, subdominant crossflow modes in order to weaken the growth of naturally occurring, linearly more unstable instability modes via a nonlinear modification of the mean boundary layer profiles. Therefore, a synthesis of receptivity, linear and nonlinear growth of crossflow disturbances, and high-frequency secondary instabilities becomes desirable to model this form of control. Because experimental data is currently unavailable for passive crossflow transition control for such high Reynolds number configurations, a holistic computational approach is used to assess the feasibility of roughness based control methodology. Potential challenges inherent to this control application as well as associated difficulties in modeling this form of control in a computational setting are highlighted. At high Reynolds numbers, a broad spectrum of stationary crossflow disturbances amplify and, while it may be possible to control a specific target mode using Discrete Roughness Elements (DREs), nonlinear interaction between the control and target modes may yield strong amplification of the difference mode that could have an adverse impact on the transition delay using spanwise periodic roughness elements.

  6. Aerodynamics as a subway design parameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    A parametric sensitivity study has been performed on the system operational energy requirement in order to guide subway design strategy. Aerodynamics can play a dominant or trivial role, depending upon the system characteristics. Optimization of the aerodynamic parameters may not minimize the total operational energy. Isolation of the station box from the tunnel and reduction of the inertial power requirements pay the largest dividends in terms of the operational energy requirement.

  7. Experimental Facilities and Modelling for Rarefied Aerodynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    aerodynamic forces and moments that act on an object moving in the gas . The aerodynamics of rarefied gases also investigates the flow of gases in...Originally, theoretical models for rarefied gas flows were developed in the frame of the molecular kinetic theory. Thus the first self-consistent descriptions...method [7-11]. 3.0 EXPERIMENTAL FACILITIES FOR RAREFIED FLOWS 3.1 Overview Rarefied - gas (vacuum) wind tunnel is a wind tunnel operating at low pressures

  8. Means for controlling aerodynamically induced twist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elber, W. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A control mechanism which provides active compensation for aerodynamically induced twist deformation of high aspect ratio wings consists of a torque tube, internal to each wing and rigidly attached near the tip of each wing, which is moved by an actuator located in the aircraft fuselage. As changes in the aerodynamic loads on the wings occur the torque tube is rotated to compensate for the induced wing twist.

  9. The oscillating wing with aerodynamically balanced elevator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kussner, H G; Schwartz, I

    1941-01-01

    The two-dimensional problem of the oscillating wing with aerodynamically balanced elevator is treated in the manner that the wing is replaced by a plate with bends and stages and the airfoil section by a mean line consisting of one or more straights. The computed formulas and tables permit, on these premises, the prediction of the pressure distribution and of the aerodynamic reactions of oscillating elevators and tabs with any position of elevator hinge in respect to elevator leading edge.

  10. Coupling of WRF meteorological model to WAM spectral wave model through sea surface roughness at the Balearic Sea: impact on wind and wave forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolosana-Delgado, R.; Soret, A.; Jorba, O.; Baldasano, J. M.; Sánchez-Arcilla, A.

    2012-04-01

    Meteorological models, like WRF, usually describe the earth surface characteristics by tables that are function of land-use. The roughness length (z0) is an example of such approach. However, over sea z0 is modeled by the Charnock (1955) relation, linking the surface friction velocity u*2 with the roughness length z0 of turbulent air flow, z0 = α-u2* g The Charnock coefficient α may be considered a measure of roughness. For the sea surface, WRF considers a constant roughness α = 0.0185. However, there is evidence that sea surface roughness should depend on wave energy (Donelan, 1982). Spectral wave models like WAM, model the evolution and propagation of wave energy as a function of wind, and include a richer sea surface roughness description. Coupling WRF and WAM is thus a common way to improve the sea surface roughness description of WRF. WAM is a third generation wave model, solving the equation of advection of wave energy subject to input/output terms of: wind growth, energy dissipation and resonant non-linear wave-wave interactions. Third generation models work on the spectral domain. WAM considers the Charnock coefficient α a complex yet known function of the total wind input term, which depends on the wind velocity and on the Charnock coefficient again. This is solved iteratively (Janssen et al., 1990). Coupling of meteorological and wave models through a common Charnock coefficient is operationally done in medium-range met forecasting systems (e.g., at ECMWF) though the impact of coupling for smaller domains is not yet clearly assessed (Warner et al, 2010). It is unclear to which extent the additional effort of coupling improves the local wind and wave fields, in comparison to the effects of other factors, like e.g. a better bathymetry and relief resolution, or a better circulation information which might have its influence on local-scale meteorological processes (local wind jets, local convection, daily marine wind regimes, etc.). This work, within the

  11. Fourier functional analysis for unsteady aerodynamic modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, C. Edward; Chin, Suei

    1991-01-01

    A method based on Fourier analysis is developed to analyze the force and moment data obtained in large amplitude forced oscillation tests at high angles of attack. The aerodynamic models for normal force, lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients are built up from a set of aerodynamic responses to harmonic motions at different frequencies. Based on the aerodynamic models of harmonic data, the indicial responses are formed. The final expressions for the models involve time integrals of the indicial type advocated by Tobak and Schiff. Results from linear two- and three-dimensional unsteady aerodynamic theories as well as test data for a 70-degree delta wing are used to verify the models. It is shown that the present modeling method is accurate in producing the aerodynamic responses to harmonic motions and the ramp type motions. The model also produces correct trend for a 70-degree delta wing in harmonic motion with different mean angles-of-attack. However, the current model cannot be used to extrapolate data to higher angles-of-attack than that of the harmonic motions which form the aerodynamic model. For linear ramp motions, a special method is used to calculate the corresponding frequency and phase angle at a given time. The calculated results from modeling show a higher lift peak for linear ramp motion than for harmonic ramp motion. The current model also shows reasonably good results for the lift responses at different angles of attack.

  12. Aerodynamics of intermittent bounds in flying birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobalske, Bret W.; Hearn, Jason W. D.; Warrick, Douglas R.

    Flap-bounding is a common flight style in small birds in which flapping phases alternate with flexed-wing bounds. Body lift is predicted to be essential to making this flight style an aerodynamically attractive flight strategy. To elucidate the contributions of the body and tail to lift and drag during the flexed-wing bound phase, we used particle image velocimetry (PIV) and measured properties of the wake of zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata, N = 5), flying at 6-10 m s- 1 in a variable speed wind tunnel as well as flow around taxidermically prepared specimens (N = 4) mounted on a sting instrumented with force transducers. For the specimens, we varied air velocity from 2 to 12 m s- 1 and body angle from -15∘ to 50∘. The wake of bounding birds and mounted specimens consisted of a pair of counterrotating vortices shed into the wake from the tail, with induced downwash in the sagittal plane and upwash in parasagittal planes lateral to the bird. This wake structure was present even when the tail was entirely removed. We observed good agreement between force measures derived from PIV and force transducers over the range of body angles typically used by zebra finch during forward flight. Body lift:drag (L:D) ratios averaged 1.4 in live birds and varied between 1 and 1.5 in specimens at body angles from 10∘ to 30∘. Peak (L:D) ratio was the same in live birds and specimens (1.5) and was exhibited in specimens at body angles of 15∘ or 20∘, consistent with the lower end of body angles utilized during bounds. Increasing flight velocity in live birds caused a decrease in CL and CD from maximum values of 1.19 and 0.95 during flight at 6 m s- 1 to minimum values of 0.70 and 0.54 during flight at 10 m s- 1. Consistent with delta-wing theory as applied to birds with a graduated-tail shape, trimming the tail to 0 and 50% of normal length reduced L:D ratios and extending tail length to 150% of normal increased L:D ratio. As downward induced velocity is present in the

  13. Aerodynamics of intermittent bounds in flying birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobalske, Bret W.; Hearn, Jason W. D.; Warrick, Douglas R.

    2009-05-01

    Flap-bounding is a common flight style in small birds in which flapping phases alternate with flexed-wing bounds. Body lift is predicted to be essential to making this flight style an aerodynamically attractive flight strategy. To elucidate the contributions of the body and tail to lift and drag during the flexed-wing bound phase, we used particle image velocimetry (PIV) and measured properties of the wake of zebra finch ( Taeniopygia guttata, N = 5), flying at 6-10 m s-1 in a variable speed wind tunnel as well as flow around taxidermically prepared specimens ( N = 4) mounted on a sting instrumented with force transducers. For the specimens, we varied air velocity from 2 to 12 m s-1 and body angle from -15° to 50°. The wake of bounding birds and mounted specimens consisted of a pair of counter-rotating vortices shed into the wake from the tail, with induced downwash in the sagittal plane and upwash in parasagittal planes lateral to the bird. This wake structure was present even when the tail was entirely removed. We observed good agreement between force measures derived from PIV and force transducers over the range of body angles typically used by zebra finch during forward flight. Body lift:drag ( L: D) ratios averaged 1.4 in live birds and varied between 1 and 1.5 in specimens at body angles from 10° to 30°. Peak ( L: D) ratio was the same in live birds and specimens (1.5) and was exhibited in specimens at body angles of 15° or 20°, consistent with the lower end of body angles utilized during bounds. Increasing flight velocity in live birds caused a decrease in C L and C D from maximum values of 1.19 and 0.95 during flight at 6 m s-1 to minimum values of 0.70 and 0.54 during flight at 10 m s-1. Consistent with delta-wing theory as applied to birds with a graduated-tail shape, trimming the tail to 0 and 50% of normal length reduced L: D ratios and extending tail length to 150% of normal increased L: D ratio. As downward induced velocity is present in the

  14. Roughness kinetic and multiaffinity of anisotropic etched silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinabadi, S.; Rajabi, M.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of etching time (20-200 min) on surface roughness, statistical and fractal properties of silicon wafers during anisotropic chemical etching by KOH is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The evolution of surface morphology of silicon wafers during an anisotropic chemical etching is investigated by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and statistical methods. FESEM investigation shows the formation of pyramid like silicon micro structures that disappear in large time scales. The surface roughness increases and decreases periodically in time with a decreasing exponentially trend. The statistical analysis were performed by calculating the roughness and correlation length, distribution of height fluctuations and two-dimensional multifractal detrending moving average (MFDMA). The fractal nature of silicon wafer changes from mono fractal to multi fractal scaling by etching process and formation of pyramid like silicon nanostructures on it. The strength of multi-fractallity has not an increasing monotonic behavior. The enhancement of irregularities could be a reason for reduction of surface roughness and structure downfall.

  15. Capillary trapping on a rough surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wexler, Jason; Jacobi, Ian; Chow, Melissa; Stone, Howard

    2014-11-01

    Recent research has shown that rough or patterned surfaces infused with a lubricating liquid can display superhydrophobic properties. However, if such a surface is exposed to external flow, the shear induced by the outer fluid can drain the lubricating layer, causing regions of the surface to transition to a hydrophilic Wenzel state. In addition, the high specific gravity of lubricating liquids means that this loss can be driven by gravity alone, in the absence of flow. We examine the shear- and gravity-driven failure modes of liquid-infused patterned surfaces experimentally, and develop a unified model to predict the dynamics of drainage via these two types of forcing. We find that the dynamic evolution of the two drainage mechanisms takes on a single functional form. Under the influence of gravity, we show that a finite length of the surface will remain filled indefinitely; this is a variant of the familiar capillary rise height. Under the influence of external shear, the steady-state liquid retention depends on the outer flow velocity field. This work was supported under ONR MURI Grants N00014-12-1-0875 and N00014-12-1-0962 (Program Manager Dr. Ki-Han Kim).

  16. Skylon Aerodynamics and SABRE Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Unmeel; Afosmis, Michael; Bowles, Jeffrey; Pandya, Shishir

    2015-01-01

    An independent partial assessment is provided of the technical viability of the Skylon aerospace plane concept, developed by Reaction Engines Limited (REL). The objectives are to verify REL's engineering estimates of airframe aerodynamics during powered flight and to assess the impact of Synergetic Air-Breathing Rocket Engine (SABRE) plumes on the aft fuselage. Pressure lift and drag coefficients derived from simulations conducted with Euler equations for unpowered flight compare very well with those REL computed with engineering methods. The REL coefficients for powered flight are increasingly less acceptable as the freestream Mach number is increased beyond 8.5, because the engineering estimates did not account for the increasing favorable (in terms of drag and lift coefficients) effect of underexpanded rocket engine plumes on the aft fuselage. At Mach numbers greater than 8.5, the thermal environment around the aft fuselage is a known unknown-a potential design and/or performance risk issue. The adverse effects of shock waves on the aft fuselage and plumeinduced flow separation are other potential risks. The development of an operational reusable launcher from the Skylon concept necessitates the judicious use of a combination of engineering methods, advanced methods based on required physics or analytical fidelity, test data, and independent assessments.

  17. Aerodynamics of Unsteady Sailing Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, Colin; Schutt, Riley; Borshoff, Jennifer; Alley, Philip; de Zegher, Maximilien; Williamson, Chk

    2015-11-01

    In small sailboats, the bodyweight of the sailor is proportionately large enough to induce significant unsteady motion of the boat and sail. Sailors use a variety of kinetic techniques to create sail dynamics which can provide an increment in thrust, thereby increasing the boatspeed. In this study, we experimentally investigate the unsteady aerodynamics associated with two techniques, ``upwind leech flicking'' and ``downwind S-turns''. We explore the dynamics of an Olympic class Laser sailboat equipped with a GPS, IMU, wind sensor, and camera array, sailed expertly by a member of the US Olympic team. The velocity heading of a sailing boat is oriented at an apparent wind angle to the flow. In contrast to classic flapping propulsion, the heaving of the sail section is not perpendicular to the sail's motion through the air. This leads to heave with components parallel and perpendicular to the incident flow. The characteristic motion is recreated in a towing tank where the vortex structures generated by a representative 2-D sail section are observed using Particle Image Velocimetry and the measurement of thrust and lift forces. Amongst other results, we show that the increase in driving force, generated due to heave, is larger for greater apparent wind angles.

  18. Parachute Aerodynamics From Video Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenenberger, Mark; Queen, Eric M.; Cruz, Juan R.

    2005-01-01

    A new data analysis technique for the identification of static and dynamic aerodynamic stability coefficients from wind tunnel test video data is presented. This new technique was applied to video data obtained during a parachute wind tunnel test program conducted in support of the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. Total angle-of-attack data obtained from video images were used to determine the static pitching moment curve of the parachute. During the original wind tunnel test program the static pitching moment curve had been determined by forcing the parachute to a specific total angle-of -attack and measuring the forces generated. It is shown with the new technique that this parachute, when free to rotate, trims at an angle-of-attack two degrees lower than was measured during the forced-angle tests. An attempt was also made to extract pitch damping information from the video data. Results suggest that the parachute is dynamically unstable at the static trim point and tends to become dynamically stable away from the trim point. These trends are in agreement with limit-cycle-like behavior observed in the video. However, the chaotic motion of the parachute produced results with large uncertainty bands.

  19. Aerodynamic Analysis of Morphing Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Caleb; Macphee, David; Carlisle, Madeline

    2016-11-01

    Interest in morphing blades has grown with applications for wind turbines and other aerodynamic blades. This passive control method has advantages over active control methods such as lower manufacturing and upkeep costs. This study has investigated the lift and drag forces on individual blades with experimental and computational analysis. The goal has been to show that these blades delay stall and provide larger lift-to-drag ratios at various angles of attack. Rigid and flexible airfoils were cast from polyurethane and silicone respectively, then lift and drag forces were collected from a load cell during 2-D testing in a wind tunnel. Experimental data was used to validate computational models in OpenFOAM. A finite volume fluid-structure-interaction solver was used to model the flexible blade in fluid flow. Preliminary results indicate delay in stall and larger lift-to-drag ratios by maintaining more optimal angles of attack when flexing. Funding from NSF REU site Grant EEC 1358991 is greatly appreciated.

  20. Microelectromechanical Systems for Aerodynamics Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehregany, Mehran; DeAnna, Russell G.; Reshotko, Eli

    1996-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) embody the integration of sensors, actuators, and electronics on a single substrate using integrated circuit fabrication techniques and compatible micromachining processes. Silicon and its derivatives form the material base for the MEMS technology. MEMS devices, including micro-sensors and micro-actuators, are attractive because they can be made small (characteristic dimension about microns), be produced in large numbers with uniform performance, include electronics for high performance and sophisticated functionality, and be inexpensive. MEMS pressure sensors, wall-shear-stress sensors, and micromachined hot-wires are nearing application in aeronautics. MEMS actuators face a tougher challenge since they have to be scaled (up) to the physical phenomena that are being controlled. MEMS actuators are proposed, for example, for controlling the small structures in a turbulent boundary layer, for aircraft control, for cooling, and for mixing enhancement. Data acquisition or control logistics require integration of electronics along with the transducer elements with appropriate consideration of analog-to-digital conversion, multiplexing, and telemetry. Altogether, MEMS technology offers exciting opportunities for aerodynamics applications both in wind tunnels and in flight

  1. Aerodynamic characteristics of French consonants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demolin, Didier; Hassid, Sergio; Soquet, Alain

    2004-05-01

    This paper reports some aerodynamic measurements made on French consonants with a group of ten speakers. Speakers were recorded while saying nonsense words in phrases such as papa, dis papa encore. The nonsense words in the study combined each of the French consonants with three vowels /i, a, u/ to from two syllables words with the first syllable being the same as the second. In addition to the audio signal, recordings were made of the oral airflow, the pressure of the air in the pharynx above the vocal folds and the pressure of the air in the trachea just below the vocal folds. The pharyngeal pressure was recorded via a catheter (i.d. 5 mm) passed through the nose so that its open end could be seen in the pharynx below the uvula. The subglottal pressure was recorded via a tracheal puncture between the first and the second rings of the trachea or between the cricoid cartilage and the first tracheal ring. Results compare subglottal presssure, pharyngeal pressure, and airflow values. Comparisons are made between values obtained with male and female subjects and various types of consonants (voiced versus voiceless at the same place of articulation, stops, fricatives, and nasals).

  2. The Long Range Persistence of Wakes Behind a Row of Roughness Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. E.; Sescu, Adrian; Duck, Peter W.; Choudhari, Meelan

    2010-01-01

    We consider a periodic array of relatively small roughness elements whose spanwise separation is of the order of the local boundary-layer thickness and construct a local asymptotic high-Reynolds-number solution that is valid in the vicinity of the roughness. The resulting flow decays on the very short streamwise length scale of the roughness, but the solution eventually becomes invalid at large downstream distances and a new solution has to be constructed in the downstream region. This latter result shows that the roughness-generated wakes can persist over very long streamwise distances, which are much longer than the distance between the roughness elements and the leading edge. Detailed numerical results are given for the far wake structure.

  3. Electromagnetic Scattering from Randomly Rough Surfaces with Hybrid FEM/BIE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Guo, Li-Xin; He, Qiong; Wei, Bing

    2011-10-01

    The hybrid finite element method (FEM) together with the boundary integral equation (BIE) is firstly applied to scattering from a conducting rough surface. The BIE is used as the truncation boundary condition for the special unbounded half space, whereas the FEM is used to solve the governing equation in the region surrounded by a rough surface and artificial boundary. Tapered wave incidence is employed to cancel the so-called “edge effect". A hybrid FEM/BIE formulation for generalized one-dimensional conducting rough surface scattering is presented, as well as examples that evaluate its validity compared to the method of moments. The bistatic scattering coefficients of a Gaussian rough surface are calculated for transverse-magnetic wave incidence. Conclusions are reached after analyzing the scattering patterns of rough surfaces with different rms heights and correlation lengths

  4. Unsteady Aerodynamic Force Sensing from Measured Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-Gi

    2016-01-01

    A simple approach for computing unsteady aerodynamic forces from simulated measured strain data is proposed in this study. First, the deflection and slope of the structure are computed from the unsteady strain using the two-step approach. Velocities and accelerations of the structure are computed using the autoregressive moving average model, on-line parameter estimator, low-pass filter, and a least-squares curve fitting method together with analytical derivatives with respect to time. Finally, aerodynamic forces over the wing are computed using modal aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices, a rational function approximation, and a time-marching algorithm. A cantilevered rectangular wing built and tested at the NASA Langley Research Center (Hampton, Virginia, USA) in 1959 is used to validate the simple approach. Unsteady aerodynamic forces as well as wing deflections, velocities, accelerations, and strains are computed using the CFL3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code and an MSC/NASTRAN code (MSC Software Corporation, Newport Beach, California, USA), and these CFL3D-based results are assumed as measured quantities. Based on the measured strains, wing deflections, velocities, accelerations, and aerodynamic forces are computed using the proposed approach. These computed deflections, velocities, accelerations, and unsteady aerodynamic forces are compared with the CFL3D/NASTRAN-based results. In general, computed aerodynamic forces based on the lifting surface theory in subsonic speeds are in good agreement with the target aerodynamic forces generated using CFL3D code with the Euler equation. Excellent aeroelastic responses are obtained even with unsteady strain data under the signal to noise ratio of -9.8dB. The deflections, velocities, and accelerations at each sensor location are independent of structural and aerodynamic models. Therefore, the distributed strain data together with the current proposed approaches can be used as distributed deflection

  5. Large eddy simulation of smooth-wall, transitional and fully rough-wall channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Namiko; Pullin, Dale I.; Inoue, Michio

    2012-07-01

    Large eddy simulation (LES) is reported for both smooth and rough-wall channel flows at resolutions for which the roughness is subgrid. The stretched vortex, subgrid-scale model is combined with an existing wall-model that calculates the local friction velocity dynamically while providing a Dirichlet-like slip velocity at a slightly raised wall. This wall model is presently extended to include the effects of subgrid wall roughness by the incorporation of the Hama's roughness function Δ U^+(k_{sinfty }^+) that depends on some geometric roughness height ks∞ scaled in inner variables. Presently Colebrook's empirical roughness function is used but the model can utilize any given function of an arbitrary number of inner-scaled, roughness length parameters. This approach requires no change to the interior LES and can handle both smooth and rough walls. The LES is applied to fully turbulent, smooth, and rough-wall channel flow in both the transitional and fully rough regimes. Both roughness and Reynolds number effects are captured for Reynolds numbers Reb based on the bulk flow speed in the range 104-1010 with the equivalent Reτ, based on the wall-drag velocity uτ varying from 650 to 108. Results include a Moody-like diagram for the friction factor f = f(Reb, ɛ), ɛ = ks∞/δ, mean velocity profiles, and turbulence statistics. In the fully rough regime, at sufficiently large Reb, the mean velocity profiles show collapse in outer variables onto a roughness modified, universal, velocity-deficit profile. Outer-flow stream-wise turbulence intensities scale well with uτ for both smooth and rough-wall flow, showing a log-like profile. The infinite Reynolds number limits of both smooth and rough-wall flows are explored. An assumption that, for smooth-wall flow, the turbulence intensities scaled on uτ are bounded above by the sum of a logarithmic profile plus a finite function across the whole channel suggests that the infinite Reb limit is inviscid slip flow without

  6. Statistical properties of spontaneous emission from atoms near a rough surface

    SciTech Connect

    Biehs, S.-A.; Greffet, J.-J.

