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Sample records for aerodynamic simulation program

  1. History of the numerical aerodynamic simulation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Victor L.; Ballhaus, William F., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) program has reached a milestone with the completion of the initial operating configuration of the NAS Processing System Network. This achievement is the first major milestone in the continuing effort to provide a state-of-the-art supercomputer facility for the national aerospace community and to serve as a pathfinder for the development and use of future supercomputer systems. The underlying factors that motivated the initiation of the program are first identified and then discussed. These include the emergence and evolution of computational aerodynamics as a powerful new capability in aerodynamics research and development, the computer power required for advances in the discipline, the complementary nature of computation and wind tunnel testing, and the need for the government to play a pathfinding role in the development and use of large-scale scientific computing systems. Finally, the history of the NAS program is traced from its inception in 1975 to the present time.

  2. NASA aerodynamics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Louis J.; Hessenius, Kristin A.; Corsiglia, Victor R.; Hicks, Gary; Richardson, Pamela F.; Unger, George; Neumann, Benjamin; Moss, Jim

    1992-01-01

    The annual accomplishments is reviewed for the Aerodynamics Division during FY 1991. The program includes both fundamental and applied research directed at the full spectrum of aerospace vehicles, from rotorcraft to planetary entry probes. A comprehensive review is presented of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications; CFD validation; transition and turbulence physics; numerical aerodynamic simulation; test techniques and instrumentation; configuration aerodynamics; aeroacoustics; aerothermodynamics; hypersonics; subsonics; fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.

  3. Numerical aerodynamic simulation program long haul communications prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cmaylo, Bohden K.; Foo, Lee

    1987-01-01

    This document is a report of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Long Haul Communications Prototype (LHCP). It describes the accomplishments of the LHCP group, presents the results from all LHCP experiments and testing activities, makes recommendations for present and future LHCP activities, and evaluates the remote workstation accesses from Langley Research Center, Lewis Research Center, and Colorado State University to Ames Research Center. The report is the final effort of the Long Haul (Wideband) Communications Prototype Plan (PT-1133-02-N00), 3 October 1985, which defined the requirements for the development, test, and operation of the LHCP network and was the plan used to evaluate the remote user bandwidth requirements for the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Processing System Network.

  4. NASA aerodynamics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Schairer, Edward; Hicks, Gary; Wander, Stephen; Blankson, Isiaiah; Rose, Raymond; Olson, Lawrence; Unger, George

    1990-01-01

    Presented here is a comprehensive review of the following aerodynamics elements: computational methods and applications, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation, transition and turbulence physics, numerical aerodynamic simulation, drag reduction, test techniques and instrumentation, configuration aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, aerothermodynamics, hypersonics, subsonic transport/commuter aviation, fighter/attack aircraft and rotorcraft.

  5. NAS (Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Program) technical summaries, March 1989 - February 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Given here are selected scientific results from the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Program's third year of operation. During this year, the scientific community was given access to a Cray-2 and a Cray Y-MP supercomputer. Topics covered include flow field analysis of fighter wing configurations, large-scale ocean modeling, the Space Shuttle flow field, advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes for rotary-wing airloads and performance prediction, turbulence modeling of separated flows, airloads and acoustics of rotorcraft, vortex-induced nonlinearities on submarines, and standing oblique detonation waves.

  6. Review of NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    NASA has planned a supercomputer for computational fluid dynamics research since the mid-1970's. With the approval of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Program as a FY 1984 new start, Congress requested an assessment of the program's objectives, projected short- and long-term uses, program design, computer architecture, user needs, and handling of proprietary and classified information. Specifically requested was an examination of the merits of proceeding with multiple high speed processor (HSP) systems contrasted with a single high speed processor system. The panel found NASA's objectives and projected uses sound and the projected distribution of users as realistic as possible at this stage. The multiple-HSP, whereby new, more powerful state-of-the-art HSP's would be integrated into a flexible network, was judged to present major advantages over any single HSP system.

  7. NAS technical summaries. Numerical aerodynamic simulation program, March 1992 - February 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    NASA created the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Program in 1987 to focus resources on solving critical problems in aeroscience and related disciplines by utilizing the power of the most advanced supercomputers available. The NAS Program provides scientists with the necessary computing power to solve today's most demanding computational fluid dynamics problems and serves as a pathfinder in integrating leading-edge supercomputing technologies, thus benefitting other supercomputer centers in government and industry. The 1992-93 operational year concluded with 399 high-speed processor projects and 91 parallel projects representing NASA, the Department of Defense, other government agencies, private industry, and universities. This document provides a glimpse at some of the significant scientific results for the year.

  8. NAS technical summaries: Numerical aerodynamic simulation program, March 1991 - February 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA created the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Program in 1987 to focus resources on solving critical problems in aeroscience and related disciplines by utilizing the power of the most advanced supercomputers available. The NAS Program provides scientists with the necessary computing power to solve today's most demanding computational fluid dynamics problems and serves as a pathfinder in integrating leading-edge supercomputing technologies, thus benefiting other supercomputer centers in Government and industry. This report contains selected scientific results from the 1991-92 NAS Operational Year, March 4, 1991 to March 3, 1992, which is the fifth year of operation. During this year, the scientific community was given access to a Cray-2 and a Cray Y-MP. The Cray-2, the first generation supercomputer, has four processors, 256 megawords of central memory, and a total sustained speed of 250 million floating point operations per second. The Cray Y-MP, the second generation supercomputer, has eight processors and a total sustained speed of one billion floating point operations per second. Additional memory was installed this year, doubling capacity from 128 to 256 megawords of solid-state storage-device memory. Because of its higher performance, the Cray Y-MP delivered approximately 77 percent of the total number of supercomputer hours used during this year.

  9. TAD- THEORETICAL AERODYNAMICS PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrowman, J.

    1994-01-01

    This theoretical aerodynamics program, TAD, was developed to predict the aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles with sounding rocket configurations. These slender, axisymmetric finned vehicle configurations have a wide range of aeronautical applications from rockets to high speed armament. Over a given range of Mach numbers, TAD will compute the normal force coefficient derivative, the center-of-pressure, the roll forcing moment coefficient derivative, the roll damping moment coefficient derivative, and the pitch damping moment coefficient derivative of a sounding rocket configured vehicle. The vehicle may consist of a sharp pointed nose of cone or tangent ogive shape, up to nine other body divisions of conical shoulder, conical boattail, or circular cylinder shape, and fins of trapezoid planform shape with constant cross section and either three or four fins per fin set. The characteristics computed by TAD have been shown to be accurate to within ten percent of experimental data in the supersonic region. The TAD program calculates the characteristics of separate portions of the vehicle, calculates the interference between separate portions of the vehicle, and then combines the results to form a total vehicle solution. Also, TAD can be used to calculate the characteristics of the body or fins separately as an aid in the design process. Input to the TAD program consists of simple descriptions of the body and fin geometries and the Mach range of interest. Output includes the aerodynamic characteristics of the total vehicle, or user-selected portions, at specified points over the mach range. The TAD program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 360 computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 123K of 8 bit bytes. The TAD program was originally developed in 1967 and last updated in 1972.

  10. Performance deterioration based on simulated aerodynamic loads test, JT9D jet engine diagnostics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stromberg, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    An engine was specially prepared with extensive instrumentation to monitor performance, case temperatures, and clearance changes. A special loading device was used to apply known loads on the engine by the use of cables placed around the flight inlet. These loads simulated the estimated aerodynamic pressure distributions that occur on the inlet in various segments of a typical airplane flight. Test results indicate that the engine lost 1.3 percent in take-off thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC) during the course of the test effort. Permanent clearance changes due to the loads accounted for 1.1 percent; increase in low pressure compressor airfoil roughness and thermal distortion in the high pressure turbine accounted for 0.2 percent. Pretest predicted performance loss due to clearance changes was 0.9 percent in TSFC. Therefore, the agreement between measurement and prediction is considered to be excellent.

  11. Airfoil Ice-Accretion Aerodynamics Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Michael B.; Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Guffond, Didier; Montreuil, E.

    2007-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center, ONERA, and the University of Illinois are conducting a major research program whose goal is to improve our understanding of the aerodynamic scaling of ice accretions on airfoils. The program when it is completed will result in validated scaled simulation methods that produce the essential aerodynamic features of the full-scale iced-airfoil. This research will provide some of the first, high-fidelity, full-scale, iced-airfoil aerodynamic data. An initial study classified ice accretions based on their aerodynamics into four types: roughness, streamwise ice, horn ice, and spanwise-ridge ice. Subscale testing using a NACA 23012 airfoil was performed in the NASA IRT and University of Illinois wind tunnel to better understand the aerodynamics of these ice types and to test various levels of ice simulation fidelity. These studies are briefly reviewed here and have been presented in more detail in other papers. Based on these results, full-scale testing at the ONERA F1 tunnel using cast ice shapes obtained from molds taken in the IRT will provide full-scale iced airfoil data from full-scale ice accretions. Using these data as a baseline, the final step is to validate the simulation methods in scale in the Illinois wind tunnel. Computational ice accretion methods including LEWICE and ONICE have been used to guide the experiments and are briefly described and results shown. When full-scale and simulation aerodynamic results are available, these data will be used to further develop computational tools. Thus the purpose of the paper is to present an overview of the program and key results to date.

  12. Computer Simulation of Aircraft Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inouye, Mamoru

    1989-01-01

    The role of Ames Research Center in conducting basic aerodynamics research through computer simulations is described. The computer facilities, including supercomputers and peripheral equipment that represent the state of the art, are described. The methodology of computational fluid dynamics is explained briefly. Fundamental studies of turbulence and transition are being pursued to understand these phenomena and to develop models that can be used in the solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Four applications of computer simulations for aerodynamics problems are described: subsonic flow around a fuselage at high angle of attack, subsonic flow through a turbine stator-rotor stage, transonic flow around a flexible swept wing, and transonic flow around a wing-body configuration that includes an inlet and a tail.

  13. 1997 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop on February 25-28, 1997. The workshop was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, Flight Controls, Supersonic Laminar Flow Control, and Sonic Boom Prediction. The workshop objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT Motion Simulator results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas.

  14. 1999 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, David E. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1999 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 8-12, 1999 in Anaheim, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in the areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to: (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working on HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and midpoint optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented, along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program. This Volume 1/Part 1 publication covers configuration aerodynamics.

  15. 1997 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop on February 25-28, 1997. The workshop was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in area of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, Flight Controls, Supersonic Laminar Flow Control, and Sonic Boom Prediction. The workshop objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodyamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT Motion Simulator results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas.

  16. 1999 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, David E. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1999 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 8-12, 1999 in Anaheim, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in the areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working on HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and midpoint optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented, along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program. This Volume 1/Part 2 publication covers the design optimization and testing sessions.

  17. 1998 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillin, S. Naomi (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1998 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 9-13, in Los Angeles, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry HighSpeed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of. Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to: (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program.

  18. 1998 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 1; Configuration Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillin, S. Naomi (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1998 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 9-13, in Los Angeles, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program.

  19. Space Shuttle Plume Simulation Effect on Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hair, L. M.

    1978-01-01

    Technology for simulating plumes in wind tunnel tests was not adequate to provide the required confidence in test data where plume induced aerodynamic effects might be significant. A broad research program was undertaken to correct the deficiency. Four tasks within the program are reported. Three of these tasks involve conducting experiments, related to three different aspects of the plume simulation problem: (1) base pressures; (2) lateral jet pressures; and (3) plume parameters. The fourth task involves collecting all of the base pressure test data generated during the program. Base pressures were measured on a classic cone ogive cylinder body as affected by the coaxial, high temperature exhaust plumes of a variety of solid propellant rockets. Valid data were obtained at supersonic freestream conditions but not at transonic. Pressure data related to lateral (separation) jets at M infinity = 4.5, for multiple clustered nozzles canted to the freestream and operating at high dynamic pressure ratios. All program goals were met although the model hardware was found to be large relative to the wind tunnel size so that operation was limited for some nozzle configurations.

  20. Numerical aerodynamic simulation facility feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    There were three major issues examined in the feasibility study. First, the ability of the proposed system architecture to support the anticipated workload was evaluated. Second, the throughput of the computational engine (the flow model processor) was studied using real application programs. Third, the availability reliability, and maintainability of the system were modeled. The evaluations were based on the baseline systems. The results show that the implementation of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility, in the form considered, would indeed be a feasible project with an acceptable level of risk. The technology required (both hardware and software) either already exists or, in the case of a few parts, is expected to be announced this year. Facets of the work described include the hardware configuration, software, user language, and fault tolerance.

  1. Aerodynamic Simulation of Ice Accretion on Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Bragg, Michael B.; Busch, Greg T.; Montreuil, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    This report describes recent improvements in aerodynamic scaling and simulation of ice accretion on airfoils. Ice accretions were classified into four types on the basis of aerodynamic effects: roughness, horn, streamwise, and spanwise ridge. The NASA Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) was used to generate ice accretions within these four types using both subscale and full-scale models. Large-scale, pressurized windtunnel testing was performed using a 72-in.- (1.83-m-) chord, NACA 23012 airfoil model with high-fidelity, three-dimensional castings of the IRT ice accretions. Performance data were recorded over Reynolds numbers from 4.5 x 10(exp 6) to 15.9 x 10(exp 6) and Mach numbers from 0.10 to 0.28. Lower fidelity ice-accretion simulation methods were developed and tested on an 18-in.- (0.46-m-) chord NACA 23012 airfoil model in a small-scale wind tunnel at a lower Reynolds number. The aerodynamic accuracy of the lower fidelity, subscale ice simulations was validated against the full-scale results for a factor of 4 reduction in model scale and a factor of 8 reduction in Reynolds number. This research has defined the level of geometric fidelity required for artificial ice shapes to yield aerodynamic performance results to within a known level of uncertainty and has culminated in a proposed methodology for subscale iced-airfoil aerodynamic simulation.

  2. Aerodynamics. [numerical simulation using supercomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Randolph A., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A projection is made of likely improvements in the economics of commercial aircraft operation due to developments in aerodynamics in the next half-century. Notable among these improvements are active laminar flow control techniques' application to third-generation SSTs, in order to achieve an L/D value of about 20; this is comparable to current subsonic transports, and has the further consequence of reducing cabin noise. Wave-cancellation systems may also be used to eliminate sonic boom overpressures, and rapid-combustion systems may be able to eliminate all pollutants from jet exhausts other than CO2.

  3. Aerodynamics. [Numerical simulation using supercomputers

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, R.A. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A projection is made of likely improvements in the economics of commercial aircraft operation due to developments in aerodynamics in the next half-century. Notable among these improvements are active laminar flow control techniques' application to third-generation SSTs, in order to achieve an L/D value of about 20; this is comparable to current subsonic transports, and has the further consequence of reducing cabin noise. Wave-cancellation systems may also be used to eliminate sonic boom overpressures, and rapid-combustion systems may be able to eliminate all pollutants from jet exhausts other than CO/sub 2/.

  4. User's guide to program FLEXSTAB. [aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavin, R. K., III; Colunga, D.

    1975-01-01

    A manual is presented for correctly submitting program runs in aerodynamics on the UNIVAC 1108 computer system. All major program modules are included. Control cards are documented for the user's convenience, and card parameters are included in order to provide some idea as to reasonable time estimates for the program modules.

  5. Computational aerodynamics and supercomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballhaus, W. F., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Some of the progress in computational aerodynamics over the last decade is reviewed. The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Program objectives, computational goals, and implementation plans are described.

  6. Aerodynamic Simulation of Runback Ice Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Whalen, Edward A.; Busch, Greg T.; Bragg, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the results of recent investigations into the aerodynamics of simulated runback ice accretion on airfoils. Aerodynamic tests were performed on a full-scale model using a high-fidelity, ice-casting simulation at near-flight Reynolds (Re) number. The ice-casting simulation was attached to the leading edge of a 72-in. (1828.8-mm ) chord NACA 23012 airfoil model. Aerodynamic performance tests were conducted at the ONERA F1 pressurized wind tunnel over a Reynolds number range of 4.7?10(exp 6) to 16.0?10(exp 6) and a Mach (M) number ran ge of 0.10 to 0.28. For Re = 16.0?10(exp 6) and M = 0.20, the simulated runback ice accretion on the airfoil decreased the maximum lift coe fficient from 1.82 to 1.51 and decreased the stalling angle of attack from 18.1deg to 15.0deg. The pitching-moment slope was also increased and the drag coefficient was increased by more than a factor of two. In general, the performance effects were insensitive to Reynolds numb er and Mach number changes over the range tested. Follow-on, subscale aerodynamic tests were conducted on a quarter-scale NACA 23012 model (18-in. (457.2-mm) chord) at Re = 1.8?10(exp 6) and M = 0.18, using low-fidelity, geometrically scaled simulations of the full-scale castin g. It was found that simple, two-dimensional simulations of the upper- and lower-surface runback ridges provided the best representation of the full-scale, high Reynolds number iced-airfoil aerodynamics, whereas higher-fidelity simulations resulted in larger performance degrada tions. The experimental results were used to define a new subclassification of spanwise ridge ice that distinguishes between short and tall ridges. This subclassification is based upon the flow field and resulting aerodynamic characteristics, regardless of the physical size of the ridge and the ice-accretion mechanism.

  7. Aerodynamic Simulation of Indoor Flight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Leon, Nelson; De Leon, Matthew N.

    2007-01-01

    We develop a two-dimensional flight simulator for lightweight (less than 10 g) indoor planes. The simulator consists of four coupled time differential equations describing the plane CG, plane pitch and motor. The equations are integrated numerically with appropriate parameters and initial conditions for two planes: (1) Science Olympiad and (2)…

  8. Application Program Interface for the Orion Aerodynamics Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Philip E.; Thompson, James

    2013-01-01

    The Application Programming Interface (API) for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Aerodynamic Database has been developed to provide the developers of software an easily implemented, fully self-contained method of accessing the CEV Aerodynamic Database for use in their analysis and simulation tools. The API is programmed in C and provides a series of functions to interact with the database, such as initialization, selecting various options, and calculating the aerodynamic data. No special functions (file read/write, table lookup) are required on the host system other than those included with a standard ANSI C installation. It reads one or more files of aero data tables. Previous releases of aerodynamic databases for space vehicles have only included data tables and a document of the algorithm and equations to combine them for the total aerodynamic forces and moments. This process required each software tool to have a unique implementation of the database code. Errors or omissions in the documentation, or errors in the implementation, led to a lengthy and burdensome process of having to debug each instance of the code. Additionally, input file formats differ for each space vehicle simulation tool, requiring the aero database tables to be reformatted to meet the tool s input file structure requirements. Finally, the capabilities for built-in table lookup routines vary for each simulation tool. Implementation of a new database may require an update to and verification of the table lookup routines. This may be required if the number of dimensions of a data table exceeds the capability of the simulation tools built-in lookup routines. A single software solution was created to provide an aerodynamics software model that could be integrated into other simulation and analysis tools. The highly complex Orion aerodynamics model can then be quickly included in a wide variety of tools. The API code is written in ANSI C for ease of portability to a wide variety of systems. The

  9. Index for aerodynamic data from the Bumblebee program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronvich, L. L.; Barnes, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    The Bumblebee program, was designed to provide a supersonic guided missile. The aerodynamics program included a fundamental research effort in supersonic aerodynamics as well as a design task in developing both test vehicles and prototypes of tactical missiles. An index of aerodynamic missile data developed in this program is presented.

  10. Aeroheating and Aerodynamic CFD Validation And Prediction for The X-38 Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, Mark P.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Davies, Carol B.; Berry, Scott; Horvath, Tom; Campbell, Charles

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a computational fluid dynamics validation exercise using the General Aerodynamic Simulation Program (GASP) code for vehicles under consideration for the X-38 program. The scope of the exercise involved simulation and comparison with wind tunnel aeroheating and aerodynamic data in the hypersonic regime. In addition, simulations were performed and results are presented for the full-scale flight vehicle along an expected re- entry trajectory.

  11. Aerodynamic Simulation of the MEXICO Rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herraez, I.; Medjroubi, W.; Stoevesandt, B.; Peinke, J.

    2014-12-01

    CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations are a very promising method for predicting the aerodynamic behavior of wind turbines in an inexpensive and accurate way. One of the major drawbacks of this method is the lack of validated models. As a consequence, the reliability of numerical results is often difficult to assess. The MEXICO project aimed at solving this problem by providing the project partners with high quality measurements of a 4.5 meters rotor diameter wind turbine operating under controlled conditions. The large measurement data-set allows the validation of all kind of aerodynamic models. This work summarizes our efforts for validating a CFD model based on the open source software OpenFoam. Both steady- state and time-accurate simulations have been performed with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model for several operating conditions. In this paper we will concentrate on axisymmetric inflow for 3 different wind speeds. The numerical results are compared with pressure distributions from several blade sections and PIV-flow data from the near wake region. In general, a reasonable agreement between measurements the and our simulations exists. Some discrepancies, which require further research, are also discussed.

  12. Using the HARV simulation aerodynamic model to determine forebody strake aerodynamic coefficients from flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messina, Michael D.

    1995-01-01

    The method described in this report is intended to present an overview of a process developed to extract the forebody aerodynamic increments from flight tests. The process to determine the aerodynamic increments (rolling pitching, and yawing moments, Cl, Cm, Cn, respectively) for the forebody strake controllers added to the F/A - 18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) aircraft was developed to validate the forebody strake aerodynamic model used in simulation.

  13. Faster Aerodynamic Simulation With Cart3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A NASA-developed aerodynamic simulation tool is ensuring the safety of future space operations while providing designers and engineers with an automated, highly accurate computer simulation suite. Cart3D, co-winner of NASA's 2002 Software of the Year award, is the result of over 10 years of research and software development conducted by Michael Aftosmis and Dr. John Melton of Ames Research Center and Professor Marsha Berger of the Courant Institute at New York University. Cart3D offers a revolutionary approach to computational fluid dynamics (CFD), the computer simulation of how fluids and gases flow around an object of a particular design. By fusing technological advancements in diverse fields such as mineralogy, computer graphics, computational geometry, and fluid dynamics, the software provides a new industrial geometry processing and fluid analysis capability with unsurpassed automation and efficiency.

  14. Aerodynamic Simulation of the MARINTEK Braceless Semisubmersible Wave Tank Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Gordon; Muskulus, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Model scale experiments of floating offshore wind turbines are important for both platform design for the industry as well as numerical model validation for the research community. An important consideration in the wave tank testing of offshore wind turbines are scaling effects, especially the tension between accurate scaling of both hydrodynamic and aerodynamic forces. The recent MARINTEK braceless semisubmersible wave tank experiment utilizes a novel aerodynamic force actuator to decouple the scaling of the aerodynamic forces. This actuator consists of an array of motors that pull on cables to provide aerodynamic forces that are calculated by a blade-element momentum code in real time as the experiment is conducted. This type of system has the advantage of supplying realistically scaled aerodynamic forces that include dynamic forces from platform motion, but does not provide the insights into the accuracy of the aerodynamic models that an actual model-scale rotor could provide. The modeling of this system presents an interesting challenge, as there are two ways to simulate the aerodynamics; either by using the turbulent wind fields as inputs to the aerodynamic model of the design code, or by surpassing the aerodynamic model and using the forces applied to the experimental turbine as direct inputs to the simulation. This paper investigates the best practices of modeling this type of novel aerodynamic actuator using a modified wind turbine simulation tool, and demonstrates that bypassing the dynamic aerodynamics solver of design codes can lead to erroneous results.

  15. 1997 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 2; High Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop on February 25-28, 1997. The workshop was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag, prediction and minimization), High-Lift, Flight Controls, Supersonic Laminar Flow Control, and Sonic Boom Prediction. The workshop objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT Motion Simulator results were presented along with executives summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas.

  16. Supersonic Parachute Aerodynamic Testing and Fluid Structure Interaction Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingard, J. S.; Underwood, J. C.; Darley, M. G.; Marraffa, L.; Ferracina, L.

    2014-06-01

    The ESA Supersonic Parachute program expands the knowledge of parachute inflation and flying characteristics in supersonic flows using wind tunnel testing and fluid structure interaction to develop new inflation algorithms and aerodynamic databases.

  17. 1998 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 2; High Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillin, S. Naomi (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1998 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 9-13, in Los Angeles, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program.

  18. 1999 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 2; High Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, David E. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1999 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 8-12, 1999 in Anaheim, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in the areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among die scientists and engineers working on HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and midpoint optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented, along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program. This Volume 2/Part 2 publication covers the tools and methods development session.

  19. Velopharyngeal orifice area prediction during aerodynamic simulation of fricative consonants.

    PubMed

    Smith, B E; Weinberg, B

    1983-01-01

    The present work examined the predictive nature of modeled velopharyngeal orifice area calculations obtained using the hydrokinetic equation (Warren and DuBois, 1964) during conditions simulating voiceless fricative production. Results indicated that accurate estimates of velopharyngeal orifice area can be obtained during aerodynamic events like those known to exist during fricative production. These findings were interpreted to lend support to the view that aerodynamic assessment incorporating hydrokinetic principles provides a useful, noninvasive method for clinical testing and research investigation of velopharyngeal function.

  20. Feasibility study for a numerical aerodynamic simulation facility. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, N. R.; Bergman, R. O.; Bonstrom, D. B.; Brinkman, T. W.; Chiu, S. H. J.; Green, S. S.; Hansen, S. D.; Klein, D. L.; Krohn, H. E.; Prow, R. P.

    1979-01-01

    A Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility (NASF) was designed for the simulation of fluid flow around three-dimensional bodies, both in wind tunnel environments and in free space. The application of numerical simulation to this field of endeavor promised to yield economies in aerodynamic and aircraft body designs. A model for a NASF/FMP (Flow Model Processor) ensemble using a possible approach to meeting NASF goals is presented. The computer hardware and software are presented, along with the entire design and performance analysis and evaluation.

  1. Numerical aerodynamic simulation facility. Preliminary study extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The production of an optimized design of key elements of the candidate facility was the primary objective of this report. This was accomplished by effort in the following tasks: (1) to further develop, optimize and describe the function description of the custom hardware; (2) to delineate trade off areas between performance, reliability, availability, serviceability, and programmability; (3) to develop metrics and models for validation of the candidate systems performance; (4) to conduct a functional simulation of the system design; (5) to perform a reliability analysis of the system design; and (6) to develop the software specifications to include a user level high level programming language, a correspondence between the programming language and instruction set and outline the operation system requirements.

  2. Use of advanced computers for aerodynamic flow simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, F. R.; Ballhaus, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    The current and projected use of advanced computers for large-scale aerodynamic flow simulation applied to engineering design and research is discussed. The design use of mature codes run on conventional, serial computers is compared with the fluid research use of new codes run on parallel and vector computers. The role of flow simulations in design is illustrated by the application of a three dimensional, inviscid, transonic code to the Sabreliner 60 wing redesign. Research computations that include a more complete description of the fluid physics by use of Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes and large-eddy simulation formulations are also presented. Results of studies for a numerical aerodynamic simulation facility are used to project the feasibility of design applications employing these more advanced three dimensional viscous flow simulations.

  3. Numerical aerodynamic simulation facility preliminary study: Executive study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A computing system was designed with the capability of providing an effective throughput of one billion floating point operations per second for three dimensional Navier-Stokes codes. The methodology used in defining the baseline design, and the major elements of the numerical aerodynamic simulation facility are described.

  4. Velopharyngeal orifice area prediction during aerodynamic simulation of fricative consonants.

    PubMed

    Smith, B E; Weinberg, B

    1983-01-01

    The present work examined the predictive nature of modeled velopharyngeal orifice area calculations obtained using the hydrokinetic equation (Warren and DuBois, 1964) during conditions simulating voiceless fricative production. Results indicated that accurate estimates of velopharyngeal orifice area can be obtained during aerodynamic events like those known to exist during fricative production. These findings were interpreted to lend support to the view that aerodynamic assessment incorporating hydrokinetic principles provides a useful, noninvasive method for clinical testing and research investigation of velopharyngeal function. PMID:6572571

  5. A workstation based simulator for teaching compressible aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    A workstation-based interactive flow simulator has been developed to aid in the teaching of undergraduate compressible aerodynamics. By solving the equations found in NACA 1135, the simulator models three basic fluids problems encountered in supersonic flow: flow past a compression corner, flow past two wedges in series, and flow past two opposed wedges. The study can vary the geometry or flow conditions through a graphical user interface and the new conditions are calculated immediately. Various graphical formats present the results of the flow calculations to the student. The simulator includes interactive questions and answers to aid in both the use of the tool and to develop an understanding of some of the complexities of compressible aerodynamics. A series of help screens make the simulator easy to learn and use.

  6. Computational Aerodynamic Simulations of a Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation Fan Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    Quieter working environments for astronauts are needed if future long-duration space exploration missions are to be safe and productive. Ventilation and payload cooling fans are known to be dominant sources of noise, with the International Space Station being a good case in point. To address this issue cost effectively, early attention to fan design, selection, and installation has been recommended, leading to an effort by NASA to examine the potential for small-fan noise reduction by improving fan aerodynamic design. As a preliminary part of that effort, the aerodynamics of a cabin ventilation fan designed by Hamilton Sundstrand has been simulated using computational fluid dynamics codes, and the computed solutions analyzed to quantify various aspects of the fan aerodynamics and performance. Four simulations were performed at the design rotational speed: two at the design flow rate and two at off-design flow rates. Following a brief discussion of the computational codes, various aerodynamic- and performance-related quantities derived from the computed flow fields are presented along with relevant flow field details. The results show that the computed fan performance is in generally good agreement with stated design goals.

  7. DSMC Simulations of Apollo Capsule Aerodynamics for Hypersonic Rarefied Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, James N.; Glass, Christopher E.; Greene, Francis A.

    2006-01-01

    Direct simulation Monte Carlo DSMC simulations are performed for the Apollo capsule in the hypersonic low density transitional flow regime. The focus is on ow conditions similar to that experienced by the Apollo Command Module during the high altitude portion of its reentry Results for aerodynamic forces and moments are presented that demonstrate their sensitivity to rarefaction that is for free molecular to continuum conditions. Also aerodynamic data are presented that shows their sensitivity to a range of reentry velocity encompasing conditions that include reentry from low Earth orbit lunar return and Mars return velocities to km/s. The rarefied results are anchored in the continuum regime with data from Navier Stokes simulations

  8. Scramjet exhaust simulation technique for hypersonic aircraft nozzle design and aerodynamic tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, J. L.; Talcott, N. A., Jr.; Cubbage, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Current design philosophy for scramjet-powered hypersonic aircraft results in configurations with the entire lower fuselage surface utilized as part of the propulsion system. The lower aft-end of the vehicle acts as a high expansion ratio nozzle. Not only must the external nozzle be designed to extract the maximum possible thrust force from the high energy flow at the combustor exit, but the forces produced by the nozzle must be aligned such that they do not unduly affect aerodynamic balance. The strong coupling between the propulsion system and aerodynamics of the aircraft makes imperative at least a partial simulation of the inlet, exhaust, and external flows of the hydrogen-burning scramjet in conventional facilities for both nozzle formulation and aerodynamic-force data acquisition. Aerodynamic testing methods offer no contemporary approach for such vehicle design requirements. NASA-Langley has pursued an extensive scramjet/airframe integration R&D program for several years and has recently developed a promising technique for simulation of the scramjet exhaust flow for hypersonic aircraft. Current results of the research program to develop a scramjet flow simulation technique through the use of substitute gas blends are described in this paper.

  9. An Improved Theoretical Aerodynamic Derivatives Computer Program for Sounding Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrowman, J. S.; Fan, D. N.; Obosu, C. B.; Vira, N. R.; Yang, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The paper outlines a Theoretical Aerodynamic Derivatives (TAD) computer program for computing the aerodynamics of sounding rockets. TAD outputs include normal force, pitching moment and rolling moment coefficient derivatives as well as center-of-pressure locations as a function of the flight Mach number. TAD is applicable to slender finned axisymmetric vehicles at small angles of attack in subsonic and supersonic flows. TAD improvement efforts include extending Mach number regions of applicability, improving accuracy, and replacement of some numerical integration algorithms with closed-form integrations. Key equations used in TAD are summarized and typical TAD outputs are illustrated for a second-stage Tomahawk configuration.

  10. Unsteady aerodynamic simulation of multiple bodies in relative motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meakin, Robert L.; Suhs, Norman E.

    1989-01-01

    A prototype method for time-accurate simulation of multiple aerodynamic bodies in relative motion is presented. The method is general and features unsteady chimera domain decomposition techniques and an implicit approximately factored finite-difference procedure to solve the time-dependent thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. The method is applied to a set of two- and three-dimensional test problems to establish spatial and temporal accuracy, quantify computational efficiency, and begin to test overall code robustness.

  11. Geometry program for aerodynamic lifting surface theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medan, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    A computer program that provides the geometry and boundary conditions appropriate for an analysis of a lifting, thin wing with control surfaces in linearized, subsonic, steady flow is presented. The kernel function method lifting surface theory is applied. The data which is generated by the program is stored on disk files or tapes for later use by programs which calculate an influence matrix, plot the wing planform, and evaluate the loads on the wing. In addition to processing data for subsequent use in a lifting surface analysis, the program is useful for computing area and mean geometric chords of the wing and control surfaces.

  12. AEROX: Computer program for transonic aircraft aerodynamics to high angles of attack. Volume 1: Aerodynamic methods and program users' guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Axelson, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The AEROX program estimates lift, induced-drag and pitching moments to high angles (typ. 60 deg) for wings and for wingbody combinations with or without an aft horizontal tail. Minimum drag coefficients are not estimated, but may be input for inclusion in the total aerodynamic parameters which are output in listed and plotted formats. The theory, users' guide, test cases, and program listing are presented.

  13. Computers vs. wind tunnels for aerodynamic flow simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, D. R.; Mark, H.; Pirtle, M. W.

    1975-01-01

    It is pointed out that in other fields of computational physics, such as ballistics, celestial mechanics, and neutronics, computations have already displaced experiments as the principal means of obtaining dynamic simulations. In the case of aerodynamic investigations, the complexity of the computational work involved in solving the Navier-Stokes equations is the reason that such investigations rely currently mainly on wind-tunnel testing. However, because of inherent limitations of the wind-tunnel approach and economic considerations, it appears that at some time in the future aerodynamic studies will chiefly rely on computational flow data provided by the computer. Taking into account projected development trends, it is estimated that computers with the required capabilities for a solution of the complete viscous, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations will be available in the mid-1980s.

  14. Comprehensive missile aerodynamics programs for preliminary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillenius, M. F. E.; Hemsch, M. J.; Sawyer, W. C.; Allen, J. M.; Blair, A. B., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Two different classes of missile aeroprediction programs have been recently developed. The first class of programs provides rapid engineering predictions and includes MISSILE1 and MISSILE2 applicable to missile configurations with axisymmetric bodies. The second class of programs consists of the DEMON series, including a simplified version NSWCDM, designed to calculate detailed loadings acting on supersonic missiles which may have non-circular body cross sections. Both classes account for high angles of attack and track vortices from canard or wing section to the tail section. Extensive comparisons with experimental data are presented including nonlinear effects of canard control.

  15. Aircraft Noise Prediction Program theoretical manual: Propeller aerodynamics and noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorumski, W. E. (Editor); Weir, D. S. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The prediction sequence used in the aircraft noise prediction program (ANOPP) is described. The elements of the sequence are called program modules. The first group of modules analyzes the propeller geometry, the aerodynamics, including both potential and boundary-layer flow, the propeller performance, and the surface loading distribution. This group of modules is based entirely on aerodynamic strip theory. The next group of modules deals with the first group. Predictions of periodic thickness and loading noise are determined with time-domain methods. Broadband noise is predicted by a semiempirical method. Near-field predictions of fuselage surface pressrues include the effects of boundary layer refraction and scattering. Far-field predictions include atmospheric and ground effects.

  16. CFD Simulations in Support of Shuttle Orbiter Contingency Abort Aerodynamic Database Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadopoulos, Periklis E.; Prabhu, Dinesh; Wright, Michael; Davies, Carol; McDaniel, Ryan; Venkatapathy, E.; Wercinski, Paul; Gomez, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    Modern Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques were used to compute aerodynamic forces and moments of the Space Shuttle Orbiter in specific portions of contingency abort trajectory space. The trajectory space covers a Mach number range of 3.5-15, an angle-of-attack range of 20deg-60deg, an altitude range of 100-190 kft, and several different settings of the control surfaces (elevons, body flap, and speed brake). Presented here are details of the methodology and comparisons of computed aerodynamic coefficients against the values in the current Orbiter Operational Aerodynamic Data Book (OADB). While approximately 40 cases have been computed, only a sampling of the results is provided here. The computed results, in general, are in good agreement with the OADB data (i.e., within the uncertainty bands) for almost all the cases. However, in a limited number of high angle-of-attack cases (at Mach 15), there are significant differences between the computed results, especially the vehicle pitching moment, and the OADB data. A preliminary analysis of the data from the CFD simulations at Mach 15 shows that these differences can be attributed to real-gas/Mach number effects. The aerodynamic coefficients and detailed surface pressure distributions of the present simulations are being used by the Shuttle Program in the evaluation of the capabilities of the Orbiter in contingency abort scenarios.

  17. Light Vehicle-Trailer Systems' Aerodynamics Testing and Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Henry; Sigurdson, Lorenz; Lange, Carlos

    2014-11-01

    A wide range of trailers with very poor aerodynamics are hauled long distances across a vast North American highway system. Our goal was to use preliminary smoke-wire flow visualizations to learn: the characteristic flow patterns over models representing modern Vehicle-Trailer Systems (VTS); what improvements need to be made in the experimental set-up; and if there is an opportunity for reduction in aerodynamic drag. Visualization tests were done in an open circuit wind tunnel, with a cross-sectional area of 0.3 m2. Detailed models of light duty trucks and trailers were used at a Reynolds number of 13,700. Images of the streaklines indicated two characteristic features. One was the presence of a stagnation point on the leading face of the trailer followed by a separation bubble on its top. The other feature was an unexpected separation bubble on the hood of the towing vehicle. We determined that it did not have a significant effect on the downstream flow pattern. By adding a small wedge deflector on the cab of the vehicle it was concluded that there is an opportunity for significant improvement of the VTS aerodynamics. Computational simulation of the flow is underway. Support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada Discovery Grant Number 41747 is gratefully acknowledged.

  18. Exploring Discretization Error in Simulation-Based Aerodynamic Databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aftosmis, Michael J.; Nemec, Marian

    2010-01-01

    This work examines the level of discretization error in simulation-based aerodynamic databases and introduces strategies for error control. Simulations are performed using a parallel, multi-level Euler solver on embedded-boundary Cartesian meshes. Discretization errors in user-selected outputs are estimated using the method of adjoint-weighted residuals and we use adaptive mesh refinement to reduce these errors to specified tolerances. Using this framework, we examine the behavior of discretization error throughout a token database computed for a NACA 0012 airfoil consisting of 120 cases. We compare the cost and accuracy of two approaches for aerodynamic database generation. In the first approach, mesh adaptation is used to compute all cases in the database to a prescribed level of accuracy. The second approach conducts all simulations using the same computational mesh without adaptation. We quantitatively assess the error landscape and computational costs in both databases. This investigation highlights sensitivities of the database under a variety of conditions. The presence of transonic shocks or the stiffness in the governing equations near the incompressible limit are shown to dramatically increase discretization error requiring additional mesh resolution to control. Results show that such pathologies lead to error levels that vary by over factor of 40 when using a fixed mesh throughout the database. Alternatively, controlling this sensitivity through mesh adaptation leads to mesh sizes which span two orders of magnitude. We propose strategies to minimize simulation cost in sensitive regions and discuss the role of error-estimation in database quality.

  19. Numerical aerodynamic simulation facility preliminary study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A technology forecast was established for the 1980-1985 time frame and the appropriateness of various logic and memory technologies for the design of the numerical aerodynamic simulation facility was assessed. Flow models and their characteristics were analyzed and matched against candidate processor architecture. Metrics were established for the total facility, and housing and support requirements of the facility were identified. An overview of the system is presented, with emphasis on the hardware of the Navier-Stokes solver, which is the key element of the system. Software elements of the system are also discussed.

  20. Experimental quiet engine program aerodynamic performance of Fan C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giffin, R. G.; Parker, D. E.; Dunbar, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    This report presents the aerodynamic component test results of Fan C, a high-bypass-ratio, low-aerodynamic-loading, 1550 feet per second (472.4 m/sec), single-stage fan, which was designed and tested as part of the NASA Experimental Quiet Engine Program. The fan was designed to deliver a bypass pressure ratio of 1.60 with an adiabatic efficiency of 84.2 percent at a total fan flow of 915 lb/sec (415.0 kg/sec). It was tested with and without inlet distortion. A bypass total-pressure ratio of 1.61 and an adiabatic efficiency of 83.9 percent at a total fan flow of 921 lb/sec (417.8 kg/sec) were actually achieved. An operating margin in excess of 14.6 percent was demonstrated at design speed.

  1. Genetic Evolution of Shape-Altering Programs for Supersonic Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Bencze, Daniel P. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Two constrained shape optimization problems relevant to aerodynamics are solved by genetic programming, in which a population of computer programs evolves automatically under pressure of fitness-driven reproduction and genetic crossover. Known optimal solutions are recovered using a small, naive set of elementary operations. Effectiveness is improved through use of automatically defined functions, especially when one of them is capable of a variable number of iterations, even though the test problems lack obvious exploitable regularities. An attempt at evolving new elementary operations was only partially successful.

  2. LTSTAR- SUPERSONIC WING NON-LINEAR AERODYNAMICS PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, H. W.

    1994-01-01

    The Supersonic Wing Nonlinear Aerodynamics computer program, LTSTAR, was developed to provide for the estimation of the nonlinear aerodynamic characteristics of a wing at supersonic speeds. This corrected linearized-theory method accounts for nonlinearities in the variation of basic pressure loadings with local surface slopes, predicts the degree of attainment of theoretical leading-edge thrust forces, and provides an estimate of detached leading-edge vortex loadings that result when the theoretical thrust forces are not fully realized. Comparisons of LTSTAR computations with experimental results show significant improvements in detailed wing pressure distributions, particularly for large angles of attack and for regions of the wing where the flow is highly three-dimensional. The program provides generally improved predictions of the wing overall force and moment coefficients. LTSTAR could be useful in design studies aimed at aerodynamic performance optimization and for providing more realistic trade-off information for selection of wing planform geometry and airfoil section parameters. Input to the LTSTAR program includes wing planform data, freestream conditions, wing camber, wing thickness, scaling options, and output options. Output includes pressure coefficients along each chord, section normal and axial force coefficients, and the spanwise distribution of section force coefficients. With the chordwise distributions and section coefficients at each angle of attack, three sets of polars are output. The first set is for linearized theory with and without full leading-edge thrust, the second set includes nonlinear corrections, and the third includes estimates of attainable leading-edge thrust and vortex increments along with the nonlinear corrections. The LTSTAR program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 150K (octal) of 60 bit words. The LTSTAR

  3. Aerodynamic preliminary analysis system. Part 2: User's manual and program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divan, P.; Dunn, K.; Kojima, J.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive aerodynamic analysis program based on linearized potential theory is described. The solution treats thickness and attitude problems at subsonic and supersonic speeds. Three dimensional configurations with or without jet flaps having multiple nonplanar surfaces of arbitrary planform and open or closed slender bodies or noncircular contour are analyzed. Longitudinal and lateral-directional static and rotary derivative solutions are generated. The analysis is implemented on a time sharing system in conjunction with an input tablet digitizer and an interactive graphics input/output display and editing terminal to maximize its responsiveness to the preliminary analysis problem. Nominal case computation time of 45 CPU seconds on the CDC 175 for a 200 panel simulation indicates the program provides an efficient analysis for systematically performing various aerodynamic configuration tradeoff and evaluation studies.

  4. The development of a capability for aerodynamic testing of large-scale wing sections in a simulated natural rain environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bezos, Gaudy M.; Cambell, Bryan A.; Melson, W. Edward

    1989-01-01

    A research technique to obtain large-scale aerodynamic data in a simulated natural rain environment has been developed. A 10-ft chord NACA 64-210 wing section wing section equipped with leading-edge and trailing-edge high-lift devices was tested as part of a program to determine the effect of highly-concentrated, short-duration rainfall on airplane performance. Preliminary dry aerodynamic data are presented for the high-lift configuration at a velocity of 100 knots and an angle of attack of 18 deg. Also, data are presented on rainfield uniformity and rainfall concentration intensity levels obtained during the calibration of the rain simulation system.

  5. Recent CFD Simulations of Shuttle Orbiter Contingency Abort Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadopoulos, Periklis; Prabhu, Dinesh; Wright, Michael; Davies, Carol; McDaniel, Ryan; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Wersinski, Paul; Gomez, Reynaldo; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Modern Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques were used to compute aerodynamic forces and moments of the Space Shuttle Orbiter in specific portions of contingency abort trajectory space. The trajectory space covers a Mach number range of 3.5-15, an angle-of-attack range of 20-60 degrees, an altitude range of 100-190 kft, and several different settings of the control surfaces (elevons, body flap, and speed brake). While approximately 40 cases have been computed, only a sampling of the results is presented here. The computed results, in general, are in good agreement with the Orbiter Operational Aerodynamic Data Book (OADB) data (i.e., within the uncertainty bands) for almost all the cases. However, in a limited number of high angle-of-attack cases (at Mach 15), there are significant differences between the computed results, especially the vehicle pitching moment, and the OADB data. A preliminary analysis of the data from the CFD simulations at Mach 15 shows that these differences can be attributed to real-gas/Mach number effects.

  6. A Review of Hypersonics Aerodynamics, Aerothermodynamics and Plasmadynamics Activities within NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salas, Manuel D.

    2007-01-01

    The research program of the aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics and plasmadynamics discipline of NASA's Hypersonic Project is reviewed. Details are provided for each of its three components: 1) development of physics-based models of non-equilibrium chemistry, surface catalytic effects, turbulence, transition and radiation; 2) development of advanced simulation tools to enable increased spatial and time accuracy, increased geometrical complexity, grid adaptation, increased physical-processes complexity, uncertainty quantification and error control; and 3) establishment of experimental databases from ground and flight experiments to develop better understanding of high-speed flows and to provide data to validate and guide the development of simulation tools.

  7. Helicopter rotor blade aerodynamic optimization by mathematical programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, J. L.; Bingham, G. J.; Riley, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    Formal mathematical programing was applied to the aerodynamic rotor blade design process. The approach is to couple hover and forward flight analysis programs with the general-purpose optimization program CONMIN to determine the blade taper ratio, percent taper, twist distribution, and solidity which minimize the horsepower required at hover while meeting constraints on forward flight performance. Designs obtained using this approach for the blade of a representative Army helicopter compare well with those obtained using a conventional approach involving personnel-intensive parametric studies. Results from the present method can be obtained in 2 days as compared to 5 weeks required by the conventional procedure. Also the systematic manipulation of the design variables by the optimization procedure minimizes the need for the researcher to have a vast body of past experience and data in determining the influence of a design change on the performance.

  8. Aerodynamic Characteristics, Database Development and Flight Simulation of the X-34 Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamadi, Bandu N.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Ruth, Michael J.; Fuhrmann, Henri D.

    2000-01-01

    An overview of the aerodynamic characteristics, development of the preflight aerodynamic database and flight simulation of the NASA/Orbital X-34 vehicle is presented in this paper. To develop the aerodynamic database, wind tunnel tests from subsonic to hypersonic Mach numbers including ground effect tests at low subsonic speeds were conducted in various facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center. Where wind tunnel test data was not available, engineering level analysis is used to fill the gaps in the database. Using this aerodynamic data, simulations have been performed for typical design reference missions of the X-34 vehicle.

  9. Aerodynamic thermal simulation system. Part 1: Radiant array (instruction manual)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchar, A. F.; Steuffen, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    An aerodynamic thermal simulation system (ATSS) is presented. The construction of the system, the maintenance, set up, and operations are reported. System description of the radiant array is given along with the array subsystems modular heating unit, adjustable stanchion frame, cooling water system, and the gaseous nitrogen cooling system. The array configuration procedure outlines the set up and the start up. Maintenance procedures involve both lamp maintenance and reflector maintenance along with weather protection. Drawing codes are included. Descriptions of the 36 zone ATSS controls are also given. Each zone is an independent closed loop temperature control circuit. Procedures are presented for starting and stopping the system. The DATA-TRAK programmer and its operation, instruction manuals for the temperature controller and the power regulator and discriptions of peripheral equipment are discussed.

  10. Unsteady Cascade Aerodynamic Response Using a Multiphysics Simulation Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, C.; Reddy, T. S. R.; Spyropoulos, E.

    2000-01-01

    The multiphysics code Spectrum(TM) is applied to calculate the unsteady aerodynamic pressures of oscillating cascade of airfoils representing a blade row of a turbomachinery component. Multiphysics simulation is based on a single computational framework for the modeling of multiple interacting physical phenomena, in the present case being between fluids and structures. Interaction constraints are enforced in a fully coupled manner using the augmented-Lagrangian method. The arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method is utilized to account for deformable fluid domains resulting from blade motions. Unsteady pressures are calculated for a cascade designated as the tenth standard, and undergoing plunging and pitching oscillations. The predicted unsteady pressures are compared with those obtained from an unsteady Euler co-de refer-red in the literature. The Spectrum(TM) code predictions showed good correlation for the cases considered.

  11. Ground testing and simulation. II - Aerodynamic testing and simulation: Saving lives, time, and money

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayman, B., Jr.; Fiore, A. W.

    1974-01-01

    The present work discusses in general terms the various kinds of ground facilities, in particular, wind tunnels, which support aerodynamic testing. Since not all flight parameters can be simulated simultaneously, an important problem consists in matching parameters. It is pointed out that there is a lack of wind tunnels for a complete Reynolds-number simulation. Using a computer to simulate flow fields can result in considerable reduction of wind-tunnel hours required to develop a given flight vehicle.

  12. Generalize aerodynamic coefficient table storage, checkout and interpolation for aircraft simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuman, F.; Warner, N.

    1973-01-01

    The set of programs described has been used for rapidly introducing, checking out and very efficiently using aerodynamic tables in complex aircraft simulations on the IBM 360. The preprocessor program reads in tables with different names and dimensions and stores then on disc storage according to the specified dimensions. The tables are read in from IBM cards in a format which is convenient to reduce the data from the original graphs. During table processing, new auxiliary tables are generated which are required for table cataloging and for efficient interpolation. In addition, DIMENSION statements for the tables as well as READ statements are punched so that they may be used in other programs for readout of the data from disc without chance of programming errors. A quick data checking graphical output for all tables is provided in a separate program.