    2011-11-15

    We study the lifetime of the excited state of an atom or molecule near a plane surface with a given random surface roughness. In particular, we discuss the impact of the scattering of surface modes within the rough surface. Our study is completed by considering the lateral correlation length of the decay rate and the variance discussing its relation to the C{sub 0} correlation.

  7. 1998 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillin, S. Naomi (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1998 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 9-13, in Los Angeles, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program.

  8. Modeling Powered Aerodynamics for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Aerodynamic Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Robinson, Philip E.; Wilson, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Modeling the aerodynamics of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) has presented many technical challenges to the developers of the Orion aerodynamic database. During a launch abort event, the aerodynamic environment around the LAV is very complex as multiple solid rocket plumes interact with each other and the vehicle. It is further complicated by vehicle separation events such as between the LAV and the launch vehicle stack or between the launch abort tower and the crew module. The aerodynamic database for the LAV was developed mainly from wind tunnel tests involving powered jet simulations of the rocket exhaust plumes, supported by computational fluid dynamic simulations. However, limitations in both methods have made it difficult to properly capture the aerodynamics of the LAV in experimental and numerical simulations. These limitations have also influenced decisions regarding the modeling and structure of the aerodynamic database for the LAV and led to compromises and creative solutions. Two database modeling approaches are presented in this paper (incremental aerodynamics and total aerodynamics), with examples showing strengths and weaknesses of each approach. In addition, the unique problems presented to the database developers by the large data space required for modeling a launch abort event illustrate the complexities of working with multi-dimensional data.

  9. 1998 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillin, S. Naomi (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1998 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 9-13, in Los Angeles, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry HighSpeed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of. Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to: (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program.

  10. 1999 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, David E. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1999 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 8-12, 1999 in Anaheim, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in the areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working on HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and midpoint optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented, along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program. This Volume 1/Part 2 publication covers the design optimization and testing sessions.

  11. Adhesion as an interplay between particle size and surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Katainen, J; Paajanen, M; Ahtola, E; Pore, V; Lahtinen, J

    2006-12-15

    Surface roughness plays an important role in the adhesion of small particles. In this paper we have investigated adhesion as a geometrical effect taking into account both the particle size and the size of the surface features. Adhesion is studied using blunt model particles on surfaces up to 10 nm root-mean-square (RMS) roughness. Measurements with particles both smaller and larger than surface features are presented. Results indicate different behavior in these areas. Adhesion of particles smaller than or similar in size to the asperities depend mainly on the size and shape of the asperities and only weakly on the size of the particle. For large particles also the particle size has a significant effect on the adhesion. A new model, which takes the relative size of particles and asperities into account, is also derived and compared to the experimental data. The proposed model predicts adhesion well over a wide range of particle/asperity length scales.

  12. Heat transfer between elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces.

    PubMed

    Volokitin, A I; Lorenz, B; Persson, B N J

    2010-01-01

    We study the heat transfer between elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces.We include both the heat transfer from the area of real contact, and the heat transfer between the surfaces in the non-contact regions.We apply a recently developed contact mechanics theory, which accounts for the hierarchical nature of the contact between solids with roughness on many different length scales. For elastic contact, at the highest (atomic) resolution the area of real contact typically consists of atomic (nanometer) sized regions, and we discuss the implications of this for the heat transfer. For solids with very smooth surfaces, as is typical in many modern engineering applications, the interfacial separation in the non-contact regions will be very small, and for this case we show the importance of the radiative heat transfer associated with the evanescent electromagnetic waves which exist outside of all bodies.

  13. 1997 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop on February 25-28, 1997. The workshop was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in area of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, Flight Controls, Supersonic Laminar Flow Control, and Sonic Boom Prediction. The workshop objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodyamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT Motion Simulator results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas.

  14. Transient platoon aerodynamics and bluff body flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuei, Lun

    There are two components of this experimental work: transient vehicle platoon aerodynamics and bluff-body flows. The transient aerodynamic effects in a four-vehicle platoon during passing maneuvers and in-line oscillations are investigated. A vehicle model is moved longitudinally parallel to a four-car platoon to simulate passing maneuvers. The drag and side forces experienced by each platoon member are measured using strain gauge balances. The resulting data are presented as dimensionless coefficients. It is shown that each car in the platoon experiences a repulsive side force when the passing vehicle is in the neighborhood of its rear half. The side force reverses its direction and becomes an attractive force when the passing vehicle moves to the neighborhood of its front half. The drag force experienced by each platoon member is increased when the passing vehicle is in its proximity. The effects of the lateral spacing and relative velocity between the platoon and the passing vehicle, as well as the shape of the passing vehicle, are also investigated. Similar trends are observed in simulations of both a vehicle passing a platoon and a platoon overtaking a vehicle. During the in-line oscillation experiments, one of the four platoon members is forced to undergo longitudinal periodic motions. The drag force experienced by each platoon member is determined simultaneously during the oscillations. The effects of the location of the oscillating vehicle, the shape of the vehicles and the displacement and velocity amplitudes of the oscillation are examined. The results from the transient conditions are compared to those from the steady tests in the same setup. In the case of a four-car platoon, the drag variations experienced by the vehicles adjacent to the oscillating vehicle are discussed using a cavity model. It is found that when the oscillating car moves forward and approaches its upstream neighbor, itself and its downstream neighbor experiences an increased drag

  15. Aerodynamics of saccate pollen and its implications for wind pollination.

    PubMed

    Schwendemann, Andrew B; Wang, George; Mertz, Meredith L; McWilliams, Ryan T; Thatcher, Scott L; Osborn, Jeffrey M

    2007-08-01

    Pollen grains of many wind-pollinated plants contain 1-3 air-filled bladders, or sacci. Sacci are thought to help orient the pollen grain in the pollination droplet. Sacci also increase surface area of the pollen grain, yet add minimal mass, thereby increasing dispersal distance; however, this aerodynamic hypothesis has not been tested in a published study. Using scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy, mathematical modeling, and the saccate pollen of three extant conifers with structurally different pollen grains (Pinus, Falcatifolium, Dacrydium), we developed a computational model to investigate pollen flight. The model calculates terminal settling velocity based on structural characters of the pollen grain, including lengths, widths, and depths of the main body and sacci; angle of saccus rotation; and thicknesses of the saccus wall, endoreticulations, intine, and exine. The settling speeds predicted by the model were empirically validated by stroboscopic photography. This study is the first to quantitatively demonstrate the adaptive significance of sacci for the aerodynamics of wind pollination. Modeling pollen both with and without sacci indicated that sacci can reduce pollen settling speeds, thereby increasing dispersal distance, with the exception of pollen grains having robust endoreticulations and those with thick saccus walls. Furthermore, because the mathematical model is based on structural characters and error propagation methods show that the model yields valid results when sample sizes are small, the flight dynamics of fossil pollen can be investigated. Several fossils were studied, including bisaccate (Pinus, Pteruchus, Caytonanthus), monosaccate (Gothania), and nonsaccate (Monoletes) pollen types.

  16. Comparative study of line roughness metrics of chemically amplified and inorganic resists for EUV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallica, Roberto; Buitrago, Elizabeth; Ekinci, Yasin

    2016-03-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the roughness metrics of different resists. Dense line/space (L/S) images of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ), different chemically amplified resists (CARs), and metal oxide based resists have been patterned by extreme ultraviolet interference lithography (EUV-IL). The three line width roughness metrics: r.m.s. value σLWR, correlation length ξ and roughness exponent α, were measured by metrological analysis of top down SEM images and compared for the different resists imaged here. It was found, that all metrics are required to fully describe the roughness of each resist. Our measurements indicate that few of the state-of-the- art resists tested here can meet the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) requirements for σLWR. The correlation length ξ has been found to be considerably higher in polymer-based materials in comparison to non-polymers. The roughness exponent α, interpreted using the concept of fractal geometry, is mainly affected by acid diffusion in CARs where it produces line edges with a higher complexity than in non-CAR resists. These results indicate that different resists platforms show very different LWR resist metrics and roughness is not only manifested in the σLWR but in all parameters. Therefore, all roughness metrics should be taken into account in the performance comparison of the resist, since they can have a substantial impact on the device performance.

  17. Investigation of the influence of a step change in surface roughness on turbulent heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Robert P.; Coleman, Hugh W.; Taylor, J. Keith; Hosni, M. H.

    1991-01-01

    The use is studied of smooth heat flux gages on the otherwise very rough SSME fuel pump turbine blades. To gain insights into behavior of such installations, fluid mechanics and heat transfer data were collected and are reported for a turbulent boundary layer over a surface with a step change from a rough surface to a smooth surface. The first 0.9 m length of the flat plate test surface was roughened with 1.27 mm hemispheres in a staggered, uniform array spaced 2 base diameters apart. The remaining 1.5 m length was smooth. The effect of the alignment of the smooth surface with respect to the rough surface was also studied by conducting experiments with the smooth surface aligned with the bases or alternatively with the crests of the roughness elements. Stanton number distributions, skin friction distributions, and boundary layer profiles of temperature and velocity are reported and are compared to previous data for both all rough and all smooth wall cases. The experiments show that the step change from rough to smooth has a dramatic effect on the convective heat transfer. It is concluded that use of smooth heat flux gages on otherwise rough surfaces could cause large errors.

  18. Influence of compound bedforms on hydraulic roughness in a tidal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Alice; Ernstsen, Verner B.; Winter, Christian

    2011-12-01

    The effect exerted by the seabed morphology on the flow is commonly expressed by the hydraulic roughness, a fundamental parameter in the understanding and simulation of hydro- and sediment dynamics in coastal areas. This study quantifies the hydraulic roughness of large compound bedforms throughout a tidal cycle and investigates its relationship to averaged bedform dimensions. Consecutive measurements with an acoustic Doppler current profiler and a multibeam echosounder were carried out in the Jade tidal channel (North Sea, Germany) along large compound bedforms comprising ebb-oriented primary bedforms with superimposed smaller secondary bedforms. Spatially averaged velocity profiles produced log-linear relationships which were used to calculate roughness lengths. During the flood phase, the velocity profiles were best described by a single log-linear fit related to the roughness created by the secondary bedforms. During the ebb phase, the velocity profiles were segmented, showing the existence of at least two boundary layers: a lower one scaling with the superimposed secondary bedforms and an upper one scaling with the ebb-oriented primary bedforms. The drag induced by the primary bedform during the ebb phase is suggested to be related to flow expansion, separation, and recirculation on the downstream side of the bedform. Three existing formulas were tested to predict roughness lengths from the local bedform dimensions. All three predicted the right order of magnitude for the average roughness length but failed to predict its variation over the tidal cycle.

  19. Missile Aerodynamics for Ascent and Re-entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Gaines L.; McCarter, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Aerodynamic force and moment equations are developed for 6-DOF missile simulations of both the ascent phase of flight and a tumbling re-entry. The missile coordinate frame (M frame) and a frame parallel to the M frame were used for formulating the aerodynamic equations. The missile configuration chosen as an example is a cylinder with fixed fins and a nose cone. The equations include both the static aerodynamic coefficients and the aerodynamic damping derivatives. The inclusion of aerodynamic damping is essential for simulating a tumbling re-entry. Appended information provides insight into aerodynamic damping.

  20. The aerodynamics of insect flight.

    PubMed

    Sane, Sanjay P

    2003-12-01

    The flight of insects has fascinated physicists and biologists for more than a century. Yet, until recently, researchers were unable to rigorously quantify the complex wing motions of flapping insects or measure the forces and flows around their wings. However, recent developments in high-speed videography and tools for computational and mechanical modeling have allowed researchers to make rapid progress in advancing our understanding of insect flight. These mechanical and computational fluid dynamic models, combined with modern flow visualization techniques, have revealed that the fluid dynamic phenomena underlying flapping flight are different from those of non-flapping, 2-D wings on which most previous models were based. In particular, even at high angles of attack, a prominent leading edge vortex remains stably attached on the insect wing and does not shed into an unsteady wake, as would be expected from non-flapping 2-D wings. Its presence greatly enhances the forces generated by the wing, thus enabling insects to hover or maneuver. In addition, flight forces are further enhanced by other mechanisms acting during changes in angle of attack, especially at stroke reversal, the mutual interaction of the two wings at dorsal stroke reversal or wing-wake interactions following stroke reversal. This progress has enabled the development of simple analytical and empirical models that allow us to calculate the instantaneous forces on flapping insect wings more accurately than was previously possible. It also promises to foster new and exciting multi-disciplinary collaborations between physicists who seek to explain the phenomenology, biologists who seek to understand its relevance to insect physiology and evolution, and engineers who are inspired to build micro-robotic insects using these principles. This review covers the basic physical principles underlying flapping flight in insects, results of recent experiments concerning the aerodynamics of insect flight, as well

  1. Experimental investigation of hypersonic aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Intrieri, Peter F.

    1988-01-01

    An extensive series of ballistic range tests were conducted at the Ames Research Center to determine precisely the aerodynamic characteristics of the Galileo entry probe vehicle. Figures and tables are presented which summarize the results of these ballistic range tests. Drag data were obtained for both a nonablated and a hypothesized ablated Galileo configuration at Mach numbers from about 0.7 to 14 and at Reynolds numbers from 1000 to 4 million. The tests were conducted in air and the experimental results were compared with available Pioneer Venus data since these two configurations are similar in geometry. The nonablated Galileo configuration was also tested with two different center-of-gravity positions to obtain values of pitching-moment-curve slope which could be used in determining values of lift and center-of-pressure location for this configuration. The results indicate that the drag characteristics of the Galileo probe are qualitatively similar to that of Pioneer Venus, however, the drag of the nonablated Galileo is about 3 percent lower at the higher Mach numbers and as much as 5 percent greater at transonic Mach numbers of about 1.0 to 1.5. Also, the drag of the hypothesized ablated configuration is about 3 percent lower than that of the nonablated configuration at the higher Mach numbers but about the same at the lower Mach numbers. Additional tests are required at Reynolds numbers of 1000, 500, and 250 to determine if the dramatic rise in drag coefficient measured for Pioneer Venus at these low Reynolds numbers also occurs for Galileo, as might be expected.

  2. Aerodynamic heating in hypersonic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, C. Subba

    1993-01-01

    Aerodynamic heating in hypersonic space vehicles is an important factor to be considered in their design. Therefore the designers of such vehicles need reliable heat transfer data in this respect for a successful design. Such data is usually produced by testing the models of hypersonic surfaces in wind tunnels. Most of the hypersonic test facilities at present are conventional blow-down tunnels whose run times are of the order of several seconds. The surface temperatures on such models are obtained using standard techniques such as thin-film resistance gages, thin-skin transient calorimeter gages and coaxial thermocouple or video acquisition systems such as phosphor thermography and infrared thermography. The data are usually reduced assuming that the model behaves like a semi-infinite solid (SIS) with constant properties and that heat transfer is by one-dimensional conduction only. This simplifying assumption may be valid in cases where models are thick, run-times short, and thermal diffusivities small. In many instances, however, when these conditions are not met, the assumption may lead to significant errors in the heat transfer results. The purpose of the present paper is to investigate this aspect. Specifically, the objectives are as follows: (1) to determine the limiting conditions under which a model can be considered a semi-infinite body; (2) to estimate the extent of errors involved in the reduction of the data if the models violate the assumption; and (3) to come up with correlation factors which when multiplied by the results obtained under the SIS assumption will provide the results under the actual conditions.

  3. Simplified Approach to Predicting Rough Surface Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Robert J.; Stripf, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Turbine vane heat transfer predictions are given for smooth and rough vanes where the experimental data show transition moving forward on the vane as the surface roughness physical height increases. Consiste nt with smooth vane heat transfer, the transition moves forward for a fixed roughness height as the Reynolds number increases. Comparison s are presented with published experimental data. Some of the data ar e for a regular roughness geometry with a range of roughness heights, Reynolds numbers, and inlet turbulence intensities. The approach ta ken in this analysis is to treat the roughness in a statistical sense , consistent with what would be obtained from blades measured after e xposure to actual engine environments. An approach is given to determ ine the equivalent sand grain roughness from the statistics of the re gular geometry. This approach is guided by the experimental data. A roughness transition criterion is developed, and comparisons are made with experimental data over the entire range of experimental test co nditions. Additional comparisons are made with experimental heat tran sfer data, where the roughness geometries are both regular as well a s statistical. Using the developed analysis, heat transfer calculatio ns are presented for the second stage vane of a high pressure turbine at hypothetical engine conditions.

  4. Simplified Approach to Predicting Rough Surface Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R. J.; Stripf, M.

    2009-01-01

    Turbine vane heat transfer predictions are given for smooth and rough vanes where the experimental data show transition moving forward on the vane as the surface roughness physical height increases. Consistent with smooth vane heat transfer, the transition moves forward for a fixed roughness height as the Reynolds number increases. Comparisons are presented with published experimental data. Some of the data are for a regular roughness geometry with a range of roughness heights, Reynolds numbers, and inlet turbulence intensities. The approach taken in this analysis is to treat the roughness in a statistical sense, consistent with what would be obtained from blades measured after exposure to actual engine environments. An approach is given to determine the equivalent sand grain roughness from the statistics of the regular geometry. This approach is guided by the experimental data. A roughness transition criterion is developed, and comparisons are made with experimental data over the entire range of experimental test conditions. Additional comparisons are made with experimental heat transfer data, where the roughness geometries are both regular and statistical. Using the developed analysis, heat transfer calculations are presented for the second stage vane of a high pressure turbine at hypothetical engine conditions.

  5. Rough set models of Physarum machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancerz, Krzysztof; Schumann, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we consider transition system models of behaviour of Physarum machines in terms of rough set theory. A Physarum machine, a biological computing device implemented in the plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum (true slime mould), is a natural transition system. In the behaviour of Physarum machines, one can notice some ambiguity in Physarum motions that influences exact anticipation of states of machines in time. To model this ambiguity, we propose to use rough set models created over transition systems. Rough sets are an appropriate tool to deal with rough (ambiguous, imprecise) concepts in the universe of discourse.

  6. Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology.

    PubMed

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace.

  7. Arc Length Gone Global

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreaux, Gregory M.; Wells, M. Scott

    2007-01-01

    Everyone with a thorough knowledge of single variable calculus knows that integration can be used to find the length of a curve on a given interval, called its arc length. Fortunately, if one endeavors to pose and solve more interesting problems than simply computing lengths of various curves, there are techniques available that do not require an…

  8. Aerodynamic configuration design using response surface methodology analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelund, Walter C.; Stanley, Douglas O.; Lepsch, Roger A.; McMillin, Mark M.; Unal, Resit

    1993-08-01

    An investigation has been conducted to determine a set of optimal design parameters for a single-stage-to-orbit reentry vehicle. Several configuration geometry parameters which had a large impact on the entry vehicle flying characteristics were selected as design variables: the fuselage fineness ratio, the nose to body length ratio, the nose camber value, the wing planform area scale factor, and the wing location. The optimal geometry parameter values were chosen using a response surface methodology (RSM) technique which allowed for a minimum dry weight configuration design that met a set of aerodynamic performance constraints on the landing speed, and on the subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic trim and stability levels. The RSM technique utilized, specifically the central composite design method, is presented, along with the general vehicle conceptual design process. Results are presented for an optimized configuration along with several design trade cases.

  9. Aerodynamic configuration design using response surface methodology analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelund, Walter C.; Stanley, Douglas O.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Mcmillin, Mark M.; Unal, Resit

    1993-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted to determine a set of optimal design parameters for a single-stage-to-orbit reentry vehicle. Several configuration geometry parameters which had a large impact on the entry vehicle flying characteristics were selected as design variables: the fuselage fineness ratio, the nose to body length ratio, the nose camber value, the wing planform area scale factor, and the wing location. The optimal geometry parameter values were chosen using a response surface methodology (RSM) technique which allowed for a minimum dry weight configuration design that met a set of aerodynamic performance constraints on the landing speed, and on the subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic trim and stability levels. The RSM technique utilized, specifically the central composite design method, is presented, along with the general vehicle conceptual design process. Results are presented for an optimized configuration along with several design trade cases.

  10. Aeolian Sediment Transport through Large Patches of Roughness in the Atmospheric Inertial Sublayer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, John A.; Nickling, Willilam G.; King, James

    2006-01-01

    Roughness influences the flux of wind driven sand transport. In this paper, we report on sediment transport measurements for four different surface roughness configurations composed of the same size (solid) roughness elements in the atmospheric inertial sublayer (ISL). Results of these tests indicate that sediment transport rates through patches of roughness in the atmospheric inertial sublayer are to a large extent controlled and scale proportionally with the roughness density (lambda = n b h/S, where n is number of elements of breadth b and height h in area S) of the surface. However, element size apparently increases the magnitude of the reduction beyond that attributable to lambda. A sediment transport model that incorporates the effect of shear stress partitioning appears to predict reasonably well the effect of roughness on sand transport in the cases where the roughness elements are less than or equal to 0.10 m in height. However, when the dimensions of the roughness itself are equivalent to or are greater than the range of saltation lengths (vertical and horizontal), additional interactions of the elements with the saltation cloud appear to reduce the transport efficiency.

  11. Photogrammetry of a Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushner, Laura Kathryn; Littell, Justin D.; Cassell, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, two large-scale models of a Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic decelerator were tested in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at NASA Ames Research Center. One of the objectives of this test was to measure model deflections under aerodynamic loading that approximated expected flight conditions. The measurements were acquired using stereo photogrammetry. Four pairs of stereo cameras were mounted inside the NFAC test section, each imaging a particular section of the HIAD. The views were then stitched together post-test to create a surface deformation profile. The data from the photogram- metry system will largely be used for comparisons to and refinement of Fluid Structure Interaction models. This paper describes how a commercial photogrammetry system was adapted to make the measurements and presents some preliminary results.

  12. History of the numerical aerodynamic simulation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Victor L.; Ballhaus, William F., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) program has reached a milestone with the completion of the initial operating configuration of the NAS Processing System Network. This achievement is the first major milestone in the continuing effort to provide a state-of-the-art supercomputer facility for the national aerospace community and to serve as a pathfinder for the development and use of future supercomputer systems. The underlying factors that motivated the initiation of the program are first identified and then discussed. These include the emergence and evolution of computational aerodynamics as a powerful new capability in aerodynamics research and development, the computer power required for advances in the discipline, the complementary nature of computation and wind tunnel testing, and the need for the government to play a pathfinding role in the development and use of large-scale scientific computing systems. Finally, the history of the NAS program is traced from its inception in 1975 to the present time.

  13. Summary analysis of the Gemini entry aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitnah, A. M.; Howes, D. B.

    1972-01-01

    The aerodynamic data that were derived in 1967 from the analysis of flight-generated data for the Gemini entry module are presented. These data represent the aerodynamic characteristics exhibited by the vehicle during the entry portion of Gemini 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions. For the Gemini, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions, the flight-generated lift-to-drag ratios and corresponding angles of attack are compared with the wind tunnel data. These comparisons show that the flight generated lift-to-drag ratios are consistently lower than were anticipated from the tunnel data. Numerous data uncertainties are cited that provide an insight into the problems that are related to an analysis of flight data developed from instrumentation systems, the primary functions of which are other than the evaluation of flight aerodynamic performance.

  14. Bat flight generates complex aerodynamic tracks.

    PubMed

    Hedenström, A; Johansson, L C; Wolf, M; von Busse, R; Winter, Y; Spedding, G R

    2007-05-11

    The flapping flight of animals generates an aerodynamic footprint as a time-varying vortex wake in which the rate of momentum change represents the aerodynamic force. We showed that the wakes of a small bat species differ from those of birds in some important respects. In our bats, each wing generated its own vortex loop. Also, at moderate and high flight speeds, the circulation on the outer (hand) wing and the arm wing differed in sign during the upstroke, resulting in negative lift on the hand wing and positive lift on the arm wing. Our interpretations of the unsteady aerodynamic performance and function of membranous-winged, flapping flight should change modeling strategies for the study of equivalent natural and engineered flying devices.

  15. Miniature Trailing Edge Effector for Aerodynamic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hak-Tae (Inventor); Bieniawski, Stefan R. (Inventor); Kroo, Ilan M. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Improved miniature trailing edge effectors for aerodynamic control are provided. Three types of devices having aerodynamic housings integrated to the trailing edge of an aerodynamic shape are presented, which vary in details of how the control surface can move. A bucket type device has a control surface which is the back part of a C-shaped member having two arms connected by the back section. The C-shaped section is attached to a housing at the ends of the arms, and is rotatable about an axis parallel to the wing trailing edge to provide up, down and neutral states. A flip-up type device has a control surface which rotates about an axis parallel to the wing trailing edge to provide up, down, neutral and brake states. A rotating type device has a control surface which rotates about an axis parallel to the chord line to provide up, down and neutral states.

  16. Aerodynamics of sounding rockets at supersonic speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vira, N. R.

    This dissertation presents a practical and low cost method of computing the aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles such as sounding rockets, high speed bombs, projectiles and guided missiles in supersonic flight. The vehicle configuration consists of a slender axisymmetric body with a conical or ogive noise, cylinders, shoulders and boattails, if any, and have sets of two, three or four fins. Geometry of the fin cross section can be single wedge, double wedge, modified single wedge or modified double wedge. First the aerodynamics of the fins and the body are analyzed separately; then fin body and fore and aft fin interferences are accounted for when they are combined to form the total vehicle. Results and formulas documented in this work are the basis of the supersonic portion of the Theoretical Aerodynamic Derivatives (TAD) computer program operating at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

  17. Identification of aerodynamic models for maneuvering aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, C. Edward; Hu, C. C.

    1992-01-01

    A Fourier analysis method was developed to analyze harmonic forced-oscillation data at high angles of attack as functions of the angle of attack and its time rate of change. The resulting aerodynamic responses at different frequencies are used to build up the aerodynamic models involving time integrals of the indicial type. An efficient numerical method was also developed to evaluate these time integrals for arbitrary motions based on a concept of equivalent harmonic motion. The method was verified by first using results from two-dimensional and three-dimensional linear theories. The developed models for C sub L, C sub D, and C sub M based on high-alpha data for a 70 deg delta wing in harmonic motions showed accurate results in reproducing hysteresis. The aerodynamic models are further verified by comparing with test data using ramp-type motions.

  18. Turbine disk cavity aerodynamics and heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. V.; Daniels, W. A.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to define the nature of the aerodynamics and heat transfer for the flow within the disk cavities and blade attachments of a large-scale model, simulating the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopump drive turbines. These experiments of the aerodynamic driving mechanisms explored the following: (1) flow between the main gas path and the disk cavities; (2) coolant flow injected into the disk cavities; (3) coolant density; (4) leakage flows through the seal between blades; and (5) the role that each of these various flows has in determining the adiabatic recovery temperature at all of the critical locations within the cavities. The model and the test apparatus provide close geometrical and aerodynamic simulation of all the two-stage cavity flow regions for the SSME High Pressure Fuel Turbopump and the ability to simulate the sources and sinks for each cavity flow.

  19. Aerodynamic optimization studies on advanced architecture computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chawla, Kalpana

    1995-01-01

    The approach to carrying out multi-discipline aerospace design studies in the future, especially in massively parallel computing environments, comprises of choosing (1) suitable solvers to compute solutions to equations characterizing a discipline, and (2) efficient optimization methods. In addition, for aerodynamic optimization problems, (3) smart methodologies must be selected to modify the surface shape. In this research effort, a 'direct' optimization method is implemented on the Cray C-90 to improve aerodynamic design. It is coupled with an existing implicit Navier-Stokes solver, OVERFLOW, to compute flow solutions. The optimization method is chosen such that it can accomodate multi-discipline optimization in future computations. In the work , however, only single discipline aerodynamic optimization will be included.

  20. Status of Nozzle Aerodynamic Technology at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Joseph H.; McDaniels, David M.; Smith, Bud; Owens, Zachary

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the status of nozzle aerodynamic technology at MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center). The objectives of this presentation were to provide insight into MSFC in-house nozzle aerodynamic technology, design, analysis, and testing. Under CDDF (Center Director's Discretionary Fund), 'Altitude Compensating Nozzle Technology', are the following tasks: Development of in-house ACN (Altitude Compensating Nozzle) aerodynamic design capability; Building in-house experience for all aspects of ACN via End-to-End Nozzle Test Program; Obtaining Experimental Data for Annular Aerospike: Thrust eta, TVC (thrust vector control) capability and surface pressures. To support selection/optimization of future Launch Vehicle propulsion we needed a parametric design and performance tool for ACN. We chose to start with the ACN Aerospike Nozzles.

  1. Aerodynamics of magnetic levitation (MAGLEV) trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schetz, Joseph A.; Marchman, James F., III

    1996-01-01

    High-speed (500 kph) trains using magnetic forces for levitation, propulsion and control offer many advantages for the nation and a good opportunity for the aerospace community to apply 'high tech' methods to the domestic sector. One area of many that will need advanced research is the aerodynamics of such MAGLEV (Magnetic Levitation) vehicles. There are important issues with regard to wind tunnel testing and the application of CFD to these devices. This talk will deal with the aerodynamic design of MAGLEV vehicles with emphasis on wind tunnel testing. The moving track facility designed and constructed in the 6 ft. Stability Wind Tunnel at Virginia Tech will be described. Test results for a variety of MAGLEV vehicle configurations will be presented. The last topic to be discussed is a Multi-disciplinary Design approach that is being applied to MAGLEV vehicle configuration design including aerodynamics, structures, manufacturability and life-cycle cost.

  2. Slip due to surface roughness for a Newtonian liquid in a viscous microscale disk pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligrani, Phil; Blanchard, Danny; Gale, Bruce

    2010-05-01

    In the present study, hydrophobic roughness is used to induce near-wall slip in a single rotating-disk micropump operating with Newtonian water. The amount of induced slip is altered by employing different sizes of surface roughness on the rotating disk. The magnitudes of slip length and slip velocities increase as the average size of the surface roughness becomes larger. In the present study, increased slip magnitudes from roughness are then associated with reduced pressure rise through the pump and lower radial-line-averaged shear stress magnitudes (determined within slip planes). Such shear stress and pressure rise variations are similar to those which would be present if the slip is induced by the intermolecular interactions which are associated with near-wall microscale effects. The present slip-roughness effects are quantified experimentally over rotational speeds from 50 to 1200 rpm, pressure increases from 0 to 312 kPa, net flow rates of 0-100 μl/min, and fluid chamber heights from 6.85 to 29.2 μm. Verification is provided by comparisons with analytic results determined from the rotating Couette flow forms of the Navier-Stokes equations, with different disk rotational speeds, disk roughness levels, and fluid chamber heights. These data show that slip length magnitudes show significant dependence on radial-line-averaged shear stress for average disk roughness heights of 404 and 770 nm. These slip length data additionally show a high degree of organization when normalized using by either the average roughness height or the fluid chamber height. For the latter case, such behavior provides evidence that the flow over a significant portion of the passage height is affected by the roughness, and near-wall slip velocities, especially when the average roughness height amounts to 11% of the h =6.86 μm passage height of the channel. Such scaling of the disk slip length bdisk with fluid chamber height h is consistent with d-type roughness scaling in macroscale

  3. Aerodynamic detuning analysis of an unstalled supersonic turbofan cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyniak, D.; Fleeter, S.

    1985-01-01

    An approach to passive flutter control is aerodynamic detuning, defined as designed passage-to-passage differences in the unsteady aerodynamic flow field of a rotor blade row. Thus, aerodynamic detuning directly affects the fundamental driving mechanism for flutter. A model to demonstrate the enhanced supersonic aeroelastic stability associated with aerodynamic detuning is developed. The stability of an aerodynamically detuned cascade operating in a supersonic inlet flow field with a subsonic leading edge locus is analyzed, with the aerodynamic detuning accomplished by means of nonuniform circumferential spacing of adjacent rotor blades. The unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments on the blading are defined in terms of influence coefficients in a manner that permits the stability of both a conventional uniformally spaced rotor configuration as well as the detuned nonuniform circumferentially spaced rotor to be determined. With Verdon's uniformly spaced Cascade B as a baseline, this analysis is then utilized to demonstrate the potential enhanced aeroelastic stability associated with this particular type of aerodynamic detuning.

  4. Windblown Dust on Mars: Laboratory Simulations of Flux as a Function of Surface Roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Robert; Wilson, Gregory; Coquilla, Rachel; White, Bruce; Haberle, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the flux of dust (particles less than few microns in diameter) under Martian atmospheric conditions for surface of three aerodynamic roughness (z(sub 0)). For smooth surface on Mars (z(sub 0) = 0.00125 cm corresponding to 0.0125 cm on Mars) suspension threshold was not achieved at the highest velocities run (u(sub 0) = 322 cm/s); for a moderately rough surface (z(sub 0) = 0.010 cm corresponding to 0.01 cm on Mars), flux averaged 1.5 x 10(exp -7)g/sq cm/s; for a rough surface (z(sub 0) = 0.015 cm corresponding to 0.15 cm on Mars), flux averaged 5 x 10(exp -7) g/sq cm/s. Although the results are preliminary, flux varied widely as a function of wind speed and roughness, suggesting that raising dust into suspension on Mars is complex. Nonetheless, using these results as a guide, 9000 Mt of dust could be raised into the atmosphere of Mars per second from only 5% of the surface.

  5. Effects of Ice Accretion on Aircraft Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Michael B.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to support the development of a new ice accretion model by improving our physical understanding of the ice accretion process through experimental measurements. The focus was on the effect of the initial ice roughness (smooth/rough boundary) on the accretion process. This includes understanding the boundary-layer development over the roughness and especially its effect on the heat transfer which is fundamental to the ice accretion process. The research focused on acquiring the experimental data needed to formulate a new ice accretion physical model. Research was conducted to analyze boundary-layer data taken on a NACA 0012 airfoil with roughness to simulate the smooth/rough boundary. The effect of isolated roughness on boundary-layer transition was studied experimentally to determine if the classical critical roughness Reynolds number criteria could be applied to transition in the airfoil leading-edge area. The effect of simulated smooth/rough boundary roughness on convective heat transfer was studied to complete the study. During the course of this research the effect of free-stream wind tunnel turbulence on the boundary layer was measured. Since this quantity was not well known, research to accurately measure the wind tunnel turbulence in an icing cloud was undertaken. Preliminary results were attained and the final data were acquired, reduced and presented under a subsequent grant.

  6. Wetting properties of molecularly rough surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Svoboda, Martin; Lísal, Martin; Malijevský, Alexandr

    2015-09-14

    We employ molecular dynamics simulations to study the wettability of nanoscale rough surfaces in systems governed by Lennard-Jones (LJ) interactions. We consider both smooth and molecularly rough planar surfaces. Solid substrates are modeled as a static collection of LJ particles arranged in a face-centered cubic lattice with the (100) surface exposed to the LJ fluid. Molecularly rough solid surfaces are prepared by removing several strips of LJ atoms from the external layers of the substrate, i.e., forming parallel nanogrooves on the surface. We vary the solid-fluid interactions to investigate strongly and weakly wettable surfaces. We determine the wetting properties by measuring the equilibrium droplet profiles that are in turn used to evaluate the contact angles. Macroscopic arguments, such as those leading to Wenzel’s law, suggest that surface roughness always amplifies the wetting properties of a lyophilic surface. However, our results indicate the opposite effect from roughness for microscopically corrugated surfaces, i.e., surface roughness deteriorates the substrate wettability. Adding the roughness to a strongly wettable surface shrinks the surface area wet with the liquid, and it either increases or only marginally affects the contact angle, depending on the degree of liquid adsorption into the nanogrooves. For a weakly wettable surface, the roughness changes the surface character from lyophilic to lyophobic due to a weakening of the solid-fluid interactions by the presence of the nanogrooves and the weaker adsorption of the liquid into the nanogrooves.

  7. Roughness configuration matters for aeolian sediment flux

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parameterisation of surface roughness effects on aeolian sediment transport is a key source of uncertainty in wind erosion models. Roughness effects are typically represented by bulk drag-partitioning schemes that scale the threshold friction velocity (u*t) for soil entrainment by the ratio of s...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1873 - Slightly rough.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1873 Slightly rough. Slightly rough means that the tomato...

  9. Wetting properties of molecularly rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, Martin; Malijevský, Alexandr; Lísal, Martin

    2015-09-01

    We employ molecular dynamics simulations to study the wettability of nanoscale rough surfaces in systems governed by Lennard-Jones (LJ) interactions. We consider both smooth and molecularly rough planar surfaces. Solid substrates are modeled as a static collection of LJ particles arranged in a face-centered cubic lattice with the (100) surface exposed to the LJ fluid. Molecularly rough solid surfaces are prepared by removing several strips of LJ atoms from the external layers of the substrate, i.e., forming parallel nanogrooves on the surface. We vary the solid-fluid interactions to investigate strongly and weakly wettable surfaces. We determine the wetting properties by measuring the equilibrium droplet profiles that are in turn used to evaluate the contact angles. Macroscopic arguments, such as those leading to Wenzel's law, suggest that surface roughness always amplifies the wetting properties of a lyophilic surface. However, our results indicate the opposite effect from roughness for microscopically corrugated surfaces, i.e., surface roughness deteriorates the substrate wettability. Adding the roughness to a strongly wettable surface shrinks the surface area wet with the liquid, and it either increases or only marginally affects the contact angle, depending on the degree of liquid adsorption into the nanogrooves. For a weakly wettable surface, the roughness changes the surface character from lyophilic to lyophobic due to a weakening of the solid-fluid interactions by the presence of the nanogrooves and the weaker adsorption of the liquid into the nanogrooves.

  10. Hydrodynamics and Roughness of Irregular Boundaries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    principle component analysis (PCA) similar to that used by Preston (2009) for ship- mounted multibeam data. Several variables derived from the...complex boundaries as well as characterization of acoustic and optical processes. Turbulent processes at the seabed are at the foundation of littoral...nearshore hydrodynamics, turbulence over rough beds influences optical and acoustic properties. Bed roughness also directly affects acoustic propagation in

  11. Specular Reflection from Rough Surfaces Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasuda, Kensei; Kim, Alvin; Cho, Hayley; Timofejev, Timofej; Walecki, Wojciech J.; Klep, James; Edelson, Amy S.; Walecki, Abigail S.; Walecki, Eve S.; Walecki, Peter S.

    2016-01-01

    In his beautiful paper, Hasan Fakhruddin reported observations of mirror-like reflections in the rough surface of a ground glass plate. Similar effects have been recently employed for metrology of the roughness of optical diffusers used in modern light emitting device illumination systems. We report the observations of specular reflection in…

  12. Aerodynamic investigations of a disc-wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrache, Alexandru; Frunzulica, Florin; Grigorescu, Sorin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics of a wing-disc, for a civil application in the fire-fighting system. The aerodynamic analysis is performed using a CFD code, named ANSYS Fluent, in the flow speed range up to 25 m/s, at lower and higher angle of attack. The simulation is three-dimensional, using URANS completed by a SST turbulence model. The results are used to examine the flow around the disc with increasing angle of attack and the structure of the wake.

  13. Aerodynamics of the upper surface blow flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelps, A. E., III

    1972-01-01

    The results of some preliminary wind-tunnel investigations made to provide fundamental aerodynamic information on the upper surface blown jet-flap concept incorporating high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines are summarized. The results of the investigation have shown the concept to have aerodynamic performance generally similar to that of other externally blown high-lift systems. A few of the more critical problems associated with this concept have been identified and preliminary solutions to some of these problems have been found. These results have proven to be sufficiently encouraging to warrant continuation of fundamental research efforts on the concept.

  14. Air flow testing on aerodynamic truck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    After leasing a cab-over tractor-trailer from a Southern California firm, Dryden researchers added sheet metal modifications like those shown here. They rounded the front corners and edges, and placed a smooth fairing on the cab's roofs and sides extending back to the trailer. During the investigation of truck aerodynamics, the techniques honed in flight research proved highly applicable. By closing the gap between the cab and the trailer, for example, researchers discovered a significant reduction in aerodynamic drag, one resulting in 20 to 25 percent less fuel consumption than the standard design. Many truck manufacturers subsequently incorporated similar modifications on their products.

  15. Rarefied Transitional Bridging of Blunt Body Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilmoth, R. G.; Blanchard, R. C.; Moss, J. N.

    1998-01-01

    The bridging procedures discussed provide an accurate engineering method for predicting rarefied transitional aerodynamics of spherically-blunted cone entry vehicles. The single-point procedure offers a way to improve the bridging procedures while minimizing the computational effort. However, the accuracy of these procedures ultimately depends on accurate knowledge of the aerodynamics in the free-molecular and continuum limits. The excellent agreement shown for DSMC predictions and bridging relations with the Viking flight data in transitional regime enhance the coincidence in these procedures.

  16. Unstructured mesh algorithms for aerodynamic calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavriplis, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    The use of unstructured mesh techniques for solving complex aerodynamic flows is discussed. The principle advantages of unstructured mesh strategies, as they relate to complex geometries, adaptive meshing capabilities, and parallel processing are emphasized. The various aspects required for the efficient and accurate solution of aerodynamic flows are addressed. These include mesh generation, mesh adaptivity, solution algorithms, convergence acceleration, and turbulence modeling. Computations of viscous turbulent two-dimensional flows and inviscid three-dimensional flows about complex configurations are demonstrated. Remaining obstacles and directions for future research are also outlined.

  17. Transpiration effects in perforated plate aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwaba, R.; Ochrymiuk, T.

    2016-10-01

    Perforated walls find a wide use as a method of flow control and effusive cooling. Experimental investigations of the gas flow past perforated plate with microholes (110μm) were carried out. The wide range of pressure at the inlet were investigated. Two distinguishable flow regimes were obtained: laminar and turbulent regime.The results are in good agreement with theory, simulations and experiments on large scale perforated plates and compressible flows in microtubules. Formulation of the transpiration law was associated with the porous plate aerodynamics properties. Using a model of transpiration flow the “aerodynamic porosity” could be determined for microholes.

  18. Unsteady Aerodynamics - Subsonic Compressible Inviscid Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishnan, A. V.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a new analytical treatment of Unsteady Aerodynamics - the linear theory covering the subsonic compressible (inviscid) case - drawing on some recent work in Operator Theory and Functional Analysis. The specific new results are: (a) An existence and uniqueness proof for the Laplace transform version of the Possio integral equation as well as a new closed form solution approximation thereof. (b) A new representation for the time-domain solution of the subsonic compressible aerodynamic equations emphasizing in particular the role of the initial conditions.

  19. Predicted aerodynamic characteristics for HL-20 lifting-body using the aerodynamic preliminary analysis system (APAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Christopher I.; Ware, George M.

    1992-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of the HL-20 lifting body configuraiton obtained through the APAS and from wind-tunnel tests have been compared. The APAS is considered to be an easy-to-use, relatively simple tool for quick preliminary estimation of vehicle aerodynamics. The APAS estimates are found to be in good agreement with experimental results to be used for preliminary evaluation of the HL-20. The APAS accuracy in predicting aerodynamics of the HL-20 varied over the Mach range. The speed ranges of best agreement were subsonic and hypersonic, while least agreement was in the Mach range from 1.2 to about 2,5.