  13. Numerical simulations of interactions among aerodynamics, structural dynamics, and control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preidikman, Sergio

    A robust technique for performing numerical simulations of nonlinear unsteady aeroelastic behavior is developed. The technique is applied to long-span bridges and the wing of a modern business jet. The heart of the procedure is combining the aerodynamic and structural models. The aerodynamic model is a general unsteady vortex-lattice method. The structural model for the bridges is a rigid roadbed supported by linear and torsional springs. For the aircraft wing, the structural model is a cantilever beam with rigid masses attached at various positions along the span; it was generated with the NASTRAN program. The structure, flowing air, and control devices are considered to be the elements of a single dynamic system. All the governing equations are integrated simultaneously and interactively in the time domain; a predictor-corrector method was adapted to perform this integration. For long-span bridges, the simulation predicts the onset of flutter accurately, and the numerical results strongly suggest that an actively controlled wing attached below the roadbed can easily suppress the wind-excited oscillations. The governing equations for a proposed passive system were developed. The wing structure is modelled with finite elements. The deflections are expressed as an expansion in terms of the free-vibration modes. The time-dependent coefficients are the generalized coordinates of the entire dynamic system. The concept of virtual work was extended to develop a method to transfer the aerodynamic loads to the structural nodes. Depending on the speed of the aircraft, the numerical results show damped responses to initial disturbances (although there are no viscous terms in either the aerodynamic or structural model), merging of modal frequencies, the development of limit-cycle oscillations, and the occurrence of a supercritical Hopf bifurcation leading to motion on a torus.

  14. Aerodynamics of a finite wing with simulated ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, M. B.; Khodadoust, A.; Kerho, M.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of a simulated glaze ice accretion on the aerodynamic performance of a three-dimensional wing is studied experimentally. Results are reviewed from earlier two-dimensional tests which show the character of the large leading-edge separation bubbles caused by the simulated ice accretion. The 2-D bubbles are found to closely resemble well known airfoil laminar separation bubbles. For the 3-D experiments a semispan wing of effective aspect ratio five was mounted from the sidewall of the UIUC subsonic wind tunnel. The model uses a NACA 0012 airfoil section on a rectangular planform with interchangeable tip and root sections to allow for 0- and 30-degree sweep. A three-component sidewall balance was used to measure lift, drag and pitching moment on the clean and iced model. Fluorescent oil flow visualization has been performed on the iced model and reveals extensive spanwise and vortical flow in the separation bubble aft of the upper surface horn. Sidewall interaction and spanwise nonuniformity are also seen on the unswept model. Comparisons to the computed flow fields are shown. Results are also shown for roughness effects on the straight wing. Sand grain roughness on the ice shape is seen to have a different effect than isolated 3-D roughness elements.

  15. Large eddy simulation for aerodynamics: status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sagaut, Pierre; Deck, Sébastien

    2009-07-28

    The present paper provides an up-to-date survey of the use of large eddy simulation (LES) and sequels for engineering applications related to aerodynamics. Most recent landmark achievements are presented. Two categories of problem may be distinguished whether the location of separation is triggered by the geometry or not. In the first case, LES can be considered as a mature technique and recent hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)-LES methods do not allow for a significant increase in terms of geometrical complexity and/or Reynolds number with respect to classical LES. When attached boundary layers have a significant impact on the global flow dynamics, the use of hybrid RANS-LES remains the principal strategy to reduce computational cost compared to LES. Another striking observation is that the level of validation is most of the time restricted to time-averaged global quantities, a detailed analysis of the flow unsteadiness being missing. Therefore, a clear need for detailed validation in the near future is identified. To this end, new issues, such as uncertainty and error quantification and modelling, will be of major importance. First results dealing with uncertainty modelling in unsteady turbulent flow simulation are presented.

  16. The Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) aerodynamics and systems: Description and analysis. [maneuver control and gust alleviators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrisani, D., II; Daughaday, H.; Dittenhauser, J.; Rynaski, E.

    1978-01-01

    The aerodynamics, control system, instrumentation complement and recording system of the USAF Total In/Flight Simulator (TIFS) airplane are described. A control system that would allow the ailerons to be operated collectively, as well as, differentially to entrance the ability of the vehicle to perform the dual function of maneuver load control and gust alleviation is emphasized. Mathematical prediction of the rigid body and the flexible equations of longitudinal motion using the level 2.01 FLEXSTAB program are included along with a definition of the vehicle geometry, the mass and stiffness distribution, the calculated mode frequencies and mode shapes, and the resulting aerodynamic equations of motion of the flexible vehicle. A complete description of the control and instrumentation system of the aircraft is presented, including analysis, ground test and flight data comparisons of the performance and bandwidth of the aerodynamic surface servos. Proposed modification for improved performance of the servos are also presented.

  17. Feasibility study for a numerical aerodynamic simulation facility. Volume 3: FMP language specification/user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenner, B. G.; Lincoln, N. R.

    1979-01-01

    The manual is intended to show the revisions and additions to the current STAR FORTRAN. The changes are made to incorporate an FMP (Flow Model Processor) for use in the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility (NASF) for the purpose of simulating fluid flow over three-dimensional bodies in wind tunnel environments and in free space. The FORTRAN programming language for the STAR-100 computer contains both CDC and unique STAR extensions to the standard FORTRAN. Several of the STAR FORTRAN extensions to standard FOR-TRAN allow the FORTRAN user to exploit the vector processing capabilities of the STAR computer. In STAR FORTRAN, vectors can be expressed with an explicit notation, functions are provided that return vector results, and special call statements enable access to any machine instruction.

  18. Quasi steady-state aerodynamic model development for race vehicle simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohrfeld-Halterman, J. A.; Uddin, M.

    2016-01-01

    Presented in this paper is a procedure to develop a high fidelity quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for use in race car vehicle dynamic simulations. Developed to fit quasi steady-state wind tunnel data, the aerodynamic model is regressed against three independent variables: front ground clearance, rear ride height, and yaw angle. An initial dual range model is presented and then further refined to reduce the model complexity while maintaining a high level of predictive accuracy. The model complexity reduction decreases the required amount of wind tunnel data thereby reducing wind tunnel testing time and cost. The quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for the pitch moment degree of freedom is systematically developed in this paper. This same procedure can be extended to the other five aerodynamic degrees of freedom to develop a complete six degree of freedom quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for any vehicle.

  19. JT9D performance deterioration results from a simulated aerodynamic load test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stakolich, E. G.; Stromberg, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    The results of testing to identify the effects of simulated aerodynamic flight loads on JT9D engine performance are presented. The test results were also used to refine previous analytical studies on the impact of aerodynamic flight loads on performance losses. To accomplish these objectives, a JT9D-7AH engine was assembled with average production clearances and new seals as well as extensive instrumentation to monitor engine performance, case temperatures, and blade tip clearance changes. A special loading device was designed and constructed to permit application of known moments and shear forces to the engine by the use of cables placed around the flight inlet. The test was conducted in the Pratt & Whitney Aircraft X-Ray Test Facility to permit the use of X-ray techniques in conjunction with laser blade tip proximity probes to monitor important engine clearance changes. Upon completion of the test program, the test engine was disassembled, and the condition of gas path parts and final clearances were documented. The test results indicate that the engine lost 1.1 percent in thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC), as measured under sea level static conditions, due to increased operating clearances caused by simulated flight loads. This compares with 0.9 percent predicted by the analytical model and previous study efforts.

  20. Direct simulation Monte Carlo simulations of aerodynamic effects on sounding rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Jeffrey B.

    Over the past several decades, atomic oxygen (AO) measurements taken from sounding rocket sensor payloads in the Mesosphere and lower Thermosphere (MALT) have shown marked variability. AO data retrieved from the second Coupling of Dynamics and Aurora (CODA II) experiment has shown that the data is highly dependent upon rocket orientation. Many sounding rocket payloads, including CODA II, contain AO sensors that are located in close proximity to the payload surface and are thus significantly influenced by compressible, aerodynamic effects. In addition, other external effects such as Doppler shift and the contamination of sensor optics from desorption may play a significant role. These effects serve to inhibit the AO sensors' ability to accurately determine undisturbed atmospheric conditions. The present research numerically models the influence caused by these effects (primarily aerodynamic), using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. In particular, a new parallel, steady/unsteady, three-dimensional, DSMC solver, foamDSMC, is developed. The method of development and validation of this new solver is presented with comparisons made with available commercial solvers. The foamDSMC solver is then used to simulate the steady and unsteady flow-field of CODA II, with steady-state simulations conducted along 2 km intervals and unsteady simulations conducted near apogee. The results based on the compressible flow aerodynamics as well as Doppler shift and contamination effects are all examined, and are used to create correction functions based on the ratio of undisturbed to disturbed flowfield concentrations. The numerical simulations verify the experimental results showing the strong influence of rocket orientation on concentration, and show conclusive evidence pointing to the success of the correction functions to significantly minimize the external effects previously mentioned. In addition to the correction function approach, the optimal placement of the AO

  1. STEP and STEPSPL: Computer programs for aerodynamic model structure determination and parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batterson, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    The successful parametric modeling of the aerodynamics for an airplane operating at high angles of attack or sideslip is performed in two phases. First the aerodynamic model structure must be determined and second the associated aerodynamic parameters (stability and control derivatives) must be estimated for that model. The purpose of this paper is to document two versions of a stepwise regression computer program which were developed for the determination of airplane aerodynamic model structure and to provide two examples of their use on computer generated data. References are provided for the application of the programs to real flight data. The two computer programs that are the subject of this report, STEP and STEPSPL, are written in FORTRAN IV (ANSI l966) compatible with a CDC FTN4 compiler. Both programs are adaptations of a standard forward stepwise regression algorithm. The purpose of the adaptation is to facilitate the selection of a adequate mathematical model of the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients of an airplane from flight test data. The major difference between STEP and STEPSPL is in the basis for the model. The basis for the model in STEP is the standard polynomial Taylor's series expansion of the aerodynamic function about some steady-state trim condition. Program STEPSPL utilizes a set of spline basis functions.

  2. A program to compute three-dimensional subsonic unsteady aerodynamic characteristics using the doublet lattic method, L216 (DUBFLX). Volume 1: Engineering and usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, M.; Harrison, B. A.

    1979-01-01

    The program input presented consists of configuration geometry, aerodynamic parameters, and modal data; output includes element geometry, pressure difference distributions, integrated aerodynamic coefficients, stability derivatives, generalized aerodynamic forces, and aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices. Optionally, modal data may be input on magnetic file (tape or disk), and certain geometric and aerodynamic output may be saved for subsequent use.

  3. Numerical simulation of the tip aerodynamics and acoustics test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejero E, F.; Doerffer, P.; Szulc, O.; Cross, J. L.

    2016-04-01

    The application of an efficient flow control system on helicopter rotor blades may lead to improved aerodynamic performance. Recently, our invention of Rod Vortex Generators (RVGs) has been analyzed for helicopter rotor blades in hover with success. As a step forward, the study has been extended to forward flight conditions. For this reason, a validation of the numerical modelling for a reference helicopter rotor (without flow control) is needed. The article presents a study of the flow-field of the AH-1G helicopter rotor in low-, medium- and high-speed forward flight. The CFD code FLOWer from DLR has proven to be a suitable tool for the aerodynamic analysis of the two-bladed rotor without any artificial wake modelling. It solves the URANS equations with LEA (Linear Explicit Algebraic stress) k-ω model using the chimera overlapping grids technique. Validation of the numerical model uses comparison with the detailed flight test data gathered by Cross J. L. and Watts M. E. during the Tip Aerodynamics and Acoustics Test (TAAT) conducted at NASA in 1981. Satisfactory agreements for all speed regimes and a presence of significant flow separation in high-speed forward flight suggest a possible benefit from the future implementation of RVGs. The numerical results based on the URANS approach are presented not only for a popular, low-speed case commonly used in rotorcraft community for CFD codes validation but preferably for medium- and high-speed test conditions that have not been published to date.

  4. COMOC 2: Two-dimensional aerodynamics sequence, computer program user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manhardt, P. D.; Orzechowski, J. A.; Baker, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    The COMOC finite element fluid mechanics computer program system is applicable to diverse problem classes. The two dimensional aerodynamics sequence was established for solution of the potential and/or viscous and turbulent flowfields associated with subsonic flight of elementary two dimensional isolated airfoils. The sequence is constituted of three specific flowfield options in COMOC for two dimensional flows. These include the potential flow option, the boundary layer option, and the parabolic Navier-Stokes option. By sequencing through these options, it is possible to computationally construct a weak-interaction model of the aerodynamic flowfield. This report is the user's guide to operation of COMOC for the aerodynamics sequence.

  5. 1999 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 2; High Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, David E. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The High-Speed Research Program sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Review on February 8-12, 1999 in Anaheim, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of: Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization) and High-Lift. The review objectives were to: (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. The HSR AP Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas within the airframe element of the HSR Program. This Volume 2/Part 1 publication presents the High-Lift Configuration Development session.

  6. Aerodynamic Drag of Heavy Vehicles (Class 7-8): Simulation and Benchmarking

    SciTech Connect

    Rose McCallen, Dan Flowers, Tim Dunn; Jerry Owens; Fred Browand; Mustapha Hammache; Anthony Leonard; Mark Brady; Kambiz Salari; Walter Rutledge; James Ross; Bruce Storms; J. T. Heineck, David Driver; James Bell; Steve Walker; Gregory Zilliac

    2000-06-19

    This paper describes research and development for reducing the aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles by demonstrating new approaches for the numerical simulation and analysis of aerodynamic flow. Experimental validation of new computational fluid dynamics methods are also an important part of this approach. Experiments on a model of an integrated tractor-trailer are underway at NASA Ames Research Center and the University of Southern California (USC). Companion computer simulations are being performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and California Institute of Technology (Caltech) using state-of-the-art techniques.

  7. Feasibility study for a numerical aerodynamic simulation facility. Volume 2: Hardware specifications/descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, F. M.; Resnick, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    An FMP (Flow Model Processor) was designed for use in the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility (NASF). The NASF was developed to simulate fluid flow over three-dimensional bodies in wind tunnel environments and in free space. The facility is applicable to studying aerodynamic and aircraft body designs. The following general topics are discussed in this volume: (1) FMP functional computer specifications; (2) FMP instruction specification; (3) standard product system components; (4) loosely coupled network (LCN) specifications/description; and (5) three appendices: performance of trunk allocation contention elimination (trace) method, LCN channel protocol and proposed LCN unified second level protocol.

  8. Feasibility study for a numerical aerodynamic simulation facility: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, N. R.

    1979-01-01

    The Ames Research Center of NASA is engaged in the development and investigation of numerical methods and computer technologies to be employed in conjunction with physical experiments, particularly utilizing wind tunnels in the furtherance of the field of aircraft and aerodynamic body design. Several studies, aimed primarily at the areas of development and production of extremely high-speed computing facilities, were conducted. The studies focused on evaluating the aspects of feasibility, reliability, costs, and practicability of designing, constructing, and bringing into effect production of a special-purpose system. An executive summary of the activities for this project is presented in this volume.

  9. Simulation on a car interior aerodynamic noise control based on statistical energy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin; Wang, Dengfeng; Ma, Zhengdong

    2012-09-01

    How to simulate interior aerodynamic noise accurately is an important question of a car interior noise reduction. The unsteady aerodynamic pressure on body surfaces is proved to be the key effect factor of car interior aerodynamic noise control in high frequency on high speed. In this paper, a detail statistical energy analysis (SEA) model is built. And the vibra-acoustic power inputs are loaded on the model for the valid result of car interior noise analysis. The model is the solid foundation for further optimization on car interior noise control. After the most sensitive subsystems for the power contribution to car interior noise are pointed by SEA comprehensive analysis, the sound pressure level of car interior aerodynamic noise can be reduced by improving their sound and damping characteristics. The further vehicle testing results show that it is available to improve the interior acoustic performance by using detailed SEA model, which comprised by more than 80 subsystems, with the unsteady aerodynamic pressure calculation on body surfaces and the materials improvement of sound/damping properties. It is able to acquire more than 2 dB reduction on the central frequency in the spectrum over 800 Hz. The proposed optimization method can be looked as a reference of car interior aerodynamic noise control by the detail SEA model integrated unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and sensitivity analysis of acoustic contribution.

  10. Description of a Computer Program Written for Approach and Landing Test Post Flight Data Extraction of Proximity Separation Aerodynamic Coefficients and Aerodynamic Data Base Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homan, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    A computer program written to calculate the proximity aerodynamic force and moment coefficients of the Orbiter/Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) vehicles based on flight instrumentation is described. The ground reduced aerodynamic coefficients and instrumentation errors (GRACIE) program was developed as a tool to aid in flight test verification of the Orbiter/SCA separation aerodynamic data base. The program calculates the force and moment coefficients of each vehicle in proximity to the other, using the load measurement system data, flight instrumentation data and the vehicle mass properties. The uncertainty in each coefficient is determined, based on the quoted instrumentation accuracies. A subroutine manipulates the Orbiter/747 Carrier Separation Aerodynamic Data Book to calculate a comparable set of predicted coefficients for comparison to the calculated flight test data.

  11. Constellation Program Lessons Learned in the Quantification and Use of Aerodynamic Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Eric L.; Hemsch, Michael J.; Pinier, Jeremy T.; Bibb, Karen L.; Chan, David T.; Hanke, Jeremy L.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program has worked for the past five years to develop a re- placement for the current Space Transportation System. Of the elements that form the Constellation Program, only two require databases that define aerodynamic environments and their respective uncertainty: the Ares launch vehicles and the Orion crew and launch abort vehicles. Teams were established within the Ares and Orion projects to provide repre- sentative aerodynamic models including both baseline values and quantified uncertainties. A technical team was also formed within the Constellation Program to facilitate integra- tion among the project elements. This paper is a summary of the collective experience of the three teams working with the quantification and use of uncertainty in aerodynamic environments: the Ares and Orion project teams as well as the Constellation integration team. Not all of the lessons learned discussed in this paper could be applied during the course of the program, but they are included in the hope of benefiting future projects.

  12. GASP- General Aviation Synthesis Program. Volume 3: Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hague, D.

    1978-01-01

    Aerodynamics calculations are treated in routines which concern moments as they vary with flight conditions and attitude. The subroutines discussed: (1) compute component equivalent flat plate and wetted areas and profile drag; (2) print and plot low and high speed drag polars; (3) determine life coefficient or angle of attack; (4) determine drag coefficient; (5) determine maximum lift coefficient and drag increment for various flap types and flap settings; and (6) determine required lift coefficient and drag coefficient in cruise flight.

  13. The incorporation of plotting capability into the Unified Subsonic Supersonic Aerodynamic Analysis program, version B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, O. A.

    1980-01-01

    The B01 version of the United Subsonic Supersonic Aerodynamic Analysis program is the result of numerous modifications and additions made to the B00 version. These modifications and additions affect the program input, its computational options, the code readability, and the overlay structure. The following are described: (1) the revised input; (2) the plotting overlay programs which were also modified, and their associated subroutines, (3) the auxillary files used by the program, the revised output data; and (4) the program overlay structure.

  14. Flutter: A finite element program for aerodynamic instability analysis of general shells of revolution with thermal prestress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fallon, D. J.; Thornton, E. A.

    1983-01-01

    Documentation for the computer program FLUTTER is presented. The theory of aerodynamic instability with thermal prestress is discussed. Theoretical aspects of the finite element matrices required in the aerodynamic instability analysis are also discussed. General organization of the computer program is explained, and instructions are then presented for the execution of the program.

  15. Air/helium ground-test simulation pertinent to the definition of slender body hypersonic aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, W. C.; Thompson, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    The capability of air/helium simulations pertinent to the definition of slender body hypersonic aerodynamics is tested, using exact inviscid analytical comparisons to characterize the Mach number and bluntness effects. Comparisons are made with experiments conducted from the 1960s through the 1980s. The results indicate no general rule for air/helium simulation. A feasibility for obtaining sufficient simulation for many types of aero/fluid dynamic studies is demonstrated.

  16. An approach for the development of an aerodynamic-structural interaction numerical simulation for aeropropulsion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Naziar, J.; Couch, R.; Davis, M.

    1996-01-01

    Traditionally, aeropropulsion structural performance and aerodynamic performance have been designed separately and later mated together via flight testing. In today`s atmosphere of declining resources, it is imperative that more productive ways of designing and verifying aeropropulsion performance and structural interaction be made available to the aerospace industry. One method of obtaining a more productive design and evaluation capability is through the use of numerical simulations. Currently, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed a generalized fluid/structural interaction code known as ALE3D. This code is capable of characterizing fluid and structural interaction for components such as the combustor, fan/stators, inlet and/or nozzles. This code solves the 3D Euler equations and has been applied to several aeropropulsion applications such as a supersonic inlet and a combustor rupture simulation. To characterize aerodynamic-structural interaction for rotating components such as the compressor, appropriate turbomachinery simulations would need to be implemented within the ALE3D structure. The Arnold Engineering Development Center is currently developing a three-dimensional compression system code known as TEACC (Turbine Engine Analysis Compressor Code). TEACC also solves the 3D Euler equations and is intended to simulate dynamic behavior such as inlet distortion, surge or rotating stall. The technology being developed within the TEACC effort provides the necessary turbomachinery simulation for implementation into ALE3D. This paper describes a methodology to combine three-dimensional aerodynamic turbomachinery technology into the existing aerodynamic-structural interaction simulation, ALE3D to obtain the desired aerodynamic and structural integrated simulation for an aeropropulsion system.

  17. Users guide: Steady-state aerodynamic-loads program for shuttle TPS tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, P. A.; Petley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    A user's guide for the computer program that calculates the steady-state aerodynamic loads on the Shuttle thermal-protection tiles is presented. The main element in the program is the MITAS-II, Martin Marietta Interactive Thermal Analysis System. The MITAS-II is used to calculate the mass flow in a nine-tile model designed to simulate conditions duing a Shuttle flight. The procedures used to execute the program using the MITAS-II software are described. A list of the necessry software and data files along with a brief description of their functions is given. The format of the data file containing the surface pressure data is specified. The interpolation techniques used to calculate the pressure profile over the tile matrix are briefly described. In addition, the output from a sample run is explained. The actual output and the procedure file used to execute the program at NASA Langley Research Center on a CDC CYBER-175 are provided in the appendices.

  18. Preliminary study for a numerical aerodynamic simulation facility. Phase 1: Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, N. R.

    1978-01-01

    Functional requirements and preliminary design data were identified for use in the design of all system components and in the construction of a facility to perform aerodynamic simulation for airframe design. A skeleton structure of specifications for the flow model processor and monitor, the operating system, and the language and its compiler is presented.

  19. Aerodynamics of ski jumping flight and its control: II. Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jungil; Lee, Hansol; Kim, Woojin; Choi, Haecheon

    2015-11-01

    In a ski jumping competition, it is essential to analyze the effect of various posture parameters of a ski jumper to achieve a longer flight distance. For this purpose, we conduct a large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flow past a model ski jumper which is obtained by 3D scanning a ski jumper's body (Mr. Chil-Ku Kang, member of the Korean national team). The angle of attack of the jump ski is 30° and the Reynolds number based on the length of the jump ski is 540,000. The flow statistics including the drag and lift coefficients in flight are in good agreements with our own experimental data. We investigate the flow characteristics such as the flow separation and three-dimensional vortical structures and their effects on the drag and lift. In addition to LES, we construct a simple geometric model of a ski jumper where each part of the ski jumper is modeled as a canonical bluff body such as the sphere, cylinder and flat plate, to find its optimal posture. The results from this approach will be compared with those by LES and discussed. Supported by NRF program (2014M3C1B1033848, 2014R1A1A1002671).

  20. Transient aerodynamic forces on a fighter model during simulated approach and landing with thrust reversers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, A. P.; Paulson, J. W., Jr.; Kemmerly, G. T.

    1988-01-01

    Previous wind tunnel tests of fighter configurations have shown that thrust reverser jets can induce large, unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments during operation in ground proximity. This is a concern for STOL configurations using partial reversing to spoil the thrust while keeping the engine output near military (MIL) power during landing approach. A novel test technique to simulate approach and landing was developed under a cooperative Northrop/NASA/USAF program. The NASA LaRC Vortex Research Facility was used for the experiments in which a 7-percent F-18 model was moved horizontally at speeds of up to 100 feet per second over a ramp simulating an aircraft to ground rate of closure similar to a no-flare STOL approach and landing. This paper presents an analysis of data showing the effect of reverser jet orientation and jet dynamic pressure ratio on the transient forces for different angles of attack, and flap and horizontal tail deflection. It was found, for reverser jets acting parallel to the plane of symmetry, that the jets interacted strongly with the ground, starting approximately half a span above the ground board. Unsteady rolling moment transients, large enough to cause the probable upset of an aircraft, and strong normal force and pitching moment transients were measured. For jets directed 40 degrees outboard, the transients were similar to the jet-off case, implying only minor interaction.

  1. Aerodynamic characterisation and trajectory simulations for the Ariane-5 booster recovery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiboom, F. P.

    One of the most critical aspects of the early phases of the development of the Ariane-5 booster recovery system was the determination of the behavior of the booster during its atmospheric reentry, since this behavior determines the start conditions for the parachute system elements. A combination of wind-tunnel tests (subsonic and supersonic) and analytical methods was applied to define the aerodynamic characteristics of the booster. This aerodynamic characterization in combination with information of the ascent trajectory, atmospheric properties and booster mass and inertia were used as input for the 6-DOF trajectory simulations of the vehicle. Uncertainties in aerodynamic properties and deviations in atmospheric and booster properties were incorporated to define the range of initial conditions for the parachute system, utilizing stochastic (Monte-Carlo) methods.

  2. Validation of 3-D Ice Accretion Measurement Methodology for Experimental Aerodynamic Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Lee, Sam; Monastero, Marianne C.

    2015-01-01

    Determining the adverse aerodynamic effects due to ice accretion often relies on dry-air wind-tunnel testing of artificial, or simulated, ice shapes. Recent developments in ice-accretion documentation methods have yielded a laser-scanning capability that can measure highly three-dimensional (3-D) features of ice accreted in icing wind tunnels. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the aerodynamic accuracy of ice-accretion simulations generated from laser-scan data. Ice-accretion tests were conducted in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel using an 18-in. chord, two-dimensional (2-D) straight wing with NACA 23012 airfoil section. For six ice-accretion cases, a 3-D laser scan was performed to document the ice geometry prior to the molding process. Aerodynamic performance testing was conducted at the University of Illinois low-speed wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of 1.8 × 10(exp 6) and a Mach number of 0.18 with an 18-in. chord NACA 23012 airfoil model that was designed to accommodate the artificial ice shapes. The ice-accretion molds were used to fabricate one set of artificial ice shapes from polyurethane castings. The laser-scan data were used to fabricate another set of artificial ice shapes using rapid prototype manufacturing such as stereolithography. The iced-airfoil results with both sets of artificial ice shapes were compared to evaluate the aerodynamic simulation accuracy of the laser-scan data. For five of the six ice-accretion cases, there was excellent agreement in the iced-airfoil aerodynamic performance between the casting and laser-scan based simulations. For example, typical differences in iced-airfoil maximum lift coefficient were less than 3 percent with corresponding differences in stall angle of approximately 1 deg or less. The aerodynamic simulation accuracy reported in this paper has demonstrated the combined accuracy of the laser-scan and rapid-prototype manufacturing approach to simulating ice accretion for a NACA 23012 airfoil. For several

  3. Validation of 3-D Ice Accretion Measurement Methodology for Experimental Aerodynamic Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Lee, Sam; Monastero, Marianne C.

    2014-01-01

    Determining the adverse aerodynamic effects due to ice accretion often relies on dry-air wind-tunnel testing of artificial, or simulated, ice shapes. Recent developments in ice accretion documentation methods have yielded a laser-scanning capability that can measure highly three-dimensional features of ice accreted in icing wind tunnels. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the aerodynamic accuracy of ice-accretion simulations generated from laser-scan data. Ice-accretion tests were conducted in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel using an 18-inch chord, 2-D straight wing with NACA 23012 airfoil section. For six ice accretion cases, a 3-D laser scan was performed to document the ice geometry prior to the molding process. Aerodynamic performance testing was conducted at the University of Illinois low-speed wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of 1.8 x 10(exp 6) and a Mach number of 0.18 with an 18-inch chord NACA 23012 airfoil model that was designed to accommodate the artificial ice shapes. The ice-accretion molds were used to fabricate one set of artificial ice shapes from polyurethane castings. The laser-scan data were used to fabricate another set of artificial ice shapes using rapid prototype manufacturing such as stereolithography. The iced-airfoil results with both sets of artificial ice shapes were compared to evaluate the aerodynamic simulation accuracy of the laser-scan data. For four of the six ice-accretion cases, there was excellent agreement in the iced-airfoil aerodynamic performance between the casting and laser-scan based simulations. For example, typical differences in iced-airfoil maximum lift coefficient were less than 3% with corresponding differences in stall angle of approximately one degree or less. The aerodynamic simulation accuracy reported in this paper has demonstrated the combined accuracy of the laser-scan and rapid-prototype manufacturing approach to simulating ice accretion for a NACA 23012 airfoil. For several of the ice

  4. Large-Eddy Simulation of Wind-Plant Aerodynamics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Churchfield, M. J.; Lee, S.; Moriarty, P. J.; Martinez, L. A.; Leonardi, S.; Vijayakumar, G.; Brasseur, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present results of a large-eddy simulation of the 48 multi-megawatt turbines composing the Lillgrund wind plant. Turbulent inflow wind is created by performing an atmospheric boundary layer precursor simulation and turbines are modeled using a rotating, variable-speed actuator line representation. The motivation for this work is that few others have done wind plant large-eddy simulations with a substantial number of turbines, and the methods for carrying out the simulations are varied. We wish to draw upon the strengths of the existing simulations and our growing atmospheric large-eddy simulation capability to create a sound methodology for performing this type of simulation. We have used the OpenFOAM CFD toolbox to create our solver.

  5. Large-Eddy Simulation of Wind-Plant Aerodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Churchfield, M. J.; Lee, S.; Moriarty, P. J.; Martinez, L. A.; Leonardi, S.; Vijayakumar, G.; Brasseur, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present results of a large-eddy simulation of the 48 multi-megawatt turbines composing the Lillgrund wind plant. Turbulent inflow wind is created by performing an atmospheric boundary layer precursor simulation, and turbines are modeled using a rotating, variable-speed actuator line representation. The motivation for this work is that few others have done large-eddy simulations of wind plants with a substantial number of turbines, and the methods for carrying out the simulations are varied. We wish to draw upon the strengths of the existing simulations and our growing atmospheric large-eddy simulation capability to create a sound methodology for performing this type of simulation. We used the OpenFOAM CFD toolbox to create our solver. The simulated time-averaged power production of the turbines in the plant agrees well with field observations, except with the sixth turbine and beyond in each wind-aligned. The power produced by each of those turbines is overpredicted by 25-40%. A direct comparison between simulated and field data is difficult because we simulate one wind direction with a speed and turbulence intensity characteristic of Lillgrund, but the field observations were taken over a year of varying conditions. The simulation shows the significant 60-70% decrease in the performance of the turbines behind the front row in this plant that has a spacing of 4.3 rotor diameters in this direction. The overall plant efficiency is well predicted. This work shows the importance of using local grid refinement to simultaneously capture the meter-scale details of the turbine wake and the kilometer-scale turbulent atmospheric structures. Although this work illustrates the power of large-eddy simulation in producing a time-accurate solution, it required about one million processor-hours, showing the significant cost of large-eddy simulation.

  6. Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of an externally blown flap powered lift model with several propulsive system simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoad, D. R.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation of a four-engine externally blown flap (EBF) powered-lift transport was conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel to determine the effect of different engine configurations on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics. The different engine configurations were simulated by five different sets of propulsion simulators on a single aircraft model. Longitudinal aerodynamic data were obtained for each simulator on each flap deflection corresponding to cruise, take-off, and landing at a range of angles of attack and various thrust coefficients. The bypass ratio (BPR) 6.2 engine simulator provided the best lift and drag characteristics of the five simulators tested in the take-off and landing configurations. The poor performance of the BPR 10.0 and 3.2 engine simulators can be attributed to a mismatch of engine-model sizes or poor engine location and orientation. Isolated engine wake surveys indicated that a reasonable assessment of the aerodynamic characteristics of an engine-wing-flap configuration could be made if qualitative information were available which defined the engine wake characteristics. All configurations could be trimmed easily with relatively small horizontal-tail incidence angles; however, the take-off landing configurations required a high-lift tail.

  7. Preliminary subsonic aerodynamic model for simulation studies of the HL-20 lifting body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, E. Bruce; Cruz, Christopher I.

    1992-01-01

    A nonlinear, six-degree-of-freedom aerodynamic model for an early version of the HL-20 lifting body is described and compared with wind tunnel data upon which it is based. Polynomial functions describing most of the aerodynamic parameters are given and tables of these functions are presented. Techniques used to arrive at these functions are described. Basic aerodynamic coefficients were modeled as functions of angles of attack and sideslip. Vehicle lateral symmetry was assumed. Compressibility (Mach) effects were ignored. Control-surface effectiveness was assumed to vary linearly with angle of deflection and was assumed to be invariant with the angle of sideslip. Dynamic derivatives were obtained from predictive aerodynamic codes. Landing-gear and ground effects were scaled from Space Shuttle data. The model described is provided to support pilot-in-the-loop simulation studies of the HL-20. By providing the data in tabular format, the model is suitable for the data interpolation architecture of many existing engineering simulation facilities. Because of the preliminary nature of the data, however, this model is not recommended for study of the absolute performance of the HL-20.

  8. Coupling a Mesoscale Numerical Weather Prediction Model with Large-Eddy Simulation for Realistic Wind Plant Aerodynamics Simulations (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Draxl, C.; Churchfield, M.; Mirocha, J.; Lee, S.; Lundquist, J.; Michalakes, J.; Moriarty, P.; Purkayastha, A.; Sprague, M.; Vanderwende, B.

    2014-06-01

    Wind plant aerodynamics are influenced by a combination of microscale and mesoscale phenomena. Incorporating mesoscale atmospheric forcing (e.g., diurnal cycles and frontal passages) into wind plant simulations can lead to a more accurate representation of microscale flows, aerodynamics, and wind turbine/plant performance. Our goal is to couple a numerical weather prediction model that can represent mesoscale flow [specifically the Weather Research and Forecasting model] with a microscale LES model (OpenFOAM) that can predict microscale turbulence and wake losses.

  9. User's manual for the Automated Paneling Technique (APT) and the Wing Body Aerodynamic Technique (WABAT) programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studwell, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    User instructions for the Tektronix Graphics Package of the Automated Paneling Technique (APT) and the Wing and Body Aerodynamic Technique (WABAT) Programs are provided. Responses to plot package messages which the user must make to activate plot package operations and options are described. Modifications to the APT and WABAT input run streams, to affect the graphic interface, are also covered.

  10. Digital simulation program improved

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bramblett, E. K.

    1970-01-01

    Modified Integration Digital Analog Simulation /MIDAS/ program, which provides time oriented solutions to equations from system block diagram descriptions, is given greater speed, accuracy, flexibility, and applicability. Improved program incorporates additional elements for extended solution capability not readily available from analog computers.

  11. A comprehensive analytical model of rotorcraft aerodynamics and dynamics. Part 3: Program manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W.

    1980-01-01

    The computer program for a comprehensive analytical model of rotorcraft aerodynamics and dynamics is described. This analysis is designed to calculate rotor performance, loads, and noise; the helicopter vibration and gust response; the flight dynamics and handling qualities; and the system aeroelastic stability. The analysis is a combination of structural, inertial, and aerodynamic models that is applicable to a wide range of problems and a wide class of vehicles. The analysis is intended for use in the design, testing, and evaluation of rotors and rotorcraft and to be a basis for further development of rotary wing theories.

  12. High fidelity quasi steady-state aerodynamic model effects on race vehicle performance predictions using multi-body simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohrfeld-Halterman, J. A.; Uddin, M.

    2016-07-01

    We described in this paper the development of a high fidelity vehicle aerodynamic model to fit wind tunnel test data over a wide range of vehicle orientations. We also present a comparison between the effects of this proposed model and a conventional quasi steady-state aerodynamic model on race vehicle simulation results. This is done by implementing both of these models independently in multi-body quasi steady-state simulations to determine the effects of the high fidelity aerodynamic model on race vehicle performance metrics. The quasi steady state vehicle simulation is developed with a multi-body NASCAR Truck vehicle model, and simulations are conducted for three different types of NASCAR race tracks, a short track, a one and a half mile intermediate track, and a higher speed, two mile intermediate race track. For each track simulation, the effects of the aerodynamic model on handling, maximum corner speed, and drive force metrics are analysed. The accuracy of the high-fidelity model is shown to reduce the aerodynamic model error relative to the conventional aerodynamic model, and the increased accuracy of the high fidelity aerodynamic model is found to have realisable effects on the performance metric predictions on the intermediate tracks resulting from the quasi steady-state simulation.

  13. Open Source Software Openfoam as a New Aerodynamical Simulation Tool for Rocket-Borne Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staszak, T.; Brede, M.; Strelnikov, B.

    2015-09-01

    The only way to do in-situ measurements, which are very important experimental studies for atmospheric science, in the mesoshere/lower thermosphere (MLT) is to use sounding rockets. The drawback of using rockets is the shock wave appearing because of the very high speed of the rocket motion (typically about 1000 mIs). This shock wave disturbs the density, the temperature and the velocity fields in the vicinity of the rocket, compared to undisturbed values of the atmosphere. This effect, however, can be quantified and the measured data has to be corrected not just to make it more precise but simply usable. The commonly accepted and widely used tool for this calculations is the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique developed by GA. Bird which is available as stand-alone program limited to use a single processor. Apart from complications with simulations of flows around bodies related to different flow regimes in the altitude range of MLT, that rise due to exponential density change by several orders of magnitude, a particular hardware configuration introduces significant difficulty for aerodynamical calculations due to choice of the grid sizes mainly depending on the demands on adequate DSMCs and good resolution of geometries with scale differences of factor of iO~. This makes either the calculation time unreasonably long or even prevents the calculation algorithm from converging. In this paper we apply the free open source software OpenFOAM (licensed under GNU GPL) for a three-dimensional CFD-Simulation of a flow around a sounding rocket instrumentation. An advantage of this software package, among other things, is that it can run on high performance clusters, which are easily scalable. We present the first results and discuss the potential of the new tool in applications for sounding rockets.

  14. Piloted Simulation Study of the Effects of High-Lift Aerodynamics on the Takeoff Noise of a Representative High-Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaab, Louis J.; Riley, Donald R.; Brandon, Jay M.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Glaab, Patricia C.

    1999-01-01

    As part of an effort between NASA and private industry to reduce airport-community noise for high-speed civil transport (HSCT) concepts, a piloted simulation study was initiated for the purpose of predicting the noise reduction benefits that could result from improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance for a typical HSCT configuration during takeoff and initial climb. Flight profile and engine information from the piloted simulation were coupled with the NASA Langley Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) to estimate jet engine noise and to propagate the resulting source noise to ground observer stations. A baseline aircraft configuration, which also incorporated different levels of projected improvements in low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance, was simulated to investigate effects of increased lift and lift-to-drag ratio on takeoff noise levels. Simulated takeoff flights were performed with the pilots following a specified procedure in which either a single thrust cutback was performed at selected altitudes ranging from 400 to 2000 ft, or a multiple-cutback procedure was performed where thrust was reduced by a two-step process. Results show that improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance provides at least a 4 to 6 dB reduction in effective perceived noise level at the FAA downrange flyover measurement station for either cutback procedure. However, improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance reduced maximum sideline noise levels only when using the multiple-cutback procedures.

  15. Aerodynamic model development and simulation of airliner spin for upset recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrabrov, A.; Sidoryuk, M.; Goman, M.

    2013-06-01

    The aerodynamic model of a generic airliner configuration is developed for a wide range of angles of attack, sideslip and angular rate based on experimental data obtained in wind tunnels using static, forced oscillations and rotary balance tests. The developed aerodynamic model is applied for the investigation of the airliner scaled model nonlinear dynamics at high angles of attack with an intensive rotation to identify potential spin modes and spin recovery procedures. The evaluated equilibrium spin parameters and simulated recovery control deflections are in good agreement with the experimental results from free-spin tests obtained in the TsAGI vertical wind tunnel. The work is performed in connection with the European FP7 project SUPRA (Simulation of UPset Recovery in Aviation, http://www.supra.aero).

  16. Unsteady aerodynamic simulation of multiple bodies in relative motion: A prototype method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meakin, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    A prototype method for time-accurate simulation of multiple aerodynamic bodies in relative motion is presented. The method is general and features unsteady chimera domain decomposition techniques and an implicit approximately factored finite-difference procedure to solve the time-dependent thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. The method is applied to a set of two- and three- dimensional test problems to establish spatial and temporal accuracy, quantify computational efficiency, and begin to test overall code robustness.

  17. Vortical flow aerodynamics - Physical aspects and numerical simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsome, Richard W.; Kandil, Osama A.

    1987-01-01

    Progress in the numerical simulation of vortical flow due to three-dimensional flow separation about flight vehicles at high angles of attack and quasi-steady flight conditions is surveyed. Primary emphasis is placed on Euler and Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes methods where the vortices are 'captured' as a solution to the governing equations. A discussion of the relevant flow physics provides a perspective from which to assess numerical solutions. Current numerical prediction capabilities and their evolutionary development are surveyed. Future trends and challenges are identified and discussed.

  18. Application of the ASP3D Computer Program to Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batina, John T.

    2006-01-01

    A new computer program has been developed called ASP3D (Advanced Small Perturbation - 3D), which solves the small perturbation potential flow equation in an advanced form including mass-consistent surface and trailing wake boundary conditions, and entropy, vorticity, and viscous effects. The purpose of the program is for unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analyses, especially in the nonlinear transonic flight regime. The program exploits the simplicity of stationary Cartesian meshes with the movement or deformation of the configuration under consideration incorporated into the solution algorithm through a planar surface boundary condition. The paper presents unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic applications of ASP3D to assess the time dependent capability and demonstrate various features of the code.

  19. The NASA Ames Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamic Facility: Experimental Simulation of the Atmospheric Break-Up of Meteors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilder, M. C.; Bogdanoff, D. W.

    2015-01-01

    The Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamic Facility at NASA Ames Research Center provides a potential platform for the experimental simulation of meteor breakup at conditions that closely match full-scale entry condition for select parameters. The poster describes the entry environment simulation capabilities of the Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamic Facility (HFFAF) at NASA Ames Research Center and provides example images of the fragmentation of a hypersonic projectile for which break-up was initiated by mechanical forces (impact with a thin polymer diaphragm).

  20. General Data Simulation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Edward

    Described is a computer program written in FORTRAN IV which offers considerable flexibility in generating simulated data pertinent to education and educational psychology. The user is allowed to specify the number of samples, data sets, and variables, together with the population means, standard deviations and intercorrelations. In addition the…

  1. Simulation of vortex-dominated aerodynamic flows by a point-vortex method

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Z.

    1988-01-01

    A numerical study was made to simulate vortex-dominated aerodynamic flows by the point-vortex method. Attention was divided into three different aspects: a nascent vortex-shedding algorithm, numerical demonstration of the point-vortex method, and the calculation of some example of aerodynamic interesting flows, which include two major categories: unsteady flow about a flat plate at a fixed angle of attack with and without a leading edge flap, and the transient, vortical cross flow produced by a slender delta wing. Evolution of the vortex traces, streamlines, surface pressure, and forces are studied. Flow features based on data obtained by different point-vortex shedding rates and different integration time steps and schemes are found to be consistent with each other on length and time scales comparable to as well as considerably smaller than those of the global flow.

  2. User's Manual for Aerofcn: a FORTRAN Program to Compute Aerodynamic Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, Joseph L.

    1992-01-01

    The computer program AeroFcn is discussed. AeroFcn is a utility program that computes the following aerodynamic parameters: geopotential altitude, Mach number, true velocity, dynamic pressure, calibrated airspeed, equivalent airspeed, impact pressure, total pressure, total temperature, Reynolds number, speed of sound, static density, static pressure, static temperature, coefficient of dynamic viscosity, kinematic viscosity, geometric altitude, and specific energy for a standard- or a modified standard-day atmosphere using compressible flow and normal shock relations. Any two parameters that define a unique flight condition are selected, and their values are entered interactively. The remaining parameters are computed, and the solutions are stored in an output file. Multiple cases can be run, and the multiple case solutions can be stored in another output file for plotting. Parameter units, the output format, and primary constants in the atmospheric and aerodynamic equations can also be changed.

  3. Plasma Simulation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwald, Martin

    2011-10-04

    Many others in the fusion energy and advanced scientific computing communities participated in the development of this plan. The core planning team is grateful for their important contributions. This summary is meant as a quick overview the Fusion Simulation Program's (FSP's) purpose and intentions. There are several additional documents referenced within this one and all are supplemental or flow down from this Program Plan. The overall science goal of the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) is to develop predictive simulation capability for magnetically confined fusion plasmas at an unprecedented level of integration and fidelity. This will directly support and enable effective U.S. participation in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) research and the overall mission of delivering practical fusion energy. The FSP will address a rich set of scientific issues together with experimental programs, producing validated integrated physics results. This is very well aligned with the mission of the ITER Organization to coordinate with its members the integrated modeling and control of fusion plasmas, including benchmarking and validation activities. [1]. Initial FSP research will focus on two critical Integrated Science Application (ISA) areas: ISA1, the plasma edge; and ISA2, whole device modeling (WDM) including disruption avoidance. The first of these problems involves the narrow plasma boundary layer and its complex interactions with the plasma core and the surrounding material wall. The second requires development of a computationally tractable, but comprehensive model that describes all equilibrium and dynamic processes at a sufficient level of detail to provide useful prediction of the temporal evolution of fusion plasma experiments. The initial driver for the whole device model will be prediction and avoidance of discharge-terminating disruptions, especially at high performance, which are a critical

  4. Numerical simulations of aerodynamic contribution of flows about a space-plane-type configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsushima, Kisa; Takanashi, Susume; Fujii, Kozo; Obayashi, Shigeru

    1987-01-01

    The slightly supersonic viscous flow about the space-plane under development at the National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL) in Japan was simulated numerically using the LU-ADI algorithm. The wind-tunnel testing for the same plane also was conducted with the computations in parallel. The main purpose of the simulation is to capture the phenomena which have a great deal of influence to the aerodynamic force and efficiency but is difficult to capture by experiments. It includes more accurate representation of vortical flows with high angles of attack of an aircraft. The space-plane shape geometry simulated is the simplified model of the real space-plane, which is a combination of a flat and slender body and a double-delta type wing. The comparison between experimental results and numerical ones will be done in the near future. It could be said that numerical results show the qualitatively reliable phenomena.

  5. Fusion Simulation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Project Staff

    2012-02-29

    Under this project, General Atomics (GA) was tasked to develop the experimental validation plans for two high priority ISAs, Boundary and Pedestal and Whole Device Modeling in collaboration with the theory, simulation and experimental communities. The following sections have been incorporated into the final FSP Program Plan (www.pppl.gov/fsp), which was delivered to the US Department of Energy (DOE). Additional deliverables by GA include guidance for validation, development of metrics to evaluate success and procedures for collaboration with experiments. These are also part of the final report.

  6. Numerical simulation of VAWT stochastic aerodynamic loads produced by atmospheric turbauence: VAWT-SAL code

    SciTech Connect

    Homicz, G.F.

    1991-09-01

    Blade fatigue life is an important element in determining the economic viability of the Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT). A principal source of blade fatigue is thought to be the stochastic (i.e., random) aerodynamic loads created by atmospheric turbulence. This report describes the theoretical background of the VAWT Stochastic Aerodynamic Loads (VAWT-SAL) computer code, whose purpose is to numerically simulate these random loads, given the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and assumed turbulence properties. A Double-Multiple-Stream Tube (DMST) analysis is employed to model the rotor's aerodynamic response. The analysis includes the effects of Reynolds number variations, different airfoil sections and chord lengths along the blade span, and an empirical model for dynamic stall effects. The mean ambient wind is assumed to have a shear profile which is described by either a power law or a logarithmic variation with height above ground. Superimposed on this is a full 3-D field of turbulence: i.e., in addition to random fluctuations in time, the turbulence is allowed to vary randomly in planes perpendicular to the mean wind. The influence of flow retardation on the convection of turbulence through the turbine is also modeled. Calculations are presented for the VAWT 34-m Test Bed currently in operation at Bushland, Texas. Predicted time histories of the loads, as well as their Fourier spectra, are presented and discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the differences between so-called steady-state'' (mean wind only) predictions, and those produced with turbulence present. Somewhat surprisingly, turbulence is found to be capable of either increasing or decreasing the average output power, depending on the turbine's tip-speed ratio. A heuristic explanation for such behavior is postulated, and a simple formula is derived for predicting the magnitude of this effect without the need for a full stochastic simulation. 41 refs., 32 figs., 1 tab.

  7. A Multi-Year Program Plan for the Aerodynamic Design of Heavy Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2001-09-01

    The project tasks and deliverables are as follows: Computations and Experiments--(1) Simulation and analysis of a range of generic shapes, simplified to more complex, representative of tractor and integrated tractor-trailer flow characteristics using computational tools, (2) The establishment of an experimental data base for tractor-trailer models for code/computational method development and validation. The first shapes to be considered will be directed towards the investigation of tractor-trailer gaps and mismatch of tractor-trailer heights. (3) The evaluation and documentation of effective computational approaches for application to heavy vehicle aerodynamics based on the benchmark results with existing and advanced computational tools compared to experimental data, and (4) Computational tools and experimental methods for use by industry, National Laboratories, and universities for the aerodynamic modeling of heavy truck vehicles. Evaluation of current and new technologies--(1) The evaluation and documentation of current and new technologies for drag reduction based on published literature and continued communication with the heavy vehicle industry (e.g., identification and prioritization of tractor-trailer drag-sources, blowing and/or suction devices, body shaping, new experimental methods or facilities), and the identification and analysis of tractor and integrated tractor-trailer aerodynamic problem areas and possible solution strategies. (2) Continued industrial site visits. It should be noted that ''CFD tools'' are not only the actual computer codes, but descriptions of appropriate numerical solution methods. Part of the project effort will be to determine the restrictions or avenues for technology transfer.

  8. Wind Tunnel Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Transport-type Airfoil in a Simulated Heavy Rain Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bezos, Gaudy M.; Dunham, R. Earl, Jr.; Gentry, Garl L., Jr.; Melson, W. Edward, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of simulated heavy rain on the aerodynamic characteristics of an NACA 64-210 airfoil section equipped with leading-and trailing-edge high-lift devices were investigated in the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. The model had a chord of 2.5 ft, a span of 8 ft, and was mounted on the tunnel centerline between two large endplates. Aerodynamic measurements in and out of the simulated rain environment were obtained for dynamic pressures of 30 and 50 psf and an angle-of-attack range of 0 to 20 degrees for the cruise configuration. The rain intensity was varied to produce liquid water contents ranging from 16 to 46 gm/cu m. The results obtained for various rain intensity levels and tunnel speeds showed significant losses in maximum lift capability and increases in drag for a given lift as the liquid water content was increased. The results obtained on the landing configuration also indicate a progressive decrease in the angle of attack at which maximum lift occurred and an increase in the slope of the pitching-moment curve as the liquid water content was increased. The sensitivity of test results to the effects of the water surface tension was also investigated. A chemical was introduced into the rain environment that reduced the surface tension of water by a factor of 2. The reduction in the surface tension of water did not significantly alter the level of performance losses for the landing configuration.

  9. Methods of the aerodynamical experiments with simulation of massflow-traction ratio of the power unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokotko, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    Modeling massflow-traction characteristics of the power unit (PU) may be of interest in the study of aerodynamic characteristics (ADC) aircraft models with full dynamic likeness, and in the study of the effect of interference PU. These studies require the use of a number of processing methods. These include: 1) The method of delivery of the high-pressure body of jets model engines on the sensitive part of the aerodynamic balance. 2) The method of estimate accuracy and reliability of measurement thrust generated by the jet device. 3) The method of implementation of the simulator SU in modeling the external contours of the nacelle, and the conditions at the inlet and outlet. 4) The method of determining the traction simulator PU. 5) The method of determining the interference effect from the work of power unit on the ADC of model. 6) The method of producing hot jets of jet engines. The paper examines implemented in ITAM methodology applied to testing in a supersonic wind tunnel T-313.

  10. Aerodynamics model for a generic ASTOVL lift-fan aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birckelbaw, Lourdes G.; Mcneil, Walter E.; Wardwell, Douglas A.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the aerodynamics model used in a simulation model of an advanced short takeoff and vertical landing (ASTOVL) lift-fan fighter aircraft. The simulation model was developed for use in piloted evaluations of transition and hover flight regimes, so that only low speed (M approximately 0.2) aerodynamics are included in the mathematical model. The aerodynamic model includes the power-off aerodynamic forces and moments and the propulsion system induced aerodynamic effects, including ground effects. The power-off aerodynamics data were generated using the U.S. Air Force Stability and Control Digital DATCOM program and a NASA Ames in-house graphics program called VORVIEW which allows the user to easily analyze arbitrary conceptual aircraft configurations using the VORLAX program. The jet-induced data were generated using the prediction methods of R. E. Kuhn et al., as referenced in this report.

  11. Laser Ranging Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piazolla, Sabino; Hemmati, Hamid; Tratt, David

    2003-01-01

    Laser Ranging Simulation Program (LRSP) is a computer program that predicts selected aspects of the performances of a laser altimeter or other laser ranging or remote-sensing systems and is especially applicable to a laser-based system used to map terrain from a distance of several kilometers. Designed to run in a more recent version (5 or higher) of the MATLAB programming language, LRSP exploits the numerical and graphical capabilities of MATLAB. LRSP generates a graphical user interface that includes a pop-up menu that prompts the user for the input of data that determine the performance of a laser ranging system. Examples of input data include duration and energy of the laser pulse, the laser wavelength, the width of the laser beam, and several parameters that characterize the transmitting and receiving optics, the receiving electronic circuitry, and the optical properties of the atmosphere and the terrain. When the input data have been entered, LRSP computes the signal-to-noise ratio as a function of range, signal and noise currents, and ranging and pointing errors.

  12. Toward Affordable, Theory-and-Simulation-Inspired, Models for Realistic Wind Turbine Aerodynamics and Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladeinde, Foluso; Alabi, Ken; Li, Wenhai

    2015-11-01

    The problem of generating design data for the operation of a farm of wind turbines for clean energy production is quite complicated, if properly done. Potential flow theories provide some models, but these are not suitable for the massive aerodynamic separation and turbulence that characterize many realistic wind turbine applications. Procedures, such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD), which can potentially resolve some of the accuracy problems with the purely theoretical approach, are quite expensive to use, and often prohibit real-time design and control. In our work, we seek affordable and acceptably-accurate models derived from the foregoing approaches. The simulation used in our study is based on high-fidelity CFD, meaning that we use high-order (compact-scheme based), mostly large-eddy simulation methods, with due regards for the proper treatment of the stochastic inflow turbulence data. Progress on the project described herein will be presented.

  13. Results of aerodynamic testing of large-scale wing sections in a simulated natural rain environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bezos, Gaudy M.; Dunham, R. Earl, Jr.; Campbell, Bryan A.; Melson, W. Edward, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center has developed a large-scale ground testing capability for evaluating the effect of heavy rain on airfoil lift. The paper presents the results obtained at the Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility on a 10-foot cord NACA 64-210 wing section equipped with a leading-edge slat and double-slotted trailing-edge flap deflected to simulate landing conditions. Aerodynamic lift data were obtained with and without the rain simulation system turned on for an angle-of-attack range of 7.5 to 19.5 deg and for two rainfall conditions: 9 in/hr and 40 in/hr. The results are compared to and correlated with previous small-scale wind tunnel results for the same airfoil section. It appears that to first order, scale effects are not large and the wind tunnel research technique can be used to predict rain effects on airplane performance.

  14. Aerodynamic Effects of Simulated Ice Accretion on a Generic Transport Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Lee, Sam; Shah, Gautam H.; Murphy, Patrick C.

    2012-01-01

    An experimental research effort was begun to develop a database of airplane aerodynamic characteristics with simulated ice accretion over a large range of incidence and sideslip angles. Wind-tunnel testing was performed at the NASA Langley 12-ft Low-Speed Wind Tunnel using a 3.5 percent scale model of the NASA Langley Generic Transport Model. Aerodynamic data were acquired from a six-component force and moment balance in static-model sweeps from alpha = -5deg to 85deg and beta = -45 deg to 45 deg at a Reynolds number of 0.24 x10(exp 6) and Mach number of 0.06. The 3.5 percent scale GTM was tested in both the clean configuration and with full-span artificial ice shapes attached to the leading edges of the wing, horizontal and vertical tail. Aerodynamic results for the clean airplane configuration compared favorably with similar experiments carried out on a 5.5 percent scale GTM. The addition of the large, glaze-horn type ice shapes did result in an increase in airplane drag coefficient but had little effect on the lift and pitching moment. The lateral-directional characteristics showed mixed results with a small effect of the ice shapes observed in some cases. The flow visualization images revealed the presence and evolution of a spanwise-running vortex on the wing that was the dominant feature of the flowfield for both clean and iced configurations. The lack of ice-induced performance and flowfield effects observed in this effort was likely due to Reynolds number effects for the clean configuration. Estimates of full-scale baseline performance were included in this analysis to illustrate the potential icing effects.

  15. The Effect of Bypass Nozzle Exit Area on Fan Aerodynamic Performance and Noise in a Model Turbofan Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; Podboy, Gary, G.; Woodward, Richard P.; Jeracki, Robert, J.

    2013-01-01

    The design of effective new technologies to reduce aircraft propulsion noise is dependent on identifying and understanding the noise sources and noise generation mechanisms in the modern turbofan engine, as well as determining their contribution to the overall aircraft noise signature. Therefore, a comprehensive aeroacoustic wind tunnel test program was conducted called the Fan Broadband Source Diagnostic Test as part of the NASA Quiet Aircraft Technology program. The test was performed in the anechoic NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel using a 1/5 scale model turbofan simulator which represented a current generation, medium pressure ratio, high bypass turbofan aircraft engine. The investigation focused on simulating in model scale only the bypass section of the turbofan engine. The test objectives were to: identify the noise sources within the model and determine their noise level; investigate several component design technologies by determining their impact on the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of the fan stage; and conduct detailed flow diagnostics within the fan flow field to characterize the physics of the noise generation mechanisms in a turbofan model. This report discusses results obtained for one aspect of the Source Diagnostic Test that investigated the effect of the bypass or fan nozzle exit area on the bypass stage aerodynamic performance, specifically the fan and outlet guide vanes or stators, as well as the farfield acoustic noise level. The aerodynamic performance, farfield acoustics, and Laser Doppler Velocimeter flow diagnostic results are presented for the fan and four different fixed-area bypass nozzle configurations. The nozzles simulated fixed engine operating lines and encompassed the fan stage operating envelope from near stall to cruise. One nozzle was selected as a baseline reference, representing the nozzle area which would achieve the design point operating conditions and fan stage performance. The total area change from

  16. Modeling and Simulation of Radiative Compressible Flows in Aerodynamic Heating Arc-Jet Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bensassi, Khalil; Laguna, Alejandro A.; Lani, Andrea; Mansour, Nagi N.

    2016-01-01

    Numerical simulations of an arc heated flow inside NASA's 20 [MW] Aerodynamics heating facility (AHF) are performed in order to investigate the three-dimensional swirling flow and the current distribution inside the wind tunnel. The plasma is considered in Local Thermodynamics Equilibrium(LTE) and is composed of Air-Argon gas mixture. The governing equations are the Navier-Stokes equations that include source terms corresponding to Joule heating and radiative cooling. The former is obtained by solving an electric potential equation, while the latter is calculated using an innovative massively parallel ray-tracing algorithm. The fully coupled system is closed by the thermodynamics relations and transport properties which are obtained from Chapman-Enskog method. A novel strategy was developed in order to enable the flow solver and the radiation calculation to be preformed independently and simultaneously using a different number of processors. Drastic reduction in the computational cost was achieved using this strategy. Details on the numerical methods used for space discretization, time integration and ray-tracing algorithm will be presented. The effect of the radiative cooling on the dynamics of the flow will be investigated. The complete set of equations were implemented within the COOLFluiD Framework. Fig. 1 shows the geometry of the Anode and part of the constrictor of the Aerodynamics heating facility (AHF). Fig. 2 shows the velocity field distribution along (x-y) plane and the streamline in (z-y) plane.

  17. Introduction of the ASP3D Computer Program for Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batina, John T.

    2005-01-01

    A new computer program has been developed called ASP3D (Advanced Small Perturbation 3D), which solves the small perturbation potential flow equation in an advanced form including mass-consistent surface and trailing wake boundary conditions, and entropy, vorticity, and viscous effects. The purpose of the program is for unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analyses, especially in the nonlinear transonic flight regime. The program exploits the simplicity of stationary Cartesian meshes with the movement or deformation of the configuration under consideration incorporated into the solution algorithm through a planar surface boundary condition. The new ASP3D code is the result of a decade of developmental work on improvements to the small perturbation formulation, performed while the author was employed as a Senior Research Scientist in the Configuration Aerodynamics Branch at the NASA Langley Research Center. The ASP3D code is a significant improvement to the state-of-the-art for transonic aeroelastic analyses over the CAP-TSD code (Computational Aeroelasticity Program Transonic Small Disturbance), which was developed principally by the author in the mid-1980s. The author is in a unique position as the developer of both computer programs to compare, contrast, and ultimately make conclusions regarding the underlying formulations and utility of each code. The paper describes the salient features of the ASP3D code including the rationale for improvements in comparison with CAP-TSD. Numerous results are presented to demonstrate the ASP3D capability. The general conclusion is that the new ASP3D capability is superior to the older CAP-TSD code because of the myriad improvements developed and incorporated.

  18. Numerical simulation of three-dimensional transonic turbulent projectile aerodynamics by TVD schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiau, Nae-Haur; Hsu, Chen-Chi; Chyu, Wei-Jao

    1989-01-01

    The two-dimensional symmetric TVD scheme proposed by Yee has been extended to and investigated for three-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes simulation of complex aerodynamic problems. An existing three-dimensional Navier-stokes code based on the beam and warming algorithm is modified to provide an option of using the TVD algorithm and the flow problem considered is a transonic turbulent flow past a projectile with sting at ten-degree angle of attack. Numerical experiments conducted for three flow cases, free-stream Mach numbers of 0.91, 0.96 and 1.20 show that the symmetric TVD algorithm can provide surface pressure distribution in excellent agreement with measured data; moreover, the rate of convergence to attain a steady state solution is about two times faster than the original beam and warming algorithm.

  19. Aerodynamic and thermal analysis of an engine cylinder head using numerical flow simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Taghavi, R.; Dupont, A.; Dupont, J.F. )

    1990-07-01

    This paper reports on a computational fluid dynamics code used as a guide during the development stage of a passenger car spark ignition engine. The focus is on the flow proiperties of the inlet port as well as the heat transfer characteristics of the proposed cylinder head design. In the first part of this study, the aerodynamic characteristics of two slightly different inlet ports are considered and their effect on the development of in-cylinder flow is examined. The collected information is used to estimate geometric sensitivity and assess the effects of drifts between design and actual production specifications of inlet ports. In the second part, the same computational code is used to simulate in-cylinder combustion and determine the resulting temperature and heat flux distribution on the cylinder head walls. A comparison is thn carried out between numerical results and experimental measurements and good agreement is obtained.

  20. Aerodynamic analysis and simulation of a twin-tail tilt-duct unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdollahi, Cyrus

    The tilt-duct vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) concept has been around since the early 1960s; however, to date the design has never passed the research phase and development phase. Nearly 50 years later, American Dynamics Flight Systems (ADFS) is developing the AD-150, a 2,250lb weight class unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) configured with rotating ducts on each wingtip. Unlike its predecessor, the Doak VZ-4, the AD-150 features a V tail and wing sweep -- both of which affect the aerodynamic behavior of the aircraft. Because no aircraft of this type has been built and tested, vital aerodynamic research was conducted on the bare airframe behavior (without wingtip ducts). Two weeks of static and dynamic testing were performed on a 3/10th scale model at the University of Maryland's 7' x 10' low speed wind tunnel to facilitate the construction of a nonlinear flight simulator. A total of 70 dynamic tests were performed to obtain damping parameter estimates using the ordinary least squares methodology. Validation, based on agreement between static and dynamic estimates of the pitch and yaw stiffness terms, showed an average percent error of 14.0% and 39.6%, respectively. These inconsistencies were attributed to: large dynamic displacements not encountered during static testing, regressor collinearity, and, while not conclusively proven, differences in static and dynamic boundary layer development. Overall, the damping estimates were consistent and repeatable, with low scatter over a 95% confidence interval. Finally, a basic open loop simulation was executed to demonstrate the instability of the aircraft. As a result, it is recommended that future work be performed to determine trim points and linear models for controls development.

  1. Computational Simulations of Convergent Nozzles for the AIAA 1st Propulsion Aerodynamics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dippold, Vance F., III

    2014-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were completed for a series of convergent nozzles in participation of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) 1st Propulsion Aerodynamics Workshop. The simulations were performed using the Wind-US flow solver. Discharge and thrust coefficients were computed for four axisymmetric nozzles with nozzle pressure ratios (NPR) ranging from 1.4 to 7.0. The computed discharge coefficients showed excellent agreement with available experimental data; the computed thrust coefficients captured trends observed in the experimental data, but over-predicted the thrust coefficient by 0.25 to 1.0 percent. Sonic lines were computed for cases with NPR >= 2.0 and agreed well with experimental data for NPR >= 2.5. Simulations were also performed for a 25 deg. conic nozzle bifurcated by a flat plate at NPR = 4.0. The jet plume shock structure was compared with and without the splitter plate to the experimental data. The Wind-US simulations predicted the shock structure well, though lack of grid resolution in the plume reduced the sharpness of the shock waves. Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) simulations and Detached Eddy Simulations (DES) were performed at NPR = 1.6 for the 25 deg conic nozzle with splitter plate. The simulations predicted vortex shedding from the trailing edge of the splitter plate. However, the vortices of URANS and DES solutions appeared to dissipate earlier than observed experimentally. It is believed that a lack of grid resolution in the region of the vortex shedding may have caused the vortices to break down too soon

  2. Users manual for Aerospace Nuclear Safety Program six-degree-of-freedom reentry simulation (TMAGRA6C)

    SciTech Connect

    Sharbaugh, R.C.

    1990-02-01

    This report documents the updated six-degree-of-freedom reentry simulation TMAGRA6C used in the Aerospace Nuclear Safety Program, ANSP. The simulation provides for the inclusion of the effects of ablation on the aerodynamic stability and drag of reentry bodies, specifically the General Purpose Heat Source, GPHS. The existing six-degree-of-freedom reentry body simulations (TMAGRA6A and TMAGRA6B) used in the JHU/APL Nuclear Safety Program do not include aerodynamic effects resulting from geometric changes to the configuration due to ablation from reentry flights. A wind tunnel test was conducted in 1989 to obtain the effects of ablation on the hypersonic aerodynamics of the GPHS module. The analyzed data were used to form data sets which are included herein in tabular form. These are used as incremental aerodynamic inputs in the new TMAGRA6C six-degree-of-freedom reentry simulation. 20 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Hyper-X Research Vehicle (HXRV) Experimental Aerodynamics Test Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Scott D.; Woods, William C.; Engelund, Walter C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the experimental aerodynamics test program to ensure mission success for the autonomous flight of the Hyper-X Research Vehicle (HXRV). The HXRV is a 12-ft long, 2700 lb lifting body technology demonstrator designed to flight demonstrate for the first time a fully airframe integrated scramjet propulsion system. Three flights are currently planned, two at Mach 7 and one at Mach 10, beginning in the fall of 2000. The research vehicles will be boosted to the prescribed scramjet engine test point where they will separate from the booster, stabilize, and initiate engine test. Following 5+ seconds of powered flight and 15 seconds of cow-open tares, the cowl will close and the vehicle will fly a controlled deceleration trajectory which includes numerous control doublets for in-flight aerodynamic parameter identification. This paper reviews the preflight testing activities, wind tunnel models, test rationale, risk reduction activities, and sample results from wind tunnel tests supporting the flight trajectory of the HXRV from hypersonic engine test point through subsonic flight termination.

  4. Hyper-X Research Vehicle (HXRV) Experimental Aerodynamics Test Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Scott D.; Woods, William C.; Engelund, Walter C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the experimental aerodynamics test program to ensure mission success for the autonomous flight of the Hyper-X Research Vehicle (HXRV). The HXRV is a 12-ft long, 2700 lb lifting body technology demonstrator designed to flight demonstrate for the first time a fully airframe integrated scramjet propulsion system. Three flights are currently planned, two at Mach 7 and one at Mach 10, beginning in the fall of 2000. The research vehicles will be boosted to the prescribed scramjet engine test point where they will separate from the booster, stabilize. and initiate engine test. Following 5+ seconds of powered flight and 15 seconds of cowl-open tares, the cowl will close and the vehicle will fly a controlled deceleration trajectory which includes numerous control doublets for in-flight aerodynamic parameter identification. This paper reviews the preflight testing activities, wind tunnel models, test rationale. risk reduction activities, and sample results from wind tunnel tests supporting the flight trajectory of the HXRV from hypersonic engine test point through subsonic flight termination.

  5. Aerodynamics Simulations for the D8 ``Double Bubble'' Aircraft Using the LAVA Unstructured Solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballinger, Sean

    2013-11-01

    The D8 ``double bubble'' is a proposed design for quieter and more efficient domestic passenger aircraft of the Boeing 737 class. It features boundary layer-ingesting engines located under a non-load-bearing π-tail and a lightweight low-sweep wing for flight around Mach 0.7. The D8's wide lifting body is expected to supply 15% of its total lift, while a Boeing 737's fuselage contributes only 8%. The tapering rear of the fuselage is also predicted to experience a negative moment resulting in positive pitch, produce a thicker boundary layer for ingestion by distortion-tolerant engines, and act as a noise shield. To investigate these predictions, unstructured grids generated over a fine surface triangulation using Star-CCM+ are used to model the unpowered D8 with flow conditions mimicking those in the MIT Wright brothers wind tunnel at angles of attack from - 2 to 14 degrees. LAVA, the recently developed Launch Ascent and Vehicle Aerodynamics solver, is used to carry out simulations on an unstructured grid. The results are compared to wind tunnel data, and to data from structured grid simulations using the LAVA, Overflow, and Cart3D solvers. Applied Modeling and Simulation Branch, NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division, funded by New York Space Grant.

  6. High-fidelity simulations of unsteady civil aircraft aerodynamics: stakes and perspectives. Application of zonal detached eddy simulation

    PubMed Central

    Deck, Sébastien; Gand, Fabien; Brunet, Vincent; Ben Khelil, Saloua

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an up-to-date survey of the use of zonal detached eddy simulations (ZDES) for unsteady civil aircraft applications as a reflection on the stakes and perspectives of the use of hybrid methods in the framework of industrial aerodynamics. The issue of zonal or non-zonal treatment of turbulent flows for engineering applications is discussed. The ZDES method used in this article and based on a fluid problem-dependent zonalization is briefly presented. Some recent landmark achievements for conditions all over the flight envelope are presented, including low-speed (aeroacoustics of high-lift devices and landing gear), cruising (engine–airframe interactions), propulsive jets and off-design (transonic buffet and dive manoeuvres) applications. The implications of such results and remaining challenges in a more global framework are further discussed. PMID:25024411

  7. High-fidelity simulations of unsteady civil aircraft aerodynamics: stakes and perspectives. Application of zonal detached eddy simulation.

    PubMed

    Deck, Sébastien; Gand, Fabien; Brunet, Vincent; Ben Khelil, Saloua

    2014-08-13

    This paper provides an up-to-date survey of the use of zonal detached eddy simulations (ZDES) for unsteady civil aircraft applications as a reflection on the stakes and perspectives of the use of hybrid methods in the framework of industrial aerodynamics. The issue of zonal or non-zonal treatment of turbulent flows for engineering applications is discussed. The ZDES method used in this article and based on a fluid problem-dependent zonalization is briefly presented. Some recent landmark achievements for conditions all over the flight envelope are presented, including low-speed (aeroacoustics of high-lift devices and landing gear), cruising (engine-airframe interactions), propulsive jets and off-design (transonic buffet and dive manoeuvres) applications. The implications of such results and remaining challenges in a more global framework are further discussed. PMID:25024411

  8. High-fidelity simulations of unsteady civil aircraft aerodynamics: stakes and perspectives. Application of zonal detached eddy simulation.

    PubMed

    Deck, Sébastien; Gand, Fabien; Brunet, Vincent; Ben Khelil, Saloua

    2014-08-13

    This paper provides an up-to-date survey of the use of zonal detached eddy simulations (ZDES) for unsteady civil aircraft applications as a reflection on the stakes and perspectives of the use of hybrid methods in the framework of industrial aerodynamics. The issue of zonal or non-zonal treatment of turbulent flows for engineering applications is discussed. The ZDES method used in this article and based on a fluid problem-dependent zonalization is briefly presented. Some recent landmark achievements for conditions all over the flight envelope are presented, including low-speed (aeroacoustics of high-lift devices and landing gear), cruising (engine-airframe interactions), propulsive jets and off-design (transonic buffet and dive manoeuvres) applications. The implications of such results and remaining challenges in a more global framework are further discussed.

  9. A computer program for wing subsonic aerodynamic performance estimates including attainable thrust and vortex lift effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, H. W.; Walkley, K. B.

    1982-01-01

    Numerical methods incorporated into a computer program to provide estimates of the subsonic aerodynamic performance of twisted and cambered wings of arbitrary planform with attainable thrust and vortex lift considerations are described. The computational system is based on a linearized theory lifting surface solution which provides a spanwise distribution of theoretical leading edge thrust in addition to the surface distribution of perturbation velocities. The approach used relies on a solution by iteration. The method also features a superposition of independent solutions for a cambered and twisted wing and a flat wing of the same planform to provide, at little additional expense, results for a large number of angles of attack or lift coefficients. A previously developed method is employed to assess the portion of the theoretical thrust actually attainable and the portion that is felt as a vortex normal force.

  10. Automatic programming of simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of automatic programming is to improve the overall environment for describing the program. This improved environment is realized by a reduction in the amount of detail that the programmer needs to know and is exposed to. Furthermore, this improved environment is achieved by a specification language that is more natural to the user's problem domain and to the user's way of thinking and looking at the problem. The goal of this research is to apply the concepts of automatic programming (AP) to modeling discrete event simulation system. Specific emphasis is on the design and development of simulation tools to assist the modeler define or construct a model of the system and to then automatically write the corresponding simulation code in the target simulation language, GPSS/PC. A related goal is to evaluate the feasibility of various languages for constructing automatic programming simulation tools.

  11. Method for obtaining aerodynamic data on hypersonic configurations with scramjet exhaust flow simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartill, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    A hypersonic wind tunnel test method for obtaining credible aerodynamic data on a complete hypersonic vehicle (generic X-24c) with scramjet exhaust flow simulation is described. The general problems of simulating the scramjet exhaust as well as accounting for scramjet inlet flow and vehicle forces are analyzed, and candidate test methods are described and compared. The method selected as most useful makes use of a thrust-minus-drag flow-through balance with a completely metric model. Inlet flow is diverted by a fairing. The incremental effect of the fairing is determined in the testing of two reference models. The net thrust of the scramjet module is an input to be determined in large-scale module tests with scramjet combustion. Force accounting is described, and examples of force component levels are predicted. Compatibility of the test method with candidate wind tunnel facilities is described, and a preliminary model mechanical arrangement drawing is presented. The balance design and performance requirements are described in a detailed specification. Calibration procedures, model instrumentation, and a test plan for the model are outlined.

  12. Using a commercial CAD system for simultaneous input to theoretical aerodynamic programs and wind-tunnel model construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enomoto, F.; Keller, P.

    1984-01-01

    The Computer Aided Design (CAD) system's common geometry database was used to generate input for theoretical programs and numerically controlled (NC) tool paths for wind tunnel part fabrication. This eliminates the duplication of work in generating separate geometry databases for each type of analysis. Another advantage is that it reduces the uncertainty due to geometric differences when comparing theoretical aerodynamic data with wind tunnel data. The system was adapted to aerodynamic research by developing programs written in Design Analysis Language (DAL). These programs reduced the amount of time required to construct complex geometries and to generate input for theoretical programs. Certain shortcomings of the Design, Drafting, and Manufacturing (DDM) software limited the effectiveness of these programs and some of the Calma NC software. The complexity of aircraft configurations suggests that more types of surface and curve geometry should be added to the system. Some of these shortcomings may be eliminated as improved versions of DDM are made available.

  13. An aerodynamic analysis computer program and design notes for low speed wing flap systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, H. W.; Walkley, K. B.

    1983-01-01

    The expanded capabilities for analysis and design of low speed flap systems afforded by recent modifications of an existing computer program is described. The program provides for the simultaneous analysis of up to 25 pairs of leading-edge and trailing-edge flap deflection schedules. Among other new features of the program are a revised attainable thrust estimation method to provide more accurate predictions for low Mach numbers, and a choice of three options for estimation of leading-edge separation vortex flow effects. Comparison of program results with low speed experimental data for an arrow wing supersonic cruise configuration with leading-edge and trailing-edge flaps showed good agreement over most of the range of flap deflections. Other force data comparisons and an independent study of airfoil and wing pressure distributions indicated that wind-tunnel measurements of the aerodynamic performance of twisted and cambered wings and wings with leading-edge flaps can be very sensitive to Reynolds number effects.

  14. PROGRAM VSAERO: A computer program for calculating the non-linear aerodynamic characteristics of arbitrary configurations: User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maskew, B.

    1982-01-01

    VSAERO is a computer program used to predict the nonlinear aerodynamic characteristics of arbitrary three-dimensional configurations in subsonic flow. Nonlinear effects of vortex separation and vortex surface interaction are treated in an iterative wake-shape calculation procedure, while the effects of viscosity are treated in an iterative loop coupling potential-flow and integral boundary-layer calculations. The program employs a surface singularity panel method using quadrilateral panels on which doublet and source singularities are distributed in a piecewise constant form. This user's manual provides a brief overview of the mathematical model, instructions for configuration modeling and a description of the input and output data. A listing of a sample case is included.

  15. Aerodynamic Analysis of Simulated Heat Shield Recession for the Orion Command Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bibb, Karen L.; Alter, Stephen J.; Mcdaniel, Ryan D.

    2008-01-01

    The aerodynamic effects of the recession of the ablative thermal protection system for the Orion Command Module of the Crew Exploration Vehicle are important for the vehicle guidance. At the present time, the aerodynamic effects of recession being handled within the Orion aerodynamic database indirectly with an additional safety factor placed on the uncertainty bounds. This study is an initial attempt to quantify the effects for a particular set of recessed geometry shapes, in order to provide more rigorous analysis for managing recession effects within the aerodynamic database. The aerodynamic forces and moments for the baseline and recessed geometries were computed at several trajectory points using multiple CFD codes, both viscous and inviscid. The resulting aerodynamics for the baseline and recessed geometries were compared. The forces (lift, drag) show negligible differences between baseline and recessed geometries. Generally, the moments show a difference between baseline and recessed geometries that correlates with the maximum amount of recession of the geometry. The difference between the pitching moments for the baseline and recessed geometries increases as Mach number decreases (and the recession is greater), and reach a value of -0.0026 for the lowest Mach number. The change in trim angle of attack increases from approx. 0.5deg at M = 28.7 to approx. 1.3deg at M = 6, and is consistent with a previous analysis with a lower fidelity engineering tool. This correlation of the present results with the engineering tool results supports the continued use of the engineering tool for future work. The present analysis suggests there does not need to be an uncertainty due to recession in the Orion aerodynamic database for the force quantities. The magnitude of the change in pitching moment due to recession is large enough to warrant inclusion in the aerodynamic database. An increment in the uncertainty for pitching moment could be calculated from these results and

  16. A real-time digital computer program for the simulation of automatic spacecraft reentries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaylor, J. T.; Powell, L. F.; Powell, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    The automatic reentry flight dynamics simulator, a nonlinear, six-degree-of-freedom simulation, digital computer program, has been developed. The program includes a rotating, oblate earth model for accurate navigation calculations and contains adjustable gains on the aerodynamic stability and control parameters. This program uses a real-time simulation system and is designed to examine entries of vehicles which have constant mass properties whose attitudes are controlled by both aerodynamic surfaces and reaction control thrusters, and which have automatic guidance and control systems. The program has been used to study the space shuttle orbiter entry. This report includes descriptions of the equations of motion used, the control and guidance schemes that were implemented, the program flow and operation, and the hardware involved.

  17. Taxis through Computer Simulation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, David

    1983-01-01

    Describes a sequence of five computer programs (listings for Apple II available from author) on tactic responses (oriented movement of a cell, cell group, or whole organism in reponse to stimuli). The simulation programs are useful in helping students examine mechanisms at work in real organisms. (JN)

  18. Program VSAERO theory document: A computer program for calculating nonlinear aerodynamic characteristics of arbitrary configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maskew, Brian

    1987-01-01

    The VSAERO low order panel method formulation is described for the calculation of subsonic aerodynamic characteristics of general configurations. The method is based on piecewise constant doublet and source singularities. Two forms of the internal Dirichlet boundary condition are discussed and the source distribution is determined by the external Neumann boundary condition. A number of basic test cases are examined. Calculations are compared with higher order solutions for a number of cases. It is demonstrated that for comparable density of control points where the boundary conditions are satisfied, the low order method gives comparable accuracy to the higher order solutions. It is also shown that problems associated with some earlier low order panel methods, e.g., leakage in internal flows and junctions and also poor trailing edge solutions, do not appear for the present method. Further, the application of the Kutta conditions is extremely simple; no extra equation or trailing edge velocity point is required. The method has very low computing costs and this has made it practical for application to nonlinear problems requiring iterative solutions for wake shape and surface boundary layer effects.

  19. Challenges in Simulation of Aerodynamics, Hydrodynamics, and Mooring-Line Dynamics of Floating Offshore Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Matha, D.; Schlipf, M.; Cordle, A.; Pereira, R.; Jonkman, J.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents the current major modeling challenges for floating offshore wind turbine design tools and describes aerodynamic and hydrodynamic effects due to rotor and platform motions and usage of non-slender support structures.

  20. VEEP: A Vehicle Economy, Emissions, and Performance simulation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klose, G. J.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of the VEEP simulation program was to: (1) predict vehicle fuel economy and relative emissions over any specified driving cycle; (2) calculate various measures of vehicle performance (acceleration, passing manuevers, gradeability, top speed), and (3) give information on the various categories of energy dissipation (rolling friction, aerodynamics, accessories, inertial effects, component inefficiences, etc.). The vehicle is described based on detailed subsystem information and numerical parameters characterizing the components of a wide variety of self-propelled vehicles. Conventionally arranged heat engine powered automobiles were emphasized, but with consideration in the design toward the requirement of other types of vehicles.

  1. Aerodynamic characteristics of reentry vehicles at supersonic velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamov, N. P.; Kharitonov, A. M.; Chasovnikov, E. A.; Dyad'kin, A. A.; Kazakov, M. I.; Krylov, A. N.; Skorovarov, A. Yu.

    2015-09-01

    Models of promising reentry vehicles, experimental equipment, and test program are described. The method used to determine the total aerodynamic characteristics of these models on the AB-313 mechanical balance in the T-313 supersonic wind tunnel and the method used for simulations are presented. The aerodynamic coefficients of the examined objects in wide ranges of Mach numbers and angles of attack are obtained. The experimental data are compared with the results of simulations.

  2. Automatic programming of simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

    1990-01-01

    The concepts of software engineering were used to improve the simulation modeling environment. Emphasis was placed on the application of an element of rapid prototyping, or automatic programming, to assist the modeler define the problem specification. Then, once the problem specification has been defined, an automatic code generator is used to write the simulation code. The following two domains were selected for evaluating the concepts of software engineering for discrete event simulation: manufacturing domain and a spacecraft countdown network sequence. The specific tasks were to: (1) define the software requirements for a graphical user interface to the Automatic Manufacturing Programming System (AMPS) system; (2) develop a graphical user interface for AMPS; and (3) compare the AMPS graphical interface with the AMPS interactive user interface.

  3. Program LRCDM2: Improved aerodynamic prediction program for supersonic canard-tail missiles with axisymmetric bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillenius, Marnix F. E.

    1985-01-01

    Program LRCDM2 was developed for supersonic missiles with axisymmetric bodies and up to two finned sections. Predicted are pressure distributions and loads acting on a complete configuration including effects of body separated flow vorticity and fin-edge vortices. The computer program is based on supersonic panelling and line singularity methods coupled with vortex tracking theory. Effects of afterbody shed vorticity on the afterbody and tail-fin pressure distributions can be optionally treated by companion program BDYSHD. Preliminary versions of combined shock expansion/linear theory and Newtonian/linear theory have been implemented as optional pressure calculation methods to extend the Mach number and angle-of-attack ranges of applicability into the nonlinear supersonic flow regime. Comparisons between program results and experimental data are given for a triform tail-finned configuration and for a canard controlled configuration with a long afterbody for Mach numbers up to 2.5. Initial tests of the nonlinear/linear theory approaches show good agreement for pressures acting on a rectangular wing and a delta wing with attached shocks for Mach numbers up to 4.6 and angles of attack up to 20 degrees.

  4. Real-time aerodynamic heating and surface temperature calculations for hypersonic flight simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Robert D.; Gong, Leslie

    1990-01-01

    A real-time heating algorithm was derived and installed on the Ames Research Center Dryden Flight Research Facility real-time flight simulator. This program can calculate two- and three-dimensional stagnation point surface heating rates and surface temperatures. The two-dimensional calculations can be made with or without leading-edge sweep. In addition, upper and lower surface heating rates and surface temperatures for flat plates, wedges, and cones can be calculated. Laminar or turbulent heating can be calculated, with boundary-layer transition made a function of free-stream Reynolds number and free-stream Mach number. Real-time heating rates and surface temperatures calculated for a generic hypersonic vehicle are presented and compared with more exact values computed by a batch aeroheating program. As these comparisons show, the heating algorithm used on the flight simulator calculates surface heating rates and temperatures well within the accuracy required to evaluate flight profiles for acceptable heating trajectories.

  5. Model aerodynamic test results for two variable cycle engine coannular exhaust systems at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions. Comprehensive data report. Volume 2: Tabulated aerodynamic data book 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    Tabulated aerodynamic data from coannular nozzle performance tests are given for test runs 26 through 37. The data include nozzle thrust coefficient parameters, nozzle discharge coefficients, and static pressure tap measurements.

  6. An Investigation of the Impact of Aerodynamic Model Fidelity on Close-In Combat Effectiveness Prediction in Piloted Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Persing, T. Ray; Bellish, Christine A.; Brandon, Jay; Kenney, P. Sean; Carzoo, Susan; Buttrill, Catherine; Guenther, Arlene

    2005-01-01

    Several aircraft airframe modeling approaches are currently being used in the DoD community for acquisition, threat evaluation, training, and other purposes. To date there has been no clear empirical study of the impact of airframe simulation fidelity on piloted real-time aircraft simulation study results, or when use of a particular level of fidelity is indicated. This paper documents a series of piloted simulation studies using three different levels of airframe model fidelity. This study was conducted using the NASA Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator. Evaluations were conducted with three pilots for scenarios requiring extensive maneuvering of the airplanes during air combat. In many cases, a low-fidelity modified point-mass model may be sufficient to evaluate the combat effectiveness of the aircraft. However, in cases where high angle-of-attack flying qualities and aerodynamic performance are a factor or when precision tracking ability of the aircraft must be represented, use of high-fidelity models is indicated.

  7. Reduction of computer usage costs in predicting unsteady aerodynamic loadings caused by control surface motions: Computer program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrarca, J. R.; Harrison, B. A.; Redman, M. C.; Rowe, W. S.

    1979-01-01

    A digital computer program was developed to calculate unsteady loadings caused by motions of lifting surfaces with leading edge and trailing edge controls based on the subsonic kernel function approach. The pressure singularities at hinge line and side edges were extracted analytically as a preliminary step to solving the integral equation of collocation. The program calculates generalized aerodynamic forces for user supplied deflection modes. Optional intermediate output includes pressure at an array of points, and sectional generalized forces. From one to six controls on the half span can be accomodated.

  8. Operational considerations for aerodynamic testing of large-scale wing sections in a simulated natural rain environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Bryan A.; Bezos, Gaudy M.; Dunham, R. Earl, Jr.; Melson, W. Edward, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    One of the necessary areas of consideration for outdoor heavy rain testing is the effect of wind on both the simulated rain field and the quality and repeatability of the aerodynamic data. This paper discusses the data acquisition and subsequent reduction to nondimensional coefficients of lift and drag, with the appropriate correction for wind and rain field. Sample force data showing these effects are presented, along with estimates for accuracy and repeatability. The capability to produce high-quality data for rain drop size distribution using photographic and computerized image processing techniques was developed. Sample photographs depicting rain drop size are shown.

  9. Mathematical model for lift/cruise fan V/STOL aircraft simulator programming data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, M. P.; Fajfar, B.; Konsewicz, R. K.

    1976-01-01

    Simulation data are reported for the purpose of programming the flight simulator for advanced aircraft for tests of the lift/cruise fan V/STOL Research Technology Aircraft. These simulation tests are to provide insight into problem areas which are encountered in operational use of the aircraft. A mathematical model is defined in sufficient detail to represent all the necessary pertinent aircraft and system characteristics. The model includes the capability to simulate two basic versions of an aircraft propulsion system: (1) the gas coupled configuration which uses insulated air ducts to transmit power between gas generators and fans in the form of high energy engine exhaust and (2) the mechanically coupled power system which uses shafts, clutches, and gearboxes for power transmittal. Both configurations are modeled such that the simulation can include vertical as well as rolling takeoff and landing, hover, powered lift flight, aerodynamic flight, and the transition between powered lift and aerodynamic flight.

  10. Computer program for aerodynamic and blading design of multistage axial-flow compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouse, J. E.; Gorrell, W. T.

    1981-01-01

    A code for computing the aerodynamic design of a multistage axial-flow compressor and, if desired, the associated blading geometry input for internal flow analysis codes is presented. Compressible flow, which is assumed to be steady and axisymmetric, is the basis for a two-dimensional solution in the meridional plane with viscous effects modeled by pressure loss coefficients and boundary layer blockage. The radial equation of motion and the continuity equation are solved with the streamline curvature method on calculation stations outside the blade rows. The annulus profile, mass flow, pressure ratio, and rotative speed are input. A number of other input parameters specify and control the blade row aerodynamics and geometry. In particular, blade element centerlines and thicknesses can be specified with fourth degree polynomials for two segments. The output includes a detailed aerodynamic solution and, if desired, blading coordinates that can be used for internal flow analysis codes.

  11. User's Manual for DuctE3D: A Program for 3D Euler Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Analysis of Ducted Fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, R.; Reddy, T. S. R.

    1997-01-01

    The program DuctE3D is used for steady or unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis of ducted fans. This guide describes the input data required and the output files generated, in using DuctE3D. The analysis solves three dimensional unsteady, compressible Euler equations to obtain the aerodynamic forces. A normal mode structural analysis is used to obtain the aeroelastic equations, which are solved using either the time domain or the frequency domain solution method. Sample input and output files are included in this guide for steady aerodynamic analysis and aeroelastic analysis of an isolated fan row.

  12. Aerodynamic analysis of a horizontal axis wind turbine by use of helical vortex theory, volume 2: Computer program users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, T. G., Jr.; Afjeh, A. A.; Jeng, D. R.; White, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    A description of a computer program entitled VORTEX that may be used to determine the aerodynamic performance of horizontal axis wind turbines is given. The computer code implements a vortex method from finite span wind theory and determines the induced velocity at the rotor disk by integrating the Biot-Savart law. It is assumed that the trailing helical vortex filaments form a wake of constant diameter (the rigid wake assumption) and travel downstream at the free stream velocity. The program can handle rotors having any number of blades which may be arbitrarily shaped and twisted. Many numerical details associated with the program are presented. A complete listing of the program is provided and all program variables are defined. An example problem illustrating input and output characteristics is solved.

  13. Lessons Learned in the High-Speed Aerodynamic Research Programs of the NACA/NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. Leroy

    2004-01-01

    The achievement of flight with manned, powered, heavier-than-air aircraft in 1903 marked the beginning of a new era in the means of transportation. A special advantage for aircraft was in speed. However, when an aircraft penetrates the air at very high speeds, the disturbed air is compressed and there are changes in the density, pressure and temperature of the air. These compressibility effects change the aerodynamic characteristics of an aircraft and introduce problems in drag, stability and control. Many aircraft designed in the post-World War II era were plagued with the effects of compressibility. Accordingly, the study of the aerodynamic behavior of aircraft, spacecraft and missiles at high-speed became a major part of the research activity of the NACA/NASA. The intent of the research was to determine the causes and provide some solutions for the aerodynamic problems resulting from the effects of compressibility. The purpose of this paper is to review some of the high-speed aerodynamic research work conducted at the Langley Research Center from the viewpoint of the author who has been active in much of the effort.

  14. High-temperature deformation field measurement by combining transient aerodynamic heating simulation system and reliability-guided digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Bing; Wu, Dafang; Xia, Yong

    2010-09-01

    To determine the full-field high-temperature thermal deformation of the structural materials used in high-speed aerospace flight vehicles, a novel non-contact high-temperature deformation measurement system is established by combining transient aerodynamic heating simulation device with the reliability-guided digital image correlation (RG-DIC). The test planar sample with size varying from several mm 2 to several hundreds mm 2 can be heated from room temperature to 1100 °C rapidly and accurately using the infrared radiator of the transient aerodynamic heating simulation system. The digital images of the test sample surface at various temperatures are recorded using an ordinary optical imaging system. To cope with the possible local decorrelated regions caused by black-body radiation within the deformed images at the temperatures over 450 °C, the RG-DIC technique is used to extract full-field in-plane thermal deformation from the recorded images. In validation test, the thermal deformation fields and the values of coefficient of thermal expansion (CTEs) of a chromiumnickel austenite stainless steel sample from room temperature to 550 °C is measured and compared with the well-established handbook value, confirming the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed technique. The experimental results reveal that the present system using an ordinary optical imaging system, is able to accurately measure full-field thermal deformation of metals and alloys at temperatures not exceeding 600 °C.

  15. Navier-Stokes Aerodynamic Simulation of the V-22 Osprey on the Intel Paragon MPP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vadyak, Joseph; Shrewsbury, George E.; Narramore, Jim C.; Montry, Gary; Holst, Terry; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The paper will describe the Development of a general three-dimensional multiple grid zone Navier-Stokes flowfield simulation program (ENS3D-MPP) designed for efficient execution on the Intel Paragon Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) supercomputer, and the subsequent application of this method to the prediction of the viscous flowfield about the V-22 Osprey tiltrotor vehicle. The flowfield simulation code solves the thin Layer or full Navier-Stoke's equation - for viscous flow modeling, or the Euler equations for inviscid flow modeling on a structured multi-zone mesh. In the present paper only viscous simulations will be shown. The governing difference equations are solved using a time marching implicit approximate factorization method with either TVD upwind or central differencing used for the convective terms and central differencing used for the viscous diffusion terms. Steady state or Lime accurate solutions can be calculated. The present paper will focus on steady state applications, although time accurate solution analysis is the ultimate goal of this effort. Laminar viscosity is calculated using Sutherland's law and the Baldwin-Lomax two layer algebraic turbulence model is used to compute the eddy viscosity. The Simulation method uses an arbitrary block, curvilinear grid topology. An automatic grid adaption scheme is incorporated which concentrates grid points in high density gradient regions. A variety of user-specified boundary conditions are available. This paper will present the application of the scalable and superscalable versions to the steady state viscous flow analysis of the V-22 Osprey using a multiple zone global mesh. The mesh consists of a series of sheared cartesian grid blocks with polar grids embedded within to better simulate the wing tip mounted nacelle. MPP solutions will be shown in comparison to equivalent Cray C-90 results and also in comparison to experimental data. Discussions on meshing considerations, wall clock execution time

  16. CHARMM: The Biomolecular Simulation Program

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, B.R.; Brooks, C.L.; MacKerell, A.D.; Nilsson, L.; Petrella, R.J.; Roux, B.; Won, Y.; Archontis, G.; Bartels, C.; Boresch, S.; Caflisch, A.; Caves, L.; Cui, Q.; Dinner, A.R.; Feig, M.; Fischer, S.; Gao, J.; Hodoscek, M.; Im, W.; Kuczera, K.; Lazaridis, T.; Ma, J.; Ovchinnikov, V.; Paci, E.; Pastor, R.W.; Post, C.B.; Pu, J.Z.; Schaefer, M.; Tidor, B.; Venable, R. M.; Woodcock, H. L.; Wu, X.; Yang, W.; York, D.M.; Karplus, M.

    2009-01-01

    CHARMM (Chemistry at HARvard Molecular Mechanics) is a highly versatile and widely used molecular simulation program. It has been developed over the last three decades with a primary focus on molecules of biological interest, including proteins, peptides, lipids, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and small molecule ligands, as they occur in solution, crystals, and membrane environments. For the study of such systems, the program provides a large suite of computational tools that include numerous conformational and path sampling methods, free energy estimators, molecular minimization, dynamics, and analysis techniques, and model-building capabilities. In addition, the CHARMM program is applicable to problems involving a much broader class of many-particle systems. Calculations with CHARMM can be performed using a number of different energy functions and models, from mixed quantum mechanical-molecular mechanical force fields, to all-atom classical potential energy functions with explicit solvent and various boundary conditions, to implicit solvent and membrane models. The program has been ported to numerous platforms in both serial and parallel architectures. This paper provides an overview of the program as it exists today with an emphasis on developments since the publication of the original CHARMM paper in 1983. PMID:19444816

  17. Joint influences of aerodynamic flow field and aerodynamic heating of the dome on imaging quality degradation of airborne optical systems.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Haosu; Zuo, Baojun; Tian, Yi; Zhang, Wang; Hao, Chenglong; Liu, Chaofeng; Li, Qi; Li, Fan; Zhang, Li; Fan, Zhigang

    2012-12-20

    We investigated the joint influences exerted by the nonuniform aerodynamic flow field surrounding the optical dome and the aerodynamic heating of the dome on imaging quality degradation of an airborne optical system. The Spalart-Allmaras model provided by FLUENT was used for flow computations. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm based ray tracing program was used to simulate optical transmission through the aerodynamic flow field and the dome. Four kinds of imaging quality evaluation parameters were presented: wave aberration of the exit pupil, point spread function, encircled energy, and modulation transfer function. The results show that the aero-optical disturbance of the aerodynamic flow field and the aerodynamic heating of the dome significantly affect the imaging quality of an airborne optical system.

  18. An experimental study of the aerodynamics of a NACA0012 airfoil with a simulated glaze ice accretion, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Michael B.

    1993-01-01

    This is the second volume of a report documenting the effect of simulated ice accretion on the aerodynamic performance of a NACA 0012 airfoil. Both an experimentally measured and a computer generated ice shape are studied. The purpose of this report is to present the results of the measurements, not an analysis of the data. Surface pressure, integrated lift and pitching moment data are presented as well as drag from a wake survey. A split hot film probe was used to document the flow-field about the airfoil with simulated ice. Data in the separation bubbles, reattached boundary layer and wake are presented. Both tabulated and graphical data are presented in the paper. The data are also available on computer disk for easy access.

  19. Assembly-line Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Robert G.; Zendejas, Silvino; Malhotra, Shan

    1987-01-01

    Costs and profits estimated for models based on user inputs. Standard Assembly-line Manufacturing Industry Simulation (SAMIS) program generalized so useful for production-line manufacturing companies. Provides accurate and reliable means of comparing alternative manufacturing processes. Used to assess impact of changes in financial parameters as cost of resources and services, inflation rates, interest rates, tax policies, and required rate of return of equity. Most important capability is ability to estimate prices manufacturer would have to receive for its products to recover all of costs of production and make specified profit. Written in TURBO PASCAL.