  20. Modeling surface roughness scattering in metallic nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Moors, Kristof; Sorée, Bart; Magnus, Wim

    2015-09-28

    Ando's model provides a rigorous quantum-mechanical framework for electron-surface roughness scattering, based on the detailed roughness structure. We apply this method to metallic nanowires and improve the model introducing surface roughness distribution functions on a finite domain with analytical expressions for the average surface roughness matrix elements. This approach is valid for any roughness size and extends beyond the commonly used Prange-Nee approximation. The resistivity scaling is obtained from the self-consistent relaxation time solution of the Boltzmann transport equation and is compared to Prange-Nee's approach and other known methods. The results show that a substantial drop in resistivity can be obtained for certain diameters by achieving a large momentum gap between Fermi level states with positive and negative momentum in the transport direction.

  1. Specular Reflection from Rough Surfaces Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Kensei; Kim, Alvin; Cho, Hayley; Timofejev, Timofej; Walecki, Wojciech J.; Klep, James; Edelson, Amy S.; Walecki, Abigail S.; Walecki, Eve S.; Walecki, Peter S.

    2016-10-01

    In his beautiful paper, Hasan Fakhruddin reported observations of mirror-like reflections in the rough surface of a ground glass plate. Similar effects have been recently employed for metrology of the roughness of optical diffusers used in modern light emitting device illumination systems. We report the observations of specular reflection in nontransparent rough surfaces at oblique angles, where roughness was treated as a variable. We present a simple trigonometry-based model explaining the observed phenomenon, which we experimentally validated using aluminum surfaces that have controlled roughness. The reported demonstration requires no special equipment, other than cellphone cameras, dielectric or metal plate, and sandpaper, and serves as an introduction to wave optics. This activity can be used to get further insight into everyday applications of wave optics for students already familiar with wave optics fundamentals.

  2. Anisotropy in the wetting of rough surfaces.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; He, Bo; Lee, Junghoon; Patankar, Neelesh A

    2005-01-15

    Surface roughness amplifies the water-repellency of hydrophobic materials. If the roughness geometry is, on average, isotropic then the shape of a sessile drop is almost spherical and the apparent contact angle of the drop on the rough surface is nearly uniform along the contact line. If the roughness geometry is not isotropic, e.g., parallel grooves, then the apparent contact angle is no longer uniform along the contact line. The apparent contact angles observed perpendicular and parallel to the direction of the grooves are different. A better understanding of this problem is critical in designing rough superhydrophobic surfaces. The primary objective of this work is to determine the mechanism of anisotropic wetting and to propose a methodology to quantify the apparent contact angles and the drop shape. We report a theoretical and an experimental study of wetting of surfaces with parallel groove geometry.

  3. 14 CFR 25.445 - Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces. 25.445... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.445 Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces. (a) When significant, the aerodynamic influence...

  4. High Angle of Attack Aerodynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    HIGH ANGLE OF ATTACK IN A VERY LOW TURBULENCE LEVEL AIR STREAM by B.L.Hunt and P.C.Dexter 17 WIND AND WATER TUNNEL INVESTIGATIONS OF THE INTERACTION OF...FIGURE 1. TYPICAL FIGffTER FOREBODY LENGTHS It baa been convincingly shown in small-scale wind tunnel and water tunnel experiments that the apfro...attack taken during a water tunnel test. jn asymmetric vor~ox pattern io clearly ubewn. LOW ANGLE OF ATTACKC HIGH ANGLE OF ATTACK (SYMMETRIC

  5. Combined effect of edge roughness and phonon scattering on the electronic properties of ultra scaled graphene nano-ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhoondali, Hossein; Goharrizi, Arash Yazdanpanah; Sharifi, Mohammad Javad

    2014-11-01

    The effect of optical and acoustic phonon-scattering in the presence of line-edge-roughness (LER) on the electronic properties of ultra-scaled armchair graphene nano-ribbons (AGNRs) is investigated. Non-equilibrium Green's function formalism (NEGF) is employed using a Hamiltonian formed from tight bonding model with consideration of first and third nearest neighbors. The combined effect of phonons and line edge roughness on the transmission, transport gap, and conductance are studied for different roughness strengths and AGNR lengths. Results show edge roughness slightly reduces the onset of optical phonon emission, acoustic phonons reduce off-state conductance and optical phonons reduce on-state conductance. In both cases, the degree and behavior of reduction is totally dependent on the intensity of edge roughness. Also, in the longer AGNRs with high edge roughness intensity, phonons increase the transport gap.

  6. Predicting bed form roughness: the influence of lee side angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Alice; Winter, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Flow transverse bedforms (ripples and dunes) are ubiquitous in rivers and coastal seas. Local hydrodynamics and transport conditions depend on the size and geometry of these bedforms, as they constitute roughness elements at the bed. Bedform influence on flow energy must be considered for the understanding of flow dynamics, and in the development and application of numerical models. Common estimations or predictors of form roughness (friction factors) are based mostly on data of steep bedforms (with angle-of-repose lee slopes), and described by highly simplified bedform dimensions (heights and lengths). However, natural bedforms often are not steep, and differ in form and hydraulic effect relative to idealised bedforms. Based on systematic numerical model experiments, this study shows how the hydraulic effect of bedforms depends on the flow structure behind bedforms, which is determined by the bedform lee side angle, aspect ratio and relative height. Simulations reveal that flow separation behind bedform crests and, thus, a hydraulic effect is induced at lee side angles steeper than 11 to 18° depending on relative height, and that a fully developed flow separation zone exists only over bedforms with a lee side angle steeper than 24°. Furthermore, the hydraulic effect of bedforms with varying lee side angle is evaluated and a reduction function to common friction factors is proposed. A function is also developed for the Nikuradse roughness (k s), and a new equation is proposed which directly relates k s to bedform relative height, aspect ratio and lee side angle.

  7. Data fusion for accurate microscopic rough surface metrology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuhang

    2016-06-01

    Data fusion for rough surface measurement and evaluation was analyzed on simulated datasets, one with higher density (HD) but lower accuracy and the other with lower density (LD) but higher accuracy. Experimental verifications were then performed on laser scanning microscopy (LSM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterizations of surface areal roughness artifacts. The results demonstrated that the fusion based on Gaussian process models is effective and robust under different measurement biases and noise strengths. All the amplitude, height distribution, and spatial characteristics of the original sample structure can be precisely recovered, with better metrological performance than any individual measurements. As for the influencing factors, the HD noise has a relatively weaker effect as compared with the LD noise. Furthermore, to enable an accurate fusion, the ratio of LD sampling interval to surface autocorrelation length should be smaller than a critical threshold. In general, data fusion is capable of enhancing the nanometrology of rough surfaces by combining efficient LSM measurement and down-sampled fast AFM scan. The accuracy, resolution, spatial coverage and efficiency can all be significantly improved. It is thus expected to have potential applications in development of hybrid microscopy and in surface metrology.

  8. Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer/Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, D

    2010-06-18

    The tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) is a single instrument that cycles through a series of complementary measurements of the physical properties of size-resolved submicron particles. In 2008, the TDMA was augmented through the addition of an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS), which extends the upper limit of the measured size distribution into the supermicron range. These two instruments are operated in parallel, but because they are controlled by a common computer and because the size distributions measured by the two are integrated in the produced datastreams, they are described together here. Throughout the day, the TDMA sequentially measures submicron aerosol size distributions and size-resolved hygroscopic growth distributions. More specifically, the instrument is operated as a scanning DMA to measure size distributions and as a TDMA to measure size-resolved hygroscopicity. A typical measurement sequence requires roughly 45 minutes. Each morning additional measurements are made of the relative humidity (RH) dependent hygroscopicity and temperature-dependent volatility of size-resolved particles. When the outside temperature and RH are within acceptable ranges, the hydration state of size-resolved particles is also characterized. The measured aerosol distributions complement the array of aerosol instruments in the Aerosol Observing System (AOS) and provide additional details of the light-scattering and cloud-nucleating characteristics of the aerosol.

  9. Quantifying the Effect of Pressure Sensitive Paint On Aerodynamic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, T. R.; Obara, C. J.; Liu, T.

    2003-01-01

    A thin pressure sensitive paint (PSP) coating can slightly modify the overall shape of a wind-tunnel model and produce surface roughness or smoothness that does not exist on the unpainted model. These undesirable changes in model geometry may alter flow over the model, and affect the pressure distribution and aerodynamic forces and moments on the model. This study quantifies the effects of PSP on three models in low-speed, transonic and supersonic flow regimes. At a 95% confidence level, the PSP effects on the integrated forces are insignificant for a slender arrow-wing-fuselage model and delta wing model with two different paints at Mach 0.2, 1.8, and 2.16 relative to the total balance accuracy limit. The data displayed a repeatability of 2.5 drag counts, while the balance accuracy limit was about 5.5 drag counts. At transonic speeds, the paint has a localized effect at high angles of attack and has a resolvable effect on the normal force, which is significant relative to the balance accuracy limit. For low speeds, the PSP coating has a localized effect on the pressure tap measurements, which leads to an appreciable decrease in the pressure tap reading. Moreover, the force and moment measurements had a poor precision, which precluded the ability to measure the PSP effect for this particular test.

  10. Self-affine crossover length in a layered silicate deposit.

    PubMed

    Fossum, J O; Bergene, H H; Hansen, Alex; O'Rourke, B; Manificat, G

    2004-03-01

    Self-affine dehydrated colloidal deposits on fresh mica surfaces of the synthetic layered silicate 2:1 smectite clay laponite have been studied by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM images of these prepared assemblies of sol and gel aggregates have been analyzed both by means of standard AFM Fourier software and a wavelet method. The deposited surfaces show a persistence to antipersistent crossover with a clay concentration dependent crossover length. It is concluded that the crossover length is associated with aggregate size, and further that the persistent roughness at small length scales signals near compact clusters of fractal dimension three, whereas the antipersistent roughness at large length scales signals a sedimentation process.

  11. Self-affine crossover length in a layered silicate deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossum, J. O.; Bergene, H. H.; Hansen, Alex; O'Rourke, B.; Manificat, G.

    2004-03-01

    Self-affine dehydrated colloidal deposits on fresh mica surfaces of the synthetic layered silicate 2:1 smectite clay laponite have been studied by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM images of these prepared assemblies of sol and gel aggregates have been analyzed both by means of standard AFM Fourier software and a wavelet method. The deposited surfaces show a persistence to antipersistent crossover with a clay concentration dependent crossover length. It is concluded that the crossover length is associated with aggregate size, and further that the persistent roughness at small length scales signals near compact clusters of fractal dimension three, whereas the antipersistent roughness at large length scales signals a sedimentation process.

  12. Designing superhydrophobic disordered arrays of fibers with hierarchical roughness and low-surface-energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawal, Amit; Sharma, Sumit; Kumar, Vijay; Saraswat, Harshvardhan

    2016-12-01

    Hierarchical roughness and low surface energy are the main criteria for designing superhydrophobic surfaces with extreme water repellency. Herein, we present a step-wise approach to devise three-dimensional (3D) superhydrophobic disordered arrays of fibers in the form of nonwoven mats exhibiting hierarchical surface roughness and low surface energy. Key design parameters in the form of roughness factors at multiple length scales for 3D nonwoven mats have been quantified. The contact angles have been predicted for each of the wetting regimes that exists for nonwoven mats with predefined level of hierarchical surface roughness and surface energy. Experimental realization of superhydrophobic mats was attained by decorating the highly hydrophilic nonwoven viscose fibers with ZnO rods that effectively modulated the surface roughness at multiple length scales and subsequently, the surface energy was lowered using fluorocarbon treatment. Synergistic effects of hierarchical roughness and surface energy have systematically increased the static water contact angle of nonwoven mat (up to 164°) and simultaneously, lowered the roll-off angle (≈11°).

  13. Aerodynamics of high frequency flapping wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zheng; Roll, Jesse; Cheng, Bo; Deng, Xinyan

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the aerodynamic performance of high frequency flapping wings using a 2.5 gram robotic insect mechanism developed in our lab. The mechanism flaps up to 65Hz with a pair of man-made wing mounted with 10cm wingtip-to-wingtip span. The mean aerodynamic lift force was measured by a lever platform, and the flow velocity and vorticity were measured using a stereo DPIV system in the frontal, parasagittal, and horizontal planes. Both near field (leading edge vortex) and far field flow (induced flow) were measured with instantaneous and phase-averaged results. Systematic experiments were performed on the man-made wings, cicada and hawk moth wings due to their similar size, frequency and Reynolds number. For insect wings, we used both dry and freshly-cut wings. The aerodynamic force increase with flapping frequency and the man-made wing generates more than 4 grams of lift at 35Hz with 3 volt input. Here we present the experimental results and the major differences in their aerodynamic performances.

  14. Aerodynamic and Kinetic Processes in Flames

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    Soot Extinction by Aerodynamic Straining In Counterflow Diffusion Flames," by D. X. Du, R. L. Axelbaum, W. L. Flower and C. K. Law, to appear in Proc...8217 by R. L. Axelbaum, W. L. Flower and C. K. Law, submitted. 14. "Laminar Flame Speeds pf Methane/Air Mixtures Under Reduced and Elevated Pressures," by F

  15. Efficient Global Aerodynamic Modeling from Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2012-01-01

    A method for identifying global aerodynamic models from flight data in an efficient manner is explained and demonstrated. A novel experiment design technique was used to obtain dynamic flight data over a range of flight conditions with a single flight maneuver. Multivariate polynomials and polynomial splines were used with orthogonalization techniques and statistical modeling metrics to synthesize global nonlinear aerodynamic models directly and completely from flight data alone. Simulation data and flight data from a subscale twin-engine jet transport aircraft were used to demonstrate the techniques. Results showed that global multivariate nonlinear aerodynamic dependencies could be accurately identified using flight data from a single maneuver. Flight-derived global aerodynamic model structures, model parameter estimates, and associated uncertainties were provided for all six nondimensional force and moment coefficients for the test aircraft. These models were combined with a propulsion model identified from engine ground test data to produce a high-fidelity nonlinear flight simulation very efficiently. Prediction testing using a multi-axis maneuver showed that the identified global model accurately predicted aircraft responses.

  16. Nozzle Aerodynamic Stability During a Throat Shift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawecki, Edwin J.; Ribeiro, Gregg L.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted on the internal aerodynamic stability of a family of two-dimensional (2-D) High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) nozzle concepts. These nozzles function during takeoff as mixer-ejectors to meet acoustic requirements, and then convert to conventional high-performance convergent-divergent (CD) nozzles at cruise. The transition between takeoff mode and cruise mode results in the aerodynamic throat and the minimum cross-sectional area that controls the engine backpressure shifting location within the nozzle. The stability and steadiness of the nozzle aerodynamics during this so called throat shift process can directly affect the engine aerodynamic stability, and the mechanical design of the nozzle. The objective of the study was to determine if pressure spikes or other perturbations occurred during the throat shift process and, if so, identify the caused mechanisms for the perturbations. The two nozzle concepts modeled in the test program were the fixed chute (FC) and downstream mixer (DSM). These 2-D nozzles differ principally in that the FC has a large over-area between the forward throat and aft throat locations, while the DSM has an over-area of only about 10 percent. The conclusions were that engine mass flow and backpressure can be held constant simultaneously during nozzle throat shifts on this class of nozzles, and mode shifts can be accomplished at a constant mass flow and engine backpressure without upstream pressure perturbations.

  17. Rarefield-Flow Shuttle Aerodynamics Flight Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Larman, Kevin T.; Moats, Christina D.

    1994-01-01

    A model of the Shuttle Orbiter rarefied-flow aerodynamic force coefficients has been derived from the ratio of flight acceleration measurements. The in-situ, low-frequency (less than 1Hz), low-level (approximately 1 x 10(exp -6) g) acceleration measurements are made during atmospheric re-entry. The experiment equipment designed and used for this task is the High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP), one of the sensor packages in the Orbiter Experiments Program. To date, 12 HiRAP re-entry mission data sets spanning a period of about 10 years have been processed. The HiRAP-derived aerodynamics model is described in detail. The model includes normal and axial hypersonic continuum coefficient equations as function of angle of attack, body-flap deflection, and elevon deflection. Normal and axial free molecule flow coefficient equations as a function of angle of attack are also presented, along with flight-derived rarefied-flow transition bridging formulae. Comparisons are made between the aerodynamics model, data from the latest Orbiter Operational Aerodynamic Design Data Book, applicable computer simulations, and wind-tunnel data.

  18. User's guide to program FLEXSTAB. [aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavin, R. K., III; Colunga, D.

    1975-01-01

    A manual is presented for correctly submitting program runs in aerodynamics on the UNIVAC 1108 computer system. All major program modules are included. Control cards are documented for the user's convenience, and card parameters are included in order to provide some idea as to reasonable time estimates for the program modules.

  19. Aerodynamic Design of Axial Flow Compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullock, R. O. (Editor); Johnsen, I. A.

    1965-01-01

    An overview of 'Aerodynamic systems design of axial flow compressors' is presented. Numerous chapters cover topics such as compressor design, ptotential and viscous flow in two dimensional cascades, compressor stall and blade vibration, and compressor flow theory. Theoretical aspects of flow are also covered.

  20. Direct Numerical Simulation of Aerodynamic Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-29

    Noise First Annual Progress Report ONR Grant N00014-88-K-0592 Principal Investigator : Parviz Main Sr. Research Associate: Sanjiva K. Lele Research...of Aerodynamic Noise ONR Grant N00014-88-K-0592 Principal Investigator : Parviz Moin Sr. Research Associate : Sanjiva K. Lele Research Assistant : Tim

  1. An aerodynamic load criterion for airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    A simple aerodynamic bending moment envelope is derived for conventionally shaped airships. This criterion is intended to be used, much like the Naval Architect's standard wave, for preliminary estimates of longitudinal strength requirements. It should be useful in tradeoff studies between speed, fineness ratio, block coefficient, structure weight, and other such general parameters of airship design.

  2. NASA Aerodynamics Program Annual Report 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    95 ROTONET Phase IV System Multirotor Source Noise Module ...................................................... 97 Acoustic Results...94 Figure 6-7. ROTONET Phase IV System Multirotor Source Noise Module .................................. 96 Figure 6-8. Effects of Reduced...focusing on the areas of hybrid laminar flow technology and the reduction of aerodynamic interference between major aircraft components. A hybrid

  3. A Generic Nonlinear Aerodynamic Model for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grauer, Jared A.; Morelli, Eugene A.

    2014-01-01

    A generic model of the aerodynamic coefficients was developed using wind tunnel databases for eight different aircraft and multivariate orthogonal functions. For each database and each coefficient, models were determined using polynomials expanded about the state and control variables, and an othgonalization procedure. A predicted squared-error criterion was used to automatically select the model terms. Modeling terms picked in at least half of the analyses, which totalled 45 terms, were retained to form the generic nonlinear aerodynamic (GNA) model. Least squares was then used to estimate the model parameters and associated uncertainty that best fit the GNA model to each database. Nonlinear flight simulations were used to demonstrate that the GNA model produces accurate trim solutions, local behavior (modal frequencies and damping ratios), and global dynamic behavior (91% accurate state histories and 80% accurate aerodynamic coefficient histories) under large-amplitude excitation. This compact aerodynamics model can be used to decrease on-board memory storage requirements, quickly change conceptual aircraft models, provide smooth analytical functions for control and optimization applications, and facilitate real-time parametric system identification.

  4. Identification of aerodynamic models for maneuvering aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Suei; Lan, C. Edward

    1990-01-01

    Due to the requirement of increased performance and maneuverability, the flight envelope of a modern fighter is frequently extended to the high angle-of-attack regime. Vehicles maneuvering in this regime are subjected to nonlinear aerodynamic loads. The nonlinearities are due mainly to three-dimensional separated flow and concentrated vortex flow that occur at large angles of attack. Accurate prediction of these nonlinear airloads is of great importance in the analysis of a vehicle's flight motion and in the design of its flight control system. A satisfactory evaluation of the performance envelope of the aircraft may require a large number of coupled computations, one for each change in initial conditions. To avoid the disadvantage of solving the coupled flow-field equations and aircraft's motion equations, an alternate approach is to use a mathematical modeling to describe the steady and unsteady aerodynamics for the aircraft equations of motion. Aerodynamic forces and moments acting on a rapidly maneuvering aircraft are, in general, nonlinear functions of motion variables, their time rate of change, and the history of maneuvering. A numerical method was developed to analyze the nonlinear and time-dependent aerodynamic response to establish the generalized indicial function in terms of motion variables and their time rates of change.

  5. Recent Experiments at the Gottingen Aerodynamic Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackeret, J

    1925-01-01

    This report presents the results of various experiments carried out at the Gottingen Aerodynamic Institute. These include: experiments with Joukowski wing profiles; experiments on an airplane model with a built-in motor and functioning propeller; and the rotating cylinder (Magnus Effect).

  6. Aerodynamic beam generator for large particles

    DOEpatents

    Brockmann, John E.; Torczynski, John R.; Dykhuizen, Ronald C.; Neiser, Richard A.; Smith, Mark F.

    2002-01-01

    A new type of aerodynamic particle beam generator is disclosed. This generator produces a tightly focused beam of large material particles at velocities ranging from a few feet per second to supersonic speeds, depending on the exact configuration and operating conditions. Such generators are of particular interest for use in additive fabrication techniques.

  7. Effects of surface roughness on shear viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanikolaou, Michail; Frank, Michael; Drikakis, Dimitris

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigates the effect of surface roughness on fluid viscosity using molecular dynamics simulations. The three-dimensional model consists of liquid argon flowing between two solid walls whose surface roughness was modeled using fractal theory. In tandem with previously published experimental work, our results show that, while the viscosity in smooth channels remains constant across the channel width, in the presence of surface roughness it increases close to the walls. The increase of the boundary viscosity is further accentuated by an increase in the depth of surface roughness. We attribute this behavior to the increased momentum transfer at the boundary, a result of the irregular distribution of fluid particles near rough surfaces. Furthermore, although the viscosity in smooth channels has previously been shown to be independent of the strength of the solid-liquid interaction, here we show that in the presence of surface roughness, the boundary viscosity increases with the solid's wettability. The paper concludes with an analytical description of the viscosity as a function of the distance from the channel walls, the walls' surface roughness, and the solid's wetting properties. The relation can potentially be used to adjust the fluid dynamics equations for a more accurate description of microfluidic systems.