  20. An Engine Research Program Focused on Low Pressure Turbine Aerodynamic Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castner, Raymond; Wyzykowski, John; Chiapetta, Santo; Adamczyk, John

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive test program was performed in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland Ohio using a highly instrumented Pratt and Whitney Canada PW 545 turbofan engine. A key objective of this program was the development of a high-altitude database on small, high-bypass ratio engine performance and operability. In particular, the program documents the impact of altitude (Reynolds Number) on the aero-performance of the low-pressure turbine (fan turbine). A second objective was to assess the ability of a state-of-the-art CFD code to predict the effect of Reynolds number on the efficiency of the low-pressure turbine. CFD simulation performed prior and after the engine tests will be presented and discussed. Key findings are the ability of a state-of-the art CFD code to accurately predict the impact of Reynolds Number on the efficiency and flow capacity of the low-pressure turbine. In addition the CFD simulations showed the turbulent intensity exiting the low-pressure turbine to be high (9%). The level is consistent with measurements taken within an engine.

  1. Intermediate experimental vehicle, ESA program aerodynamics-aerothermodynamics key technologies for spacecraft design and successful flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutheil, Sylvain; Pibarot, Julien; Tran, Dac; Vallee, Jean-Jacques; Tribot, Jean-Pierre

    2016-07-01

    With the aim of placing Europe among the world's space players in the strategic area of atmospheric re-entry, several studies on experimental vehicle concepts and improvements of critical re-entry technologies have paved the way for the flight of an experimental space craft. The successful flight of the Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV), under ESA's Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (FLPP), is definitively a significant step forward from the Atmospheric Reentry Demonstrator flight (1998), establishing Europe as a key player in this field. The IXV project objectives were the design, development, manufacture and ground and flight verification of an autonomous European lifting and aerodynamically controlled reentry system, which is highly flexible and maneuverable. The paper presents, the role of aerodynamics aerothermodynamics as part of the key technologies for designing an atmospheric re-entry spacecraft and securing a successful flight.

  2. A program to evaluate a control system based on feedback of aerodynamic pressure differentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, D. W.; Finn, P.; Roskam, J.

    1981-01-01

    The use of aerodynamic pressure differentials to position a control surface is evaluated. The system is a differential pressure command loop, analogous to a position command loop, where the surface is commanded to move until a desired differential pressure across the surface is achieved. This type of control is more direct and accurate because it is the differential pressure which causes the control forces and moments. A frequency response test was performed in a low speed wind tunnel to measure the performance of the system. Both pressure and position feedback were tested. The pressure feedback performed as well as position feedback implying that the actuator, with a break frequency on the order of 10 Rad/sec, was the limiting component. Theoretical considerations indicate that aerodynamic lags will not appear below frequencies of 50 Rad/sec, or higher.

  3. Investigation on aerodynamic characteristics of baseline-II E-2 blended wing-body aircraft with canard via computational simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Rizal E. M.; Ali, Zurriati; Kuntjoro, Wahyu; Wisnoe, Wirachman

    2012-06-01

    Previous wind tunnel test has proven the improved aerodynamic charasteristics of Baseline-II E-2 Blended Wing-Body (BWB) aircraft studied in Universiti Teknologi Mara. The E-2 is a version of Baseline-II BWB with modified outer wing and larger canard, solely-designed to gain favourable longitudinal static stability during flight. This paper highlights some results from current investigation on the said aircraft via computational fluid dynamics simulation as a mean to validate the wind tunnel test results. The simulation is conducted based on standard one-equation turbulence, Spalart-Allmaras model with polyhedral mesh. The ambience of the flight simulation is made based on similar ambience of wind tunnel test. The simulation shows lift, drag and moment results to be near the values found in wind tunnel test but only within angles of attack where the lift change is linear. Beyond the linear region, clear differences between computational simulation and wind tunnel test results are observed. It is recommended that different type of mathematical model be used to simulate flight conditions beyond linear lift region.

  4. An Experimental Study of the Aerodynamics of a Swept and Unswept Semispan Wing with a Simulated Glaze Ice Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Two semispan wings, one with a rectangular planform and one with 30 degrees of leading edge sweep were tested. Both had a NACA 0012 airfoil section, and both were tested clean and with simulated glaze ice shapes on their leading edges. Several surface roughness were tested. Each model geometry is documented and each surface roughness is explained. Aerodynamic performance of the wing in the form of sectional lift and integrated three-dimensional lift is documented through pressure measurements obtained from rows of surface pressure taps placed at five span locations on the wing. For the rectangular wing, sectional drag near the midspan is obtained from wake total pressure profiles. The data is presented in tabular and graphical form and is also available on computer disk.

  5. Model aerodynamic test results for a refined actuated inlet ejector nozzle at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    Wind tunnel model tests were conducted to demonstrate the aerodynamic performance improvements of a refined actuated inlet ejector nozzle. Models of approximately one-tenth scale were configured to simulate nozzle operation at takeoff, subsonic cruise, transonic cruise and supersonic cruise. Variations of model components provided a performance evaluation of ejector inlet and exit area, forebody boattail angle and ejector inlet operation in the open and closed mode. Approximately 700 data points were acquired at Mach numbers of 0, 0.36, 0.9, 1.2, and 2.0 for a wide range of nozzle flow conditions. Results show that relative to two ejector nozzles previously tested performance was improved significantly at takeoff and subsonic cruise performance, a C sub f of 0.982, was attained equal to the high performance of the previous tests. The established advanced supersonic transport propulsion study performance goals were met or closely approached at takeoff and supersonic cruise.

  6. Program For Parallel Discrete-Event Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, Brian C.; Blume, Leo R.; Geiselman, John S.; Presley, Matthew T.; Wedel, John J., Jr.; Bellenot, Steven F.; Diloreto, Michael; Hontalas, Philip J.; Reiher, Peter L.; Weiland, Frederick P.

    1991-01-01

    User does not have to add any special logic to aid in synchronization. Time Warp Operating System (TWOS) computer program is special-purpose operating system designed to support parallel discrete-event simulation. Complete implementation of Time Warp mechanism. Supports only simulations and other computations designed for virtual time. Time Warp Simulator (TWSIM) subdirectory contains sequential simulation engine interface-compatible with TWOS. TWOS and TWSIM written in, and support simulations in, C programming language.

  7. A computer program for calculating aerodynamic characteristics of low aspect-ratio wings with partial leading-edge separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, S. C.; Lan, C. E.

    1978-01-01

    The necessary information for using a computer program to predict distributed and total aerodynamic characteristics for low aspect ratio wings with partial leading-edge separation is presented. The flow is assumed to be steady and inviscid. The wing boundary condition is formulated by the Quasi-Vortex-Lattice method. The leading edge separated vortices are represented by discrete free vortex elements which are aligned with the local velocity vector at midpoints to satisfy the force free condition. The wake behind the trailing edge is also force free. The flow tangency boundary condition is satisfied on the wing, including the leading and trailing edges. The program is restricted to delta wings with zero thickness and no camber. It is written in FORTRAN language and runs on CDC 6600 computer.

  8. General Reactive Atomistic Simulation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Aidan P.

    2004-09-22

    GRASP (General Reactive Atomistic Simulation Program) is primarily intended as a molecular dynamics package for complex force fields, The code is designed to provide good performance for large systems, either in parallel or serial execution mode, The primary purpose of the code is to realistically represent the structural and dynamic properties of large number of atoms on timescales ranging from picoseconds up to a microsecond. Typically the atoms form a representative sample of some material, such as an interface between polycrystalline silicon and amorphous silica. GRASP differs from other parallel molecular dynamics codes primarily due to it’s ability to handle relatively complicated interaction potentials and it’s ability to use more than one interaction potential in a single simulation. Most of the computational effort goes into the calculation of interatomic forces, which depend in a complicated way on the positions of all the atoms. The forces are used to integrate the equations of motion forward in time using the so-called velocity Verlet integration scheme. Alternatively, the forces can be used to find a minimum energy configuration, in which case a modified steepest descent algorithm is used.

  9. General Reactive Atomistic Simulation Program

    2004-09-22

    GRASP (General Reactive Atomistic Simulation Program) is primarily intended as a molecular dynamics package for complex force fields, The code is designed to provide good performance for large systems, either in parallel or serial execution mode, The primary purpose of the code is to realistically represent the structural and dynamic properties of large number of atoms on timescales ranging from picoseconds up to a microsecond. Typically the atoms form a representative sample of some material,more » such as an interface between polycrystalline silicon and amorphous silica. GRASP differs from other parallel molecular dynamics codes primarily due to it’s ability to handle relatively complicated interaction potentials and it’s ability to use more than one interaction potential in a single simulation. Most of the computational effort goes into the calculation of interatomic forces, which depend in a complicated way on the positions of all the atoms. The forces are used to integrate the equations of motion forward in time using the so-called velocity Verlet integration scheme. Alternatively, the forces can be used to find a minimum energy configuration, in which case a modified steepest descent algorithm is used.« less

  10. Aerodynamic potpourri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Aerodynamic developments for vertical axis and horizontal axis wind turbines are given that relate to the performance and aerodynamic loading of these machines. Included are: (1) a fixed wake aerodynamic model of the Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine; (2) experimental results that suggest the existence of a laminar flow Darrieus vertical axis turbine; (3) a simple aerodynamic model for the turbulent windmill/vortex ring state of horizontal axis rotors; and (4) a yawing moment of a rigid hub horizontal axis wind turbine that is related to blade coning.

  11. Aerodynamic potpourri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. E.

    1981-05-01

    Aerodynamic developments for vertical axis and horizontal axis wind turbines are given that relate to the performance and aerodynamic loading of these machines. Included are: (1) a fixed wake aerodynamic model of the Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine; (2) experimental results that suggest the existence of a laminar flow Darrieus vertical axis turbine; (3) a simple aerodynamic model for the turbulent windmill/vortex ring state of horizontal axis rotors; and (4) a yawing moment of a rigid hub horizontal axis wind turbine that is related to blade coning.

  12. Nonlinear programming extensions to rational function approximation methods for unsteady aerodynamic forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiffany, Sherwood H.; Adams, William M., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The approximation of unsteady generalized aerodynamic forces in the equations of motion of a flexible aircraft are discussed. Two methods of formulating these approximations are extended to include the same flexibility in constraining the approximations and the same methodology in optimizing nonlinear parameters as another currently used extended least-squares method. Optimal selection of nonlinear parameters is made in each of the three methods by use of the same nonlinear, nongradient optimizer. The objective of the nonlinear optimization is to obtain rational approximations to the unsteady aerodynamics whose state-space realization is lower order than that required when no optimization of the nonlinear terms is performed. The free linear parameters are determined using the least-squares matrix techniques of a Lagrange multiplier formulation of an objective function which incorporates selected linear equality constraints. State-space mathematical models resulting from different approaches are described and results are presented that show comparative evaluations from application of each of the extended methods to a numerical example.

  13. Numerical Simulations of the Steady and Unsteady Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Circulation Control Wing Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yi; Sankar, Lakshmi N.; Englar, Robert J.; Ahuja, Krishan K.

    2003-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of a Circulation Control Wing (CCW) airfoil have been numerically investigated, and comparisons with experimental data have been made. The configuration chosen was a supercritical airfoil with a 30 degree dual-radius CCW flap. Steady and pulsed jet calculations were performed. It was found that the use of steady jets, even at very small mass flow rates, yielded a lift coefficient that is comparable or superior to conventional high-lift systems. The attached flow over the flap also gave rise to lower drag coefficients, and high L/D ratios. Pulsed jets with a 50% duty cycle were also studied. It was found that they were effective in generating lift at lower reduced mass flow rates compared to a steady jet, provided the pulse frequency was sufficiently high. This benefit was attributable to the fact that the momentum coefficient of the pulsed jet, during the portions of the cycle when the jet was on, was typically twice as much as that of a steady jet.

  14. NASA Lunar Regolith Simulant Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunson, J.; Betts, W.; Rickman, D.; McLemore, C.; Fikes, J.; Stoeser, D.; Wilson, S.; Schrader, C.

    2010-01-01

    Lunar regolith simulant production is absolutely critical to returning man to the Moon. Regolith simulant is used to test hardware exposed to the lunar surface environment, simulate health risks to astronauts, practice in situ resource utilization (ISRU) techniques, and evaluate dust mitigation strategies. Lunar regolith simulant design, production process, and management is a cooperative venture between members of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The MSFC simulant team is a satellite of the Dust group based at Glenn Research Center. The goals of the cooperative group are to (1) reproduce characteristics of lunar regolith using simulants, (2) produce simulants as cheaply as possible, (3) produce simulants in the amount needed, and (4) produce simulants to meet users? schedules.

  15. User's Guide for ECAP2D: an Euler Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Analysis Program for Two Dimensional Oscillating Cascades, Version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, T. S. R.

    1995-01-01

    This guide describes the input data required for using ECAP2D (Euler Cascade Aeroelastic Program-Two Dimensional). ECAP2D can be used for steady or unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis of two dimensional cascades. Euler equations are used to obtain aerodynamic forces. The structural dynamic equations are written for a rigid typical section undergoing pitching (torsion) and plunging (bending) motion. The solution methods include harmonic oscillation method, influence coefficient method, pulse response method, and time integration method. For harmonic oscillation method, example inputs and outputs are provided for pitching motion and plunging motion. For the rest of the methods, input and output for pitching motion only are given.

  16. Optimization of gas path aerodynamics for PK-39 boiler of power generating unit No. 4 of Troitskaya SDPP using numerical simulation of gas flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorov, V. B.; Grigorev, I. V.; Fomenko, M. V.; Kaverin, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Power generating unit no. 4 of Troitskaya State District Power Plant (SDPP) is incapable of operating with a nominal load of 278 MW because of high aerodynamic drag of the gas path. At present, the maximum load of the two-boiler single-turbine unit is 210 MW practically without a possibility of adjustment. The results of numerical simulation of the gas flow for the existing gas path from the electrostatic precipitator (EP) to the smoke exhausts (SEs) and two flue designs proposed for renovation of this section are presented. The results of simulation show that the existing flue section has high aerodynamic drag, which is explained by poor, as regards aerodynamics, design. The local loss coefficient, in terms of the dynamic pressure in the sucker pocket of the smoke exhaust is equal to 4.57. The local aerodynamic loss coefficient after renovation at the considered section according to the first version would make 1.48, and according to the second version 1.325, which would reduce losses at this section by more than a factor of three, and ensure the power unit operation with the rated load.

  17. TRW vortex-lattice method subsonic aerodynamic analysis for multiple-lifting-surfaces (N. surface) TRW program number HA010B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, A. V.

    1972-01-01

    The program was designed to provide solutions of engineering accuracy for determining the aerodynamic loads on single- or multiple-lifting-surface configurations that represent vehicles in subsonic flight, e.g., wings, wing-tail, wing-canard, lifting bodies, etc. The preparation is described of the input data, associated input arrangement, and the output format for the program data, including specification of the various operational details of the program such as array sizes, tape numbers utilized, and program dumps. A full description of the underlying theory used in the program development and a review of the program qualification tests are included.

  18. New Aerodynamics Simulations Provide Better Understanding of Wind Plant Underperformance and Loading (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) develop a high-fidelity large-eddy simulation model designed to predict the performance of large wind plants with a higher degree of accuracy than current models.

  19. On Wings: Aerodynamics of Eagles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millson, David

    2000-01-01

    The Aerodynamics Wing Curriculum is a high school program that combines basic physics, aerodynamics, pre-engineering, 3D visualization, computer-assisted drafting, computer-assisted manufacturing, production, reengineering, and success in a 15-hour, 3-week classroom module. (JOW)

  20. A system for aerodynamic design and analysis of supersonic aircraft. Part 3: Computer program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, W. D.; Lundry, J. L.; Coleman, R. G.

    1980-01-01

    The computer program documentation for the design and analysis of supersonic configurations is presented. Schematics and block diagrams of the major program structure, together with subroutine descriptions for each module are included.

  1. Geometry Modeling and Grid Generation for Computational Aerodynamic Simulations Around Iced Airfoils and Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choo, Yung K.; Slater, John W.; Vickerman, Mary B.; VanZante, Judith F.; Wadel, Mary F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Issues associated with analysis of 'icing effects' on airfoil and wing performances are discussed, along with accomplishments and efforts to overcome difficulties with ice. Because of infinite variations of ice shapes and their high degree of complexity, computational 'icing effects' studies using available software tools must address many difficulties in geometry acquisition and modeling, grid generation, and flow simulation. The value of each technology component needs to be weighed from the perspective of the entire analysis process, from geometry to flow simulation. Even though CFD codes are yet to be validated for flows over iced airfoils and wings, numerical simulation, when considered together with wind tunnel tests, can provide valuable insights into 'icing effects' and advance our understanding of the relationship between ice characteristics and their effects on performance degradation.

  2. Using Mesoscale Weather Model Output as Boundary Conditions for Atmospheric Large-Eddy Simulations and Wind-Plant Aerodynamic Simulations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Churchfield, M. J.; Michalakes, J.; Vanderwende, B.; Lee, S.; Sprague, M. A.; Lundquist, J. K.; Moriarty, P. J.

    2013-10-01

    Wind plant aerodynamics are directly affected by the microscale weather, which is directly influenced by the mesoscale weather. Microscale weather refers to processes that occur within the atmospheric boundary layer with the largest scales being a few hundred meters to a few kilometers depending on the atmospheric stability of the boundary layer. Mesoscale weather refers to large weather patterns, such as weather fronts, with the largest scales being hundreds of kilometers wide. Sometimes microscale simulations that capture mesoscale-driven variations (changes in wind speed and direction over time or across the spatial extent of a wind plant) are important in wind plant analysis. In this paper, we present our preliminary work in coupling a mesoscale weather model with a microscale atmospheric large-eddy simulation model. The coupling is one-way beginning with the weather model and ending with a computational fluid dynamics solver using the weather model in coarse large-eddy simulation mode as an intermediary. We simulate one hour of daytime moderately convective microscale development driven by the mesoscale data, which are applied as initial and boundary conditions to the microscale domain, at a site in Iowa. We analyze the time and distance necessary for the smallest resolvable microscales to develop.

  3. Simulation of Turbine Tone Noise Generation Using a Turbomachinery Aerodynamics Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale; Envia, Edmane

    2010-01-01

    As turbofan engine bypass ratios continue to increase, the contribution of the turbine to the engine noise signature is receiving more attention. Understanding the relative importance of the various turbine noise generation mechanisms and the characteristics of the turbine acoustic transmission loss are essential ingredients in developing robust reduced-order models for predicting the turbine noise signature. A computationally based investigation has been undertaken to help guide the development of a turbine noise prediction capability that does not rely on empiricism. As proof-of-concept for this approach, two highly detailed numerical simulations of the unsteady flow field inside the first stage of a modern high-pressure turbine were carried out. The simulations were computed using TURBO, which is an unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes code capable of multi-stage simulations. Spectral and modal analysis of the unsteady pressure data from the numerical simulation of the turbine stage show a circumferential modal distribution that is consistent with the Tyler-Sofrin rule. Within the high-pressure turbine, the interaction of velocity, pressure and temperature fluctuations with the downstream blade rows are all possible tone noise source mechanisms. We have taken the initial step in determining the source strength hierarchy by artificially reducing the level of temperature fluctuations in the turbine flowfield. This was accomplished by changing the vane cooling flow temperature in order to mitigate the vane thermal wake in the second of the two simulations. The results indicated that, despite a dramatic change in the vane cooling flow, the computed modal levels changed very little indicating that the contribution of temperature fluctuations to the overall pressure field is rather small compared with the viscous and potential field interaction mechanisms.

  4. Computational Aerodynamic Simulations of an 840 ft/sec Tip Speed Advanced Ducted Propulsor Fan System Model for Acoustic Methods Assessment and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Computational Aerodynamic simulations of an 840 ft/sec tip speed, Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan system were performed at five different operating points on the fan operating line, in order to provide detailed internal flow field information for use with fan acoustic prediction methods presently being developed, assessed and validated. The fan system is a sub-scale, lownoise research fan/nacelle model that has undergone extensive experimental testing in the 9- by 15- foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center, resulting in quality, detailed aerodynamic and acoustic measurement data. Details of the fan geometry, the computational fluid dynamics methods, the computational grids, and various computational parameters relevant to the numerical simulations are discussed. Flow field results for three of the five operating conditions simulated are presented in order to provide a representative look at the computed solutions. Each of the five fan aerodynamic simulations involved the entire fan system, excluding a long core duct section downstream of the core inlet guide vane. As a result, only fan rotational speed and system bypass ratio, set by specifying static pressure downstream of the core inlet guide vane row, were adjusted in order to set the fan operating point, leading to operating points that lie on a fan operating line and making mass flow rate a fully dependent parameter. The resulting mass flow rates are in good agreement with measurement values. The computed blade row flow fields for all five fan operating points are, in general, aerodynamically healthy. Rotor blade and fan exit guide vane flow characteristics are good, including incidence and deviation angles, chordwise static pressure distributions, blade surface boundary layers, secondary flow structures, and blade wakes. Examination of the computed flow fields reveals no excessive boundary layer separations or related secondary-flow problems. A few spanwise comparisons between

  5. Calculation of unsteady transonic aerodynamics for oscillating wings with thickness (computer program)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruo, S. Y.

    1974-01-01

    A computer program has been developed to account approximately for the effects of finite wing thickness in the transonic potential flow over an oscillating wing of finite span. The program is based on the original sonic-box program of Rodemich and Andrew, and accounts for the nonuniform flow caused by finite thickness by application of the local linearization concept. A brief description of each subroutine is given, and the method of input is shown in detail. A sample problem as well as a complete listing of the computer program are presented.

  6. Another Program Simulates A Modular Manufacturing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Wang, Jian

    1996-01-01

    SSE5 computer program provides simulation environment for modeling manufacturing systems containing relatively small numbers of stations and operators. Designed to simulate manufacturing of apparel, also used in other manufacturing domains. Valuable for small or medium-size firms, including those lacking expertise to develop detailed mathematical models or have only minimal knowledge in describing manufacturing systems and in analyzing results of simulations on mathematical models. Two other programs available bundled together as SSE (MFS-26245). Each program models slightly different manufacturing scenario. Written in Turbo C v2.0 for IBM PC-series and compatible computers running MS-DOS and successfully compiled using Turbo C++ v3.0.

  7. Numerical methods and a computer program for subsonic and supersonic aerodynamic design and analysis of wings with attainable thrust considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, H. W.; Walkley, K. B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes methodology and an associated computer program for the design of wing lifting surfaces with attainable thrust taken into consideration. The approach is based on the determination of an optimum combination of a series of candidate surfaces rather than the more commonly used candidate loadings. Special leading-edge surfaces are selected to provide distributed leading-edge thrust forces which compensate for any failure to achieve the full theoretical leading-edge thrust, and a second series of general candidate surfaces is selected to minimize drag subject to constraints on the lift coefficient and, if desired, on the pitching moment coefficient. A primary purpose of the design approach is the introduction of attainable leading-edge thrust considerations so that relatively mild camber surfaces may be employed in the achievement of aerodynamic efficiencies comparable to those attainable if full theoretical leading-edge thrust could be achieved. The program provides an analysis as well as a design capability and is applicable to both subsonic and supersonic flow.

  8. Aerodynamic design and analysis system for supersonic aircraft. Part 3: Computer program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, W. D.; Lundry, J. L.; Coleman, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    The computer program for the design and analysis of supersonic aircraft configurations is presented. The schematics of the program structure are provided. The individual overlays and subroutines are described. The system is useful in determining surface pressures and supersonic area rule concepts.

  9. NASA'S Simulant Development Program Evolution and Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLemore, Carole; Fikes, John; Owens, Charles; Rickman, Doug

    2007-01-01

    Since its origination under NASA's previous Human System Research and Technology program, the Lunar Simulant Development Program has undergone several changes. NASA recognized as early as the Apollo Program, and even more so as a result of the Apollo missions, that a viable dust and lunar simulant program is critical to the success of its space exploration goals. Unfortunately, this program has suffered the same problems that all programs share from time to time including uncertain budgets, shifting of priorities, and schedule fluctuations. To compound the problem, the process for developing simulants is being redefined and is not a trivial pursuit. Before now, NASA had not attempted to develop a suitable standard simulant since the 1990s when JSC-1 was produced. Although several other simulants have been developed by various groups both before and after the production of JSC-1, JSC-1 had become the de facto standard even though it has some limitations. The development and production of new simulants will address some of these limitations by starting with an assessment of NASA's needs and understanding the required processing in order to make these simulants.

  10. Simulation and experiment research of aerodynamic performance of small axial fans with struts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Wei; Lin, Peifeng; Zhang, Li; Jin, Yingzi; Wang, Yanping; Kim, Heuy Dong; Setoguchi, Toshiaki

    2016-06-01

    Interaction between rotor and struts has great effect on the performance of small axial fan systems. The small axial fan systems are selected as the studied objects in this paper, and four square struts are downstream of the rotor. The cross section of the struts is changed to the cylindrical shapes for the investigation: one is in the same hydraulic diameter as the square struts and another one is in the same cross section as the square struts. Influence of the shape of the struts on the static pressure characteristics, the internal flow and the sound emission of the small axial fans are studied. Standard K-ɛ turbulence model and SIMPLE algorithm are applied in the calculation of the steady fluid field, and the curves of the pressure rising against the flow rate are obtained, which demonstrates that the simulation results are in nice consistence with the experimental data. The steady calculation results are set as the initial field in the unsteady calculation. Large eddy simulation and PISO algorithm are used in the transient calculation, and the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings model is introduced to predict the sound level at the eight monitoring points. The research results show that: the static pressure coefficients of the fan with cylindrical struts increase by about 25% compared to the fan with square struts, and the efficiencies increase by about 28.6%. The research provides a theoretical guide for shape optimization and noise reduction of small axial fan with struts.

  11. The space shuttle ascent vehicle aerodynamic challenges configuration design and data base development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dill, C. C.; Young, J. C.; Roberts, B. B.; Craig, M. K.; Hamilton, J. T.; Boyle, W. W.

    1985-01-01

    The phase B Space Shuttle systems definition studies resulted in a generic configuration consisting of a delta wing orbiter, and two solid rocket boosters (SRB) attached to an external fuel tank (ET). The initial challenge facing the aerodynamic community was aerodynamically optimizing, within limits, this configuration. As the Shuttle program developed and the sensitivities of the vehicle to aerodynamics were better understood the requirements of the aerodynamic data base grew. Adequately characterizing the vehicle to support the various design studies exploded the size of the data base to proportions that created a data modeling/management challenge for the aerodynamicist. The ascent aerodynamic data base originated primarily from wind tunnel test results. The complexity of the configuration rendered conventional analytic methods of little use. Initial wind tunnel tests provided results which included undesirable effects from model support tructure, inadequate element proximity, and inadequate plume simulation. The challenge to improve the quality of test results by determining the extent of these undesirable effects and subsequently develop testing techniques to eliminate them was imposed on the aerodynamic community. The challenges to the ascent aerodynamics community documented are unique due to the aerodynamic complexity of the Shuttle launch. Never before was such a complex vehicle aerodynamically characterized. The challenges were met with innovative engineering analyses/methodology development and wind tunnel testing techniques.

  12. Advanced adaptive computational methods for Navier-Stokes simulations in rotorcraft aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowers, S. T.; Bass, J. M.; Oden, J. T.

    1993-01-01

    A phase 2 research and development effort was conducted in area transonic, compressible, inviscid flows with an ultimate goal of numerically modeling complex flows inherent in advanced helicopter blade designs. The algorithms and methodologies therefore are classified as adaptive methods, which are error estimation techniques for approximating the local numerical error, and automatically refine or unrefine the mesh so as to deliver a given level of accuracy. The result is a scheme which attempts to produce the best possible results with the least number of grid points, degrees of freedom, and operations. These types of schemes automatically locate and resolve shocks, shear layers, and other flow details to an accuracy level specified by the user of the code. The phase 1 work involved a feasibility study of h-adaptive methods for steady viscous flows, with emphasis on accurate simulation of vortex initiation, migration, and interaction. Phase 2 effort focused on extending these algorithms and methodologies to a three-dimensional topology.

  13. Simulating Billion-Task Parallel Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Perumalla, Kalyan S; Park, Alfred J

    2014-01-01

    In simulating large parallel systems, bottom-up approaches exercise detailed hardware models with effects from simplified software models or traces, whereas top-down approaches evaluate the timing and functionality of detailed software models over coarse hardware models. Here, we focus on the top-down approach and significantly advance the scale of the simulated parallel programs. Via the direct execution technique combined with parallel discrete event simulation, we stretch the limits of the top-down approach by simulating message passing interface (MPI) programs with millions of tasks. Using a timing-validated benchmark application, a proof-of-concept scaling level is achieved to over 0.22 billion virtual MPI processes on 216,000 cores of a Cray XT5 supercomputer, representing one of the largest direct execution simulations to date, combined with a multiplexing ratio of 1024 simulated tasks per real task.

  14. User's Guide for MSAP2D: A Program for Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic (Flutter and Forced Response) Analysis of Multistage Compressors and Turbines. 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, T. S. R.; Srivastava, R.

    1996-01-01

    This guide describes the input data required for using MSAP2D (Multi Stage Aeroelastic analysis Program - Two Dimensional) computer code. MSAP2D can be used for steady, unsteady aerodynamic, and aeroelastic (flutter and forced response) analysis of bladed disks arranged in multiple blade rows such as those found in compressors, turbines, counter rotating propellers or propfans. The code can also be run for single blade row. MSAP2D code is an extension of the original NPHASE code for multiblade row aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis. Euler equations are used to obtain aerodynamic forces. The structural dynamic equations are written for a rigid typical section undergoing pitching (torsion) and plunging (bending) motion. The aeroelastic equations are solved in time domain. For single blade row analysis, frequency domain analysis is also provided to obtain unsteady aerodynamic coefficients required in an eigen analysis for flutter. In this manual, sample input and output are provided for a single blade row example, two blade row example with equal and unequal number of blades in the blade rows.

  15. Aerodynamic design guidelines and computer program for estimation of subsonic wind tunnel performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, W. T.; Mort, K. W.; Jope, J.

    1976-01-01

    General guidelines are given for the design of diffusers, contractions, corners, and the inlets and exits of non-return tunnels. A system of equations, reflecting the current technology, has been compiled and assembled into a computer program (a user's manual for this program is included) for determining the total pressure losses. The formulation presented is applicable to compressible flow through most closed- or open-throat, single-, double-, or non-return wind tunnels. A comparison of estimated performance with that actually achieved by several existing facilities produced generally good agreement.

  16. Aerodynamic heating to the gaps and surfaces of simulated reusable-surface-insulation tile arrays in turbulent flow at Mach 6.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, I.; Avery, D. E.; Chapman, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation was made on a simulated reusable-surface-insulation tile array in a turbulent boundary layer to determine aerodynamic-heating distributions representative of those expected on the surface of the shuttle orbiter during earth entry due to the presence of longitudinal and transverse surface gaps. The tests were conducted in an 8-foot high-temperature structures tunnel in a test medium of methane-air combustion products at a nominal Mach number of 6.6 and over a free-stream Reynolds number range from 2,000,000 to 4,900,000 per meter (600,000 to 1,500,000 per foot). The results were used to assess the aerodynamic heating effects produced by parameters that include gap width, boundary-layer displacement thickness, in-line and staggered tile arrangement, and tile protrusion.

  17. Rarefield-Flow Shuttle Aerodynamics Flight Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Larman, Kevin T.; Moats, Christina D.

    1994-01-01

    A model of the Shuttle Orbiter rarefied-flow aerodynamic force coefficients has been derived from the ratio of flight acceleration measurements. The in-situ, low-frequency (less than 1Hz), low-level (approximately 1 x 10(exp -6) g) acceleration measurements are made during atmospheric re-entry. The experiment equipment designed and used for this task is the High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP), one of the sensor packages in the Orbiter Experiments Program. To date, 12 HiRAP re-entry mission data sets spanning a period of about 10 years have been processed. The HiRAP-derived aerodynamics model is described in detail. The model includes normal and axial hypersonic continuum coefficient equations as function of angle of attack, body-flap deflection, and elevon deflection. Normal and axial free molecule flow coefficient equations as a function of angle of attack are also presented, along with flight-derived rarefied-flow transition bridging formulae. Comparisons are made between the aerodynamics model, data from the latest Orbiter Operational Aerodynamic Design Data Book, applicable computer simulations, and wind-tunnel data.

  18. Progress in Navier-Stokes Simulation of Delta Wing Maneuver Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaderjian, Neal M.; Schiff, Lewis B.; VanDalsem, William (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This paper will summarize recent progress in the numerical simulation of high incidence vortical flow about a generic 65 degree sweep delta wing using the three dimensional, time-dependent, Reynolds averaged, Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. Computations have been carried out at 15 and 30 degrees angle of attack under subsonic turbulent flow conditions, and compared with experimental data provided by Hanff, Jenkins, and their colleagues. This work has already been published elsewhere and widely disseminated. Computations carried out at 15 degrees angle of attack included static roll angles ranging up to 65 degrees, and a large-amplitude (40 degree), high rate (7 Hz), forced roll motion. There was very good agreement between computed and experimental forces and moments, and static surface pressures. There was a significant hysteresis of the dynamic rolling moment due to the high rate of roll motion. At this angle of attack, no vortex breakdown was observed in the computations or experiment. Computations were also carried out at 30 degrees angle of attack, where vortex breakdown was present in both the computations and experiment. There was overall good agreement in the computed and experimental forces and moments. The static rolling moment varied with roll angle in a highly nonlinear manner, and exhibited three stable trim points and two unstable trim points. This behavior was attributed to the presence of vortex breakdown. Two large-amplitude (30 degrees), high-rate (10 Hz) forced roll motions were computed. The dynamics of the vortex breakdown motion was dramatically visualized by tracking the time-dependent motion of particles released near the delta wing apex. This numerical visualization is analogous to experimental smoke flow techniques. In one of the dynamic cases the breakdown was found to move off the wing, convected downwind of the trailing edge, and later reformed near the trailing edge through an instability of the vortex core. A damped free

  19. Study of aerodynamic technology for VSTOL fighter/attack aircraft, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driggers, H. H.

    1978-01-01

    A conceptual design study was performed of a vertical attitude takeoff and landing (VATOL) fighter/attack aircraft. The configuration has a close-coupled canard-delta wing, side two-dimensional ramp inlets, and two augmented turbofan engines with thrust vectoring capability. Performance and sensitivities to objective requirements were calculated. Aerodynamic characteristics were estimated based on contractor and NASA wind tunnel data. Computer simulations of VATOL transitions were performed. Successful transitions can be made, even with series post-stall instabilities, if reaction controls are properly phased. Principal aerodynamic uncertainties identified were post-stall aerodynamics, transonic aerodynamics with thrust vectoring and inlet performance in VATOL transition. A wind tunnel research program was recommended to resolve the aerodynamic uncertainties.

  20. A computer program for calculating symmetrical aerodynamic characteristics and lateral-directional stability derivatives of wing-body combinations with blowing jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, C. E.; Mehrotra, S. C.; Fox, C. H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The necessary information for using a computer program to calculate the aerodynamic characteristics under symmetrical flight conditions and the lateral-directional stability derivatives of wing-body combinations with upper-surface-blowing (USB) or over-wing-blowing (OWB) jets are described. The following new features were added to the program: (1) a fuselage of arbitrary body of revolution has been included. The effect of wing-body interference can now be investigated, and (2) all nine lateral-directional stability derivatives can be calculated. The program is written in FORTRAN language and runs on CDC Cyber 175 and Honeywell 66/60 computers.

  1. Program Helps Simulate Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villarreal, James; Mcintire, Gary

    1993-01-01

    Neural Network Environment on Transputer System (NNETS) computer program provides users high degree of flexibility in creating and manipulating wide variety of neural-network topologies at processing speeds not found in conventional computing environments. Supports back-propagation and back-propagation-related algorithms. Back-propagation algorithm used is implementation of Rumelhart's generalized delta rule. NNETS developed on INMOS Transputer(R). Predefines back-propagation network, Jordan network, and reinforcement network to assist users in learning and defining own networks. Also enables users to configure other neural-network paradigms from NNETS basic architecture. Small portion of software written in OCCAM(R) language.

  2. Some aerodynamic discoveries and related NACA/NASA research programs following World War 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The World War 2 time period ushered in a new era in aeronautical research and development. The air conflict during the war highlighted the need of aircraft with agility, high speed, long range, large payload capability, and in addition, introduced a new concept in air warfare through the use of guided missiles. Following the war, the influx of foreign technology, primarily German, led to rapid advances in jet propulsion and speed, and a host of new problem areas associated with high-speed flight designs were revealed. The resolution of these problems led to a rash of new design concepts and many of the lessons learned, in principle, are still effective today. In addition to the technical lessons learned related to aircraft development programs, it might also be noted that some lessons involving the political and philosophical nature of aircraft development programs are worth attention.

  3. EGADS: A microcomputer program for estimating the aerodynamic performance of general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, John E.

    1994-01-01

    EGADS is a comprehensive preliminary design tool for estimating the performance of light, single-engine general aviation aircraft. The software runs on the Apple Macintosh series of personal computers and assists amateur designers and aeronautical engineering students in performing the many repetitive calculations required in the aircraft design process. The program makes full use of the mouse and standard Macintosh interface techniques to simplify the input of various design parameters. Extensive graphics, plotting, and text output capabilities are also included.

  4. MAGRAC: a railgun simulation program

    SciTech Connect

    Deadrick, F.J.; Hawke, R.S.; Scudder, J.K.

    1980-10-24

    A computer simulation code has been developed and validated at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to predict the performance of a railgun electromagnetic accelerator. The code, called MAGRAC (MAGnetic Railgun ACcelerator), models the performance of a railgun driven by a magnetic flux compression current generator (MFCG). The MAGRAC code employs a time-step solution of the nonlinear time-varying element railgun circuit to determine rail currents. From the rail currents, the projectile acceleration, velocity, and position is found. The MAGRAC code was validated through a series of eight railgun tests conducted jointly with the Los Alamos Scientific National Laboratory. This paper describes the formulation of the MAGRAC railgun model and compares the predicted current waveforms with those obtained from full-scale experiments.

  5. A program to evaluate a control system based on feedback of aerodynamic pressure differentials, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrabak, R. R.; Levy, D. W.; Finn, P.; Roskam, J.

    1981-01-01

    The use of pressure differentials in a flight control system was evaluated. The pressure profile around the test surface was determined using two techniques: (1) windtunnel data (actual); and (2) NASA/Langley Single Element Airfoil Computer Program (theoretical). The system designed to evaluate the concept of using pressure differentials is composed of a sensor drive and power amplifiers, actuator, position potentiometer, and a control surface. The characteristics (both desired and actual) of the system and each individual component were analyzed. The desired characteristics of the system as a whole are given. The flight control system developed, the testing procedures and data reduction methods used, and theoretical frequency response analysis are described.

  6. Computational Aerodynamic Simulations of a 1215 ft/sec Tip Speed Transonic Fan System Model for Acoustic Methods Assessment and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Computational Aerodynamic simulations of a 1215 ft/sec tip speed transonic fan system were performed at five different operating points on the fan operating line, in order to provide detailed internal flow field information for use with fan acoustic prediction methods presently being developed, assessed and validated. The fan system is a sub-scale, low-noise research fan/nacelle model that has undergone extensive experimental testing in the 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Details of the fan geometry, the computational fluid dynamics methods, the computational grids, and various computational parameters relevant to the numerical simulations are discussed. Flow field results for three of the five operating points simulated are presented in order to provide a representative look at the computed solutions. Each of the five fan aerodynamic simulations involved the entire fan system, which for this model did not include a split flow path with core and bypass ducts. As a result, it was only necessary to adjust fan rotational speed in order to set the fan operating point, leading to operating points that lie on a fan operating line and making mass flow rate a fully dependent parameter. The resulting mass flow rates are in good agreement with measurement values. Computed blade row flow fields at all fan operating points are, in general, aerodynamically healthy. Rotor blade and fan exit guide vane flow characteristics are good, including incidence and deviation angles, chordwise static pressure distributions, blade surface boundary layers, secondary flow structures, and blade wakes. Examination of the flow fields at all operating conditions reveals no excessive boundary layer separations or related secondary-flow problems.

  7. CF6 Jet Engine Performance Improvement Program: High Pressure Turbine Aerodynamic Performance Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasching, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    The improved single shank high pressure turbine design was evaluated in component tests consisting of performance, heat transfer and mechanical tests, and in core engine tests. The instrumented core engine test verified the thermal, mechanical, and aeromechanical characteristics of the improved turbine design. An endurance test subjected the improved single shank turbine to 1000 simulated flight cycles, the equivalent of approximately 3000 hours of typical airline service. Initial back-to-back engine tests demonstrated an improvement in cruise sfc of 1.3% and a reduction in exhaust gas temperature of 10 C. An additional improvement of 0.3% in cruise sfc and 6 C in EGT is projected for long service engines.

  8. Aerodynamic preliminary analysis system 2. Part 2: User's manuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divan, P.

    1981-01-01

    An aerodynamic analysis system based on potential theory at subsonic/supersonic speeds and impact type finite element solutions at hypersonic conditions is described. Three dimensional configurations having multiple nonplanar surfaces of arbitrary planform and bodies of noncircular contour may be analyzed. Static, rotary, and control longitudinal and lateral directional chracteristics may be generated. The analysis has been implemented on a time sharing system in conjunction with an input tablet digitizer and an interactive graphics input/output display and editing terminal to maximize its responsiveness to the preliminary analysis problem. Typical simulation indicates that program provides an efficient analysis for systematically performing various aerodynamic configuration tradeoff and evaluation studies.

  9. Unsteady aerodynamics modeling for flight dynamics application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; He, Kai-Feng; Qian, Wei-Qi; Zhang, Tian-Jiao; Cheng, Yan-Qing; Wu, Kai-Yuan

    2012-02-01

    In view of engineering application, it is practicable to decompose the aerodynamics into three components: the static aerodynamics, the aerodynamic increment due to steady rotations, and the aerodynamic increment due to unsteady separated and vortical flow. The first and the second components can be presented in conventional forms, while the third is described using a one-order differential equation and a radial-basis-function (RBF) network. For an aircraft configuration, the mathematical models of 6-component aerodynamic coefficients are set up from the wind tunnel test data of pitch, yaw, roll, and coupled yawroll large-amplitude oscillations. The flight dynamics of an aircraft is studied by the bifurcation analysis technique in the case of quasi-steady aerodynamics and unsteady aerodynamics, respectively. The results show that: (1) unsteady aerodynamics has no effect upon the existence of trim points, but affects their stability; (2) unsteady aerodynamics has great effects upon the existence, stability, and amplitudes of periodic solutions; and (3) unsteady aerodynamics changes the stable regions of trim points obviously. Furthermore, the dynamic responses of the aircraft to elevator deflections are inspected. It is shown that the unsteady aerodynamics is beneficial to dynamic stability for the present aircraft. Finally, the effects of unsteady aerodynamics on the post-stall maneuverability are analyzed by numerical simulation.

  10. [Effects of dynamic aerodynamic parameters on simulating the land-atmosphere flux exchange in maize field: a case study of BATS1e model].

    PubMed

    Cai, Fu; Ming, Hui-qing; Li, Rong-ping; Zhou, Guang-sheng

    2013-08-01

    Based on the continuous observations on the land-atmosphere flux exchange and the meteorological and biological elements in a maize field at the Jinzhou Agricultural Ecosystem Research Station in Liaoning Province of Northeast China from 2006 to 2008, and by using the dynamic roughness (z0) and zero-displacement (d) parameterization scheme considering the effects of leaf area index, canopy height and wind speed at different developmental stages of maize, the BATS1e model was modified, and applied to investigate the effects of dynamic aerodynamic parameters on the flux exchange between maize agroecosystem and atmosphere. Compared with the original model, the drag coefficient (C(D)) simulated by the modified model increased, and its diurnal variation was more obvious with increasing vegetation coverage, which was more accordant with practical circumstances. The simulation accuracies of sensible heat (H), latent heat (lambdaE) and soil heat flux were improved in varying degree, and the Nash-Sutcliffes (NSs) were increased by 0.0569, 0.0194 and 0. 0384, with the improvement quantities in the growth season being 0.9%, 1.1% and 1.2% of global radiation, respectively. The dynamic parameterizations of z0 and d played a more remarkable role to increase the simulation accuracies of H and lambdaE with the actual observation of soil water content introduced into the improved model. This research proved that more reasonable dynamic aerodynamic parameterizations could fulfill an obvious function to improve the land surface processes simulation.

  11. NASP aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, Allen H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the critical aerodynamic technologies needed to support the development of a class of aircraft represented by the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). The air-breathing, single-stage-to-orbit mission presents a severe challenge to all of the aeronautical disciplines and demands an extension of the state-of-the-art in each technology area. While the largest risk areas are probably advanced materials and the development of the scramjet engine, there remains a host of design issues and technology problems in aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, and propulsion integration. The paper presents an overview of the most significant propulsion integration problems, and defines the most critical fluid flow phenomena that must be evaluated, defined, and predicted for the class of aircraft represented by the Aero-Space Plane.

  12. Effect of nacelles on aerodynamic characteristics of an executive-jet model with simulated, partial-chord, laminar-flow-control wing glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the Langley High-Speed 7- by 10-Foot Tunnel using a 1/10-scale model of an executive jet to examine the effects of the nacelles on the wing pressures and model longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics. For the present investigation, each wing panel was modified with a simulated, partial-chord, laminar-flow-control glove. Horizontal-tail effects were also briefly examined. The tests covered a range of Mach numbers from 0.40 to 0.82 and lift coefficients from 0.20 to 0.55. Oil-flow photographs of the wing at selected conditions are included.

  13. A Program for Simulated Thermodynamic Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olds, Dan W.

    A time-sharing FORTRAN program is described. It was created to allow a student to design and perform classical thermodynamic experiments on three models of a working substance. One goal was to develop a simulation which gave the student maximum freedom and responsibility in the design of the experiment and provided only the primary experimental…

  14. Fusion Simulation Program Definition. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, John R.

    2012-09-05

    We have completed our contributions to the Fusion Simulation Program Definition Project. Our contributions were in the overall planning with concentration in the definition of the area of Software Integration and Support. We contributed to the planning of multiple meetings, and we contributed to multiple planning documents.

  15. Nuclear blast response computer program. Volume II. Doublet-lattice and piston theory aerodynamics. Final report, May 1975-June 1977. [VIBRA-6 code

    SciTech Connect

    Giesing, J.P.; Kalman, T.P.; Rodden, W.P.; Croxen, H.H.; McGrew, J.A.

    1981-08-01

    The VIBRA-6 computer program is a digital computer program developed to deter the response of aircraft to nuclear explosions when flying at subsonic speeds. It is similar to the VIBRA-4 program but uses the latest Doublet-Lattice Method for obtaining subsonic aerodynamic forces for arbitrary lifting surface-body configurations. The Doublet-Lattice procedure has been extended to account for the moving blast wave by considering it as a traveling gust. The nuclear blast representation remains the same as that used in the VIBRA-4 program but the method of solution of the equations of motion has been changed from that of numerical integration of quasi-steady equations of motion to a Fourier transform procedure to move from frequency domain solutions to time history solutions. The concept of dynamic core has been introduced to the program thus removing any restrictions on the size of the aircraft idealization which can be analyzed.

  16. Aerodynamic analysis of a horizontal axis wind turbine by use of helical vortex theory. Volume II. Computer program users manual. (Final report). [VORTEX

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, T.G. Jr.; Afjeh, A.A.; Jeng, D.R.; White, J.A.

    1985-04-01

    A description of a computer program entitled VORTEX that may be used to determine the aerodynamic performance of horizontal axis wind turbines is given. The computer code implements a vortex method from finite span wing theory and determines the induced velocity at the rotor disk by integrating the Biot-Savart law. It is assumed that the trailing helical vortex filaments form a wake of constant diameter (the rigid wave assumption) and travel downstream at the free stream velocity. The program can handle rotors having any number of blades which may be arbitrarily shaped and twisted. Many numerical details associated with the program are presented. A complete listing of the program is provided and all program variables are defined. An example problem illustrating input and output characteristics is solved.

  17. Implementing a Remote Laboratory Experience into a Joint Engineering Degree Program: Aerodynamic Levitation of a Beach Ball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jernigan, S. R.; Fahmy, Y.; Buckner, G. D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper details a successful and inexpensive implementation of a remote laboratory into a distance control systems course using readily available hardware and software. The physical experiment consists of a beach ball and a dc blower; the control objective is to make the height of the aerodynamically levitated beach ball track a reference…

  18. Joint computational and experimental aerodynamics research on a hypersonic vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Oberkampf, W.L.; Aeschliman, D.P.; Walker, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    A closely coupled computational and experimental aerodynamics research program was conducted on a hypersonic vehicle configuration at Mach 8. Aerodynamic force and moment measurements and flow visualization results were obtained in the Sandia National Laboratories hypersonic wind tunnel for laminar boundary layer conditions. Parabolized and iterative Navier-Stokes simulations were used to predict flow fields and forces and moments on the hypersonic configuration. The basic vehicle configuration is a spherically blunted 10{degrees} cone with a slice parallel with the axis of the vehicle. On the slice portion of the vehicle, a flap can be attached so that deflection angles of 10{degrees}, 20{degrees}, and 30{degrees} can be obtained. Comparisons are made between experimental and computational results to evaluate quality of each and to identify areas where improvements are needed. This extensive set of high-quality experimental force and moment measurements is recommended for use in the calibration and validation of computational aerodynamics codes. 22 refs.

  19. Missile Aerodynamics for Ascent and Re-entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Gaines L.; McCarter, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Aerodynamic force and moment equations are developed for 6-DOF missile simulations of both the ascent phase of flight and a tumbling re-entry. The missile coordinate frame (M frame) and a frame parallel to the M frame were used for formulating the aerodynamic equations. The missile configuration chosen as an example is a cylinder with fixed fins and a nose cone. The equations include both the static aerodynamic coefficients and the aerodynamic damping derivatives. The inclusion of aerodynamic damping is essential for simulating a tumbling re-entry. Appended information provides insight into aerodynamic damping.

  20. New technology in turbine aerodynamics.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, A. J.; Moffitt, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    Cursory review of some recent work that has been done in turbine aerodynamic research. Topics discussed include the aerodynamic effect of turbine coolant, high work-factor (ratio of stage work to square of blade speed) turbines, and computer methods for turbine design and performance prediction. Experimental cooled-turbine aerodynamics programs using two-dimensional cascades, full annular cascades, and cold rotating turbine stage tests are discussed with some typical results presented. Analytically predicted results for cooled blade performance are compared to experimental results. The problems and some of the current programs associated with the use of very high work factors for fan-drive turbines of high-bypass-ratio engines are discussed. Computer programs have been developed for turbine design-point performance, off-design performance, supersonic blade profile design, and the calculation of channel velocities for subsonic and transonic flowfields. The use of these programs for the design and analysis of axial and radial turbines is discussed.

  1. HYSHOT-2 Aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cain, T.; Owen, R.; Walton, C.

    2005-02-01

    The scramjet flight test Hyshot-2, flew on the 30 July 2002. The programme, led by the University of Queensland, had the primary objective of obtaining supersonic combustion data in flight for comparison with measurements made in shock tunnels. QinetiQ was one of the sponsors, and also provided aerodynamic data and trajectory predictions for the ballistic re-entry of the spinning sounding rocket. The unconventional missile geometry created by the nose-mounted asymmetric-scramjet in conjunction with the high angle of attack during re-entry makes the problem interesting. This paper presents the wind tunnel measurements and aerodynamic calculations used as input for the trajectory prediction. Indirect comparison is made with data obtained in the Hyshot-2 flight using a 6 degree-of-freedom trajectory simulation.

  2. Advanced Aerodynamic Control Effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1999-01-01

    A 1990 research program that focused on the development of advanced aerodynamic control effectors (AACE) for military aircraft has been reviewed and summarized. Data are presented for advanced planform, flow control, and surface contouring technologies. The data show significant increases in lift, reductions in drag, and increased control power, compared to typical aerodynamic designs. The results presented also highlighted the importance of planform selection in the design of a control effector suite. Planform data showed that dramatic increases in lift (greater than 25%) can be achieved with multiple wings and a sawtooth forebody. Passive porosity and micro drag generator control effector data showed control power levels exceeding that available from typical effectors (moving surfaces). Application of an advanced planform to a tailless concept showed benefits of similar magnitude as those observed in the generic studies.

  3. A Simulation Program for Dynamic Infrared (IR) Spectra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoerb, Matthew C.; Harris, Charles B.

    2013-01-01

    A free program for the simulation of dynamic infrared (IR) spectra is presented. The program simulates the spectrum of two exchanging IR peaks based on simple input parameters. Larger systems can be simulated with minor modifications. The program is available as an executable program for PCs or can be run in MATLAB on any operating system. Source…

  4. Reactive programming of simulations in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boussinot, Frédéric; Monasse, Bernard; Susini, Jean-Ferdy

    2015-04-01

    We consider the Reactive Programming (RP) approach to simulate physical systems. The choice of RP is motivated by the fact that RP genuinely offers logical parallelism, instantaneously broadcast events, and dynamic creation/destruction of parallel components and events. To illustrate our approach, we consider the implementation of a system of Molecular Dynamics, in the context of Java with the Java3D library for 3D visualization.

  5. NASA TileWorld Simulator Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philips, Andrew; Bresina, John; Drummond, Mark

    1993-01-01

    NASA TileWorld (NTW) computer program formulated to further research on planning, scheduling, and control problems. Designed to focus on three particular attributes of real-world problems: exogenous events, uncertain outcomes of actions, and metric time. Written specifically for use by NASA, NTW modified easily to act as software base for other simulated environments. Written in Allegro Common Lisp for Sun-3-(TM) and Sun-4-series(TM) computers running SunOS(TM).

  6. Electric-car simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. P.; Slusser, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    PARAMET, interactive simulation program for parametric studies of electric vehicles, guides user through simulation by menu and series of prompts for input parameters. Program considers aerodynamic drag, rolling resistance, linear and rotational acceleration, and road gradient as forces acting on vehicle.

  7. A parametric study of planform and aeroelastic effects on aerodynamic center, alpha- and q- stability derivatives. Appendix A: A computer program for calculating alpha- and q- stability derivatives and induced drag for thin elastic aeroplanes at subsonic and supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.; Lan, C.; Mehrotra, S.

    1972-01-01

    The computer program used to determine the rigid and elastic stability derivatives presented in the summary report is listed in this appendix along with instructions for its use, sample input data and answers. This program represents the airplane at subsonic and supersonic speeds as (a) thin surface(s) (without dihedral) composed of discrete panels of constant pressure according to the method of Woodward for the aerodynamic effects and slender beam(s) for the structural effects. Given a set of input data, the computer program calculates an aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix and a structural influence coefficient matrix.

  8. Computational Aerodynamic Simulations of a 1484 ft/sec Tip Speed Quiet High-Speed Fan System Model for Acoustic Methods Assessment and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Computational Aerodynamic simulations of a 1484 ft/sec tip speed quiet high-speed fan system were performed at five different operating points on the fan operating line, in order to provide detailed internal flow field information for use with fan acoustic prediction methods presently being developed, assessed and validated. The fan system is a sub-scale, low-noise research fan/nacelle model that has undergone experimental testing in the 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Details of the fan geometry, the computational fluid dynamics methods, the computational grids, and various computational parameters relevant to the numerical simulations are discussed. Flow field results for three of the five operating points simulated are presented in order to provide a representative look at the computed solutions. Each of the five fan aerodynamic simulations involved the entire fan system, which includes a core duct and a bypass duct that merge upstream of the fan system nozzle. As a result, only fan rotational speed and the system bypass ratio, set by means of a translating nozzle plug, were adjusted in order to set the fan operating point, leading to operating points that lie on a fan operating line and making mass flow rate a fully dependent parameter. The resulting mass flow rates are in good agreement with measurement values. Computed blade row flow fields at all fan operating points are, in general, aerodynamically healthy. Rotor blade and fan exit guide vane flow characteristics are good, including incidence and deviation angles, chordwise static pressure distributions, blade surface boundary layers, secondary flow structures, and blade wakes. Examination of the computed flow fields reveals no excessive or critical boundary layer separations or related secondary-flow problems, with the exception of the hub boundary layer at the core duct entrance. At that location a significant flow separation is present. The region of local flow

  9. Bumblebee Program: Aerodynamic data. Part 4: Wing loads at Mach numbers 1.5 and 2.0. [missile configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, G. A.; Cronvich, L. L.

    1979-01-01

    Individual wing panel aerodynamic characteristics are provided for rectangular wings with aspect ratios of 0.25, 0.75, and 1.00 each panel at Mach numbers if 1.5 and 2.0 for angles of attack to 23 degrees. Data plots produced from reports of wind tunnel tests show normal force coefficients, and the spanwise and chordwise center of pressure locations.

  10. Shuttle reentry aerodynamic heating test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pond, J. E.; Mccormick, P. O.; Smith, S. D.

    1971-01-01

    The research for determining the space shuttle aerothermal environment is reported. Brief summaries of the low Reynolds number windward side heating test, and the base and leeward heating and high Reynolds number heating test are included. Also discussed are streamline divergence and the resulting effect on aerodynamic heating, and a thermal analyzer program that is used in the Thermal Environment Optimization Program.

  11. Wind-tunnel studies of the effects of simulated damage on the aerodynamic characteristics of airplanes and missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    In order to assess the effects on static aerodynamic characteristics of battle damage to an aircraft or missile, wind tunnel studies were performed on models from which all or parts of the wing or horizontal or vertical tail had been removed. The effects of damage on the lift, longitudinal stability, lateral stability and directional stability of a swept-wing fighter are presented, along with the effects of wing removal on the control requirements of a delta-wing fighter. Results indicate that the loss of a major part of the vertical tail will probably result in the loss of the aircraft at any speed, while the loss of major parts of the horizontal tail generally results in catastrophic instability at subsonic speeds but, at low supersonic speeds, may allow the aircraft to return to friendly territory before pilot ejection. Major damage to the wing may be sustained without the loss of aircraft or pilot. The loss of some of the aerodynamic surfaces of cruise or surface-to-air missiles may result in catastrophic instability or may permit a ballistic trajectory to be maintained, depending upon the location of the lost surface with respect to the center of gravity of the missile.

  12. Future Computer Requirements for Computational Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Recent advances in computational aerodynamics are discussed as well as motivations for and potential benefits of a National Aerodynamic Simulation Facility having the capability to solve fluid dynamic equations at speeds two to three orders of magnitude faster than presently possible with general computers. Two contracted efforts to define processor architectures for such a facility are summarized.

  13. Configuration Aerodynamics: Past - Present - Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Agrawal, Shreekant; Bencze, Daniel P.; Kulfan, Robert M.; Wilson, Douglas L.

    1999-01-01

    The Configuration Aerodynamics (CA) element of the High Speed Research (HSR) program is managed by a joint NASA and Industry team, referred to as the Technology Integration Development (ITD) team. This team is responsible for the development of a broad range of technologies for improved aerodynamic performance and stability and control characteristics at subsonic to supersonic flight conditions. These objectives are pursued through the aggressive use of advanced experimental test techniques and state of the art computational methods. As the HSR program matures and transitions into the next phase the objectives of the Configuration Aerodynamics ITD are being refined to address the drag reduction needs and stability and control requirements of High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft. In addition, the experimental and computational tools are being refined and improved to meet these challenges. The presentation will review the work performed within the Configuration Aerodynamics element in 1994 and 1995 and then discuss the plans for the 1996-1998 time period. The final portion of the presentation will review several observations of the HSR program and the design activity within Configuration Aerodynamics.

  14. Multimedia medical case authorship and simulator program.

    PubMed

    Berger, R G; Boxwala, A

    1995-01-01

    For the last several years, third and fourth year medical students rotating on the rheumatology/immunology service at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine have been using a laptop computer as a teaching adjunct to their formal training in rheumatology. The laptop contains diagnostic programs, reference management and clinical note generation facilities, remote medline access, and most recently, multimedia case simulations. These simulations have been created by the use of a case authoring and simulation system which is presented in this demonstration. The program is divided into simulator and designer modules and uses graphics and sound to portray such data as physical examination findings, blood smears, radiographs, heart sounds, etc. The simulator module includes diagnostic sections with feedback to the student as well as robust patient management trees with an occasional circuitous route for patient outcome. The student receives a numerical score based on deviations from the correct path and optimal cost as designated by the case designer. The system simulates complete management of a patient from the first encounter until treatment is complete. During each encounter, a student obtains the patient's history, physical examination findings, orders tests and reviews their results, makes a differential diagnosis, and treats the patient. The patient's progress and further treatment options at any time are dependent on the treatment option selected by the student at an earlier stage. Students are given the costs of ancillary tests and hospitalization before they order them. Words or phrases can be marked as hypertext and the student can get more information about the marked words by a mouse click. The designer interface of the program creates the clinical case by prompts and requests for information from the designer who needs no programming skills. The designer is almost always an expert faculty member who bases the simulated case on a real patient

  15. Aerodynamics of Sounding-Rocket Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrowman, J.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical aerodynamics program TAD predicts aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles with sounding-rocket configurations. These slender, Axisymmetric finned vehicles have a wide range of aeronautical applications from rockets to high-speed armament. TAD calculates characteristics of separate portions of vehicle, calculates interference between portions, and combines results to form total vehicle solution.

  16. STEFINS: a steel freezing integral simulation program

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, M.V.

    1980-09-01

    STEFINS (STEel Freezing INtegral Simulation) is a computer program for the calculation of the rate of solidification of molten steel on solid steel. Such computations arize when investigating core melt accidents in fast reactors. In principle this problem involves a coupled two-dimensional thermal and hydraulic approach. However, by physically reasonable assumptions a decoupled approach has been developed. The transient solidification of molten steel on a cold wall is solved in the direction normal to the molten steel flow and independent from the solution for the molten steel temperature and Nusselt number along the direction of flow. The solutions to the applicable energy equations have been programmed in cylindrical and slab geometries. Internal gamma heating of steel is included.

  17. Numerical simulation and validation of helicopter blade-vortex interaction using coupled CFD/CSD and three levels of aerodynamic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiraux, Mathieu

    Rotorcraft Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) remains one of the most challenging flow phenomenon to simulate numerically. Over the past decade, the HART-II rotor test and its extensive experimental dataset has been a major database for validation of CFD codes. Its strong BVI signature, with high levels of intrusive noise and vibrations, makes it a difficult test for computational methods. The main challenge is to accurately capture and preserve the vortices which interact with the rotor, while predicting correct blade deformations and loading. This doctoral dissertation presents the application of a coupled CFD/CSD methodology to the problem of helicopter BVI and compares three levels of fidelity for aerodynamic modeling: a hybrid lifting-line/free-wake (wake coupling) method, with modified compressible unsteady model; a hybrid URANS/free-wake method; and a URANS-based wake capturing method, using multiple overset meshes to capture the entire flow field. To further increase numerical correlation, three helicopter fuselage models are implemented in the framework. The first is a high resolution 3D GPU panel code; the second is an immersed boundary based method, with 3D elliptic grid adaption; the last one uses a body-fitted, curvilinear fuselage mesh. The main contribution of this work is the implementation and systematic comparison of multiple numerical methods to perform BVI modeling. The trade-offs between solution accuracy and computational cost are highlighted for the different approaches. Various improvements have been made to each code to enhance physical fidelity, while advanced technologies, such as GPU computing, have been employed to increase efficiency. The resulting numerical setup covers all aspects of the simulation creating a truly multi-fidelity and multi-physics framework. Overall, the wake capturing approach showed the best BVI phasing correlation and good blade deflection predictions, with slightly under-predicted aerodynamic loading magnitudes

  18. Better Space Construction Decisions by Instructional Program Simulation Utilizing the Generalized Academic Simulation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apker, Wesley

    This school district utilized the generalized academic simulation programs (GASP) to assist in making decisions regarding the kinds of facilities that should be constructed at Pilchuck Senior High School. Modular scheduling was one of the basic educational parameters used in determining the number and type of facilities needed. The objectives of…

  19. Model aerodynamic test results for two variable cycle engine coannular exhaust systems at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions. [Lewis 8 by 6-foot supersonic wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1980-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to evaluate the aerodynamic performance of a coannular exhaust nozzle for a proposed variable stream control supersonic propulsion system. Tests were conducted with two simulated configurations differing primarily in the fan duct flowpaths: a short flap mechanism for fan stream control with an isentropic contoured flow splitter, and an iris fan nozzle with a conical flow splitter. Both designs feature a translating primary plug and an auxiliary inlet ejector. Tests were conducted at takeoff and simulated cruise conditions. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0, 0.36, 0.9, and 2.0 for a wide range of nozzle operating conditions. At simulated supersonic cruise, both configurations demonstrated good performance, comparable to levels assumed in earlier advanced supersonic propulsion studies. However, at subsonic cruise, both configurations exhibited performance that was 6 to 7.5 percent less than the study assumptions. At take off conditions, the iris configuration performance approached the assumed levels, while the short flap design was 4 to 6 percent less.

  20. New technology in turbine aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, A. J.; Moffitt, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    A cursory review is presented of some of the recent work that has been done in turbine aerodynamic research at NASA-Lewis Research Center. Topics discussed include the aerodynamic effect of turbine coolant, high work-factor (ratio of stage work to square of blade speed) turbines, and computer methods for turbine design and performance prediction. An extensive bibliography is included. Experimental cooled-turbine aerodynamics programs using two-dimensional cascades, full annular cascades, and cold rotating turbine stage tests are discussed with some typical results presented. Analytically predicted results for cooled blade performance are compared to experimental results. The problems and some of the current programs associated with the use of very high work factors for fan-drive turbines of high-bypass-ratio engines are discussed. Turbines currently being investigated make use of advanced blading concepts designed to maintain high efficiency under conditions of high aerodynamic loading. Computer programs have been developed for turbine design-point performance, off-design performance, supersonic blade profile design, and the calculation of channel velocities for subsonic and transonic flow fields. The use of these programs for the design and analysis of axial and radial turbines is discussed.

  1. Sensitivity analysis in computational aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bristow, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    Information on sensitivity analysis in computational aerodynamics is given in outline, graphical, and chart form. The prediction accuracy if the MCAERO program, a perturbation analysis method, is discussed. A procedure for calculating perturbation matrix, baseline wing paneling for perturbation analysis test cases and applications of an inviscid sensitivity matrix are among the topics covered.

  2. Test data from solid propellant plume aerodynamics test program in Ames 6 x 6 foot supersonic wind tunnel (shuttle test FA7) (Ames test 033-66)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hair, L. M.

    1975-01-01

    The aerodynamic effects of plumes from hot combustion gases in the presence of a transonic external flow field were measured to advance plumes simulation technology, extend a previously acquired data base, and provide data to compare with the effects observed using cold gas plumes. A variety of underexpanded plumes issuing from the base of a strut-mounted ogive-cylinder body were produced by combusting solid propellant gas generators. The gas generator fired in a short-duration mode (200 to 300 msec). Propellants containing 16 percent and 2 percent A1 were used, with chamber pressures from 400 to 1800 psia. Conical nozzles of 15 deg half-angle were tested with area ratios of 4 and 8. Pressures were measured in the gas generator combustion chamber, along the nozzle wall, on the base, and along the body rear exterior. Schlieren photographs were taken for all tests. Test data are presented along with a description of the test setup and procedures.

  3. Aerodynamic design on high-speed trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, San-San; Li, Qiang; Tian, Ai-Qin; Du, Jian; Liu, Jia-Li

    2016-04-01

    Compared with the traditional train, the operational speed of the high-speed train has largely improved, and the dynamic environment of the train has changed from one of mechanical domination to one of aerodynamic domination. The aerodynamic problem has become the key technological challenge of high-speed trains and significantly affects the economy, environment, safety, and comfort. In this paper, the relationships among the aerodynamic design principle, aerodynamic performance indexes, and design variables are first studied, and the research methods of train aerodynamics are proposed, including numerical simulation, a reduced-scale test, and a full-scale test. Technological schemes of train aerodynamics involve the optimization design of the streamlined head and the smooth design of the body surface. Optimization design of the streamlined head includes conception design, project design, numerical simulation, and a reduced-scale test. Smooth design of the body surface is mainly used for the key parts, such as electric-current collecting system, wheel truck compartment, and windshield. The aerodynamic design method established in this paper has been successfully applied to various high-speed trains (CRH380A, CRH380AM, CRH6, CRH2G, and the Standard electric multiple unit (EMU)) that have met expected design objectives. The research results can provide an effective guideline for the aerodynamic design of high-speed trains.

  4. Recent advances in computational aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Ramesh K.; Desse, Jerry E.

    1991-04-01

    The current state of the art in computational aerodynamics is described. Recent advances in the discretization of surface geometry, grid generation, and flow simulation algorithms have led to flowfield predictions for increasingly complex and realistic configurations. As a result, computational aerodynamics is emerging as a crucial enabling technology for the development and design of flight vehicles. Examples illustrating the current capability for the prediction of aircraft, launch vehicle and helicopter flowfields are presented. Unfortunately, accurate modeling of turbulence remains a major difficulty in the analysis of viscosity-dominated flows. In the future inverse design methods, multidisciplinary design optimization methods, artificial intelligence technology and massively parallel computer technology will be incorporated into computational aerodynamics, opening up greater opportunities for improved product design at substantially reduced costs.

  5. Aerodynamic preliminary analysis system. Part 1: Theory. [linearized potential theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, E.; Clever, W.; Dunn, K.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive aerodynamic analysis program based on linearized potential theory is described. The solution treats thickness and attitude problems at subsonic and supersonic speeds. Three dimensional configurations with or without jet flaps having multiple non-planar surfaces of arbitrary planform and open or closed slender bodies of non-circular contour may be analyzed. Longitudinal and lateral-directional static and rotary derivative solutions may be generated. The analysis was implemented on a time sharing system in conjunction with an input tablet digitizer and an interactive graphics input/output display and editing terminal to maximize its responsiveness to the preliminary analysis problem. Nominal case computation time of 45 CPU seconds on the CDC 175 for a 200 panel simulation indicates the program provides an efficient analysis for systematically performing various aerodynamic configuration tradeoff and evaluation studies.

  6. Aerodynamic challenges of ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooks, I.; Homan, D.; Romere, P. O.

    1985-01-01

    The approach and landing test (ALT) of the Space Shuttle Orbiter presented a number of unique challenges in the area of aerodynamics. The purpose of the ALT program was both to confirm the use of the Boeing 747 as a transport vehicle for ferrying the Orbiter across the country and to demonstrate the flight characteristics of the Orbiter in its approach and landing phase. Concerns for structural fatigue and performance dictated a tailcone be attached to the Orbiter for ferry and for the initial landing tests. The Orbiter with a tailcone attached presented additional challenges to the normal aft sting concept of wind tunnel testing. The landing tests required that the Orbiter be separated from the 747 at approximately 20,000 feet using aerodynamic forces to fly the vehicles apart. The concept required a complex test program to determine the relative effects of the two vehicles on each other. Also of concern, and tested, was the vortex wake created by the 747 and the means for the Orbiter to avoid it following separation.

  7. Computer simulation program is adaptable to industrial processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, F. E.

    1966-01-01

    The Reaction kinetics ablation program /REKAP/, developed to simulate ablation of various materials, provides mathematical formulations for computer programs which can simulate certain industrial processes. The programs are based on the use of nonsymmetrical difference equations that are employed to solve complex partial differential equation systems.

  8. Classical Aerodynamic Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T. (Compiler)

    1979-01-01

    A collection of papers on modern theoretical aerodynamics is presented. Included are theories of incompressible potential flow and research on the aerodynamic forces on wing and wing sections of aircraft and on airship hulls.

  9. Model aerodynamic test results for two variable cycle engine coannular exhaust systems at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions. Comprehensive data report. Volume 2: Tabulated aeroynamic data book 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    Tabulated data from wind tunnel tests conducted to evaluate the aerodynamic performance of an advanced coannular exhaust nozzle for a future supersonic propulsion system are presented. Tests were conducted with two test configurations: (1) a short flap mechanism for fan stream control with an isentropic contoured flow splitter, and (2) an iris fan nozzle with a conical flow splitter. Both designs feature a translating primary plug and an auxiliary inlet ejector. Tests were conducted at takeoff and simulated cruise conditions. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0, 0.36, 0.9, and 2.0 for a wide range of nozzle operating conditions. At simulated supersonic cruise, both configurations demonstrated good performance, comparable to levels assumed in earlier advanced supersonic propulsion studies. However, at subsonic cruise, both configurations exhibited performance that was 6 to 7.5 percent less than the study assumptions. At takeoff conditions, the iris configuration performance approached the assumed levels, while the short flap design was 4 to 6 percent less. Data are provided through test run 25.

  10. Development of the X-33 Aerodynamic Uncertainty Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobleigh, Brent R.

    1998-01-01

    An aerodynamic uncertainty model for the X-33 single-stage-to-orbit demonstrator aircraft has been developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The model is based on comparisons of historical flight test estimates to preflight wind-tunnel and analysis code predictions of vehicle aerodynamics documented during six lifting-body aircraft and the Space Shuttle Orbiter flight programs. The lifting-body and Orbiter data were used to define an appropriate uncertainty magnitude in the subsonic and supersonic flight regions, and the Orbiter data were used to extend the database to hypersonic Mach numbers. The uncertainty data consist of increments or percentage variations in the important aerodynamic coefficients and derivatives as a function of Mach number along a nominal trajectory. The uncertainty models will be used to perform linear analysis of the X-33 flight control system and Monte Carlo mission simulation studies. Because the X-33 aerodynamic uncertainty model was developed exclusively using historical data rather than X-33 specific characteristics, the model may be useful for other lifting-body studies.

  11. Low-thrust solar electric propulsion navigation simulation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagar, H. J.; Eller, T. J.

    1973-01-01

    An interplanetary low-thrust, solar electric propulsion mission simulation program suitable for navigation studies is presented. The mathematical models for trajectory simulation, error compensation, and tracking motion are described. The languages, input-output procedures, and subroutines are included.

  12. Increased ephemeris accuracy using attitude-dependent aerodynamic force coefficients for inertially stabilized spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David C.; Baker, David F.

    1991-01-01

    The FREEMAC program used to generate the aerodynamic coefficients, as well as associated routines that allow the results to be used in other software is described. These capabilities are applied in two numerical examples to the short-term orbit prediction of the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spacecraft. Predictions using attitude-dependent aerodynamic coefficients were made on a modified version of the PC-based Ephemeris Generation Program (EPHGEN) and were compared to definitive orbit solutions obtained from actual tracking data. The numerical results show improvement in the predicted semi-major axis and along-track positions that would seem to be worth the added computational effort. Finally, other orbit and attitude analysis applications are noted that could profit from using FREEMAC-calculated aerodynamic coefficients, including orbital lifetime studies, orbit determination methods, attitude dynamics simulators, and spacecraft control system component sizing.

  13. Three-Dimensional Unsteady Simulation of Aerodynamics and Heat Transfer in a Modern High Pressure Turbine Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyam, Vikram; Ameri, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Unsteady 3-D RANS simulations have been performed on a highly loaded transonic turbine stage and results are compared to steady calculations as well as to experiment. A low Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model is employed to provide closure for the RANS system. A phase-lag boundary condition is used in the tangential direction. This allows the unsteady simulation to be performed by using only one blade from each of the two rows. The objective of this work is to study the effect of unsteadiness on rotor heat transfer and to glean any insight into unsteady flow physics. The role of the stator wake passing on the pressure distribution at the leading edge is also studied. The simulated heat transfer and pressure results agreed favorably with experiment. The time-averaged heat transfer predicted by the unsteady simulation is higher than the heat transfer predicted by the steady simulation everywhere except at the leading edge. The shock structure formed due to stator-rotor interaction was analyzed. Heat transfer and pressure at the hub and casing were also studied. Thermal segregation was observed that leads to the heat transfer patterns predicted by steady and unsteady simulations to be different.

  14. Distributed Aerodynamic Sensing and Processing Toolbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Martin; Jutte, Christine; Mangalam, Arun

    2011-01-01

    A Distributed Aerodynamic Sensing and Processing (DASP) toolbox was designed and fabricated for flight test applications with an Aerostructures Test Wing (ATW) mounted under the fuselage of an F-15B on the Flight Test Fixture (FTF). DASP monitors and processes the aerodynamics with the structural dynamics using nonintrusive, surface-mounted, hot-film sensing. This aerodynamic measurement tool benefits programs devoted to static/dynamic load alleviation, body freedom flutter suppression, buffet control, improvement of aerodynamic efficiency through cruise control, supersonic wave drag reduction through shock control, etc. This DASP toolbox measures local and global unsteady aerodynamic load distribution with distributed sensing. It determines correlation between aerodynamic observables (aero forces) and structural dynamics, and allows control authority increase through aeroelastic shaping and active flow control. It offers improvements in flutter suppression and, in particular, body freedom flutter suppression, as well as aerodynamic performance of wings for increased range/endurance of manned/ unmanned flight vehicles. Other improvements include inlet performance with closed-loop active flow control, and development and validation of advanced analytical and computational tools for unsteady aerodynamics.

  15. Modeling Powered Aerodynamics for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Aerodynamic Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Robinson, Philip E.; Wilson, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Modeling the aerodynamics of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) has presented many technical challenges to the developers of the Orion aerodynamic database. During a launch abort event, the aerodynamic environment around the LAV is very complex as multiple solid rocket plumes interact with each other and the vehicle. It is further complicated by vehicle separation events such as between the LAV and the launch vehicle stack or between the launch abort tower and the crew module. The aerodynamic database for the LAV was developed mainly from wind tunnel tests involving powered jet simulations of the rocket exhaust plumes, supported by computational fluid dynamic simulations. However, limitations in both methods have made it difficult to properly capture the aerodynamics of the LAV in experimental and numerical simulations. These limitations have also influenced decisions regarding the modeling and structure of the aerodynamic database for the LAV and led to compromises and creative solutions. Two database modeling approaches are presented in this paper (incremental aerodynamics and total aerodynamics), with examples showing strengths and weaknesses of each approach. In addition, the unique problems presented to the database developers by the large data space required for modeling a launch abort event illustrate the complexities of working with multi-dimensional data.

  16. Bifurcations in unsteady aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobak, M.; Unal, A.

    1986-01-01

    Nonlinear algebraic functional expansions are used to create a form for the unsteady aerodynamic response that is consistent with solutions of the time dependent Navier-Stokes equations. An enumeration of means of invalidating Frechet differentiability of the aerodynamic response, one of which is aerodynamic bifurcation, is proposed as a way of classifying steady and unsteady aerodynamic phenomena that are important in flight dynamics applications. Accomodating bifurcation phenomena involving time dependent equilibrium states within a mathematical model of the aerodynamic response raises an issue of memory effects that becomes more important with each successive bifurcation.

  17. Development of a multilayer interference simulation program for MSS systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izadian, Jamal S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a multilayer interference analysis and simulation program which is used to evaluate interference between non-geostationary and geostationary satellites. In addition to evaluating interference, this program can be used in the development of sharing criteria and coordination among various Mobile Satellite Services (MSS) systems. A C++/Windows implementation of this program, called Globalstar Interference Simulation Program (GISP), has been developed.

  18. An arbitrary grid CFD algorithm for configuration aerodynamics analysis. Volume 2: FEMNAS user guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manhardt, Paul D.; Orzechowski, J. A.; Baker, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    This report documents the user input and output data requirements for the FEMNAS finite element Navier-Stokes code for real-gas simulations of external aerodynamics flowfields. This code was developed for the configuration aerodynamics branch of NASA ARC, under SBIR Phase 2 contract NAS2-124568 by Computational Mechanics Corporation (COMCO). This report is in two volumes. Volume 1 contains the theory for the derived finite element algorithm and describes the test cases used to validate the computer program described in the Volume 2 user guide.

  19. An arbitrary grid CFD algorithm for configuration aerodynamics analysis. Volume 1: Theory and validations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, A. J.; Iannelli, G. S.; Manhardt, Paul D.; Orzechowski, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    This report documents the user input and output data requirements for the FEMNAS finite element Navier-Stokes code for real-gas simulations of external aerodynamics flowfields. This code was developed for the configuration aerodynamics branch of NASA ARC, under SBIR Phase 2 contract NAS2-124568 by Computational Mechanics Corporation (COMCO). This report is in two volumes. Volume 1 contains the theory for the derived finite element algorithm and describes the test cases used to validate the computer program described in the Volume 2 user guide.

  20. Effects of fluid-structure interaction on the aerodynamics of an insect wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Han, Jae-Hung

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, an insect wing structure is modeled based on data obtained from measurements on real hawkmoth (Manduca Sexta) wings. The aerodynamics of insect wings is simulated by an extended unsteady vortex-lattice method. The finite-element model of a flexible hawkmoth wing is built and validated. A computer program, which couples the finite-element model with the aerodynamic model, is used to study the effects of fluid-structure interaction. Some important features due to the fluid-structure interaction in hovering and forward flight are observed in the present study.

  1. Coupled Aerodynamic-Thermal-Structural (CATS) Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Coupled Aerodynamic-Thermal-Structural (CATS) Analysis is a focused effort within the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) program to streamline multidisciplinary analysis of aeropropulsion components and assemblies. Multidisciplinary analysis of axial-flow compressor performance has been selected for the initial focus of this project. CATS will permit more accurate compressor system analysis by enabling users to include thermal and mechanical effects as an integral part of the aerodynamic analysis of the compressor primary flowpath. Thus, critical details, such as the variation of blade tip clearances and the deformation of the flowpath geometry, can be more accurately modeled and included in the aerodynamic analyses. The benefits of this coupled analysis capability are (1) performance and stall line predictions are improved by the inclusion of tip clearances and hot geometries, (2) design alternatives can be readily analyzed, and (3) higher fidelity analysis by researchers in various disciplines is possible. The goals for this project are a 10-percent improvement in stall margin predictions and a 2:1 speed-up in multidisciplinary analysis times. Working cooperatively with Pratt & Whitney, the Lewis CATS team defined the engineering processes and identified the software products necessary for streamlining these processes. The basic approach is to integrate the aerodynamic, thermal, and structural computational analyses by using data management and Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) based data mapping. Five software products have been defined for this task: (1) a primary flowpath data mapper, (2) a two-dimensional data mapper, (3) a database interface, (4) a blade structural pre- and post-processor, and (5) a computational fluid dynamics code for aerothermal analysis of the drum rotor. Thus far (1) a cooperative agreement has been established with Pratt & Whitney, (2) a Primary Flowpath Data Mapper has been prototyped and delivered to General Electric

  2. Purdue Contribution of Fusion Simulation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Brooks

    2011-09-30

    The overall science goal of the FSP is to develop predictive simulation capability for magnetically confined fusion plasmas at an unprecedented level of integration and fidelity. This will directly support and enable effective U.S. participation in research related to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the overall mission of delivering practical fusion energy. The FSP will address a rich set of scientific issues together with experimental programs, producing validated integrated physics results. This is very well aligned with the mission of the ITER Organization to coordinate with its members the integrated modeling and control of fusion plasmas, including benchmarking and validation activities. [1]. Initial FSP research will focus on two critical areas: 1) the plasma edge and 2) whole device modeling including disruption avoidance. The first of these problems involves the narrow plasma boundary layer and its complex interactions with the plasma core and the surrounding material wall. The second requires development of a computationally tractable, but comprehensive model that describes all equilibrium and dynamic processes at a sufficient level of detail to provide useful prediction of the temporal evolution of fusion plasma experiments. The initial driver for the whole device model (WDM) will be prediction and avoidance of discharge-terminating disruptions, especially at high performance, which are a critical impediment to successful operation of machines like ITER. If disruptions prove unable to be avoided, their associated dynamics and effects will be addressed in the next phase of the FSP. The FSP plan targets the needed modeling capabilities by developing Integrated Science Applications (ISAs) specific to their needs. The Pedestal-Boundary model will include boundary magnetic topology, cross-field transport of multi-species plasmas, parallel plasma transport, neutral transport, atomic physics and interactions with the plasma wall

  3. Trends in programming languages for neuroscience simulations.

    PubMed

    Davison, Andrew P; Hines, Michael L; Muller, Eilif

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience simulators allow scientists to express models in terms of biological concepts, without having to concern themselves with low-level computational details of their implementation. The expressiveness, power and ease-of-use of the simulator interface is critical in efficiently and accurately translating ideas into a working simulation. We review long-term trends in the development of programmable simulator interfaces, and examine the benefits of moving from proprietary, domain-specific languages to modern dynamic general-purpose languages, in particular Python, which provide neuroscientists with an interactive and expressive simulation development environment and easy access to state-of-the-art general-purpose tools for scientific computing.

  4. Simulation of the mineral dust emission over Northern Africa and Middle East using an aerodynamic roughness length map derived from the ASCAT/PARASOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basart, Sara; Jorba, Oriol; Pérez García-Pando, Carlos; Prigent, Catherine; Baldasano, Jose M.

    2014-05-01

    fluxes modeling, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, 6505-6520, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50313, 2013. Pérez, C., Haustein, K., Janjic, Z., Jorba, O., Huneeus, N., Baldasano, J. M. and Thomson, M. Atmospheric dust modeling from meso to global scales with the online NMMB/BSC-Dust model-Part 1: Model description, annual simulations and evaluation. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11(24), 13001-13027, 2011. Prigent, C., Jiménez, C., and Catherinot, J.: Comparison of satellite microwave backscattering (ASCAT) and visible/near-infrared reflectances (PARASOL) for the estimation of aeolian aerodynamic roughness length in arid and semi-arid regions, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 2703-2712, doi:10.5194/amt-5-2703-2012, 2012.

  5. Performance aerodynamics of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhite, A. W.; Arrington, J. P.; Mccandless, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    A method for predicting the performance aerodynamics of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles was developed based on techniques that were used in the aerodynamic databook of the Space Shuttle orbiter and theories from the Hypersonic Arbitrary Body Program. The method spans the entire flight profile of the aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles from the extreme high altitude non-continuum regime to the highly viscous continuum regime. Results from this method are compared with flight data from the Shuttle orbiter, Apollo Capsule, and the Viking Aeroshell. Finally, performance aerodynamics are estimated for three aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles that range from low to high lift-to-drag ratio configurations.

  6. Huntington II Simulation Program-POLUT. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, L.; And Others

    This teacher's guide is written to accompany the Huntington II Simulation Program - POLUT. POLUT is a program written in BASIC which provides simulation of the interaction between water and waste. It creates a context within which the user can control specific variables which effect the quality of a water resource. The teacher's guide provides…

  7. Huntington II Simulation Program-POLUT. Resource Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, L.; And Others

    Instructions for using the Huntington II Simulation Program - POLUT are contained in this resource handbook. POLUT is a program written in BASIC which provides simulation of the interaction between water and waste. It creates a context within which the user can control specific variables which affect the quality of a water resource. The output is…

  8. The NAS kernel benchmark program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, D. H.; Barton, J. T.

    1985-01-01

    A collection of benchmark test kernels that measure supercomputer performance has been developed for the use of the NAS (Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation) program at the NASA Ames Research Center. This benchmark program is described in detail and the specific ground rules are given for running the program as a performance test.

  9. A numerical simulation of the NFAC (National Full-scale Aerodynamics Complex) open-return wind tunnel inlet flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, U. K.; Ross, J. C.; Jacocks, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The flow into an open return wind tunnel inlet was simulated using Euler equations. An explicit predictor-corrector method was employed to solve the system. The calculation is time-accurate and was performed to achieve a steady-state solution. The predictions are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data. Wall pressures are accurately predicted except in a region of recirculating flow. Flow-field surveys agree qualitatively with laser velocimeter measurements. The method can be used in the design process for open return wind tunnels.

  10. Students' Ways of Experiencing Visual Program Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorva, Juha; Lönnberg, Jan; Malmi, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    Visual program simulation (VPS) is a new, interactive form of educational program visualisation, in which learners use graphical controls to direct a program's execution rather than simply watching an animation of it. In this article, we report on a qualitative empirical study of novice programmers learning through VPS. From an analysis of…

  11. Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST). Volume 3: Programmer's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brauer, G. L.; Cornick, D. E.; Habeger, A. R.; Petersen, F. M.; Stevenson, R.

    1975-01-01

    Information pertinent to the programmer and relating to the program to optimize simulated trajectories (POST) is presented. Topics discussed include: program structure and logic, subroutine listings and flow charts, and internal FORTRAN symbols. The POST core requirements are summarized along with program macrologic.

  12. PROP3D: A Program for 3D Euler Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic (Flutter and Forced Response) Analysis of Propellers. Version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, R.; Reddy, T. S. R.

    1996-01-01

    This guide describes the input data required, for steady or unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis of propellers and the output files generated, in using PROP3D. The aerodynamic forces are obtained by solving three dimensional unsteady, compressible Euler equations. A normal mode structural analysis is used to obtain the aeroelastic equations, which are solved using either time domain or frequency domain solution method. Sample input and output files are included in this guide for steady aerodynamic analysis of single and counter-rotation propellers, and aeroelastic analysis of single-rotation propeller.

  13. Trends in programming languages for neuroscience simulations.

    PubMed

    Davison, Andrew P; Hines, Michael L; Muller, Eilif

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience simulators allow scientists to express models in terms of biological concepts, without having to concern themselves with low-level computational details of their implementation. The expressiveness, power and ease-of-use of the simulator interface is critical in efficiently and accurately translating ideas into a working simulation. We review long-term trends in the development of programmable simulator interfaces, and examine the benefits of moving from proprietary, domain-specific languages to modern dynamic general-purpose languages, in particular Python, which provide neuroscientists with an interactive and expressive simulation development environment and easy access to state-of-the-art general-purpose tools for scientific computing. PMID:20198154

  14. Prediction of modeled velopharyngeal orifice areas during steady flow conditions and during aerodynamic simulation of voiceless stop consonants.

    PubMed

    Smith, B E; Weinberg, B

    1982-07-01

    Results of a small number of studies (Warren and DuBois, 1964; Lubker, 1969; Smith and Weinberg, 1980; Horii and Lang, 1981) have led to expression of divergent views concerning the accuracy of modeled velopharyngeal orifice area estimates obtained on the basis of hydrokinetic principles. In this work, the hydrokinetic equation (Warren and DuBois, 1964) was subjected to experimentation: (1) in which flow rates through a vocal tract model were not varied and (2) in which flow rates were varied to simulate pressure/flow events found during voiceless, stop consonant production. With consideration given to instrumental and procedural factors, results indicated that accurate estimates of modeled velopharyngeal orifice areas can be obtained during steady flow conditions and during alternating flow conditions when measurements are made at airflow peaks. Results were interpreted to provide strong support for clinical and research use of the hydrokinetic equation to predict velopharyngeal orifice areas during stop consonant production.

  15. Prediction of modeled velopharyngeal orifice areas during steady flow conditions and during aerodynamic simulation of voiceless stop consonants.

    PubMed

    Smith, B E; Weinberg, B

    1982-07-01

    Results of a small number of studies (Warren and DuBois, 1964; Lubker, 1969; Smith and Weinberg, 1980; Horii and Lang, 1981) have led to expression of divergent views concerning the accuracy of modeled velopharyngeal orifice area estimates obtained on the basis of hydrokinetic principles. In this work, the hydrokinetic equation (Warren and DuBois, 1964) was subjected to experimentation: (1) in which flow rates through a vocal tract model were not varied and (2) in which flow rates were varied to simulate pressure/flow events found during voiceless, stop consonant production. With consideration given to instrumental and procedural factors, results indicated that accurate estimates of modeled velopharyngeal orifice areas can be obtained during steady flow conditions and during alternating flow conditions when measurements are made at airflow peaks. Results were interpreted to provide strong support for clinical and research use of the hydrokinetic equation to predict velopharyngeal orifice areas during stop consonant production. PMID:6956460

  16. Simulating smokers' acceptance of modifications in a cessation program.

    PubMed Central

    Spoth, R

    1992-01-01

    Recent research has underscored the importance of assessing barriers to smokers' acceptance of cessation programs. This paper illustrates the use of computer simulations to gauge smokers' response to program modifications which may produce barriers to participation. It also highlights methodological issues encountered in conducting this work. Computer simulations were based on conjoint analysis, a consumer research method which enables measurement of smokers' relative preference for various modifications of cessation programs. Results from two studies are presented in this paper. The primary study used a randomly selected sample of 218 adult smokers who participated in a computer-assisted phone interview. Initially, the study assessed smokers' relative utility rating of 30 features of cessation programs. Utility data were used in computer-simulated comparisons of a low-cost, self-help oriented program under development and five other existing programs. A baseline version of the program under development and two modifications (for example, use of a support group with a higher level of cost) were simulated. Both the baseline version and modifications received a favorable response vis-à-vis comparison programs. Modifications requiring higher program costs were, however, associated with moderately reduced levels of favorable consumer response. The second study used a sample of 70 smokers who responded to an expanded set of smoking cessation program features focusing on program packaging. This secondary study incorporate in-person, computer-assisted interviews at a shopping mall, with smokers viewing an artist's mock-up of various program options on display. A similar pattern of responses to simulated program modifications emerged, with monetary cost apparently playing a key role. The significance of conjoint-based computer simulation as a tool in program development or dissemination, salient methodological issues, and implications for further research are discussed

  17. Students Learn Programming Faster through Robotic Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Allison; Newsom, Jeff; Schunn, Chris; Shoop, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Schools everywhere are using robotics education to engage kids in applied science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) activities, but teaching programming can be challenging due to lack of resources. This article reports on using Robot Virtual Worlds (RVW) and curriculum available on the Internet to teach robot programming. It also…

  18. 3-D laser images of splash-form tektites and their use in aerodynamic numerical simulations of tektite formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson, C.; Butler, S.; Fry, C.; McCausland, P. J. A.; Herd, R. K.; Sharomi, O.; Spiteri, R. J.; Ralchenko, M.

    2014-05-01

    Ten splash-form tektites from the Australasian strewn field, with masses ranging from 21.20 to 175.00 g and exhibiting a variety of shapes (teardrop, ellipsoid, dumbbell, disk), have been imaged using a high-resolution laser digitizer. Despite challenges due to the samples' rounded shapes and pitted surfaces, the images were combined to create 3-D tektite models, which captured surface features with a high fidelity (≈30 voxel mm-2) and from which volume could be measured noninvasively. The laser-derived density for the tektites averaged 2.41 ± 0.11 g cm-3. Corresponding densities obtained via the Archimedean bead method averaged 2.36 ± 0.05 g cm-3. In addition to their curational value, the 3-D models can be used to calculate the tektites' moments of inertia and rotation periods while in flight, as a probe of their formation environment. Typical tektite rotation periods are estimated to be on the order of 1 s. Numerical simulations of air flow around the models at Reynolds numbers ranging from 1 to 106 suggest that the relative velocity of the tektites with respect to the air must have been <10 m s-1 during viscous deformation. This low relative velocity is consistent with tektite material being carried along by expanding gases in the early time following the impact.

  19. Huygens probe entry, descent, and landing trajectory reconstruction using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Striepe, Scott Allen

    The objectives of this research were to develop a reconstruction capability using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2), apply this capability to reconstruct the Huygens Titan probe entry, descent, and landing (EDL) trajectory, evaluate the newly developed POST2 reconstruction module, analyze the reconstructed trajectory, and assess the pre-flight simulation models used for Huygens EDL simulation. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) module was developed and integrated into POST2 to enable trajectory reconstruction (especially when using POST2-based mission specific simulations). Several validation cases, ranging from a single, constant parameter estimate to multivariable estimation cases similar to an actual mission flight, were executed to test the POST2 reconstruction module. Trajectory reconstruction of the Huygens entry probe at Titan was accomplished using accelerometer measurements taken during flight to adjust an estimated state (e.g., position, velocity, parachute drag, wind velocity, etc.) in a POST2-based simulation developed to support EDL analyses and design prior to entry. Although the main emphasis of the trajectory reconstruction was to evaluate models used in the NASA pre-entry trajectory simulation, the resulting reconstructed trajectory was also assessed to provide an independent evaluation of the ESA result. Major findings from this analysis include: Altitude profiles from this analysis agree well with other NASA and ESA results but not with Radar data, whereas a scale factor of about 0.93 would bring the radar measurements into compliance with these results; entry capsule aerodynamics predictions (axial component only) were well within 3-sigma bounds established pre-flight for most of the entry when compared to reconstructed values; Main parachute drag of 9% to 19% above ESA model was determined from the reconstructed trajectory; based on the tilt sensor and accelerometer data, the conclusion from this assessment was that the

  20. Incorporating medium fidelity simulation in a practical nurse education program.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Donna D

    2010-01-01

    We frequently hear the word simulation in nursing educatioh. Research has been done on the use of high fidelity simulation in registered nursing programs. High fidelity simulators are expensive and require more than one faculty to facilitate. The question remains: Does every nursing program require a high fidelity simulation laboratory? This article will define the three levels of fidelity and describe the incorporation of a medium fidelity simulation into a practical nursing program and will describe the benefits of simulation use. The article will assist the faculty and students new to simulation, and allow them to choose the equipment and scenarios that will be most advantageous for their individual programs. The choice of equipment, scenarios, and fidelity often depends upon the space, time, funds, and faculty available. Simulation adds an important component to nursing education. Using simulation wisely helps students practice in a controlled environment without danger to living patients. The lessons learned will someday play into a "life or death" scenario, and the patient will not be a simulation mannequin.

  1. Integrating actors into a simulation program: a primer.

    PubMed

    Pascucci, Robert C; Weinstock, Peter H; O'Connor, Brigid E; Fancy, Kristina M; Meyer, Elaine C

    2014-04-01

    We describe our more than 10 years' experience working with actors and provide a "how-to" guide to recruiting, auditioning, hiring, training, and mentoring actors for work as simulated patients in simulation programs. We contend that trained actors add great realism, richness, and depth to simulation-based training programs. The actors experience satisfaction from their contributions, and their skill and improvisational talent allow programs to offer ethical and relational training, customized to a wide range of practitioners and adapted across a variety of health care conversations. Such learning opportunities can directly address Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies in preparing capable, confident, and empathic health care practitioners.

  2. A computer program to calculate the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of upper-surface-blown wing-flap configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, M. R.

    1978-01-01

    A user's manual is presented for a computer program in which a vortex-lattice lifting-surface method is used to model the wing and multiple flaps. The engine wake model consists of a series of closely spaced vortex rings with rectangular cross sections. The jet wake is positioned such that the lower boundary of the jet is tangent to the wing and flap upper surfaces. The two potential flow models are used to calculate the wing-flap loading distribution including the influence of the wakes from up to two engines on the semispan. The method is limited to the condition where the flow and geometry of the configurations are symmetric about the vertical plane containing the wing root chord. The results include total configuration forces and moments, individual lifting-surface load distributions, pressure distributions, flap hinge moments, and flow field calculation at arbitrary field points. The use of the program, preparation of input, the output, program listing, and sample cases are described.

  3. System Identification of a Vortex Lattice Aerodynamic Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Kholodar, Denis; Dowell, Earl H.

    2001-01-01

    The state-space presentation of an aerodynamic vortex model is considered from a classical and system identification perspective. Using an aerodynamic vortex model as a numerical simulator of a wing tunnel experiment, both full state and limited state data or measurements are considered. Two possible approaches for system identification are presented and modal controllability and observability are also considered. The theory then is applied to the system identification of a flow over an aerodynamic delta wing and typical results are presented.

  4. Unsteady transonic aerodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, D.

    1989-01-01

    Various papers on unsteady transonic aerodynamics are presented. The topics addressed include: physical phenomena associated with unsteady transonic flows, basic equations for unsteady transonic flow, practical problems concerning aircraft, basic numerical methods, computational methods for unsteady transonic flows, application of transonic flow analysis to helicopter rotor problems, unsteady aerodynamics for turbomachinery aeroelastic applications, alternative methods for modeling unsteady transonic flows.

  5. Uncertainty in Computational Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckring, J. M.; Hemsch, M. J.; Morrison, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    An approach is presented to treat computational aerodynamics as a process, subject to the fundamental quality assurance principles of process control and process improvement. We consider several aspects affecting uncertainty for the computational aerodynamic process and present a set of stages to determine the level of management required to meet risk assumptions desired by the customer of the predictions.

  6. REFLEAK: NIST Leak/Recharge Simulation Program for Refrigerant Mixtures

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 73 NIST REFLEAK: NIST Leak/Recharge Simulation Program for Refrigerant Mixtures (PC database for purchase)   REFLEAK estimates composition changes of zeotropic mixtures in leak and recharge processes.

  7. Using automatic programming for simulating reliability network models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, Fan T.; Schroer, Bernard J.; Zhang, S. X.; Wolfsberger, John W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an automatic programming system for assisting modelers of reliability networks to define problems and then automatically generate the corresponding code in the target simulation language GPSS/PC.