  8. Understanding EUV mask blank surface roughness induced LWR and associated roughness requirement

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Pei-Yang; Zhang, Guojing; Gullickson, Eric M.; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Benk, Markus P.

    2015-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) mask multi-layer (ML) blank surface roughness specification historically comes from blank defect inspection tool requirement. Later, new concerns on ML surface roughness induced wafer pattern line width roughness (LWR) arise. In this paper, we have studied wafer level pattern LWR as a function of EUVL mask surface roughness via High-NA Actinic Reticle Review Tool. We found that the blank surface roughness induced LWR at current blank roughness level is in the order of 0.5nm 3σ for NA=0.42 at the best focus. At defocus of ±40nm, the corresponding LWR will be 0.2nm higher. Further reducing EUVL mask blank surface roughness will increase the blank cost with limited benefit in improving the pattern LWR, provided that the intrinsic resist LWR is in the order of 1nm and above.

  9. Rough-Wall Channel Analysis Using Suboptimal Control Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, O.; Jimenez, J.; Tenpleton, J.

    2003-01-01

    The original aim of this work was to shed some light on the physics of turbulence over rough walls using large-eddy simulations and the suboptimal-control wall boundary conditions introduced by Nicoud et al. It was hoped that, if that algorithm was used to fit the mean velocity profile of the simulations to that of a rough-walled channel, instead of to a smooth one, the wall stresses introduced by the control algorithm would give some indication of what aspects of rough walls are most responsible for the modification of the flow in real turbulence. It was similarly expected that the structure of the resulting velocity fluctuations would share some of the characteristics of rough-walled flows, thus again suggesting what is intrinsic and what is accidental in the effect of geometric wall roughness. A secondary goal was to study the effect of 'unphysical' boundary conditions on the outside flow by observing how a relatively major change of the target velocity profile, and therefore presumably of the applied wall stresses, modifies properties such as the dominant length scales of the velocity fluctuations away from the wall. As will be seen below, this secondary goal grew more important during the course of the study, which was carried out during a short summer visit of the first two authors to the CTR. It became clear that there are open questions about the way in which the control algorithm models the boundary conditions, even for smooth walls, and that these questions make the physical interpretation of the results difficult. Considerable more work in that area seems to be needed before even relatively advanced large-eddy simulations, such as these, can be used to draw conclusions about the physics of wall-bounded turbulent flows. The numerical method is the same as in Nicoud et al. The modifications introduced in the original code are briefly described in section 2, but the original paper should be consulted for a full description of the algorithm. The results are

  10. In vivo recording of aerodynamic force with an aerodynamic force platform: from drones to birds.

    PubMed

    Lentink, David; Haselsteiner, Andreas F; Ingersoll, Rivers

    2015-03-06

    Flapping wings enable flying animals and biomimetic robots to generate elevated aerodynamic forces. Measurements that demonstrate this capability are based on experiments with tethered robots and animals, and indirect force calculations based on measured kinematics or airflow during free flight. Remarkably, there exists no method to measure these forces directly during free flight. Such in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of their flapping wings, in particular during the downstroke versus upstroke. Here, we demonstrate a new aerodynamic force platform (AFP) for non-intrusive aerodynamic force measurement in freely flying animals and robots. The platform encloses the animal or object that generates fluid force with a physical control surface, which mechanically integrates the net aerodynamic force that is transferred to the earth. Using a straightforward analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation, we verified that the method is accurate. We subsequently validated the method with a quadcopter that is suspended in the AFP and generates unsteady thrust profiles. These independent measurements confirm that the AFP is indeed accurate. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the AFP by studying aerodynamic weight support of a freely flying bird in vivo. These measurements confirm earlier findings based on kinematics and flow measurements, which suggest that the avian downstroke, not the upstroke, is primarily responsible for body weight support during take-off and landing.

  11. In vivo recording of aerodynamic force with an aerodynamic force platform: from drones to birds

    PubMed Central

    Lentink, David; Haselsteiner, Andreas F.; Ingersoll, Rivers

    2015-01-01

    Flapping wings enable flying animals and biomimetic robots to generate elevated aerodynamic forces. Measurements that demonstrate this capability are based on experiments with tethered robots and animals, and indirect force calculations based on measured kinematics or airflow during free flight. Remarkably, there exists no method to measure these forces directly during free flight. Such in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of their flapping wings, in particular during the downstroke versus upstroke. Here, we demonstrate a new aerodynamic force platform (AFP) for non-intrusive aerodynamic force measurement in freely flying animals and robots. The platform encloses the animal or object that generates fluid force with a physical control surface, which mechanically integrates the net aerodynamic force that is transferred to the earth. Using a straightforward analytical solution of the Navier–Stokes equation, we verified that the method is accurate. We subsequently validated the method with a quadcopter that is suspended in the AFP and generates unsteady thrust profiles. These independent measurements confirm that the AFP is indeed accurate. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the AFP by studying aerodynamic weight support of a freely flying bird in vivo. These measurements confirm earlier findings based on kinematics and flow measurements, which suggest that the avian downstroke, not the upstroke, is primarily responsible for body weight support during take-off and landing. PMID:25589565

  12. Lunar surface roughness derived from LRO Diviner Radiometer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandfield, Joshua L.; Hayne, Paul O.; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Paige, David A.

    2015-03-01

    Sunlit and shaded slopes have a variety of temperatures based on their orientation with respect to the Sun. Generally, greater slope angles lead to higher anisothermality within the field of view. This anisothermality is detected by measuring changing emitted radiance as a function of viewing angle or by measuring the difference in brightness temperatures with respect to observation wavelength. Thermal infrared measurements from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Radiometer were used to derive lunar surface roughness via two observation types: (1) nadir multispectral observations with full diurnal coverage and (2) multiple emission angle targeted observations. Measurements were compared to simulated radiance from a radiative equilibrium thermal model and Gaussian slope distribution model. Nadir observations most closely match a 20° RMS slope distribution, and multiple emission angle observations can be modeled using 20-35° RMS slope distributions. Limited sampling of the lunar surface did not show any clear variation in roughness among surface units. Two-dimensional modeling shows that surfaces separated by distances greater than 0.5-5 mm can remain thermally isolated in the lunar environment, indicating the length scale of the roughness features. Non-equilibrium conditions are prevalent at night and near sunrise and sunset, preventing the use of the equilibrium thermal model for roughness derivations using data acquired at these local times. Multiple emission angle observations also show a significant decrease in radiance at high emission angles in both daytime and nighttime observations, and hemispherical emissivity is lower than is apparent from nadir observations. These observations and models serve as a basis for comparison with similar measurements of other airless bodies and as an initial template for the interpretation of TIR measurements acquired under a variety of geometric conditions.

  13. Aerodynamic shape optimization using control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, James

    1996-01-01

    Aerodynamic shape design has long persisted as a difficult scientific challenge due its highly nonlinear flow physics and daunting geometric complexity. However, with the emergence of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) it has become possible to make accurate predictions of flows which are not dominated by viscous effects. It is thus worthwhile to explore the extension of CFD methods for flow analysis to the treatment of aerodynamic shape design. Two new aerodynamic shape design methods are developed which combine existing CFD technology, optimal control theory, and numerical optimization techniques. Flow analysis methods for the potential flow equation and the Euler equations form the basis of the two respective design methods. In each case, optimal control theory is used to derive the adjoint differential equations, the solution of which provides the necessary gradient information to a numerical optimization method much more efficiently then by conventional finite differencing. Each technique uses a quasi-Newton numerical optimization algorithm to drive an aerodynamic objective function toward a minimum. An analytic grid perturbation method is developed to modify body fitted meshes to accommodate shape changes during the design process. Both Hicks-Henne perturbation functions and B-spline control points are explored as suitable design variables. The new methods prove to be computationally efficient and robust, and can be used for practical airfoil design including geometric and aerodynamic constraints. Objective functions are chosen to allow both inverse design to a target pressure distribution and wave drag minimization. Several design cases are presented for each method illustrating its practicality and efficiency. These include non-lifting and lifting airfoils operating at both subsonic and transonic conditions.

  14. Massively Parallel Computation of Soil Surface Roughness Parameters on A Fermi GPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaojie; Song, Changhe

    2016-06-01

    Surface roughness is description of the surface micro topography of randomness or irregular. The standard deviation of surface height and the surface correlation length describe the statistical variation for the random component of a surface height relative to a reference surface. When the number of data points is large, calculation of surface roughness parameters is time-consuming. With the advent of Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) architectures, inherently parallel problem can be effectively solved using GPUs. In this paper we propose a GPU-based massively parallel computing method for 2D bare soil surface roughness estimation. This method was applied to the data collected by the surface roughness tester based on the laser triangulation principle during the field experiment in April 2012. The total number of data points was 52,040. It took 47 seconds on a Fermi GTX 590 GPU whereas its serial CPU version took 5422 seconds, leading to a significant 115x speedup.

  15. Influence of the copper substrate roughness on the electrical quality of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Gi Duk; Moyen, Eric; Lee, Yeo Jin; Kim, Young Woo; Baik, Seung Hyun; Pribat, Didier

    2017-01-01

    We present a systematic study of grain size and carrier mobility behaviour in polycrystalline graphene films grown on copper substrates with various surface roughness values. We first observe that as the surface roughness of the substrate decreases, the graphene grain size increases significantly, thus decreasing the density of grain boundaries. Then, using field-effect transistor structures, we confirm that as the substrate roughness decreases, carrier mobility values in graphene increase, whatever the channel length of the transistor. For a substrate rms roughness around 5 nm (measured on a 10  ×  10 µm2 field) and using a fast growth process (~40 min), we obtain mobility values as high as ~6900 cm2 Vs‑1 for electrons and ~6000 cm2 Vs‑1 for holes in polycrystalline graphene with a small grain size of ~12–14 µm.

  16. Neandertal clavicle length

    PubMed Central

    Trinkaus, Erik; Holliday, Trenton W.; Auerbach, Benjamin M.

    2014-01-01

    The Late Pleistocene archaic humans from western Eurasia (the Neandertals) have been described for a century as exhibiting absolutely and relatively long clavicles. This aspect of their body proportions has been used to distinguish them from modern humans, invoked to account for other aspects of their anatomy and genetics, used in assessments of their phylogenetic polarities, and used as evidence for Late Pleistocene population relationships. However, it has been unclear whether the usual scaling of Neandertal clavicular lengths to their associated humeral lengths reflects long clavicles, short humeri, or both. Neandertal clavicle lengths, along with those of early modern humans and latitudinally diverse recent humans, were compared with both humeral lengths and estimated body masses (based on femoral head diameters). The Neandertal do have long clavicles relative their humeri, even though they fall within the ranges of variation of early and recent humans. However, when scaled to body masses, their humeral lengths are relatively short, and their clavicular lengths are indistinguishable from those of Late Pleistocene and recent modern humans. The few sufficiently complete Early Pleistocene Homo clavicles seem to have relative lengths also well within recent human variation. Therefore, appropriately scaled clavicular length seems to have varied little through the genus Homo, and it should not be used to account for other aspects of Neandertal biology or their phylogenetic status. PMID:24616525

  17. Statistical assessment of soil surface roughness for environmental applications using photogrammetric imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzahn, Philip; Rieke-Zapp, Dirk; Ludwig, Ralf

    2010-05-01

    Micro scale soil surface roughness is a crucial parameter in many environmental applications. Recent soil erosion studies have shown the impact of micro topography on soil erosion rates as well as overland flow generation due to soil crusting effects. Besides the above mentioned, it is widely recognized that the backscattered signal in SAR remote sensing is strongly influenced by soil surface roughness and by regular higher order tillage patterns. However, there is an ambiguity in the appropriate measurement technique and scale for roughness studies and SAR backscatter model parametrization. While different roughness indices depend on their measurement length, no satisfying roughness parametrization and measurement technique has been found yet, introducing large uncertainty in the interpretation of the radar backscatter. In the presented study, we computed high resolution digital elevation models (DEM) using a consumer grade digital camera in the frame of photogrammetric imaging techniques to represent soil micro topography from different soil surfaces (ploughed, harrowed, seedbed and crusted) . The retrieved DEMs showed sufficient accuracy, with an RMSE of a 1.64 mm compared to high accurate reference points,. For roughness characterization, we calculated different roughness indices (RMS height (s), autocorrelation length (l), tortuosity index (TB)). In an extensive statistical investigation we show the behaviour of the roughness indices for different acquisition sizes. Compared to results from profile measurements taken from literature and profiles generated out of the dataset, results indicate,that by using a three dimensional measuring device, the calculated roughness indices are more robust against outliers and even saturate faster with increasing acquisition size. Dependent on the roughness condition, the calculated values for the RMS-height saturate for ploughed fields at 2.3 m, for harrowed fields at 2.0 m and for crusted fields at 1.2 m. Results also

  18. Aerodynamic Simulation of the MARINTEK Braceless Semisubmersible Wave Tank Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Gordon; Muskulus, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Model scale experiments of floating offshore wind turbines are important for both platform design for the industry as well as numerical model validation for the research community. An important consideration in the wave tank testing of offshore wind turbines are scaling effects, especially the tension between accurate scaling of both hydrodynamic and aerodynamic forces. The recent MARINTEK braceless semisubmersible wave tank experiment utilizes a novel aerodynamic force actuator to decouple the scaling of the aerodynamic forces. This actuator consists of an array of motors that pull on cables to provide aerodynamic forces that are calculated by a blade-element momentum code in real time as the experiment is conducted. This type of system has the advantage of supplying realistically scaled aerodynamic forces that include dynamic forces from platform motion, but does not provide the insights into the accuracy of the aerodynamic models that an actual model-scale rotor could provide. The modeling of this system presents an interesting challenge, as there are two ways to simulate the aerodynamics; either by using the turbulent wind fields as inputs to the aerodynamic model of the design code, or by surpassing the aerodynamic model and using the forces applied to the experimental turbine as direct inputs to the simulation. This paper investigates the best practices of modeling this type of novel aerodynamic actuator using a modified wind turbine simulation tool, and demonstrates that bypassing the dynamic aerodynamics solver of design codes can lead to erroneous results.

  19. Characteristics of ocean-reflected short radar pulses with application to altimetry and surface roughness determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, L. S.; Hayne, G. S.

    1972-01-01

    Current work related to geodetic altimetry is summarized. Special emphasis is placed on the effects of pulse length on both altimetry and sea-state estimation. Some discussion is also given of system tradeoff parameters and sea truth requirements to support scattering studies. The problem of analyzing signal characteristics and altimeter waveforms arising from rough surface backscattering is also considered.

  20. Aerodynamic Design Criteria for Class 8 Heavy Vehicles Trailer Base Devices to Attain Optimum Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Salari, K; Ortega, J

    2010-12-13

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of its Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), and Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) effort has investigated class 8 tractor-trailer aerodynamics for many years. This effort has identified many drag producing flow structures around the heavy vehicles and also has designed and tested many new active and passive drag reduction techniques and concepts for significant on the road fuel economy improvements. As part of this effort a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design for aerodynamic drag reduction devices has been established. The objective of this report is to provide design guidance for trailer base devices to improve their aerodynamic performance. These devices are commonly referred to as boattails, base flaps, tail devices, and etc. The information provided here is based on past research and our most recent full-scale experimental investigations in collaboration with Navistar Inc. Additional supporting data from LLNL/Navistar wind tunnel, track test, and on the road test will be published soon. The trailer base devices can be identified by 4 flat panels that are attached to the rear edges of the trailer base to form a closed cavity. These devices have been engineered in many different forms such as, inflatable and non-inflatable, 3 and 4-sided, closed and open cavity, and etc. The following is an in-depth discussion with some recommendations, based on existing data and current research activities, of changes that could be made to these devices to improve their aerodynamic performance. There are 6 primary factors that could influence the aerodynamic performance of trailer base devices: (1) Deflection angle; (2) Boattail length; (3) Sealing of edges and corners; (4) 3 versus 4-sided, Position of the 4th plate; (5) Boattail vertical extension, Skirt - boattail transition; and (6) Closed versus open cavity.

  1. The influence of carrier roughness on adhesion, content uniformity and the in vitro deposition of terbutaline sulphate from dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Flament, Marie-Pierre; Leterme, Pierre; Gayot, Anne

    2004-05-04

    The aim of this study was to establish a correlation between carrier characteristics and the dispersibility of drug from the blend. The influence of the roughness of a commonly used carrier material, lactose monohydrate, on the adhesion, dose uniformity, and aerodynamic properties of a model drug, terbutaline sulphate was investigated. Evaluation of adhesion was carried out with a mechanical sieve and an Alpine air-jet sieve. For the characterisation of lactose roughness, we used image analysis software. Aerodynamic evaluation of fine particle dose and emitted dose was obtained using a twin stage impinger. The study with the mechanical sieve demonstrated that at least 60% of drug adheres to lactose. The Alpine air-jet sieve assays showed there was a correlation between drug separation from a carrier by sieving and that obtained from longer in vitro deposition studies. Adhesion, blend homogeneity and stability are related to the surface roughness of the lactose used as carrier. There is a linear relationship between the parameters "fine particle fraction" and "roughness". A compromise between homogeneity and drug liberation must be found: a certain roughness is necessary to allow for drug adhesion and blend homogeneity, but if too high it will prevent drug liberation after inhalation.

  2. Three-tier rough superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yuanzhi; Yuan, Longyan; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Jun

    2015-08-07

    A three-tier rough superhydrophobic surface was fabricated by growing hydrophobic modified (fluorinated silane) zinc oxide (ZnO)/copper oxide (CuO) hetero-hierarchical structures on silicon (Si) micro-pillar arrays. Compared with the other three control samples with a less rough tier, the three-tier surface exhibits the best water repellency with the largest contact angle 161° and the lowest sliding angle 0.5°. It also shows a robust Cassie state which enables the water to flow with a speed over 2 m s(-1). In addition, it could prevent itself from being wetted by the droplet with low surface tension (mixed water and ethanol 1:1 in volume) which reveals a flow speed of 0.6 m s(-1) (dropped from the height of 2 cm). All these features prove that adding another rough tier on a two-tier rough surface could futher improve its water-repellent properties.

  3. Ellipsometric analysis for surface roughness and texture.

    PubMed

    Nee, S M

    1988-07-15

    A 2-D symmetric model is incorporated into the calculation of the ellipsometric parameters Psi and Delta for surface roughness and texture characterization based on the effective medium theory. The least-squares fits of the experimental data at a 5-microm IR wavelength for rough fused silica samples at multiple angles of incidence give the standard deviations of Psi and Delta of about twice the instrumental errors. The effective thickness and the depolarization factor obtained by ellipsometry agree with the roughness and average height-to-halfwidth ratio of voids obtained by stylus profilometry. The surface texture can be characterized by the fit depolarization factors set. The excellent agreement between theory and experiments indicates that ellipsometry can be a promising nondestructive technique for rough-surface evaluation.

  4. Three-tier rough superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yuanzhi; Yuan, Longyan; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Jun

    2015-08-01

    A three-tier rough superhydrophobic surface was fabricated by growing hydrophobic modified (fluorinated silane) zinc oxide (ZnO)/copper oxide (CuO) hetero-hierarchical structures on silicon (Si) micro-pillar arrays. Compared with the other three control samples with a less rough tier, the three-tier surface exhibits the best water repellency with the largest contact angle 161° and the lowest sliding angle 0.5°. It also shows a robust Cassie state which enables the water to flow with a speed over 2 m s-1. In addition, it could prevent itself from being wetted by the droplet with low surface tension (mixed water and ethanol 1:1 in volume) which reveals a flow speed of 0.6 m s-1 (dropped from the height of 2 cm). All these features prove that adding another rough tier on a two-tier rough surface could futher improve its water-repellent properties.

  5. Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sean Graham

    2007-10-31

    Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by a DOE category two Inventions and Innovations grant to commercialize and improve upon aerodynamic technology for semi-tuck trailers, capable of decreasing heavy vehicle fuel consumption, related environmental damage, and U.S. consumption of foreign oil. Major project goals included the demonstration of aerodynamic trailer technology in trucking fleet operations, and the development and testing of second generation products. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck’s fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Freight Wing utilized a 2003 category one Inventions and Innovations grant to develop practical solutions to trailer aerodynamics. Fairings developed for the front, rear, and bottom of standard semi-trailers together demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy in scientific tests conducted by the Transportation Research Center (TRC). Operational tests with major trucking fleets proved the functionality of the products, which were subsequently brought to market. This category two grant enabled Freight Wing to further develop, test and commercialize its products, resulting in greatly increased understanding and acceptance of aerodynamic trailer technology. Commercialization was stimulated by offering trucking fleets 50% cost sharing on trial implementations of Freight Wing products for testing and evaluation purposes. Over 230 fairings were implemented through the program with 35 trucking fleets including industry leaders such as Wal-Mart, Frito Lay and Whole Foods. The feedback from these testing partnerships was quite positive with product performance exceeding fleet expectations in many cases. Fleet feedback also was also valuable from a product development standpoint and assisted the design of several second generation products

  6. How supercontinents and superoceans affect seafloor roughness.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Joanne M; Müller, R Dietmar; Roest, Walter R; Wessel, Paul; Smith, Walter H F

    2008-12-18

    Seafloor roughness varies considerably across the world's ocean basins and is fundamental to controlling the circulation and mixing of heat in the ocean and dissipating eddy kinetic energy. Models derived from analyses of active mid-ocean ridges suggest that ocean floor roughness depends on seafloor spreading rates, with rougher basement forming below a half-spreading rate threshold of 30-35 mm yr(-1) (refs 4, 5), as well as on the local interaction of mid-ocean ridges with mantle plumes or cold-spots. Here we present a global analysis of marine gravity-derived roughness, sediment thickness, seafloor isochrons and palaeo-spreading rates of Cretaceous to Cenozoic ridge flanks. Our analysis reveals that, after eliminating effects related to spreading rate and sediment thickness, residual roughness anomalies of 5-20 mGal remain over large swaths of ocean floor. We found that the roughness as a function of palaeo-spreading directions and isochron orientations indicates that most of the observed excess roughness is not related to spreading obliquity, as this effect is restricted to relatively rare occurrences of very high obliquity angles (>45 degrees ). Cretaceous Atlantic ocean floor, formed over mantle previously overlain by the Pangaea supercontinent, displays anomalously low roughness away from mantle plumes and is independent of spreading rates. We attribute this observation to a sub-Pangaean supercontinental mantle temperature anomaly leading to slightly thicker than normal Late Jurassic and Cretaceous Atlantic crust, reduced brittle fracturing and smoother basement relief. In contrast, ocean crust formed above Pacific superswells, probably reflecting metasomatized lithosphere underlain by mantle at only slightly elevated temperatures, is not associated with basement roughness anomalies. These results highlight a fundamental difference in the nature of large-scale mantle upwellings below supercontinents and superoceans, and their impact on oceanic crustal

  7. Geoacoustic Physical Modeling: Volume-Roughness Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-30

    important break by showing its relationship to the angle of repose , a fundamental feature of granular sediments (such as sands)[Ivakin, 2005...significant considering the fact that the slope of roughness at sub-cm scales at SAX99 site is large and can be close to both angle of repose and...roughness interactions and should be very pronounced at near- and sub-critical grazing angles . For example, the very first theoretical considerations

  8. Anatomy of the Ocean Surface Roughness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    with Theory,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 13, 1505-1518, 1983. Tang, S. and O.H. Shemdin , “Measurement of High Frequency Waves Using a Wave Follower ,” J...SAR 45 Paul A. Hwang 228-688-4708 Ocean surface roughness can be decomposed into an ambient component, surface wave geometric contribution (the mean...square slope), and breaking wave contribution (the breaking roughness). Only the last two components can be attributed to local wind conditions for

  9. Role of surface roughness in superlubricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartaglino, U.; Samoilov, V. N.; Persson, B. N. J.