  8. MINEXP, A Computer-Simulated Mineral Exploration Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This computer simulation is designed to put students into a realistic decision making situation in mineral exploration. This program can be used with different exploration situations such as ore deposits, petroleum, ground water, etc. (MR)

  9. Control of helicopter rotorblade aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabunmi, James A.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study of a method for controlling the aerodynamics of helicopter rotorblades using stacks of piezoelectric ceramic plates are presented. A resonant mechanism is proposed for the amplification of the displacements produced by the stack. This motion is then converted into linear displacement for the actuation of the servoflap of the blades. A design which emulates the actuation of the servoflap on the Kaman SH-2F is used to demonstrate the fact that such a system can be designed to produce the necessary forces and velocities needed to control the aerodynamics of the rotorblades of such a helicopter. Estimates of the electrical power requirements are also presented. A Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 2 Program is suggested, whereby a bench-top prototype of the device can be built and tested. A collaborative effort between AEDAR Corporation and Kaman Aerospace Corporation is anticipated for future effort on this project.

  10. Cellular segregation and engulfment simulations using the cell programming language.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, P

    1995-09-01

    In developmental biology, modeling and simulation play an important role in understanding cellular interactions. In this paper a simple language, the Cell Programming Language (CPL), is suggested for writing programs that describe this behavior. Using these programs, it is possible to simulate and visualize intercellular behavior. CPL is used to model cellular segregation based upon the differential adhesion hypothesis. Results indicate that a high degree of segregation can be produced in a mixture of cells by allowing random motion. The engulfment of a tissue by a less adhesive tissue is also observed when the two tissues are placed in contact. Both these simulations utilize only local interactions and random motion of cells. Earlier simulations used long-range interactions to observe similar effects. The present simulations prove that random motion of cells can produce long-range effects.

  11. A Flight Simulator Program Takes Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Don

    2003-01-01

    Aviation concepts, including forces acting on an airplane, navigation, correct aircraft terminology, and general aviation vocabulary, are often part of a comprehensive fifth-grade aviation curriculum. But in one school district, students also learned about flying planes and even trained in a flight simulator. This article describes how industry…

  12. Microcomputer-Based Programs for Pharmacokinetic Simulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ronald C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Microcomputer software that simulates drug-concentration time profiles based on user-assigned pharmacokinetic parameters such as central volume of distribution, elimination rate constant, absorption rate constant, dosing regimens, and compartmental transfer rate constants is described. The software is recommended for use in undergraduate…

  13. Conducting Simulation Studies in the R Programming Environment.

    PubMed

    Hallgren, Kevin A

    2013-10-12

    Simulation studies allow researchers to answer specific questions about data analysis, statistical power, and best-practices for obtaining accurate results in empirical research. Despite the benefits that simulation research can provide, many researchers are unfamiliar with available tools for conducting their own simulation studies. The use of simulation studies need not be restricted to researchers with advanced skills in statistics and computer programming, and such methods can be implemented by researchers with a variety of abilities and interests. The present paper provides an introduction to methods used for running simulation studies using the R statistical programming environment and is written for individuals with minimal experience running simulation studies or using R. The paper describes the rationale and benefits of using simulations and introduces R functions relevant for many simulation studies. Three examples illustrate different applications for simulation studies, including (a) the use of simulations to answer a novel question about statistical analysis, (b) the use of simulations to estimate statistical power, and (c) the use of simulations to obtain confidence intervals of parameter estimates through bootstrapping. Results and fully annotated syntax from these examples are provided.

  14. Conducting Simulation Studies in the R Programming Environment

    PubMed Central

    Hallgren, Kevin A.

    2014-01-01

    Simulation studies allow researchers to answer specific questions about data analysis, statistical power, and best-practices for obtaining accurate results in empirical research. Despite the benefits that simulation research can provide, many researchers are unfamiliar with available tools for conducting their own simulation studies. The use of simulation studies need not be restricted to researchers with advanced skills in statistics and computer programming, and such methods can be implemented by researchers with a variety of abilities and interests. The present paper provides an introduction to methods used for running simulation studies using the R statistical programming environment and is written for individuals with minimal experience running simulation studies or using R. The paper describes the rationale and benefits of using simulations and introduces R functions relevant for many simulation studies. Three examples illustrate different applications for simulation studies, including (a) the use of simulations to answer a novel question about statistical analysis, (b) the use of simulations to estimate statistical power, and (c) the use of simulations to obtain confidence intervals of parameter estimates through bootstrapping. Results and fully annotated syntax from these examples are provided. PMID:25067989

  15. Cooperative global security programs modeling & simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Briand, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    The national laboratories global security programs implement sustainable technical solutions for cooperative nonproliferation, arms control, and physical security systems worldwide. To help in the development and execution of these programs, a wide range of analytical tools are used to model, for example, synthetic tactical environments for assessing infrastructure protection initiatives and tactics, systematic approaches for prioritizing nuclear and biological threat reduction opportunities worldwide, and nuclear fuel cycle enrichment and spent fuel management for nuclear power countries. This presentation will describe how these models are used in analyses to support the Obama Administration's agenda and bilateral/multinational treaties, and ultimately, to reduce weapons of mass destruction and terrorism threats through international technical cooperation.

  16. A survey of electric and hybrid vehicle simulation programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bevan, J.; Heimburger, D. A.; Metcalfe, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    Results of a survey conducted within the United States to determine the extent of development and capabilities of automotive performance simulation programs suitable for electric and hybrid vehicle studies are summarized. Altogether, 111 programs were identified as being in a usable state. The complexity of the existing programs spans a range from a page of simple desktop calculator instructions to 300,000 lines of a high-level programming language. The capability to simulate electric vehicles was most common, heat-engines second, and hybrid vehicles least common. Batch-operated programs are slightly more common than interactive ones, and one-third can be operated in either mode. The most commonly used language was FORTRAN, the language typically used by engineers. The higher-level simulation languages (e.g. SIMSCRIPT, GPSS, SIMULA) used by "model builders" were conspicuously lacking.

  17. Activities for numerical propulsion systems simulation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Austin L.

    1992-01-01

    The Interdisciplinary Technology Office (ITO) has been tasked with the responsibility of coordinating interdisciplinary research and technology programs; establish and maintain interface with the various disciplines at LeRC, industry, government, and academic organizations; and facilitating the exploitation of advances in the individual disciplinary efforts that have multidisciplinary implications.

  18. Computer program for calculating aerodynamic characteristics of upper-surface-blowing and over-wing-blowing configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, C. E.; Fillman, G. L.; Fox, C. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The program is based on the inviscid wing-jet interaction theory of Lan and Campbell, and the jet entrainment theory of Lan. In the interaction theory, the flow perturbations are computed both inside and outside the jet, separately, and then matched on the jet surface to satisfy the jet boundary conditions. The jet Mach number is allowed to be different from the free stream value (Mach number nonuniformity). These jet boundary conditions require that the static pressure be continuous across the jet surface which must always remain as a stream surface. These conditions, as well as the wing-surface tangency condition, are satisified only in the linearized sense. The detailed formulation of these boundary conditions is based on the quasi-vortex-lattice method of Lan.

  19. Developments in the electron gun simulation program, EGUN

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1994-11-01

    This paper discusses the developments in the electron gun simulation programs that are based on EGUN with its derivatives and supporting programs. Much of the code development has been inspired by technology changes in computer hardware; the implications of this evolution on EGN2 are discussed. Some examples and a review of the capabilities of the EGUN family are described.

  20. A FORTRAN IV Program for Scoring Written Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bligh, Thomas J.; Noe, Michael J.

    1977-01-01

    A computer program for scoring written simulation tests provides individual scores and basic item analysis data. The program is written in Fortran IV and can accomodate up to thirty-five hundred options and up to ten thousand examinees. (Author/JKS)

  1. Documentation of the Benson Diesel Engine Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangerpen, Jon

    1988-01-01

    This report documents the Benson Diesel Engine Simulation Program and explains how it can be used to predict the performance of diesel engines. The program was obtained from the Garrett Turbine Engine Company but has been extensively modified since. The program is a thermodynamic simulation of the diesel engine cycle which uses a single zone combustion model. It can be used to predict the effect of changes in engine design and operating parameters such as valve timing, speed and boost pressure. The most significan change made to this program is the addition of a more detailed heat transfer model to predict metal part temperatures. This report contains a description of the sub-models used in the Benson program, a description of the input parameters and sample program runs.

  2. Program package FLUX for the simulation of fundamental and applied problems of fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babakov, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Based on parallel algorithms of a conservative numerical method, a software package for simulating fundamental and applied fluid dynamics problems in a wide range of parameters is developed. The software is implemented on a cluster computer system. Examples of the numerical simulation of three-dimensional problems in various fields of fluid dynamics are discussed, including problems of external flow around bodies, investigation of aerodynamic characteristics of flying vehicles, flows around a set of objects, flows in nozzles, and flows around underwater constructs.

  3. Water treatment plant simulation program, version 1. 21, user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The User's Manual for Version 1.21 of the Water Treatment Plant Simulation Program has been prepared to provide a basic understanding of (1) how to operate the program, and (2) the underlying assumptions and equations that are used to calculate the removal of natural organic matter and the formation of disinfection by-products. The manual represents the first public release of the program.

  4. Validation of Multibody Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II Parachute Simulation with Interacting Forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raiszadeh, Behzad; Queen, Eric M.; Hotchko, Nathaniel J.

    2009-01-01

    A capability to simulate trajectories of multiple interacting rigid bodies has been developed, tested and validated. This capability uses the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST 2). The standard version of POST 2 allows trajectory simulation of multiple bodies without force interaction. In the current implementation, the force interaction between the parachute and the suspended bodies has been modeled using flexible lines, allowing accurate trajectory simulation of the individual bodies in flight. The POST 2 multibody capability is intended to be general purpose and applicable to any parachute entry trajectory simulation. This research paper explains the motivation for multibody parachute simulation, discusses implementation methods, and presents validation of this capability.

  5. Aerodynamic Design Using Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, Man Mohan; Madavan, Nateri K.

    2003-01-01

    The design of aerodynamic components of aircraft, such as wings or engines, involves a process of obtaining the most optimal component shape that can deliver the desired level of component performance, subject to various constraints, e.g., total weight or cost, that the component must satisfy. Aerodynamic design can thus be formulated as an optimization problem that involves the minimization of an objective function subject to constraints. A new aerodynamic design optimization procedure based on neural networks and response surface methodology (RSM) incorporates the advantages of both traditional RSM and neural networks. The procedure uses a strategy, denoted parameter-based partitioning of the design space, to construct a sequence of response surfaces based on both neural networks and polynomial fits to traverse the design space in search of the optimal solution. Some desirable characteristics of the new design optimization procedure include the ability to handle a variety of design objectives, easily impose constraints, and incorporate design guidelines and rules of thumb. It provides an infrastructure for variable fidelity analysis and reduces the cost of computation by using less-expensive, lower fidelity simulations in the early stages of the design evolution. The initial or starting design can be far from optimal. The procedure is easy and economical to use in large-dimensional design space and can be used to perform design tradeoff studies rapidly. Designs involving multiple disciplines can also be optimized. Some practical applications of the design procedure that have demonstrated some of its capabilities include the inverse design of an optimal turbine airfoil starting from a generic shape and the redesign of transonic turbines to improve their unsteady aerodynamic characteristics.

  6. Introduction. Computational aerodynamics.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Paul G

    2007-10-15

    The wide range of uses of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for aircraft design is discussed along with its role in dealing with the environmental impact of flight. Enabling technologies, such as grid generation and turbulence models, are also considered along with flow/turbulence control. The large eddy simulation, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes and hybrid turbulence modelling approaches are contrasted. The CFD prediction of numerous jet configurations occurring in aerospace are discussed along with aeroelasticity for aeroengine and external aerodynamics, design optimization, unsteady flow modelling and aeroengine internal and external flows. It is concluded that there is a lack of detailed measurements (for both canonical and complex geometry flows) to provide validation and even, in some cases, basic understanding of flow physics. Not surprisingly, turbulence modelling is still the weak link along with, as ever, a pressing need for improved (in terms of robustness, speed and accuracy) solver technology, grid generation and geometry handling. Hence, CFD, as a truly predictive and creative design tool, seems a long way off. Meanwhile, extreme practitioner expertise is still required and the triad of computation, measurement and analytic solution must be judiciously used.

  7. Global Aerodynamic Modeling for Stall/Upset Recovery Training Using Efficient Piloted Flight Test Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; Cunningham, Kevin; Hill, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Flight test and modeling techniques were developed for efficiently identifying global aerodynamic models that can be used to accurately simulate stall, upset, and recovery on large transport airplanes. The techniques were developed and validated in a high-fidelity fixed-base flight simulator using a wind-tunnel aerodynamic database, realistic sensor characteristics, and a realistic flight deck representative of a large transport aircraft. Results demonstrated that aerodynamic models for stall, upset, and recovery can be identified rapidly and accurately using relatively simple piloted flight test maneuvers. Stall maneuver predictions and comparisons of identified aerodynamic models with data from the underlying simulation aerodynamic database were used to validate the techniques.

  8. The development and application of aerodynamic uncertainties in the design of the entry trajectory and flight control system of the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, J. D.; Young, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    In connection with the decision to conduct with the Shuttle an orbital, manned mission on its first launch, certain problems arose related to mission safety, which had to be provided without the benefit of either a graduated flight test program or an initial unmanned flight concept. In an attempt to overcome these problems, the philosophy was adopted to provide a reasonable estimate of maximum possible errors in the preflight predicted aerodynamics. The flight control system (FCS) was to be certified on the basis of the estimated errors prior to STS-1. A set of 'worst case' aerodynamic uncertainties, defined as variations, was developed. As part of the first flight certification, variations, combined with other system uncertainties, were used to 'stress' the FCS through a multitude of simulations. Attention is given to an Orbiter description, the entry mission, the correlation of aerodynamic uncertainties, the application of aerodynamic variation in FCS and trajectory design, and the flight test results.

  9. A simulation model for wind energy storage systems. Volume 3: Program descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, A. W.; Edsinger, R. W.; Burroughs, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Program descriptions, flow charts, and program listings for the SIMWEST model generation program, the simulation program, the file maintenance program, and the printer plotter program are given. For Vol 2, see .

  10. Orion Crew Module Aerodynamic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Bibb, Karen L.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Rhode, Matthew N.; Owens, Bruce; Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Bell, James H.; Wilson, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    The Apollo-derived Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), part of NASA s now-cancelled Constellation Program, has become the reference design for the new Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The MPCV will serve as the exploration vehicle for all near-term human space missions. A strategic wind-tunnel test program has been executed at numerous facilities throughout the country to support several phases of aerodynamic database development for the Orion spacecraft. This paper presents a summary of the experimental static aerodynamic data collected to-date for the Orion Crew Module (CM) capsule. The test program described herein involved personnel and resources from NASA Langley Research Center, NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Johnson Space Flight Center, Arnold Engineering and Development Center, Lockheed Martin Space Sciences, and Orbital Sciences. Data has been compiled from eight different wind tunnel tests in the CEV Aerosciences Program. Comparisons are made as appropriate to highlight effects of angle of attack, Mach number, Reynolds number, and model support system effects.

  11. Advanced aerodynamics and active controls. Selected NASA research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Aerodynamic and active control concepts for application to commercial transport aircraft are discussed. Selected topics include in flight direct strike lightning research, triply redundant digital fly by wire control systems, tail configurations, winglets, and the drones for aerodynamic and structural testing (DAST) program.

  12. Advanced turboprop installation aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    The expected aerodynamic effects of a propfan installed on a thick supercritical wing are summarized qualitatively. Nacelle/wing and jet interactions, slipstream incremental velocity, nonuniform inflow, and swirl loss recovery are discussed.

  13. Aerodynamic Lifting Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltner, Klaus

    1990-01-01

    Describes some experiments showing both qualitatively and quantitatively that aerodynamic lift is a reaction force. Demonstrates reaction forces caused by the acceleration of an airstream and the deflection of an airstream. Provides pictures of demonstration apparatus and mathematical expressions. (YP)

  14. The Tuscan Mobile Simulation Program: a description of a program for the delivery of in situ simulation training.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Edward; Kennedy, Maura; Di Delupis, Francesco Dojmi; Pisanelli, Paolo; Burbui, Andrea Giuliattini; Cussen, Meaghan; Galli, Laura; Pini, Riccardo; Gensini, Gian Franco

    2016-09-01

    Simulation has become a critical aspect of medical education. It allows health care providers the opportunity to focus on safety and high-risk situations in a protected environment. Recently, in situ simulation, which is performed in the actual clinical setting, has been used to recreate a more realistic work environment. This form of simulation allows for better team evaluation as the workers are in their traditional roles, and can reveal latent safety errors that often are not seen in typical simulation scenarios. We discuss the creation and implementation of a mobile in situ simulation program in emergency departments of three hospitals in Tuscany, Italy, including equipment, staffing, and start-up costs for this program. We also describe latent safety threats identified in the pilot in situ simulations. This novel approach has the potential to both reduce the costs of simulation compared to traditional simulation centers, and to expand medical simulation experiences to providers and healthcare organizations that do not have access to a large simulation center.

  15. Macroevolution simulated with autonomously replicating computer programs.

    PubMed

    Yedid, Gabriel; Bell, Graham

    The process of adaptation occurs on two timescales. In the short term, natural selection merely sorts the variation already present in a population, whereas in the longer term genotypes quite different from any that were initially present evolve through the cumulation of new mutations. The first process is described by the mathematical theory of population genetics. However, this theory begins by defining a fixed set of genotypes and cannot provide a satisfactory analysis of the second process because it does not permit any genuinely new type to arise. The evolutionary outcome of selection acting on novel variation arising over long periods is therefore difficult to predict. The classical problem of this kind is whether 'replaying the tape of life' would invariably lead to the familiar organisms of the modern biota. Here we study the long-term behaviour of populations of autonomously replicating computer programs and find that the same type, introduced into the same simple environment, evolves on any given occasion along a unique trajectory towards one of many well-adapted end points.

  16. Computer program documentation modified version of the JA70 aerodynamic heating computer program H800 (MINIVER with a DISSPLA plot package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olmedo, L.

    1980-01-01

    The changes, modifications, and inclusions which were adapted to the current version of the MINIVER program are discussed. Extensive modifications were made to various subroutines, and a new plot package added. This plot package is the Johnson Space Center DISSPLA Graphics System currently driven under an 1110 EXEC 8 configuration. User instructions on executing the MINIVER program are provided and the plot package is described.

  17. Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Haecheon; Lee, Jungil; Park, Hyungmin

    2014-01-01

    We present an overview of the aerodynamics of heavy vehicles, such as tractor-trailers, high-speed trains, and buses. We introduce three-dimensional flow structures around simplified model vehicles and heavy vehicles and discuss the flow-control devices used for drag reduction. Finally, we suggest important unsteady flow structures to investigate for the enhancement of aerodynamic performance and future directions for experimental and numerical approaches.

  18. Aerodynamic Shutoff Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horstman, Raymond H.

    1992-01-01

    Aerodynamic flow achieved by adding fixed fairings to butterfly valve. When valve fully open, fairings align with butterfly and reduce wake. Butterfly free to turn, so valve can be closed, while fairings remain fixed. Design reduces turbulence in flow of air in internal suction system. Valve aids in development of improved porous-surface boundary-layer control system to reduce aerodynamic drag. Applications primarily aerospace. System adapted to boundary-layer control on high-speed land vehicles.

  19. Graphical tools to help calibrate the DOE-2 simulation program

    SciTech Connect

    Haberl, J.S.; O'Neal, D.L. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Bronson, J.D. ); Hinchey, S.B. . Commercial Airplane Group)

    1993-01-01

    Many studies have reported on various efforts to calibrate building energy simulation programs to measured data from a real building. However, hourly calibrations present enormous problems for the energy analyst, who is usually operating under cost constraints. Recently, with powerful multitasking computers now becoming available and, more importantly, with the availability of advanced graphics and windowing environments, the possibility of developing graphical tools to help digest the hourly data soup that spews out of a simulation program is becoming a reality. This article describes efforts to develop a graphical tool kit, a three-dimensional comparative plot routine that allows one to efficiently compare (and thus calibrate) DOE-2 (and eventually other programs such as BLAST) to measured non-weather-dependent loads from an existing building. This tool kit is demonstrated with measured data from a case study building in central Texas using simulated profiles from several different day-typing routines.

  20. Optical Disc Simulation Program Unified by Electromagnetic and Thermal Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakawa, Yuzo; Kurihara, Kazuma; Kuwahara, Masashi; Shima, Takayuki; Nakano, Takashi; Tominaga, Junji

    2006-02-01

    We developed a novel simulation program unified by electromagnetic and thermal distributions for a rotating optical disc on the basis of the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. We applied this simulation to super-resolution near-field structure (super-RENS) read-only-memory (ROM) discs and elucidated that the temperature distribution is not only dependent on disc structure and pit shape, but also on incident laser light polarization. We obtained the result that the temperature at the pit became higher than the surrounding temperature for the first time using our simulation program. We believe that our program will aid our understanding of the phenomena behind the super-resolution readout of super-RENS discs.

  1. CyberMedVPS: visual programming for development of simulators.

    PubMed

    Morais, Aline M; Machado, Liliane S

    2011-01-01

    Computer applications based on Virtual Reality (VR) has been outstanding in training and teaching in the medical filed due to their ability to simulate realistic in which users can practice skills and decision making in different situations. But was realized in these frameworks a hard interaction of non-programmers users. Based on this problematic will be shown the CyberMedVPS, a graphical module which implement Visual Programming concepts to solve an interaction trouble. Frameworks to develop such simulators are available but their use demands knowledge of programming. Based on this problematic will be shown the CyberMedVPS, a graphical module for the CyberMed framework, which implements Visual Programming concepts to allow the development of simulators by non-programmers professionals of the medical field.

  2. Progress in computational unsteady aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obayashi, Shigeru

    1993-01-01

    After vigorous development for over twenty years, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in the field of aerospace engineering has arrived at a turning point toward maturity. This paper discusses issues related to algorithm development for the Euler/Navier Stokes equations, code validation and recent applications of CFD for unsteady aerodynamics. Algorithm development is a fundamental element for a good CFD program. Code validation tries to bridge the reliability gap between CFD and experiment. Many of the recent applications also take a multidisciplinary approach, which is a future trend for CFD applications. As computers become more affordable, CFD is expected to be a better scientific and engineering tool.

  3. Apollo experience report: Guidance and control systems. Engineering simulation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    The Apollo Program experience from early 1962 to July 1969 with respect to the engineering-simulation support and the problems encountered is summarized in this report. Engineering simulation in support of the Apollo guidance and control system is discussed in terms of design analysis and verification, certification of hardware in closed-loop operation, verification of hardware/software compatibility, and verification of both software and procedures for each mission. The magnitude, time, and cost of the engineering simulations are described with respect to hardware availability, NASA and contractor facilities (for verification of the command module, the lunar module, and the primary guidance, navigation, and control system), and scheduling and planning considerations. Recommendations are made regarding implementation of similar, large-scale simulations for future programs.

  4. RAMSCRAM: A flexible ramjet/scramjet engine simulation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkardt, Leo A.; Franciscus, Leo C.

    1990-01-01

    With the resurgence of interest in high supersonic and hypersonic flight there is a need to simulate airbreathing engines which may be used in this flight regime. To meet this requirement the RAMSCRAM code was developed. The code calculates 1-D flow properties at each component interface and the overall performance of the engine. It uses equilibrium thermodynamics which accounts for dissociation and allows for any fuel or combination of fuels. The program can simulate ramjet, scramjet, rocket, and ducted rocket engines.

  5. STEM image simulation with hybrid CPU/GPU programming.

    PubMed

    Yao, Y; Ge, B H; Shen, X; Wang, Y G; Yu, R C

    2016-07-01

    STEM image simulation is achieved via hybrid CPU/GPU programming under parallel algorithm architecture to speed up calculation on a personal computer (PC). To utilize the calculation power of a PC fully, the simulation is performed using the GPU core and multi-CPU cores at the same time to significantly improve efficiency. GaSb and an artificial GaSb/InAs interface with atom diffusion have been used to verify the computation.

  6. Hypersonic Arbitrary-Body Aerodynamics (HABA) for conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Salguero, D.E.

    1990-03-15

    The Hypersonic Arbitrary-Body Aerodynamics (HABA) computer program predicts static and dynamic aerodynamic derivatives at hypersonic speeds for any vehicle geometry. It is intended to be used during conceptual design studies where fast computational speed is required. It uses the same geometry and hypersonic aerodynamic methods as the Mark IV Supersonic/Hypersonic Arbitrary-Body Program (SHABP) developed under sponsorship of the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory; however, the input and output formats have been improved to make it easier to use. This program is available as part of the Department 9140 CAE software.

  7. SOLPOND: a simulation program for salinity gradient solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, J.; Leboeuf, C.M.

    1980-01-01

    A computer simulation design tool was developed to simulate dynamic thermal performance for salinity gradient solar ponds. Dynamic programming techniques allow the user significant flexibility in analyzing pond performance under realistic load and weather conditions. Finite element techniques describe conduction heat transfer through the pond, earth, and edges. Results illustrate typical thermal performance of salinity gradient ponds. Sensitivity studies of salty pond thermal performance with respect to geometry, load, and optical transmission are included. Experimental validation of the program with an operating pond is also presented.

  8. A computer program for simulating geohydrologic systems in three dimensions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Posson, D.R.; Hearne, G.A.; Tracy, J.V.; Frenzel, P.F.

    1980-01-01

    This document is directed toward individuals who wish to use a computer program to simulate ground-water flow in three dimensions. The strongly implicit procedure (SIP) numerical method is used to solve the set of simultaneous equations. New data processing techniques and program input and output options are emphasized. The quifer system to be modeled may be heterogeneous and anisotropic, and may include both artesian and water-table conditions. Systems which consist of well defined alternating layers of highly permeable and poorly permeable material may be represented by a sequence of equations for two dimensional flow in each of the highly permeable units. Boundaries where head or flux is user-specified may be irregularly shaped. The program also allows the user to represent streams as limited-source boundaries when the streamflow is small in relation to the hydraulic stress on the system. The data-processing techniques relating to ' cube ' input and output, to swapping of layers, to restarting of simulation, to free-format NAMELIST input, to the details of each sub-routine 's logic, and to the overlay program structure are discussed. The program is capable of processing large models that might overflow computer memories with conventional programs. Detailed instructions for selecting program options, for initializing the data arrays, for defining ' cube ' output lists and maps, and for plotting hydrographs of calculated and observed heads and/or drawdowns are provided. Output may be restricted to those nodes of particular interest, thereby reducing the volumes of printout for modelers, which may be critical when working at remote terminals. ' Cube ' input commands allow the modeler to set aquifer parameters and initialize the model with very few input records. Appendixes provide instructions to compile the program, definitions and cross-references for program variables, summary of the FLECS structured FORTRAN programming language, listings of the FLECS and

  9. GENOMEPOP: A program to simulate genomes in populations

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal-Rodríguez, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Background There are several situations in population biology research where simulating DNA sequences is useful. Simulation of biological populations under different evolutionary genetic models can be undertaken using backward or forward strategies. Backward simulations, also called coalescent-based simulations, are computationally efficient. The reason is that they are based on the history of lineages with surviving offspring in the current population. On the contrary, forward simulations are less efficient because the entire population is simulated from past to present. However, the coalescent framework imposes some limitations that forward simulation does not. Hence, there is an increasing interest in forward population genetic simulation and efficient new tools have been developed recently. Software tools that allow efficient simulation of large DNA fragments under complex evolutionary models will be very helpful when trying to better understand the trace left on the DNA by the different interacting evolutionary forces. Here I will introduce GenomePop, a forward simulation program that fulfills the above requirements. The use of the program is demonstrated by studying the impact of intracodon recombination on global and site-specific dN/dS estimation. Results I have developed algorithms and written software to efficiently simulate, forward in time, different Markovian nucleotide or codon models of DNA mutation. Such models can be combined with recombination, at inter and intra codon levels, fitness-based selection and complex demographic scenarios. Conclusion GenomePop has many interesting characteristics for simulating SNPs or DNA sequences under complex evolutionary and demographic models. These features make it unique with respect to other simulation tools. Namely, the possibility of forward simulation under General Time Reversible (GTR) mutation or GTR×MG94 codon models with intra-codon recombination, arbitrary, user-defined, migration patterns, diploid or

  10. Unsteady Aerodynamic Force Sensing from Measured Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-Gi

    2016-01-01

    A simple approach for computing unsteady aerodynamic forces from simulated measured strain data is proposed in this study. First, the deflection and slope of the structure are computed from the unsteady strain using the two-step approach. Velocities and accelerations of the structure are computed using the autoregressive moving average model, on-line parameter estimator, low-pass filter, and a least-squares curve fitting method together with analytical derivatives with respect to time. Finally, aerodynamic forces over the wing are computed using modal aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices, a rational function approximation, and a time-marching algorithm. A cantilevered rectangular wing built and tested at the NASA Langley Research Center (Hampton, Virginia, USA) in 1959 is used to validate the simple approach. Unsteady aerodynamic forces as well as wing deflections, velocities, accelerations, and strains are computed using the CFL3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code and an MSC/NASTRAN code (MSC Software Corporation, Newport Beach, California, USA), and these CFL3D-based results are assumed as measured quantities. Based on the measured strains, wing deflections, velocities, accelerations, and aerodynamic forces are computed using the proposed approach. These computed deflections, velocities, accelerations, and unsteady aerodynamic forces are compared with the CFL3D/NASTRAN-based results. In general, computed aerodynamic forces based on the lifting surface theory in subsonic speeds are in good agreement with the target aerodynamic forces generated using CFL3D code with the Euler equation. Excellent aeroelastic responses are obtained even with unsteady strain data under the signal to noise ratio of -9.8dB. The deflections, velocities, and accelerations at each sensor location are independent of structural and aerodynamic models. Therefore, the distributed strain data together with the current proposed approaches can be used as distributed deflection

  11. Aerodynamic Parameter Identification of a Venus Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, Robert A.

    An analysis was conducted to identify the parameters of an aerodynamic model for a Venus lander based on experimental free-flight data. The experimental free-flight data were collected in the NASA Langley 20-ft Vertical Spin Tunnel with a 25-percent Froude-scaled model. The experimental data were classified based on the wind tunnel run type: runs where the lander model was unperturbed over the course of the run, and runs were the model was perturbed (principally in pitch, yaw, and roll) by the wind tunnel operator. The perturbations allow for data to be obtained at higher wind angles and rotation rates than those available from the unperturbed data. The model properties and equations of motion were used to determine experimental values for the aerodynamic coefficients. An aerodynamic model was selected using a priori knowledge of axisymmetric blunt entry vehicles. The least squares method was used to estimate the aerodynamic parameters. Three sets of results were obtained from the following data sets: perturbed, unperturbed, and the combination of both. The combined data set was selected for the final set of aerodynamic parameters based on the quality of the results. The identified aerodynamic parameters are consistent with that of the static wind tunnel data. Reconstructions, of experimental data not used in the parameter identification analyses, achieved similar residuals as those with data used to identify the parameters. Simulations of the experimental data, using the identified parameters, indicate that the aerodynamic model used is incapable of replicating the limit cycle oscillations with stochastic peak amplitudes observed during the test.

  12. Launch vehicle aerodynamic data base development comparison with flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, J. T.; Wallace, R. O.; Dill, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    The aerodynamic development plan for the Space Shuttle integrated vehicle had three major objectives. The first objective was to support the evolution of the basic configuration by establishing aerodynamic impacts to various candidate configurations. The second objective was to provide continuing evaluation of the basic aerodynamic characteristics in order to bring about a mature data base. The third task was development of the element and component aerodynamic characteristics and distributed air loads data to support structural loads analyses. The complexity of the configurations rendered conventional analytic methods of little use and therefore required extensive wind tunnel testing of detailed complex models. However, the ground testing and analyses did not predict the aerodynamic characteristics that were extracted from the Space Shuttle flight test program. Future programs that involve the use of vehicles similar to the Space Shuttle should be concerned with the complex flow fields characteristics of these types of complex configurations.

  13. Aerodynamics of Shuttle Orbiter at high altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rault, Didier F. G.

    1993-01-01

    The high-altitude/high-Knudsen number aerodynamics of the Shuttle Orbiter are computed from Low-Earth Orbit down to 100 km using three-dimensional direct simulation Monte Carlo and free molecule codes. Results are compared with Blanchard's latest Shuttle aerodynamic model, which is based on in-flight accelerometer measurements, and bridging formula models. Good comparison is observed, except for the normal force and pitching moment coefficients. The present results were obtained for a generic Shuttle geometry configuration corresponding to a zero deflection for all control surfaces.

  14. Study of aerodynamic technology for single-cruise-engine V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, J. R.; Bear, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    A viable, single engine, supersonic V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft concept was defined. This vectored thrust, canard wing configuration utilizes an advanced technology separated flow engine with fan stream burning. The aerodynamic characteristics of this configuration were estimated and performance evaluated. Significant aerodynamic and aerodynamic propulsion interaction uncertainties requiring additional investigation were identified. A wind tunnel model concept and test program to resolve these uncertainties and validate the aerodynamic prediction methods were defined.

  15. Knowledge-based simulation using object-oriented programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidoran, Karen M.

    1993-01-01

    Simulations have become a powerful mechanism for understanding and modeling complex phenomena. Their results have had substantial impact on a broad range of decisions in the military, government, and industry. Because of this, new techniques are continually being explored and developed to make them even more useful, understandable, extendable, and efficient. One such area of research is the application of the knowledge-based methods of artificial intelligence (AI) to the computer simulation field. The goal of knowledge-based simulation is to facilitate building simulations of greatly increased power and comprehensibility by making use of deeper knowledge about the behavior of the simulated world. One technique for representing and manipulating knowledge that has been enhanced by the AI community is object-oriented programming. Using this technique, the entities of a discrete-event simulation can be viewed as objects in an object-oriented formulation. Knowledge can be factual (i.e., attributes of an entity) or behavioral (i.e., how the entity is to behave in certain circumstances). Rome Laboratory's Advanced Simulation Environment (RASE) was developed as a research vehicle to provide an enhanced simulation development environment for building more intelligent, interactive, flexible, and realistic simulations. This capability will support current and future battle management research and provide a test of the object-oriented paradigm for use in large scale military applications.

  16. COYOTE: A computer program for 2-D reactive flow simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Cloutman, L.D.

    1990-04-01

    We describe the numerical algorithm used in the COYOTE two- dimensional, transient, Eulerian hydrodynamics program for reactive flows. The program has a variety of options that provide capabilities for a wide range of applications, and it is designed to be robust and relatively easy to use while maintaining adequate accuracy and efficiency to solve realistic problems. It is based on the ICE method, and it includes a general species and chemical reaction network for simulating reactive flows. It also includes swirl, turbulence transport models, and a nonuniform mesh capability. We describe several applications of the program. 33 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Spreadsheet-Based Program for Simulating Atomic Emission Spectra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannigan, David J.

    2014-01-01

    A simple Excel spreadsheet-based program for simulating atomic emission spectra from the properties of neutral atoms (e.g., energies and statistical weights of the electronic states, electronic partition functions, transition probabilities, etc.) is described. The contents of the spreadsheet (i.e., input parameters, formulas for calculating…

  18. xyZET: A Simulation Program for Physics Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartel, Hermann

    2000-01-01

    Discusses xyZET, a simulation program that allows 3D-space in numerous experiments in basic mechanics and electricity and was developed to support physics teaching. Tests course material for 11th grade at German high schools under classroom conditions and reports on their stability and effectiveness. (Contains 15 references.) (Author/YDS)

  19. Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST). Volume 2: Utilization manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, G. L.; Cornick, D. E.; Habeger, A. R.; Petersen, F. M.; Stevenson, R.

    1975-01-01

    Information pertinent to users of the program to optimize simulated trajectories (POST) is presented. The input required and output available is described for each of the trajectory and targeting/optimization options. A sample input listing and resulting output are given.

  20. Investigation of advanced counterrotation blade configuration concepts for high speed turboprop systems. Task 4: Advanced fan section aerodynamic analysis computer program user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crook, Andrew J.; Delaney, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    The computer program user's manual for the ADPACAPES (Advanced Ducted Propfan Analysis Code-Average Passage Engine Simulation) program is included. The objective of the computer program is development of a three-dimensional Euler/Navier-Stokes flow analysis for fan section/engine geometries containing multiple blade rows and multiple spanwise flow splitters. An existing procedure developed by Dr. J. J. Adamczyk and associates at the NASA Lewis Research Center was modified to accept multiple spanwise splitter geometries and simulate engine core conditions. The numerical solution is based upon a finite volume technique with a four stage Runge-Kutta time marching procedure. Multiple blade row solutions are based upon the average-passage system of equations. The numerical solutions are performed on an H-type grid system, with meshes meeting the requirement of maintaining a common axisymmetric mesh for each blade row grid. The analysis was run on several geometry configurations ranging from one to five blade rows and from one to four radial flow splitters. The efficiency of the solution procedure was shown to be the same as the original analysis.

  1. Building Interactive Simulations in Web Pages without Programming.

    PubMed

    Mailen Kootsey, J; McAuley, Grant; Bernal, Julie

    2005-01-01

    A software system is described for building interactive simulations and other numerical calculations in Web pages. The system is based on a new Java-based software architecture named NumberLinX (NLX) that isolates each function required to build the simulation so that a library of reusable objects could be assembled. The NLX objects are integrated into a commercial Web design program for coding-free page construction. The model description is entered through a wizard-like utility program that also functions as a model editor. The complete system permits very rapid construction of interactive simulations without coding. A wide range of applications are possible with the system beyond interactive calculations, including remote data collection and processing and collaboration over a network. PMID:17282319

  2. Aerodynamic analysis of an isolated vehicle wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leśniewicz, P.; Kulak, M.; Karczewski, M.

    2014-08-01

    Increasing fuel prices force the manufacturers to look into all aspects of car aerodynamics including wheels, tyres and rims in order to minimize their drag. By diminishing the aerodynamic drag of vehicle the fuel consumption will decrease, while driving safety and comfort will improve. In order to properly illustrate the impact of a rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body, precise analysis of an isolated wheel should be performed beforehand. In order to represent wheel rotation in contact with the ground, presented CFD simulations included Moving Wall boundary as well as Multiple Reference Frame should be performed. Sliding mesh approach is favoured but too costly at the moment. Global and local flow quantities obtained during simulations were compared to an experiment in order to assess the validity of the numerical model. Results of investigation illustrates dependency between type of simulation and coefficients (drag and lift). MRF approach proved to be a better solution giving result closer to experiment. Investigation of the model with contact area between the wheel and the ground helps to illustrate the impact of rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body.

  3. High-lift aerodynamics: Prospects and plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Lawrence E.

    1992-01-01

    The emergence of high-lift aerodynamics is reviewed as one of the key technologies to the development of future subsonic transport aircraft. Airport congestion, community noise, economic competitiveness, and safety - the drivers that make high-lift an important technology - are discussed. Attention is given to the potentially synergistic integration of high-lift aerodynamics with two other advanced technologies: ultra-high bypass ratio turbofan engines and hybrid laminar flow control. A brief review of the ongoing high-lift research program at Ames Research Center is presented. Suggestions for future research directions are made with particular emphasis on the development and validation of computational codes and design methods. It is concluded that the technology of high-lift aerodynamics analysis and design should move boldly into the realm of high Reynolds number, three-dimensional flows.

  4. Wind turbine aerodynamics research needs assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoddard, F. S.; Porter, B. K.

    1986-01-01

    A prioritized list is developed for wind turbine aerodynamic research needs and opportunities which could be used by the Department of Energy program management team in detailing the DOE Five-Year Wind Turbine Research Plan. The focus of the Assessment was the basic science of aerodynamics as applied to wind turbines, including all relevant phenomena, such as turbulence, dynamic stall, three-dimensional effects, viscosity, wake geometry, and others which influence aerodynamic understanding and design. The study was restricted to wind turbines that provide electrical energy compatible with the utility grid, and included both horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) and vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT). Also, no economic constraints were imposed on the design concepts or recommendations since the focus of the investigation was purely scientific.

  5. Common Analysis Tool Being Developed for Aeropropulsion: The National Cycle Program Within the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Follen, Gregory J.; Naiman, Cynthia G.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is developing an environment for analyzing and designing aircraft engines-the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS will integrate multiple disciplines, such as aerodynamics, structure, and heat transfer, and will make use of numerical "zooming" on component codes. Zooming is the coupling of analyses at various levels of detail. NPSS uses the latest computing and communication technologies to capture complex physical processes in a timely, cost-effective manner. The vision of NPSS is to create a "numerical test cell" enabling full engine simulations overnight on cost-effective computing platforms. Through the NASA/Industry Cooperative Effort agreement, NASA Lewis and industry partners are developing a new engine simulation called the National Cycle Program (NCP). NCP, which is the first step toward NPSS and is its initial framework, supports the aerothermodynamic system simulation process for the full life cycle of an engine. U.S. aircraft and airframe companies recognize NCP as the future industry standard common analysis tool for aeropropulsion system modeling. The estimated potential payoff for NCP is a $50 million/yr savings to industry through improved engineering productivity.

  6. Powered-Lift Aerodynamics and Acoustics. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Powered lift technology is reviewed. Topics covered include: (1) high lift aerodynamics; (2) high speed and cruise aerodynamics; (3) acoustics; (4) propulsion aerodynamics and acoustics; (5) aerodynamic and acoustic loads; and (6) full-scale and flight research.

  7. Applied computational aerodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Henne, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The present volume discusses the original development of the panel method, the mapping solutions and singularity distributions of linear potential schemes, the capabilities of full-potential, Euler, and Navier-Stokes schemes, the use of the grid-generation methodology in applied aerodynamics, subsonic airfoil design, inverse airfoil design for transonic applications, the divergent trailing-edge airfoil innovation in CFD, Euler and potential computational results for selected aerodynamic configurations, and the application of CFD to wing high-lift systems. Also discussed are high-lift wing modifications for an advanced-capability EA-6B aircraft, Navier-Stokes methods for internal and integrated propulsion system flow predictions, the use of zonal techniques for analysis of rotor-stator interaction, CFD applications to complex configurations, CFD applications in component aerodynamic design of the V-22, Navier-Stokes computations of a complete F-16, CFD at supersonic/hypersonic speeds, and future CFD developments.

  8. Model aerodynamic test results for two variable cycle engine coannular exhaust systems at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions. Comprehensive data report. Volume 3: Graphical data book 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    A graphical presentation of the aerodynamic data acquired during coannular nozzle performance wind tunnel tests is given. The graphical data consist of plots of nozzle gross thrust coefficient, fan nozzle discharge coefficient, and primary nozzle discharge coefficient. Normalized model component static pressure distributions are presented as a function of primary total pressure, fan total pressure, and ambient static pressure for selected operating conditions. In addition, the supersonic cruise configuration data include plots of nozzle efficiency and secondary-to-fan total pressure pumping characteristics. Supersonic and subsonic cruise data are given.

  9. Nonlinear aerodynamic wing design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, Ellwood

    1985-01-01

    The applicability of new nonlinear theoretical techniques is demonstrated for supersonic wing design. The new technology was utilized to define outboard panels for an existing advanced tactical fighter model. Mach 1.6 maneuver point design and multi-operating point compromise surfaces were developed and tested. High aerodynamic efficiency was achieved at the design conditions. A corollary result was that only modest supersonic penalties were incurred to meet multiple aerodynamic requirements. The nonlinear potential analysis of a practical configuration arrangement correlated well with experimental data.

  10. Computational aerodynamics and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballhaus, W. F., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The role of computational aerodynamics in design is reviewed with attention given to the design process; the proper role of computations; the importance of calibration, interpretation, and verification; the usefulness of a given computational capability; and the marketing of new codes. Examples of computational aerodynamics in design are given with particular emphasis on the Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology. Finally, future prospects are noted, with consideration given to the role of advanced computers, advances in numerical solution techniques, turbulence models, complex geometries, and computational design procedures. Previously announced in STAR as N82-33348

  11. Gstat: a program for geostatistical modelling, prediction and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pebesma, Edzer J.; Wesseling, Cees G.

    1998-01-01

    Gstat is a computer program for variogram modelling, and geostatistical prediction and simulation. It provides a generic implementation of the multivariable linear model with trends modelled as a linear function of coordinate polynomials or of user-defined base functions, and independent or dependent, geostatistically modelled, residuals. Simulation in gstat comprises conditional or unconditional (multi-) Gaussian sequential simulation of point values or block averages, or (multi-) indicator sequential simulation. Besides many of the popular options found in other geostatistical software packages, gstat offers the unique combination of (i) an interactive user interface for modelling variograms and generalized covariances (residual variograms), that uses the device-independent plotting program gnuplot for graphical display, (ii) support for several ascii and binary data and map file formats for input and output, (iii) a concise, intuitive and flexible command language, (iv) user customization of program defaults, (v) no built-in limits, and (vi) free, portable ANSI-C source code. This paper describes the class of problems gstat can solve, and addresses aspects of efficiency and implementation, managing geostatistical projects, and relevant technical details.

  12. Capabilities and applications of the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST). Program summary document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brauer, G. L.; Cornick, D. E.; Stevenson, R.

    1977-01-01

    The capabilities and applications of the three-degree-of-freedom (3DOF) version and the six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) version of the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST) are summarized. The document supplements the detailed program manuals by providing additional information that motivates and clarifies basic capabilities, input procedures, applications and computer requirements of these programs. The information will enable prospective users to evaluate the programs, and to determine if they are applicable to their problems. Enough information is given to enable managerial personnel to evaluate the capabilities of the programs and describes the POST structure, formulation, input and output procedures, sample cases, and computer requirements. The report also provides answers to basic questions concerning planet and vehicle modeling, simulation accuracy, optimization capabilities, and general input rules. Several sample cases are presented.

  13. A flight experiment to measure rarefied-flow aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    A flight experiment to measure rarefied-flow aerodynamics of a blunt lifting body is being developed by NASA. This experiment, called the Rarefied-Flow Aerodynamic Measurement Experiment (RAME), is part of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) mission, which is a Pathfinder design tool for aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles. The RAME will use flight measurements from accelerometers, rate gyros, and pressure transducers, combined with knowledge of AFE in-flight mass properties and trajectory, to infer aerodynamic forces and moments in the rarefied-flow environment, including transition into the hypersonic continuum regime. Preflight estimates of the aerodynamic measurements are based upon environment models, existing computer simulations, and ground test results. Planned maneuvers at several altitudes will provide a first-time opportunity to examine gas-surface accommondation effects on aerodynamic coefficients in an environment of changing atmospheric composition. A description is given of the RAME equipment design.

  14. Aerodynamic penalties of heavy rain on a landing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, P. A.; Luers, J. K.

    1982-01-01

    The aerodynamic penalties of very heavy rain on landing aircraft were investigated. Based on severity and frequency of occurrence, the rainfall rates of 100 mm/hr, 500 mm/hr, and 2000 mm/hr were designated, respectively, as heavy, severe, and incredible. The overall and local collection efficiencies of an aircraft encountering these rains were calculated. The analysis was based on raindrop trajectories in potential flow about an aircraft. All raindrops impinging on the aircraft are assumed to take on its speed. The momentum loss from the rain impact was later used in a landing simulation program. The local collection efficiency was used in estimating the aerodynamic roughness of an aircraft in heavy rain. The drag increase from this roughness was calculated. A number of landing simulations under a fixed stick assumption were done. Serious landing shortfalls were found for either momentum or drag penalties and especially large shortfalls for the combination of both. The latter shortfalls are comparable to those found for severe wind shear conditions.

  15. An Experimental and Computational Investigation of Oscillating Airfoil Unsteady Aerodynamics at Large Mean Incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capece, Vincent R.; Platzer, Max F.

    2003-01-01

    A major challenge in the design and development of turbomachine airfoils for gas turbine engines is high cycle fatigue failures due to flutter and aerodynamically induced forced vibrations. In order to predict the aeroelastic response of gas turbine airfoils early in the design phase, accurate unsteady aerodynamic models are required. However, accurate predictions of flutter and forced vibration stress at all operating conditions have remained elusive. The overall objectives of this research program are to develop a transition model suitable for unsteady separated flow and quantify the effects of transition on airfoil steady and unsteady aerodynamics for attached and separated flow using this model. Furthermore, the capability of current state-of-the-art unsteady aerodynamic models to predict the oscillating airfoil response of compressor airfoils over a range of realistic reduced frequencies, Mach numbers, and loading levels will be evaluated through correlation with benchmark data. This comprehensive evaluation will assess the assumptions used in unsteady aerodynamic models. The results of this evaluation can be used to direct improvement of current models and the development of future models. The transition modeling effort will also make strides in improving predictions of steady flow performance of fan and compressor blades at off-design conditions. This report summarizes the progress and results obtained in the first year of this program. These include: installation and verification of the operation of the parallel version of TURBO; the grid generation and initiation of steady flow simulations of the NASA/Pratt&Whitney airfoil at a Mach number of 0.5 and chordal incidence angles of 0 and 10 deg.; and the investigation of the prediction of laminar separation bubbles on a NACA 0012 airfoil.

  16. Efficient Global Aerodynamic Modeling from Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2012-01-01

    A method for identifying global aerodynamic models from flight data in an efficient manner is explained and demonstrated. A novel experiment design technique was used to obtain dynamic flight data over a range of flight conditions with a single flight maneuver. Multivariate polynomials and polynomial splines were used with orthogonalization techniques and statistical modeling metrics to synthesize global nonlinear aerodynamic models directly and completely from flight data alone. Simulation data and flight data from a subscale twin-engine jet transport aircraft were used to demonstrate the techniques. Results showed that global multivariate nonlinear aerodynamic dependencies could be accurately identified using flight data from a single maneuver. Flight-derived global aerodynamic model structures, model parameter estimates, and associated uncertainties were provided for all six nondimensional force and moment coefficients for the test aircraft. These models were combined with a propulsion model identified from engine ground test data to produce a high-fidelity nonlinear flight simulation very efficiently. Prediction testing using a multi-axis maneuver showed that the identified global model accurately predicted aircraft responses.