    2006-05-01

    We study the sliding of elastic solids in adhesive contact with flat and rough interfaces. We consider the dependence of the sliding friction on the elastic modulus of the solids. For elastically hard solids with planar surfaces with incommensurate surface structures we observe extremely low friction (superlubricity), which very abruptly increases as the elastic modulus decreases. We show that even a relatively small surface roughness may completely kill the superlubricity state.

  10. Role of surface roughness in superlubricity.

    PubMed

    Tartaglino, U; Samoilov, V N; Persson, B N J

    2006-05-03

    We study the sliding of elastic solids in adhesive contact with flat and rough interfaces. We consider the dependence of the sliding friction on the elastic modulus of the solids. For elastically hard solids with planar surfaces with incommensurate surface structures we observe extremely low friction (superlubricity), which very abruptly increases as the elastic modulus decreases. We show that even a relatively small surface roughness may completely kill the superlubricity state.

  11. Aerodynamic characteristics of a distinct wing-body configuration at Mach 6: Experiment, theory, and the hypersonic isolation principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penland, J. A.; Pittman, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the effect of wing leading edge sweep and wing translation on the aerodynamic characteristics of a wing body configuration at a free stream Mach number of about 6 and Reynolds number (based on body length) of 17.9 x 10 to the 6th power. Seven wings with leading edge sweep angles from -20 deg to 60 deg were tested on a common body over an angle of attack range from -12 deg to 10 deg. All wings had a common span, aspect ratio, taper ratio, planform area, and thickness ratio. Wings were translated longitudinally on the body to make tests possible with the total and exposed mean aerodynamic chords located at a fixed body station. Aerodynamic forces were found to be independent of wing sweep and translation, and pitching moments were constant when the exposed wing mean aerodynamic chord was located at a fixed body station. Thus, the Hypersonic Isolation Principle was verified. Theory applied with tangent wedge pressures on the wing and tangent cone pressures on the body provided excellent predictions of aerodynamic force coefficients but poor estimates of moment coefficients.

  12. Using Large-Scale Roughness Elements to Control Sand and Dust Flux at the Keeler Dunes, Keeler, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, John; McCarley-Holder, Grace

    2014-05-01

    Controlling dust emission from areas that subsequently degrade air quality and threaten human and animal health and reduce the quality of life for people residing in proximity to such sources is necessary, but also challenging. Recent research has indicated that arrays of large roughness elements (height >0.3 m) can be used effectively to modulate sand transport and the associated dust emissions. Prediction of the rate of sand flux reduction as a function of downwind distance upon entering an array of roughness elements, and the equilibrium flux reduction in the interior of the array is possible using the known geometric properties of the roughness elements, their number, and published relationships. Air quality in the town of Keeler, CA (36 deg 29' 17.92" N, 117 deg 52' 24.62" W) is degraded by levels of particulate matter <10 µm aerodynamic diameter (PM10) during periods of elevated wind speeds due to sand transport and dust emissions in the nearby Keeler Dunes. A demonstration project was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an array of roughness elements composed of solid elements and managed vegetation to meet sand and dust flux reduction criteria. This project has two major goals: 1) to demonstrate that solid roughness elements placed on areas of the Keeler Dunes immediately arrest sand movement to specified levels (target of 85% reduction), and 2) to assess whether native plant species, planted in the sheltered area of the solid roughness elements can effectively thrive and subsequently replace the solid roughness to achieve the desired sand flux reduction control efficiency. This poster describes the results related mostly to objective one, as considerable time has to pass before sufficient data will be obtained to evaluate the success of the planted and managed vegetation to achieve a control level provided by the solid element roughness array.

  13. Rough surface reconstruction for ultrasonic NDE simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Wonjae; Shi, Fan; Lowe, Michael J. S.; Skelton, Elizabeth A.; Craster, Richard V.

    2014-02-18

    The reflection of ultrasound from rough surfaces is an important topic for the NDE of safety-critical components, such as pressure-containing components in power stations. The specular reflection from a rough surface of a defect is normally lower than it would be from a flat surface, so it is typical to apply a safety factor in order that justification cases for inspection planning are conservative. The study of the statistics of the rough surfaces that might be expected in candidate defects according to materials and loading, and the reflections from them, can be useful to develop arguments for realistic safety factors. This paper presents a study of real rough crack surfaces that are representative of the potential defects in pressure-containing power plant. Two-dimensional (area) values of the height of the roughness have been measured and their statistics analysed. Then a means to reconstruct model cases with similar statistics, so as to enable the creation of multiple realistic realizations of the surfaces, has been investigated, using random field theory. Rough surfaces are reconstructed, based on a real surface, and results for these two-dimensional descriptions of the original surface have been compared with those from the conventional model based on a one-dimensional correlation coefficient function. In addition, ultrasonic reflections from them are simulated using a finite element method.

  14. Influence of surface roughness on dispersion forces.

    PubMed

    Svetovoy, V B; Palasantzas, G

    2015-02-01

    Surface roughness occurs in a wide variety of processes where it is both difficult to avoid and control. When two bodies are separated by a small distance the roughness starts to play an important role in the interaction between the bodies, their adhesion, and friction. Control of this short-distance interaction is crucial for micro and nanoelectromechanical devices, microfluidics, and for micro and nanotechnology. An important short-distance interaction is the dispersion forces, which are omnipresent due to their quantum origin. These forces between flat bodies can be described by the Lifshitz theory that takes into account the actual optical properties of interacting materials. However, this theory cannot describe rough bodies. The problem is complicated by the nonadditivity of the dispersion forces. Evaluation of the roughness effect becomes extremely difficult when roughness is comparable with the distance between bodies. In this paper we review the current state of the problem. Introduction for non-experts to physical origin of the dispersion forces is given in the paper. Critical experiments demonstrating the nonadditivity of the forces and strong influence of roughness on the interaction between bodies are reviewed. We also describe existing theoretical approaches to the problem. Recent advances in understanding the role of high asperities on the forces at distances close to contact are emphasized. Finally, some opinions about currently unsolved problems are also presented.

  15. Dentine roughness after different surface treatments.

    PubMed

    Mohsen, M M; Shabka, A A

    1993-01-01

    Surface roughness is one of the most influential criteria affecting the durability and strength of the adhesive restorative materials to the dentine. This study was carried out to investigate the roughness of the dentine surface after some of the modalities proposed for its treatment prior to application of the DBA. Dentine surface roughness of the sixty teeth divided into 12 groups were tested where the dentine surfaces were denuded and were brought to a similar 600 grit surface roughness then different treatments were carried out using H2O2, CO2 gas laser at 30 and 48 J/cm2 energy densities, EDTA and polyacrylic acid treatments. The dentine surface roughness was determined using a profilometer and the results were digitized and plotted using an AUTO-CAD software and Rolland plotter to compare the effects of the different treatments on the dentine surface roughness of the tested samples. Results revealed that the laser treatment left smooth dentine surface and added further evidences to the simplicity and reliability of the conventional use of EDTA and the polyacrylic acid according to the type of adhesive to be used.

  16. Cells preferentially grow on rough substrates.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Francesco; Tirinato, Luca; Battista, Edmondo; Causa, Filippo; Liberale, Carlo; di Fabrizio, Enzo M; Decuzzi, Paolo

    2010-10-01

    Substrate nanotopography affects cell adhesion and proliferation and is fundamental to the rational design of bio-adhesives, to tissue engineering and to the development of assays for in-vitro screening. Cell behavior on rough substrates is still elusive, and the results presented in the open literature remain controversial. Here, the proliferation of cells on electrochemically etched silicon substrates with different roughness and nearly similar surface energy was studied over three days with confocal and atomic force microscopy. The surface profile of the substrates is a self-affine fractal with a roughness R(a) growing with the etching time from approximately 2 to 100 nm and a fractal dimension D ranging between about 2 (nominally flat surface) and 2.6. For four cell types, the number of adhering cells and their proliferation rates exhibited a maximum on moderately rough (R(a) approximately 10-45 nm) nearly Brownian (D approximately 2.5) substrates. The observed cell behavior was satisfactorily interpreted within the theory of adhesion to randomly rough solids. These findings demonstrated the importance of nanogeometry in cell stable adhesion and growth, suggesting that moderately rough substrates with large fractal dimension could selectively boost cell proliferation.

  17. Aerodynamic characteristics at Mach 6 of a wing-body concept for a hypersonic research airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillon, J. L.; Pittman, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    The static aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/30 scale model of a wing-body concept for a high speed research airplane were investigated in the Langley 20 inch Mach six tunnel. The investigation consisted of configuration buildup from the basic body by adding a wing, center vertical tail, three-module scramjet, and six-module scramjet engine. The test Mach number was six at a Reynolds number, based on model fuselage length, of about 13,700,000. The test angle-of-attack range was 4 to 20 D at constant angles of sideslip of 0, 2, and 4 deg. The elevons were deflected from 10 to -15 D for pitch control. Roll and yaw control were investigated. Experimental aerodynamic characteristics are compared with analytical elements.

  18. Aerodynamic Simulation of Runback Ice Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Whalen, Edward A.; Busch, Greg T.; Bragg, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the results of recent investigations into the aerodynamics of simulated runback ice accretion on airfoils. Aerodynamic tests were performed on a full-scale model using a high-fidelity, ice-casting simulation at near-flight Reynolds (Re) number. The ice-casting simulation was attached to the leading edge of a 72-in. (1828.8-mm ) chord NACA 23012 airfoil model. Aerodynamic performance tests were conducted at the ONERA F1 pressurized wind tunnel over a Reynolds number range of 4.7?10(exp 6) to 16.0?10(exp 6) and a Mach (M) number ran ge of 0.10 to 0.28. For Re = 16.0?10(exp 6) and M = 0.20, the simulated runback ice accretion on the airfoil decreased the maximum lift coe fficient from 1.82 to 1.51 and decreased the stalling angle of attack from 18.1deg to 15.0deg. The pitching-moment slope was also increased and the drag coefficient was increased by more than a factor of two. In general, the performance effects were insensitive to Reynolds numb er and Mach number changes over the range tested. Follow-on, subscale aerodynamic tests were conducted on a quarter-scale NACA 23012 model (18-in. (457.2-mm) chord) at Re = 1.8?10(exp 6) and M = 0.18, using low-fidelity, geometrically scaled simulations of the full-scale castin g. It was found that simple, two-dimensional simulations of the upper- and lower-surface runback ridges provided the best representation of the full-scale, high Reynolds number iced-airfoil aerodynamics, whereas higher-fidelity simulations resulted in larger performance degrada tions. The experimental results were used to define a new subclassification of spanwise ridge ice that distinguishes between short and tall ridges. This subclassification is based upon the flow field and resulting aerodynamic characteristics, regardless of the physical size of the ridge and the ice-accretion mechanism.

  19. Myofilament length dependent activation.

    PubMed

    de Tombe, Pieter P; Mateja, Ryan D; Tachampa, Kittipong; Ait Mou, Younss; Farman, Gerrie P; Irving, Thomas C

    2010-05-01

    The Frank-Starling law of the heart describes the interrelationship between end-diastolic volume and cardiac ejection volume, a regulatory system that operates on a beat-to-beat basis. The main cellular mechanism that underlies this phenomenon is an increase in the responsiveness of cardiac myofilaments to activating Ca(2+) ions at a longer sarcomere length, commonly referred to as myofilament length-dependent activation. This review focuses on what molecular mechanisms may underlie myofilament length dependency. Specifically, the roles of inter-filament spacing, thick and thin filament based regulation, as well as sarcomeric regulatory proteins are discussed. Although the "Frank-Starling law of the heart" constitutes a fundamental cardiac property that has been appreciated for well over a century, it is still not known in muscle how the contractile apparatus transduces the information concerning sarcomere length to modulate ventricular pressure development.

  20. Coefficients of Effective Length.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Roger H.

    1981-01-01

    Under certain conditions, a validity Coefficient of Effective Length (CEL) can produce highly misleading results. A modified coefficent is suggested for use when empirical studies indicate that underlying assumptions have been violated. (Author/BW)

  1. Myofilament length dependent activation

    SciTech Connect

    de Tombe, Pieter P.; Mateja, Ryan D.; Tachampa, Kittipong; Mou, Younss Ait; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C.

    2010-05-25

    The Frank-Starling law of the heart describes the interrelationship between end-diastolic volume and cardiac ejection volume, a regulatory system that operates on a beat-to-beat basis. The main cellular mechanism that underlies this phenomenon is an increase in the responsiveness of cardiac myofilaments to activating Ca{sup 2+} ions at a longer sarcomere length, commonly referred to as myofilament length-dependent activation. This review focuses on what molecular mechanisms may underlie myofilament length dependency. Specifically, the roles of inter-filament spacing, thick and thin filament based regulation, as well as sarcomeric regulatory proteins are discussed. Although the 'Frank-Starling law of the heart' constitutes a fundamental cardiac property that has been appreciated for well over a century, it is still not known in muscle how the contractile apparatus transduces the information concerning sarcomere length to modulate ventricular pressure development.

  2. Length Paradox in Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Roberto de A.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a thought experiment using a general analysis approach with Lorentz transformations to show that the apparent self-contradictions of special relativity concerning the length-paradox are really non-existant. (GA)

  3. Length of Stay

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, David H.

    1968-01-01

    Five methodologies for predicting hospital length of stay were developed and compared. Two—a subjective Bayesian forecaster and a regression forecaster—also measured the relative importance of the symptomatic and demographic factors in predicting length of stay. The performance of the methodologies was evaluated with several criteria of effectiveness and one of cost. The results should provide encouragement for those interested in computer applications to utilization review and to scheduling inpatient admissions. PMID:5673664

  4. Observations on oesophageal length.

    PubMed Central

    Kalloor, G J; Deshpande, A H; Collis, J L

    1976-01-01

    The subject of oesophageal length is discussed. The great variations in the length of the oesophagus in individual patients is noted, and the practical use of its recognition in oesophageal surgery is stressed. An apprasial of the various methods available for this measurement is made; this includes the use of external chest measurement, endoscopic measurement, and the measurement of the level of the electrical mucosal potential change. Correlative studies of these various methods are made, and these show a very high degree of significance. These studies involved simultaneous measurement of external and internal oesophageal length in 26 patients without a hiatal hernia or gastro-oesophageal length in 26 patients without a hiatal hernia or gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms, 42 patients with sliding type hiatal hernia, and 17 patients with a peptic stricture in association with hiatal hernia. The method of measuring oesophageal length by the use of the external chest measurement, that is, the distance between the lower incisor teeth and the xiphisternum, measured with the neck fully extended and the patient lying supine, is described in detail, its practical application in oesophageal surgery is illustrated, and its validity tested by internal measurements. The findings of this study demonstrate that the external chest measurement provides a mean of assessing the true static length of the oesophagus, corrected for the size of the individual. Images PMID:941114

  5. Editorial: Redefining Length

    SciTech Connect

    Sprouse, Gene D.

    2011-07-15

    Technological changes have moved publishing to electronic-first publication where the print version has been relegated to simply another display mode. Distribution in HTML and EPUB formats, for example, changes the reading environment and reduces the need for strict pagination. Therefore, in an effort to streamline the calculation of length, the APS journals will no longer use the printed page as the determining factor for length. Instead the journals will now use word counts (or word equivalents for tables, figures, and equations) to establish length; for details please see http://publish.aps.org/authors/length-guide. The title, byline, abstract, acknowledgment, and references will not be included in these counts allowing authors the freedom to appropriately credit coworkers, funding sources, and the previous literature, bringing all relevant references to the attention of readers. This new method for determining length will be easier for authors to calculate in advance, and lead to fewer length-associated revisions in proof, yet still retain the quality of concise communication that is a virtue of short papers.

  6. Analytic model of the effect of poly-Gaussian roughness on rarefied gas flow near the surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksenova, Olga A.; Khalidov, Iskander A.

    2016-11-01

    The dependence of the macro-parameters of the flow on surface roughness of the walls and on geometrical shape of the surface is investigated asymptotically and numerically in a rarefied gas molecular flow at high Knudsen numbers. Surface roughness is approximated in statistical simulation by the model of poly-Gaussian (with probability density as the mixture of Gaussian densities [1]) random process. Substantial difference is detected for considered models of the roughness (Gaussian, poly-Gaussian and simple models applied by other researchers), as well in asymptotical expressions [3], as in numerical results. For instance, the influence of surface roughness on momentum and energy exchange coefficients increases noticeably for poly-Gaussian model compared to Gaussian one (although the main properties of poly-Gaussian random processes and fields are similar to corresponding properties of Gaussian processes and fields). Main advantage of the model is based on relative simple relations between the parameters of the model and the basic statistical characteristics of random field. Considered statistical approach permits to apply not only diffuse-specular model of the local scattering function V0 of reflected gas atoms, but also Cercignani-Lampis scattering kernel or phenomenological models of scattering function. Thus, the comparison between poly-Gaussian and Gaussian models shows more significant effect of roughness in aerodynamic values for poly-Gaussian model.

  7. Aerodynamic control with passively pitching wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravish, Nick; Wood, Robert

    Flapping wings may pitch passively under aerodynamic and inertial loads. Such passive pitching is observed in flapping wing insect and robot flight. The effect of passive wing pitch on the control dynamics of flapping wing flight are unexplored. Here we demonstrate in simulation and experiment the critical role wing pitching plays in yaw control of a flapping wing robot. We study yaw torque generation by a flapping wing allowed to passively rotate in the pitch axis through a rotational spring. Yaw torque is generated through alternating fast and slow upstroke and and downstroke. Yaw torque sensitively depends on both the rotational spring force law and spring stiffness, and at a critical spring stiffness a bifurcation in the yaw torque control relationship occurs. Simulation and experiment reveal the dynamics of this bifurcation and demonstrate that anomalous yaw torque from passively pitching wings is the result of aerodynamic and inertial coupling between the pitching and stroke-plane dynamics.

  8. Mimicking the humpback whale: An aerodynamic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aftab, S. M. A.; Razak, N. A.; Mohd Rafie, A. S.; Ahmad, K. A.

    2016-07-01

    This comprehensive review aims to provide a critical overview of the work on tubercles in the past decade. The humpback whale is of interest to aerodynamic/hydrodynamic researchers, as it performs manoeuvres that baffle the imagination. Researchers have attributed these capabilities to the presence of lumps, known as tubercles, on the leading edge of the flipper. Tubercles generate a unique flow control mechanism, offering the humpback exceptional manoeuverability. Experimental and numerical studies have shown that the flow pattern over the tubercle wing is quite different from conventional wings. Research on the Tubercle Leading Edge (TLE) concept has helped to clarify aerodynamic issues such as flow separation, tonal noise and dynamic stall. TLE shows increased lift by delaying and restricting spanwise separation. A summary of studies on different airfoils and reported improvement in performance is outlined. The major contributions and limitations of previous work are also reported.

  9. Aerodynamics of the Mars Microprobe Entry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitcheltree, R. A.; Moss, J. N.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Greene, F. A.; Braun, R. D.

    1997-01-01

    The selection of the unique aeroshell shape for the Mars Microprobes is discussed. A description of its aerodynamics in hypersonic rarefied, hypersonic continuum, supersonic and transonic flow regimes is then presented. This description is based on Direct Simulation Monte Carlo analyses in the rarefied-flow regime, thermochemical nonequilibrium Computational Fluid Dynamics in the hypersonic regime, existing wind tunnel data in the supersonic and transonic regime, additional computational work in the transonic regime, and finally, ballistic range data. The aeroshell is shown to possess the correct combination of aerodynamic stability and drag to convert the probe's initial tumbling attitude and high velocity at atmospheric-interface into the desired surface-impact orientation and velocity.

  10. CFD research, parallel computation and aerodynamic optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, James S.

    1995-01-01

    Over five years of research in Computational Fluid Dynamics and its applications are covered in this report. Using CFD as an established tool, aerodynamic optimization on parallel architectures is explored. The objective of this work is to provide better tools to vehicle designers. Submarine design requires accurate force and moment calculations in flow with thick boundary layers and large separated vortices. Low noise production is critical, so flow into the propulsor region must be predicted accurately. The High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) has been the subject of recent work. This vehicle is to be a passenger vehicle with the capability of cutting overseas flight times by more than half. A successful design must surpass the performance of comparable planes. Fuel economy, other operational costs, environmental impact, and range must all be improved substantially. For all these reasons, improved design tools are required, and these tools must eventually integrate optimization, external aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, heat transfer and other disciplines.

  11. Wind turbine trailing edge aerodynamic brakes

    SciTech Connect

    Migliore, P G; Miller, L S; Quandt, G A

    1995-04-01

    Five trailing-edge devices were investigated to determine their potential as wind-turbine aerodynamic brakes, and for power modulation and load alleviation. Several promising configurations were identified. A new device, called the spoiler-flap, appears to be the best alternative. It is a simple device that is effective at all angles of attack. It is not structurally intrusive, and it has the potential for small actuating loads. It is shown that simultaneous achievement of a low lift/drag ratio and high drag is the determinant of device effectiveness, and that these attributes must persist up to an angle of attack of 45{degree}. It is also argued that aerodynamic brakes must be designed for a wind speed of at least 45 m/s (100 mph).

  12. Transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doig, G.

    2014-08-01

    A review of recent and historical work in the field of transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics has been conducted, focussing on applied research on wings and aircraft, present and future ground transportation, projectiles, rocket sleds and other related bodies which travel in close ground proximity in the compressible regime. Methods for ground testing are described and evaluated, noting that wind tunnel testing is best performed with a symmetry model in the absence of a moving ground; sled or rail testing is ultimately preferable, though considerably more expensive. Findings are reported on shock-related ground influence on aerodynamic forces and moments in and accelerating through the transonic regime - where force reversals and the early onset of local supersonic flow is prevalent - as well as more predictable behaviours in fully supersonic to hypersonic ground effect flows.

  13. The aerodynamic challenges of SRB recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacchus, D. L.; Kross, D. A.; Moog, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    Recovery and reuse of the Space Shuttle solid rocket boosters was baselined to support the primary goal to develop a low cost space transportation system. The recovery system required for the 170,000-lb boosters was for the largest and heaviest object yet to be retrieved from exoatmospheric conditions. State-of-the-art design procedures were ground-ruled and development testing minimized to produce both a reliable and cost effective system. The ability to utilize the inherent drag of the boosters during the initial phase of reentry was a key factor in minimizing the parachute loads, size and weight. A wind tunnel test program was devised to enable the accurate prediction of booster aerodynamic characteristics. Concurrently, wind tunnel, rocket sled and air drop tests were performed to develop and verify the performance of the parachute decelerator subsystem. Aerodynamic problems encountered during the overall recovery system development and the respective solutions are emphasized.

  14. Flight Test Maneuvers for Efficient Aerodynamic Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2011-01-01

    Novel flight test maneuvers for efficient aerodynamic modeling were developed and demonstrated in flight. Orthogonal optimized multi-sine inputs were applied to aircraft control surfaces to excite aircraft dynamic response in all six degrees of freedom simultaneously while keeping the aircraft close to chosen reference flight conditions. Each maneuver was designed for a specific modeling task that cannot be adequately or efficiently accomplished using conventional flight test maneuvers. All of the new maneuvers were first described and explained, then demonstrated on a subscale jet transport aircraft in flight. Real-time and post-flight modeling results obtained using equation-error parameter estimation in the frequency domain were used to show the effectiveness and efficiency of the new maneuvers, as well as the quality of the aerodynamic models that can be identified from the resultant flight data.

  15. High speed civil transport aerodynamic optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, James S.

    1994-01-01

    This is a report of work in support of the Computational Aerosciences (CAS) element of the Federal HPCC program. Specifically, CFD and aerodynamic optimization are being performed on parallel computers. The long-range goal of this work is to facilitate teraflops-rate multidisciplinary optimization of aerospace vehicles. This year's work is targeted for application to the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), one of four CAS grand challenges identified in the HPCC FY 1995 Blue Book. This vehicle is to be a passenger aircraft, with the promise of cutting overseas flight time by more than half. To meet fuel economy, operational costs, environmental impact, noise production, and range requirements, improved design tools are required, and these tools must eventually integrate optimization, external aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, heat transfer, controls, and perhaps other disciplines. The fundamental goal of this project is to contribute to improved design tools for U.S. industry, and thus to the nation's economic competitiveness.

  16. Specialized computer architectures for computational aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, D. K.

    1978-01-01

    In recent years, computational fluid dynamics has made significant progress in modelling aerodynamic phenomena. Currently, one of the major barriers to future development lies in the compute-intensive nature of the numerical formulations and the relative high cost of performing these computations on commercially available general purpose computers, a cost high with respect to dollar expenditure and/or elapsed time. Today's computing technology will support a program designed to create specialized computing facilities to be dedicated to the important problems of computational aerodynamics. One of the still unresolved questions is the organization of the computing components in such a facility. The characteristics of fluid dynamic problems which will have significant impact on the choice of computer architecture for a specialized facility are reviewed.

  17. Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Using Hybridized Differential Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madavan, Nateri K.

    2003-01-01

    An aerodynamic shape optimization method that uses an evolutionary algorithm known at Differential Evolution (DE) in conjunction with various hybridization strategies is described. DE is a simple and robust evolutionary strategy that has been proven effective in determining the global optimum for several difficult optimization problems. Various hybridization strategies for DE are explored, including the use of neural networks as well as traditional local search methods. A Navier-Stokes solver is used to evaluate the various intermediate designs and provide inputs to the hybrid DE optimizer. The method is implemented on distributed parallel computers so that new designs can be obtained within reasonable turnaround times. Results are presented for the inverse design of a turbine airfoil from a modern jet engine. (The final paper will include at least one other aerodynamic design application). The capability of the method to search large design spaces and obtain the optimal airfoils in an automatic fashion is demonstrated.

  18. Aerodynamic interference between two Darrieus wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Schatzle, P.R.; Klimas, P.C.; Spahr, H.R.

    1981-04-01

    The effect of aerodynamic interference on the performance of two curved bladed Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbines has been calculated using a vortex/lifting line aerodynamic model. The turbines have a tower-to-tower separation distance of 1.5 turbine diameters, with the line of turbine centers varying with respect to the ambient wind direction. The effects of freestream turbulence were neglected. For the cases examined, the calculations showed that the downwind turbine power decrement (1) was significant only when the line of turbine centers was coincident with the ambient wind direction, (2) increased with increasing tipspeed ratio, and (3) is due more to induced flow angularities downstream than to speed deficits near the downstream turbine.

  19. Aerodynamic design of the National Rotor Testbed.

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, Christopher Lee

    2015-10-01

    A new wind turbine blade has been designed for the National Rotor Testbed (NRT) project and for future experiments at the Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility with a specific focus on scaled wakes. This report shows the aerodynamic design of new blades that can produce a wake that has similitude to utility scale blades despite the difference in size and location in the atmospheric boundary layer. Dimensionless quantities circulation, induction, thrust coefficient, and tip-speed-ratio were kept equal between rotor scales in region 2 of operation. The new NRT design matched the aerodynamic quantities of the most common wind turbine in the United States, the GE 1.5sle turbine with 37c model blades. The NRT blade design is presented along with its performance subject to the winds at SWiFT. The design requirements determined by the SWiFT experimental test campaign are shown to be met.

  20. Performance of an aerodynamic particle separator

    SciTech Connect

    Ragland, K.; Han, J.; Aerts, D.

    1996-12-31

    This compact, high-flow device aerodynamically separates small particles from a gas stream by a series of annular truncated airfoils. The operating concept, design and performance of this novel particle separator are described. Tests results using corn starch and post-cyclone coal fly ash are presented. Particle collection efficiencies of 90% for corn starch and 70% for coal fly ash were measured at inlet velocities of 80 ft s{sup {minus}1} (2,700 cfm) and (6 inches) water pressure drop with particle loading up to 4 gr ft{sup {minus}3} in air at standard conditions. Results from computer modeling using FLUENT are presented and compared to the tests. The aerodynamic particle separator is an attractive alternative to a cyclone collector.

  1. Device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance

    DOEpatents

    Graham, Sean C.

    2006-03-07

    A device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance for vehicles having a generally rectangular flat front face comprising a plurality of load bearing struts of a predetermined size attached to the flat front face adjacent the sides and top thereof, a pair of pliable opposing flat sheets having an outside edge portion attached to the flat front face adjacent the sides thereof and an upper edge with a predetermined curve; the opposing flat sheets being bent and attached to the struts to form effective curved airfoil shapes, and a top pliable flat sheet disposed adjacent the top of the flat front face and having predetermined curved side edges, which, when the top sheet is bent and attached to the struts to form an effective curved airfoil shape, mate with the curved upper edges of the opposing sheets to complete the aerodynamic device.

  2. Device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance

    DOEpatents

    Graham, Sean C.

    2006-08-22

    A device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance for vehicles having a generally rectangular body disposed above rear wheels, comprising a plurality of load bearing struts attached to the bottom of the rectangular body adjacent its sides, a plurality of opposing flat sheets attached to the load bearing struts, and angled flaps attached to the lower edge of the opposing sheets defining an obtuse angle with the opposing flat sheets extending inwardly with respect to the sides of the rectangular body to a predetermined height above the ground, which, stiffen the opposing flat sheets, bend to resist damage when struck by the ground, and guide airflow around the rear wheels of the vehicle to reduce its aerodynamic resistance when moving.

  3. Unsteady aerodynamic modeling for arbitrary motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, J. W.; Ashley, H.; Breakwell, J. V.

    1977-01-01

    A study is presented on the unsteady aerodynamic loads due to arbitrary motions of a thin wing and their adaptation for the calculation of response and true stability of aeroelastic modes. In an Appendix, the use of Laplace transform techniques and the generalized Theodorsen function for two-dimensional incompressible flow is reviewed. New applications of the same approach are shown also to yield airloads valid for quite general small motions. Numerical results are given for the two-dimensional supersonic case. Previously proposed approximate methods, starting from simple harmonic unsteady theory, are evaluated by comparison with exact results obtained by the present approach. The Laplace inversion integral is employed to separate the loads into 'rational' and 'nonrational' parts, of which only the former are involved in aeroelastic stability of the wing. Among other suggestions for further work, it is explained how existing aerodynamic computer programs may be adapted in a fairly straightforward fashion to deal with arbitrary transients.

  4. An Interactive Educational Tool for Compressible Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    A workstation-based interactive educational tool was developed to aid in the teaching of undergraduate compressible aerodynamics. The tool solves for the supersonic flow past a wedge using the equations found in NACA 1135. The student varies the geometry or flow conditions through a graphical user interface and the new conditions are calculated immediately. Various graphical formats present the variation of flow results to the student. One such format leads the student to the generation of some of the graphs found in NACA-1135. The tool includes interactive questions and answers to aid in both the use of the tool and to develop an understanding of some of the complexities of compressible aerodynamics. A series of help screens make the simulator easy to learn and use. This paper will detail the numerical methods used in the tool and describe how it can be used and modified.

  5. Rarefaction effects on Galileo probe aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, James N.; LeBeau, Gerald J.; Blanchard, Robert C.; Price, Joseph M.

    1996-01-01

    Solutions of aerodynamic characteristics are presented for the Galileo Probe entering Jupiter's hydrogen-helium atmosphere at a nominal relative velocity of 47.4 km/s. Focus is on predicting the aerodynamic drag coefficient during the transitional flow regime using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Accuracy of the probe's drag coefficient directly impacts the inferred atmospheric properties that are being extracted from the deceleration measurements made by onboard accelerometers as part of the Atmospheric Structure Experiment. The range of rarefaction considered in the present study extends from the free molecular limit to continuum conditions. Comparisons made with previous calculations and experimental measurements show the present results for drag to merge well with Navier-Stokes and experimental results for the least rarefied conditions considered.

  6. Parameter identification and modeling of longitudinal aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aksteter, J. W.; Parks, E. K.; Bach, R. E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Using a comprehensive flight test database and a parameter identification software program produced at NASA Ames Research Center, a math model of the longitudinal aerodynamics of the Harrier aircraft was formulated. The identification program employed the equation error method using multiple linear regression to estimate the nonlinear parameters. The formulated math model structure adhered closely to aerodynamic and stability/control theory, particularly with regard to compressibility and dynamic manoeuvring. Validation was accomplished by using a three degree-of-freedom nonlinear flight simulator with pilot inputs from flight test data. The simulation models agreed quite well with the measured states. It is important to note that the flight test data used for the validation of the model was not used in the model identification.

  7. Integrated structural-aerodynamic design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haftka, R. T.; Kao, P. J.; Grossman, B.; Polen, D.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper focuses on the processes of simultaneous aerodynamic and structural wing design as a prototype for design integration, with emphasis on the major difficulty associated with multidisciplinary design optimization processes, their enormous computational costs. Methods are presented for reducing this computational burden through the development of efficient methods for cross-sensitivity calculations and the implementation of approximate optimization procedures. Utilizing a modular sensitivity analysis approach, it is shown that the sensitivities can be computed without the expensive calculation of the derivatives of the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix, and the derivatives of the structural flexibility matrix. The same process is used to efficiently evaluate the sensitivities of the wing divergence constraint, which should be particularly useful, not only in problems of complete integrated aircraft design, but also in aeroelastic tailoring applications.

  8. Nash equilibrium and multi criterion aerodynamic optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhili; Zhang, Lianhe

    2016-06-01

    Game theory and its particular Nash Equilibrium (NE) are gaining importance in solving Multi Criterion Optimization (MCO) in engineering problems over the past decade. The solution of a MCO problem can be viewed as a NE under the concept of competitive games. This paper surveyed/proposed four efficient algorithms for calculating a NE of a MCO problem. Existence and equivalence of the solution are analyzed and proved in the paper based on fixed point theorem. Specific virtual symmetric Nash game is also presented to set up an optimization strategy for single objective optimization problems. Two numerical examples are presented to verify proposed algorithms. One is mathematical functions' optimization to illustrate detailed numerical procedures of algorithms, the other is aerodynamic drag reduction of civil transport wing fuselage configuration by using virtual game. The successful application validates efficiency of algorithms in solving complex aerodynamic optimization problem.

  9. Aerodynamic design lowers truck fuel consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steers, L.

    1978-01-01

    Energy-saving concepts in truck design are emerging from developing new shapes with improved aerodynamic flow properties that can reduce air-drag coefficient of conventional tractor-trailers without requiring severe design changes or compromising load-carrying capability. Improvements are expected to decrease somewhat with increased wind velocities and would be affected by factors such as terrain, driving techniques, and mechanical condition.

  10. Aerodynamic considerations in open shelters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, R.G.

    1984-11-01

    Aerodynamic factors are addressed bearing on the suitability of open structures as blast shelters. Blast closures and attenuator designs are discussed. The research on shelter filling is reviewed; this includes both experimental and theoretical work on scale models and full-scale structures of large dimensions. Shock-dominated and pressure-gradient-dominated shelter-filling mechanisms are described and their potential effects on people are discussed.

  11. The aerodynamics of hovering flight in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Fry, Steven N; Sayaman, Rosalyn; Dickinson, Michael H

    2005-06-01

    Using 3D infrared high-speed video, we captured the continuous wing and body kinematics of free-flying fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, during hovering and slow forward flight. We then 'replayed' the wing kinematics on a dynamically scaled robotic model to measure the aerodynamic forces produced by the wings. Hovering animals generate a U-shaped wing trajectory, in which large drag forces during a downward plunge at the start of each stroke create peak vertical forces. Quasi-steady mechanisms could account for nearly all of the mean measured force required to hover, although temporal discrepancies between instantaneous measured forces and model predictions indicate that unsteady mechanisms also play a significant role. We analyzed the requirements for hovering from an analysis of the time history of forces and moments in all six degrees of freedom. The wing kinematics necessary to generate sufficient lift are highly constrained by the requirement to balance thrust and pitch torque over the stroke cycle. We also compare the wing motion and aerodynamic forces of free and tethered flies. Tethering causes a strong distortion of the stroke pattern that results in a reduction of translational forces and a prominent nose-down pitch moment. The stereotyped distortion under tethered conditions is most likely due to a disruption of sensory feedback. Finally, we calculated flight power based directly on the measurements of wing motion and aerodynamic forces, which yielded a higher estimate of muscle power during free hovering flight than prior estimates based on time-averaged parameters. This discrepancy is mostly due to a two- to threefold underestimate of the mean profile drag coefficient in prior studies. We also compared our values with the predictions of the same time-averaged models using more accurate kinematic and aerodynamic input parameters based on our high-speed videography measurements. In this case, the time-averaged models tended to overestimate flight

  12. Aerodynamic measurement techniques. [laser based diagnostic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, W. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Laser characteristics of intensity, monochromatic, spatial coherence, and temporal coherence were developed to advance laser based diagnostic techniques for aerodynamic related research. Two broad categories of visualization and optical measurements were considered, and three techniques received significant attention. These are holography, laser velocimetry, and Raman scattering. Examples of the quantitative laser velocimeter and Raman scattering measurements of velocity, temperature, and density indicated the potential of these nonintrusive techniques.

  13. HSCT high lift system aerodynamic requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, John A.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of high lift system aerodynamic requirements are provided. Low speed aerodynamics has been identified as critical to the successful development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). The airplane must takeoff and land at a sufficient number of existing or projected airports to be economically viable. At the same time, community noise must be acceptable. Improvements in cruise drag, engine fuel consumption, and structural weight tend to decrease the wing size and thrust required of engines. Decreasing wing size increases the requirements for effective and efficient low speed characteristics. Current design concepts have already been compromised away from better cruise wings for low speed performance. Flap systems have been added to achieve better lift-to-drag ratios for climb and approach and for lower pitch attitudes for liftoff and touchdown. Research to achieve improvements in low speed aerodynamics needs to be focused on areas most likely to have the largest effect on the wing and engine sizing process. It would be desirable to provide enough lift to avoid sizing the airplane for field performance and to still meet the noise requirements. The airworthiness standards developed in 1971 will be the basis for performance requirements for an airplane that will not be critical to the airplane wing and engine size. The lift and drag levels that were required to meet the performance requirements of tentative airworthiness standards established in 1971 and that were important to community noise are identified. Research to improve the low speed aerodynamic characteristics of the HSCT needs to be focused in the areas of performance deficiency and where noise can be reduced. Otherwise, the wing planform, engine cycle, or other parameters for a superior cruising airplane would have to be changed.

  14. New aspects of subsonic aerodynamic noise theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. E.; Howes, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    A theory of aerodynamic noise is presented which differs from Lighthill's theory primarily in the way in which convection of the noise sources is treated. The sound directivity pattern obtained from the present theory agrees better with jet-noise directivity data than does that obtained from Lighthill's theory. The results imply that the shear-noise contribution to jet noise is smaller than previously expected.

  15. Device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance

    DOEpatents

    Graham, Sean C.

    2005-02-15

    A device for a vehicle with a pair of swinging rear doors, which converts flat sheets of pliable material hinged to the sides of the vehicle adjacent the rear thereof into effective curved airfoils that reduce the aerodynamic resistance of the vehicle, when the doors are closed by hand, utilizing a plurality of stiffeners disposed generally parallel to the doors and affixed to the sheets and a plurality of collapsible tension bearings struts attached to each stiffener and the adjacent door.

  16. Conformable M3 Microsystems for Aerodynamic Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    we have fabricated sensors, actuators, and electronics all on the same chip. Control: • A CMOS control circuit has been designed and sent to MOSIS ...macro aerodynamic devices. (3) After the chip from MOSIS is fabricated, it will be tested to confirm that it works as designed. (4) The process and...identify the separation point from the outputs of shear stress sensors and drive the corresponding actuators. The layout has been sent to MOSIS for

  17. Flapping wing aerodynamics: from insects to vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Chin, Diana D; Lentink, David

    2016-04-01

    More than a million insects and approximately 11,000 vertebrates utilize flapping wings to fly. However, flapping flight has only been studied in a few of these species, so many challenges remain in understanding this form of locomotion. Five key aerodynamic mechanisms have been identified for insect flight. Among these is the leading edge vortex, which is a convergent solution to avoid stall for insects, bats and birds. The roles of the other mechanisms - added mass, clap and fling, rotational circulation and wing-wake interactions - have not yet been thoroughly studied in the context of vertebrate flight. Further challenges to understanding bat and bird flight are posed by the complex, dynamic wing morphologies of these species and the more turbulent airflow generated by their wings compared with that observed during insect flight. Nevertheless, three dimensionless numbers that combine key flow, morphological and kinematic parameters - the Reynolds number, Rossby number and advance ratio - govern flapping wing aerodynamics for both insects and vertebrates. These numbers can thus be used to organize an integrative framework for studying and comparing animal flapping flight. Here, we provide a roadmap for developing such a framework, highlighting the aerodynamic mechanisms that remain to be quantified and compared across species. Ultimately, incorporating complex flight maneuvers, environmental effects and developmental stages into this framework will also be essential to advancing our understanding of the biomechanics, movement ecology and evolution of animal flight.

  18. Asymmetric Uncertainty Expression for High Gradient Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinier, Jeremy T

    2012-01-01

    When the physics of the flow around an aircraft changes very abruptly either in time or space (e.g., flow separation/reattachment, boundary layer transition, unsteadiness, shocks, etc), the measurements that are performed in a simulated environment like a wind tunnel test or a computational simulation will most likely incorrectly predict the exact location of where (or when) the change in physics happens. There are many reasons for this, includ- ing the error introduced by simulating a real system at a smaller scale and at non-ideal conditions, or the error due to turbulence models in a computational simulation. The un- certainty analysis principles that have been developed and are being implemented today do not fully account for uncertainty in the knowledge of the location of abrupt physics changes or sharp gradients, leading to a potentially underestimated uncertainty in those areas. To address this problem, a new asymmetric aerodynamic uncertainty expression containing an extra term to account for a phase-uncertainty, the magnitude of which is emphasized in the high-gradient aerodynamic regions is proposed in this paper. Additionally, based on previous work, a method for dispersing aerodynamic data within asymmetric uncer- tainty bounds in a more realistic way has been developed for use within Monte Carlo-type analyses.

  19. Rarefied-flow Shuttle aerodynamics model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Larman, Kevin T.; Moats, Christina D.