  17. Aerodynamics of Race Cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.

  18. Trace contaminant control simulation computer program, version 8.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Trace Contaminant Control Simulation computer program is a tool for assessing the performance of various process technologies for removing trace chemical contamination from a spacecraft cabin atmosphere. Included in the simulation are chemical and physical adsorption by activated charcoal, chemical adsorption by lithium hydroxide, absorption by humidity condensate, and low- and high-temperature catalytic oxidation. Means are provided for simulating regenerable as well as nonregenerable systems. The program provides an overall mass balance of chemical contaminants in a spacecraft cabin given specified generation rates. Removal rates are based on device flow rates specified by the user and calculated removal efficiencies based on cabin concentration and removal technology experimental data. Versions 1.0 through 8.0 are documented in NASA TM-108409. TM-108409 also contains a source file listing for version 8.0. Changes to version 8.0 are documented in this technical memorandum and a source file listing for the modified version, version 8.1, is provided. Detailed descriptions for the computer program subprograms are extracted from TM-108409 and modified as necessary to reflect version 8.1. Version 8.1 supersedes version 8.0. Information on a separate user's guide is available from the author.

  19. Dispersion analysis techniques within the space vehicle dynamics simulation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, L. S.; Kuhn, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    The Space Vehicle Dynamics Simulation (SVDS) program was evaluated as a dispersion analysis tool. The Linear Error Analysis (LEA) post processor was examined in detail and simulation techniques relative to conducting a dispersion analysis using the SVDS were considered. The LEA processor is a tool for correlating trajectory dispersion data developed by simulating 3 sigma uncertainties as single error source cases. The processor combines trajectory and performance deviations by a root-sum-square (RSS process) and develops a covariance matrix for the deviations. Results are used in dispersion analyses for the baseline reference and orbiter flight test missions. As a part of this study, LEA results were verified as follows: (A) Hand calculating the RSS data and the elements of the covariance matrix for comparison with the LEA processor computed data. (B) Comparing results with previous error analyses. The LEA comparisons and verification are made at main engine cutoff (MECO).

  20. Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS). Volume 1: Program user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelaccio, Dennis G.; Scheil, Christine M.; Petrosky, Lyman J.

    1993-01-01

    A Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine system design analysis tool is required to support current and future Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) propulsion and vehicle design studies. Currently available NTP engine design models are those developed during the NERVA program in the 1960's and early 1970's and are highly unique to that design or are modifications of current liquid propulsion system design models. To date, NTP engine-based liquid design models lack integrated design of key NTP engine design features in the areas of reactor, shielding, multi-propellant capability, and multi-redundant pump feed fuel systems. Additionally, since the SEI effort is in the initial development stage, a robust, verified NTP analysis design tool could be of great use to the community. This effort developed an NTP engine system design analysis program (tool), known as the Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS) program, to support ongoing and future engine system and stage design study efforts. In this effort, Science Applications International Corporation's (SAIC) NTP version of the Expanded Liquid Engine Simulation (ELES) program was modified extensively to include Westinghouse Electric Corporation's near-term solid-core reactor design model. The ELES program has extensive capability to conduct preliminary system design analysis of liquid rocket systems and vehicles. The program is modular in nature and is versatile in terms of modeling state-of-the-art component and system options as discussed. The Westinghouse reactor design model, which was integrated in the NESS program, is based on the near-term solid-core ENABLER NTP reactor design concept. This program is now capable of accurately modeling (characterizing) a complete near-term solid-core NTP engine system in great detail, for a number of design options, in an efficient manner. The following discussion summarizes the overall analysis methodology, key assumptions, and capabilities associated with the NESS presents an

  1. A computer program for simulating salinity loads in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glover, Kent C.

    1978-01-01

    A FORTRAN IV program that simulates salinity loads in streams is described. Daily values of stream-discharge in cubic feet per second, or stream-discharge and specific conductance in micromhos, are used to estimate daily loads in tons by one of five available methods. The loads are then summarized by computing either total and mean monthly loads or various statistics for each calendar day. Results are output in tabular and, if requested, punch card format. Under selection of appropriate methods for estimating and summarizing daily loads is provided through the coding of program control cards. The program is designed to interface directly with data retrieved from the U.S. Geological Survey WATSTORE Daily Values File. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Prediction of Aerodynamic Coefficients using Neural Networks for Sparse Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajkumar, T.; Bardina, Jorge; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Basic aerodynamic coefficients are modeled as functions of angles of attack and sideslip with vehicle lateral symmetry and compressibility effects. Most of the aerodynamic parameters can be well-fitted using polynomial functions. In this paper a fast, reliable way of predicting aerodynamic coefficients is produced using a neural network. The training data for the neural network is derived from wind tunnel test and numerical simulations. The coefficients of lift, drag, pitching moment are expressed as a function of alpha (angle of attack) and Mach number. The results produced from preliminary neural network analysis are very good.

  3. An Aerodynamic Analysis of a Spinning Missile with Dithering Canards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meakin, Robert L.; Nygaard, Tor A.

    2003-01-01

    A generic spinning missile with dithering canards is used to demonstrate the utility of an overset structured grid approach for simulating the aerodynamics of rolling airframe missile systems. The approach is used to generate a modest aerodynamic database for the generic missile. The database is populated with solutions to the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. It is used to evaluate grid resolution requirements for accurate prediction of instantaneous missile loads and the relative aerodynamic significance of angle-of-attack, canard pitching sequence, viscous effects, and roll-rate effects. A novel analytical method for inter- and extrapolation of database results is also given.

  4. Rarefaction Effects in Hypersonic Aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riabov, Vladimir V.

    2011-05-01

    The Direct Simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) technique is used for numerical analysis of rarefied-gas hypersonic flows near a blunt plate, wedge, two side-by-side plates, disk, torus, and rotating cylinder. The role of various similarity parameters (Knudsen and Mach numbers, geometrical and temperature factors, specific heat ratios, and others) in aerodynamics of the probes is studied. Important kinetic effects that are specific for the transition flow regime have been found: non-monotonic lift and drag of plates, strong repulsive force between side-by-side plates and cylinders, dependence of drag on torus radii ratio, and the reverse Magnus effect on the lift of a rotating cylinder. The numerical results are in a good agreement with experimental data, which were obtained in a vacuum chamber at low and moderate Knudsen numbers from 0.01 to 10.

  5. MIST - MINIMUM-STATE METHOD FOR RATIONAL APPROXIMATION OF UNSTEADY AERODYNAMIC FORCE COEFFICIENT MATRICES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpel, M.

    1994-01-01

    Various control analysis, design, and simulation techniques of aeroservoelastic systems require the equations of motion to be cast in a linear, time-invariant state-space form. In order to account for unsteady aerodynamics, rational function approximations must be obtained to represent them in the first order equations of the state-space formulation. A computer program, MIST, has been developed which determines minimum-state approximations of the coefficient matrices of the unsteady aerodynamic forces. The Minimum-State Method facilitates the design of lower-order control systems, analysis of control system performance, and near real-time simulation of aeroservoelastic phenomena such as the outboard-wing acceleration response to gust velocity. Engineers using this program will be able to calculate minimum-state rational approximations of the generalized unsteady aerodynamic forces. Using the Minimum-State formulation of the state-space equations, they will be able to obtain state-space models with good open-loop characteristics while reducing the number of aerodynamic equations by an order of magnitude more than traditional approaches. These low-order state-space mathematical models are good for design and simulation of aeroservoelastic systems. The computer program, MIST, accepts tabular values of the generalized aerodynamic forces over a set of reduced frequencies. It then determines approximations to these tabular data in the LaPlace domain using rational functions. MIST provides the capability to select the denominator coefficients in the rational approximations, to selectably constrain the approximations without increasing the problem size, and to determine and emphasize critical frequency ranges in determining the approximations. MIST has been written to allow two types data weighting options. The first weighting is a traditional normalization of the aerodynamic data to the maximum unit value of each aerodynamic coefficient. The second allows weighting the

  6. Asymmetric Uncertainty Expression for High Gradient Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinier, Jeremy T

    2012-01-01

    When the physics of the flow around an aircraft changes very abruptly either in time or space (e.g., flow separation/reattachment, boundary layer transition, unsteadiness, shocks, etc), the measurements that are performed in a simulated environment like a wind tunnel test or a computational simulation will most likely incorrectly predict the exact location of where (or when) the change in physics happens. There are many reasons for this, includ- ing the error introduced by simulating a real system at a smaller scale and at non-ideal conditions, or the error due to turbulence models in a computational simulation. The un- certainty analysis principles that have been developed and are being implemented today do not fully account for uncertainty in the knowledge of the location of abrupt physics changes or sharp gradients, leading to a potentially underestimated uncertainty in those areas. To address this problem, a new asymmetric aerodynamic uncertainty expression containing an extra term to account for a phase-uncertainty, the magnitude of which is emphasized in the high-gradient aerodynamic regions is proposed in this paper. Additionally, based on previous work, a method for dispersing aerodynamic data within asymmetric uncer- tainty bounds in a more realistic way has been developed for use within Monte Carlo-type analyses.

  7. Extension of Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program's Fluid Property Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Kishan

    2011-01-01

    This internship focused on the development of additional capabilities for the General Fluid Systems Simulation Program (GFSSP). GFSSP is a thermo-fluid code used to evaluate system performance by a finite volume-based network analysis method. The program was developed primarily to analyze the complex internal flow of propulsion systems and is capable of solving many problems related to thermodynamics and fluid mechanics. GFSSP is integrated with thermodynamic programs that provide fluid properties for sub-cooled, superheated, and saturation states. For fluids that are not included in the thermodynamic property program, look-up property tables can be provided. The look-up property tables of the current release version can only handle sub-cooled and superheated states. The primary purpose of the internship was to extend the look-up tables to handle saturated states. This involves a) generation of a property table using REFPROP, a thermodynamic property program that is widely used, and b) modifications of the Fortran source code to read in an additional property table containing saturation data for both saturated liquid and saturated vapor states. Also, a method was implemented to calculate the thermodynamic properties of user-fluids within the saturation region, given values of pressure and enthalpy. These additions required new code to be written, and older code had to be adjusted to accommodate the new capabilities. Ultimately, the changes will lead to the incorporation of this new capability in future versions of GFSSP. This paper describes the development and validation of the new capability.

  8. Rarefied-flow aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, J. Leith

    1992-01-01

    Means for relatively simple and quick procedures are examined for estimating aerodynamic coefficients of lifting reentry vehicles. The methods developed allow aerospace designers not only to evaluate the aerodynamics of specific shapes but also to optimize shapes under given constraints. The analysis was also studied of the effect of thermomolecular flow on pressures measured by an orifice near the nose of a Space Shuttle Orbiter at altitudes above 75 km. It was shown that pressures corrected for thermomolecular flow effect are in good agreement with values predicted by independent theoretical methods. An incidental product was the insight gained about the free molecular thermal accommodation coefficient applicable under 'real' conditions of high speed flow in the Earth's atmosphere. The results are presented as abstracts of referenced papers. One reference paper is presented in its entirety.

  9. A Generic Nonlinear Aerodynamic Model for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grauer, Jared A.; Morelli, Eugene A.

    2014-01-01

    A generic model of the aerodynamic coefficients was developed using wind tunnel databases for eight different aircraft and multivariate orthogonal functions. For each database and each coefficient, models were determined using polynomials expanded about the state and control variables, and an othgonalization procedure. A predicted squared-error criterion was used to automatically select the model terms. Modeling terms picked in at least half of the analyses, which totalled 45 terms, were retained to form the generic nonlinear aerodynamic (GNA) model. Least squares was then used to estimate the model parameters and associated uncertainty that best fit the GNA model to each database. Nonlinear flight simulations were used to demonstrate that the GNA model produces accurate trim solutions, local behavior (modal frequencies and damping ratios), and global dynamic behavior (91% accurate state histories and 80% accurate aerodynamic coefficient histories) under large-amplitude excitation. This compact aerodynamics model can be used to decrease on-board memory storage requirements, quickly change conceptual aircraft models, provide smooth analytical functions for control and optimization applications, and facilitate real-time parametric system identification.

  10. Desktop Application Program to Simulate Cargo-Air-Drop Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuthbert, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The DSS Application is a computer program comprising a Windows version of the UNIX-based Decelerator System Simulation (DSS) coupled with an Excel front end. The DSS is an executable code that simulates the dynamics of airdropped cargo from first motion in an aircraft through landing. The bare DSS is difficult to use; the front end makes it easy to use. All inputs to the DSS, control of execution of the DSS, and postprocessing and plotting of outputs are handled in the front end. The front end is graphics-intensive. The Excel software provides the graphical elements without need for additional programming. Categories of input parameters are divided into separate tabbed windows. Pop-up comments describe each parameter. An error-checking software component evaluates combinations of parameters and alerts the user if an error results. Case files can be created from inputs, making it possible to build cases from previous ones. Simulation output is plotted in 16 charts displayed on a separate worksheet, enabling plotting of multiple DSS cases with flight-test data. Variables assigned to each plot can be changed. Selected input parameters can be edited from the plot sheet for quick sensitivity studies.

  11. Aerodynamic control with passively pitching wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravish, Nick; Wood, Robert

    Flapping wings may pitch passively under aerodynamic and inertial loads. Such passive pitching is observed in flapping wing insect and robot flight. The effect of passive wing pitch on the control dynamics of flapping wing flight are unexplored. Here we demonstrate in simulation and experiment the critical role wing pitching plays in yaw control of a flapping wing robot. We study yaw torque generation by a flapping wing allowed to passively rotate in the pitch axis through a rotational spring. Yaw torque is generated through alternating fast and slow upstroke and and downstroke. Yaw torque sensitively depends on both the rotational spring force law and spring stiffness, and at a critical spring stiffness a bifurcation in the yaw torque control relationship occurs. Simulation and experiment reveal the dynamics of this bifurcation and demonstrate that anomalous yaw torque from passively pitching wings is the result of aerodynamic and inertial coupling between the pitching and stroke-plane dynamics.

  12. Aerodynamic noise sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munin, A. G.; Kuznetsov, V. M.; Leontev, E. A.

    A general theory is developed for aerodynamic sound generation and its propagation in an inhomogeneous medium. Results of theoretical and experimental studies of the acoustic characteristics of jets are discussed, and a solution is presented to the problem concerning the noise from a section, free rotor, and a rotor located inside a channel. Sound propagation in a channel with flow and selection of soundproofing liners for the channel walls are also discussed.

  13. Building interactive simulations in a Web page design program.

    PubMed

    Kootsey, J Mailen; Siriphongs, Daniel; McAuley, Grant

    2004-01-01

    A new Web software architecture, NumberLinX (NLX), has been integrated into a commercial Web design program to produce a drag-and-drop environment for building interactive simulations. NLX is a library of reusable objects written in Java, including input, output, calculation, and control objects. The NLX objects were added to the palette of available objects in the Web design program to be selected and dropped on a page. Inserting an object in a Web page is accomplished by adding a template block of HTML code to the page file. HTML parameters in the block must be set to user-supplied values, so the HTML code is generated dynamically, based on user entries in a popup form. Implementing the object inspector for each object permits the user to edit object attributes in a form window. Except for model definition, the combination of the NLX architecture and the Web design program permits construction of interactive simulation pages without writing or inspecting code. PMID:17271495

  14. Building interactive simulations in a Web page design program.

    PubMed

    Kootsey, J Mailen; Siriphongs, Daniel; McAuley, Grant

    2004-01-01

    A new Web software architecture, NumberLinX (NLX), has been integrated into a commercial Web design program to produce a drag-and-drop environment for building interactive simulations. NLX is a library of reusable objects written in Java, including input, output, calculation, and control objects. The NLX objects were added to the palette of available objects in the Web design program to be selected and dropped on a page. Inserting an object in a Web page is accomplished by adding a template block of HTML code to the page file. HTML parameters in the block must be set to user-supplied values, so the HTML code is generated dynamically, based on user entries in a popup form. Implementing the object inspector for each object permits the user to edit object attributes in a form window. Except for model definition, the combination of the NLX architecture and the Web design program permits construction of interactive simulation pages without writing or inspecting code.

  15. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling and simulation using the electrical circuit simulation program SPICE2.

    PubMed

    Thakker, K M

    1984-01-01

    The use of the electrical circuit simulation program SPICE2 for performing digital computer simulations of linear and non-linear pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models is described. SPICE2 utilizes the principles of network thermodynamics (thermodynamics of electrical circuits). These principles dictate analogy between the conservation laws of chemical reactions and mass transport and Kirchhoff's laws of current and voltage balance, and also prove that Fick's law of diffusion is isomorphous with the conductance form of Ohm's law. Detailed descriptions of program inputs, formats, and options for simulation of linear and non-linear pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic systems are provided, with appropriate examples. Single as well as multiple dose simulations (accumulation kinetics and dynamics) are discussed. The advantages of SPICE2 over other available simulation packages, including user-friendliness, ease of operation, versatility, power, and the economy of time and effort afforded, are emphasized. The educational value of SPICE2 as a highly versatile tool for teaching both fundamental and complex pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic concepts, as well as its routine usage in elucidating complex research problems, are also discussed.

  16. Wind turbine design codes: A preliminary comparison of the aerodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Buhl, M.L. Jr.; Wright, A.D.; Tangler, J.L.

    1997-12-01

    The National Wind Technology Center of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory is comparing several computer codes used to design and analyze wind turbines. The first part of this comparison is to determine how well the programs predict the aerodynamic behavior of turbines with no structural degrees of freedom. Without general agreement on the aerodynamics, it is futile to try to compare the structural response due to the aerodynamic input. In this paper, the authors compare the aerodynamic loads for three programs: Garrad Hassan`s BLADED, their own WT-PERF, and the University of Utah`s YawDyn. This report documents a work in progress and compares only two-bladed, downwind turbines.

  17. Full-scale wind turbine rotor aerodynamics research

    SciTech Connect

    Simms, D A; Butterfield, C P

    1994-11-01

    The United States Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are conducting research to improve wind turbine technology at the NREL National Wind Technology Center (NWTC). One program, the Combined Experiment, has focused on making measurements needed to understand aerodynamic and structural responses of horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT). A new phase of this program, the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment, will focus on quantifying unsteady aerodynamic phenomena prevalent in stall-controlled HAWTs. Optimally twisted blades and innovative instrumentation and data acquisition systems will be used in these tests. Data can now be acquired and viewed interactively during turbine operations. This paper describes the NREL Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment and highlights planned future research activities.

  18. Aerodynamic preliminary analysis system 2. Part 1: Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, E.; Clever, W.; Dunn, K.

    1981-01-01

    A subsonic/supersonic/hypersonic aerodynamic analysis was developed by integrating the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System (APAS), and the inviscid force calculation modules of the Hypersonic Arbitrary Body Program. APAS analysis was extended for nonlinear vortex forces using a generalization of the Polhamus analogy. The interactive system provides appropriate aerodynamic models for a single input geometry data base and has a run/output format similar to a wind tunnel test program. The user's manual was organized to cover the principle system activities of a typical application, geometric input/editing, aerodynamic evaluation, and post analysis review/display. Sample sessions are included to illustrate the specific task involved and are followed by a comprehensive command/subcommand dictionary used to operate the system.

  19. Nozzle Aerodynamic Stability During a Throat Shift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawecki, Edwin J.; Ribeiro, Gregg L.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted on the internal aerodynamic stability of a family of two-dimensional (2-D) High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) nozzle concepts. These nozzles function during takeoff as mixer-ejectors to meet acoustic requirements, and then convert to conventional high-performance convergent-divergent (CD) nozzles at cruise. The transition between takeoff mode and cruise mode results in the aerodynamic throat and the minimum cross-sectional area that controls the engine backpressure shifting location within the nozzle. The stability and steadiness of the nozzle aerodynamics during this so called throat shift process can directly affect the engine aerodynamic stability, and the mechanical design of the nozzle. The objective of the study was to determine if pressure spikes or other perturbations occurred during the throat shift process and, if so, identify the caused mechanisms for the perturbations. The two nozzle concepts modeled in the test program were the fixed chute (FC) and downstream mixer (DSM). These 2-D nozzles differ principally in that the FC has a large over-area between the forward throat and aft throat locations, while the DSM has an over-area of only about 10 percent. The conclusions were that engine mass flow and backpressure can be held constant simultaneously during nozzle throat shifts on this class of nozzles, and mode shifts can be accomplished at a constant mass flow and engine backpressure without upstream pressure perturbations.

  20. Aerodynamic surface stress intermittency and conditionally averaged turbulence statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, William; Lanigan, David

    2015-11-01

    Aeolian erosion is induced by aerodynamic stress imposed by atmospheric winds. Erosion models prescribe that sediment flux, Q, scales with aerodynamic stress raised to exponent, n, where n > 1 . Since stress (in fully rough, inertia-dominated flows) scales with incoming velocity squared, u2, it follows that q ~u2n (where u is some relevant component of the flow). Thus, even small (turbulent) deviations of u from its time-mean may be important for aeolian activity. This rationale is augmented given that surface layer turbulence exhibits maximum Reynolds stresses in the fluid immediately above the landscape. To illustrate the importance of stress intermittency, we have used conditional averaging predicated on stress during large-eddy simulation of atmospheric boundary layer flow over an arid, bare landscape. Conditional averaging provides an ensemble-mean visualization of flow structures responsible for erosion `events'. Preliminary evidence indicates that surface stress peaks are associated with the passage of inclined, high-momentum regions flanked by adjacent low-momentum regions. We characterize geometric attributes of such structures and explore streamwise and vertical vorticity distribution within the conditionally averaged flow field. This work was supported by the National Sci. Foundation, Phys. and Dynamic Meteorology Program (PM: Drs. N. Anderson, C. Lu, and E. Bensman) under Grant # 1500224. Computational resources were provided by the Texas Adv. Comp. Center at the Univ. of Texas.

  1. Post-Flight Aerodynamic and Aerothermal Model Validation of a Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Chun; Muppidi, Suman; Bose, Deepak; Van Norman, John W.; Tanimoto, Rebekah; Clark, Ian

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator Program is developing new technologies that will enable the landing of heavier payloads in low density environments, such as Mars. A recent flight experiment conducted high above the Hawaiian Islands has demonstrated the performance of several decelerator technologies. In particular, the deployment of the Robotic class Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD-R) was highly successful, and valuable data were collected during the test flight. This paper outlines the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis used to estimate the aerodynamic and aerothermal characteristics of the SIAD-R. Pre-flight and post-flight predictions are compared with the flight data, and a very good agreement in aerodynamic force and moment coefficients is observed between the CFD solutions and the reconstructed flight data.

  2. Parallelized direct execution simulation of message-passing parallel programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickens, Phillip M.; Heidelberger, Philip; Nicol, David M.

    1994-01-01

    As massively parallel computers proliferate, there is growing interest in findings ways by which performance of massively parallel codes can be efficiently predicted. This problem arises in diverse contexts such as parallelizing computers, parallel performance monitoring, and parallel algorithm development. In this paper we describe one solution where one directly executes the application code, but uses a discrete-event simulator to model details of the presumed parallel machine such as operating system and communication network behavior. Because this approach is computationally expensive, we are interested in its own parallelization specifically the parallelization of the discrete-event simulator. We describe methods suitable for parallelized direct execution simulation of message-passing parallel programs, and report on the performance of such a system, Large Application Parallel Simulation Environment (LAPSE), we have built on the Intel Paragon. On all codes measured to date, LAPSE predicts performance well typically within 10 percent relative error. Depending on the nature of the application code, we have observed low slowdowns (relative to natively executing code) and high relative speedups using up to 64 processors.

  3. SCE&G Cope Station simulator training program development

    SciTech Connect

    Stottlemire, J.L.; Fabry, R.

    1996-11-01

    South Carolina Electric and Gas Company made a significant investment into meeting the needs of their customers in designing and building the new fossil Generating Station near Cope, South Carolina. Cope Station is a state-of-the-art, 385 MW plant, with equipment and design features that will provide the plant with the capabilities of achieving optimum availability and capability. SCE&G has also implemented a team concept approach to plant organization at Cope Station. The modern plant design, operating philosophy, and introduction of a large percentage of new operations personnel presented a tremendous challenge in preparing for plant commissioning and commercial operation. SCE&G`s answer to this challenge was to hire an experienced operations trainer, and implement a comprehensive training program. An important part of the training investment was the procurement of a plant specific control room simulator. SCE&G, through tailored collaboration with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), developed a specification for a simulator with the features necessary for training the initial plant staff as well as advanced operator training. The high-fidelity CRT based training simulator is a stimulated system that completely and accurately simulates the various plant systems, process startups, shutdowns, normal operating scenarios, and malfunctions. The process model stimulates a Foxboro Distributed Control System consisting of twelve control processors, five WP51 work stations, and one AW51 file server. The workstations, file server and support hardware and software necessary to interface with ESSCOR`s FSIM4 software was provided by Foxoboro.

  4. BWR Full Integral Simulation Test (FIST) program: facility description report

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, A G

    1984-09-01

    A new boiling water reactor safety test facility (FIST, Full Integral Simulation Test) is described. It will be used to investigate small breaks and operational transients and to tie results from such tests to earlier large-break test results determined in the TLTA. The new facility's full height and prototypical components constitute a major scaling improvement over earlier test facilities. A heated feedwater system, permitting steady-state operation, and a large increase in the number of measurements are other significant improvements. The program background is outlined and program objectives defined. The design basis is presented together with a detailed, complete description of the facility and measurements to be made. An extensive component scaling analysis and prediction of performance are presented.

  5. Team Software Development for Aerothermodynamic and Aerodynamic Analysis and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, N.; Atkins, H. L.; Bibb, K. L.; Biedron, R. T.; Carpenter, M. H.; Gnoffo, P. A.; Hammond, D. P.; Jones, W. T.; Kleb, W. L.; Lee-Rausch, E. M.

    2003-01-01

    A collaborative approach to software development is described. The approach employs the agile development techniques: project retrospectives, Scrum status meetings, and elements of Extreme Programming to efficiently develop a cohesive and extensible software suite. The software product under development is a fluid dynamics simulator for performing aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic analysis and design. The functionality of the software product is achieved both through the merging, with substantial rewrite, of separate legacy codes and the authorship of new routines. Examples of rapid implementation of new functionality demonstrate the benefits obtained with this agile software development process. The appendix contains a discussion of coding issues encountered while porting legacy Fortran 77 code to Fortran 95, software design principles, and a Fortran 95 coding standard.

  6. Benchmarking of Proton Transport in Super Monte Carlo Simulation Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongfeng; Li, Gui; Song, Jing; Zheng, Huaqing; Sun, Guangyao; Hao, Lijuan; Wu, Yican

    2014-06-01

    The Monte Carlo (MC) method has been traditionally applied in nuclear design and analysis due to its capability of dealing with complicated geometries and multi-dimensional physics problems as well as obtaining accurate results. The Super Monte Carlo Simulation Program (SuperMC) is developed by FDS Team in China for fusion, fission, and other nuclear applications. The simulations of radiation transport, isotope burn-up, material activation, radiation dose, and biology damage could be performed using SuperMC. Complicated geometries and the whole physical process of various types of particles in broad energy scale can be well handled. Bi-directional automatic conversion between general CAD models and full-formed input files of SuperMC is supported by MCAM, which is a CAD/image-based automatic modeling program for neutronics and radiation transport simulation. Mixed visualization of dynamical 3D dataset and geometry model is supported by RVIS, which is a nuclear radiation virtual simulation and assessment system. Continuous-energy cross section data from hybrid evaluated nuclear data library HENDL are utilized to support simulation. Neutronic fixed source and critical design parameters calculates for reactors of complex geometry and material distribution based on the transport of neutron and photon have been achieved in our former version of SuperMC. Recently, the proton transport has also been intergrated in SuperMC in the energy region up to 10 GeV. The physical processes considered for proton transport include electromagnetic processes and hadronic processes. The electromagnetic processes include ionization, multiple scattering, bremsstrahlung, and pair production processes. Public evaluated data from HENDL are used in some electromagnetic processes. In hadronic physics, the Bertini intra-nuclear cascade model with exitons, preequilibrium model, nucleus explosion model, fission model, and evaporation model are incorporated to treat the intermediate energy nuclear

  7. Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentations and Summary of Comments and Conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Browand, F; Gutierrez, W; Leonard, A; McBride, D; McCallen, R; Ross, J; Roth, K; Rutledge, W; Salari, K

    1998-09-28

    The first Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, New Mexico on August 28, 1998. The purpose of the meeting was to review the proposed Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) and provide an update on the Group"s progress. In addition, the technical details of each organization"s activities were presented and discussed. Presentations were given by representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Transportation Technology Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology (OHVT), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), SNL, University of Southern California (USC), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and NASA Ames Research Center. These presenters are part of a DOE appointed Technical Team assigned to developing the MYPP. The goal of the MYPP is to develop and demonstrate the ability to simulate and analyze aerodynamic flow around heavy truck vehicles using existing and advanced computational tools (A Multi-Year Program Plan for the Aerodynamic Design of Heavy Vehicles, R. McCallen, D. McBride, W. Rutledge, F. Browand, A. Leonard, .I. Ross, UCRL-PROP- 127753 Dr. Rev 2, May 1998). This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions from the Meeting participants, and outlines the future action items.

  8. Ares I Aerodynamic Testing at the Boeing Polysonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinier, Jeremy T.; Niskey, Charles J.; Hanke, Jeremy L.; Tomek, William G.

    2011-01-01

    Throughout three full design analysis cycles, the Ares I project within the Constellation program has consistently relied on the Boeing Polysonic Wind Tunnel (PSWT) for aerodynamic testing of the subsonic, transonic and supersonic portions of the atmospheric flight envelope (Mach=0.5 to 4.5). Each design cycle required the development of aerodynamic databases for the 6 degree-of-freedom (DOF) forces and moments, as well as distributed line-loads databases covering the full range of Mach number, total angle-of-attack, and aerodynamic roll angle. The high fidelity data collected in this facility has been consistent with the data collected in NASA Langley s Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) at the overlapping condition ofMach=1.6. Much insight into the aerodynamic behavior of the launch vehicle during all phases of flight was gained through wind tunnel testing. Important knowledge pertaining to slender launch vehicle aerodynamics in particular was accumulated. In conducting these wind tunnel tests and developing experimental aerodynamic databases, some challenges were encountered and are reported as lessons learned in this paper for the benefit of future crew launch vehicle aerodynamic developments.

  9. A real-time digital computer program for the simulation of a single rotor helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, J. A.; Gibson, L. H.; Steinmetz, G. G.

    1974-01-01

    A computer program was developed for the study of a single-rotor helicopter on the Langley Research Center real-time digital simulation system. Descriptions of helicopter equations and data, program subroutines (including flow charts and listings), real-time simulation system routines, and program operation are included. Program usage is illustrated by standard check cases and a representative flight case.

  10. Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sean Graham

    2007-10-31

    Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by a DOE category two Inventions and Innovations grant to commercialize and improve upon aerodynamic technology for semi-tuck trailers, capable of decreasing heavy vehicle fuel consumption, related environmental damage, and U.S. consumption of foreign oil. Major project goals included the demonstration of aerodynamic trailer technology in trucking fleet operations, and the development and testing of second generation products. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck’s fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Freight Wing utilized a 2003 category one Inventions and Innovations grant to develop practical solutions to trailer aerodynamics. Fairings developed for the front, rear, and bottom of standard semi-trailers together demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy in scientific tests conducted by the Transportation Research Center (TRC). Operational tests with major trucking fleets proved the functionality of the products, which were subsequently brought to market. This category two grant enabled Freight Wing to further develop, test and commercialize its products, resulting in greatly increased understanding and acceptance of aerodynamic trailer technology. Commercialization was stimulated by offering trucking fleets 50% cost sharing on trial implementations of Freight Wing products for testing and evaluation purposes. Over 230 fairings were implemented through the program with 35 trucking fleets including industry leaders such as Wal-Mart, Frito Lay and Whole Foods. The feedback from these testing partnerships was quite positive with product performance exceeding fleet expectations in many cases. Fleet feedback also was also valuable from a product development standpoint and assisted the design of several second generation products

  11. Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Sean; Bigatel, Patrick

    2004-10-17

    Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by this DOE category one Inventions and Innovations grant to successfully research, develop, test, patent, market, and sell innovative fuel and emissions saving aerodynamic attachments for the trucking industry. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck's fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Market research early in this project revealed the demands of truck fleet operators regarding aerodynamic attachments. Products must not only save fuel, but cannot interfere with the operation of the truck, require significant maintenance, add significant weight, and must be extremely durable. Furthermore, SAE/TMC J1321 tests performed by a respected independent laboratory are necessary for large fleets to even consider purchase. Freight Wing used this information to create a system of three practical aerodynamic attachments for the front, rear and undercarriage of standard semi trailers. SAE/TMC J1321 Type II tests preformed by the Transportation Research Center (TRC) demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy with all three products. If Freight Wing is successful in its continued efforts to gain market penetration, the energy and environmental savings would be considerable. Each truck outfitted saves approximately 1,100 gallons of fuel every 100,000 miles, which prevents over 12 tons of CO2 from entering the atmosphere. If all applicable trailers used the technology, the country could save approximately 1.8 billion gallons of diesel fuel, 18 million tons of emissions and 3.6 billion dollars annually.

  12. NREL Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment phase 3 test objectives and preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Simms, D.A.; Fingersh, L.J.; Butterfield, C.P.

    1995-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are conducting research to improve a wind turbine technology. One program, the Combined Experiment, has focused on making measurements needed to understand aerodynamic and structural responses of horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT). A new phase of this program, the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment, will focus on quantifying unsteady aerodynamic phenomena prevalent install controlled HAWTs. Optimally twisted blades and innovative data acquisition systems will be used in these tests. data can now be acquired and viewed interactively during turbine operations. This paper describes the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment and highlights planned future research activities.

  13. Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program, Version 5.0-Educational

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, A. K.

    2011-01-01

    The Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) is a finite-volume based general-purpose computer program for analyzing steady state and time-dependent flow rates, pressures, temperatures, and concentrations in a complex flow network. The program is capable of modeling real fluids with phase changes, compressibility, mixture thermodynamics, conjugate heat transfer between solid and fluid, fluid transients, pumps, compressors and external body forces such as gravity and centrifugal. The thermofluid system to be analyzed is discretized into nodes, branches, and conductors. The scalar properties such as pressure, temperature, and concentrations are calculated at nodes. Mass flow rates and heat transfer rates are computed in branches and conductors. The graphical user interface allows users to build their models using the point, drag and click method; the users can also run their models and post-process the results in the same environment. The integrated fluid library supplies thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of 36 fluids and 21 different resistance/source options are provided for modeling momentum sources or sinks in the branches. This Technical Memorandum illustrates the application and verification of the code through 12 demonstrated example problems.

  14. Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) - Version 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, Alok; LeClair, Andre; Moore, Ric; Schallhorn, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) is a finite-volume based general-purpose computer program for analyzing steady state and time-dependent flow rates, pressures, temperatures, and concentrations in a complex flow network. The program is capable of modeling real fluids with phase changes, compressibility, mixture thermodynamics, conjugate heat transfer between solid and fluid, fluid transients, pumps, compressors, flow control valves and external body forces such as gravity and centrifugal. The thermo-fluid system to be analyzed is discretized into nodes, branches, and conductors. The scalar properties such as pressure, temperature, and concentrations are calculated at nodes. Mass flow rates and heat transfer rates are computed in branches and conductors. The graphical user interface allows users to build their models using the 'point, drag, and click' method; the users can also run their models and post-process the results in the same environment. The integrated fluid library supplies thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of 36 fluids, and 24 different resistance/source options are provided for modeling momentum sources or sinks in the branches. Users can introduce new physics, non-linear and time-dependent boundary conditions through user-subroutine.

  15. Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program, Version 6.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, A. K.; LeClair, A. C.; Moore, A.; Schallhorn, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    The Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) is a finite-volume based general-purpose computer program for analyzing steady state and time-dependant flow rates, pressures, temperatures, and concentrations in a complex flow network. The program is capable of modeling real fluids with phase changes, compressibility, mixture thermodynamics, conjugate heat transfer between solid and fluid, fluid transients, pumps, compressors and external body forces such as gravity and centrifugal. The thermo-fluid system to be analyzed is discretized into nodes, branches, and conductors. The scalar properties such as pressure, temperature, and concentrations are calculated at nodes. Mass flow rates and heat transfer rates are computed in branches and conductors. The graphical user interface allows users to build their models using the 'point, drag, and click' method; the users can also run their models and post-process the results in the same environment. The integrated fluid library supplies thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of 36 fluids, and 24 different resistance/source options are provided for modeling momentum sources or sinks in the branches. This Technical Memorandum illustrates the application and verification of the code through 25 demonstrated example problems.

  16. The Aerodynamics of a Flying Sports Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potts, Jonathan R.; Crowther, William J.

    2001-11-01

    The flying sports disc is a spin-stabilised axi-symmetric wing of quite remarkable design. A typical disc has an approximate elliptical cross-section and hollowed out under-side cavity, such as the Frisbee(TM) disc. An experimental study of flying disc aerodynamics, including both spinning and non-spinning tests, has been carried out in the wind tunnel. Load measurements, pressure data and flow visualisation techniques have enabled an explanation of the flow physics and provided data for free-flight simulations. A computer simulation that predicts free-flight trajectories from a given set of initial conditions was used to investigate the dynamics of a flying disc. This includes a six-degree of freedom mathematical model of disc flight mechanics, with aerodynamic coefficients derived from experimental data. A flying sports disc generates lift through forward velocity just like a conventional wing. The lift contributed by spin is insignificant and does not provide nearly enough down force to support hover. Without spin, the disc tumbles ground-ward under the influence of an unstable aerodynamic pitching moment. From a backhand throw however, spin is naturally given to the disc. The unchanged pitching moment now results in roll, due to gyroscopic precession, stabilising the disc in free-flight.

  17. Improving the aerodynamics of top fuel dragsters

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, R.C.; Kohlman, D.L.; Kenner, M.T.

    1998-07-01

    The standard drag race is a straight ahead quarter mile race from a standing stop. As engine technology has improved, the speeds attained at the end of the quarter mile have increased. As the speed has increased, the importance of aerodynamic effects on the dragster has also increased. Lift and drag are the two primary aerodynamic effects. Lift is produced vertically downward to increase the normal force on the rear wheels, thereby increasing the ability to transmit energy from the engine through the wheels to the racetrack. Drag is an unwanted aerodynamic effect. Drag is produced by viscous interaction between the dragster and the air, by separation causing profile drag, and as a result of the lift being produced. This paper addresses the mechanisms of lift and drag production by a high speed dragster and proposes some design changes that can decrease the drag while maintaining the necessary negative lift. Preliminary wind tunnel tests on dragster models confirm that reductions in drag can be achieved. The effects of these changes on the elapsed time and final speed are estimated using a computer simulation of a quarter mile drag race. The simulation predicts a decrease in elapsed time of almost 0.1 seconds and an increase in top speed of approximately 10 miles per hour.

  18. Rarefaction effects on Galileo probe aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, James N.; LeBeau, Gerald J.; Blanchard, Robert C.; Price, Joseph M.

    1996-01-01

    Solutions of aerodynamic characteristics are presented for the Galileo Probe entering Jupiter's hydrogen-helium atmosphere at a nominal relative velocity of 47.4 km/s. Focus is on predicting the aerodynamic drag coefficient during the transitional flow regime using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Accuracy of the probe's drag coefficient directly impacts the inferred atmospheric properties that are being extracted from the deceleration measurements made by onboard accelerometers as part of the Atmospheric Structure Experiment. The range of rarefaction considered in the present study extends from the free molecular limit to continuum conditions. Comparisons made with previous calculations and experimental measurements show the present results for drag to merge well with Navier-Stokes and experimental results for the least rarefied conditions considered.

  19. An Interactive Educational Tool for Compressible Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    A workstation-based interactive educational tool was developed to aid in the teaching of undergraduate compressible aerodynamics. The tool solves for the supersonic flow past a wedge using the equations found in NACA 1135. The student varies the geometry or flow conditions through a graphical user interface and the new conditions are calculated immediately. Various graphical formats present the variation of flow results to the student. One such format leads the student to the generation of some of the graphs found in NACA-1135. The tool includes interactive questions and answers to aid in both the use of the tool and to develop an understanding of some of the complexities of compressible aerodynamics. A series of help screens make the simulator easy to learn and use. This paper will detail the numerical methods used in the tool and describe how it can be used and modified.

  20. Aerodynamic Reconstruction Applied to Parachute Test Vehicle Flight Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassady, Leonard D.; Ray, Eric S.; Truong, Tuan H.

    2013-01-01

    The aerodynamics, both static and dynamic, of a test vehicle are critical to determining the performance of the parachute cluster in a drop test and for conducting a successful test. The Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project is conducting tests of NASA's Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) parachutes at the Army Yuma Proving Ground utilizing the Parachute Test Vehicle (PTV). The PTV shape is based on the MPCV, but the height has been reduced in order to fit within the C-17 aircraft for extraction. Therefore, the aerodynamics of the PTV are similar, but not the same as, the MPCV. A small series of wind tunnel tests and computational fluid dynamics cases were run to modify the MPCV aerodynamic database for the PTV, but aerodynamic reconstruction of the flights has proven an effective source for further improvements to the database. The acceleration and rotational rates measured during free flight, before parachute inflation but during deployment, were used to con rm vehicle static aerodynamics. A multibody simulation is utilized to reconstruct the parachute portions of the flight. Aerodynamic or parachute parameters are adjusted in the simulation until the prediction reasonably matches the flight trajectory. Knowledge of the static aerodynamics is critical in the CPAS project because the parachute riser load measurements are scaled based on forebody drag. PTV dynamic damping is critical because the vehicle has no reaction control system to maintain attitude - the vehicle dynamics must be understood and modeled correctly before flight. It will be shown here that aerodynamic reconstruction has successfully contributed to the CPAS project.

  1. Aerodynamics of sports balls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.

  2. Aerodynamics of sports balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, R. D.

    Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.

  3. The Aerodynamic Plane Table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F

    1924-01-01

    This report gives the description and the use of a specially designed aerodynamic plane table. For the accurate and expeditious geometrical measurement of models in an aerodynamic laboratory, and for miscellaneous truing operations, there is frequent need for a specially equipped plan table. For example, one may have to measure truly to 0.001 inch the offsets of an airfoil at many parts of its surface. Or the offsets of a strut, airship hull, or other carefully formed figure may require exact calipering. Again, a complete airplane model may have to be adjusted for correct incidence at all parts of its surfaces or verified in those parts for conformance to specifications. Such work, if but occasional, may be done on a planing or milling machine; but if frequent, justifies the provision of a special table. For this reason it was found desirable in 1918 to make the table described in this report and to equip it with such gauges and measures as the work should require.

  4. Survey of lift-fan aerodynamic technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, David H.; Kirk, Jerry V.

    1993-01-01

    Representatives of NASA Ames Research Center asked that a summary of technology appropriate for lift-fan powered short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft be prepared so that new programs could more easily benefit from past research efforts. This paper represents one of six prepared for that purpose. The authors have conducted or supervised the conduct of research on lift-fan powered STOVL designs and some of their important components for decades. This paper will first address aerodynamic modeling requirements for experimental programs to assure realistic, trustworthy results. It will next summarize the results or efforts to develop satisfactory specialized STOVL components such as inlets and flow deflectors. It will also discuss problems with operation near the ground, aerodynamics while under lift-fan power, and aerodynamic prediction techniques. Finally, results of studies to reduce lift-fan noise will be presented. The paper will emphasize results from large scale experiments, where available, for reasons that will be brought out in the discussion. Some work with lift-engine powered STOVL aircraft is also applicable to lift-fan technology and will be presented herein. Small-scale data will be used where necessary to fill gaps.

  5. Aerodynamic design using numerical optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murman, E. M.; Chapman, G. T.

    1983-01-01

    The procedure of using numerical optimization methods coupled with computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes for the development of an aerodynamic design is examined. Several approaches that replace wind tunnel tests, develop pressure distributions and derive designs, or fulfill preset design criteria are presented. The method of Aerodynamic Design by Numerical Optimization (ADNO) is described and illustrated with examples.

  6. Aerodynamic coefficients and transformation tables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Joseph S

    1918-01-01

    The problem of the transformation of numerical values expressed in one system of units into another set or system of units frequently arises in connection with aerodynamic problems. Report contains aerodynamic coefficients and conversion tables needed to facilitate such transformation. (author)

  7. Aerodynamics of a Party Balloon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2007-01-01

    It is well-known that a party balloon can be made to fly erratically across a room, but it can also be used for quantitative measurements of other aspects of aerodynamics. Since a balloon is light and has a large surface area, even relatively weak aerodynamic forces can be readily demonstrated or measured in the classroom. Accurate measurements…

  8. Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program, Version 6.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, A. K.; LeClair, A. C.; Moore, R.; Schallhorn, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    The Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) is a general purpose computer program for analyzing steady state and time-dependent flow rates, pressures, temperatures, and concentrations in a complex flow network. The program is capable of modeling real fluids with phase changes, compressibility, mixture thermodynamics, conjugate heat transfer between solid and fluid, fluid transients, pumps, compressors, and external body forces such as gravity and centrifugal. The thermofluid system to be analyzed is discretized into nodes, branches, and conductors. The scalar properties such as pressure, temperature, and concentrations are calculated at nodes. Mass flow rates and heat transfer rates are computed in branches and conductors. The graphical user interface allows users to build their models using the 'point, drag, and click' method; the users can also run their models and post-process the results in the same environment. Two thermodynamic property programs (GASP/WASP and GASPAK) provide required thermodynamic and thermophysical properties for 36 fluids: helium, methane, neon, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, fluorine, hydrogen, parahydrogen, water, kerosene (RP-1), isobutene, butane, deuterium, ethane, ethylene, hydrogen sulfide, krypton, propane, xenon, R-11, R-12, R-22, R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134A, R-152A, nitrogen trifluoride, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, and air. The program also provides the options of using any incompressible fluid with constant density and viscosity or ideal gas. The users can also supply property tables for fluids that are not in the library. Twenty-four different resistance/source options are provided for modeling momentum sources or sinks in the branches. These options include pipe flow, flow through a restriction, noncircular duct, pipe flow with entrance and/or exit losses, thin sharp orifice, thick orifice, square edge reduction, square edge expansion, rotating annular duct, rotating radial duct

  9. High speed civil transport aerodynamic optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, James S.

    1994-01-01

    This is a report of work in support of the Computational Aerosciences (CAS) element of the Federal HPCC program. Specifically, CFD and aerodynamic optimization are being performed on parallel computers. The long-range goal of this work is to facilitate teraflops-rate multidisciplinary optimization of aerospace vehicles. This year's work is targeted for application to the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), one of four CAS grand challenges identified in the HPCC FY 1995 Blue Book. This vehicle is to be a passenger aircraft, with the promise of cutting overseas flight time by more than half. To meet fuel economy, operational costs, environmental impact, noise production, and range requirements, improved design tools are required, and these tools must eventually integrate optimization, external aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, heat transfer, controls, and perhaps other disciplines. The fundamental goal of this project is to contribute to improved design tools for U.S. industry, and thus to the nation's economic competitiveness.

  10. Unsteady aerodynamic modeling for arbitrary motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, J. W.; Ashley, H.; Breakwell, J. V.

    1977-01-01

    A study is presented on the unsteady aerodynamic loads due to arbitrary motions of a thin wing and their adaptation for the calculation of response and true stability of aeroelastic modes. In an Appendix, the use of Laplace transform techniques and the generalized Theodorsen function for two-dimensional incompressible flow is reviewed. New applications of the same approach are shown also to yield airloads valid for quite general small motions. Numerical results are given for the two-dimensional supersonic case. Previously proposed approximate methods, starting from simple harmonic unsteady theory, are evaluated by comparison with exact results obtained by the present approach. The Laplace inversion integral is employed to separate the loads into 'rational' and 'nonrational' parts, of which only the former are involved in aeroelastic stability of the wing. Among other suggestions for further work, it is explained how existing aerodynamic computer programs may be adapted in a fairly straightforward fashion to deal with arbitrary transients.

  11. Unsteady aerodynamics of blade rows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdon, Joseph M.

    1989-01-01

    The requirements placed on an unsteady aerodynamic theory intended for turbomachinery aeroelastic or aeroacoustic applications are discussed along with a brief description of the various theoretical models that are available to address these requirements. The major emphasis is placed on the description of a linearized inviscid theory which fully accounts for the affects of a nonuniform mean or steady flow on unsteady aerodynamic response. Although this linearization was developed primarily for blade flutter prediction, more general equations are presented which account for unsteady excitations due to incident external aerodynamic disturbances as well as those due to prescribed blade motions. The motivation for this linearized unsteady aerodynamic theory is focused on, its physical and mathematical formulation is outlined and examples are presented to illustrate the status of numerical solution procedures and several effects of mean flow nonuniformity on unsteady aerodynamic response.

  12. Assessment of aerodynamic performance of V/STOL and STOVL fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, W. P.

    1984-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of V/STOL and STOVL fighter/attack aircraft was assessed. Aerodynamic and propulsion/airframe integration activities are described and small-and large-scale research programs are considered. Uncertainties affecting aerodynamic performance that are associated with special configuration features resulting from the V/STOL requirement are addressed. Example uncertainties related to minimum drag, wave drag, high angle of attack characteristics, and power-induced effects. Engine design configurations from several aircraft manufacturers are reviewed.

  13. Assessment of aerodynamic performance of V/STOL and STOVL fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, W. P.

    1984-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of V/STOL and STOVL fighter/attack aircraft was assessed. Aerodynamic and propulsion/airframe integration activities are described and small and large scale research programs are considered. Uncertainties affecting aerodynamic performance that are associated with special configuration features resulting from the V/STOL requirement are addressed. Example uncertainties relate to minimum drag, wave drag, high angle of attack characteristics, and power induced effects.

  14. Use of the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP) to Simulate Complex Waste Treatment Processes

    SciTech Connect

    MacLean, G. T.; Ho, Q. T.; Berger, S. R. K.

    2003-02-26

    The Environmental Simulation Program is a process simulator designed for aqueous based chemical processes. ESP, which is produced by OLI Systems, Inc., utilizes sophisticated activity coefficient models and predictive equations that result in the ability to simulate very complex electrolyte systems (OLI, 2002). The software comes with databanks of regressed parameters for a large number of aqueous, vapor, and solid species covering most of the elements. ESP has been used extensively at the U. S. Department of Energy Hanford Site to predict nuclear waste slurry vapor-liquid-solid equilibrium. It has and is being used to model leaching and washing of nuclear waste sludges, evaporation of nuclear waste solutions, crystallization of salts, precipitation of plutonium and other metals from waste solutions, and other processing of dilute and concentrated aqueous solutions, sludges, and slurries. The software is also used extensively to rationalize the characterization of nuclear wastes using limited data from analyses of waste samples. The OLI provided databanks suffer from a legacy interaction model that limits the accuracy when neutral solutes are important. Also, the nitrate-nitrite systems typically found in nuclear wastes are not properly parameterized in ESP databases because of the existence of sodium nitrate and nitrite ion pairs. Properties databanks for ESP have been developed at Flour Federal Services that eliminate the legacy model and provide more accurate simulation results than the OLI supplied databases for such concentrated solutions and slurries.