    1993-01-01

    A rarefied-flow shuttle aerodynamic model spanning the hypersonic continuum to the free molecule-flow regime was formulated. The model development has evolved from the High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP) experiment conducted on the Orbiter since 1983. The complete model is described in detail. The model includes normal and axial hypersonic continuum coefficient equations as functions of angle-of-attack, body flap deflection, and elevon deflection. Normal and axial free molecule flow coefficient equations as a function of angle-of-attack are presented, along with flight derived rarefied-flow transition bridging formulae. Comparisons are made with data from the Operational Aerodynamic Design Data Book (OADDB), applicable wind-tunnel data, and recent flight data from STS-35 and STS-40. The flight-derived model aerodynamic force coefficient ratio is in good agreement with the wind-tunnel data and predicts the flight measured force coefficient ratios on STS-35 and STS-40. The model is not, however, in good agreement with the OADDB. But, the current OADDB does not predict the flight data force coefficient ratios of either STS-35 or STS-40 as accurately as the flight-derived model. Also, the OADDB differs with the wind-tunnel force coefficient ratio data.

  20. Mars Pathfider Rarefied Aerodynamics: Computations and Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, James N.; Blanchard, Robert C.; Wilmoth, Richard G.; Braun, Robert D.

    1998-01-01

    On July 4, 1997, after traveling close to 500 million km, the Pathfinder spacecraft successfully completed entry, descent, and landing at Mars. In the present paper, the focus is on the hypersonic rarefied portion of Pathfinder's atmospheric entry where the synergy of flight measurements, aerodynamic calculations, and atmospheric modeling tools are used to extract Pathfinder's attitude and the freestream density. Accuracy of the capsule aerodynamics directly impacts the inferred atmospheric properties extracted from deceleration measurements made by on-board accelerometers. The range of rarefaction considered in this study extends from the free molecular to continuum conditions and angles of attack from O to 30 deg. The aerodynamic computations are made with free-molecular and direct simulation Monte Carlo codes. The calculations show that Pathfinder is statically unstable for much of the transitional rarefied regime. Due to the relatively modest forces and the gyroscopic motion of the spacecraft, the angle of attack excursions were less than 5 deg as inferred from force measurements for the rarefied portion of entry and approached a nominal zero degree trim angle near hypersonic continuum conditions.

  1. Aerodynamics for the Mars Phoenix Entry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edquist, Karl T.; Desai, Prasun N.; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Pre-flight aerodynamics data for the Mars Phoenix entry capsule are presented. The aerodynamic coefficients were generated as a function of total angle-of-attack and either Knudsen number, velocity, or Mach number, depending on the flight regime. The database was constructed using continuum flowfield computations and data from the Mars Exploration Rover and Viking programs. Hypersonic and supersonic static coefficients were derived from Navier-Stokes solutions on a pre-flight design trajectory. High-altitude data (free-molecular and transitional regimes) and dynamic pitch damping characteristics were taken from Mars Exploration Rover analysis and testing. Transonic static coefficients from Viking wind tunnel tests were used for capsule aerodynamics under the parachute. Static instabilities were predicted at two points along the reference trajectory and were verified by reconstructed flight data. During the hypersonic instability, the capsule was predicted to trim at angles as high as 2.5 deg with an on-axis center-of-gravity. Trim angles were predicted for off-nominal pitching moment (4.2 deg peak) and a 5 mm off-axis center-ofgravity (4.8 deg peak). Finally, hypersonic static coefficient sensitivities to atmospheric density were predicted to be within uncertainty bounds.

  2. Future Challenges and Opportunities in Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Ajay; Hefner, Jerry N.

    2000-01-01

    Investments in aeronautics research and technology have declined substantially over the last decade, in part due to the perception that technologies required in aircraft design are fairly mature and readily available. This perception is being driven by the fact that aircraft configurations, particularly the transport aircraft, have evolved only incrementally, over last several decades. If however, one considers that the growth in air travel is expected to triple in the next 20 years, it becomes quickly obvious that the evolutionary development of technologies is not going to meet the increased demands for safety, environmental compatibility, capacity, and economic viability. Instead, breakthrough technologies will he required both in traditional disciplines of aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, materials, controls, and avionics as well as in the multidisciplinary integration of these technologies into the design of future aerospace vehicles concepts. The paper discusses challenges and opportunities in the field of aerodynamics over the next decade. Future technology advancements in aerodynamics will hinge on our ability, to understand, model, and control complex, three-dimensional, unsteady viscous flow across the speed range. This understanding is critical for developing innovative flow and noise control technologies and advanced design tools that will revolutionize future aerospace vehicle systems and concepts. Specifically, the paper focuses on advanced vehicle concepts, flow and noise control technologies, and advanced design and analysis tools.

  3. Integrated aerodynamic-structural-control wing design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rais-Rohani, M.; Haftka, R. T.; Grossman, B.; Unger, E. R.

    1992-01-01

    The aerodynamic-structural-control design of a forward-swept composite wing for a high subsonic transport aircraft is considered. The structural analysis is based on a finite-element method. The aerodynamic calculations are based on a vortex-lattice method, and the control calculations are based on an output feedback control. The wing is designed for minimum weight subject to structural, performance/aerodynamic and control constraints. Efficient methods are used to calculate the control-deflection and control-effectiveness sensitivities which appear as second-order derivatives in the control constraint equations. To suppress the aeroelastic divergence of the forward-swept wing, and to reduce the gross weight of the design aircraft, two separate cases are studied: (1) combined application of aeroelastic tailoring and active controls; and (2) aeroelastic tailoring alone. The results of this study indicated that, for this particular example, aeroelastic tailoring is sufficient for suppressing the aeroelastic divergence, and the use of active controls was not necessary.

  4. Aerodynamic Design Opportunities for Future Supersonic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Flamm, Jeffrey D.

    2002-01-01

    A discussion of a diverse set of aerodynamic opportunities to improve the aerodynamic performance of future supersonic aircraft has been presented and discussed. These ideas are offered to the community in a hope that future supersonic vehicle development activities will not be hindered by past efforts. A number of nonlinear flow based drag reduction technologies are presented and discussed. The subject technologies are related to the areas of interference flows, vehicle concepts, vortex flows, wing design, advanced control effectors, and planform design. The authors also discussed the importance of improving the aerodynamic design environment to allow creativity and knowledge greater influence. A review of all of the data presented show that pressure drag reductions on the order of 50 to 60 counts are achievable, compared to a conventional supersonic cruise vehicle, with the application of several of the discussed technologies. These drag reductions would correlate to a 30 to 40% increase in cruise L/D (lift-to-drag ratio) for a commercial supersonic transport.

  5. The Effect of Volumetric Porosity on Roughness Element Drag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, John; Nickling, William; Nikolich, George; Etyemezian, Vicken

    2016-04-01

    Much attention has been given to understanding how the porosity of two dimensional structures affects the drag force exerted by boundary-layer flow on these flow obstructions. Porous structures such as wind breaks and fences are typically used to control the sedimentation of sand and snow particles or create micro-habitats in their lee. Vegetation in drylands also exerts control on sediment transport by wind due to aerodynamic effects and interaction with particles in transport. Recent research has also demonstrated that large spatial arrays of solid three dimensional roughness elements can be used to reduce sand transport to specified targets for control of wind erosion through the effect of drag partitioning and interaction of the moving sand with the large (>0.3 m high) roughness elements, but porous elements may improve the effectiveness of this approach. A thorough understanding of the role porosity plays in affecting the drag force on three-dimensional forms is lacking. To provide basic understanding of the relationship between the porosity of roughness elements and the force of drag exerted on them by fluid flow, we undertook a wind tunnel study that systematically altered the porosity of roughness elements of defined geometry (cubes, rectangular cylinders, and round cylinders) and measured the associated change in the drag force on the elements under similar Reynolds number conditions. The elements tested were of four basic forms: 1) same sized cubes with tubes of known diameter milled through them creating three volumetric porosity values and increasing connectivity between the tubes, 2) cubes and rectangular cylinders constructed of brass screen that nested within each other, and 3) round cylinders constructed of brass screen that nested within each other. The two-dimensional porosity, defined as the ratio of total surface area of the empty space to the solid surface area of the side of the element presented to the fluid flow was conserved at 0.519 for

  6. Monte Carlo simulation of a complex fluid confined to a pore with nanoscopically rough walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porcheron, Fabien; Schoen, Martin; Fuchs, Alain H.

    2002-04-01

    Understanding the properties of fluid films of nanometer scale thickness confined between two solid substrates is of fundamental interest as well as of practical importance for engineering applications such as lubrication, adhesion, and friction. We address here the question of the effect of the wall corrugation on the confined fluid structure. We report configurational bias grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations for model butane confined between planar and nonplanar walls. Furrowed walls have been used to model surface roughness effects on the nanometer length scale, while the confining walls remain smooth on the atomic scale. It is shown that the fluid confined between planar walls exhibits a damped oscillatory solvation pressure profile. A transition from an oscillatory to a nonoscillatory behavior is observed when the characteristic length of the furrow reaches the typical dimensions of a butane molecule. It is inferred from these simulations that disrupted oscillatory forces observed in the experiments may reflect the coupling between molecular and nanoscopic roughness length scales.

  7. Surface roughness measurement with laser triangulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Fuzhong; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Tian, Chaoping

    2016-09-01

    A surface roughness measurement method is introduced in the paper, which is based on laser triangulation and digital image processing technique. In the measuring system, we use the line-structured light as light source, microscope lens and high-accuracy CCD sensor as displacement sensor as well. In addition, the working angle corresponding to the optimal sensitivity is considered in the optical structure design to improve the measuring accuracy. Through necessary image processing operation for the light strip image, such as center-line extraction with the barycenter algorithm, Gaussian filtering, the value of roughness is calculated. A standard planing surface is measured experimentally with the proposed method and the stylus method (Mitutoyo SJ-410) respectively. The profilograms of surface appearance are greatly similar in the shape and the amplitude to two methods. Also, the roughness statistics values are close. The results indicate that the laser triangulation with the line-structured light can be applied to measure the surface roughness with the advantages of rapid measurement and visualized display of surface roughness profile.

  8. Hypersonic Viscous Flow Over Large Roughness Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan; Choudhari, Meelan M.

    2009-01-01

    Viscous flow over discrete or distributed surface roughness has great implications for hypersonic flight due to aerothermodynamic considerations related to laminar-turbulent transition. Current prediction capability is greatly hampered by the limited knowledge base for such flows. To help fill that gap, numerical computations are used to investigate the intricate flow physics involved. An unstructured mesh, compressible Navier-Stokes code based on the space-time conservation element, solution element (CESE) method is used to perform time-accurate Navier-Stokes calculations for two roughness shapes investigated in wind tunnel experiments at NASA Langley Research Center. It was found through 2D parametric study that at subcritical Reynolds numbers, spontaneous absolute instability accompanying by sustained vortex shedding downstream of the roughness is likely to take place at subsonic free-stream conditions. On the other hand, convective instability may be the dominant mechanism for supersonic boundary layers. Three-dimensional calculations for both a rectangular and a cylindrical roughness element at post-shock Mach numbers of 4.1 and 6.5 also confirm that no self-sustained vortex generation from the top face of the roughness is observed, despite the presence of flow unsteadiness for the smaller post-shock Mach number case.

  9. Post-Flight Aerodynamic and Aerothermal Model Validation of a Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Chun; Muppidi, Suman; Bose, Deepak; Van Norman, John W.; Tanimoto, Rebekah; Clark, Ian

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator Program is developing new technologies that will enable the landing of heavier payloads in low density environments, such as Mars. A recent flight experiment conducted high above the Hawaiian Islands has demonstrated the performance of several decelerator technologies. In particular, the deployment of the Robotic class Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD-R) was highly successful, and valuable data were collected during the test flight. This paper outlines the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis used to estimate the aerodynamic and aerothermal characteristics of the SIAD-R. Pre-flight and post-flight predictions are compared with the flight data, and a very good agreement in aerodynamic force and moment coefficients is observed between the CFD solutions and the reconstructed flight data.

  10. Numerical and experimental investigations on unsteady aerodynamics of flapping wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Meilin

    The development of a dynamic unstructured grid high-order accurate spectral difference (SD) method for the three dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations and its applications in flapping-wing aerodynamics are carried out in this work. Grid deformation is achieved via an algebraic blending strategy to save computational cost. The Geometric Conservation Law (GCL) is imposed to ensure that grid deformation will not contaminate the flow physics. A low Mach number preconditioning procedure is conducted in the developed solver to handle the bio-inspired flow. The capability of the low Mach number preconditioned SD solver is demonstrated by a series of two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) simulations of the unsteady vortex dominated flow. Several topics in the flapping wing aerodynamics are numerically and experimentally investigated in this work. These topics cover some of the cutting-edge issues in flapping wing aerodynamics, including the wake structure analysis, airfoil thickness and kinematics effects on the aerodynamic performances, vortex structure analysis around 3D flapping wings and the kinematics optimization. Wake structures behind a sinusoidally pitching NACA0012 airfoil are studied with both experimental and numerical approaches. The experiments are carried out with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and two types of wake transition processes, namely the transition from a drag-indicative wake to a thrust-indicative wake and that from the symmetric wake to the asymmetric wake are distinguished. The numerical results from the developed SD solver agree well with the experimental results. It is numerically found that the deflective direction of the asymmetric wake is determined by the initial conditions, e.g. initial phase angle. As most insects use thin wings (i. e., wing thickness is only a few percent of the chord length) in flapping flight, the effects of airfoil thickness on thrust generation are numerically investigated by simulating

  11. Aerodynamic characteristics of airplanes at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, J. R.; Grafton, S. B.

    1977-01-01

    An introduction to, and a broad overiew of, the aerodynamic characteristics of airplanes at high angles of attack are provided. Items include: (1) some important fundamental phenomena which determine the aerodynamic characteristics of airplanes at high angles of attack; (2) static and dynamic aerodynamic characteristics near the stall; (3) aerodynamics of the spin; (4) test techniques used in stall/spin studies; (5) applications of aerodynamic data to problems in flight dynamics in the stall/spin area; and (6) the outlook for future research in the area. Although stalling and spinning are flight dynamic problems of importance to all aircraft, including general aviation aircraft, commercial transports, and military airplanes, emphasis is placed on military configurations and the principle aerodynamic factors which influence the stability and control of such vehicles at high angles of attack.

  12. Nanoscale Roughness and Morphology Affect the IsoElectric Point of Titania Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Francesca; Vyas, Varun; Podestà, Alessandro; Milani, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    We report on the systematic investigation of the role of surface nanoscale roughness and morphology on the charging behaviour of nanostructured titania (TiO2) surfaces in aqueous solutions. IsoElectric Points (IEPs) of surfaces have been characterized by direct measurement of the electrostatic double layer interactions between titania surfaces and the micrometer-sized spherical silica probe of an atomic force microscope in NaCl aqueous electrolyte. The use of a colloidal probe provides well-defined interaction geometry and allows effectively probing the overall effect of nanoscale morphology. By using supersonic cluster beam deposition to fabricate nanostructured titania films, we achieved a quantitative control over the surface morphological parameters. We performed a systematical exploration of the electrical double layer properties in different interaction regimes characterized by different ratios of characteristic nanometric lengths of the system: the surface rms roughness Rq, the correlation length ξ and the Debye length λD. We observed a remarkable reduction by several pH units of IEP on rough nanostructured surfaces, with respect to flat crystalline rutile TiO2. In order to explain the observed behavior of IEP, we consider the roughness-induced self-overlap of the electrical double layers as a potential source of deviation from the trend expected for flat surfaces. PMID:23874708

  13. Influence of silicone surface roughness and hydrophobicity on adhesion and colonization of Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Haiying; Cao, Ting; Liang, Xuemei; Wang, Anfeng; Salley, Steven O; McAllister, James; Ng, K Y Simon

    2009-02-01

    Bacterial adhesion and colonization are complicated processes that depend on many factors, including surface chemistry, hydrophobicity, and surface roughness. The contribution of each of these factors has not been fully elucidated because most previous studies used different polymeric surfaces to achieve differences in properties. The objective of this study was to modify hydrophobicity and roughness on one polymeric surface, eliminating the confounding contribution of surface chemistry. Mechanically assembled monolayer (MAM) preparation methods (both one- and two-dimensional) were used to impart different degrees of hydrophobicity on fluoroalkylsilane (FAS)-coated silicone. Surface roughness was varied by casting the silicone to templates prepared with different abrasives. Surface hydrophobicity was determined by contact angle measurement, whereas surface roughness was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Bacterial adhesion and colonization were analyzed using a direct colony-counting method and SEM images. Hydrophobicity increased as a function of stretched length or width (Deltax or Deltay); it reached a maximum at Deltax = 60% with one-dimensional MAM and decreased as Deltax further increased to 80 and 100%. The same trend was observed for the two-dimensional MAM. After 12-h incubation, all the FAS/silicone surfaces had significantly reduced adherence of Staphylococcus epidermidis by 42-89%, compared to untreated silicone, and the degree of which is inversely related to surface hydrophobicity. On the other hand, surface roughness had a significant effect on bacterial adhesion and colonization only when the root-mean-square roughness was higher than 200 nm.

  14. The effect of inhomogeneous roughness on radar backscattering from slightly deformed sea ice

    SciTech Connect

    Dierking, W.; Carlstroem, A.; Ulander, L.M.H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on the spatially varying backscattering signature of an area of refrozen brash ice observed by a ship based scatterometer. The measurements were carried out as part of the Baltic Experiment for ERS-1 in 1994. The scatterometer was operated at 5.4 GHz at different incidence angles and polarizations. By analyzing the scatterometer data over azimuth scans, it was found that the backscattering variabilities are not only due to fading but also contain a textural component. Surface height profiles were measured using a laser. The observed ice surface roughness was nonstationary over the measurement area. The ice surface can be approximated by adjacent patches of stationary roughness with patch dimensions of about 4.5 m. From the roughness spectra of different stationary patches, two roughness classes can be distinguished. The implications of estimating the roughness parameters from relatively short profile lengths is discussed and the effect on theoretical predictions of the backscattering coefficient is investigated. The texture variance is evaluated theoretically on the basis of the simulated backscattering coefficients of the two observed roughness classes and is found to compare with the scatterometer data.

  15. Upper Extremity Length Equalization

    PubMed Central

    DeCoster, Thomas A.; Ritterbusch, John; Crawford, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Significant upper extremity length inequality is uncommon but can cause major functional problems. The ability to position and use the hand may be impaired by shortness of any of the long bones of the upper extremity. In many respects upper and lower extremity length problems are similar. They most commonly occur after injury to a growing bone and the treatment modalities utilized in the lower extremity may be applied to the upper extremity. These treatment options include epiphysiodesis, shortening osteotomy, angulatory correction osteotomy and lengthening. This report reviews the literature relative to upper extremity length inequality and equalization and presents an algorithm for evaluation and planning appropriate treatment for patients with this condition. This algorithm is illustrated by two clinical cases of posttraumatic shortness of the radius which were effectively treated. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

  16. Relativistic Length Agony Continued

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redzic, D. V.

    2014-06-01

    We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redzic 2008b), we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the 'pole in a barn' paradox.

  17. Optical Roughness Measurements Of Industrial Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilsinn, David; Vorburger, Theodore; Cao, Lin-Xiang; Giauque, Charles; Scire, Fredric; Teague, E. Clayton

    1986-10-01

    This paper reviews our efforts to develop the theory and instrumentation needed to measure surface roughness of manufactured surfaces by optical scattering methods. We are addressing three key problems: developing a valid and sufficient optical scattering theory for this roughness range, applying appropriate mathematical inversion techniques so that practical roughness parameters can be calculated from scattering distributions, and finally evaluating a compact commercial instrument for a wide variety of problems. Recent results from our group suggest that the simple phase screen approximation model of optical scattering validly describes light scattering from machined metal surfaces with a predominant surface lay in the 0.01 pm R to 3.0 pm R range. A model for scattering in the entire farr-field hemisphere and obsera vations on our r approach to the inverse problem is given.

  18. Discrete Roughness Transition for Hypersonic Flight Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of discrete roughness and the correlations developed to predict the onset of boundary layer transition on hypersonic flight vehicles are discussed. The paper is organized by hypersonic vehicle applications characterized in a general sense by the boundary layer: slender with hypersonic conditions at the edge of the boundary layer, moderately blunt with supersonic, and blunt with subsonic. This paper is intended to be a review of recent discrete roughness transition work completed at NASA Langley Research Center in support of agency flight test programs. First, a review is provided of discrete roughness wind tunnel data and the resulting correlations that were developed. Then, results obtained from flight vehicles, in particular the recently flown Hyper-X and Shuttle missions, are discussed and compared to the ground-based correlations.

  19. Faster magnetic walls in rough wires.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Yoshinobu; Thiaville, André; Miltat, Jacques

    2003-08-01

    In some magnetic devices that have been proposed, the information is transmitted along a magnetic wire of submicrometre width by domain wall (DW) motion. The speed of the device is obviously linked to the DW velocity, and measured values up to 1 km x s(-1) have been reported in moderate fields. Although such velocities were already reached in orthoferrite crystal films with a high anisotropy, the surprise came from their observation in the low-anisotropy permalloy. We have studied, by numerical simulation, the DW propagation in such samples, and observed a very counter-intuitive behaviour. For perfect samples (no edge roughness), the calculated velocity increased with field up to a threshold, beyond which it abruptly decreased--a well-known phenomenon. However, for rough strip edges, the velocity breakdown was found to be suppressed. We explain this phenomenon, and propose that roughness should rather be engineered than avoided when fabricating nanostructures for DW propagation.

  20. System Identification of a Vortex Lattice Aerodynamic Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Kholodar, Denis; Dowell, Earl H.

    2001-01-01

    The state-space presentation of an aerodynamic vortex model is considered from a classical and system identification perspective. Using an aerodynamic vortex model as a numerical simulator of a wing tunnel experiment, both full state and limited state data or measurements are considered. Two possible approaches for system identification are presented and modal controllability and observability are also considered. The theory then is applied to the system identification of a flow over an aerodynamic delta wing and typical results are presented.