  15. Parachute Aerodynamics From Video Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenenberger, Mark; Queen, Eric M.; Cruz, Juan R.

    2005-01-01

    A new data analysis technique for the identification of static and dynamic aerodynamic stability coefficients from wind tunnel test video data is presented. This new technique was applied to video data obtained during a parachute wind tunnel test program conducted in support of the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. Total angle-of-attack data obtained from video images were used to determine the static pitching moment curve of the parachute. During the original wind tunnel test program the static pitching moment curve had been determined by forcing the parachute to a specific total angle-of -attack and measuring the forces generated. It is shown with the new technique that this parachute, when free to rotate, trims at an angle-of-attack two degrees lower than was measured during the forced-angle tests. An attempt was also made to extract pitch damping information from the video data. Results suggest that the parachute is dynamically unstable at the static trim point and tends to become dynamically stable away from the trim point. These trends are in agreement with limit-cycle-like behavior observed in the video. However, the chaotic motion of the parachute produced results with large uncertainty bands.

  16. Transient state kinetics tutorial using the kinetics simulation program, KINSIM.

    PubMed Central

    Wachsstock, D H; Pollard, T D

    1994-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to a computer tutorial on transient state kinetics. The tutorial uses our Macintosh version of the computer program, KINSIM, that calculates the time course of reactions. KINSIM is also available for other popular computers. This program allows even those investigators not mathematically inclined to evaluate the rate constants for the transitions between the intermediates in any reaction mechanism. These rate constants are one of the insights that are essential for understanding how biochemical processes work at the molecular level. The approach is applicable not only to enzyme reactions but also to any other type of process of interest to biophysicists, cell biologists, and molecular biologists in which concentrations change with time. In principle, the same methods could be used to characterize time-dependent, large-scale processes in ecology and evolution. Completion of the tutorial takes students 6-10 h. This investment is rewarded by a deep understanding of the principles of chemical kinetics and familiarity with the tools of kinetics simulation as an approach to solve everyday problems in the laboratory. PMID:7811941

  17. Performance demonstration program plan for analysis of simulated headspace gases

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for analysis of headspace gases will consist of regular distribution and analyses of test standards to evaluate the capability for analyzing VOCs, hydrogen, and methane in the headspace of transuranic (TRU) waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Each distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles will provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for TRU waste characterization. Laboratory performance will be demonstrated by the successful analysis of blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste drum headspace gases according to the criteria set within the text of this Program Plan. Blind audit samples (hereinafter referred to as PDP samples) will be used as an independent means to assess laboratory performance regarding compliance with the QAPP QAOs. The concentration of analytes in the PDP samples will encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual waste characterization gas samples. Analyses which are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with various regulatory requirements and which are included in the PDP must be performed by laboratories which have demonstrated acceptable performance in the PDP.

  18. A Survey of Simulation Utilization in Anesthesiology Residency Programs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Rochlen, Lauryn R; Housey, Michelle; Gannon, Ian; Tait, Alan R; Naughton, Norah; Kheterpal, Sachin

    2016-06-01

    Given the evolution of competency-based education and evidence supporting the benefits of incorporating simulation into anesthesiology residency training, simulation will likely play an important role in the training and assessment of anesthesiology residents. Currently, there are little data available regarding the current status of simulation-based curricula across US residency programs. In this study, we assessed simulation-based training and assessment in US anesthesiology programs using a survey designed to elicit information regarding the type, frequency, and content of the simulation courses offered at the 132 Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education-certified anesthesiology training programs. The response rate for the survey was 66%. Although most of the responding programs offered simulation-based courses for interns and residents and during CA-1 orientation, the curriculum varied greatly among programs. Approximately 40% of responding programs use simulation for resident assessment and remediation. The majority of responding programs favored standard simulation-based training as part of residency training (89%), and the most common perceived obstacles to doing so were time, money, and human resources. The results from this survey highlight that there are currently large variations in simulation-based training and assessment among training programs. It also confirms that many program directors feel that standardizing some components of simulation-based education and assessment would be beneficial. Given the positive impact simulation has on skill retention and operating room preparedness, it may be worthwhile to consider developing a standard curriculum.

  19. 14 CFR 121.407 - Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Program § 121.407 Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices. Link to an amendment published at 78 FR 67836, Nov. 12, 2013. (a) Each airplane simulator and other training device... training or check flight. (b) A particular airplane simulator or other training device may be approved...

  20. 14 CFR 121.407 - Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Program § 121.407 Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices. (a) Each airplane simulator and other training device that is used in a training course permitted under § 121.409... or check airman at the end of each training or check flight. (b) A particular airplane simulator...

  1. 14 CFR 121.407 - Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Program § 121.407 Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices. (a) Each airplane simulator and other training device that is used in a training course permitted under § 121.409... or check airman at the end of each training or check flight. (b) A particular airplane simulator...

  2. 14 CFR 121.407 - Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Program § 121.407 Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices. (a) Each airplane simulator and other training device that is used in a training course permitted under § 121.409... or check airman at the end of each training or check flight. (b) A particular airplane simulator...

  3. 14 CFR 121.407 - Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Training program: Approval of airplane... Program § 121.407 Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices. (a) Each airplane simulator and other training device that is used in a training course permitted under §...

  4. A survey of parallel programming tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Doreen Y.

    1991-01-01

    This survey examines 39 parallel programming tools. Focus is placed on those tool capabilites needed for parallel scientific programming rather than for general computer science. The tools are classified with current and future needs of Numerical Aerodynamic Simulator (NAS) in mind: existing and anticipated NAS supercomputers and workstations; operating systems; programming languages; and applications. They are divided into four categories: suggested acquisitions, tools already brought in; tools worth tracking; and tools eliminated from further consideration at this time.

  5. User's Guide to Galoper: A Program for Simulating the Shapes of Crystal Size Distributions from Growth Mechanisms - and Associated Programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberl, Dennis D.; Drits, V.A.; Srodon, J.

    2000-01-01

    GALOPER is a computer program that simulates the shapes of crystal size distributions (CSDs) from crystal growth mechanisms. This manual describes how to use the program. The theory for the program's operation has been described previously (Eberl, Drits, and Srodon, 1998). CSDs that can be simulated using GALOPER include those that result from growth mechanisms operating in the open system, such as constant-rate nucleation and growth, nucleation with a decaying nucleation rate and growth, surface-controlled growth, supply-controlled growth, and constant-rate and random growth; and those that result from mechanisms operating in the closed system such as Ostwald ripening, random ripening, and crystal coalescence. In addition, CSDs for two types weathering reactions can be simulated. The operation of associated programs also is described, including two statistical programs used for comparing calculated with measured CSDs, a program used for calculating lognormal CSDs, and a program for arranging measured crystal sizes into size groupings (bins).

  6. Aerodynamic improvement of the assembly through which gas conduits are taken into a smoke stack by simulating gas flow on a computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorov, V. B.; Fomenko, M. V.; Grigor'ev, I. V.

    2012-06-01

    Results from computer simulation of gas flow motion for gas conduits taken on one and two sides into the gas-removal shaft of a smoke stack with a constant cross section carried out using the SolidWorks and FlowVision application software packages are presented.

  7. Influence of unsteady aerodynamics on driving dynamics of passenger cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huemer, Jakob; Stickel, Thomas; Sagan, Erich; Schwarz, Martin; Wall, Wolfgang A.

    2014-11-01

    Recent approaches towards numerical investigations with computational fluid dynamics methods on unsteady aerodynamic loads of passenger cars identified major differences compared with steady-state aerodynamic excitations. Furthermore, innovative vehicle concepts such as electric-vehicles or hybrid drives further challenge the basic layout of passenger cars. Therefore, the relevance of unsteady aerodynamic loads on cross-wind stability of changing basic vehicle architectures should be analysed. In order to assure and improve handling and ride characteristics at high velocity of the actual range of vehicle layouts, the influence of unsteady excitations on the vehicle response was investigated. For this purpose, a simulation of the vehicle dynamics through multi-body simulation was used. The impact of certain unsteady aerodynamic load characteristics on the vehicle response was quantified and key factors were identified. Through a series of driving simulator tests, the identified differences in the vehicle response were evaluated regarding their significance on the subjective driver perception of cross-wind stability. Relevant criteria for the subjective driver assessment of the vehicle response were identified. As a consequence, a design method for the basic layout of passenger cars and chassis towards unsteady aerodynamic excitations was defined.

  8. Scientific and Computational Challenges of the Fusion Simulation Program (FSP)

    SciTech Connect

    William M. Tang

    2011-02-09

    This paper highlights the scientific and computational challenges facing the Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) a major national initiative in the United States with the primary objective being to enable scientific discovery of important new plasma phenomena with associated understanding that emerges only upon integration. This requires developing a predictive integrated simulation capability for magnetically-confined fusion plasmas that are properly validated against experiments in regimes relevant for producing practical fusion energy. It is expected to provide a suite of advanced modeling tools for reliably predicting fusion device behavior with comprehensive and targeted science-based simulations of nonlinearly-coupled phenomena in the core plasma, edge plasma, and wall region on time and space scales required for fusion energy production. As such, it will strive to embody the most current theoretical and experimental understanding of magnetic fusion plasmas and to provide a living framework for the simulation of such plasmas as the associated physics understanding continues to advance over the next several decades. Substantive progress on answering the outstanding scientific questions in the field will drive the FSP toward its ultimate goal of developing the ability to predict the behavior of plasma discharges in toroidal magnetic fusion devices with high physics fidelity on all relevant time and space scales. From a computational perspective, this will demand computing resources in the petascale range and beyond together with the associated multi-core algorithmic formulation needed to address burning plasma issues relevant to ITER - a multibillion dollar collaborative experiment involving seven international partners representing over half the world's population. Even more powerful exascale platforms will be needed to meet the future challenges of designing a demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO). Analogous to other major applied physics modeling projects (e

  9. Aerodynamics of Small Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Thomas J.

    In this review we describe the aerodynamic problems that must be addressed in order to design a successful small aerial vehicle. The effects of Reynolds number and aspect ratio (AR) on the design and performance of fixed-wing vehicles are described. The boundary-layer behavior on airfoils is especially important in the design of vehicles in this flight regime. The results of a number of experimental boundary-layer studies, including the influence of laminar separation bubbles, are discussed. Several examples of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in this regime are described. Also, a brief survey of analytical models for oscillating and flapping-wing propulsion is presented. These range from the earliest examples where quasi-steady, attached flow is assumed, to those that account for the unsteady shed vortex wake as well as flow separation and aeroelastic behavior of a flapping wing. Experiments that complemented the analysis and led to the design of a successful ornithopter are also described.

  10. Reciprocity relations in aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaslet, Max A; Spreiter, John R

    1953-01-01

    Reverse flow theorems in aerodynamics are shown to be based on the same general concepts involved in many reciprocity theorems in the physical sciences. Reciprocal theorems for both steady and unsteady motion are found as a logical consequence of this approach. No restrictions on wing plan form or flight Mach number are made beyond those required in linearized compressible-flow analysis. A number of examples are listed, including general integral theorems for lifting, rolling, and pitching wings and for wings in nonuniform downwash fields. Correspondence is also established between the buildup of circulation with time of a wing starting impulsively from rest and the buildup of lift of the same wing moving in the reverse direction into a sharp-edged gust.

  11. Vortex flow aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. H. B.; Campbell, J. F.; Young, A. D. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The principal emphasis of the meeting was to be on the understanding and prediction of separation-induced vortex flows and their effects on vehicle performance, stability, control, and structural design loads. This report shows that a substantial amount of the papers covering this area were received from a wide range of countries, together with an attendance that was even more diverse. In itself, this testifies to the current interest in the subject and to the appropriateness of the Panel's choice of topic and approach. An attempt is made to summarize each paper delivered, and to relate the contributions made in the papers and in the discussions to some of the important aspects of vortex flow aerodynamics. This reveals significant progress and important clarifications, but also brings out remaining weaknesses in predictive capability and gaps in understanding. Where possible, conclusions are drawn and areas of continuing concern are identified.

  12. A mathematical model for Vertical Attitude Takeoff and Landing (VATOL) aircraft simulation. Volume 3: User's manual for VATOL simulation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortenbaugh, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Instructions for using Vertical Attitude Takeoff and Landing Aircraft Simulation (VATLAS), the digital simulation program for application to vertical attitude takeoff and landing (VATOL) aircraft developed for installation on the NASA Ames CDC 7600 computer system are described. The framework for VATLAS is the Off-Line Simulation (OLSIM) routine. The OLSIM routine provides a flexible framework and standardized modules which facilitate the development of off-line aircraft simulations. OLSIM runs under the control of VTOLTH, the main program, which calls the proper modules for executing user specified options. These options include trim, stability derivative calculation, time history generation, and various input-output options.

  13. Improved Aerodynamic Analysis for Hybrid Wing Body Conceptual Design Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gern, Frank H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of ongoing efforts to develop, evaluate, and validate different tools for improved aerodynamic modeling and systems analysis of Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft configurations. Results are being presented for the evaluation of different aerodynamic tools including panel methods, enhanced panel methods with viscous drag prediction, and computational fluid dynamics. Emphasis is placed on proper prediction of aerodynamic loads for structural sizing as well as viscous drag prediction to develop drag polars for HWB conceptual design optimization. Data from transonic wind tunnel tests at the Arnold Engineering Development Center s 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel was used as a reference data set in order to evaluate the accuracy of the aerodynamic tools. Triangularized surface data and Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) models of an X-48B 2% scale wind tunnel model were used to generate input and model files for the different analysis tools. In support of ongoing HWB scaling studies within the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) program, an improved finite element based structural analysis and weight estimation tool for HWB center bodies is currently under development. Aerodynamic results from these analyses are used to provide additional aerodynamic validation data.

  14. Aerodynamics for the Mars Phoenix Entry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edquist, Karl T.; Desai, Prasun N.; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Pre-flight aerodynamics data for the Mars Phoenix entry capsule are presented. The aerodynamic coefficients were generated as a function of total angle-of-attack and either Knudsen number, velocity, or Mach number, depending on the flight regime. The database was constructed using continuum flowfield computations and data from the Mars Exploration Rover and Viking programs. Hypersonic and supersonic static coefficients were derived from Navier-Stokes solutions on a pre-flight design trajectory. High-altitude data (free-molecular and transitional regimes) and dynamic pitch damping characteristics were taken from Mars Exploration Rover analysis and testing. Transonic static coefficients from Viking wind tunnel tests were used for capsule aerodynamics under the parachute. Static instabilities were predicted at two points along the reference trajectory and were verified by reconstructed flight data. During the hypersonic instability, the capsule was predicted to trim at angles as high as 2.5 deg with an on-axis center-of-gravity. Trim angles were predicted for off-nominal pitching moment (4.2 deg peak) and a 5 mm off-axis center-ofgravity (4.8 deg peak). Finally, hypersonic static coefficient sensitivities to atmospheric density were predicted to be within uncertainty bounds.

  15. Skylon Aerodynamics and SABRE Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Unmeel; Afosmis, Michael; Bowles, Jeffrey; Pandya, Shishir

    2015-01-01

    An independent partial assessment is provided of the technical viability of the Skylon aerospace plane concept, developed by Reaction Engines Limited (REL). The objectives are to verify REL's engineering estimates of airframe aerodynamics during powered flight and to assess the impact of Synergetic Air-Breathing Rocket Engine (SABRE) plumes on the aft fuselage. Pressure lift and drag coefficients derived from simulations conducted with Euler equations for unpowered flight compare very well with those REL computed with engineering methods. The REL coefficients for powered flight are increasingly less acceptable as the freestream Mach number is increased beyond 8.5, because the engineering estimates did not account for the increasing favorable (in terms of drag and lift coefficients) effect of underexpanded rocket engine plumes on the aft fuselage. At Mach numbers greater than 8.5, the thermal environment around the aft fuselage is a known unknown-a potential design and/or performance risk issue. The adverse effects of shock waves on the aft fuselage and plumeinduced flow separation are other potential risks. The development of an operational reusable launcher from the Skylon concept necessitates the judicious use of a combination of engineering methods, advanced methods based on required physics or analytical fidelity, test data, and independent assessments.

  16. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2007-11-19

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes blind audit samples in a gas matrix for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility’s compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document

  17. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2007-11-13

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes blind audit samples in a gas matrix for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility’s compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document

  18. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2006-04-01

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes sample gases of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for analysis. Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility’s compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement

  19. Users manual for linear Time-Varying Helicopter Simulation (Program TVHIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, M. R.

    1979-01-01

    A linear time-varying helicopter simulation program (TVHIS) is described. The program is designed as a realistic yet efficient helicopter simulation. It is based on a linear time-varying helicopter model which includes rotor, actuator, and sensor models, as well as a simulation of flight computer logic. The TVHIS can generate a mean trajectory simulation along a nominal trajectory, or propagate covariance of helicopter states, including rigid-body, turbulence, control command, controller states, and rigid-body state estimates.

  20. Exploring the aerodynamic drag of a moving cyclist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theilmann, Florian; Reinhard, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Although the physics of cycling itself is a complex mixture of aerodynamics, physiology, mechanics, and heuristics, using cycling as a context for teaching physics has a tradition of certainly more than 30 years. Here, a possible feature is the discussion of the noticeable resistant forces such as aerodynamic drag and the associated power consumption of cycling. We use an energy-based approach to model the power input for driving a bike at a constant speed. This approach uses a numerical simulation of the slowing down of a bike moving without pedaling which is implementable with standard spreadsheet software. The simulation can be compared directly to simple measurements with real bikes as well as to an analytic solution of the underlying differential equation. It is possible to derive realistic values for the aerodynamic drag coefficient {{c}\\text{D}} and the total power consumption within a secondary physics course. We also report experiences from teaching such a course to class 8 students.

  1. Does an active adjustment of aerodynamic drag make sense?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, Marek

    2016-09-01

    The article concerns evaluation of the possible impact of the gap between the tractor and semitrailer on the aerodynamic drag coefficient. The aim here is not to adjust this distance depending on the geometrical shape of the tractor and trailer, but depending solely on the speed of articulated vehicle. All the tests have form of numerical simulations. The method of simulation is briefly explained in the article. It considers various issues such as the range and objects of tests as well as the test conditions. The initial (pre-adaptive) and final (after adaptation process) computational meshes have been presented as illustrations. Some of the results have been presented in the form of run chart showing the change of value of aerodynamic drag coefficients in time, for different geometric configurations defined by a clearance gap between the tractor and semitrailer. The basis for a detailed analysis and conclusions were the averaged (in time) aerodynamic drag coefficients as a function of the clearance gap.

  2. An Interactive Computer Program for Simulating the Effects of Olivine Fractionation from Basaltic and Ultrabasic Liquids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Thomas H.

    1983-01-01

    Describes interactive computer program (listing available from author) which simulates olivine fractionation from basaltic/ultrabasic liquid. The menu-driven nature of the program (for Apple II microcomputer) allows students to select ideal Rayleigh fractionation or equilibrium crystallization. (JN)

  3. Aerodynamic Design Study of Advanced Multistage Axial Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larosiliere, Louis M.; Wood, Jerry R.; Hathaway, Michael D.; Medd, Adam J.; Dang, Thong Q.

    2002-01-01

    As a direct response to the need for further performance gains from current multistage axial compressors, an investigation of advanced aerodynamic design concepts that will lead to compact, high-efficiency, and wide-operability configurations is being pursued. Part I of this report describes the projected level of technical advancement relative to the state of the art and quantifies it in terms of basic aerodynamic technology elements of current design systems. A rational enhancement of these elements is shown to lead to a substantial expansion of the design and operability space. Aerodynamic design considerations for a four-stage core compressor intended to serve as a vehicle to develop, integrate, and demonstrate aerotechnology advancements are discussed. This design is biased toward high efficiency at high loading. Three-dimensional blading and spanwise tailoring of vector diagrams guided by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are used to manage the aerodynamics of the high-loaded endwall regions. Certain deleterious flow features, such as leakage-vortex-dominated endwall flow and strong shock-boundary-layer interactions, were identified and targeted for improvement. However, the preliminary results were encouraging and the front two stages were extracted for further aerodynamic trimming using a three-dimensional inverse design method described in part II of this report. The benefits of the inverse design method are illustrated by developing an appropriate pressure-loading strategy for transonic blading and applying it to reblade the rotors in the front two stages of the four-stage configuration. Multistage CFD simulations based on the average passage formulation indicated an overall efficiency potential far exceeding current practice for the front two stages. Results of the CFD simulation at the aerodynamic design point are interrogated to identify areas requiring additional development. In spite of the significantly higher aerodynamic loadings, advanced CFD

  4. Effects of ice accretions on aircraft aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Frank T.; Khodadoust, Abdollah

    2001-11-01

    This article is a systematic and comprehensive review, correlation, and assessment of test results available in the public domain which address the aerodynamic performance and control degradations caused by various types of ice accretions on the lifting surfaces of fixed wing aircraft. To help put the various test results in perspective, overviews are provided first of the important factors and limitations involved in computational and experimental icing simulation techniques, as well as key aerodynamic testing simulation variables and governing flow physics issues. Following these are the actual reviews, assessments, and correlations of a large number of experimental measurements of various forms of mostly simulated in-flight and ground ice accretions, augmented where appropriate by similar measurements for other analogous forms of surface contamination and/or disruptions. In-flight icing categories reviewed include the initial and inter-cycle ice accretions inherent in the use of de-icing systems which are of particular concern because of widespread misconceptions about the thickness of such accretions which can be allowed before any serious consequences occur, and the runback/ridge ice accretions typically associated with larger-than-normal water droplet encounters which are of major concern because of the possible potential for catastrophic reductions in aerodynamic effectiveness. The other in-flight ice accretion category considered includes the more familiar large rime and glaze ice accretions, including ice shapes with rather grotesque features, where the concern is that, in spite of all the research conducted to date, the upper limit of penalties possible has probably not been defined. Lastly, the effects of various possible ground frost/ice accretions are considered. The concern with some of these is that for some types of configurations, all of the normally available operating margins to stall at takeoff may be erased if these accretions are not

  5. Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutler, P.; Mehta, U. B.

    1984-01-01

    Some aspects of artificial intelligence are considered and questions are speculated on, including how knowledge-based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use 'expert' systems and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. The anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements are examined for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics. Considering two of the essentials of computational aerodynamics - reasoniing and calculating - it is believed that a substantial part of the reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence, with computers being used as reasoning machines to set the stage for calculating. Expert systems will probably be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

  6. Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, U. B.; Kutler, P.

    1984-01-01

    The general principles of artificial intelligence are reviewed and speculations are made concerning how knowledge based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use expert systems, and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. In addition, the anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics are examined. Three main conclusions are presented. First, there are two related aspects of computational aerodynamics: reasoning and calculating. Second, a substantial portion of reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence. It offers the opportunity of using computers as reasoning machines to set the stage for efficient calculating. Third, expert systems are likely to be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

  7. Turbine Aerodynamics Design Tool Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Frank W.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the Marshal Space Flight Center Fluids Workshop on Turbine Aerodynamic design tool development. The topics include: (1) Meanline Design/Off-design Analysis; and (2) Airfoil Contour Generation and Analysis. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  8. Generic Wing-Body Aerodynamics Data Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, Terry L.; Olsen, Thomas H.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The wing-body aerodynamics data base consists of a series of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations about a generic wing body configuration consisting of a ogive-circular-cylinder fuselage and a simple symmetric wing mid-mounted on the fuselage. Solutions have been obtained for Nonlinear Potential (P), Euler (E) and Navier-Stokes (N) solvers over a range of subsonic and transonic Mach numbers and angles of attack. In addition, each solution has been computed on a series of grids, coarse, medium and fine to permit an assessment of grid refinement errors.

  9. AERODYNAMIC AND BLADING DESIGN OF MULTISTAGE AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouse, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    The axial-flow compressor is used for aircraft engines because it has distinct configuration and performance advantages over other compressor types. However, good potential performance is not easily obtained. The designer must be able to model the actual flows well enough to adequately predict aerodynamic performance. This computer program has been developed for computing the aerodynamic design of a multistage axial-flow compressor and, if desired, the associated blading geometry input for internal flow analysis. The aerodynamic solution gives velocity diagrams on selected streamlines of revolution at the blade row edges. The program yields aerodynamic and blading design results that can be directly used by flow and mechanical analysis codes. Two such codes are TSONIC, a blade-to-blade channel flow analysis code (COSMIC program LEW-10977), and MERIDL, a more detailed hub-to-shroud flow analysis code (COSMIC program LEW-12966). The aerodynamic and blading design program can reduce the time and effort required to obtain acceptable multistage axial-flow compressor configurations by generating good initial solutions and by being compatible with available analysis codes. The aerodynamic solution assumes steady, axisymmetric flow so that the problem is reduced to solving the two-dimensional flow field in the meridional plane. The streamline curvature method is used for the iterative aerodynamic solution at stations outside of the blade rows. If a blade design is desired, the blade elements are defined and stacked within the aerodynamic solution iteration. The blade element inlet and outlet angles are established by empirical incidence and deviation angles to the relative flow angles of the velocity diagrams. The blade element centerline is composed of two segments tangentially joined at a transition point. The local blade angle variation of each element can be specified as a fourth-degree polynomial function of path distance. Blade element thickness can also be specified

  10. Aerodynamics of advanced axial-flow turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serovy, G. K.; Kavanagh, P.; Kiishi, T. H.

    1980-01-01

    A multi-task research program on aerodynamic problems in advanced axial-flow turbomachine configurations was carried out at Iowa State University. The elements of this program were intended to contribute directly to the improvement of compressor, fan, and turbine design methods. Experimental efforts in intra-passage flow pattern measurements, unsteady blade row interaction, and control of secondary flow are included, along with computational work on inviscid-viscous interaction blade passage flow techniques. This final report summarizes the results of this program and indicates directions which might be taken in following up these results in future work. In a separate task a study was made of existing turbomachinery research programs and facilities in universities located in the United States. Some potentially significant research topics are discussed which might be successfully attacked in the university atmosphere.

  11. Survey of outcomes in a faculty development program on simulation pedagogy.

    PubMed

    Roh, Young Sook; Kim, Mi Kang; Tangkawanich, Thitiarpha

    2016-06-01

    Although many nursing programs use simulation as a teaching-learning modality, there are few systematic approaches to help nursing educators learn this pedagogy. This study evaluates the effects of a simulation pedagogy nursing faculty development program on participants' learning perceptions using a retrospective pre-course and post-course design. Sixteen Thai participants completed a two-day nursing faculty development program on simulation pedagogy. Thirteen questionnaires were used in the final analysis. The participants' self-perceived learning about simulation teaching showed significant post-course improvement. On a five-point Likert scale, the composite mean attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control scores, as well as intention to use a simulator, showed a significant post-course increase. A faculty development program on simulation pedagogy induced favorable learning and attitudes. Further studies must test how faculty performance affects the cognitive, emotional, and social dimensions of learning in a simulation-based learning domain.

  12. Aerodynamic Performance of Scale-Model Turbofan Outlet Guide Vanes Designed for Low Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.

    2001-01-01

    The design of effective new technologies to reduce aircraft propulsion noise is dependent on an understanding of the noise sources and noise generation mechanisms in the modern turbofan engine. In order to more fully understand the physics of noise in a turbofan engine, a comprehensive aeroacoustic wind tunnel test programs was conducted called the 'Source Diagnostic Test.' The text was cooperative effort between NASA and General Electric Aircraft Engines, as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program. A 1/5-scale model simulator representing the bypass stage of a current technology high bypass ratio turbofan engine was used in the test. The test article consisted of the bypass fan and outlet guide vanes in a flight-type nacelle. The fan used was a medium pressure ratio design with 22 individual, wide chord blades. Three outlet guide vane design configurations were investigated, representing a 54-vane radial Baseline configuration, a 26-vane radial, wide chord Low Count configuration and a 26-vane, wide chord Low Noise configuration with 30 deg of aft sweep. The test was conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center 9 by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at velocities simulating the takeoff and approach phases of the aircraft flight envelope. The Source Diagnostic Test had several acoustic and aerodynamic technical objectives: (1) establish the performance of a scale model fan selected to represent the current technology turbofan product; (2) assess the performance of the fan stage with each of the three distinct outlet guide vane designs; (3) determine the effect of the outlet guide vane configuration on the fan baseline performance; and (4) conduct detailed flowfield diagnostic surveys, both acoustic and aerodynamic, to characterize and understand the noise generation mechanisms in a turbofan engine. This paper addresses the fan and stage aerodynamic performance results from the Source Diagnostic Test.

  13. Aviation Safety Modeling and Simulation (ASMM) Propulsion Fleet Modeling: A Tool for Semi-Automatic Construction of CORBA-based Applications from Legacy Fortran Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sang, Janche

    2003-01-01

    Within NASA's Aviation Safety Program, NASA GRC participates in the Modeling and Simulation Project called ASMM. NASA GRC s focus is to characterize the propulsion systems performance from a fleet management and maintenance perspective by modeling and through simulation predict the characteristics of two classes of commercial engines (CFM56 and GE90). In prior years, the High Performance Computing and Communication (HPCC) program funded, NASA Glenn in developing a large scale, detailed simulations for the analysis and design of aircraft engines called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). Three major aspects of this modeling included the integration of different engine components, coupling of multiple disciplines, and engine component zooming at appropriate level fidelity, require relatively tight coupling of different analysis codes. Most of these codes in aerodynamics and solid mechanics are written in Fortran. Refitting these legacy Fortran codes with distributed objects can increase these codes reusability. Aviation Safety s modeling and simulation use in characterizing fleet management has similar needs. The modeling and simulation of these propulsion systems use existing Fortran and C codes that are instrumental in determining the performance of the fleet. The research centers on building a CORBA-based development environment for programmers to easily wrap and couple legacy Fortran codes. This environment consists of a C++ wrapper library to hide the details of CORBA and an efficient remote variable scheme to facilitate data exchange between the client and the server model. Additionally, a Web Service model should also be constructed for evaluation of this technology s use over the next two- three years.

  14. Aerodynamics of badminton shuttlecocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Aekaansh; Desai, Ajinkya; Mittal, Sanjay

    2013-08-01

    A computational study is carried out to understand the aerodynamics of shuttlecocks used in the sport of badminton. The speed of the shuttlecock considered is in the range of 25-50 m/s. The relative contribution of various parts of the shuttlecock to the overall drag is studied. It is found that the feathers, and the net in the case of a synthetic shuttlecock, contribute the maximum. The gaps, in the lower section of the skirt, play a major role in entraining the surrounding fluid and causing a difference between the pressure inside and outside the skirt. This pressure difference leads to drag. This is confirmed via computations for a shuttlecock with no gaps. The synthetic shuttle experiences more drag than the feather model. Unlike the synthetic model, the feather shuttlecock is associated with a swirling flow towards the end of the skirt. The effect of the twist angle of the feathers on the drag as well as the flow has also been studied.

  15. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvořák, Rudolf

    2016-03-01

    Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird). Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust - two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc.), and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  16. Aerodynamics of Laminar Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Chung K.

    2000-11-01

    The presentation will review recent advances in the understanding of the structure, dynamics, and geometry of stretched, nonequidiffusive, laminar premixed flames, as exemplified by the unsteady propagation of wrinkled flames in nonuniform flow fields. It is first shown that by considering the effects of aerodynamic stretch on the flame structure, and by allowing for mixture nonequidiffusion, the flame responses, especially the flame propagation speed, can be quantitatively as well as qualitatively modified from the idealized planar limit. Subsequently, by treating the flame as a level surface propagating with the stretch-affected flame speed, problems of increasing complexity are presented to illustrate various features of flame propagation. The illustration first treats the flame as a structureless surface propagating into a constant-density combustible with a constant velocity * the laminar flame speed, and demonstrates the phenomena of cusp formation and volumetric burning rate augmentation through flame wrinkling. By using the stretch-affected flame speed, we then describe the phenomena of cusp broadening as well as tip opening of the Bunsen flame. Finally, by allowing for the density jump across the flame surface, a unified dispersion relation is derived for the intrinsic hydrodynamic, body-force, and nonequidiffusive modes of flame

  17. Aerodynamics/ACEE: Aircraft energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An overview is presented of a 10 year program managed by NASA which seeks to make possible the most efficient use of energy for aircraft propulsion and lift as well as provide a technology that can be used by U.S. manufacturers of air transports and engines. Supercritical wings, winglets, vortex drag reduction, high lift, active control, laminar flow control, and aerodynamics by computer are among the topics discussed. Wind tunnel models in flight verification of advanced technology, and the design, construction and testing of various aircraft structures are also described.

  18. AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference, 9th, Baltimore, MD, Sept. 23-25, 1991, Technical Papers. Vols. 1 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The present conference on aplied aerodynamics encompasses computational fluid dynamics, drag prediction/analysis, experimental aerodynamics, high angles of attack, rotor/propeller aerodynamics, super/hypersonic aerodynamics, unsteady aerodynamics, vortex physics, high-speed civil-transport aeroacoustics, and airfoil/wing aerodynamics. Specific issues addressed include high-speed civil-transport air-breathing propulsion, generic hypersonic inlet-module analysis, an investigation on spoiler effects, high-alpha vehicle dynamics, space-station resource node flow-field analysis, a numerical simulation of sabot discard aerodynamics, and vortex control using pneumatic blowing. Also addressed are Navier-Stokes solutions for the F/A-18 Wing-LEX fuselage, tail venting for enhanced yaw damping at spinning conditions, an investigation of rotor wake interactions with a body in low-speed forward flight, and multigrid calculations of 3D viscous cascade flows.

  19. Aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils with ice accretions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, M. B.; Gregorek, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    Results of a wind tunnel test to evaluate the performance of an airfoil with simulated rime ice are presented with theoretical comparisons. A NACA 65A413 airfoil was tested in the OSU 6 x 22 inch Transonic Airfoil Wind Tunnel at a Reynolds number near three million and Mach numbers from 0.20 to 0.80. The model was tested in four configurations to determine the aero-dynamic effects of the roughness and shape of a rime ice accretion. The simulated rime ice shape was obtained analytically using a time-stepping dry ice accretion computer code. Lift, drag, moment coefficients, and pressure distributions for the clean and simulated rime ice cases are reported. The measured degradation in airfoil performance is compared to an analytical method which uses existing airfoil analysis computer codes with empirical corrections for the surface roughness. A discussion of the empirical surface roughness correction and uses of other airfoil computer methods is included.

  20. Studying surface glow discharge for application in plasma aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tereshonok, D. V.

    2014-02-01

    Surface glow discharge in nitrogen between two infinite planar electrodes occurring on the same plane has been studied in the framework of a diffusion-drift model. Based on the results of numerical simulations, the plasma structure of this discharge is analyzed and the possibility of using it in plasma aerodynamics is considered.

  1. Exploring the Perceptions of College Instructors towards Computer Simulation Software Programs: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punch, Raymond J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the quantitative regression study was to explore and to identify relationships between attitudes toward use and perceptions of value of computer-based simulation programs, of college instructors, toward computer based simulation programs. A relationship has been reported between attitudes toward use and perceptions of the value of…

  2. Aerodynamic drag of modern soccer balls.

    PubMed

    Asai, Takeshi; Seo, Kazuya

    2013-12-01

    Soccer balls such as the Adidas Roteiro that have been used in soccer tournaments thus far had 32 pentagonal and hexagonal panels. Recently, the Adidas Teamgeist II and Adidas Jabulani, respectively having 14 and 8 panels, have been used at tournaments; the aerodynamic characteristics of these balls have not yet been verified. Now, the Adidas Tango 12, having 32 panels, has been developed for use at tournaments; therefore, it is necessary to understand its aerodynamic characteristics. Through a wind tunnel test and ball trajectory simulations, this study shows that the aerodynamic resistance of the new 32-panel soccer ball is larger in the high-speed region and lower in the middle-speed region than that of the previous 14- and 8-panel balls. The critical Reynolds number of the Roteiro, Teamgeist II, Jabulani, and Tango 12 was ~2.2 × 10(5) (drag coefficient, C d  ≈ 0.12), ~2.8 × 10(5) (C d  ≈ 0.13), ~3.3 × 10(5) (C d  ≈ 0.13), and ~2.4 × 10(5) (C d  ≈ 0.15), respectively. The flight trajectory simulation suggested that the Tango 12, one of the newest soccer balls, has less air resistance in the medium-speed region than the Jabulani and can thus easily acquire large initial velocity in this region. It is considered that the critical Reynolds number of a soccer ball, as considered within the scope of this experiment, depends on the extended total distance of the panel bonds rather than the small designs on the panel surfaces.

  3. The CMC/3DPNS computer program for prediction of three-dimensional, subsonic, turbulent aerodynamic juncture region flow. Volume 3: Programmers' manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orzechowski, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The CMC fluid mechanics program system was developed to transmit the theoretical evolution of finite element numerical solution methodology, applied to nonlinear field problems into a versatile computer code for comprehensive flow field analysis. A detailed view of the code from the standpoint of a computer programmer's use is presented. A system macroflow chart and detailed flow charts of several routines necessary to interact with a theoretican/user to modify the operation of this program are presented. All subroutines and details of usage, primarily for input and output routines are described. Integer and real scalars and a cross reference list denoting subroutine usage for these scalars are outlined. Entry points in dynamic storage vector IZ; the lengths of each vector accompanying the scalar definitions are described. A listing of the routines peculiar to the standard test case and a listing of the input deck and printout for this case are included.

  4. Dispersion analysis and linear error analysis capabilities of the space vehicle dynamics simulation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, L. S.; Kuhn, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    Previous error analyses conducted by the Guidance and Dynamics Branch of NASA have used the Guidance Analysis Program (GAP) as the trajectory simulation tool. Plans are made to conduct all future error analyses using the Space Vehicle Dynamics Simulation (SVDS) program. A study was conducted to compare the inertial measurement unit (IMU) error simulations of the two programs. Results of the GAP/SVDS comparison are presented and problem areas encountered while attempting to simulate IMU errors, vehicle performance uncertainties and environmental uncertainties using SVDS are defined. An evaluation of the SVDS linear error analysis capability is also included.

  5. The transition of a real-time single-rotor helicopter simulation program to a supercomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Debbie

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the conversion effort and results of a real-time flight simulation application transition to a CONVEX supercomputer. Enclosed is a detailed description of the conversion process and a brief description of the Langley Research Center's (LaRC) flight simulation application program structure. Currently, this simulation program may be configured to represent Sikorsky S-61 helicopter (a five-blade, single-rotor, commercial passenger-type helicopter) or an Army Cobra helicopter (either the AH-1 G or AH-1 S model). This report refers to the Sikorsky S-61 simulation program since it is the most frequently used configuration.

  6. BASIC Simulation Programs; Volumes III and IV. Mathematics, Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Digital Equipment Corp., Maynard, MA.

    The computer programs presented here were developed as a part of the Huntington Computer Project. They were tested on a Digital Equipment Corporation TSS-8 time-shared computer and run in a version of BASIC. Mathematics and physics programs are presented in this volume. The 20 mathematics programs include ones which review multiplication skills;…

  7. Partial Validation of Multibody Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST II) Parachute Simulation With Interacting Forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raiszadeh, Ben; Queen, Eric M.

    2002-01-01

    A capability to simulate trajectories Of Multiple interacting rigid bodies has been developed. This capability uses the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST II). Previously, POST II had the ability to simulate multiple bodies without interacting forces. The current implementation is used for the Simulation of parachute trajectories, in which the parachute and suspended bodies can be treated as rigid bodies. An arbitrary set of connecting lines can be included in the model and are treated as massless spring-dampers. This paper discusses details of the connection line modeling and results of several test cases used to validate the capability.

  8. No Vent Tank Fill and Transfer Line Chilldown Analysis by Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, Alok

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present the analytical capability developed to model no vent chill and fill of cryogenic tank to support CPST (Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer) program. Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) was adapted to simulate charge-holdvent method of Tank Chilldown. GFSSP models were developed to simulate chilldown of LH2 tank in K-site Test Facility and numerical predictions were compared with test data. The report also describes the modeling technique of simulating the chilldown of a cryogenic transfer line and GFSSP models were developed to simulate the chilldown of a long transfer line and compared with test data.

  9. Meaningful Use of Simulation as an Educational Method in Nursing Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Teri L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine the use of simulation technology within nursing programs leading to licensure as registered nurses. In preparation for this study the Use of Simulation Technology Inventory (USTI) was developed and based in the structure, processes, outcomes model and the current literature on simulation. The…

  10. Alexander Meets Michotte: A Simulation Tool Based on Pattern Programming and Phenomenology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basawapatna, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Simulation and modeling activities, a key point of computational thinking, are currently not being integrated into the science classroom. This paper describes a new visual programming tool entitled the Simulation Creation Toolkit. The Simulation Creation Toolkit is a high level pattern-based phenomenological approach to bringing rapid simulation…

  11. Aeroassist flight experiment aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Edwin B.

    1989-01-01

    The problem is to determine the transitional flow aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, including the base flow characteristics, of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE). The justification for the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) Application stems from MSFC's system integration responsibility for the AFE. To insure that the AFE objectives are met, MSFC must understand the limitations and uncertainties of the design data. Perhaps the only method capable of handling the complex physics of the rarefied high energy AFE trajectory is Bird's Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique. The 3-D code used in this analysis is applicable only to the AFE geometry. It uses the Variable Hard Sphere (VHS) collision model and five specie chemistry model available from Langley Research Center. The code is benchmarked against the AFE flight data and used as an Aeroassisted Space Transfer Vehicle (ASTV) design tool. The code is being used to understand the AFE flow field and verify or modify existing design data. Continued application to lower altitudes is testing the capability of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility (NASF) to handle 3-D DSMC and its practicality as an ASTV/AFE design tool.

  12. Global Nonlinear Parametric Modeling with Application to F-16 Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    1997-01-01

    A global nonlinear parametric modeling technique is described and demonstrated. The technique uses multivariate orthogonal modeling functions generated from the data to determine nonlinear model structure, then expands each retained modeling function into an ordinary multivariate polynomial. The final model form is a finite multivariate power series expansion for the dependent variable in terms of the independent variables. Partial derivatives of the identified models can be used to assemble globally valid linear parameter varying models. The technique is demonstrated by identifying global nonlinear parametric models for nondimensional aerodynamic force and moment coefficients from a subsonic wind tunnel database for the F-16 fighter aircraft. Results show less than 10% difference between wind tunnel aerodynamic data and the nonlinear parameterized model for a simulated doublet maneuver at moderate angle of attack. Analysis indicated that the global nonlinear parametric models adequately captured the multivariate nonlinear aerodynamic functional dependence.

  13. Global Nonlinear Parametric Modeling with Application to F-16 Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    1998-01-01

    A global nonlinear parametric modeling technique is described and demonstrated. The technique uses multivariate orthogonal modeling functions generated from the data to determine nonlinear model structure, then expands each retained modeling function into an ordinary multivariate polynomial. The final model form is a finite multivariate power series expansion for the dependent variable in terms of the independent variables. Partial derivatives of the identified models can be used to assemble globally valid linear parameter varying models. The technique is demonstrated by identifying global nonlinear parametric models for nondimensional aerodynamic force and moment coefficients from a subsonic wind tunnel database for the F-16 fighter aircraft. Results show less than 10% difference between wind tunnel aerodynamic data and the nonlinear parameterized model for a simulated doublet maneuver at moderate angle of attack. Analysis indicated that the global nonlinear parametric models adequately captured the multivariate nonlinear aerodynamic functional dependence.

  14. Some recent advances in computational aerodynamics for helicopter applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccroskey, W. J.; Baeder, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    The growing application of computational aerodynamics to nonlinear helicopter problems is outlined, with particular emphasis on several recent quasi-two-dimensional examples that used the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations and an eddy-viscosity model to approximate turbulence. Rotor blade section characteristics can now be calculated accurately over a wide range of transonic flow conditions. However, a finite-difference simulation of the complete flow field about a helicopter in forward flight is not currently feasible, despite the impressive progress that is being made in both two and three dimensions. The principal limitations are today's computer speeds and memories, algorithm and solution methods, grid generation, vortex modeling, structural and aerodynamic coupling, and a shortage of engineers who are skilled in both computational fluid dynamics and helicopter aerodynamics and dynamics.

  15. Aerodynamic levitator for large-sized glassy material production.

    PubMed

    Yoda, Shinichi; Cho, Won-Seung; Imai, Ryoji

    2015-09-01

    Containerless aerodynamic levitation processing is a unique technology for the fabrication of bulk non-crystalline materials. Using conventional aerodynamic levitation, a high reflective index (RI) material (BaTi2O5 and LaO3/2-TiO2-ZrO2 system) was developed with a RI greater than approximately 2.2, which is similar to that of diamond. However, the glass size was small, approximately 3 mm in diameter. Therefore, it is essential to produce large sized materials for future optical materials applications, such as camera lenses. In this study, a new aerodynamic levitator was designed to produce non-crystalline materials with diameters larger than 6 mm. The concept of this new levitator was to set up a reduced pressure at the top of the molten samples without generating turbulent flow. A numerical simulation was also performed to verify the concept. PMID:26429456

  16. Aerodynamic levitator for large-sized glassy material production.

    PubMed

    Yoda, Shinichi; Cho, Won-Seung; Imai, Ryoji

    2015-09-01

    Containerless aerodynamic levitation processing is a unique technology for the fabrication of bulk non-crystalline materials. Using conventional aerodynamic levitation, a high reflective index (RI) material (BaTi2O5 and LaO3/2-TiO2-ZrO2 system) was developed with a RI greater than approximately 2.2, which is similar to that of diamond. However, the glass size was small, approximately 3 mm in diameter. Therefore, it is essential to produce large sized materials for future optical materials applications, such as camera lenses. In this study, a new aerodynamic levitator was designed to produce non-crystalline materials with diameters larger than 6 mm. The concept of this new levitator was to set up a reduced pressure at the top of the molten samples without generating turbulent flow. A numerical simulation was also performed to verify the concept.

  17. Aerodynamic preliminary analysis system 2. Part 1: Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, E.; Clever, W.; Dunn, K.

    1991-01-01

    An aerodynamic analysis system based on potential theory at subsonic and/or supersonic speeds and impact type finite element solutions at hypersonic conditions is described. Three dimensional configurations having multiple nonplanar surfaces of arbitrary planform and bodies of noncircular contour may be analyzed. Static, rotary, and control longitudinal and lateral directional characteristics may be generated. The analysis was implemented on a time sharing system in conjunction with an input tablet digitizer and an interactive graphics input/output display and editing terminal to maximize its responsiveness to the preliminary analysis problem. The program provides an efficient analysis for systematically performing various aerodynamic configuration tradeoff and evaluation studies.

  18. Aerodynamic and Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel Testing of the Orion Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C.

    2011-01-01

    The Orion aerodynamic testing team has completed more than 40 tests as part of developing the aerodynamic and loads databases for the vehicle. These databases are key to achieving good mechanical design for the vehicle and to ensure controllable flight during all potential atmospheric phases of a mission, including launch aborts. A wide variety of wind tunnels have been used by the team to document not only the aerodynamics but the aeroacoustic environment that the Orion might experience both during nominal ascents and launch aborts. During potential abort scenarios the effects of the various rocket motor plumes on the vehicle must be accurately understood. The Abort Motor (AM) is a high-thrust, short duration motor that rapidly separates Orion from its launch vehicle. The Attitude Control Motor (ACM), located in the nose of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle, is used for control during a potential abort. The 8 plumes from the ACM interact in a nonlinear manner with the four AM plumes which required a carefully controlled test to define the interactions and their effect on the control authority provided by the ACM. Techniques for measuring dynamic stability and for simulating rocket plume aerodynamics and acoustics were improved or developed in the course of building the aerodynamic and loads databases for Orion.

  19. Intermediate Experimental Vehicle, ESA Programme Supersonic Transonic Aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjors, Karin; Olsson, Jorgen; Maseland, Hans; de Cock, Koen; Dutheil, Sylvain; Bouleuc, Laurent; Cantinaud, Olivier; Tribot, Jean-Pierre; Mareschi, Vincenzo; Ferrarella, Daniella, Rufolo, Giuseppe

    2011-05-01

    The IXV project objectives are the design, development, manufacture and on ground and in flight verification of an autonomous European lifting and aerodynamically controlled re-entry system, which is highly flexible and manoeuvrable. The IXV vehicle is planned to be recovered in supersonic regime by means of a Descent and Recovery System (DRS). In that context, a specific aerodynamic identification was carried in order to provide data to be used for consolidating the AEDB (AErodynamic Data Base) and as inputs for the DRS sub-system activities. During the phase C2, a wind tunnel campaign was carried out at for the Mach number range M=1.7 to M=0.3 together with computational fluid dynamics simulation. The main objectives were to assess the aerodynamic forces and moments assuming high aileron setting in supersonic regime and to get preliminary aerodynamic data in subsonic regime to be used as input by the DRS team. The logic and the main results of these activities are presented and discussed in this paper.

  20. Aerodynamic drag on intermodal railcars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinghorn, Philip; Maynes, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    The aerodynamic drag associated with transport of commodities by rail is becoming increasingly important as the cost of diesel fuel increases. This study aims to increase the efficiency of intermodal cargo trains by reducing the aerodynamic drag on the load carrying cars. For intermodal railcars a significant amount of aerodynamic drag is a result of the large distance between loads that often occurs and the resulting pressure drag resulting from the separated flow. In the present study aerodynamic drag data have been obtained through wind tunnel testing on 1/29 scale models to understand the savings that may be realized by judicious modification to the size of the intermodal containers. The experiments were performed in the BYU low speed wind tunnel and the test track utilizes two leading locomotives followed by a set of five articulated well cars with double stacked containers. The drag on a representative mid-train car is measured using an isolated load cell balance and the wind tunnel speed is varied from 20 to 100 mph. We characterize the effect that the gap distance between the containers and the container size has on the aerodynamic drag of this representative rail car and investigate methods to reduce the gap distance.